Tomorrow Anew - What will be different tomorrow?

Page 1


Gabriel Kozlowski

Eduarda Volschan

Luisa Schettino

Monica Vieira Eisenberg

What will be different TOMORROW ?
200 participants 4 NGOs 10 photographers 8 interviews 22 countries 2020–2022

paramount. > Carlos Saldanha. The pandemic has laid bare the painful irrationalities of our politico-economic rationale. Talks about a new normal or a post-normal arise not because we cannot go back to the world as it was before, but because we should not. Locked up in what is undoubtedly the largest social experiment in the history of civilization, “the imperative to re-imagine the planet” (to borrow the term from scholar Gayatri Spivak) is no longer the duty of scholars, experts, cultural commentators, or political leaders. Anyone can and everyone should partake in this common task.

> Daniel Daou. Societies once geared toward the future, as in the time of the modern avant-garde at the beginning of the 20th century, have seen their horizons of expectation blurred, dramatically reduced. In a world where the globe shrank, we were left with only the compressed and precarious present. After all, the economy is based precisely on the anticipated sale of the future through debt and credit. Now, condemned to an even narrower future horizon, facing a distressing present that we don’t know how long it will last, it is not difficult to imagine dystopian scenarios for the near future.

> Guilherme Wisnik. You know, even though this happens every day, Tomorrow, I still have dreams about what you can bring. Not only dreams, but also plans, hopes, and of course illusions. I’m not sure why, but I always end up forgetting that you are made primarily of intentions. Without intending to, you end up—almost always—being an inert continuation of the Now. > Luis Nobrega. In this moment of suspension, we can reflect on our frantic travels and constant commute, the rush to catch up and chaise phantom growth ideas often empowered by extractive greed and unsustainable economic logic.

> Malkit Shoshan. Depending on if you are an optimist, a cynic, a pessimist, an idealist, a believer, a denier, tomorrow may now look very different, or it may look very similar to what you expected —with only slightly annoying differences. > Pedro Gadanho. The children of the neighborhood have taken the time of crisis as an opportunity to create, as so many have done in turbulent times before them. They have contributed their own glimmers of hope in the form of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Each rainbow is a premature augury, drawn during the peak of New York’s curve. These small gestures of crayon, marker, or finger paint represent a faith that will continue after the storm. > Diana Flatto. For those who are doubly fortunate to remain healthy and to be able to observe a sliver of the world through the window, the Apocalypse is strange. Everything is still outside, trees standing, roofs in place, and few people in sight, although the fact that many people wear masks adds something different to the scene. The future announces itself in small everyday displacements, in the attitudes that allow us to glimpse it. Masks: self-fear, solidarity with others, the feeling of a common destiny, fear of the whole species, trust in science, active obedience. > Sidney Chalhoub. It is difficult to know sociologically what will become of the post-Coronavirus world. It is easier to predict “our” world. I remember that, when I was cured of cancer, more than 20 years ago, when the disease was more associated with death than today, I felt unprecedented pleasure in admiring the sea, for example, which I used to see daily without feeling anything special. > Zuenir Ventura.

200 participants 4 NGOs 10 photographers 8 interviews 22 countries 2020–2022


Book Editors

Gabriel Kozlowski

Eduarda Volschan

Campaign Authors

Gabriel Kozlowski

Luisa Schettino

Monica Vieira Eisenberg


— What will be different TOMORROW ?

Copyright © 2023 by Gabriel

Original title

Tomorrow Anew - What will be different tomorrow?


Laura Folgueira

Cover design


The copyright on the photographs is reserved and guaranteed.

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) (Câmara Brasileira do Livro, SP, Brasil)

Kozlowski, Gabriel

Tomorrow Anew / Campaign author Gabriel Kozlowski, Luisa Schettino, Monica Vieira Eisenberg, book editors Gabriel Kozlowski; Eduarda Volschan. -Rio de Janeiro, RJ : Afluente, 2023

ISBN 978-65-85724-14-2

1. Artes 2. COVID-19 - Pandemia 3. FuturoPerspectiva 4. Mudanças sociais 5. Pós-pandemia

I. Schettino, Luisa. II. Eisenberg, Monica Vieira. III. Volschan, Eduarda. IV. Título.



Índices para catálogo sistemático:

1. Artes 700

Tábata Alves da Silva - Bibliotecária - CRB-8/9253

To all those who allowed us to dream of a new tomorrow.



Editorial Production + Design NESS

Production Editor

Agustin Schang

Graphic Designer

Santiago Passero


Laura Folgueira


Joana Martins


Steve Yolen


Cassandra Cury

Cristiana Lima

Delfim Martins

Juliana Lima

Luciana Whitaker

Marcos Amend

Rafael Costa

Ricardo Teles

Rogério Reis

Sergio Ranalli


Alessandra Fischer

Miguel Darcy

Pedro Brito

Isabella Simões

Iara Carneiro


DRCLAS — Harvard David Rockefeller

Center for Latin American Studies

POLES — Political Ecology of Space

Prior + Partners





Gabriel Kozlowski

Luisa Schettino

Monica Vieira Eisenberg


Ariel Kozlowski

Helena Wajnman

Max Ghenis

Maria Kozlowski

Leticia Schettino


Refik Anadol Studio, artwork

NESS Magazine, media

Create - Pensamentos Online, web developer

Fleichman Advogados, law firm

Richard Sanches, copy editor and translator

Partner NGOs

Brazil Foundation

Conservação Internacional - Brasil

Instituto BEI

Give Directly

Especial Benefactors

Thomas Pucher

Julie Bedard


Paul Petalas

Special Thanks

Rebecca Tavares, President and CEO Brazil Foundation

Tomas Alvim, Co-founder Instituto BEI

Marisa Moreira Salles, Co-founder Instituto BEI

Refik Anadol, Artist and Director of Refik Anadol Studio

Helena Monteiro, Executive Director

Brazil Office, Harvard DRCLAS

Tiago Genoveze, Program Manager, Harvard DRCLAS

Laura Fierro, Architect and Principal at Studio Fierro

Delfim Martins, Photographer

Julius Widemann, Book Editor and Founder at AFLUENTE

Institutional Support

Tide Setúbal Foundation

Support Campaign for the Indigenous Peoples of Xingu

Indigenous Land Association of Xingu (ATIX)



Individual Support

Marina Roesler

Gilberto & Christa

Ilana Lipsztein

Michael Naify

Angelica Walker

Luis Nobrega

Olivia Serra

André Volschan

Isaac Volschan Jr.

Pedro Rodrigues

Sean Rivett

Mariela Melamed

Stuart Smith

Paula Reidbord

Marcia Grostein

Adriana Lucena


Cassandra Cury

Cristiana Lima

Delfim Martins

Juliana Lima

Luciana Whitaker

Felix Leather

Nico Escribano

Robert Salvesen

Florença Rezende

Gabrielle Grinstein

Cristiana Mascarenhas

Nick O'Farrell

Marcos Amend

Rafael Costa

Ricardo Teles

Rogério Reis

Sergio Ranalli

Reflection Categories & Keywords 1 Index 3 Visual Summary 15 Campaign Call 25 Introduction 27 42 Cell 35 Responses 01 to 35 37 Interviews I and II 70 Hiatus 95 Responses 38 to 74 97 Interviews III and IV 134 Debris 151 Responses 78 to 114 153 Interviews V and VI 200 Locus 219 Responses 117 to 152 221 Interviews VII and VIII 276 Care 301 Responses 155 to 195 303 356 Responsibility 339 Postface 347 Photographic Essays 354
Table of Contents

Reflection Categories



3 Conteúdo USA ISR HOP USA uncertainty , losses , collectivity , hope 05/29/2020 isolation , introversion , expectation , hope 09/07/2020 04/20/2020 R E isolation , uncertainty , technology , responsibility 04/19/2020 06/19/2020 challenges , collectivity , responsibility , restart 05/29/2020 R R R CAN introversion , inequality , collectivity , urban R V BRA USA BRA BRA UK USA UK USA USA USA ARG BRA MEX USA challenges , collectivity , responsibility , hope isolation , challenges , responsibility , expectation 03/14/2022 06/18/2020 R R isolation , introversion , collectivity , technology isolation , introversion , routine , restart 05/31/2020 09/02/2020 05/31/2020 07/22/2020 R R E isolation , routine , challenges , collectivity isolation , collectivity , technology , restart 10/06/2020 06/05/2022 isolation , routine , technology , responsibility losses , collectivity , restart , hope 05/27/2020 06/27/2020 isolation , introversion , routine , uncertainty 05/26/2020 isolation , routine , uncertainty , expectation isolation , routine , uncertainty , nostalgia 06/23/2020 03/06/2020 R O USA nostalgia , expectation , restart , hope T R R R isolation , collectivity , responsibility , hope R 07/12/2022 04/15/2020 E E BRA BRA USA CAMPAIGN CALL Tomorrow Anew 25 INTRODUCTION Gabriel Kozlowski 27 CELL 001 Diana Flatto 37 002 Malkit Shoshan 38 003 Manuel Blanco-Ons Fernández 39 004 Neeraj Bhatia 39 005 Joe Jacobson 41 006 Sergio Galaz-García 42 007 Andrés Passaro 43 008 Max Ghenis 45 009 Lui Farias 45 010 Angelica Walker 48 011 Ilana Lipsztein 49 012 Mary Lapides Shela 50 013 Bartira Volschan 51 014 Pedro Varella 51 015 Sophie & Andrew Harkness 52 016 Jane Hall 53 017 Nazareth Ekmekjian 53 018 Nicolas Entel 54
4 05/25/2020 BRA isolation , challenges , restart , hope R 05/16/2020 BRA introversion , collectivity , technology , adaptation T BRA isolation , introversion , uncertainty , hope 05/04/2020 BRA BRA BRA isolation , introversion , collectivity , adaptation 05/01/2020 05/01/2020 routine , collectivity , politics , responsibility routine , collectivity , nostalgia , adaptation 05/02/2020 R T T T BRA SPN ISR BRA BRA BRA USA BRA BRA BRA BRA routine , challenges , uncertainty , adaptation 03/08/2022 R isolation , collectivity , technology , nostalgia isolation , introversion , routine , uncertainty 04/27/2020 11/04/2020 05/21/2020 04/11/2022 R R R R routine , challenges , uncertainty , technology isolation , routine , inequality , collectivity isolation , introversion , challenges , uncertainty 03/11/2022 28/03/2022 helplessness , losses , nostalgia , restart R isolation , routine , expectation , restart challenges , collectivity , responsibility , hope collectivity , technology , expectation , restart isolation , introversion , routine , adaptation 04/14/2022 06/25/2022 07/26/2020 05/26/2020 06/15/2022 R R R R V R IND COL collectivity , politics , technology , nature politics , responsibility , regression , adaptation 07/07/2022 07/28/2022 I I I & II 019 Marcela Berrio 54 020 Beni Barzellai 56 021 Monica Eisenberg 56 022 Vitor Pamplona 57 023 Gildete dos Santos Mello 57 024 Ana Cristina Downey 58 025 Tamara Klink 58 026 Lara Coutinho 58 027 Makau Mehinako 59 028 Marta M. Roy Torrecilla 60 029 Nitzan Zilberman 62 030 Bruno Rodrigues 62 031 Liv Soban 64 032 Isaac Volschan 65 033 Beatriz Guimarães 66 034 Takumã Kuikuro 67 035 Melissa Du 67 INTERVIEWS 036 Sheila Jasanoff 71 037 Ana Cristina González Vélez 85
5 HIATUS 038 Pinar Yoldas 97 039 Zuenir Ventura 100 040 José Roberto de Castro Neves 100 041 David Birge 101 042 Michael Waldrep 103 043 Murilo Ferreira 105 044 Sonia Esteves 106 045 Monica Nogueira 106 046 Victor Orestes 107 047 Agustin Schang 107 048 Mary Gao 108 049 BA Mir 108 050 Gabriella Vieira de Carvalho 109 051 Helena Moreira Dias 109 052 Gisela Zincone 109 053 Daniel Milagres 110 054 Mauro Ventura 111 055 Diego Portas 112 056 Anne Bogart 113 057 Pedro Pirim 117 058 Bruno Tavares 117 059 Maria Eduarda Moog 118 060 Mariana Meneguetti 119 UK BRA USA BRA BRA isolation , technology , restart , hope 06/16/2020 R 05/01/2020 06/21/2022 politics , responsibility , expectation , hope challenges , losses , inequality , responsibility 04/26/2020 nature , expectation , restart , hope 08/07/2020 T isolation , challenges , inequality , collectivity introversion , politics , expectation , restart 06/15/2020 06/30/2020 R R R V ARG USA BRA BRA isolation , collectivity , nature , restart 05/01/2020 collectivity , responsibility , adaptation , restart R R BRA CAN BRA BRA CAN BRA ARG BRA USA BRA BRA uncertainty , collectivity , adaptation , hope 05/11/2020 R E losses , collectivity , responsibility , hope isolation , collectivity , expectation , hope uncertainty , losses , inequality , regression 06/03/2020 05/26/2020 05/16/2020 05/21/2020 05/11/2020 05/11/2020 R T T R challenges , collectivity , technology , adaptation uncertainty , helplessness , restart , hope challenges , collectivity , politics , restart 05/16/2020 uncertainty , technology , adaptation , hope R collectivity , technology , responsibility , hope losses , collectivity , expectation , hope losses , inequality , collectivity , politics 06/20/2020 05/01/2020 04/24/2020 05/10/2020 R R R R T USA USA BRA BRA isolation , urban , adaptation , restart challenges , helplessness , collectivity , expectation 05/04/2020 E isolation , losses , responsibility , hope 05/10/2020 06/14/2020 R challenges , losses , collectivity , responsibility T R V 06/19/2020 08/05/2020
6 061 Manuela Müller 119 062 J. Charlesworth & T. Parsons 120 063 Atapucha Waujá 121 064 T. Vaughan & T. Hofmeier 121 065 Xhulio Binjaku 122 066 Barbara Graeff 123 067 José Guilherme Cantor Magnani 124 068 Auritha Tabajara 125 069 Alessandra Fischer 125 070 Lucio Salvatore 126 071 Fernanda Germano 128 072 Bárbara Buril 129 073 Kapisi Kamayura 131 074 Adalberto Neto 132 INTERVIEWS 075 Carmen Silva 135 076 Vita Susak 143 BRA USA 07/07/2022 isolation , uncertainty , politics , expectation isolation , inequality , politics , adaptation 05/28/2020 USA BRA uncertainty , losses , politics , expectation 05/27/2020 T routine , challenges , uncertainty , adaptation 03/07/2020 R collectivity , nature , restart , hope 05/29/2020 R R R BRB AUS BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA collectivity , responsibility , expectation , hope isolation , introversion , routine , uncertainty 05/28/2020 05/15/2020 T R collectivity , expectation , restart , hope 05/27/2022 R introversion , challenges , collectivity , adaptation 06/27/2020 isolation , challenges , collectivity , responsibility isolation , introversion , collectivity , expectation helplessness , technology , nature , regression isolation , challenges , uncertainty , losses 04/14/2022 04/05/2020 05/27/2020 03/05/2022 R E T R R BRA 06/10/2022 challenges , collectivity , responsibility , expectation T BRA 03/15/2022 UKR 03/06/2022 I losses , politics , collectivity , hope collectivity , urban , routine , expectation I III & IV


077 Fernando Henrique Cardoso 153 078 Ani Liu 154 079 Kátia Bandeira de Mello Gerlach 155 080 Denis Mooney 158 081 Pedro Roquette-Pinto 158 082 Mae-ling Lokko 159 083 Marcelo Borborema 160 084 Rosiska Darcy de Oliveira 161 085 Adil Aly 161 086 Caroline A. Jones 162 087 Catarina Flaksman 166 088 João Costa 167 089 Daniel Daou 168 090 Ana Altberg 169 091 Daniel Wilkinson 170 092 Guilherme Wisnik 170 093 Laura González Fierro 174 094 Olivia Serra 176 095 Carlos Saldanha 176 096 Aditya Barve 177 097 Claudia Escarlate 178 098 Cripta Djan 178 099 Pedro Zylbersztajn 179 BRA challenges , inequality , collectivity , hope 05/11/2020 T BRA collectivity , politics , responsibility , adaptation 05/30/2020 R BRA challenges , nature , responsibility , expectation 10/16/2020 T BRA 06/13/2020 R challenges , politics , nature , hope BRA 05/29/2020 introversion , inequality , collectivity , politics R USA inequality , responsibility , restart , hope 07/06/2020 R MEX inequality , politics , adaptation , expectation 07/02/2020 E BRA challenges , uncertainty , politics , technology 08/03/2020 E USA isolation , inequality , collectivity , politics 06/15/2020 E MEX 06/06/2020 03/29/2022 05/26/2020 06/03/2022 isolation , inequality , politics , expectation R V R V BRA 11/12/2020 T challenges , uncertainty , inequality , urban BRA 05/24/2020 T introversion , responsibility , expectation , restart IND introversion , inequality , collectivity , restart inequality , responsibility , expectation , hope BRA 05/04/2020 03/30/2022 R V USA collectivity , politics , technology , hope 06/26/2020 R BRA collectivity , politics , expectation , hope 05/08/2020 R BRA USA 05/30/2020 E isolation , uncertainty , losses , politics UAE 08/30/2020 T challenges , collectivity , expectation , hope BRA 05/16/2020 challenges , uncertainty , helplessness , regression R BRA challenges , helplessness , politics , responsibility 06/22/2020 R BRA uncertainty , collectivity , regression , hope 05/29/2020 T AUS challenges , collectivity , politics , expectation 05/06/2020 R GHA PHL challenges , collectivity , politics , hope 06/21/2020 06/06/2022 R V
8 100 Ascânio Seleme 180 101 Bárbara Fonseca 180 102 Karla Mendes 183 103 Vitória Hadba 183 104 Tábata Amaral 184 105 Iker Gil 184 106 Linda Chavers 187 107 Gustavo Hadba 187 108 Murdoch Rawson 187 109 Ana Fontes 188 110 M. de Troi & W. Quintilio 189 111 Isabela Fonseca 195 112 Pedro Brito 195 113 Luis Erlanger 197 INTERVIEWS 114 Admir Masic 201 115 Adèle Naudé Santos 211 USA USA inequality , collectivity , responsibility , expectation 07/01/2020 T BRA challenges , uncertainty , inequality , responsibility 05/18/2020 R BRA 06/16/2020 T challenges , helplessness , inequality , regression 05/25/2020 04/07/2022 BRA R inequality , responsibility , restart , hope 05/16/2020 inequality , politics , urban , expectation BRA 06/16/2020 isolation , introversion , inequality , urban E BRA 04/14/2022 collectivity , politics , responsibility , hope R BRA helplessness , inequality , responsibility , regression 05/18/2020 R UK inequality , responsibility , expectation , hope 06/02/2020 R BRA inequality , collectivity , politics , responsibility 05/30/2020 T R V BRA helplessness , politics , urban , expectation 07/14/2022 R BRA challenges , collectivity , politics , technology 03/31/2020 E BRA 03/14/2022 uncertainty , politics , technology , regression R AFS 04/03/2022 routine , collectivity , urban , expectation I BRA uncertainty , collectivity , expectation , hope 07/14/2022 R CRO 10/09/2022 challenges , inequality , politics , adaptation I V & VI


116 Bruno Carvalho 221 117 Renata Minerbo 223 118 Osborne Macharia 223 119 Leticia Cotrim da Cunha 224 120 Carlos Saul Zebulun 226 121 Ariel Kozlowski 226 122 Mariel Collard Arias 227 123 Sidney Chalhoub 228 124 Marina Grinover 230 125 Naomi Davy 231 126 Michael Batty 232 127 Isaac Karabtchevsky 238 128 Daniel Corsi 238 129 Martim Moulton 242 130 Christiana Figueres 242 131 Pedro Gadanho 244 132 Maria Manuela Moog 244 133 Alejandro de Miguel Solano 245 134 Lúcia Guimarães 254 135 Joris Komen 254 136 Marko Brajovic 257 137 Simone Klabin 259 138 Ricardo Trevisan 260 BRA HOP USA CR POR collectivity , responsibility , restart , hope 05/16/2020 R challenges , inequality , politics , urban 05/27/2020 T NAM 01/17/2021 R urban , nature , responsibility , adaptation 03/24/2020 05/29/2020 challenges , politics , nature , responsibility nature , responsibility , expectation , hope E R politics , technology , urban , adaptation 05/05/2020 challenges , technology , urban , hope 06/30/2020 R BRA challenges , uncertainty , urban , expectation 06/15/2020 T BRA isolation , responsibility , expectation , restart 04/20/2020 E E KEN UK BRA BRA challenges , uncertainty , collectivity , nature nature , responsibility , restart , hope 05/16/2020 T inequality , urban , nature , hope 06/16/2020 inequality , collectivity , urban , nature R 07/31/2020 03/29/2022 06/17/2020 06/03/2022 R V R V BRA collectivity , nature , responsibility , regression 05/29/2020 T 05/29/2020 04/04/2022 R V nature , responsibility , restart , hope 08/11/2020 R inequality , collectivity , nature , responsibility collectivity , nature , responsibility , hope 04/26/2020 06/29/2020 06/02/2020 05/16/2020 R R R R routine , politics , nature , responsibility collectivity , urban , nature , adaptation 05/03/2020 challenges , technology , responsibility , expectation R collectivity , technology , urban , adaptation collectivity , nature , adaptation , expectation urban , nature , responsibility , hope 05/14/2020 05/04/2020 R E MEX BRA BRA BRA USA BRA UK BRA BRA USA BRA
10 139 Cauê Capillé 261 140 Philip Yang 263 141 Natalia Timerman 266 142 Barbara Veiga 266 143 Carlos Nobre 266 144 Gustavo Neiva 267 145 Amanda Palma 271 146 Helena Singer 271 147 Shirley Krenak 272 148 Beth Kozlowski 273 149 Ricardo Bayão 273 150 Marcia Kambeba 274 INTERVIEWS 151 Sônia Guajajara 277 152 Beto Veríssimo 291 BRA BRA 05/30/2020 03/29/2020 07/21/2020 04/05/2022 R V E V BRA politics , nature , responsibility , hope 04/05/2022 R BRA challenges , nature , responsibility , restart 04/31/2022 R BRA 05/15/2022 R collectivity , politics , responsibility , expectation challenges , technology , urban , responsibility BRA 04/04/2022 collectivity , politics , expectation , hope R challenges , politics , nature , responsibility BRA challenges , helplessness , nature , responsibility 03/31/2022 R BRA challenges , urban , adaptation , restart 06/15/2020 E BRA collectivity , nature , responsibility , hope 06/26/2022 R BRA 07/15/2022 R uncertainty , nature , responsibility , hope BRA challenges , collectivity , nature , responsibility 03/21/2022 T BRA challenges , collectivity , nature , responsibility 02/23/2022 R BRA 04/12/2022 collectivity , urban , nature , expectation I BRA 05/29/2022 collectivity , nature , expectation , restart I VII & VIII


153 Mohsen Mostafavi 303 154 Dado Villa-Lobos 312 155 João Anzanello Carrascoza 313 156 Adam Haar Horowitz 313 157 Jeremy Bailey 314 158 Heloisa Escudeiro 315 159 Anna Maria Moog Rodrigues 315 160 Maira Genovese 316 161 Mark Bryan 316 162 Sergio Branco 317 163 B. Castelar & J. Moreira 319 164 Eime Tobari 319 165 Debora Martini 320 166 Igor Lima 320 167 Higia Ikeda 321 168 Marcos Frazão 321 169 Antônio de Salles Guerra Lage 322 170 Paula Braun 322 171 Ontxa Mehinaku 323 172 Isabella Simões 323 173 Guilherme Alves 324 174 Julie Michiels 324 175 Mari Mel Ostermann 324 USA 05/25/2020 T collectivity , urban , responsibility , expectation BRA 05/20/2020 T collectivity , adaptation , expectation , hope BRA BRA BRA IR uncertainty , collectivity , adaptation , hope collectivity , responsibility , expectation , hope isolation , adaptation , expectation , hope collectivity , politics , nature , adaptation 04/04/2022 R politics , technology , responsibility , adaptation 09/27/2020 05/04/2020 challenges , uncertainty , adaptation , restart T 05/27/2020 06/05/2020 R T E CAN UK USA BRA USA BRA BRA USA introversion , challenges , uncertainty , restart responsibility , expectation , restart , hope 10/28/2020 05/27/2020 06/16/2020 08/31/2020 06/25/2020 04/03/2022 R R BRA 06/15/2020 collectivity , responsibility , expectation , hope R T R V challenges , inequality , responsibility , hope challenges , collectivity , technology , adaptation collectivity , technology , responsibility , hope 04/26/2020 08/15/2022 responsibility , expectation , restart , hope R R T BRA collectivity , politics , responsibility , hope 06/15/2020 T BRA challenges , collectivity , politics , responsibility 08/07/2020 T BRA losses , responsibility , restart , hope 03/05/2022 T BRA 07/13/2022 R challenges , uncertainty , inequality , hope USA BRA 06/04/2020 collectivity , responsibility , expectation , restart R BRA challenges , collectivity , responsibility , hope 05/20/2020 T BRA collectivity , responsibility , expectation , hope 03/14/2022 R BRA collectivity , responsibility , restart , hope 06/11/2020 R
12 176 Tereza C. Mc Courtney 325 177 Miguel Darcy de Oliveira 325 178 Marcelo Maia Rosa 325 179 Ney Latorraca 326 180 José Benedito Tui(~) Huni Kuin 326 181 Rita Braune Guedes 327 182 Adriana Lucena 328 183 Cláudio Domênico 328 184 Rafael Marengoni 329 185 Fernanda Ferreira 329 186 Gabriel Kozlowski 330 187 Charles Silva 332 188 Seamus O'Farrell 333 189 Tina Correia 334 190 Luis Nobrega 336 USA BRA isolation , introversion , expectation , hope 05/03/2020 T BRA isolation , collectivity , urban , adaptation 11/16/2020 E BRA adaptation , expectation , restart , hope 05/26/2020 R BRA 05/01/2020 R collectivity , politics , responsibility , hope BRA 05/17/2020 T challenges , uncertainty , adaptation , expectation BRA 04/25/2020 R introversion , collectivity , responsibility , hope BRA 05/07/2020 introversion , collectivity , adaptation , expectation R losses , adaptation , restart , hope 06/01/2020 BRA isolation , introversion , challenges , uncertainty 04/26/2020 T BRA challenges , responsibility , adaptation , expectation 04/27/2020 R R BRA collectivity , responsibility , expectation , hope 05/08/2020 T BRA routine , challenges , uncertainty , collectivity 03/23/2022 R BRA challenges , inequality , collectivity , restart 05/29/2020 R AUS isolation , routine , expectation , hope 05/28/2020 R 10/09/2020 04/30/2022 BRA collectivity , politics , technology , adaptation R V
13 RESPONSIBILITY Tomorrow Anew 339 POSTFACE Rebecca Tavares 347 M. Moreira Salles & T. Alvim 347 Graham Goymour 347 Tiago Genoveze 347 PHOTOGRAPHIC ESSAYS 191 Cassandra Cury 355 192 Cristiana Lima 365 193 Delfim Martins 375 194 Juliana Lima 385 195 Luciana Whitaker 395 196 Marcos Amend 405 197 Rafael Costa 415 198 Ricardo Teles 425 199 Rogério Reis 435 200 Sérgio Ranalli 445 BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA 06/2022 11/2018 04/2019 07/2022 01/2020 08/2018 07/2021 08/2012 07/2011 F F F F F T F F T T F F F USA BRA UK E T USA USA collective , children , portraits , rituals buildings , customs , children , landscape buildings , landscape , portraits , rituals children , landscape , portraits , rituals collective , buildings , children , customs children , portraits , rituals , landscape customs , children , landscape , rituals buildings , landscape , portraits , rituals buildings , children , landscape , portraits buildings , customs , children , landscape 08/2022 09/2022 08/2022 02/2023 09/2022 08/2022

Visual Summary

2020 • 2022

Responses x Keywords

Adalberto Neto

Adam Haar Horowitz

Adil Aly Aditya Barve

Adriana Lucena

Agustin Schang

Alejandro de Miguel Solano

Alessandra Fischer

Amanda Palma

Ana Altberg

Ana Cristina Downer

Ana Fontes

Andrés Passaro

Angelica Walker

Ani Liu

Anna Maria Moog Rodrigues

Anne Bogart

Antonio de Salles Guerra Lage

Ariel Kozlowski

Ascânio Seleme

Atapucha Wauja

Auritha Tabajara

BA Mir

Barbara Fonseca

Barbara Graeff

Barbara Veiga

Bartira Volschan

Beatriz Guimarães

Beni Barzellai

Berta Castelar e João Moreira

Beth Kozlowski

Bruno Carvalho

Bruno Rodrigues

Bruno Tavares

Bárbara Buril

Carlos Nobre

Carlos Saldanha

Carlos Saul Zebulun

Caroline A. Jones

Catarina Flaksman

Cauê Capillé

Charles Silva

Christiana Figueres

Claudia Escarlate

Claudio Domênico

Cripta Djan

Dado Villa-Lobos

Daniel Corsi

Daniel Daou

Daniel Milagres

Daniel Wilkinson

David Birge

Debora Martini

Denis Mooney

Diana Flatto

Diego Portas

Eime Tobari

Fernanda Ferreira

Fernanda Germano

Fernando Henrique Cardoso

Gabriel Carvalho

Gabriella Vieira de Carvalho

Gildete dos Santos Mello

Gisela Zincone

Guilherme Alves

Guilherme Wisnik

Gustavo Hadba

Gustavo Neiva

Helena Moreira Dias

Helena Singer

Heloisa Escudeiro

Higia Ikeda

Igor Lima Iker Gil

Ilana Lipsztein

Isaac Karabtchevsky

Isabela Fonseca

Isabella Mayworm

Isabella Simões

Jane Hall

Jeremy Bailey

Jessica Charlesworth & Tim Parsons

Joe Jacobson

Joris Komen

José Benedito Huni Kui

José Guilherme Cantor Magnani

José Roberto de Castro Neves

João Anzanello Carrascoza

João Costa

Julie Michiels

Kapisi Kamayura

Karla Mendes

Kátia Bandeira de Mello Gerlach

Lara Coutinho

Laura González Fierro

Leticia Cotrim da Cunha

Linda Chavers

Liv Soban

Lucio Salvatore

Lui Farias

Luis Erlanger

Luis Nobrega

Lúcia Guimarães

Mae-ling Lokko

Maira Genovese

Makau Meinhako

Malkit Shoshan

Manuel Blanco-Ons Fernández

Manuela Müller

Marcela Berrio

Marcelo Borborema

Marcelo Maia Rosa

Marcelo de Troi e Wagner

Marcia Kambeba

Marcos Frazão

Mari Mel Ostermann

Maria Eduarda Moog

Maria Manuela Moog

Mariana Meneguetti

Mariel Collard Arias

Marina Grinover

Mark Bryan Marko Brajovic

Marta M. Roy Torrecilla

Martim Moulton

Mary Gao

Mary Lapides Shela

Mauro Ventura

Max Ghenis

Melissa Du

Michael Batty

Michael Waldrep

Miguel Darcy de Oliveira

Mohsen Mostafavi

Monica Eisenberg

Monica Nogueira

Murdoch Rawson

Murilo Ferreira

Naomi Davy Natalia Coachman

Natalia Timerman

Nazareth Ekmekjian

Neeraj Bhatia

Ney Latorraca

Nicolas Entel Nitzan Zilberman

Olivia Serra Ontxa


Osborne Macharia

Paula Braun

Pedro Brito

Pedro Gadanho

Pedro Pirim

Pedro Roquette-Pinto

Pedro Varella

Pedro Zylbersztajn

Philip Yang Pinar Yoldas

Rafael Marengoni

Renata Minerbo

Ricardo Bayão

Ricardo Trevisan

Rita Braune Guedes

Rosiska Darcy de Oliveira

Seamus O'Farrell

Sergio Branco

Sergio Galaz-García

Shirley Krenak

Sidney Chalhoub

Simone Klabin

Sonia Esteves


Sophie and Andrew Harkness

Tadeu Fidalgo

Takumã Kuikuro

Tamara Klink

Tamara Vaughan & Timothy Hofmeier

Tereza C. Mc Courtney

Tina Correia

Tábata Amaral

Victor Orestes

Vitor Pamplona

Vitória Hadba

Xhulio Binjaku

Zuenir Ventura
























1. No dia seguinte ao de hoje

2. Num tempo futuro


1. recently or lately

2. anew or afresh


the part of existence that is measured in minutes, days, years, etc., or this process considered as a whole

in Portuguese: novo

in Portuguese: tempo

Def: 1. 2. generally the in amanhã

120 130 140 times / vezes > > > > > > amanhã word frequency / frequência de palavras word frequency [137] [130] [122] [115]
Inglês: tomorrow
new time tomorrow 70 80 90 future change será one social people life world many tempo todos also pessoas di erent way need pandemia
[85] [89] [89] [89] [87] [82] [72] [72] [70] [69] [67] [66] [66] [68] 19
Most used words


1. the day after today

2. used more generally to mean the future

in Portuguese: amanhã


1. Corresponder a determinada identificação ou qualificação

2. Consistir em.

em Inglês: to be


1. relativo ao Brasil ou o que é seu natural ou habitante

em Inglês: Brazil

100 110 > > > > > > [115] [110] [108] [97] tomorrow mundo ser Brasil 40 50 60 way need pandemia pandemic hoje muito ainda like architecture tudo nossa futuro global diferente political society crisis vida casa city agora today human virus environment work mesmo home momento
[64] [64] [61] [60] [60] [59] [59] [60] [56] [56] [53] [51] [48] [47] [47] [46] [45] [44] [44] [44] [43] [43] [45] [45] [48] [55] [55] [56] [64] [66] [66] 20
28/04/202029/04/202030/04/2020 24/03/2020 26/03/2020 31/03/2020 02/04/2020 05/04/2020 10/04/2020 19/04/2020 20/04/2020 23/04/2020 25/04/2020 26/04/2020 27/04/2020 01/05/2020 02/05/2020 03/05/2020 04/05/2020 05/05/202006/05/202007/05/2020 08/05/2020 10/05/2020 11/05/2020 14/05/2020 16/05/2020 17/05/2020 18/05/202019/05/2020 20/05/2020 21/05/2020 25/05/2020 26/05/2020 27/05/2020 28/05/2020 29/05/2020 30/05/2020 31/05/2020 01/06/2020 02/06/2020 03/06/2020 04/06/202005/06/202006/06/202007/06/2020 11/06/2020 13/06/202014/06/2020 15/06/2020 16/06/2020 17/06/202018/06/2020 19/06/2020 20/06/202021/06/202022/06/202023/06/2020 25/06/2020 26/06/2020 27/06/202028/06/2020 29/06/2020 30/06/2020 01/07/202002/07/202003/07/2020 06/07/2020 07/07/2020 13/07/2020 14/07/2020 18/07/2020 21/07/2020 31/07/2020 03/08/2020 07/08/2020 11/08/2020 15/08/2020 19/08/2020 24/08/2020 30/08/202031/08/2020 02/09/2020 07/09/2020 27/09/202028/09/202029/09/2020 09/10/202010/10/2020 Christiana Figueres Marcelo de Troi e Wagner Quintilio Bárbara Buril Joe Jacobson Neeraj Bhatia Marko Brajovic Mariana Meneguetti Fernanda Ferreira Murilo Ferreira Marina Grinover Anna Maria Moog Rodrigues Claudio Domênico Nitzan Zilberman Adriana Lucena Gildete dos Santos Mello Ana Cristina Downer Michael Waldrep Pedro Pirim Maria Eduarda Moog Rita Braune Guedes Vitor Pamplona Ariel Kozlowski Ney Latorraca Monica Eisenberg David Birge Pedro Zylbersztajn Isaac Karabtchevsky Dado Villa-Lobos Alejandro de Miguel Solano Denis Mooney Marcelo Maia Rosa Rosiska Darcy de Oliveira Miguel Darcy de Oliveira Zuenir Ventura Mauro Ventura Daniel Milagres Diego Portas Olivia Serra Michael Batty Beni Barzellai Helena Moreira Dias Gisela Zincone Tadeu Fidalgo Pedro Roquette-Pinto Vitória Hadba Osborne Macharia Martim Moulton Maria Manuela Moog Gabriel Carvalho Karla Mendes Tereza C. Mc Courtney Ascânio Seleme Guilherme Alves Mari Mel Ostermann Bruno Rodrigues Bruno Tavares Marcela Berrio Cripta Djan Iker Gil Julie Michiels Nicolas Entel Marta M. Roy Torrecilla Gabriella Vieira de Carvalho Aditya Barve Rafael Marengoni Nazareth Ekmekjian Manuela Müller Auritha Tabajara Alessandra Fischer Lúcia Guimarães Adam Haar Horowitz Heloisa Escudeiro Xhulio Binjaku Barbara Grae Seamus O'Farrell Malkit Shoshan Diana Flatto Parsons & Charlesworth Marcelo Borborema Catarina Flaksman Carlos Saul Zebulun Sidney Chalhoub Pedro Gadanho Charles Silva Kátia Bandeira de Mello Gerlach João Costa Tábata Amaral Cauê Capillé Sophie and Andrew Harkness Jane Hall Andrés Passaro Luis Nobrega Murdoch Rawson Naomi Davy Lui Farias BA Mir Marcos Frazão Berta Castelar e João Moreira Laura González Fierro Higia Ikeda Daniel Wilkinson José Roberto de Castro Neves Victor Orestes Caroline A. Jones Ricardo Trevisan Philip Yang Peju Alatise Debora Martini Monica Nogueira Claudia Escarlate Barbara Fonseca Gustavo Hadba Renata Minerbo Eime Tobari Leticia Cotrim da Cunha Max Ghenis Sergio Galaz-García Pinar Yoldas Igor Lima Mary Gao Nearly one-third of the world’s population is living under coronavirus-related restrictions Global coronavirus cases pass the one million mark; deaths exceed 50,000. New York City reports more coronavirus cases than any country Germany approves first trials for a coronavirus vaccine.   Brazil's health ministry removes coronavirus data from o icial website 21 Timeline


Gustavo Neiva recall Andrés Passaro recall Aditya Barve recall Leticia Cotrim da Cunha recall Mae-ling Lokko recall Marta M. Roy Torrecilla recall Michael Waldrep recall Pinar Yoldas recall Cauê Capillé recall Laura González Fierro recall Pedro Zylbersztajn recall Bruno Carvalho recall Sergio Branco recall Diana Flatto recall Sidney Chalhoub recall

27/09/202028/09/202029/09/2020 09/10/202010/10/2020 16/10/2020 29/10/2020 06/03/2022 08/03/2022 11/03/2022 14/03/2022 15/03/2022 29/03/2022 30/03/2022 31/03/2022 01/04/2022 03/04/2022 04/04/2022 05/04/2022 06/04/2022 07/04/2022 11/04/2022 12/04/2022 14/04/2022 20/04/2022 29/04/2022 30/04/2022 02/05/2022 05/05/202206/05/2022 13/05/2022 15/05/2022 27/05/2022 02/06/202203/06/2022 05/06/2022 09/06/2022 30/05/2022 02/06/2022 05/06/2022 09/06/2022 10/06/2022 15/06/2022 21/06/2022 26/06/2022 13/07/2022 14/07/2022 16/07/2022 28/07/2022 28/07/2022 09/10/2022 15/08/2022 Gustavo Hadba Renata Minerbo Eime Tobari Leticia Cotrim da Cunha Max Ghenis Sergio Galaz-García Pinar Yoldas Mae-ling Lokko Fernando Henrique Cardoso Pedro Varella Sergio Branco Melissa Du Mary Lapides Shela Lucio Salvatore Daniel Corsi Agustin Schang Simone Klabin Linda Chavers Daniel Daou Carlos Saldanha Tamara Vaughan & Timothy Hofmeier Isabella Mayworm Natalia Coachman Gustavo Neiva Bruno Carvalho Guilherme Wisnik Sonia Esteves Mariel Collard Arias Adil Aly Mark Bryan Angelica Walker Manuel Blanco-Ons Fernández Mohsen Mostafavi Tina Correia Ana Altberg Jeremy Bailey Tamara Klink Paula Braun Lara Coutinho Marcelo de Troi e Wagner Quintilio Natalia Timerman Barbara Veiga João Anzanello Carrascoza Carlos Nobre Iker Gil recall Tukumã Kuikuru Beto Veríssimo Ana Fontes José Guilherme Cantor Magnani Tina Correia recall Amanda Palma Liv Soban Helena Singer Auritha Tabajara Alessandra Fischer Adalberto Neto Beth Kozlowski Isabella Simões Bartira Volschan Isabela
Fonseca Pedro Brito Ricardo Bayão Maira Genvese Mary Gao Ani Liu Santos Sônia Guajajara Sheila Jasano Ana Cristina González Vélez Admir Masic
Silva Adèle Naudé
Responses Interviews
Recalls 2022 2020 Events Global coronavirus death toll surpasses 500,000  Russia begins production on Sputnik-V Brazil passes 110,000 COVID-19 deaths and 2.4 million cases.  First case of COVID-19 reinfection reported in Hong Kong. Global COVID-19 deaths pass one million Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine shows acceptable safety.  Brazil passes 150,000 COVID-19 deaths, giving the second-highest death-toll after the United States. The World Health Organization declares that Europe is again the "epicenter" of the pandemic WHO strengthens its endorsement of booster shots, while still emphasizing the need for primary shots A third of the world population remains unvaccinated from COVID-19 according to the WHO. WHO says over 65 percent of Africans have been infected with COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic WHO urges people worldwide to continue wearing masks. Research links exposure to air pollution to worse COVID-19 outcomes World Health Organization (WHO) releases a preliminary report on the origins of COVID-19. The United States reports over 55,000 new coronavirus cases, marking a new daily global record WHO reports that the United States and Brazil made up half of the daily increase in coronavirus cases globally. 22


Introversion,Challenges,Uncertainty,Restart Collectivity,Technology,Responsibility,Hope Isolation,Introversion,Challenges,Uncertainty, Collectivity,Politics,Technology,AdaptationCollectivity,Technology,Responsibility,Hope Collectivity,Responsibility,Expectation,Hope Collectivity,Politics,Responsibility,Hope Routine,Collectivity,Responsibility,Expectation Introversion,Challenges,Collectivity,Adaptation Introversion,Collectivity,Nature,HopeChallenges,Collectivity,Technology,Adaptation Collectivity,Politics,Nature,AdaptationCollectivity,Responsibility,Restart,HopeCollectivity,Responsibility,Expectation,Restart Challenges,Collectivity,Politics,Responsibility Challenges,Inequality,Collectivity,Restart Losses,Responsibility,Restart,Hope


Isolation,Routine, Expectation,Hope

Challenges, Collectivity, Responsibility,Hope

Collectivity, Adaptation, Expectation,Hope

Collectivity,Urban, Responsibility, Expectation

Introversion, Collectivity, Adaptation, Expectation

Isolation, Collectivity, Urban, Adaptation

Isolation, Introversion, Expectation, Hope

Introversion, Challenges, Collectivity, Expectation

Collectivity, Politics, Responsibility, Hope

Challenges, Uncertainty, Inequality, Hope

Adaptation, Expectation, Restart, Hope

Challenges, Responsibility, Adaptation, Expectation



Collectivity, Responsibility, Expectation, Hope BRABRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA BRA


Uncertainty, Collectivity, Adaptation, Hope BRA



Inequality, Responsibility, Restart, Hope Inequality, Collectivity, Responsibility, Expectation Inequality, Responsibility, Expectation, Hope Collectivity, Politics, Responsibility, Hope Challenges, Collectivity, Politics, Technology Helplessness, Politics, Urban, Expectation, Uncertainty, Collectivity, Expectation, Hope Uncertainty, Politics, Technology, Regression Regression, Losses, Collectivity, Resposanbility Urban, Expectation, Collectivity, Routine Inequality, Urban, Nature, Hope Inequality, Collectivity, Urban, Nature Challenges, Uncertainty, Collectivity, Nature Collectivity, Urban, Nature, Adaptation Collectivity, Responsibility, Restart,Hope Nature, Responsibility, Restart,Hope Collectivity,Nature, Responsibility, Regression Urban,Nature, Responsibility,HopeNature,Responsibility, Expectation,Hope Challenges,Technology, Responsibility,ExpectationCollectivity,Nature,Responsibility,Restart,Hope Politics,Expectation,Hope Routine,Inequality,Collectivity,Nature,Responsibility Politics,Nature,Responsibility Collectivity,Collectivity,Technology,Urban,Adaptation Nature,Adaptation,ExpectationChallenges,Collectivity,Nature,Responsibility,Hope Politics,Nature,ResponsibilityChallenges,Politics,Technology,Urban,Adaptation Inequality,Politics,Urban Isolation,Urban,Nature,Responsibility,Adaptation Challenges,Responsibility,Expectation,Restart Technology,Urban,Hope Challenges,Challenges,Uncertainty,Urban,Expectation Urban,Adaptation,Restart Challenges,Challenges,Technology,Urban,Responsibility


HIATUS INTERVIEW 5 E 6 LOCUS INTERVIEW 7 E 8 CARE PHOTOGRAPHY ESSAY 20 April 2020 29 May 2020 29 May 2020 7 Setember 2020 4 April 2020 19 April 2020 02 June 02 June 2022 16 June 2020 16 June 2020 25 May 2020 25 May 2020 04 May 2020 30 March 2022 18 May 2020 17 May 2020 16 May 2020 07 April 2022 01 July 2020 02 June 2020 14 April 2022 31 March 2020 14 July 2022 14 July 2022 11 March 2022 11 March 2022 03April 2022 31July 2020 01April 2022 16 June 202016May2020 16May 2020 17June 2020 17June 2020 03June 202229May202029May202003May202003May202011August20200404April2022 April20220226April2020 June20200414May2020 May20202429June2020 05March2020 May202027May2020 17January2021 3020April2020 June20201515June2020 June2020 2930May2020 March 2020 31 March 2022 05April 2022 05 April 2022 21 July 2020 31 April 2022 15 May 2022 21 March 2022 26 June 2022 14 July 2022 23 February 2022 29 May 2022 12 April 2022 27 September 2020 04 May 2020 01 June 2020 27 May 2020 27 May 2020 29 October 2020 26April2020 26April2020 09October2020 30April2022 1515June2020 June2020 15June2020 31August202028June2020 14July202025June202003April202216June202011June202004June202007Aug202029May2020 05March202228May20202020May2020 May202025May202017May202008May202007May202016May 2020 16May 2020 03May 2020 23 March 2022 01 May 2020 27 April 2020 13 July 2022 26 May 2020 25 April 2020 14 March 2022 04 April 2022 Neeraj Bhatia Malkit Shoshan Diana Flatto Manuel Blanco-Ons Fernández Barbara Fonseca Gustavo Hadba Cripta Djan Iker Gil Pedro Zylbersztajn recall Ascânio Seleme Karla Mendes Vitória Hadba recall Linda Chavers Murdoch Rawson Ana Fontes Marcelo de Troi e Wagner Quintilio Isabela Fonseca Pedro Brito Luis Erlanger Admir Masic Adèle Naudé Santos Bruno Carvalho recall Renata Minerbo Osborne Macharia Martim MoultonLeticiaMariaManuelaMoog Cotrimda Cunha recallCarlosSaul ZebulunPedroSidneyChalhoub GadanhoMarielArielKozlowski BarbararecallCollardArias VeigaNaomiMarinaGrinover DavyIsaacMichaelBatty DanielKarabtchevsky Corsi AlejandroChristianaFigueresdeMiguelSolano
Klabin RicardoTrevisan CauêPhilipYang
CarlosTimerman Nobre recall Gustavo Neiva Amanda Palma Helena Singer Shirley Krenak Beth Kozlowski Ricardo Bayão Marcia Kambeba Sônia Guajajara Beto Veríssimo Mohsen Mostafavi Dado Villa-Lobos Luis Nobrega Adam Haar Horowitz Heloisa Escudeiro JeremyBailey
ClaudioDomênico TinaCorreia recall MairaGenovese DeboraMartini IgorLima MarkBryan LucioSalvatore IsabellaMayworm SergioBranco recall EimeTobariHigiaIkeda
LúciaGuimarãesMarkoJorisKomen SimoneBrajovic
MarcosFrazão AntoniodeSallesGuerraLage CharlesSilvaOntxaMeinhako
MariMel Ostermann JulieMichiels
Oliveira Marcelo Maia Rosa Gabriel Carvalho Gabriel Kozlowski
Latorraca José Benedito Huni Kui Rita Braune Guedes Adriana Lucena Isabella Simões RafaelMarengoniFernandaFerreiraPaulaBraun João Anzanello Carrascoza Delfim Martins Luciana Whitaker Juliana Lima Marcos Amend Rafael Costa Ricardo Teles Rogério Reis Sérgio Ranalli Introversion, Inequality, Collectivity, Urban Challenges, Collectivity, Responsibility, Restart Uncertainty, Losses, Collectivity, Hope Challenges, Helplessness, Introversion, Responsibility, Expectation, Restart Inequality, Politics, Urban, Expectation Inequality, Responsibility, Expectation, Hope Helplessness, Inequality,
Regression Challenges, Uncertainty,
TerezaC.Mc Courtney MiguelDarcyde
Inequality, Responsibility
Politics, Nature, Responsibility, Hope Challenges, Politics, Nature, Responsibility, Challenges, Nature, Responsibility, Restart Collectivity, Politics, Responsibility, Expectation Challenges, Collectivity, Nature, Responsibility Collectivity, Nature, Responsibility, Hope Uncertainty, Nature, Responsibility, Hope Challenges, Collectivity, Nature, Responsibility Politics, Technology, Responsibility, Adaptation Challenges, Uncertainty, Adaptation, Restart Losses, Adaptation, Restart, Hope Isolation, Adaptation, Expectation, Hope Challenges, Inequality, Responsibility, Hope
Challenges, Uncertainty, Adaptation, Expectation
Collectivity, Responsibility, Expectation,Hope

Introversion, Inequality, Collectivity, Urban Challenges, Collectivity, Responsibility, Restart Uncertainty, Losses, Collectivity, Hope Isolation, Introversion, Expectation, Hope Isolation, Uncertainty, Technology, Responsibility Isolation, Collectivity, Responsibility, Hope Isolation, Introversion, Routine, Uncertainty Isolation, Challenges, Responsibility, Expectation Isolation, Routine, Uncertainty, Nostalgia Isolation, Introversion, Routine, Restart Isolation, Collectivity, Technology, Restart Losses, Collectivity, Restart, Hope Challenges, Collectivity, Expectation, Hope Isolation, Routine, Uncertainty, Expectation Isolation, Introversion, Collectivity, Technology Isolation, Routine, Challenges, Collectivity Isolation, Routine, Technology, Responsibility Nostalgia, Expectation, Restart, Hope Isolation, Challenges, Restart, Hope Introversion, Collectivity, Technology, Adaptation Routine, Challenges, Uncertainty, Technology Isolation, Introversion, Uncertainty,Hope Routine,Collectivity, Nostalgia, Adaptation Isolation,Introversion, Collectivity, Adaptation Routine,Collectivity,Politics, Responsibility Isolation,Routine,Inequality,Collectivity Isolation,Introversion,Challenges,UncertaintyHelplessness,Losses,Nostalgia,Restart Isolation,Introversion,Routine,AdaptationIsolation,Introversion,Routine,Adaptation Isolation,Collectivity,Technology,NostalgiaIsolation,Routine,Expectation,RestartIsolation,Collectivity,Adaptation,Hope Isolation,Introversion,Routine,Uncertainty Challenges,Collectivity,Responsibility,HopeCollectivity,Politics,Technollogy,Nature Politics,Responsibility,Regression,Adaptation




Challenges,Helplessness,Collectivity,Expectation Isolation,Losses,Responsibility,Hope Losses,Inequality,Collectivity,Politics







Challenges,Losses,Collectivity,Responsibility Isolation,Urban,Adaptation,Restart Politics,Responsibility,Expectation,Hope






Introversion, Responsibility, Expectation, Restart Inequality, Responsibility, Expectation, Hope Helplessness, Inequality, Responsibility, Regression Responsibility

Challenges, Helplessness, Inequality, Regression Inequality, Politics, Urban, Expectation

Isolation, Introversion, Inequality, Urban

Challenges, Uncertainty, Inequality, Urban

Introversion, Inequality, Collectivity, Restart

Inequality, Responsibility, Restart, Hope

Inequality, Responsibility, Restart, Hope

Isolation, Inequality, Politics, Expectation

Challenges, Uncertainty, Politics, Technology

TábataJoãoCosta Amaral


BarbaraXhulioBinjaku Graeff






Challenges, Nature, Responsibility, Expectation

Challenges, Politics, Nature, Hope


Introversion, Inequality, Collectivity, Politics

Challenges, Collectivity,Politics,Hope Uncertainty, Collectivity, Regression,Hope

Isolation, Inequality, Collectivity, Politics

Collectivity, Politics, Expectation, Hope

Collectivity, Politics, Expectation, Hope

Challenges, Uncertainty, Helplessness, Regression

Challenges, Collectivity,Politics, Expectation

Collectivity,Responsibility,Adaptation,Restart Uncertainty,Losses,Politics,Expectation Collectivity,Nature,Restart,HopeChallenges,Isolation,Introversion,Routine,Uncertainty Isolation,Collectivity,Responsibility,Expectation Inequality,Uncertainty,Politics,Expectation Collectivity,Expectation,HopeIsolation,Collectivity,Responsibility,Expectation,Hope Helplessness,Challenges,Collectivity,Responsibility Technology,Nature,Regression Collectivity,Restart,HopeIsolation,Introversion,Collectivity,Expectation Isolation,Challenges,Uncertainty,LossesCollectivity,Losses,Politics,Collectivity,Hope Urban,Routine,ExpectationChallenges,Helplessness,Politics,Responsibility Isolation,Collectivity,Politics,Technology,Hope Uncertainty,Losses,Politics Collectivity,Politics, Responsibility,AdaptationInequality,Collectivity,Politics, Responsibility


HIATUS PHOTOGRAPHY ESSAY 20 April 2020 29 May 2020 29 May 2020 7 Setember 2020 4 April 2020 19 April 2020 19 June 2020 1 June 2020 6 May 2020 18 June 2020 3 June 2020 2 Setember 2020 22 July 2020 27 June 2020 26 June 2020 23 June 2020 31May 2020 31May 2020 27May20202626May2020 May202025May202016May20204May202022May2020 May20202May20201May202211March202029March2020 8March202015June202027April202021May202014July202216July202228July2022 19June2020 1010May2020 May2020 14June2020 04June2020 01May2020 21 June 2020 26April2020 07August 2020 16 June 2020 15 June 2020 30 June 2020 20 June 2020 06 June 2020 26 May 2020 16 May 2020 16 May 2020 16 May 2020 11 May 2020 11 May 2020 11 May 2020 1 May 2020 1 May 2020 21 May 2020 25April 20202727April2020 April2020 07July2020 07July2020 07July2020 07July2020 28May2020 2928May2020 April202227May2022 0527May2022 April2020 0604March2022 March20222215March2022 June202026June20203030May2020 May202030May20201506May2020 May202021June 2020 05June 20222929May2020 May202008May 202030August 2020 15 June 2020 02July 2020 16 October 2020 13 June 2020 03 August 2020 06 June 2020 29 March 2022 11 May 2020 06 July 2020 26 May 2020 02 June 2022 02 June 2022 16 June 2020 16 June 2020 25 May 2020 25 May 2020 04 May 2020 30 March 2022 18 May 2020 17 May 2020 16 May 2020 07 April 2022 July 2020 Neeraj Bhatia Malkit Shoshan Diana Flatto Manuel Blanco-Ons Fernández Joe Jacobson Sergio
Mary Lapides Shela Melissa Du Pedro Varella Sophie and Andrew Harkness Jane Hall Nazareth Ekmekjian Nicolas Entel Marcela Berrio Beni Barzellai BrunoRodriguesMonicaEisenbergVitorPamplona
SantosMello AnaCristina Downer Takumã Kuikuro TamaraKlink
LivSoban NataliaCoachman
recall Murilo Ferreira Sonia Esteves Monica Nogueira Victor Orestes Agustin Schang Mary Gao BA Mir Gabriella Vieira de Carvalho Helena Moreira Dias Gisela Zincone Tadeu Fidalgo Daniel Milagres Diego Portas Anne Bogart Pedro Pirim Maria Eduarda Moog Bruno Tavares MarianaMeneguetti Manuela Müller
FernandaAtapuchaWauja AdalbertoGermano Neto
CarmenVitaSusak Silva
FischerKapisiBárbaraBuril Kamayura
recall Marcelo Borborema Catarina Flaksman Rosiska Darcyde Oliveira CarolineAdilAly A. Jones Daniel Daou Ana Altberg Daniel Wilkinson Guilherme Wisnik Laura González Fierro recall Olivia Serra Carlos Saldanha Aditya Barve recall Claudia Escarlate Barbara Fonseca Gustavo Hadba Cripta Djan Iker Gil Pedro Zylbersztajn recall Ascânio Seleme Karla Mendes Vitória Hadba Rafael Costa Ricardo Teles Rogério Reis Sérgio Ranalli
Nature, Expectation, Restart, Hope Isolation, Technology, Restart, Hope Isolation, Challenges, Inequality, Collectivity Introversion, Politics, Expectation, Restart Collectivity, Technology, Responsibility, Hope Losses, Collectivity, Responsibility, Hope Challenges, Collectivity, Technology, Adaptation Challenges, Collectivity, Politics, Restart Uncertainty, Technology, Adaptation, Hope Isolation, Collectivity, Adaptation, Expectation Uncertainty, Collectivity, Adaptation, Hope Uncertainty, Losses, Inequality, Regression Uncertainty, Helplessness, Restart, Hope Losses, Collectivity, Expectation, Hope Isolation, Collectivity, Nature, Restart Isolation, Collectivity, Expectation, Hope
Inequality, Politics, Adaptation, Expectation

Campaign Call

Tomorrow Anew

Originally written in English


Times of crisis are also times to rethink our established ways of living. Although we are individually separated, we can think together as a collective body and act from within our households to help those on the frontlines. Tomorrow Anew invited individuals from all over the world to act on two fronts:

1. Think

Trapped inside our homes, each day is another of the same, where individual living in isolation long for a public one. We recurrently re-live the today with a mix of uneasiness, nostalgia and hope. Tomorrow Anew is a collective cry for tomorrow to come again. However, we do not ask for tomorrow to come as our normal yesterday, mimicking our old habits, our same ways of neglecting people, of doing business, or of disregarding the environment. Tomorrow must come anew, refreshed to inaugurate a new era. And for that, we need to think: we invited amazing minds to answer the question of “what will be different tomorrow” so we may collectively reflect on our future

2. Share

While reclusion might offer a moment of introversion, reflection, and maybe even peace for some, it is a burden for a large segment of the population that lives from end-of-day paychecks, let alone for those who are battling the virus. This crisis should also be a crisis of selfishness, opening new paths of solidarity. Those who can offer a figurative hand to those who are in a more fragile condition. And for that, we must share : we invited friends, family and strangers to donate as they responded to the question so we could help those who need it the most right now


Originally written in English

July 2022

Tomorrow Anew began as a reaction to a state of crisis. It was one among a constellation of artistic expressions that tried to make sense of what was happening in the world and do something about it. It was conceived out of an urgency to not just sit and observe but, instead, to mobilize people around a common cause. Rather than fully fleshed out and planned to its last details, Tomorrow Anew was the outcome of a gut feeling that forced us to fight inertia and a sense of disbelief that was starting to weigh heavily on everyone as tragic news spilled out day after day in the early months of the pandemic. By then, it was already clear that the toll of the new disease mirrored our social inequalities. True, one might say the disease spared no one, but this is different from saying it flattened structural differences. If anything, the result was the opposite: inequalities worsened, and the hardest impacts were felt in socially vulnerable regions and disenfranchised communities. This represented a segment of the population for whom isolation was not an option, access to fast and individualized health care service was nonexistent, and whose daily survival depended on the income of the previous month. Thus, as the pandemic deepened and uncertainties grew, solidarity among people increased in an effort to minimize the harmful consequences of the inequity that was created. The feeling was that acts of selflessness were sprouting everywhere along with a sense of responsibility, emerging not only from those in a more privileged position to those who were not, but also among those in need. It was as if anyone who could extend a hand to their fellow neighbor would do it if necessary. And so did we. The gravity of the situation compelled us to think about ways to expand our possibilities for providing help. How could we do more than the little we could do individually, so small acts could build up to something bigger? Or, more pragmatically, how could we create a channel through which those who did not know how to help or had no time to do so could find an easy and reliable way to contribute to alleviating the hardship of others?

The first drive of Tomorrow Anew was its philanthropic ethos, gathering resources—no matter how big or small—to help address a situation that was escalating quickly and becoming more critical as time went by. Aware of the network we had, we knew a fundraiser could be a viable path, but we also realized that, in order to succeed in garnering support, we had to establish trust, clearly communicate our dedication, provide transparency, and make it appealing. Thus, we set out to understand how to make donations work legally, transactionally and in terms of user experience. We reached out to lawyers, economists, directors of nonprofits, web developers, translators, and marketing


professionals for advice, and this way we established the initial partnerships that built the foundations of the campaign; every single one of them offering their time and experience without asking anything back. A large component of this initial phase was finding the right NGOs to work with that were already committed to the Covid-19 cause and that, between them, could have a geographical reach to offer multiple possibilities of assistance in different places around the globe. We joined forces with NGOs that were already actively responding to the current crisis, covering the US, Kenya, and Brazil, in different regions and capacities. They had been selected because of their seriousness, transparency, efficiency and scope, while acting like redistribution channels. Donations would first go to them, from where they entered the targeted communities. Thus, our initiative was set to redirect donations to the indigenous peoples of the Xingu and to families living in precarious conditions in slums of São Paulo (in partnership with Instituto Bei); to quilombola and riverine communities in the Amazon (in partnership with Brazil Foundation and Conservation International – Brazil); and to families hit hard by the pandemic and the unleashed economic crisis in the US and in Kenya (in partnership with GiveDirectly). Our campaign was possible because of them: for the beautiful work they were doing on the ground and due to the trust these large institutions placed in us, i.e. a couple of individuals without any charity structure in place or previous knowledge in philanthropy. Side-by-side, Tomorrow Anew moved from design into action, becoming a vehicle to connect new donors to people in need.

If gathering donations was a response to the present situation, one that focused on the immediate and urgent needs of those in need of support and not afterwards, we were convinced that, as a global society, we would come out of this challenge stronger if we also took steps to secure our futures. Not only acting through doing but also acting through thinking. Being able to imagine what tomorrow might hold, where it could be taken, or what we wanted it to be was necessary to avoid missing an opportunity of converting disintegration into evolution. The need was to fight the inertia of sticking to a form of presentism and problem-solving mode only while losing sight of a broader perspective. Thinking, far from a passive act, becomes an active, political stance that extends in time. Through thinking, we can extract lessons from the past, from what brought us to such a point of collapse, so as to re-channel them forward, preempting the future of similar mistakes. We can reject the many facets of pragmatism, utilitarianism, economicism and conformism and accept to give room to innovation, imagination, daydreaming and utopia. The same way that the idea of the present is something we have socially constructed rather than


being a natural, given, or preordained concept, so too should the future be. But the future also takes its form from a given present, some would argue, more sober than idealized, a predetermined extension of our current certainties. This view suggests a tomorrow that replicates the path that led to today. The future is not different from what the present once was: a past promise of brighter days, failed due to the very systems of politics, capital accumulation, social exploitation and disregard of nature that we see invariably continuing into the future. In fact, reconciling the two views is a negotiation between optimism and pessimism. Perhaps it is a matter of understanding what triggers real change. Is it a matter of scale: how much is enough for a wake-up call? Or, is it perhaps a matter of method, a search for the processes that may occasion rupture? Regardless of the direction, it became important to us to delve into the relationship between this dystopic moment and our potential futures. We sought to use the multiple kinds of resources and energy we were mobilizing to build, in parallel to the fundraising efforts, a platform where thoughts about our future could be collected and shared. This was a platform conceived of as an incentive for people to reflect collectively, to take time to stop, and then think. Thus, we asked them: “ What will be different tomorrow? ” And their answers became this book.

