HydroVisions | December 2020

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VOLUME TWENTY-NINE DECEMBER 2020

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HYDROVISIONS is the official publication of the Groundwater Resources Association of California (GRA). GRA’s mailing address is 700 R Street. Suite 200, Sacramento, CA 95811. Any questions or comments concerning this publication should be directed to the newsletter editor at editor@grac. org or faxed to (916) 231-2141. The Groundwater Resources Association of California is dedicated to resource management that protects and improves groundwater supply and quality through education and technical leadership

Editor John McHugh editor@grac.org Editorial Board Adam Hutchinson David Von Aspern Tim Parker Executive Officers President Abigail Madrone West Yost Associates Tel: 530-756-5905 Vice-President R.T. Van Valer Roscoe Moss Company Tel: 323-263-4111 Secretary John McHugh Consulting Hydrogeologist Tel: 510-459-0474 Treasurer Rodney Fricke GEI Tel: 916-631-4500 Officer in Charge of Special Projects Christy Kennedy Woodward & Curran Tel: 925-627-4122

Directors Bradley Herrema Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck Tel: 310-500-4609 James Strandberg Woodard & Curran Tel: 925-627-4122 Rob Gailey Consulting Hydrogeologist Tel: 415-407-8407 Murray Einarson Haley & Aldrich, Inc. Tel: 530-752-1130 Lisa Porta Montgomery & Associates Tel: 916-661-8389 Bill DeBoer Montgomery & Associates Tel: 925-212-1630 John Xiong Haley & Aldrich, Inc. Tel: 714-371-1800 John Van Vlear Newmeyer & Dillon Tel: 949-271-7127

Immediate Past President Steven Phillips U.S. Geological Survey Tel: 916-278-3002

Lyndsey Bloxom Water Replenishment District of Southern CA Tel: 562-9210-5521

Administrative Director Sarah Erck GRA Tel: 916-446-3626

To contact any GRA Officer or Director by email, go to www.grac.org/board-ofdirectors

The statements and opinions expressed in GRA’s HydroVisions and other publications are those of the authors and/or contributors, and are not necessarily those of the GRA, its Board of Directors, or its members. Further, GRA makes no claims, promises, or guarantees about the absolute accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the contents of this publication and expressly disclaims liability for errors and omissions in the contents. No warranty of any kind, implied or expressed, or statutory, is given with respect to the contents of this publication or its references to other resources. Reference in this publication to any specific commercial products, processes, or services, or the use of any trade, firm, or corporation name is for the information and convenience of the public, and does not constitute endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the GRA, its Board of Directors, or its members.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

President’s Message

Page 6

The Geochemist’s Gallery

Page 10

A Hollywood Blockbuster Event

Page 14

Groundwater Management in The West Part 6: Nevada

The Future of Water

Page 20

The GROUNDWATERx Experiment

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Wells and Words

Page 30

Page 24

Contemporary Groundwater Issues

Page 36

Parting Shot

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THANK YOU TO OUR 2020 DONORS Steven Phillips, Tom McCloskey, Patrick Dunn, John Lambie, Michael Kavanaugh, Stephanie Moore, Susan Smith, Kevin McGillicuddy, Donald Bills, Joshua Ewert, Jason Muir, Gregory Bartow, Peter Langtry, Rose Scott, Sylvia Stork, Peter Mock, Bradley Esser, Scott Furnas, John Bliss & Gordon Thrupp

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S&P M&M R&P WDR CM

Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) ASR is integral to future groundwater goals. Let West Yost enhance your water supply portfolio with ASR recharge and recovery.

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THE GROUNDWATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA

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DAVIS • CARLSBAD • IRVINE • PLEASANTON SACRAMENTO • SANTA ROSA • WALNUT CREEK

we are water 2020 Winter Issue

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President’s Message

ABIGAIL MADRONE

Abigail Madrone, Business Development Director with West Yost. Throughout her 20 year career, Abigail has served and supported groundwater and water resources management through groundwater monitoring and analysis, project and program management and public outreach and education.

We are the stewards and advocates of groundwater, and we are unified by a common vision, Sustainable Groundwater for All. With the turning of the seasons we are given a unique opportunity to not only observe the changes in nature but also reflect on our personal and collective growth and resilience. As bare trees line the landscape, daylight diminishes, and rains replenish our watershed it is a time for us to recharge and acknowledge that we are intrinsically connected to each other and the hydrologic cycle despite our physical separation. We continue to navigate uncertainty as a society and as a dedicated group of water resource and groundwater professionals and remain resilient as opportunities for growth abound. We have come so far as a community and are professionally dedicated to preserving and protecting water resources for future generations. We are the stewards and advocates of groundwater, and we are unified by a common vision, Sustainable Groundwater for All. We are ending 2020 on high note with notable successes throughout our organization. As reported in the annual meeting at the 2020 Western Groundwater Congress, combining statewide and regional branch events, GRA held 44 events, totaling 157.5 hours of educational and technical content with a total of 1,837 participants from Fall 2019 to Fall 2020. We are grateful to our members, affiliates and leadership team for the many contributions to our collective success.

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President’s Message

We are actively planning and preparing for 2021. GRA leadership is currently focused on the future of GRA as we develop our updated 3-year strategic plan, priorities, and metrics for success. We look forward to sharing our path forward with you all. You are invited to join us virtually on February 23rd and 24th, 2021 for The Future of Water. The water industry is in a perpetual state of evolution and water resilience relies on constant improvements, collaboration and innovation. This curated conference will bring value to water utilities, technical experts and emerging professionals. Our event chair and Director, John McHugh, with support from a talented team are developing a truly unique virtual event. Before we greet a new year, I am honored to have the opportunity to acknowledge exceptional leaders amongst the GRA Leadership team through the annual President’s Awards. All recipients in 2020 have made significant contributions to advancing our mission. We are grateful for you, our members, sponsors, affiliates, volunteers and leaders. LYNDSEY BLOXOM In Lyndsey’s first year serving as a Director she became highly engaged throughout our organization, supporting many strategic initiatives, leading the student scholarship program for the Third Annual Western Groundwater Congress (WGC) (2020) and volunteering to serve as event chair for the 2021 WGC. MURRAY EINARSON As the PFAs Week event chair, Murray developed a vision for a fully virtually event with very little time and curated a highly successful and engaging event. Murray continues to serve as a visionary leader for our organization and challenges us to think big! ROB GAILEY Throughout Rob’s 3-year term as a Director, Rob contributed greatly to the Board of Directors as a technical leader and expert in organization process and governance. Rob has served many leadership roles in events and committees and we value his significant contributions and insights. BRAD HERREMA Brad brought significant value to the Board of Directors throughout his tenure. Most recently as chair of the 2020 Law and Legislative Forum, and co-chair of the Advocacy Committee, Brad is a true leader in groundwater advocacy. GRA is a stronger organization through Brad’s ability to guide and help navigate GRA to success. CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE

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Champion of the pivot; Christy led our Events, Education and Affiliates Committee to success in 2020 and tackled obstacles with ease. Christy is a collaborative and adaptive leader and has helped GRA to become a more resilient organization. JOHN MCHUGH As Editor of HydroVisions, John brings the best of GRA to our broader community and continues to lead by example. As co-chair of the Membership and Communications Committee John helped launch a new membership platform for our organization and corporate members that has brought significant value to both GRA and our members and is an advocate for sustainability and diversity. LISA PORTA As chair of the 3rd Annual GSA Summit, Lisa cultivated a positive and successful virtual event that sparked increased collaboration between Groundwater Sustainability Agencies, GRA members and the regulatory community. Lisa is a technical leader and dedicated advocate for GRA. RT VAN VALER The chair and master of WGC 2020 ceremonies, RT, pulled out all the stops when creating a dynamic, educational and inspiring marquee event. RT brought passion, dedication and creativity to the event that was appreciated and celebrated widely. SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BRANCH The Officers of the Southern California Branch, including Dan Nunez, President, Erik Cadaret, Vice President, Michael Cruikshank, Secretary, Ben McVeigh, Treasurer and Bert Vogler, Immediate Past President, never skipped a beat, using proactive communication to members, and leading the way with member outreach, networking and events.

President’s Message

CHRISTY KENNEDY

Best Regards,

President’s Message

- Abigail Madrone, 2020 GRA President

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• Hydrogeologic Studies and Monitoring • Geotechnical Studies and Projects • SGMA Plans, Projects and Management Actions • ASR, Production and Monitoring Wells • Managed Aquifer Recharge Design and Construction • Aquifer/Basin Characterization • Water Budget Analysis • Groundwater/Surface Water Modeling • GIS/Data Management System • Exchange, Storage and Transfer Agreements • Regulatory Compliance • Groundwater Governance • Outreach and Facilitation • Website Development and Hosting

We are ready to assist you with your groundwater projects. Contact Us Today. Chris Petersen

530.304.3330 cpetersen@geiconsultants.com

Rodney Fricke

916.407.8539 rfricke@geiconsultants.com

www.geiconsultants.com 2020 Winter Issue

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The Geochemist’s Gallery WILLIAM E. (BILL) MOTZER William E. (Bill) Motzer, PHD, PG, CHG, is a somewhat retired Forensic Geochemist

Toxic Terra PART ONE INTRODUCTION As groundwater scientists and engineers, we know that thousands of poisonous manufactured chemicals exist. Currently, perfluroalkyl substances (PFAS) are in the news (see Summer 2020 issue of HydroVisions). In November 2015, GRA hosted a conference on naturally-occurring hazardous substances (NOHS). Topics included naturally occurring arsenic, nitrate, radon, asbestos, and other substances contained in rocks, soils, surface water, and groundwater that could affect and potentially harm humans. This series of articles will focus on such NOHS; however, the topic is so extensive that only a few examples will be discussed. But first some definitions. DEFINITIONS A poison1 is a substance/chemical capable of causing illness or death of a living organism when introduced or absorbed. It is generally considered to be a manufactured or synthetic substance or chemical. A toxin is an antigenic poison or venom produced by a plant or animal, especially one produced by or derived from microorganisms causing disease when present at low concentrations in the body.

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The Geochemist’s Gallery

It is generally considered to be of natural origin. In most literature, poison and toxin are used as synonyms; however, the best definition was given by Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, (1493 to 1541), a Swiss-German Renaissance physician (aka Paracelsus) who founded the science of toxicology and is credited with stating that: “All substances are poisons; there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy.” Essentially, in humans there are four exposure routes for toxic substances/ poisons: 1. Inhalation: the breathing in of airborne fumes, mists, dust, gases, or particulate matter. 2. Absorption/Contact: direct contact of a substance through the skin, eyes or mucous membranes. 3. Ingestion: eating or drinking hazardous substances. 4. Injection: materials that pass through the skin via wounds or openings in skin, or are propelled through by air or another source. Once toxic substances/poisons enter the human body, two major effects may occur: 1. Local health effects are those occurring at the point of contact with the hazardous substance. An example is poison oak where plant contact with the skin produces a rash. 2. Systemic health effects are not as apparent because they can occur anywhere within the body, particularly when a body system or organ is the exposure target. NOHS penetrating skin, those inhaled or ingested can enter the blood stream. They are distributed throughout the body and travel to target organs exerting their effects. An example is dizziness or confusion caused by breathing vapors affecting the brain, or by breathing low levels of oxygen, also affecting the brain. There are at least three time frames for chemical exposure: 1. Immediate exposure which causes instantaneous effects. Examples include smoke inhalation and in particular exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) which is colorless and odorless, having no other warning properties. At 1,200 parts per million by volume (ppmv), CO will kill a person quickly without warning, generally within minutes. Although immediate effects may be dangerous, in general we tend to react quickly to the danger and remove ourselves from such environments. 2. Delayed exposures are those occurring within hours and days following exposure. An example is ingestion of excessive quantities of alcohol; the resulting “hangover” is considered a delayed effect. However, this exposure type may constitute a more dangerous situation because at the time of the exposure, we may not realize that we are being exposed to a hazardous/toxic substance and thereby we may keep exposing ourselves until it is too late. CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE

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The Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) is used for surface water and groundwater contaminant levels both on State and Federal levels pertaining to drinking water. It’s important to note that MCLs are listed for naturallyoccurring and anthropogenic (manufactured) inorganic and organic substances. MCLs, secondary MCLs, Public Health Goals, etc. can be reviewed at J.B. Marshack, “A Compilation of Water Quality Goals,” 2016 17th Edition: . A searchable database for MCLs, etc. for more than 860 specific substances can be found here.

The Geochemist’s Gallery

Toxicodendron diversilobum, commonly named Pacific poison oak or western poison oak. Surface oils on leaves and vines contain the toxic biochemical urushiol [(CH2)14CH3] that causes contact dermatitis (skin rash and blisters) in 80 percent of humans. Leaves are commonly green but in late summer/ autumn begin turning red as shown. Photo taken by W.E. Motzer on July 13, 2014, in Purisima Creek Redwoods Open Space Preserve, San Mateo County, CA.

