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Iliad by Homer

Who was Homer? Tradition says that a great blind poet named Homer wrote the Iliad and Odyssey, the epic poems about the Trojan War and its aftermath.

Let’s have a more detailed look at the Iliad

How does the great poem start? With the invocation to the Muse Calliope. Homer needs poetic inpiration to start his poem. So he invocates to the goddess of poetry.

The first verses of the Iliad Προοίμιον

Iliad :the story… The story is about Achilles’ wrath Against Agamemnon who was the leader of the Greek army. Agamemnon deprived Achilles’ war prize, Briseis, after his one, Chryseis, was taken away. Achilles’ social prestige was violated.Thus ,he became very angry and withdrew his warriors, the Mirmidons ,

‌the story continues‌ The Trojans were winning the Achaeans and caused major damage to their army. The Greeks and Agamemnon himself regretted for the way they treated Achilles . A delegation composed of Odysseus, Ajax and Phoenix visited Achilles and asked him to return to the battle field , offering him Briseis and extensive gifts.

…and…what did Achilles answer? His answer was NO. He angrily refused Agamemnon's offer, and declared that he would only return to battle if the Trojans reached the greek ships and threaten them with fire. The embassy returns empty-handed.

Patroclus enters the battle‌ The Trojans with their leader Hector,came too close to them and started setting them on fire. Patroclus could stand to watch no longer. He begged Achilles to take his place in the battle and the latter agreed to lent him his armor. However ,Achilles sends him off with a stern admonition not to pursue the Trojans

…but Patroclus disobeyed… He ignored Achilles’ command and reached the gates of Troy. Soon after that he was killed by Hector. Hector took Achilles’ armor.

Achilles’ grief… Achilles hearing Patroclus’ death ,he was mad with grief and vowed to take vengeance on Hector. He drove his charriot into battle and chased Hector.

Hector’s death Achilles killed Hector and dishonoured his body.

Priam,the tragic father‌ Priam took a wagon out of Troy and entered the Greek camp unnoticed. He grasped Achilles by the knees and begged to have his son's body. Achilles was moved to tears, and the two lamented their losses in the war. After a meal, Priam carried Hector's body back into Troy. Hector was buried, and the city mourned.

… and this is how Iliad ended…

The manuscripts The text of the Iliad has been preserved through plenty of manuscripts. Some of the most notable are: ď‚ž Venetus Marcianus 822 from the 10th century ď‚ž Venetus Marcianus 821 from the 11th century

The Papyri

The  Iliad. Book 10. 421-434, 445-460. This is the earliest papyrus fragment containing a text of Homer

The books

Created by

Maria, Mariana, Sotiria and Sofia