This is a book about envisioned futures from the perspective of a derailed present. We reached out to a wide range of people, from multiple backgrounds, genders, races, ethnicities and nationalities. We asked for reflections from professionals in the arts, design, photography, architecture, literature, journalism, cinema, sociology, psychology, healthcare, economics, entrepreneurship, law, politics, climate activism and more. From a former president to a housewife. We heard from intellectuals we admire and individuals we do not know as a result of both the direct invitations we sent and the campaign’s organic dissemination due to the open character of its on-line presence, expanding answers beyond our initial circle. As there was no imposed framework for the individual reflections, they came in multiple formats and lengths. From a paragraph to an essay to a movie script. Some reflected on the future they saw as needed, others on the future they wanted, and others yet on the future they thought inevitable. Some thought there was no future. In hindsight, we see the answers as a balancing act between hope and disillusionment and, generally speaking, the feeling is that they tended to get grimmer the later they were written. Despite the severe atmosphere of the moment and the shared anguish, it is noticeable that in the first phase of the pandemic there was a hint of excitement, even if in reverse: a sense that from the dusk of doom a new dawn would arise. This change in tone according to the period of the year compelled us to


take advantage of the timeframe of the book’s production process to deepen its content and gather updated reflections from some individuals who had already submitted answers a year before, like a recall. Reading their reflections before and after the pandemic offers a fascinating perspective on its development.

Throughout production, we also explored another type of dialogue through the medium of interviews. We selected eight outstanding thinkers for whom the pandemic had become an extra drive to expand their practices around social, political and environmental rights. They deal with questions pertaining to universal access to housing (Carmen Silva), the role of design in the provision of an affordable and equitable city (Adele Santos), the defense of indigenous territories (Sonia Guajajara), women’s rights and gender equality (Ana Cristina González Vélez), transnational solutions to the refugee crisis (Admir Masic), rights to sovereignty and peace in Ukraine (Vita Susak), protection of the Amazon forest and its inhabitants (Beto Veríssimo), and the ethics of scientific development as it intersects with politics (Sheila Jasanoff). Furthermore, to this collection of eight verbal reflections, we added ten visual essays. These were generous gifts from renowned Brazilian photographers who have been photographing indigenous tribes for decades. Concluding the book, the collection of about sixty photographs depicts the beauty of Brazil’s native peoples, a group for whom the pandemic has been particularly destructive due to their low immunity to viruses, collective traditional ways of living, limited access to health services and hospitals, and current governmental inaction. These photos are an homage to their cultures that have for so long persevered against adverse conditions, such as the one built around the current administration, which has mobilized everything in its power to dismantle such communities and cede their lands to agribusiness and resource extraction activities. By depicting multiple aspects of indigenous peoples’ life, culture and arts, these photographers help raise awareness about the urgency of valuing and protecting Brazil’s original inhabitants, who, at the end of the day, are the true owners of this land and the most important protectors of its forests. Altogether, between reflections, recalls, essays, interviews and photographs, the book depicts the thoughts of 200 people, written in two batches between April and October 2020, and March and July of 2022, building a panorama of the ways we have dealt with the crisis.

The book organizes this written material into 5 sections, which also reflect the structure of its chapters. They are: Cell, Hiatus, Debris, Locus and Care. Each chapter’s beginning offers a deeper elaboration on these words, trying to convey a set of positions and feelings that make sense when read together. Siding more with the poetic than with the utilitarian, they represent a loose attempt at


categorization and clustering designed to emphasize some areas of discussion while also facilitating the reader’s access to the different themes present in the publication. The purpose was not to build a rigid framework that precisely corresponded to the content of each individual reflection; instead, it was an exercise to help identify and point to intersections that can be perceived when a group of texts is viewed collectively. This way, the sections should rather be understood as a retroactive effort on extracting some of the main concerns that cut across the texts while finding similarities and differences between them. The sections were then ordered as to subtly suggest a progression of feelings and postures towards the pandemic, ranging from disbelief to hope and renewal. Naturally, an attempt at categorization for something that was not originally designed to fit into categories risks oversimplifying or diluting the nuances of the arguments. Our response to that was to first embrace the instability of the sections’ labels and actively work to blur the boundaries between them by positioning texts that talk across sections when it came to the closing and opening of each chapter. To reinforce this blurring, we also used the interviews as transition moments between the chapters. Displayed in pairs, they function as thematic markers leading the conversation from certain themes into others. Second, we created a system of keywords that offered more depth to the classification while the same time providing the reader with a roadmap to find in the book the reflections that spoke to their interests. By following the keywords, each reader can create his or her own paths for accessing the content and navigating through the multiple discussions. One may decide, for example, to read only the texts tagged as Nature, while someone else may prefer to explore Routine, Politics and Nostalgia and see how these topics have been addressed by our writers. Equally valid would be to ignore the keywords and sections altogether and read the texts chronologically. All in all, the book offers multiple discussion paths, including, we believe, many we have not foreseen. Another component that is important to emphasize when introducing this publication is that the initial campaign was bigger in scope than the actual book. Not everything from there made it here. A couple of examples include the material of the crowdfunding campaign launched by Instituto BEI and Tide Setubal simultaneously to our campaign and with whom we joined forces; the artwork auction we created under the name “Mapping Brazil” to increase our fundraising capacity by selling the maps myself and my fellow co-curators created for the Brazilian pavilion at the 2018 Venice Biennale; the event we prepared for the ringing of the New York Stock Exchange closing bell to raise awareness for our campaign; the countless social media content, pitch decks and marketing materials; and, most importantly, the gorgeous digital animation that Turkish media artist Refik Anadol crafted specifically for Tomorrow


Anew depicting the spatial evolution of Covid-19 cases throughout the world. The work entitled New Gravity of the Earth builds a 3D visualization that draws data from John Hopkins University and, mapping the 2.5 million confirmed cases as of June 2020. The data was processed to make legible the cumulative sum of infections throughout time, filtered by continent, country, province and city, while encouraging a more comprehensive understanding of the current moment and the imagination of a post-pandemic world, where global interconnections will be instrumental for our collective healing process. Refik’s generosity in producing this piece and helping expand the campaign makes any note of appreciation fall short next to it; we can only express our gratitude for this collaboration. The reason it was not included in the book is simply due to the different nature of its content in comparison to the ones we chose to prioritize: raw texts and visuals of indigenous peoples. The New Gravity of the World should be experienced in its original version, hence the video can be seen on-line at the locations listed in the footnote1. All these components, succinctly listed here, were as integral parts of the campaign as the content that ended up in the making of the book. They were equally important for building momentum to our fundraising efforts while also giving them legitimacy, traction, reach and, ultimately, success.

To conclude, this book also acts as the end point of a long enterprise. Both symbolically and practically. Practically, because it is a way to show ourselves accountable to all the trust that has been deposited in us. As it consolidates the content produced by hundreds of people in a single place, it concomitantly makes such content concrete, allowing it to endure beyond the pandemic years. In this sense, the book can be seen as an artifact, a small glimpse into a particular time. Additionally, it provides a section explicitly labeled Accountability, where it offers an overview of the path the donations took until reaching their recipients. On the symbolic side, the book marks a completion. It is a culmination of events, time, resources and the good will many people put into making a philanthropic drive an actual source of impact.

All this considered, the book is an opportunity to thank genuinely and publicly everyone who participated in any capacity throughout the different phases of the initiative. To every single contributor who donated their time and knowledge to put Tomorrow Anew together; to all who embraced the prompt and donated their ideas in the form of written reflections and conversations; to

Studio Refik Anadol: New Gravity of the Earth:


every generous person who donated money to the campaign, as well as those who gracefully received the donations; and to all our partners and sponsors we could not be more grateful. Although we have listed their names in the front credits, here we pay an additional homage to our closest partners: the Brazil Foundation, under the leadership of Rebecca Tavares; the Instituto BEI, headed up by Tomas Alvim and Marisa Moreira Salles; the Harvard David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, with its executive director of the Brazil Office Maria Helena Monteiro and program manager Tiago Genoveze; and our publisher Editora Afluente, under the creative and resourceful figure of Julius Wiedemann. Finally, we extend the thank-you note to the readers, who, by acquiring this publication, are not only valuing and celebrating this work, but also providing proceeds to the inhabitants of the Amazon region and the Association for the Indigenous Territories of the Xingu (ATIX).

We thank you all from the bottom of our hearts and sincerely wish that the compilation of ideas presented here sparks a sense of empathy, curiosity and responsibility towards the building of our collective tomorrow.


A cell is an interior space. It is both a space in which one finds herself and a unit within a broader system. It describes a state of enclosure, an enclave. The cell mirrors a territory. It detaches so it can look inside. It may protect or alienate. “To be in a cell means” to be contained within limits, be they physical or mental. These are limits that divide and isolate. They are membranes, skins, envelopes, covers, wrappers, shells, cuirasses, but also ideas and beliefs. At the same time the cell locks down, it frees up: the prison and the egg.

A cell is a retreat where one recreates oneself and, in return, recreates the world. A cell implies a continuous transformation of both medium and subject. It is reciprocal. There is no such thing as a subject inserted in a medium without this medium being inserted in the subject. Being a cell, one unwillingly constructs the environment in which she will need to live: one constructs its own possibility of existence. Like the chicken and the egg, but with the caveat that we know the egg came first. The egg found the chicken the same way the cell found the subject. The cell only uses the subject so it can build the environment where other subjects can exist. A cell allows one to live, but it is exactly living that one dies. So, the cell is the biggest sacrifice of the subject the same way “the egg is the biggest sacrifice of the chicken. It is the cross the chicken carries in life.” 1 This way, egg and cell are the perfect manifestations of universality. They contain the entire cosmos within themselves. Therefore, like the egg, the cell came first. No surprise it inaugurated the pandemic.

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1. Lispector, Clarice. "O ovo e a Galinha" [The Egg and the Chicken]. In Complete Stories, edited by Benjamin Moser, 306. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Rocco, 2016.

Isolation and death have been our sacrifices, the crosses we have carried over these two years. The world in itself became a cell, one that could be perceived through its fragility, self-containment and singularity. Our only cell; the whole made out of smaller parts. By retreating to our own interior spaces, we were able to conceive of the universal, the entirety of the envelope. Detachment allowed for belonging. For both fear and hope, or so the reflections contained in this section elucidate. These are texts that express ideas of cells. Either blatantly—the cell in which one is confined to— or figuratively—discussing conditions of isolation, sterility, disengagement, partition, unity. Some talk about a fixed state, others about a process of evolution from a singular point. Some think about the systems that behave as our cells, others about the cells we create to encapsulate others. All in all, the weight of the quarantine cut across many of the accounts gathered in this section. The image is of the cell.


USA / Narrative / 29-May-2020

Originally written in English uncertainty, losses, collectivity, hope Rainbows

Thinking about tomorrow, I wonder about the next generation. During my isolation in South Slope, Brooklyn, I've become fixated on the prevalence of rainbows. The children of the neighborhood have taken the time of crisis as an opportunity to create, as so many have done in turbulent times before them. They have contributed their own glimmers of hope in the form of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Each rainbow is a premature augury, drawn during the peak of New York's curve. These small gestures of crayon, marker, or finger paint represent a faith that will continue after the storm.

The United States has suffered over 100,000 deaths from this virus. Despite the hope instilled by children's drawings, we mourn. The closest green space where I can spend time outside my home is Green-Wood Cemetery. The sprawling grounds were designed at a time when cemeteries were a precursor to public parks, oases rather than gloomy burial grounds. I have found myself at peace there, paying my respects to those passed yet wondering how they will be memorialized. Is today's memorial a list of names covering several pages of a newspaper, in place of gothic mausoleums or austere obelisks?

replaced nationalist symbols we've seen during past moments of collective trauma and mourning, giving me hope that these young thinkers and producers will create a more egalitarian future.



I wrote my initial submission to this project in May 2020, nearly two years ago. We were on the precipice of the decline of the first wave of Covid-19 cases, of social upheaval in response to the murder of George Floyd, and of the hope that we would see a shift in our society as a response to these concurrent and interrelated crises. I received the request for this follow-up at the peak of my own Covid-19 infection, a mild case thanks to the advent of vaccines and boosters but significant enough to delay this writing. I was privileged to have support from my friends and colleagues as the infrastructure initially put in place to assist those affected by the virus has been slowly dismantled. This pandemic has heightened the disparities between those our systems are built to serve and those they are built to neglect. I sat comfortably in my home, nursing my fatigue, cough, and congestion, wondering how I would handle this differently had I been born into different circumstances, or even if I had been suffering these symptoms amidst an onslaught of tanks and bombs like so many are facing today.

Perhaps the children's rainbows are paper memorials, each a reminder of how grim this crisis has become. The phenomenon of rainbows has

Tomorrow Anew is a project about the future. I still believe in the spirit of the generation who spent the first months of quarantine drawing rainbows. I can only hope that this spirit is not damaged by our ongoing struggles. I yearn for the optimism I had at my last writing, before 100,000 deaths in the United States became

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almost 1,000,000. I continue to pass my time walking in my neighborhood and in the local cemetery, dreaming of a future in which mass death has not been normalized, where together we can uplift those our systems have forgotten and remember those we have lost.

Founding-director of the Foundation for Achieving Seamless Territory (FAST) and Area Head, Art, Design, and the Public Domain (ADPD). Master’s Degree in Design Studies, Harvard GSD.

ISR / Narrative / 29-May-2020

Originally written in English

challenges, collectivity, responsibility, restart

We live within the legacies of our designs, the stories that we choose to tell, and the relationships that we decide to cultivate.

The pandemic suspended our daily lives. It grounded us.

With hundreds of thousands of lives lost and contagious diseases hovering and threatening the existence of our social fabrics, habits, and material infrastructure.

We remain in quarantine.

In this moment of suspension, we can reflect on our frantic travels and constant commutes, the rush to catch up and chase phantom growth ideas often empowered by extractive greed and unsustainable economic logic.

From the quarantine, we can also view streams of footage of the outdoors captured by surveillance cameras and remote satellites. We can observe rapid changes taking place.

Our global lockdown made space for other forms of life to emerge. Boars and deer and other wild animals roam freely in areas we, humans, no longer attend. We witness that with our absence, large ecological systems begin restoring themselves—a reminder of what actually matters. Wealth and plenitude are found in the clearing of skies and oceans, the improvement of air and water quality.

Don't let a good crisis go to waste - following what Naomi Klein calls 'The Shock Doctrine,' as the pandemic exacerbates extractive corporate agendas and national isolationism; we need to ask how it can be used as a catalyst for another kind of change.

It is a time to challenge ourselves to "write stories and live lives for flourishing and abundance, cultivating the capacity to re-imagine wealth, learn to practice healing rather than wholeness through what seems now improbable collaborations, and propose near futures, possible futures, and implausible but real nows" ( Staying with the trouble . Donna Haraway).

It is time to change course, reassess our values, and seek redemption through actions of care and love.


Manuel Blanco-Ons Fernández

SPN / Narrative / 07-Sep-2020

Originally written in Spanish isolation, introversion, expectation, hope

My friend Antonio is an anthropological optimist, the kind who always sees the bright side of things and constantly says that "there is no evil in the world," although with the home confinement story, he replaced it with the "we'll come out of this better" version. However, I was surprised yesterday when he called me with a sad, downcast tone. When I asked him what was going on, he told me this: "On the first day of the new freedom, I got my bike and went out to ride around my house. As I was driving through a neighborhood not far away, as it was eight o'clock in the evening, some people came out to the windows and balconies to cheer the ether. I had no better idea than to make a joke and greet the crowd, thanking them for such a fervent celebration of my sportsmanship. Immediately, a storm with lightning, thunder, and sparks was unleashed. Less beautiful, they called me all kinds of things. I particularly remember a guy in a tank top repeatedly yelling at me, calling me a clown while making a big fuss; a twelve-year-old boy gave me half a dozen cuts on my sleeves, and an elderly lady even wished I would get run over by a trailer. Terrified, I fled, heading for the outskirts of town with the strange idea that the tranquility of the countryside might be a healing balm. As I passed in front of a little one-story house next to the road, a short-legged, pot-bellied dog ran toward me, one of those that my friend Moncho Muros calls a lambe-lambe . As he was getting dangerously close to my left ankle with unpeaceful

intentions, I gestured with my leg to push him away, without even touching him. Just then, from the doorway, the one who must have been the owner, a pot-bellied, short-legged, grumpy guy like his dog, shouted at me: 'You bastard, don't hit my dog,' following this with scatological mentions of my parents and contempt for my supposed effeminacy, perhaps derived from the fact that I was wearing a cycling shirt. In that scenario, I quickly gave up on getting him to apologize for discriminating on the basis of gender or sexual identity and again opted for strategic withdrawal." Then my friend abruptly ended the conversation: "I thought we would come out of this better... And it’s shit!" .

Neeraj Bhatia

Architect and urban designer, and founder at The Open Workshop. Assistant professor at the California College of the Arts and co-director of the urbanism research lab, The Urban Works Agency.

CAN / Essay / 20-Apr-2020

Originally written in English introversion, inequality, collectivity, urban

Diffused Collectivity

Three years ago, I wrote a piece for Places 1 on the relationship between urban organization— specifically density—and political affiliation in the United States as reflected in the 2016 election. The argument was simple yet held many ramifications that are reignited with Covid-19. The finding was this—how people vote is largely dependent on where people live, and in particular, the density of the counties that they lived in. Our environment largely determines our politics. Environment, and specifically density, is intimately intertwined with Covid-19. Covid-19, like all viruses, thrives with spatial

CELL / Responses 01 to 35 39
Lawyer, writer, and deputy of the Order of Provincial Lawyers of La Coruña, Spain.

1. https://placesjournal. org/article/environment-as-politics/)

proximity and thereby its effects are currently more strongly felt in dense cities, where people live close together. At the time of writing this, it is the densest parts of the United States that are being hit the hardest. New York Governor Andrew Cuomo remarked when describing the rapid rise of Covid-19 in New York City, "Our closeness makes us vulnerable." The difficult irony of the current moment is that up to this point, our closeness would have been described as the exact opposite of vulnerable—it was linked to the creation of power, resilience, and robustness. Our closeness, or lack thereof, is reflected in partisan divides around the virus itself. As of March 27th, approximately 77 percent of Coronavirus cases resided within the 490 counties that voted for Hillary Clinton in 2016. In comparison, the 2600 lower-density counties that voted for Trump contained only 19 percent of the confirmed cases.2 Not only does this make the virus more abstract in Trump voting counties—the stories from New York seem distant—this is directly reflected in how Americans feel the governmental response has been. When asked if the Federal Government is doing enough to protect life during the pandemic, 65 percent of Democrats versus 24 percent of Republicans felt that the government is not doing enough. Similarly, when asked whether the Federal response to the economy has been sufficient, 52 percent of Democrats versus 40 percent of Republicans feel that the government has not done enough. 3 It is too early to say if these sentiments will remain once the virus has a larger impact in Trump voting counties—which are on average, older and with less healthcare infrastructure. If spatial and social distancing is the most effective mitigation measure that the average person can employ in everyday life, one of the lasting consequenc -

es of the pandemic—likely even more so than a critique of the healthcare, economic, or ecological system—is a fear of density.

In architecture and urbanism, we often tout the positive impacts of living in close proximity. These could be social in nature—the diverse communities brought out by density; economic—the sharing of resources and space that cities allow; or ecological—limiting our impact on the landscape, among others. The supposed "vulnerability" will likely be used as propaganda against collective life and living, as stated by California Senator Scott Wiener, a longtime advocate for density, 'Of course people will abuse the Coronavirus pandemic for other political goals… Some of the anti-housing activists, there's an undertone that it's somehow unhealthy to live in a dense urban environment. I'm confident they'll latch onto this.'4 The virus' relationship to density, and density's relationship to political affiliation will inevitably alter our political ideologies. If dense urban centers advocate for collective investment in infrastructure and distribution of capital, it is likely because the value of these investments is directly visible in everyday life. While we shelter-in-place, we are even more reliant on these infrastructural systems, yet they also become more abstract as we are disconnected from their visibility. The impending fear of density and the spatial collectives that they constitute will have profound consequences for architecture and urbanism and the politics that underlie these disciplines.

2. https://www.nbcnews. com/politics/meet-the-press/uneven-Covid-spread-leads-uneven-partisan-responses n1171491?cid=sm_npd_ nn_fb_mtp

3. Ibidem.

Social distancing, or spatial distancing—the attempt of diffusing our population into isolated points—is an ironic task: to strengthen the collec-


tive, we need to spatially distance from it. If the crisis persists for some time, this separation is likely to cause a form of collective trauma and transform into fear of thy neighbor and paranoia of the exterior collective world. The public arena of polis is quickly and exclusively being replaced by digital communication. The private realm becomes our de facto spatial environment—full of the unchecked subjectivities, familial hierarchies, and lack of reality provided by the spatial public realm. Our spatial medium—relegated to the private interior—and digital medium—the primary collective realm—surely alters the message, and encoded within it, our political ideology.

USA / Narrative / 19-Apr-2020

Originally written in English isolation, uncertainty, technology, responsibility

The "Covid-19 Death" will certainly usher in a post-Covid Renaissance of "Techno-Humanism". The full awareness of the daily waste we create, the subtle anxieties of time spent alone, and the distant relationships preserved or forgotten, have been the catalysts throughout history, regardless of origin, to awakenings of the truth in mortality and the aloofness of spirituality. Loneliness and circumstances will, in turn, drive the majority of survivors to new heights of technical literacy, creating new opportunities for remote work, collective digital problem-solving, and new paradigms for socialization.

4. california-saw-dense-housing-near-transit-as-its-future-what-now-1269263

Our spatial environments and our mediums of collective gathering will alter our politics, and in rebuilding a better world, architects must be at the forefront of giving vision to this new society and heal our collective trauma. Let's be clear, Covid-19 did not start the current crisis, instead, it revealed a crisis that was already bubbling just under the surface for decades. This crisis has several dimensions—the privatization and disinvestment of infrastructure through neoliberal policy, the distribution of power and governance, lack of transparency and accountability, and among others, our unregulated relationship to the natural environment. It is too early to know if on the 'other side' of this moment will be a reaffirmation of the status quo fueled by disaster capitalism or a rebuilding of the system itself. One thing is certain—we will need to confront shifting definitions of the public/private realm, interior/exterior, spatial/ digital as well as how we will live together, for our closeness is also what makes us powerful.

The future post-Covid also presents an opportunity for creative work to connect with individuals on a sincerely and intensely more personal level. For the next few years, the majority of the public will likely be uncomfortable with the idea of experiencing art, media, and brands in as close quarters as we have all enjoyed in the past. Should these industries respond supportively to that spectator/consumer desire, we will see the relationship of an individual to a work of art or brand become as epiphanic as the natural world, seldom experienced in large groups, and profoundly inspirational.

It is an expected mistake, though, of humanity as a whole, to not recognize the historic parallel to the phase of creativity we are stepping into on the other side of this pandemic. Some his -

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to rians recounted the Renaissance as the lifting of a veil of prejudices, while others noted a simultaneous rise in poverty, warfare, and religious and political persecution. It will be of paramount importance to, as we bask in the light of our expanding creative capabilities in the era of Techno-Humanism, be cautious not to provide shadow for the growth of the aforementioned threats to free will and equality. But should any past conflict and resolution thereof provide prediction to our actions, despite countless expected developments in social discourse, technical advancement, and artistic explorations, we will undoubtedly struggle. There are already instances of insurgent groups and political bodies taking advantage of the growing chaos to execute otherwise unpopular agendas. The ability to propagate this enlightened future we desire is not a coping mechanism for loneliness within relative economic comfort, it is an extreme privilege. A privilege that comes with the duty to our fellow human beings to make their futures brighter as well.

love, lust, learning, and myriad other features of social life depend on a sense of contiguity, the possibility of touch, the certainty of being able to take part with others in the occupancy of a volume. By suspending these qualities, our present circumstances have made us recognize the fundamental importance of the notion of place — grounded, concrete, meaning-full, shared, and shareable space — in the making of concrete human experience.

Architect and Sociologist. PhD in Sociology from Princeton University, with a Master's in Architecture from MIT and a BA in Political Science from the Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE) in Mexico City.

MEX/USA / Narrative / 19-Jun-2020

Originally written in English isolation, collectivity, responsibility, hope

By demanding separation, the current pandemic has made us painfully aware of how much labor,

It is not without irony that this realization comes at a time when the making of togetherness has been weakened by political, economic, and architectural shifts that call for the replacement of the idea of place with the more abstract and politically docile notion of space as the most basic physical ground of human relationships. A telling example of this trend has been the way in which both the theory and practice of the city as a multilayered, contradictory, restless, and indomitable form of contiguity have gradually been eroded by architectural over-programming, the consolidation of public architecture at the production of Instagrammable objects, the explosion of myriad delivery services that have turned private areas of domesticity increasingly autonomous from public space, and of course, as we know all too painfully now, ever more increasing and aggressive forms of oversurveillance and overpolicing.

At the same time, and not without a certain sensation of hope, the physical disjunctures produced by the current pandemic have dovetailed with the emergence of increasing sentiments of togetherness and with a wave of active decisions to stop being numb against the social separations that effectively dismember physical contiguity in liberal societies. The murders of George Floyd in the US, Giovanni López in

What will be different tomorrow will depend on how we decide to react to what is already different now.

Mexico, João Pedro in Brazil, and many other suppressed subjects across the world have dramatically made our societies recover the right to feel outrage about how the liberal project of place is built out of displacement and exclusion (and in its more extreme forms, evanescence), and to act premised on this outrage. The irony in this process is that the same virtual interfaces that have been used as active tools to erode urbanity have turned here into a powerful ally in sensing, interacting, and acting against the way the current order of things sells place as a right but builds it as a privilege.

Against this backdrop, the way tomorrow will drift from today depends on the positions and practices we decide to adopt around the relationship between place, virtual space, and the construction of an empathic, truly democratic notion of togetherness. Will we be complicit by apathy, negligence, or fear in making virtual space become the executioner of the centuries-old project of producing places building togetherness for all? Or will we be disciplined, resistant, and inventive enough to marry virtual space and place in a way that makes us and the societies where we intervene fully accountable for that project?

Andrés Passaro

ARG/BRA / Narrative / 01-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, introversion, routine, uncertainty

Out of time

In 1993, critics dismantled The Groundhog Day and time made it a classic. Quarantine produces a rather questionable déjà vu . The big plot lies not in why the actor gets through that day, but what for. Quarantine is like Z-control, in which each day that passes is a repetition of the previous one, with small and strategic modifications that give us the impression that things are going to get better. Groundhog Day is lived by Bill Murray in a thousand different ways, and absolutely none of them are the desired ones. The greatest desire was just to get through this day, but for what? The saying of better days to come does not apply. Neither in the movie nor here. Quarantine forces us to a new understanding of our daily lives, nothing will ever be the same as before, no doubt about it. The situationists accused: "we drift and are devoured by the spectacle." Quarantine forced us to move away from this spectacle and stop being devoured, at least momentarily. But it is only in the silence that we perceive the silence. To what end? So as not to repeat in a thousand different ways the mistakes we insist on committing.

CELL / Responses 01 to 35 43
Architect and urban designer, with a PhD from ETSA Barcelona. Associate professor at FAU-UFRJ and Head of the Architectural Design Department.


Eaten alive by the spectacle

The pandemic can be seen in several phases, in the beginning, one day after another, all repeated, like in the movie Groundhog Day.

The Covid-19 victims were something distant, a hearsay, an acquaintance of an acquaintance, until our friends, my friends, started to leave.

Most shocking was a sense of unfulfilled grief, a misunderstood absence as a result of a goodbye that couldn't take place.

A fire at the Research and Development Center FAU-UFRJ, the center I coordinate, forced me to leave home at least once a week. Everything was passing by fast and distant through the car window.

We started going out to do some physical exercise, and also some shopping, in a shy way, with a certain distrust of the OTHER. Sneezing inside the pharmacy activated a certain paranoia, as if it were a gunfight, people ran out.

Lately, I have been hugging my loved ones, even though this was not part of my daily life before the pandemic.

A certain curiosity makes me notice the stores that have closed, I stand in front of them motionless, watching and trying to remember what it was that used to be there. In other places, some new stores have opened, and the novelty takes over the following time.

trying not to be eaten alive by the spectacle, I don't want to reserve any more time or space for frivolity.

I am a teacher, and remote teaching imposed several limitations, but activated other possibilities that we exploited satisfactorily.

We built a network that allowed architects who were previously distant to become close. Memorable lectures presented common agendas from our South America.

Design classes were hampered by the impossibility of visiting the sites. We started to look for issues that affected the daily lives of our students, mostly within their own homes, especially those dealing with ordinary, everyday issues. We thus discovered a hidden agenda, and more serious issues than we could imagine emerged overnight.

The problems of the suburbs and the periphery surfaced in discussions that were unthinkable before; precariousness became part of our project teaching content.

And 'the client' was there (!), with all his needs and desires.

It was very enriching to bring the architectural discussions into the real life of our students.

I teach at a public university of which I am very proud, but the precariousness in these two years of lockdown took over all the spaces and places. There is still a rarefied air, masks, vaccination cards, distancing, it is clear that the return is still impacted by the pandemic.

A few visits to shopping centers prove that I am not the same; I have acquired a certain aversion to consuming what I do not need. I am always

At home, the shoes are still in the entrance hall.

44 Recall

USA / Narrative / 18-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, challenges, responsibility, expectation

Tomorrow will be a heartache.

We'll grieve for the millions who draw their final breaths, separated from their loved ones. We'll long for the embrace of a relative, the sight of a friend up close, the contact that makes us human. We'll mourn the collective experiences and serendipitous interactions of a bustling world.

Tomorrow will be a challenge.

It will be easy to let our temporary quarantine calcify into permanent isolation, to focus on those nearest to us rather than those most in need, to ignore the other pressing problems of our time. Those who value integration, benevolence, and progress—locally and globally, short- and long-term—will have to work harder to continue the positive momentum of the recent past.

Tomorrow will be an opportunity.

Ingenuity will serve a new level of purpose, whether in connecting us, healing us, or governing us, if we can nurture it. This reminder of our shared humanity might unleash the power of global collaboration, if we can abandon the barriers preventing it. Disarray offers us chances to reconsider the status quo and cultivate a more resilient modernity, if we can provide the stability necessary to accept change.

Tomorrow will be both unavoidable and easily postponed, divisive and unifying, destructive and creative. Our choices tomorrow won't undo today's damage, but they will shape the world for the day after.

BRA / Script / 03-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese

isolation, routine, uncertainty, nostalgia

Lettering: "Tomorrow"

"Day 79 of the Sars-CoV-2 lockdown. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil."


Moans wake Luca up. His wife is having nightmares. He touches her gently, trying not to scare her. Recently, an idea follows Luca wherever he goes, wherever he is.


What will tomorrow be like?



Luca drinks coffee and reads something on his iPad.

He switches between all information sources and applications. Some information comes from Twitter, some from Facebook, Instagram, NYT, O Globo Newspaper. The camera follows his curiosity.

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Deaths from the disease have already exceeded the number of thirty thousand in Brazil, one hundred thousand in the USA.

An innocent boy was killed by the Rio state police.

He is black.

A man was killed by the Minneapolis police in the USA. "I can't breathe," he said to the policeman before he choked to death with a knee squeezing his neck.

He is black.


The virus also kills by suffocation. What will tomorrow be like?

How will humanity organize itself day by day?

In Brazil, an incendiary president is indifferent to the innumerable deaths while an ex-president is grateful for the appearance of the virus, rejoicing for his political beliefs. Brazil...



Luca brushes his teeth in preparation for bed. He looks at himself in the mirror.


What will tomorrow be like?

Will the doors still have handles or will they be opened by iris recognition?



Luca wakes up in the middle of the night. He can't get back to sleep. His thoughts haunt him.


What will it be like to travel? What will the concerts be like, the movies, the fans in the stadiums? Will we shake hands again? We'll have a vaccine, but how will we be able to hug and kiss without fear?

There is already daylight at the window.



Luca goes into the living room. From the window, he follows his neighbor who goes back and forth in the courtyard of the building without the courage to go outside.


People are going crazy.





Luca drinks coffee and reads the newspaper. He alternates between the many sources of information. Online newspapers, Twitter, FB, Instagram. It is his way of drawing conclusions about what is happening in society. More Covid deaths.

Scientists said almost a month ago that the


peak of the pandemic in the country was still to come.

Statisticians said a few weeks ago that the peak of the pandemic in the country was still to come.

No one is clear about when it will be. The governor thinks it is time to loosen social isolation.

Infectious disease specialists think there might be a second wave of infection. Nobody really understands anyone about anything.



Luca tries to sleep. He breathes in and out deeply and slowly using the meditation and relaxation techniques learned and practiced throughout the lockdown.


At such times, the best and the worst of human beings come to the surface. Generosity on one side, powerful interests on the other. We realize our weaknesses, but also our strength. What will tomorrow be like?

Tomorrow again...

Luca begins to drift.

LUCA (off) (CONT’D)

How about Carnival?

Will we have Carnival?

Will it be like the first Carnival after the Spanish flu in Rio de Janeiro?

The music and images of the 1978 parade of the União da Ilha do Governador in the Sam -

badrome begin to come to him like a dream. The samba starts to take over his head.


The gypsy read my destiny. I had a dream. Crystal ball, game of buzios , fortune teller. (MORE)


I have always wondered: what will tomorrow be like?

What will my destiny be like?

I've already gotten the bad side of the coin. A boy's first love.

And dawn is coming.

I read the zodiacal message. And the barrel organ says I will be happy. What will tomorrow be like?

Answer if you can.

What will happen to me?

My destiny

will be as God wills.

What will tomorrow be like?

Answer if you can.

What will happen to me?

My destiny will be as God wills.

Luca sings along with the samba. His voice is getting slower. Luca falls asleep.

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Brazilian licensed attorney and Foreign Law Consultant for Brazil.

USA / Essay / 02-Set-2020

Originally written in English isolation, introversion, routine, restart

The end of March in the year of the virus, 2020, completely changed the lives of almost all Americans and certainly those of me and my husband as we live in Manhattan, in the middle of beautiful New York City. Before this virus struck all of us, my husband was off to work as a lawyer five, and sometimes six, days a week. He would be in the office in midtown or in courtrooms throughout the five boroughs or in a doctor's office or a hospital as he has represented the medical community for years in all sorts of areas. I, on the other hand, besides being a Foreign Law Consultant, spent some of my time at the Metropolitan Museum of Art where I am a docent and give Highlight Tours in the Portuguese language. I also would travel to museums, art galleries, or Christie's or Sotheby's, keeping up with the art world in the City. I would have lunches with my friends and we would chat about the issues of the day. Then came the virus and life changed completely.

Suddenly, my husband and I were together in our Upper West Side apartment—24/7. No friends visited us for dinner as in the past. No more travels to birthday parties or Broadway shows or dinner out on the town as we always did. No, we were in the apartment and there was no escape. We quickly got into a routine. First, my husband would get up at about 7 am and do his exercises and then make coffee for us. I, of course, was sound asleep until about 9:30. After coffee, our next event was Governor

Cuomo's traveling virus statistics roadshow. We quickly learned to track the number of new cases and the number of daily deaths.

At first, we really did not venture out of the apartment almost at all. We ordered food which was delivered to our door via the Internet. But after about a week it became necessary to visit the bank, the pharmacy, the grocery store, and my husband rediscovered the post office. When we did wander out, I insisted that we be covered as though we were in burkas. Masks, gloves, scarf, and hat were de rigueur . And upon returning from the diseased outside world, I required both of us to change shoes and shirts and immediately wash hands for 30 seconds.

Our lives were set out in well-defined segments. After the Governor, came a light lunch. Then, my husband would practice his guitar playing while I talked with my friends on-line and watched so many 'lives' as everyone I knew became an Instagram or Zoom star. But as time went by, another life began. My husband realized that he could work from home with some of his clients, those who had nothing to do with court cases. He fielded calls via his website from doctors and nurses in trouble with their licenses. He worked writing appeals for people who had been denied long-term disability. He became more and more adept with the computer, complete with scanning and sending documents by attachment. And, as mentioned earlier, he discovered that the post office actually sells stamps and will take packages with letters and deliver them all over the world. (Mr. Bigshot had not purchased a stamp for 40 years since he always had someone else to do that for him!!!!!) But now he was liberated, an independent proprietor of his universe. To his amazement, he has ended up doing more work from home than he


did in the office and has cut out all of that travel time. This has been a home run for him!

As for me, at first, I started working as a volunteer with an on-line organization (, which supplied emotional support to people who were despondent due to the isolation caused by the virus. Doing that, I learned how complicated this isolation was in people's lives. I learned to create motivational videos with incredible people to inspire others. Next, I began putting programs on-line for another organization, BPA (Brazilian Professionals Abroad). The goal was to help Brazilian immigrants to the US learn how to start networking to achieve a successful professional life.

Spending so much time on Instagram, I began to seek out art subjects and found many interesting artists, which whetted my appetite to go further in the field of art while at home. I decided to become a business tycoon. I began to search out street art artists from all over the world and I purchased a signed piece done by the very famous Brazilian street artist, Eduardo Kobra. Kobra painted art on nineteen different buildings on the island of Manhattan alone. Wow! But wait, there's more. I also purchased art from Mundano, Apolo, Cranio, and many other talented artists. The concept is that I intend to become the source for all things connected with street art. I will buy and sell works through my company's website and Instagram. My intention is to donate some of the profits to Group.BR, the only Brazilian theater company in New York, which in December of this year will celebrate the centenary of the Brazilian writer, Clarice Lispector. I am so enthusiastic about this project! As a consequence of this endeavor, I just published an article in an on-line magazine about art done by a Brazilian woman

that is currently on display in the Queens Botanical Garden. There is no stopping me!

So, the long and short of this subject is that my husband and I have morphed into new and exciting ways to work within the confines of the virus-imposed restrictions. It is time for rebirth and survival. The virus did not beat us, we beat the virus!

Journalist and entrepreneur, with a MS in Hospitality Industry Studies from New York University (NYU).

USA / Narrative / 22-Jul-2020

Originally written in English

isolation, collectivity, technology, restart

I wake up in the morning, and things seem the same. But they are not.

I look outside my window and I see cars, green trees turning brown, people walking on the streets with masks covering their faces. I remember not long ago when a stranger's friendly smile was a way to meet a new friend.

For a long time, the idea of someone hiding their faces meant danger. Or perhaps a terrible illness or concealing their identity.

As I walk now on the streets, people are distant, eye contact is non-existent, and people rush into their safety nests. I walk my dog fast as she tries to make new friends. No one wants to get close; it is not the time for making new friends.

Time that once seemed to speed up to me now has stopped, and everyone waits...

As unemployment rises, we all try to figure out

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alternative ways to make a living. The Internet seems appealing. And it grows.

Before the 2020 pandemic, we all knew technology was here to stay. If before we were overusing our phones and computers, now they have become our oxygen and our connection with the world.

As we all stay at home on what seems a restless effort to contain this disease, we search for ways to travel in our own minds to different parts of the world through pictures shared on our screens and dream of escaping our reality.

While I see big cities growing vertically, I also see the need to stop this constant development and consider our crumbling environment. If people continue to destroy our planet, soon we will need full astronaut helmets to breathe. I believe that at this time when most of the world is united to combat the deadly illness, we got a taste of what it would be like if we lived in a conscious world where people think in the collective. If we no longer pollute the air or our oceans, our planet would start to breathe again. Our leaders would think more about the effects of their actions on the whole world and less about their own political interests.

I take a deep breath. Will things go back to what they used to be? Or do we even want them to? And what would be different tomorrow?

Oh well. I am not very optimistic here, and I think we are walking in a world where machines may be taking our hearts and our souls. Sometimes I ask myself if we are traveling back in time to Orwell's 1984 where all people's thoughts are controlled and individual thinking exterminated? I feel shivers down on my spine. I think of my children and what kind of world I

want to leave behind for them.

Ironically, I realize these thoughts are now being shared with you and with "Big Brother."

And not really knowing how tomorrow will be or if it will be "anew" at all, I think we were given a second chance here.

A chance to reset all the buttons and rethink how we would like our world to be and what we can do to contribute to this revolution. Individually and collectively.

Mary Lapides Shela

Art Advisor, specialist in Impressionist and Modern Art at Christie’s Auction House, founder of the Pinehurst Artist Residency in Mississippi, a non-profit organization and serves on the board of trustees of Art in General in New York.

USA / Narrative / 27-Jun-2020

Originally written in English losses, collectivity, restart, hope

During the lockdown in New York, I felt solidarity with everyone staying in. We had a goal to keep people out of the hospital ICU, and New York rose to that. During our lock-in, my father-in-law became ill in London and died of Covid-19 after entering an overwhelmed hospital. It was so fast; we were shocked, angry, and heartbroken. We felt the response in London was slow, and our loved one was not taking adequate precautions. I also felt the national system there was inadequate to handle the pandemic. We felt it was a needless death. There have been so many lessons in this heartache: the need to listen to each other, to have empathy, to feel our connectedness. Unfortunately, our country is polarized, and some people still do not believe what a grave threat this virus is. The


virus is also laying bare the rampant inequality of the police, our policies, and our government. We need a total reset.

Yet, I remain hopeful that change will come. It will be painful but necessary.

Dental surgeon graduated from PUCRGS, with a master’s degree from UFRJ and a doctorate in Social Dentistry from UFF. Specialist in Pediatric Dentistry.

BRA / Narrative / 14-Mar-2022

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, collectivity, responsibility, hope

The world has been stirred intensely these last two and a half years. The pandemic was a hard hit for humanity, which, since the evolution of civilization, believed to be the center of everything. We saw that, despite so much progress in science and technology, we were held hostage by a fast-moving, exploitative virus.

Much was expected of human beings, lessons in humility, resignation, compassion, solidarity, being more and having less. However, the pandemic is proving to be longer than expected. Science evolved rapidly, learning about the unknown virus and the treatments were adequate; vaccines, in record time, were developed. Science and technology shone, became more reliable—even though there were counter-currents, called denialists, discrediting them.

In this period, humanity showed its increasingly polarized faces. I believe that the future is related to technological development and man's adaptation to every innovation that emerges. As I think about viable solutions for us, I reflect that although the development of state-of-the-

art technology occurs, the world is increasingly unequal. People die of hunger, chronic illiteracy, human beings are assaulted because they chose to be what they wanted to be; there are wars because power and greed take priority over the suffering of citizens. I believe in the increasing participation of civil society, with active players to demand transparency and assertive actions from the rulers. As well as promoting actions and programs to combat social inequality and prejudice, to favor sustainable, ecological, inclusive, and diverse development. Each person must contribute to the search for a better world for all.

Architect from FAU-UFRJ with academic extension at the Paris-Malaquais school of architecture and a master's degree in project theory from PROARQ UFRJ. Founding partner of gru.a (group of architects).

BRA / Narrative / 23-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, routine, uncertainty, expectation

I take this writing as a way of occupying the space that has been offered to me with none of what is expected of it, or at least what I assume was expected of it.

I write from the chair in which I have sat every day for 97 days. From here, looking at my own reflected image superimposed on the text that I write, rewrite, and give up writing, I know that I cannot and, perhaps for this reason, I do not want to contribute with assertive or minimally objective reflections about the future time. If what we have is nothing more than what we believe we can do with the time that is offered to us—which makes sense to me—then I prefer to use this time to think about itself. Who

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will soon take the place that my reflection now occupies? Will they look at this text with the same distrust that I do? More? How much time is left before other thoughts break their concentration, preventing them from reaching the end? How many screen scrolls can this text fit into? Maybe more than it should. And at the moment I am thinking and writing, I am interrupted by Gil's voice, singing Portuguese words to this effect: "I am not deluded/ Everything will remain the way it has been/ Elapsing/ Transforming/ Time and space navigating all the senses." I let it interrupt me and I like that it has. Both because the short time dedicated to the task is over and because I think Gil is part of the things in Brazil that I cannot forget, this part to which I don't want to stop dedicating the time I have.

Chief Operating Officer.

UK / Narrative / 31-May-2020

Originally written in English isolation, introversion, collectivity, technology

The joy of connection through isolation.

There are numerous things we believe will change in our behaviors and ways of life once this pandemic passes, but one of the lessons that has really struck my husband and me is the ability to create meaningful connections while not being physically present.

We have always been naturally social people, but since starting a family, logistics and a shortage of time resulted in us not being able to meet up with friends and family as often as we would have liked to. Although the physical distancing required by Covid-19, specifically lockdown, by

its very nature further restricted and reduced the daily interactions we had with friends and family, it was the removal of the opportunity that really struck a chord with us. The opportunity of seeing the people we care about, even if we weren't able to connect as much as we would have liked, was always there, and we took that for granted.

Once in lockdown, like many, we sought to meet that human need for social interaction in new ways, in both how we interacted with people and, more importantly, with whom we interacted. Now the opportunity to socialize had been taken away, we actively sought how to ensure we nurtured and invested in our relationships, rather than let our busy lives get in the way of actually living. We have reconnected with old friends, enjoyed more meaningful conversations with our close family, and made and deepened new friendships with our neighbors and the local community. Our shared experience has created room to reach out across the divide and say hello, share a laugh, and embrace empathy. Ironically, the physical isolation demanded by Covid-19 has, in fact, created broader and deeper social connections, and our hope for a different tomorrow is one of profoundly deeper and more meaningful connectedness with each other.


Architect from King's College Cambridge and the Royal College of Art in London. Director of the multidisciplinary collective, Assemble.

UK / Narrative / 31-May-2020

Originally written in English isolation, routine, challenges, collectivity

Today, I am going to the park for my dad's socially distanced birthday picnic. There will be six of us there, which is four more than the current restrictions allow. This small violation of the rule would have prevented me from going at all when this pandemic started. I used to be a good citizen, as were the majority. However, recent behavior from both elected and unelected officials has undermined these rules, suggesting that citizens have the freedom to decide how they apply. Even a good citizen will adjust their behavior to suit their needs.

I think I will only do this once, for my dad. I am also aware that it is a privilege to be able to make that decision at all. Many people are breaking lockdown because they have no choice. They cannot regulate their actions according to "the science" when it is instrumentalized for political gain. While the discussion focuses on what will change tomorrow based on today's events, we overlook the fact that life has simply continued for many, albeit with greater difficulties and risks.

Accelerated by the digitization of daily life, this period has revealed exciting advancements in how we can choose to live together. As we increasingly rely on on-line shopping, educators deliver lessons via Zoom, more people work from home, and curators explore the possibilities of Internet culture, we should ask ourselves: Who has access to this new tomorrow, and how can we collectively make it available to all?

USA / Narrative / 27-May-2020

Originally written in English isolation, routine, technology, responsibility

Forty days since I have been working from home.

Seventy days since a "stay at home" order has forced my partner to work from home and placed us in quarantine together.

My year began with a move to Cleveland, Ohio, with the intention of staying here until the end of 2020. In many ways, I had already established a new domestic lifestyle for myself before it became a requirement. After leaving my previous full-time position in Boston, it was time to embark on a new endeavor.

During the past seventy days, I have witnessed my friends, colleagues, and other design professionals responding to this global crisis in ways I could have never imagined. They have transformed their homes and offices into production spaces for PPE, regardless of quantity. They have also created and utilized on-line platforms for communication and giving, much like this one. It is evident that taking action often leads to change and, at the very least, prompts us to think.

What will be different tomorrow? Probably nothing. However, the concept of tomorrow represents a period of time that we can actively work towards. What might change tomorrow depends on how and what we focus on starting from now.

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TV Writer, Producer, and Showrunner. BA in Film Directing from Buenos Aires' Universidad del Cine and a Master's in Broadcasting Administration from Boston University.

USA / Note / 26-May-2020

Originally written in English nostalgia, expectation, restart, hope

In "The Future," an apocalyptic song, Leonard Cohen tells us that he has seen the future and "Things are going to slide, slide in all directions." He prefers the past, even if there are cracks, torture, and the Berlin Wall. Now we have also all seen the future. Tomorrow, like Cohen, I also want back the past so my eightyear-old daughter forgets she ever had to wear a mask, instead of not remembering in the past that nobody wore a mask.

But also like Cohen, we must wonder what this means. We must learn the lessons from the Wuhan lies, most of the West's incompetence, the lives lost, and the lockdown working as a planet cleanser. Hopefully, tomorrow/the future will be a better version of the past and nothing like this present.

Architect and urban designer with a degree from the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ).

BRA / Narrative / 25-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, challenges, restart, hope

About my lockdown

Hello, my name is Marcela, and I am an architect, Aquarius, and nearsighted.

I remember four months ago I was in the architecture office with my co-workers and had a

slight outburst talking about the Coronavirus and how dangerous it was, and how it could affect everything... My co-workers laughed and said I was overreacting for being too worried.

Three months ago, I was sharing memes about Covid and laughing at our wonderful Internet and its ability to provide us with amazing memes.

Two months ago, the Coronavirus was already here among us. I was worried, but our boorish ruler said it was just a little flu. I know it’s not, but I wish it was.

Fifty-five days ago, I went to the pharmacy and couldn't find hand sanitizer anywhere.

Fifty days ago, we started working from home, all the employees in the office grabbing everything they needed to take home. "Grab everything, don't forget anything that you will need indefinitely," I remember feeling a sense of war, you know? The same feeling I had when I went to the market, "take everything you will need indefinitely," people filling their carts, working with the feeling of scarcity without thinking that maybe the 10 packs of toilet paper they bought would be missed by someone else.

Forty-five days ago, working from home, with no one to talk to (I live alone), no one to trade with, locked at home, locked inside me!

Forty-three days ago, I feel so alone. I wanted a pet, but what if I adopt it and after the lockdown is over, it gets to be alone at home? It is very mean to the animal, very selfish of me... What if I become a temporary home for a pet? I would be helping it and it would keep me company... OK, that’s it! So, Chiquinho arrives at my house, a kitten weighing 200g and with a love that I cannot even weigh!


Forty days ago, I go to the market. I am afraid to touch the tomato, then I take a plastic bag and roll it in my hand. I am afraid of who might have touched that plastic bag. I sanitize the plastic bag with alcohol. I look at people. I start to analyze who is looking like they have Covid-19. Am I going crazy?

Thirty days ago, I go to the pharmacy. I am in line to pay, a lady approaches me and stays one foot away from me. I ask her nicely to stay five feet away, not for me but for her, because she is part of a risk group. I hear her say, "Not me! I am healthy, strong immunity, and God is with me! If you are asking, it is because you are sick and should not be here." I think, "My God, how ignorant, you must have voted for Bolsonaro."

Twenty-five days ago, my manager and the owner of the company come into a call with me: "Marcela, unfortunately, we will have to let you go. We love your work, but the projects are being canceled, we have no way of paying employees, and the company is laying off 270 people." I cry for two hours. I get calls from several friends from work. Everything turns bleak.

Twenty-four days ago, Chiquinho gets a definitive home, a friend of mine who will take super good care of him… "loving without attachment and letting go because I know it will be best for him": check.

Twenty-one days ago, I didn’t want to do anything, just cry. I feel that every day the anguish grows, and I don’t know how many more days there will be for this anguish to grow, which makes it grow even more!

Twenty days ago, I went to the market. In the middle of the cheese section, I started crying and having an anxiety crisis. I needed to go home urgently. I couldn’t stay there. I got home crying. I try to breathe... I open a canvas that was forgotten at home on the floor. I start to paint so as not to freak out.

Seventeen days ago, I finished the painting.

Sixteen days ago, a friend sees the painting and says, “I love it, I want you to make one for me and sell it to me.” I say, “Come on, girl, stop it.” But she insists. She really wants it.

Fifteen days ago, I made the painting for her, posted it on Instagram. She reposts it on her Instagram… I start getting direct messages: “I want one,” “I want one, how do you do it?” “Can you send it to São Paulo?” “Can you send it to Australia?” I think, my God, what is this? “Yes, we deliver! Yes, yes, yes!”

Twenty-three days ago, I’m still locked at home, still locked inside me... Now with much more free time to be with myself.

Twenty-two days ago, lying in bed, lying on the couch, lying in the hammock, I didn’t want to get up.

Today: I painted so as not to freak out twenty days ago, and I keep on painting. Only now to color and brighten up our gray days a little, to help me occupy my mind, to help with expenses! It is in moments of crisis that we reinvent ourselves!

Tomorrow: I hope that everyone can somehow color their lives in these dark times and reinvent themselves, that everyone goes through this troubled phase with health, that we can understand that the system we live in is superfluous and that we don’t need to consume so

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much that our planet can’t take it, and that we need to change urgently! That we can appreciate people, exchanges, contacts, that they are not shallow and liquid but abundant and fluid, and that people are more solidarity with everything around them!

Architect and urban designer with a Bachelor's degree from PUC-Rio, with academic extension from École Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture Paris-Malaquais, and a Master's degree from Tel Aviv University / Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.

BRA / Note / 16-May-2020

Originally written in English introversion, collectivity, technology, adaptation

"What will be different tomorrow?" Our relationship with ourselves and with others as a society. The meaning ascribed to our own times and existence is being marked by a worldwide live, virtual condition. What we have always perceived as something external is now everyone's reality. As we live in a non-material era, where all our memories, documents, and impressions have become fluid, the experiences we are going through globally are a movement towards self-awareness, despite how interconnected we are.

Bachelor of Law from the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro and Master of International Trade Law and Business Law from Fordham Law School. Partner at Brazil Global Partners. Associate Director at BirdLife International, the largest conservation partnership in the world.

BRA / Narrative / 04-May-2020

Originally written in English isolation, introversion, uncertainty, hope

Today is the beginning of tomorrow here in Central Park. Sunday, May 3rd, 2020, marks fifty days since the beginning of mandatory isolation. Quarantine regulations are up in the air. A densely populated park. Some wearing masks, others appear to have forgotten. A group of young people playing handball nearby shout and go about their Sunday as if the pandemic ceases to exist. Another young man disrupts an area for peaceful enjoyment on his motorbike. I see garbage scattered across the floor. Without my gloves, all I can do is observe it. No one seemed to have the kindness or respect to collect it. I hear the song "Let It Go" from a passerby's speaker. I tried to 'let it go'. Shortly after, I feel something on my leg, I look back and a boy makes a hasty apology for letting his ball touch me. The music playing is now Frank Sinatra's "New York, New York". A few days ago, I was touched to hear this song in the empty city. Today, I was not so touched amidst the park full of people, just like the Coronavirus memes before the virus really hit New York and came knocking on my door. At first, the jokes seemed comical, and then I didn't think it was funny at all. What will be different tomorrow? I am not too optimistic. I see more people like me with no tolerance for littering the park, playing loud music, riding motorbikes. However, a greater intolerance, unfortunately, lurks in our


city with those intolerant of foreigners, minorities, people with Covid-19, for those without antibodies, and so on.

We've seen and lived beautiful moments of generosity, compassion, and a less polluted world. An opportunity to reinvent ourselves, to evaluate what is important in life. We have also seen inequality through the impact of the virus among different communities. Although the virus does not distinguish between the rich and the poor, or between people on the right and the left, we realize that the least favored, those workers who only now have the recognition of being essential, are also those who earn less and who are more exposed to the risks of the disease. Some saw the importance of valuing science and having a universal health system. Others created and invented conspiracy theories. What will prevail? Science or opinions? A more generous or more selfish world? A more polluted or less polluted world? More polarized or less polarized? At the moment, we have no answers, just hopes. I hope that what I saw today in the park is not a portrait of what tomorrow will be like. But that, only time will tell us.

Vitor Pamplona

Founder and CEO of EyeNetra. CTO of PathCheck Foundation. President of the SciBr Foundation. Doctor in Computer Science (UFRGS/MIT).

BRA / Narrative / 02-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese routine, collectivity, nostalgia, adaptation

Tomorrow we will wake up next to the same partners, the same families, doing similar activities as today. Maybe the locations will have changed. Maybe habits will change. Maybe goods will change. Who cares? We will always be next to the same partners. The same families. But even if everything changes, nothing changes. Relax and enjoy the flight! Have a good trip.

Gildete dos Santos Mello

Speech therapist.

BRA / Note / 01-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese

isolation, introversion, collectivity, adaptation

Our life is going to be different. Everything is going to be different. Work relationships, family gatherings, meetings—our behavior will change. We may even give the impression of coldness, but it will be a caring for the other and for ourselves. Everything will have to be rethought. Contact will have to be avoided. We will all have to act with caution. This moment is going to leave a deep mark on people's lives.

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Social worker.

BRA / Note / 01-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese routine, collectivity, politics, responsibility

Tomorrow seems distant and uncertain. Today, many of us are staying at home, discovering new activities and establishing a new routine. I hope that we can implement education and health projects to effectively reach the entire population. It's a painful and cruel lesson in what we're experiencing; may tomorrow bring more solidarity.

Sailor and writer. Master in Architecture from the École Supérieure d'Architecture. Youngest Brazilian to ever cross the Atlantic Ocean alone.

BRA / Narrative / 11-Mar-2022

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, introversion, challenges, uncertainty

I was yours

You were mine

While I explored you

Left on you the wake of fears I’ve lost

The broken sailor

Left the longing behind

shouting for the human being hostage of the glass screens that tomorrow the ocean is born.

Actress, assistant director, and writer. Graduated in Performing Arts from the College of Performing Arts at CAL and in Theater Directing from the School of Social Communication at UFRJ.

BRA / Narrative / 28-Mar-2022

Originally written in Portuguese helplessness, losses, nostalgia, restart

We are time

I woke up in a fright. Like when you have the feeling that you are falling, you open your eyes quickly trying to save yourself, but you are actually lying in bed. But I wasn't falling off a cliff, like in a dream. I was waking up in a new world, a new life. My phone rang, it was my sister calling. And from then on, all were the unanswered questions inside my chest.

The next day was not the tomorrow of yesterday. Everything seemed like a carousel without a beginning, middle, and end. I didn't know how I got there. They put me in a little white dress that wasn't even mine, and I took a minute to put on some lipstick. Everything was too much. Everything was the whole world inside me. Ev -

I no longer see you on my back I don’t wait for you anymore
I left for the world of men and earthly creatures
I wanted to save everyone from planting their own poison
I left for the world
Lara Coutinho
Original illustrations by the author.

erything, maybe, still is. I am still taming all of this. And I get confused, I don't know anything anymore. I keep learning, bumping into people, trying to love again, trying to understand what time I am in. Is the day before yesterday a foreshadowing of what happened yesterday, and today a continuation of what will happen tomorrow? When did all this start?

"You will recover in time," they said. How? Recover in time? My will is to run with time, against time, through time. Overcome time. To be its friend and, in a frank conversation, ask it to come back. Ask it to stop. Undo the friendship. Fight with time. Leave it behind, don't give a damn about it. But, even so, I am crossed with every hour that time makes pass. Time doesn't give us a break from what is about to happen. No one was prepared for it.

Something made sure that my heart stayed inside my body, without jumping out of my mouth, without knocking everything over in the middle of the room, on that white carpet. It would be a tragedy: my heart, carrying the weight of the world, shooting out of my mouth, and me vomiting blood non-stop. The carpet becoming stained red, and everyone there, watching this without knowing how to act. I think it would be like this if we actually understood death right away. I would have died too, knowing that you died.

presidents destroy countries, cancer dominates the body, new viruses dominate the planet. Lives are lost. Time goes on... forward.

And I return to the questions that brought me here: When did all this start? Is tomorrow the yesterday of the day after tomorrow? What will be different tomorrow? What could I write here that would answer so many unanswered questions? I try to understand time as I go through it. And no, I will not recover with time, as they said. We will not recover with time. From the scars left by time, you don't recover. You reinvent yourself.

Makau Mehinako

BRA / Narrative / 08-Mar-2020

Originally written in Portuguese routine, challenges, uncertainty, adaptation

Time has not stopped since that moment when I woke up in a fright. It keeps moving forward. And it's no use talking to time, asking it to come back. There is no use in begging, and not even the strongest prayer can make it stop. It keeps moving forward. The body changes, wrinkles appear, flowers fall, dams are broken, cities get devastated, wars are started, nature rebels,

Some ethnic groups here that are part of the Xingu had only one case of measles, for example. When you see something happening in history, you usually don't imagine that you will experience it on your own skin. But this is what happened with the arrival of the Coronavirus. We don't have much contact with this world of information media, the Internet, and television, and maybe because of this, initially, we were not so scared. But the more we heard on TV, on the Internet, the more it shook us. It weakened us spiritually. We thought: How is the tribe going to get around this? What would be the strategy?

We asked ourselves how we were going to find our means of survival, how our food would be, how we would get the materials to continue our handicrafts. I am also a teacher and I asked

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Mehinako indigenous representative, habitant of the region known as Upper Xingu.

myself how we would get school supplies in the city, how we would bring the children's lunch. Not knowing what to do, not knowing the right way to deal with the unexpected, put us in an embarrassing situation.

Some said: Let's give in to this disease, get it soon, and see how it is. Their thought was that if they caught the Coronavirus once, they would never catch it again. They thought that this way they would get rid of the disease right away. In this very first phase of the disease, we had little information about treatments, medicines, and what would be the cure. We saw the data published on the Internet about the number of dead and infected, and this scared us a lot. We asked ourselves: Are we next on that list? Then the Coronavirus actually arrived in the village. How it came, we don't know. We had established safety protocols, but some people started not respecting the protocols anymore, and these protective measures stopped working so well.

Even though we didn't have a cure, we needed medicines for when people in the village got sick, medicines to help the immune system, etc. The help with financial resources was very important, so that we could buy these medicines. This support was fundamental. My mother had this more serious condition, while my wife had a milder one. Luckily, no deaths happened here in our village, but in our ethnic group, we lost ten people. Now we have taken the first dose, second dose, and a few days ago we took a booster dose from AstraZeneca.

we are suffering. This disease challenges the human being; it's a fight against something that you can't see. But then comes the preparation of science, the search for treatment, for a cure. First of all, I think that governments need to take care of their people. Besides taking care of their people, they also need to invest more in science. What I want is to find a way, a cure, so that we don't have to worry tomorrow.

Architect from the Madrid School of Architecture. Founder and Director at KARTONKRAFT. Design Tutor, Master in Interior Architecture & Retail Design at Piet Zwart Institute, Rotterdam, NL.

SPN / Narrative / 26-May-2020

Originally written in English isolation, introversion, routine, adaptation

I can only answer for my tomorrow, and despite it might resemble the tomorrow of many others, it derives from the specifics of my everyday (although it is true that Covid-19 has reminded us how every individual is inexorably and universally interconnected nowadays).

So I am going to start with my everyday. On an average working day, I stay 11-12 hours out of home, commute more than 160 km, and hundreds of people come within 1.5 m of me on the train. For the past 7-8 weeks, all those numbers equal zero. I had no other choice.

