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46-48 Park Place, Cardiff Archaeological desk-based assessment April 2016

A report for AECOM/Cardiff University By Thomas Davies MA

GGAT report no. 2016/003 Project no.P1821 National Grid Reference: ST 18336 77214

The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd Heathfield House Heathfield Swansea SA1 6EL


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Contents

1. 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 3. 4. 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 5. 6.

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Summary ..................................................................................................................... 3 Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................... 3 Copyright notice ......................................................................................................... 4 Abbreviations ............................................................................................................. 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 5 Planning history................................................................................................................ 5 Specification and methodology for study......................................................................... 5 Assessment criteria ........................................................................................................... 6 Hedgerow Regulations ..................................................................................................... 9 Background ................................................................................................................... 11 Location, Topography and Geology............................................................................... 11 Historical and archaeological background ..................................................................... 13 Previous Investigations .................................................................................................. 15 Review of Documentary, Cartographic and Aerial Resources: ..................................... 16 Walkover Survey ............................................................................................................ 20 Archaeological Interests .............................................................................................. 21 Assessment .................................................................................................................... 23 Effect of the development on archaeological sites ......................................................... 23 Justification of assessment ............................................................................................. 24 Indirect effect of the development on archaeological sites and landscapes ................... 24 Mitigation ...................................................................................................................... 26 Bibliography ................................................................................................................. 28 Cartographic sources ................................................................................................... 28 Appendix I..................................................................................................................... 30 Map Regression ........................................................................................................ 30 Appendix II ................................................................................................................... 35 Plates ........................................................................................................................ 35 Appendix III ................................................................................................................. 45 Aerial photographs with coverage of the allocation area........................................ 45 Appendix IV .................................................................................................................. 47 Apportionments relating to the Tithe Map for the Parish of St John (1845) ........... 47 Appendix V ................................................................................................................... 48 Gazetteer of archaeological interests ...................................................................... 48

Cover Photograph: Development area, view to west, showing the Grade II* listed University College Building

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46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Plates

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Plate 1: A 1948 aerial photograph (CPE/UK/2520, 5198) of Cathays Park, (South at the top of the photograph). The development area is situated below and left of the University College. Photograph kindly supplied by the Central Register of Aerial Photography for Wales. ............. 35 Plate 2: A close up view of the development area, as visible on the 1948 aerial photograph (CPE/UK/2520, 5198) (South at the top of the photograph). Note buildings PP010 and PP011 (centre) in the garden of 46 Park Place (above left). The photograph was kindly provided by the Central Register of Aerial Photography for Wales. ...................................................................................... 36 Plate 3: Plan of 46 Park Place (PP004), from March 1940, showing the proposed conversion into offices, with an air raid shelter in the cellar (Glamorgan Archives Ref: BC/S/1/34121). .................................. 36 Plate 4: A plan of Temporary Motor Shed (PP013) from July 1915 (Glamorgan Archives Ref: BC/S/19452) .............................................................................................................................................................. 37 Plate 5: Plan of 47 Park Place (406833), June 1935. (Glamorgan Archives Ref: BC/S/30458)........................ 38 Plate 6. The development area from the Great Court (420858), view to the northeast. ................................... 38 Plate 7. 46 Park Place (PP004), view to the northeast, with University College building (01194s/31914/LB13757) on left ......................................................................................................... 39 Plate 8. 46 Park Place (PP004), view to the northeast ......................................................................................... 39 Plate 9. The garden of 46 Park Place, view to southeast. .................................................................................... 40 Plate 10: The development area, view to northwest ............................................................................................ 40 Plate 11: Outbuilding PP005, view to southeast .................................................................................................. 41 Plate 12: Great Court and Drapers' Library from the development area. View to southwest ....................... 41 Plate 13: 47 and 48 Park Place (406833), view to east ......................................................................................... 42 Plate 14: 48 Park Place and 1980's extension, view to northeast ....................................................................... 42 Plate 15: 47 and 48 Park Place (406833), with Students' Union steps on right. View to northeast ................. 43 Plate 16: Northwest part of development area, with 48 Park Place. The gates and modern brick wall mark the approximate location of PP013 (temporary motor shed) .......................................................... 43 Plate 17: View towards development area from Museum Avenue (near Alexandra Gardens), view to northeast. PP004 is just visible through the trees, beyond the University College (left) .............. 44 Plate 18: View of development area from Park Place, opposite the rear of The National Museum of Wales (00741s/167/LB13694) ........................................................................................................................ 44

Tables Table 1: Identified archaeological interests within Study Area ......................................................................... 21 Table 2: Direct effects of the development on archaeological interests ............................................................. 23 Table 3: Indirect effects of the development on archaeological interests .......................................................... 25 Table 4: Recommended archaeological mitigation.............................................................................................. 27

Figures Figure 1: Location of site showing the development area (red), study area (green) and sites of archaeological interest (red) ........................................................................................................................................ 12 Figure 2. 1845 Tithe map of the Parish of St John showing the development area (red) ................................ 30 Figure 3. First Edition (1880) Ordnance Survey map showing the development area (red) ........................... 31 Figure 4. Second Edition Ordnance Survey map (1901) showing the development area (red) ....................... 32 Figure 5. Third edition (1921) Ordnance Survey map showing the development area (red) .......................... 33 Figure 6. Fourth edition (1941) Ordnance Survey map showing the development area (red) ........................ 34

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46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Summary The Projects Department of the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust was commissioned by AECOM on behalf of Cardiff University, to carry out an archaeological desk based assessment in preparation for the proposed Centre for Student Life Project at Cardiff University (SC/15/00017/MJR). The assessment reviewed information held by the Regional Historic Environment Record (HER), the National Monuments Record (NMR), Scheduled Ancient Monument and Listed Building information, as well as examining aerial photographs, cartographic and documentary sources. A total of 28 sites of archaeological interest were identified within the study area, of which 8 were located within the development area. Only one of these eight (406833), had previously been identified. It is considered that the development will have a ‘Severe’ effect on three of the sites of archaeological interest within the development area: 406833 and PP004 (Houses) and PP005 (Outbuilding). The development has been assessed as having a ‘Minor’ effect on the five other sites within the development area: PP006, PP007 (Post-medieval outhouses), PP010, PP011 (Post-war temporary buildings), and PP013 (Temporary Motor Shed). The proposed works were judged to have indirect effects on four sites outside the development area. A ‘moderate’ indirect effect was identified on The University College 01194s/31914/LB 13757, and the associated Great Court and Drapers’ Library 420858. A ‘Very slight’ effect is envisaged on Cathays Park (Alexandra Gardens) GM26, and the National Museum of Wales 00741s, 167, LB 13694. The recommended archaeological mitigation entails a building survey on 406833, PP004 and PP005, to the standards detailed in English Heritage’s Understanding Historic Buildings, A guide to good recording practice (2006) and the CIfA's Standard and Guidance for the archaeological investigation and recording of standing buildings or structures 1996 (revised 2001, 2008 and 2014). A watching brief is also recommended on all intrusive groundworks in the area, due to the possibility of Medieval or Post-medieval remains, indicated by the presence of Dobbins Pit Farm to the northwest of the development area, and the existence of several Second World War or early Post-war buildings within the garden of No.46 Park Place. Furthermore, it is advised that Cadw, who have jurisdiction over Listed Buildings, should be consulted, due to the close proximity of the University College building (01194s/31914/LB 13757) and associated Great Court and Drapers’ Library (420858). This would mitigate the ‘moderate’ indirect effect envisaged on these structures. It is also advised that the local authority be consulted as the development area is situated within the Cathays Park Conservation Area: The removal of the existing Victorian buildings may change the character of this part of the Cathays Park Conservation Area. The height and design of the proposed structure will largely determine the extent of these indirect effects. The work has been undertaken to the professional standards of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists and is intended to meet the Standards and Guidance For Historic Environment Desk-based Assessments (2014). Acknowledgements The project has been managed by Richard Lewis MCIfA (Head of Projects) and the report was researched and prepared by Thomas Davies MA of GGAT Projects. The illustrations were 3


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

prepared by Paul Jones PCIfA (Senior Illustrator). The author is grateful to Vivien Davies (CRAPW), Nigel Davies (Cadw), RCAHMW, and the staff of Cardiff Central Library and Glamorgan Archives for their assistance. Copyright notice The copyright of this report is held by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, who have granted an exclusive licence to Cardiff University and their agents enabling them to use and reproduce the material it contains. Ordnance Survey maps are reproduced under licence (AL10005976), unless otherwise stated. Annotations are GGAT copyright. Abbreviations CRAPW: HER: PPXXX: LB: LPA: NGR: NMR: NPRN: PRN: RCAHMW: PGW: SAM:

Central Register of Air Photography for Wales Historic Environment Record (curated by GGAT Curatorial) A new site of archaeological interest discovered during the desk-based assessment Listed Building Local Planning Authority National Grid Reference National Monuments Record (curated by RCAHMW) National Primary Record Number (in NMR) Primary Record Number (in HER - indicated by a letter suffix, in this case ‘g’) Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales Registered Park and Garden in Wales (Cadw and ICOMOS 2000) Scheduled Ancient Monument

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1. Introduction 1.1. Planning history The Projects Department of the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust was commissioned by AECOM on behalf of Cardiff University to carry out an archaeological assessment in preparation for the proposed Centre for Student Life Project at Cardiff University. Cardiff University requested a Screening Opinion (SC/15/00017/MJR) from the local planning authority on the proposed development prior to submission of a planning application. The proposed development entails the removal of all existing structures within the development area, with the subsequent construction of a building c.20m high. The assessment reviewed information held by the Regional Historic Environment Record (HER), the National Monuments Record (NMR), Scheduled Ancient Monument and Listed Building information, as well as examining cartographic and documentary sources, and aerial photographs. 1.2. Specification and methodology for study The desk-based assessment comprises a review of existing information about the archaeological resource within a study area comprising the development area and a 0.2km buffer zone, centred on NGR ST 27227 86553 (outlined in green in Figure 1). The assessment is intended to conform to the Chartered Institute for Archaeologist’s Standards in British Archaeology: Archaeological desk-based assessments (1994, amended 1999, 2001, 2008, 2012 and 2014). Information recorded on the regional Historic Environment Record (HER) (Enquiry Reference: P1821) and National Monuments Record (NMR) was assessed (Enquiry Reference: GL/16/001). Cartographic and documentary sources were studied, along with relevant published information. Current Listed Building data and information on Scheduled Ancient Monuments and Registered landscapes was obtained from Cadw. Collections of aerial photographs held by the Central Register of Air Photography for Wales (CRAPW) were examined (Enquiry Reference: 16/003), and additional information requested from the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales (RCAHMW) (Enquiry Reference: GL/16/001). Detailed advice on archaeology in the planning process is contained in Welsh Office Circular 60/96 Planning and the Historic Environment: Archaeology. Works affecting an ancient monument and its setting are protected through implementation of the Ancient Monument and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. Detailed advice on Environmental Impact Assessment is contained within Welsh Office Circular 11/99 Environmental Impact Assessment, which forms part of the wider Archaeology Planning Policy Wales (PPW). This document sets out the land use planning policies of the Welsh Assembly Government. Planning Policy Wales is supplemented by a series of TANs, and together with the Welsh Office Circulars comprise the National Planning Policy. The Ancient Monument and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 sets out a presumption in favour of preservation in-situ concerning sites and monuments of national importance (scheduled), and there exists in the current Planning Policy Wales (Chapter 6) a presumption in favour of preservation in-situ of all types of archaeological sites and monuments.

