SuínoBrasil 2º Trimestrer 2022 - EN

Page 1 2nd TRIMESTER 2022


STAGE INFLUENCE THE GASTROINTESTINAL DEVELOPMENT OF PIGS? Thaís Garcia Santos, Letícia Pinheiro Moreira, Ana Luísa Neves Alvarenga Dias e Fernanda Radicchi Campos Lobato de Almeida

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A technical and innovative view of national swine industry. /suínobrasil


Gut microbial diversity of pigs and swine dysentery cases


Amanda G. S. Daniel, Roberto Maurício C. Guedes Veterinary School of the Federal University of Minas Gerais


Imbalance between pork supply and demand and its impacts on the sector profitability



Wagner Yanaguizawa

ABRAVES-PR Regional Meeting – 2022 #Overcomingchallenges

IPVS2022 New perspectives for the swine industry: biosecurity, productivity and innovation Dra.Fernanda Almeida, PhD.

Analyst at Rabobank Brazil, Department of Research and Sector Analysis focused on the animal protein market


Evolution of Brazilian pig-farming and importance of hosting the 10th IPVS (International Pig Veterinary Society) in 1988 Luciano Roppa


Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation? Cesar Augusto Pospissil Garbossa FMVZ/USP, Swine Research Laboratory

1 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 38

Can intrauterine stage influence the gastrointestinal development of pigs?


Lúcio Francelino Araújo1, Luiz Antônio Vitagliano, Carlos Alexandre Granghelli1, Cristiane Soares da Silva Araújo2

Thaís Garcia Santos1, Letícia Pinheiro Moreira1, Ana Luísa Neves Alvarenga Dias2, Fernanda Radicchi Campos Lobato de Almeida1* Department of Morphology, ICB, Federal University of Minas Gerais 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Uberlândia

Sustainable swine nutrition

University of São Paulo, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering - 2 University of São Paulo, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science 1



Intestine, the largest immune organ of the organism – PART 1 Cândida Azevedo1; Henrique Cancian2

¹Animal Scientist, M.S. Animal Science and Ph.D. Animal Science and Grasslands ²Animal Scientist


Porcine rotaviruses: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and disease control Ricardo Yuiti Nagae¹, João Paulo Zuffo², Jônatas Wolf³ ¹Corporate Specialist swine animal health ²Corporate Specialist poultry and swine animal health ³Executive Manager Poultry and Swine Health

2 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022



n 1988, Brazil hosted the 10th IPVS World Congress and, after 34 years, the 26th International Pig Veterinary Society returns to Brazil at a historic moment for the global swine industry. With a chain based on prisms of sustainability, competitiveness and quality, the world’s spotlight is on Brazil. The fourth largest producer and exporter of pork, Brazil is the only country in the world that does not have notifiable diseases. This fact in itself is already a calling card and the seal of our production quality. In addition, we have several virtues to show the world, among which we can highlight sustainability! Brazil has reached historical records in the production of its main agribusiness products and all these achievements were performed preserving the environment, with 66% of our territory now preserved. The swine chain is taking responsibility, with great commitments to the environment, we do this with great seriousness and science.

Deforestation and agricultural burning do not represent Brazilian agribusiness! The strength of Brazilian agribusiness is present in caring for people. Even during the pandemic process, which devastated the entire world, the safest place to be was inside our factories and production processes. Agribusiness was the sector that generated the most jobs in Brazil, being the industry that continued to generate wealth, a lever for the Brazilian economy. This is caring for people, this is sustainability! We can be world protagonists in food. We have to empower ourselves with our strengths and competencies. If the world wants high quality food, absolutely healthy, sustainable and competitive, we know how to produce and we produce.

Sustainability is synonymous with production efficiency, which is inserted in all links of the swine chain. Production efficiency means that the sector increasingly consumes fewer natural resources, whether saving energy through the implementation of a photovoltaic system or through the rainwater capture, to produce animal protein of excellence.

Brazil produces pigs with a lot of science, a lot of dedication, a lot of affection and, above all, with a lot of sustainability!


ADVERTISING Karla Bordin +55 (19) 9 8177-2521

TECHNICAL DIRECTION José Antônio Ribas Jr. Fernanda Radicchi Campos Lobato de Almeida César Augusto Pospissil Garbossa



COLLABORATORS Amanda G. S. Daniel, Roberto Maurício C. Guedes Wagner Yanaguizawa Luciano Roppa Fernanda Radicchi Campos Lobato de Almeida César Augusto Pospissil Garbossa Thaís Garcia Santos Letícia Pinheiro Moreira Ana Luísa Neves Alvarenga Dias

Fernanda Radicchi Campos Lobato de Almeida Lúcio Francelino Araújo Luiz Antônio Vitagliano Carlos Alexandre Granghelli Cristiane Soares da Silva Araújo Ricardo Yuiti Nagae João Paulo Zuffo Jônatas Wolf

MANAGEMENT Inés Navarro Tel: +17866697313

TRANSLATE PPS Consultoria Acadêmica Proofreading Certificate Native English Speaker

José Antônio Ribas Júnior, President of SINDICARNE/ SC and Technical Director of SuínoBrasil.

Annual subscription price: Brazil 30 $ Internacional 90 $ Quarterly magazine

3 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022


Amanda G. S. Daniel, Roberto Maurício C. Guedes Veterinary School of the Federal University of Minas Gerais

Introduction The swine gastrointestinal tract has a diverse population of microorganisms that maintain a complex interaction with the host (Isaacson e Kim, 2012).

This interaction comes from a co-evolution

(Ley et al., 2006) resulting from the symbiosis between them which allowed the species adaptation and coexistence in the gastrointestinal tract (Dubos et al., 1965).

4 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Gut microbial diversity of pigs and swine dysentery cases

Role of the enteric microbiota The functions performed and the structure of the enteric microbial communities have received significant attention for decades, as more and more studies prove that a balance of this microbiota has an influence on the health status of humans and animals.

The main functions of the intestinal microbiota include : During intestinal and immune system

Metabolic activities that result in absorbable nutrients,

plays an essential role in the development

Maturation of the intestinal epithelium

Bik, 2009).

gut microbiota

maturation in neonates, the microbiota

better utilization of energy and

of a competent immune system (Berg, 1996;

and immune system, and The interaction among microorganism,

Host protection against the

epithelium and gut-associated lymphoid

pathogenic microorganism colonization (Guarner e Malagelada, 2003).

tissue helps in the development of immune system memory mechanisms and in the modulation of tolerance to the microorganism colonization in the mucosa (Moreau e Gaboriau-Routhiau, 1996).

The functions of the gastrointestinal microbiota include protective function, immune system stimulation, and hypersensitivity response regulation, among others

(Berg, 1996; Moreau e Gaboriau-Routhiau, 1996; Taguchi et al., 2002; Bik, 2009).

In addition to the immune response interaction and modulation, the local microbiota directly controls pathogenic microorganisms, which controls the exogenous microorganism colonization by competitive inhibition (Taguchi

et al., 2002). The balance among residential bacterial species provides stability in the microbial population, although events that cause dysbiosis may disturb this ecological balance, leading to the predominance of opportunistic species and disease development

(Waaij, 1989).

5 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Gut microbial diversity of pigs and swine dysentery cases

Studies on gnotobiotic and germ

Leser et al. (2000) compared the

free animals revealed the expansion

microbiome between healthy pigs and

of the intestinal lamina propria

pigs with swine dysentery, by T-RFLP

stimulated by the microbiota (Savage,

analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They found

1977). In animals raised in a germ-

changes suggesting that Brachyspira

free environment, less crypt cell

hyodysenteriae destabilizes the

development is observed, with


a lower epithelial cell population compared to rats colonized by conventional microbiota (Alam et al.,


Factors influencing the gut microbiota

Swine dysentery Swine dysentery is one of the most important diseases that affects breeding and finishing pigs and also is also

gut microbiota

a limiting factor in swine production due to Among the factors that may influence the

considerable economic losses (Jacobson et al., 2005). In

microbiota composition, we can highlight:

recent years, the reemergence of swine dysentery


cases has been reported worldwide (Clothier et al.,

2011). In Brazil, new outbreaks of this disease have been reported since 2010 (Daniel et al., 2017).

Strain, Location in the gastrointestinal tract,

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the primary agent of swine dysentery, characterized by severe

Use of antimicrobial, Additives and probiotics, Diet type, and Animal health status. Gastrointestinal microbiome composition also varies according to the host health status. One

mucohemorrhagic colitis, with high morbidity, which may be fatal in some cases (Taylor e Alexander,

1971). B. hyodysenteriae is a mobile, gram-negative, spiral, anaerobic and fastidious bacterium

(Lemcke et al., 1979; Hampson and Burrough, 2019)

of the most important functions attributed to the microbiome is the ability to control the pathogenic microorganism colonization

(Berg, 1996).

6 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Gut microbial diversity of pigs and swine dysentery cases

Relation among microbiota, diet and development of swine dysentery Diet and microbiota are known to have a strong influence on the occurrence of clinical sign of swine dysentery (Durmic et al., 1998).

