Page 1

students M. Arduini R.Ermacora G. Fagiolini E. Marsura G. Minacciolo

teaching assistants M. Azzi G. Caviglia M. Mauri A. Pini

1

professors P. Ciuccarelli S. Mandato D. Ricci T. Venturini S. Zingale

CORSO DI SINTESI FINALE Politecnico di Milano a. y. 2010 2011 M.Sc. Communication Design Section C3


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INDICE 5_ 7_ 9_ 11_ 13_ 15_ 16_ 20_ 25_ 26_ 29_ 30_ 32_ 35_ 38_ 40_ 46_ 48_ 49_ 51_ 53_

Introduzione Three Gorges Dam Controversy Setting Chi parla nel web delle Tre Gole? Il Protocollo_ premessa Il Protocollo_ rotocollo Il Protocollo _ risultati Schema Protollo Presence of Three Gorges Dam in the web Alchemy Results What about dams in the web? Three Gorges keyword’s relevance Comparazione Keywords dighe Classifica e geolocalizzazione dighe simili Geolocalizzazione Entità comuni fra le dighe Entità che parlano solo di dighe estere Entità che partecipano alla discussione di più dighe Come sono in relazione tra loro le entità? Isolamento delle dighe Poster Conclusioni Elenco entità

3


4


introduzione

Il progetto di ricerca si basa sullo studio del report dell’IPCC del 2007 sugli ecosistemi. Si definisce un ecosistema un volume di aria, terra e acqua con confini naturali, delineata principalmente da fattori climatici e paesaggistici, comprendente una serie di processi ecologici, organismi e processi antropogenici che funzionano secondo una gerarchia di volumi. All’interno di questa sezione del report ci si è focalizzati su un allarmante cambiamento della mortalità di determinate specie animali all’interno di zone specifiche quali foreste, boschi, savane e zone acquitrinose. La particolarità di questa condizione viene sottolineata dal fatto che l’80% della scomparsa di queste specie animali avviene a causa dello sfruttamento delle risorse naturali da parte dell’uomo. Il cambiamento di destinazione del suolo, detto land use change comporta infatti un evidente cambiamento negli equilibri climatici degli ecosistemi e, di conseguenza, una perdita di biodiversità all’interno di questi; spesso questi gravi fenomeni sono conseguenza della pericolosa siccità che va ad intaccare queste zone naturali. Per ovviare a questo problema si sta sviluppando sempre di più una vera e propria gestione economica, politica e sociale per limitare i danni causati dall’uomo sugli habitat naturali. L’ecosystem management è una questione che emerge frequentemente, soprattutto quando si vengono a costruire strutture che possano intaccare pesantemente l’ambiente e provocare quindi un impatto considerevole sugli equilibri naturali che regolano il ciclo della vita in una determinata zona geografica. Ricercando in diversi motori di ricerca delle possibili controversie correlate a uno di questi tre punti chiave del report è emerso un progetto che li comprende tutti: la Diga delle Tre Gole. Per essere sicuri che questa importante discussione fosse un irrefutabile esempio di controversia, è stata inserita in Google.com la query “Dam controversy”. Il file sorgente con i primi cento siti in lingua inglese restituiti da questa ricerca è stato copiato e incollato in Harvester. Il corpus ottenuto è stato immesso in Alchemy il quale ha offerto una lista di parole chiave che è stata pulita selezionando solo i nomi delle dighe presenti. Effettivamente, la diga più nominata è risultata proprio la Three Gorges Dam.

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6


three gorges dam qualche dato e e qualche informazione 1.400.000

50.000.000

persone sfollate

tonnellate di CO2 risparmiate ogni anno

1.200

25.000

villaggi sommersi

lavoratori impiegati per la costruzione

100

4%

metri innalzamento del livello del fiume

del totale della produzione cinese

Lampante esempio di questa contingenza si individua in uno dei più grandi interventi per lo sfruttamento dei fiumi al fine di produrre energia idroelettrica, ovvero la costruzione di una diga altra 185 metri lungo il Fiume Azzurro in Cina. La Diga delle Tre Gole, denominata anche “Progetto Tre Gole” (in inglese rispettivamente Three Gorges Dam e Three Gorges Project), è una diga costruita nella provincia di Hubei e rappresenta l’impianto con la maggiore capacità di produzione idroelettrica mai realizzato (22,500 MW). Secondo affermazioni ufficiali del governo cinese, la realizzazione dell’opera sarebbe stata necessaria per il contenimento del rischio di inondazioni nella parte meridionale del Paese, per rendere navigabile l’alto corso del fiume Yangtze e per produrre energia elettrica (3% del sostentamento dell’energia utilizzabile dalla Cina).

7


8


controversy setting

Il progetto è stato fin dal principio, contestato dalle associazioni ambientaliste per l’elevato impatto ambientale (un aumento del livello del fiume di circa 100 metri) e per l’elevato numero di persone sfollate (circa 1,4 milioni di abitanti e 1200 villaggi sommersi). La produzione di energia elettrica della Diga delle Tre Gole ha permesso di risparmiare al pianeta circa 50 milioni di tonnellate di anidride carbonica annue e, inoltre, ha ridotto la produzione di altri gas e polveri inquinanti che sarebbero derivate dalla combustione di materiali fossili; a tal proposito va ricordato che l’energia elettrica in Cina viene prodotta in gran parte attraverso l’uso di carbone (circa 75-80%). Dall’altra parte però molte specie animali e vegetali sono scomparse o scompariranno a causa della distruzione degli habitat in cui vivono, a causa dell’inquinamento provocato dalle industrie locali e dall’eccessivo traffico navale. Identificata la controversia, si è cercato di focalizzare l’obiettivo della ricerca digitale più utile ad esplorare le questioni e le entità connesse a questa disputa.

