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Hensol Pitches, Hensol, Vale of Glamorgan Archaeological field evaluation August 2017

A report for Cardiff City Football Club Ltd By James Toseland BSc MA ACIfA

GGAT report no. 2017/054 Project no. P1907 National Grid Reference: ST 05352 79188

The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd Heathfield House Heathfield Swansea SA1 6EL


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

Contents

Page

Summary ........................................................................................................................ 2 Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................... 2 Copyright notice............................................................................................................. 2 1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Project background ........................................................................................ 4 1.2 Location and geology ..................................................................................... 4 1.3 The historic landscape.................................................................................... 5 1.4 Historical and archaeological background ..................................................... 5 2. Methodology ......................................................................................................... 8 3. Results ................................................................................................................... 9 4. Finds .................................................................................................................... 18 5. Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 19 Appendix I: Inventory of contexts ............................................................................ 21

Figures Figure 1. Trench locations (red) and features identified from LiDAR data and aerial photographs (blue) ...................................................................................................... 7 Figure 2. North west facing section of Trench 1 showing ditch 119................................... 12 Figure 3. North west facing section of Trench 1 showing ditch 112................................... 13 Figure 4. North west facing section of Trench 1 showing deposit 113 ............................... 14 Figure 5. East facing section of Trench 2 showing ditch 206 .............................................. 17

Plates Plate 1. Ditch 119, view to the south east (scale in 0.5m divisions) ...................................... 9 Plate 2. Ditch 119 view to the south ...................................................................................... 10 Plate 3. Composite image of ditch 112, view to the south east (scale in 0.5m divisions)... 10 Plate 4. Ditch cut 112, view to the east. ................................................................................. 11 Plate 5. Deposit 113, view to the south east (scale in 0.5m divisions) ................................. 11 Plate 6. Cut 206, view to the north west, prior to trench extension (scale in 0.5m divisions). ..................................................................................................................................... 15 Plate 7. Trench cut 112, view to the west, following trench extension (scale in 0.5m divisions). .................................................................................................................... 16 Plate 8. Wall 305, view to the south (scale in 0.5m divisions). ............................................ 18

Front cover: Recording of Trench 1, view to the east ďƒ“ GGAT


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

Summary Cardiff City Football Club have submitted a planning application (application number 2013/00833/FUL) to the Vale of Glamorgan Council for the construction of a sports training facility, at Hensol, Vale of Glamorgan (centred at NGR ST 05352 79188, see Figure 1). The Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust was commissioned by Cardiff City Football Club Club’s agents M2h Architects to undertake an archaeological field evaluation. This was to evaluate features identified during the course of an assessment (Sherman 2014) recommended by the archaeological advisors to the Local Planning Authority (GGAT Curatorial). The cropmark identified in the desk-based assessment (Sherman 2014) from aerial photographs (Figure 1, Feature 001), and investigated in Trench 1, was proven to be an archaeological feature; the cropmark showing as the result of an underlying circular ditch. Material from the ditch was redeposited on the inside of the feature burying the original soil horizon and forming a mound. This feature is likely to be of prehistoric date; the size of the feature suggests it could have been a funerary enclosure; the possibility of a bank on the outside of the ditch raises the possibility of a henge monument. A negative feature was recorded in Trench 2 which may be part of the Cshaped feature identified on aerial photographs (Figure 1, Feature 002). No finds were recovered to date this feature. Trench 3 did not locate the C-shaped feature. The only feature recorded in this trench was a collapsed/demolished drystone wall. This may have been a field boundary; no dating evidence was found. During the course of the investigation further circular and linear features were noted (Figure 1) within the development area. Visible via Lidar data, the circular features appear to be ditches with a diameter of over 50m (Feature 003) and 40m (Feature 004). These, including Features 001 and 002, could possibly be part of a cluster of monuments of similar form and all of potential prehistoric date. This site has the potential to be of national importance. Planning Policy Wales (Chapter 6) Edition 9, 2016, sets out a presumption in favour of preservation in-situ of all types of archaeological sites and monuments. Advice should be sought to devise a strategy (combined archaeological and engineering solutions) to minimise any impact upon the archaeological resource prior to any development. The archaeological work was carried out to the professional standards laid down in the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists’ Standard and Guidance for Archaeological Field Evaluations (2014). Acknowledgements The project was managed by Martin Tuck MCIfA (Senior Projects Manager). The fieldwork was undertaken by Charlotte James-Martin BA ACIfA (Project Officer) and James Toseland BSc MA (Project Archaeologist) of GGAT Projects. The report was prepared by James Toseland and the illustrations prepared by Charlotte James-Martin. Copyright notice The copyright of this report is held by Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd; GGAT has granted an exclusive licence to Cardiff City Football Club Ltd and their agents to use and reproduce the material it contains. Ordnance Survey mapping is 2