The Geochemist Gallery

3. Long-term exposure generally occurs months to years after exposure from toxic materials such as asbestos exposure. Long-term health effects include cancer, organ damage, and reproductive harm. Again, the problem with this type of exposure is that organ damage may be extensive and unrealized until symptoms appear.

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CLASSIFYING NATURALLY-OCCURRING HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES (NOHS) A possible simplified classification of NOHS follows: Geological Sources/Impacts Terrestrial: Rocks and Soils (e.g., mineral dusts) Surface and Groundwater Hydrothermal (hot springs) Radiogenic substances (e.g.: uranium, radium, and radon) Atmospheric: e.g., volcanic emissions (gases, ash fall), forest fires (gases, ash) Oceanic Biological Sources/Impacts Bacteria, viruses, and prions Fungi Plants (e.g., phytotoxins) and Animals (e.g., venomus) Extraterrestrial Sources/Impacts Asteroid/Comet Impacts: e.g., dust and gases Radiation: e.g., cosmic rays, electromagnetic (e.g., solar flares) In Part 2, I’ll discuss topics pertaining to surface water and groundwater impacts by naturally occurring inorganic terrestrial substances in more detail.

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R.T. VAN VALER R.T. Van Valer, Vice President of GRA’s Board, is also the Director of Human Resources for Roscoe Moss Company, and coaches basketball at his alma mater La Canada High School

The 2020 Western Groundwater Congress

“Hollywood has a way of making everything look like an overnight success” – Kevin Hart

Words from the Hollywood megastar ring true for aspects of the movie world, but for the 2020 Western Groundwater Congress it was more than Hollywood magic that made this event an absolute success. While we all wish we could have been at an in-person WGC this year, for the safety of all of our members, volunteers, and attendees, we made the tough decision to take the 3rd Annual WGC into the virtual realm. After being in development stages for 6 months, this change may sound daunting, but the amazing WGC cast really made this effort seamless. What truly amazed was while re-designing this entire event in only three months, we left nothing on the cutting room floor. We worked hard to review as many as 64 virtual platforms, deciding on VConferenceOnline, to ensure this wasn’t “another Zoom Conference.” We created space for all of the presentations we had already accepted, and developed some awesome virtual networking opportunities. We even created a virtual exhibit hall so all of our incredible sponsors and exhibitors had a place to keep themselves at the forefront of the industry.

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Optimization of Remediation

The WGC: A Hollywood Blockbuster Event

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Early in the virtual development we discussed at length how we could possibly fit all of the substance from our three full day in-person event, into a virtual event without burning out all of the conference goers. Based on our survey responses, 95% of the attendees approved the 4-day event, with content only being shown for four hours in the mornings. A participant said “Working from home, I was able to wake up, get the kids on their Zoom schooling, make a cup of coffee, and still have time to see the intros for the first session. Having the afternoons open still allowed me to ‘go to work’ and complete a full day.” The star-studded educational presentations were centered on four topics of Water Resources, SGMA, Contaminants, and Hot Topics in the industry. I want to commend all of the speakers for working so hard to prerecord presentations avoiding technical issues coming with the virtual world. While we saw virtual backgrounds, multitudes of cats, and dream sequences, the Cinematography Award goes to Water Replenishment District for their acceptance speech of the Kevin J. Neese Award for the Albert Robles Center for Water Recycling & Environmental Learning. GRA Emeritus Director Ted Johnson and crew had us all laughing (and learning) the entire time. I also want to congratulate Graham Fogg on his Lifetime Achievement Award, in recognition of pioneering research advancing fundamental knowledge and tools to better understand and predict movement of groundwater and solutes in complex geologic environments. I will say one of my favorite sessions was GroundwaterX, allowing students to showcase their work to attendees in a rapid-fire format. I strongly encourage you to read more about GroundwaterX in this HydroVisions as I believe it will be a future staple of the WGC. While much of the educational content was shown in the mornings, we were also able to continue the tradition of having great evening events as well.

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The WGC: A Hollywood Blockbuster Event

A phenomenal President’s Reception, complete with a full mixology lesson, a networking bingo event, and of course, virtual karaoke were some of the ways GRA helped WGC attendees let loose and network throughout the busy week. If late nights weren’t your thing, early risers were able to compete in the 3rd Annual Darcy Dash 5K, as well as the brand-new virtual cycling challenge. Despite wishing we could all be together, we felt like we were able to provide an opportunity to connect with a lot of our friends and colleagues we haven’t been able to see in a long time. This was a perfect opportunity for newcomers in the industry to meet some of the great leaders who are GRA members. At the end of the day, rave reviews have been pouring in from the over 260 attendees who experienced this outstanding event. With virtual magic we were able to reach viewers in multiple countries, plus 12 different states, and those individuals spent over 120,000 hours on our WGC platform! How was this possible? With this new virtual platform, presentations were not only shown to registered attendees at a specific time during the four days, but they could watch all of the presentations “On-Demand,” for up to 30 days after the WGC concluded. In that time period, some individuals logged over 6,000 hours watching WGC content, with the average amount of time spent being about 500 hours. As the chair of this event I could not be happier with this kind of turnout, and as both a sponsor and exhibitor, with Roscoe Moss Company, I am so glad we were able to get our name in front of so many people for such a long time. In fact, the Virtual Exhibit Hall was open for 96 hours straight so I want to commend all of our sponsors and exhibitor for creating such great virtual booths and being available for everyone who ventured through the exhibit hall at all times of the day and night.

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While on the whole this WGC was incredible, we did learn a lot from this virtual experience. In 2021, we will continue using the VConferenceOnline platform for any virtual events we have, including the upcoming Future of Water, but we will work diligently on making the necessary modifications to make the experience even better. For the 2021 WGC, we are excited to have Lyndsey Bloxom taking on the starring role of WGC Chair. You can expect The Sequel to be as jam packed with amazing content, a few plot twists in the form of great networking events, and cameos from some outstanding speakers. The “can’t miss,” blockbuster event will be September 14th -17th for a limited showing at the Burbank Marriott. We hope you are all able to join us, but for now, that’s a wrap!

4TH ANNUAL!

WESTERN GROUNDWATER CONGRESS

HOLLYWOOD : THE SEQUEL SEPTEMBER 13-15, 2021

2020 Winter Issue


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Abhishek Singh, PhD, PE asingh@intera.com 424. 275. 4055

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The GROUNDWATERx Experiment ERIK CADARET GRA Southern California Branch Vice President; Hydrogeologist at Water Systems Consulting, Inc.

