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Solid Waste & Recycling Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing and disposal October/November 2014

BIOGAS

Results from a national Canadian market study — page 8

CPMP No. 40069240

An EcoLog Group Publication

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Solid Waste & Recycling

CONTENTS October/November 2014 Volume 19, Number 5

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing & disposal

COVER STORY:

WASTE TO FUEL: BIOGAS8

Cover art by Charles Jaffe

Our contributing editor reports on the results of a national study of market opportunities in waste to energy and waste to fuel in the form of biogas, notably from the waste and organics recycling sector. by Maria Kelleher

SIDEBAR: GASIFICATION14 Energos waste to energy technology proven in Europe. by Nick Dawber

FEATURES

DEPARTMENTS

WASTE TO ENERGY: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AD energy plant at Loblaws Maple Grove Distribution Centre. by Ivan Renco

17

Editorial

4

Up Front

6

Organic Matters

26

RECYCLING: PLASTICS

Waste Business

30

CPIA pilot project for flexible film recycling at Promenade shopping centre. by Darlene Gray

Regulation Roundup

32

OWMA Report

34

IC&I Waste

36

Ad Index

41

Blog

42

22

WASTE TO FUEL: BIOFUEL Enerkem’s waste to biofuel partnership with the City of Edmonton by Marie-Hélène Labrie

23

NEXT EDITION: December 2014/January 2015 PRODUCT SHOWCASE: Annual Buyers’ Guide & Directory Editorial: Clear bag collection case study • Construction waste diversion • Modular pyrolysis equipment • Waste to fuel • MRF equipment • Compactors • Wheel loader tips Space closing: N  ovember 26, 2014. Artwork required: December 3, 2014.

Waste to energy, pg. 17

Organic matters, pg. 26

IC&I waste, pg. 36

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EDITORIAL

by Guy Crittenden “Ontario’s existing depositrefund system for used beer and alcohol containers captures 94 per cent and 81 per cent of the containers for recycling.”

Raging Against the (Pop) Machine Call for deposits on Ontario soft drink containers

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highlight of the recent Zero Waste conference at Lakehead Unirefillable glass or PET bottles, but that idea is more of a stretch at this versity’s campus in Orillia, Ontario (August 10-11) was discustime (though perhaps it will happen eventually). sion of a policy idea for the Ontario government to accelerate I can already hear the objections of the grocers and the folks at the the province toward a more sustainable future. The idea was to call on Canadian Beverage Association that such a system is undesirable, and Kathleen Wynne’s Liberal majority government to require the soft drink (gosh darn it!) an assault on the successful Blue Box curbside recycling industry to sell its products in a deposit-refund system, as exists in most program. Those well-worn arguments had their day in the 1990s and other Canadian provinces. early 2000s. Enough evidence exists to show that curbside recycling can The idea arose from a break-out discussion group I chaired, and I exist side-by-side with deposits for used beverage containers. We only was the person who proposed it. I challenged the delegates in the room have to look at other provinces to see this, including British Columbia to come up with a “flagship” policy idea that recently extended producer responthat could rally public opinion, and used the sibility to make brand owners pay for the example of the 1970s Greenpeace camwhole waste collection and recycling syspaigns to end the whale and seal hunts. tem. Ontarians aren’t innately different (Who can forget the iconic ads and billthan people in BC and deposits could sucboards showing a white baby seal about to ceed just as well there as out west. be clubbed to death?) Putting soft drink containers on deposit Beverage container deposits may not would not solve all our society’s environtug the heart strings quite like images of mental problems but it would send an imbaby seals, but it’s an important matter. A portant signal, and could improve diversion significant part of our society’s oversize rates of a material the recycling of which ecological footprint relates to our consumphas somewhat flatlined. Such a program tion of non-renewable fossil fuels, not only could fit hand-in-glove with extended profor transportation, cosmetics, chemicals, ducer responsibility (EPR) legislation that and fertilizers but also for plastics, includ- 19th Century S. Charlton soda water bottle (Toronto). What a long failed to get passed before the last election, strange journey it’s been! ing single-use drink containers. The soft but that will no doubt reappear in some drink industry uses such containers not form. only for ubiquitous soda pop brands as Coca-Cola and Sprite, but also The call for deposits on beverage containers was picked up by for a dazzling array of isotonic sports drinks and other beverages. the Ontario Zero Waste Coalition (OZWC) in a news release circulated To my mind the greatest offender is bottled water — a product that to media on August 25 that contained some useful facts. Among them is shouldn’t exist in the first place except perhaps in very niche applicathat the existing deposit-refund system for used beer and alcohol contions. The efforts of the soft drink companies to convince consumers to tainers captures 94 per cent and 81 per cent of the containers for recycload up their cars with skids of water in shrink-wrapped plastic bottles, ling, while the Blue Box has languished at only around 40 per cent for and eschew municipal tap water, makes the companies ideological cousyears (in part because people consume many of the products away from ins with Big Tobacco, in my way of thinking. home). Deposits could succeed in Ontario partly because the province is I refer readers to the cover story of our recent August/September edihome to one of the world’s greatest producer responsiblity success stortion by consultant Clarissa Morawski. That article examines beverage ies: the system of refillable bottles operated by The Beer Store, which container recycling province by province and new developments. Unalso collects empty wine and spirit containers sold in the province under surprisingly, provinces with deposits in place collect far more beverage deposit. Citizens are already conditioned to buying booze in containers containers for recycling than those without deposits. under deposit, so extending the concept to soft drinks is almost a nobrainer. Perhaps The Beer Store could be enticed to setting up a depot Guy Crittenden is editor of this magazine. Contact Guy at system for the returns. Honestly, I’d prefer to see soft drinks sold only in gcrittenden@solidwastemag.com

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Solid Waste & Recycling

UPFRONT

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing & disposal

Over 130 attend Lystek open house

Guy Crittenden Editor gcrittenden@solidwastemag.com Brad O’Brien Publisher bobrien@solidwastemag.com Dave Douglas Account Manager ddouglas@bizinfogroup.ca Sheila Wilson Art Director Kimberly Collins Market Production Anita Madden Circulation Manager Tim Dimopoulos Executive Publisher Bruce Creighton President Business Information Group Contributing Editors Michael Cant, Rosalind Cooper, Maria Kelleher, David McRobert, Clarissa Morawski, Usman Valiante, Paul van der Werf Award-winning magazine Solid Waste & Recycling magazine is published six times a year by EcoLog Information Resources Group, a divi­sion of BIG Magazines LP, a div. of Glacier BIG Holdings Company Ltd., a leading Canadian businessto-business information services company that also publishes HazMat Management magazine and other information products. The magazine is printed in Canada. Solid Waste & Recycling provides strategic information and perspectives on all aspects of Canadian solid waste collection, hauling, processing and disposal to waste managers, haulers, recycling coordinators, landfill and compost facility operators and other waste industry professionals. Subscription Rates: Canada: $53.95 (add applicable taxes) per year, $87.95 (add applicable taxes) for 2 years, single copy $10.00. USA: 1 Year $56.95, single copy $10.00. Foreign: 1 Year $87.95, single copy $10.00. Canadian Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 40069240 Information contained in this publication has been compiled from sources believed to be reliable, thus Solid Waste & Recycling cannot be responsible for the absolute correctness or sufficiency of articles or editorial contained herein. Articles in this magazine are intended to convey information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Reprint and list rental services are arranged through the Publisher at (416) 510-6798. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Circulation Department, Solid Waste & Recycling 80 Valleybrook Drive, Toronto ON M3B 2S9 From time to time we make our subscription list available to select companies and organizations whose product or service may interest you. If you do not wish your contact information to be made available, please contact us via one of the following methods: Phone: 1-800-268-7742 Fax: 416-510-5148 E-Mail: jhunter@businessinformationgroup.ca Mail to: Privacy Officer Business Information Group 80 Valleybrook Drive Toronto, ON M3B 2S9 We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Periodical Fund of the De­ part­ment of Canadian Heritage. © 2014 All rights reserved. No part of this pub­li­ca­tion may be reproduced without prior con­­sent. Print edition: ISSN-1483-7714