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1.3. Assessment criteria Direct effects (Monuments) The archaeological sites within the study area are categorised in accordance with the only available criteria that are nationally agreed; these values are set out in the Department of Transport/Welsh Office/Scottish Office Design Manual for Roads and Bridges paragraph 3.4 Vol. 11 Section 3 Part 2 (HA 208/07 Cultural Heritage). •

Category A: national importance

Category B: regional importance

Category C: local importance

Category D: low importance

To these an additional category has been added •

Category U: unknown

The assessment of the importance of individual sites is essentially a subjective exercise based upon the experience of the project team. The importance of certain sites will be implied by their status within the statutory framework. Scheduled Ancient Monuments will always be of national importance; Listed Buildings will be of at least regional importance. Values assigned to other sites are given both in relation to their individual importance and to their context within the wider landscape. The condition of individual sites and the general overall condition of surviving remains has bearing on the value of the sites themselves and on the value that they impart within a wider landscape context. The condition of sites is recorded following the system used by the GGAT HER, using the following criteria: •

Intact: the site is intact

Near intact: the site is nearly intact

Damaged: the site has been moderately damaged

Near destroyed: the site has nearly been destroyed

Destroyed: the site has been destroyed

Restored: the site has been restored

Moved: the site has been moved (usually finds)

Not known: the condition of the site is not known

For the purposes of desk-based assessments, rarity is assessed at regional level only. The following criteria are used: •

High: very few sites of this type are known

Medium: the site is not unusual, but cannot be considered common

Low: the site is quite common

Group association is where a connection between sites within the landscape can be demonstrated. These will usually be of the same period, but may include groups where the presence of an earlier site or sites has led to the formation of a later complex, or where an 6


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earlier site or sites can be shown to have acquired importance as part of a later complex. The criteria are as follows: •

High: the site forms part of an interconnected complex occupying a clearly definable landscape where little or no fragmentation has occurred

Medium: the site is part of an interconnected complex, which is either limited in scope or badly fragmented

Low: there are few or no other sites, which are associated

Historical association is where there is a link between the site and known historical or cultural persons or events. Prehistoric sites, which are by definition before historical evidence, cannot have any contemporary historical association, but they may acquire later associations. For the Roman and Early-medieval periods, where survival of historical evidence is poor and patchy, any contemporary documentation at all will be important. Two classifications are given for historical association, one reflecting the certainty of the identification, and the other its importance. Only sites with certain or possible association can be assessed for importance, and historical association can only increase the importance of a site; the absence of it will never decrease its importance. Historical association- identification •

Certain

Possible

Unknown

Historical association- importance •

High

Medium

Low

The assignment of values to identified interests requires consideration of the reliability and accuracy of the source data, ranging from fully-recorded features seen in open excavation to antiquarian comments on finds of note from a poorly-defined location. The confidence with which the values have been assigned is noted, using the following criteria: •

High: existing information is reliable and detailed

Medium: existing information is apparently reliable but limited in detail

Low: existing information is too limited to allow its reliability to be assessed

The effect of the proposal on the archaeological resource has been assessed using the following criteria: •

Severe: total loss

Major: significant loss, likely to result in a reduction of value of the surviving site

Minor: loss unlikely to result in a reduction of value of the surviving site

None: no identifiable effect

Beneficial: development will protect, preserve or enhance the site better than if the development did not occur 7


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Indirect Effects (Monument and Landscape settings) Indirect effects identified for the archaeological resource include those of visibility and setting issues. Only monuments of National and Regional importance with a direct visual significance will be assessed for indirect effects. If the development is situated within (or sometimes in close proximity to) a Registered Historic Landscape then an ASIDOHL2 (Assessment of the Significance of the Impact of Development on Historic Landscape) assessment is usually required. Although the current development is not located within a Registered Historic Landscape, it is located within the Cathays Park conservation area and it is thus considered important to assess the potential indirect impact of the development upon the archaeological resource of the area. The following indirect visual assessment does not conform to the full ASIDOHL2 methodology. However, in order to ensure a thorough evaluation, indirect effects have been assessed employing the principles of ASIDOHL2. Indirect effects to category A and B sites will be measured against criteria for the assessment of indirect, visual impacts based upon the ASIDOHL2 methodology in Guide to Good Practice on Using the Register of Landscapes of Historic Interest in Wales in the Planning and Development Process (2nd Edition 2007). The grading for the assessment is as follows: •

Very severe: the setting of, key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument are dominated or obscured by the development. The form, scale and appearance, including motion, of the development, compromise the cultural integrity of the monument and its setting resulting in severance of historical links and/or degradation of an unaltered setting.

Severe: the setting of, key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument are interrupted by the development. The form, scale and appearance, including motion, of the development, largely affects the cultural value of the monument and its setting resulting in possible severance of historical links and/or uncharacteristic change to a largely unaltered setting.

Considerable: the development is significantly visible in or interrupts the setting of, key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument. The form and appearance, including motion of the development results in discordance with the monument and change to a largely unaltered setting.

Moderate: the development is visible in key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument and its setting. The form and appearance, including motion of the development results in discordance with the monument and/or alteration to its setting.

Slight: the development is noticeable in key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument and its setting. The form and appearance, including motion of the development is noticeable and results in minor alteration to the setting of the monument.

Very slight: the development is barely noticeable within the setting of, key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument. The setting is already largely altered and unsympathetic and/or the form and appearance, including motion of the development is barely noticeable and results in little discernible change to the setting.

None: the development is not noticeable within the setting of, key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument. The setting is already altered and unsympathetic 8


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

and/or the form and appearance, including motion of the development is not noticeable and results in no discernible change to the setting. The assessment of individual sites is essentially a subjective exercise based upon the experience of the project team. The following aspects will be considered when determining the results of the assessment. •

Any potential impacts that the development may have on the relationships of the monument to its surrounding landscape, including other monuments.

The nature, extent and intrinsic value of the monument’s setting, including its role in relation to the monument; the impact to both the immediate, essential setting and the wider setting is considered.

Interference with the inter-visibility between the monument and other related monuments or particular landscape elements, impact to key viewpoints, vistas and lines of sight.

The purpose of the monument and significance of views to and from it will be considered in terms of visual intention. Whilst the location, construction and function of some monuments were specifically chosen to afford views of a particular area or monument(s), others may instead have been the targets of observation. The visual impact of the development in terms of form, scale, appearance and the effect of movement of constituent parts as well as the extent of encroachment of the development into the setting (both immediate and wider) of the monument should be considered. Impacts to the direct lines of sight as well as impacts upon wider views of monuments will be determined and graded using the categories described above (very severe down to very slight). 1.4. Hedgerow Regulations The site contains a short boundary, at the southern edge of the development area, whose course follows boundaries traceable on the Parish Tithe map and an earlier 19th century plan. The Environment Act 1995 (section 95) allowed regulations to be drawn up to protect important hedgerows from activities that were not subject to planning consent. The Environment Act 1995 Hedgerow Regulations 1997 were specifically intended to provide objective criteria of importance which could be applied consistently across England and Wales. Thus although administered by the local planning authorities, the opportunity to develop local criteria for protection was restricted to designation as a key landscape characteristic for development control purposes (Section7b ii) by the relevant date (April 1997). The regulations permit the removal of any hedgerow (including any stretch of hedgerow) for ‘carrying out development for which planning permission has been granted’ on the basis that the development control process provides a framework for weighing up the loss of hedgerows against the benefits of a proposal. Thus in such a context the significance of surviving hedgerows needs to be considered. The regulations were the subject of a review by the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Review of the Hedgerow Regulations 1997 (1998), which suggested a simplified set of criteria, notably to include all pre-1845 or pre-1800 hedgerows where the field system is substantially complete. The Government noted the proposed changes but has not endorsed them (The Government’s response to the Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Committee’s Report ‘The Protection of Field Boundaries’ 1999). The 1997 criteria therefore remain in force. Judicial Review of the application of the regulations (Flintshire County Council v NAW and Mr J T Morris) has clarified the interpretation of some of the criteria. 9


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The criteria of historic importance in The Hedgerow Regulations 1997 can be summarised as: •

marking a parish or township boundary

incorporating or associated with a Scheduled Ancient Monument or site on the SMR at the relevant date

marking a pre-1600 AD manor or estate boundary, or related to a building of such a manor or estate

part of a field system pre-dating 1845 shown on a map in Record Office

part of a pre-1845 field system that is substantially complete

part of a pre-1845 field system where the pattern was identified in 1997 as a key landscape characteristic

There are other criteria relating to rights of way and ecology.

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2. Background 2.1. Location, Topography and Geology The proposed development is centred on NGR ST 18336 77214 northeast of Cathays Park, Cardiff, between 46 and 48 Park Place. The area is urban in character, bounded to the northeast by the modern railway line between Cardiff Queen Street and Cathays stations, beyond which are streets of terraced housing. Houses are also located to the northwest and southeast of the development area (currently university buildings), along Park Place. Across this road to the southwest is situated Cathays Park and its associated university and civic buildings. Topographically, the area is flat, although views at ground level tend to be limited by large buildings. The superficial geology of the area comprises Devensian Glaciofluvial Sheet deposits of sand and gravel overlying Mudstone bedrock of the Mercia Mudstone group (BGS 2015).