In this way, by manipulating the intestinal environment conditions, it is possible to control this microbial population. Colonization by B. hyodysenteriae can be inhibited by highly digestible (Pluske et al.,

1996) or inulin-rich (Thomsen et al., 2007; Hansen et al., 2010) diets, for example. The protection


mechanism may involve changes in the colonic microbiota inhibiting infection (Leser et

al., 2000). DYSENTERY gut microbiota


Some publications demonstrate that the experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic piglets (germ free) did not lead to the development of clinical disease, thus demonstrating the need for a specific gut microbial population assisting in the disease onset (Meyer, et al., 1974; Meyer, et al., 1975;

Whipp, et al., 1979).

The use of poorly digestible feeds increases intestinal fermentation and bacterial

Studies demonstrate the effects of

colonization (Pluske et al., 1998).

different diets on colonization and presence of important microorganisms for the establishment of clinical signs of swine dysentery (Meyer et al., 1975; Wipp et

al., 1979).

7 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Gut microbial diversity of pigs and swine dysentery cases

It is observed that when carbohydrates that are easily digested and absorbed in the small intestine are used, little energy substrate remains for the bacteria present in the large intestine, reducing fermentation and raising intestinal pH, with low production of volatile fatty acids (Siba et al., 1996).

Regarding the inulin, an increase in the luminal concentration of volatile fatty acids is observed, which causes luminal pH decrease (Jensen

and Jørgensen 1994). This alteration leads to a decrease in the proportion of

gut microbiota

branched-chain fatty acids such as isobutyric acid and isovalernic acid (Hansen et al., 2011), which reduces the ability of B. hyodysenteriae to

It is important to consider that

propagate in the large intestine.

some anaerobic bacteria present in the microbiota may facilitate the B. hyodysenteriae colonization, increasing the chances of the disease establishment

Similarly, diets composed of organically

(Whipp et al., 1979; Joens et al., 1981).

grown feedstock containing fermentable carbohydrates such as chicory roots, cooked rice associated with animal protein, sorghum and corn silage, demonstrate a protective effect on the dysentery development after experimental challenge with B. hyodysenteriae (Prohaszka and Lukacs 1984; Pluske

et al., 1996, 1998; Siba et al., 1996; Thomsen et al., 2007; Hansen et al., 2011). On the other hand, a diet rich

Synergistic effects between the microbiota and spirochetes allows mutual benefit due to the metabolism products that promote a favorable microenvironment for the spirochete colonization and propagation of the colonic environment (Whipp et al., 1979).

in soy and high fiber percentage increases the chances of developing the disease

(Jacobson et al., 2004).

8 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Gut microbial diversity of pigs and swine dysentery cases

Recently, a study characterizing populations present in cases of swine dysentery reported changes in the microbiota, detecting differences in microbial diversity of experimentally infected animals. The relative abundance of: Brachyspirales, Campylobacterales, Desulfovibrionales and

that germ free animals experimentally


inoculated with B. hyodysenteriae did not

were greater in animals with mucosal

have the capacity to develop a typical clinical


picture of swine dysentery, requiring the presence of a microbiota to assist in the

gut microbiota

As previously mentioned, it was observed


colonization. Clostridiales, However, swine dysentery is developed when these animals are co-infected by

Erysipelotrichales and

Fusobacterium necrophorum, strains Fusobacteriales

of Bacteroides vulgatus, Clostridium and Listeria, individually or in different combinations (Meyer et al., 1974; Kinyon et al., 1977;

Whipp et al., 1979)

were significantly more abundant in the luminal content. In inoculated pigs that did not develop dysentery, Burkholderiales were more abundant both in the mucosa and lumen contents. Bacteroidales and Synergistales were more abundant in mucosal scrapings, and Lactobacillales and Bifdobacteriales were more abundant in luminal content compared to sick pigs (Burrough et al., 2017).

9 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Gut microbial diversity of pigs and swine dysentery cases

Regarding bacterial species present without clinical signs, greater proportions of Bifidobacteria and Megasphaera species are observed, which inhibit the B. hyodysenteriae colonization (Mølbak et al., 2007).

There is also an increase of Fusobacterium was observed in greater

Mogibacterium, Anaerotruncus,

abundance in the luminal contents

Oscillospira and Desulfovibrio spp.

of pigs with swine dysentery (Burrough

in animals with dysentery, while

et al., 2017). A significant increase in

Lactobacillus, Roseburia, Synergistales,

Fusobacterium was also reported in

Bifdobacterium spp., and Desulfovibrio

pig samples with porcine epidemic

spp. were found in resistant animals

diarrhea (PED), a viral infection (Koh

(Burrough et al., 2017).

et al., 2015), as well as animals with nonspecific diarrhea (Yang et al., 2017),

gut microbiota

Brachyspira, Campylobacter,

suggesting that this finding may reflect dysbiosis associated with certain diarrhea types.

10 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Gut microbial diversity of pigs and swine dysentery cases

Bacteria of genus Campylobacter have been associated with swine dysentery (Doyle,

1948). In an investigation of fecal samples, Campylobacter culture was obtained from animals with laboratory diagnosis of Brachyspira-associated disease, suggesting a potential interaction between these bacteria in the large intestine (Burrough et al., 2013).

Final Considerations

gut microbiota

More studies are still needed to better understand the microbiota role in the establishment of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection, thus helping in future control measures through the modulation of diet and microbial populations present in the colonic environment.

Gut microbial diversity of pigs and swine dysentery cases


References on request. Desulfovibrio spp. was more prevalent on the mucosal surface of positive animals. These are sulfate-reducing bacteria with the potential to degrade sulfated mucins, which compose part of the mucus barrier (Earley et al., 2015). Indeed, a reduction in sulfated mucins was previously reported in pigs with acute dysentery (Wilberts et al., 2014) and this disruption in colonic mucus organization has been shown to provide binding sites for B. hyodysenteriae (Quintana-Hayashi et al.,


11 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Gut microbial diversity of pigs and swine dysentery cases



Wagner Yanaguizawa Analyst at Rabobank Brazil, Department of Research and Sector Analysis focused on the animal protein market

The global pork market has undergone major changes in the last three years, as a result of a collapse in demand (Covid-19 and decrease in population purchasing power), and also in supply: African swine fever, Increase in production costs, Disruption in the supply chain.

Initially, we observed an imbalance between global supply and demand levels, wherein the sharp drop in production generated record prices for live hogs and raised production margins in almost all regions.

12 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Imbalance between pork supply and demand and the impacts on the sector’s profitability

As a result, production attractiveness After two years of reduced global pork

was negatively affected and important

production (2019 and 2020), driven mainly

markets such as China and Brazil have

by China and internal challenges with African

already adopted measures to reduce the

Swine Fever, the recovery of the Chinese

production pace, mainly affected by a

pig herd in 2021 led to the global supply

scenario of uncertainty and volatility, even


in short term.

Placing this scenario in context, pork production in China last year had a 25 % increase compared to the previous year and reached approximately 49 million tons. In the current year, we project a further increase of 3% compared to 2021, maintaining the supply growth.

Regarding the Brazilian market, the current sharp drop in the production profitability is a result of a strong output increase from 2019 to 2021, aimed on meeting the growing Chinese demand, but also meeting a greater domestic demand for pork. However, by the end of 2021, supply levels exceeded demand, and at the same time


grain prices soared.

In addition, the change in consumption habits favorable to pork demand occurred because of the significant increase in beef prices due to supply shortages and the holding period for females. In this way, live cattle and beef prices reached record levels. The inevitable result of this scenario is the increased pressure on this global protein trade, which also caused a drop in live hog prices.

Meanwhile, the heated global demand for grain for feed production, coupled with the conflicts in Ukraine and Russia, has pushed feed prices to levels never seen in history.

13 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Imbalance between pork supply and demand and the impacts on the sector’s profitability

Combined with the decline in the purchasing power of the general population, caused mainly by the

The lower Chinese demand this year has

economic crisis effects caused by the

already impacted Brazilian shipments.

Covid-19 pandemic, per capita beef

In March /22, the accumulated exports

consumption in 2021 reached its lowest level in 16 years. As a result, chicken and pork consumption has increased in recent years, demonstrating the purchasing

registered a 7 % drop in volume compared to the same period last year, besides another 17% drop in value.

power loss of part of the Brazilian population, which until 2019 had more access to beef consumption and is now unable to have it.

The Chinese market alone reduced purchases by 34% in the same period.


Hong Kong, the second largest export In 2021, pork production in Brazil was 4.9

destination for the product, had

million tons compared to 2019, the increase

another drop of 36%. In 2021, the

was 765,000 tons. Just for comparison

Chinese market represented 48% of the

purposes, the volume is higher than the

entire volume of Brazilian exports, and

production of Argentina, which is the 2nd

currently the rate is at 38%.

biggest pork producer in South America, with an annual production of 695,000 tons (USDA). For this year, Rabobank projects a growth rate interruption of pork production, with a decrease of 3% in relation to the previous year.

Therefore, foreign demand will continue to be guided by China and by the pig herd recovery, in addition to domestic consumption, still under the zero tolerance policy effect for new cases of Covid-19.

