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Introduction Historical VS Contemporary Ancient Egypt Ancient Rome Elizabethan England David Bowie Glen Milstead MMMMITCHELL WE ARE ALL EQUAL. Manny Gutierrez James Charles MMUK MAN Mac Viva Glam Campaigns Jeffree Star Bill Redshaw John Rankin Waddell Photography by Georgia Walters Conclusion
INTRODUCTION Makeup is a huge part of the beauty industry that has a huge effect on individuals all over the world. It has come an extremely long way throughout the years, so much that society is finally accepting men wearing makeup as a ‘norm’ rather than being judged upon. Men have started to take over the beauty world with the ‘drag’ trend and even just wearing makeup on a normal day, society is supporting the equal movement as ‘MAKE UP HAS NO GENDER’. Men wearing makeup is nothing new. In fact, the trend dates all the way back to ancient Egypt when Ramses III printed makeup along the creases of his eyes. Additional rulers such as Alexander the Great and Louis XIII, also applied makeup to their eyes and cheeks, while artists like Kiss, Keith Richards and Boy George brought men’s cosmetics back in Vogue in the 20th century. The Drag trend has also been around for years, historical drag queens such as Glen Milstead, also known as Divine was a drag queen in the 1950s-60s and also stared in multiple films in his drag persona. Furthermore, many makeup brands have been trying to appeal and sell to men for decades, however the real challenge of this is getting men to believe makeup can be ‘manly’, some brands have tried doing this by changing the names of some products; for example, foundation being called tinted moisturiser, or eyeliner being called guyliner. In addition, social media platforms such as Instagram and Youtube have been vast influencers in the world of makeup. Public figures such as Jeffree Star and James Charles have enhanced the trend of equality within makeup with the use of tutorials on youtube, Instagram posts of looks they have created and even Jeffree Star’s makeup brand ‘Jeffree Star Cosmetics’. Individuals in the public eye that are so bold demonstrate that it’s perfectly normal to be exactly who you want to be, which is a main reason as to why so many individuals have converted to wearing makeup, or working with makeup in present day no matter what their gender or sexuality is. Makeup and gender is a topic that has changed a lot throughout the years, from minimal makeup, such as white powder; to allow society to identify the rich from the poor, to full face drag queens taking over the beauty industry proves just how influential makeup can be.
HISTORICAL DRAG QUEEN
CONTEMPORARY DRAG QUEEN
In Ancient Egypt, Pharaohs rocked a kohlrimmed eye. Alexander the Great claimed eye makeup helped protect the skin around his eyes and sheltered them from the sun’s glare. The smoky kohl liner they wore served both practical and ritualistic purposes; it was thought to repel fires, protect the eyes from the sun’s rays, ward off infection and to keep them well.
Dduring the reign of Ramses III, it was a common and popular trend for men to use moisturisers as a health regimen. Before leaving the house for a days work or heading to a banquet or celebration, an upper-class Egyption man might take a few momnts to adorn his eyes, to look like King Tut’s thickly lined eyes. This would be done by using black kohl liner that extended beyond the eyelids to the temples.
Ancient Egyptions pay careful attention to their facial and bosy hair as depicted in the artwork. For men, only during times of mourning were they allowed to abandon shaving or trimming their beards. Male priests plucked out all their body hair, including eyebrows and lashes, to sanctify themselves, and upper-class Egyptions would regularly wear perfumed wigs and false beards of human hair, lower-class citizens would wear don faux extensions made of vegetable fiber. In addition, hair care products were made from oils and animal fats, men may rub the fat the fat from a lion, snake or other animal onto their scalps as a homeopathic remedy for baldness.
Another fashion within this era was an emerald eye shadow made of malachite. To apply this, Egyptions would use flattened and smoothed pieces of wood or bone to sweep the powdered mineral from the brow line to the base of the nose. The dramatic makeup also imitated the facial markings of the sun god Horus, who was often epicted as a flalcon.