What we learn from this is that we have experienced something that we had already heard about, seen on TV, but that we didn't imagine would happen to us. We thought: This is what we had seen on TV, and now we are feeling it,

Confinement has indeed shrunk the territory of my everyday, but the (previously overlooked) qualities of my close environment have been revealing in defiance of their mundanity: noticing day-to-day how the spring exploded during my daily walks around the neighborhood; buying and picking up organic vegetables and milk


from local farmers to avoid going to the supermarket; or getting abundant and nonchalant sunbaths (with its priceless and much-needed vitamin D) at the neighboring park, as it has become the safest social meeting point.

These and more new additions to my everyday have induced in me an indelible reconnection to space and time, literally. Not only to acknowledge the qualities of the place(s) that I inhabit daily, but also to take action and improve them, contribute to them. At the end of the day, I am an architect and that should always be my purpose.

My tomorrow will become multi-scalar (and multi-choice) again in the coming months. What will be different tomorrow? My everyday choices, as real life thrives in the everyday, not in the tomorrows.



My tomorrow from two years ago has definitely become multiscale (and multichoice) again. Like a real-life enactment of the Eames' film Powers of Ten , I feel like the carefree protagonist napping on the picnic blanket while reflecting on all the multiscale changes that Covid-19 has brought upon my everyday.

At the domestic scale, the ratio of computers to humans - and therefore the energy bill as well - is at its lowest number for the last two years as the working-from-home period has finished. The commercial scenery of my neighborhood has remained fairly intact. Only a handful of small businesses have vanished after long periods of forced closure. Those spaces of local economies have been taken over by the exten -

sion of a national supermarket chain. Now I can choose from a broader, yet pettier variety of tasteless tomatoes.

I am not a part of the one-and-a-half-meter society anymore. The spatial segregational regime has disappeared from the city like it never existed. All those governmental remaining stickers and signs on pavements and walls have lost all meaning, becoming as unnoticed as any other generic graffiti. Only their decontextualization may afford them a place again in the common imaginary, like the now ubiquitous 1939 British motivational poster "Keep Calm and Carry On" and all its contemporary memetic variations.

My everyday has returned to its eighty-kilometer commute of usual train crowds and traffic congestion, and my flying carbon footprint in this first half of the year is already double that accumulated in the past two years. This fact reminds me that I am again responsible for my own everyday decisions. I am not under the imposed comfort of blanket rules that need to negate diversity and individuality for operational reasons in order to be easily and satisfactorily enforced. For months, the distinct spatial conditions of a narrow medieval street, a tree-lined nineteenth-century boulevard, and a suburban parking lot were neglected and considered identical under the compulsoriness of the face mask. The problem of scale overruled complexity. Efficiency overruled design (...once more).

Similar to the end of the Eames' movie, the nanoscale of my body also encapsulates a thought-provoking reality on its own. The first time that the virus inhabited my body, it left its mark embedded in my organism. Since then, the tiny blood vessels in my fingers and toes inescapably contract when exposed to a sudden

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contrast in temperature. Whether I am just washing my hands with cold water or taking a milk bottle from the refrigerated section in the supermarket, my fingers become white and numb for a brief but stubborn period of time. It is not painful, and thankfully - unlike for so many unfortunate others - it does not imply a more serious problem (doctors say so far).

However, it does imply, at least to me, a strong and persistent reminder of the often overlooked reality of how non-human beings are also inexorably and bilaterally interconnected to humans at all scales. It is probably very difficult to quantify how much ancient viruses have intervened in human biological evolution, but it is much easier to track down their impact on our own cultural evolution.

Design Curator and Architect at Neri Oxman. S. MArchS Architectural Design from MIT and B.Arch from Bezalel Academy of Art and Design.

ISR / Narrative / 27-Apr-2020

Originally written in English isolation, collectivity, technology, nostalgia

Touch has a memory. When we open a door, we hold the circular knob in our hand, expecting to feel the cool metal under our fingers. Only then do we turn the knob and enter the room. We can only use the subway after pressing against the glass touchscreen on the vending machine, pushing the small plastic barrier to collect our change, and swiping the thin paper ticket in the turnstile before placing it back in our cotton coat pocket. We appreciate public furniture by its materiality; the effortless texture of the wood when we sit on our favorite park bench or the smoothness of the concrete when we drink

water from the fountain.

We are facing a touchless world; surfaces have turned into the new enemy, public infrastructure has become a hazardous disease carrier. People walk the streets with hand sanitizer and disposable gloves with only one thing in mind: do not touch.

How will tomorrow be different than today?

Tomorrow will be sensorized. A motion sensor that calls the elevator and a heat sensor that turns on the microwave at work. Doors sway open, water flows straight into one's mouth; a world with no need for resistance, operation, or fine motor skills. The ongoing scheme to automatize the city will proceed but change course; instead of making life more comfortable in every possible way, the objective will be how to 'lose touch'.

Design is all about texture; its essence lies in human interaction with objects, textiles, buildings, cities. How will a textureless world feel like? Will we miss the simple sensations, like the turn of a doorknob?

Bruno Rodrigues

Economist, PhD student in Economics at IE/UFRJ. Master’s in economics at UFF, graduated in Economics at IE/UFRJ.

BRA / Narrative / 21-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese routine, challenges, uncertainty, technology

Much has been discussed about the possible impacts of the pandemic on the labor market. The need for isolation imposed by the Coronavirus is forcing companies to adapt to a new reality that demands innovative solutions and


the adoption of new work dynamics.

For the administrative areas of companies and sectors of the economy that have been digitized, an acceleration in the process of transitioning to remote work is evident. What was a growing trend years ago, with the improvement of efficiency and the expansion of technologies such as the cloud, now becomes a priority policy that must be adopted and implemented soon, as some tasks can continue without the need for physical human interaction.

The reduction of human contact that remote work provides brings both supporters and critics. Some believe that there is a myth about the office being a catalyst for creativity and productivity, an environment of intense exchange that allows us to get the best out of our work and solve issues very practically and quickly just a few steps away. They believe that the home environment can be much better for concentration and that video call meetings turn out to be more productive than typical office meetings. Remote work doesn't become distant; it just becomes different.

On the other hand, many people report a drop in productivity and difficulty in organization. People prefer face-to-face meetings. Live meetings still have their place; they still reinforce friendship and collaboration. We learn a lot from physical interactions, which become an important factor, even for negotiations.

Regardless of opposing opinions, the transition to digital is happening, and the focus of questions changes. We need to think about how to improve these new work dynamics. How can we make work more effective for those who can work from home, and how do we make the environment safer for those who cannot? Most

people perform activities that cannot be done remotely.

This brings us to another point of uncertainty: the implementation of robots and the use of technology in the production chain, which was not such an imminent problem before. Much is said about still needing humans everywhere and that automation could be contributing to this situation. This prompts a debate about the need to focus on the quality of work and not the quantity, using Big Data, for example, as "Smart Data," complementing workers rather than replacing them.

But the artificial intelligence we have available at the moment, in general, is more artificial than intelligent. The choices are not yet in people's hands; Google chooses what arrives in your mailbox, not you. So we are still in a scenario of replacement, where machines will do things we cannot. Labor, besides being very operational still, is expensive, and companies look to cut costs. If machines can match humans and are cheaper, they may dominate.

But it is still too early to predict technological impacts. There is a lot of uncertainty about the limits of automation, about how far the work of humans and machines can go.

But if there is one thing that this situation has shown us, it is that there is a disconnect between the market value and the social value of certain jobs. What we consider to be essential jobs today gain prominence so that economies don't collapse. The changes that can occur in the safety of the most operational workers, who have lower salaries and qualifications but are of great economic value, are being shown.

And for other operational workers in indus -

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try and commerce, the drop in consumption becomes a much more immediate problem, as the inability to do remote work becomes much more sensitive to the drop in demand for services or products.

The increase in remote work may even create room for improvement in the quality of work and efficiency gains in the use of technologies for those who can work this way. For those who cannot, the future scenario may be less than optimistic depending on how we modify work structures.

BRA / Narrative / 14-Apr-2022

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, routine, expectation, restart

What we say is new is old and worn

There wasn't a piece of information that reached Marcelo's ears that made him curious. He had lived the same routine for a long time, so long that he couldn't even remember how long he had been doing it. He would wake up, take a shower, get dressed in his usual clothes, have a cup of coffee, sometimes reheated from the day before, even though he heard his mother's voice in his head talking badly about that act, and leave for work. He chose between going by bike or by bus, he worked near his home, and had given up his car a few years ago. The funny thing was that Marcelo held a creative profession in an area of technology. It was so specific that he could never explain what he did to any of his family members and childhood friends, who chose traditional paths such as law or med-

icine. Not Marcelo, he always wanted to be different. He arrived at work and followed his usual routine. He would get a muffin and a juice at the cafeteria; today he had chosen banana and green, respectively. Some stayed at home, others went to work because they needed to feel human warmth. The screen had already fatigued them, including because they worked on projects to make the other humans be stuck to it. And there they would design and plan applications and various solutions to be seen in pixelated form. When the day was over, he went to the gym. Then he would go out with his friends or with a new date that he had met on some dating app and, as great as it was, he already knew that, even if they both wanted to, that connection had some expiration date. He would go back to his house, take a quick shower, brush his teeth, read any page of a book until he fell asleep. Marcelo didn't know that, as much as his life seemed innovative and differentiated, that made many friends envious, it was as still and routine as any other. He had entered such a comfort zone that he had become anesthetized. There was nothing that truly challenged him, nothing that interested him, the immense amount of information he received daily put him in a stagnant quality. The excess superficialized him, if we can invent this word. Nothing had depth. Thought became ethereal and fleeting. Dealing with the search for the new in technology made even the new become worn out. Marcelo couldn't even dream anymore. It was a sleep that was sometimes restless, sometimes not. And, regardless, he could never remember anything. He would wake up and repeat his entire protocol. Marcelo, in the end, was tired. Tired of himself. Tired of everything. Despite so many different things, he was also homogeneous. On his way to work that day, the sun of an early spring morning lightly beating down on him, a cool breeze and the

Journalist, communications expert, MA in Communication from the University for the Creative Arts (UCA).

luck he had to pass through tree-lined streets made him think about all this, and it was then that he discovered there was no difference between him and his old friend considered to be the most square of the whole class. The scenery changed, some details changed, but the monotony was the same. Marcelo, at that moment, realized. The new only exists when we don't get stuck to a routine. The new only comes when we don't create structures to protect us from something we don't even know what it is. The new only exists when we stop cementing our paths and water the earth to sprout whatever it is, because we know it will bear fruit. What is new is not in what we do or how we live, it is in what we transgress and question. Marcelo had stopped questioning himself. He was so sure of his truths that he became numb without realizing it. Though he was alive, Marcelo had died a long time ago and nobody warned him. At that moment, a truck pulled into the street without signaling and almost struck him. Nothing happened to Marcelo, apart from the fright. He stopped, took a deep breath, and drove on.

And nobody knows to this day if Marcelo continued with his thinking or simply returned to the same old way of thinking that seems new but is not. The new-new only comes if we let it come. And, in the end, we know that not everyone has this courage. Not even Marcelo, not even us.

Isaac Volschan

Associate Professor in the Department of Water Resources and Environment at the Polytechnic School of UFRJ. Holds a Doctor of Science degree and Master of Science degree in Sanitary Engineering, with a background in Production Engineering and Civil Engineering.

BRA / Narrative / 26-Jul-2022

Originally written in Portuguese

collectivity, technology, expectation, restart

Reflecting on what will be different tomorrow soon reminded me of the famous song "O Amanhã" (Tomorrow) from the 1978 Carnaval samba of GRES União da Ilha, which in its main refrain concluded "My destiny will be as God wants it." Although in full agreement, I risk answering provocations from the same samba that are common to this reflection: What will tomorrow be like? What will happen to me?

Believing that we will benefit more and more from the increased speed of progress of science and technology and from the appropriation of their results by public policies on health, environment, education, and the generation of employment and income, I dare to say that tomorrow will see an increase in life expectancy at birth and longevity; that cities, industries, and energy matrices will be aligned towards the rational use of natural resources and a low-carbon economy; and that at all levels specific skills and abilities will be the basis of work qualification.

However, even if we bet on the conquest of the benefits of science and technology and their application to human evolution, we risk not evolving satisfactorily, and in the future not differing, the condition of the most basic and fundamental requirements of our existence, such

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as food security and housing. Man's source of energy and his food, and his home is his closest environment. The comfort of both also confers health and the path to the same education, work, and income.

In this same ship we are in, we live with the expectation of what the promising future may bring, and with the debts and liabilities that we still have to reverse. Since "my destiny will be as God wants it", may God soon resolve the latter.

Student of Literary Studies at the State University of Campinas (Unicamp)..

BRA / Narrative / 11-Apr-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, introversion, routine, uncertainty

Don't hold hands

In the first week, I lost my appetite. In the second, my will. In the third, my sanity. Then, everything gradually.

It is the doldrums of eternal Sundays. I feel a latent headache, right in the middle of my skull; far away from all the painkillers I can take. A throbbing thought that I am trapped by choice. It is for the sake of others, yes. This is bigger than me. I feel like someone I don't want around. But I'm not getting rid of myself. I was my first prison. Now we all are. A shared prison. Living with oneself is also scary. Everything has been taken away from us so fast that we've stumbled. I feel my palms bleed from the fall. And I have to wash them all the time.

killing us. But we have to wash our hands. Yes, wash, I need to wash. I no longer touch what the hands of those I love touched. I am sick. Not from this external sickness. It is internal. My soul has a dry cough of longing. My hands have a fever that makes me not know what to do with them. They tremble. They tremble a lot. I am short of breath sometimes. It is anxiety, for sure. I have to wash. I have to wash it off. Maybe I should get drunk on tears from this alcohol to forget. A beautiful hangover. A phenomenal hangover. A massive hangover. The kind that makes you wake up with a headache. Deep in your skull. Where no painkiller will find it. I washed my hands. Once, twice, three times. Three times. And I just woke up. But I stopped at the light switch. Then I touched my hair. Yes, I have to wash my hands very well. My skin is already peeling. It's getting worse and worse. The best weapon against this floating poison is tearing my skin off. Literally. If I wash any more, it starts to burn. And it stings. It itches. I don't want to wash anymore. But I'm afraid to greet people. My God, how many people will I have to stop greeting? It is a disgusting boredom. It makes me sick to wake up and think that I have one more day. One more day. I exist, but I don't live. Living cries out for experiences, and I don't have them anymore.

"Wash well, with soap and water," says the manual that bombards us daily. It is trench warfare. We are stuck in a hole. We can't see who is

We are on the raft of the Medusa, like the painting I saw years ago. We are sinking and can't hold each other's hands. So we hold onto already chipped pieces of the raft, a remnant of a sail, slack ropes. And deep down, deep down, there is a light. But it is too small for us to notice it often in the chaos of Hades. So maybe we do sink. Deeply. Who knows, maybe we won't become paintings like this, historical in some way. I wanted to experience something historical, but not quite like this. What I got were


the doctors and the scary masks; the marks of the plague on the soul. We have our own black plague. We wear masks too. Or we should. Maybe we will go down in history as those medieval manuscripts about the disease.

I didn't want us to be remembered like that. I didn't want us to remember the now like this. I keep thinking (and fearing) all the time that the boat is going to be capsized by a Medusa. I keep thinking about that and about never stopping washing my hands.

Originally published in "Escritos da quarentena: crônicas." [Writings from the Quarantine: Chronicles] Organizer: Dayane Celestino de Almeida. Campinas: Unicamp/ Publicações IEL, 2020

Takumã Kuikuro

Filmmaker, a member of the Kuikuro indigenous village, currently lives in the Ipatse village in the Xingu Indigenous Park. His films have won awards at festivals such as Gramado and Brasília, and at the Presence Autochtone de Terres en Vues in Montréal. He was the first indigenous juror of the Brasilia Brazilian Film Festival (2019).

BRA / Narrative / 11-Apr-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, routine, inequality, collectivity

In early March 2020, the Ipatso village of the Kuikuro indigenous people created a fighting strategy to confront the pandemic. The village was closed to outside visitors, and the leaders held meetings to make the community aware of the precautions to take.

A doctor and temporary nurses were hired. Food and hygiene materials were distributed so that the families would not have to leave the village.

An application was also created to monitor the cases and the community's movements. And health teams visited all the residents' homes. The shamans also worked together with the doctors with herbal preparations for traditional medicine.

Let's talk about the Kuarup [a ritual that brings together indigenous people from various ethnic groups]. It was canceled for the first time. But some villages decided to have the ceremony with barriers for outside visitors.

In the middle of the pandemic, fires burned the Xingu, affecting even more those who were sick. I created, together with my brothers, a brigade of volunteers to fight the fires.

The worst of the pandemic is over. We were warriors with the organization of all the communities. We won this fight. In the Kuikuro village, there were no deaths from Covid-19.

In February 2021, the Kuikuro began to be vaccinated against Covid-19.

Senior at Harvard concentrating in Computer Science with a secondary in English.

USA / Narrative / 25-Jun-2020

A large house was erected to isolate the infected patients. With the support of donations from Internet campaigns, the Kuikuro set up their own health unit, which was equipped with oxygen cylinders.

Originally written in English challenges, collectivity, expectation, hope

"I can't wait for things to go back to normal." But what is normal?

CELL / Responses 01 to 35 67

Normal is attending college in person and getting to hang out with friends. Normal is traveling without fear of catching or spreading Covid-19. Normal is being able to sit down in a restaurant. Normal is also institutionalized racial injustice ingrained within implicit (and explicit) biases, legislation, and the system of law enforcement and mass incarceration. Normal is rising sea levels, dying ecosystems, and climate change. Normal is a flawed political system driven by big money that works against the citizens it should be protecting.

Covid-19 showed us what we can do when we are forced to change. We were able to transition classes on-line, to almost entirely halt travel, to mostly rely on food from home—these are things we probably never imagined doing. It's easy for us to conceptualize viruses and death, and we adapted our lifestyles and legislation to minimize risk. But what about addressing problems that do not have as immediate, but equally drastic, consequences? Consider how our society as a whole hadn't felt the same urgency about the systemic racism and violence against black Americans. Or about species becoming extinct and polar ice caps melting. We, both on an individual level and on a governmental level, have failed to substantially change to address these diseases that have been plaguing our everyday lives. Most of us have thought, "That's someone else's problem, they will take care of it" or "I alone can't make a difference" or "I just don't have the time or energy to deal with it right now. Maybe later."

By disrupting our sense of normalcy, Covid-19 has given us a chance to challenge the status quo. Prior to Covid-19, everyone was preoccupied with the demands of their everyday lives. As a college student, I know I was consumed by

the bubble of college life, attempting to balance school, extracurriculars, and a social life. But since the disruption, I've been given a chance to reflect on what I want and how I want to live my life—a chance to improve myself. What values do I want to integrate into my daily life? What can I actively do to be happier?

I've also had the chance to reflect on the status of the world, as many other people have as well. The consequences are especially reflected through the Black Lives Matter movement. As a nation, we have the chance to not just think deeply about what we want our society to look like, but also take action collectively. This movement may not have happened if not for Covid-19—think about the countless horrific murders of black lives that occurred in years past. The nation had not mobilized in a way that it has now, for we were consumed with our more immediate, personal challenges. Now we realize that this problem is our problem and that together, we have both the power and the responsibility to change society on a larger scale.

Tomorrow, I hope that things won't go back to normal. Normal is stagnancy and complacency. I hope we keep redefining our normal by striving for a more equitable, just, and sustainable society. We need to keep changing, improving, iterating, and questioning why things are the way they are—because there's a better society out there. A society that celebrates diversity rather than forces conformity, that is altruistic and trusting rather than selfish and hateful, that cares for the environment and its posterity, that respects the voice of every citizen. This dream is feasible; we just have to create it for ourselves. And it starts with each one of us refusing to fall back into our comfortable habits and challenging our status quo.



I & II
Sheila Jasanoff / Ana Cristina González Velez

Pforzheimer Professor of Science and Technology Studies at the Harvard Kennedy School. A pioneer in her field, her work explores the role of science and technology in the law, politics, and policy of modern democracies. She holds AB, JD, and PhD degrees from Harvard, and honorary doctorates from the Universities of Twente and Liège.

IND / Interview / 07-Jul-2022

Originally in English collectivity, politics, technology, nature

We would like to start the interview with a conversation regarding your professional trajectory. You have founded the Science and Technology Studies Program at the Harvard Kennedy School, which is a program you currently direct, but have also founded similar programs elsewhere like the STS Department at Cornell. Not mentioning that your work is considered one of the pioneers in this field of study, and you've won every possible award. Curiously, however, your background includes degrees in Mathematics, Linguistics, and Law.

What led you to converge these different interests into what we now know as STS? And, for those who are not familiar with the term, could you explain a bit what the Science and Technology Studies approach and vision are?

I think the word trajectory is quite misleading because it suggests that there's a direction to it. But, if I had to describe my intellectual trajectory, I would say that it was driven more by the personal demands of relationships: where I was, who I was. I am Indian by birth, and a product of the Indian Independence generation of parents. They were all committed to a particular vision. My father was a development economist, which meant that he was committed to technological solutions as part of the modernization issue, and to the fact that the best education for children is a technical one.

I think my father's vision was that I would do something more applied. I think his particular vision was chemistry. I fell into doing math because it was a quicker major. I had the socalled "advanced standing" when I came to Harvard. That meant I could get one year of credit and finish it in three. And since we came from a financially modest background, he didn't want to spend that extra year, so I had to finish college in three years, and math was one of the majors that allowed me to do that.

Sheila Jasanoff
Tomorrow Anew
Sheila Jasanoff

Then I was sent off to do graduate work in chemistry in Germany, which was a total disaster for various reasons. It was just not the right thing for me in many ways. I met my husband that year, and we were both graduates of Harvard. But I had never known that linguistics even existed as a field. I knew about the study of literature, but not that there was this more formal way of studying language; I learned that from him. That struck me as much more appropriate for my talents.

By the time I finished, there was a job market crunch. Also, I did not end up doing generative grammar and Chomsky, which was the current thing. I ended up doing Historical Linguistics, and there was essentially no demand for the history of the Bengali language, which was my mother tongue. It was the two careers marriage that propelled me to think about law as an alternative. Once I got into law, it also became clear that I was never going to do corporate law. My first job out of law school was in an environmental law firm, a tiny specialist body that had just started.

Then we moved to upstate New York, to Cornell University, and I fell into this interdisciplinary program on science, technology, and society because it was the only place that had some recognition for the things that I was doing. I was there for 20 years exactly. It took me 10 years to figure out what were the questions I was going to ask. I think that the main thing about paradigms is not that they're socially constructed or that they undergo revolutions, but that they are very secure spaces. Paradigms give you instruction and what you should be doing; they tell you the next step, the important trajectory, the person you should go to if you want to be at the top of your field. I didn't have any of that; I was taking a pragmatic law degree and trying to figure out how to build a research career around it. It took me about 10 years to begin to feel that I actually could ask questions that made sense to me, and that they hung together in some sense.

Then I had this grand opportunity to crystallize that because I became director of this program, which had fallen on bad ways. STS at Cornell, in 1988, when I became the director, had very little going for it. And I guess I don't like dilapidated things, so I started thinking about how to build it back up. In 1991, it became a department, and with it came all sorts of responsibilities. Since I had decided to become a student again, for me the question was: am I going to give people a degree in this field, which nobody has heard of, and wherever they go it will be an investment for them? At the end, they will have a piece of paper that says "PhD in STS". I really had to start thinking about what that thing was in a much more coherent way. It's not having the path laid out in advance, it's actually making the map and traveling with it at the same time. In that respect, it's been a constant voyage of discovery and incredibly exciting. I understood what it means to be a pioneer in a sense. It's very experimental; you can always try new things.


Your second question was "Can you explain what STS is?", and the first thing I tell people is: the acronym can be Science and Technology Studies, or it can be Science, Technology, and Society. Both are abbreviated as STS. Science and Technology Studies was the more European and more philosophically oriented, more internalist version of the field, which said: how would we think about science if, instead of just listening to scientists, we really take on board what they're doing as they address these questions. How do scientists decide that something is truth? This is a displacement; it's suddenly turning a field that had been completely autonomous and allowing itself to make its own thing into a subject field, a field that you can study and ask questions about.

That tradition was more grounded in Europe, committed to this idea that you understand science and technologies by examining how the scientists and the technologists themselves are trying to do what they're doing. The American version was always more politically conscious. What is it about science and technology that leads to the creation of risks? Can one avoid them? What are the implications, from an ethical point of view, of doing science and technology? How does society change as a result of science and technology? These were more STS style questions in the American road. I had the benefit of being exposed to both, partly because I came from the outside and hence had no preconceived notions.

My view was that you cannot fully critically grasp the power of science and technology in the world without understanding how they function as social and political institutions themselves. But that it's half the question or half the problem. It's not worth doing that until you look to the group totally and say: what difference does it make that these things exist in society? If you tell them I do religious studies, and they kind of understand why it's important to study religion and why there should be people studying it, but they don't understand if you say Science and Technology Studies. Yet, if you say, religion, science, and technology, what's the difference? They wouldn't be able to give you a very good answer to that. That then becomes part of the problematic. How did these two powerful and central institutions take themselves out of reflection and out of society, so that people think it's an odd little thing to do to stop and inquire about them? I want to shake people and say: how can you possibly not want to study these things that are so central in your lives? It's like saying, I want to study power, I want to study society.

Multiple times, you have shown how science and technology are intrinsically embedded in almost every form of human organization, and how central such articulation has been in redefining our relationship with the natural and manufactured worlds and our systems of social practices. This process is one that you and others have labeled 'co-production,' which functions as a critical tool for tracing power into realms where social theory has not managed to do so. Can you expand on the concept of co-production?

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I must first bracket off a sense of co-production that I do not mean. Many linguistic terms have an everyday life and a technical life, and these two are not always the same. My sense of co-production is a much more metaphysical sense. It's a sense that says that how we understand the world is deeply related and inseparable from our normative commitments within that world.

I mean, take any silly example: take incest. You are not supposed to marry your sister, right? But then that depends on whether it is your sister. Suppose you have two divorced parents, and each brings a child from a different marriage, and there's no consanguinity. You've been raised together as siblings from early on, and then you decide to marry each other; is that incest? Isn't that incest? In that sense, it is Bill Clinton's famous mishap when he said it all depends on what the meaning of "is" is. I think that was a profoundly metaphysical moment because he was questioning the foundations of the "is" in a social context at that moment. I think he had a point, even though it was admittedly not a very noble moment in American history.

The kind of co-production that I have in mind, and that scholars in this line of work have in mind, is about the states of the world that we conjure up in communities. Communities of belief, that's how I think about them, but also communities of action and communities of commitment. There's a difference between how somebody will look at the recordbreaking temperatures in England yesterday if they think it's one planet. It's a collective responsibility of global warming that we should think of it as the climate talking, and not just recording instruments in London. All of these things go back and feedback on: do we feel as part of the same community of people as these Londoners? Or do we think that's their own problem?

You recall that in 1983, Benedict Anderson, the political scientist, wrote this extremely influential book called Imagined Communities. But his idea of imagined communities was only a political one: imposed power from the top makes people see the world in a certain way. The Cold War was the quintessential, better example of an imagined community. For me, as an STS scholar, climate change is a quintessential kind of imaginative community formation, which has as much to do with nature and with our human component in that nature. It alters one's imagination of who one feels to be or belongs to as a citizen.

You can make up new concepts like climate citizenship in a co-productionist framework, and people would understand what you're talking about. I think a theoretically productive term like that actually enables you to make other conceptual constructs that begin to unpack boundaries that were imposed by the older paradigm. I think that the paradigm is changing, in part, by a different co-productionist viewpoint coming into being. That we change the old categories to some extent, making them no longer valid and causing you to reterritorialize your imaginative space in a different way.

S. J.

In multiple branches of social studies, it is noticeable a return to or deepening of attention to forms of materialism. For science and technology, this comes with a process of grounding where pure epistemological approaches are substituted for others where the material constituencies of these fields are brought to the forefront. On another occasion, you mentioned that we have started taking seriously the fact that "things exist in space; technology acts through objects; objects have agency; science is created in particular places; and society does not exist in abstract."

What are the implications of this material turn for the ways we evolve as a society?

That's a really important and interesting question because every time people say that there is such a turn, there's a tendency to fetishize that turn and go off in that direction. I would certainly be remiss if I didn't say right at the outset that the person who has most popularized this material turn is Bruno Latour. Because the sentence "objects have agency" is really one of his ideas. I think that it is a morally misleading way to go if one stops there. Obviously, I think that the ways in which we design the material dimensions and elements of the world have a huge impact and constrain people. In STS for years, people have noticed these things, in fact, long before Bruno Latour. There was the American homegrown philosopher, political scientist, Langdon Winner, who wrote a very famous article saying that artifacts have politics. That was his line, thereby showing that political preferences get embedded into the making of artifacts. The Latourian idea is that it's not only human beings that have a force in the world that enables things to happen. It's also material things. There is a famous example: you can obey a policeman who's standing at an intersection with a sign saying "Go" or "Don't go". But equally, if you instead build a bump in the road, that bump is, in its terms, a sleeping policeman that also tells you the same. It has agency even though it is immobile.

Now, I think that is a distraction. Because if you focus on the agency, you tend to downplay the structure. And so, you don't ask the question "why these materials?" Why do we construct the world in these ways and not in other ways? If you live in America, this question is just there all the time. Why did a mass shooting happen yesterday in Indiana, and everybody is talking about the man who killed the shooter as a Good Samaritan? I am not a Christian, but in the Bible, the Good Samaritan was somebody who lent succor to a victim and caused them to feel better, not somebody who pulled out a gun and shot somebody in order to prevent a future act of violence. If the good citizen should be armed with a gun and ready to take vigilante action wherever a problem confronts itself, you would descend into disorder faster than you could say "surprise". By giving objects agency, yes, the object can kill. The object has a life, it's transforming our societies. But that's not the important thing. It's the commitment to individualism. It's the sense that society does not have an obligation to suppress certain desires on people's part in order to elevate certain other desires. It's the absence of the public sphere. It's the lack of motivation for

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any collective solutions to be formed. Because "I can solve the problem with my gun, my insurance contract, my employment, my car". The constant going back to the me-based solutions instead of the we-based solutions that are so fundamental to American society. All of that doesn't come up if you say that the object has agency. It doesn't say "why this agency?", "why this kind of object?". It just takes the object as if for granted without giving it a history or moral history, which would make a co-productionist account.

I would like to shift gears to the pandemic and its relation to information. We know that this health crisis has also come with another form of crisis marked by misinformation around the treatment and prevention of the disease. This has reinforced the importance of access to information and the urgency of a more elaborate and robust formation of a political culture among the population. You have referred to our current moment as one where knowledge is at the very center of our society.

What are the ways you see for raising public awareness and democratizing public engagement with science while avoiding the current polarization on the meaning and reliability of information?

One of the axioms of scientific studies is: "the truth does not exist in the face of society." It is an agreement of society to say that something is true, which produces the truth. The truth is the endpoint of a process, not the beginning of it. It would be possible to say exactly the same thing about information. What is information? I think the kind of postmodern turn in the mid-20th century was, in part, to ask this question: how does perspective affect what we see, what is taken as certain, even what is considered news?

All of this suggests a common acceptance substrate of certain things. Information has to be meaningful, interpretable in a context, usable in a way that one can act upon it. Otherwise, it is not information, it is simply a signal.

But then, what is information? It is the entire interpretive matrix plus the signal. In this sense, I think it can be said that information is merely the endpoint of a collective judgment that we all agree is important, meaningful, relevant.

Let's take another case of extreme ethical importance: the right to be forgotten, the decision of Google in Spain. The right to be forgotten says, essentially, that "I can, through my software, collect data points about you, but if these data points cease to have informative content in the context of societal customs (if they are false, irrelevant, trivial, very old, outdated, fragments of societal judgments), then I can request that Google remove them and they should not belong to its catalog of information, they simply should not be there." The decision of Google Spain is metaphysically very significant because it states that it is the social judgment about what is valid information that should control whether this mode

T. A. S. J.

of surveillance capitalism is a legitimate modality or not.

For me, scientific studies need to enter and be able to dig deep. It needs to be said that what is really happening at this moment is a demonstration that we, as a society, are committed to the notion that a social norm is more important than a technically collected data point. If the two are in conflict, it is the social norm that governs, not the existence of the data point. This is a quite important normative judgment. It is possible to imagine transforming it into a constitutional law. These are the types of ways in which I think STS can contribute to public discourse, first by using analytical structures and tools to explain, in a clearer way, what is happening in very complex situations. Did you want to continue sleepwalking in this regime where an imperial platform technology just decides that it will perpetuate you?

All societies have their idea of what is taboo, what should not be, but these platform technologies have invaded our souls and taken our soul without telling us that this is what is happening. I see here the critical project of STS, the democratizing project of STS. It is not just about building referendums, and so on, but about analytically pointing out: where the fact is happening, where the appropriation is happening, where the capital formation is happening, where the unexamined powers come into play... So, whether people assume it or not, as the case may be, and decide to deliberate, someone needs to show that this is not just a neutral thing, it is a change of state.

But then there are perhaps some common ground on which conversations like this can happen.

But the ground may not exist. I'm doing this project that we call The Global Observatory for genome editing. The premise of that project is that the space for discussing these deep and profound questions of what is life and what is life for? These are the two questions I posed in one of my books, but that there is no place for debating these, it used to be the domain of religion. We've not constructed a secular alternative. We've said: scientists define what both is, and therefore they are allowed to define what life is for. “I found a cure, a therapy for this condition, so, I can declare that the condition is a bad condition and take it out.” And people will agree because that's what we've defined. But it's a dangerous course because, as the recent US Supreme Court abortion decision shows, you can take it back again. And unless you've theorized that territory in a deeper way, you can have people saying that other things are wrong and then the institutional mechanisms don't exist to fix it.

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In 2021, you led, together with Stephen Hilgartner from Cornell University, the study named Comparative Covid Response: Crisis, Knowledge, Policy (CompCoRe), in which a comparative analysis was made between the responses given by different nations to the COVID-19 pandemic, taking into account the perspective of science and technology studies. Through your study, an attempt was made to answer the question of why some nations, even facing the same common enemy, had such different results in terms of contamination and fatality rate; that is, while some were successful in containing the virus, others had great difficulties in fighting the disease.

Beyond a degree of preparedness or financial resources, where does the discrepancy lie, especially when we look at it through an STS perspective: is it a matter of policy, of science communication, or even of how knowledge claims are built and contested?

We have decided for our project that we were going to call attention to the social compact, as we called it, or social contract that governs in these societies. We've said that where the social compact was widely accepted by the entire society, there has been a relatively effective response. One thing that this allows us to do is to avoid the distinction between authoritarian and democratic, because it turns out that it's not whether it's authoritarian or democratic, it's whether the society accepts the nature of the authoritarianism or the nature of the democracy, and what the nature of that democracy is, anyway

In Singapore, for instance, there's been very little contention, because this society agrees that an authoritarian mode of governance will yield better results. And for China, until Omicron came around, the same was true. The Chinese were extremely proud and united that their very stringent zero-COVID policies had brought down the Wuhan infections and—alone in the entire world and with more than a billion people—they had shown the spike going down and not resurrecting again. In that respect, if you judge democratic behavior by whether there's huge public buy, Chinese were more accepting of their government's approach than Americans have been of theirs.

In America, it's well known that the social compact has frayed to the point where there isn't an overarching set of principles that the entire society agrees to. And therefore, there's been a bifurcation also about science. Depending on where you sit in terms of the politics of the present, each side is claiming to have its own science and to abide by that and not by the others. It is not something we've seen in any other country, we've seen some resistance, but not like a 50-50 split, neither a complete refusal on the part of either side to bow to any degree to the positions of the opposing side. I think that this speaks to the very fragile nature of the American commitment to government and governance. Many countries that have tended to do better overall are ones that are either authoritarian (China, Singapore) or democratic and socialist (Germany, Netherlands, Sweden). These countries have a kind of solidarity between citizens, a kind of shared expectation of what the state is supposed

T. A.
S. J.

to do and almost no prolonged technical controversy like we have in America about the efficacy of vaccines (that has been pretty much accepted almost everywhere else).

Yes, it's more related to how the governments are constructed and received by the population.

It's the expectation of what the welfare benefits are, that the government is supposed to be providing, and whether the government is doing a good job in offering those benefits. In this moment of American history, one party is basically completely set upon dissolving the government as far as possible and just having no collective solutions. But if you have no collective solutions, then it becomes the survival of the strongest or the richest, or whatever. And it is kind of a law of the jungle effect that is almost setting in.

By now, we know that once the virus is controlled and is no longer a human health threat or a burden on public systems, the problems and challenges that have surfaced and been exacerbated by this moment of crisis will persist and potentially grow. This way, the Covid pandemic has not only affected our bodies but has also brought to light flaws in some foundations that have been insistently sold as objective, like the model of a liberal economy, the global flows of commodity exchange, the current representations of democracy, and the forms of provision of social welfare. And with this objectivity, there used to come a discourse built on a form of biased rationalization that praised measurement, classification, self-discipline, and non-interventionism, instead of aspects concerning interpretation, choice, and decision-making. We can even say it is part of the formation of a moralizing apparatus aimed at validating knowledge production and political discourse, or the establishment of the conditions to legitimize and allocate power by claiming argumentative truth.

How should we revisit the idea of objectivity when it is clear that the systems that were praised as stable, correct, or inevitable are actually crumbling apart?

I think that there's a lot to be said for an understanding that overly rigid systems become brittle and distressed. I think objectivity was one of these kinds of very brittle ideas because it presumes to set something outside of society. Going back to STS, the basic point is that we've constructed a whole set of indicators of what the world is like and bowed down before them, like idols. We haven't wished to recognize that we made those idols. To some extent, we have, therefore, externalized our scientific images from what we ourselves have put into them. Objectivity, like truth, like information, is ultimately a cultural decision that we're going to regard as the way that the world actually sees things and the way it is.

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T. A. S. J.

In the history of art, there are plenty of examples of experts completely disagreeing whether something really was made by saints or not. I like to talk about one of the most interesting exhibitions I saw at the Metropolitan Museum in New York. One of the great museums of the world, and they had a whole exhibition of Rembrandts that the museum had bought at different times. For some of them, you and I as lay readers of Rembrandt would have said: how could you possibly have thought this was a Rembrandt? But at the time they were bought, people thought they were real Rembrandts. Next to each one, they had a statement by an art historian and a statement by a chemical analyst, saying if it was real or not. Mostly, they tended to agree. But it called attention to the fact that there are two radically different ways of reading this culturally. You can take the interpretive eye, or you can decide to let a chemical instrument tell you, but both of these are social instruments telling you certain things.

The idea of objectivity is important to people. There are lots of places where you don't want to act on the intuition of a single person, and it helps to know that something can be relied on to the extent that we want. But to take that as a surrogate for and stand in for real truth in some way, that's where it starts going wrong. To have strong objectivity in a society, I think you need strong ideas of who you trust to produce that reading that you're going to take to be objective. I can have a centuries-old public health institution and trust them. So I take what they're doing as objective. But a discovery, for instance, that this institution secretly has been full of nepotism, or something like that, would alter that immediately. It just says that I accept that my government has been pretty good about staffing it with people and won't lie. The fact that you accept it is what gets seen as objectivity, not that they produce the one account of the world that everybody would agree to. My own comparative work shows that the procedural way in which people achieve objectivity and social decision-making varies widely across contexts, and especially across countries.

In America, there's this fiction that there are two adversaries in the courtroom, and if they go head-to-head, objectivity and truth will emerge because each side will take away the bias of the other side. But anyone who observes best practices says that's the wrong place to begin. The place to begin is how did they bring these experts into the room in the first place and look at the way that they construct the entire playing field, and not just the headto-head confrontation in the moment.

I think the fruitful thing about STS, the thing that makes it a constantly troublingbut to me always exhilarating - journey of self-understanding and critique is to take these black-boxing words of our civilization of modern civilization (words like "truth" and "impartiality" and "objectivity" and "reason" itself) and show no indulging in some particular communities of reason of the need for facticity of objectivity. Then, self-


knowledge comes with that. You get to understand that, given a choice, this is what people would prefer to do. This is what they would set aside as sacrosanct. And then they'll call it science, or they'll call it a project. But you become aware of that tendency, and you see others and how they are doing it. Sometimes, other people may be doing it better. Other times, it may seem like the costs are too great of doing it that way. If we think that the critical project is to enhance self-knowledge so that what needs to be possibly corrected in yourself becomes more apparent; that you start seeing the thrown-together character of society, the things that we've fallen into, without trying fault lines that are not visible to the naked eye. I think that that's the sort of insight that this field offers and makes it a new day, every day.

We would like to conclude by looking towards the future. Historically, times of crisis have also been forced circumstances of revisiting crystallized ideas, existing orders, and consolidated ways of acting, behaving, and thinking. With this pandemic, which is already one of the most disruptive events of this century, there is or was, perhaps, an opening of a historical inflection 'window,' an opportunity to rethink and reformulate new paths forward.

Do you think this moment will be marked as a transition point, or have we missed the opportunity? What do you think may come out of the Covid era?

At the beginning of the pandemic, I was sort of hopeful that confronting a common enemy would increase our sense of commonality in the world. But as the thing has progressed, I've become considerably less hopeful and would like to be proven wrong in my pessimistic views.

Our response to the pandemic was not asking the question: what forms of sociality can we retain so as to be safe and take precautions, but nevertheless, not give up on the idea of the social? I think it would have led to different practices. Instead, although being a socialist problem – because it transmits the virus –, and so especially in America, we pulled away every dimension of sociality. We've got rid of gyms, of sports of all kinds, of movie theaters, of all theaters and concert halls. The first casualty for me was that I had been incredibly looking forward to a live performance in the Symphony Hall. I didn't go and these things can't be brought back. For other people, the costs were much higher, like when the schools were closed. I think the societies that were more flexible about keeping schools open have done better. We were very rigid by closing down schools. We took all the social supports away and left people to work on their own. It was a sort of global experiment for two years on what happens when you've dissolved social ties. I think that it'll take a long time to get over the sense of alienation, the mental health consequences of isolation that people have fallen into.

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Look at the big macro indicators: people don't want to go back to work. People don't want to live in cities. The pandemic dissolved certain kinds of widely agreed modes of collective being. I don't know what's going to come, I think that the rise in gun violence in this country, gun buying, suicide rates... There are some indicators, I don't know how significant they are yet. Loneliness indices were exacerbated by the pandemic, and I think some version of it has happened worldwide. Then it's not one thing, it's coming on top of climate. The climate problem today is also being seen as a move toward isolation, in a way. It's un-networking the world which, for the last three to 400 years, we've been busy networking. That is a kind of dissolving. It's like watching a thing being gradually corroded with an acid, and I don't know what's going to happen.


"The object has a life, it's transforming our societies. But that's not the important thing. It's the commitment to individualism. It's the sense that society does not have an obligation to suppress certain desires on people's part in order to elevate certain other desires. It's the absence of the public sphere. It's the lack of motivation for any collective solutions to be formed."

Sheila Jasanoff

"I think that the body is the ultimate site of dispute for patriarchy, or at least the most symbolic one. You cannot understand women’s freedom without including the possibility for them to decide about their own bodies. Freedom has to do with prefiguring a life project. How can a woman prefigure her life project without being free in relation to her body? The idea of freedom that we dispute today is an idea of men’s freedom."

Ana Cristina González Velez

Researcher, advocate, and expert in the field of sexual and reproductive health and the right to health and gender equality. Former national public health director of Colombia. She is the founder of The Right to Decide, a medical group in Colombia, and co-founder of La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de las Mujeres


/ Interview / 28-Jul-2022

Originally in Portuguese politics, responsibility, regression, adaptation

Ana Cristina, we would like to start our conversation by talking about your professional trajectory. You have a background in medicine, and you currently teach health law at the University of Los Andes School of Medicine. You are also the founder of the group The Right to Decide and co-founder of La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de Las Mujeres. What motivated you throughout your career as a doctor to specialize in the field of sexual and reproductive health and dedicate yourself to fighting for the right to health and gender equality?

I think it was the meeting of my life as a feminist and studying medicine. I started studying very early and experienced many times something that today I know is called discrimination, but in those days I had no idea that all that had a name. Two or three years later, I started advocating in some groups in Medellín. That is when I understood that what I experienced had a name. For example, comments about me not being able to study orthopedics because it was something meant for men. Or when I was studying gynecology and obstetrics, and we were not taught about abortion or contraceptive methods. It was an encounter between activism in Medellín and study that led me to a field essentially linked to women’s freedom, which is sexual and reproductive rights.

My first job as a doctor was with PROFAMILIA, which at that time was the largest private organization in the world in the provision of sexual and reproductive health services. I had a choice between a job in the most important hospital in the city or a job in reproductive health. This was perhaps the choice of my life.

I started my professional work in the sexual health field in the decade of the UN national conferences. So at the same time that I started serving in the poor neighborhoods, I also started international advocacy on the gender and reproductive health agenda, as part of these conferences. I mixed my professional life with activism, which intensified my interest

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Tomorrow Anew

in gender inequality and the field of reproductive health. I think I found in my profession a way to do a more technical activism. It is political, but it has a strong basis in expertise. I am recognized for knowing these issues technically and at the same time being an activist in the public debate.

You were one of the leaders of the Causa Justa [Fair Cause] movement, whose mobilization resulted in a radical change in Colombia’s abortion laws. In February of this year, the Constitutional Court of Colombia approved the decriminalization of abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Thus, it was determined that Colombian women can choose to terminate their pregnancy up to the sixth month of pregnancy. The ruling constitutes a historic victory for the movement for the guarantee of fundamental rights for Colombian and also Latin American women.

How did the movement’s legal mobilization begin? And what were the main strategies articulated by Causa Justa movement to achieve this goal?

It is important to situate how the movement came about. In 1998, a group of women and I created La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de Las Mujeres. When we started, abortion was totally forbidden in Colombia, and we decided to bring together women from different fields (lawyers, doctors, ecologists, philosophers) to start thinking about arguments that would open up the conversation about abortion. Until then, nobody talked about it. Because it was a crime, it was very difficult to talk about the public health problem.

The Mesa was a collective that worked during all these years until, in 2006, abortion was decriminalized for the first time in Colombia in three circumstances: to save the life and health of the woman; in cases of rape and abuse; and in cases of fetal malformation incompatible with extrauterine life. So, we decided to make all the necessary efforts to implement this ruling because we knew that many countries already had exceptions to abortion, including Brazil, but this did not mean greater access to abortion for women. Two actions were taken. The first was to follow up with women who faced barriers in accessing abortion. This follow-up served to show the kinds of barriers they faced. At the same time, we created an interpretation of these causes so that the judicial and health operators would have elements to judge the cases widely. We were able, over 15 years, to train almost 5,000 doctors in the country so that, when a woman requests an abortion, they have the tools to interpret the situation in a way that is consistent with the human rights framework.

A decade later, we realized that this model had been exhausted. Only 10% of women had access to legal abortion, the rest were clandestine. Criminalization of women grew, reaching 400 cases per year of women criminalized and 26 convicted. The number of convictions for abortion was double the number of convictions for violence against women. The offense of

T. A. A. C. G. V.

abortion was more prosecuted than the offense of violence against women. So we began to build a critique of this model to show that it deepened inequalities among women and that it was necessary to change the paradigm. We created the Causa Justa initiative to fight for the elimination of the crime of abortion from the penal code. Up until then, abortion was talked about as a crime, and we wanted to make a movement of all feminist and human rights organizations to build a strategy to open the conversation about abortion on our own terms. We were against the criminalization because it was ineffective, unfair, counterproductive, discriminatory. The Mesa initiative turned into a movement, we have over 100 national networks participating organically, in over 20 cities across the country, and political leaders who support it. Causa Justa seeks to open up the democratic and public conversation, and for this, we have written a book with 90 arguments from the order of public health, criminal law, bioethics, inequality, the secular state, and freedom of conscience. Because the only way to open a conversation is to have many arguments that appeal to different audiences.

We prioritized five strategic points. First, political communication and social mobilization: we managed to make the news for more than 500 days with positive news about abortion. Besides the traditional media, we opened our own social networks. The second point was the work to make this a national debate, covering different cities of the country. Third, mobilization in the streets. We also did educational work with several audiences. And, finally, the legal strategy, which contemplated some options.

Causa Justa was presented publicly in 2020 to open the conversation, and only when the opportunity arose would we enter the legal strategy. This happened in October of that same year from the attempt to reverse all the achievements up to that time regarding abortion. A judge told us of the need to move forward. We made the demand in the constitutional court, and it was not heard until 523 days later. During this time, we maintained our strategies. The data we have is the result of a study we did. The publishing of this data was a breakthrough because many people had no idea that abortion really was a threat and constituted an active state persecution against women. Our strategy was based on collective work. In the end, everyone knew that Causa Justa was an identifiable movement—it was not abstract—based on solid arguments and on mobilization in the media, in the networks, and in the streets.

With the rulings made in February, Colombia became the sixth Latin American country to decriminalize abortion. The ruling became the third victory for the movement in the last two years, succeeding Argentina and Mexico, which also changed their legislation related to the abortion guarantee. However, despite the significant advances in recent years, fruit of the hard struggle waged by reproductive rights activists, some Latin American countries still have the toughest anti-abortion laws in the world, in which abortion is forbidden in any scenario.

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T. A.

How do you see the Latin American scenario in the face of the struggle for the right to health and gender equality? And what are the next steps and challenges for the movement?

Colombia ended up being a vanguard in Latin America and the Caribbean on this issue. But we did not succeed in having the crime of abortion removed from the penal code. Our legal model remained as a “deadline model”, in which, depending on the time of gestation, abortion is not a crime. Abortion remaining in the penal code has a very great symbolic impact. In Latin America and the Caribbean, abortion is a crime in all countries.

In addition, we have three major divisions in the differences in legislation. Some countries have legalized abortion depending on the term of pregnancy (Argentina, parts of Mexico, Uruguay, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Colombia). Among these countries, some have mixed models, with broad timeframes. For example, in Colombia, after 24 weeks abortion is only allowed if it falls under one of three exceptions. This model is arbitrary, because the timeframe is defined based on the division of gestation by trimesters. This division makes sense for the pregnancy, because it marks risks concerning the gestation process, but it has nothing to do with abortion. There are countries that only allow abortion up to the eighth week, when almost no woman is even aware of the pregnancy yet. At the same time, this model guarantees some autonomy for women, because up to this deadline they do not need to present any justification.

The second block, which includes the largest number of countries in our region, is the one that demands justification for abortion. In Paraguay, for instance, abortion is only allowed to save the woman’s life. Finally, we have the group of countries where it is totally forbidden—most of them located in Central America—or with a high degree of criminal persecution. In Brazil, the justice system persecutes the woman, the doctors, the medicine that is used...

This region has all these legal differences and is perhaps the least advanced in these terms, but we have an active feminist movement, organized and with an exchange of strategies, ideas and arguments that keeps the debate alive. The USA had a big ruling in the 1970s and was silent for many years afterwards. I think this absence of silence in our region is very important, but the challenge is to move towards equality in relation to abortion. We need to move in the direction of a solid critique of the use of criminal law to regulate health care. The only way to close this pendulum movement of advances and retreats is to eliminate the offense and regulate outside the criminal scope, only in the health scope. Another major challenge is implementation. The barriers to access for women, even in liberal contexts, are immense because those barriers are still linked to the stigma of crime. Am I going to study medicine to be a criminal?

A. C. G. V.

I think the great feminist battle of this century is reproductive freedom. Last century it was the right to vote and to education. Reproductive freedom is at the center of the agenda of a fierce cultural battle.

Latin America is a traditionally conservative region due to the great influence exerted by the Catholic and Evangelical Church. Although Latin American democracies guarantee the existence of a secular state, the church has a very prominent role, with religious political parties directly influencing political decision-making.

What is the weight of conservatism and religious morality for the advancement of women's rights in Latin American countries?

This is not my area of expertise, but I think there is a big gap between the institutional structure of the church and the people. On a personal and individual level, we make decisions—like terminating a pregnancy—regardless of whether we are Christian or Catholic. We did a survey in Colombia, and this dissociation of religion from more intimate matters became clear. The institutional character of the church is one of the characters that are part of the cultural battle that I mentioned.

I also feel that they have been losing the arguments. We had 523 days of public conversation in our struggle, and the church had very low participation in the conversation, focused on only two arguments: the innocent life of the fetus and the negative effects of abortion on women's mental health. They can't engage in the democratic conversation of arguments, so they focus on emotional manipulation. The advance in the quality of imaging tests contributes greatly to this argument because we see how the fetus already looks like a person. The church uses it as a strategy to absent itself from the conversations and try to shoot down the pro-rights arguments. In Colombia, one of the reasons for the delay in the final ruling of the court was the sending of 20 petitions to annul our demand. Now that we have won, they are trying to overturn the ruling by organizing a referendum based on lies and manipulation of emotions. Their campaign is done from the pulpit.

Expanding on this discrepancy between the norm and practice, the criminalization of abortion, besides not preventing the acts from being performed, submits women, especially those of low income, to performing clandestine and unhealthy procedures due to the lack of access to safe means of abortion.

Thus, is it possible to say that the repression of this conduct, besides being inefficient in the practical order, is also contrary to the objectives and efforts to improve public health since it validates a means of attack to the health and social welfare of women, as well as generates around it a form of social prejudice?

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T. A. A. C. G. V. T. A.

After achieving a legal change, it is very important to be clear that the biggest effort is just beginning. You have to create the conditions for the law or ruling to be implemented, with health services, training, and campaigns. That's when we run into cultural resistance to abortion.

It would be unfair not to recognize that we have advanced in this area as well in our region. Fifteen years ago, it was much more difficult to identify providers available to perform abortion services. Today, we find them in almost every country, despite the stigma. We see the growth of groups of doctors and professionals for the right to decide.

We have also advanced in health regulations. After the law, we also need some kind of instrument to guarantee the work of health professionals, so that the health tools speak their language. The WHO has been very clear in determining how services should be provided.

Another challenge is at the level of education. We have little inclusion of gender, sexual, and reproductive rights issues in medical schools. It is necessary to change the minds of doctors after they graduate in order for them to adapt to the legal changes.

We have built a very important line to advance implementation: women who have already decided to have an abortion are not going to change their minds, even if threatened. So, from a public health point of view, it is better that this woman gets to the health service in time to avoid complications, death, and morbidities that affect her fertility in the future.

The most important thing for me is that the legal achievements are a great victory, now the great dispute is in the implementation. That's why it is key to regulate without a misdemeanor, without criminal law, because then we can take the conversation to the most technical and sanitary level.

Finally, this issue has everything to do with what we call social decriminalization. It is the challenge of changing people's minds and hearts, to create legitimacy for women's decisions, respecting them as full moral subjects, with the capacity to decide. How can we explain that we have a priest in Pernambuco worried about a woman having an abortion in Rio Grande do Sul? It is a distrust in the moral capacity of women.

In June of this year, after almost half a century of constitutional guarantees for abortion in the United States, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the Roe v. Wade ruling, which recognized the right and legalized the act nationwide. This deliberation is already exerting great strength from anti-abortion and conservative voices, in general.

A. C. G. V.
T. A.

Taking into account the enormous influence exerted by the United States, in view of its political, military, and financial power, is it possible that the ruling of the American Supreme Court can have a contagious and reverse effect on the policies of Latin-American countries? How can this influence mean a step backwards in the arduous Latin-American struggle, especially in countries, such as Brazil, that have not yet made progress towards the decriminalization of abortion?

I have just published an article exactly on this issue . I have no doubt that the governments or the more conservative sectors in the countries will try to use this ruling to justify any attack on our advances. Even to create the mistaken idea that what happened in the USA will also happen here.

As I said, we are still waiting for the Constitutional Court of Colombia to resolve the requests for annulment of the February ruling. That is part of any process, anyone can request an annulment. On the day Roe v. Wade was overturned, the government of Colombia, in a manipulative act, said it was asking for the February ruling to be overturned. All the newspapers called us and we had to clarify that this news was old and that this was not what the government had asked for. The news made it sound like it was something as a consequence of the American ruling.

Frankly, I think that, from a legal point of view, the ruling in Colombia is distinct from Roe v. Wade. The American ruling was based on the protection of privacy, while the Colombian ruling is based on the right to health, equality, freedom of conscience, and contains a criticism of the use of the criminal law. It has different foundations, it is rooted in constitutional principles, so it will not fall.

Also, I think that the movement and the conversation regarding abortion are very different in the US and in Latin America. We have a movement that has not been silent and is active and organized. In the US, they are just now starting to get organized, but there are no groups dedicated to this. I think it is time for the north to look to the south. I’m not saying this with arrogance, but for solidarity. They should know what we have done in terms of strategy, arguments, and movements to keep the conversation alive.

It took the US 50 years to overturn that ruling. It was a long strategy of the anti-rights groups in the Supreme Court. We need to be careful about the concrete debate, but also about all the macro-structures on which it rests.

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1. GONZÁLEZ VÉLEZ, Ana Cristina. La derogación de la decisión ‘Roe vs. Wade’: hay que mirar al Sur Âmbito Jurídico, [s. l.], July 19, 2022. Available at: Accessed on August 15, 2022.

As you mentioned, the fight for the guarantee of access to abortion goes far beyond the simple decriminalization of the act. It is part of a battle for women's rights to health, privacy, and freedom, thus representing the respect for women as free individuals and protagonists of decisions about themselves.

Is it possible to understand the body as a political frontier, which reflects in the private sphere ideological disputes fought in the public domain? Is this battlefield also configured as the remnant of a patriarchal attempt to control the female body?

I think that the body is the ultimate site of dispute for patriarchy, or at least the most symbolic one. You cannot understand women’s freedom without including the possibility for them to decide about their own bodies. Freedom has to do with prefiguring a life project. How can a woman prefigure her life project without being free in relation to her body? The idea of freedom that we dispute today is an idea of men’s freedom.

In the public sphere, the decisions that limit our freedom were made by men. The penal codes are over a century old, they were made when we were outside the social agreement. It is a sexual agreement to divide the world of the public for men and the private world for women. Everything within the private realm is valued less. The private world limits our possibilities to be more economically autonomous. For example, women who devote hours to unpaid housework have to look for work that fits these obligations. This leads them to informal work and lower pay.

Today, women work, have some participation in the political sphere, and we have managed to make private matters part of the public democratic conversation. We are in the dispute and explaining how our bodies are bound by agreements of privilege between men. We try to explain something so simple and obvious, and so difficult at the same time. In several interviews, journalists ask me to explain once again. We all know that the big dispute today is for the control of our reproduction because it is important to maintain life and to keep women in a place of control.

To conclude our conversation, we usually address our guests about the theme of tomorrow and our common future. So, although we experience victories and huge advances, like the one you led in decriminalizing abortion in Colombia, our society also experiences the recent rise of political fundamentalism and a neo-conservative reaction, scenarios that threaten the advancement of the struggle for fundamental human rights, gender equality, race, creed, and so on. We also experience persistent situations of marginalization of women, through social abuses and sexual violence—obstacles that, despite centuries of struggle and feminine battle, are unfortunately still very present and sometimes deprive us from seeing a better and fairer world.

T. A.
T. A.

What are the paths and turning points necessary to build a future in which women enjoy a full and healthy life, free from any repression or social stigma? What must each of us do to ensure the construction of this future?

Sometimes, suddenly you realize that, like me, you have been fighting for a cause for the past 25 years. I didn't program and plan this; I just kept fighting.

Something that has always been helpful to me is having the ability to speak with honesty, clarity, and conviction. Because many people have never had the opportunity to hear clear, concise, and honest arguments. That is one way to appeal to people's hearts. An important majority of people would agree that women are full moral beings. This phrase is very simple and very important. Everyone trusts women as mothers and caregivers in general, but they don't trust us to decide whether we want to continue a pregnancy or not, including thinking about the welfare of that future child that we don't want, that we can't or don't want to bring into the world. It is important to question people about the negative effect that ignoring this full moral capacity generates.

I am convinced that the most peaceful scenario for everyone is one without the crime of abortion. I believe that younger women will continue this fight, which is the cultural battle of this century.

INTERVIEW II / Ana Cristina González Vélez 93

“Time, like space, is subject to direction, splitting, dispersal, entanglement.” 1

Time stopped for a while. It was interrupted against our will. Routines were paused, habits emptied, encounters postponed. Days blended, each becoming like the previous one and predictably like the next one. All sort of the same. It became difficult to keep track of time because we got trapped in it, the eternal Groundhog day. The present got frozen, and the gap that replaced it appeared to further split past and future; the two getting farther apart every additional day into the pandemic. A gorge was opening, and with it, an abyss became evident. Perhaps this abyss was always there, hidden in plain sight: a chasm underneath the thin layer we had built to hold our excuses. Excuses not to take care of ourselves, to value each other, to address inequality, to create fairer economies, to redistribute wealth, to renovate politics, to fix the climate crisis, to protect nature, and to love all forms of life, among an endless list. For so long, we had avoided gazing into the abyss in fear of seeing ourselves in the void. But the suspension of time allowed for contemplation, and with contemplation came self-reflection. A glimpse into the dark and into ourselves.

A necessary pause that allowed us to inquire into what that void meant and how the heck was it holding together all these evasions of responsibility. Within this hiatus, some saw neglect for things that really mattered; others saw commitment to reevaluate meaning. Some noticed lives on autopilot; others noticed the pilot had always been there. Some found reasons to break away from deep-seated inertia; others found the chance to slow down

HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74
1. Barad, Karen. No Small Matter: Mushroom Clouds, Ecologies of Nothingness, and Strange Topologies of Spacetimemattering. In: LOWENHAUPT TSING, Anna et al. Arts of living on a damaged planet: ghosts of the anthropocene. Minneapolis e Londres: University of Minnesota Press, 2017. p. G106.


and accept stillness. Some inspected carefully; others did not inspect at all. What each did with this pause is a theme of this section. They describe different relations to time, modes of discontinuation, types of voids, species of intervals. There are reflections about the gap itself, just as there are about the two sides that have been separated by it. At times figure, at times ground.

To inhabit a hiatus means to oscillate between two moments, or two spaces. Time and space follow logics that, in the end, are more alike than not. The similarity between the two approximates, or even make exchangeable, characteristics that are needed to describe this condition of separation. It is a state in-between. Along this line, several texts make the emptiness equivalent to that between two music notes, without which melody would turn into cacophony. The empty instance is simultaneously glue and a break, both indispensable. This, nevertheless, is not to say the gap is only the experienced one at the moment of writing, it also appears as a future rift. It contains both a directionality and a spatiality that may manifest tomorrow. Some reflections signal that everything the pandemic is unearthing at the present will build a hiatus in the future; here a signal of harder times, there a signal of optimism.


Synaptic Sculptor. Associate Professor at UC San Diego.

Ph.D. from Duke University, Bachelor of Architecture from Middle East Technical University, a Master of Arts from Bilgi University, a Master of Science from Istanbul Technical University, and a Master of Fine Arts from the University of California.

USA / Narrative / 19-Jun-2020

Originally written in English challenges, helplessness, collectivity, expectation

As a species, we are quite literally future-blind. In order to detect sound, we have ears; to detect heat and pressure, we have the skin; to detect light, we have eyes. However, we do not have a sense organ solely dedicated to detecting the passing of time. It is known that there are many time-related circuits in the brain, such as the suprachiasmatic nucleus, pituitary gland, or René Descartes' favorite, pineal gland, which he confidently declared as 'the principal seat of the soul and the place in which all our thoughts are formed.' Although the soul does not show up in fMRI scans, Descartes was onto something: how we perceive time, what we consider as our past, present, and future, affect our thoughts, beliefs, hopes, and desires.