GROUNDWATERX The GRA Southern California Branch has been pushing to bring value to our branch members. A primary initiative we identified in 2019 was engaging students with the hope of having students become more active participants at branch meetings. We thought outside the box and one idea stuck out. I had experienced a TEDx style event during my studies at the University of Nevada, Reno that featured graduate students providing concise 3-minute presentations with one slide. This event has been quite successful at the University of Nevada. With that idea, the branch officers worked with the board to develop GROUNDWATERx, a workshop specifically for students and young professionals. It is our hope that this event can serve as a template for increased student engagement statewide. Our original intent was to host this event locally in southern California at the Water Replenishment District’s (WRD) Albert Robles Center (ARC); that would facilitate energizing networking, presentations, and dialogue among students and professionals. Due to COVID-19, we had to adapt our plans to a virtual setting. We worked closely with the board and Sarah Erck to incorporate this event into the 2020 Virtual Western Groundwater Congress (WGC), hoping that a virtual WGC would draw more student attendees. We were incredibly fortunate; five strong and smart women students from across California presented to several board members and a wide variety of water resources professionals. 18 HYDROVISIONS

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GROUNDWATERX

LYNDSEY BLOXOM GRA Board Member; Senior Water Resources Analyst at Water Replenishment District

THE FUTURE IS FEMALE! The best part of a new experiment are the unexpected results that surprise you and provide new direction or motivation for the future. In the case of GROUNDWATERx, we had expected a strong student turnout, but we hadn’t expected to see a slate of entirely women presenters! Even though COVID-19 has completely derailed the normal pace of school and research for students, these impressive presenters stepped-up and provided a reminder to us all of the importance of mentoring our future colleagues. Did you know that in 2018 the Geological Society of America estimated that women comprise only 27% of geoscientists and environmental scientists? Well it’s clear to us by the brilliant female representation at GROUNDWATERx that a shift in our industry isn’t just coming, it’s already well on its way. All five of the GROUNDWATERx presenters are working toward advanced degrees in fields related to the water resources industry and they are each clearly dedicated and motivated scientists. I’m excited for the opportunity GRA has to capitalize on the relationship we’ve built with them and expand our mentorship programs, looking to them for guidance in how we can best support the wonderfully diverse student population of our industry. MEET THE GROUNDWATERX PRESENTERS

JIAHUI (HELEN) ZHOU

University of California Davis. Currently pursuing a Master’s Degree in Environmental Engineering RESEARCH FOCUS My current research focuses on characterizing the flow and transport process in bioclogging porous media with numerical simulations. WHAT WAS YOUR GROUNDWATERX TALK ABOUT? In my GROUNDWATERx talk, I presented some takeaways from my research analyzing the pore-scale hydrodynamics during biofilm development in porous media. Supported by those takeaways, I hoped my audience would see the insufficiency of the conventional advective-dispersive model for contaminant transport simulation, especially in highly heterogeneous groundwater systems. CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE

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California State University Long Beach. Currently pursuing a Master’s Degree in Geography RESEARCH FOCUS Recycled water expansion in Los Angeles. WHAT WAS YOUR GROUNDWATERX TALK ABOUT? My GROUNDWATERx talk was about my current master’s thesis project on the Operation NEXT Water Supply Program. This program will result in Los Angeles recycling 100% of the wastewater at the Hyperion Water Reclamation Plant. However, there are possible barriers that could prevent the success of the program. My goal is to investigate these barriers in order to assess how they may possibly impact the water program. My talk highlighted some of the barriers I have evaluated to date.

CHRISTINA MEADOWS

California State University Long Beach. Currently pursuing a Master’s Degree in Geology. RESEARCH FOCUS Hydrogeology and aqueous geochemistry. WHAT WAS YOUR GROUNDWATERX TALK ABOUT?

The GROUNDWATERx Experiment

Estimating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on Moorea, French Polynesia using Radon-222 as a geochemical tracer. We hypothesize that SGD may provide a source of alkalinity to the coastline, thus potentially buffering the effects of ocean acidification on coral bleaching. However, without an understanding of how SGD distribution relates to heterogeneities in hydrogeology across the island, we can’t properly estimate regional-scale SGD, or subsequently the true potential of SGD to protect the corals. Our research is attempting to take the first steps to defining this relationship.

GROUNDWATERX

ARTHELLA VALLARTA

GROUNDWATERX

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BRITTNEY MAINE

California State University Long Beach. Currently pursuing a Master’s degree in Geology. RESEARCH FOCUS

reef.

Submarine Groundwater Discharge in a fringing coral

WHAT WAS YOUR GROUNDWATERX TALK ABOUT? My GROUNDWATERx talk was about a pilot hydrologic study in River Ridge Ranch in Tule, CA that I was going to do for my Senior Capstone. Basic hydrologic parameters were to be examined, since no study of this kind had been conducted here to date. I was unfortunately, only at the planning stage when COVID-19 hit, but I was really looking forward to completing the research.

FRANCINE CASON

California State University Long Beach. Currently pursuing a Master’s Degree in Geology. RESEARCH FOCUS My research involves using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to study submarine groundwater discharge in a fringing reef. WHAT WAS YOUR GROUNDWATERX TALK ABOUT? My GROUNDWATERx talk was about using Distributed Temperature Sensing to trace the flow path of injection water into the Los Alamitos Sea Barrier. My research was not able to be completed due to COVID-19.

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JOHN A. MCHUGH Please contact John if you have any suggestions or questions.

February 23rd and 24th 2021 Join us February 23rd and 24th 2021 to learn leading edge technology and new or future methods for monitoring, remote sensing, communication, modeling, data science, water quality threats, water planning and water markets. This is a partial list of topics since we anticipate learning from experts, practitioners, and decision makers based on abstracts and through conversations with our invited speakers.

WATER RESILIENCY DEPENDS ON CONSTANT IMPROVEMENT, RISK TAKING, AND COLLABORATION.

Recharge Project

The Future of Water

The curated program for this conference will educate, engage, and inform both technical experts and water managers alike. In addition to the technical content of the program there will be opportunities to network. This will be a virtual event using the same software platform used in our Western Groundwater Congress. The Virtual Exhibit Hall will be available for attendees to explore and make contact with exhibitors and there will be networking opportunities.

REGISTER HERE

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Modflow

Environmental engineering and consulting. Providing innovative water quality solutions throughout California for 40 years.