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46-48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Based on the Ordnance Survey 1:25000 map 2016 with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

Area shown in main plan

01570.9s

PP003

0

420869

1.00km

0.50

9297 PP008

PP013

PP012

420867 406833 PP002

PP007 PP011

PP001 420858

06422.0m PP010

PP004

01194s/31914/LB13757 PP005

03138s

PP006

GM26 307794/LB21670 307795 PP009

21711

00741s/167/LB13694

21710 Based on the Ordnance Survey Mastermap 2014 with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

0

Figure 1. Location of site with study area (green outline), development area (hatched red) and sites of archaeological interest (red)

12

100.00

GRID N

200.00metres


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

2.2. Historical and archaeological background General Historical Background Several archaeological finds suggest human activity in the area of the modern city centre from as early as the Bronze Age: a decorated axe head (01723s) dating to the early Bronze Age was discovered within an earth bank at Cardiff Castle, and a middle Bronze Age socketed axe head (01516s) was found under St Mary’s Street (Graham 2007). Substantial Roman activity is known from this area, with four successive phases of fort (00101s/SAM GM171), dating from the 1st to the 4th centuries AD, all located in the vicinity of the later medieval castle (which lies approximately 0.5km southwest of the development area). The ramparts of the final phase (c.270AD) were built of stone, and it is these which were fossilised in the later medieval castle walls. It is likely that a civilian settlement would have developed around the fort, and this is suggested by evidence of ironworking and pottery sherds found on High Street (00107s), south of the castle, in 1892 (Ward, 1908). However, the settlement is little understood and its exact nature and extent remains largely unknown (Webster and Marvell 2010). Following the Norman invasion of South Wales during the late 11th century, Cardiff Castle (00102s/ SAM GM171) was founded by Robert Fitzhamon, utilising the masonry remains of the 4th phase of Roman fort as a foundation. In the shadow of the castle, a town developed, initially defended by an earth and timber rampart, but by 1171 the town had grown too large to be contained by this, leading to the establishment of a new borough outside the town. By 1262 it included 400 burgages, a conservative estimate of the population at this time is around 2000 people (Rees 1969). Cardiff was a prosperous trading centre throughout the later medieval period and although the population declined from the 14th century to about 1345 people, the town retained its importance. However, with the Industrial Revolution from the late eighteenth century, Cardiff rapidly expanded, becoming a key export centre for coal and iron from the south Wales valleys. During the 19th century, it became the largest coal and iron exporting port in the world. During the early 20th century, a civic centre complex was developed at Cathays (see site specific background). The town was granted city status by Edward VII in 1905 and was designated as the Welsh capital in 1955 (Graham 2007). Site Specific Background A farm is known to have existed at Cathays from at least the seventeenth century: a Foelix Fox was known to reside there in 1682, and the same family remained in possession until at least 1738 (Pettigrew 1929). In the later part of the eighteenth century, the house was obtained by the First Marquis of Bute, John Stuart, who planned to make the house his residence in about 1800 (ibid.). This was located at the western side of the modern Cathays Park. Around 1812 Bute demolished the existing house and constructed a new mansion, Cathays House, with associated gardens and an ice house, for £40,000 (ibid.). This house is mentioned in the 1813 Cardiff trade directory as ‘Cathays Park, a seat belonging to the most noble the Marquis of Bute, half a mile north [of the city]’ (Ridd 1813). 13


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The grounds included a market garden or nursery to the east of the main house (today within the study area beneath the university college), where a second small farmstead, called Dobbins Pit, was located. This is likely to be a home farm associated with the Cathays Estate, but place name evidence may suggest an earlier origin: a reference to Dobbin Pits is known from as early as 1492, and records may indicate that a John Dobin resided in the district as early as 1314, and the place name Dobbin Pits had appeared by 1492 (Chappell 1946), although it is unknown whether it relates directly to the known farmstead on the later mapping, or to medieval activity elsewhere in the Cathays area. Stuart died in 1814, and his successor soon demolished this building, although the exact date is contested: the demolition took place between 1815 (suggested by Pettigrew, 1929), and 1824 (CADW/ICOMOS 2000). It had certainly vanished by 1829, as it had disappeared from the Cardiff Directory by this date (Bird 1829). The gardens, however, remained (CADW/ICOMOS 2000), along with an ice house, which was still visible at the northwest corner of the park in 1897 (Pettigrew 1929). From the 1850’s onwards, the purchase of the land in this area and subsequent creation of a public park was postulated: Although urban development during the latter half of the century saw the construction of houses along Park Place and the development of terraced housing to the north and east, the lands to the west (including the formal gardens) were left largely unaltered. However, it was the need to construct a larger town hall that led to the eventual purchase of these lands in 1898, for £160,000 (Newman 1995). The earliest buildings of the civic centre were the law courts, erected between 1901 and 1904, and the town hall (now City Hall), erected between 1901 and 1905. Other buildings soon followed, including the University College building (01194s/31914/LB 13757) (Today known as Main Building). This was designed by W.D. Caroe in 1903 as part of a limited competition and constructed from 1905. The library, paid for by the Drapers’ Company of London, formed the centrepoint of the west range, whilst the two further ranges, extending eastward from this, were built later: The north between 1912 and 1930, and the south in 1954 (Newman 1995). Originally, the building was to have formed a quadrangle, with a great hall fronting onto Park Place, but this was abandoned, and the ranges today surround an open courtyard, which faces the development area. This building is Grade I listed. Another building within Cathays Park which falls into the study area is the National Museum of Wales (00741s/167/LB 13694), begun in 1913 and opened in 1927, although many alterations have been made since. It was originally intended to be much longer, and the west range was added in 1962 – 1965. Most recently, a new central hall was completed in 1993 (Newman 1994). Northwest of the development area is a triangular plot of land containing several other university buildings, including the Law Department, constructed between 1958 and 1962, a twelve storey tower (420869) completed in 1967, and other buildings, initially the pre-clinical departments of the School of Medicine (now the Sir Martin Evans building (420867), between 1968 and 1970. The Student’s Union is located on the opposite side of Park Place, and was constructed in 1973. It consists of a brown brick building built over the railway, with steps ascending to the main entrance from Park Place.

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The civic centre, with its concentration of buildings of great importance to the development of Cardiff, was designated as the Cathays Park Conservation Area in 1975 (Cardiff City Council 2009). The whole of the Development Area and the southwestern half of the Study Area falls within this conservation area. Its eastern boundary is defined by the existing railway, which also forms the eastern boundary of the development area. Park Place forms an integral part of the Conservation Area, due to the high number of Victorian Villas which have survived (ibid.). This railway began life as the Taff Vale Railway (06422.0m). The Taff Vale Railway Company was incorporated on 21st June 1836 (Barries 1964), with the aim of constructing a railway to carry industrial goods (primarily coal) between Merthyr Tydfil and Cardiff: prior to this most goods were transported by canal. The railway opened for traffic between Cardiff and Abercynon on 9th October 1840, and operated throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The Taff Vale Railway Company was amalgamated with the Great Western Railway Company in 1922, and became part of the Western Region of British Railways in 1948 (Barries 1964). 2.3. Previous Investigations No previous archaeological work has been conducted within either the development area or the study area. The nearest excavation to take place was located in the vicinity of the castle, and to its south and west, approximately 0.5km southwest of the development area. Most notably, this included an excavation at the castle itself by GGAT in 2008, which revealed elements of the Roman stone wall, the medieval wall and a nineteenth century cobbled surface (Dunning 2008).

15


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

2.4. Review of Documentary, Cartographic and Aerial Resources: Cartographic (Appendix I) 1845 Tithe Map of the parish of St John (Figures 1 and 2) The development area approximately corresponds to a single land parcel (153) on the 1845 Tithe Map for the parish of St John, possibly encroaching on two further land parcels: 155 and 156, located to the south of 153. These were entirely agricultural, with no buildings depicted. Bordering the development area are the newly constructed Taff Vale Railway (06422.0m) and the road of Park Place. The road converges with the railway, approximately at the northern edge of the development area on this map. Other notable features on the tithe are two rectangular fields on the opposite side of Park Place, which stand out due to the irregular shape of the other fields nearby. These were listed as a ‘Market Garden’ on the Tithe apportionment, and correspond to the Market Garden thought to be associated with Cathays House, the site of which lies outside the study area to the west. They are later depicted as formal gardens (03138s) on the Ordnance Survey Maps (see Figures 3 and 4). They also approximately correspond to the plot of land on which the early 20th century university building (01194s/31914/LB13757) was later constructed. A group of buildings are located at the northwest edge of these fields, (PP001), identified on the apportionment as Dobbins Pit Farm, and another is located on the boundary between the two (PP002): the sites of these are now covered by the university buildings. Apart from these, there are no substantial buildings in the immediate vicinity, and the edge of the town is still located near the castle approximately 350m south of the study area (550m south of the development area). The tithe apportionment was also viewed at Glamorgan Archives, and the details are included in Appendix IV First edition (1880) Ordnance Survey map (Figures 1 and 3) The first edition OS Map is much more detailed than the tithe, showing the market garden mentioned above as formal walled gardens (03138s), crossed by many regular paths bordered by trees or bushes. The buildings shown on the tithe (PP001, PP002), remain, and a further house (PP003) is shown just north of the Taff Vale railway, about 40m north of the development area. The map shows that the town of Cardiff had expanded considerably by this time, with houses along Park Place as far as the development area (including listed buildings 21710 and 21711) on the corner with Richmond Terrace). No.46, (PP004) with its associated outhouses to the east (PP005) and northwest (PP006), had been built by this time in the southern third of the development area, whilst the rest is shown as open ground. However, the land within the study area northeast of the railway and west of Park Place still mainly consisted of fields and trees at this time, although development had taken place to the north. Second edition (1901) Ordnance Survey map (Figures 1 and 4) By the time of the second edition OS Map (1901), Park Place had been extended to connect with Corbett Road to the northwest of the Study Area, and a series of houses built on its eastern side, including No. 47 and No.48 (406833) within the development area, northwest of No.46. A group of smaller outhouses (PP007) also appear in the garden of 46 Park Place, whilst (PP006) appears to have been elongated (or replaced with a longer range) to adjoin the main building. By this time, outbuilding (PP005) had gained an extension towards No.46 (PP004), which had itself gained several small additions. A further small lean-to structure seems to have 16