Our notion of time defines who we are. Time as we know it, anchored in days of the week, hours in a day, structured and measured, is a new invention. For most of our history, humankind lived without a tomorrow. Or a yesterday. They had sunsets and sunrises, days and nights, but not a week ago or 3 months from now. Humankind had the vocabulary of an extended present, which did not necessarily include a five-year plan, because a year was not in their language. It is only recently that we have transitioned to a comprehension of time that includes a past, a future, with tools and techniques to quantify the passage of time.

Not having a tomorrow actually worked pretty well for us. Then why is there this emphasis on tomorrow, which I believe is the first quantum towards building a coherent future? Why are we so concerned about tomorrow? While a cyclical time without strict deadlines, fading pages of a calendar, shifting time zones, and atomic clocks worked perfectly fine, why did we get all obsessed with a linear time? A timeline (not a time ellipse or a time arc) that has enough points on it for progress charts and return on investments. Time as a measure of productivity, of steady development, of economic growth.

Needless to say, Covid-19 hit our perception of time directly. The line of time was bent backwards, pointing at a notion of time that was ceaselessly lurking in the depths of our archaic minds. Bubble time of boiling water, heat time of a chill that arrives right after sunset, song time of morning birds, skin time of a caress that lasts. Covid-19 also uncovered, regardless of how invested we are in linear time, we just could not see the future. Would we allow wildlife sanctuaries to perish if we were not future-blind? Would we continue ignoring the outburst in China that went on for weeks, speaking of time? Would we allow air travel despite the risks? Now zooming out from Covid-19, which I insist is a special case of future blindness, what else would we not do if we were not future-blind? What would we change if we could see, hear, touch, inhale the future? If the future was corporal, not corporate?

Perhaps the most urgent issue at hand, one that needs to be addressed and solved, is not poverty, cancer, space travel, climate change, war, or hunger, but future blindness. As we keep acting like we know what we are doing while we have no way of seeing our future.

97 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74
Responses 38 to 74


779 days after I wrote the text above, 18,696 hours, 1,121,760 minutes, 67,305,600 seconds later, Covid is still around. However, the travel restrictions, the panic, the uncertainty, and fear are felt ever so slightly in comparison to the months following the outbreak of the virus. As I type these words, there are still thousands of people dying because of the Coronavirus each day (add reference). The virus keeps shifting and mutating, while various versions of vaccines and drugs have been and are being developed. Where I live, in Southern California, lockdown is an event of the past. Public spaces started 'opening up,' businesses are running on a full schedule, schools are doing in-person classes, friends are meeting in restaurants and bars, and there are even large indoor gatherings with or without masks. Life as we know it is restored. Linear time is back. Except when you are sick.

I was a ' Covirgin ,' a member of a fortunate group of people who were not affected by the virus and did not fall ill since the beginning of the outbreak. I had been one of those ridiculously cautious types, always wearing a mask or an exquisite layering of masks, even when I went out for a run, which made aerobic exercise way worse than it is supposed to be. I avoided anything public, at first because it was what we 'all' were supposed to do, then gently, politely avoiding weddings, friends' gatherings, and any type of close encounters with strangers. I even managed to travel abroad and come back without getting sick. It was on the 4th of July when I went out to a party to celebrate this nation's independence by way of watching fireworks that I believe I contracted the virus.

In the following days, I could feel myself easing into sleep without any difficulty, which was at first a nice change in my perpetually insomniac brain. Shortly after, I woke up with excruciating pain all over my body, specifically in my muscles and joints, where it felt like somebody sneaked into my bedroom at night and intravenously injected liquid mercury directly into my bloodstream. On top of being lethally poisonous, mercury is the heaviest liquid with a 13.6 gr/cm³ density. I could not move. My body was heavy as a block of marble, and every cell in my musculoskeletal system was screaming pain. I had a fever, cough, and other typical symptoms of the disease. It was time to take a rapid test. At that point, having done these tests three dozen times, its ritualistic steps had become second nature. I watched double red lines appear with my swollen eyes. Given my history with unwanted pregnancies, my thought was: Will there ever be a happy moment for me when I see a double red line on a strip?

I do not recall the next four or five days. I canceled my classes by way of texting our admin staff in a few words and emojis, which was the extent of my linguistic capacity, and hoped for the three shots of vaccines to do their magic. Although I am someone who enjoys being sick with the flu as it gives me ample time to rest, read, and catch up on mundane tasks around the house, being sick with Covid left no power in me. Intellectually, I was flatlined. By day seven or eight, a worried friend climbed over the gate to my house to check in with me. I had dismissed her texts and calls; for my iPhone— which is typically glued to my hand—was far too complicated to operate for my Covid-19 brain. I wasn't even charging it. She also had Covid-19 and found me plastered in my bed, smelling like a baby goat, sweating through my


pajamas, with a faint smile on my face upon recognizing who she was. Our somatic experience of the disease could not be further apart. While she experienced the disease akin to a hangover after too much whiskey the night before, it took my body two weeks, 15 days, 21,600 minutes, 1,296,000 seconds to feel light again. (I may be off, but there's no system for me to calculate exact Body or Cell time right now). Finally, I was able to use my arms and fingers without much pain, check my phone like normal people do, walk, talk, have intrusive thoughts about deadlines, and experience nighttime anxiety. I kept testing positive for another couple of days, and it took another ten days before I could do my usual workouts and stamina-demanding tasks in my life, such as carrying groceries to my home. While sick with Covid-19, I left linear time as my routines, meetings, day, and night were off or disrupted, to enter a more natural, somatic, cellular, organic, biotic, biological, biochemical, biophysical, mitochondrial, hormonal, hereditary, organismal, animal time. Time of the living system, which can be measured but not very well understood. Time of living systems at large. Time of plant cells, trees, forests as communities. Time of cyanobacteria and algae that are doing most of carbon capture that COP is so adamant about (add more details here). Time of mycelium. Time of juvenile pilot whales. Time of a grandmother orangutan. (Add 5 more of these and line them up from ecosystem to individual.)

While sick with Covid-19 apparently, I wrote down on a neon-colored post-it in squiggly handwriting: "life is for the living." It is true that by the time I recovered, I felt a boost of energy and a rare flavor of optimism. I had been sick and miserable so long that hearing the bird on the Torrey pine in my backyard or noticing

the morning mist wash over the neighborhood were remarkable and blissful experiences. When I went for a run for the first time, I was laughing with joy. The decline towards sickness and rise from it was most welcome and reasonably euphoric. I was futureblind when I went to that party on the 4th of July. I am futureblind now. I don't know what's going to happen in 3 months or 3 years. I might talk like I know, and I might plan it and execute my plans, but in fact, I am clueless.

The complexity and wisdom of life are beyond me, and I am pretty sure it is beyond you as well, dear reader, unless you are a secret artificial intelligence from an alien planet who mastered all life processes on your home planet and came to Earth to study them through the method of reading everything on the Internet. Living systems have their own time/timelines, and humans as of 2022 are just starting to understand these. I would like to think and believe that through utmost care and thoughtfulness, we will be able to study and understand how time works in nature. As time in nature means growth and death. My concern is that we are too stuck with linear time in our thinking that we dismiss the multiplicity of timelines (I am not talking Marvel universe here at all), time zones, and time of living systems. It seems to me that unless we bend our linear thinking to include the time of life, which may (topologically speaking) come in all shapes and forms, we will not be able to sustain basic life support systems like the ocean. My hope is that we recognize our futureblindness and act accordingly, that we see the temporal diversity around us as much as biodiversity and act carefully.

99 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74

Journalist and writer. Author of "1968 - The Year That Didn't End" and "Cidade Partida" (Broken City). Former professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

BRA / Narrative / 10-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, losses, responsibility, hope

Two lessons were learned from the experience with the pandemic: learning to value science as the only solution in fighting the disease and discovering affection as the best comfort in times of isolation.

In a survey to find out what confined Brazilians missed most, 84% said "the hug from relatives and friends." Next came the longing for sensory experiences linked mainly to taste and smell. Many respondents missed the "smell of bread from the bakery," while others missed "having a beer in the bar."

It is difficult to know sociologically what will become of the post-Coronavirus world. It is easier to predict "our" world. I remember that when I was cured of cancer more than twenty years ago, when the disease was more associated with death than today, I felt unprecedented pleasure in admiring the sea, for example, which I used to see daily without feeling anything special.

Although I am generally optimistic, I fear that a traumatic memory remains of the present times. Even the elderly like me (89 years old) have not lived for so long with the death of distant people and even of those close to us. Globalization has turned the world into a "global village," as McLuhan had already anticipated.

Mass communication has never been so power-

ful and omnipresent. We are subjected daily to a morbid spectacle of bodies, coffins, graves, and burials. It will take us a while to forget these macabre visions. The hope is that science will eventually discover a vaccine, as it did in the past, and the joy of discovery will make us forget the bad memories.

Attorney and partner at FCDG. Civil Law Doctorate from UERJ, Master’s Degree in Law (LL.M.) from Cambridge University, Bachelor’s Degree in Law from UERJ. Professor at PUC-Rio and FGV.

BRA / Note / 14-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese

challenges, losses, collectivity, responsibility

In law, there is no forgiveness. In law school, one is not taught to give in. Lawyers are not trained to be charitable to the debtor. On the contrary, their job is to collect the debt. To execute.

In our culture, forgiveness is learned in religion. To look at one's neighbor, to develop empathy, to "turn the other cheek" are concepts that separate law from religion.

And now? With so many losses caused by the pandemic, which right will serve the sick society? Many, due to the Coronavirus, are unable to fulfill their obligations. Should lawyers simply collect these debts, applying the law of men?

The crisis we are experiencing points to a law that is closer to these religious values. At this moment, upon receiving the client's query with an overdue bond, the lawyer should ask: How has the debtor suffered? Putting himself in the other's shoes, the law, at this moment, helps more.


Research Scientist at the Norman B. Leventhal Center for Advanced Urbanism, MIT. Associate Director and Senior Computational Designer at ORG, Permanent Modernity. SMArchS in Architecture and Urbanism from MIT.

USA / Essay / 04-May-2020

Originally written in English isolation, urban, adaptation, restart

The prompt asks, "What will change?" My Granddad went through the Great Depression as a young child, and it still haunts his decision-making to this day—especially around finances. Such lasting changes, ones that do not revert back to prior habits, require profound trauma or extended exposure to new conditions. Whether or not Covid-19 changes our culture, our social norms, our fundamental ways of being is yet to be seen, but I personally doubt it for two reasons. First, I presume there will be a strong desire to go back to normalcy as a kind of emotional tonic that lets us put this in the past. Not normalcy because it's better per se, but because it allows us to act like we’ve recovered and moved on—that we’ve overcome the crisis. That’s the thing with a crisis, with an emergency, you want it to be over. The mental and emotional signal for it being over comes as much from our returning to past patterns of life than an expert giving us the all-clear. Secondly, while there were a lot of things we didn’t enjoy about our old day-to-day, life is, in part, defined by unique moments, changes in scenery, etc. My personal reflection is that there is not enough difference in the day when you’re stuck at home—one day bleeds into the next. We may come out of this appreciating the banal, the slightly obnoxious, just for the change of scenery. And then, in a week or two, we won’t anymore, but we’ll be back to normal—and that’s OK, for most of us.

For those for whom it’s not OK, who suffer unjustly under normal conditions, I hope society takes notice and does make permanent change on their behalf. But again, the desire to return to normalcy is powerful, and that includes ignoring the plight of those less fortunate than yourself. The drastic social and political changes needed to reorder American society to be fairer could certainly happen but might require a trauma of much larger extent than anyone is currently predicting, and certainly more than anyone would hope for. My Granddad watched his mother feed starving neighbors from the backdoor for many years before things recovered during the Depression. The terrible irony for poorer Americans is that they may very well need to suffer more before we reach a point of breaking. The faster we recover, the less political and social will is built up to make long-term, radical changes.

With that rather large caveat, I see two potentially lasting changes at different scales. One not so good, the other more hopeful.

Scale 1: The Longue Durée of Capitalism

American capitalism seems to be figuring out how to manage crises—both those it creates and exogenous ones like Covid-19. The government response in 2009 was unprecedented, driven by the memory of the Great Depression. The current response is double, around 6 trillion. Political lessons were learned in 2009 as well, such as not letting companies do whatever they want with bailout money— prima facie at least. Capitalism is learning, and that is both good and terrifying—good that social safety nets are expanded during crises and are expected to do so to minimize suffering, but terrifying in that every crisis seems to further consolidate

101 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74

wealth and remove power from everyday workers. After 2009, we got the gig economy. Now we are getting calls for Universal Basic Income (UBI). My biggest takeaway from watching the last 15 years of Neoliberalism is that capitalism will invent a way to exploit anything and everything, UBI included.

If UBI becomes standardized, you can be sure of offsets in other areas: weaker worker's rights, lower pay, and fewer safety nets will serve to balance the lost income to corporations and the wealthy. More worrisome, welfare states create moral hazards because they put citizens at the mercy of the government. Unionized labor, though certainly not perfect, at least keeps power in the hands of the workers. I fear UBI will be set just high enough to allow a new form of poverty but one that allows corporations to remove jobs outright through automation, etc., such that a large swath of Americans is completely reliant on handouts. This sets up a political nightmare where a large voting block has no real agency if and when it becomes dependent on UBI. There will probably be a honeymoon where the benefits outweigh the burdens for the average American, but I worry about the longterm implications. People will become accustomed to it, reliant on it fundamentally, not just to improve life and job flexibility, but to survive. This places the citizen in direct reliance on the government for survival.

This is a highly pessimistic view, of course, but I feel it's better to give capitalism too much credit than too little. Like a frog in a slowly warming pot, we may wake up after the next crisis, sometime in 203X, and look back on 2009 and 2020 as critical moments where new strategies for power and wealth consolidation were tested and brought on-line. Many have described

a new phase in capitalism whereby emergencies become constantly generated to keep citizens docile. But there is no substitute like a real, legitimate, no-bullshit, life-and-death crisis to keep people occupied while you take away their agency and give tax breaks to the wealthy in the form of pass-through deductions. UBI especially worries me because it would be the ultimate Trojan horse

Scale 2: The Personal

A return to domesticity is positive as it gives us direct control over our most basic reproduction, which in reality is all life truly requires of us. Many of us have learned to offload daily tasks to others through apps and drive-throughs and other conveniences. But there is something satisfying, even accomplished, in making your own coffee and learning how to really cook, and taking a break from a difficult section on a paper to go do your laundry. The domestic sphere has such gendered connotations that we may forget that for most of our species' history "domestic life" was all there really was. Regardless of the division of labor, each person was engaged directly with solving the core necessities: food, shelter, water, clothing. We overcomplicate our lives out of a sense of competition, or self-image, or whatever else. But we forget the only thing that life truly requires of us is fairly simple: eat enough food, drink water, don't freeze to death, clean yourself. The rest is thousands of years of culture, economic systems, and so on. I've personally found that there is something uniquely enjoyable in these simple tasks—when I have enough time to do them, of course— which exists in a different register. I imagine I'm not alone.


Moreover, I imagine every person during this lockdown is learning to do something new or picking up a habit once lost that relates to our domestic life. The only way to redirect your life, so goes a saying, is to change something you do every day. My hope for friends and strangers alike is that small habits created now will blossom into new and better lifelong trajectories in what we read, how we sleep and eat and exercise, and how we share life with our friends and families. A silver lining of Covid-19 is that it's forced us to drop the bundle of sticks of both good and bad patterns in our lives and given many of us enough time to reflect and decide which sticks we want to pick up on the other side of this.

Lastly, as an architect, I selfishly hope Americans will start to reflect more on the importance and possibility of home as a complex realm for living. I hope people might realize how much better all of life is when homes are specified for one's own use. If we stopped treating our domiciles as investments that must retain market value and thus be as universally appealing as possible and thus the lowest common denominator of housing, it would open up a lot of possibilities.

Filmmaker, photographer, and researcher focused on architecture and urban planning.

USA / Narrative / 01-May-2020

Originally written in English

politics, responsibility, expectation, hope

will be almost indistinguishable from today."

We know that things are changing—from small things, in the way we should interact with strangers in public, to transnational macroeconomic policies and political balances of power throughout the world. Perhaps it's my pessimism, but especially after seeing Joe Biden emerge as our Democratic candidate for the presidency, it feels that when societies recover, embedded power structures will largely continue in the ways they had before. At least, they'll try to. To choose two ugly examples, Trump is already using the virus to issue broad (if misleading) statements about suspending all immigration to the U.S., while in Hungary the situation has allowed Viktor Orban and his party to further concretize an autocratic grasp on political power.

We had issues yesterday: among them rising seas, discrimination, inequality, and political polarization; today they're magnified and laid bare by this crisis. I fear they'll be with us tomorrow, when Covid-19 is transformed into an accepted and manageable aspect of life. Like frogs in a slowly warming pot, the various challenges of 21st-century life may overtake us without our even realizing, especially as we hunker inside, fret about the elders in our lives, and do the best we can to appease and confront the hyperobject (to borrow from Timothy Morton) that this

103 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74

novel Coronavirus represents. One can't keep everything in mind at once.

Tomorrow will be almost indistinguishable from today, for worse or for better. But in that 'almost' is an opportunity. Rebecca Solnit wrote in her 2009 book "A Paradise built in Hell" of the spontaneous kindnesses that tend to erupt in times of crisis, against all economic theorization of rational self-interest, and to some extent Covid-19 has engendered solidarity in our communities and across borders, even as they've slammed shut. There is space in that 'almost' for activists and networks to agitate for a more just society, one in which it'd be as inhumane to force cancer patients into bankruptcy as it would be for Covid-19 sufferers. Small, positive changes that we can achieve today—that this moment demands we achieve—will stay with us tomorrow, even if, like the scars and trauma of this crisis, we won't necessarily feel all their reverberations at once.



I'm a worrier, whether by nature or neurochemistry. While I can see that in my text from 2020, reading it today, I'm struck by its glimmer of optimism. In honesty, I fear these days that I'm a different person from the one that wrote it, or the world is different, or more likely both.

I have to say that my own life has grown increasingly chaotic since that halcyon period of bending the curve and baking sourdough. One morning last year, I learned through a mix of German, English, and crude sketch that I'd need reconstructive surgery to repair my broken wrist after a bike accident. Drawing in hand and consequences in mind, I arrived home to

my apartment in Berlin just in time to watch a (poorly?) orchestrated attempt to topple my native republic via YouTube and participant livestream.

Somewhat like the televised state murder of George Floyd, and the concomitant mass gatherings for racial justice in the US, somewhat like the deaths of millions worldwide from a novel respiratory virus, I'd hoped that the events of that day in January last year would give us collective pause. That the torrent of 'current events' would enable some kind of contemplation, and reaction, maybe even a process of healing that strengthened society beyond its pre-event state.

Safe to say there's been a reaction to these times, and in contexts around the world, it seems to be a combination of violent revenge and magical thinking. There's an activist, revolutionary vanguard committed to the status quo—or, worse yet, an imagined prelapsarian epoch—propelled by fever-dream visions and nauseating fixations on birthrate figures and underpinned by a wholesale rejection of, say, an effective vaccination campaign, the value of representative democracy, or the basic precepts of human rights.

At least from where I'm sitting, any sense of a better society post-Covid has given way to a sort of bargaining phase: maybe things won't be so much worse than they used to be? There's a strange and pervasive inability to cope with, or even to discuss (much less confront or affect) certain realities that bracket our possibilities, including those possibilities that dance in our imaginations. The space for improvement I'd hoped to identify has been crowded out and swollen shut by breakdown upon breakdown, and these days I wonder whether it was ever really there at all.


My hand's healed, mostly, though it'll never be the same as it was. I'm still getting used to that idea, moving through life and using my limb gingerly, carefully, consciously, at all times. Part of me would like to propose that there's a lesson here for others: that a continuous eye toward trouble, or an active feeling of embodiment, or a deepened patience is worthwhile, generalizable. The rest sees in that a kind of solipsism, an unproductive collapse of the personal onto the universal. The question as originally posed asked us to wonder what will be different tomorrow; two years later, I struggle even to conceptualize today and my relationship to it.

There was a time that I looked forward to the end of this (Covid-19) crisis, as if we'd come together one designated late afternoon to reform society, reveling together in the streets. But if we can agree on when some crises begin—say, 24 February of this year—it might be much harder to say just when they end, if we can recognize them ever doing so at all, before they're glommed onto and subsumed in the waves of history.

To the extent that I'm looking into the future, I worry, though as above, I'm always worrying, and very often unnecessarily. The best hope I can muster is that I'll be, once again, proven wrong for doing so.

BRA / Narrative / 26-Apr-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, losses, inequality, responsibility

The main immediate effect of the health crisis will be the loss of jobs and income, especially for the most disadvantaged sectors of the population, exposing the brutal inequality we have today, even in the first world.

Furthermore, we will see the permanent destruction of jobs and production chains. We will witness a trend towards the verticalization of production in each country, but there will not be an equivalent generation of jobs. There will be a replacement by robots and an increasing use of technology, particularly in the more expensive labor countries.

Home entertainment, telemedicine, and remote work will come out on top, although labor interaction will still be a point of resistance to change.

And this time, the unemployed will have no exit door. In a market already saturated with this labor force, they will have no way to migrate to a formal market because they lack schooling.

The challenge is enormous and cannot be overcome without income compensation policies that the economic elite strongly resist.

The world might become much worse before it gets better. I want to be wrong.

105 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74
Executive, former CEO of Vale do Rio of the MIT CEO Advisory Board, of the Economic and Social Development Council of the Presidency of the Republic, and member of the Brazil-Japan Wise Men Group.

Institutional Relations at IPTI-US.

USA / Note / 07-Aug-2020

Originally written in Portuguese nature, expectation, restart, hope

The world had to stop for us to realize that life was moving at an extremely fast pace. We didn't have enough time to see, care for, and/or appreciate each other, nor nature. Soon the Coronavirus will be overcome, and we will return to a better life, paying attention to the things that are truly important. Less materialism and more focus on humanity.

Architect, wife and mother.

UK / Narrative / 16-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, technology, restart, hope

When the Covid-19 pandemic started, I woke up every day with the feeling that I had had a science-fiction nightmare... maybe this happened to other people too.

A couple of months earlier, I was celebrating with such joy and health, among family and dear friends, the passage of the year 2019 into 2020. Suddenly, dramatic news started coming in from more distant places, new expressions started filling the social networks, and norms of behavior started being implemented, with us being forced to follow them: social isolation? Staying home? What does this mean in practice? How will I be able to follow the development of my first grandchild of only 1 year who lives 6 miles away from me? Conversations only

in videoconferences? No hugs, kisses, or any other kind of physical contact? “He will forget about Grandma!” How about the second one on the way? I won’t be able to go with my daughter to the obstetrician’s appointments, hear the little heart that is already beating strong and hopeful for tomorrow?”

Everything is so different, and I am faced with the strange feeling that we have been taken to live on another planet. Physically everything is the same, same buildings, same roads, the cities are still the same, but, with the streets now empty, they seem to be starting to be populated by those who resisted and managed to survive the pandemic.

In fact, we are on the same planet, but all of us, our global village of something like 7 billion people, without exception, are all changed! Without asking any permission, without any prejudice of race, sex, social class, religion, this virus has invaded our lives, our homes, our Earth!

What will be different tomorrow? In everyday life, I can’t say, but I certainly know that it will be different. Nothing will be as it was before, human beings will be different, relationships will be different, our planet will be different! I optimistically believe that each one of us is already doing what we can to try to leave a better world for the next generations. I positively believe that my grandchildren will be able to see more green, breathe cleaner air, hear better the singing of birds, appreciate the simplicity of small gestures, understand that we are all equal, and how much solidarity makes all the difference. I confidently believe that we will be more human!


Economist, with a Bachelor's degree from USP. Master’s in Economics from FGV-EESP. PhD student in Economics at MIT.

BRA / Narrative / 15-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, challenges, inequality, collectivity

Today, it is difficult to even imagine when this post-crisis will happen, since we hardly know when tomorrow will be, much less how. We are still waiting for a vaccine or cure, and it is still unknown whether the reopening experiments will not lead to a second wave of contamination. However, we can point to future challenges that we will have to deal with.

The crisis came at a time of economic frailty for many developing countries, especially for Brazil, and the recovery in the world will be very uneven. We are barely out of the biggest crisis in history and entering another one. The entire agenda of much-needed long-term investments in education, health, and infrastructure has been further damaged. Consequently, the new generations will have this burden to face, in addition to all the other burdens that were already present before the crisis and that have been magnified by it, such as income inequality.

We are having to make extremely difficult decisions in this crisis, both in the personal aspect and in life in society. People have decided on total isolation, countries have had to choose who gets healthcare. I hope this experience will be useful for our future choices and serve as a parameter to evaluate the capacity, or lack thereof, of leaders and institutions.

Agustin Schang

Architect, Curator, Cultural Producer. Bachelor's degree from the Universidad de Buenos Aires and a master's degree in Critical, Curatorial, and Conceptual Practices in Architecture from Columbia University GSAPP.

ARG/USA / Narrative / 30-Jun-2020

Originally written in English introversion, politics, expectation, restart

Out of the millions of images we process on our screens each day, at the very beginning of the pandemic, there was one that struck me. Someone I know posted on Instagram a graphic t-shirt with the following phrase: "INTROVERTS, YOUR TIME HAS COME."1

There is something very strange and freeing in knowing that the entire city has come to a halt outside your house. The term "introversion" was popularized by Carl Jung in the 1920s and suggests an inward orientation to one's own world and being. If you Google statistics about the number of introverts, the algorithm reveals that about 25 out of 100 people identify as introverts. What if that 25% were in positions of power? Would their first executive order promote time for everybody to understand ideas before moving on to new ones? Would some of their administrative departments release guidelines suggesting that one should only speak when there is something meaningful to say, increasing the chance of impactful words? What about a tax deduction for remaining quiet if it proves to increase the overall social index of happiness?

Perhaps tomorrow we can request a special session for these new representatives to put an end to the terrible practice of constantly worrying about time.

107 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74

Let's pretend we have all the time in the world. We could do anything we want.

Should we remain quiet? Should we start all over again?

Crypto Investor at General Catalyst. Bachelor of Arts in Computer Science from Harvard University. Research Assistant at MIT Media Lab. Manager at Harvard Innovation Labs AR/VR Studio. Associate Director of WECode at Women In Computer Science.

CAN / Narrative / 20-Jun-2020

Originally written in English collectivity, technology, responsibility, hope

I think the U.S. is in the midst of a rude awa kening, and it's at a fork in the road. At the end of it all, things can go back to the way they were before, but it's evident that the foundations of that society are so broken. From healthcare to education to politics to the environment, it can't go on (well, under this scenario, it'll decline to irrelevance).

I hope tomorrow will bring respect for science and facilitate conversations between the academic community and mainstream society. I hope that as societies, we'll fix the holes that have been made clear. For example, we need to respect what scientists say to avoid another pandemic or environmental collapse. We need to have a strong and educated middle class for a functioning democracy. We need young people to feel hopeful that things can change and that not all is corrupt and lost.

Tomorrow will hopefully raise the levels of joy and satisfaction for the masses.

BA Mir

Bachelor of Science in Quantitative Economics and Philosophy at Tufts University.

CAN / Narrative / 03-Jun-2020

Originally written in English

losses, collectivity, responsibility, hope

There is always tomorrow. Through our darkest days, tomorrow can shine as a beacon, guiding us ashore. Tomorrow can wrap us in its warmth and help us rebuild what was once lost. The promise of tomorrow is the sustenance of the present, and with it come the hopes and dreams of humanity.

Today, families are torn apart, friends have been lost, and cries for change fall on deaf ears. Our recognition of tomorrow's inevitable arrival gives us hope that this may change. Tomorrow, we shall strive to be better by caring for those around us, remembering those we have lost, and igniting change in honor of those we love. History shows that such compassion and fierce determination often follow periods of mass tragedy. Once again, tomorrow's fate rests in our hands.

May we heed the lessons of the past. May we sow the seeds of future fraternity. May our dreams of tomorrow be hopeful, as all good dreams are.


BRA / Note / 26-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, collectivity, technology, adaptation

The world is in transition, just as it has been in other times, through other pandemics. Only today, the whole planet participates in this chaos, actively or passively. The globalization and technology of current times allow us this reality. A hard, sad, distressing reality, but at the same time, firm and transforming. It is nature showing that we are all equal, totally vulnerable to something we cannot control. The smell of death around the corner and the obligation of confinement bring our greatest shadows to the surface; we discover that many of the defects we point out in others are, in fact, our own. We discover that we are interdependent beings. And we always will be, from birth to death.

The energy of the planet oscillates between fear and charity, ambition and altruism, neediness and affection. Out of all this, we can choose what is best for us, for our people, and for life.

The world will never be the same again, but when all this is over, many will be the same again.

What about you? What will you choose to be?

BRA / Note / 16-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, collectivity, politics, restart

For me, tomorrow will bring a decay in interpersonal and labor relations. We have been witnessing a gradual worsening and loss of a sense of humanity with the uberization of labor relations, the elections of fascist governments around the world, and the massive destruction of natural resources for the sake of profit for those who already live exclusively off of them. The pandemic will make this economic discrepancy worse. It will be necessary to abolish, once and for all, this individualistic conception that I am the world around me. The difference will come in this collective awakening to the deeper understanding that we do not live in bubbles but in a network, and that we are therefore interdependent on people, relationships, and natural resources.

BRA / Narrative / 16-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese uncertainty, technology, adaptation, hope

It is very difficult to predict the future, even the near future, because there are always exogenous factors that influence events, factors that take us by surprise, like the Coronavirus itself: who could guess, say in December 2019, that we would be in this present situation? My feeling is that we are already living the future, the future imagined by science fiction, the future that reflects the past, the future that accelerates

109 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74

the present. We have all migrated even further on-line: in my line of business (books), virtual bookstores are the only ones that are working. Even those who struggled with the idea of buying on-line probably don’t anymore, because they were forced to change their way of consuming. But I think it is an excellent moment to reflect on what is essential to our lives and what is not. Do we need to buy so much stuff? What I see is that everyone is losing money, but on the other hand, we are all spending a lot less, so things tend to balance out. I am optimistic by nature and believe that we will find a new way, a new form of capitalism, perhaps taking a bit of the 1960s way of being (like making clothes at home, for example) mixed with the virtual and on-line world that is here to stay.

Daniel Milagres

Architect and performer. PhD student at PROARQ/ FAU-UFRJ. BArch in Architecture and Urbanism from PUC-Rio and a Master’s in architecture from PUC-RIO.

BRA / Narrative / 11-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese

uncertainty, collectivity, adaptation, hope

High Wall

The question of how we can contemplate the difference in tomorrow consistently occupies our minds. Dealing with the unpredictability caused by this pandemic is not an easy task for us, as we have been accustomed to predictability as the basis of our survival. Survival. This brings me to my main point, which I believe is the crucial foundation of the initial question: How will we endure?

ligious communities) and the daily community work organized in the Jorge Turco community of Candomblé , in Rio de Janeiro, offer insights into this question, as it is a constant concern for us. The Afro-Brazilian terreiro communities and the predominantly Black population living in these communities have historically and continually faced attacks on their existence in Brazil. Therefore, this question becomes an integral part of our subjectivity.

However, along with these challenges, numerous strategies for survival have been (and continue to be) developed on a daily basis in resistance to these oppressive forces. These strategies are rooted in the worldviews that shape and guide us within the terreiro culture. I share here three of these survival tactics because I think they are important for us to engage in a productive discussion about tomorrow, or better, about the (a)new tomorrow, or even better, about a different tomorrow.

The experiences in terreiros (Afro-Brazilian re -

The first is about building up strengths and learning to navigate. The understanding of the pandemic as a disease, which has inevitably gained strength in the world due to its lethality, categorizes the virus as something, a "thing" capable of infecting our bodies, destabilizing our health, and potentially causing death. Bringing the thought to terreiros , we can think of our health as a composition of forces capable of entry, permanence, displacement, and exit. It is the same for that which destabilizes our health, in this case, the virus. It is composed of extremely unpredictable forces and, for the moment, intensely lethal. But every force has its chinks, its breaches, its voids. It is in these gaps that we can find the means to escape the chaos generated by the disease, to walk steadfastly, in solidarity with those who suffer most, and find, in


these bonds of solidarity, the means to survive.

The second is about understanding. The logic of understanding the pandemic, hegemonic in our context, individualizes knowledge. When we bring our vision to the terreiro , we learn to seek the logic of understanding. Understanding, as our tradition dictates, only makes sense when done with others, putting collective knowledge and teachings into practice. Facing the political project of informational chaos underway in Brazil, focusing on understanding what we are living is one more way to not only reduce the ongoing deaths in the world but, above all, to build forces of awareness and collective responsibility in people regarding what we produce and how we live.

The third, which unfolds from the previous two, is about incarnating the common. Facing the collective disincarnation and the disincarnation of the Collective in which we live, we have to learn from what the terreiro cultures refer to as the "incarnation of the common." The sense of collectivity is embodied in the construction of subjectivities and in the terreiro bodies, through their community, creating a collectively shared common, so that we do not exist without it.

Trying to understand, therefore, what may become the difference in our tomorrow, but, fundamentally, how we will survive tomorrow, involves learning to embody the collective through the common, to incorporate it in us in a broad and deep way, so that we can act responsibly, in solidarity, and inclusively, and shape another world with such actions. A different world.

inten sely Brazilian and deeply made invisible by the structural racism of Western hegemonic thought. We will continue moving in this direction, paying attention to the gaps and cultivating our own terreiro subjectivities, pulsating with life, with the ability to navigate and survive, and to embrace life's enchantment because, as our tradition sings: "This wall is high... There's another one higher still... Be careful with it... otherwise, you'll fall off it."

BRA / Narrative / 10-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese losses, inequality, collectivity, politics

Coronavirus will widen the gap between nations, increase social inequality, and leave a memory of pain, mourning, and loss. My hope is that humanity will adopt more compassionate behavior. That the empathy shown now will continue, and that we will take a closer look at the most vulnerable, instead of maintaining our usual willful blindness. And may countries realize how interdependent they are and assume that there is no better way forward than cooperation and trust.

It is more hope than belief in a radical change. After all, history is not linear, it is cyclical, made of advances and retreats. And xenophobia, nationalism, and obscurantism will always be lurking, ready to resurface, even stronger.

These lines lay the foundation for a possible way to think about difference and survival in tomorrow, starting from worldviews that are

In any case, it is clear that this disaster has been aggravated by years of neglect of public health and basic sanitation. It is imperative and urgent

111 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74
Mauro Ventura Journalist, writer, and editor of the Testemunha Ocular website from the Moreira Salles Institute.

to invest more in these two areas and to start appreciating science and research again. Otherwise, we run the risk of once again failing terribly in the face of new viruses.

The main result of the Coronavirus epidemic, according to the novelist, "should be the acceleration of certain ongoing mutations," in particular "the decrease in human contact."

Diego Portas

Architect, graduated from the School of Architecture of the University of Buenos Aires, and with a master's degree in Architecture from UFRJ. Professor at FAUUFRJ and founder of C+P ARQUITETURA.

ARG / Narrative / 11-May-2020

Originally written in Spanish uncertainty, losses, inequality, regression

The crisis "offers a magnificent raison d'être for this marked tendency: a certain obsolescence that seems to strike human relations," says Michel Houellebecq. Houellebecq believes that the post-Coronavirus world will be "the same but a little worse."

While the Covid-19 epidemic killed nearly 25,000 people in France, writer Michel Houellebecq says that "never before has death been so discreet as in these last weeks." French writer Michel Houellebecq does not believe at all that the post-Coronavirus world will be different; on the contrary, he believes it will be the same, "but a little worse."

"I don't believe for a second in 'nothing will be like before' type statements. On the contrary, I think it will be exactly the same," assures the most widely read contemporary French writer abroad, in a letter read this Monday on France Inter radio station.

The crisis "offers a magnificent raison d'être for this marked trend: a certain obsolescence that seems to strike human relationships," he says.

"It would also be false to claim that we have rediscovered the tragic, death, finitude, etc.," the writer continues, pointing in his letter to authors who confined themselves to their second homes.

"The victims are summed up to a unit in the statistics of daily deaths and the anguish that spreads among the population as the total number increases has something strangely abstract about it," continues the author. "Another figure will have taken on great importance in these weeks, that of the age of the sick. How long will it be appropriate to revive them, to cure them? 70, 75, 80 years?", writes Houellebecq.

"Never before have we expressed with such serene indecency the fact that the lives of all individuals are not of equal value."

"We will not wake up after confinement in a new world, it will be the same but a little worse," insists Houellebecq, as popular as he is controversial.

"There is the temptation to consider that certain events reconfigure the world. It is the narcissistic temptation of every generation, eager to witness the change of history—points out Lucas Moreno, orchestrator of a besieged Cordoba in El apocalipsis según Asmar . But the story is nothing more than an accumulation of narrative layers without much originality, tracing sheets that are copied with subtle variations. The pandemic will try to mark a before and after, the discourse will be saturated to make it so, but the previous imaginaries will not suffer the defin -


iti ve collapse. Slowly, the Coronavirus will be one more layer in the pile, although it will be one that will highlight its psychological precariousness, its fragility."

Theatre and opera director, artistic director of SITI Company, professor at Columbia University, and writer.

USA / Essay / 11-May-2020

Originally written in English uncertainty, helplessness, restart, hope

The Illusion of Control

"But man, proud man, Drest in a little brief authority, Most ignorant of what he’s most assured, His glassy essence, like an angry ape, Plays such fantastic tricks before high heaven

As make the angels weep."

(William Shakespeare)

Normally the more uncertain I am, the more I crave control. I want to feel in control, and I want to exert control because I feel safer when I believe that I can control things. But in the current confined-to-home state, I may not be alone experiencing the overwhelming sensation that I control next to nothing. In the face of this great unpredictability, I have the opportunity to consider issues of control in new ways.

At the age of thirteen I was sexually abused by a man high up on a tractor on a hill in rural Rhode Island. The shock of encountering his enormous manly parts is something that I could not shake for many years. But despite the terror and physical trauma of the encounter, I never spoke to my parents about it. In fact, I did not

tell anyone about this event for many years. I was afraid that if I confessed, I would no longer be allowed to freely roam the countryside. But I felt guilty, confused and haunted by the incident. And there were consequences and a shift in my behavior. I became afraid of high places and falling from precipitous heights. I began to eat with a new intensity to swallow my fears and, perhaps as the psychologists suggest, to become less attractive to men. Ever since then, I have struggled with weight issues. And then, over the years, in order to lose weight, in order to take some kind of control over my anxiety, I went on rigid diets. I was clearly trying to take charge of something amidst what felt like an uncontrollable, dangerous and unpredictable world.

At fifteen, I fell in love with the theater. I do not know how much of my choice to become a director had to do with my need to control the conditions. Of course, the profession of directing has always had a great deal to do with issues of control. As a director I felt that I had some control over the atmosphere in rehearsals, control over ethical standards, over the level of respect and listening. I could require a certain dedication and quality of being from the team. I could fire people if they do not rise to the given challenges. My own career ambitions seemed to be linked my fear of falling, flailing and drowning.

My wife Rena often asks me to stop directing at home. And she is right. I have always been aware that my attempt to control the events in my life have kept me from living fully and with abandon and enjoyment. Over the years, my study of T’ai Chi Chuan and, for a while Aikido, tempered my need for control. Both are “internal martial arts,” and are founded on strong philosophical principles about yielding

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completely to an attack and then using the energy of the attack to defeat the attacker. Both Tai Chi and Aikido emphasize the harmony between mind, body and surroundings. Both involve smooth, continuous movements. Aikido in particular put me face-to-face with my fear of falling, as a great deal of the practice involves tumbling, rolling and falling.

T’ai Chi Chuan was founded in Taoist principals and philosophy. To vastly oversimplify, Taoism teaches how to live and move in harmony with the existing forces of nature. Imagine a fish that swims in a chaotic sea. The fish is under no illusion that it controls the sea, or other fish in the sea. The fish does not even try to control where it ends up. It just swims. The study of Taoism and T’ai Chi Chuan encouraged me to trust my values and swim in the currents and circumstances that exist from moment to moment.

"The Master allows things to happen. She shapes events as they come. She steps out of the way and lets the Tao speak for itself."

The illusion of control is the tendency for people to overestimate their ability to control or influence events. We humans have a strong motive to manipulate our environment because the ideal situations in life seem to be ones in which we feel in complete control of the outcome. When we make judgments and decisions about the world around us, we like to feel that we are objective, logical and capable of digesting and evaluating the available information. When in control, we feel that we shine in other people’s eyes. But in fact, these moments are actually less common than we imagine. Cognitive biases, a

type of error in thinking that happens in the midst of processing and interpreting information, distort our thoughts and our perceptions.

The illusion of control is a cognitive bias which leads me to assume that I have control over outcomes. In fact, I rarely do. Some of the biases are related to memory and others to problems of attention because, in fact, attention is an extremely limited resource. Subtle biases may creep in and influence the way that I see and think about the world. My brain naturally attempts to simplify received information so that I can make decisions rapidly. My haste can produce radical miscalculations. These errors in thinking then can radically affect the decisions and judgments that I make.

Humans, in fact all living creatures, seek patterns in order to make sense of the world. Humans may be the only ones to assign symbolic meaning, sometimes deeply nuanced or with powerful emotional content, to those patterns. And once perceived, we weave narratives in order to explain the illusory pattern. According to recent studies, the feeling of a lack of control increases this penchant for pattern recognition, intensifying the search in order to gain some control. This hyperactive pattern recognition, in turn, drives to false perceptions and a sense of illusory control.

Throughout history, humans have developed rituals and ceremonies to influence events and control the environment. Rites include dances and sacrifices aimed at influencing the weather, improving the crops, ensuring victory in battle, appeasing an enemy, or driving away malevolent ghosts. Of course, now we know that the weather and our environment are not something that we can easily control by wishful ceremonies. We


have come to understand that humans are far less in control of events than previously imagined.

Feeling a lack of control generally makes us feel anxious and drives us to enact superstitious rituals that promise to alleviate that anxiety. Mostly rooted in religion, folklore and mythology, superstition is a conscious strategy to control the environment. Superstitions and magical thinking – the belief that an action, symbol or event can cause and outcome when there is no logical connection – have long helped humans make sense of a chaotic world. They give an illusion of control in the belief that we can invite good or bad luck. This is why professional sports players and high-stakes gamblers tend to be superstitious. They have high stakes in an outcome over which they have incomplete, or even no, control. Gamblers tend to roll dice harder if they want a higher number and softer if they want a lower number. People at slot machines will try to control the outcome by the way they press the handle. We knock on wood for luck. OCD activity is an attempt to control life. Of course, all of these physical actions have no real impact upon the results even though people like to think that they are rational and that they give considerable thought to things before doing them.

Perhaps a huge cognitive bias sprang into being during the eighteenth century, in the period known as the Age of Enlightenment. A handful of European intellectuals and philosophers proposed that science and reason could outmaneuver mystery, chaos and our connection to the great cycles of nature. The Enlightenment questioned traditional authority and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change. This time period also saw a burgeoning interest in understanding and using science rather than religion to explain nat-

ural phenomena. In the guise of humanism, in the sense of “maximizing human flourishing,” humans placed themselves at the center of the universe, proposing that thinking and analyzing, the ability of the mind to rationally think through problems, could lead the charge in reorienting politics, philosophy and science. This shift instilled in us, to this day, a sense that we deserve certainties about the future.

But, in fact, uncertainty is intrinsic to the human condition. As much as we try to surround ourselves with as many guarantees as we can, we inhabit a sea of uncertainty. The Age of Enlightenment may have been the strong impetus in the human attempt to dominate the world through productiveness, political revolutions, industry, science and technological developments.

And now, in 2020, this forward momentum, this seemingly unstoppable progress, has come unexpectedly to a crashing halt. But this is not the first time that the pause button has been hit. We were taken by surprise with fall of the Soviet Union in 1989 and the collapse of the World Trade Center 2001. These events happened unexpectedly, although in retrospect perhaps they were, as the Coronavirus, inevitable. But we were not prepared and governments who knew about the threats did not prepare. Now, in the rush to control the virus, we see how little, in fact, we do control.

Right now, the true nature of uncertainty is present and palpable. The vast number of job losses caused by the Coronavirus shutdown rises daily. The uncertainty about when it will be safe to be reunited with family, friends and co-workers is real and actual. The inability for many to comfort those in hospitals feels untenable. I cannot stop imagining the suffering and loneliness of

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the people who are dying and the suffering of those who love them and are forbidden any kind of expressions of tenderness and love, not to mention the lack of the rites that are essential to mourning and elemental to any civilization.

But perhaps, in the light of this pandemic, we can shift our expectations. The prospect of a secure future was always an illusion anyway. Currently, we know very little about the Coronavirus, about its origin or its real harmfulness. We are facing a great unpredictability and perhaps an upcoming social upheaval with radical economic consequences. In this new landscape we can reflect upon uncertainty and re-evaluate our assumptions about what matters.

Moving forward, we will definitely be called upon to innovate, to activate our imaginations in new ways and proceed with empathy and dignity. We will be required to invent a new reality within unfamiliar circumstances. These innovations and the actions that will have to happen in order to arrive at them will require reason, ingenuity, trust and courage, plus an openness to new scientific, social, economic and political paradigms.

"Historically, pandemics have forced humans to break with the past and imagine their world anew. This one is no different. It is a portal, a gateway between one world and the next. We can choose to walk through it, dragging the carcasses of our prejudice and hatred,our avarice, our data banks and dead ideas, our dead rivers and smoky skies behind us.Or we can walk through lightly, with little luggage, ready to imagine another world. And ready to fight for it."

During these past two months, Rena and I have been living in lockdown in London with Mabel, our swiftly growing Golden Retriever puppy. Each morning we walk Mabel in Kensington Gardens, not far from our home. British citizens are currently allowed to enter the parks once a day for exercise or to walk their dogs. In the park we have become friendly with a family and their little Labrador puppy named Leo. Now we time our visits to the park to coincide with Leo and his family. Mabel and Leo adore each other, and we all never tire of watching the two puppies roll over and over one another with gusto and joy. These daily encounters have generated a special significance in our lives during this period of Coronavirus. Our meetings in the park have become meaningful. One day last week, Rena and Mabel and I showed up in the park and Leo and his family were nowhere to be found did not answer our phone calls. We inadvertently began to worry about the wellbeing of our new friends. We had become entangled in the new meanings of our new relationships.

A fundamental trait of human intelligence is to create meaning, to attach meanings to the objects that we perceive in the world, to our relationships with others. We give meaning to the phenomenal world. The meaning of friendship matters. The new meanings that we engender in this current paradigmatic shift will matter. What we can control turns out to be our own attitude to the shifting circumstances and we can, to a certain extent, control our physical, emotional and mental postures. And we can create and celebrate new meanings that arise from our new circumstances.


BRA / Narrative / 01-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese losses, collectivity, expectation, hope

When I was a child, I thought I was allergic to newspapers. Every time I opened one, I sneezed, scratched my eye, coughed, and felt bad. I think that with all the allergies it caused me, it also caused some problems with my eyesight because the same thing happened every day when I watched the news on television. So, I stopped reading and watching, and I tried listening. When I got in the car, I would turn on the radio and the allergy would come back. But it wasn't the moldy seats or the unclean air filter. It was the breathlessness that came over me every time they announced the isolation condition and the increasing number of deaths.

It was not the smell of the ink on the newspaper, nor the brightness of the TV, nor the voices that stuck in my head that made me go crazy... Or, rather, sneeze. I then began to understand that my allergy came from the tragedy that had been announced, exploited, and replayed in all channels, media, and formats of the alternative, social, and traditional media.

I wonder: Are the narrators of these tragedies also sick? They have become death counters when they could be great storytellers. And we become court jesters in a present that, in the future, will be a past without memory. Forgive me for now being another source of pessimism. I have been contaminated by the virus also found in the lack of belief of nihilism. In a little while, it will pass. We just don't know when.

Soon, everything will be back to normal. We just don't know how. But, as long as you can, stay home, wash your hands, meditate, exercise. Don't listen to the radio news, don't read the newspaper, and don't watch the news on TV. Tomorrow will only be different if we act collectively in favor of news, content, actions, and attitudes that seek a solution.

Tomorrow will only be different if we escape the status quo, the selfish and individualistic thinking that brought us here and put us in this situation. Tomorrow will only be different if we are purposeful. Therefore, love your neighbor even if you are far away. Put your energies into what you consider to be most important: peace, love, health, empathy, sympathy, posture, attitude, friendship... Complete it with any adjective, noun, or verb, so that together we can build a new tomorrow in a single sentence.

Master's degree in History.

BRA / Note / 21-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, collectivity, expectation, hope

Today, there is no single, ideal project for the future. What remains are partial projects. Among those who seek to be free of any totalizing or messianic illusion are the artists, who maintain a tense questioning relationship between collectives and the structures of knowledge and power. I believe that tomorrow we will see the growth of these socio-cultural movements alive in search of workable utopias. Among those who produce and listen to music as an active way to signify the passage of time, between yesterday, today, and tomorrow, I hope that the his -

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tory of all those who were, and still are, expelled from the official dramas of civilization, will be recovered.

Attorney, graduated in Law from PUC-Rio, postgraduated in Civil Procedural Law from PUC-Rio, master's in Law and Business - Bucerius Law School (LLM) (2017), and Master in Procedural Law from the State University of Rio de Janeiro.

BRA / Narrative / 01-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese

isolation, collectivity, nature, restart

A comma, but not a period

We are in the 21st century. The era of globali zation, capitalism, growth, goals, and objectives. The era of rush, of scarce time, of anxiety. A time when stress is almost as high as the expectations and demands we impose on ourselves.

There are so many activities, tasks, bills that our lives, until Covid-19, often seemed to slip through our hands in an avalanche of checklists. We did so many things among so many priorities that sometimes—some of the most important ones—slipped away: we forgot to call our loved ones and friends, to follow the growth of our children (outsourcing the function), to notice the beauty of nature and a starry sky.

And in the middle of this rush, just like that, from one moment to the next and without anyone waiting, we had to lock ourselves up at home, with few people, few things to do, few plans, and almost no certainty. We stopped. Cars have almost lost their usefulness, as have airplanes, fancy clothes, and designer handbags.

Some things, however, have become more valued: a tight hug, an "I love you," an unexpected phone call, a freshly baked cake, a breath of fresh air. The possibility of seeing the stars that we didn't see before—either because of the polluted air or because we didn't have time to pay attention—now appear to us with even more brilliance. The need to unite for the common good and to show solidarity with others who may not be as privileged as some. The animals, who used to be intimidated by so much noise, smoke, and mess, have begun to appear, showing that they too can (and should) enjoy the planet on which we ALL live.

The factories stopped, production decreased, the economy stagnated. The world that I (a 1990s kid) know suddenly ceased to exist. And when it all passes, will it ever go back to the way it was before? I hope not totally.

I hope that we can see this pause as a necessary comma in our mad rush, and that the postCovid-19 world will be one in which we are more attentive to each other, to nature, and to ourselves. And when I say "ourselves," I don't mean our salaries, positions, or bonuses, but our hearts, our bonds of love, our mental health, and our ability to make a better world for what really matters: love, unity, solidarity, nature, and our constant capacity for transformation.


Mariana Meneguetti

Architect, with a Bachelor's degree from PUC-Rio and a Master's in Architecture Project and Theory at PUC-Rio. Co-founder of ENTRE, a collective of architects.

BRA / Narrative / 24-Apr-2020

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, responsibility, adaptation, restart

Tomorrow will be different when our perception of time changes. Before any attempt at prophecy or predicting the future, I believe that we must first renounce the future that has led us to an image of absurd development, where the "new" has become a slogan for a hyper-productive, anxious, infinitely surmountable world. This present time we are experiencing is an interval or pause between the now and the past, before an interval between the now and the future, and thus resembles a dilated, elastic time, where other human metabolisms are possible. I wonder if we challenge the future with this gap, leavening tomorrow with our own absence, with the void, thus transforming our footprints and traces into subtle evidence. We would be amazed at the presence and life of other possible organisms. Who knows, tomorrow could be another tomorrow, and we each would have the strength of time out there.

Manuela Müller

Architect, with a Bachelor's degree from PUC-Rio and studied an extension program at the Faculty of Architecture of the Technical University of Lisbon.

BRA / Note / 27-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese uncertainty, losses, politics, expectation


I am torn between fear and anguish.

Anguish for feeling this time pause that runs, for living inside this "translucent fog."1

Fear of this apocalyptic misgovernment, of this immaculate faith in the personification of authoritarianism.



This is how the defunct neoliberalism looks at the pandemic, as if it were alive. This model has committed suicide. Dystopian corpse.2

Anguish paralyzes, fear reacts. Me: half parenthesis, half action. How do we assume tomorrow?


1. See Guilherme Wisnik, "Dentro do Nevoeiro" [Inside the Fog] and "O futuro engavetado" [Shelved Future] – an on-line meeting that was a part of Escola da Cidade's "Seminar on Culture and Contemporary Reality."

2. See "Utopias e distopias urbanas em tempo de pandemia" [Urban Utopias and Dystopias in the Time of Pandemic] – an on-line meeting that was a part of Escola da Cidade's "Seminar on Culture and Contemporary Reality."

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Tim Parsons is a designer, author, and educator, cofounder at Parsons & Charlesworth.

USA / Narrative / 29-May-2020

Originally written in English collectivity, nature, restart, hope

There are more viruses on the planet than there are stars in the sky. These dangerous pathogens existing on the edge of life (a virus only "lives" when it enters a living cell as a parasite) have shaken the human race to the core, bullying us into a new coexistence. In our enforced hiatus, the Westernized Modernity that dominates and destroys Planet Earth circa 2020 is finally being questioned with greater urgency.

Tomorrow can look like before, but in all probability, viruses will return, and we will again be thrown into the chaos of now. Experts say that it is possible the virus could take hold in a new species and build a redoubt for reinfecting people in the future. Is there a third way? Not the ignorance of yesterday or the lock-down panic of today? What does the world look like when we take into account the way a virus operates?

Like a dictator, Covid-19 has immense power over people, separating families and friends, restricting freedom of movement, harming without explanation those who do not comply. It imposes new schedules, new routines, by decree. It also has deific qualities. It is invisible, not making itself known until it has been activated within us. It is mysterious, yet all-consuming in its global reach. If you choose not to believe in it, you are liable to be punished. But unlike the

evangelist, it is the non-believer who spreads the widest. We are already creating new rituals for this unholy deity, and soon we will create more. Spaces separated into 6ft cells, transparent borders, filtered air. One-way sidewalks, designer masks. It is not a religion any sane person would be keen to join.

"Tomorrow Anew" must emancipate us from this dictatorial, demonic deity and future similar outbreaks. Instead of accepting our coerced coexistence, we need to rethink the worlds we build.

To start, we can learn our lessons by not invading the territory of wild animals. Or more radically, assign half the planet as off-limits and let it rewild. We must collectively change our anthropocentric viewpoint that places us in a hierarchy above nature. It is the separating out of humans from nature that allows us to imagine nature as a 'resource' to be 'exploited'. We should recognize new kinds of families, groupings, and relationships with the nonhuman. Nature is part of us, and we need to imagine it in a way that does not deny our place in it or the impact we have on it.

If this cataclysm has taught us anything, it is that change is possible. We can change the very idea of what it means when we say tomorrow. What it means when we say anew.

Jessica Charlesworth & Tim Parsons Jessica Charlesworth is a transdisciplinary artist, designer, and educator, co-founder at Parsons & Charlesworth.

Atapucha Waujá

Indigenous leader of the Waujá people, inhabitants of the Xingu Indigenous Park.

BRA / Narrative / 07-Mar-2022

Originally written in Portuguese routine, challenges, uncertainty, adaptation

At the beginning of the pandemic, when the Coronavirus arrived here in the Xingu, many people died. We didn't know how to deal with the disease at the beginning. In my village, we did a lot of isolation. When someone went out into the street, for instance, we had a quarantine house. There you would stay for about ten days to see if you didn't feel any symptoms. This is how we controlled Covid-19 when it arrived in the Xingu. Little by little, the situation got better, it got much better. Today, people are much more organized.

We did quarantine, and this is how we controlled the pandemic. We use masks, and we intend to continue this way. We also controlled the disease with natural remedies, with indigenous medicine. In addition, people have taken root to increase our immunity.

The vaccines also arrived here. We took the first, second, and third dose. Everyone is very well vaccinated. We are now having cases of another variant as well. That is why it is important for us to continue using the mask. This variant that arrived is weaker and passes more quickly. From now onwards, we just wait. We are well, in good health now, and we hope to go back to normal life soon. But we don't know how it will be from now on if another disease like this comes...

Tamara Vaughan is a psychologist with a BSc in Psychology from the University of Sussex and a Doctorate in Counselling Psychology (PsychD) from the University of Roehampton, London.

Timothy Hofmeier is an actor and voice-over artist.

BRB/AUS / Narrative / 07-Jul-2020

Originally written in English isolation, uncertainty, inequality, expectation

Covid-19 has created a number of uncertainty. Uncertainty about income, housing, health, and for us in particular, uncertainty around when we will be able to visit our homes and see our families again. As with many, these uncertainty have created an ongoing sense of sadness, longing, and anxiety.

Among all of this, there have also been great opportunities for us as a couple to gain different, greater appreciations over the last few months. We have spent more quality time with each other and outdoors, and less time rushing around London on public transport. We have become more aware of our own relative extravagance and developed an even greater appreciation for and active practice of sustainable and minimalist living. We have also embraced the opportunity to work in different, more flexible ways that have also allowed us time to do other things that we enjoy.

We are mindful too that we are in an extremely privileged position to be able to relish our opportunities and learning. We have, for the most part, continued to receive a steady income, and our loved ones and we have remained safe and healthy throughout. We are mindful of the increased risk and subsequent impact, both direct

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and indirect, to those from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Additionally, especially as an interracial couple, we are mindful of the disparities in risk and outcomes for people from Black and Asian ethnic groups. This has shed further light on issues of systemic racism not only within healthcare, but as the rise in protests and BLM [Black Lives Matter] campaigns have shown, in other spheres of life as well.

We hope that post-Covid, those of us who have been privileged enough to walk away from this with more appreciations than anxieties and substantial losses, are able to maintain and implement meaningful changes in our lives. That we may support positive change to the various disparities and prejudices that this period has alerted us to. That our governing bodies and organizations in substantial positions of power do their part in ensuring and improving the safety, health, and well-being of all those around us, and that we actively encourage them to do so/ hold them to account when they do not.

Xhulio Binjaku

Architect, designer, geographer, and writer. Graduate of MIT's Master of Architecture program.

USA / Narrative / 28-May-2020

Originally written in English isolation, inequality, politics, adaptation

In October 2019, a few months before a certain disease of zoonotic origin reorganized everything, I saw the opening of the exhibition Agnes Denes: Absolutes and Intermediates at the Shed in New York City. The show is Agnes Denes's largest retrospective in a profound career that began in the 1960s. Denes is the type of pioneering artist that critics have found hard

to categorize, her work extends the boundaries of sculpture, environmental art, systems art, and conceptual art. Above all, Denes is a visual philosopher and a futurist deeply concerned with questions society asks itself. For Emma Enderby, the curator of the show, Denes "really was ahead of her time in thinking about how the way we live is going to have to drastically change. How do you design a future way of living?" 1

In March 2020, around the same time that the exhibition was to end, The Shed temporarily closed its doors, as did many other museums and institutions. Still, during this time of closure, the artworks and questions that Agnes Denes provided throughout her life have only amplified. The works that resonate with me the most are Denes's Pyramid Series. The whole second-level gallery is dedicated to drawings, models, and prints that envision radically different spaces for society. Beginning in the 1970s, Denes began to draw thousands of tiny people that conglomerate into distinct forms, most of them in the shape of various pyramids. Each person, drawn as a simple silhouette, represents a single node within a larger mesh that makes up the complex three-dimensional structures. Although every figure simply represents a mathematically derived coordinate point, each person within this larger network is distinct and expressive. Denes's ongoing Pyramid Series imagines new societies that are formed more by the configuration of people and how they come together, rather than by the architecture that binds them. For Denes, these pyramids are a kind of future city that expresses a "society of visual mathematics" in monumental

1. Jesse Dorris, "Now is the time to get into Land Art pioneer Agnes Denes," Elle (July 2, 2019). https://www.elle. com/culture/art-design/ a27701786/agnes-denes-artist-new-york/

form. 2 At first glance, her artworks appear Platonic, static, and even oppressive. A closer look reveals that each composition is a fragile balance of people and the space between them. Later versions in the Pyramid Series play with this structure, where the solidity of the forms becomes fluid, as in Flying Bird Pyramid – A Space Station from 1994.

Architect and Urban Designer, with a Bachelor's degree from PUC-Rio and a Master's in Landscape Architecture from Harvard University.

BRA / Narrative / 28-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, responsibility, expectation, hope

The pandemic made it inevitable for us to think of a tomorrow governed by collectivity—no longer only in speeches but in everyday actions. We were forced to pause and realize that our uniqueness is important, but it is also only a fragment of a large web of interdependent connected dots. There is no support for individualism, just as there is no collective without each person fulfilling his or her individual role.

edu/news/2017/04/ majestic-site-specific-commission-by-agnes-denes-unveiled-at-the-university-center/

Societies, both future and past, have typically been visualized as hierarchical pyramids. Denes recognizes this while simultaneously questioning – and restructuring – this structure in her work. The future, Denes says, should "respond to us not on the objects we made but to the questions that we asked."3 A favorite piece of mine, Snail People – The Vortex (1989), re-imagines a future society wrapped around the helix of a snail shell. With the piece, Denes depicts a different tomorrow, where hundreds of people, tiny and unique, finally converge at a singular, distant horizon.

Tomorrow, may the euphoria of resuming what we interrupted so abruptly not make us forget the reflections that emerged during the pause. May it be a tomorrow with more science, more awareness, more environmental and social responsibility, more empathy, more solidarity, and, of course, more presence.

I look forward to tomorrow with gratitude for what the virtual has given us so far, but with an urgency to live the concrete.

123 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74
2. New School News, "Majestic Site-Specific Commission by Agnes Denes Unveiled," The New School (April 27, 2017). https://blogs.newschool. 3. John Hallmark Neff, "Agnes Denes. An Appreciation," in Agnes Denes: Concept Into Form, Works 1970-90 by Agnes Denes and Arts Club of Chicago. Chicago: The Arts Club of Chicago, 1990.

Master's degree from the Latin American School of Sociology at the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences. Doctorate in Anthropology from the University of São Paulo. Full Professor at the Department of Anthropology at FFLCH/USP and Coordinator of the Laboratory of the Center for Urban Anthropology - LABNau.

BRA / Narrative / 14-Apr-2022

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, challenges, collectivity, responsibility

The negative and positive effects resulting from epidemics, natural catastrophes, wars, and other abrupt disruptions of a certain order of things—Covid-19 being one of them—eventually pay off over time. They leave their marks, of course; the point is that humans do not live in “long duration,” to use an expression by Fernand Braudel. Their temporality is shorter, and when it coincides with a certain collective catastrophe, some get away with it, others learn, adapt, or take advantage of it—but many, many succumb. Social inequality and discriminatory political systems are some of the structural factors that underlie this disparity.

In the case of the current pandemic, the consequent need for isolation or forced conviviality within the close family circle was counterbalanced by the establishment of contacts and partnerships through on-line platforms—for those who had the proper equipment, of course. As a teacher, I gave classes, lectures, did live streaming, and oriented projects of students and interested parties in the most distant corners of the world, many of whom would never have had access to these activities in other times. However, as we have already discussed, for others this alternative is no substitute for face-to-face contact—and young people have been particularly

affected, prevented from ‘hanging out,” from going to their usual places of sociability, not to mention the interruption of regular courses at schools.