Wastewater • Stormwater • Watershed Management Agricultural Water Quality Management • Groundwater

40 YEARS

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1979-2019

Davis 530.753.6400 Berkeley, La Jolla, San Jose, Santa Monica, Seattle, Ventura

www.lwa.com

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Groundwater Management in The West Part 6: Nevada PAUL PETTIT JULIET MCKENNA, P.G Paul Pettit is a senior mining hydrogeologist with Montgomery & Associates (M&A) and has more than 40 years of professional experience. Before joining M&A, Paul was with Newmont Mining Corp. in Elko, Nevada, where he oversaw the company’s hydrogeologic investigations, water rights, environmental compliance, and permitting for surface and underground mines. Juliet McKenna, P.G., is a principal hydrogeologist and water planning consultant with Montgomery & Associates (M&A) in Tucson, Arizona. She has more than 25 years of experience as a water resources consultant working throughout the western United States.

The sixth installment of this series on groundwater management across the Western United States looks at California’s eastern neighbor, Nevada. This article provides an overview of Nevada’s water resources, management practices, and laws and regulations and concludes with a comparison to California. Nevada’s surface water and groundwater resources are influenced by its climate and geology. The state is predominantly within the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by mountain ranges separated by wide alluvial basins (Figure 1). These sedimentary “basin fill” aquifers are primarily recharged by runoff from the surrounding mountains, underlie approximately 50% of the state, and hold large quantities of groundwater. 24 HYDROVISIONS

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Groundwater Management 2020 Winter Issue

Nevada is the driest state in the nation and receives an average of 9.5 inches of precipitation per year. The precipitation is uneven; higher elevations receive more precipitation than the valley floors. Nevada has relatively few perennial streams (Figure 2). In the southeastern part of the state, the Virgin River is a tributary to the Colorado River. The other rivers are in the northern part of the state and terminate within the internally drained Great Basin. The state’s aridity has shaped water policy since development began.

Figure 1. Principal Groundwater Aquifers of Nevada

History of Nevada Water Resources Development Nevada’s modern-day water development is tied to the discovery of gold in 1848, which started the California Gold Rush. Tens of thousands of prospectors traveled from the east crossing present-day Nevada. Some members of the emigrant parties prospected along the way and discovered gold near the Carson River in 1850. A reverse rush from California was on, and Nevada’s Comstock Lode Figure 2. Perennial Streams in Nevada and Virginia City became legendary. This large influx of prospectors and miners needed supplies and food, so agricultural activities accompanied the mining development. Early farming resulted in surface water diversions to irrigate crops. Virginia City and the mines of the Comstock needed fresh water, and the state’s first interbasin transfer, known as the Marlette Lake Water System, was constructed to divert water from the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains. Completed in 1873, this system is on the National Register of Historic Places and remains in use today. CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE

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Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, and Nevada’s first water law was enacted two years later. Nevada water law has been amended many times. The Irrigation Law of 1903 created the State Engineer’s office with the expressed purpose to coordinate with the federal government in planning and constructing irrigation projects under the Federal Reclamation Act. As the law evolved, the State Engineer eventually became responsible for administering Nevada water law. Nevada water law is based on two fundamental concepts: prior appropriation and beneficial use. Prior appropriation (also known as “first in time, first in right”) allows for the orderly use of the state’s water resources by granting priority to senior water rights. This concept ensures senior uses are protected, even as new uses for water are allocated. All water, if available, may be appropriated for beneficial use as provided by law. Irrigation, mining, recreation, commercial/ industrial and municipal uses are examples of beneficial uses. Conflicts between Surface Water and Groundwater Use Continued growth and the accompanying development of both surface water and groundwater resources have resulted in most groundwater basins being over-appropriated and surface waters fully appropriated. Nevada has 256 defined groundwater basins (Figure 3). The State Engineer limits withdrawals in each basin to each basin’s predetermined perennial yield through strict priority enforcement unless an alternative plan is approved. The State Engineer may “designate” a basin when it is over-allocated, and as of September 2020, 140 basins were designated or partially designated (Figure 3). In the Humboldt River system, for example, the most senior surface water right is dated 1861. Multiple decrees and court cases in the 1930s adjudicated the Humboldt River and have resulted in surface water rights totaling three times the average annual discharge. As a result, junior rights are not served in drier years and return flows to the river are managed to ensure water deliveries to higher priority downstream users.

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Groundwater Management

Nevada Water Law

Figure 3. Groundwater Basins in Nevada

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Protecting and Preserving Groundwater

Innovative solutions for restoration and sustainability REMEDIATION | COMPLIANCE | FUNDING INFRASTRUCTURE | MANAGEMENT | DATA

woodardcurran.com 2020 Winter Issue

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Since WWII, improved well drilling capabilities combined with advances in both turbine and submersible pumps have prompted applications to appropriate groundwater for agriculture, municipal supply, and mining throughout the Humboldt River Basin. This situation has led to conflict, especially in dry years. Because of prior appropriation, even the most junior adjudicated surface water right is senior to the oldest groundwater right. In practice, the groundwater right holders may enjoy full use during dry years while some surface rights are curtailed due to lack of flow in the river. This issue culminated in the early 2010s when the surface water deliveries to Pershing County Water Conservation District, located near the terminus of the Humboldt River, were zero in 2014 and 2015. Recent Water Law Changes

Groundwater Management in The West Part 6: Nevada

Nevada Revised Statutes NRS 533.025 states that “Water belongs to the public...whether above or beneath the surface of the ground…” The administration of Nevada Water Law separated groundwater and surface water and until recently did not recognize the hydrologic connection between them. Because of the newfound awareness of groundwater/ surface water interaction, the State legislature amended Nevada Water Law in 2017, declaring that the State Engineer “...manage conjunctively the appropriation, use and administration of all waters of this State, regardless of the source of the water.” This is a significant change, and to implement this administrative goal within the Humboldt River Basin, the State Engineer is working with the USGS and Desert Research Institute to develop an interactive surface and groundwater model to evaluate the impacts of underground pumping on discharges in the Humboldt River. Part of the administrative solution to this problem may include curtailment of the groundwater pumping capturing water from the Humboldt River or financial compensation for downstream surface water rights holders.