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

reproduced under licence (AL10005976), unless otherwise noted. Annotations are GGAT copyright.

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Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

1. Introduction 1.1 Project background Cardiff City Football Club have submitted a planning application to the Vale of Glamorgan County Council for the construction of a sports training facility (centred at NGR ST 05352 79188), which includes the creation of sports training pitches, the erection of maintenance facilities, associated car parking and internal roadways (Planning Application number: 2013/00833/FUL). The Curatorial Division of the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, (the archaeological advisors to the Local Planning Authority), have identified that there could be a significant archaeological resource in the application area. They have therefore recommended, following the advice given in Welsh Office Circular 60/96, that an archaeological assessment of the proposed development area was to be produced prior to the submission of any planning application, in order to ensure that that the development team are fully informed about the effect of the development on the archaeological resource. The Projects Department of the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust were commissioned to undertake this desk-based assessment (Sherman 2014). The assessment recommended that an archaeological field evaluation be conducted on two of the sites identified during the course of the assessment: HP008 and HP009 (Aerial Photograph features 1 and 2), in order to determine the nature and extent of these features, and to inform the planning process. The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, Projects Division (GGAT Projects) have been commissioned by Cardiff City Football Club’s agents M2h Architects to undertake the archaeological field evaluation which was carried out from 18th July 2017 to 21st July 2017. A HER enquiry was conducted (No 5606) to inform on the sites of archaeological interest within a 1km radius of NGR ST 05352 79188. The archaeological work was carried out to the professional standards laid down in the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists’ Standard and Guidance for Archaeological Field Evaluations (2014). 1.2 Location and geology The proposed development area is located opposite to Hensol Villas and is centred at NGR ST 05352 79188, it occupies an area of approximately seventeen hectares. The western boundary of the site is formed by the Hensol Park lane; the southern boundary of the site is formed by a small stream that runs from the Hensol mill pond (03973s) and may well be a former mill leat (HP005, Sherman 2014). The northern boundary is formed by a further stream and the southern boundary of the Hensol sewerage works, while the eastern boundary is formed by a farm track. The development area is occupied by gently sloping fields, sloping from 35m OD in the west to 30m OD in the east; these fields are currently given over to rough pasture. The evaluation trenches were situated in the far northeastern corner of the site and at the centre of the site (Figure 1). The underlying geology of the development area is formed by conglomerate and sandstone bedrock overlain by superficial deposits of Devensian Till in the area of Trench 1 and clay, silt sand and gravel alluvium deposit in the areas of Trench 2 and 3. (BGS 2017). 4