14 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Imbalance between pork supply and demand and the impacts on the sector’s profitability

New markets in South America, such as Argentina and Uruguay, as well as Singapore

Still in the domestic market,

and the Philippines, have been filling the

the high prices of beef favored

space left by China. However, in the short

the competitiveness of pork. On the

term the substitution effect is unlikely to be

other hand, high feed prices and a

at the same levels, which should result in a

scenario of negative pressure on the

drop in shipments year-on-year.

value of beef should further affect the attractiveness of the consumption of

The situation of pork production in

this protein in the short term in Brazil.

the Chinese market is similar to the Brazilian scenario, in marginal terms. In March, live hog price was around CNY 12/kg, 50 % lower in relation to the previous year. As a was around CNY 500/head. The government has been making new purchases in the domestic market to replenish stocks, but strategies to reduce the production pace have been inevitable. A similar scenario is observed in the Brazilian production, which there was greater breeding stock discarding, reduction in the average weight of slaughter and flexibility in formulating rations to reduce costs.

Initially, there is expectation of lower feed prices in the second half of 2022, given the favorable margins in recent years, which enhanced the interest in increasing production areas. Another point is the harvest period of the


result, the marginal loss in the finishing phase

second corn crop at the end of the first half-year, which represents 7075% of the national supply, and would pull prices down.

15 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Imbalance between pork supply and demand and the impacts on the sector’s profitability

However, La Ninã natural phenomenon,

Another key factor is the war between

which compromises mainly the summer

Eastern European countries, Russia and

crops due to its low temperatures, had

Ukraine, which brought to the fore great

a negative impact on soy at the

concern for Brazilian agribusiness at the

beginning of this year.

beginning of the year and, despite not reaching the worrying expectations, continue as a warning sign for



The conflict increased the international demand for Brazilian grains, and, with

Weak trade winds

the committed export of fertilizers, all agricultural commodities were affected at


hot water

different levels, and for different reasons.

cold water

With great demand, the possibilities for a lower feed price were significantly limited.


Strong trade winds

In March this year, feed prices were 15% higher compared to last year. Although feed represents about 70% of the costs,

hot water

other important items also registered an

cold water

increase in value, such as fuel, electricity, freight, fertilizers, labor, among others.

Experts say that the phenomenon has a high possibility of persisting until the

According to data collected by the Brazilian

beginning of 2023, with expected below

Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), in

average rainfall levels for some Brazilian

the State of Paraná, the cost for the production

regions, mainly the Midwest and South.

in March/22 of a live hog was raised to R$ 7.61/ kg live, representing the highest nominal value of the series historically, besides a percentage increase of 13% in relation to the previous year.

16 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Imbalance between pork supply and demand and the impacts on the sector’s profitability


When analyzing the production invoicing, the live hog price had a strong drop as in November 2021, with stabilization in February and March 2022 , assuming a recovery rhythm. The daily prices in April 2022 have already reached the greatest level this year, but they are still 14 % lower compared to the same period last year.

Pork prices are expected to keep rising mainly due to seasonal recovery in domestic demand, which was boosted after the Carnaval holiday in Brazil. This rise will be important to pass on cost increases and improve the activity profitability. In short term, the main challenges will be the competitiveness regarding beef due to the smaller price difference, and the recovery of the population purchasing power after the strong drops caused by the economic crisis of the last pandemic years.

Imbalance between pork supply and demand and the impacts on the sector’s profitability

As a result, with the current production this year,


growth rate which has occurred in the last three

it is expected to see an interruption in the price years, with a drop of approximately 3% compared to the previous year.

17 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Imbalance between pork supply and demand and the impacts on the sector’s profitability

Events 2022



From March 16th-18th, current topics were discussed such as:

With the theme “Overcoming challenges”,


the traditional technical and scientific event

Sanitary challenges,

of swine industry in Paraná, the ABRAVES-PR Regional Meeting, made history in its 16th

Animal carcass destination,

edition and reached a record audience, with

African Swine Fever,

more than 500 delegates in the first fully in-person event of the swine industry, at the

ESG and

Municipal Theater of Toledo – PR.

Personnel management.

18 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | ABRAVES-PR Regional Meeting – 2022

On the first official day of the XVI Regional Meeting

The second day of the event featured lectures

of the Brazilian Association of Veterinarians

by an amazing team addressing “people”!

Specialists in Swine of Paraná - ABRAVES-PR,

And the message was given:

the main emergency diseases present in the global swine industry were discussed from the management, business and ESG points of view.

“It is necessary to take care of the people who arrive and “plant dreams of the future” in their minds!”, highlighted by

Events 2022

“We will win with information!”, Gefferson Almeida (President of Abraves – PR).

Some of the renowned professionals in the sector to lecture at the first official day of the ABRAVES-PR Regional Meeting included Everson Zotti (ABRAVES – PR), José Antônio Ribas Júnior (ABPA and SINDICARNE – SC), Jonathan Wolf (Seara), Vamiré Sens Jr. (Seara), Abel Ricieri Guareschi Neto (MAPA), Valdecir L. Mauerwerk (Frimesa), Otamir Cesar Martins (ADAPAR), Rodrigo da Silveira Nicoloso, Airton Kunz and Everton Luis Krabbe (Embrapa).

Naldo Dalmazo.

The XVII ABRAVES – PR Meeting has already been scheduled for March 14th-16th, 2023!

ABRAVES-PR Regional Meeting – 2022


19 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | ABRAVES-PR Regional Meeting – 2022


IPVS 2022


The History of IPVS arrival in Brazil in 1988


n 1982, we went to the 7th IPVS Congress in Mexico to apply for this event to be held in Brazil. The Organizing Committee informed

us that in order to hold the congress, 3 essential conditions were necessary: 1st Having an active Association of Veterinarians Specializing in Swine, 2nd to hold a National Congress, and 3rd to hold a Latin American Congress.

20 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Evolution of Brazilian pig-farming and importance of hosting the 10th IPVS (International Pig Veterinary Society) in 1988.

Having completed these steps, we would be able to apply for the IPVS World Congress. Thus, the journey began:

The aim of bringing an IPVS Congress to Brazil in 1988 In 1988, Brazil was the 10th biggest world


In 1983, ABRAVES was founded,

producer and did not have significant exports. It was the post-African Swine Fever period (1978), and the beginning of technification through hybrid swine. We were sure that Brazil was a country with all the conditions to become a world leader in this

In 1984, we held the Latin participants at the Copacabana

area. There was no lack of land, water, climate,


specialist technicians determined to make this

Palace Hotel, RJ,

segment one of the most relevant in the world.

In 1986, we received the


grain production and an active team of

nomination during the 9th IPVS (Belgium) and,

The aim was to train Brazilian

IPVS 2022

American Congress with 800

technicians in the different areas of pig farming, promote exchanges with technicians from other countries and to show the world an earnest and efficient swine industry, which in the following

In August 1988, with the support

years would become one of the biggest

of the Agriculture Ministry and

in the world.

EMBRAPA-CNPSA, Concórdia, we held the 10th IPVS World


Congress, in the former Nacional Hotel in São Conrado beach, RJ.

During the Congress, 1,233 participants from 46 countries attended. I had the honor of being the President of the Congress, with Dr. Sergito Souza Cavalcanti as Vice-President, Dr. Isabel Scheid as President of the Technical Committee, Dr. Flauri Migliavacca as Executive Secretary and Dr. David Barcellos, the President of ABRAVES.

21 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Evolution of Brazilian pig-farming and importance of hosting the 10th IPVS (International Pig Veterinary Society) in 1988.

Contribution of the IPVS 1988 to the Brazilian swine industry Hosting the IPVS contributed to the great revolution that underpinned the growth of the Brazilian swine industry, which jumped from a modest 10th position to the 4th biggest pork producer and exporter in the world.

As an example, in 1988, the post-

IPVS 2022

weaning diarrhea killed 20 to 30% of weaned piglets. It was during the IPVS that the Zinc Oxide technology came

Main topics covered during the 10th IPVS in 1988

along, which practically eradicated the problem in our country.

The 368 studies presented summarized the main diseases prevalent in the world at that time: 41 on Enzootic Pneumonia and Pleuropneumonia,

Currently, after 34 years, we have renowned technicians recognized by the international community, we have high quality meat (exported to more than 100 countries), we

35 on Aujeszky Disease,

have enviable health (free from important

31 on Nutrition,

production centers) and we have pig farmers

diseases that afflict several important that obtain results far superior to those of

28 on Colibacillosis, Swine Dysentery and

the so-called “advanced” countries.

Campylobacter, 28 on Reproduction and AI, and 20 on Atrophic Rhinitis.

Table 1 shows what pig farming was like in Brazil in 1990 and how much it has evolved so far.

22 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Evolution of Brazilian pig-farming and importance of hosting the 10th IPVS (International Pig Veterinary Society) in 1988.