This is just one of the aspects involved in the current conjuncture, and there is nothing new in this analysis, nor in the attempt of some convincing, general explanation for these situations.

“Nothing new under the sun,” says Ecclesiastes. How about another tradition, the Phoenix, which rises from the ashes? There is no single answer; people, throughout history, with their cultural differences, have forged explanations in the search for meaning for these situations in religion, philosophy, science, mythology—each with its respective episteme: from apocalyptic perspectives to hopeful ones, including the belief that everything is impermanent, in a continuous process of change.

If there is no single, conclusive explanation from dominant paradigms, why not take into account what the invisible ones who maintain a “deviant,” alternative way of life, with a long tradition, say? Just one reference: A queda do céu [The Falling of the Sky], by Davi Kopenawa: an analysis, from the Yanomami cosmology, on the notion of “progress” by the “people of the merchandise,” as he calls it—and well before the outbreak of the current pandemic. It is worth transcribing the quote on the back cover, authored by anthropologist Viveiros de Castro:

"A queda do céu is an indisputable scientific event that will take, I suspect, a few years to be properly assimilated by the anthropological community. But I hope that all its readers will be able to identify immediately the broader


political and spiritual event of very grave significance that it represents. The time has come, in short; we have an obligation to take absolutely seriously what the Indians are saying in the voice of Davi Kopenawa—the Indians and all the other 'minor' peoples of the planet, the extranational minorities still resisting total dissolution by the modernizing blender of the West."

Yes, not only the indigenous people, but other peoples and also the countless urban collectives who, in their daily experiences in facing difficulties and impasses, seek solutions, experiment, and follow clues as "tactics" as opposed to the "strategies" of the dominant groups, to use Michel de Certeau's expression.

Auritha Tabajara

Storyteller, actress, and songwriter. First indigenous woman to publish cordel novels in Brazil.

BRA / Note / 27-May-2022

Originally written in Portuguese helplessness, technology, nature, regression

Look, to tell the truth, what I think is that if everything continues the way it is, tomorrow will be the extinction of Earth and the colonization of Mars.

BRA / Narrative / 27-May-2022

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, expectation, restart, hope

I can only imagine...

If tomorrow is granted to us, Tomorrow embraces infinite opportunities for closure for new beginnings

For a dreamer, tomorrow may be a breather a moment of reconnecting

For a painter, tomorrow may be an empty canvas

For a poet, tomorrow may be uncolonized words and minds soaring to the sky

For a child, tomorrow may be climbing a tree

For an architect, tomorrow may be "built environment"


Starts with you and me

Dreamers or not, we are capable of change our individualized and collective actions and non-actions dance away in ripple effects

I can only imagine...

If tomorrow is granted to us, Tomorrow protects our Mother Nature For all living things

For new collectiveness and sustainable actions


Our togetherness, our collectiveness

May guide us through a new tomorrow Wake up

There is a lot to do!

125 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74
Alessandra Fischer

Conceptual artist, multidisciplinary, with works in photography, narrative, painting, sculpture, performance, and appropriation of processes. Bachelor's degree in Economics from Bocconi University in Milan and in Philosophy from Università Statale.

BRA / Narrative / 27-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese introversion, challenges, collectivity, adaptation

Sant'Elia Fiumerapido, 06.27.2020

In pandemic times, I get the question: What do I think will be different tomorrow?

Historians tell us that despite all the knowledge we have about the past, it is illusory to believe that we can predict the future.

Yet history teaches us an important lesson: Things always change.

Rulers and elites change, empires are born and disappear, cities and forests are in continuous transformation, the climate has changed, changes, and will continue to change.

Since we need to adapt to change, instead of guessing what might be different tomorrow, I would put the focus on our desire and attitude towards change and rephrase the question: What do I want to be different tomorrow?

I cannot know what tomorrow will be like, but I can choose what I want for our tomorrow.

What then is my place and what are my responsibilities within the collectivity?

To understand my place in the world with others, I can start, for example, asking myself about my house, if I have one, at which address, and in this house, how much garbage I produce, where does it go, how much energy I consume, how it is produced, how much water I consume, how does it reach me, through a public or private company, and the closest hospital, and the closest school, and public transportation, is it managed by administrators that I support, do I vote for them, and do my family members and friends vote for which politicians? And so I keep asking to understand where I really stand and how I want to inscribe my name in society.

There are countless questions that lead me to understand my place in the world, and when the issues demand that I take a stand or take action, I simply ask myself:

Which side am I on?

To give an example, on the subject of social policies, I personally side with the emancipation narrative that wants to extend the right to equal opportunities to all members of a society, starting with the universal right to quality public education and healthcare.

Even more important would be to rephrase this question in the plural: What do we want to be different tomorrow?

The desire that moves each one of us in its collective dimension can generate even more powerful narratives because they can mobilize multitudes.

Consequently, I reject the opposite narrative that wants a stratified society, where opportunities remain in the privileged classes that benefit from systems where quality education and healthcare are available only to those who can pay.

I always defend the emancipation narrative because it is necessary to position myself and affirm my commitment to this political place that


I have chosen, and then I need to ask myself: What am I willing to sacrifice to sustain this place of mine?

For a different tomorrow, am I willing to sacrifice my privileges for more justice? Am I willing to sacrifice my comfort to preserve the environment, or to sacrifice my rest to go out into the street and demand change?

To conclude, I would return to the initial question, with one last question: What is tomorrow?

Tomorrow is a very long time that, if it doesn't start happening today, can become the time of never. Avoiding this is up to me, it is up to all of us.

In pandemic times, I get the question: What do I think will be different tomorrow?

Historians tell us that despite all the knowledge we have about the past, it is illusory to believe that we can predict the future.

Yet history teaches us an important lesson: Things always change.

Rulers and elites change, empires are born and disappear, cities and forests are in continuous transformation, the climate has changed, changes, and will continue to change.

Since we need to adapt to change, instead of guessing what might be different tomorrow, I would put the focus on our desire and attitude towards change and rephrase the question: What do I want to be different tomorrow?

question in the plural: What do we want to be different tomorrow?

The desire that moves each one of us in its collective dimension can generate even more powerful narratives because they can mobilize multitudes.

What then is my place and what are my responsibilities within the collectivity?

To understand my place in the world with others, I can start, for example, asking myself about my house, if I have one, at which address, and in this house, how much garbage I produce, where does it go, how much energy I consume, how it is produced, how much water I consume, how does it reach me, through a public or private company, and the closest hospital, and the closest school, and public transportation, is it managed by administrators that I support, do I vote for them, and do my family members and friends vote for which politicians? And so I keep asking to understand where I really stand and how I want to inscribe my name in society.

There are countless questions that lead me to understand my place in the world, and when the issues demand that I take a stand or take action, I simply ask myself:

Which side am I on?

I cannot know what tomorrow will be like, but I can choose what I want for our tomorrow.

Even more important would be to rephrase this

To give an example, on the subject of social po licies, I personally side with the emancipation narrative that wants to extend the right to equal opportunities to all members of a society, starting with the universal right to quality public education and healthcare.

Consequently, I reject the opposite narrative that wants a stratified society, where opportu -

127 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74

nities remain in the privileged classes that benefit from systems where quality education and healthcare are available only to those who can pay.

I always defend the emancipation narrative because it is necessary to position myself and affirm my commitment to this political place that I have chosen, and then I need to ask myself: What am I willing to sacrifice to sustain this place of mine?

For a different tomorrow, am I willing to sacrifice my privileges for more justice? Am I willing to sacrifice my comfort to preserve the environment, or to sacrifice my rest to go out into the street and demand change?

To conclude, I would return to the initial question, with one last question: What is tomorrow?

Tomorrow is a very long time that, if it doesn't start happening today, can become the time of never. Avoiding this is up to me, it is up to all of us.

Medicine student at Unicamp. Voluntary teacher of Literature at the Zilda Arns Popular Preparatory Course.

BRA / Narrative / 15-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, introversion, routine, uncertainty

The Patience of Rotten Oranges

The oranges have decided to rot since Sunday.

And, just like them, who stare at me from that giant, ugly fruit bowl, a tired green thing that has given up on living, I too am rotting.

My head spins. A dizziness of hunger, anguish, and longing. Waiting for it to pass is an option that no longer works: I wait for everything and nothing comes. I spin aimlessly, falling, almost sleeping standing up, sleepwalking. I am the spin that makes me dizzy every day. And, in these last few days, I have realized that everything is unpredictable. Control has been out of all our hands for a long time. Life is proving ungrateful with everything that has already been offered to you, and nobody can move forward by standing still in the same place all the time. But I always veer too far or too close, I turn too far or too close, I run too far or too close. Because my courage is out of balance. My courage walks alone, aimlessly, not knowing very well what it is doing or what step to take next. My courage is lost. And, in doing so, I am the one who is lost.

On Friday, for instance, I fell while riding the bus, holding the support bar above my head— standing upright no longer seemed to make sense. But nobody noticed. No one can pay attention to the side anymore. The world collapses, but nobody sees. I held the bar and smiled, but I didn’t feel the joy I falsely showed. So why, then, did I show it? Because it is shameful to suffer, it is intimidating to be sad, it is hard to talk—the masks cover the mouths. She was standing there, smiling, half-sincerely, in the eyes of others, only in her body. The thoughts fly far, despairing, and one cannot speak. The despair is evident, but no one sees it. And it’s not because the thoughts are invisible; it’s that nobody pays attention to what is by their side.

I miss someone, I miss speaking, I miss being able to say things while my only companions are oranges, which rot and wait for me to arrive, with no hope for the next day. The days are all the same, always the same. But nobody


hears, nobody sees. I always help those I can, I do it and redo it as many times as necessary, but who takes care of those who should take care of them?

Nobody sees. Not because they are blind, but because they don’t notice. They don’t see that the person there, holding the bus bar, is alone, with a sadness permeated by clandestine happiness; that she is tired of running away from herself every day when the day begins and, for this reason, she staggers, kicks in vain, gets off balance. She must scare away her fear every day. She looks for another to take her in, but no one comes because no one sees. She has to stand up for herself. She is the one who dries her tears, who hugs herself—now forbidden because of force majeure—, who clings to her in bed every day. Today, tomorrow, and the day after, indefinitely, she stands by herself. The masks are also in her eyes.

Nobody stopped to listen. Nobody saw. Nobody noticed. I suffocate myself with this pandemic, which, besides illness, is anguish. The oranges rot, on a sunny Sunday in July, in the dusty, green, patient, tired fruit bowl, and wait for those who fell in the buses to get up and start their days—once again.

Originally published on Escritos da Quarentena. Volume 1: crônicas. 2020. Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

Bárbara Buril

Visiting researcher at the University of Lucerne (Switzerland) and doctoral student in philosophy at the Federal University of Santa Catarina. Master's in Philosophy from the Federal University of Pernambuco, Bachelor's in Social Communication/Journalism.

BRA / Essay / 05-Apr-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, introversion, collectivity, expectation

The pandemic and the individualism that never existed

No form of suffering should be seen in a pedagogical key. As much as we can learn something from catastrophes, it is only a learning possibility. The suffering that humanity carries on its back after years of slavery, decades of totalitarianism, and the most diverse genocides have not prevented us from still practicing slavery, even if in other forms, or from defending torturers, or from taking to the streets to demand the return of dictatorship. The examples of history show us that suffering teaches us very little. However, we should not see suffering in a pedagogical key, not because all suffering is unjustifiable, is outrageous, is violent, and therefore cannot be a reason for pedagogy, as advocated by the philosopher Geoffroy de Lagasnerie in a post on his Facebook page. In my opinion, we cannot view suffering in a pedagogical key because it is simply not possible to do so: the examples of history show us that we find it very difficult to learn from suffering. I also disagree with Lagasnerie's argument that the outrage of suffering should prevent it from being seen pedagogically, in a moralizing interpretation. If we have not been able to avoid them, let us at least have the freedom to try to learn something from them. However, although it is fruitless to speak of the pedagogical potential of this pandemic, since

129 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74

the examples of history show us that sufferings seem to teach us very little, I believe that we can at least grant the pandemic a revelatory power. I am referring here to the fact that if the pandemic will teach us nothing later (or very little), it certainly already reveals to us now, in neon light, aspects of our way of life that we did not see very well when life functioned in "normal mode." Paradoxically, it is only now, in a situation of exception, that we can perceive the shape, caliber, and density of the life we were leading until recently. It was only with the suspension of routines that we could finally see them - and all that they mean to us. Although there are a variety of texts today devoted to reflecting on some revelatory aspect of the pandemic - the need for a welfare state, the importance of the fight against inequality, the urgency of stopping eating meat, to name a few examples - I believe that the main fact revealed by it is how necessary life in society is for us on a psychic level. It seems obvious, but it is not because until recently we were managing our time to harmonize our individual pursuits with the apparently socially imposed need to meet people. As if the social wasn't a need that is deeply ours. As if people functioned as decoration in a mirrored landscape where what we see are only repeated reflections of who we are: me, me, and me. As if the other is an obstacle, and not the condition of possibility of fulfillment. As if we were really too good and too messed up to not need anyone (It is not by chance that the book Seja Foda! by Caio Carneiro is a bestseller. He talks about our time). A very interesting article published in The Atlantic, entitled Why You Never See Your Friends Anymore, shows that it is getting harder every day to find our friends. Not for lack of money or public transportation, but because we simply don't have room in our routine for what

goes beyond our individual quests for individual fulfillment. Unfortunately, finding friends does not seem, in our society, to be part of this normative project of happiness. Our way of life tells us in indirect ways, tangentially, subliminally, but not always, that the time we dedicate to another should be understood as a waste of time. So, what this pandemic reveals to us is that what we tried to "fit in" as extras or decorative objects in our insane routine of searching for self-fulfillment is precisely what structures our existence in a very deep way, psychically. They want us to believe that we are enough for ourselves or that, at most, family is enough for us, but it only takes a pandemic like this to force us to be confined to home, to family, to see how vital the small and large exchanges with friends, co-workers, and local store owners were to us.

This "lack of people" that we suffer from reveals many things to us. The first is that this bourgeois family form is insufficient for us. There are isolated people who are certainly thinking that now, in a family or at least as a couple, it would be easier. Maybe so, but it certainly wouldn't be much more satisfying. Those who are accompanied now know that the family does not account for our broad and diverse needs of the other, in his or her rich otherness, be it pleasant or disturbing, but certainly rich. The isolation of an individualistic life, restricted to the bourgeois family, makes us impoverished.

A second aspect of this feeling of "lack of people" is that it reveals how central work has become in our lives. I am referring here, this time, not to the productive aspect of work but to the relational. The home office does not supply the relational richness that the work done in the firm, in the office, in the doctor's office offers.


In this sense, we have a rich network of friendships, companionship or, at least, affinities in a production environment that reveals itself as more than that. Work is more than work. Work, fortunately or unfortunately, makes up our affective life.

This pandemic reveals to us how the small and large relational exchanges of the day were psychically vital to us. Even when we tried to live according to a psychically impoverishing individualistic imperative, we couldn't really do it: there were always the co-workers, the boss, the friend, the salesman who sometimes asked us, sometimes we were the ones who asked them. Confined within the tight confines of the family or of our own thoughts, it is now that we see how unbearable this individual way of life, really lacking in others, would be to us if it were possible. In practice, we live more at work than in the family, after all. This reveals to us that, in a normal situation, the core of society is not the family, but sociability.

We may learn something from the pandemic, we may not. We will only see the changes afterward. Suffering doesn't necessarily teach us anything; it even tends not to teach us many things. We cannot deny, however, that suffering reveals. Suffering speaks, and above all, it speaks about. Suffering speaks about the conflicts between what we really want and what we are told we need to want. In this pandemic context of ours, the sufferings we experience at home reveal the impossibility of individualism: we have never really been alone, and only now are we realizing it. Even if it were not impossible, as it does not seem to be now, at the moment when we are to some extent temporarily emulating what it would be like to live in an individualistic society, suffering speaks to the unbearable

character of this way of life. The pandemic reveals, then, that individualism not only never existed but that it would be unbearable.

Originally published in Marco Zero Magazine.

Kapisi Kamayura

Representative of the indigenous people of the Kamaiurá village, located in the Upper Xingu region.

BRA / Narrative / 05-Mar-2022

Originally written in Portuguese

isolation, challenges, uncertainty, losses

I worry a lot. First, Covid-19 arrived in our village, in Mato Grosso. It was very sad because it took the lives of 10 people here. I am naturally concerned. Initially, we had medicine, but it ran out very quickly. Everyone received treatment, but now we have depleted our medical supplies. Moreover, people have stopped working, and everything has come to a standstill. Even today, Covid-19 is still prevalent in our village. Currently, there are three people who are sick, which adds to my worries.

I would like to see the Internet accessible in our village, and in every village. It's crucial for us to communicate with other ethnic groups and to organize ourselves. Additionally, in the future, we hope that people will come forward to assist us. We need to work together, and some individuals need to extend their support to the indigenous people, specifically the Xingu people. Accessing the city is challenging and distant for us. These are the concerns that weigh on my mind, and I've included everything that worries me.

131 HIATUS / Responses 38 to 74

Author, playwright, screenwriter, winner of the Shell Prize, Ubuntu, and Popular Recognition for the play "Oboró — Masculinidades negras" [Oboró — Black Masculinities].

BRA / Note / 10-Jun-2022

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, collectivity, responsibility, expectation

Each tomorrow that comes brings with it evolution, wisdom, and maturity. There are those who resist it. But to resist is to let the train of history pass by. And the train of my tomorrow has in mind that the individual and the world are practically the same thing, that people depend on each other, and that nature is our best medicine. In my tomorrow, prejudice is decreasing more and more, and love is growing and winning. There will be those who try to take my tomorrow back to yesterday. But tomorrow is goodness. And the destiny of goodness is something the world has known for a long time.



Carmen Silva / Vita Susak

Teacher and urban planner; activist for the right to housing and leader of the Homeless Movement of the Center (MSTC). She was the coordinator of the Participatory Council of the Sé region in the city for two bienniums, and in 2018, she served as a municipal and state councilor for housing and public policies for women.

BRA / Interview / 15-Mar-2022

Originally in Portuguese collectivity, urban, routine, expectation

You are from Bahia and came to São Paulo during the 1990s in search of better living conditions. We would like to begin by addressing the issue of your migration to the São Paulo capital and what your expectations were about the city.

What future did you imagine with your arrival in São Paulo, and what was the reality that you found?

I came to São Paulo, like every immigrant, with the dream of coming to a big metropolis and finding work and housing, like every citizen's wish, regardless of their place of origin. But when I arrived in São Paulo, despite being Brazilian, I felt like a refugee in my own country. I saw that the city was not so welcoming at that time. Even if I had an aptitude for some profession, the city wasn't open like that. Then I understood that it made no difference whether I was here or anywhere else in Brazil, I wouldn't feel welcome because I didn't belong there. That was a disappointment at that moment.

As a response to the production of unequal and segregated urban space, which is a reality that extends over several cities in Brazil, experiences of popular resistance for the permanence in the central space of cities have arisen, reclaiming idle public buildings and spaces.

How has the struggle for access to the city and to decent housing been shaped throughout the country? Looking at the case of São Paulo, where articulations are already seen as examples of structured mobilizations, from the point of view of both governance as well as financial and logistical, in what way does the case of São Paulo exert influence at the national level?

The case of São Paulo, in terms of popular organization, exerts influence because there are some organizations' brevity that doesn't exist in other places in the country. For instance,

135 INTERVIEW III / Carmen Silva
Carmen Silva
Tomorrow Anew
Carmen Silva T. A. C. S.

the social movements and leaderships are organized in the same place as the public power, that is, in the councils, participating effectively in the management councils, in the debates about the Master Plan...

When I travel around Brazil, I see that social organizations working at the level of the central area of a city are still timid; they don't take the discussion of fighting for an organized urban center forward. They still focus on housing as the main axis without linking housing to other rights. But, in a certain way, today, with faster communication, with social networks, with big campaigns to understand that the public policy problem is not only in São Paulo, we have great discussions, a lot of movement. There is an uprising, organizations are debating the housing issue on a national level. Today we have a broad campaign called Zero Eviction. All of this is interconnecting, and we are having this exchange of experiences.

Is this Zero Eviction campaign mainly a result of the pandemic?

Yes, it comes from the pandemic. Despite being in a pandemic, there have been and are still ongoing threats of eviction. We have nearly 300,000 families throughout Brazil that are under the threat of eviction, not to mention the cases that happen without much publicity.

You started participating in meetings of the housing movement and occupations during the late 1990s, a time when the city of São Paulo went through a process of real estate speculation and increased costs of living in its urban center, a scenario that resulted in the departure of workers to more distant neighborhoods, located on the fringes of its urban space. In this context, the Downtown Homeless Movement also arose, proposing the organization of urban workers and the vindication of the right to housing. The movement, whose origin dates back to 1997, is today one of the most important social movements in the country.

Throughout these almost 25 years of fighting the housing deficit, with clear social advances and gains resulting from the movement, what changes do you consider the most important?

As a social gain, I see that people are debating the housing problem more. People understood that the homeless movement is not a movement of people who live on the streets but a movement of workers who cannot afford to finance a house through the banking system, through the capital system.

Another gain is the participation of the movement itself in spaces occupied by the public power. I also see more debate within the academy and in the great axes of the public power itself. Debates about how financing should be, how the debate in popular housing should

T. A. C. S. T. A. C. S.

be. We have a great perception that this discussion today is much broader, more open, and more transparent.

Today there are several actors discussing this, including in the private sphere. Another gain is the understanding that we cannot get into an arm-wrestling match with the public power; we can propose viable solutions, we can discuss this together. There is still a conjuncture; popular housing isn't as large as the real estate market in general. Another issue is criminalization because no matter how much we advance, there is still a lot of criminalization of social movements.

Women are the majority in the occupations, a situation aggravated by domestic violence, parental abandonment, and lack of financial support for their children. They are also the driving force behind the movement and the occupations and are also the majority within the movement's leadership.

Could you talk a bit about this correlation between the broad-based female organization within the urban social movements and the challenges women experience on a daily basis in society as a whole? Is this a correlation that manifests itself in the same way through the racial issue?

From the start, women are fighting for daycare, for food, for housing. When a woman arrives in the social movement, she comes with this load of experience. Even if she doesn't realize it, this woman is already a leader, she is already a feminist because she is always fighting for rights. Women have the capacity to mobilize, to contest... When they come to the movement, they find a space where they are heard and can develop their abilities.

But we have a great difficulty because we are in a sexist and patriarchal country because even though women are in evidence and working in the same professions as men, they still earn less. We need to think about a reengineering of women's work because domestic work, care work, is still unpaid. Women still need to become equals; we need to be in the same positions in big companies. We still don't have this condition of equality.

We would like to address the conjuncture of financial insecurity and increasing unemployment rates in the country in recent years, mostly caused by the economic crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic. Countless people have been evicted from their homes or have started living in states of extreme fragility.

To what degree did the COVID-19 pandemic expose, as well as aggravate, the inequality and housing deficit in the country? And how, within this conjuncture, is the fight for the human right to decent housing configured today as an even more urgent agenda to be addressed?

137 INTERVIEW III / Carmen Silva
T. A. T. A. C. S.

The pandemic unleashed and made visible problems that were still invisible. In the pandemic, women who were working to support their families were the first to be fired. The pandemic made visible everything that was invisible. For instance, the number of people on the streets has increased. Today, we have entire families, not just one individual who has a chemical addiction or who is on the streets willingly, by himself or herself. Those who are on the streets are people who lived together and were evicted. The loneliness of the elderly was also evidenced. Many things came to light with the pandemic, and we, the public authorities and all citizens have to pay attention to them. These are real problems in our country and in many places. The solidarity pact evidenced that only by working in a network and collectively will things work out.

The movement that fights for the social right to housing is many times broadcasted by the hegemonic media in a criminalizing and defamatory tone. In this sense, social media emerges as a new channel of dialogue with the general public. Through this platform, movement leaders give visibility to the agenda and can share narratives and knowledge, as well as articulate agendas and demands.

How do you believe the media, through digital platforms, are able to advance the acceptance and recognition of the legitimacy of the movement's claims?

Today communication is much faster. This is very effective for us. Before, when we suffered some aggression or were given some eviction order, we depended on someone coming to give notoriety. But today, with the social networks, as soon as something happens we already know about it. Besides showing the misfortunes, the social network is capable of calling out, giving information and training. The speed of communication is very efficient.

We would like to address how social movements can contribute to the academy.

What is the importance of uniting the university to social practice, also bringing into the classroom discussions about the effectiveness of public policies and the social tension currently contained in the way we create and occupy the city? And beyond that, how can the movement contribute to the discussion of new ways of thinking about urban planning in our cities?

The transformation of the city happens when we have everyone's participation. Today it is very evident that social organizations and the public power itself are debating the right to the city. So we need a balance between all the powers: public, popular, and private. If this doesn't happen, nothing will work out.

What happens today in the cities is that there is a great real debate about the importance of these three elements being in balance. When we go to a conference to discuss a

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neighborhood plan or to discuss territories, all the elements need to be together; otherwise, it doesn't work. This is the big difference, this opening of proposals and conversations, this active listening. The social movement is discussing active facades, what is the best location for a condominium. Though it is still an unequal discussion because the proposals that exist are for the financial market.

We currently live in a country immersed in a political conjuncture marked by social segregation, conservatism, and disrespect for minorities. We are, in a way, experiencing a dystopian space and time, in which deep transformations are underway.

How do you see the future of the housing movements and what transformations need to take place, at the societal level, to accelerate the construction of a more just and egalitarian society? Do you think that the pandemic has had an impact on the direction of this future?

The pandemic had an impact on the direction of the future, ratifying a very present past. The pandemic brought to light what we have always fought for: housing. When the pandemic came, the first thing that was shouted was "stay home!"

What about those who don't have a home, where do they go? This has always been our debate. In the future, what we have to achieve is that participation can no longer be isolated. Today participation has to be on a triple list: balance between public, private, and popular power. Otherwise, other pandemics will come, real pandemics that are happening with the emergence of this current one. Today we have a syndemic, a series of problems that COVID has brought: hunger, deplorable destitution, lack of basic sanitation, lack of housing. It was several pandemics in one. For the future, we all have to review what our participation actually looks like. And more than ever, public policy has to be effective in Brazil, especially for basic sanitation and education.

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"The pandemic had an impact on the direction of the future with a very present past. The pandemic brought to light what we have always ratified: housing. When the pandemic came, the first thing that was shouted was: stay home! What about those who don’t have a home, where do they go?"

Carmen Silva

"Why it's so difficult to start to open to something new? Until which frames, to which small piece can we deconstruct the state and cultural constructions? Do we have to give some liberties or some independence to Basque in Spain or it's too small? Which is the measure that we can conceive a separate culture?"


Independent scholar and member of the Swiss Academic Society for East European Studies. She received her doctoral degree (History of Art) from the State Institute for Art Studies in Moscow (1997). In 1992–2016, she headed the Department of Modern European Art at the Lviv National Art Gallery, where she curated 28 exhibitions. She also taught at the Ivan Franko National University in Lviv in 2011–2015.

UKR / Interview / 06-Mar-2022

Originally in English losses, politics, collectivity, hope

We started this initiative looking at the pandemic, which, in the beginning, with all uncertainties, lockdowns, and deaths, created worldwide anxiety about the future that awaited us. It was as if the future had been suspended. And the moment we managed to get some distance from the initial events, there seemed to be more positive perspectives on what tomorrow could bring to humanity, at least when it concerned avoiding more deaths. The war in Ukraine, however, has disrupted this progression and erased, for many, any possibility of hope or of a re-engagement with progress (be it social, cultural, or economic). Today, we would like to discuss the relation between these two events (pandemic and war), elaborating on the transformations that their interrelation might bring to our future. We see several moments throughout history where war and massive diseases overlap, one feeding itself off the other.

A couple of notorious cases include the bubonic plague outbreak of 1348-51, known as the Black Death, that was disseminated both in Europe and Asia because of the war between the two; Napoleon's 1812 invasion of Russia that was deterred not only because of the winter but also because of typhus, a disease transmitted through body lice, that wiped out 80,000 soldiers in just the first month of Napoleon's campaign; and World War I and the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic that infected ⅓ of the planet and was the deadliest in history: at least 50 million deaths, whereas the war took the lives of approx. 20 million people. But the wars tend to overshadow the pandemics.

How do you see the conflation of these events in the present time with the war in Ukraine?

It's absolutely logical that people are at war. The condition of normal life doesn't exist anymore. People are living in very bad conditions. Everybody knows that, in reality, the end of the First World War was provoked by the Spanish flu: when all soldiers, from both sides, fell ill. This was one of the most important impetuses to stop this war. In the present

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Tomorrow Anew Vita Susak

time, I think that the COVID-19 pandemic gave people two years more before the war in Ukraine. If the pandemic hadn't happened, I think Putin would've started earlier. But with this new virus, he also had to wait. He also didn't know what consequences this disease could bring. When we understood that this disease was not so dangerous anymore, I think it offered a green light for this monster. As I see it, Covid was a small pause before the war. Another thing that I have in my mind is that all of this is a play with humanity. The virus became a way to see what happens next. It shows us that we can organize, find solutions, and survive. Some political explanation can be much clever and indeed more rational, but I have this sort of feeling.

There seems to be almost no room for discussing a pandemic when we are in the middle of killings, country occupations, and undergoing massive socio-political destabilization. Do you believe that the war in Ukraine is a historic milestone, which also represents the end of the pandemic? Or do you believe that, after the end of the conflict, we will still be experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic and worried about the spread of the disease?

It is difficult to talk about what will happen tomorrow. Before the war, we were, of course, speaking about it. While discussing here in Switzerland with my colleagues from other countries, we thought that a new variant of virus or bacteria would be absolutely inevitable. It will come. With all these variants and types of viruses, it's absolutely clear that they will transform and new forms will emerge. Earlier, we had the flu, AIDS... Humanity could strike them down to some capacity, and in fact, they didn’t prove to be so dangerous. Of course, these are bad diseases, but ultimately not that harmful. We will certainly have new variants of viruses and bacteria, and with that, new challenges for mankind. This is one thing, and war is another thing, but in a way, one uses the other.

We would like to talk about the processes of deconstruction that are observable in this war. Both the Russian attempt to deconstruct Ukrainian identity, which can perhaps be read as an exogenous process, and the Russian regime's own endogenous identity rupture that this war is triggering within its citizens.

Putin refuses to acknowledge Ukraine's sovereignty and claims that the country has no historical right to statehood. While the shared history of Russia and Ukraine is undeniable, Ukrainian nationalism goes back more than a century before the beginning of the Soviet Union, and Kyiv was founded hundreds of years earlier than Moscow. Some have called this refusal to see from Russia's part a sort of historical amnesia and the efforts to eliminate the very concept of Ukraine.

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How do you see the split between the culture, identity, and linguistics of the Ukrainian population vis-à-vis Russian, and in what ways does this division manifest itself nowadays?

It's a very complicated question. We can speak at length about it and in very different directions. All this myth about Russian culture's territorial extent and Ukraine's position as a part of it was prepared for many years in the imagination of most people in Russia. They are sure that Ukraine is absolutely not a nation-state. I don't know how they constructed this idea in the heads of so many Russian citizens; probably only dead people can help us understand. And this is a long history. Throughout Russian history, they have taken issues with Ukraine's territory. They insisted, saying, "Ah, this is the beginning of our history." But it is absolutely not the case; it is not within the territory of the actual Russian state. Can you imagine if France started saying, "Our past was so great that we need to take back Italy, Germany, etc."? No, it's absolutely impossible. People in Russia are somehow sure that this was the beginning of the great Russian Empire, and that Ukraine didn't exist. Ukrainian historians have been active in this debate. But only after the war, they received the possibility of speaking openly; before, there were just some publications about it. It is mainly a Russian-dominated discourse, which will be very difficult to deconstruct.

Do you think that as Russia tries to deconstruct Ukraine, it is unintentionally causing its own fragmentation and deconstruction, as we can see with the massive internal demonstrations and the war Putin is waging against its own dissident citizens?

If Russia doesn't win, if Europe helps Ukraine, and thus we survive as an independent state, we can imagine that this war would be the beginning of the deconstruction of the Russian Empire. On the other hand, if Ukraine becomes a victim of this war and Russia restores its borders as in the time of the Soviet Union, then the entire Ukrainian territory will become a very large gulag – a concentration camp in the Soviet Union.

Europe isn't helping. It's a complete repetition of the 30 years with Hitler when Europe gave away small pieces of countries and thought, "Okay, probably it's enough for them; probably it's enough to appease this Nazi regime." Only that for Putin, it's another type of regime: the reconstruction of the Great Russia. The name of the Soviet Union is just another name for the Russian Empire. I can't say what tomorrow holds, but history shows us that Ukraine could be the victim.

You are a person whose history bridges the two countries: Ukraine and Russia. To name a few, you studied in Saint Petersburg and received your doctoral degree in the History of Art from the State Institute for Art Studies in Moscow, and, on the other hand, headed the Department of Modern European Art at the Lviv National Art Gallery and taught at the Ivan Franko National University in Lviv.

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If we can talk about your personal experiences, what are your perceptions and feelings regarding the current conflict?

I was born in the Soviet Union. This was also one of the first identities which were destroyed in the time of Perestroika. I was just 20 years old, that was the first very big deconstruction of myself. And later, to go study in Russia, was like a choice for me. When I started my course in St. Petersburg, I took all this knowledge about great Russian culture, its art, and literature... And it was a question for me: “What shall I do for my personal development as a professional? Shall I start doing research on the great Russian artists, or can I make my research about absolutely forgotten, unknown artists, which were the Ukrainian ones?” And I, as a Ukrainian, said to myself “Okay, I’ll try to do something that is absolutely ignored. And so, I chose Alexis Gritchenko as the topic of my dissertation, a Ukrainian artist who was active in Moscow in the avant-garde period.

Entering the 1990s, when Russia was not so crafty, just after all the destruction – there was some kind of nostalgia. But I liked my colleagues, my friends in Moscow, and there was normal and peaceful communication. When they spoke about the great Russian avantgarde, I would say “Okay, but these artists were born in Ukraine, they grew up, and they received their first artistic education there…” But for them, it was all about the great Russian Empire. And I thought that we needed a little bit more time to construct our Ukrainian history, our art history, the history of our literature. Now, I have the question: who is more responsible, the intellectuals—who gave all these distorted ideas in their publications, in their fields of influence, in their discussions—or the stupid military—who took this idea and put it to actual work? Who is to blame?"

Beyond the question of responsibility, the war is materially and spatially destroying Ukraine, which has triggered one of the largest exoduses in history within a compressed timeframe. Under this light, we would like to discuss both the evacuation of people and that of Ukrainian cultural treasures, such as artworks.

Perhaps we start with the first one: Hundreds of thousands of people are escaping Ukraine westward, seeking safety in neighboring countries such as Poland, Hungary, Moldova, and other European countries.

How do you see this movement once the occupation of Ukraine is over in terms of the reconstruction of the unity of a people and its identification with a place?

That’s a thing you can see in our history time and again. We had so many movements and so many exoduses that displaced people from one country to another. There is always the question: What happens when the most educated people leave the country? What happens to the metropolis? The most educated people are leaving this country right now. This was already happening before the war, of course, because the young intellectuals wanted to

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obtain a good education in Europe or in the United States. This process started before the war. During the war, however, this number skyrocketed, and thousands of people left.

We can compare this with Russian history: How many left Russia after the October Revolution? Many! But it seems to me that the cultural base of this territory gives new forces for the appearance of new, very clever and perceptive people. Germany, for example, after the absolute destruction, reconstructed itself quickly. For me, it's not the question that so many people left Ukraine, it is whether Ukraine will remain an independent state. If Russia persists with this dictator, the danger, for our civilization, will also endure. I don't know what price we will have to pay, nor what the solution will be, but for me it is absolutely clear that Europe and Ukraine will be able to reconstruct themselves. The people who are staying in Ukraine, who are fighting Putin, are from a new generation, a very clever generation of amazing people, who don't want to leave Ukraine. They would rather be killed but having fought than flee the country.

Wars, in addition to physical violence, also inflict cultural violence.

How do you see Russia's attacks on Ukrainian cultural heritage? And what is the importance for you, as an art historian and curator, that the rest of the world becomes more acquainted with and values Ukrainian culture and art?

It was a pity that people only started to become interested in Ukrainian culture after it began to be threatened. I'm in contact with a colleague from Kiev, and I know what the museum workers are doing for our art collection. It is a very rich collection built upon this common heritage that we have—not only Ukrainian but also Polish. The work of historians is helping in the preservation of the work by packing it with different materials, covering it, and putting the caves underground. I also know that some part of the collection has been digitized—but not all the collections—and a digitized piece of art is not the same as the original work—but still. I don't know what will happen with all these works of art. If Russia continues to take the territory of Ukraine, probably the collection of Lviv could be transported to Poland.

Regarding architecture, unfortunately, some monuments are being destroyed. In Lviv, my city, people love their works of art, and they are protecting the stained glass, sculptures, statues, constructions... When it was possible to put them in a bunker or a basement, they did. But if the Russians come, I think it will be like with Crimea, when they took the best works from museums in Crimea to Moscow. They will take them. I, however, prefer to believe that they would not destroy them (although they did destroy some nationalist arts during the invasion of Crimea).

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Do you feel that this circumstance puts more responsibility on your profession, as an art historian?

Due to your engagement and your knowledge with both Ukrainian history and art, it may represent now an even bigger burden on your work. We can say that, somehow, you are one of those who carry the weight of a culture.

I can observe a tendency. Earlier, I had already received invitations to give lectures about the Ukrainian avant-garde throughout Europe, in Tokyo, Paris, and Iran, for example. But Ukrainian art was forgotten. I, however, prefer to be an absolutely unknown art historian.

Of course, it's absolutely necessary to know more about this small culture and therefore spread knowledge about it. In my presentations, I say that for most people, it's not so comfortable to devote time to understanding a small 40-million population culture, whether it is Ukrainian, Belarusian, or Georgian. It's all Russian. Why is it so difficult to start being open to something new? Do we have to give liberties or some independence to the Basque region in Spain, or is it too small? What is the measure that we can conceive in order to separate a particular culture? When we talk about Switzerland, for example, which is very, very small and is not made up of a single culture, there we have the French, German, and Italian cultures, which coexist. Yet nobody is able to question and say, "Oh, this one doesn't exist."

As violence and humanitarian crises unfold in real time, the rest of the world watches from their homes on TVs and smartphones.

What roles can citizens of other countries play in supporting the Ukrainian people and culture?

The support is enormous. I can say that the support of ordinary citizens is more effective than the support of other countries' governments. Yesterday, in Zurich, there was a demonstration with about 40,000 people. Yesterday I was in Basel, where there were countless people protesting as well. And I know that the same happened in Geneva, in Zurich, in Basel, and even in other small cities in Switzerland. The idea and willingness to help are enormous. This is also a reflection of how many Ukrainians are in Europe and America working. The people who are mobilizing are normal, well-educated people, working to help the Ukrainians, collecting money... It's now a big drama, the possibility of Ukraine no longer existing; it would be a big trauma. European countries are also on the defensive. This erasure cannot be a possibility. Putin can't destroy this experience, this memory, and the potential of Ukraine's 30 years of existence and its new generation that is already active.

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Looking from a global perspective, this war is reconfiguring geopolitics to the point it might define much of the world's future ahead. Historically neutral countries such as Sweden and Switzerland took a stand, several European countries are supplying help in different forms, NATO and the UN's influence in Eastern countries is growing, countries such as China and Iran abstained from the UN voting but not positioned themselves against, among other events.

How transformative do you think this war will be? What is the tomorrow it is inaugurating?

In this moment, I can't say anything about what we can imagine for tomorrow. I have a very big desire and hope that something happens in Russia, that this monster can be destroyed. I can't exclude that Ukraine can be destroyed, though. This would be a very big tragedy for me, personally, for my close friends, for my generation. It would be an absolute tragedy for all humanity, for Europe. However, today, right now, I simply cannot know how I see our tomorrow or the day after tomorrow.

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The concept of entropy is present in the second law of thermodynamics, which implies the inexorable loss present in all energy processes as well as the irreversibility of a closed system. It describes the degree of disorder and randomness in a system. According to Robert Smithson, certain landscapes, characterized by processes of continuous destruction, would be better characterized as “post-natural", due to the scale and intensity of the change they underwent. They can never really be recovered; there is no return to a previous state. Smithson’s “entropic landscapes” are places where the self-regulating and self-sustaining processes of nature are so hopelessly compromised that the spontaneous return of an ecological activity is no longer possible. 1 What is left are transformed spaces, simultaneously new and old, that describe both a collapse and an emerging order. 1

Old because they function as indexes of past configurations that persist to some degree in the present. Like ruins, they reveal pasts that have been broken but nevertheless linger around in a compromised form. Not fully dead, neither fully alive. These are pasts that have begun perishing, taking with them old ways of living, thinking and relating. While they crumble, they reveal the obscenity of their constitutions, more random and makeshift than planned and stable as it was made believe.

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1. Peter Smithson and Robert Smithson, Robert Smithson: the collected writings. ed. (Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1996).


In their decomposition, however, they serve as nutrition for an emerging stratum of life. In this sense, they also represent something new. They have the capacity to inaugurate new forms and spaces of existence. So what appeared to be disorder was only such due to a particular perspective or limited observation time. The pieces that had been disassembled always carried with them the seeds of rearrangement. A new ecology arising from the ashes of an older one. This does not mean that the new mirrors the old, but that successions are made out of the interchange between continuity and discontinuity, between appropriation and rupture. It is never solely one side, even if the relationship is established in the reverse: one exists as it negates the other.

The collection of texts in this section reveals states of deterioration. Be it deterioration brought by the crisis or unveiled by it; novel or existent. They bring attention to the decline of paradigms and to the disintegration of certainties. Some point to the formation of ruins in the present, while others predict their appearance in the future. Destruction is at times seen as transitory, at others as perennial. Nothing is solid as it used to be. Debris is everywhere. The only nature is post-nature.


Sociologist, professor, writer, politician, and former President of Brazil (1995-2002). Former Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Finance during Itamar Franco's term. Former professor of Sociology at the University of São Paulo (USP).

BRA / Narrative / 22-Jun-2020

Originally written in English challenges, helplessness, politics, responsibility

It is time to speak up. We cannot remain silent. Democracy is at risk in Brazil. It is time to stand up for freedom. President Bolsonaro is relentlessly pursuing an antidemocratic agenda. While we still have freedom of action, it is time to leave aside our political and ideological differences of the past and join forces in the defense of democracy.

We are living through a 'perfect storm' in Brazil. The Coronavirus pandemic is spiraling out of control, and the President of the Republic has dismissed two ministers of Health who wanted to follow the advice of the medical community to keep people at home and save lives. A tremendous social and economic crisis looms on the horizon, exposing the appalling inequality in our society. The global economy is also in tatters.

Frightened by the perfect storm, the leaders of a handful of countries cling to myths. In primitive societies, nobody dared to challenge the prevailing myths. Today, those who not only believe in myths but pretend to incarnate them, as in Brazil, pose as saviors of the nation. Actually, their arrogance betrays the fear that their force may evaporate under the weight of a reality they cannot understand.

dialogue and convergence to face the storm with minimal damage to the ship, the crew, and all passengers on board, especially those at the lower decks.

Those in power often do not grasp the signs coming from other sectors of society. Since the politics of hate prevailed in Brazilian political life, the struggle between "us" and "them", the opponent became an enemy. Enemies are to be destroyed, until and unless they bow the knee, surrender, and abjure their "subversive" ideas that corrode "law and order".

In today's Brazil, this "us" against "them" is a criminal act. The victim is the stability of democracy, this civilizational achievement that enables us to solve our political conflicts in a peaceful way. Whoever promotes or acquiesces in silence to these authoritarian voices is not a conservative. He or she is a driver of or an accomplice in this civilizational regression.

Some of them are fomenters of violence, fanaticism, and ignorance. They are the real "subversives", not those who raise their voice to safeguard democracy: the common heritage of all Brazilians, men and women, civilians and military, conservative, liberal, and progressive.

We live in troubling and uncertain times. It is our responsibility to call for rationality, common sense, solidarity, and national unity, admitting that there are no magical solutions, but it is up to the country to look for them arm in arm.

They look for enemies and traitors instead of

Brazil has vulnerabilities, beginning with its huge urban agglomerations where millions have no formal jobs and live in precarious housing. Not to speak about the many who lost their sources of revenue with the pandemics. The country has severe fiscal limitations that can

153 DEBRIS / Responses 77 to 113
Responses 78 to 114

and must be loosened in a moment of social and economic emergency.

But Brazil also has assets: its Public Health Service, first-rate scientific research institutions, universities, epidemiologists, military devoted to public service, a vibrant civil society, state governors, and mayors who pitched in to face the health challenge, not to speak of a fearless media and public institutions determined to preserve the common good.

What is lacking so far are persons who, instead of hate and resentment, can restore our trust in ourselves. Trust requires wisdom, sobriety, composure, capacity to convince by ideas and example, not to impose by force or threat.

We must all be together, act together in the defense of democracy. We are all in the same boat, and this boat may sink. To avoid such a disaster, we need to affirm our conviction and hope in a better future for Brazil, inspired by the values of political freedom and social inclusion. The military evidently must also be included in this dialogue about the common future.

Ours must always be a bias for hope. The responsibility to safeguard democracy and invent the future is ours, as individuals, as a people, as a Nation.

Originally published on Berggruen Institute.

Experimental artist and technologist. B.A. from Dartmouth College, Master of Architecture from the Harvard Graduate School of Design, and a Master of Science from the MIT Media Lab. Associate Professor of Practice at the University of Pennsylvania.

USA / Narrative / 26-Jun-2020 Originally written in English collectivity, politics, technology, hope

"What we are dealing with in this new technology of power is not exactly society (or at least not the social body, as defined by the jurists), nor is it the individual body. It is a new body, a multiple body, a body with so many heads that, while they might not be infinite in number, cannot necessarily be counted. Biopolitics deals with the population, with the population as a political problem, as a problem that is at once scientific and political, as a biological problem and as power’s problem. "

UA single-stranded RNA virus with ~30,000 base pairs2 has radically impacted everything from the global economy down to the daily social ritual of the handshake. When I first studied Foucault's notion of biopolitics, I never imagined that we would be living today in such a biopolitical crisis.

There is a technologist and researcher in me that yearns for a solution in science: an analytical understanding of

1. M. Foucault. 1997. "The Birth of Biopolitics," 73-79 in Ethics, Subjectivity, and Truth: P. Rabinow and J.D. Faubion eds. New Press.

the problem, leading to better dissemination of information, actionable behaviors, and vaccines that can help us overcome this. However, there is an emotional animal in me too, and I worry about our instinctive response to the unknown: the closing of borders, the hoarding of supplies, the fear-induced xenophobia. We continue to see this today, with face coverings as both a scientifically demonstrated way to diminish the spread of the virus and a cultural flashpoint in which some Americans feel a threat to "their liberty." The data showing that mask-wearing can help lower the transmission and spread of this pandemic comes head to head with societal norms and concerns. Unfortunately, reason is often not the antidote to fear or anxiety. Being presented with facts and data is often not as influential as the tantalizing clickbait yelling straight at your amygdala.

There are some breakthroughs that are urgently needed and urgently need enacting, such as those to help healthcare workers safely serve on the frontline. However, there are also cultural breakthroughs that are urgently needed but require longer incubation periods to become effective: new habits for hygiene, new rituals for connecting, new modes of being maintaining solidarity while apart. As Foucault points out in The Birth of Biopolitics, there are many modalities through which individuals construct subjectivities between the collective and the self, mediated by many systems of power: economic, technologic, governmental. It is my hope that we can take this crisis as an opportunity to remake the many broken systems that this moment has exposed. The agency found within design plays a large role in reshaping these shifting realities.

Kátia Bandeira de Mello Gerlach

Lawyer, writer, and illustrator. Bachelor’s in law from the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Master's degree in Private International Law from the University of London and the NYU School of Law. Professor of Law at Fundação Getúlio Vargas.

BRA/USA / Essay / 30-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, uncertainty, losses, politics

Journal of Medical Virology, John Wiley and Sons Inc., Apr. 2020, pubmed/31967327/.

There is a tenuous relationship between how humans move back and forth between emotion and reason, and as an artist and designer, I have spent a great deal of time meditating on this. How does scientific knowledge cross the threshold into the realm of cultural and political influence to induce behavioral change? People exist in cultures with beliefs and traditions, and for better or worse, this impacts how they interpret facts. Cultural values can often clash with known factual information, as we see with various responses to climate change, the efficacy of vaccines, and even the geometry of our planet. Distrust in the systems of power that produce knowledge, whether medical or political, or both, has further complicated this dynamic.

"What will tomorrow be? In one of the opening scenes of Le Mépris by Jean-Luc Godard, the director mentions Ulysses and his struggle against Prometheus and asks: Did God create Man, or did Man create God? The 2020 pandemic has thrown us back to the act of creation, an unknown perpetuated throughout individual and collective existence. Confronted in an extreme way with mortality, we see ourselves as dwarfed, fragile, driven to cultivate the present

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2. Chen, Yu, et al. "Emerging Coronaviruses: Genome Structure, Replication, and Pathogenesis."

like a plant in a pot. Focusing on the plant in the pot, watering it, maintaining it: an eventual measure of salvation. On the cover of the New Yorker magazine dated June 1st, 2020, the drawing of the girl behind the window with her two potted plants on the balcony.

In 1722, Daniel Defoe, author of Robinson Crusoe (almost as translated as the Bible) and Moll Flanders (a sensational novel), put humor aside and published A Journal of the Plague Year, H.F.'s signature fictional account of the epidemic in London in 1665, decimating approximately seventy thousand people. The evil serpent crawled across the city, choosing poor areas to attack, much like what happened in New York in 2020. The Bronx and Queens, neighborhoods hit in the carotid. The brother of the protagonist of the "Newspaper" left for the countryside to preserve his family; the English enjoy gardening. Wars stimulate exoduses. In the 17th century, escapes were made on horseback or on foot. H.F. decided to remain at home, alone. The newspapers of 2020 carry estimates of the emptying of New York City by forty percent. Airplanes no longer fly over the skies. Individual reactions to the threat to life are as manifold as the readings of a book at different times. The me of yesterday will not be the me of tomorrow, nor will the me of tomorrow be the me of today. In the virtual squares, one witnesses the condemnation of others who are not me; improvised acts of faith are set up, and Albert Camus's The Plague is quoted. Through the allegorical prose of Camus, one learns that, in an absurd world, epidemics do not come only from diseases. Ideologies, convictions, ambitions, religious fanaticism, and selfishness are opposed to thousands or millions of acts of kindness, depending on which side the die falls on.

At the intersection of 96th Street and Broadway, a beggar is suddenly run over, and a lesson is taught about the primitive impulse to provide help. Dozens of people try to support the filthy body losing life, stretched out on the blue asphalt. The strangers coordinate among themselves so that some help the victim, others provide the ambulance. The old man was rescued. To love is human, and we should love ourselves humanely, Goethe recommended.

In 1968, the students in Paris were rebelling, Brazil was shrinking, and the Hong Kong Flu was wiping out a million lives. The events that mark humanity can be simultaneous and are not always perceived in their metaphysics. Grandparents escaped the Spanish Flu during their childhood in a contaminated Rio de Janeiro at the time when the movements of Dadaism and Surrealism were emerging in Europe as a creative reaction to the end of the First World War. When the world comes crashing down, namely with the fall of the Twin Towers, resilience dictates formulas and solutions. New buildings, sanctified objects, madness takes over. After World War II, a wall cut Europe in half; in the 2020 pandemic, walls separate neighbors without the need for control radars, since drones are enough. In the present, a silence imposes itself, cruelly shaken by stages mounted on electronic screens that shamelessly demand the audience’s attention. The silence, interrupted or not, came full of stains like a dermatitis. Masks muffle voices, hide smiling or angry lips, the expressiveness of faces. Each face is unique and irreplaceable, one must not forget. The mirror holds infinite physiognomies, prepares for deaths without rituals, mourning, moments of jubilation.


There are children being shot dead in Rio de Janeiro. There are migrating birds crashing through the glass windows of a building near the opera house on the Upper West Side of the emptied New York City. Two hundred and forty birds are tumbling over the sidewalk without any awareness on the part of the members of the condominium to replace the glass windows and preserve nature. Many are moved when they read news such as the death of a fourteenyear-old boy killed by a rifle in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, or the annual perishing of 90,000 to 200,000 birds in collisions with the glazed buildings of New York.

In the nineties, I met a Serb in Paris who turned water and flour into phyllo puff pastry and stuffed hundreds of bureks so as not to return to that war that the West ignored as if it were in his appendix and not in his stomach. It is what it is and what it is, that's for sure. The optimism of hands that prepare thin layers of tomorrow and everything, absolutely everything pours into literature, poetry, the art of feeling. No matter the historical context, the place, the authorship, and nothing compares to anything, except that a verse is like the plants that sprout from the cultivated pot. The eternity of words is an amazing, overwhelming phenomenon. Devoid of poetic feeling, humanity renders itself unviable and self-destructive. In past broadcasts, podcasts, Borges's lessons teach us how The Iliad, The Odyssey , Shakespeare's sonnets, The Lusiads , among others, have overcome the crises of humanity and persevered as castaways. Those who exist in 2020 have known prisoners in the camps or veterans of the Vietnam and Korean wars, have feared the war in the stars, have breathed nuclear accidents, and have been continuing the history of the human being on planet Earth, and Pope's verses in "An Essay on

Man" echo: "why has not Man a microscopic eye? For this plain reason, Man is not to Fly." Simple as that. So topical. So if it is possible to ask the djinns , the genies of the Thousand and One Nights (Borges points out that "one thousand and one nights" offer us the dimension of the eternal and "nine hundred and ninety-nine nights" would transport us to a terminal, finite state) to fulfill a wish, I claim to protect poetry like the rosebushes of Granada in the beautiful song "Corsário" by João Bosco and Marie So.

Accustomed to distance, we who have snow -covered tropical hearts experience the effects of exile, like migrating birds. We tumble in mid-flight before unexpected walls and deceptive reflections. Of course, being an immigrant or a bird-watcher does not differentiate us in shades of suffering from the rest of the people haunted by a virus. For those on the hunt for verse, I urge you not to hesitate: write to me if you will. As we revive our small freedoms, who knows, we may not gift ourselves with verse, full-body poetry, or pots of unblossomed plants. A volcanic beauty activates with sentimental exchange. Opening a book worthy of being read makes it cease to be just any object. The macroscopic eye is able to see colors unknown to flies and the brilliance of words that touch the soul.

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MPhil (Masters) Candidate in International Relations and Politics at the University of Cambridge.

AUS / Narrative / 06-May-2020

Originally written in English challenges, collectivity, politics, expectation

I hope that our elected representatives will remember how the Coronavirus pandemic provoked a genuinely consultative, bipartisan way of 'doing' politics in Australia.

As semblances of normality begin to re-emerge, it is conceivable that 'status quo' politics will naturally follow as well. As this happens, may our leaders - and indeed those of us who elect them - recall the alliances that were forged during the crisis: regular, consultative national cabinet meetings attended by the Prime Minister and provincial leaders from right across the political spectrum; unlikely partnerships between conservative MPs and leaders of the Union movement; and deferential relationships between political leaders and subject matter experts, underpinned by a shared mission to help protect Australian citizens.

Such examples might be considered temporary by-products of the crisis, shaped by necessity rather than individual willingness. However, in a political environment such as Australia's - which has come to be defined by constant leadership upheaval - the notion of genuine collaboration had grown to be a distant, if not unfathomable, ideal. The unique cooperation demonstrated throughout this crisis should thus not be overlooked.

well-functioning democracy - is underpinned by pragmatism and a natural inclination to, wherever possible, work together.

Actor. Graduated in Performing Arts at the Faculty of Performing Arts at CAL.

BRA / Narrative / 16-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, uncertainty, helplessness, regression

Nothing will be different tomorrow. I don't believe the human race can change. It is a victim of its own success; it has had too much power and has not known how to handle such responsibility. And, as I believe, freedom is closely linked to responsibility. You are only free if you have the full capacity to know the exact weight of every little gesture you put into the world, and this is impossible. For this reason, the human race decides nothing; it is a prisoner of itself, and worse, it doesn't know it. It is too arrogant, short-sighted, selfish, and, above all, clumsy. A virus that multiplies non-stop until the total failure of the organism in which it lives. A collective, gradual, and slow suicide. It is a race doomed to failure. The most beautiful commissioned tragedy, a masterpiece! Therefore, there will be no change tomorrow. Nothing will be different tomorrow. Humanity will continue as it has always been, until its imminent and obvious extinction. And if by some miracle we managed to overcome, to adapt, to become a new species, a " Homo super homo sapiens ", tomorrow will inevitably still be tomorrow.

My hope for tomorrow is a new 'normal': a style of politics that - whilst not avoiding the difficult discussions that are central to any



/ Narrative / 21-Jun-2020

Originally written in English challenges, collectivity, politics, hope

Ground zero

My father died from a pulmonary embolism on Juneteenth, six years ago. It is likely that from a blood clot formed somewhere in his body, a small portion broke off, traveled all the way up to his lungs and did its worst. I've always imagined that as the clot was making the final leg of its journey to his lungs, my mother was on her way to him from our home barely 10 minutes away. And as she was making her way to him, I was walking around a neighborhood in Recife, four thousand kilometers away. Despite being so far from all of the people who loved him dearly, he died peacefully in an ICU bed in the Military Hospital in Ghana, alone. Or so I thought.

Until now, having peered into ICUs filled with Covid patients through my phone screen, I've always felt he died alone despite being surrounded by six other patients. All on ventilators, collectively, and quietly sharing individual vulnerability. And that my sisters and mother's presence who were physically nearby was felt by him.

ticles that I've scrolled through voraciously, tediously on March mornings, and now the more slow, selective reading on June afternoons, I have thought about the difference between the journey of my father's clot and the Coronavirus to the human lung. For a pulmonary embolism, the lung is the end of its journey; for the Covid-19 virus, the lungs are ground zero, a site where rapid, intense change can happen internally for the worse.

The death of George Floyd has also been ground zero for change in our bodies. For now, I don't mean anything other than our individual human bodies as we all begin to explore how the idea of white supremacy, the simple idea that the white body is supreme, has landed in human bodies over generations. While the work is being done on streets, in courts, in our private conversations between mother and daughter, between colleagues, the place that needs the most practice at dismantling this idea and will take time has always been within our own bodies, black, brown, and white bodies. In the words of Resmaa Menakem "the vital force behind white supremacy is in our blood, literally, and in our nervous systems."

In the violent experiences of these intersecting ground zeros within the human body, propelled by racism and a viral epidemic, a new tomorrow will depend on the type of rapid, intense change we activate and nurture repeatedly within.

"We" will be different tomorrow. For now, I don't mean the collective "we", but you, alone, and me, alone.

Among the blur of social media and news ar -

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Breathing Grounds

The phenomenon "breathing grounds" occurs when once stable trees begin to feel the pressure of strong gusts of wind, causing their wide but relatively shallow network of roots to lose their grip on the ground. I imagine that when this happens, all the forces from above ground are translated into astounding pressures and distributed across an underground ecology of stakeholders. If their bonds are strong and the soils they've nurtured around them are healthy, they'll have a good chance of weathering the storm for some time. And if not, the tree(s) they once upheld will come crashing down eventually as those winds keep blowing. Two years after the onset of the Coronavirus epidemic and the death of George Floyd, these strong winds have kept on coming. More regularly, more intensely, and in diverse forms—environmental, economic, social, and health crises—continuously exacerbating each other.

Yet, while these winds will eventually make their way around our world, they don't hit everywhere at once and not with the same intensity. In the summer of 2020, staying inside and staying away was an important defensive response. It also gave us the time and space we needed to understand how vulnerable we were and how shaky the foundations we stand on have been. I left my home that was New York at the beginning of the pandemic and returned to my other home, Accra, for what has felt like a journey of network bridging and, more importantly, network deepening. In reflecting on my father's legacy seven years on, I believe to grow deeply is as much a function of our capacities to find resources in difficult places and times as

well as our generosity to redistribute them to where they are needed.

In the onslaught of such spatially differentiated and deeply integrated crises, today's responses have shown that in such opportunities to repair, it is the nimble practice of deepening and widening our valences across our networks, familiar and alien alike, that are desperately needed. In moments where the gusts let up, there are ripe chances to decisively and bravely build anew.

Architect and urban planner with a Bachelor's degree from the University of Porto. President of the Institute of Architects of Brazil (IAB) in Amazonas..

BRA / Note / 29-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese

uncertainty, collectivity, regression, hope

The present unpredictable pandemic has predictable reactions of despair in dismantling institutions, companies, and jobs, exposing that the links of the current system are weak after all.

It became clear—like a depopulation—that life was negligible.

I hope that when the dust settles and there is dust left, the offensive to put the system back together no longer finds its parts in place and stays plucked. Maybe the parts will be in another system, of barter or whatever, in a new arrangement, alive and surviving, made by hand, by people.

160 Recall 06-Jun-2022
Marcelo Borborema

Writer, journalist, and lawyer. Member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. Founder and former president of the Coalition of Brazilian Women. Appointed president of the National Council for Women's Rights (1995-1999).

BRA / Narrative / 08-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, politics, expectation, hope

The strength of a democracy is not measured by the threats it suffers but by its capacity to resist those who attack our lives and freedom.

Even if a bunch of extreme right-wingers want to shut down Congress or fire mortars at the Supreme Court, if a demented former minister wants to imprison the judges, and if they all together attack the media. If an unnamed president encourages the invasion of hospitals to film supposedly empty beds. If one of his supporters is capable, with a filthy gesture, of tearing down crosses in the sand of Copacabana to remember those killed by Covid-19, as if it were possible to hide 50,000 deaths, despite everything, crimes, and madness, democracy resists the endless escalation of which insanity and inhumanity are capable.

Solid institutions, anchored in the Constitution, Parliament, the Judiciary, the fearless media, with the language of law and reason, oppose illegality and unreason. They prevent the effects of deranged acts. They affirm themselves as the backbone of democracy.

Those who, confined at home and living a tragic moment in their lives, say “We are 70 percent” and “Let’s all together” say “Enough” to these threats are democracy. The current of indignation that spreads on social networks, the white cloths and the shouting in the win-

dows, the bitter silence of the mourning of those who lost loved ones, victims of the irresponsibility and incompetence of the government, all of us who do not recognize ourselves in this deformed image of Brazil projected in Bolsonaro’s circus mirror are millions wanting to live in democracy.

The society that weaves its resistance with the weapons of legality, the authority of scientists, the talent of artists, law, science, and art that the government hates and tries to destroy, and defends liberties won in years of civilizing struggles, this society is the guarantee that democracy is our destiny. The coup and the dictatorship aren’t.

We will dawn, we are waking up. Tomorrow will be different and better. This misgovernment is not our reality. It is our nightmare.

Originally published on O Globo Newspaper.

Adil Aly


UAE / Note / 30-Aug-2020

Originally written in English challenges, collectivity, expectation, hope

A change on all fronts that are public and private. Increased sense of patriotism to unite and fight. A change in countries divided by religious and political sects, to consolidate as one. Change in emotions, where the comfort of being in the presence of one might be replaced by a greater comfort with the absence. Although optimism is what we need in a time like this, we need to be smart with our optimism. A smarter move in the present by adhering to the restrictions is what keeps our future safe and

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stable. Tomorrow will be different. Hopefully, for a good difference that powers our growth on a larger magnitude than how we have faced a problem such as this in the past. Optimistic.