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

1.3 The historic landscape The trenches were located within the boundary of the Vale of Glamorgan LANDMAP area within the character area Ystradowen (VOGHL053). Area VOGHL053 is a significant area of large irregular fields north of Ystradowen, which includes large area of former moorland and woodland now completely encroached by modern agricultural landscape. The fieldscape to the west is one of large open regular fields, but becoming smaller and more irregular to the east (where the development area is located). Historically the area is centred on the medieval church and Norman motte (SAM GM228) at Ystradowen, part of the Talyfan lordship of the St Quintin family (RCAHMW 1991, 77). The Registered Park and Garden of Miskin Manor (PGW (Gm) 9 (RCT)) is located approximately 0.6km to the north of the development area. At it’s closest the eastern boundary of the Registered Park and Garden of Hensol Castle (PGW (Gm) 41 (GLA)) is located approximately 16m from the development and it’s course parallels the western boundary of the development on the opposite side of the Hensol Castle lane. The park contains the Grade I Listed Hensol Castle (00322s/18963/LB13482). 1.4 Historical and archaeological background Current evidence for Prehistoric activity in the immediate area of Hensol is limited to a bronze axe (00321s) and a flint arrowhead (01903s) found approximately 700m and 1.5km southeast of the development area respectively. Both are Bronze Age in date. Less than 1km to the north of the site is the Caergwanaf-isaf enclosure (GM070/00614m/93039/91963). This is a Scheduled Ancient Monument which is noted as two likely later prehistoric earthwork enclosures of national importance for its potential to enhance our knowledge of later prehistoric defensive organisation and settlement. The site forms an important element within the wider later prehistoric context and within the surrounding landscape (Scheduled Monument Report- CADW). However, there is some disagreement about this site with the Historic Environment Record (HER) noting the enclosures as recent landscape features associated with the layout of Hensol Park (Wiggins and Evans 2005) but this is most likely a confusion with the circular plantation site just south (04840m). Possible Early-medieval activity is suggested approximately 1km north of the development at Miskin, through documentary sources: the laws of Hywel Dda, dating to 940AD, mention Maes Cun as a commote (a unit of land smaller than a Cantref, or Hundred). Miskin Manor is known to have been in existence by the late 11th century, as the home of Nest, daughter of the ruler of Morgannwg, who was betrothed to Einion ap Collwyn in 1092. In various forms, the manor endured into the twentieth century, although the surviving building is largely Victorian and Twentieth century in date (Cadw/Icomos 2000). A short distance to the west of the development area is the mound of Felin Isaf (GM370/00555m/307706), almost certainly a motte; in pre-Norman times located within the Lordship of Miskin and in the manor of Clun, after the annexation of Miskin by Richard de Clare in 1244 – 1245. The motte has a summit of uneven height, being 3.4m above the level beyond the ditch to the south, but only 2.0m above the bailey on the north. The perimeter of the summit has been eroded but would have had a diameter of about 21m. The surrounding ditch averages 0.8m in depth, fieldwork to the 5


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

northwest of the motte showed the ditch to be 4m wide and apparently V-shaped. The bailey measures approximately 28m by 32m (Sherman 2014). No documentary evidence is known for this castle. As a presumed 12th century site it is located in territory generally regarded as Welsh until the annexation in 1244 - 1245. Felin Isaf, with other mottes to the north of Cardiff might represent Welsh works, though it seems more probable that they indicate an initial and temporary Norman encroachment into the southern parts of these hill commotes (RCAHMW 1991). However, the majority of known activity in the area dates to the Post-medieval period. A 16th century deed indicates that a house stood at Hensol at this date (Sherman 2014). Hensol Castle (00322s/18963/LB13482) was held by the Jenkins family until it became part of the Talbot estate through marriage in 1721. During this period the house was extensively re-developed on a number of occasions and became an extremely early example of the Gothic Revival in Britain, far in advance of anything else in Glamorganshire (Newman 1995). In 1838, after leasing and later owning the castle since 1817, William Crawshay II in turn sold the mansion to another ironmaster, Rowland Fothergill of Llwydcoed (RCAHMW 1981, 339-340). Fothergill is accredited with, not only remodelling and extending the house, but also creating the lodge and ornate bridge, presently both Listed, at the main entrance to the northwest, plus major re-landscaping of the 18th century parkland and formal gardens, which continued when the estate was inherited by Fothergill’s niece in 1869. On her death in 1927 the estate was purchased by Glamorgan County Council and became the site of a hospital (Mackintosh 2000).

6


Hensol Pitches, Hensol, Vale of Glamorgan :archaeological field evaluation

North west facing sections (see Figures 2 - 4)

Trench 1

Feature 001

Area shown below

GRID N

0

Based on the 2012 Ordnance Survey 1:10000 map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, GlamorganGwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number Al10005976

0.5

1km

Feature 003

Trench 3 Wall 305 East facing section (see Figure 5)

Trench 2

Feature 004

GRID N

Based on the 2012 Ordnance Survey 1:10000 map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number Al10005976

0

50.00

100.00m

Figure 1. Trench locations (red) and features identified from LiDAR data and aerial photographs (blue) 7