2021 4,890

Worldwide production participation, %



Exports, thousand tons



Worldwide export participation, %



Consumption (kg/inhabitant)



Slaughter, million heads



Herd, million heads



Offtake, %



Average slaughter weight, kg carcass



Average age of slaughter, days



Feed conversion, kg





Weaners/sow/year (average)

IPVS 2022

1990 1,040

Pork production, million tons

Table 1. Evolution of Brazilian pig farming, 1990 to 2021 Source: Luciano Roppa, 2022

Bringing the IPVS back to Brazil after 34 years is a historic event. It is the worldwide recognition of the importance of Brazil as one of the leaders in this segment. It is the crowning achievement of this younger generation who, with their enthusiasm and dedication, have kept the country on its continuous path towards the production of high quality food.

Evolution of Brazilian pig-farming and importance of hosting the 10th IPVS (International Pig Veterinary Society) in 1988.


23 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Evolution of Brazilian pig-farming and importance of hosting the 10th IPVS (International Pig Veterinary Society) in 1988.





fter 34 years, the 26th International Pig Veterinary Society returns to Brazil at a historic moment for the global swine

industry. And in this edition, Professor Fernanda Radicchi Campos Lobato de Almeida, President of IPVS 2022, spoke on the coming of IPVS to Brazil with the newsroom of SuínoBrasil!” The global swine industry is experiencing a historic moment with African Swine Fever outbreaks, mainly in Asia and Europe, restrictions using antibiotics and zinc oxide in animal nutrition, record production and export of Brazilian pork, historical increase in production costs, among other notable facts. What is the relevance for the national swine chain to host the IPVS in Brazil, after 34 years?

Initially, we can mention that it is a

Dra. Fernanda Almeida, PhD

great pride for us, since there are very few countries in the history of the IPVS association that have hosted the event more than once.

24 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | IPVS2022 New perspectives for the swine industry: biosecurity, productivity and innovation

It is also worth mentioning that it is the recognition of the prominent role of our country within the world agribusiness scenario. With the realization of IPVS2022, we hope to deliver a different pig farming model, based on sustainability, valuing biosecurity, and aiming for increased productivity.

What were the main challenges to host the biggest global swine industry event in Brazil? How many editions has the Brazilian Association of Swine Veterinarians been striving to bring the event in Brazil?

The biggest challenge was choosing a city to host the event. A safe city, Therefore, we aim for our country

in health terms, but at the same

to continue standing out in the

time, with great tourist appeal. This is why we

world’s agribusiness scenario.

chose to host the IPVS2022 in the city of Rio

Brazil occupies a prominent position in the global swine industry ranking as the 4th producer and exporter. What are the main topics in the national swine farming evolution if we compare the year 1988 (1st


de Janeiro.

Regarding the attempts to hold the IPVS Congress in Brazil, we have been involved in this mission since 2012 at the IPVS Congress held in South Korea.

Edition of IPVS in Brazil) and swine farming in 2022?

Such topics could be summarized in the following: Advent of the hyperproliferous females, Control of antimicrobial use, Improvement of biosecurity practices and Advances in the nutrition area (immunological aspects and precision nutrition).

25 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | IPVS2022 New perspectives for the swine industry: biosecurity, productivity and innovation

The event’s theme is “New perspectives for swine farming: biosecurity, productivity and innovation”. I would like you to comment on the event’s schedule and what the Board’s expectations are.

What message would you like to leave to the public at the 26th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress?

With the aim of combining biosecurity practices with innovative techniques for better control of diseases leading to greater productivity, we intend to provide a great forum for discussion on current

We faced many challenges to arrive here. But every minute in the organization of this important event in the world swine industry was worth it. The results of this great effort you will see in June. We look forward to seeing you!

and extremely relevant topics for the global swine industry in a holistic


way. The alliance between innovative production techniques translates into higher yields and will certainly take the swine sector to high levels of excellence.

Comment on the experience of being the first woman to preside over the main event of the global swine industry.

I confess that it is a mixture of feelings: while I feel honored and happy, I realize that it is a great responsibility. We have dedicated more than 10 years to this

IPVS2022 New perspectives for the swine industry: biosecurity, productivity and innovation


event, and you will have the opportunity to see the results in a few days at IPVS2022.

26 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | IPVS2022 New perspectives for the swine industry: biosecurity, productivity and innovation

IPVS2022 26 international pig veterinary society th

congress - rio de janeiro - brazil

June 21st-24th Rio de Janeiro - RJ

The most important event of the global PIG INDUSTRY Check official programme on the website








animal management

Cesar Augusto Pospissil Garbossa FMVZ/USP, Swine Research Laboratory

INTRODUCTION In swine production, genetic selection for

One of the main challenges is due to the relation

economically important traits, such as the

between litter size and piglet mortality.

number of piglets born, has resulted in several health and welfare challenges, increasing mortality levels considered normal, as well as

In Brazil, the record-breaking farm

significant changes in management routines,

reached the unbelievable mark of 41.15

especially during farrowing and lactation.

weaned piglets/female/year in 2021, as demonstrated by the Agriness benchmarking (2022).

28 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?

Although some success has been achieved in reducing the negative impact of large litters through genetic, nutritional and management strategies, this is still a variable that represents a major global challenge to the swine production system. The relationship between mortality and large

In addition to the deleterious effects on

litters is associated with several factors,

piglets, hyperprolificity may affect the sow


health reducing its longevity due to the great

Increase in the farrowing duration, Stillbirths and hypoxic piglets,

metabolic challenge to which they are subjected, increasing the heat stress susceptibility and body score loss.

animal management

Competition for teats, and consequently, In this context, if the health and

Reduced colostrum intake.

welfare challenges of the sows are Still, this scenario is aggravated by the large

not addressed, there will be negative

variation in weight within litters. Thus, there is an

impacts on the performance and

increase of 30 to 40% in the number of animals

survival of piglets, which will negate

with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in

the benefits achieved by increasing the

large litters.

number of piglets born.

ENVIRONMENT All newborn piglets are predisposed to hypothermia, due to the low glycogen reserves and brown fat absence.

Although hypothermia is rarely considered the death cause in commercial herd, it is largely a precursor to crushing, starvation and death by diseases.

29 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?

The thermal challenge at farrowing is quite complex, due to the marked difference of the thermoneutrality zone between sows

animal management

and newborn piglets. The provision of nesting material for the females is another possibility, bringing benefits both for females (natural species behavior in building nests) and for piglets (less heat loss). However, The high environment temperature

this management type is impractical for the usual

required by piglets impairs the sow

sewage system in national farms. Nevertheless,

feed intake, negatively impacting

in view of MAPA IN 113, it is worth mentioning

piglet weight at weaning, with negative

that this management will be mandatory soon,

effects on sow productivity, welfare

requiring modifications to the farms.

and health.

Therefore, microenvironments that provide thermal comfort to sows (air on the back of their necks, cooled floor, etc.) and a source of heat for piglets, such as a lamp or heated floor, are essential to ensure good health, welfare and performance of animals in the farrowing phase: sows and piglets.

30 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?


Another management that may be beneficial is the diet composition, increasing dietary fiber during the transition and prepartum periods, improving

An important matter to be considered regarding sows is the association

energy status, decreasing stillbirth, constipation and also improving the colostrum quality.

between large litters and longer farrowing duration, with a consequent

Furthermore, studies performed

increase in piglet mortality.

by our team have shown that supplementation with energy Recently, some researchers have demonstrated

additives during farrowing may benefit

the close relationship between female energy

both the sow and piglets.

general, the female management recommends

Still, the inclusion of higher levels of

food restriction after transfer to the farrowing

fermentable ingredients and adequacy

facilities to minimize problems concerning

of essential amino acids in the diet may

metabolic syndromes, when females are

benefit the embryonic quality as well as

usually fed once or twice a day, which

the weight of piglets and thus minimize

destabilizes energy status.

the variation in weight between piglets

animal management

status in peripartum and farrowing duration. In

within the same litter. Thus, it is recommended that females are fed more times a day, minimizing the interval between feed intake and farrowing (three hours being ideal).

31 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?

PIGLET MANAGEMENT When the number of piglets exceeds the sow suckling capacity, some intervention is necessary. Initially, low viability piglets should be identified, that is, those whose health and wellbeing are at risk, such as piglets with IUGR.

The IUGR severity degree determines the feasibility or otherwise of management interventions to promote the litter survival, allowing the decision

animal management

to keep the animal in the herd or to euthanize it.

Piglets are born with low body energy reserves, which makes them dependent on exogenous sources of energy to ensure thermoregulation, to find and compete for the teat, and to escape potentially dangerous movements of the sow. Thus, supplying energy to piglets right after birth guarantees a better ability to suckle colostrum and hence maximizes neonatal survival and growth. However, the management must follow some premises in order to ensure the success of its use:

The piglets must be warm at the feeding time, the supplement must provide sufficient energy to the piglets without causing lethargy or prolonged satiety; the supplementation must take place while the sow is still producing colostrum (within 12 hours post -farrowing), being ideal supplying at least two doses in the first 24 hours.

32 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?

FARROWING ASSISTANCE Farrowing assistance is essential, requiring instruction from collaborators to unblock the


airways, dry the piglets and maintain a heat source which will improve the litter survival and performance. Approximately 30% of hyperprolific sows provide insufficient colostrum to their litters.