The Ancient Romanâ€™s liked fair, white skin much like other anient people. However, they werenâ€™t naturally fair so they had to rely on cosmetics to lighten their complextions; they would use chalk powder, white marl and white lead which was poisonous. They liked large eyes with long eyelashes that
almost met, they would also darken their eyebrows with antimony or soot and then extend them inwards. They would apply kohl on the eyes, (much like the Ancient Egyptions) which they made with saffron, ashes, soot or antimony to make them darker. The Romans believed on the cheeks to be a sign of gold health and as a result would apply several substances on their faces to achieve the result such as; poppy and rose petals, red chalk, alkanet, Tyrian vermillion, crocodile dung, red ochre, mulberry juice, wine dregs, cinnabar and red lead.
Elizabethan England In the Elizabethan era, a pale complexion was considered to be a sign of good health. Only rich men and women would be able to achieve the pale skin look, this was because the poorer individuals would work for hours outside which resulted in gaining a tan. To achieve the pale skin loook, welathy men and women would use several different products to achieve it. The most popular way to achieve whiter skin was to use ceruse, a foundation made with white lead and vinegar. White lead was poisioness. Other ways people would achieve whiter skin was by applying sulphur, alum or tin ash, white eggs were also used to achieve a paler complexion and hide any wrinkles. In addition, a drug called Belladonna was used to enlarge the pupils so eyes would look larger and sparkly. During the Elizabethan period, rouge cheeks and lips were very popular, to achieve this look, men and women would use plants on their cheeks, such as madder is an Asian plant with red roots, and animal dyes such as cochineal which was a beetle. Madder and Cohineal were also used on the lips, this using vermilon which was a red pigment obtained from mercury sulphide and cheeks were also reddened using a mixture of egg whites and ochres.
At the start of the Elizabethan era, men would wear their hair shorter and it became longer over time, however if they had long hair it had to be curly and many males would use curling irons to achieve this look, they would then use wax to hold it in place. In addition, beards were also long and were kept in place with starch, they were cut in many different shapes from round to square depending on personal preference.
During the Elizabethan era, women were not seen as ‘fit’ to be actors, men had to play all of the female roles and as a result had to be dressed up as women. Ceruse was used on the mens face to make them have a pale and ‘innocent’ complexion to make them look feminine and as a result many actors ended up with skin diseases. The men would wear wigs in these theatre production as well. In addition, male actors would use chalk powder or soot would be used to accentuate facial features and would alo burn corks and rub them on themselves to give the look of an injury which nowadays known as Special Effects makeup. Crushed pearls or silver could also be added to ceruse to create a shimmering effect which would often be used for fairies and magical creatures whch are present in many of Shakespeare’s plays.
1600’s - Early 1700’s
DAVID BOWIE 10
David Bowie was born in South London’s Brixton neighbourhood in 1947 and unfortunately passed away in 2016. He was widely regarded as a musical innovator and cultural icon. Bowie was a performer obsessed with reinvention, his persona and appearance were liable to change drastically from album to album. His 1969 hit Space Oddity to the album he released just days before his death. These personas have become pop culture touchstones, particularly the androgynous alter-ego Ziggy Stardust and Aladdin Sane, with the ligthing strike running down his face. Bowie was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. Here is where he became interested in the male makeup trend, hw ould wear ‘punk rock and roll’ style makeup. This made him a legend as he was one of the first men to do this in this era, it was very fashionable around this time and many looked up to him. Shortly after releasing his final album, Bowie died from Cancer in the January of 2016.
Glen Milstead, also known as ‘Divine’ was a historical drag queen. He starred in a lot of of movies such as Hairspray and Pink Flamingos. Milstead is a good example of a historical drag queen as it portrays how much drag queens have changed throughout the years. Portraits of Divine have been painted by artists including David Hockney and Andy Warhol proving that he was a legend and that his legacy still lives to this day. In Disney’s version of The Little Mermaid, the animation of Ursula the Sea-Witch was inspired by Divine, which again shows how much he was loved and incorporated into the film business and for doing what he loved.
Milstead was born in the October of 1945, in Baltimore, Maryland to Harris Bernard and Frances Milstead. He sadly passed away in the March of 1988 from a cardiac arres in his sleep, this was said to happen due to his enlarged heart that he suffered due to his severe weight problems. He was a legend to everyone and will be remembered forever.
Mitchell is a beauty influencer based on Instagram. He is a makeup artist who does a number of peopleâ€™s makeup; normal and famous, he then showcases his work on his Instagram page for all of his followers to see. Mitchell has over 700 thousand followers on his Instagram page and counting. There are many male makeup artists in the world, Mitchell being one of them. He also has released a highlighter pallete called Sub Zero, in collaboration with BPERFECT.