Online edition: ISSN-1923-3388

L

Visitors at the Lystek plant in Dundalk, Ontario.

ystek International Inc. celebrated its first full year of operations at the Southgate Organic Materials Recover Centre (OMRC) in Dundalk, Ontario, attracting over 130 people to the event on Wednesday, September 17, 2014. Attendees included representatives from several Ontario municipalities and agricultural associations, soil and crop advisors, local businesses, politicians and area farmers. The event included a luncheon and guided group tours of the facility, where biosolids and organics are converted into LysteGro, a federally registered biofertilizer product in huge demand from the agricultural sector. There were also two outings to a local farm site. Participants were transported by bus to view the process of applying the product to farm land via sub-surface land injection. Visit lystek.com

The Forest Stewardship Council® logo signifies that this magazine is printed on paper from responsibly managed forests. “To earn FSC® certification and the right to use the FSC label, an organization must first adapt its management and operations to conform to all applicable FSC requirements.” For more information, visit www.fsc.org

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UPFRONT RECYCLING IN THE ROCKIES: RCA’S ANNUAL CONFERENCE

T

he Recycling Council of Alberta’s 2014 conference and AGM was held October 1-3, 2014 at the beautiful Chateau Lake Louise. Attendees were first treated to a choice of a mountain hike, guided nature walk, or tour of the chateau’s environmental initiatives. This was followed by a highly informative opening plenary session that set the stage for subsequent sessions by outlining the province’s current waste management status, and paths forward to increased waste reduction. The evening included the Alberta Recycling Collection Site vAwards, and the exciting Amazing Race: Expedition that saw teams compete to find clues and complete a series of expedition tasks. This year again saw a wide array of high quality speakers, with topics ranging from ICI waste reduction to food waste and recreational recycling. Shannon Flint, Assistant Deputy Minister of Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development, started the Thursday program off with a bang by announcing the much-anticipated adoption of a number of regulatory revisions, including expansion of the electronics and used oil stewardship programs, as well as removal of described recycling fees from regulation. Jen Rustemeyer and Grant Baldwin, creators of the film Just Eat

Delegates at the RCA’s AGM in Lake Louise.

It: A Food Waste Story and Brad Rabiey (The Carbon Farmer) of Dragons’ Den fame, delivered inspiring and thought-provoking keynote presentations that rounded out the cast of high quality speakers throughout the conference. Next year’s event will be held in partnership with the Canadian Stewardship Conference at the Banff Springs Hotel (September 30 to October 2, 2015). Visit recycle.ab.ca

Orillia Zero Waste conference

Progressive adds natural gas trucks

Solid Waste & Recycling magazine editor Guy Crittenden (right) with conference organizer Kelly Clune (centre) and Renee Gratton (left), Founder of the Construction Resource Initiatives Council.

A

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rogressive Waste Solutions Ltd. has added about 250 natural gas-powered trucks to its waste and recycling collection fleet since it announced its commitment in 2013 to increase the number of natural gas-powered trucks used by the Ontario-based company. Progressive Waste now has close to 400 natural gas powered-vehicles on the road in North America, which represents approximately 10 per cent of its collection fleet. The trucks result in reduced carbon emissions, the principal greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming, by more than 20 per cent compared to older diesel trucks. Natural gas fuel costs have historically been 25-50 per cent lower than diesel. Progressive Waste Solutions’ fleet operates in 10 markets: three in Canada, including Vancouver, BC, Barrie, ON and Montreal, QC. The company expects to have more than 550 natural gas powered vehicles on its routes by the end of 2015. CNG trucks will be added in Canada and the United States as the Company prepares to start new residential collection contracts it has been awarded in Frisco, TX, Jefferson Parish, LA, and Brampton, ON. Progressive Waste Solutions typically purchases 300 to 400 trucks per year through the normal replacement of its fleet and is on track to have up to 55 per cent of the total number of vehicles it replaces annually in Canada and the U.S. fuelled by CNG. Visit progressivewaste.com

unique Zero Waste Conference was held in Orillia, Ontario that looked at accelerated waste solutions. An evening gala on August 10, 2014 was followed by a one-day waste forum (August 11, 2014) at Lakehead University’s Orillia campus. The event featured speakers, panel discussions, and small group plenary sessions with various government, business and institutional leaders. Guy Crittenden, editor of this magazine, spoke at the event and led a breakout session the outcome of which saw the Ontario Zero Waste Coalition call for soft drink containers to be sold under deposit in the province.  Dr. Paul Connett, author of The Zero Waste Solution, spoke on 10 steps to zero waste. “What we need to look for are model communities that are providing working examples of one or more of the 10 steps to zero waste, so that they can inspire other communities to copy them,” Connett said.  Visit zerowasteconference.ca

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COVER STORY

by Maria Kelleher “Financing of AD projects is challenging due to a reported lack of familiarity with the technology by financial institutions.”

Canadian study identifies significant benefits to biogas development in Canada

Biogas I

n May, 2013, the Biogas Association contracted with Kelleher Environmental (in association with Robins Environmental) to carry out a Canadian Biogas Study to identify existing, available metrics that support the benefits of biogas energy. The potential for biogas production was estimated from agricultural digesters, landfill gas, digestion of source-separated organics (SSO) from residential and commercial sources, and from wastewater treatment plants across Canada. Also es-

timated were the energy, environmental and economic and social/community benefits of increasing the production of biogas energy in Canada. Biogas can be converted to biomethane (also called renewable natural gas or “RNG”) — a growing commodity in Europe, the US and Canada. RNG has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation, and provides a range of additional benefits. The energy potential of the five sources of biogas energy is esti-

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COVER STORY

TABLE 1: ENERGY POTENTIAL FROM BIOGAS SOURCES IN CANADA AGRICULTURE Electricity Production (MW)

LANDFILL SSO SSO GAS (LFG) RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL

550

Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Production (million m3/year) 1,650

95

48

290

WASTEWATER

54

60

TOTAL 810

140

160

180 2,420

Contribution to Canada’s Electricity Demand

0.9% 0.2% 0.1%

0.1%

0.1% 1.3%

Contribution to Canada’s Natural Gas Demand

2.1%

0.2%

0.2%

0.4%

mated at 810MW or 2,420 Mm3/year of RNG. The relative contribution of biogas from the five major sources addressed in the study are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1. Realizing the full potential

0.2%

3.0%

of biogas development would lead to up to 1,800 separate construction projects with a capital investment of $7 billion and economic spin-off of $21 billion to the Canadian economy. These construction projects would create 16,800 construction jobs for a period of one year and 2,700 on-going long term operational jobs. In addition, over 100 new and expanded companies — including biogas system designers and developers, equipment suppliers, laboratories, etc. — can be supported through

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COVER STORY

Natural gas. Good for driving innovation. From tractor-trailers and delivery trucks to transit and waste haulers, FortisBC works with local fleet operators to put natural gas-fuelled vehicles on B.C. roads. Saving operators up to 50 per cent* in fuel costs, natural gas also helps to improve air quality. For financial incentives, visit fortisbc.com/ngt or email ngt@fortisbc.com. *Based on comparison of fuel costs of diesel and FortisBC Rate 6 (fuelling station) from 2000 to 2011. FortisBC uses the FortisBC name and logo under license from Fortis Inc. (14-041.1 01/2014)

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COVER STORY

TABLE 3: ECONOMIC BENEFIT POTENTIAL FROM DEVELOPMENT OF BIOGAS PROJECTS AGRICULTURE Construction jobs (for one year) On-going operating jobs Direct captal investment ($billion Can) Indirect economic spinoff ($billion Can)

LANDFILL SSO SSO GAS (LFG) RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL

WASTEWATER

TOTAL

10,200

2,000

1,800

1,800

1,000

16,800

1,320

120

500

500

250

2,700

$3

$0.3

$1.7

$1.3

$0.6

$7.0

$9.3

$1.0

$5.1

$4.0

$1.7

$21.0

this expanded sector. This figure does not include the many construction companies, building supply companies, mechanical and electrical contractors and suppliers who would benefit from biogas development across the country. The study concluded that development of biogas projects in Canada has potential to create significant benefits, including GHG reduction advantages, as well as creating a stable, reliable, dispatchable energy source that can be used locally.