9


Chi parla nel web delle tre gole? 10


a me r ic a

europ e

a m eri c a

Canada

irElanD

uk

usa

China nEthErlanDs GErmany

FrancE

italy

Rappresentazione quantitativa della provenienza degli ip del corpus della three gorges dam

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il PROTOCOLlo RESEARCH QUERY 1.0 I n d i v i d u a te l e p ro b l e m at i c he rel a t i v e a l l a T hre e G o rge s Dam , q u a l è l a re te di i nte re s s i c he s i v i en e a cre a re at to r no al s i s te m a d el l e d i g h e m o ndi al i ?

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PREMESSA

È importante innanzitutto capire chi ruota attorno a questa controversia e avere una prima visione dei possibili stati coinvolti nella discussione in modo da avere un punto di partenza chiaro per sviluppare un’ulteriore ricerca più complessa. La domanda sorta da una prima acquisizione di informazioni su questa controversia si focalizza nell’individuare qual è la provenienza delle entità che intervengono maggiormente nella questione della Diga delle Tre Gole. Per mezzo di una prima ricerca, infatti, si è percepita un’attenzione generale nei confronti della diga cinese, soprattutto da parte degli Stati Uniti. Per individuare le identità attive nella discussione, si sono inizialmente presi in considerazione i primi cento siti, in lingua inglese, emersi in Google.com inserendo la query “Three Gorges Dam”. Il file sorgente di questa pagina di ricerca è stato inserito in Harvester per difinire il corpus da utilizzare in Geo IP. Premesso che i dati da noi individuati sono stati ricercati in lingua inglese, identificano quindi soprattutto identità occidentali all’interno del web ed è difficile risalire a tutta quella sfera di stakeholder che si pronuncia per mezzo di siti o articoli scritti in altre lingue. Da ciò nascono alcune evidenti domande sul perché le organizzazioni più vicine geograficamente alla Diga delle Tre Gole emergano in parte minore all’interno della rete web e fioriscano invece quelle oltreoceano. A questo punto è stato possibile sviluppare una domanda di ricerca che sviluppasse il seguente protocollo.

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14


PROtocollo

valori delle differenze ottenute per il numero di keywords comuni, si ottiene un valore che identifica il livello di similarità totale della diga X rispetto alla diga cinese di riferimento. Il passo seguente ha visto l’individuazione delle entità attraverso l’uso dei filtri in Excell e una successiva cernita di queste, conservando solamente quelle collegate ad almeno due dighe delle undici finali (dieci selezionate più la Three Gorges Dam). La lista ottenuta, categorizzata in Person, Organization, Company e Media, è stata il punto di partenza per una ricerca e un raffinamento di URL, necessari a geo localizzare queste entità in tutto il mondo. La geo localizzazione è stata fatta per mezzo di IssueGeographer e, per le entità mancanti, per mezzo di ricerche personali. Successivamente Gephi ha permesso una prima visualizzazione di tutti i collegamenti tra le entità e le diverse dighe. Questa è stata un’utile base per lavorare e definire una nuova visualizzazione che permettesse di identificare, ad un primo sguardo, i paesi protagonisti della controversia e le interconnessioni fra gli attori precedentemente individuati.

Il protocollo comincia individuando le dighe più somiglianti alla Three Gorges Dam. Per fare ciò è stato necessario innanzitutto ricercare in Wikipedia le cinquanta dighe idroelettriche (della stessa tipologia della Three Gorges Dam) più grandi al mondo per capacità produttiva. Tra queste si è risaliti alle venticinque dighe più dibattute (tendendo in considerazione la lunghezza della pagina di discussione di Wikipedia). Di queste venticinque sono state poi selezionate le dieci dighe più simili sulla base di una ricerca semantica effettuata utilizzando Alchemy. È stata data notevole importanza al valore di rilevanza delle keywords, risultato fondamentale sia per raffinare la lista che per identificare il livello di analogia delle dighe rispetto alla Three Gorges Dam. Infatti, dopo aver trovato le keywords comuni tra la lista della Diga delle Tre Gole e quelle delle altre dighe, è stato dato un valore di somiglianza ad ogni parola selezionata. Per ottenere questo, è stata calcolata la differenza fra il valore di una issue nella lista della Diga delle Tre Gole e il valore della stessa nella lista della diga X. Dividendo infine la somma di tutti i

15

Oltre alla geo localizzazione, si è deciso di offrire informazioni maggiormente qualitative in merito a tale argomento: a questo scopo è stato utlizzato un ulteriore strumento, Alexa, che ha permesso di misurare la reputazione e l’importanza di ognuna di queste URL all’interno del web, in base al grado di traffico riscontrato nel sito e al numero di collegamenti citati in siti esterni. La chiave di questa ricerca non è tanto l’eterogeneità dei dati ma la comparazione tra questi. In molti passaggi la raffinazione è stata effettuata a mano, sono stati scelti i dati più significativi anche in base a delle ricerche fatte sul web comparate con i dati restituiti dai vari strumenti.


16


RISULTATI

17

Questa seconda parte del protocollo si è rivelata una conferma di ciò che è emerso nella prima parte, ovvero che le entità in gioco localizzate in diverse parti del mondo, soprattutto negli Stati Uniti d’America, sono attive in dibattiti su diverse dighe (spesso su quelle più distanti da loro, anzichè su quelle presenti sul territorio dello stesso Paese). Le dighe più somiglianti alla Three Gorges Dam si trovano in Pakistan, Stati Uniti, Mozambico, ma le entità più attive nel web tra le varie discussioni hanno una differente localizzazione. Le entità emerse, risultate più rilevanti, sono i media ( BBC o The New York Times o CNN ) ovviamente a causa dell’estensione della rete che si creano, ma è anche interessante notare la quantità di organizzazioni politiche coinvolte. Queste non sono quasi mai organizzazioni della località corrispondente alla diga citata ma prendono voce nei confronti di altre dighe, come era stato supposto inizialmente.


schema protocollo 18


QUERY: “Three Gorges Dam” TRADITIONAL

SEARCH

eCosYsTeMs

ECOsysTEms

Create a list of URL

Map of the geographical location of web sites

ccD

CONTROVERSY DrouGHT

poLLiNaTioN

Three GorGes DaM

paraDoX

ecoNomic

VaLue aLBeDo

JeNa

LaND uSe

eXperimeNT

QUERY: “dam controversy”

ecoSYSTem maNaGemeNT

SEMANTIC

SEARCH

19

LIST OF DAMS //

THE MOST NOMINATE


QUERY: “name dam" (name of the 24 dams selected)

QUERY: “name dam" CORPUS (name of the 24 dams selected) OF EACH DAM

Identifying keywords and concepts (and related URL) QUERY: “List of largest hydroelectric power stations” Select the 24 most controversial depending on the length of the talk page of each dam

Identify issues related to the Three Gorges Dam; Which is the network of interests that is created around the world levee system?