Feature 002


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

2. Methodology Trench 1 was excavated over the circular feature identified on aerial photographs CPE UK 1871 3095 – 3097 (Feature 001, HP008), measured 33m in length, up to 1.8m in width and 2.0m in depth. Trenches 2 and 3 were excavated over the C-shaped feature identified on aerial photographs CPE UK 1871 3095 – 3097 (Feature 002 HP009), the trenches measured 11m by 5m and 1.8m in depth and 10m by 1.8m and up to 5m in depth respectively. The works were carried out in July 2017 using a tracked excavator with grading bucket. A HER enquiry was conducted (No 5606) to inform on the sites of archaeological interest within a 1km radius of NGR ST 05352 79188. A full written, drawn and photographic record was made of all archaeological contexts, in accordance with the GGAT Manual of Excavation Recording Techniques. Contexts were recorded using a single continuous numbering system, and are summarised in Appendix I. All significant contexts were photographed using a Fuji Finepix (14mp) digital camera. An archive of archaeological records relating to the fieldwork (including artefacts and ecofacts subject to the agreement of the site owners; excepting those that may be subject to the Treasure Act (1996) and/or Treasure Order (2002)) and an archive of records relating to the preparation of the reports has been prepared to the specifications in ICON’s guidelines and The National Standard and Guidance to Best Practice for Collecting and Depositing Archaeological Archives in Wales (National Panel for Archaeological Archives in Wales 2017). After an appropriate period has elapsed a digital copy of the report and full archive will be deposited with the National Monuments Record, RCAHMW, Aberystwyth, and a digital copy of the report and archive index will be deposited with the Regional Historic Environment Record, curated by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, Swansea.

8


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

3. Results Trench 1 The basal deposit comprised red gritty clay (107); 0.8m thick excavated to a depth of 1.85m but not bottomed. Overlying deposit 107 was a 0.3m thick yellow clay (106) and a mottled grey clay with brown lenses (117). Deposit 106 was overlain by a grey clay (105); 0.2 m thick this deposit was identified as the buried subsoil. Overlying (105) was a black clay loam identified as the buried topsoil/decayed vegetation (104). Two ditches were recorded in Trench 1; both probably part of the same circular ditch. The first ditch (119, Figure 2, Plates 1 and 2) was at the south-western end of Trench 1; cut through (106) and (117) it measured 3.2m in width but was only 0.7m deep. The second ditch (112, Figure 3, Plates 3 and 4) was at the north-eastern end of the trench; cut though deposits 104, 105, 106 and 107 it measured 2.95m in width and was 1.2 m deep with a U-shaped base with sloping sides. The basal fill of ditch 119 was a 0.22m thick dark grey clay deposit (118). This was overlain by a 0.23m thick light grey clay (116). These two deposits were possibly recut before been filled by a 0.3m thick mixed deposit (115). The upper fill was a 0.35m thick grey clay (114) underlying the topsoil (101).

Plate 1. Ditch 119, view to the south east (scale in 0.5m divisions)

9


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

Plate 2. Ditch 119 view to the south

The basal fill of the second ditch (112) consisted of a 0.3 m thick deposit of grey clay (111). Overlying this was a black clay loam (120) containing fragments of wood/decayed vegetation. A 0.2m thick grey clay deposit (109) was recorded overlying the presumed buried soil horizon (120). The upper fill was a 0.5m thick mixed deposit of yellow/brown /grey silty clay (108). Overlying the upper fill (108) and the buried topsoil (104) was deposit 103; a red brown silty clay followed by a mottled yellow brown clay (102) and finally the topsoil (101).

Plate 3. Composite image of ditch 112, view to the south east (scale in 0.5m divisions)

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Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

Plate 4. Ditch cut 112, view to the east.

Within the circular feature a 0.35m thick 11.5m wide deposit of yellow brown silty clay (113, Figure 4, Plate 5) was recorded overlying the buried soil horizon (104). This material appeared to be similar to deposit 106 and redeposited during the digging of the ditches 112 and 119.

Plate 5. Deposit 113, view to the south east (scale in 0.5m divisions)

11


Hensol Pitches, Hensol, Vale of Glamorgan :archaeological field evaluation

South west

North east

Figure 4 Figure 2

Figure 3 0

10.00metres

5.00

North west facing side of Trench 1 showing location of Figures 2 - 4.