BARRIERS TO PROJECT DEVELOPMENT There are a number of barriers to realizing the full potential of biogas

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energy. Some are common to all biogas projects and some are unique to specific waste streams. Financing of AD projects is challenging due to a reported lack of familiarity with the technology by financial institutions. Many more full scale facilities need to be constructed in Canada to address this barrier; financing institutions need to be able to “kick the tires” of existing facilities to have a comfort level that their investment is secure. Wastewater treatment plant biogas projects generally are not developed as energy generation is not the “core business” of wastewater treatment plant operating staff. When capital budgets are set, other capital projects generally receive more attention than biogas recovery projects.

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COVER STORY

Another barrier is that receiving approvals for interconnections with the electricity system are usually slow and expensive. Some plants simply waste energy rather than trying to sell it into the electricity grid. Except for Ontario, feed-in tariffs or revenues available for electricity

from biogas facilities are not at a level that makes most biogas projects related to electricity generation economically viable. Biogas projects related to the processing of SSO need to compete with composting, which is generally less expensive, although the price

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COVER STORY

gap between the two tech­ nologies narrows at capacities of above 60,000 tonnes/ year (the amount typically produced by a Green Bin program in a city of 300,000 households, or a population of one million). Policies in provinces and municipalities across Canada are not sufficiently supportive of biogas projects. This could be changed through procurement specifications that require RNG-fuelled trucks or other requirements to support production of more RNG. Also, low prices of natural gas present challenges for the RNG industry. Despite these barriers, the future of biogas looks promising. None of the obstacles is inherently insurmountable and, as our society becomes more serious about attaining sustainability, biogas projects will become more attractive. Maria Kelleher is Principal at Kelleher Environmental in Toronto, Ontario. Contact Maria at maria@ kellenv.com

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P s a g t

by Nick Dawber

Gasification

“Energos has delivered eight plants since 2000.”

A look at Energos technology

Sarpsborg 2, Norway.

G

asification in the waste sector has a chequered history, with many well-publicized failures; however, one technology has quietly moved along that’s now accepted by banks and developers as a proven alternative to mass-burn incineration. Energos is a British-Norwegian company with a system comprised of independent modular processing lines, each capable of processing six tonnes of waste fuel per hour. In August 2014, Energos signed a contract to deliver a three-line, 140,000 tonne per year (tpy) gasification plant to a waste treatment facility being built on behalf of Derby City and Derby County Councils in the United Kingdom. This follows a two-line, 93,000 tpy facility that’s part of the Milton Keynes Waste Recovery Park and a 140,000 tpy three-line facility for the Glasgow City Council Recycling and Energy Recovery Centre in Scotland. In each of the three projects, the Energos gasification technology forms an integral part of the respective councils’ local facilities. With a total investment of C$750 million (of which the Energos technology is C$300 million), these decisions to use Energos are not leaps of faith.

TECHNOLOGY In response to tightening European legislation, the technology was developed in Norway during the late 1990s in conjunction with the University of Trondheim. The challenge was to develop a small-scale wasteto-energy technology that could offer a cost-competitive alternative to mass burn. The engineers design remit was to develop a solution that: • Minimizes emissions to the atmosphere, and

• Treats a wide range of waste types (e.g., residual MSW, C&I, RDF, SRF). The solution that emerged combines gasification in a separate chamber to produce a syngas. This syngas is then oxidized in a separate chamber under very tightly controlled conditions. The result is stable operation with an extremely low NOx emission combined with simultaneously very low CO and Total Organic Compounds (TOCs, also referred to as unburnt hydrocarbon). It’s these combustion-related emissions that affect local air quality, with NOx having the biggest impact. Typically Energos plants operate with a NOx level of 25 to 30 per cent of the European limits, and CO and TOCs less than five per cent of the limits (which are already considered to be very strict). The important distinction between Energos and all its competitors (whether conventional or not) is that other technologies employ systems to clean up their combustion related emissions, while Energos does not create the pollutants in the first place. This enables Energos to employ a low-cost dry flue gas system to remove the chlorine and sulphur gases, together with metals. Energos’ solution is intended to be simple and practical. It works and can be depended upon. However, as syngas filter systems are developed, the process can evolve to use the syngas in another way (because at the heart of the Energos system is a gasifier that reliably produces syngas from mixed waste streams). Energos treats real waste with minimal pre-treatment; it can also treat refined waste fuels. However, it’s important to remember that processing waste is an expensive activity and that processing should be lim-

T s

C i T e

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Proven, small-scale and bankable gasification technology 8

waste to energy plants have been delivered since 1998, and today the combined operating experience of these plants exceeds 700,000 hours

3

new plants are currently in construction and will serve the needs of municipalities by thermally treating residual waste diverted from landfill

The ENERGOS gasification technology has a long track-record supplying renewable heat and power whilst achieving ultra-low emissions.

Contact us at: info@energos.com T: 011448456837001 energos.com

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Meet us at Booth 1412, Canadian Waste & Recycling Expo, Toronto November 19-20

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G A S I F I C AT I O N

Process room: gasifier and boiler system.

Multi line configuration.

ited to that necessary to recover material from recycling. Going beyond this only increases the overall cost of waste management (as the treatment of the waste does not ultimately alter the ingredients of that waste). Waste contains everything that we use in society and the challenge for all thermal technologies is dealing with the non-fuel elements that are present. Not only do we not know the precise ingredients of the waste fuel, it changes both on a day to day basis and over the long term. This complex cocktail of compounds mainly evaporates in the thermal process, regardless of the technology. These compounds do not magically disappear but re-emerge as the syngas or flue gas cools. This is where one of the biggest challenges lies. Though progress has been made, to date no one appears to have successfully designed a filter system that can reliably filter syngas’s that contain so many variable compounds. In the meantime, the energy released from the oxidation of the syn-

Single processing module.

gas can be used to produce steam for electricity production and/or heat delivery for local industry. This energy production provides the customer with a bankable solution that will deliver a return on investment and timely repayment of money borrowed to build the facilities. Eight Energos plants have been delivered since 2000 and over 700,000 operating hours have been clocked on a wide range of wastes. Energos is both proven and bankable as demonstrated by the recent award of major contracts. In summary, Energos provides a local solution for local waste, that complements recycling. Recovered energy can be harnessed by the local community and industry. The systems provide quality jobs and are dependable. Nick Dawber is Managing Director with Energos Limited in Warrington, UK. Contact Nick at nick.dawber@energos.com

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WA S T E T O E N E R G Y

by Ivan Renco “Anaerobic Digester systems are not large composting facilities but offer a niche recycling alternative to large generators of food waste.”

Green Energy to the Rescue Anaerobic digestion at Loblaws Maple Grove Distribution Center

T

here’s a lot to grasp and comprehend when discussing green energy. When driving through our country now, many see the wind farms in the distance or the positioned solar panel rooftops of our city buildings catching all that free solar energy and we say “whoa”, the future is here, now. Nirvana. However, many see a highly subsidized boondoggle that has trampled the countryside, ran roughshod over communities’ rights, and has been force-fed to ratepayers to accept. Everyone has more than an opinion in this debate. In the midst of this thorny debate exists a very quiet and efficient green energy system: the farm-based anaerobic Digester (AD). While most AD systems have Feed in Tariff (FIT) contracts that carry the same level of subsidies that their wind and solar cousins carry, there is a true utility to their existence: to render manure for safe, odourless land application. AD systems remove pathogens from manure and produce a nutrient rich by-product called digestate that can be spread on fields and used for animal bedding if dried. The methane produced inside the AD process powers generators which create electricity. Better yet, AD systems can breakdown food wastes from commercial and industrial sources efficiently. Farm based AD systems are not large, municipal composting systems; however, they

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WA S T E T O E N E R G Y

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WA S T E T O E N E R G Y

offer a nice, niche food recycling alternative for clients like Loblaws Maple Grove Distribution Centre (MGDC) in Cambridge, Ontario. The MGDC — which was established in August 2001 — serves 256 stores in Ontario. Managing a complex food distribution system is not without waste. There are various causes of food waste in this system, which include nonconforming product shipped, product exceeding shelf life date while in transit, and lack of product movement. In 2010 the MGDC leadership decided to do their part in recycling the spoilage. The goal was to find a useful purpose for this material rather than sending it to landfill to decompose without benefit.