REsEARCH

QuEsTiOns

CORPUS

TRADITIONAL

OF EACH DAM

SEARCH

Identifying keywords and concepts (and related URL)

QUERY: “List of largest hydroelectric power stations” Select the 24 most controversial depending on the length of the talk page of each dam QUERY: “Three Gorges Dam"

TRADITIONAL

SEARCH

inDEX oF similarity

Finding a formula to identify the level of similarity of each of the dams compared with the three gorges dam

CORPUS

THREE GORGES DAM

Identifying keywords and concepts (and related URL)

Cleaning and assembly keywords and concepts: create the list (based on the value relevance) of the most important issues

20


by two corpus create a single corpus considering all entities

DATA

AnALysis

Map connections between entities and dams

intersection of all entities to select only those that are interested in more than a dam

subdivision of the entity in: Person, organization, Company e Media

TaB oF connections betWeen enTITIes and DaMs

Reputation of each site // digital relevance

TRADiTiOnAL

sEARCH

create a list of entities’urL

21

map of the geographical location of entities


lenght of the discussion page on wikipedia 22

19

6

24

17 25

3

8

1

11

9

4 18

12

14

15

5

7

10

23

2

16

21

20

13

22

Geolocalizzazione delle dighe emerse dall’analisi delle pagine di discussione di wikipedia


Characters

lenght of the discussion page on wikipedia

1_Hoover Dam / 2_Itaipu / 3_Grand Coulee / 4_Sayano Shushenskaya / 5_Three Gorges Dam / 6_W. A . C. Bennett Dam / 7_Aswan / 8_Niagara Falls / 9_Cleuson-Dixence Complex / 10_Guri dam / 11_Zhiguliovskaya (Samarskaya) / 12_John Day Dam / 13_Yaciretá / 14_Tarbela Dam / 15_Gezhouba Dam / 16_Cahora Bassa / 17_Manic-5 / 18_Nurek Dam / 19_Ust Ilimskaya / 20_Churchill Falls / 21_Itumbiara / 22_Chief Joseph Dam / 23_Tucuruí / 24_La Grande-3 / 25_Bath County PSP

Hoover Dam Itaipu Grand Coulee Sayano Shushenskaya Three Gorges Dam W. A . C . Bennett Dam Aswan Niagara Falls (US) Cleuson-Dixence Complex Guri dam Zhiguliovskaya (Samarskaya) John Day Dam Yaciretá Tarbela Dam Gezhouba Dam Cahora Bassa Manic-5 Nurek Dam Ust Ilimskaya Churchill Falls Itumbiara Chief Joseph Dam Tucuruí La Grande-3 Bath County PSP

23

36048 25431 19806 8226 6163 5240 4667 4336 4024 37 7 7 2964 2874 2693 2600 2472 2420 2256 2131 1823 1818 1631 1503 147 7 1314 1262


presence in google’s top 100 results about “dam controversy”

13 14

4

10

20

8

25

12

5 9

6 16

11

2 3 15

23

24

19 24

7 22

1 21

18

17

Geolocalizzazione delle dighe emerse dall’analisi dei risultati emersi attraverso google con la query “dam controversy”


Count

presence in google’s top 100 results about “dam controversy”

1_Three Gorges Dam / 2_Mullaperiyar Dam / 3_Belo Monte dam / 4_Glen Canyon Dam / 5_Kala Bagh Dam / 6_Tarbela Dam / 7_Narmada Dam / 8_Ilisu dam / 9_Mangala Dam / 10_O'Shaughnessy Dam / 11_Sardar Sarovar dam / 12_Aswan Dam / 13_Canyon High Dam / 14_Hoover Dam / 15_Itaipu dam / 16_Munda dam / 17_Myitsone Dam / 18_Vaigai dam / 19_Xayaburi dam / 20_Auburn Dam / 21_Bhasha dam / 22_Chixoy dam / 23_Dams in Lesotho / 24_Diamer Bash Dam / 25_Echo Park dam

Three Gorges Dam Mullaperiyar Dam Belo Monte dam Glen Canyon Dam Kala Bagh Dam Tarbela Dam Narmada Dam Ilisu dam Mangala Dam O'Shaughnessy Dam Sardar Sarovar dam Aswan Dam Canyon High Dam Hoover Dam Itaipu dam Munda dam Myitsone Dam Vaigai dam Xayaburi dam Auburn Dam Bhasha dam Chixoy dam Dams in Lesotho Diamer Bash Dam Echo Park dam

25

16 13 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1


26


alchemy results 27


What about dams in the web? 28


An

os

hu

w.

lA

A.

be

c.

be

nn

et

three gorges

r tA

sAy

she

nsk AyA

S EP F JO

h

E

CHI

IN OUT

h oo ve r

vskA yA

Ai

biAr

ituM

c

it

A

An

rA

o Ah

b

s As

As w

zhigulio

A

29

Pu Rappresentazione visuale dei collegamenti diretti tra le dighe emersi attraverso l’analisi con alchemy