Powders and blushes for flawless complexion. Liners and primers make my face perfection. Glossed painted nails and smoked sultry eyes. Those are the things that appeal to us guys. 15
WE ARE ALL EQUAL.
Manny Gutierrez (also known as Manny MUA) is a beauty vlogger on Youtube with an impressive 4.8 million subscribers and counting. Manny was Maybellineâ€™s first male partenership of the brand which is exactly what the beauty community should be promoting as we are all equal and gender means nothing.
James Charles is another very successful beauty vlogger on the social media platform; Youtube. He has managed to hit a huge milestone of over 10 million subscribers and counting. His beauty techniques are shared on this youtube channel and showcased on his instagram page for all of his viewers and fans to see. James Charles was the first male ambassador for the makeup brand CoverGirl which is a huge progression through makeup showing that it is changing through time for the better. He also recently brought out his own eyeshadow palette in collaboration with Morphe.
MMUK MA MMUK MAN offer the UKâ€™s widest selection of mens makeup such as; foundations, concealers and bronzers all designed for men ad also makeup products such as guyliner, mascara for men and even brow gel. The company also showcase their very own skin care for men range, composed of 12 luxurious male skin care products, designed with the most effective and organic ingredients for the best complexions over witnessed by man.
MMUK MAN is a modern day make up brand specifically designed for men, by men. They are the UK’s most popular makeup online store for men and have a happy, satisfied and loyal customer base. It is proven by the online grooming blog ‘Ape To Gentlemen’ that 73.6% of men prefer to buy grooming products online. This blog also proves that the growth of social acceptance towards men wearing makeup has also been significant since the turn of the century.
M A C V I V A 22
G L A M A campign that MAC run to help people who suffer from AIDS. MAC Viva Glam is a makeup line with multiple different famous individuals as the face of each line who work with the brand. All the profit from Every product in the line that is sold, goes to the HIV and AIDS fund. MACâ€™s mission is to serve people of â€˜All Ages, All Genders, All Races affected by HIV and AIDS.
A main example of the MAC Viva Glam Campaigns is the collaboration they did with Caitlyn Jenner to fight for transgender rights. The company released a single lipstick shade for this collaboration called ‘Finally Free’. It was revealed how lucrative the partnership proved to be, Jenner and the MAC AIDS Fund’s Transgender Initiative will divide those funds amongst 21 different transgender organisations nationwide to ‘serve the diverse needs and issues facing transgender communities’.
MAC X CAITLYN JENNER
Jeffree Star is the ‘star’ of the glam world with his music and beauty-centric videos, his style of the hot pink hair and heavily done eye makeup is what has been the talk of the town for quite some time! He started off as a ‘rock and roll’ artist while incorporating glam rock into his concerts, albums and everyday life. Star then moved onto working as a beauty guru to now using social media as his stage to showcase his everything he is passionate about including the work (makeup looks) that he creates. Jeffree Star has now become a Youtube sensation alongside being the founder of his makeup brand Jeffree Star Cosmetics that makes millions of pounds per year. His self-made Youtube channel has over 11 million subscribers who are in love with him for his enthusiasm for makeup and fashion. His Youtube videos now stand among the most viewed with over 47 million views and counting.
After Jeffree Star discovered his newfound passion for makeup at the age of 13, Jeffree knew that he needed to persue fashion and makeup when he grew up. He graduated from school and worked at makeup counters, then continued onto share his makeup tips and tricks in music videos and fashion editorials.
JEFFREE STAR COSMETICS
Age: 18 Location: London
What inspired you to start wearing make up?
I guess it sounds weird ut the physical act of like running a pencil under my eye for example i find cathartic and sort of just makes me feel more excited going out into the day.
Do you ever feel judged while wearing makeup?
No not really at all much. I never really remember whether i’ve got the famn stuff on and I get enough weird looks as it is.
Do you think it is more accepted in society because a larger amount of males now wear makeup?
Um yeah I guess so, I honestly don’t run into many other guys wearing makeup actually so I would say maybe it’s just more to do with other intersectional movements (feminitst, lgbt+) that have a message of just letting other people be how and who they are.