How it works Leadership took ownership of the entire process. All aspects of the MGDC program are performed internally, including the de-packaging, storage and freight to the digester. The MGDC inventory and quality control teams determine which food is unsuitable to ship to the stores. These pallets are staged inside a freezer for de-packaging. On a daily basis, these pallets are de-packaged in a designated area by MGDC employees into green totes and placed back into theVC2336 freezer until a shipment2:36 to thePM AD isPage scheduled. Walinga 6/11/07 1

N O W

MGDC uses moulded, double-wall totes that are designed for heavyweight stacking, and can be tipped or rotated to empty with a forklift. The full totes are frozen: this prevents further decomposition of the spoiled food and mitigates any unwanted nuisance like flies, smell or bacteria transfer. MGDC manages the entire process internally by finding and integrating internal capacity and assets to manage every detail accurately and efficiently. The spoiled produce that MGDC supplies the digester contributes

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The bins can be tipped or rotated to empty with a forklift.

to increased methane yields inside the AD system, which in turn creates more electricity that is sold. Most AD systems require additional feedstock outside of the manure to boost methane yields, and farmers are always searching for high sugar content organics and fats, oils and grease (FOG). The one main challenge in running a healthy AD system is consistency; AD systems are living organic vessels with billions of microbes consuming and digesting the feedstock in an oxygen free environment (thus producing methane in the process).

The electricity supply is as consistent as the AD system operator can manage (which isn’t subject to natural forces that influence wind and solar systems). Having the right leadership and supply partners on board is crucial for the viability of AD systems and their role in our green energy future. Ivan Renco is President of Willow Creek Environmental Services in Acton, Ontario. Contact Ivan at ivan@willow-creek.ca.

Adam Ashley Canadian Sales Manager Tel: 226-234-4546 E-mail: aashley@lmi.ca Website: www.lmi.ca

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Thank you! I want to thank the Ontario Waste Management Association (OWMA) and the Canadian Waste Sector for the honour of being chosen

2013 Executive of the Year In the large private business category

I deeply appreciate the recognition from my colleagues in the Canadian Waste Management Sector and I salute OWMA for initiating this awards program to profile our industry for its vision and leadership in waste management and diversion. I look forward to meeting and congratulating the 2014 Executives of the Year Award winners at this year’s Canadian Waste to Resources Conference and Canadian Waste and Recycling Expo. Good luck and best wishes.

Emmie Leung Founder and CEO Emterra Group

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www.emterra.ca

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RECYCLING

Flexible Film Recycling An industrial-retail PE project at Promenade Shopping Centre

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he Canadian Plastics Industry Association (CPIA) has partnered with Promenade Shopping Centre (a Cadillac-Fairview property) to pilot a new program for the collection and recycling of polyethylene (PE) flexible film. The pilot program started in April 2014 and is focused on managing PE film from back-of-store and mall operations. The targeted types of commercial PE flexible film include clothing bags for shipping to store and pallet or stretch wrap. PE film plastics are a large component of the commercial-packaging stream and are used increasingly for packaging, shipping and daily business. This pilot project is intended to develop and test retail engagement tactics and logistics, as well as establish a case study that can be utilized as a successful example of increasing PE film recycling in a shopping centre environment. With the case study’s lessons learned, PE film recycling can be replicated at other shopping centres. While the Promenade already has a well-established recycling and diversion program that includes traditional materials such as paper, containers and food waste, managers also identified large volumes of PE flexible film that could be recovered for recycling. This knowledge made it easy to commit to participating in the pilot project with the CPIA. Since the pilot’s launch the project has engaged all mall tenants in an education campaign as well as collected samples of the PE film from individual retailers. The project has also established the infrastructure for

by Krista Friesen “The film and bag recycling capacity in Canada is currently at 49 per cent.”

monthly shipments to a GTA-based plastic film recycler where the material has been audited. In the final three months of the project, CPIA and the Promenade will be fine-tuning the recycling relationship and logistical details, as well as determining the feasibility for long-term delivery and possible expansion to other Cadillac-Fairview retail properties. In terms of understanding the need for projects of this type, the latest version of CPIA’s annually published report on post-consumer plastics recycling (visit plastics.ca) notes that Canadian plastics recyclers want more supply; they have under-utilized capacity, creating ample opportunity for consumers and businesses to supply more PE flexible film to recyclers. It’s estimated that the film and bag recycling capacity in Canada is currently at 49 per cent, which means there is plenty of room to increase PE flexible film recycling. The CPIA believes that with a successful pilot project, it can encourage more commercial centres to add PE flexible film as a component to their recycling programs and greater economic opportunities for Canadian recycling companies will ensue. Krista Friesen is Vice President, Sustainability at the Canadian Plastics Industry Association (CPIA). Contact Krista at kfriesen@plastics.ca

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WA S T E T O F U E L

The Enerkem Alberta Biofuels facility in Edmonton, Canada.

by Marie-Hélène Labrie

Circular Economy is a Gas Enerkem technologies increases waste diversion for Edmonton, Alberta

A

ccording to a 2012 World Bank report, each year, 1.3 billion tonnes of municipal solid waste are generated around the world. A significant portion of this volume is landfilled or incinerated. Innovative waste-to-biofuels and waste-to-chemicals technologies are now commercially available that will help increase waste diversion rates from these disposal options. By producing renewable fuels and greener

“More than 400,000 cars could be fuelled annually with the production of this facility alone.”

everyday products from non-recyclable waste, these technologies also help accelerate the transition to a circular economy. Enerkem is an example of a disruptive technology that can convert non-recyclable residual waste into alternative transportation fuels and renewable chemicals. The company’s patented technology chemically recycles the carbon molecules contained in non-recyclable waste by first converting them into a pure synthesis gas; this is then converted into ethanol and biomethanol, using commercially-available catalysts. Enerkem’s technology was scaled-up from pilot to demonstration to commercial scale at Enerkem Alberta Biofuels in Edmonton, Alberta. This facility is a major collaboration between a metropolitan centre and a wasteto-biofuels producer to address waste disposal challenges and turn municipal solid waste into clean fuels and green chemicals. This game-changing facility contributes to helping the City of Edmonton increase its residential waste diversion rate from 60 to 90 per cent. The plant is located at Edmonton’s integrated waste management site where the city’s recycling and composting facilities are also located. The biomethanol to be produced at Enerkem’s facility will be used in products October/November 2014 www.solidwastemag.com 23

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WA S T E T O F U E L

The path to reducing organic waste is full of obstacles. That’s why we’re here. As the leader in organic waste recycling, ORBIS knows the challenges municipalities must face to meet waste diversion goals. We have the industry’s only carts designed specifically for organic waste recycling, and we work with you to ensure seamless implementation. With a decade of experience, we’ve already helped many cities across North America reduce costs and improve diversion rates. Contact us for a free expert consultation. orbiscorporation.com | a shift in thinking