30


Keywords relevance three gorges dam 31

Kyoto P r oto c o l C a r b o n d i ox i d e Greenhouse Gas Economy Wat e r q u a l i t y Fisheries Disease Reservoir Landslides Environment Political Leak Ecology Human Rights Energy River banks Er o s i o n Touris m Laborers E a r th q u a k e L i m e st o n e W a st e Alg a e Flood G e o l o gy P o ll u t i o n T r a ns p o r t F u nd Rain D r o u ght

0,75 1 6 3 2 0,70 2 61 9 5 0,6 5 8 245 0, 568387 0, 5 11027 0, 508305 0, 50793 1 0,4 8 4 0 9 0,4 8 0 4 4 4 0,4 4 5 3 1 0 6 6 7 0,4 3 5 3 4 6 3 3 3 0,4 1 9 2 2 6 0,4 0 9 6 9 4 7 5 0,4 0 9 6 4 3 0 , 4 0 3 7 74 5 0,4 0 3 24 7 3 3 3 0,4 0 2 1 7 9 5 0,4 0 1 4 5 1 0, 39 97615 0, 39053 28 0, 383037 0, 38105 16 67 0, 380924 0, 37 7030867 0, 376067 7 14 0, 365 11 0, 349028 0, 34856 65 0, 30687 0, 29670385 7


what ABOUT RELEVANCE? 32

Three Gorges Dam

Tarbela Dam

Cahora Bassa

Zhiguliovskaya (Samarskaya)

Itaipu

Sayano Shushenskaya

W. A. C. Bennett Dam

Hoover Dam

Chief Joseph Dam

Itumbiara

Aswan Dam

Gezhouba Dam

Grand Coulee

MEAN DEVIATION

Drought

Rain

Fund

Transport

Pollution

Geology

Flood

Algae

Waste

Limestone

Earthquake

Laborers

Tourism

Erosion

River banks

Energy

Human Rights

Ecology

Leak

Political

Environment

Landslides

Reservoir

Disease

Fisheries

Water quality

Economy

Greenhouse Gas

Carbon dioxide

Kyoto Protocol

keywords

dams


Drought

Rain

Fund

Transport

Pollution

Geology

Flood

Algae

Waste

Limestone

Earthquake

Laborers

Tourism

Erosion

River banks

Energy

Human Rights

Ecology

Leak

Political

Environment

Landslides

Reservoir

Disease

Fisheries

Water quality

Economy

Carbon dioxide

Kyoto Protocol

MEAN DEVIATION

Greenhouse Gas

Three Gorges Dam Niagara Dam Tucuruí Cleuson-Dixence Complex Nurek Dam John Day Dam Robert-Bourassa Bath County PSP Ust Ilimskaya Daniel Johnson dam Guri Dam Yaciretá Churchill Falls

DIF F ER EN C E B E T WEEN ke y wordS rele va nce

key word rele va n ce I F MIN O R

k e y wo r d r e l e va n c e fo r T h r e e Go rg e s Dam

33

ke y word rele vance I F M AJO R

DIFFERENC E BE T WEEN ke y wordS rele vance


TarbelA Dam Cahora Bassa Zhiguliovskaya ITAIPU SAYANO SHUSHENSKAYA W.A.C. BENNET HOOVER CHIEF JOSEPH ITUMBIARA ASWAN DAM

34

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


semantic most analysis similar results dams 6

3

5

10 7 8

2

4 9

Geolocalizzazione della Diga delle Tre Gole e delle 10 che attraverso l’analisi semantica e la comparazione sono emerse piÚ simili.

35

1


Geolocalizzazione delle entitĂ comuni fra piĂš dighe.

36


REPUTATION

10.000 1.000 100

USA

100.000

HOOVER

Chinese government

CHINA

IPCC

SWITZERLAND

European Union NATO

BELGIUM

The Times BBC

ENGLAND

MIT

ABC American Express Associated Press Barack Obama Chris Greer HBO Reuters The New York Times United Nations

ASCE G. Washington University General Electric Michael Seo NASA NOAA U.S. Army U.S. Army Corps of Engineers U.S. Bureau of Reclamation U.S. Dep. Energy National Lab. World Bank

CNN Newt Gingrich

Hydro Review PennWell

Bechtel Exxon Mobil George W. Bush

International Rivers Netflix University of California

1.000.000

W.A.C. BENNET ZHIGULIOVSKAYA

ASWAN

ITUMBIARA CAHORA BASSA

ITAIPU

37 SAYANO SHUSHENSKAYA

CHIEF JOSEPH

TARBELA THREE GORGES

DID YYOU SAY DAM? D


entità CHE PARLANO SOLO DI DIGHE ESTERE 38


canada

usa

south america

europe

africa

asia oceania

Grafico bipartito delle entità che parlano di dighe estere rispetto allo stato di provenienza dell’entità stessa suddivise per blocchi geografici

W.A.C. BENNET

chief joseph

hoover

itaipu

itumbiara

aswan

39

cahora bassa

sayano

tarbela

zhigulioskaya three gorges


entitĂ che partecipano alla discussione di piĂš dighe 40


Grafico bipartito delle entitĂ che partecipano alla discussione per piĂš di una diga suddivise per blocchi geografici.

41


come sono in relazione tra loro le entitĂ ? 42


Unione di grafici bipartiti delle dighe che mette in evidenza le relazioni tra la categoria e lo stato delle entitĂ riguardanti le dighe.

43


WHAT about a web of dams?

Per osservare le relazioni tra dighe e entità in maniera più completa abbiamo ritenuto importante osservare anche gli stati e le categorie delle entità, mettendole in relazione fra di loro. Per fare ciò siamo partiti da tre grafici sankey differenti: _Uno che rappresentasse la ripartizione delle entità che parlano delle dighe per stati e/o blocchi geografici ( Canada, Usa, South America, Europe, Russia,Africa, Cina Asia, Oceania). _Un secondo grafico che rappresenta la ripartizione per categoria delle enttà che parlano delle dighe ( Media, Organi governativi,Aziende, Università, ONG, Persone). _Un terzo grafico che mettesse in relazione i paesi delle entità e le categorie delle entità, in modo da poter vedere la ripartizione per categoria dei paesi da cui le entità si fanno voce e viceversa.