Caroline A. Jones

Art historian, author, curator, and critic. Professor in the History, Theory, and Criticism section, Department of Architecture, MIT. Received her AB from Harvard University and her MA/PhD from Stanford University.

USA / Essay / 15-Jun-2020

Originally written in English isolation, inequality, collectivity, politics

Virions — Thinking through the scale of aggregation

Humans wage their politics with language: "Wuhan virus," "Kung Flu," "the Chinese virus" ... And then come the material actions, such as a scapegoating racist loading a thousand nano-scale virions—bits of RNA in their sovereignty-shaped protein capsids—into an actual gob of spit for hurling onto anyone Asian-looking in Trump's America. Yet the toxic politics (language and action) operate at the wrong scale. But let's start there, since narcissistic humanity lives out its affects at the scale of the individual person, the only representative we can imagine of a "herd" identity.

Of course, you are screaming "the social! the economic!" And yes, that scale came into play quickly enough. We have to admit that at that scale of political animal ("zoön politikon") there are two very valid fears for the art world's humans, confronting the devastation wreaked by Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Beyond personal suffering, there is the collapse of the precariat that keeps art going. More ominously, there are the omnipresent tools of right-wing

control that feel like harbingers of fascism. Ironically, though, at least in the United States, the anti-government bias and defunding mania of the current administration—such an obvious factor in the national failure to control the epidemic—make it unlikely we will experience the classic march to totalitarianism that Carl Schmitt theorized so well in his fascist recipes for the "state of emergency." 1 What Schmitt couldn't have imagined is how normally instrumental nationalist tools—those stirring emotions, those laws and regulations—have become abased under the whip of neoliberal capital. So what we have are billionaires to the rescue: a Jeff Bezos "go fund me" campaign for his striking workers (sans PPE in the Amazon warehouse), a prostitution-tarnished Robert Kraft in absolution-via-philanthropy, delivering more than one million N95 masks to hospitals via the New England Patriots' corporate jet. It is indeed a sickening cult of personality, ignoring the consequences of a systematically gutted state, but chaos and absurdity seem to forestall the assembly into any authoritarian apparatus (so far, nothing "runs on time").

1. Carl Schmitt was an important fascist-leaning legal theorist whose notions of law as norm or codex undergirds much left-leaning political theory, as in Laclau and Mouffe. Schmitt’s ideas regarding the distinction between “friend” and “enemy” as the basis for political order developed over the 1920s, especially in his 1927 The Concept of the Political (trans. Georg Schwab [Chicago, 1996]), fueling the Feindforschung or “enemy research” that the Nazis found so attractive. I’m indebted to a forthcoming collaboration with art historian Joseph Koerner for the opportunity to think through these ideas in relation to purification moves in modernist art.

Thus the poor CDC, a shadow of its former self, now has to send cheesy postcards blazoned "PRESIDENT TRUMP'S CORONAVIRUS GUIDELINES


as if the stable genius himself were the one to figure out the lessons learned from the 1918 viral pandemic, or


from the intact public health infrastructures of Hubei, Daegu, and Singapore. Treading a thin line between the supposed "socialism" of civil service and the desperate necessity for coordination, the Trumpian cult masks the failure of government to care for its population (what Foucault so brilliantly imagined governmentality was for). That institutionalization of care (the so-called "nanny state") is what the right wing most fears.

But the cult of personality is also an exaggerated caricature of the largely human-centered nature of our response to the crisis. Such anthropocentrism was unavoidable after the events of September 11, 2001. After 9-11, an emerging global consensus around climate action was abandoned overnight, deferred, drowned out by the heartbreaking enumeration of human victims, the necessary human celebration of heroes, the payment of compensation into human economies, and the passage of ostensibly patriotic human surveillance laws. We own that response, for better or worse. But the “inhumanity” of today’s crisis comes from a radically different source: its more-than-human cause. As such, it needs a different response, at a completely different scale. Can we learn how to embrace the “species reset” that the current pandemic has forced upon our everyday individualist episteme?

In the durational rituals of self-isolation, the metrics of distancing, and the contemplative time of quarantine that have us going nowhere but in circles, we might actually be getting somewhere. In these practices, those who can isolate are performing extraordinary compassion for our beleaguered species, and enacting respect for the non-human capacities of a “lowly” virus. Those in low-risk cohorts are engaging

in these human practices on behalf of at-risk cohorts (such as my own). While it’s statistically true that any one of us could be recycled into matter and energy by an unsurmountable viral load—the “peak viremia” in our bloodstream unleashing a cytokine storm that dissolves the individual human through its own attempts to mount an appropriate immune response— the gift of younger generations in “flattening the curve” is not to be ignored, and needs to be repaid. The species reset of distancing and quieting is a rehearsal for the species reset of climate accountability. And the now elderly cohort must disproportionately be held to that account. This essay demands that the proliferating RNA virus turn our thinking from selves to our species monoculture on the planet. Let’s begin by asking what kind of Gaian housekeeping viruses normally provide.

Viruses may be more ancient than life, but as part of the biosphere, they perform ecological roles as old as the life-systems that now drive the planet. From the arrival of organic constituents of life in comets and asteroids (and the presumably chance-driven emergence of life from chemicals arranging themselves in cratered soups of vent-heated ocean water), viruses evolved to become crucial components of the planet’s biological and geochemical processes: the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling on which all life depends. Never mind the now tiresome quibble about whether viruses are alive or not; they are in the life system, and without a doubt they are the evolutionary triggers of all kinds of heritable mergings and species events, forcing gene-besotted molecular biologists to accommodate an understanding of the viral as a driver of life in general as opposed to more anthropomorphic presumptions about selfish genes and stable Mendelian family trees.2 To

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think like a virus is to ignore the individual, aiming for ecosystems and humming in their homeostatic domains.

Virologists study virions at multiple scales: within a single cell, within a multi-cellular organism, within a species, and within an ecological niche (oceans, the most ancient of life’s soupy matrices, are now thought to harbor trillions of different virus types).3 Viruses are “abiotic.” They cannot metabolize on their own, but reproduce when the virion’s fragmentary genetic material breaks a cell’s membrane and chemically hitches itself to the active reproductive engines of that cell, whose mechanisms are thereby harnessed to produce copies of the virus. The now multiplied virions may then “lyse” (from lysis, loosen) out of the host cell, by bursting its walls and spreading (in, for example, that gob of racist spit, progeny just as repulsive as the nightmare births of Ridley Scott’s Alien). This is the pathogenic virus of the popular press and Andromeda Strain fame.

2. See Maureen O’Malley, “The ecological virus,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 59 (2016): 71-79, and, in that same issue, Thomas Pradeu, “Mutualistic viruses and the heteronomy of life,” 80-88. I continue to be indebted to Bruce Clarke for these scientific papers, and in general for his patient, brilliant efforts to school us all in Gaian metaphysics. For an introduction, see Clarke, https://www. bruce-clarke

3. Carl Zimmer, “Matter: The Virosphere is Bigger Than You Can Imagine,” The New York Times, Tuesday, March 24, 2020, D3. Building on new research by Jens Kuhn et al. published in Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Zimmer reports “some researchers suspect ... many more species of viruses. The true figure might be as high as 10 trillion.”

But that is not the whole story. Much more important over the long haul is that viral agency has been a potent evolutionary force for biodiversity. Viruses do not always lyse their hosts fatally, they can be lysogenic, enter -

ing the host genome to do other things. Here they become crucial mutualists, contributing profoundly to speciation by allowing the nowevolved host to perform new tricks—as when one everyday retrovirus added its transformational genomics to a particular line of multi-cellular organisms during the late Triassic. In this fateful transformation, the virion’s capacity to break cell walls eventually enabled the formation of a placental syncytium in that host, yielding us mammals. The syncytium (syn + cyte = “together cell”) is a layer produced as dissolved cell membranes fuse to form an undifferentiated mass. This spongy layer made it possible for a fetus to hang out for a long time inside a maternal host (rather than developing alone somewhere else, neatly closed off in a calcium shell). With the fetal organism’s normal cellular divisions now confused by the actions of lytic virions, the resulting placenta was both a barrier against recognition by maternal immune patrols (looking for alien cell-wall proteins) and a crucial layer of contact with the mother’s bloodstream and its nutrients. The parasitic fetus is nurtured while managing to avoid being recognized as an Other. Retroviral agency shielded each of us from being identified as the beloved invader that we were. Long since incorporated into mammalian germ cells and passed on for at least the past 200 million years, what is now an “endogenous retrovirus” (internal to the human chromosome) continues to mediate between the immune brains of self and other, confounding the episteme of individuation in what Luce Irigaray and Bracha Ettinger have long identified as the matrixial nature of existence. 4

4. On the matrixial as a force within art, see Catherine de Zegher, Inside the Visible: An Elliptical Traverse of 20th Century Art in, of, and From the Feminine (MIT Press, 1996).

What about the viral at an ecosystem scale? Here, what one species


5. O’Malley (2016): 73, citing the work of T.F. Thingstad et al. (on “punishing the winner” in pelagic food webs,1993); as well as C. Winter et al. (on the oceanographic measure of bacterial and viral richness, 2005).

calls a pandemic ano ther might experience as relief—ecosystemic course-correction on the planetary scale. By the law of random proliferation, viruses are more likely to infect and lyse fast-growing cells in populations that are booming, whether on the micro- or macro-organismal scale. There are simply more hosts to generate more lytic cycles of replication. But in a boomand-bust dynamic, viral success-as-pathogen will begin to eliminate more and more of their formerly proliferating hosts, and the balance will tip against dominant species. Ecological virologists call this “punishing the winner.” Writing in 2016 in defense of viruses as ecological agents of diversity, philosopher of microbiology Maureen O’Malley puts it this way: “In [microorganismal interpopulational competition,] the less competitive populations end up surviving and even flourishing—but not too well, or they then become favored virus targets themselves.”5 Through their role in planetary homeostasis (operators of the biological pump that moves carbon from the atmosphere into the ocean and back into the phytoplankton food web), viral agents become levelers of monocultures and tireless benefactors of biodiversity. What I’m recommending here is not a heartless “culling of the herd” perspective on human populations—the repugnant animal husbandry metaphor that London’s Daily Telegraph, Boris Johnson’s preferred newspaper, recommended for the UK’s elderly population some weeks before the Prime Minister himself was admitted to intensive care with worsening Covid-19 symptoms.6 Even more dramatically prone to being “culled” before their time are the ongoing victims of grinding inequities perpetrated by the “market forces”

that have been allowed to rule our times -- the societal injustices that disproportionately load the viruses onto the bodies of immigrant farmworkers, minimum-wage laborers, domestic workers of color, prisoners, populations suffering from homelessness, wage-earners in the gig economy. These groups bear the brunt of the planetary viral load even as they work to sustain humans’ life-support systems. We can dream that the post-Covid species reset will also be a societal reset, a return to care for the many over coddling of the 1%, a resurgent demos (people) turning to the post-crisis task of rebuilding, a shift from a surveillant gaze “above the people” (epi+demic) to the being-with of pan+demic – concerning all the people, all the time. Following the science of aggregation that is epidemiology, we can push for the policies of aggregation that democracy demands.

What will we trade for fear, post-pandemic? I propose we get ready by thinking through the pharmakon: that wondrous thing that Plato’s Phaedrus offered as a metaphor for writing -pharmakon as simultaneously poison and salve, science and scapegoat. For Jacques Derrida and others writing on the concept in the 1980s, it was crucial that the contradictory reality of the pharmakon was not to be resolved. The cultural production in response to plague will always both inscribe memory and erase it, both cure and infect—and by that circuitry will perform an immunitary logic (the serum of the once-infected becomes the basis for the future vaccine). Historically, this logic is part of a

6. “Not to put too fine a point on it, from an entirely disinterested economic perspective, the Covid-19 might even prove mildly beneficial in the long term by disproportionately culling elderly dependents.” The Daily Telegraph, cited by Indi Samarajiva, “The UK Surrenders to Coronavirus,” Medium, March 14, 2020; https://medium. com/@indica/the-uk-surrenders-to-Coronavirus-b4cbefdf5754

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self-propagating cycle between arbitrarily externalized scapegoats for the many and canny immunological responses within the self – differentially aggregated bodies, expunged or willfully impurified, in evolutionary and cultural flux.7

help pry us from misguided imaginings of ourselves as “individuals?” Can art join in the historic project that is already underway, the very human campaign of fusing environmental and social justice, of breaking with extraction capitalism, of fashioning a planetary redistribution of energies of which viruses have always been a part? May our pandemical solidarities transform into a humbled awareness of ourselves as entangled and interdependent heterotrophs, utterly woven together, just another genome in the planetary holobiont.

7. “The pharmakon is the movement, the locus, and the play…” per Derrida, Disseminations (trans. Barbara Johnson. London: The Athlone Press, 1981): 127; see also René Girard on the pharmakos or scapegoat in Girard, Violence and the Sacred (trans. Patrick Gregory. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977).

8. So far, this polemic has appeared in Olafur Eliasson, Symbiotic Seeing, Kunsthalle Zurich (2020); Jenna Sutela, NO|NSE|NSE, Trondheim Norway (2020), in forthcoming work on Agnieszka Kurant, and in various on-line forums including the “Cultures of Energy” blog and “Edge,” conversation/caroline_a_ jones-questioning-the-cranial-paradigm. I am grateful to these exceptional artists for allowing me to think out loud in collective cognition with their work, and to Anicka Yi who first got me shifted from species-centrism towards the necessity of biofiction.

To break that tiresome cycle (that is, to keep immunity but ditch the scapegoating), we will need to cultivate a more-than-human listening for planetary messages. These parting human words conclude this essay’s philosophical polemic-in-progress—what we might as well call Symbiontics.8 That ongoing diatribe argues that symbiosis (the state of “with-living”) is that-which-is (the ontic). Symbiontics refutes existential philosophies built on the individual in favor of the scale of our aggregation among aggregations. Its matrixial obsessions avoid the apotheosis of the one in favor of that continuous condition of convivial codependence that is life – beginning from our ancient endosymbiotic couplings and continuing through to our ongoing incorporations of viral lysogenic forms. Since our strange species has invented art as a way of changing ourselves, can this cultural evolutionary force emerge, post-crisis, to

We will always be both hosts and parasites, ever dependent on the thriving of life-in-general in its maximally diverse forms.

Originally published in ArtForum.

Catarina Flaksman

Architect and researcher, with a master's degree in Art History and Design from Pratt Institute. Has curatorial and editorial experience, including work at The Architectural League of New York and the São Paulo International Architecture Biennial.

BRA / Narrative / 29-May-2020

Originally written in English introversion, inequality, collectivity, politics

As the whole world grapples with a pandemic, and over 60% of the globe has had to comply with stay-at-home orders, business shutdowns, and travel bans, I wonder if this pause can teach us to slow down and review our individual and collective values. As a Brazilian living in the United States, I can't help but hope that the current crisis will shed light on the importance of responsible and competent leadership. As I write this, over 100,000 people have died in the US and over 26,000 in Brazil. It is no coinci -


dence that the two countries are at the top of the list. But today's newspaper headlines report raging protests after the brutal death of another Black man by the police, in the US, and investigations of pro-government fake news groups that threaten democracy, in Brazil. With so many intricate political, social, and economic tensions, the pandemic seems to come second.

At home in Brooklyn, I watch from the window as people walk by, most of them wearing masks. Every now and then I see someone with no face covering, sipping on their coffee and chatting with a friend, and suddenly everything looks normal, as if this was just a long nightmare. But it's not. Here, Black and Latino communities have been the most affected, mostly underpaid essential workers and immigrants who do not have the privilege to work from home and are afraid to look for a treatment they cannot afford and that could lead to their deportation. In Brazil, the situation is not so different; the virus is also attacking those who have been marginalized from society for centuries.

At a time when it's so evident that our personal actions have a direct impact on the collective, on the life (and death) of others, I hope that society as a whole can learn to make responsible, selfless decisions. Today we should understand the urgency of accessible and high-quality healthcare and housing for all so that tomorrow these will not be viewed as a political agenda but simply as basic rights that any government must provide.

In between glimpses of dystopian and utopian futures, I prefer to believe in the latter.

PhD candidate at MIT Media Lab's Mediated Matter Group. M.P.S. degree from ITP at New York University, and a B.A. in Graphic Design and Visual Communication from PUC in Rio de Janeiro.

BRA / Narrative / 30-May-2020

Originally written in English collectivity, politics, responsibility, adaptation

Tomorrow will be warmer and more humid –sweat will drip down our cheeks, and the slight taste of salt on our lips will feel bitter once again. We have already experienced tomorrow, many times now. In adapting and acknowledging our current condition, we have identified order and labeled emergent behaviors while incessantly attempting to predict, emulate, and simulate what will come next. Seasons have changed, and yet, here we are thinking of what tomorrow will look like. In running along the river, I have seen the gradual movements of change: from gray to green; from uncovered to covered. The taste is still the same – for every mile behind, there is one more ahead. The only constant is the movement and the will to adapt, to change, to keep going. Different sceneries, different habits, different days? It is hard to keep track now... One more mile, and it'll be done. Only to begin, once again, when the sun rises.

Adaptation and improvisation should go hand in hand today. However, they both require observation, time, and learning – they require not predicting what is going to happen but, rather, reacting to the small disturbances in order to transform our current state. It is fair to say that discomfort produces change. And so we hope that, in becoming Today, we will be able to learn from it and, in a reciprocal manner, see it become us. What we aim to achieve is not an absolute goal but, instead, a perpetual state: one

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of homeostatic recursive healing. Tomorrow has been happening already, maybe we just need to take some time to notice it.

Architect. PhD in Design from Harvard University, Master's in Urban Planning, and Master's in Architectural Studies from MIT. Member of the National System of Art Creators of Mexico and associate professor at the National Autonomous University of Mexico.

MEX / Essay / 02-Jul-2020

Originally written in English inequality, politics, adaptation, expectation

It is increasingly clear that the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic will be one of the defining moments of the early twenty-first century. Beyond a relatively short-lived dip in the markets or CO2 emissions, it is reshaping the world's geopolitical landscape. It erodes the credibility of leaders who fail to deal with it, diminishing their influence on the world stage. Those who are successful have a platform to promote their politics. And yet another group is using the pandemic as a smoke screen to bypass public scrutiny. The final configuration is hard to predict, but to grasp the longer-lasting effects of the pandemic, besides matters of public health or economic impacts, it is helpful to contextualize this moment historically.

An abridged storyline for this century would begin with the crash of Lehman Brothers in 2008, continue through the political turmoil around 2016, and lead to the current pandemic. The global crisis that followed the fall of the American financial services behemoth severely put into question the neoliberal economic narrative of the Reagan-era trickle-down economics. After movements like Occupy Wall Street

petered out, collective frustration turned to the ballot around 2016—first with the Brexit vote, then with Trump's presidential bid. Anyone running on a platform promising an alternative to the so-called "globalist agenda"—regardless of how coherent the alternative was—had a good chance of winning. In view of the left's failure to provide an agreeable and progressive vision forward, political narratives retrenched into unilateralism and xenophobia. Democracy regressed worldwide.

The German poet Hölderlin once wrote: "Only where there is danger the saving force is also rising." Soon, several new voices emerged to challenge the prevalent politico-economic hegemony. French economist Thomas Piketty published his magnum opus "Capital in the 21st Century" (2013), providing thorough evidence of the systemic sources of extreme inequality and proposing measures to address it. Dutch economic historian Rutger Bregman, author of "Utopia for Realists" (2014), made the rounds when he admonished billionaires for not discussing taxes at the Davos Economic Forum. British commentator Paul Mason published the first book of the century bearing the title "Post-Capitalism" (2015), which includes a sensible blueprint for expanding the horizon of political possibility defined by our current system. Lastly, from a more radical academic front, Canadian scholars and self-described accelerationists Alex Williams and Nick Srnicek proposed, what was at the time, a daring vision calling for a universal basic income and full unemployment.

Cultural critic Frederic Jameson once famously said that "it is easier to imagine the end of the world than the end of capitalism." This fatalistic quip was repeated so often that it became a


sort of "second law of thermodynamics" for cultu re. Today, however, not only is this idea being challenged, but there is a growing spectrum of shades of post-capitalist alternatives.

Enter Covid-19. The pandemic has laid bare the painful irrationalities of our politico-economic rationale. Talks about a new normal or a post-normal arise not because we cannot go back to the world as it was before but because we should not. Locked up in what is undoubtedly the largest social experiment in the history of civilization, "the imperative to re-imagine the planet" (to borrow the term from scholar Gayatri Spivak) is no longer the duty of scholars, experts, cultural commentators, or political leaders. Anyone can, and everyone should, partake in this common task.

Fundamental change will come not in the form of the deployment of new mass surveillance methods, the retrofitting of public spaces, the bolstering of health systems, or the accelerated adoption of remote work, e-commerce, and delivery services. These changes are footnotes that do not amount to a novel. The most lasting effect of the pandemic is the way the debates around a new normal are shifting back the "Overton window" (named after American law scholar Joseph Overton, the concept describes the spectrum of politically acceptable ideas).

For one, we are already seeing the obvious need for greater state intervention and more national self-reliance—both trends running against neoliberal ideology and globalist market policy. Further, ideas that seemed radical just a couple of years ago—like a universal basic income or a green new deal—are part of mainstream discussions now if not already being implemented. And, to this last point, the relationship

between the pandemic and climate change is one of the potentially most positive impacts of the Covid-19 emergency. The global lockdown shows that swift large-scale global action is possible.

The fate of global human society hinges not on what the virus's capabilities for disruption, but on how creative and humane our responses to it can be. In this regard, it is worth remembering, not without some irony, the words of the economist Milton Friedman: "Only a crisis—actual or perceived—produces real change. When that crisis occurs, the actions that are taken depend on the ideas that are lying around." The best outcome of the pandemic would be if the Overton window, more than shifting left or right, became a portal forward to a future where post-normal was synonymous with post-capitalism.

Architect. Master's student in Architecture Design (FAUUSP) and Bachelor in Architecture and Urbanism (PUC-Rio).

BRA / Note / 16-Oct-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, nature, responsibility, expectation

While we are receiving reports of howler monkeys, tapirs, and alligators being burned to a crisp like victims of the Vesuvius, it is difficult to say anything positive about tomorrow. We burn in a manufactured, calculated, entirely human forest Vesuvius. Our globalized littleness is exposed when united nations are so agile to destroy millennia-old territories for oil but so useless to avoid irreparable social and environmental crimes. Tomorrow is one of loss, abyss,

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acidification, erosion, flooding, pandemic, and burning. But also of a brutal effort of sedimentation, of bridge-building, of reparations, of heterodox natures, of unlikely resiliencies and alliances. At the very least, tomorrow must involve a revision of deeply extractive consumption, but a revision that takes responsibility for the 99% who cannot buy certified wood, eat organic, or risk losing their harvest.

Human Rights and Nature Advocate. Managing Director at Human Rights Watch, Americas Division. Graduate of Harvard College and Yale Law School.

USA / Narrative / 13-Jun-2020

Originally written in English challenges, politics, nature, hope

One thing that will NOT be different tomorrow—after the pandemic passes and life returns to "normal"—is the fact that we're facing another crisis that poses a threat far greater even than Covid-19: climate change. And we're running out of time to address it. Unfortunately, the pandemic has only made the situation worse. 2020 was supposed to be a pivotal year for global efforts on climate. But the UN's annual climate summit has been postponed. And the public protests and grassroots mobilizations to demand climate action—which had been gathering momentum in 2019—have been undermined by the need for people to stay home. Meanwhile, the anti-environmental policies of governments in the US, Brazil, and elsewhere have moved ahead full speed, with the Trump administration weakening enforcement of environmental protections, and Bolsonaro's environment minister urging him to take advantage of the pandemic to push through reforms that would accelerate

the destruction of the Amazon.

Hopefully one thing that WILL be different tomorrow is that the experience of the pandemic—and now the Black Lives Matter protests—will make us more ready to mobilize to demand urgent action by our governments and more ready to take the difficult steps necessary to address the climate crisis before it's too late.

Guilherme Wisnik

Architect, critic, and curator. Professor at the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism at the University of São Paulo (USP). General Curator of the 10th São Paulo Architecture Biennale (Instituto de Arquitetos do Brasil, 2013).

BRA / Essay / 03-Aug-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, uncertainty, politics, technology

Predators of Ourselves

When the Eyjafjallajokull volcano erupted in Iceland between March and April 2010, its immense ash cloud, quickly spread by wind across the North Atlantic skies, paralyzed flights between Europe and the United States for over a week. Economists and political analysts at the time estimated the damage to be in the billions of dollars. Today, exactly ten years later, the world watches in real time, and helplessly, the expansion of an invisible virus throughout the territory of the planet, not only paralyzing flights but confining people to their homes, producing deaths in increasing quantities, and bringing down economies in a global strike.

As is well known, much of the extermination of the indigenous populations in America, and in other parts of the planet, was due to the lack of immunological resistance of those peoples


against the diseases that the Western conquerors brought, such as influenza, measles, and smallpox. Today, it is the entire population of a predominantly urbanized and globally connected world that finds itself vulnerable to a set of viruses that until recently would only cause zoonotic diseases but that are produced and spread vertiginously, given the accelerated and irreversible hybridization that exists today between science and nature.

With the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster, writes German sociologist Ulrich Beck, we came to the end of an era in which all violence inflicted on humans was reserved for the category of "others": Jews, blacks, women, indigenous people, refugees, dissidents, outcasts, and so on. That is, what that troubling radioactive accident revealed to the world was the great vulnerability and helplessness of a society that realized it could no longer hide behind walls and protective fences, becoming hostage, for instance, to the random action of unfavorable winds or rains that would spread radiation over the now useless physical blockades. 2 Significantly, only three years later, the most symbolic of walls would fall, in Berlin, and, with it, the entire so-called "iron curtain."

transition from the 1980s to the 1990s, the end of the Cold War coincided with the beginning of the extensive use of personal computers, and soon afterward with the spread of the Internet, in an economy that was already predominantly financial and was then becoming truly globalized, greatly increasing the flow of capital and people around the globe.

Under the mantra of the so-called "End of History," as baptized by Francis Fukuyama,3 the capitalist bloc, victorious in the Cold War, claimed to lead the world to an era of prosperity and calm, in which all ideas of conflict (the basis of the Marxist vision of history) would have been extirpated. A "Prozac" world, in T. J. Clark's expression. Yet, only a decade later, with the September 11th attacks in New York in 2001, a new era of shock and terror was to unfold4: a world beset by new forms of antagonism based mainly on ethnic and religious differences, resulting in random terrorist attacks around the world. But also ravaged by typhoons and tsunamis (which, in the case of Fukushima in 2011, triggered a nuclear disaster), as well as viral pandemics with devastating effects, like the one we are experiencing now.

3. See Francis Fukuyama, “The End of History?”, published on The National Interest, July/August 1989. Three years later, the author launched a reviewed and broadened version of the argument as a book. In Brazil, it was published as O fim da história e o último homem. Rio de Janeiro: Rocco, 1992 (Portuguese translation by Aulyde S. Rodrigues)

2. See Ulrich Beck, Sociedade de risco: rumo a uma outra modernidade. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2010, p. 09 (Portuguese translation by Sebastião Nascimento).

Thus, that nuclear disaster, which goes down in history as the trigger for the Soviet collapse, is, in fact, as Beck shows, the symptom of a new world era. A modern age of danger, which has removed all zones of protection. A "society of risk," in his words, that lives under the constant threat of ecological, financial, military, terrorist, informational, and biochemical (viral and bacteriological epidemics) instabilities. In the

4. See T. J. Clark, “O estado do espetáculo”, in Modernismos: ensaios sobre politics, história e teoria da arte. São Paulo: Cosac Naify, 2007, p. 308 (Portuguese translation by Vera Pereira). Organized by Sônia Salzstein.

In the brief interregnum of that "Prozac world," it was thought that the enemy, or the threat, which in the dual imaginary of the Cold War was located in the "other," was definitively eliminated: in the capitalists, for some,

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or in the communists, for others. Today, however, we know that the threat is everywhere. It is invisible, difficult to detect and control. For revolts of nature can break out everywhere, and at any time. Just as the terrorist agent may be your neighbor. The same one who, eventually, may also infect you with Covid-19. So, contrary to what the prophets of the "End of History" imagined, our world is dominated by growing feelings of paranoia and distress. And, unable to locate and blame an "other," we are forced to consider an "us."

Identifying a recurrent image in many of the iconic phenomena of today's world, such as the terrible smoke that covered New York in 2001, the impalpable digital clouds in which we deposit all our information remotely, and the swarms of financial capital moving around the planet, I have been using the metaphor of the fog to define the state of uncertainty in which we live. 5 A world that is both tragic and sublime—if we take the examples of 9/11 and digital clouds—in which our perception of the forces driving change is, as a rule, blurred or distorted, as facts are increasingly manipulated and distorted in the form of fake news and posttruths. Once in place, the fog does not allow outside views. In it, we are always immersed, without perceptual or analytical distance, and having difficulty seeing things.

In the book O novo tempo do mundo [The New World Time], Paulo Arantes reviews the continuous historical changes that occurred in the 20th and 21st centuries, which progressively compressed the distance between the space of experience, as the present dimension, and the

horizon of expectation, as a future projection. Today, after the trauma of two world wars, the imposition of a "presentist" logic in politics and economics by decades of neoliberal advance, and the systematic irruption of terrorist, ecological, and biochemical threats, we live in a regime of urgency, an era of diminishing expectations. Hence the use of common terms today, such as "war" on drugs or terror, that normalize states of exception.

Societies once geared towards the future, as in the time of the modern avant-garde at the beginning of the 20th century, have seen their horizons of expectation blurred, dramatically reduced. In a world where the globe shrank, we were left with only the compressed and precarious present.6 After all, the economy is based precisely on the anticipated sale of the future through debt and credit. Now, condemned to an even narrower future horizon, facing a distressing present that we don't know how long it will last, it is not difficult to imagine dystopian scenarios for the near future. One of them is the possibility that the pandemic will act as the great tormentor of what remains of freedom in the West, and that it will be, after the crisis, swept away by the Asian model of total surveillance, clearly more successful in controlling Covid-19. For while the weakened democracies of the West slide in their unsuccessful attempts to fight the virus, many of the Eastern countries achieve astonishingly positive results through aggressive policies of social control.


Korean philosopher Byung-Chul Han reports in a recent article, the success of the fight against the pandemic in Asia is due 5. See Guilherme Wisnik, "Dentro do Nevoeiro" [Inside the Fog] Contemporary Architecture, Art, and Technology. São Paulo: Ubu Editora, 2018. 6. See Paulo Arantes, "O Novo tempo do mundo" [The New Time of the World]: and Other Studies on the Age of Emergency. São Paulo: Boitempo, 2014. p. 259.

to the extensive use of Big Data and the total lack of protection of individual data.7 Thus, in countries like China, for example, all citizens' information is digitally tracked, and people are evaluated according to their daily behavior. That is, the same system that today ranks citizens in relation to the risk of contamination is the one that already evaluated their social conduct, providing decisive data for the approval or not of bank credits or travel visas, for example. Total surveillance, which operates not only through facial recognition cameras but also by the personal smartphones themselves, which measure the body temperatures of their users and send this data to the government.

accumulation that sustains capitalism. After all, contagion, as Ulrich Beck had already perceived after Chernobyl, is a democratic and egalitarian phenomenon par excellence, despite the fact that there are very diverse vulnerability regimes to it around the world, as we can see in the case of the current pandemic.

7. Ver Byung-Chul Han,


El País Brasil, 22 de March de 2020. Disponível em: ideas/2020-03-22/o-Coronavirus-de-hoje-e-o-mundo-de-amanha-segundo-o-filosofo-byung-chul-han.html.

Taking these factors into account, we can imagine, in the not too long term, a stumbling West, succumbing to both China's economic rise and its digital police state. Hybrid combination of authoritarianism and savage capitalism. To borrow a well-known formulation from Fredric Jameson, much of the immobilizing panic we feel today is due to a double consciousness: our scientific capacity to imagine the end of the world, on the one hand, and our political inability to imagine the end of capitalism, on the other. The Coronavirus pandemic, however, brings new elements to this game. For, in a divergent direction from the one I described above, there are more than a few progressive thinkers who are seeing in this global health crisis, which is unfolding into a serious economic and social crisis, a possibility to put the brakes on excessive and irrational consumption, on a scale previously unthinkable. That is, a challenge to the dogma of infinite

8. Ver Slavoj Zizek, Zizek vê o poder subversivo do coronavírus. Outras palavras, 03 de March de 2020. Disponível em: https://outraspalavras. net/crise-civilizatoria/zizek-ve-o-poder-subversivo-do-Coronavirus/.

9. Ver David Harvey, Politics anticapitalista na época do Covid-19. A Terra é redonda, 28 de March de 2020. Disponível em: https:// politica-anticapitalista-na-epoca-do-Covid-19/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=politica-anticapitalista-na-epoca-do-Covid-19.

Slavoj Žižek, for example, considers that the significant drop in stock markets and the almost paralysis of the automotive industry, for instance, may signal important transformations in capitalism, giving us the possibility to be infected by a beneficial virus: the capacity to think about a different society, less focused on individual profit and more guided by forms of solidarity and global cooperation. 8 David Harvey, on the other hand, complementarily argues that the pandemic represents an "omnipotent collapse at the heart of the prevailing form of consumption in the richest countries."9 After the 2008 financial crisis, which was halted by states bailing out banks and with China's stabilizing role in the global market, the world economy reorganized itself, further driving high-turnover consumption patterns. As Harvey shows, from 2010 to 2018, the total number of international trips nearly doubled, from 800 million to 1.4 billion. With significant investments in airports, airlines, hotels, restaurants, theme parks, cultural and entertainment events, central countries sustained nearly 80% of their economies. Currently, this capital is in quarantine, blocked and

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O coronavírus hoje e o mundo de amanhã.

in agony, although other forms of capital reproduction, such as the technology sector, are not as affected.

In any case, from whatever angle one looks at this pandemic, the virus—this invisible and omnipresent entity—appears to us as an emissary from the fog. Our viruses no longer kill only the immunologically more vulnerable "other." This category of "other," in fact, no longer exists as such. There is no point in closing borders and restoring old national resentments. It is all of us, together, who are under attack.

The fog, after all, is neither good nor bad in itself. In fact, it may represent, in a way, the great historical chance we have to live in a more complex world than that of "us against them" that reigned obsessively in Cold War times. A world where diverse shades of gender are recognized between men and women, for instance, as well as multiple sexual orientations. In this sense, Steve Bannon, Boris Johnson, Donald Trump, Jair Bolsonaro, and so many others represent the violent rejection of this complexity. Emerging from within the fog, they nevertheless intend to restore, in a regressive way, the dual world of the pure versus the impure, and so many other simplistic fallacies they make up to support their racist and xenophobic discourses.

Disrupting the anti-scientific climate of posttruths that has gained prominence with the generalization of cyberspace, the Coronavirus appears as a paradoxically palpable antagonist, forcing us to face the real world, and in an ethical and collective way. From this point of view, it can be a surprising agent of civilization.

Originally published on Folha de S. Paulo Newspaper, Ilustríssima supplement.

Architect and Curator. Founding Principal and Design Director at FIERRO. Co-curator of the exhibition "Walls of Air" and co-editor of the homonymous book for The Brazilian Pavilion at the 16th Venice Architecture Biennale. Adjunct Assistant Professor at Columbia University GSAPP.

MEX / Narrative / 06-Jun-2020

Originally written in English isolation, inequality, politics, expectation

A new order

Our women are dying—at home—during quarantine because of domestic violence. Our men are dying—in the streets—because of racial violence and social injustice. People—around the world—are fighting for democracy and revolting against political violence in their home countries. All during a global pandemic that triggered an impending economic depression that has yet to show us its darkest moments. We are way beyond the yield point, which means we are at the limit of an elastic behavior and at the beginning of a plastic one, with imminent material change ahead of us.

Despite the uncertainty towards the immediate future of the everyday and the long-term planning that requires an alignment of many sorts, I felt a sense of relief during the first phase of the quarantine that has remained as an uncanny feeling eighty-five days later: we could stop and think. The speed at which we consented to live was simply not sustainable or delectable, from a personal perspective all the way to our project as humanity. We developed rituals and ways of thinking where the basic and simple things—that really matter in life—such as spending time with the family, understanding time as an asset, being in silence, or taking a pause were left behind, focusing on more production and fewer connections.


The tensions between the systemic and the personal, the universal and the particular, the private and the collective are clear manifestations that a new order is underway as the systems in place have proven to be failures in addressing issues of social, gender, race, sexual, and class inequalities. During lockdown, we all had to deal with the interior, the exterior, and the in-between space(s) in literal and metaphorical manners. Spending time in our most interior personal urban spaces drove us to even more profound depths within ourselves, making us question many things about our own practice, our focus in life, our physical presence in the city, our relationship with nature, and our place in the world from a global perspective. The constant back and forth between "spaces" made us understand the complexity of the moment we are living, making it clear that meaningful change depends entirely on us and the systems we create together. The urgency for reconstruction is imperative, but the human drama is precisely to oscillate between poles—moving through history as pendulums—and we are at that precise transitional moment where, in order to metamorphose, we will struggle for life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.



Two worlds...

As humanity, we have experienced historic moments for the last couple of years. A virus that started on a particular side of the world spread in weeks to become a pandemic in just two months—killing millions of humans to date and affecting our habits and rituals in society forever. We are currently on the verge of a nuclear war because of conflicts between two

cou ntries with global implications. Context always matters, but recently context has expanded from being something tangible to something intangible, making us question how we actually perceive the world around us and what tools help us grasp reality. Through which elements or devices do we absorb truth? Our experiences of the past years have blurred the boundaries between local and global, permanent and temporary, or even private and public.

Every single event—from the pandemic to war and global warming—is a reminder that what is at stake is the world, yet we all rely on our own personal tools to keep existing despite the series of imminent warnings. Two years have gone by, and the arduous effort to not see how polarized we are as a planetary experience still remains. How can we, especially now, think of the world as a whole? More than ever, we question those same instruments that were once sources of facts and replaced them with fast-paced feeds that oscillate between war updates, politics, homelessness, natural disasters, the effects of global warming, market volatility, inequality, rage in people, all the way to hope, social efforts, massive demonstrations of activism, academic endeavors to explore solutions, fashion, brands, and institutions trying to connect with the world's current situation.

The world's ambivalence about the importance of our challenges seems to be the only constant these days. How did we get here? The human drama is precisely to oscillate between poles— moving through history as pendulums—but what once was traveling through centuries is now shifting from dawn till dusk into what almost feels like parallel realities merging into a cumbersome hybrid.

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There are two worlds, the one we experience day by day through broadcast media and the one we long to create with hints of a better world. The term is so ambiguous that it's hard to quantify what it actually means. Have we, deliriously, curated our own sources of information and left outside any possible existence of what is not suitable for ourselves to handle? Have we all of a sudden forgotten Covid-19 is still a reality but behave as if it was effaced from the earth? Have we ignored the environmental crisis to focus on oil price increases given the current war? We constantly need to decide whether we want to stay informed of the world's situation or whether we stay sane and present. Moving back and forth between worlds, almost in a schizophrenic effort to avoid falling into the bottomless chasm.

Despite our uncertain future, I am still yearning for the type of world I want my daughters to live in and thrive as individuals and in collectivity—a world with oxygen and clean water, where harmony among species is palpable, a world not polarized or divided by power, money, political views, or social and cultural differences. From a particular instant in time to eternity, we keep struggling to create a new lens, a new framework from which reality can be observed and experienced.

Architect. BArch from PUC-Rio and SMArchS in Urbanism from MIT.

BRA / Narrative / 11-May-2020

Originally written in English challenges, inequality, collectivity, hope

The Covid-19 pandemic brought to light a lot of issues regarding public health and systemic injustice. I hope the world post-Coronavirus can be a better one, and that the lessons learned are not regarding the lack of sociability, but the power of collective will.

Film director, producer, animator, and voice actor. Director of Ice Age: The Meltdown (2006), Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs (2009), Rio (2011), Rio 2 (2014), Ferdinand (2017), and the co-director of Ice Age (2002) and Robots (2005). Nominated in 2003 for an Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film for Gone Nutty and in 2018 for Best Animated Feature for Ferdinand.

USA / Narrative / 06-Jul-2020

Originally written in English inequality, responsibility, restart, hope

I read a pertinent analogy about this moment in our global history, one that's stuck with me as I've continued to think about the pandemic: "We are not all in the same boat. We are all in the same storm."

The pandemic has unmasked the harsh realities of inequality in our society. For those of us with jobs that continue to pay salaries, and loved ones who help us maintain social connections and emotional support, this storm has been a learning experience, one with its own problems unique to each person or family, but one we


are able to weather. But many find themselves in a more dire situation and are struggling to survive. For them, this new reality is brutal and unfair.

We have the duty to bridge the gap in society that's been long ignored. The "haves" continue to have, while the "have nots" are left to fend for themselves, especially now, when such an inexplicable change requires drastic and, for many, unrealistic adaptation. It falls on the shoulders of us all in this storm to understand we're in these different boats, and think about how we can help steady the journey of others moving forward.

Today, I am lucky; I'm home, I'm healthy, but in order for tomorrow to be better I have to think beyond my today. Today, I believe things could and should be different. Today, I reflect on what matters and what doesn't. Today, I believe values should be simpler, life can be simpler, and generosity needs to be paramount.

It is impossible to predict tomorrow, but it will be different than today. Although this pandemic is a devastating blow, maybe, for those of us who are able, it is an opportunity to stop and think not only about ourselves but society as a whole. My hope is that we will all reflect and continue to grow, because while this storm may pass for some of us, it will continue to loom over many unless we actively make a change.

Aditya Barve

Architect and Research Scientist at MIT Urban Risk Lab. Graduate of MIT's Master of Science in Architecture Studies - Urbanism program. Undergraduate degree in architecture from the University of Pune.

IND / Narrative / 26-May-2020

Originally written in English introversion, inequality, collectivity, restart

This pandemic has worked as an X-ray, penetrating the thin veneer of normalcy draped over our daily lives. It vividly illuminated the structural inequality and brutal poverty, vain narcissism and callous indifference, bouts of greed and fear of the unfamiliar, rising walls and distancing neighbors, clamor for food amidst the soft peaks of dalgona coffe.

"What will be different tomorrow," a question that is challenging enough during the times of 'normalcy' but during a global pandemic, it poses as a prologue of a far more menacing future in front of us. This new reality has jolted us to confront an unnerving feeling of 'uncanny'a strongly familiar yet utterly mysterious event - an alt-reality of sorts. In his seminal booklength essay, The Great Derangement, Amitav Ghosh encapsulated this feeling succinctly as the failure of imagination. The comfort of the regularity of 'normal' life, a sense of calm buttressed by "rationalized" statistics and probabilities, can be shattered only by non-human forces such as we see today.

While this pandemic gives us a glimpse of the dystopia that might lie ahead, it also provides us with a surreal sense of immediacy - brought about by a half-alive, microscopic entity invading our very bodies - we are part of the larger ecology. As we remain sequestered, the pandemic provides us with visions of collective sal-

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vation, an opportunity to do things differentlyto pass on as we arrived, lightly, without leaving scars on the Earth.

solace is that our collapse will become the guiding light for future generations and a new tomorrow.



Letter from a future/past, Year 01 (Year of the Phoenix)

The collapse was just an effect, not the cause. We all thought the year of the plague was terrible, but we were wrong. Elders told us it had started a long time ago in the year of the sea-people. It was brewing for over centuries, accumulating like soot, bit by bit. There is no denying, however, that the last decade - we called it the decade of the Dodo - was our only chance to preserve any semblance of the familiar. Everything changed after that.

Before the decade of the Dodo, we told ourselves that history had ended (it hadn't), everything was plentiful (but not for all), there was freedom (but only a few enjoyed it), and money would solve it (it did not). We had confused plenty with fecundity, riches with wealth, and routine with normalcy. The plague was just a sign - it showed where the boundaries areit was upon us to either unshackle from them or be their prisoners. In hindsight, that was a straightforward choice. When the decade ended, it was too late. I suppose we were distracted - by spectacles, wars, famines, insurrections, and insecurities, familiar constructs that were comfortable to busy ourselves with, rather than facing the uncertain, unknown sinking ground under our feet.

Architect and Urban Planner by FAU-UFRJ. Postgraduated in IHS-Institute for Housing and Urban Studies — Erasmus University — Rotterdam, Holland. Master in Urbanism by the Graduate Program in Urbanism at FAU/UFRJ. Professor at DAU/PUC-Rio.

BRA / Note / 12-Nov-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, uncertainty, inequality, urban

The pandemic unveiled the enormous social inequality that exists in Brazil and in Rio de Janeiro.

I cannot carry out this exercise of imagination without society reorganizing itself in a more just way. The changes in urban and private spaces will be the consequence of this, not the starting point.

Cripta Djan

Graffiti artist and activist.

BRA / Note / 24-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese introversion, responsibility, expectation, restart

Capital Reason

There will be plenty of pain to endure. God is dead, and there will be no messiah. Our only

The biggest reflection that will remain after Coronavirus is that we don't need much to be happy, and how futile the human being has become because of a capitalist reason that values having over being.


Artist. Master's degree from the MIT Program in Art, Culture, and Technology.

BRA / Narrative / 04-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese inequality, responsibility, expectation, hope

Because of the speed of the developments of the crises of the moment, I feel less and less invested or skilled in exercises in futurology—yet, or perhaps because of this very reason, I strongly feel that, despite all the extreme changes experienced and predicted, none of the structural changes necessary for planetary well-being will come casually or automatically as a consequence of the pandemic. As "normality" imposes itself on the flows of people and capital, a kind of homeostatic mechanics will lead us, if we are inattentive, to the same rhythm of exclusion, inequality, and extractivism to which we have been bound for at least 500 years. The most reasonable expectation would even be a first moment of considerable increase in inequality and misery in Brazil and in the world, coupled with an even greater abuse of fossil and mineral resources as a compensatory strategy for an economy in tatters.

The temporary interruption of daily life, however, allows us some time and some clarity to (re)consider some indigestible facts. We see the difference in the impact of tragedy on different classes, races, and geographies. We see that the reduction of a productive machine of supra-planetary proportions, even without any planning, does not cause the sky to fall on our heads. We see that, despite the temporary impossibility of the idea of growth, resources exist, are vast, and flow with some ease—but only in the most urgent of circumstances. The conflict

that arises from a more collective perception of these and other considerations is what can work as a potent turning point in the direction of "progress." Not through a collective mentality or general indignation, but through an active effort to maintain the state of emergency in which we find ourselves today because we found ourselves in it yesterday. To imagine that the scare was enough and that we are now on another course doesn't seem sustainable to me, in any sense of the word. Any change, any rupture with the toxic normality we feel (or, at best, used to feel) trapped in will only come about from a continued sustaining of the visibility of these conflicts that we now see in the open, added to an endless series of attempts—and mistakes, preferably on a smaller scale—to correct them. Nothing will be different; we have to.



The corner café first got divided, and part of it became a shoe store. Then it closed, and in the same place, a pie store opened. Next door, a clothing store also closed. It was replaced by a sewing shop. Just across the street, a good bakery opened. The candy stand on the sidewalk is gone. The churro guy is still there. Closer by, the bars that for a while quickly fell asleep were back. One bar opened right next door to our house in August 2020. Not a weekend night went by without it filling up. The bar crowd whose identity is built around macho stereotypes congregated with the neighboring bar crowd, avowedly lesbian. A broad front of nightly disquiet. The neighbor in the cottage across the street, who owns a restaurant, used to play the national anthem out his window in 2020. Not anymore in 2021. The parties in the studio next door

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have migrated to the terrace. Right next to us, the wooden furniture store turned into a plant store. Two fires, impressive flames, but minimal damage in both. In the building opposite, two apartments were emptied. The neighbor on the first floor moved out, the neighbors downstairs moved out, the neighbors in the back as well. And finally, we did. Did we?

BRA / Narrative / 18-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese helplessness, inequality, responsibility, regression

Many people think that Brazil will be better, that the trauma of the pandemic will make Brazilians more tolerant, supportive, and friendly. I have serious doubts about this. We are a selfish country that hides its nature with a contagious, musical, dancing, warm joy. Those who see us quickly, during a week of Carnival, for example, think that we are the best beings on the planet, kind, tolerant, mixed. This is a mistake. We are not, never have been, and never will be a model for the world.

" Farinha pouca, meu pirão primeiro " (literally translated: if there's little flour, my bread comes first) is an old popular adage that shows how Brazilians think. Another maxim, known as "Gerson's Law," was expressed in a commercial from the 1970s in which a veteran soccer player said that "Brazilians like to take advantage in everything." True. We are like that, there is no point in denying it. And I fear that this dege nerated way of seeing the world will intensify af -

ter the Coronavirus pandemic. Good examples are few, it is necessary to dig very deep to find cases that deserve to be highlighted.

We are not charitable, we are not philanthropic, and we are not volunteers. Someone will certainly say that I am being too strict with Brazilians, that there are many generous and loving people among us. That may be so, but they are few and we can no longer be complacent with the majority. The future will show if I am wrong, but I think we will come out of this more selfish and sectarian. Our xenophobia and racism will be even more blatant because Brazilians will not have to apologize for overstepping the limits, they will mistakenly understand that they are defending themselves. The mask of cordiality will fade, showing the true face of the Brazilian.

BRA / Essay / 16-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese isolation, introversion, inequality, urban

First, I would like to say that we have several quarantines, that of people who live crowded together, without any isolation, that of people who have to go out every day to get some income to survive the day, that of people who can work from home and maintain a routine, among others.

I will talk about my point of view, that of a completely privileged person, who has the comfort of a large apartment, the company of family, the possibility of working from home, and being able to maintain a normal routine as much as possible.

Journalist, Columnist for the newspaper O Globo and Editor-in-Chief at Infoglobo. Winner of the first edition of the CNT Journalism Award and three Esso Awards. Bárbara Fonseca Architect.


I am an architect and am able to continue my work from home, with few outings for a survey or a construction, but with the economic crisis that accompanies a pandemic, people's priorities change, of course, and if the person doesn't have money committed for something and it will not be missed, renovating is no longer a priority, so my workload in the office decreased. With this, I found myself imagining a thousand and one ways to generate a new income, be it inventing products to sell, doing on-line work, reinventing my way of working, undertaking new projects, and so on. I believe this happened in all classes and all areas. People are very creative and in a pinch, they make amazing things happen, they find new ways to make money, and when "everything goes back to normal," people can make it an income increment or even change their area.


This period, besides everything else, is a moment of self-awareness. In the beginning, I was bombarded with lives, free courses, news, information, and I tried to follow everything, which made me very anxious. Then I ran away from all that and tried to establish my routine, things that I always wanted to implement daily and never could, like meditation, a moment of reflection, reading more, and so on. Then after a while came the balance of taking advantage of all the courses and lives available on-line, which are great opportunities for knowledge, and setting aside a moment just to be with myself. Now there is no way to escape this moment or not prioritize it, we have to be our best company and understand ourselves, interpret what we feel. I have allowed myself very productive days and quiet days when I couldn't cope, do -

ing things that are good for me, prioritizing exercises with the body. I think that during this period, we can learn to observe, to live together, and to have more patience with ourselves and with whom we are living with on a daily basis. We learn to respect the other's space and yours, the other's feelings, their time and with them. I have been listening more and this, for me, is an eternal learning process: if you are willing to just listen to someone, it is you who wins!


As an architect, I can't help but notice how important our home is. I have always loved to stand at the window and watch the street, the buildings and apartment interiors, I see people leaning out of windows, lying on balconies and rooftops. How we miss seeing the sky. Something we take that for granted. How we see that a building can be too close to another, and a blender that the neighbor turns on can get in your way. How we discover the corners that get the sunlight, the best views, the best furniture positions.

I see people loving their homes more every day, and desperate people wanting to change everything. In fact, we have to adapt our house to us, it has to make us feel good, to shelter us (in all senses).

The Street

As an urban planner, I am very hopeful about the different tomorrow in this aspect. The pandemic, for Brazil, came after the biggest party in the country. What a contrast! And one of the reasons I love Carnival is the occupation of the streets and public spaces by people. People define the traffic, people walk, walk on overpasses, peripheries, slums, they are all together, playing,

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singing, having fun, banding together. I really believe that our squares, streets, museums, all kinds of public spaces will be valued and used more. I think more bicycles will appear, people want to move around, go out, run.

And this transformation doesn't come from the government. It comes from the people. If people go out on their bikes more, the government comes and builds bike lanes. If people go to the plazas, the government comes and makes more plazas or restores existing ones. The transformation comes from us and how we use our space. Being in a city is something that allows exchange and connection, it allows growth, when you go out, you meet people, and it is only by sharing with people that we grow, economically, socially, spiritually, and so on. It’s the famous: together we are stronger.

I hope that, when the isolation ends, people will recognize and use the beautiful public space that we have because by using it, for sure, it will only be improved.


As the hopeful person that I am, I believe that nature was a beneficiary of the pandemic. It needed a breather from the human being. And how quickly it recovers! The air, the waters. It is clear. And it is good that it is clear, it makes us rethink the way we use our planet, which is so good and abundant, and we have to give back. I believe that this will bring more awareness to people, for sure, many studies regarding the impact we cause are being done, and, with numbers, awareness becomes easier. Even in small moments of everyday life, we learn to value nature more, be it a sunset, a beautiful sky, a starry night, these are things that calm us down and that we now have the time, and the need, to observe.


In any tragedy, this is an aspect that stands out. People look for countless ways to show solidarity, be it by donating money, time, action, initiatives, small gestures. It is very good and stimulating to see people helping each other.

Finally, I think that this is a unique moment in our lives and that it will impact the future in many ways and on many scales. I think it is very difficult for everything to go back to "normal" because with each day that we are quarantined, new habits, thoughts, and visions are formed and established. Of course, there is a lot of suffering, fear, and worry involved, but I like to think of the good side that all this gives us. We have to see the bright side, to overcome and live better every day.

One more reflection I'm having now: seeing the daily exhaustion of my boyfriend, who is a doctor and is on the front line fighting Coronavirus, I see the bright side, the unmeasured effort to help. The fact that he misses me, and the fact that he doesn't touch me, doesn't get close, has a good side: it's a caring and concern for me. I am reviewing all my attitudes during this time. I realized that, unlike him, I have never been the affectionate person, and how we need to show people how we feel. I think I will go out hugging everyone after quarantine!

Finally, again, I discovered that I need little to be happy every day, to reinvent myself every day. And that is a good thing about this period. I will not alienate myself from all the bad sides, but I will stick to the good ones to make a different tomorrow.


Managing Partner and Director at Quantas Market Studies and Research, Master's degree in Applied Statistics from Unicamp.

BRA / Narrative / 18-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, uncertainty, inequality, responsibility

What will be different tomorrow?

Everything! Wherever we look, we find impacts.

From language (as Professor Pasquale said "nobody wants to be positive anymore") to work, since we are seeing that in many activities it is possible to work from home. With that, but not only because of that, housing will also change. The real estate market is already rethinking micro-apartments (a boom in the city of São Paulo, perhaps responsible for the recent recovery of this sector). Where to put the "office" in a minimum area? People are discovering their homes and rethinking non-functional decorative choices.

What about emotions and their unfolding? I think that is the most difficult part to predict. And it is where the essence of tomorrow lies, in my opinion. Like the pandemic, the growing social inequalities have become more evident. They have come to the forefront, impossible to deflect. Empathy and solidarity showed up. We were called to help, and the response is overwhelming. There isn't a place—physical or virtual—where we don't come across friends, friends of friends, family members, neighbors doing something and calling on us to participate. But, especially in Brazil, it has also become evident that even at this moment there is room for antagonism. Individualism also showed its

more perverse face. The groups demonstrating for a return to "normal" are a prime example of this.

When the pandemic ends, tomorrow, we know, will bring enormous economic challenges, in the macro and micro, and of course, social problems will be even more in the eye of the hurricane. With high unemployment, recession, are solidarity and empathy here to stay? Are they perennial? Or will it win out over the individualists who will say: Didn't I tell you so?

Vitória Hadba

Artist, art historian, and set designer. Bachelor's degree in Art History and Design from Pratt Institute. Currently pursuing a Master's degree in Art History at Hunter College.

BRA / Narrative / 16-May-2020

Originally written in English inequality, responsibility, restart, hope

Today we are scared. But to say that the virus alone is responsible for our fears is an oversimplification. Covid-19 works as an on-camera flash, reflecting light in our societies in the most unflattering way. We fear our irresponsible governments; we see inequalities, selfishness, and privilege. We are now terrified by the world that until yesterday seemed fine. The world, as we know it, is unfair, and it is cruel. Yesterday we were oblivious, today we are afraid, tomorrow we will mourn. Sadness will reign. It will take time. For some, it will take too much time, but grief will bring the needed change. Our social maladies will by no means vanish. Still, pressing issues such as universal healthcare, climate change, fair living wages, the power of corporations, and the fraught politics will deserve the

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attention they need. "Stop thinking about the apocalypse and start planning the revolution," said a meme I am shamelessly quoting.

Politician and education activist. Federal Deputy representing the state of São Paulo. Graduated in Political Science and Astrophysics from Harvard University. Co-founder of Movimento Mapa Educação and Movimento Acredita. Columnist for Folha de S.Paulo and Nexo Newspaper.

BRA / Note / 30-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese inequality, collectivity, politics, responsibility

History teaches us that we have never emerged the same, as humanity, from such profound crises. This pandemic has made us reflect on our deep inequalities and, mainly, on the model of society in which we live. It is still too early to say what will be different tomorrow, but I hope that the Coronavirus will lead us to a new Enlightenment, in which science, knowledge, and education are truly valued. May we come out of this pandemic more lucid, united, and in solidarity.

Architect, editor, and curator. Director of MAS Studio, editor-in-chief of the nonprofit MAS Context, and Executive Director of the SOM Foundation. Co-curator of Exhibit Columbus 2020-2021 and the Associate Curator of the US Pavilion at the 16th Venice Architecture Biennale.

USA / Narrative / 25-May-2020

Originally written in English inequality, politics, urban, expectation

“What will be different tomorrow" assumes certain conditions and inevitably opens up deeper questions. It assumes that something will actually change, not that it could change, or it may change. It assumes, correctly, that things will be different in respect to an original condition, but identifying a unique original condition and, more importantly, whose original condition, is impossible as our individual realities are unique and complex. And finally, it opens up the definition of tomorrow and how it has different meanings for each of us depending on our situation, from the short-term adjustments that some are able to adapt to without a problem to the long-term impact on many that could be insurmountable.

The current global pandemic has shaken everyone to the core in one way or another. The way we had organized and structured our lives, from the way we live at home and the way we work to the way we relate to others, has been quickly and deeply altered. For those more vulnerable, for whom home, work, and relationships with others are already precarious, that change has been felt even more deeply. Staying at home for some requires that many others, without a choice, have to continue to do their work in an altered world, facing more extreme conditions and becoming more vulnerable: nurses and other health workers, grocery and restaurant work -


ers, delivery drivers, and many more have all of a sudden become "essential workers" (ironically, many who had been fighting for a higher minimum wage for years and continue to do so). Today's conditions have even more clearly revealed the inequalities upon which our societies are built. The demanded physical distancing is a luxury not everybody can afford. How do we make it attainable for all?

When we project our ambitions for tomorrow, we need to be aware of the decisions made in the past and how they challenge our optimistic visions. As an example, during this pandemic, many cities have decided to close a portion of their streets to cars and open them up to pedestrians, providing a new way of experiencing the city and offering some relief. Chicago has not closed its streets to cars. And, apparently, it is due (at least in part) to a 2008 decision made by then-Mayor Richard M. Daley to lease the parking meters for 75 years to a private company in order to ease city debts. This move left the city without control of its own streets. To cover short-term budget gaps and leave office with a better-looking budget, he compromised the long-term future of the city.

My desire for the future is that we adjust the city or town we live in to be as equitable as possible so that the majority of its citizens are able to respond to complicated moments like the current pandemic. We have had challenges in the past (the economic crisis in 2008, for example) and undoubtedly, we will face more challenges in the future. Instead of making decisions for political gain but not societal gain or, as a designer, creating quick, tone-deaf, and useless design solutions as PR stunts to be featured in a glossy magazine or on a website, we have the chance to think carefully and comprehensively about

the structural changes needed to achieve that goal. Those will affect the way we think about safe and reliable public transportation, access to public space across neighborhoods, flexibility in various work environments, the design of domestic spaces that can allow for remote work, universal access to healthcare, and fair wages for the work done to cover basic needs. The task is large, but we need to start somewhere and sometime. What better time than now? The exponential increase in profit of a minority due to the exploitation of a majority will only make us more vulnerable when facing the next crisis. We can't wait until then to mobilize.

I want to believe that whatever is different tomorrow will be something that improves society for as many people as possible, a society that is more aware of its own structural problems and can work together within their own context to make it better. Some could be small, quick changes, and others might require larger and longer-term efforts, but I hope that they are meaningful, carefully considered, and applied citywide to benefit all.



Recharge, focus, and enable

It has been more than two years of pandemic waves, restarts and lockdowns, of mourning and celebration, of immeasurable personal challenges and small rewards. A global pandemic that continues despite the (reckless) desire to move forward as if it never happened. For some, it will feel that it never happened; for many others, the consequences will last a lifetime.

The desires for tomorrow that I wrote in my ini -

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tial essay were a rally for change, an energetic charge at the start of a pandemic that halted our lives and forced us to face uncharted situations. The essay highlighted a series of structural changes that could be tested and perhaps implemented, to contribute to shaping a different future. An opportunity to take into consideration public transportation, public spaces, work environments and wages, domestic spaces, and healthcare. All these aspects were undoubtedly affected by the pandemic, introducing new opportunities in some instances, and deepening its challenges in many others. Perhaps these structural changes happened to all of us, collectively as individuals, rather than as collective initiatives.

Living downtown in a big city, I loved rediscovering some of the large urban lakefront parks for small safe gatherings with friends. Backyards became impromptu movie theaters well into the cold season, watching old movies projected onto bedsheets. Work took place at home, repurposing furniture and using every square foot available. Work life and domestic life folded into one, with a more than questionable result. Meetings in the office or local coffee shop turned into endless Zoom calls with people close and afar. A return to offices has in some instances happened with more flexibility than before. The normalization of video conferences also created the opportunity to reconnect with friends and colleagues around the world. Long-distance trips were replaced by walks around new neighborhoods. Public transportation was left to its own devices, unreliable and unsafe. A truly missed opportunity. The joy of seeing a series of vaccines being developed for the pandemic, that have also opened the path to other medical discoveries, contrasted with the politicization of health. Information and

misinformation running wild while lives are at risk. And the list of local personal circumstances derived from a global condition goes on and on. The pandemic made me reframe familiar aspects and reconsider the importance (or lack of) of others.

Everyone in my close circle of friends and family was spared from deaths and grave consequences derived from the pandemic, and I am grateful for that. It is not the case of other people that I know. The impact that these two years have had on our everyday life, our mental and physical health has been more significant than I had anticipated even after a year into the pandemic. Behaviors, relationships, and structures of care built over a lifetime were challenged over the last two years. How can our future allow for individual and collective care and healing?