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Groundwater Management 2020 Winter Issue

Comparison to California Like California and most states in the western United States, Nevada has experienced rapid growth and increased development of both surface water and groundwater resources. Nevada’s population has increased by approximately 15% since 2000, and that rate of growth is projected to continue. With increased demands on limited water resources, Nevada’s legislature recognized the connection between groundwater and surface water, like California’s legislature did with the passage of SGMA in 2014. In passing these laws, Nevada and California have not only increased protections for water rights’ holders but have also committed funds for studies that will enable better management of surface water and groundwater resources into the future. Nevada Water Use In 2010, Nevada used approximately 3 million AF/y of water. Nevada reuses a very high percentage of effluent; approximately 72% of its wastewater is reused, accounting for roughly 7.5% of total state water use. The majority of water use in the state is for irrigation (60%), with public supply (22%), and mining (13%) the next largest users. Agriculture and thermoelectric power users rely predominantly on surface water, whereas the majority of domestic/municipal, mining, and other industrial users rely on groundwater supplies. Water use by sector and water source in Nevada

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Wells and Words DAVID W. ABBOTT, P.G., C.HG., CONSULTING GEOLOGIST Mr. Abbott is a Geologist with 45+ years of applied experience in the exploration and development of groundwater supplies; well location services; installation and design of water supply wells; watershed studies; contamination investigations; geotechnical and groundwater problem solving; and protection of groundwater resources.

My three most important Career role models as a Groundwater Hydrogeologist A recent LinkedIn post challenged colleagues to reflect upon their careers and select three important role models that made a difference. Who influenced you and Why? That was easy for me for two mentors; the third was more difficult to explain. Mentor 1 - John B. Noble (JBN – Fig. 1f), Geologist/ Stratigrapher/Hydrogeologist, from Tacoma, WA. I owe my career to JBN who taught me from 9-1974 to 4-1981 the applied foundations of groundwater and wells. I walked, literally, into his small two-room office, which housed two professionals (John W. Robinson [JWR] and JBN) and one retired part-time mining geologist, as a bedraggled recent BS Geology graduate with no real (or academic) concepts of groundwater or consulting. Actually, there was only one professional in the office: the founder (JWR – Fig. 1e) would soon retire after a brief USGS career and about 30-years of consulting. I was hired on the spot. I was so honest on that day, I posed this questionable query: “Do you really think that I can do this type of work with only a BS and no experience?”

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Wells and Words

JBN response was a question; then the answer – “Do you feel comfortable with your understanding of Geology?” Me: “Yes!” “We will train you in what you need to know about groundwater and wells; and can you start work tonight? Here is a book; all you need to know is in Ground Water and Wells1 (1st Edition) which I discovered could be rolled-up and placed in my back pocket unlike the 2nd2 or 3rd Editions3. I later discovered an earlier version of this book: Ground Water: Its development, uses, and conservation4. The rest is history. The first textbook (borrowed from the local University library) that I read on groundwater was Ground Water5 by C.F. Tolman, a Leland Stanford Jr. U. professor; still a very good introductory text. This was followed by Groundwater Resources Evaluation6; Geohydrology7; a. Ed Story ≈ 1974 Hydrogeology8; and City of Tacoma, WA North b. ≈ 1981 Big Beef Creek Fork of the Green River 9 Fisheries Research Center, Modern Hydrology . Well ≈ 8,000 gpm with 4.7 Seabeck, WA ft of drawdown

14

Lead driller Mentor 2 - David K. Todd, Ph.D. (DKT – Fig. 1g)) a retired (1978) professor from Cal. I first made contact with DKT in 8-1981 when I was looking for Rick Richardson, helper employment because c. John Armstrong of the Carter-Reagan recession; I did not d. Tim De La Grange ≈ 1998 Salinas Valley, CA know who DKT was; or at least I didn’t make the connection that I had read his textbook in 1975 on Ground Water Hydrology10. I first realized who DKT was when a brochure in the mail arrived – I recall saying – Wow! (or something more colorful?) – DKT f. JBN e. JWR g. DKT 20062006 Figure 1 – Picture of some of my mentors: f. Mentor 1 (JBN); g. Mentor 2 (DKT); and mentioned there were a. – d. Mentor 3 (Drilling Contractors); e. Founder and boss (JWR) to JBN. no positions at this time. Six months later in 3-1982, I received a follow-up indicating a potential position in Lima, Peru. 1912 - 2000

Jim Turnbow

1932 -

1923 - 2006

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12-1985, I was again looking for a job; I sent my resume to DKT, and within 30 days DKT hired me as a part-time sub-contractor; my first assignment was assessing the groundwater resources for Bodega Bay. Another firm offered me a position; so, I asked DKT to hire me full-time or release me; the rest is history – I worked with DKT from 01-1986 until his passing in 04-2006. DKT provided me the academic training which I was lacking (one groundwater course in graduate school and had already read the textbook12). Mentor 3 (a group) - Drilling Contractors (DCs – see Fig. 1a - 1d) who taught me the fundamentals and finer art of drilling and construction methods. DCs are highly-trained and skilled in the drilling and construction of water wells; I value their opinions and knowledge. Without DCs, hydrogeologist could not complete much fieldwork. In the 1970s, much of my applied training came from drillers (who became life-long friends). On the first day of my training in 1974 – never been near water well drilling equipment, JBN escorted me to the drilling site; stayed with me for about 20 minutes and explained several things: (1) How the drilling system works (mud-rotary); (2) Told me to describe and record everything I see on the site; (3) Log this date/time-stamped information in a Rite in the Rain13 – make sure it is legible to anyone; (4) Describe the cuttings, drilling mud properties, etc.; (5) The rig has a certain noise or hum; if that changes don’t look at the rig and wonder why? but run away from the rig; (6) Your best friends on the well-site are the lead driller/helper, talk to them, ask questions, and if any problems occur that the three of you can’t resolve call the office; and (7) Don’t get in the way of the drilling operations you could get hurt.

Wells and Words

DKT had written a brief article11 and was proposing on a project for Lima after he had read that the engineers planned to drill a tunnel (elevation 19,000 feet) through the crest of the Andes Mountains to tap into the Amazon River watershed to serve the City! DKT questioned this ambitious project and asked: Have the engineers investigated the local groundwater resources of Lima? The answer - No! DKT put together a team (Engineering-Science, Acadia, CA; Roscoe Moss; and cooperating firm Novoa Engineering) to conduct a groundwater management project; and needed an individual with experience in the installation of wells and manage the project from Lima. I was that person. Unfortunately, the Islas Malvinas (Falkland Islands) War between Great Britain and Argentina occurred between 04 & 06-1982; Peru aligned with Argentina, and all US contracts were dismissed. I never did get to Peru.