44


STATI DIGHE CATEGORIE

categorie stati

45


dams ’ country

46


W.A.C. BENNET

chief joseph

hoover

itaipu

itumbiara

aswan

cahora bassa

sayano

tarbela

zhigulioskaya three gorges

dams ’ category

47


isolamento delle dighe 48


W.A.C. BENNET

chief joseph

hoover

itaipu

itumbiara

aswan

cahora bassa

sayano

tarbela

zhigulioskaya three gorges

Isolamento nel grafico circolare delle dighe rispetto ai blocchi geografici.

49


REPUTATION

1.000 100

1.000.000 100.000

CANADA

10.000

50 President Joseph Kabila

AUSTRALIA Zambezi Electricity Company

ITAIPU

NEW ZEALAND

CAHORA BASSA

Australian Institute of Architects

ITUMBIARA

PHILIPPINES

THREE GORGES

Asian Development Bank

CHIEF JOSEPH

National University of Singapore

SAYANO SHUSHENSKAYA

SINGAPORE

TARBELA

N.U.C.T. University

ASWAN

PAKISTAN

President Bashar al-Assad

SYRIA

Open University of Israel

ZHIGULIOVSKAYA

ISRAEL

Arab League

EGYPT

Achim Steiner

KENYA

President Robert Mugabe

ZIMBABWE

South African government University of Cape Town WCED

Rep. of SOUTH AFRICA

W.A.C. BENNET

Dem. Rep. of CONGO

IAEA

AUSTRIA

Enel ENI Silvio Berlusconi

ITALY

Christian Lindner Deutsche Bank

GERMANY

ABB Group WWF

SWITZERLAND

Alstom UNESCO

FRANCE

Asif Afridi - Deputy CEO of brap Bank of England British Parliament EBRD Institute of Ismaili Studies Liverpool University Prince Charles Royal Institute of British Architects The Guardian

UNITED KINGDOM

Por-Moz Chamber of Commerce Portuguese Government Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho

PORTUGAL

President Hugo Chavez

VENEZUELA

Fidel Castro

CUBA

Barney Frank Boston Society of Architects Harvard University Mitt Romney Robert Bates

University of Delaware

CSIS CIA EPA Hillary Clinton IECO Michelle Obama U.S. Federal Reserve U.S. Marine Corps U.S. State Department Vice-President Joe Biden

HOOVER

FBI IDB Rupert Murdoch Washington Post

Chinese government

CHINA

IPCC

SWITZERLAND

European Union NATO

BELGIUM

The Times BBC

ENGLAND

MIT

ABC American Express Associated Press Barack Obama Chris Greer HBO Reuters The New York Times United Nations

ASCE G. Washington University General Electric Michael Seo NASA NOAA U.S. Army U.S. Army Corps of Engineers U.S. Bureau of Reclamation U.S. Dep. Energy National Lab. World Bank

CNN Newt Gingrich

Hydro Review PennWell

Bechtel Exxon Mobil George W. Bush

USA

100

International Rivers Netflix University of California

10.000

AAAS Alcoa Pennsylvania State University University of Pennsylvania

100.000

American Magazine

REPUTATION

1.000

McKinsey Institute

Cardinal Raymond Burke

Senator Chuck Schumer Shell

Colorado State University

Montana State University

Berkeley's College of Env. Design Lori Pottinger University of San Diego

USA

Hydro One Manitoba Hydro Pembina Institute Royal Architectural Institute

1.000.000

PIĂ™ DI UNA DIGA

DID YYOU SAY DAM? D

UNA SINGOLA DIGA


Geolocalizzazione di tutte le entità, suddivise per entità che parlano di una sola diga e entità comuni a più dighe, con rispettive rilevanze basate sui valori di Alexa.

Le due visualizzazioni sono state riportate su un poster per facilitarne la lettura e il confronto.

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conclusioni In altre parole è stato interessante vedere come grandi organizzazioni e personaggi politici rilevanti diano attenzione a problematiche legate a dighe costruite in suolo straniero, ignorando quelle costruite nel proprio territorio. Abbiamo concluso così la nostra ricerca in quanto abbiamo ritenuto che i dati ottenuti risultassero sufficienti per dimostrare che il numero più elevato di attori parla dagli Stati Uniti, ci sono molti attori esteri che si interessano di altre dighe e un numero meno rilevante di attori che parla di dighe nel proprio paese. In conclusione i risultati della nostra ricerca sono di natura soprattutto didattica; abbiamo innanzitutto sperimentato un metodo d’indagine, espresso dal nostro protocollo, estendibile ed applicabile a diverse questioni. Non è quindi tanto l’obbiettivo finale a essere rilevante quanto più il percorso svolto. Per quanto riguarda gli obbiettivi veri e propri della ricerca possiamo ritenerci abbastanza soddisfatti nell’osservare delle corrispondenze tra alcune ipotesi formulate nel corso del progetto e i suoi esiti. Nascono però, numerose domande messe in luce dai fenomeni che abbiamo potuto osservare. Domande che richiederebbero un analisi molto più approfondita. Siamo insomma solo sulla superficie della questione, ne abbiamo intravisto una struttura, abbiamo provato a costruirne una mappa. Il quadro parziale di una controversia complessa.