South west

North east

101

34.867m O.D.

114 117 116 106

115

118 106

119

0

0.10

0.50

1.00metre

Figure 2. North west facing section of Trench 1 showing ditch 119 (see above for location).. 12


Hensol Pitches, Hensol, Vale of Glamorgan :archaeological field evaluation

North east

South west

101

103 102 104

35.536m O.D.

104 105

105

106 108

106

109 107

107

120

112 111

0

0.10

0.50

1.00metre

Figure 3. North west facing section of Trench 1 showing ditch 112 (see page 11 for location). 13


Hensol Pitches, Hensol, Vale of Glamorgan :archaeological field evaluation

North east

South west

101

113

35.607m O.D.

104

105

106

0

0.10

0.50

1.00metre

Figure 4. North west facing section of Trench 1 showing deposit 113 (see page 11 for location).

14


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

Trench 2 The basal deposit was a brown clayey sand containing frequent rounded cobbles/pebbles (205); 0.15m thick and excavated to a depth of 1.8m but not bottomed. Overlying this was a 0.75m thick deposit of a brown clayey sand with isolated pebbles (204). Over this was 0.2m thick mottled grey/orange sand (203). This was overlain by a 0.4m orange clayey sand subsoil (202); underlying a brown sandy clay loam topsoil (201). Cut into deposits 203 and 204 was a V-sectioned cut feature with a 0.55m wide flat base (206, Figure 5, Plate 6 and 7) The trench originally truncated the feature at a 45degree angle, it was then extended so a true cross section could be recorded at 90 degrees to the cut. The feature c 2.4m wide and 1.0m deep terminated in the trench with a straight cut. The feature was aligned east-west and was excavated for 2.15m. The basal fill of 206 was a 0.1m thick grey silty sand containing fragments of wood/twigs (207). Feature 206 may have been re-cut into deposit 207 but this is unclear. Overlying 207 was a 0.45m thick grey clay with lenses of sand (208). Over this was a 0.3m thick mottled grey/orange/brown sandy silt (209); possibly recut. The upper fill was a 0.85m thick deposit of brown silty clay sand (210).

Plate 6. Cut 206, view to the north west, prior to trench extension (scale in 0.5m divisions).

15


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

Plate 7. Trench cut 112, view to the west, following trench extension (scale in 0.5m divisions).

16


Hensol Pitches, Hensol, Vale of Glamorgan :archaeological field evaluation

South west

North east

201

210

209 26.965m O.D.

203

203

204

204 208

206

206 207

205

0

0.10

0.50

1.00metre

Figure 5. East facing section of Trench 2 showing ditch 206 (see Figure 1 for location). 17


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

Trench 3 The basal deposit was a 4.2m thick (not bottomed) light brown sand (304). Overlying this was a 0.45m thick mottled orange/black sandy loam (303). Over this was a light brown sand 0.8m thick (302) and the 0.15m thick sandy silt loam soil (301). The only feature recorded was a collapsed wall (305, Figure 1, Plate 8) in the north facing section. The wall, located 0.2m below ground level, survived to 0.45m in height (four courses) and was 0.35m wide. The wall was built of stone blocks with no sign of mortar. Blocks from the collapse/demolition of the wall were lying to the east of the feature.

Plate 8. Wall 305, view to the south (scale in 0.5m divisions).

4. Finds There was a scarcity of finds from the evaluation and of those recovered none were stratified (see box below). As a result, no meaningful conclusion can be drawn other than to say that they may indicate the presence of prehistoric and post-medieval activity in the area. However, the prehistoric flint may be associated with the ditches if proven to be prehistoric in date. Context Trench 2 U/S Trench 3 U/S

Description Pottery, all crafted of red fabric, two fragments have a brown glaze visible Flint, thumbnail scrapper, slight evidence of vitrification resulting in discolouration of flint to a matt grey finish. Large amount of cortex covers most of the top side of the flint tool with just the working face exposed