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

been added to the northwest side of no.46. The other major differences when compared with the first edition are the substantial widening of the Taff Vale Railway in this area, from two lines to as many as eleven (PP008): these seem to be sidings, perhaps associated with a depot beyond the study area to the northeast. This expansion seems to have swallowed the house (PP003) noted on the first edition. Northeast of the railway, Senghennydd Road had been laid out, and the terraced housing visible today had been built beyond it. The gardens (03138s) and Cathays Park southwest of Park Place remain largely unchanged, with the exception of Dobbins Pit farm (PP001), which seems to have been removed by this time. Third edition (1920) Ordnance Survey map (Figures 1 and 5) The third edition OS Map (1920) shows little change within the development area by this time, or to the northwest. Within the development area, a small outbuilding was visible at the north of 48 Park Place. The most visible changes to within the study area are to the southwest: the gardens (03138s) had vanished, and the west range of the university college (01194s/31914/LB13757) constructed in their place. Beyond the university to the southwest, Alexandra Gardens (421034) had been laid out, whilst at the southern edge of the development area, the National Museum of Wales (00741s/167/LB13694) had been constructed. Fourth edition Ordnance Survey map (1941) (Figures 1 and 6) By the fourth edition, the outbuilding (PP006), has disappeared from the mapping, although (PP007) remains. Additionally, a large rectangular extension had been added to the southeast side of No.47 (406833) (See plan BC/S/1/30458 in the ‘Documentary’ section). Outside the development area, the northern range of the university building had been added, and a sports ground is shown in the triangular plot to the north, while to the south, the public conveniences (307794/LB21670) had been constructed. Northeast, on Llanbleddian Gardens, several of the houses seem to have disappeared by this time (PP012): it is possible that this relates to bomb damage during the Second World War (see below). Aerial Photography (Appendix III) The earliest examined aerial photographic coverage of the development area dates to 1946 (4654 CPE UK 1871).These RAF photographs shows little difference when compared with the fourth edition Ordnance Survey Map. Nos. 46, 47 and 48 Park Place appear much the same, with what appears to be a garden space between 46 and 47, filled with trees, and possibly the same small buildings that appear on the fourth edition. Elsewhere, there are few notable features, except a number of rectangular features in the open space between the Museum and University. The clearer 1948 photographs (4822 CPE UK 2520) (Plates 1 and 2, Appendix II), suggest that these are subdivided into small plots, which appear to be allotments (PP009). Within the development area, two parallel rectangular ranges of buildings or sheds are notable, aligned approximately northwest-southeast (PP010), constructed since the 1941 4th edition OS map. The one nearest the railway appears to have at least four chimneys. Another range (PP011) on a similar alignment adjoins no.46 Park Place (PP004), approximately where the earlier range (PP007) is shown on the 2nd and 3rd (but not 4th) edition OS maps. By 1948, houses are shown being rebuilt at Llanbleddian Gardens (PP012), northwest of the development area. The outhouse north of 48 Park Place (PP0013) is difficult to see at this point. The aerial photographs examined from 1950 (5022 541 RAF 527) and 1952 (5211 58 RAF 863) show little discernible difference with the 1948 photographs. The allotments (PP009) are less noticeable, and building work appears to be taking place at the back of the museum. However, by 1960 (6007543 RAF 950) significant changes had occurred. Within the development area, the two structures (PP010) had disappeared, although (PP011) remained. 17


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Most impressively, the south range of the university building had been constructed. Just beyond the study area, ground had been cleared for the new university law building. The allotments (PP009) had vanished by this time. Several other photographs of 1962 – 1963 were examined (6209 58 RAF 5098, 6213 58 RAF 5502, 6310 OS 63 074), but show only marginal development in the vicinity of the study area, including the completion of the Law Building, and some building work at the back of the museum. The later 1968 photograph shows significant alteration in the northwest part of the study area, with the construction of the Sir Martin Evans building (420867) and Tower building (420869). Equally, at the southern edge of the study area, the southwest range of the National Museum had been completed, and the university laboratory building (307795) constructed at its rear. The 1971 photograph (7156 39 RAF 3764) also indicates significant change in the development area since 1968: By this time the railway sidings (PP008), had been removed, reducing the railway to just two lines. These sidings had been replaced by tennis courts, a car park and various university buildings, including the Student’s Union building, which was still under construction on this photograph (completed 1973). To the north of this, the railway sidings had been replaced by a car park and tennis courts. The 1976 photograph shows the completed Student’s Union building and, to the south, the new mathematics building. Later developments evident from the aerial photography are few, but they include the construction of a low building adjoining no.48 Park Place to the north, which is certainly in existence by 1976. This was in the process of being replaced by the modern structure in 1983 (8324 OS 83 022), and complete by 1985 (8545 BKS). Outside the development area, a new gallery was constructed in the museum, between the two ranges (8545 BKS). Between 1991 (9138), and 1993 (9387 OS 93 110), the laboratory building (307795) was demolished, and its place taken by a car park for the National Museum. Since 1993, structure (PP011), together with other small additions at the northwestern side of No.46 Park Place (PP004), have been removed, leaving only the remains of the former footpath surrounding the building. Outside the development area, Miskin Chapel (9297) had also been demolished by 2000 (200029). A list of all aerial photographs consulted at the Central Register of Aerial Photography for Wales is included in Appendix IV. Documentary A photocopy of an early nineteenth century plan of Cardiff was viewed at Glamorgan Archives (DXGC94/4/i-ii). This was a photocopy of a plan held at the National Library of Wales, and dates between 1815 and 1824 (it shows Cathays House which was demolished sometime between these dates). The plan indicated that the site of the development was then the part of a larger field extending to the east, prior to the construction of the Taff Vale Railway. Whilst Dobbins Farm and associated buildings are shown, no other buildings are evident in the study area. The southern boundary of the field corresponds to the boundary shown on the tithe map onwards, and which today forms the southeast boundary of the development area. The documentary evidence assessed also included several building plans. One, approved on the 9th July 1946, shows the plan for the rebuilding of houses in Llanbleddian Gardens (PP012), notably absent on the 1941 Ordnance Survey map, and evident on the post-war (1948) aerial photographs. Although the document does not state why the buildings were being rebuilt, the date suggests that bomb damage may have been a likely possibility (BC/S/1/35584). 18


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

All other plans viewed related to buildings within the Development Area. The earliest (BC/S/1/7403) was approved in August 1889, and showed proposed alterations to 46 Park Place (PP004) and Outbuilding (PP005): These are the alterations visible on the 1901 Ordnance Survey map (Figure 4). The plan was drawn up for J.G. Marychurch, presumably the owner of the house, by architect J. Wilson Siddall of Penarth. The alterations included a new larder, pantry and toilets on the northwest side, and a coal shed and W.C. on the east. The same plan (BC/S/1/7403) also showed the long, perpendicular extension proposed for the outbuilding (PP005). The plan shows that this was originally a stable, which was to be converted into a coach house, with a coachman’s room (with fireplace) above: The new extension was to comprised the new stables, with a harness room, a room for feed, with a probable hayloft (as a hay slide was envisaged as forming part of this structure). The plot of land at this time is shown approximately the same as parcel 153 on the tithe map (Figure 2): a long garden which tapered almost to a point at the northwest. A further plan of 46 Park Place (BC/S/1/34121) was approved in March 1940 (Plate 3). This proposed the conversion of the house into offices, and showed that the basement was intended to be used as an ARP refuge (if it was not already). The basement had two entrances: one by the main interior stairway, the second by a small exterior structure, 4ft high, with 14" thick walls and a reinforced concrete roof. This gave access to the main part of the shelter, which had a corrugated iron roof (beneath the ground floor), and male and female chemical closets. Another plan (BC/S/1/19452), concerns a temporary motor shed at 48 Park Place, approved on 15th July 1915 (Plate 4). This corresponds to the structure (PP013) visible on the 3rd and 4th edition Ordnance Survey maps. The motor shed comprised a 6 inch cement or concrete floor, but otherwise comprised wooden framing, covered with tongue and groove matchboards, with a felt or corrugated iron roof. The plan was drawn by E.H. Couzens, of City Road works, Cardiff, for J.C. Jefree esq. of 48 Park Place. The final plan related to proposed extensions to 47 Park Place (406833) for offices, approved on the 20th June 1935 (BC/S/1/30458). This extension, (also visible on the 1941 4th edition OS map), was constructed in a similar style to the existing building (Plate 5).

19


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

2.5. Walkover Survey A walkover survey was conducted on 20th January 2016, during which the development area was photographed along with key sites from the study area. Sites previously identified from a search of the regional Historic Environment Record (HER) and National Monuments Record (NMR) were visited in order to assess their current condition. A sample of photographs (Plates 6 – 18) illustrating the current condition of the sites of archaeological interest can be seen in Appendix II. The site is located in a heavily urbanised area, comprising mainly university and civic centre buildings, with terraced housing to the northwest of the railway line. The only significant areas of clear ground had been subject to landscaping over many years, since the establishment of Alexandra Gardens during the later 19th century. The development area comprised several former villas (46, 47 and 48 Park Place), and a garden. The survey was conducted during clear weather, in strong sunlight. The subsequent strong shadows and glare, particularly when facing southwards, adversely affected the quality of the photographs. No new sites were identified during the course of the survey, although evidence of sites discovered during the cartographic and documentary and photographic research was assessed. Most notably, the remains of a concrete path, judged to have originally surrounded structure (PP011), indicate the original position of this structure (Plates 9 and 10).

20


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

3. Archaeological Interests There are 28 sites of archaeological interest identified within the study area (see Figure 1 and Table 1). A total of 8 sites have been identified within the development area. Five digit numbers with a letter suffix (g) are Primary Record Numbers (PRNs) recorded in the regional HER. Five or six figure numbers without a letter suffix are National Primary Record Numbers (NPRNs) of the NMR, as supplied to the HER under the ENDEX agreement. Numbers with a ‘PP’ prefix were identified during the present assessment. Table 1: Identified archaeological interests within Study Area ID

Site Name

NGR

Type

Period

Status

00741s/167/LB 13694

National Museum of Wales

ST1834676973

Museum

Modern

01194s/31914/LB 13757

University College Cardiff

ST1821477172

Modern

01570.9s

Cathays Park Railway Station

ST1825677320

University College Railway Station

Modern

Grade I Listed Building Grade II* Listed Building None

03138s

Walled Garden to the Northeast of Cathays Park

ST18247718

Walled Garden

Post-medieval

None

06422.0m

Taff Vale Railway

ST1836777208

Railway

Post-medieval

None

21710

31 and 32 Park Place

ST18417700

House

Post-medieval

21711

33 and 34 Park Place

ST18417702

House

Post-medieval

307794/LB 21670

Public Conveniences, Cathays Park, Cardiff

ST1824177055

Modern

307795

ST18297706

Modern

406833

Laboratory Block, Black Box, Cardiff University, Cathays Park, Cardiff 47 Park Place, Cardiff