Kitchen

Curbside

Backyard

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WA S T E T O F U E L

such as windshield washer fluid, adhesives, solvents, beverage bottles, and polyester fabrics; the ethanol will be blended with gasoline. More than 400,000 cars could be fuelled annually with the production of this facility alone, contributing to the Renewable Fuel Standards established in the Province of Alberta and by the federal government. Communities now have access to a sustainable solution that’s complementary to recycling and composting, reduces landfilling and is economically advantageous when compared to other options such as incineration. Technologies like Enerkem’s help address today’s waste challenges while also producing valuable products such as fuels and chemicals, which are in high demand and can play a strong role in reducing dependence on oil and improving the state of the environment. The global market for renewable chemicals is expected to reach approximately $76 billion in 2015. Global chemical groups are looking to add renewable alternative chemicals to their hydrocarbon-based product lines to meet the demand of their own customers, the global consumer goods manufacturers. Over 60 countries around the world have established mandates or targets to increase the renewable fuel content in the conventional fuel transportation pool. In 2013 this translated into a consumption of 117 billion litres of biofuels. Ethanol is the most popular of all biofuels

representing 76 per cent of global biofuels consumption. Biofuels made from waste, such as Enerkem’s ethanol, replace the use of corn or sugar cane and provide an alternative fuel source that can gradually replace petroleum in the global fuel pool. The emergence of alternative fuel sources is driven by the need to reduce

dependence on oil and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to increase energy diversity. Marie-Hélène Labrie is Senior Vice-President, Government Affairs and Communications, for Enerkem Inc. in Montreal, Quebec. Contact Marie-Hélène at mlabrie@enerkem.com

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Contact Alicia Milner at (613) 564-0181 or Alicia.Milner@cngva.org. October/November 2014 www.solidwastemag.com 25

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O R G A N I C M AT T E R S

Zero Waste Energy’s facility in San Jose, California with green fuel pumps in front. ZWE’s process yields compost and clean biofuel.

by Paul van der Werf

California Dreaming Zero Waste Energy and a new approach to organics

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recently travelled to the Netherlands for a waste management trade mission. One post-travel jet lagged morning a couple of images forced themselves into my consciousness. In Germany an HSBC ad stated, “In the future there will be no difference between waste and energy.” In the Netherlands, while approaching Schiphol from the air, rows of wind turbines dotted the Dutch countryside in telephone-like grids. Energy, as it turns out, is everywhere and available for the taking. In North America there are a few hubs where activity is brisk. From afar the State of California is a place of sunbaked liberalism, great wine and the permeating macrocosm that is the twitter-encased and TMZ-oiled Hollywood. Say what you will though, Californians take their environment seriously. A quick troll through California’s Department of Resources

RECs (Renewable Energy Credits) A Renewable Energy Credit (REC) represents the environmental and renewable attributes of renewable electricity. RECs can be sold to utilities and other energy purchasers. California utilities are required to buy 33 percent of their electricity from renewable sources by 2020 via the state’s “Renewable Portfolio Standard”, which helps create demand for RECs.

“The renewable biogas provides 1.6 MW of on-site power with excess power for sale to local users of green energy.”

Recycling and Recovery website (calrecycle.ca.gov) shows they aren’t afraid to plan, set targets and regulate. As of 2012, the state’s diversion rate was 65 per cent. At that time California set a diversion goal of 75 per cent by 2020. Part of this goal envisions reducing the amount of organic waste landfilled by 50 per cent. This has led to the development of a robust organics industry that currently diverts about eight million tonnes/year (tpy) of organics. (Due to various regulations this has stagnated and indeed dropped by 500,000 tpy in recent years so all is not rosy.) Californians are on the same cusp as Canadians when it comes to choosing between aerobic and anaerobic processing of organic waste, but for far different reasons. There is a clear shift towards the latter but with a lag time as the industry changes its tack. Nonetheless the state envisions the development another nine million tonnes of organics waste processing capacity to meet its waste diversion targets. The clear regulatory (even if in some cases burdensome) climate provides the kind of certainty to the organics processing industry about which Canadians can only dream. The shift towards anaerobic digestion (AD) has been spurred by renewable energy and clean fuel incentives available for these types

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O R G A N I C M AT T E R S

Aerial view of ZWE’s San Jose, California facility.

of projects. This includes renewable energy credits (REC) as well as renewable identification numbers (RIN) and low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). This creates demand and ultimately a viable revenue stream for energy outputs.

OWMA 31st Fall Classic Golf Tournament

Zero Waste Energy Companies such as Zero Waste Energy (ZWE), incorporated in 2010, have sprung up to take advantage of the certainty that at least another nine million tonnes of organics need to work their way out of California landfills. (Never mind everywhere else.) ZWE uses a European dry (i.e., solids content between 25-40 per cent) anaerobic digestion technology called SMARTFERM. This technology uses a non-continuous batch process and can be operated thermophilically. A key difference between it and other dry AD technologies is that it uses a sub-grade percolate tank. This reduces the amount of percolate and biogas piping as well as the motors and fans to move them. The process itself lasts about 21 days and results in about 90-95m3 of biogas per tonne of organic waste, with a methane content of about 58-62 per cent. The system comes either as shop-fabricated steel containers (3,00040,000 tpy) or cast-in-place concrete digester for larger applications (up to 100,000 tpy). The steel container design option is best suited for small scale dry AD systems and can be used to treat organic wastes on-site or as a centralized facility. Each digester provides a gas-tight seal to ensure anaerobic conditions are properly maintained during processing. It also includes a percolate tank (either below or above ground), containerized combined heat and power system, bio-filter, external biogas storage bladder and environmental controls.

Brian Dermody, Conestoga Rovers (left), John DeYoe, RWDI (centre), Peter Kemp, Conestoga Rovers (right). Photo taken by Brad O’Brien, Publisher of this magazine.

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he Ontario Waste Management Association’s 31st Fall Classic Golf Tournament, was held September 11, 2014 at the Glen Eagle Golf Club, and was a huge success. Over 200 registered waste industry professionals enjoyed the golf and networking event. October/November 2014 www.solidwastemag.com 27

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Equipment detail from ZWE’s San Jose, California facility.

The Marina (Monterey, California) facility.

Dry Anaerobic Digestion Dry AD basically speeds up the composting process and results in the production and capture of methane which can then be converted to electricity or compressed natural gas (CNG). The process takes about three weeks and starts producing energy in about two days. Thermophilic systems have temperatures that will kill any pathogens. The outputs of the process are energy and compost.

The cast-in-place concrete digester system uses the same principals and much of the same equipment as the steel container design, but is scaled up by building larger in-place digesters. ZWE have been deploying this technology to develop small and larger facilities in California (and beyond). In Monterey, a 4,500 tpy facility handling commercial source-separated organics (SSO) from local restaurants generates about 100kw

electricity and 2,000 tpy finished agriculture quality compost. The electricity is sold to the neighbouring regional wastewater treatment plant to help it achieve its strategic goal of getting off the utility grid. The compost is sold locally. The Monterey Regional Waste Management District (MRWMD) was the 2014 winner of a leadership in organics award from the California Resource Recovery Association (CRRA). On the other side of the scale is a 80,000 tpy facility built in St JosÊ and commencing operation in late 2013. The facility includes 16 concrete AD digesters plus four in-vessel composting (IVC) tunnels. The renewable biogas provides 1.6 MW of on-site power with excess power for sale to local users of green energy. In addition, about 30,000 tonnes/ year of compost is produced. California’s waste diversion targets, combined with renewable energy incentives, provide industry with the certainty it needs to make the necessary investments to develop organic waste processing capacity. Zero Waste Energy is a great example of a company making that kind of investment. Paul van der Werf is President of 2cg Inc. in London, Ontario. Contact Paul at 2cg@sympatico.ca

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*Based on focus fleet testing of a 11R22.5 Goodyear G751 compared to Bridgestone M843 of the same size. Actual results may vary depending on tire size, driving and road conditions, maintenance and operating conditions. **Seals up to ¼" punctures in the repairable area of the tread. Does not seal sidewall punctures. ©2014 Goodyear Canada Inc. All rights reserved.

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WA S T E B U S I N E S S

by John Nicholson “Alberta-based Newalta has already broken through the $1 billion barrier of perceived dominance.”