The average farrowing duration of

animal management

hyperprolific sows exceeding 450 minutes brings the risk of later born piglets not consuming colostrum in sufficient quantity and quality.

Thus, split suckling helps ensure that all piglets ingest colostrum from their own mother.

For this purpose, management is Colostrum management is essential to ensure the proper development of piglets since they are born without any type of antibody. Therefore, helping piglets find a teat shortly after birth may reduce mortality. More complex protocols with bovine colostrum and oxygen administration also demonstrate

performed by dividing the litter into two demarcated groups, which are alternated every 90 minutes, ensuring that the piglets successfully suckle several times during this period. It is ideal to alternate these groups for at least the first 12 hours postpartum.

beneficial effects on piglet mortality and performance.

33 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?

CROSS-FOSTERING Piglet transfer involves relocating some or all of the piglets from their mother to a foster


sow, or exchanging piglets between sows, depending on the size, vigor and sex of the piglets, as well as the physical characteristics of the sow’s teats, management which

animal management

should not be performed before 12 hours

The use of lactating mothers is essential in hyperprolific


herds. This management can be

In this context, for the transfer success, some

In the one-step strategy, a sow

aspects must be considered, such as: Breast complex evaluation in terms of functional teats, Primiparous sows should receive as

performed in one- or two-step.

that has weaned her own piglets, typically three weeks post-partum, is given newborn surplus piglets from several litters to nurse for an additional three to four weeks.

many piglets as the mammary gland allows, The piglet transfer must occur between 12 and 24 hours after birth and must be reduced to the minimum possible to avoid disease transmission, and

The two-step strategy involves two sows. The first one weans her own piglets three weeks postpartum and receives an entire litter from the second sow which nursed her own piglets for five to seven days postpartum, and the

Too small or too large piglets should be

second sow receives newborn surplus piglets

relocated to a similarly sized litter.

from different litters.

In general, two-step management is the Moreover, it should be highlighted that

most appropriate, due to the shorter

the transfer of supernumerary piglets in

period of the sow as a nurse, in addition

a farrowing lot (common in hyperprolific

to the quality of milk offered to piglets

herds) will not solve the problem.

being more appropriate for their age.

34 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?

ARTIFICIAL REARING Artificial rearing involves removing piglets from their mother and allocating them in specialized enclosures where they will be fed milk replacer until weaning age.

This enclosure must contain a heat source to ensure thermal comfort for the piglets, milk and water troughs, as well as feed supply by

animal management

creep-feeeding. This technology can be used as a substitute for a nurse sow, and because piglets are fed ad libitum in a controlled environment in which there is no risk of crushing, makes it quite attractive.

However, artificial rearing systems represent a high financial investment, in addition to raising concerns regarding the early separation from the sow, which can be considered a form of early weaning and hence not following the guidelines of MAPA IN 113.

35 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?

SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING The supply of milk replacer to piglets is an alternative strategy to guarantee the nutritional supply to piglets. With the use of the supplemental suckling system, sows can support a greater number of piglets than the number of

animal management

teats they have.

Although this system is a possibility of reducing the need for nurse sows, it is a high cost management. Still, it should be noted that this feeding system does not provide the same nutritional quality as sow milk. Thus, it predisposes to a greater rate of fights between piglets for teat access.

The creep-feeding benefits for piglets from 10 days in age in regard to nutritional support guarantee, given the impossibility of producing milk for the entire litter, in addition to benefits regarding the early digestive adaptation of piglets, wherein feed intake leads to digestive enzyme secretion and intestinal development, properly preparing piglets for weaning.

36 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?

There are several strategies to minimize the negative impact caused by large litters. However, there is no exact and perfect solution that can extinguish the deleterious effects caused by this characteristic.

animal management

In this context, the combined use of different technologies is necessary to ensure the economic advantages of increasing the number of births.

Furthermore, it is important to emphasize the careful evaluation of the maintenance of IUGR piglets in the herd, since this characteristic brings economic losses to the health and welfare of the animals.

Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?


37 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Hyperprolific sows: Is there ideal management during lactation?



gut health

Thaís Garcia Santos1, Letícia Pinheiro Moreira1, Ana Luísa Neves Alvarenga Dias2, Fernanda Radicchi Campos Lobato de Almeida1* 1Department of Morphology, ICB, Federal University of Minas Gerais. 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Uberlândia. Email: HYPERLINK “”

Introduction Gut health has been a term extensively used lately. However, its definition is still unclear. In humans, gut health is initially related to inflammatory diseases. On the other hand, the focus on pigs is based on disease prevention and performance maximization, through nutrient utilization and growth efficiency.

38 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimestrer 2022 | Can intrauterine stage influence the gastrointestinal development of pigs?

This fact provided an increase in the

factors. Among them, injury during

number of conceptuses (fetuses and their

prenatal stage, compromising fetal

membranes), but the uterus size did not

development, can be considered the primary

follow this increase, making the uterine

damage source.

space and placental efficiency limited.

There is evidence that inadequate

Thus, the piglet weight at

nutrition and limited uterine capacity

birth became increasingly

would be the main injury capable of

heterogeneous, suggesting a

compromising fetal development in

negative correlation between

swine species.

the number of piglets and the

gut health

Gut health is influenced by several

average birth weight.

In this context, nutrient deprivation during intrauterine stage could alter fetal metabolism, leading to permanent changes in body structure, function and metabolism.

Piglets with low birth weight can represent up to 30% of a litter and are considered the main cause of reduced neonatal survival, including postnatal growth delay.

Advances in genetic improvement in pig farming have provided the generation of females with high reproductive performance, capable of


conceiving numerous litters.

39 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimestrer 2022 | Can intrauterine stage influence the gastrointestinal development of pigs?

Gastrointestinal system development in the swine species In pigs, the main cause of low birth weight is intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition in which the fetus does not reach its growth potential due to placental insufficiency. Therefore, in this

Gastrointestinal tract development in mammals is influenced both by genetic and hormonal factors and by the transition from parenteral nutrition to enteral nutrition after birth. Gut maturation is particularly fast during

species IUGR occurs naturally and

the perinatal period, being induced by


nutrients and bioactive molecules present in colostrum and milk, which are primarily absorbed by enterocytes.

In an adverse uterine environment,

gut health

one of the fetal survival strategies is the redirection of blood flow to the brain to the detriment of organs such as small intestine, which compromises its normal development. This condition contributes to permanent low weight and the development of enteric diseases, increasing medication intensity and associated costs.

These cells have the function of absorbing proteins from the amniotic fluid, colostrum and macromolecules such as hormones, immunoglobulins and growth factors. This is particularly important for pigs, as its placenta does not allow immunoglobulins to be transferred to the fetus during pregnancy.

In this regard, in order to maximize the growth of these animals, the nutritional demand has been high at all growth stages. However, it is still necessary to expand the knowledge about the digestive and immunological capacity of the small intestine in piglets affected by IUGR in the different phases of production cycle.

40 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimestrer 2022 | Can intrauterine stage influence the gastrointestinal development of pigs?

In the first weeks of life, gut undergoes The swine domestication slowed down the

important changes: Increased blood flow to the mucosa and reduced basal vascular resistance,

structural and functional development of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa, with early weaning being a major contributor to this fact. Under commercial conditions, the weaning transition implies sudden changes in the

proteins in enterocytes,

diet from sow milk to feed. Moreover, abrupt

Increase in mitosis of these cells

environment at a younger age than would

and inhibition of their death.

otherwise be the case under natural conditions

This process is strictly associated with the gut maturation, in other words, the change to an adult type of digestion and absorption.

separation from the sow and moving to a new

causes great physiological stress.

gut health

Accumulation of colostrum

In pigs, early weaning contributes to numerous gut physiological dysfunctions, such as: Reduction of mitotic activity in

Gut maturation also includes marked changes in the relative weight of the small intestine, brush border enzyme activity, as well as ion and nutrient transport

crypts, Increased enterocyte death, Slower replacement of immature

capacity, such changes being mediated in

enterocytes to adult type, and

part by dietary alteration.

Modification of brush border enzyme profile.

In addition to dietary stimulation, a temporary increase in circulating cortisol levels after weaning plays an important role in the gut biochemical maturation.

Combining these factors can result in a significant reduction of nutrient digestibility in the first week after weaning, leading to consequences for the health and subsequent animal performance.

41 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimestrer 2022 | Can intrauterine stage influence the gastrointestinal development of pigs?

Consequences of RIUC for the small intestine development Newborn piglets affected by this condition showed a reduction in the intestinal Several studies have shown that RIUC

absorption area. A smaller mucosal

can impair the duodenum, jejunum, and

thickness, deeper crypts and a lower villus

ileum development in pigs from birth to

height / crypt depth ratio were observed.

adulthood. Piglets affected by RIUC have

However, even with structural changes,

lower weight and length of the small

no changes were observed in enzymatic

intestine, which may be a consequence of a

activity (Table 1).

lower expression of growth hormone (GH)

gut health

receptor in the mucosa. The gut mucosa integrity is affected

On the other hand, in 65-day-old

by RIUC and consequently impairs

piglets, the enzymatic activity of

the microbiota colonization.

chymotrypsin was reduced, with a

For example, alterations in the

reduction in the enzymatic activity of

bacteria quantification of the

amylase being observed in 150-day-old

genera Firmicutes, Proteobacteria,

animals (Table 2).