Public Conveniences Laboratory

Grade II Listed Building Grade II Listed Building Grade II Listed Building None

ST1829477250

House

Post Medieval

None

420858

Great Court and Draper’s Library

ST1825277195

Courtyard

Modern

420867

University of Wales Sir Martin Evans Building

ST1815077258

University

Modern

Grade II* Listed Building None

420869

University of Wales Tower Building

ST1811277314

University

Modern

None

9297

Miskin Street Bible Christian Chapel, Cathays, Cardiff

ST1850277306

Chapel

Post Medieval

None

21


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment ID

Site Name

NGR

Type

Period

Status

GM26

Cathays Park

ST182770

Post-medieval

PP001

Dobbins Pit farm: House and Outbuildings

ST18146 77229

Park/Formal Gardens House

Post-medieval

Grade II Historic Park and Garden None

PP002

Building (part of Dobbins Pit farm)

ST1826277226

Outbuilding

Post-medieval

None

PP003

House alongside Taff Vale Railway

ST1829177314

House

Post-medieval

None

PP004

46 Park Place

ST1835977182

House

Post-medieval

None

PP005

Stables/coach house associated with 46 Park Place

ST1838677177

Outbuilding

Post-medieval

None

PP006

Outhouse associated with 46 Park Place

ST1834277192

Outhouse

Post-medieval

None

PP007

Outhouse group associated with 46 Park Place

ST1834677201

Outhouses

None

PP008

Railway sidings associated with Taff Vale Railway

ST1830077300

Railway

PP009

Allotments

St18264 77059

Allotments

Post-medieval/ Modern Post-medieval/ Modern Modern

PP010

Temporary buildings associated with 46 Park Place

ST1831877221

Modern

None

PP011

Temporary building/extension to 46 Park Place

ST1834777202

Modern

None

PP012

Victorian terraced housing, post-war rebuild

ST1843477301

Modern

None

PP013

Temporary motor shed

ST1826877286

Temporary building Temporary building Terraced housing Garage

Modern

None

22

None None


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

4. Assessment 4.1. Effect of the development on archaeological sites It is considered that the proposed development will have a ‘Severe’ effect on three of the sites of archaeological interest within the development area: 406833 and PP004 (Houses) and PP005 (Outbuilding). The development has been assessed as having a ‘Minor’ effect on five further sites: PP006, PP007 (Post-medieval outhouses), PP010, PP011 (Post-war temporary buildings), and PP013 (Temporary motor shed). Table 2: Direct effects of the development on archaeological interests ID

Site Name

Type

Period

Condition

Status

Value

Rarity

406833

47 Park Place, Cardiff 46 Park Place

House

Post medieval

Intact

None

C

House

Post-medieval

Intact

None

Stables/coach house associated with 46 Park Place Outhouse associated with 46 Park Place Outhouse group associated with 46 Park Place Temporary buildings associated with 46 Park Place Temporary building/ extension to 46 Park Place Temporary motor shed

Outbuilding

Post-medieval

Restored

Outhouse

Post-medieval

Outhouses

PP004 PP005

PP006

PP007

PP010

PP011

PP013

Historical Association Possible/Low

Confidence

Effect

Low

Group Association Medium

Medium

Severe

C

Low

Medium

Certain/Low

High

Severe

None

D

Low

Medium

Unknown

Low

Severe

Unknown

None

D

Low

Medium

Unknown

Low

Minor

Post-medieval/ Modern

Unknown

None

D

Low

Medium

Unknown

Low

Minor

Temporary building

Modern

Destroyed

None

D

Low

Medium

Unknown

Low

Minor

Temporary building

Modern

Nearly Destroyed

None

D

Low

Medium

Unknown

Low

Minor

Garage

Modern

Destroyed

None

D

Low

Medium

Unknown

Low

Minor

23


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

4.2. Justification of assessment It is considered that the proposed development will have a ‘Severe’ effect on three of the sites of archaeological interest within the development area: Nos. 46 (PP004) and 47 (406833) Park Place, and Stables/coach house (PP005). The development of this area will result in the total loss of these Post-medieval structures, which form an integral part of the Cathays Park Conservation Area. Preservation by record is therefore necessary. The development has been assessed as having a ‘Minor’ effect on five further sites: Two Postmedieval outhouses (PP006, PP007), the Second World War or Post-war temporary buildings (PP010, PP011) and the Temporary motor shed (PP013). The only visible remains relate to PP011: no other above ground remains are extant. All five sites are deemed to be of Low’ (Category ‘D’) importance. The Post-medieval buildings PP006 and PP007 may have been damaged during the later Postwar development of the site, although any surviving remains may give a more complete character of 46 Park Place. Of the post-war temporary buildings, buildings PP010 are known to have been removed after 1952, and PP011 since 1993. The temporary nature of these structures, and that of PP013, makes it unlikely that substantial remains survive. The surviving building plan of Temporary Motor Shed (PP013) already shows a great deal of detail on its construction: only the concrete floor is likely to be encountered, and subsequent development is already likely to have damaged, if not destroyed, any remains of interest. Although the buildings are of limited interest, and have mostly been demolished during the 20th century, the groundworks are likely to remove any remains which have survived: therefore, the effect of the development on these sites has been assessed as ‘Minor’. 4.3. Indirect effect of the development on archaeological sites and landscapes In addition to the potential direct effects the development may have on the archaeological resource of the area, the proposed works were judged to have a ‘moderate’ indirect effect on two sites: The University College (01194s/31914/LB 13757), and the associated Great Court and Drapers’ Library (420858). A ‘Very slight’ effect is envisaged on Cathays Park (Alexandra Gardens) (GM26), and on the National Museum of Wales (00741s/167/LB 13694). The University College, Drapers’ Library and Great Court all form part of the same structure, and are located within 30m of the development area. Viewed from the rear entrance to the Drapers’ Library, at the centre of the Great Court, the development will be highly visible, and depending on the height and design of the building has the potential to dominate the view of the building from the north and south. However, the front façade of the university college faces west, and the development area is not currently visible when facing the front façade: this would depend upon the design of the structure. However, the surroundings of the university building to the east and north have already been subject to large alterations from its original Edwardian setting. The existing Students’ Union building of 1973, which currently faces the development, is a brown brick structure which can already be considered to detract significantly from the setting and architectural style of the main university building. Equally, the Sir Martin Evans and Tower building from 1968-70 are largely unsympathetic to the character of the conservation area, and there is therefore a precedent for change. It must also be noted, however, that the proposed development would result in the removal of two structures (47 and 48 Park Place), which have stood since the 24


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

construction of the university building: these are two of a number of Victorian villas on Park Place deemed to form an integral part of the Conservation Area. The proximity of the Grade II* listed building to the development is a matter for careful consideration, including the potential for damage by noise and vibration during demolition and construction works. As a result of these combined considerations, the effect on these structures is deemed to be ‘Moderate’. The development area is also likely to be partially visible from some parts of Alexandra Gardens, which form part of GM26 (Cathays Park). However, the distance is greater in this instance, (approximately 180m from the development), and most of the development area is completely obscured by the University College: only at the southern part of Alexandra Gardens is there a view to the southern extremity of the development area. Additionally, this view is largely obscured by an avenue of trees on the western side of Park Place, even in winter: when in leaf, these trees will likely block this view almost completely. The effect of the development is therefore deemed to be ‘Very slight’. Further south, the development is also likely to be visible from the Grade I listed National Museum of Wales (00741s/167/LB 13694). However, as with the University College, (01194s/31914/LB 13757), the main façade looks away from the development, so that the museum itself will largely block the view of the development area. Furthermore, the avenue of trees along Park Place are also likely to largely obscure the view of this development: as a result, the effect of the development is judged to be ‘Very Slight’. Table 3: Indirect effects of the development on archaeological interests ID

Name

NGR

00741s/167/ LB 13694 01194s/31914/ LB 13757 420858

National Museum of Wales University College Cardiff Great Court and Draper’s Library Cathays Park

ST1834676973 Modern

GM26

Period

ST1821477172 Modern ST1825277195 Modern ST182770

Value

Effect

Distance from development

A

Very slight

100m

A

Moderate

20m

A

Moderate

20m

Very slight

180m

Post-medieval A

25


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

5. Mitigation It is considered that the proposed development will have a ‘Severe’ effect on three sites of archaeological interest within the development area: No. 46 (PP004) and No. 47 (406833) Park Place, and the stables/coach house (PP005). The development has also been assessed as having a ‘Minor’ effect on five further sites: Two Post-medieval outhouses (PP006 and PP007), two post-war temporary buildings (PP010, PP011) and the temporary motor shed (PP013). It is recommended that a building survey be carried out on No. 46 Park Place (PP004), No. 47 Park Place (406833), and the stables/coach house (PP005). The survey should be carried out to the standards detailed in English Heritage’s Understanding Historic Buildings, A guide to good recording practice (2006) and the CIfA's Standard and Guidance for the archaeological investigation and recording of standing buildings or structures 1996 (revised 2001, 2008 and 2014). Although the development will result in the total loss of these buildings, the surviving building plans discussed above (See ‘Documentary’ within section 2.4) already give a good history of the development of these buildings and provide at least a partial ground plan. It is further recommended that the local authority (Cardiff City Council) are consulted, as the removal of these buildings and their replacement by a new construction is likely to change the character of this part of the Cathays Park Conservation Area. The height and design of the proposed structure will affect the magnitude of its effect on the conservation area. A ‘Minor’ effect is envisaged on the other five sites (PP006, PP007, PP010, PP011 and PP013). Although deemed to be of Low’ (Category ‘D’) importance, and albeit largely removed during the 20th century, the post-medieval buildings PP006 and PP007 may have been damaged during the later development of the site, particularly post-war, although any surviving remains may give a more complete character of 46 Park Place. Likewise, any surviving remains relating to buildings PP010 and PP011 may yield further information regarding the later development of the site during and after the Second World War, although the relatively recent removal of these structures, and their probable temporary nature, makes it possible that few below ground remains survive. Due to the unpredictable nature of the archaeological resource, there is also the potential for previously unknown archaeological sites to exist within the development area: this is especially true as the close proximity of the farmstead of Dobbin Pits (PP001), indicates the possibility of medieval activity in the area, and substantial Roman activity is known at Cardiff Castle, 0.5km to the south. Therefore, an archaeological watching brief is recommended on all intrusive groundworks within the development area, particularly focusing on the Garden of 46 Park Place, where less recent development has taken place and the Post-medieval and possible Second World War, or early post-war structures are known. Although the surviving building plan gives great detail regarding PP013, the effect on this building could also be mitigated through the implementation of a watching brief. These archaeological works may require a written scheme of investigation (WSI), to provide a framework of standards against which archaeological work can be measured, and to ensure that these works are carried out to the standards laid down by the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists. In addition to the direct effects likely on the archaeological resource, the proposed works were judged to have a ‘moderate’ indirect effect on The University College (01194s/31914/LB 13757), and the associated Great Court and Drapers’ Library (420858). A ‘Very slight’ indirect 26


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

effect is envisaged on Cathays Park (Alexandra Gardens) (GM26), and the National Museum of Wales (00741s/167/LB 13694). It is recommended that Cadw are consulted regarding the potential indirect effects of the development on the University College (01194s/31914/LB 13757), and the associated Great Court and Drapers’ Library (420858), due to the close proximity of this Grade II* listed structure to the development area. Cadw should also be consulted regarding the effects on Cathays Park (Alexandra Gardens) (GM26), and the National Museum of Wales (00741s/167/LB 13694). Table 4: Recommended archaeological mitigation ID

Name

Impact of development

Archaeological recommendations

406833

47 Park Place

Severe

Building Survey

PP004

46 Park Place

Severe

Building Survey

PP005

Stables/coach house

Severe

Building Survey

PP006

Outhouse

Minor

PP007

Outhouse

Minor

PP010

Temporary Building

Minor

PP011

Temporary Building

Minor

PP013

Temporary Motor Shed

Minor

01194s/ 31914/ LB13757 420858 00741s/167/ LB 13694 GM26 -

University College Great Court and Draper’s Library National Museum of Wales Cathays Park Previously Unknown Archaeological Sites

Archaeological watching brief on all intrusive groundworks within the development area. Archaeological watching brief on all intrusive groundworks within the development area. Archaeological watching brief on all intrusive groundworks within the development area. Archaeological watching brief on all intrusive groundworks within the development area. Archaeological watching brief on all intrusive groundworks within the development area.