Home-Grown Giants The next big Canadian cleantech company

O

n September 10, Canada’s largest stock exchange (the Toronto Stock Exchange or TMX) and one of the world’s largest cleantech funding organizations (Sustainable Development Technology Canada or STDC) hosted an investor day at the TMX Gallery. The fact that the event was sold out with the standing room only is a testament to the growth of cleantech in Canada. Cleantech has grown to the point that more than 116 such companies are listed on either the TSXV or the TSX exchanges. By shear number, the TMX has more cleantech companies than any other exchange group in the world. The market value of publicly-traded Canadian cleantech businesses is over $21 billion. Just five years ago, the value was just $6.4 billion. The global cleantech market is presently valued at over $1 trillion; there is certainly room for Canada to capture more than the 2.3 per cent of the world market it has currently.

Industry report A 2014 Cleantech Industry Report by Analytica Advisors (AA) estimates Canada’s cleantech capacity at $11.3 billion. The discrepancy between the AA’s Report and TMX estimates on the size of the cleantech industry in Canada is the result on the different definitions used to define cleantech. In the case of the TMX, the definition of cleantech includes

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any company that improves performance while reducing energy consumption, waste or pollution, and includes the renewable energy sector (i.e., wind and solar companies). AA groups cleantech more narrowly into 10 sub-sectors. Other interesting statistics in AA’s Cleantech Industry Report include the fact that over 40,000 people are employed in 700 compan-

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WA S T E B U S I N E S S

Select TMX Cleantech Companies involved in Waste and Recycling

Company

Alter NRG (NRG:TSX) BIOX Corp (BX:TSX) Cascades (CAS:TSX) Newalta (NAL:TSX) PyroGenesis (PYR:TSXV) Vitreous Glass Inc (VCI.TSXV)

Description

Market Cap (09/23/14)

Waste-to-Energy (WTE) WTE Recycled Fibres into Products Waste Management WTE Waste Glass

$70.52 million $29.7 million $553 million $1.2 billion $32 million $16.2 million

ies, with the average size of a firm being approximately 58 employees. Approximately 74 of the cleantech firms in Canada export their goods and services. The AA report sets goals for the sector. The report recommends the sector should have at least 20 companies with $100 million in revenue. These large companies could then become candidates as multi-million and even billion dollar global players.

growing steadily. Whether the nation will create a home-grown global giant remains to be seen. John Nicholson, M.Sc., P.Eng., is a consultant based in Toronto, Ontario. Contact John at john.nicholson@ebccanada.com

TMX-listed candidates The list of 116 TMX cleantech companies includes approximately a half dozen waste management and recycling companies. (See table.) Is it possible that any of these could be candidates to become global players within the next decade? At first glance, Newalta has already broken through the $1 billion barrier of perceived dominance. Headquartered in Alberta, Newalta specializes in transforming waste. The company annually recovers $400 million worth of reusable products that would otherwise go to disposal. A good portion of the company’s revenue is derived from the oil & gas industry and the primary growth of the company is into the United States. The next largest TMX-listed waste company is Cascades. Headquartered in Quebec, the 50-year old company collects recycled paper and converts it into corrugated products, folding cartons, and other products. The company’s 12,000 employees work at over 100 production facilities throughout Canada and the United States. The four facilities in Europe indicate that the company could become a global player in the recycled paper industry. Three of the four other waste companies listed in the table are involved in waste-to-energy (WTE). A report out of the United Kingdom by Visiongain estimated in 2013 that global WTE market at $7.4 billion, with an annual growth rate above five per cent. However, it’s a very competitive industry with strong, deep-pocketed, global players such as Covanta, Suez Environment, and B&W Volund. For these Canadian WTE companies to succeed, they may need to find a niche segment of the business. Overall, it appears that the cleantech sector in Canada is healthy and October/November 2014 www.solidwastemag.com 31

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R E G U L AT I O N R O U N D U P

by Rosalind Cooper, L.L.B. “Manitoba’s Green Plan aims to increase community composting by 300 per cent.”

Regulatory Developments across Canada Manitoba stewardship report extension

Ontario ISP review

Manitoba has amended the regulations under the Waste Reduction and Prevention Act to require operators to provide annual reports that summarize stewardship program activities within 120 days instead of the 90 days previously provided. This change impacts the Electrical and Electronic Equipment Stewardship Regulation, the Household Hazardous Material and Prescribed Material Stewardship Regulation, the Packaging and Printed Paper Stewardship Regulation, the Tire Stewardship Regulation, 2006 and the Used Oil, Oil Filters and Containers Stewardship Regulation.

The Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change has announced the provincial government’s commitment to move towards an individual producer responsibility framework through the introduction of new waste reduction legislation. A letter from the minister directed to the Waste Diversion Organization (WDO) required it to conduct public consultations on how existing or expected industry stewardship plans (ISPs) would impact the performance and financial viability of existing waste diversion programs and transition of the programs from the Waste Diversion Act to the new framework. The letter also requests an analysis of impact of the plans on collection, recycling and reuse of waste in Ontario, and consumer uptake and protection. Finally, there is a request to evaluate the impact of the plans on fairness in the post-collection marketplace and any adverse effect on environment and public health. Based on the directive, the WDO has decided to defer the consideration of two new ISPs until further consultations on these plans takes place. The two plans that have been temporarily shelved include one from Call2Recycle for used single-use batteries and another from Product Care Association for used paints and coatings. In order to assist in planning the additional consultations, the WDO will distribute a report on industry stewardship plan consultations held over the past year including which stakeholders were consulted, the issues raised, and how they were to be addressed.

Solid waste benchmarking for buildings The Recycling Council of Ontario (RCO) has announced that a study will be undertaken entitled “The National Solid Waste Benchmarking Study.” The study is designed for organizations that either own or manage buildings in Canada, and involves conducting specialized surveys to collect annual waste generation and diversion data. The data will be analyzed to assess the correlation between management practices and performance, set benchmarks, and inform best practices. The results of the study, including the data, will be published and there will be recommendations based on the analysis and conclusions. The intent is to provide companies with a framework to measure 32 www.solidwastemag.com October/November 2014

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R E G U L AT I O N R O U N D U P

waste performance and compare performance of similar buildings against industry peers.

EPR for PEI The Materials Stewardship and Recycling Regulations, enacted under Prince Edward Island’s Environmental Protection Act, were recently published with most provisions coming into force on the publication date. The intent of the Regulations is to incorporate new extended producer responsibility programs, as well as improving the regulatory structure for automotive and scrap metal recycling. EPR programs for additional products include lamp products, oil and glycol products, lead acid batteries, pharmaceuticals and metal sharps and will be implemented in late 2014 and early 2015. The programs for these products will be operated similarly to the ones that current exist for electronic waste and consumer paint products.

Winnipeg. There will also be a “nature app” that will help engage users as scientists and allow them to access information and collect and share observations of plants and wildlife, thereby enhancing knowledge of Manitoba’s biodiversity. Another program is the launch of Maps for All, which is a new online tool that will offer numerous free maps including aerial and satellite images. Finally, an environmental emergency strategy will be developed to ensure world-leading practices for response and prevention, as well as enhancing the environmental enforcement team. Rosalind Cooper, LL.B., is a partner with Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP in Toronto, Ontario. Contact Rosalind at rcooper@tor.fasken.com

Manitoba’s Green Plan The Ministry of Conservation and Water Stewardship in Manitoba has announced a number of additions to Manitoba’s Green Plan aimed at improving composting and recycling in the province. The initiatives are intended to increase community composting by 300 per cent and triple the amount of organics diverted from landfills by 2020. Included among the new initiatives are the creation of Manitoba Composts — a program to increase organic waste collection and processing of food, yard and wood waste with a target of diverting 85 kilograms of organics per capita by 2020, and the development of an ambitious and detailed recycling and waste strategy to improve Manitoba’s landfill diversion rate. New initiatives include the Green Key Ecorating Program to assist Manitoba hotels and guests in reducing environmental impacts by conserving water and reducing waste, and the introduction of a new Lake Friendly Action Plan to deal with excess nutrients flowing into Lake October/November 2014 www.solidwastemag.com 33

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OWMA REPORT

by Rob Cook The German Federal Cartel Office indicates that after curtailing stewardship monopolies, consumer costs dropped by more than 50 per cent.”