Two years after my initial essay, a new pandemic-related lockdown is taking place in cities in China while the US enjoys a window of decreasing numbers, most likely before a new surge. The invasion of Ukraine by Russia is ravaging a country, reigniting fears of global conflict, and revealing the limits of the global network and dependence that has been created. And all this amidst the unrelenting effects of climate change that demand uncompromising decisions. The future doesn't stop at a pandemic.

The pandemic is perhaps a unique condition as it has affected everyone around the globe in one way or another, and thus, it provided an opportunity for a global conversation and action. Sometimes you need a marked moment, of tragedy or joy, to come together and act. That the total wealth of the world's billionaires grew over 50% during the first year of the pandemic instead of investing in stronger social programs


supporting those in need speaks volumes of our structures and values. Because of this, the desire and need for a different and better tomorrow remain. We need global structural changes, but as we have seen time and time again, the "we" is fractured, and the interests of a few individuals are hindering the benefits to many. Let's recharge internally, regain our composure, focus, enable the proper spaces, conditions, and alliances that can make change possible around us. And charge ahead like there is no tomorrow.

Linda Chavers

Allston Burr Resident Dean of Winthrop House and Assistant Dean of Harvard College. Lecturer in the Department of African and African American Studies at Harvard. PhD in African American Studies with a focus on literature from Harvard University.

USA / Note / 01-Jul-2020

Originally written in English inequality, collectivity, responsibility, expectation

Tomorrow, when someone who looks like me says she's in pain or that she's been a target of racism, or simply that racism exists, she will not be ignored, she will not be silenced, she will not be dismissed or gaslit.

She will be heard, and even better, she will be supported.

Tomorrow, institutions like our own will no longer stop at the word "commitment" and will start holding themselves accountable.

Tomorrow, we will speak to you like the future world leaders we say that you are.

Director of Photography, Photographer, and Camera Operator. Winner of the Best Photography Award at the 2010 Paulínia Festival.

BRA / Note / 16-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, helplessness, inequality, regression

For those who live in Brazil, tomorrow will be the same or worse. The Brazilian elite managed to invent a time machine in which there is no future. We always go back to the past. The Earth is round, but Brazil is flat, full of injustice and privileges for the same people as yesterday. Brazil does not move, and I don't know if there will be a tomorrow to leave the immutable yesterday of prejudice and cruelty.

Murdoch Rawson

Senior Strategist and Creative.

UK / Narrative / 02-Jun-2020

Originally written in English inequality, responsibility, expectation, hope

Tomorrow, nothing will be different. Social unrest will still be universally felt, unemployment will remain high, people will struggle to educate and feed their families, and there still won't be a vaccine.

But carbon dioxide levels will stay at record lows. People will continue reaching out to loved ones they have lost touch with, donations will continue to flood into services that need them, and we will continue to rely on more humble yet fulfilling experiences at home than superfluous ones to stimulate us.

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"Difference" doesn't happen overnight. It's a process of iteration. For something or someone to truly change, unfortunately, time is required.

The question naturally then becomes "what will we take from this?" Do we really need to travel as much as we did? Consume as much as we did? Work as much as we did? Are we going to be more socially conscious than we were? Fiscally conscious? Environmentally conscious?

I fear that as restrictions begin to alleviate across the globe, nothing we have learned will be taken forward, and we will revert back to the fast-paced, selfish lifestyles we were so accustomed to just a few short months ago.

But I'm hopeful we won't. As devastating as this process has been, I believe so much good has come from it. We have been forced to reflect, understand, learn, and appreciate more about ourselves, those around us, and the wider world. As life begins to move forward, I hope we don't forget that.

Only time will tell.

Social entrepreneur, founder of Rede Mulher

Empreendedora — RME and Instituto RME, BR W20/ G20 Leader Delegate, elected one of the 20 most powerful women in Brazil by Forbes 2019 and Top Voices LinkedIn 2020.

BRA / Narrative / 14-Apr-2022

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, politics, responsibility, hope

Over 12 years ago, I created " Rede Mulher Empreendedora" (RME) [Women Entrepreneur Network] to share experiences and support other women who, like me, want to become entrepre-

neurs and need to generate income.

This step led me to establish other personal goals, such as the incessant fight against racial, cultural, and gender prejudice. I believe in the human values of equality and solidarity, especially when these values are transformed into practical actions that benefit the vulnerable population.

Thus, I hope that tomorrow will be fair and balanced, especially for women and for all the people who today are left behind.

I also hope that my daughters can be respected for who they are and not for what they have. I hope that they, as well as many other women, can have the freedom of personal and professional choice, without parameters and limits imposed by a discriminatory society.

And if this is not yet the case, I hope that tomorrow more and more people will continue to fight against prejudice and violence, building solid paths of equity, opportunities, and justice.

Tomorrow will be different from today because people like us have made today better than yesterday.


Marcelo de Troi & Wagner Quintilio

Marcelo de Troi is a journalist, holding a doctorate from the Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Culture and Society at the Institute of Humanities, Arts, and Sciences of the Federal University of Bahia. He is a visiting doctoral researcher at ISCTE-CIS at the University Institute of Lisbon (Capes Print).

Wagner Quintilio is a Doctor of Biochemistry from the University of São Paulo. He is a researcher at the Butantan Institute and an Associate Professor in the Interunits Graduate Program in Biotechnology (USP/IPT/Butantan).

BRA / Essay / 31-Mar-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, collectivity, politics, technology


"Bacteria and viruses are old human acquaintances. It seems that the way of life of our ancestors, the hunter-gatherers who roamed the Earth in small bands, was not conducive to the creation of epidemics. After our settlement, we spent much of our time surviving and building up immune resistance to these amazing structures that inhabited the planet even before we existed. This was not so long ago: not more than 12,000 years ago, when the permanent settlement of humans began. Only in 1647, Anton van Leeuwenhoek was able to see "tiny creatures" in a drop of water for the first time under a homemade microscope. Over the next 300 years, we became aware of many more microscopic species (HARARI, 2015).

Those tiny beings would often reveal great lethal power, which was proven with the increase in our social life, the creation of clusters, and large cities. Between the 14th and the 18th century, Europe recorded about 40 epidemic outbreaks.

In some of them, cities lost 20 to 30% of their population. In the 17th century, the European plague alone in London would have caused the death of 70,000 people and the flight of another 300,000 people (DEL PRIORE, 2015 p.152). In 2020, we celebrated 100 years since the end of the dreaded Spanish flu that exterminated 50 million individuals worldwide, 300,000 of them in Brazil (WESTIN, 2020).

In the 19th century and the early 20th century, epidemics served to implement hygienist projects that went beyond issues related to the cleanliness of cities. Political actions in the name of hygiene served to exterminate and expel poor people from areas of the city, expanding the urban space based on principles outlined by the destructive urbanism of Baron Haussmann in 19th-century Paris, which influenced all Western metropolises. A Brazilian example, among many, was the destruction of Castelo Hill in Rio de Janeiro (TROI, 2017), the city's founding territory eliminated using jets of water sucked from the sea at the beginning of the last century. The lands of the hill gave rise to the current Flamengo embankment.

The philosopher Michel Foucault, who has delved into the relationship between knowledge and power, has studied in detail the instruments of surveillance and punishment in society. Foucault was insightful in noting the changes in treatment between the occurrences of leprosy and plague in Europe, differentiating the regimes of expulsion from the city for the former and the establishment of quarantine for the latter. Moreover, the philosopher and historian noted that the union of medical, judicial, and police discourses made evident the other interests that permeated the disciplinary societies. For Foucault, "the exclusion of the leper" and the "in -

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clusion of the pestiferous" is one of the great phenomena that occurred in the 18th century. The quarantine provided control over the city and the bodies: "The plague also brings with it the political dream of an exhaustive power, of a power without obstacles, of a power that is entirely transparent to its object, of a power that is fully exercised" (FOUCAULT, 2001, p.59).

On the other hand, in many of these periods, the role of the authorities, in principle, was to deny what was happening. Under the argument that there was no need for concern, avoiding "hysteria" and "alarmism," such attitudes almost always hid political and economic interests. The 19th century, considered one of the most affected by epidemics, was a period of many discussions regarding the theory of contagion, where a new generation of denialist scientists emerged who doubted the efficiency of quarantines and isolation cords: "In a clear association between anti-contagion theories and commercial interests, northern European governments, more liberal and progressive, advanced with hygienist policies abolishing quarantines and sanitary cords" (ALMEIDA, 2011, p. 1,064). States also embraced the negationist discourse due to economic losses. In the early 20th century, similar situations were narrated in outbreaks of yellow fever in Brazil, with doctors who resorted to religious practices, denying the transmissibility of the disease (FRANCO, 1969). The consequences were the worst possible.

The Covid-19 epidemic affecting the world since late 2019 has repeated many of the previous situations experienced in the modern age during periods of epidemics. In a mixture of political incompetence and a lack of insight into reality, epidemic crises have been aggravated by the attempt to prioritize the mitigation of eco -

nomic effects over quarantine regimes. According to various analysts, this attitude has cost Italy an increase in the number of cases. Added to this, we currently live in the era of instantaneous dissemination of information under the strong influence of denialist schools of thought. Historical facts are denied, the most conclusive scientific evidence is denied, summarizing the production of knowledge to what is conventionally called the "culture war." Political leaders try to discredit the value and importance of science to the detriment of their ideological interests. This is a bad sign. History shows us that this can worsen the situation and increase the death toll.

The new virus imposes a new transmission configuration on us and may, it seems, become the biggest epidemic of the 21st century. But what does Covid-19 signal to all humans?


Coronaviruses are a large class of enveloped positive non-segmented RNA viruses. They were first described in the 1960s from studies related to avian bronchitis. The name derives from their appearance: seen in electron microscopy, their circular capsid with the protein spikes resembles the sun's corona (NATURE, 1968).

It is a virus family that mostly affects animals, and in humans, seven varieties are known. Of them, four had already been detected in Brazil and were responsible for respiratory infections of little importance (GÓES et al., 2019). SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV are the other two varieties that have not arrived in the country, fortunately. The former caused the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS),


mainly in Asia, between 2003 and 2004, and the second was responsible for the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012.

If MERS-CoV originated from camelids (WHO, 2020), both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 (responsible for the current epidemic, Covid-19) originated from bats (WU et al., 2020) with mutations that, in conjunction with proximity to human communities, favored the advent of the epidemic. In particular, in the case of SARS-CoV-2, contrary to what is said in fake news networks, it is unlikely that the virus originated by laboratory manipulation from SARS-CoV-1 (ANDERSEN et al., 2020; BENVENUTO et al., 2020).

Respiratory viruses can infect the upper tract, nose, and throat, where they tend to be highly contagious, or the lower respiratory tract, trachea, and lungs, where they spread less easily but more deadly. SARS-CoV-2 has brought these two abilities together. In addition, the virus uses a mechanism for entering cells that relies on a surface protein found on mucosal cells of the upper respiratory tract, in addition to several others in the body (XU et al., 2020), giving it very high infectivity.

2020). Hence the alarm: a potentially dangerous disease has been joined by a high capacity to infect humans.

1. The Visual Capitalist website has created an infographic with the history of pandemics in which it compares the estimated numbers of deaths in each one. Information available at: <>. Accessed on: March 25th, 2020.

Added to all this is relative stability. The virus maintains its infectivity outside the human body for a relatively long time, favoring transmission. On surfaces such as plastic and metal, they can resist for up to three days; on paper and in aerosols, for a few hours (VAN DOREMALEN et al.,

2. For more details on this fact, read the report ““Coronavírus: sem licitação Mandetta paga 67% mais caro para comprar máscaras de empresa de bolsonarista,” from The Intercept Brazil, available at: <https://theintercept. com/2020/03/22/mandetta-mascaras-bolsonarista- Coronavirus/>.

Accessed on: March 25th, 2020.

The lethality of Covid-19 is not, per se, high. After all, there are other diseases with much higher lethality (INFORMATION IS BEAUTIFUL, 2020). From March 2020 data, the lethality of Covid-19 was found to be approximately 2% on average. Considering that the avian flu (H5N1) has a lethality rate of almost 60%, that the old disease known to Brazilians, yellow fever, kills 7% of those infected, and seasonal flu kills something like 0.1% of those infected (CDC, 2020), the lethality rate for Covid-19 is low. The problem, however, is not its lethality but the morbidity.

3. The Access to Information Law is considered one of the greatest achievements of recent Brazilian democracy. With it, a new standard in public administration was established, obliging managers to make transparent and accessible all government movements, with deadlines for the delivery of information. About the Provisional Measure that suspended the law, read the article “MP that suspends the Access to Information Law harms democratic achievement,” on the Consultor Jurídico website, available at: <https://www.conjur. mp-suspends-access-to-information-law-feres-democratic-conquest>.

Accessed on: March 25th, 2020. On March 26th, the Supreme Court suspended the effects of MP.

SARS-CoV-2 is an unknown virus, both to science and to the human immune system. Its high infectious capacity can cause severe pneumonia that requires hospitalization with respiratory assistance. And this is the problem from the public health point of view: overloading hospitals and the already precarious health system, in the case of Brazil.

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Moreover, the quarantine measure, which has already been proven to prevent the increase of transmission, hits hard the sociability of humans, one of the main characteristics of our species. Without a doubt, isolation brings psychic consequences for all individuals and for the collectivity as a whole, favoring attempts and theories that minimize the need for this extreme action, which is, however, necessary to avoid an explosion of contagion.

infected people. For Harari, the epidemic may be a watershed in the history of surveillance previously narrated by Foucault, normalizing the deployment of tools, creating a dramatic transition from “over-the-skin” surveillance to “under-the-skin” surveillance.

Surveillance and Technology

In a recent article for the Financial Times, professor Yoan Harari (2020) set out to reflect on the world after the Coronavirus. He asks at the end, “Will we travel the path of disunion or adopt the path of global solidarity?” Among the various concerns described by the historian are the technologies used to talk about the epidemic. This creates a paradox, because at the same time that we desire and agree with quarantine measures to prevent contagion, we know that they are ultimately about the suspension of constitutional rights that are extremely valuable to liberal democracies. Totalitarian surveillance and citizen empowerment are at the heart of this concern.

4. In an article published on March 25th, 2020, CJR explains its concern about freedom of the press and coverage of the epidemic in the world, countering China’s opportunistic idea that government control over information was essential to combat the crisis. The full article is available at: <https://www.cjr. org/analysis/Coronavirus-press-freedom- crackdown.php>. Accessed on: March 26th, 2020.

China has adopted various surveillance technologies to contain the advance of the virus such as facial recognition, smartphone monitoring, cameras that can measure the temperature of bodies in urban space, mobile apps that warn of the proximity of

Many thinkers have been quick to see Covid-19 as a major blow to global capitalism. But history has also signaled that this is not so. Naomi Klein has shown in her book The Shock Doctrine how in the contemporary world capitalism has taken advantage of natural disasters to strengthen the neoliberal regime. After Hurricane Katrina, the American government took advantage of the moment to sell schools, until then community schools, to the private sector. Klein showed how the money for the flood victims was diverted to eradicate the public system and privatize the education sector.

With the population weakened by shock and unable to act, confronting emergency situations becomes a hot market, serving for governments with totalitarian biases to destabilize democracies. Two quick recent examples in Brazil, since the arrival of Covid-19, were the purchase of surgical masks with a price 67% above their value from a government ally2 and the Provisional Measure 928 that suspended the Access to Information Law.3 The director general of the World Health Organization has warned that Covid-19 is generating a global crackdown on press freedom. In the United States, false and misleading information from President Trump has been amplified by a network of commentators on social media and Fox News, delaying public response in the country, reported4 the Columbia Journalism Review, one of the world’s most respected journalism journals, published since 1961.


From the current scenario, philosopher Vladimir Safatle even coined the concept of “suicidal state” to describe the current situation in Brazil, a new management model of neoliberalism, stating: “There are several ways to destroy the state and one of them, the counter revolutionary way, is to accelerate towards its own catastrophe, even if it costs our lives” (SAFATLE, 2020).

racy theories and distortion of historical facts?

A Disease during the era of fake news

In many parts of the globe, besides dealing with the challenges posed by the virus itself and their respective health systems, scientists, local governments, and organized civil society have been fighting another enemy: misinformation.

It has been evidenced that much of its power and control comes through a mix of religious and denialist obscurantism mixed with the very technologies of the contemporary world such as social networks and their algorithmic games. For Bruno Latour (2018), this situation was only possible because there is a deficit in shared practice, we lack a shared world. If knowledge can only exist supported by institutions that can be trusted, and it has been the goal of these rulers to undermine trust in institutions, a kind of “epistemological delirium” becomes public.

5. The essay titled “Coronavirus: an ecological and social revolution to build the future world” can be read in a March 23rd, 2020 publication, available at: <https:// Coronavirus-une-revolution-ecologique-et-sociale-pour- construire-le-monde-d>. Accessed on: March 26th, 2020.

6. The clarity of the water in the canals of the Italian city surprised residents and researchers. The absence of motorized water transport has stopped agitating the waters. On this subject see story in The Guardian, March 20th, 2020, available at: <https:// environment/2020/ mar/20/nature-is-taking-back-venice-wildlife-returns-to-tourist-free-city>. Accessed on: March 27th, 2020.

We have witnessed several governments around the globe that have chosen as enemies some of the main pillars of the so-called liberal democracies since the creation of the modern state, namely the press, science, and politics.

To act in emergency situations where the enemy is not visible requires trust in those who wield political power, knowledge, and qualified information. What kind of government is it that has installed itself in countries that aim to destroy the very tools of democracy, with conspi -

Much of the scientific community has spent time not only to inform the population about the precautions to prevent Covid-19 transmission and the numerical projections of those infected that would prevent the collapse of health care systems, but scientists worldwide have used their precious time to dispel lying information or convince opportunistic rulers that science can assist in making decisions capable of preventing deaths.

For Harari (2020), achieving a state of conformity and cooperation, which is essential to defeat the epidemic, will require trust. Trust in science, in public authorities, and in the media. “Now, those same irresponsible politicians may be tempted to go down the path of authoritarianism, arguing that you simply cannot trust the public to do the right thing,” the scholar said.

Covid-19 and the future world

Attac France, an independent French association that mobilizes society for social and ecological justice, recently published a text about building the future world after the Coronavirus epidemic, stating that it does not want a return

193 DEBRIS / Responses 77 to 113

to normality, “because neoliberal and productivist normality is the problem.”5

Covid-19 has functioned as an amplifier, a magnifying glass of the problems of the Anthropocene, this era in which humans have become a geological force capable of destabilizing the planet, and of neoliberal capitalism, demonstrating the importance of the role of the state and public health systems. The isolation and circulation actions taken because of the virus have made it evident that human beings function as a true epidemic for the planet Earth and for non-human species. There are not rare records of people who have noticed an increase in the presence of insects and animals, even in urban areas. The absence of people has also changed the landscape of many places, such as Venice.6

frost,8 soils frozen for thousands of years, or even the viral organisms still sheltering in the remaining forests that are being destroyed by the force of agribusiness.

It is evident in these times that the main weapon against the Coronavirus is the same as the one against the climate crisis: stopping. And this challenges the life model imposed since modernity, which is essentially based on speed. We can’t stop because all production and economic systems are allied to this logic. Covid-19 hits hard at one of the premises of globalization, which is mobility, interrupting the movement of people (XIANG, 2020) and goods in an unprecedented and global way.

7. The impact of greenhouse gas emissions was recorded by satellites in records from December 2018 and March 2019 compared to images from December 2019 and March 2020. The satellite data was analyzed in The New York Times in partnership with Descartes Labs, a geospatial analysis group, in a report on March 17th, 2020, available at: < interactive/2020/climate/Coronavirus-pollution.html>. Accessed on: 25 Mar. 2020.

8. A story by BBC Brazil on May 15th, 2017 reports on how melting glaciers are leading to the resurgence of “dormant” diseases, available at: < portuguese/vert-earth-39905298>. Accessed on: March 26th, 2020.

The presence of the virus in our daily lives has caused radical changes in our ways of life. First in China, then in Italy, with the decrease in pollution in the area affected by the virus recorded by comparing satellite images.7 This shows that human activity has an impact, and that it would be possible to take global emergency action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, ensuring a less heated planet. This would also prevent the appearance of new epidemics from the innumerable viruses that may be frozen in the so-called perma-

Covid-19 has been responsible for the appearance of another temporality, a disorganization of life that we have only experienced in the midst of uprisings and revolutions, such as the June 2013 days that momentarily threw us into other logics, making us rethink the entire structure of life today.

If governments have taken austerity measures with the intention of rescuing the economy at the expense of human lives, this is further proof that, even with all the supposed threat to the economy, Covid-19 may, in the end, represent profit and more impoverishment of life for the less favored layers. Against this, scientists from all over the world have been exchanging information on how to confront the epidemic, humanizing production lines, governments have nationalized hospitals, so that profit does not come before human lives.

The countries that do not deny the gravity of the situation and that trust science, making decisions based on those who dedicate their lives to the construction of knowledge, have had a better


chance of reducing the transmission curve and also the number of deaths. In the midst of so much bad news, a global network of solidarity is drawn, demonstrating that, in times of emergency, we can do our best to ensure the future.

We can and must transform the experience of the epidemic into something positive, thinking about a fairer, less unequal world, and this should also apply to thinking about the climate crisis, a ticking time bomb. But how to sensitize people just as they were sensitized by the viral threat? Why wait for the worst to happen when we can act now as we are already working against Covid-19?

Originally published in ScieLO.

Architect and urban planner, graduated from PUC-Rio, with further studies at the Technische Universität München.

BRA / Narrative / 14-Jul-2022

Originally written in Portuguese helplessness, politics, urban, expectation

The pandemic has taken on unimaginable and in calculable proportions all over the world. But in Brazil, it has turned into a nightmare. Led by Bolsonaro, as if the crisis alone were not enough, with the arrival of the pandemic, the increase in inflation, economic inequality, hunger, and unemployment, the country has turned upside down. Demonstrating his incapacity for crisis management, the president made jokes with the many victims of the disease and their families, and even with the virus itself. He publicly rejected the vaccine with unsubstantiated conspiracy theories, contradicted public health authorities, and spread countless fake news on

prime time and on an open channel.

What is expected today, by those who still have a glimmer of hope, is the end of the pandemic and a new government that shows itself capable of managing and administering the magnitude that is the Brazilian territory. A people with a rich culture, natural beauties, known everywhere for its charisma, do not deserve the political abandonment, much less the health tragedy that has occurred in recent years.

As an architect and urban planner, it is my duty to think, inspire, and manifest an improvement of urban spaces, as well as reflect on what will be the long-term changes in the behavior of bodies according to the urban space at their disposal. The real effect of the pandemic on how we behave in public and private space is still an enigma. This is a daily, subtle, and solid challenge, to be notified day after day, over the years.

Pedro Brito

Architect and urban designer at POLES Studio, graduated from PUC-Rio.

BRA / Narrative / 14-Jul-2022

Originally written in Portuguese uncertainty, collectivity, expectation, hope

Tomorrow comes from us and crosses us in a constant, sometimes unconscious way. At every moment, it is an agenda of the present, in a future of uncertain possibilities developed individually and collectively. It comes as a succession of unfinished presents that eventually materialize into new narratives. To be inconstant is the property of time, a state of becoming of the successions of the unfinished present, articulating other relations with tomorrow. The

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hiatus we experienced, however, took away our right to cultivate it temporarily. We had to learn to take part in other daily lives, inserted in a new way of being—and not being—in time, like individuals inside bubbles. Invisible barriers that limited us by their values, expanding their borders by virtue of time.

But what time do we talk about now? We have become accustomed to a suspended reality that has taken shape, turning the present into doubt and the future into denial. Latent problems that gradually revealed themselves in a very palpable way ruled the real dynamics under invisible forces. In pause, life in the city and in the countryside broke its flow. Constantly uncertain, it became a reverse movement of our wills, bringing doubt to the already critical scenario in which we found ourselves. A wound superimposed not only on those opened here in Latin America but also in the world. But, precisely here, where we have suffered for so long, it has slowly coagulated over these two—or more— years.

How can we think of a new tomorrow if the difficulties of the past persist? The present is, therefore, a way to reflect on what has been done and what is being denied. Tomorrow will not be ours if it is not for the few who never had it. As Galeano said, "History doesn't want to repeat itself—tomorrow doesn't want to be another name for today"—but we force it to become a fatal destiny when we refuse to learn the lessons that it, mistress of much patience, teaches us day after day. ¹

The correlations of history have brought us to this point. And, after years with a certain

skepticism of a positive synthesis, its inflection needs nothing more than reflection on what is already gone. Whether in architecture, urban planning, science, or ecology, there is so much to be done that it is necessary to think about the other tomorrows that may come to be. But in an age of expanding universes, caution is needed. We still live in a present time that longs for a past future, with authoritarian escalations, power games, civil wars, natural disasters, and the return of hunger in Brazil... I believe that tomorrow will be different, but only if it is thought of as a process, if it comes through new ecosystemic and critical paths, fruit of collectivity and operating on all forms of life, materialized under constant transformation and guided by voices not yet heard. In this way, we will be able, little by little, to dissipate this sublime smoke of reality and show other narratives of time. It will be uncertain but necessary to go through it.

1. See Galeano, Eduardo. "Open Veins of Latin America." Porto Alegre: L&PM, 2010.

Journalist and writer. Graduated in Journalism from the UFRJ Communication School. He has worked at O Globo newspaper and TV Globo as a reporter and executive. He was one of the coordinators of the team that created and implemented GloboNews.

BRA / Narrative / 14-Mar-2022

Originally written in Portuguese uncertainty, politics, technology, regression

The good news is that we can still have a different world for a better tomorrow. There are a few items to change—but difficult ones. Respect for human rights and the environment would already make a huge difference.

The bad news is that, even in the face of such iniquity, disasters, and tragedies—we are back to living with war! — it seems that humanity is not moving towards this different world. This will only happen with the election of leaders who are effectively committed to a different world. The lack of education is the great challenge in this sense.

In fact, it is not even to be different: it is to be as it should and can be.

One thing, for sure, will be different: the empire of Artificial Intelligence.

And, who knows, foreseen as a period of greater social segregation of the species, if it will not be this software that will rescue the survival instinct of the species? It was apparently deleted from the human brain.

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V & VI
Admir Masic / Adèle Naudé Santos

Esther and Harold E. Edgerton Career Development Professor in Civil and Environmental Engineering. Professor Masic is the Founder and Faculty Director of the MIT Refugee Action Hub (MIT REACT), an initiative launched in 2017, whose mission is to design and deliver new learning opportunities for refugees and forcibly displaced populations worldwide.

CRO / Interview / 09-October-2022

Originally in English challenges, inequality, politics, adaptation

We thought about starting our conversation talking about the early years of your life and your career trajectory.

Can you tell us a bit about how this journey was, from fleeing a war-ravaged Bosnia and Herzegovina to a refugee camp in Croatia, until reaching the position of professor at MIT? What were the main difficulties you faced, and how important were educational opportunities for you, in the condition of a refugee, to be able to pursue a higher education and succeed academically?

It's an interesting journey. I think my journey is just one of the many journeys that people affected by war or other forced displacement face. My specific journey started in 1992 when the war started in Bosnia. From one day to another, we realized that we needed to leave. You go to your little room, take your most precious things – at least in your mind –and leave. I was 14 years old at that time. You leave without even understanding what is happening.

We left a home that was in great condition. My dad worked in Germany, and then built this house in Bosnia. In a very short time, Yugoslavia became Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia... I was escaping and becoming a refugee in the place where I was born, paradoxically. I became a refugee in Croatia, even though I was born there. But because I was born in the hospital that was on the other side of the river that became Croatia and then lived in Bosnia, I became a stranger, an immigrant from Bosnia into Croatia.

Apart from these little details, we escaped with the certainty that we would go back. We stayed in an apartment with friends in Croatia for several weeks. My dad was on the front, fighting back in Bosnia, for months. Bombing, shelling, and everything was happening. The Serbs were able to somehow attack even the city in Croatia where we lived. Every day there would be airplanes bombing, so most of the time was spent in their basement. But

201 INTERVIEW V / Admir Masic
Admir Masic
Tomorrow Anew Admir Masic

then there was an interesting moment when the Croatian and Bosnian Army managed to push Serbs away from the region where I lived, and there was this moment of returning home. The Serbs were not occupying my little village, so we got into the car and drove back home. It was then that I realized that things were no longer the same. I will never forget the moment when we got out of that car with my mother saying: "What have they done to my house?" The scenes of destruction... Our village was entirely, 100% destroyed. Most importantly: all our personal things, everything that was part of my past ended up being destroyed, on the ground, damaged. I will never forget; I ran up to my room through all the dust and destruction to look for my things that I knew I had left behind. Things that were close to my heart, and they were no longer there. That was the moment of realization that my life had really been affected and changed. I don't think my parents ever recovered from that. It was very hard.

I helped my dad a little bit with the reconstruction, but soon the war came back; another offensive. Eventually, they occupied all of northern Bosnia, and then we had to leave for real. My father moved to work, and he took us with him. And that's when we ended up in these shelters. Some workers would bring their entire families; there were more than 100 people in this refugee camp. We lived there for three years.

I was always very good at school. I had straight As in Bosnia. I was really interested to continue my studies in Croatia and continue to learn. But there, Bosnian refugees were not allowed to go to school. The laws were not set up to accept them into regular schools. Even though I was actually born in Croatia, I could not go to school. Classes had already started in September when my mother took a bus with me, and we went to the city. And there we basically looked for any high school available. The first high schools we ran into were a technical school on "Communications and Transportation" and "Chemistry". We asked whether I could start, but they said "No". My mother started arguing as I showed them my report cards with all As. She cried. The school psychologist heard about us and took us to her office. My mom explained that her son was very good at school, that we were from Bosnia and had just arrived there. This psychologist then reached out to the school principal, explaining my case, and somehow convinced him to admit me as a guest student. They asked me if I wanted to go for "Transportation and communication" or "Chemistry". These were the two options that I had. Since back in Bosnia, we had a refinery in our town, I was sure I was going to come back and find work, I chose chemistry. That's how I ended up doing chemistry.

They admitted me as a guest but recorded all my grades with some kind of pen that could be erased. Then, when the laws changed, they could just validate everything, but, in the meantime, if someone came to check, they could erase the records, making me nonexistent. That's how I was able to get into school. Homework, for me, was not so demanding. I would do everything, of course, with the motivation of a person who was blessed to just


be at school. I became good at chemistry. I realized that somehow it was so easy for me. I was gifted in science.

In January or February, the same school principal said there was a city competition that I could try out for. It was so hard; I had never seen anything like it. But we had four hours to solve the questions. I put everything I had into it for hours and went for lunch. It turned out that, for my group, there was no second or third place because the winner set the bar so high that nobody got enough points to get second and third place. And the winner was Admir Masic! That was a life-changing moment. I had just found my talent. Then they invited me to the National Olympics, in which I did very well. After that, they invited me to join the Summer School of the best 20 young chemists of Croatia; I was the best student in the whole country. That's how the story began. This allowed me to really focus on chemistry.

In 1994, after two years, my dad emigrated to Germany, found a job, and sent us visas to join him. It was April 1994. I was finishing the second year of high school, and suddenly we had this dream of a visa. For a refugee person, having a German visa was like a visa to a better life. But I didn't want to go. Because, while I was researching and continuing my education, I found out that Germany did not recognize Croatia’s High School. I would have to start it over. "I don't want to go; I have two years now; I will finish high school, then I will go to Germany". To which my mom replied: "Of course not, are you crazy? It's 94, war is still going on, not only in Bosnia but also in Croatia". I was 16, therefore not allowed to stay on my own. The school was, of course, supporting me because I was their best student. So, we found a friend that lived near the refugee camp and had a little studio in the basement of his house. My father convinced my mom to leave me. He told her that they were going to buy me a bus ticket to Germany, and after two weeks I would have had enough of that and take the bus. But this never happened. Since then, I lived by myself.

I need to admit that the families in the neighborhood helped me, they would bring me food. It’s a lesson of humanity, a humanity that still exists. In the meantime, I met humanitarian organizations from Italy that were coming to my refugee camp, and they learned that I was now alone. They invited me to go with them to offer humanitarian aid around Croatia. That's how I started to connect freely with Italian NGOs. From when my family left until now, I’ve been immersed into this Italian network of humanitarian aid. They would take me every two weeks from my studio, and we would travel around Croatia helping Bosnian refugees.

Then, when did you decide to go to the US?

When I finished high school, [George] Soros' Open Society Foundation gave me an award for the most successful young student in Croatia. It was really nice; I remember

203 INTERVIEW V / Admir Masic
T. A. A. M.

that letter. I also received $500. I lived on $100 per month. It was a good time. Then these NGOs kept telling me that I needed to continue my education. They would help me start university in Italy, and that's what I did. I moved and started chemistry at the University of Turin, graduated in 2002. I did my Ph.D., also in Turin, and then I moved to Germany for a series of reasons. I didn't go to the place where my family lived. I went to Berlin instead, and I found a job at the Max Planck Institute.

Education for me was just a driving force. From the moment when I discovered that talent until now, it's been all about nurturing that talent, putting hard work into what you know you do well. All the inventions that I've made, they would come to me. I would just visualize them in my head, and I would write them down. There were moments when I had serious doubts because I had nothing to eat. If you don't have anything to eat, it's really difficult to bet on education. There's this challenge. Even though I had so many offers for a Ph.D. that I didn't want to do because I couldn't live on a salary of 800 euros per month. Then I found that job and did my Ph.D. in my free time. That's what many of my projects eventually talk about: the strength to compromise during difficulty and bet on education. It's really something that one has to take into account.

In 2017, you founded the ReACT program - the MIT Refugee Action Hub - as an effort to provide a global education program targeted to the needs of displaced people worldwide.

In what way was the founding of ReACT based on your own experiences regarding the challenges faced by refugees and other displaced people, especially when it comes to access to learning resources and professional development opportunities?

In 2015, I came to MIT. I got this amazing opportunity to go to one of the best universities in the world to do what I always dreamt of: to be a professor. It's somehow the culmination and realization of a dream. It happened, and I felt happy about it. In the meantime, there was so much going on with the refugees. The numbers were growing. I just remember how difficult it was to access quality education and how many obstacles I had to overcome, or how frustrating it was not to have opportunities.

We know that the people we see on TV will not have the opportunity because they cannot travel and they don't have money. I just realized how privileged we were, how lucky I was, and how many events had to happen for me to be where I was. I started to learn about digital learning and open learning. I was teaching my classes and reflecting on my experience. Looking back at the key moments of my path and the components that made a difference. For example, being able to access quality content or having money to pay for food. At the same time, being able to actually commit, to sit in the classroom. There were so many people and layers at MIT that wanted to help. They told me to put forward my

T. A. A. M.

idea of what type of program could make it feasible for refugees to access education. What would be the parameters? A program that would allow overcoming those obstacles that have always been the same for decades.

It had to be a well-paid job. In fact, there had to be something that was not just a job because eventually, you need to be willing to transform your community, so perhaps intrapreneurial knowledge was a good thing. And they had to earn money while they were studying. These were the pillars of ReACT.

Computing, in that sense, is good because coding can be done remotely, and you can find remote jobs. This second component, the intrapreneurial, is good because you change mentalities. We deal with depressed individuals, with post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). I still deal with my PTSD, even after I became a professor.

Who can access this content?

This connects with the COVID situation as well. We have classes on-line, so they can be accessed from anywhere in the world. Our selection process is very difficult. We receive thousands of applicants, and we admit maybe 100. This year, we have 150 students. The selection is similar to the one at MIT. We have a 7% admission rate. We have established that we admit extremely talented individuals. We admit 75% refugees and 25% locals in the countries where we operate. We now have around 10 hubs, and we are expanding every day. We started in Georgia, and we conducted the boot camps in person. That was really expensive and demanding. COVID helped us. When COVID hit, we had to go remote and transition to on-line.

The third component is paid internships or projects that are done locally where students live. Currently, the ReACT model is available to everyone, anywhere in the world, on the condition that they have an Internet connection, a computer, and they live in countries where we have our network. We create networks of companies and programs that then allow our students to do this practical work and earn some money for their living expenses if they need it. Many of them are working and participating in our programs simultaneously.

Considering that the opportunity to access education changed your life, we wanted to expand on the power of education within vulnerable communities. There's a proven direct correlation between access to knowledge and the possibility of people in vulnerable conditions to rebuild their lives away from such conditions. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), nowadays 5% of refugees have access to higher education. This number increased by 4% compared to 2019 data, which stood at only 1%. However, this index is still far below the global average among non-refugees, at 39%.

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What prevents the increase in this number? What are the bottlenecks? Do you think that the majority of offerings in education are still following some kind of outdated solutions?

Absolutely. We are still living in the Middle Ages when it comes to higher education. Because you need to go to class, you need to be there, you need to sit on this uncomfortable chair, listen, and maybe sleep. I'm quite confident that this will change, change in the direction of having on-line, on-campus, and hands-on experiences. It's going to be an on-line model with maybe experiential learning on-campus or somewhere.

Also, these numbers are definitely connected to discrimination. Many countries do not allow refugees to access school. That's what happened to me. Of course, you also can't afford it. Again, I returned to this problem. I mean, imagine that you don't have a home, that you have two bags of clothes, and nothing else. Would you start thinking of investing the next four years of your life to study? No, you are going to go and find a job and do whatever is there to take care of your family, to take care of yourself. Apart from that, you cannot pay the fees, it's very difficult.

Things are changing because of on-line education. And the good example now is this University of the People. There is this university that is based on a model of peer-topeer learning, where you learn from your colleagues. It's a great model in the sense that it allows you to scale up quickly. For example, they have now I think maybe 16 or 17,000 refugees enrolled in their programs, which are the numbers that we would like to see. And compared to ReACT, they are scaling much faster because they are open for everyone. Although, we are working on agreements with the universities to increase admission to ReACT. I think, as we proceed into this new age of higher education, the accessibility will increase, so will the numbers of refugees and displaced people involved in higher education programs.

We wanted to address next the topic of racism and xenophobia towards displaced people. In addition to the enormous problems already faced by them, such as going through the loss of their homes, separation from family, and harsh disruption in their lives, refugees often have to deal with prejudiced and stereotyped attitudes in the host society, being often positioned as enemies or as a threat.

How can this twisted mentality which, to a certain extent, even dehumanizes refugees, be eliminated or at least mitigated? To what extent does access to education offer better social integration for immigrants?

Let's analyze my case, and then we can try to expand from it, to generalize. In 1992, I went to a little marketplace close to my refugee camp. The owner of this supermarket asked me

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the questions: "What's your name?" and "Where are you from?" I said, "from Bosnia." He continued, "Oh, how old are you? Did you finish middle school? And were you good at school?" I said that I was good and got all A's. So he mocked that these A's would be C's-equivalent there. That hurt me so much. After I ended up in newspapers due to my victories, I brought him a lot of newspapers just so he remembers those C's.

What I want to say here is that if I now go back to Croatia, people are just like, "Oh my god. Do you remember? You were living here, and now you're at MIT." What I learned through this little personal journey is that there is a universal value in education. I truly believe that the more educated—and perhaps also wealthy—you are, the less discriminated you will be. But, most importantly, there is this universal currency of being educated, being a valuable person through your learning and your educational path.

That's why we put around the same table 25 local students and 75 refugees, and they go through the identical challenges. Putting them on the same table with the same struggles and challenges builds respect. It goes beyond just learning and educating. It lets the beauty of their minds emerge. The opportunity is what is missed. If we manage to give the opportunity, if many emerge from their current situation, I think my mission is already complete.

I would like to expand on the pandemic. In what particular ways has the Covid-19 pandemic affected refugees? What were the main consequences and challenges experienced by displaced people at a time when the whole world closed its doors? Were they pushed to the side? Was there more assistance for them? How was ReACT's response to the crisis?

For us, as I told you, the pandemic was a blessing because everything went remote. It allowed us to have technology accessible to everyone, including refugees. For anything you would do during the pandemic, you would have to have a computer and access to the Internet. That technology readiness made the difference for us. Now, talking about the difficulties that people faced, they were stuck in bureaucracy. All the offices were closed, and all visa processes stopped. If you were a stranger in a country and wanted to go to another, you just couldn't go. How do you get a visa if the offices are closed and interviews are interrupted? Of course, they suffered because they were on the margins of everything.

Because of the situation, did you receive more or fewer students applying?

I don't know, I think it was the same. The numbers are increasing in terms of the number of refugees. Now we have hundreds of refugees.

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Is there a way to transfer this knowledge to other universities and try to make it work somewhere else?

The ReACT model eventually led to the establishment of a completely new educational strategy called ACE (Agile Continuous Education). It's an MIT open learning concept that we developed through ReACT.

Having worked with refugees for years and witnessed the impact of a pandemic like the current one on the world in general and the refugee population specifically, we would like to conclude this interview by discussing the future.

What kind of tomorrow should we aspire to achieve to better assist displaced communities, and what changes should we make in the direction we are heading?

I truly believe that education is the key to a better life. I have experienced it firsthand. It's proven, at least in my own little world. I am convinced of that. For the future, my goal is to ensure that the opportunity is available. How many students will seize that opportunity? It's not up to me, it's up to them. But I want to make sure that there is nothing lacking on my part.

How are we going to achieve this? I believe in open learning and digital learning, bringing water to thirsty kids around the world. I think we are improving in providing that glass of water. Whether it's half full or half empty, we don't care because it's water. We don't care because we simply need water.

Furthermore, I have a dream of creating a virtual space that is accessible to everyone. Through that virtual platform – whether it's a virtual university, ReACT, or something else – students will embark on a high-quality educational journey and emerge with skills that every company in the world would desire. I want every student to have the assurance that after that experience, path, and journey, something will be guaranteed. That's the hope, and I will work towards creating it and not disappointing any of these students when they enter our program.

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"I truly believe that education is the key to a better life. I have experienced it firsthand. It's proven, at least in my own little world. I am convinced of that. For the future, my goal is to ensure that the opportunity is available. How many students will seize that opportunity?"


"It's not just a US thing, it's a Latin American thing, a South African thing, it's all over the place. In order to build housing for poor people, they go to the most unattractive land at the cheapest prices, on the edges of the cities, far away from where people work."

Adèle Naudé Santos

Architect and urban planner, with a career that combines professional practice, research, and teaching. Winner of international design competitions, with published works in magazines worldwide, and experience in diverse cultures such as Japan, Africa, and the United States. Her academic career includes professorships within the graduate programs at Harvard, Rice University, and the University of Pennsylvania, where she served as the Chair of the Department of Architecture, and at the University of California, where she was the founding dean of the School of Architecture at UCSD. She served as the dean of the MIT School of Architecture from 2004 to 2013, and currently holds a position as a professor of Architecture and Planning at the same university.

AFS / Interview / 03-Apr-2022

Originally written in English routine, collectivity, urban, expectation

We thought about starting this conversation with the topic of education, since it stands as the basis for the nurturing of new generations that will ultimately build our tomorrow. One of your most consequential works was the ten years of deanship at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning, which cemented the trailblazing role of that Institute within and beyond these disciplines.

How do you see your experience at MIT in relation to the role educators have in shaping possible futures?

I think MIT is a special place because, right from the get-go, it had a social agenda of making a better world. It's the hand and the mind, together shaping the world. We've always had that as a basis, as the first institution where this motto made sense to me. We built on that. The kinds of students that tend to come to MIT, as compared to other design schools, like Harvard, come by with a kind of good social conscience wanting to make an impact in the world. They really self-sorted themselves. So, you start with people who do want to make a difference in various ways. The social agenda has always been part of it. You can have a low-cost housing studio deal with things that are not terribly attractive as an architectural subject, but they climb into it because they actually have that drive as their background. I think that's what I'd like to say to begin with.

The last two years were a period of multiple changes in the status quo, in which we had to rethink numerous habits of our daily lives. As a result of the social distancing caused by the COVID-19 virus, overnight we had to quickly adapt to an on-line education and research system, while schools all around the world were closing their doors, not knowing when they would return to normality.

In regard to on-line teaching, do the new possibilities inaugurated by digital learning demand a re-conceptualization of the idea of place when it comes to education?

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It gets in the way, of course. First of all, this digital learning wasn't easy, and most people never got really good at it, although they already have added it in their vocabulary. And certainly, in terms of our discipline, architecture, it's not an easy thing to do. We had to kind of parse out the way we taught. I think there are some subjects like history, for example, or some of the things related to tectonics, that you could teach on-line without having to worry about it.

I tried to do one class on housing prototypes and looking at examples from different parts of the world. It was extremely difficult to do. But one thing I did do, which I thought was pretty interesting, was to select a number of architects that represented different points of view on the topic, and have students understand their work then discuss directly with them on-line.

Unfortunately, classes were very small, because most people had dropped out during that year afraid of missing the in-person experience. There are other ways of thinking about this that could make a lot of sense, but it's something you have to practice, something you have to get really good at. I think it was Mark Jarzombeck, professor of History and Theory of Architecture at MIT, who had around 200 students in his class.

There's a scale that's difficult to manage?

I think the scale is difficult to manage. It's perfectly well-tuned to certain subject matters.

At the same time people start performing these learning activities from home.

I think people found a big relief of not having to be there from nine to five every day. Particularly in a context like MIT, where housing prices are so high and people like to live quite far away, that's where they can afford it. Particularly on the part of the staff: those people who are essential to keep the enterprise going. For them to be able to do work from home was amazingly useful. Three times a week is about the best they can imagine because, particularly at a stage in their lives where they've got children and so on, it's perfectly reasonable. Furthermore, think about the time professors have to put into teaching. That can be managed on days going in, and on the days you don't go in, you can work, research, do readings, and everything else. There's a real upbeat aspect to this.

In parallel to your academic career, you also have your own architecture studio: Santos Prescott and Associates, with which you designed several projects where there was a close intersection between living and working. Since you've been working with livework for many years in your practice, has anything changed in recent years?

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And taking into consideration that the pandemic period was an expander of new possibilities regarding our work models and customs, do you believe that COVID has enabled some of the things you were already thinking before? How do you see these initial designs or initial conceptions on how to address the idea of live-work?

It's kind of a well-known fact that I've always lived and worked in the same place. This was partly because I wanted to be an architect full-time and an educator full-time. It's the only way you can do it. You can take out the commuting and rearrange your day between what you do at night versus what you do in the day.

But, for most places in the world, zoning makes it problematic; this hybridity is not common to regular zoning. In fact, this kind of live-work idea has been challenged everywhere. It came very much into my life in California, where the artists inhabited the old industrial buildings because nobody really wanted them. But these spaces became glamorous. In fact, it was an easy way to separate living and working through the same space. There were big fights, and finally, artists won. So, live-work was actually absorbed but was legally not allowed. Eventually, the zoning changed. Part of it was due to the point of view of the authorities: how could they be sure that people were actually working where they were simultaneously living?

Obviously, what we've proven in this period was that living and working can be really fruitful. I think it actually opens up all sorts of possibilities because there's almost nowhere in the world that living and working in one place isn't beneficial. But honestly, in the beginning, I always thought this would pick up speed once the Internet became functional. Why would it matter where you were? I think this is one very important thing that has definitely come out of this period.

Another product of the pandemic was that numerous flaws in the urban planning of cities became evident, as well as the urgency of changing their current paradigms.

Are there lessons that this period will bring to the ways in which we build cities and relate to the urban space?

I'm looking at friends whose offices have come back to life again, and now they've got just two-thirds of the staff that would otherwise be there full-time before. I think that's almost in any profession, in fact... None of them really needed to be there. It begins to make some sense that you can have back-office space away from the city centers, which makes it much cheaper. You don't have to be in the center of the Center for many of these functions. You could start to think of hierarchies of working and what that means in terms of the topologies that you build. Everything was always dependent on the notion of centrality, and it's not important anymore. I think you can't go back to assuming that everybody will do a nine-to-five in the city. They just won't.

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Do you think this leads to a sort of democratization on how the city is organized and who has access to it?

I don't know. Of course, mostly, we're dealing with adaptations of what exists, but new places can imagine different scenarios altogether. We don't even need to be in such big cities. Many cities have many centers. That makes us begin to think that maybe there could be more of a fragmentation of those central functions. Usually, there's always one city hall, one, maybe two, amphitheaters, there's one big library... The idea that they are hierarchically split up makes a lot of sense. The idea of microcenters. The more we can re-localize these things, the better. The whole way in which we think about this aspect of city-making is changing quite a bit.

Affordable housing has been a central topic in your career. One of the consequences of the current crisis has been the shortage of affordable housing in tandem with the elevation of unemployment rates, with people struggling to pay for their household expenses.

Although housing insecurity issues did not start during the COVID-19 lockdown, more and more people are being priced out of the market, forcing them to live in precarious housing situations or decamp to remote locations.

What is the responsibility of architects in the production of affordable housing, and why is there such a limited number of practitioners engaged with this issue?

The United States, of course, is the bad boy because they've never believed in the right to housing. The last president who was interested in bringing some revolution there was Johnson. But then the next crowd comes in, and they get rid of it. Anyway, the point is: it has actually to do with the public world, it has to do with the amount of money that's designated to do that. There's also obviously the stigmatization of the people who are homeless: quite a number of them may be ill people, they may be slightly demented, some might say, but that's not the point! It's about race, religion, and all of these things that come into play, so it has never been easy. Right now, it's really pathetic. For architects to do affordable housing, in a country like this one, it's a very complex process because you can get cities that will give land and there are programs, but they are never big enough or large enough. Then you have a whole series of rules that you have to follow and a lot of them are totally limiting and not necessarily progressive. It's a whole cumbersome process, it doubles the time of everything. And there's no money in it, you can't charge proper fees.

I've got involved with it because it's sort of part of my family history. My uncle ran a nonprofit organization that helped homeless people on the outskirts of Cape Town, and my dad produced housing for them at no fees. I've always had this in my blood. The truth is that you can't make a living out of this in a decent way. I won this competition in Los

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Angeles, and it took eight years to build the housing! The Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles had a show called Blueprints for Modern Living and, as part of that, they decided to have a showcase piece. They ran an international competition and I won it. (I was shocked that I won it, to be honest). In a way, I didn't want to win it because we had to produce housing on a site that they had chosen, which was in the Hollywood Hills. Before anything really began, you had everybody screaming and shouting to not live next to it. "Not in my backyard" and this sort of stuff.

But the worst thing was that very few of the developers who decided to participate were sophisticated. I got a pair of people from the Hollywood Hills who really had no experience working together. We had to find another team to build it. Well, it took all this time. We redesigned it many times. The person in charge of that particular area of the city absolutely fought for our competition entry to be built. That could have been scuttled, but he was very aggressive about that. So, every time another possibility came up, I thought "Oh, my God, do I want to go through that all over again?"

On the other hand, working in a place like Japan, where I built two big projects, the whole idea of social housing was just part of what you did. It had no social hiccups; people had these agencies, and it was part of their social civic duty. The sites they picked were perfectly reasonable. It takes really sophisticated people in administration to understand the worth of good design. That's why people just don't want to do it in most places.

The United States, of course, is the bad boy because they've never believed in the right to housing. The last president who was interested in bringing some revolution there was Johnson. But then the next crowd comes in, and they get rid of it. Anyway, the point is: it has actually to do with the public world, it has to do with the amount of money that's designated to do that. There's also obviously the stigmatization of the people who are homeless: quite a number of them may be ill people, they may be slightly demented, some might say, but that's not the point! It's about race, religion, and all of these things that come into play, so it has never been easy. Right now, it's really pathetic. For architects to do affordable housing, in a country like this one, it's a very complex process because you can get cities that will give land and there are programs, but they are never big enough or large enough. Then you have a whole series of rules that you have to follow and a lot of them are totally limiting and not necessarily progressive. It's a whole cumbersome process, it doubles the time of everything. And there's no money in it, you can't charge proper fees.

I've got involved with it because it's sort of part of my family history. My uncle ran a nonprofit organization that helped homeless people on the outskirts of Cape Town, and my dad produced housing for them at no fees. I've always had this in my blood. The truth is that you can't make a living out of this in a decent way. I won this competition in Los Angeles, and it took eight years to build the housing! The Museum of Contemporary Art

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in Los Angeles had a show called Blueprints for Modern Living and, as part of that, they decided to have a showcase piece. They ran an international competition and I won it. (I was shocked that I won it, to be honest). In a way, I didn't want to win it because we had to produce housing on a site that they had chosen, which was in the Hollywood Hills. Before anything really began, you had everybody screaming and shouting to not live next to it. "Not in my backyard" and this sort of stuff.

But the worst thing was that very few of the developers who decided to participate were sophisticated. I got a pair of people from the Hollywood Hills who really had no experience working together. We had to find another team to build it. Well, it took all this time. We redesigned it many times. The person in charge of that particular area of the city absolutely fought for our competition entry to be built. That could have been scuttled, but he was very aggressive about that. So, every time another possibility came up, I thought "Oh, my God, do I want to go through that all over again?"

On the other hand, working in a place like Japan, where I built two big projects, the whole idea of social housing was just part of what you did. It had no social hiccups; people had these agencies, and it was part of their social civic duty. The sites they picked were perfectly reasonable. It takes really sophisticated people in administration to understand the worth of good design. That's why people just don't want to do it in most places.

That's interesting because sometimes places that need it the most don't have the framework in place for making it happen. It becomes impossible for architects to intervene in this realm.

It's not just a US thing, it's a Latin American thing, a South African thing, it's all over the place. In order to build housing for poor people, they go to the most unattractive land at the cheapest prices, on the edges of the cities, far away from where people work. Even with changes in policy, there are usually no guts to pull it off, it's too complicated.

I'm going to do a workshop in Cape Town now, where they've just decided that they're going to build social housing in the inner-city area, proximate to the downtown area, and proximate to where the jobs are. But they haven't been able to pull it off because the city won't put up the money. And nobody there has figured out public-private partnerships, which is the obvious way to do it. Even in the Los Angeles area, it was always the profit and the nonprofit working together. They found this quickly and there were rules put in place. They found ways in which you could bring it down to a feasible prospect of building something because of those nascent public-private partnerships.

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Understanding that architecture both shapes and is shaped by our societies, and that it is openly influenced by the social and historical context of its time, in your view, will the pandemic bring about any structural changes in the profession of architecture? Is there anything that we might expect or any shifts that professionals might have to adapt to?

I would say much less in architecture than in planning. I think the changes are going to be made at a larger scale. And architecture will just go on being what it is. There's going to be more accountability. I think there's going to be more discussion about what is built and what isn't built. I think we will inevitably see more public processes, which people hate, but it seems to make sense. Particularly, it's something that engages the community.

In this regard, what are the spatial responses we need to address in order to fight for a more equitable tomorrow? In the sense that if the changes are going to be more on the planning side, how can we build fairer and less unequal cities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic?

We've got to get back to the root causes of a lot of stuff. We have to figure out how to build for people in the lower economic sector, that's for sure. We're going to have some real policy changes. I think these people should be integrated into the communities as a whole; I think the idea of ghettos of poor people is absolutely not acceptable. We're going to have to figure out what can be shared and how you can join people of different economic levels together. It could be an open space system; it's always those kinds of things that can be bringing the amenities to the city but sharing them.

It's very much intertwined with politics, of course, and the economics they're in. We were trying to do that in some pilot studio, to see if we could bridge the gap. It's going to be quite difficult. That takes a whole sea of changes, but maybe now is a better moment in time for some of that.

We were discussing affordable housing and the path to make cities more equitable. They depend, as we've seen, a lot on economic and planning policies, and the kind of framework a city manages to put in place.

Where does the relevance of the architecture discipline lie vis-à-vis the future we'll have to build?

Honestly, the problem is that we have to be free thinkers. You can't take on problems just because you know they are not correct. Yes, architecture is also a business. People want to make money, and there are a lot of shortcuts involved in that. That's where probably the kind of architects who are also teachers can have a big role, because we're dealing with

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theoretical issues as well as practical ones. So, through things like the workshops I do – and they have become quite public – we can kind of suggest different ways of doing things. We don't have the money involved with all of that, it's a set of principles. The big firms are never going to do anything other than making money, that's what they do. And it's also about the clients. Who are the clients? There are big organizations, honestly, that do care. We should give them great respect. In general, this is a very tough issue, but there's no way but to face it.


When it comes to plants and animals, endemism is a biological construct that tries to assign species to places. Spatial fixity, however, when examined through broader temporal scales, appears to be more fiction than reality since no species is indeed native or restricted solely to any area in particular. This is because endemism requires isolation, which is in itself an impossibility when one takes into account existences that are planetary in nature. Every species is undergoing continuous migration when the proper time frame is applied. The movement is fluid and ever-changing. Mediated by wind flows, water currents, migratory animals, changes in climate, and ecosystemic transformations, Earth is constantly reorganized when it comes to the relation between beings and places. Consequently, the insistence on isolation is a form of archaic, unidirectional understanding of the progression of species. Gardener Gilles Clément has suggested that “isolation cannot withstand evolution,” because it will, one way or another, eventually lead to multiple forms of intermingling. A “wonderful cacophony” will prevail. 1

Precisely because the use of space is not fixed, living beings are subject to encounters, exchanges and transformations beyond a predefined script. The potential of intersections created by movement dismantles the looming presence of tribalism by inaugurating the construction of multiple forms of cosmopolitanisms. The moment there is no claiming of original spatial qualities to any species, their distribution across the surface of the Earth becomes the result of cultural, environmental and biological processes over time rather than a struggle to implement the concept of borders. Yet, human beings have been conditioned by borders to the extent that we do not know

1. Clément, Gilles. The Planetary Garden and Other Writings. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015. pp. 16-17.
LOCUS / Responses 116 to 150


how to live without them. The definition of what belongs inside or outside fabricated limits has constrained the ways in which most of our societies are organized, from politics to religion. The ubiquitous regime of private property is the prime example. And those to whom this was not the case—like indigenous communities—were forced to comply.

If anything, Covid-19 has exacerbated this move of enclosure and isolation from the outside. We lived a kind of social endemism where the unknown was to be kept out. The particularities of a place have become more important than ever. Identities mapped again to localities. Despite the toll on the social realm, however, this retreat was not altogether negative: instead, it opened possibilities to more closely reassess conditions of specific places in the current time. The reflections in this section do just that. They engage with a locus, at once singular and universal, in order to discuss how locations matter. Locations condition how actions, ideas and objects intersect and materialize. These texts remind us that events unfold in spaces—be they homes, streets, nations, or the world. It is physical.

Although locus is the theme of this section, many of the accounts here engage with clearly defined locations only to question them. They challenge isolation by offering a return to the migratory model. Places are important insofar as they can be surpassed. These texts suggest new routes to achieve that “wonderful cacophony” and rebuild social, political and natural ecosystems where place is but an aspect and not their sole identity.


Professor of Romance Languages and Literatures and African and African American Studies. Co-Director of the Harvard Mellon Urban Initiative. Affiliated Professor in Urban Planning and Design at the Graduate School of Design. Co-Chair of the Art, Film, & Culture Committee at the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies.

BRA / Narrative / 31-Jul-2020

Originally written in Portuguese

inequallity, urban, nature, hope

Part I, July 31st, 2020

Tomorrow never comes. Like the horizon, it is always just over there. Beyond our reach, but each day has its own. Before the pandemic, tomorrows seemed more certain and grim: we increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the acidity of the oceans, deforestation. The tomorrows of today continue in the same vein, but they seem to be a little more unpredictable. What we experienced during the pandemic was not in most of our forecasts. Perhaps it is better to live among uncertainty than in a time defined by a predatory pact, which only postpones the settling of scores and accelerates the ecological imbalance, as if there were no tomorrow.

Cities in modern times are spaces of dispute between visions of the future. Who has the right to the city? Who has the right to the future? Investors? Automobiles? Mockingbirds? In the cracks that are opening up, we can imagine and trace new paths. Since the 19th century, we have lived with the anxiety of the dehumanizing effects of technology on urban life. During the second industrial revolution, it was feared that we would become automatons. We remained supreme, irreducible, and above all, social beings.

For many people, the pandemic has highlighted the social, racial, and economic injustices and disparities that structure our daily lives. Perhaps it will also help to highlight the value of urban spaces that are conducive to conviviality, agglomerations, chance encounters. Much of what, for now, will be left for tomorrow. I have, of course, my recipes for now, almost all of them obvious: fewer cars, less inequality, less authoritarianism, more free time, more democracy, more standing trees, and flowing rivers. There are legitimate disagreements about how to make it happen, but there is no doubt that a better world is within our reach.

From my investigations and experiences researching how urban futures were imagined in the past, three lessons occur to me:

1. In the history of urban planning, the unplanned always happens, the improbable often.

2. The study of the past shows that every present moment serves as proof of the unpredictability of the future.

3. Transformations always make sense in retrospect, and often only in retrospect.

As for the predictions for tomorrow, I go with poets Nelson Cavaquinho and Élcio Soares: “The sun / will shine once again.”

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Part II, March 29th, 2022

The opening verse of the above samba does much more than my quote suggests. The song " Juízo final " [Doomsday], as the title indicates, harks back to a horizon of justice imbued with faith: "Light will come to hearts / From evil the seed will be burned / Love will be eternal again." This is a prophecy, not a prognosis. In the course of human experience, time is defined by natural cycles and belief in the divine. Already in modern times, we have learned to expect a future radically different from the past and the present. In the past, people did not imagine that their forests or the streets of medieval Paris would turn into vast pastures or boulevards. Forces greater than us determined tomorrow. Over the last two or three centuries, the future has become an unknown. New generations inherit and create worlds that their predecessors would have had difficulty recognizing. We know that the sun will shine once again, but much of what it shines on may be put into question.

Urbanization on an almost planetary scale, perhaps the greatest collective experiment of our species, expresses the premise that we are the ones who shape human destiny, not some supernatural force. For those who live without God, the futures of the modern past were in flux and would be consequences of our actions. Has this relationship with tomorrow lapsed? Now, in times of climate change, it is as if we live in another condition, where catastrophes seem inevitable. The future is once again fixed and inexorable, even for those who do not believe in any final judgment. The secular mentality finds itself caught up in a crisis of faith in progress. We

have the expectation of the apocalypse, with no possibility of redemption. No matter what we do, the sun will shine once again, intensifying the consequences of greenhouse gases.

The experience of this pandemic will leave pain, loss, open wounds. It makes me want to add a fourth lesson to the previous list, which also applies to urban history. Reasonable prognoses tend to underestimate the range of possible scenarios. Reality, after all, never tires of outsmarting experts and common sense alike. Today we have sophisticated and indispensable models to try to predict the behavior of viruses, markets, climate, ecosystems, and so on. But tomorrow will always be greater than any sum of its parts. What is human always remains irreducible to a given set of variables. On the one hand, we have ways of knowing more than ever before. We can see and hear refugees fleeing cowardly invasions. Or images illustrating deforestation. And yet, an interaction at the corner bakery can always hold surprises, made of little frustrations or joys. The unforeseen nature of tomorrow can be fatal or vital. It should not allow us the arrogance of thinking we know what is coming, nor the paralysis of taking any fateful destiny as unavoidable.

In contemporary cities, urban planning almost always has to deal with crisis management, rather than inspiring new worlds. It is also true that our seeming tightrope walk results from the new worlds of previous generations. Many of our current challenges are a consequence of the innovative solutions of the past, such as the automobile. At the same time, those who imagined the most miraculous inventions decades or centuries ago would be surprised by advances that have actually occurred since then. Take gender relations, for example. Techno-messian -

222 Recall

ism and apocalyptic pessimism will not save us. But accepting the limits of what we can predict can loosen the grip of fatalistic imaginings. Who could anticipate the events of the past two years? Yes, it is quite likely that the future will be even worse than we are able to imagine. We can only predict the past. And we know that tomorrow will be different from what we expect. As long as planetary history involves human beings, surprises await us. There is a window of opportunity for dreaming. Let us stay, this time, with Maria from the song by Milton Nascimento and Fernando Brant, and her "strange mania / of having faith in life."