Moderate

Consultation with Cadw

Moderate

Consultation with Cadw

Very slight Very slight Minor

27

Consultation with Cadw Consultation with Cadw Archaeological watching brief on all intrusive groundworks within the development area.


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

6. Bibliography Barries, D.S.M. 1964. The Taff Vale Railway. Surrey. Bird, W. 1829. The Cardiff Guide and Directory. W. Bird. CADW/ICOMOS UK, 2000. Register of Landscapes, Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in Wales: Glamorgan, Part 1: Parks and Gardens. CADW/ICOMOS UK. Cardiff City Council 2009. ‘Cathays Park’ Cardiff City Centre Conservation Area Appraisals. Cardiff City Council. Chappell. E.L. 1946. Cardiff’s Civic Centre. Priory Press. Dunning R. 2008. ‘Cardiff Castle’, Archaeology in Wales, Vol.48. pp.125, 131, 145. Council for British Archaeology. Graham E. 2007. Caer Castell, Cardiff: desk based assessment. GGAT Report 2007/093 Newman, J. 1995. The Buildings of Wales: Glamorgan. Penguin. Pettigrew, A.A. 1929. The Public Parks and Recreation Grounds of Cardiff. Vol.II Unpublished Typescript. Cardiff Central Library Ref. 948.2 (241). Rees, W. 1969. Cardiff: A History of the City. Cardiff Corporation. Ridd, T. 1813. A complete Directory and Guide to the towns and castles of Cardiff and Caerphilly, and the city and cathedral of Landaff, and the surrounding towns, villages, gentlemens’ seats and remarkable places etc. Thomas Ridd. Ward J. 1908 ‘Roman Cardiff’, Archaeologia Cambrensis, Vol. 63 (1908) pp.29 - 64 Webster P.V. and Marvell A. 2010. ‘Cardiff’ in Burnham B.C. and Davies J.L. 2010 Roman Frontiers in Wales and the Marches, RCAHMW

Websites British Geological Survey http://www.bgs.ac.uk/ (Viewed December 2015)

Cartographic sources Ordnance Survey 1:2500, 1880, First Edition Sheet 43 SE Ordnance Survey 1:2500, 1901, Second Edition Sheet 43 SE Ordnance Survey 1:2500, 1920, Third Edition Sheet 43 SE Ordnance Survey 1:2500, 1941, Fourth Edition Sheet 43 SE 1845 Tithe Map for the parish of St John Documentary Sources Glamorgan Archives BC/S/1/7403, 1889. Additions and Alterations to house, 46 Park Place BC/S/1/19452, 1915. Temporary Motor Shed, 48 Park Place BC/S/1/30458, 1935. Extensions to No.47 Park Place, Cardiff, For Offices BC/S/1/34121, 1940. Conversion into Offices: 46 Park Place BC/S/1/35584, 1946. Rebuilding of houses 9, 11 – 27, Llanbleddian Gardens 28


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

DXGC94/4/i-ii, no date, Plan (photocopy) of property in Cardiff, north of Crockherbtown and east of the canal. Documentary Sources consulted but not cited DB/E/1-2, 1824. A Survey of the Estates belonging to the most honourable John Crichton Stuart, Marquess of Bute and Earl of Dumfries in the County of Glamorgan. Surveyed by D Stewart. Other sources consulted but not cited Goldsmith, L. 2011. St Teilo’s Church in Wales High School, Llanedeyrn, Cardiff: Archaeological desk-based assessment. GGAT Report 2011/030 Paterson D.R. 1926. Early Cardiff. James Townshend and Sons.

29


Appendix I Map Regression

46-48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

GRID N

0

250.00

500.00metres

Figure 2. 1845 Tithe map of the Parish of St John showing the development area (red) 30


46-48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

GRID N

0

Based on the 1880 Ordnance Survey 1:2500 map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, Š Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

100.00

200.00metres

Figure 3. First Edition Ordnance Survey map (1880) showing the development area (red) 31


46-48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

GRID N

0

Based on the 1901 Ordnance Survey 1:2500 map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, Š Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

100.00

200.00metres

Figure 4. Second Edition Ordnance Survey map (1901) showing the development area (red) 32


46-48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

GRID N

0

Based on the 1920 Ordnance Survey 1:2500 map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, Š Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

100.00

200.00metres

Figure 5. Third Edition Ordnance Survey map (1920) showing the development area (red) 33


46-48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

GRID N

0

Based on the 1941 Ordnance Survey 1:2500 map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, Š Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

100.00

200.00metres

Figure 6. Fourth Edition Ordnance Survey map (1941) showing the development area (red) 34


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Appendix II Plates

Plate 1: A 1948 aerial photograph (CPE/UK/2520, 5198) of Cathays Park, (South at the top of the photograph). The development area is situated below and left of the University College. Photograph kindly supplied by the Central Register of Aerial Photography for Wales.

35


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Plate 2: A close up view of the development area, as visible on the 1948 aerial photograph (CPE/UK/2520, 5198) (South at the top of the photograph). Note buildings PP010 and PP011 (centre) in the garden of 46 Park Place (above left). The photograph was kindly provided by the Central Register of Aerial Photography for Wales.

Plate 3: Plan of 46 Park Place (PP004), from March 1940, showing the proposed conversion into offices, with an air raid shelter in the cellar (Glamorgan Archives Ref: BC/S/1/34121).

36


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Plate 4: A plan of Temporary Motor Shed (PP013) from July 1915 (Glamorgan Archives Ref: BC/S/19452)

37


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Plate 5: Plan of 47 Park Place (406833), June 1935. (Glamorgan Archives Ref: BC/S/30458). The coloured sections are those added at this time.

Plate 6. The development area from the Great Court (420858), view to the northeast. The red brick building is 47 and 48 Park Place (406833) and the brown building in the background is the existing Students’ Union.

38


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Plate 7. 46 Park Place (PP004), view to the northeast, with University College building (01194s/31914/LB13757) on left

Plate 8. 46 Park Place (PP004), view to the northeast

39


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Plate 9. The garden of 46 Park Place, view to southeast. Note ‘L’ shaped concrete path in centre, outlining location of PP011

Plate 10: The development area, view to northwest Note concrete path (centre), indicating southwest edge of PP011.

40


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Plate 11: Outbuilding PP005, view to southeast

Plate 12: Great Court and Drapers' Library from the development area. View to southwest

41


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Plate 13: 47 and 48 Park Place (406833), view to east

Plate 14: 48 Park Place and 1980's extension, view to northeast

42


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Plate 15: 47 and 48 Park Place (406833), with Students' Union steps on right. View to northeast

Plate 16: Northwest part of development area, with 48 Park Place. The gates and modern brick wall mark the approximate location of PP013 (temporary motor shed)

43


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Plate 17: View towards development area from Museum Avenue (near Alexandra Gardens), view to northeast. PP004 is just visible through the trees, beyond the University College (left)

Plate 18: View of development area from Park Place, opposite the rear of The National Museum of Wales (00741s/167/LB13694)

44


46-48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Appendix III Aerial photographs with coverage of the allocation area The following is a list of the aerial photographs with coverage of the study area held by the Central Registry of Air Photography for Wales (CRAPW). Table A shows photographs viewed at during the course of the assessment. Table B shows other aerial photographs identified but not available to view at CRAPW. A total of four new sites were identified during the interrogation of these aerial photographs: ID PP009, PP010, PP011, PP012, (Structure in west field). Table a: Aerial

Ref 4654 4822 5022 5211 6007 6209 6213 6310 6852 7156 7645 8101 8213 8324 8545 9138 9387 200029

Sortie CPE UK 1871 CPE UK 2520 541 RAF 527 58 RAF 863 543 RAF 950 58 RAF 5098 58 RAF 5502 OS 63 074 58 RAF 8659 39 RAF 3764 OS 76 102 J A Story 8669 OS 82 142 OS 83 022 BKS OS 93 110 Getmapping

Date Flown 04/12/1946 23/03/1948 14/05/1950 25/04/1952 10/06/1960 02/05/1962 03/10/1962 31/05/1963 18/03/1968 07/09/1971 28/06/1960 29/06/1981 17/06/1982 09/04/1983 01/03/1985 01/07/1991 03/05/1993 01/01/2000

Scale 1:10000 1:5000 1:10000 1:5000 1:10000 1:10000 Various 1:24000 1:15600 Various 1:15300 1:5000 1:5200 1:5200 1:7000 1:5000 1:5300 1:10000

Air Survey Org RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF Ordnance Survey RAF RAF RAF JAStory(NRSC) Ordnance Survey Ordnance Survey BKS Geonex (NRSC) Ordnance Survey Getmapping

45

Photo Type B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&WIR B&W B&W B&W Infra Red Colour B&W Colour

Frame 4008-4009 5199 + 5126-5127 3173 5076 F41/42: 142 + F42: 93-94 F21: 104-105 F21:74 53 F43: 68 - 69 F43:44 28 308:253 89-90 103-104 12-3 + 4 159 91: 92 106-107 -


46-48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Table b: Aerial Photographs identified but not viewed Ref Sortie Date Flown Scale 8805 BKS 9430 01/01/1988 1:3000 9769 OS 97 194 06/07/1997 1:5000 200401 01/01/2004 200601 COWI 06/06/2006 1:10000 200901 Nextperspectives 01/01/2009 201301 Nextperspectives 01/01/2013 Digital

Air Survey Org BKS Ordnance Survey COWI

46

Photo Type B&W B&W Colour Colour Colour Colour

Frame 109-110 12 - 13 -


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Appendix IV Apportionments relating to the Tithe Map for the Parish of St John (1845)

Parcel Number

146

Landowners

Marquis of Bute

Occupiers

156

R.