Ruminococcaceae, Lactobacillus and Ochrobactrum in the small intestine were associated to RIUC in pigs in the growing phases and may serve as a future target for the

Therefore, they are animals

gut microbiota intervention in these

that present performance

animals. In this group, reduced cecal

problems due to the impairment

microbial diversity and bacterial

of carbohydrate and protein

fermentation in the large intestine

digestion, the main diet

were also observed during the

components in these phases of the

growth phase.

production cycle.

Recent studies indicate that, in addition to the structural and functional damage, there is an immunological impairment of the small intestine. For example, after weaning, piglets affected by RIUC increased the expression of factors that favor the inflammatory process compared to siblings born with normal weight.

42 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimestrer 2022 | Can intrauterine stage influence the gastrointestinal development of pigs?

Table 1. Histomorphometric parameters of the small intestine in pigs with normal birth weight (NW) and affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at different production cycle stages.


Newborn NW

26 days IUGR


65 days

150 days






Duodeno Villus height (µm)

446 ± 26

441 ± 21

306 ± 44

322 ± 49

313 ± 23a

193 ± 23b

395 ± 39a

245 ± 39b

Crypt depth (µm)

124 ± 4

111 ± 9

305 ± 19

287 ± 21

441 ± 22a

525 ± 22b

578 ± 67

554 ± 66

Mucosal height (µm)

557± 53

571 ± 29

536 ± 103

486 ± 115

833 ± 37

785 ± 37

1054 ± 208

1236 ± 205

Villus/crypt ratio

3.4 ± 0.3

4.0 ±0.2

1.0 ± 0.1

1.1 ± 0.1

0.7 ± 0.1a

0.3 ± 0.1b

0.6 ± 0.1

0.40 ± 0.01

Villus surface area (mm2)

0.20 ± 0.01 0.20 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.02 0.12 ± 0.03 0.14 ± 0.02a

Absorptive area (mm2)

0.65 ± 0.03 0.60 ± 0.03 0.55 ± 0.10

Goblet cells/crypt (mm )

3415 ± 350 3306 ± 477 3222 ± 169 2862 ± 252

0.5 ± 0.1

0.25 ± 0.02a 0,12 ± 0.01b

0.57 ± 0.10a 0.36 ± 0.02b 0.67 ± 0.10a 0.42 ± 0.01b 2748 ± 257

3209 ± 481

4238 ± 254

4145 ± 256

Means in the same row with different letters differ (P < 0.05).


Table 2. Specific enzymatic activity of small intestine enzymes from normal birth weight (NW) pigs and affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at different stages of the production cycle. Parameters


26 days




383 ± 93

417 ± 93

162 ± 35

65 days IUGR


150 days IUGR



73 ± 12

71 ± 11

84 ± 11

Duodeno Lactase (U/mg)

132 ± 35

92 ± 13

Amylase (U/mg)

1.00 ± 0.40 1.55 ± 0.30 1.65 ± 0.40 0.39 ± 0.50

1.80 ± 0.20

1.55 ± 0.20 1.31 ± 0.10a 0.85 ± 0.10b

Lipase (U/mg)

0.12 ± 0.10 0.19 ± 0.10 0.08 ± 0.10 0.05 ± 0.10

0.04 ± 0.10

0.06 ± 0.10

0.03 ± 0.10

0.02 ± 0.10

Chymotrypsin (U/mg)

579 ± 150

201 ± 28

237 ± 53

267 ± 59

330 ± 80

376 ± 76

731 ± 104

532 ± 127

Trypsin (U/mg)

779 ± 165

400 ± 113

406 ± 91

242 ± 105

382 ± 103

635 ± 98

295 ± 73

115 ± 79


Means in the same row with different letters differ (P < 0.05).

43 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimestrer 2022 | Can intrauterine stage influence the gastrointestinal development of pigs?

gut health


0.0 ± 0.00b

gut health

Thus, the limitation of immunological and digestive processes can predispose to the development of metabolic diseases, high morbidity and mortality. It is also considered that the morphophysiological and inflammatory changes in the small intestine are one of the main contributors to the decline in performance of animals affected by RIUC throughout their postnatal life.

Can intrauterine stage influence the gastrointestinal development of pigs?


References on request.

44 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimestrer 2022 | Can intrauterine stage influence the gastrointestinal development of pigs?

A technical and innovative view of national swine industry.

Just a click away! Register for free



SWINE NUTRITION Lúcio Francelino Araújo1, Luiz Antônio Vitagliano, Carlos Alexandre Granghelli1, Cristiane Soares da Silva Araújo2 1 University of São Paulo, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering - 2 University of São Paulo, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science

The approach to sustainable swine Nutrition

nutrition is both exciting and challenging.

On the other hand, it is challenging since sustainable nutrition has different facets, among which the economic, environmental and nutritional aspects can be highlighted.

Exciting because pig farming is a dynamic activity that offers great opportunities for its growth and




46 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Sustainable swine nutrition


It is a fact that the most onerous factor in the swine production cost is the feeding. The increase in demand

Swine production is the activity

for pork production due to African

that produces the largest amount

swine fever that appeared in different

of manure per kilogram of live

world locations, as well as the increase

animal weight.

in the cost of the main ingredients that are included in the diets, intensified by the conflicts occurring in some European countries, contributed

Furthermore, it is worth noting that

to the worsening of this situation.

animals only take advantage of a portion

Therefore, the search for nutritional

the diet.

of the nutrients that are ingested through

alternatives to reduce production costs becomes an indispensable tool

This condition represents a double

to adequately meet the demands of

loss since, if these wastes are not

animals in a sustainable way.

properly managed, the nutrients present in their composition will Nutrition

cause an environmental imbalance due to the contamination of soils and water sources, in addition to the unavailability of part of the nutrients that are eliminated in the waste excreted by the animal.

It is estimated that 20% of diseases that affect humans, especially children, are directly or indirectly linked to water contamination.

47 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Sustainable swine nutrition

In the case of finishing animals, it is estimated that they excrete up to 75% of the nitrogen and 76% of the ingested phosphorus (Figure 1).






76 Figure 1: Nutrient excretion percentage as a function of the amount ingested (Van der Peet- Schwering et al., 1999)







Reduction in nutrient excretion

In this regard, one of the alternatives that can be applied to minimize these impacts would be the use of exogenous enzymes in the diet. In 1925, Dr. George Hervey published the first study demonstrating the potential of enzymes to improve performance and nutrient digestibility in animals. Since then, new research has been developed and currently the use of enzymes in swine nutrition is a reality and has at least three main objectives:

48 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Sustainable swine nutrition

Reduction of environmental impact

Decrease in the formulation cost, and consequently

Weaning is one of the most important moments in the swine rearing system. During Currently, the use of enzyme blends can

this period, the piglets are abruptly separated

be intended for different production stages

from the sows, transported, and housed

and is dependent on the ingredient type

in a new facility. Added to these facts, the

used in the diets, as well as their inclusion

coexistence with animals from other litters as


well as the ingestion of diets with a different texture compared to that one they were fed previously, which makes them more susceptible to develop diarrhea. It is important to emphasize the importance of understanding how these enzymes work together to hydrolyze their respective substrate as well as their action mode in diets to maximize production efficiency.

The action mechanism of zinc oxide is not yet fully understood. However, improvements have been demonstrated:

Another factor related to the importance of sustainable nutrition is the use of

increase in nutrient digestibility and absorption,

therapeutic doses of zinc oxide in the diet

reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines,

of pigs, especially piglets.

antioxidant action, etc.

Thus, zinc oxide is commonly used, especially in the diets of weaned piglets, in order to prevent diarrhea onset and ensure the best development of the animals.

49 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Sustainable swine nutrition


gut health,

However, effective June 2022, the European Union will ban the use of this zinc source at the levels currently practiced and will allow its use only as a food additive, allowing a maximum inclusion of 150 ppm in the diet. In a study conducted by Bak et al. (2015) from 1986 to 2014, the application of swine manure rich in zinc increased its These measures aim to reduce the

concentration in the soil from 2-5% to 24%,

environmental impact, since the levels

which can bring significant risks to aquatic

of zinc administered are considered

species due to element leaching from

excessive and, as part of this mineral will

fertilized fields to groundwater.

not be used by the animal, the surplus will


be excreted into the environment.

In addition, excess zinc harms: absorption of other oligominerals, alters the composition of the gut bacterial population, and increases the incidence of antibiotic-tolerant genes.

In this regard, one of the options to reduce this mineral excretion would be the use of organic sources/zinc chelates. Due to its physicochemical characteristics, zinc is a non-volatile and non-degradable element and its long-term continuous dispersion of manure in crops can progressively increase its concentration in soils and groundwater, reaching levels that are dangerous for plant and animal life.

This is due to the fact that they can be used in smaller amounts, they are more bioavailable than inorganic sources, hence providing a better rate of use efficiency. However, these sources alone do not have the potential to prevent and control postweaning diarrhea.