Il web rimane tutt’ora un terreno incompreso, questo è sicuramente un elemento rilevante che abbiamo indagato attraverso la nostra ricerca. Incompreso per diverse ragioni, innanzitutto le iperconnessioni, che talvolta creano collegamenti totalmente inaspettati. Strettamente collegato a questo aspetto c’è tutto il tema della rilevanza; la forza della “voce” con i cui le fonti parlano, difficilmente corrisponde alla loro reale autorevolezza, se questa contraddizione non è unicamente riconducibile al mondo digitale, è in questo mondo che maggiormente trova terreno fertile. I metodi digitali sono una nuova possibilità per comprendere alcuni aspetti, cercando di dominare l’enormità di dati e la complessità dei fenomeni. Il nostro approccio alla ricerca è stato quello di cercare di definire il più possibile l’ambito d’indagine, cercando di costituire un bacino di fonti relativamente ristretto, in modo da cercare di dare più peso alla qualità delle relazioni tra le varie realtà coinvolte piuttosto che ottenere risultati quantitativamente interessanti. Entrando nel vivo della nostra ricerca una delle conclusioni più evidenti è che le entità coinvolte in discussioni riguardanti il sistema delle dighe mondiali prendono voce principalmente dagli Stati Uniti. Gli USA risultano quindi la realtà geopolitica con attori più attivi nelle discussioni riguardanti il tema dell’impatto delle dighe (in ambito economico/ecologico/ambientale/energetico). Le entità più importanti (quelle che “parlano con una voce più forte”) risultano essere i media, i quali ovviamente costituiscono una rete di relazioni molto ampia e solida all’interno del web proprio perché il loro obiettivo è raggiungere il maggior numero di persone possibile. Un dato interessante a cui abbiamo posto attenzione è quello delle relazioni inaspettate a livello geografico; come cioè alcune entità geograficamente localizzate in un dato luogo siano collegate semanticamente a dighe localizzate altrove.

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lista entitĂ Australian Institute of Architects - The Institute was formed in 1930. The institute consists of 9000 members across Australia and overseas

foundation in 1961 until 2011. Politically a Marxist-Leninist, under his administration the Republic of Cuba was converted into a one-party socialist state, with industry and business being nationalised under state ownership and socialist reforms implemented in all areas of society.

IAEA - The IAEA is the world's center of cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up in 1957.

Arab League - officially called the League of Arab States, is a regional organisation of Arab states in North and Northeast Africa, and Southwest Asia (Middle East). It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members. Currently has 22 members. The main goal of the league is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries.

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) - was formed in 1968 by the Canadian government. CIDA is Canada's lead agency for development assistance. Hydro One - delivers electricity across the Canadian province of Ontario. It is a Corporation established under the Business Corporations Act (Ontario) with a single shareholder, the Government of Ontario. Manitoba Hydro - is the electric power and natural gas utility in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Founded in 1961, today the company operates 15 interconnected generating stations. It has more than 527,000 electric power customers and more than 263,000 natural gas customers.

Alstom - is a large multinational conglomerate which holds interests in the power generation and transport markets. According to the company website, in the years 20102011 Alstom had annual sales of over â‚Ź20.9 billion, and employed more than 85,000 people in 70 countries. Alstom's headquarters are located in Levallois-Perret, near Paris. Its current CEO is Patrick Kron.

Pembina Institute - is a Canadian non-profit think tank that advances sustainable energy solutions through research, education, consulting and advocacy. Our History from our beginnings in 1985 as a citizen-led action group. Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC) - founded in 1907, is a Canadian association representing over 3,600 architects, and faculty and graduates of Canadian Schools of Architecture. President Joseph Kabila - XXX

UNESCO - The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations. Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter. UNESCO has 196 Member States (it recently added Palestine in November 2011) and eight Associate Members.

Fidel Castro - (born August 13, 1926) is a Cuban revolutionary and politician, having held the position of Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, and then President from 1976 to 2008. He also served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from the party's

Christian Lindner - (born January 7, 1979) is a German politician and former general secretary of the liberal party Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP).

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Deutsche Bank AG - is a global banking and financial services company with its headquarters in Frankfurt, Germany. It employs more than 100,000 people in over 70 countries, and has a large presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific and the emerging markets. Deutsche Bank is the largest foreign exchange dealer in the world with a market share of 21 percent.Deutsche Bank has offices in major financial centers including New York, London, Frankfurt, Paris, Moscow, Amsterdam, Dublin, Toronto, S達o Paulo, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Sydney, Dubai, Riyadh and Mumbai.

worth of US$6.2 billion.

Open University of Israel - is a distance-education university in Israel. As of 2006, the Open University taught around 39,000 students. The Open University of Israel has more students than any other academic institution in Israel. The administration is based in the city of Ra'anana. Students from all over the world attend the university.

Zambezi Electrical Taupo - is a locally owned and operated electrical company specialising in air conditioning and heat pumps. Our aim is to provide customers with complete control over the climate in their home and work environment.

UNEP - The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) coordinates United Nations environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices. It was founded as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in June 1972 and has its headquarters in the Gigiri neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya. UNEP also has six regional offices and various country offices.

NUST university - National University of Sciences and Technology is a public university that was founded by the government of Pakistan in 1981 to train members of the Pakistani Armed Forces after merging established military institutes and colleges. It was chartered in 1993. NUST is a multi-school university with its headquarters initially located in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. In 2008, the headquarters were shifted to the newly constructed campus in Islamabad. Other campuses are situated in Karachi, Rawalpindi and Risalpur.

Enel S.p.A. - (Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica) is an Italian energy provider, the third-largest in Europe by market capitalization. Formerly a state-owned monopoly, it is now partially privatised with Italian government control: the largest shareholders are the Italian Ministry of Economy & Finance (13.9%) and the state-run bank Cassa Depositi e Prestiti (17.4%).

Asian Development Bank (ADB) - is a regional development bank established on 22 August 1966 to facilitate economic development of countries in Asia. From 31 members at its establishment, ADB now has 67 members - of which 48 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside. At present, both the United States and Japan hold 552,210 shares, the largest proportion of shares at 12.756% each.[3] China holds 228,000 shares (6.429 %), India holds 224,010 shares (6.317 %), the 2nd and 3rd largest proportion of shares respectively.