18

Quantity 4

Period Post-medieval

1

Neolithic


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

5. Conclusions The circular feature identified in the desk-based assessment (Sherman 2014) showing on aerial photographs CPE UK 1871 3095 – 3097 (Feature 001, HP008), investigated in Trench 1, was proven to be an archaeological feature; the cropmark occurring as a result of the underlying ditch 112/119. Material from the ditch (106) was redeposited on the inside of the feature (113) burying the original soil horizon (104) and forming a mound. It appeared that the red clay dug out of the base of the ditch (107), may have been redeposited on the outside of the cut and has subsequently eroded forming deposit 103 over the surface of the silted up ditch. No finds were recovered to date the feature within Trench 1; however, the feature is likely to be of prehistoric date. The large size of the feature would make it unlikely to be a burial mound surrounded by a ditch however, its size may suggest that it could have been a funerary enclosure; the possibility of a bank on the outside of the ditch raises the possibility of a henge monument. The negative feature 206 recorded in Trench 2 may be a ditch forming part of the Cshaped feature identified on aerial photographs CPE UK 1871 3095 – 3097 (Feature 002, HP009). The straight cut termination of this feature could be interpreted as a potential entrance to the C-shaped feature; deposit 209 could be evidence of an external bank. The east-west alignment of the cut and its flat base raises the possibility of it being a burial cut (grave); there were however no bones and the feature appears to have silted up, possibly being re-cut, rather than been deliberately backfilled. Alternatively, the silting up of the feature, along with possible re-cuts, could also suggest a drainage ditch. No finds were recovered to date 206; however, this feature could also potentially be prehistoric. The identification of a potential circular feature (Feature 005 Fig.1) within the C-shaped feature supports this interpretation. Trench 3 did not locate the C-shaped feature. The only feature recorded in this trench was a collapsed/demolished drystone wall (305). This may have been a field boundary; no dating evidence was found. The finds evidence was limited and the little that was found was unstratified, thus the finds did not aid in the identification of the features. During the course of the investigation further circular and linear features were noted (Figure 1) south east of Trench 1, but still within the development area. Visible via Lidar data, the circular features (centred at NGRs ST 05275 79141 and ST 05303 79037) appear to be ditches with diameters of over 50m in the case of Feature 003 and 40m for Feature 004. These could possibly be part of a cluster of monuments of similar form of which Features 001 and 002 are also part of an extensive monument setting potentially of prehistoric date. This site has the potential to be of national importance. Planning Policy Wales (Chapter 6) Edition 9, 2016, sets out a presumption in favour of preservation in-situ of all types of archaeological sites and monuments. Advice should be sought to devise a strategy (combined archaeological and engineering solutions) to minimise any impact upon the archaeological resource prior to any development. 19


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

Bibliography Cadw and ICOMOS, 2000, Register of landscapes, parks and gardens of special historic interest in Wales: Glamorgan, Cardiff Chartered Institute for Archaeologists. 2014. Archaeological Field Evaluations.

Standard and Guidance for

Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 1996. The Treasure Act 1996 Code of Practice (2nd Revision) Department for Culture, Media and Sport.2002. Treasure (Designation) Order 2002. Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust. 2002. Manual of Excavation Recording Techniques Mackintosh, J, 2000, Extension to the Vale of Glamorgan Golf Club: archaeological desk-based assessment, GGAT Report number: 2000/053 National Panel for Archaeological Archives in Wales. 2017. The National Standard and Guidance to Best Practice for Collecting and Depositing Archaeological Archives in Wales. Newman, J, 1995, The buildings of Wales: Glamorgan, University of Wales Press RCAHMW, 1981, Inventory of ancient monuments in Glamorgan, Volume IV, Part 1: the great houses, HMSO RCAHMW, 1991, Inventory of ancient monuments in Glamorgan, Volume III, Part 1a: the early castles from the Norman conquest to 1217, HMSO Sherman, A, 2014, 3003 Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: Archaeological deskbased assessment, GGAT Report number: 2014/010 Wiggins H and Evans E, 2005, Prehistoric enclosures in Glamorgan, GGAT Report number: 2005/028 Websites: British Geological Survey accessed 12/08/2017 http://mapapps.bgs.ac.uk/ CADW Scheduled Monument Report accessed 12/08/2017 http://cadwpublic-api.azurewebsites.net/reports/sam/FullReport?lang=en&id=634 LiDAR data accessed 12/08/2017 http://lle.gov.wales Documentary & Cartographic Sources Ordnance Survey 1:2500, 1877, First Edition Ordnance Survey 1:2500, 1889, Second Edition Ordnance Survey 1:2500, 1919, Third Edition Tithe Map for the parish of Pendoylan, surveyed 1847 (apportionment prepared 1844) 20


Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation

Appendix I: Inventory of contexts Context 101 102

Type Deposit Deposit

103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Negative feature Deposit

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 201 202 203 204 205 206

Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Negative feature Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

207 208 209

Negative feature Deposit Deposit Deposit

210

Deposit

301

Deposit

302 303 304 305

Deposit Deposit Deposit Structure

Description Topsoil – mid brown silty clay loam Redeposited subsoil – brown/yellow silty clay Red brown silty clay Black organic/buried topsoil Grey brown clay – buried subsoil Yellow clay Red gritty clay Mixed yellow clay – ditch fill 112 Grey clay – ditch fill Red brown silty clay Grey clay Ditch Cut

Depth(m bgl) 0.0-0.35 0.3-0.8

Period Modern Unknown

0.3-0.8 0.45-0.55 0.55-0.75 0.75-1.05 1.05-1.85 n.b 1.05-1.25 1.3-1.4 0.3-0.6 1.45-1-65 0.5-1.65

Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Natural Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown

Yellow brown silty clay - redeposited bank material Grey brown clay - ditch 119 fill Mixed clay silt deposit – ditch 119 fill Light grey clay Mixed subsoil deposit Dark grey clay – basal deposit ditch 119 Ditch cut

0.3-0.6

Unknown

0.35-0.7 0.5-0.9 0.4-0.6 0.35-0.9 0.7-1.0 0.3-1.0

Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown

Topsoil - -sandy clay loam Subsoil – orange clayey sand Grey orange mottled sand Mid brown clayey sand Mid brown clayey sand with frequent rounded/sub rounded stone inclusions Ditch cut

0.0-0.3 0.3-0.7 0.7-0.9 0.9-1.65 1.65 n.b

Modern Natural Natural Natural Natural

0.3-1.25

Unknown

Grey clayey sand – lower ditch fill 206 Grey clay – ditch fill 206 Mixed orange/grey/brown deposit – ditch fill 206 Mid brown clayey sand – upper ditch fill 206 Topsoil – Mid-light brown sandy clay loam Light brown sand Mottled orange/black sandy loam Light brown sandy deposit Masonry wall

0.8-1.25 0.75-1.2 0.6-1.1

Unknown Unknown Unknown

0.3-1.1

Unknown

0.0-0.15

Modern

0.15-0.95 0.95-1.4 1.4 n.b Unknown

Natural Natural Natural Unknown

n.b – not bottomed

21


Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd

QUALITY CONTROL Report Title:: Hensol Pitches, Vale of Glamorgan: archaeological field evaluation Report Date: August 2017 Report Number: 2017/054 Report prepared by:

James Toseland

Position: Date: 17/08/2017

Project Archaeologist

Illustrations prepared by:

Paul Jones and Charlotte James-Martin

Position:

Senior Illustrator and Project Officer

Date:

August 2017

Illustrations checked and authorised by:

Paul Jones

Position:

Senior Illustrator

Date:

25/08/2017

Report checked and authorised by:

Martin Tuck

Position:

Project Manager

Date:

30/08/17

As part of our desire to provide a quality service we would welcome any comments you may wish to make on the content or presentation of this report.

Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd. Heathfield House, Heathfield, Swansea, SA1 6LE Tel. 01792 655208; Fax. 01792 474469 Registered Charity no. 505609 Web: www.ggat.org.uk e-mail: projects@ggat.org.uk

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Hensol Pitches Archaeological Field Evaluation  

GGAT Projects were commissioned by Cardiff City Football Club Club’s agents M2h Architects to undertake an archaeological field evaluation....

Hensol Pitches Archaeological Field Evaluation  

GGAT Projects were commissioned by Cardiff City Football Club Club’s agents M2h Architects to undertake an archaeological field evaluation....

Profile for ggat
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