What age did you become interested in makeup?
17 probably, but then saying that, my sisters used to put makeup on me when I was much younger haha.
Who were some male influencers that you looked up to when you first became interetsed in makeup?
Oh like David Bowie, Noel Fielding actually big time because I love a lot of his shows, there’s probably a whole lot of cringe emo rock stars that I could list.
Do you think the beauty industry has come a long way in regards to men being involved in makeup?
Yeah very much so, i’m not savvy enough to know the boundaries of the ‘beauty’ industry and the ‘fashion’ industry and all that. However there aren’t many lads in makeup adverts (if i’m not wrong) which definitely needs to be looked into as the gender should not matter! I don’t think it’s the beauty industry too much that sets the boundaries on who should wear makeup, it’s just girls from a young age being force fed plastic makeup barbie bullsh*t! But yeah it’s just the way you’re raised really, like i’m a big fan of punk and new wave sh*t so like Adam ant and the cure etc, where so wearing makeups just like a thing for me, it looks nice, i like how it feels.
John Rankin Waddell
John Rankin Waddell was a male fashion and beauty photographer who also co-founded a magazind called ‘Dazed and Confused’ alongside Jefferson Hack in 1971. Rankin has shot famous individualds and infuencers such as The Spice Girls, Kate Moss, Madonna, Juliette Binoche, Kevin Spacey, Vivienne Westwood, Queen Elizabeth II and Britney Spears. His subjects are quite varied, and the publicity campaigns he has shot are even more so; he has worked on campagins with brands such as Rimmel, Nike, Dove, H&M, BMW and Coca Cola. Alongside his publiity work, some more of his famous works are his Female Nudes from 199W9, ‘Ranlom Male Nudes’ from 2000, ‘Breeding: A Study of Sexual Ambiguity’ from 2004, and ‘Beautiful’ from 2007. In 2009, Britain’s BBC 4 TV channel broadcasted a one-hour documentary that Ranking created, a tribute to the images of Erwin Blumenfeld, Cecil Beaton, Richard Avedon, Helmut Newton, Herb Ritts, Guy Bourdin, and David Bailey. Rankin photographed people off of the street for seven straight weeks, photographing one person every 15 minutes, and retouching, printint, and hanging the finished image within 30 minutes. This was repeated with more than 1600 Londoner before the exhibition was taken on tour in Mexico and New York.
Photographer: John Rankin Waddell
Photographer: John Rankin Waddell
A photogtaphy shoot Inspired by John Ranking Waddellâ€™s images on the previous two pages to mimick his beautiful work of beauty within the fashion industry.
Photographer: Georgia Walters Model: Lauren Geeves
Photography shoot produced by Georgia Walters. The model featured in this photography beauty shoot is Jack Mugglestone. This shoot was produced to portray anyone can wear makeup no matter what their gender.
This photography shoot was inspired by numerous campaigns including men for beauty campaigns such as Manny Guttierrez for Maybelline or james Charles for Covergirl.
Conclusion To conclude this zine, gender within makeup has come a very long way. Society has become more accepting as time goes on due to equality being fought for and individuals not caring about what other people in the community care about them. Our generation has become much more accepting than previous ones therefore more people are becoming more comfortable to do whatever they want to do. A large amount of brands have started using male influencers as faces of their campaigns in order to promote products and make their brands equal. In addition, there is a larger amount of makeup artists in the beauty industry in present day than there was, for example; Kylie Jenner only lets male makeup artists do her makeup. The motivation to make this zine came from my own beliefs and in addition, is something I am really interested in as it is a topic I really support and believe should progress more in order to make everyone feel equal in the beauty industry. Also, makeup has changed a huge amount through the years due to drag queens. The changes of drag queens is a drastic difference from the past centuries to now. This is as drag queens used to overly exaggerate their makeup whereas now, although they still do this, they also ensure their makeup is following the trends of majority of the beauty world and to look more like the â€˜normâ€™.
MAKE UP HAS NO GENDER
This is a zine I created in first year of my BA Hons Fashion Management and Communication Degree. It is all about gender in regards to beaut...
Published on Dec 4, 2019
This is a zine I created in first year of my BA Hons Fashion Management and Communication Degree. It is all about gender in regards to beaut...