Eni S.p.A. - is an Italian multinational oil and gas company, present in 70 countries, and currently Italy's largest industrial company with a market capitalization of 87.7 billion euros, as of July 24, 2008. The Italian government owns a 30% golden share in the company, 20% held through the state Treasury and 10% held through the Cassa depositi e prestiti. Silvio Berlusconi - (born 29 September 1936), is an Italian politician and businessman who served three terms as Prime Minister of Italy, from 1994 to 1995, 2001 to 2006, and 2008 to 2011. Berlusconi is also the controlling shareholder of Mediaset and owner of A.C. Milan. As of 2011, Forbes magazine has ranked him as the 118th richest man in the world with a net

Portugal-Mozambique Chamber of Commerce Portuguese Government - The Government is one of the four sovereignty organs of the

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Portuguese Republic. It is also the organ that conducts politics in general in the country and is also the superior body in public administration.

ABB is one of the largest engineering companies as well as one of the largest conglomerates in the world. ABB has operations in around 100 countries, with approximately 130,000 employees, and reported global revenue of $31.6 billion for 2010.

Pedro Passos Coelho - (born in Coimbra, on July 24, 1964) is Prime Minister of Portugal. Passos Coelho started very early in politics, becoming the national leader of the youth branch of the Social Democratic Party. A business manager by trade, he was elected President of the Social Democratic Party and has led the XIX Governo Constitucional (19th Constitutional Government of Portugal) as head of government since 21 June 2011.

WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) - is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. It is the world's largest independent conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 100 countries, supporting around 1,300[4] conservation and environmental projects.

South African government - The Republic of South Africa is a constitutional democracy with a three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating in a nearly unique system that combines aspects of parliamentary and presidential systems.

Bashar al-Assad - (born 11 September 1965) is the President of Syria and Regional Secretary of the Ba'ath Party. His father Hafez al-Assad ruled Syria for 29 years until his death in 2000. Al-Assad was elected in 2000, re-elected in 2007, unopposed each time.

University of Cape Town (UCT) - is a public research university located in Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. UCT was founded in 1829 as the South African College, and is the oldest university in South Africa and the second oldest extant university in Africa.

Bank of England - is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694, it is the second oldest central bank in the world d also has secondary offices in Leeds.

WCED (The Western Cape Education Department) - is the department of the Government of the Western Cape responsible for primary and secondary education within the Western Cape province of South Africa. The political leader of the department is the Provincial Minister of Education; as of 2009 this is Donald Grant.

British Parliament - is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories, located in London. Parliament alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and its territories. At its head is the Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II.

National University of Singapore - is Singapore's oldest university. It is the largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered. The university's main campus is located in southwest Singapore at Kent Ridge.

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) - Founded in 1991, uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 30 countries from central Europe to central Asia. Its mission was to support the formerly communist countries in the process of establishing their private sectors. Headquartered in London, the EBRD is now owned by 61 countries and two international

ABB group - is a Swiss-Swedish multinational corporation headquartered in Z端rich, Switzerland, and best known for its robotics.

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institutions. Despite its public sector shareholders, it invests mainly in private enterprises, usually together with commercial partners.

Academy’s elected members are leaders in the academic disciplines, the arts, business, and public affairs.

Institute of Ismaili Studies (IIS) - is a research institute in London, United Kingdom. It aims to promote the study of Muslim cultures and societies, both historical and contemporary, in order to foster a greater understanding of their relationships with other societies and faiths.

ABC (American Broadcasting Company) - is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948. As one of the Big Three television networks, its programming has contributed to American popular culture.

University of Liverpool - is a teaching and research university in the city of Liverpool, England. Founded in 1881 (as a University college), it is also one of the six original "red brick" civic universities. The university has produced nine Nobel Prize winners and offers more than 230 first degree courses across 103 subjects. It has an annual turnover of £340 million, including £123 million for research.

American Magazine - was a periodical publication founded in June 1906, a continuation of failed publications purchased a few years earlier from publishing mogul Miriam Leslie. Barack Obama - (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office.

Prince Charles - (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He is the longest-serving heir apparent in British history.

Boston Society of Architects (BSA) - is a nonprofit membership organization committed to architecture, design and the built environment.

Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) - is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally. It was formed in 1834 by several prominent architects, including Philip Hardwick, Thomas Allom, William Donthorne, Thomas Leverton Donaldson, John Buonarotti Papworth, and Thomas de Grey, 2nd Earl de Grey.

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) - is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. It is an executive agency and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence, responsible for providing national security intelligence assessment to senior United States policymakers through means of covert psychological, cyber, and social warfare using non-military commissioned civilian Intelligence Agents to carry out these intelligence-gathering operations; many of whom are trained to avoid tactical situations.

The Guardian - formerly known as The Manchester Guardian (founded 1821), is a British national daily newspaper in the Berliner format. Currently edited by Alan Rusbridger.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. The EPA was proposed by President Richard Nixon and began operation on December 2, 1970. The current

AAAS (American Academy of Arts and Sciences) - is an independent policy research center that conducts multidisciplinary studies of complex and emerging problems. The

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administrator is Lisa P. Jackson. The EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the administrator is normally given cabinet rank. The agency has approximately 17,000 full-time employees. FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) - is an agency of the United States Department of Justice that serves as both a federal criminal investigative body and an internal intelligence agency (counterintelligence). The FBI's headquarters, the J. Edgar Hoover Building, is located in Washington, D.C. Fifty-six field offices are located in major cities throughout the United States, and there are over 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and towns across the country. More than 50 international offices called "legal attachĂŠs" are in U.S. embassies and consulates general worldwide. General Electric Company - is an American multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States. The company operates through four segments: Energy, Technology Infrastructure, Capital Finance and Consumer & Industrial. George Washington University - is a private, coeducational comprehensive university located in Washington, D.C. in the United States. The university was chartered by an Act of Congress on February 9, 1821, as The Columbian College in the District of Columbia.