Payable to Vicar

Payable to Appropriator

5

2

34

2

7

2

-

-

-

Robert Thomas

House and Garden (Listed under general heading of Dobbins Pit)

-

0

3

21

-

-

-

-

-

-

Meadow

1

0

2

0

3

0

0

5

6

Arable

2

2

0

-

-

-

0

11

5

Arable

0

2

28

0

2

0

0

3

3

Benjamin Evans

155 Marquis of Bute

P.

-

Benjamin Evans Marquis of Bute

A.

Market Garden

Marquis of Bute 153

State of Cultivation

Amount of Rent- charge apportioned upon the several Lands, and to whom payable

Henry Tims

Marquis of Bute 147

Name and Description of Lands and Premises

Quantities in Statute Measure

Benjamin Evans

None (Listed under general heading of Dobbins Pit) None (Listed under general heading of Dobbins Pit) None (Listed under general heading of Dobbins Pit)

47


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Appendix V Gazetteer of archaeological interests ID

Site

21711

33 and 34 Park Place

NGR

Period

ST18417702

Post-medieval

Full Description House on Corner with Museum Place, visible on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey Map of 1880. Probably constructed at a similar date to 21710. Type

Condition

Status

House

Intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Unknown

Value

Effect

B

None

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

21710

31 and 32 Park Place

NGR

Period

ST18417700

Post-medieval

Full Description A nineteenth century house, first visible on 1st edition Ordnance Survey map of 1880. Probably constructed at a similar date to 21711. Type

Condition

Status

House

Intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Unknown

Value

Effect

B

None

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

PP001

Dobbins Pit farm: House and outbuildings

NGR

Period

ST18146 77229

Medieval/Post-medieval

Full Description A group of three or four buildings located at the northwest edge of the market garden (later formal gardens (03138s)), on the 1845 Tithe map. They form part of Dobbins Pit farm, which could be medieval in origin: the place name

48


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Dobbins Pit is mentioned in 1492 and a John Dobin is noted in the area on records dating from 1314 and 1326. The apportionment lists the plot as 'House and Garden' suggesting that the larger is likely to be a house, with smaller associated outbuildings. At this time it was owned by the Marquis of Bute, and occupied by Robert Thomas. It is possible that, during the early nineteenth century, the farm may have been associated with the market gardens (03138s), which were themselves associated with Cathays House, a mansion at the western side of Cathays Park, built by John Stuart, the First Marquis of Bute, in about 1812, but demolished by 1824. Dobbins Pit is still evident in the area on the 1st (1880) edition OS, but had disappeared by the 2rd (1901) edition. The building is shown to the north of the site of the walled gardens, and thus in modern terms, the site is probably today between the University building and the Sir Martin Evans Building. Type

Condition

Status

House

Destroyed

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Certain/Medium

Value

Effect

C

None

Low Confidence Medium

ID

Site

PP002

Building (Part of Dobbins Pit farm)

NGR

Period

ST1826277226

Post-medieval

Full Description A 'T' shaped building noted on the Tithe Map of 1845. It may be associated with Dobbin Pits farm. The land surrounding this with was labelled as a 'Market Garden' on the tithe apportionment, owned by the Marquis of Bute and occupied by Henry Tims, and thus the building it may have had an agricultural use. The market garden is itself associated with Cathays House, an early nineteenth century mansion built by John Stuart, the First Marquis of Bute, around 1812, and demolished by 1824. An early nineteenth century plan showing Cathays House also shows Dobbin Pits Farm, and this outbuilding. Although a building is shown in a similar area on the 1st (1880) edition of the OS map, it appears to be on a NW-SE alignment, rather than a NE-SW. This later building is also shown on the 2nd (1901) edition, but thereafter disappears, probably with the development of the university college. Type

Condition

Status

Outbuilding

Destroyed

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Certain/Medium

Value

Effect

C

None

Low Confidence Medium

ID

Site

PP003

House alongside Taff Vale Railway

NGR

Period

ST1829177314

Post-medieval

Full Description A house shown on the 1st (1880) edition Ordnance Survey map, approximately only 10m northeast of the Taff Vale Railway line. It is shown to be on an ENE - WNW alignment. The structure was not evident on the 1845 tithe map. By the 2nd (1901) edition, this area had been substantially developed, with the construction of several railway sidings

49


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

(PP009) occupying the area where the house had stood. Type

Condition

Status

House

Destroyed

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Unknown

Value

Effect

C

None

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

PP004

46 Park Place

NGR

Period

ST1835977182

Post-medieval

Full Description 46 Park Place first appears on the 1st (1880) edition OS map; at this time it was the most northerly building on Park Place. The building is a two storey Victorian Villa, very simple in design, with a pleasingly symmetrical façade, and two bay windows on the ground floor, one either side of the central doorway. The building has been subject to several alterations since its construction, including the addition of lean-to structures on the sides and rear, including a loggia to extension on the northwest, although most of these have been removed during the twentieth century. Several outbuildings are associated with the house on the 1st edition OS, including a small cottage at the rear (PP005), and several structures to the north (PP006, PP007). During the Second World War, the basement was used as an air raid shelter, the details of which survive on a plan to convert the building into offices, for a Mr P. Curran. The plans were passed in March 1940. Later, Post-war structures were constructed in the garden adjacent to no.46, (PP010, PP011), although the last had been removed during the 1990's. Type

Condition

Status

House

Intact

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Certain/Low

Value

Effect

C

Severe

Low Confidence High

ID

Site

PP005

Stables/Coach House associated with 46 Park Place

NGR

Period

ST1838677177

Post-medieval

Full Description A small cottage or outhouse associated with 46 Park Place. First visible on the 1st (1880) edition OS Map. The building was originally a small rectangular stables, workshop or coach house. A surviving building plan from 1889 shows the addition of a second range, perpendicular to the first, including new stables and a room for feed: the original structure, which was originally a stable, was converted into a coach house, with accommodation for the coachman (including a fireplace). These alterations are evidently complete on the 2nd (1901) edition OS map. A building plan from 1940 shows that it was then in use as a 'cottage and garages'. Today, only the original part of the building survives, masonry built, with yellow brick voussoirs and quoins.

50


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Type

Condition

Status

Outbuilding

Restored

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Unknown

Value

Effect

D

Severe

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

PP006

Outhouse associated with 46 Park Place

NGR

Period

ST1834277192

Post-medieval

Full Description An outhouse associated with 46 Park Place, visible on the 1st (1880) edition OS Map. Aligned northwest-southeast, it appears as a short rectangular building. On the subsequent editions, the structure appears to be narrower and elongated, adjoining the loggia attached to no.46. This suggests the outhouse had either been substantially altered or replaced by 1901. Whilst still visible on the 3rd edition, it had vanished by 1941 (4th edition OS). Type

Condition

Status

Outhouse

Unknown

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Unknown

Value

Effect

D

Minor

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

PP007

Outhouse group associated with 46 Park Place

NGR

Period

ST1834677201

Post-medieval/Modern

Full Description Two outhouses associated with 46 Park Place, north of PP006. First appearing on the 2nd (1901) edition OS map, they are still visible on the 4th (1941) edition, although they have vanished by the 1948 aerial photograph. Type

Condition

Status

Outhouses

Unknown

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Unknown

Value

Effect

D

Minor

Low Confidence Low

51


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

ID

Site

PP008

Railway Sidings associated with Taff Vale Railway

NGR

Period

ST1830077300

Post-Medieval/Modern

Full Description Railway sidings associated with the Taff Vale Railway. Although the railway was in existence from 1840, the sidings (up to nine) first appears on the 2nd (1901) edition OS map. These were still visible on the 1963 aerial photographs, but had been removed by 1971 and replaced by university buildings. Type

Condition

Status

Railway

Destroyed

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Unknown

Value

Effect

D

None

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

PP009

Allotments

NGR

Period

ST1826477059

Modern

Full Description A series of rectangular features visible in the open space between the National Museum and University building, on the 1948 aerial photographs. The 4th (1941) edition OS shows this as a putting green, but it seems possible that these features may be wartime allotments. They are still present, although less noticeable, in 1950 and 1952, but had disappeared by the 1960's. Type

Condition

Status

Allotments

Unknown

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Unknown

Value

Effect

D

None

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

PP010

Temporary Buildings associated with 46 Park Place

NGR

Period

ST1831877221

Modern

Full Description Two possible temporary buildings visible on post-war aerial photographs to the northwest of 46 Park Place. The two buildings are rectangular, and both aligned northwest-southeast. The building closest to the railway line seems to

52


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

have at least four chimneys, although the building nearest Park Place appears to have a lighter roof – possibly metal, suggesting a temporary construction. The buildings are constructed sometime between the 1941 4th edition Ordnance Survey map and the 1948 aerial photographs: it is possible, therefore, that their function was related to the Second World War, although it is equally possible that they were constructed post-war, in which case they may have been prefabricated structures. They are similar to PP011, which adjoins 46 Park Place. Although visible on the 1950 and 1952 aerial photographs, they had disappeared by 1960. Today, the site has been at least partially built over by the steps ascending to the student's union, although it is possible that remains may survive in the northwest corner of the garden of 46 Park Place. Type

Condition

Status

Temporary building

Destroyed

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Unknown

Value

Effect

D

Minor

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

PP011

Temporary building/extension to 46 Park Place

NGR

Period

ST1834777202

Modern

Full Description A temporary building, rectangular in shape, first visible on the 1948 aerial photographs, and thus constructed during the Second World War or shortly afterwards. In form, it appears similar to the other nearby buildings PP010 (although no chimneys are visible). However, unlike PP010, this building appeared to adjoin No.46 Park Place. This building survived until relatively recently, being present on the 1993 aerial photograph, but it had been removed by 2000. However, an 'L' shaped concrete path that may originally have surrounded the building, is still visible in the garden area today. Type