A Case of Action Competition and challenges facing extended producer responsibility programs

R

ecycling sector business failures across Canada as a result of extended producer responsibility (EPR) programs exerting monopolistic control over the waste sector have galvanized the attention of service providers and their provincial organizations, who have collaborated on a letter to the Competition Bureau of Canada (CCC). The following is an excerpt from the letter sent to the CCC’s Commissioner John Pecman from the Ontario Waste Management Association (OWMA), the Waste Management Association of British Columbia (WMABC), the Ontario Environment Industry Association (ONEIA) and Le Conseil des entreprises en technologies environnementales du Québec (CETEQ): Dear Commissioner Pecman, RE: Application of the Competition Act to Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) Programs in Canada We are contacting you regarding growing concerns with recycling programs in Canada established under the rubric of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). EPR is an economic / environmental policy approach in which producers of products and packaging bear responsibility for ensuring proper end-of-life management of those materials. While we believe the concept of EPR to be sound, we are concerned about how this policy is being practically implemented such that it results in inordinately negative impacts on consumers and on fair, open and competitive markets in the recycling and waste services sector. EPR laws have been implemented across Canada over the last five years and we expect this growth to both continue across the country at the provincial level and to evolve into national programs. Typically under this approach, stewards (brand owners) of designated materials coalesce into a single collective stewardship agency but not for the purposes of administrative efficiency or recycling economies of scale but because the provinces allow the legal liability for recycling outcomes to transfer from the producer themselves to the collectives they establish. These producer monopolies set fixed recycling fees amongst themselves (otherwise referred to as eco-fees) and externalize these costs directly onto consumers via agreements with retailers contrary to competitive market forces. As such, the consumer has no choice but to pay eco-fees which essentially constitutes price-fixing under the auspices of environmental protection. As an example, the Electronic Producers Recycling Association (EPRA) represents stewards (brand owners) and operates programs in BC, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, Nova Scotia, PEI and indirectly in Ontario. In these provinces, this collective stewardship agency has been allowed to directly charge consumers over $115M in eco-fees with little oversight or accountability to consumers. When taking into account the eco-fees collected on other materials

and products, eco-fee revenues have grown exponentially with a corresponding financial impact on consumers. By our calculation, this equates to over $325M or $9.50 per Canadian annually. In a letter, dated May 2009 to the Canadian Council of Minister’s of the Environment, the Competition Bureau states, “It is anticipated that the costs of the end-of-life management of product will be treated similarly to other factors of production and incorporated into wholesale and retail product prices.” This has clearly not been the case for most EPR programs. In many cases, producer collectives have monopolized the marketplace from which they buy services, and abused their dominant positions as recycling service monopsonists. Sims Recycling Solutions, one of the world’s largest waste electronics recyclers, has recently closed all of its electronic recycling facilities in British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec stating, “In Canada, the recycling of e-scrap is effectively controlled by the manufacturers through a virtual monopoly organization, EPRA, that sets volumes and pricing. Without the ability to effectively manage inflows and recycling rates, it is difficult for any recycler to support investment in technology, capacity and quality standards.” In Europe, Competition Bureaus are taking action. The German Federal Cartel Office indicates that after curtailing these stewardship monopolies — consumer costs dropped by more than 50 per cent. From our perspective the situation with regard to EPR in Canada is analogous to that of self-regulated professions whereby the Bureau found that regulation was restricting competition, “…more than is needed to achieve legitimate public policy objectives, leading to less innovative and efficient, and higher cost supply…” We would request the Competition Bureau in Canada take action in this area to assess the impact of EPR programs by undertaking a Canada wide recycling market study the impacts of various implementations of EPR on consumers and on the recycling and waste management sector. We have the opportunity to avoid the competition pitfalls experienced in Europe but the Bureau needs to engage this issue. The OWMA and sister organizations will be pursuing additional avenues in order to ensure these issues are addressed. The OWMA is presenting a conference in association with the Canadian Waste & Recycling Expo in November. Visit www.owma.org or www. cwre.ca For sponsorship information, contact Michele Goulding at 905-791-9500. Rob Cook is Executive Director of the Ontario Waste Management Association (OWMA) in Brampton, Ontario. Contact Rob at rcook@ owma.org

34 www.solidwastemag.com October/November 2014

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by Diane Blackburn “As for the mechanics of the awards, the RCO does not limit participation to members only.”

How to Win! Understanding the Waste Reduction Week & Awards season

W

hile the warm breezes of April own Earth day, the burnished leaves of autumn lay claim to Waste Reduction Week in Canada. At the Recycling Council of Ontario (RCO), “WRW” is the hottest ticket of the year, given the organization’s single focus on the reduction and recycling of solid waste across all sectors of Ontario enterprise. Waste Reduction Week is a national program that in recent times has moved from a single coast-to-coast strategy to more regionally focused programming (in keeping with the unique attributes of each provincial jurisdiction). Much of the activity in Ontario plays to the youth element with schools jumping at the opportunity to compete in the Waste Free Lunch Challenge (wastefreelunch.com). WRW has also been the setting for the oldest jewel in the RCO crown … the longest running program now called simply, “RCO Awards.” Prior to 2013 the program was known as the Ontario Waste Minimization Awards and it grew from a grassroots potluck type of gathering to a sophisticated affair that draws hundreds of guests every year to Toronto’s finest venues. With the metamorphosis of early recycling into a high-tech industry, the RCO has kept pace by constantly tuning the way the awards program is run. And to the best of this writer’s knowledge (it is my program, after all) our system is a little unique in terms of criteria, who can participate, and how the awards are distributed. One thing RCO Awards has in common with all other provincial recognition programs is our reliance on loyal sponsors to help us be successful year over year. In 2014 our sponsors are well known as staunch supporters of 3Rs principles and in most cases, RCO Awards winners in their own right. (Details on their past achievements can be viewed at rcoawards.ca/sponsors) By the time this article appears in print, some of them will have added more trophies to their well-populated shelves. They are, in alphabetic order: CleanFARMS, CD Sonter Environmental Consultants, Conestoga Mall/Magic Maintenance, Emterra Environmental, Menkes Property Management, Raw Materials and UPak Group. As for the mechanics of the awards, the RCO does not limit participation to members only. Anyone can apply on their own without need for a nominator that provides the content of the application. The program covers eight categories: Arts, Communications, Festivals, IC&I, Municipal, Program Operator and Sustainable Product or Service. This year we introduced a Partnership category so that program “regulars” could shine a light on those companies who help them

Mermaid: the dress is 100 per cent trash. News item from a few months ago brought the young student designer, Michelle Sin (Trashion) to my attention. It will appear at the awards.

develop and execute good solid waste programming. The IC&I sector is by far our largest group, attracting global property management organizations such as Menkes, Oxford Properties and Ivanhoe Cambridge, along with such recognizable names as Canadian Tire, Apotex and Teknion.