50 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Sustainable swine nutrition

In this context, although there are different additives available, which have proven action in the control of pathogenic bacteria that cause diarrhea, one of the great challenges for the industry is to find the best way to replace the use of zinc oxide in the diet for piglets. Currently, there is no known single food additive that is as efficient as zinc oxide in controlling diarrhea. However, there are potential products on the market that have several of the same

It is worth noting that the actions previously mentioned can be applied in this concept, since the aim is also to decrease diet costs, reduce environmental contamination as well as promote better animal development. Nutrition

action mechanisms of this inorganic zinc source.

Last but not least, sustainable swine nutrition based on the precision nutrition

When using precision nutrition, it is possible to reduce production costs by up to 8%, phosphorus and proteins excretion by up to 25% and gas emissions by up to 6%.

concept stands out.

There are several tools that can be applied for the precision nutrition use. However, Precision nutrition has an approach in which the nutritionist provides the animal appropriate nutrient amount promoting the maximum expression of its genetic potential at the lowest possible production cost.

prediction equations that are developed seeking to associate the best animal development in different situations are highlighted: heat stress, lower feed conversion, desired weight of animals at slaughter, etc.

51 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Sustainable swine nutrition

Ration intake in multiple phases is essential

3 phases Multiphase SEM

to better adjust the nutritional requirements of pigs. During the growth and finishing stages, animals show an increase in food intake n contrast to a decrease in their nutritional requirements. Thus, the lower the number of ration phases provided in a feeding program for these animals, the higher the production cost and the lower its feed efficiency (Table 1).

P, %

Average daily intake, kg/day





Average daily weight gain, g/day





Feed conversion, kg/kg





Protein intake, kg





Protein retention, kg





N excretion, kg





P intake, g





P excretion, g





P retention, g





Cost (U$/animal)






The ingredient quality cannot be overlooked. Regardless of geographic region, the main ingredients of a swine diet represent commodities that can be marketed worldwide. It is necessary to pay attention to this fact because the bromatological composition of nutrients can be influenced by the soil constitution, fertilization, climatic conditions, among others.

Therefore, the analysis of the ingredients used in a diet before its formulation is essential to guarantee the adequate amount of nutrients required by the animals and ensure reduction in costs.

52 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Sustainable swine nutrition

Table 1: Effect of number of phases in a feeding program on pig performance during growth and finishing


CP (%)

ME Kcal/kg

AP (%)

Lys (%)

Met (%)

Thr (%)

Trp (%)



















































Table 2: Nutritional composition of soybean meal used in different locations and seasons.

composition of soybean meal used in diets produced at the University and at an Integrator company in the different seasons of the year. It was reported that there can be a difference of up to 16.9% in the content of methionine, 10.90% of tryptophan, 6.7% of lysine and 6.5% of crude protein.

Based on these considerations, the use of sustainable nutrition in swine farming permits: cost reduction,


Utimi (2016) evaluated the nutritional

Utimi, 2016

reduction of environmental contamination, and production system optimization through the practice of precision nutrition. Therefore, it is possible to ensure the activity sustainability and improve the economic return for the farmer

Sustainable swine nutrition


53 SuínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Sustainable swine nutrition





Cândida Azevedo¹; Henrique Cancian² 1Animal Scientist, M.S. Animal Science and Ph.D. Animal Science and Grasslands; 1Animal Scientist.


gut health

mmune cells and lymphoid structures present in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) constitute the largest immune organ in the organism. The immune system bases associated with the

intestinal mucosa are divided into five spheres, namely:


Epithelial barrier, physical barrier, epithelial cell layer (enterocytes and


Peyer patches, starting point of adaptive immune responses, organized structure

colonocytes), mucus-producing goblet

of several lymphoid follicles with germinal

cells (Goblet cells), Paneth cells producing


bactericidal substances (defensins), carrier cells (M cells), intraepithelial T lymphocytes;


Diffuse lymphoid tissue, macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells, effector T lymphocytes, regulatory T cells, IgA-


secreting plasma cells dispersed in the Isolated lymphoid follicles, starting point

mucosal lamina propria; and

of adaptive immune responses, organized structure of immune cell populations;


Mesenteric lymph nodes, starting point of adaptive immune responses against intestinal antigens brought by the lymphatic system (Gonçalves et al., 2016).

54 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Intestine, the largest immune organ of the organism – Part I


A mucosal surface is lined with mucus

Secretory vesicles with mucin

formed by mucins, which are secreted by Goblet cells and create a barrier that prevents larger particles, including most bacteria, from coming into direct

(Turner, 2009).

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

gut health

Golgi apparatus

contact with the epithelial cell layer

Nucleus Mucins contain different oligosaccharides and include secreted and cell surface glycoproteins.


Secreted mucins, including MUC2, MUC5, and MUC6, form a hydrated gel with 300 to 700 μm of thickness that has two layers: a less dense outer layer that is normally colonized by bacteria and a dense inner layer that is attached to the epithelium and is bacteria free.

Pathogenic bacteria


Intestinal epithelium

55 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Intestine, the largest immune organ of the organism – Part I

Paneth cells, located in the small intestine

Expression of REGIIIγ by the intestinal

crypts, secrete α-defensin. Whereas in the

epithelial cells requires signals

colon, β-defensins are produced by absorptive

from Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in

epithelial cells in the intestinal crypts, some

response to commensal organisms,

constitutively and others in response to the

and its production is increased after

pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 (Abbas et al., 2015).

colonization and infection by pathogens

(Abbas et al., 2015).

Innate immune response starts through mediation by pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) recognition and by cellular pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), The TLRs work as PRRs in mammals and play an essential role in the recognition of microbial

gut health

components and innate immune response.

The TLRs are divided into two subgroups, depending on their cellular location and specificity regarding the respective PAMPs.

One group is composed of TLR-1, TLR2, TLR-4, TLR-5, TLR-6 and TLR-10 In addition, Paneth cells secrete a C-type lectin, regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (REGIIIγ), which blocks bacterial colonization on the epithelial surface. REGIIIγ and its homolog REGIIIα bind to the peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria.

that are expressed on cell surfaces and recognize microbial membrane components such as lipids, lipoproteins and proteins. The other group is composed of TLR3, TLR-7, TLR-8 and TLR-9, which are expressed exclusively in the intracellular vesicle and recognize microbial DNA (Cario, 2005).

56 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Intestine, the largest immune organ of the organism – Part I

Under these conditions, to be effectively protected, the animal organism must have defense systems that detect and eliminate

The disruption of the epithelial

invading microorganisms efficiently,

barrier integrity, characterized

preferably without causing tissue damage

by increased intestinal permeability, results in tissue invasion by pathogenic bacteria, as well as an

and discomfort, a function attributed to the adaptive immune system (Levinson, 2016).

increase in intact dietary antigens in Adaptive immune responses in the GIT

increased synthesis of inflammatory

are initiated in discretely organized sets

cytokines by cells of the mucosal immune

of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting

system, which can lead to an exacerbated

cells intimately associated with the

and pathological immune response,

epithelial mucosa lining of the intestine,

culminating in a process of intestinal

as well as in the mesenteric lymph

inflammation (Gonçalves et al., 2016).

nodes (Abbas et al., 2015).

gut health

the intestinal mucosa, which leads to


Bad bacteria

Paracellular Virus

Good bacteria Mucus

Gluten Transcellular Toxin

Healthy Tight junctions

Blood cells

Faulty tight junctions

Blood flow



57 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Intestine, the largest immune organ of the organism – Part I

Organized and non-encapsulated lymphoid tissues, constituted by immune system cells, are located and associated with the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts and are collectively called MALT (mucosaasssociated lymphoid tissue).

In addition to these structures, antigenpresenting cells (APCs), dendritic cells

The GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue)

(DCs) and macrophages, T cells, areas of

system is found specifically in the GIT

B cells with germinal centers in the LP,

mucosa, made up of dense lymphoid tissue

and natural killer cells (NK) compose the

(Gonçalves et al., 2016).

GALT structure (Cunha, 2013).

In GALT, lymphoid tissue is distributed along structures such as: The most prominent GALT structures are

The mesenteric lymph nodes (LN)

the Peyer patches, found mainly in the distal ileum and in small aggregates of

The lamina propria (LP), as Peyer

lymphoid follicles or isolated follicles in the

gut health

patches (PP) in the ileum, or as

appendix and colon.

more diffuse lymphoid aggregates

(Vega-Lopez et al., 2012). CD4+ f

MHC class II e Antigen



Fonte: Calder, 2013.

M cell

Intestinal lumen


SED Naive CD4+ Peyer’s patch

Free antigen


Lamina propria



Crypt Afferent lymphatic

Blood drainage


Antigen loaded DC

Naive CD4+

Gut wall Peripheral lymph node

Systemic distribution

Mesenteric lymph node

Tolerant/ primed CD4+

Source: Calder, 2013.