Harvard University - is an American private Ivy League research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Harvard's history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world IBD (Inter-American Development Bank) - is the largest source of development financing for Latin America and the Caribbean.Established in 1959, the IDB supports Latin American and Caribbean economic development, social development and regional integration by lending to governments and government agencies, including State corporations. The IDB has four official languages: English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. International Energy Consultants Organisation (IECO) - acts as a forum for companies and individuals who are providing consultancy as their main business in the many fields of geoscience survey and HSE within the Energy industry. The Organisation is aimed at those companies that engage consultants primarily for field-related activities. International Rivers - is a non-profit, non-governmental, environmental and human rights organization based in Berkeley, California, United States. Founded in 1985 by a host of social and environmental activists, International

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Rivers works with a global network of policy and financial analysts, scientists, journalists, development specialists, local citizens and volunteers to address destructive dams and their legacies in over 60 countries. In addition to the United States, International Rivers has staff in Cameroon, Thailand, Brazil and India. The Washington Network Group (WNG) - is a membership organization of professionals in business, finance, technology, foreign and government affairs. (MIT) Massachusetts Institute of Technology - is an American private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological education and research. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Montana State University (MSU) - is a public university located in Bozeman, Montana. MSU was founded in 1893. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) - is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space


program and for aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established by the National Aeronautics and Space Act on July 29, 1958, replacing its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).

equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide. U.S. Federal Reserve System - is the central banking system of the United States. It was created on December 23, 1913 with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907. The task of the Federal Reserve System is to maintain employment, keep prices stable, and keep interest rates at a moderate level by regulating monetary policy. Components of the Federal Reserve System also supervise banks, provide financial services, and conduct research on the United States economy and the economies in the surrounding region.

Newton Gingrich - (June 17, 1943) is an American politician, author, political consultant, and history teacher who served as the 58th Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. He represented Georgia's 6th congressional district as a Republican from 1979 until his resignation in 1999. He is a candidate for the Republican nomination in the 2012 U.S. presidential election. NOAA (The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) - is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. In addition to its civilian employees, NOAA research and operations are supported by 300 uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps. The current Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere at the Department of Commerce, and the agency's Administrator, is Dr. Jane Lubchenco

United States Marine Corps (USMC) - is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea. United States Department of State - is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministries of other countries. The Department was created in 1789 and was the first executive department established. The Department is headquartered located at 2201 C Street, NW, neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The Department operates the diplomatic missions of the United States abroad and is responsible for implementing the foreign policy of the United States and U.S. diplomacy efforts.

The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) - is a public research university with campuses and facilities throughout the state of Pennsylvania, United States. Founded in 1855, the university has a threefold mission of teaching, research, and public service.

United Nations (ONU) - is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The ONU was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. There are currently 193 member states. The United Nations Headquarters resides in international territory in New York City, with further main offices at Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six official languages:

Shell (Royal Dutch Shell) - is a global oil and gas company headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands and with its registered office in London, United Kingdom. It is the fifth-largest company in the world (and the second-largest energy company). It is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, refining, distribution and marketing, petrochemicals, power generation and trading. It also has major renewable energy activities, including in biofuels, hydrogen, solar and wind power. Shell has operations in over 90 countries, produces around 3.1 million barrels of oil

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Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.

was the 70th Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007 and is a candidate for the 2012 Republican Party presidential nomination.

University of California (UC) - is a public university system in the U.S. state of California.

Raymond Leo Burke - (born June 30, 1948) is an American Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church. He is the current Cardinal Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, having previously served as Archbishop of St. Louis (2003–2008) and Bishop of La Crosse (1994–2003).

College of Environmental Design (Berkeley CED) - is one of 14 schools and colleges at the University of California, Berkeley. It is composed of three departments: Architecture, City and Regional Planning, Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning. The CED is consistently ranked as one of the most prestigious design schools in the U.S. and the world.

Center for Strategic and International Studies - is a bipartisan Washington, D.C., foreign policy think tank. The center was founded in 1962 by Admiral Arleigh Burke and Ambassador David Manker Abshire, originally as part of Georgetown University. The formal affiliation between Georgetown and CSIS ended on July 1, 1987.

Colorado State University - is a public research university located in Fort Collins, Colorado. The university is the state's land grant university, and the flagship university of the Colorado State University System.

Hillary Clinton - (born October 26, 1947) is the 67th United States Secretary of State, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She was a United States Senator for New York from 2001 to 2009. As the wife of the 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton, she was the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. In the 2008 election, Clinton was a leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination.

The University of Delaware (UD) - is the largest university in Delaware. The school from which the university grew was founded in 1743, making it one of the oldest in the nation. However, UD was not chartered as an institution of higher learning until 1833. McKinsey & Company, Inc. - is a global management consulting firm that focuses on solving issues of concern to senior management. McKinsey serves as an adviser to many businesses, governments, and institutions. It is recognized as one of the most prestigious firms in the consulting industry.

Alcoa Inc. - is the world's third largest producer of aluminum, behind Rio Tinto Alcan and Rusal.From its operational headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Alcoa conducts operations in 31 countries.

Barney Frank (born March 31, 1940) is the U.S. Representative for Massachusetts's 4th congressional district (1981–present). A member of the Democratic Party, he is the former chairman of the House Financial Services Committee (2007–2011) and is considered the most prominent gay politician in the United States.

University of Pennsylvania - is a private, Ivy League university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Penn is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. George Walker Bush - (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of

Mitt Romney - (born March 12, 1947) is an American businessman and politician. He

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Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000. Charles Schumer - (born November 23, 1950) is the senior United States Senator from New York and a member of the Democratic Party. Washington Post - is Washington, D.C.'s largest newspaper and its oldest still-existing paper, founded in 1877. Located in the capital of the United States, The Post has a particular emphasis on national politics. D.C., Maryland, and Virginia editions are printed for daily circulation. Hugo Chรกvez - (born July 28, 1954) is the 61st and current President of Venezuela, having held that position since 1999. He was formerly the leader of the Fifth Republic Movement political party from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when he became the leader of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV). Robert Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is the President of Zimbabwe. As one of the leaders of the liberation movement against white-minority rule, he was elected into power in 1980. He served as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1987, and as the first executive head of state since 1987.

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DamAge  

This digital research aims to analyze the situation that affects several similar dams throughout the world. We have at first identified the...

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