36 www.solidwastemag.com October/November 2014

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I C & I WA S T E PROVINCIAL RECOGNITION PROGRAMS Manitoba Excellence in Sustainability Awards http://www.gov.mb.ca/conservation/ susresmb/mrtsd/mesa/winners.html

RCBC Environmental Awards http://www.rcbc.ca/events/rcbc-annualawards

Nova Scotia

Alberta

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Recycling Council of Alberta Annual Conference: Recycling in the Rockies; A Waste Reduction Expedition https://www.recycle. ab.ca/2014conference

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Another element that sets the RCO apart from most other awards programs is that it rewards all participants who can clearly meet the criteria at different levels of achievement. One of the foundations of the program is inclusiveness, whereby recognizing results at early stages of development can encourage applicants to reach higher and become committed to continuous improvement in solid waste diversion. This alternate path from that of the “winner take all” mainstream has kept many applicants coming back to the awards with improved program results that establish them as role models for other organizations. Our criteria probes for excellence at many levels and asks for statistical back up. While the awards is not an audited program and cannot claim reporting perfection, applicants on this honour system do their utmost to provide all the details asked of them. RCO is increasingly intrigued by the processes by which programs are conceived, developed and implemented and we are very keen to find creativity in the communications, the education and the ways in which organizations stimulate and influence their employees, clients and other stakeholders to take action on waste reduction and recycling. We are as interested in the small artisan using solid waste as a creative medium as we are in multi-nationals reducing raw materials on their assembly line. In between there is boundless space for the next entrepreneur or artist to emerge. Writing a successful RCO awards application starts with a strong program or concept, supported by commitment to 3Rs hierarchy in execution and well communicated to all interested or affected communities. A succinctly written factual account is the best way to get a good application across to the judges. “All we want are the facts” and so serendipitously discovering an inspired newcomer is the very best part of my job as manager of the RCO Awards. Diane Blackburn is Events Manager for the Recycling Council of Ontario (RCO) and produces the annual RCO Awards. This column regularly profiles finalists and winners from that awards program, and others across Canada. Contact Diane at events@rco.on.

40 www.solidwastemag.com October/November 2014

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Advertisers’ Index Company

Page #

October/November 2014

Company

Page #

2cg/Waste Management Consulting Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Heil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Aqua-Hot Work Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Joseph Haulage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

BDP Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Keith Walking Floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Bulk Handling Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Leibherr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Canadian Natural Gas Vehicle Alliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

London Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Chevy Lane Design, Consulting & Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Machinex Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Countrywide Recycling Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Cummins Westport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Drive Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Emterra Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Energos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Environmental Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Envirowirxs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Mack Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Mobile Business Communications Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Municipal Waste Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Ontario Waste Management Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Orbis Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Paradigm Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Progressive Waste Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Trux Route Management Systems Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Eriez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Van Dyk Recycling Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Fortis BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Vulcan On-Board Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Golder Associates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Walinga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Goodyear Canada Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Walker Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

CANADIAN WASTE MANAGEMENT AWARDS 2014 EXECUTIVE OF THE YEAR CEREMONY 

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Join us at the 2014 Canadian Waste To Resource Conference at the International Centre in Toronto on Wednesday, November 19th, 2014 as we celebrate the 2nd Annual Canadian Waste Management Awards. This inaugural event is being hosted by the Ontario Waste Management Association and our national partners.

SPONSORSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Gold Sponsor - $2,500

Sponsorship includes: Exclusive sponsorship recognition at the event, 2 full tables of 8 guests, company logo displayed on all advertising materials, onsite posters and materials, and onsite at the luncheon.

Silver Sponsor - $1,500

The Canadian “Executive of the Year” Award is to recognize outstanding individuals who play a key role in the growth of the waste sector services industry in Canada. (Criteria and application is attached).

Sponsorship includes: Sponsorship recognition at the event, 1 table of 8 guests, company logo displayed on all advertising materials, onsite posters and materials, and onsite at the luncheon.

Please join us in celebrating these unique individuals in the categories of small, medium and large corporations (three awards)

Sponsorship includes: Sponsorship recognition at the event, 4 tickets for luncheon, company logo displayed on all advertising materials, onsite posters and materials, and onsite at the luncheon.

Wednesday, November 19th, 2014 Holiday Inn Toronto Airport 970 Dixon Road, Toronto 6:00 pm – 8:30 pm

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October/November 2014 www.solidwastemag.com 41

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BLOG

by Duncan Bury & Barbara McConnell “There are now 88 legislated EPR programs in Canada, another 36 under consideration, and 29 voluntary unregulated programs.”

Producer Responsibility in Canada Marching together to different drummers

E

PR Canada (EPRC) released its annual report on the state of extended producer responsibility in Canada on September 4, 2014. The 2013 EPR Summary Report (available at www.eprcanada.ca) is the third of five annual reviews EPR Canada is publishing that focuses on EPR policies, programs and practices undertaken by Canada’s federal, provincial and territorial governments. This year, in recognition that developing EPR policies and programs takes time, EPRC produced a progress summary rather than a scored jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction report card. The next fully scored report card covering 2014 will be released at the Canadian Stewardship Conference in Banff in October, 2015. To produce this year’s progress summary, EPRC invited the federal, provincial and territorial governments to provide input. The report highlights a number of trends and emerging issues. One such issue is that while increasing attention is being placed on oversight and reporting, there continue to be areas where, despite progress, more needs to be done to establish performance indicators, program auditing protocols and targets. For example, the report points out that targets applied in aggregate across all product and packaging can mask the underperformance of some categories. On another front, environmental sustainability policies are starting to emerge. Quebec has launched an initiative that will require producers to determine (by 2016) the actual costs for each product category managed under EPR programs. Producers will have to adjust fees to reflect each product and material’s environmental characteristics and end-of-life management costs. Harmonization of programs also advanced in 2013, with producers largely taking the lead through the creation and continued growth of such organizations as the Electronics Products Recycling Association (EPRA) and the Canadian Stewardship Services Alliance (CSSA). Some governments are working cooperatively, such as those in the Maritimes on packaging and printed paper (PPP). However, most jurisdictions remain focused almost exclusively on their own policies and regulated programs. The implementation of full EPR for PPP in British Columbia, with both financial and operational responsibilities given to producers, has captured attention not only because it results in a significant change in the role of municipalities, but also because it represents a change from the more common shared responsibility approaches in the other provinces.

Details While challenges continue in the evolution of EPR across the country, the EPR Canada Summary Report does show that in most cases jurisdictions are slowly-but-surely making headway.

According to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment’s (CCME) August 2014 EPR Progress Report there are now 88 legislated EPR programs in Canada, another 36 under consideration, and 29 voluntary unregulated programs. That’s almost a tripling in operating and planned programs over the five years since CCME established its Canada-wide Action Plan on EPR in 2009. Within this generally positive picture it’s also clear that jurisdictions are moving at different rates and in somewhat different directions. BC is charting a new course for PPP while, in contrast, the Atlantic provinces are working together on a possible PPP shared responsibility framework. Initiatives seem stalled in Ontario where the lack of revised legislation is hampering progress and, similarly, in New Brunswick where draft regulations on electronics still await adoption. Alberta is discussing (for the first time) the adoption of EPR but appears to be committed to maintaining existing product stewardship programs. Saskatchewan is only now implementing municipal curbside recycling programs, with 75 per cent producer funding due to commence this coming January. Quebec is concentrating its efforts largely on performance measurement, an area of weakness in many other jurisdictions. Environment Canada’s announcement that it will not adopt EPR for the end-of-life management of mercury-containing products likely means that the current patchwork of provincial mercury regulations and approaches will stay in place for some time. For sure governments continue to be broadly committed to EPR instruments, but they’re certainly applying the approach in different ways and on different timetables, reflecting different priorities and political realities. This may not be the ideal scenario from the perspective of most producers, but it appears to be the reality. We will probably eventually end up in the same place having travelled different roads. It is perhaps the Canadian way — experimentation, innovation and best practices — ultimately leading to a more consistent and harmonized common, maybe even national, approach to producer responsibility. Duncan Bury is Principal of Duncan Bury Consulting in Ottawa, Ontario. Contact Duncan at duncan@duncanburyconsulting.ca Barbara McConnell is Principal of McConnell Weaver Strategic Communication in Milford, Ontario. Contact Barbara at mcweav@kos.net

42 www.solidwastemag.com October/November 2014

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What makes us progressive? We are committed to providing waste solutions that work for you and the environment. At Progressive Waste Solutions, we are proud to be a leader in the waste services sector in the conversion to natural gas fleets, committed to delivering on our promise to create a more sustainable future. Compressed natural gas (“CNG”) is a cleaner source of fuel from well to wheel and, by converting to it, we provide our residential and commercial customers in the communities we serve a more environmentally friendly approach to collecting waste and recyclable materials.

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Solid Waste & Recycling October/November 2014  

This award-winning, six issue per year, magazine provides you with in-depth analysis of current issues related to environmental performance,...

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