58 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Intestine, the largest immune organ of the organism – Part I


Efferent lymphatic

Peyer patches have the structure of

Although M cells play a key role in

lymphoid follicles, with germinal centers

the immune response against luminal

containing B lymphocytes, follicular

microorganisms, some pathogenic

helper T cells, follicular dendritic cells,

microorganisms have evolved in order

and macrophages. The germinal centers

to evade the action mechanism of

in the follicles are surrounded by

M cells, using them as an invasion

immature follicular B cells that express

route through the mucosal barrier.

IgM and IgD. This region is called “cupula”, located between the follicles and the lining epithelium containing B

The best example described is

and T lymphocytes, dendritic cells and

Salmonella typhimurium, similar to the

macrophages (Abbas et a., 2015).

human pathogen S. typhi, which causes typhoid fever. The M cells express lectins that allow specific binding

The main distribution route of antigens

Bacteria are cytotoxic to M cells, leading

in the lumen to the GALT occurs

to increased intestinal permeability and

through specialized cells, microfold

subsequently to the proliferation of

cells (M), which are located in regions

gut health

and internalization of these bacteria.

microorganisms (Abbas et al., 2015).

of the intestinal epithelium called cupula or follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) In the first part of the article “Intestine, the

(Abbas et al., 2015).

largest immune organ in the organism”, the structure of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) was highlighted. And in the second part, the sequence of the GALT These cells have unique morphological features, including the presence of reduced glycocalyx, irregular brush border, and reduced microvilli. It is noteworthy that M cells are highly specialized in the phagocytosis and transcytosis of

immune response mechanism will be explored, which includes: Dendritic cells; T and B lymphocytes; Inflammatory cytokines.

macromolecules from the intestinal lumen, particulate antigens and pathogenic or commensal microorganisms through the epithelium (Mabbott et al., 2013).

Intestine, the largest immune organ of the organism – PART 1


References on request

59 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Intestine, the largest immune organ of the organism – Part I




¹Corporate Specialist swine animal health; ²Corporate Specialist poultry and swine animal health; ³Executive Manager Poultry and Swine Health.



otavirus is one of the main viral gastroenteritis in neonates of different animal species, including

human. Although rotaviruses are antigenically related, porcine rotavirus affects only the porcine species.

In swine, diarrhea outbreaks occur mainly in nursing and weaned piglets causing economic losses related to mortality, culling, weight loss and medication use.

60 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Porcine rotaviruses: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and disease control

The VP6 protein (middle capsid) is a common RV antigen, called group antigen, which allows the classification of RVs into species,


also called RV groups. There are 10 groups identified (A-J), five of which affect pigs (A,

Porcine rotavirus is present in most of the world herds and studies show that most adult pigs have

B, C, D and H) where group A is the most prevalent.

positive serology for the agent, making them hosts. The disease is caused by porcine rotavirus (RV), belonging to the Reoviridae family, Rotavirus genus, double-stranded RNA virus, spherical, 70 to 100nm in diameter, capsid with icosahedral symmetry and


non-enveloped. The capsid is made up of three protein layers: VP4


Inner capsid, Middle, and




Outer. VP7

Its genome consists of 11 double-stranded RNA segments that encode six structural proteins: VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4, VP6 and VP7 and six non-structural proteins: NSP1, NSP2,

VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4, VP6 and VP7;

Non-structural proteins:

NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 or NSP6.

RNA segment

Structural proteins:

1 2 3 4






7 8 9






VP8* VP5* Protein

NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 or NSP6.

Figure 1. Rotavirus structure scheme. Cross-section of triple-layered rotavirus particle. Source: Crawford et al., 2017.

61 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Porcine rotaviruses: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and disease control

PATHOGENESIS AND CLINICAL SIGNS The incubation period varies from 2 to 4 days and the transmission is fecal-oral. The virus has a tropism for mature enterocytes and affects the small intestine by invading and destroying the villi of the intestinal epithelium. The result is villi atrophy that causes malabsorption and osmotic diarrhea, which make it difficult to digest sugars and cellular transport of nutrients and electrolytes, leading the piglet to:


Dehydration, The animal category most frequently affected are piglets aged between 2 and 6 weeks which are exposed to the virus by host animals, mainly during farrowing, and may develop a clinical or subclinical disease.

its resistance to environmental conditions and disinfectants, which ensures its survival in swine breeding


Enterocyte lysis Rotavirus and malabsorption

Lise celular

An important agent feature is

Energy deficiency and

Secretory and osmotic diarrhea

Retículo endoplasmático

facilities, making the virus endemic in the herd. RV can be found in feces and maintain its infectivity for 7-9 months at room temperature.

Peptides/amines Neurotransmitters

Enteric nervous system Figure 2. Potential mechanisms of rotavirus pathogenesis. Virus replication within enterocytes induces osmotic diarrhea. Source: Vlasova et al., 2017.

62 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Porcine rotaviruses: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and disease control

The main clinical signs of rotavirus are:

Protection from maternal antibodies persists

anorexia, occasional vomiting and

for 3 to 4 weeks, and outbreaks often occur

diarrhea, especially in piglets between 2

when piglets reach an age beyond this period

and 6 weeks of age or post-weaning.

or when they have not received sufficient levels of maternal antibody protection to protect

The frequency and severity of the

against the degree of exposure to the virus.

symptoms depend on the infecting dose, the immunity acquired by the ingestion of maternal antibodies from colostrum/milk, and the involvement of other enteropathogens. Mortality varies between 3 to 20%; generally, mortality is low, and morbidity is high.

In this case, diarrhea may occur within 12 to 48 hours after infection, especially in piglets aged 5 days to 3 weeks or shortly after weaning. Severe outbreaks in lactating piglets at 1 week are more frequent in primiparous litters, due to lower maternal immunity passed


on to the piglet through colostrum.

Therefore, clinical signs may vary according to the animal age: Nursing piglets: diarrhea has a yellowish to gray color, pasty, moderate dehydration and vomiting may occur, persisting for 3 to 4 days. Morbidity is variable but mortality is low. The situation can be worsened if there are simultaneous infections or if the hygiene, environment and When the infection occurs in

temperature conditions are precarious.

association with other enteric

Weaned piglets may have watery

agents, it can cause more severe

diarrhea with poorly digested feed.

clinical signs resulting in higher mortality.

Sows have a transient or subclinical diarrhea.

63 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Porcine rotaviruses: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and disease control


INJURIES At necropsy, the intestinal wall looks thin, flaccid and quite transparent with fluid and debris inside the small intestine and colon.

B Under microscopy, villi segmental atrophy and epithelial hyperplasia in crypts are observed.



Figure 4. Small intestine histological section of a piglet. (A) Severe villi atrophy and fusion. (B) Villi atrophy and enterocyte vacuolization. Source: Almeida, et al., 2018.


History, clinical signs, and injuries are important, but not conclusive diagnoses.

Confirmation of swine rotavirus is based on a combination of histopathological evaluations with presence of villi atrophy in the jejunum or ileum and the detection of RV by PCR in feces.

Figure 3. (A) Piglet intestines without infection - control group. (B) Infected piglet intestines, transparent intestinal wall and yellowish fluid content. Source: Wang et al., 2017

The virus spread is greater in early stages of the disease. Therefore, samples should be obtained from piglets during the acute phase. Differential diagnoses include colibacillosis, coccidiosis, salmonellosis, and transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE).

64 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Porcine rotaviruses: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and disease control

The reduction of infection pressure is related to good management practices with the piglet:

CONTROL AND TREATMENT There is no specific therapy for RV diarrhea. Supportive therapy such as hydration with electrolytes, providing heat and a dry environment are important to reduce the severity of the enteric condition.

All-in/all-out systems Sanitary vacuum with adequate cleaning and disinfection Daily routine of hygiene and cleaning To avoid mixing piglets in the farrowing and nursery origins To ensure piglet comfort with dry

The use of antibiotics is not

environment and heat supply

effective to eradicate the virus. However, it can be indicated in case


of concomitant bacterial diseases.

Important factors for the RV development are related to: Low environment temperature, Malnutrition of the sow and piglets, Colostrum quality/intake, and Exposure of piglets to large amounts of infectious viral particles.

Therefore, control is held by reducing the infection pressure and increasing the herd immunity.

Figure 5. Clean and dry environment with thermal comfort ensure milk intake. Image source: Ricardo Nagae

65 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Porcine rotaviruses: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and disease control

The herd immunization can be carried out through the use of vaccines or induced exposure. Currently, there are vaccines with the modified or inactivated live virus that induce a good immune response with the production of antibodies present in colostrum and milk. However, most vaccines are obtained to control type A rotavirus infection and studies show the absence of cross-protection between serogroups. As an alternative, immunization by induced exposure of gilts and sows with the use of feces/intestines of piglets with diarrhea can be used, a technique known as enteric feedback that has been shown to be


effective in increasing passive immunity.

In view of the above, the points of relevance in the prevention of the pathology are highlighted: Correct vaccination Immunization by exposure induced feedback of pregnant gilts and sows Ensure colostrum intake Ensure a clean, dry and thermally comfortable environment

Porcine rotaviruses: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and disease control


References on request from the authors.

66 suínoBrasil 2nd Trimester 2022 | Porcine rotaviruses: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and disease control



A technical and innovative view of national swine industry. /suínobrasil

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