Wells and Words

The DCs that I worked with usually carried a copy of Water Well Handbook14 in the cab of the truck; a field reference providing data: (1) formulas/conversions; (2) water; (3) water quality; (4) pipe dimensions; (5) pumps; (6) electrical; (7) flow measurements; (8) descriptions of commonly-used drilling methods (Cable Tool, Rotary, and Air Rotary); and (9) geology/hydraulics of wells; I’m on my third printing (1971, 1984, and 1993). Another applied monthly resource usually not subscribed by members of the Technical Division of NGWA is the Water Well Contractors’ publication: The Water Well Journal; I recommend it.

There are countless other colleagues, lead drillers, and clients that have inspired me and my career; thank you.

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1 Bollenbach, Jr., W.M. (President), 1966, Ground Water and Wells, published by Johnson Division, UOP, Inc., St. Paul, Mn, 440 pp. 2 Driscoll, Fletcher G. (Author and Editor), 1986, Groundwater and Wells, published by Johnson Division, St. Paul, Mn, 1089 pp. 3 Sterrett, Robert J. Editor, 2007, Groundwater and Wells, Johnson Screens, New Brighton, Mn, 812 pp. 4 Bennison, E.W., 1947, Ground Water: Its development, uses, and conservation, Edward E. Johnson, Inc., St. Paul, Mn, 509 pp. 5 Tolman, C.F., 1937, Ground Water, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., NY, 593 pp. 6 Walton, William C., 1970, Groundwater Resources Evaluation, McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY, 664 pp. 7 De Weist, Roger J.M, 1965, Geohydrology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 366 pp. 8 Davis, Stanley N. and Roger J.M. De Weist, 1966, Hydrogeology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, 463 pp. 9Kazmann, Raphael G., 1972, Modern Hydrology (second Edition), Harper & Row, Publishers, NY, 365 pp. 10 Todd, Ph.D., David Keith, 1959, Ground Water Hydrology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, 336 pp. 11Todd, David K., 1982, Groundwater for Peru, Ground Water Digest 1982-02; Vol. 5; No 2; pp. 16-17, ILL. 12 Fetter, Jr., C.W., 1980, Applied Hydrogeology, Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus, OH, 488 pp. 13 J.L. Darling, LLC, Tacoma, WA. 14Anderson, Keith E., 1948, Water Well Handbook, (personal copies of printings 1971, 1984, and 1993), Missouri Water Well & Pump Contractors Assn., Inc, Belle, MO, 281 pp, later re-published by NGWA in 1993. 14 Carr, James R., Sep.-Oct. 1976, Tacoma’s Well Field might be World’s most Productive, The Johnson Drillers Journal; a copy of this article can be found in Appendix 1 on the CD in the 3rd Edition of Groundwater and Wells.

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2020 Winter Issue

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Contemporary Groundwater Issues Council Identifies Strategies for Safeguarding Water Quality in our Drive to Enhance Groundwater Recharge in California BY SARAH MASS Sarah Mass is an Environmental Engineer at Haley & Aldrich with a passion for PFAS and analytical chemistry.

The problems with over-drafted groundwater basins are familiar to many in California. The 2014 Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) recognizes groundwater as a significant and critical source of local water supply and required local agencies to bring SGMA-designated groundwater basins into balanced levels of pumping and recharge by the early 2040s. Increasing recharge of local and imported surface water, recycled water, and stormwater is a major component of sustainable groundwater management. For example, according to a Public Policy Institute of California report, agencies in San Joaquin Valley proposed to increase groundwater recharge by a combined total of just under one million acre-feet per year. In addition to requiring sustainable management of groundwater levels, SGMA requires protection against water quality degradation from recharge activities. However, some sources of recharge 36 HYDROVISIONS

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High Resolution Site

water have been shown to contain previously untested for chemicals or emerging contaminants, which may be toxic and recalcitrant in the environment. This issue is not new and has a history, with past examples ranging from methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) to 1,4-dioxane, to most recently, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). How significant of a threat do emerging contaminants like PFAS pose to California’s existing and proposed large expansion of new groundwater recharge projects? Do we need paradigm shifts in the regulatory environment regarding what toxic and recalcitrant chemicals are manufactured and how they are managed? The 10th Annual Contemporary Groundwater Issues Council (CGIC) met virtually on October 23, 2020 to discuss these issues. This year’s theme was Do No Harm: Safeguarding Water Quality in Our Drive to Enhance Groundwater Recharge in California. Five speakers set the stage for the CGIC member’s discussion. Jason Dadakis, the Executive Director of Water Quality at Orange County Water District (OCWD), discussed the challenges of PFAS contamination in OCWD. When California lowered response levels for PFAS in February 2020, OCWD elected to take over one-third of its water supply wells off-line. Groundwater has been temporarily replaced with imported water at twice the cost. Long-term PFAS wellhead treatment for impacted wells is currently being constructed and is expected to cost more than $1 billion to design, build, and operate. PFAS contamination in public water supplies is not unique to Orange County. Shahla Farahnak, Assistant Deputy Director at the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), indicated that in areas of the state considered vulnerable, PFAS were detected in approximately 60% of the tested Public Water Systems. Water quality degraded by emerging contaminants presents a clear threat to water security. What can we do about it? Tom Young, professor of Environmental Chemistry at University of California at Davis, gave an overview of how nontarget chemical analysis can contribute to the Do No Harm principal in groundwater recharge. Nontarget analysis is a broad scope methodology that screens for chemicals in a database and allows identification of previously unknown chemicals. Kelly Grant, senior environmental scientist at the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) discussed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) policy of “innocent until proven guilty”—of the more than 80,000 chemicals regulated under TSCA, only nine have been banned. DTSC’s class and life cycle approach represents a paradigm shift in chemical regulations. Shahla Farahnak from SWRCB echoed this sentiment by emphasizing the need for a lifecycle approach and source control. The statewide PFAS source investigative orders attempt to do just that—understand the lifecycle of PFAS and pave the way for future source control. David Sedlak from University of California at Berkeley further emphasized the need for source control and holistic approaches to water supply. Dr. Sedlak underlined the work still needed with his takeaway message: “There is no substitute for the hard work of understanding contaminant source, behavior, and toxicity.” What steps can we take to actualize the holistic approach to water supplies? CGIC breakout groups consisting of workshop attendees with diverse perspectives from state and local government, consultants, non-profit organizations, and academia, attempted to answer this question and more.

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Contemporary Groundwater Issues Council Identifies Strategies

Key differences between the needs of urban and rural water users were identified. Urban water providers, such as OCWD, often comprise large water supply systems with economies of scale. Approaches used in OCWD will not translate to rural water systems that are often either comprised of very small water supply systems or individual domestic well owners. Additionally, source waters have different compositions in rural areas compared to urban areas that might be heavily industrialized. Any solutions to water quality problems should consider differences between urban versus rural areas and we need to be cautious about one-size-fitsall approaches.