Condition

Status

Temporary building

Near Destroyed

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

D

Minor

Low

ID

Site

PP012

Victorian terraced housing, post-war rebuild

NGR

Period

ST1843477301

Modern

Full Description An area of terraced housing, comprising Cogan Terrace, Llandough Street, Ruthin Gardens, Llanbleddian Gardens and Miskin Street. These first appear on the 2nd (1901) edition OS map. However, on the 4th (1941) edition, several of the houses in Llanbleddian Gardens had disappeared. A building plan from July 1946 indicated plans to rebuild these houses in brick. The post-war aerial photographs indicate the rebuild was underway by 1948, and the houses

53


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

remain today alongside their Victorian counterparts. Type

Condition

Status

Terraced housing

Restored

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Unknown

Value

Effect

C

None

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

PP013

Temporary Motor Shed

NGR

Period

ST1826877286

Modern

Full Description A temporary motor shed, visible on the 3rd (1920) and 4th (1941) edition OS mapping. A surviving building plan, approved 15th July 1915, indicates that the structure comprised a 6 inch cement or concrete floor, but was mainly constructed of wood – this consisted of 3" by 2" framing, and 1” tongue and groove matchboards, and the roof was formed of 4" by 2" rafters, covered with 1" Matchboarding, and topped either with felt or corrugated ion. Plan drawn by E.H. Couzens, City Road works, Cardiff, and was for J.C. Jeffree esq. (of 48 Park Place). The building does not seem to be visible on the 1948 aerial photograph, but this is difficult to establish. Type

Condition

Status

Motor Shed

Destroyed

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Certain/ Low

Value

Effect

C

Minor

Low Confidence Medium

ID

Site

GM26

Cathays Park

NGR

Period

ST1816977085

Post-medieval

Full Description Cathays Park is Cardiff's Civic Centre. Cathays Park originated as gardens for the early nineteenth century seat of the First Marquis of Bute, Cathays House. Built around 1812, although this had been demolished prior to 1824, although the gardens, icehouse and pastureland remained. The area was considered for purchase from the Bute family and conversion into a public park as early as the 1850's, but it was not until 1897 that the area was purchased for the construction of a new town hall. During the early 20th century the various civic centre buildings were constructed on the site. The Historic Park and Garden comprises three areas. The first is Alexandra Gardens, a large, rectangular formal garden including the Welsh National War Memorial at its centre. The civic centre itself is laid out in a formal grid pattern, with Alexandra Gardens in the centre, surrounded by university and government buildings. Two smaller gardens, Gorsedd Gardens to the south of City Hall and the National Museum of Wales, and Friary Gardens, south of the law courts. Only Alexandra Gardens falls within the study area.

54


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

Type

Condition

Status

Park/Formal Gardens

Intact

Grade II Historic Park and Garden

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Certain/Medium

Value

Effect

A

Slight

Medium Confidence Medium

ID

Site

03138s

Walled Garden to the Northeast of Cathays Park

NGR

Period

ST18247718

Post-medieval

Full Description The location of a formal walled garden to the NE corner of Cathays Park, as noted on the OS 1880 First Edition Map. It is noted as a ‘Market Garden’ on the 1845 Tithe map, but its origins date to the early nineteenth century, when they are known to be a market garden or nursery associated with Cathays House, a seat of John Stuart, the First Marquis of Bute. This house was constructed c.1812, but demolished before 1824. The garden has now been built over by the University College of Wales. Type

Condition

Status

Walled Garden

Destroyed

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Possible/High

Value

Effect

C

None

Medium Confidence Low

ID

Site

01570.9s

Cathays Park Railway Station

NGR

Period

ST1825677320

Modern

Full Description Cathays Park Railway Station, South Wales Passenger Railway, in use 1998. This station is a recent creation, and did not form part of the historic Taff Vale Railway. Type

Condition

Status

Railway Station

Intact

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Unknown

Value

Effect

D

None

Low Confidence Low

55


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

ID

Site

01194s, 31914, LB 13757,

University College Cardiff

NGR

Period

ST1821477172

Modern

Full Description Built as the original University of Wales College of Cardiff in 1903-9, when it consisted only of the present west wing. The north & south wings were added later in a similar style but with less detail. The original west wing is strongly influenced by the English architectural styles of late 16/17th Century, and consisted of the Drapers' Library, so called because it was paid for by the Drapers' Company of London. A fourth, eastern wing was originally intended to surround a central courtyard (NPRN 420858), and was envisaged as a great hall: however, these plans were eventually abandoned, and the courtyard today is open on its eastern side, where it adjoins Park Place. The building is Grade II*, including the forecourt walls. Type

Condition

Status

University College

Intact

Grade II*

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

High

Certain/Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

A

Moderate

High

ID

Site

00741s, 167, LB 13694,

National Museum of Wales

NGR

Period

ST1834676973

Modern

Full Description Dunbar Smith won a competition for the best design of the museum in 1910, his plans were for a rectangular building with extra two storey structure in centre. The museum, however, was planned to be much longer than wide, and not completed as planned, and when opened to the public in 1927 only the south and east wings had been completed. Subsequent alterations over the years included the west wing, and most recently, the central gallery. Type

Condition

Status

Museum

Intact

Grade I

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Certain/Medium

Value

Effect

A

Very Slight

Medium Confidence High

56


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

ID

Site

06422.0m

Taff Vale Railway

NGR

Period

ST1836777208

Post-medieval

Full Description The Taff Vale Railway, running from Cardiff to Merthyr Tydfil. The Taff Vale Railway Company was set up in 1836 to organise the construction of a railway to carry goods (primarily coal and iron), between Merthyr Tydfil and Cardiff. Prior to this most goods had been transported by road and canal from Abercynon, although the rapidly expanding industry in the area required greater transport capacity. The railway opened in 1840. The Taff Vale Railway Company were later amalgamated with the Great Western Railway Company in 1922, and became part of the Western Region of British Railways in 1948. Type

Condition

Status

Railway

Not Known

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Certain/Low

Value

Effect

C

None

Low Confidence High

ID

Site

420867

University of Wales Sir Martin Evans Building

NGR

Period

ST1815077258

Modern

Full Description The Sir Martin Evans university building. Initially the pre-clinical departments of the School of Medicine, constructed in 1968 - 1970. Type

Condition

Status

University

Intact

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Unknown

Value

Effect

C

None

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

420858

Great Court and Drapers' Library

NGR

Period

ST1825277195

Modern

Full Description The Great Court is formed by the three wings of the university building (01194s, 31914, LB 13757), and thus forms an integral part of this structure and its setting, and is assessed as such below. The Drapers Library forms the centrepoint of the west wing of the university and is an integral part of that building. Here it is considered only as an

57


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

imposing structure when viewed from Park Place. The courtyard is today used as a car park. Type

Condition

Status

Courtyard

Intact

Grade II*

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

High

Certain/Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

A

Moderate

High

ID

Site

420869

University of Wales Tower Building

NGR

Period

ST1811277314

Modern

Full Description The Cardiff University Tower Building, constructed c.1968. Type

Condition

Status

University

Intact

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Unknown

Value

Effect

C

None

Low Confidence Low

ID

Site

9297

Miskin Street Bible Christian Chapel, Cathays, Cardiff

NGR

Period

ST1850277306

Post Medieval

Full Description The Miskin Street Bible Christian Chapel School and lecture hall were built in 1885 and the Chapel in 1891. The chapel was built in the Gothic style of the gable-entry type by architect J Follett Fawckner of Newport. By 1996 the chapel had fallen into disuse, and it had been demolished and replaced by 2000. Type

Condition

Status

Chapel

Destroyed

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Certain/Low

Value

Effect

C

None

Low Confidence High

ID

Site

58


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

307795 Park,

Laboratory Block, Black Box, Cardiff University, Cathays

NGR

Period

ST18297706

Modern

Full Description A laboratory block, built in the 1960s for Cardiff University (NPRN 31914) by Sir Alex Gordon's office; constructed of Miesian steel and glass in a classic style. It was demolished c.1992, and the area is now the site of a car park at the rear of the National Museum. Type

Condition

Status

Laboratory

Destroyed

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Unknown

Value

Effect

D

None

Medium Confidence Low

ID

Site

307794, LB 21670

Public Conveniences, Cathays Park, Cardiff

NGR

Period

ST1824177055

Modern

Full Description The smallest, but by no means the least of the monumental structures that lend an imperial air to Cardiff Civic Centre (401617); only the shell remains, and the entrances have been bricked up. Unfortunately, it has also been subject to graffiti. It is visible on the 4th edition, 1941 Ordnance Survey Map, but not on the earlier 3rd edition of 1920. Type

Condition

Status

Public Conveniences

Near Intact

Grade II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Unknown

Value

Effect

B

None

Low Confidence High

ID

Site

406833

47 Park Place, Cardiff

NGR

Period

ST1829477250

Post Medieval

Full Description A substantial late Victorian, red brick building, appearing on the 2nd edition Ordnance Survey map of 1901. 47 and 48 Park Place form two parts of the same building. It is presently occupied by the University, and is contemporary with other buildings in the Cathays Park area. Building plans indicate that, as first constructed, the building was largely symmetrical, with a central range with two short wings. It also had impressive chimneys that have since been removed. The southeastern portion is a later addition, though in a style virtually indistinguishable from the old,

59


46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk-based assessment

approved in June 1935. Type

Condition

Status

House

Intact

None

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Possible/Low

Value

Effect

C

Severe

Low Confidence Medium

60


Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd (Projects Department) QUALITY CONTROL Report Title: 46 – 48 Park Place, Cardiff: archaeological desk based assessment Report Date: April 2016 Report Number: 2016/003

Report prepared by:

Thomas Davies

Position:

Archaeologist

Date:

22/04/2016

Illustrations prepared by:

Paul Jones

Position:

Senior Illustrator

Date:

11/04/2016

Illustrations checked and authorised by: Position: Date:

Senior Illustrator

11/04/2016

Report checked and authorised by: Position: Date:

Paul Jones

Martin Tuck

Project Manager

22/04/2016

As part of our desire to provide a quality service we would welcome any comments you may wish to make on the content or presentation of this report.

Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd. Heathfield House, Heathfield, Swansea, SA1 6LE Tel. 01792 655208; Fax. 01792 474469 Registered Charity no. 505609 Web: www.ggat.org.uk e-mail: projects@ggat.org.uk

Profile for The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd

Park Place, Cardiff Archaeological Desk-based Assessment  

GGAT Projects was commissioned by AECOM on behalf of Cardiff University, to carry out an archaeological desk-based assessment in preparation...

Park Place, Cardiff Archaeological Desk-based Assessment  

GGAT Projects was commissioned by AECOM on behalf of Cardiff University, to carry out an archaeological desk-based assessment in preparation...

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