Recharge Project

Discussion groups identified the need for more monitoring, not just of source water but of the aquifers themselves and geochemical processes. The conventional thinking is that contaminants are attenuated as they infiltrate from recharge basins and are injected through aquifer storage and recovery wells into aquifers. But how effective is the aquifer system in this treatment polishing step? Conversely, how are geochemical processes mobilizing or transforming contaminants? A key hurdle to increased monitoring is lack of funding. One approach would be to consider long-term monitoring as part of infrastructure and include it in the overall capital cost of recharge projects. Technical hurdles to long-term monitoring were also recognized. Approaches like nontarget analysis are expensive, time-consuming, and not widely available, but they are still valuable. Nontarget analysis could be used on a screening level to identify which contaminants are encountered most frequently in recharge water and drinking water supplies and assist the scientific community in prioritizing contaminants for developing cheap, robust, targeted analytical methods.

Finally, the need for regulatory updates was a hot topic. Reform of the TSCA at the federal level put some restrictions on powers of states to regulate toxic substances. The Clean Water Act of 1972, the federal law that regulates drinking water contaminants through Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs), is not equipped to handle emerging contaminants like PFAS that encompass thousands of individual compounds. Grouping contaminants is one potential solution. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), for which the federal MCL applies to the sum of 209 individual compounds, provide some precedent for the group regulation approach. The process of designating new MCLs can take decades. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) is also outdated and robust source control under NPDES does not seem attainable. Clearly, regulatory approaches need to change. To this end, the role of public outreach and the need to provide funding for public outreach cannot be overstated. The public has a unique power to push industry and regulators for change. GRA recognizes that these issues cannot be solved in a half-day workshop. The CGIC planning committee has identified potential follow-up actions which could include continued discussions with focused breakout groups and a larger GRA educational event in 2021 focusing on this topic. What are your thoughts on emerging contaminants, managed aquifer recharge, and changing the regulatory paradigm? How would you like to see GRA advocate for solving these complex problems? Send us a note at editor@grac.org.

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CGIC Planning Committee Murray Einarson, Haley & Aldrich, GRA Board Member Vicki Kretsinger Grabert, Luhdorff & Scalmanini Consulting Engineers, GRA Emeritus Director Thomas Harter, UC Davis, Robert M. Hagan Endowed Chair, Former GRA Director Sarah Mass, Haley & Aldrich John McHugh, Luhdorff & Scalmanini Consulting Engineers, GRA Board Member, Editor of HydroVisions Tim Parker, Parker Groundwater, Former GRA Director Julia Van Horn, Sacramento State Consensus and Collaboration Program CGIC Speakers Jason Dadakis, Executive Director of Water Quality and Technical Resources, Orange County Water District Shahla Dargahi Farahnak, Assistant Deputy Director for Groundwater Quality Branch of Division of Water Quality at State Water Resources Control Board Kelly Grant, Senior Environmental Scientist in the Safer Consumer Products Program at California Department of Toxic Substances Control David Sedlak, Plato Malozemoff Professor in the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering at UC Berkeley Tom Young, Professor in the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering at UC Davis

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HYDROVISIONS ADVERTISING & ARTICLE SPECIFICATIONS

Logo & Ad Specs: Your ad must be in the requested dimensions (no rotating) and sent as a 300dpi PDF. You must send your logo in an EPS or AI vector format with outlined fonts. If you do not have an EPS version of your logo, please ensure what you send is a high-resolution transparent PDF. Logos pulled from websites are not suitable for printing. Design or logo questions? Contact David Garrison, GRA Creative Director at dgarrison@smithmooreassoc.com Vertical Ad: 4.25w X 11h Full Page Ad: 8.5w X 11h Do you need help designing your ad? GRA is happy to help in designing a simple ad for you using your company logo for a nominal fee. Please email dgarrison@smithmooreassoc.com for more information. Sponsored Article Sponsored Articles in HydroVisions are an ad in article-form. They are clearly marked to readers as sponsored. In these articles you can broadcast the message of your organization’s mission or product.

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Authors (Both Sponsored and Non-Sponsored): • Please provide an unformatted Word document of your story without embedded images. You can signify where you’d like a submitted image using brackets. • Images you wish to be included with your article must not be embedded in the Word document; send them separately and labeled with names corresponding to where you’d like them used in the Word document. • Articles must have a brief title and a byline. • Supply a 300dpi headshot of the author. • Article length must be between 500 - 1000 words. • Please include an “About the Author” post script, to provide our audience with the context of your perspectives. • Avoid using diagrams or graphs in your article, words are preferable.

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ARTICLES BOTH SPONSORED AND NOT ARE DUE FOUR WEEKS BEFORE PUBLISHING

Reach hundreds of folks in the Groundwater Industry and beyond in this flash sale for advertising in GRA’s Spring Edition of HydroVisions! Since launching our new publication last June, we’ve had nearly 2000 individual reads! First head Here: to download and fill out your form, once that’s complete; upload your design Here: and we’ll take care of the rest!



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GRA Parting Shot

JOHN KARACHEWSKI

John Karachewski is a geologist for the California EPA (DTSC) in Berkeley. He is an avid photographer and often teaches geology as an instructor and field trip leader. Aerial photograph of the Hoover Wilderness northeast of Yosemite National Park. The glaciated canyon of Robinson Creek and low curvilinear ridges of Quaternary lateral moraines are present in the upper right part of the photo. The Hoover Wilderness is characterized by its rugged terrain, alpine lakes, and lush meadows. The headwaters of the East Walker River begin in the Hoover Wilderness. The East Walker River is an approximately 90-milelong tributary of the Walker River in eastern California and western Nevada. The Walker River drains a portion of the eastern Sierra Nevada and terminates in the Great Basin at Walker Lake, which does not have a natural outlet except by evaporation and infiltration. Walker Lake covers a small area relative to the ancient Lake Lahontan that extended over much of northwestern Nevada during the last ice age. Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada during this El NiĂąo winter was approximately 87 percent of the long-term average at the time of this photograph on March 29, 2016. In contrast, the snowpack was about 5 percent of normal a year earlier on April 1, 2015 and resulted in Governor Jerry Brown announcing restrictions on water use after four years of severe drought. Photographed on a commercial flight from Chicago to San Francisco by John Karachewski, Ph.D.

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