Renata Minerbo

Activist and Social Entrepreneur. Architect and urban designer with a degree from Mackenzie University. Founder of Acupuntura Urbana. Trustee and Head of Programming of Be The Earth Foundation.

UK / Narrative / 16-Jun-2020

Originally written in English inequallity, collectivity, urban, nature

It's hard to know what is going to be different tomorrow, since I'm still trying to understand what is happening today. What I can say is something about trends that I see getting more space to be manifested:

- People who question their lives in the city are, for the first time, leaving the urban environments to reconnect with nature and the simple ways of living.

- More localized systems, decreasing the dependency on globalized products and industries by shifting to stronger communities, smaller local businesses, and a bigger respect for nature.

- A bigger connection between people and the food they eat, the reason being either because they're growing their own veggies or because they're more interested in knowing where it comes from.

- Inequality has never been so visible, and that strengthens both collaboration and individualistic behaviors.

- Alternative economies and careers become more accessible when the current work model is questioned and proven to be unsustainable.

I guess I could keep going, but I think a local economic system, community, and connection with nature are my main wishes for the new tomorrow.

Osborne Macharia

Commercial photographer, digital artist, and designer. Bachelor's in architecture. First Kenyan ever to be appointed as a jury member for the prestigious Cannes Lion Awards and ONE CLUB/ADC Awards. Speaker at the University of Michigan's Penny Stamps Speaker Series 2018 and Design Indaba 2017.

KEN / Note / 16-May-2020

Originally written in English challenges, uncertainty, collectivity, nature

Our tomorrow should be a place where we place the human race first. It should be a world where we learn that just as nature has shown us that it's because of our diversity and differences that we flourish, thrive, and sustainably make the world a beautiful place. History has taught us that unless we all have one agenda, which is uplifting each other and making each other's lives better, then extinction is a reality not too far away.

223 LOCUS / Responses 116 to 150

Bachelor's degree in Oceanography from UERJ, Master's in Geochemistry from UFF, and PhD in Oceanology from Université de Perpignan. Adjunct Professor at the Faculty of Oceanography at UERJ. Co-author of the 6th IPCC WGI Climate Assessment Report and co-leader of the Brazilian Research Group on Ocean Acidification (BrOA).

BRA / Narrative / 17-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese nature, responsibility, restart, hope

Tomorrow, we will have a very different planet in many ways. Man's actions have been modifying the Earth, changing ecosystems, multiplying, using more and more resources to generate energy. And so, man has also managed to modify the air we breathe and the oceans, which cover 70% of the Earth's surface.

Despite the success (everything is relative) of Homo sapiens (and this species name denotes a certain arrogance, if you think about it), I would personally like everyone to have an experience of being isolated in the middle of the ocean, on top of a mountain, or in the hinterland or desert. Standing there, we can get a true sense of how small we are, and that we are part of the planet and not its owners.

We changed the planet, all right. Within a couple of centuries, we have done things that are the envy of the great geological events. But we forget (or pretend, probably) that there is no red button that says "STOP" or "BACK TO THE BEGINNING."

tions to adapt to changes in climate and ecosystems, and guarantee life in a dignified way. We hope for tomorrow to find ways to live (together) that no longer compete with geological time. We cannot be, ourselves, guinea pigs in our "experiments" with the planet.

We hope that tomorrow, as soon as possible, will bring the awareness that mankind is at stake. From the social, economic, ecological, and climatic points of view, doing nothing means threatening one's own existence or impoverishing the living conditions for a good part of humanity. It means to disgrace the name of our species. We hope, finally, that today everyone will ask and answer with honesty: what kind of world do I want for tomorrow?



Tomorrow — Two years later

Two years after I wished for more awareness about our role on the planet, I stop now and look back.

The pandemic is not over, but we are hopeful that the end is near because we already have vaccines. Despite all the flood of false information (much of it from official, governmental sources), almost everyone in the country is vaccinated.

We hope that tomorrow will not magically bring the red button because the world has never stopped for anyone to get down. We hope that the sapiens portion will show what it came for, and with creativity and generosity find solu -

Two very hard years, of losses of family and dear friends, as well as of public people that we admired who have left us.

The lessons left behind were many, but it is difficult to generalize because perceptions are very varied, very intimate.


Two years after the pandemic began, with the release of the sixth climate assessment report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) halfway through. Science has unquestionably shown man's role in modifying the climate. In the first lockdown period in 2020, and throughout all of 2020, there was a considerable reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Many "celebrated," but we must ask ourselves: At what price did the reduction in emissions come? Declining economies, increasing inequality, worsening of basic health conditions, decreasing income, precarious jobs. None of this is sustainable, either from a socioeconomic or environmental point of view.

After the first year of the pandemic, in 2021, with vaccination underway and economic activities resuming, greenhouse gas emissions have returned to the same levels as before the pandemic. In this respect, I wonder, as a scientist, if there is anything left for humanity to learn.

We talk so much about science. We talk about and experience science, with the development of the vaccines against Covid-19 and the relative relief they brought. But everyone continues to turn a deaf ear to the science of the planet. Despite the data, despite the projections for the next decade and until the end of the 21st century, the countries' ambitions to zero emissions of greenhouse gases are still negligible. If carried out to a T, the plans presented at the last convention of the parties to the UN climate agreement (COP26) in Glasgow, Scotland, will easily lead us to an increase in the planet's average temperature of around 2.6°C—more than 1 degree above the Paris agreement, signed in 2015.

course, there is, but it demands action from everyone. Individual, local, and large-scale action. We must change our consumption habits, our daily energy use. But we, the individuals, the inhabitants of a city, for example, are not the only ones who are "guilty." Industrial and agricultural activities (including the infamous deforestation) also need to change. In Brazil, these are the two largest greenhouse gas-emitting activities. We need to change our energy matrix, and we definitely don't need thermoelectric plants burning coal, polluting the atmosphere with metals and particles, and emitting carbon dioxide. The management of water resources must be accompanied by a major effort to recover the forests in the country's main watersheds, including the coastal regions. Forests sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Mangrove forests, coastal forests, accumulate even more carbon. Recycling, reuse, reverse logistics, clean energies; there are many solutions that ALREADY EXIST and can be applied immediately to decrease carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Other sustainable solutions are clamoring and begging to be invented or put in place. We need to do the groundwork, as citizens, and charge the rulers, elected by us after all, and the industry, as consumers.

So, is there no solution to the climate crisis? Of

I have an "inner" certainty that says yes. Think of solutions and don't let yourself be paralyzed by the challenge. A living being that can design a space vehicle and have it land and move around on another planet, Mars, tens of millions of kilometers away from Earth, and have this same vehicle send back photographs and data from its explorations, would it not be able to create and deploy on a large scale new means of producing energy, stop emitting greenhouse gases, and move towards a safer and more equal tomorrow? I still believe so.

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Architect with a Bachelor's degree from PUC-Rio. Managing partner of Zebulun Architecture.

BRA / Note / 29-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, nature, responsibility, regression

At the beginning of the pandemic, we had the happy realization that the world we invented can indeed stop and move more slowly. At the same time, we observed the opportunistic dispute to relax environmental regulations, resulting in the increase of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest. This, along with countless other social tragedies that are intensifying, makes me think that tomorrow will be no different and runs the risk of being worse.

Tomorrow will exist independently of us. How can we guarantee our existence, understanding that we are nature?

the past rather than as a source for the fu ture. It is important, nevertheless, that our sight into the future does not overshadow our history, neglecting where we come from. As Eduardo Galeano once put it, "the past is either mute or it is we who are deaf." In fact, a memory of our history is crucial.

Evolutionarily, we, along with all life on Earth, came from the sea. As Homo sapiens sapiens, we came from a period called the Holocene, characterized by the comfort of temperature and climatic stability that allowed our rise as a global civilized species. We now live in the so-called Anthropocene, characterized by accelerated technological development, mass destruction weapons, pathogenic pandemics, habitat destruction, climatic emergency, ecosystem services disruptions, biodiversity loss, and extinctions.

Environmentalist, economist, social entrepreneur, and venture philanthropist. Co-Founder at MARE - Maricultura Regenerativa. Bachelor's degree in Economics from UFF.

BRA / Narrative / 03-May-2020

Originally written in English challenges, technology, responsibility, expectation

To answer this question about a new tomorrow, we need to first reflect on the aspects that urgently need change because the best way to predict the future is to invent it. We should envision the opportunities we want to create instead of dealing with short-term circumstances.

People often find it easier to live as a result of

Most major crises prevent—or make it very difficult—for us to see the future. Be it environmental and climate crisis or the Covid-19 pandemic, the future is nebulous. On top of that, historically, many outcomes of crises are recurrent, having similar effects as sociological cycles. For instance, Manuel Castells said that it is common for the rise of conservatism to occur approximately ten years after major economic crises, which has shown to be a reality in the last hundred years. We also see a cycle of rising humanitarian movements after great negative historical milestones like wars.

With these considerations in mind, maybe, after the Coronavirus quarantine is over, we can expect a kind of revolution in the face of the fall of global conservatism, along with a rise in movements based on social and environmental values. After all, without this break in the


economic business-as-usual model (based on infinite growth without considering the limits of the planet, with a productivity logic that is supposed to generate wealth for all but, in practice, favors only a few), we will not be able to live a future with a proper quality of life or, actually, simply life for a long period.

Quoting Heraclitus, "change is the only constant," and Carl Safina, "the moral must guide the technical." I say that we need to find, map, and invest in regenerative solutions moving at a speed commensurate with that of our current problems. The economy must be guided by harmony between kindness, charity, sobriety, and simplicity, taking into account all forms of life, not only those that we see value in. As we live in a very complex system in which communication and symbiosis occur between so many species, sustaining the quality of life on Earth with the maintenance and productivity of ecosystem services is the only path forward. Businesses must be socially desirable, technically feasible, financially viable, and ecologically sustainable so that we achieve intergenerational justice.

I see educational methodologies, such as project-based learning, with work methodologies of open innovation and mass collaboration, as one of the best paths for our global society to organize itself. This would allow us to solve (meaning mitigate, adapt, and reverse) our biggest and hardest planetary issues such as inequality, corporate capitalism, destruction of natural environments, global warming, ocean warming, and acidification, among many others. Luckily, there are already groups of people following this track, like Project Drawdown, Bioneers, and Exponential Roadmap, just to name a few!

It's up to us to choose a path. So, what do you think? Would you join this kind of tomorrow anew, or does it sound too radical of a revolution?

Mariel Collard Arias

Architecture, landscape practitioner, researcher, and educator. Lecturer at Peter Guo-hua Fu School of Architecture at McGill University.

MEX / Narrative / 11-Aug-2020

Originally written in English

nature, responsibility, restart, hope

News of 'Tomorrow Anew' caught me reading 'Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants' by Robin Wall Kimmerer. An unlikely bestseller when published back in 2013, but one I was glad to see take No. 14 on the New York Times Paperback Nonfiction Best Sellers list earlier this year. Kimmerer is a plant ecologist, a writer, a professor, and a member of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation. Her work lies in the intersection between scientific thinking and indigenous ways of knowing. If you are reading this and have not read her book, please do—it is an important reminder that the past is never over.

When I consider the question, 'what will be different tomorrow?' I can't help but think about yesterday. I do not mean this in a nostalgic way; there is certainly no return to any former states. I refer to a yesterday that is as ancient as it is yet to come. Humans have short memories, and as an antidote, I would like to borrow from Kimmerer’s words. It is more urgent than ever to remind each other of

1. "Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants" by Robin Wall Kimmerer.

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the wisdom, intelligence, and agency of nonhuman beings and the people—often Black, Indigenous, and People of Color—who have ardently carried this knowledge from the past. Since we cannot photosynthesize ourselves, we are obligated to take from the land, but what would happen if instead of labeling the members of the natural world as commodities and resources, we saw plants and our relationships with them as gifts?

Kimmerer writes about the Anishinaabe Prophecy of the Seventh Fire, a time when all people on the planet will face a fork in the road. One path is dark and lifeless, and the other is green and flourishing; seems like an easy choice. But in order to move forward, we must first turn back and pick up from what was left behind by our ancestors. One of the lessons we use comes from the unwritten guidelines for 'taking from the planet' called 'The Honorable Harvest.1

As we make sense of the Covid-19 pandemic, I hope for a tomorrow where more humans abide by these rules.

"Know the ways of the ones who take care of you so that you may take care of them.

Introduce yourself. Be accountable as the one who comes asking for life. Ask permission before taking.

Abide by the answer. Never take the first, never take the last.

Take only what you need.

Take only which is given. Never take more than half. Leave some for others.

Harvest in a way that minimizes harm. Use it respectfully.

Never waste what you have taken. Share.

Give thanks for what you have been given. Give a gift in reciprocity for what you have taken.

Sustain the ones that sustain you, and the Earth will last forever."

Sidney Chalhoub

Professor of History, African and Afro-American Studies at Harvard University. Collaborating Professor at UNICAMP. Bachelor's in History from Lawrence University, USA, and Master's in History from Universidade Federal Fluminense. Doctorate and professorship in History from Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

BRA / Narrative / 29-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese urban, nature, responsibility, hope

For those who are doubly fortunate to remain healthy and to be able to observe a sliver of the world through the window, the Apocalypse is strange. Everything is still outside, trees standing, roofs in place, and few people in sight, although the fact that many people wear masks adds something different to the scene. The future announces itself in small everyday displacements, in the attitudes that allow us to glimpse it. Masks: self-fear, solidarity with others, the feeling of a common destiny, fear of the whole species, trust in science, active obedience.

The perception of a common destiny, for better or worse, will be the main legacy of this plague.


The capitalist intent of the global and accelerated circulation of goods has found its morbid, dystopian metaphor. So the economy will continue to be global in order to become more solidary. Sectors of it that are less market-oriented, incompatible with it in the deepest sense, will be emphasized—universal access to health services, to begin with the most basic human right, the guarantor of life and its quality, the foundation of other rights.

Innovation, mind you, will have nothing to do with productivity, acceleration. It will have to do with the preservation of life in all its forms. Big cities will be rethought. Public policies will be adopted to reduce their demographic density, to reverse their social segregation, to optimize resources regarding transportation and energy consumption. Thus, remote work will be encouraged, to free up physical space in central areas and allow them to be inhabited again by the residents who were expelled from them in the past.

Nature preservation along with climate change science will be an undisputed priority. Veganism will triumph, or at least vegetarianism, amidst a universal love for non-human animals. Human animals will be guaranteed full employment, minimum income, and quality public education. Public life will be guided by diverse institutions and systems of world knowledge: university, press, art, literature. Religions will all be equally welcomed, respecting the secularity of the State and the independence of science.

It will pass. Tomorrow will be another day.



As I now read what I wrote on May 29, 2020, two things occur to me. First, that historians really live in the past and should not bother to make predictions. It is better to leave this part to economists and political scientists because then they will be the only ones to always get it wrong. Second, it is nice to see that at that moment, the pandemic inspired me to write a draft of utopia. It must have been a very desperate moment. Or maybe not. Nothing is scarier than the ongoing barbarism that has plagued Bruzundanga for over three years, this frightening prospect of a tumultuous election year, with the country once again facing uniformed, armed people, arrogating to themselves the right to tutelage the political life of the country. In Bruzundanga, the past does not pass because it is always before us.

History really serves no purpose, it teaches nothing, at best it distracts. If it could guide us at all, that superb world that I imagined would come, full of lessons from the pandemic, will still come, at least in part. Epidemics change societies by the trauma they cause in the long run. We all know that we are no longer the same, that something has changed, something that we still can't process or understand properly. Well, let the economists and political scientists place their bets. I say no more, I am the most shriveled-up of snails. A first indication of the future, whether we will have one again, at least in Bruzundanga, shall be seen in October.

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Marina Grinover

Architect and urban planner from FAU-USP, Master and PhD from FAU-USP. Partner of the Base Urbana architecture office. Professor at FAU-USP, Escola da Cidade, and FAAP. Guest lecturer at MIT, at the Center for Advanced Urbanism – CAU, 2018.

BRA / Narrative / 26-Apr-2020

Originally written in Portuguese inequality, collectivity, nature, responsibility

Probably one of the most important lessons of this pandemic is that we are all connected. Not only because the virtual data network allows everyone, even in a situation of material poverty, to be connected. But because, who knows, concretely, we will live what the wise Amazon Indians say: we are all immersed in the same fluid, our lives are all implicated. Humans and other beings are all in this wonderful ship, Earth. This planet, whose existence as we know it is being put to the test and which, at this moment, threatens the way human beings live on it, is our home. We are all experiencing more intensely the difficulties and satisfactions of being home. We see on the net the martyrdom of those who have no home or a precarious home, how fundamental to existence is the lack of a safe place to renew our energies.

The global economic system is destroying the planet. Tomorrow could be much worse if we continue to consume our natural and human wealth in the greedy and concentrating way that humanity has been doing for at least the last 250 years.

Tomorrow we can consume less and share more. Share monetary wealth, concentrated today, to recover the life of all that was destroyed by the pandemic and the exploitative economic sys -

tem that organizes its production. Sharing the land, concentrated in the hands of a few who speculate and exploit a good that should have no owner. To share the knowledge whose concentration deprives many from an autonomous and free life. Sharing experience, contact, action instead of possession, of speculative exchange. Sharing without wanting to grow or exploit financially.

Yes, enough. Let's be less, have less, and feel more how integrated we are in the mystery of life, and this has already begun, now, not tomorrow.

Probably one of the most important lessons of this pandemic is that we are all connected. Not only because the virtual data network allows everyone, even in a situation of material poverty, to be connected. But because, maybe, concretely, we will experience what the wise Amazon Indians say: We are all immersed in the same fluid, our lives are all implicated. Humans and other beings are all in this wonderful ship, Earth. This planet, whose existence as we know it is being put to the test and which, at this moment, threatens the way human beings live on it, is our home. We are all experiencing more intensely the difficulties and satisfactions of being home. We see on-line the martyrdom of those who have no home or have a precarious one, how fundamental to existence is the lack of a safe place to renew our energies.

The global economic system is destroying the planet. Tomorrow could be much worse if we continue to consume our natural and human wealth in the greedy and concentrating way that humanity has been doing for at least the last 250 years.


Tomorrow we can consume less and share more. Share monetary wealth, concentrated today, to recover the life of all that was destroyed by the pandemic and the exploitative economic system that organizes its production. Sharing the land, concentrated in the hands of a few who speculate and exploit an asset that should have no owner. To share the knowledge whose concentration deprives many from an autonomous and free life. Sharing experience, contact, action instead of possession, of speculative exchange. Sharing without wanting to grow or exploit financially.

Yes, enough. Let’s be less, have less, and feel more how integrated we are in the mystery of life, and this has already begun, now, not tomorrow.

Senior at Harvard University studying Environmental Law and Justice. Intern at the Harvard Undergraduate Resource Efficiency Program.

USA / Narrative / 02-Jun-2020

Originally written in English routine, politics, nature, responsibility

Although the virus has been unquestionably devastating for most of the world, in analyzing its causes and effects, we have an opportunity to learn important lessons about our relationship, as humans, with the climate. Our climate is in trouble, and if we are going to stop global warming and reach our 1.5°C reduction goal, emissions would have to fall by an average of 7.6% every year. Something will have to change.

In China, they are considering a stimulus package that would cushion and boost clean energy investment, incentivizing people to take advan -

tage of the low price even though the returns might not be immediate. Many are taking this as an opportunity to evaluate how much we travel, how much meat we eat, and how many unnecessary goods we consume while our lives are on pause.

The future of work might be working from home more often instead of commuting to work every day. It could mean favoring Zoom conferences over flying long distances for meetings. What is clear is that if we are going to reach our goal, travel needs to account for a significantly smaller portion of the economy. What we cannot do is overcompensate for the economic losses we are experiencing right now through stimulus packages and policies that will maintain the status quo and increase emissions. For example, in the United States, President Trump has issued an executive order to keep meat plants open even though many of their workers cannot come in because of the virus. Not only are policies like this insensitive to the workers, but they are also directly harmful to the environment.

I believe that Covid-19 has exposed one of the greatest failures of human existence: today it is the case that human flourishing is necessarily negatively correlated with the flourishing of the climate which we inhabit. Our measures for success are completely negligent of the environment that makes our success possible. When GDP is high, air quality is often low. When industry is booming, so are emissions. When unemployment is low, the number of cars on the road and planes in the sky skyrockets. What this massive disruption in our normal and what is considered productive behavior has shown us is that if we wish to achieve the environmental goals that we have set for ourselves, we have to

231 LOCUS / Responses 116 to 150

completely rethink the status quo. Perhaps the more surprising, and yet disturbing, observation about our governments' responses to the virus is that they have the capacity to completely change industry, human behavior, and markets, and we are still at a point where many refuse to take such drastic measures to combat climate change.

Urban planner, geographer, and spatial data scientist. Bartlett Professor of Planning at University College London. Chairman of the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA). Fellow of the British Academy (FBA), the Royal Society (FRS), and the Academy of Social Sciences (FAcSS).

UK / Narrative / 14-May-2020

Originally written in English

technology, urban, adaptation

The Coronavirus crisis: What will the postpandemic city look like?

Many times in these editorials over the last 30 years have I speculated on how we might think about cities in terms of their dynamics. The central constructs in such thinking involve ways in which cities can be disrupted by new technologies, and how a myriad of networks define the way energy, materials, people and information come together to generate levels of complexity, unimaginable before the industrial revolution. This science suggests how resilient cities are in the face of unanticipated, often chaotic events, due to the fact that cities are constructed and evolve from the bottom up. A favourite model is based on the notion that if a city is conceived of as a network, then we should be able to figure out the set of cascading consequences that rapidly diffuse from some break in transmission. This relates to how we might get a handle

on such repercussions if we are able to observe these networks in much more detail than we have been able to in the past. It was Edward Lorenz (1993) who in 1972, first articulated this notion of unanticipated effects or chaos in the weather, in his question ‘Does the Flap of a Butterfly’s Wings in Brazil Set Off a Tornado in Texas?’ or more critically for cities, in the words a popular 1960s song how ‘...the lights went out in Massachusetts’. Or more to the point, how these seemingly random events in distant places like a wild life market in the Chinese city of Wuhan, suddenly throw the world into a global lockdown as an unknown virus begins to spread more rapidly than we could ever envisage.

Nothing, nothing whatsoever, could have prepared us for what has happened since the beginning of this year. I know that some researchers and public health professionals who have been modelling pandemics have argued that they were always aware of the risks but that no one has ever taken them seriously enough. Even Bill Gates (2015) has been preaching the dangers of a pandemic for years as reflected in his TED talk. But for over 100 years since the socalled Spanish flu at the end of the First World War, we have not really taken to heart the idea that everyone and everywhere might be infected by a disease that we were unable to control. I remember as a young boy growing up in Liverpool in the 1950s being somewhat afraid of various viruses such as polio and smallpox but they were fast being eradicated, disappearing by the end of the 20th century. The obviousness of what has now happened however is sobering, indeed humbling. We were able to control SARS, Ebola too and other respiratory diseases in the recent past, but the sheer virulence of the Coronavirus has taken us by surprise. The fact that we are all connected so closely to every -


one else due to global travel and global supply chains has spread the disease much faster than we were able to grasp. This has revealed that our perceptions of the way the world is globally connected lag far behind the actual reality, while the density of this connectivity appears to have grown exponentially since the Millennium.

Over the last 20 or so years, there has been some limited progress in figuring out what happens when a large network composed of tens of thousands of nodes and even more links goes down, that is, experiences some break in connectivity or transmission. We know that networks usually have a distinct structure and social and communications networks are usually composed of different clusters of nodes that reflect our competitive nature and our need to agglomerate. Such networks have gatekeepers who control key links between the clusters – weak ties – while the size of the clusters themselves are arranged according to various power laws where very often networks have giant components. Moreover, many networks are extremely resilient to attacks on their nodes or their links. There are many social and economic networks that are very difficult to bring down even if key nodes and segments are removed. In some respects, this is both the great strength as well as the great weakness of many human networks. In some networks, there is so much redundancy that it is almost impossible to bring them down, meaning stopping transmission of information between their parts, and this a great strength if what is being communicated is essential for the life blood of the system. This is easy to see if a key highway goes down through an accident. There are usually many alternative routes. But if what is being communicated is undesirable like a disease, a bad idea, or an il -

licit and potentially harmful drug, a network with great redundancy is not what one wants. To intervene positively to either build new links that would enable better communication or to remove links and hubs that could kill the undesirable communication at one fell swoop, then the connectivity or the density of hubs and links is all important. In the case of the Coronavirus, to stop the virus spreading one has to target the clusters where the super-spreaders of one type are located or the weak ties where another type of super-spreader exists. This can only be done by very detailed contact tracing that is expensive and will always miss some cases. Stamping out the virus in this way is difficult for it amounts to squeezing it out of the system, in its entirety. A vaccine to reduce its effects or to make the host immune is the only way.

All the examples we have of adding or removing links and hubs from a network are minuscule compared to the networks involved in the current pandemic. To stop transmission beyond the household or dwelling unit demands a total lockdown which means that everybody needs to stay at home – to self-isolate in the current jargon. This would kill the transmission of the virus to anyone outside the household but it would be akin to simply dismantling the entire network. This is not physically possible for the population must still consume the most basic necessities so what has been adopted is a lockdown for all but the category of key or essential workers. In the UK, there are about 32 million persons in employment and about 5 millions of these are defined to be essential workers. This gives some idea of the scale of the lockdown. Very roughly, we might say that this implies that about 80% of the social and economic networks of the country are currently locked down, and non-functional. It is a unique and entirely un -

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anticipated situation and there is very little idea of what will happen next as there are severe demands for this situation to be eased so that the economy can be rebooted back to its pre-crisis levels. There are no examples in the literature of any cases where networks have been targeted in this way even in theoretical terms and thus we have little or no experience of knowing how such a network might recover.

Recover of course it will but if the lockdown were completely released tomorrow, the economy would not come back in one fell swoop. Far from it for it would take some time to reboot various industries and services. There would be differential effects related to supply chains and once one examines this in the wider global context where different nations and cities are recovering at different rates, none of this is bound to be smooth. But parts of the economy will not come back in any case. It cannot restore itself to its former glory for some businesses will have gone broke, unemployment is bound to rise. About half of all employment is currently being unpinned at a lower level financially by government, and it is most unlikely that these workers will have saved enough to recover their former life styles, at least for a while. Recent predictions suggest that this virus will lead to the greatest economic recession since the Great Frost of 1709 – which is so long ago that it is not possible to make comparisons (Schofield, 2020). One might as well say since the Black Death, it is so unrealistic a comparison.

The biggest change however is likely to come from changes in the way we move around. Until a vaccine is found – if it is found although there is a very strong chance that something to alleviate the symptoms will be – then people will be very wary of keeping close to one

another. Social distancing which implies that if we do not know that anyone within two meters of ourselves has the virus, we will always keep more than two meters from them. Many movements on public transport in cities greater than about 50,000 population have crowding at peak hours where this rule is likely to be adopted socially in a time when it will be no longer be mandatory or strongly advisable as it currently is in the UK. This is likely to lead to changes in our modes of transport. In fact for two weeks before the current lock down in the UK which occurred on March 23, I walked to work instead of using the ‘Tube’ and 2 weeks earlier when I returned to the UK from the US to Terminal 2 at Heathrow on February 16, it struck me that we should have been exercising much more caution especially as a plane from Beijing had just disgorged its passengers and half those in baggage claim were wearing masks. Social distancing may well be here to stay especially if the disease becomes endemic and we are unable to eliminate it which is quite possible as in the case of various strains of influenza.

Shifts in mode when people avoid public transport and resort to walking or cycling or to travelling in their own cars are likely to be a fairly immediate consequence of the pandemic and this will probably have a major effect on the amount of travel undertaken. Many more people having adapted to working from home, may well continue to do so, at least for part of the week. In fact before the pandemic during the last calendar year (2019), the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS, 2020) reported that 5% of workers worked from home all the time, 27% worked from home at some point in the year and 8% worked close to their homes in the same complex of buildings. This suggests that up to 40% could work from home if the conditions


were right and if there was continued pressure to social distance. If this were the case, then the impact on transport would be dramatic.

We may well see a rise in demand for car travel, reversing the slow decline which has been happening in many countries since the late 20th century. If we see a significant increase in car usage, this could well sound the death knell for the compact city idea. During the Second World War, the idea that we should ‘decentralize’ our activities away from big cities took on a new urgency. Throughout the 19th century, the drive towards urban planning was based around the notion that we should return to the countryside to avoid the evils of the big city, indeed the garden cities movement and the idea of new towns reflected these concerns. And this was long before we acquired the ability to travel individually using the automobile.

Indeed the history of the city in the 20th century is one of letting the city ‘breath’ through a decentralization of congested activities from housing to industry to services in edge cities, low-density urban sprawl and new communities far from the central city. Combined with working from home and severe social distancing, these old ideas look increasingly attractive.

During the Second World War in the UK, the strategy that emerged was based on decentralization from the urban heartlands. The various reports which were produced for government by Barlow, Scott and Uthwatt suggested that the industrial population should be dispersed, that to avoid a repeat of the bombing, we should live in smaller places, with industry widely decentralized and with an implication that towns should be more self-sufficient.

those far-off days was in fact referred to rather darkly as ‘the coffin’ due to the shape of the predominant industrial development in Britain in the area embracing London, the Midlands, the North West and West Yorkshire. It was this area that was largely regarded as the region of the country from which one should redistribute the population. At a more local scale, this policy came to be implemented particularly in the British new towns. Years where a degree of self-containment with respect to employment and population would minimize travel, notwithstanding it was entirely counter to the way in which our towns and cities had developed since the start of the industrial revolution.

Needless to say this policy of self-containment was impossible to implement, deeply flawed in that cities grew ever more rapidly around their edges and commuting distances became ever longer. By the late 20th century however, policies to compact the city rather than establish new towns around its edge began to be implemented such as development on brown field sites, and this was accompanied by various policies to constrain the car and reduce pollution largely through taxation and road pricing. The emergence of smart growth through policies associated with transit-oriented development came onto the agenda and before the pandemic began, the notion of a greener, more compact way of urban living was beginning to establish itself as our love affair with the car began to dwindle. The fact that as our cities grew and began to compact, the price of housing and everything else within grew ever faster and more than proportionately to our individual wealth and this a major dilemma.

The core of urban development in Britain in

The pandemic will probably end all this as we strive to keep our distance from one another in

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many different ways, certainly in the immediate future. Much will depend on how the pandemic plays out.

Perhaps a bigger casualty of this crisis will be air travel and tourism. We have in the last two months taken to Skype, Zoom, Teams and such-like web-based conferencing systems and progress in making this experience as painless as possible has been rapid. I for one will think twice now about travelling long distances to give a talk where you barely see the place you visit and spend long hours in crowded airports waiting for planes that seem to be continually disrupted and overbooked and living in hotel rooms that are too cramped. Much of this can now be done on-line. Tourism too will suffer and change accordingly, not least because people will not wish to put themselves at risk but as much because we are likely in the short and medium term to be a good deal poorer, needing to rebuild our own economies. In fact, the parts of the local economy that will find it hardest to return to pre-pandemic times will be restaurants, pubs and large entertainment venues where we gather for much longer periods of time and where we are likely to be more exposed than in airports, trains stations, or at work where we have some control over our self-distancing.

It is globalization in general that is likely to change most dramatically because so much of our world is now built around supply chains that satisfy demand that cannot be met locally. Before the pandemic, there was already a strong movement globally in many nations where the concern was with bringing production back onshore. The best example is in our health systems. In Britain, we have a good, equitable and efficient national health system. During this crisis, it has not been starved of expertise in terms

of health care workers but it has been starved of the right equipment because much of it is made offshore. This will have to change just as the health care system is itself likely to become ever more significant in thinking about how we organize contemporary society. If there was ever an argument for bringing production back onshore even though it might be much more expensive in terms of labor to do so, it is related to our public health.

That there will be a new normal, I have no doubt. What this normal will look like, in terms of cities and everything else, is still in the realms of speculation. Much is being written about this near future, but events are unfolding at amazing speed. Bringing the economy back is a critical issue in such a way that damage is minimized but once again we are in uncharted territory. In our domain, we should be able to say something about how when you lockdown an economy in the way we have done, it should come back. We need to predict the sequence of bringing jobs back to traditional ways of working and what casualties there will be with respect to the order in which they are brought back. And all this has to be factored into the virus suppression, to keeping the ‘curve flat’ so-to-speak and avoiding more damaging waves of infection that continue to threaten life. We may well see walkable cities emerge, we may well see much more work from home, a decline in redundant international travel, a move to produce more locally and cities built around health care. But we may see much more sprawl as people seek to get away from big cities to small towns, we may see a growth in car travel and a decline in public transport, we may see countervailing trends reinforcing each other such as working from home at much farther distances away from cities, we may see more social isolation, and differ -


ent kinds of social epidemic related to changes in our health and longevity. That the future is unknown there can be little doubt but the fact that it is in our hands to invent it is something that we need to take to heart (Batty, 2018). In the spirit of the theories and tools that we profess to research in the pages of this journal, we need to consider the myriad of networks that compose the contemporary city and work out how these will change as the pandemic is managed. Many nodes and links in these networks will change. Consider what we have said about transport. Major changes could take place in the modes of transport we use with many public transports declining rapidly, many people working from home and many supply chains being refashioned. Some networks may well disappear while new ones will take their place. How the pandemic maps onto these networks is of obvious significance but the ramifications of changes in our social behaviour will be deep and wide and the new normal that emerges will be very different from that of the immediate past. These changes will impact on every corner of our world. Suppressing the virus in one country or one city will not lead to its return to the old normal as it sits within a global network where every place will have its own behavioral response. There are dangers too in moving to a more decentralized, isolated kind of world where crowding has disappeared and everybody lives at much lower densities. In conclusion, I am reminded of E. M. Forster’s (1909) wonderful story written many years ago about what happens when such a world of isolation breaks down. In his story ‘The Machine Stops’, Forster paints a picture of a world that is underground, where everyone is connected by an ‘Internet’ of sorts, where production and consumption are a strange mix of local and global, where most never venture outside and where most do not

really know how such a world sustains itself. It is not quite the world that we have entered in lockdown but there are many similarities. Forster’s new world was one in which an old world had been built around ‘...bringing people to things, instead of for bringing things to people’, strangely prescient in these unusual times of ours. His story recounts how the world of social isolation that had become a new normal was breaking apart due the fact that the society had lost its ‘... sense of space’. He continues by quoting one his principal characters saying ‘We say “space is annihilated”, but we have annihilated not space, but the sense thereof. We have lost a part of ourselves’. There are many features of this world that remind us of the lockdown and the story is really all about how the machine that sustains such a world is stopping. One cannot help thinking about our own Internet in this context, and how, in the present crisis, it continues to operate. To an extent, we have avoided thinking very hard however about the sustainability of our physical networks and supply chains, particularly those providing basic needs which have become increasingly global too. Forster ends his story with the machine breaking but he does not speculate further on what kind of world will return. I will end my story too by simply asking the reader to absorb Forster’s essay and his message – it is on-line in many places. His speculations are better than any I can reflect upon here and thus provide a sense of what might occur and what we might do as the immediate future begins to unfold.

Originally published on SAGE Journals.

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Isaac Karabtchevsky

Maestro, Artistic Director, and Principal Conductor at the Petrobras Symphonic Orchestra and Artistic Director at the Baccarelli Institute.

BRA / Narrative / 04-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, nature, adaptation, expectation

We are all aware that in the near future, human relationships will be different. As a result of the Coronavirus, it is as if the time factor will be interrupted and, instead of encompassing a development dictated by the course of history, will suddenly be condensed. The formula of evolution that has accompanied human beings since the beginning will be curtailed and, without any reverence or concession to the dialectic principle, will give way to new habits. Perhaps we will change our expectations or priorities, which could certainly ensure a more just society—that would be a great achievement, let's thank the virus!

Which brings me back to a work I read as a teenager, Brave New World, by the great Aldous Huxley, a book that is a mix of science fiction and social criticism. Written in 1932, Huxley foreshadows the whole nightmare that was World War II, with its gas chambers, concentration camps, and slaughter never before seen in human history. According to Huxley, society will be transformed, and humans will emerge fortified.

Daniel Corsi

Architect and Urban Planner, Bachelor's degree from the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism at Universidade Mackenzie. Founding Partner of Atelier Daniel Corsi. Professor at the undergraduate and graduate levels at FAU-Universidade Mackenzie and at Escola da Cidade.

BRA / Narrative / 29-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, nature, responsibility, hope

Stop with me for a second.

Let's think for a moment about where we are going and how. Let’s admit that what we are living today puts us on the threshold of an optimistic belief that everything can change, and a petrified pessimism that everything remains terribly the same. In the midst of this dilemma, the great powers that lead us clash wildly, and we, mere humans, remain adrift and hostages of our own civilization, but facing a new chance.

This is what we all ardently desire!

Twenty years have passed in our 21st century, a brief interval of time that continues to make us witness ever greater crises. Let’s remember that we saw it coming with the horrific drama of towers being blown to the ground, and years later with the incomprehensible flow of money collapsing harmful banking and financial systems. In its second decade, unjustifiable wars contributed, once again, to the mutilation of our sisters and brothers, and led to subsequent unprecedented migrations of millions of human beings abandoned, until today, to their own fate. In addition to this, environmental disasters—many of them in fact propelled by human action—have revealed the ferocity of a nature uncomfortable with its inhabitants. And so, unfortunately, we now see a new crisis uniting the planet under the effects of the invisible power of a tiny virus that is capable of neutralizing the


healthy and the sick in an astonishing way.

Let’s look at it head on, let’s face something that is decidedly not good, something sick and of which we are all a part. Our bankruptcy is political, social, economic, environmental, and now, biological, each of those carrying its ethical and moral effects on human beings and, we may say, costing many lives.

In what History are we taking part? Where are we as Humanity at this moment, 2020? Can you imagine that the "children of tomorrow," generations born in this century, may not even know what it means to awaken to a feeling other than fear? And so, we all ask ourselves, what will be different tomorrow?

But before this question, let us ask ourselves another equally unavoidable one: What was different yesterday? Of course, to the mind come the many human wonders, the thoughts, the sciences, the arts, the discoveries and inventions, permeated by the delicacy of poetry that also distinguishes us. But the portrait does not reveal itself in its fullness, and we are quickly paralyzed by the memory of the consequences of the same evils, crises, and intermittent brutalities that still push us to some unknown place in time.

Where were we and what did we feel in 1920, 1820, 1720...? Although between conflict and peace, since Homer we have tried to understand the basic notion of community. How then can such a fundamental value remain a fiction? Is it so unfeasible? Memory helps and reminds me of a possible optimist.

In 1759, Voltaire brought to light his Candide, an ordinary being, unjustifiably torn apart by all the possible evils of the world of that time,

which would differ from those of today only by proportions and names: the Seven Years’ War, the Inquisition, the Lisbon earthquake, and colonial slavery, among others. Candide goes through all this reluctantly, but still appeased by a philosophy that had made him accept that everything would be fine and that the world was just the way it was, all he had to do was put up with it. But from this " naïve optimism" a fierce non-conformism erupts that makes Candide cry out that no, everything could not be all right. This is how at one point he wonders if men "have always been liars, clever, perfidious, ungrateful, thieves, weak, fickle, cowards, jealous, gluttons, drunkards, avaricious, ambitious, bloodthirsty, slanderers, depraved, fanatical, hypocritical, and stupid"1, and that something should differentiate him from the condition of other beings: "there is a difference, for free will..." 2

This is how, in an elementary way, Candide transitions to what we might call a "mature optimism." It is with him, and by the consequences of his own decisions, that he is led to have his sufferings redeemed by an intimately peaceful end of life. All this not by chance, but deliberately chosen by himself, far from any ambition or vanity, aware of his place in the world and of the fundamental need he places on himself and on his own about how necessary it is to take care of ourselves and of what is around us. Candide concludes that, even in the face of all evils, "we must cultivate our garden."3

All hail if Candide's garden was the world and Candide was humanity!

2. Id. P. 127.

3. Id. P. 185.

He cries out here for

1. VOLTAIRE. Cândido ou o otimismo. Portuguese translation by S. Titan Jr. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2016. P. 127.
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the awareness that the unjustifiable moral and physical evils are also a result of us. The final delivery to his little garden is symbolic, it is generous, it is his share of responsibility for the world he then seeks to care for, without the pretension of powerful achievements, but with the consummation of his simple part. Even though philosophy may have revised it, this is the redeeming and most sensitive saying in this story.

This garden is ours, and we must tend it with sensitivity, with the delicateness that José Saramago told us he tended his own garden in Lanzarote. This is the same Saramago who, worried about tomorrow, once said: "We will increasingly feel lost, lost first of all from ourselves and secondly lost in our relationship with the world. We end up moving around without knowing what we are, or what we are for, or what meaning there is to existence."4

How can we remain inert in the face of such an inquiry, static in the face of the danger of a nullification of the senses and a hollow future, pierced by the rusty dagger of human misery? Amazingly, it seems that we have not yet assimilated either the garden or the possibility of its extinction.

No! Humanity can no longer be postponed! It cannot be that it has to reside in the universe of the imponderable. There are transformations to be claimed, decisions to be made, revolutions to be lived, changes to be conquered. So what can be different today?

Let us be attentive to the answers that are already hovering in the thick air of this very 21 st century. Let their

powerful voices echo in our ears, among them those of these three girls who, clamoring for tomorrow, take us by surprise in the present. Let us listen to the voices that emerge, for they are watching (and charging) us with their despair and hope.

In 2013, at the ends of the world, Valter Hugo Mãe puts us before the silent cries of the little girl Halla who, at the age of 12, shows us that nothing can remain the same, nothing: "Said the old men loaded with useless ideas. The deep old men. Spent of courage, increased of distrust... As if the future were prepared to be equal to the past, to the days they had spent. As if I were still in time to be equal to them." 5

In 2014, seventeen-year-old Pakistani Malala Yousafzai summons everyone with her words, "Dear sisters and brothers, dear children, we must work, not wait. Not just politicians and world leaders, we all need to contribute. Me. You. We. It is our duty... Let's become the first generation that decides to be the last to see empty classrooms, lost childhoods, and wasted potential... Let's start closing this together, today, here, and now."6

In 2019, sixteen-year-old Swedish Greta Thunberg vociferates before our so-called global leaders: "You say you love your children above all else, and yet you are stealing their future in front of their very eyes. How dare you?... I want you to panic. I want you to feel the fear I feel every day. And then I want you to act... We can't just continue living as if there was no tomorrow, because there is a tomorrow." 7

4. JANELA DA ALMA. [Window of the soul] Director: João Jardim, Walter Carvalho. Rio de Janeiro: Tambellini Filmes, 2001. 5. MÃE, Valter Hugo. The Dehumanization. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2014. P. 15.
6. YOUSAFZAI, Malala. Nobel Lecture. Oslo: The Nobel Prize, 2014.

So, amidst the pendulum effect of order and disorder that accompanies us, and in the face of the voices that call out to us, it is imperative that we become aware that it is in the present that everything exists and that it is in it that we need to act. It is imperative that we stop any kind of evil that plagues our fellowship. It is imperative that we take a combative attitude toward all that destroys us. It is imperative that we value something more than power. Furthermore, it is imperative that human life not be diminished to consumption and money. Why have so much? Why excessive accumulation when there is a lack of what is essential to others? It is imperative to respect diversity, be it of race, gender, belief, culture, or any other fundamental right of those who exist. Any inequality is inadmissible. There is no meritocracy that justifies such violence. It is inhuman, ignorant, stupid, and evil.

Let us know that there are several worlds that make up our world and it is from this richness that its power, its beauty, is born. It is imperative that we exercise an ethic that supports the other with affection and peace: "Hell is not the others. They are heaven, because a man alone is just an animal. Humanity begins in those around you, and not exactly in you... With no one in the present or in the future, the individual thinks as senselessly as the fish do."8

Today, the idea of thinking about the world united by a common sense is possible: survival. We are not alone and we don't have to do it that way. Young Halla recalls from her elders, "Those who have children need the future.

I heard them talk like that."9

Today, Heitor and Julio—my two sons—are only one year old and need a world that should endure in their hands. Many other children need it, I need it, we all need it. Let's think that we are all at the same time parents and children of this humanity, from which we reap and where we must sow.

Please, a little sensitivity to others. A little reason, because for now the time is still ours. Just look at the world, it is still there, continuously being born and dying, but still alive, pulsating. It takes human appreciation and passion for the opportunity of life. We need to exercise our freedom and, with it, build some meaning where originally there is none.

In the end, maybe we are just that: a humanity that skates on its fragilities and absurdities, but that keeps trying to understand its existence. We already see ourselves as naturally good beings. We already see ourselves as naturally bad beings. If so, I am left with the freedom to be whatever we choose to be. If so, I am left with the sensitive dimension of the human being, its delicacy, its solidarity, its altruism, its love. So I leave here the gesture that, perhaps, humanity almost always lacks: with the strength of seven billion, my embrace.

There, let us now follow the march that is ours.

7. ALTER, C.; HAYNES S.; WORLAND, J. Time 2019 Person of The Year: Greta Thunberg. Time Magazine, New York, 23-30, Dez. 2019. 8. MÃE, Valter Hugo. A desumanização. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2014. P. 15.
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9. MÃE, Valter Hugo. The Dehumanization. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2014. P. 15.

Professor of Geography. PhD in Geography from the Universidade Federal Fluminense and PhD from Flinders University.

BRA / Narrative / 16-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, urban, nature, adaptation

Among the many things that I believe will change in our social dynamics is our relationship to and behavior on beaches, or so I hope. Perhaps because it has been my object of study throughout my academic life, or simply because I miss it, the future of beaches and the coastal environment as a whole is something I have reflected on a lot. The closure of beaches in different parts of the world has certainly had very positive effects, creating a breathing space for coastal and marine life, and has certainly contributed to an improvement in the quality of the beaches. But will we get over the worst of this pandemic and return to normality? That is, crowded beaches and inadequate sewage dumping in coastal regions? Going to the beach and bathing in the sea has been considered a therapeutic practice since the 19th century, but today many urban beaches are considered to have the opposite effect. What will be the future of beaches? Will we be forced to restrict access to something that is so democratic? Will we be able to? Should we? Actually, my answer comes with many questions. In many countries, for example, Australia, access to beaches has gradually returned with many rules and restrictions, especially in urban areas. This may be the new normal, beaches without crowds and with many rules of coexistence, but will we be able to apply these measures in Brazilian beaches? One thing will certainly change, many people will increasingly opt for more secluded beaches,

looking for healthier environments that provide more freedom.

Christiana Figueres

Diplomat and leader on global climate change. Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 2010-2016. Co-founder of Global Optimism. Co-host of the podcast "Outrage & Optimism". Chair of The Earthshot Prize Foundation.


/ Essay / 24-Mar-2020

Originally written in English challenges, politics, nature, responsibility

Five lessons from Coronavirus that will help us tackle climate change

Could the devastating impact of the new Coronavirus pandemic destroy the momentum that the climate movement has built up over the last year? Some say so, fearing that the economic fallout will push climate down the list of priorities for governments, and that travel restrictions will force a delay to the U.N. climate conference.

That can’t happen. What brought us to this point of unprecedented interest in taking climate action is climate change itself. We have witnessed huge, record-breaking fires and floods, from California to Siberia, all in the space of one year. Sadly those negative impacts will continue, both in frequency and intensity. If we thought we could forget about it, I’m sad to say, nature will remind us.

In fact, I believe the last few weeks, as terrible as they have been for so many people, have taught us crucial lessons that we needed to learn in order to enter a new era of radical, collaborative action to cut emissions and slow climate change. Like everyone else, I can’t believe we’ve


learned these five lessons in a matter of days.

Global challenges have no national borders. Some people used to think that they would be immune to global crises like climate change unfolding “on the other side of the world.” I think that bubble has burst. No one is geographically immune to the Coronavirus and the same is true for climate change.

As a society, we’re only as safe as our most vulnerable people. During the Covid-19 outbreak, the elderly and those with health conditions are more vulnerable to the Coronavirus and the poor are more vulnerable to its economic impact. That makes us all more vulnerable too. That lesson has taken us into a space of solidarity that we’ve never seen before. We are taking care of each other both out of altruism and because we want to make sure that we’re safe. That’s exactly the thinking we need to deal with climate change.

Global challenges require systemic changes — changes that can only be activated by government or companies. But they also require individual behavioral changes. We need both. We have seen over the past few weeks that governments can take radical action and we can change our behaviour quite quickly.

Prevention is better than cure. It’s cheaper and safer to prevent people from catching and spreading the virus than to attempt to treat huge numbers of cases at once. That’s always been the case in the health sector. And in climate change it is much better to prevent runaway temperature rises than to figure out how to deal with the enormous consequences.

All our response measures need to be based on science. There are a lot of myths around Coronavirus, just as there are a lot of myths around climate change. But the countries and individuals basing their responses on what the health professionals are saying are doing better. Likewise on climate change we must take action in line with what the science tells us, rather than following myths or misinformation.

Of course, there are also key differences with Covid-19 that make responding to climate change a more positive experience. The Coronavirus needs to be addressed through personal isolation, while the climate needs to be tackled through coming together and collaborating. Social distancing measures have caused economic paralysis, while our response to climate change should actually strengthen and improve the economy.

Governments and financial leaders are already considering recovery packages for an economy so badly hit by the virus. Surprisingly, these decisions will be the most important decision on climate change. If investments to kick start the paralyzed economy are directed into high carbon assets and industries, we will lock out our current potential to bend the curve of emissions this decade. On the other hand, with interest rates at an all time low, political and financial leaders now have an unprecedented historical opportunity to accelerate the energy transition putting us onto a safe path toward a 50% reduction of emissions by 2030.

I hope that the shock of this pandemic will jolt people out of their desire to ignore global issues like climate change. I hope our growing sense of urgency, of solidarity, of stubborn optimism and empowerment to take action, can be on e

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thing that rises out of this terrible situation. Because while we will, eventually, return to normal after this pandemic, the climate that we know as normal is never coming back.

Originally published on Time Magazine.

Architect, curator, and writer. Former director of the Museum of Art, Architecture and Technology in Portugal. Former curator in the Department of Architecture and Design of The Museum of Modern Art in New York.

POR / Narrative / 29-May-2020

Originally written in English nature, responsibility, expectation, hope

Depending on whether you are an optimist, a cynic, a pessimist, an idealist, a believer, a denier, tomorrow may now look very different, or it may look very similar to what you expected—with only slightly annoying differences.

" Cassandrafreude " for some, business as usual for others. The new normal for some, nothing like before for others.

Under the current circumstances, the wish to go 'back to normal' is understandable—but also abnormal.

Depending on whether you act or not on what you are, tomorrow may be very different, or it may be very similar to today—and in any case, be much better or much worse than today.

In case we are forgetful, racism-fueled urban fires were part of North American normality, and now they are back as part of another, emerging normality.

Before the Covid-19 emergency, we were discussing the climate emergency, and the crush of such an emergency was nearly entering the normality of everyday discourse.

Then, yesterday there was a state of suspension, and we saw both the beneficial environmental results of slowing down the economy, and the fears of growing inequality under a global financial breakdown. We also saw we could collectively change behaviors from one day to the next.

Director, Writer, Performer, Arts Enthusiast, and Columnist at The Squad portal. Master's Student in Performing Arts at the University of Lisbon. Bachelor's degree in Performing Arts from PUC-Rio and a postgraduate degree in Art and Philosophy.

BRA / Narrative / 16-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, responsibility, restart, hope



What will be different tomorrow? A difficult question in pandemic times, which is precisely why we should ask it.

I would love to answer with as much optimism as possible. To be able to bring a little encouragement on another day of isolation. But it is not easy. We live in a period analogous to that of great wars. Maintaining positivity to face another "today" is already difficult. Let alone think about "tomorrow."

Because I cannot think about tomorrow, I look

belong to anyone
it belongs to everyone.

back to yesterday:

The American first lady during World War II, Eleanor Roosevelt, imbued with all the diligence and brio of the "American Dream," said: "The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams."

Very nice, Eleanor. I thought. But I'm having insomnia and it's hard to dream. The virus doesn't rest. You have to stay alert.

Then I immediately thought of the work of her fellow countrywoman, the artist Barbara Kruger who made collages with magazine images and big red signs to question precisely the "American Dream":

"The future belongs to those who can see it."

But even so, this statement does not suit me because it is still just a partial view. A future that belongs to those who can achieve something. Only to those who can dream or to those who can see? Who would this cream of the crop be? The scientists, the politicians, the millionaires?

I want to believe that none of the above.

Perhaps, those who followed Roosevelt's beautiful dreams and succeeded are the ones who today can stay home comfortably, with toilet paper to spare and delivery at their door. Those who have added Kruger's challenge are the ones who have realized that something is rotten in the state of humanity and have shaped their lives in such a way that today they can face the pandemic not with regret but with resilience. With the understanding that this is an important passing moment for something that is still unknown to us but necessary!

For now, what little I know is that tomorrow is no longer the American dream, and what a good thing! Individualism has gone into crisis. The search for a perfect dream at any cost is not viable. A dream that exploits others, that weighs unbalanced on the scales, that deforests, that pollutes the air, that floods the sea with garbage... It cannot be beautiful.

I believe that the future belongs to those who build the present, who share their vision of the future. Tomorrow cannot belong to anyone unless it belongs to everyone!

Alejandro de Miguel Solano

Architect and urban designer. Teacher and academic coordinator in the Master's in Collective Housing (UPM-ETH Zurich).

HOP / Essay / 05-May-2020

Originally written in English politics, technology, urban, adaptation

The City in the Time of Coronavirus

‘Wisdom comes to us when it can no longer do any good.’ ( Love in the Time of Cholera , Gabriel Garcia Marquez)

Dante Alighieri, the Italian poet, concluded that sins are in some form or another a corrupt version of love. While he was writing his Inferno sometime before 1317, he used a long-lost list of seven capital sins compiled by late fourth-century theologians as the structure of the levels of purgatory. In his book, the Italian linguist described and transcended those levels to reach paradise. Since, this set of vices -and their correlating virtues- has inspired altarpieces, paintings and novels throughout western tradition, as a reminder of the horrors of hu -

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man mischief and excess and the ways to outdo them.

The Coronavirus epidemic, as one of the plagues of old, feels like one of these landmark moments in history, when bashed human culture remembers its lost virtues, drawing on one of the traits that most distinctively makes us human, the ability to gather strength and positivity from moments of despair and uncertainty.

1. Lust ( luxuria ) / Chastity ( castitas )

Humans concentrate very densely in particular points of the globe. Human settlements and infrastructure take only 1% of the habitable land of the Earth. Shockingly, half of that habitable soil is used up by farming -crops and livestockbut this is a sin for another occasion.

Closer to home, as of 2016, only 6.8% of British land is considered urban, accounting for less territory than the shore revealed when the tide is at its lowest. Those scattered and dense concentration points are cities. In the case of the UK, 81.5% of the country’s population reside in these limited spaces. Anyone that has been stuck in a traffic jam, crowded in the London underground during commute or queued for hours for a restaurant table will surely wonder what all the fuzz about proximity is between humans.

Nevertheless, major conurbations like London still are a desideratum for visitors. A constant injection of young, vital workers seeking new market opportunities flies to the city daily. By the time of the 2011 census, 38% of the workforce in the city was foreign and generally more skilled than nationals.

individuals. Only in the EC1V postcode -the area around the Old Street roundabout- 32,000 new media and ICT businesses have flourished in the last two years. Together with them, fair-trade coffee shops, pop-up fashion stores, independent art galleries and bicycle repair stores have sprung, catering for the LUST of the new Flat White class, in a perfect case-study of scale and agglomeration economy.

With a very simple economic model relating inputs and outputs to the perimeter and the area of a city respectively, Brendan O’Flaherty proves how, when cities grow over a certain size, they can do more with less, giving a theoretical answer to the question, should I be moving with my cat and my Cafetière to Hackney. Millennials pack in tiny flat-shares in Hackney, Islington and, to a lesser extent, in Haringey, painstakingly trading the lack of domestic space for the captivating work & play lifestyle of these vibrant hotspots. The traditional Westminster clean-shaven high-earning banker way of life has been outgrown now by the agglomeration of East-end moustaches and fixies, flocking around the latest pop-up sneaker store near Spitalfields Market.

With the irruption of the Coronavirus, these lustful effects of congestion might be at stake. Many of my British friends and colleagues have run to the hills during lockdown to fill their family houses in the countryside, many of whom pledging to never return. They are finding social distancing much easier, and they are forgetting at once the externalities of the congested city. No more traffic jams, noise and pollution to get to work, while Internet connectivity holds.

The agglomeration effect is visible all around. Cities attract young, creative and adventurous

Still, the glowing neon and concupiscence of the leisure and lifestyle offer of the city will


likely keep the younger and groovier strata of society in London, together with the choiceless have-nots. But, could this be the time when hordes of tech-savvy, middle-aged, white-collar (and white-skinned) professionals will flock with their youngsters to the motherland beyond the green-belt? How far from London will they venture and what will be the real estate like? Will it be closer to a Villa Urbana, a country seat that could easily be reached from Rome during the Republic and Roman Empire, or to a Villa Rustica, the remote farmhouse estate permanently occupied by the servants that took care of it?

If the latter is the case, will the British countryside be up for grabs when this wealthy city class crosses the fences? County farms are the legacy of an era of land reform, when Joseph Chamberlain and other Victorian politicians campaigned for cash-poor tenant farmers to be lend ‘three acres and a cow’ at the beginning of the 20th century. Yet, the extent of England’s County Farms has halved since the 1970’s. What will the social and economic repercussions of this Covid-19-infested land-value rising vector be after landing on these appealing properties and on the rural land in general across the subsidy-subsistent farming communities of the UK? Will farmers and farms be ready?

Only time will tell..

2. Greed ( avaritia ) / Charity ( caritas )

Cities are pits of global investment. Setting aside the technicality that all UK land ultimately belongs to the Crown, traditional landowners in the UK have been bleeding land to foreign investments. In London, some of the largest estates have seen their property stock halved in less

than 100 years. The Cadogan Estate has moved from 200 acres of property in 1925 to barely 93 in 2017. Same with the Grosvenor Estate -in the hands of the Duke of Westminster- or the Howard de Walden, the Duke of Bedford or the Marquess of Northampton Estates, owning hundreds of acres of property at the beginning of the century, see their domains shrunk in the ranges of 20 and 30 acres today.

These days, investors from all over the world rub shoulders with the traditional London Estates, public sector bodies and big developers in the prestigious locations of Kensington, Knightsbridge, Mayfair, the City and Canary Wharf. As an example, the government of Qatar, a tiny country of 2.5 million people with an extension of roughly the size of Yorkshire, has tapped into some of London’s most iconic developments.

Qatari Diar owns the former US Embassy in Grosvenor Square and the Quatari Investment Authority owns the Chelsea Barracks site, the Olympic Village, The Shard and some of the City’s tallest skyscrapers.

These dense, high-rise developments are justified by several planning instruments in London, and most clearly by a measure well-known by architects, urbanists, transport planners and investors alike, the PTAL. The Public Transport Accessibility Level is a measure of connectivity by public transport provided by Transport for London. It maps the city and its connectivity levels. For any selected place, the PTAL suggests how well that location is connected to public transport, how close it is to tube and rail stations. The London Plan directly links housing density to these guiding levels, in a logical argument to build higher and denser where the connection is better, constituting the base for transport-led development.

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This mutual arrangement, by the second and third largest landowners in London, the Mayor and TFL respectively, works well in an established city, and opens the possibility of relatively low-risk investment on the mega-developments that the planning system permits in high level PTAL areas. “In Qatar they can get a 50% or 60% return against 5% or 6% here in the UK,” Raed Hanna, of Mutual Finance, says. “Nevertheless, the UK (and London) is still considered much safer than their own country, where they are too politically exposed.”

However, the global capital GREED has also ventured into the wilderness. Global cities are secure places where many players want to baccarat, and the tables are already getting filled. The democratization of air travel and cheaper credits opens the opportunity of bringing the logic of transport-led development into the realm of air traffic. Crafty developers now back the viability of their real estate investment on purposely built airports in remoter locations with a more benign legislative climate. Most of them remain empty to this day.

Can you think of a less desirable place to live than under the flight path of a cargo plane, carrying future-to-be iPhone chemical components instead of humans, because no-one wants to visit the recently inaugurated green-roofed third-tier designer outlet in your desert city?

Even if governments have been reluctant to restrict domestic air travel, Coronavirus is impacting global air traffic. Could this deceleration shake the justification behind some of this vulture investment that builds nowhere for no one?

via air connectivity. Tourism and their tourist-targeted communities have also blossomed after the race for cheaper flight fares. No longer leather seats on flights, the reduction in cabin legroom has also resulted in a parallel trim in ticket prices. Advertised prices from London to New York (one-way) have plummeted from a life-earning expense of £5,412 pounds in 1955 to a budget-friendly £233 in 2018. All within one year, hordes of tourists head to a summer booze-holiday in Spain, winter holiday in St. Moritz, Easter Break in Mallorca and autumn escapade to the Cyclades. Overall cost of flights? Way below the average monthly net salary of £1,730 in the UK.

The influx of this cash-ready travelling class has resulted in some of the most outrageous developments along the Mediterranean coast. This is the case of the Urbanizaciones Riviera del Sol y Miraflores on the Andalusian Costa del Sol. Initially a seasonal tourist destination, they are now a permanent site of international retirement migration. This water-thirsty region of 1,382 sqm land contains 60+ gold courses catering for a foreign population that ranges from 250,000 to 600,000 out of the 1,252,872 registered residents. Britons are the majority.

The explosive growth of these areas can be traced back directly to the exhilarating air travel cost.

It is interesting to note the impact of local capital on other local capital, in this case mediated

What will be the consequences of the halt of global air traffic, after the current Coronavirus epidemic, on these and more vulnerable holiday communities? What will be the impact of the tourist destination craze? How will sunny retirement communities reinvent with less flights, and potentially less young-old customers? And more importantly, where will real estate invest -


ment set its radars on in the times of a global transport slow down?

3. Gluttony ( gula ) / Temperance ( moderatio )

To thrive, the pandemic-induced remote workforce must rely heavily on ICT in Coronavirus times, to be sure. The irruption of the disease is already changing the way we work. It is likely that flexible working hours and locations will become more common in the near horizon to encourage social distancing.

Simultaneously, the relevance of ICT capability grows even bigger outside of the professional sphere, as the only means to overcome the current solitude of the living room, if you are lucky to have one. New technological platforms are flourishing. Just like Google and Uber are now verbs, so is Zoom. Accordingly, first-time installations of Zoom’s mobile app have skyrocketed by an outstanding 728% since March 2, 2020.

Since the advent of the Nordic Mobile Telephone in 1982, the first 1G mobile system, a new mobile generation has been renewed every ten years. In April 2008, NASA and other partners set to develop the next stage of this communication technology. This next phase of mobile network, the 5G generation, is rolling out in these Coronavirus times, and pledges for much faster data download and upload speeds, wider coverage, and more stable connections. For software companies, the challenge used to be which design applications could fully take advantage of this enormous capacity.

Coronavirus might be the answer to the quest for the killer app, as 5G treats and virtual/augmented reality are inextricably intertwined.

Apps that could make Zoom pale in comparison might be around the corner. Facebook Horizon, the last in a long string of investments on social VR, might be a timely Covid-proof virtual platform. The City, no longer relevant as a realm of social interaction, could be dismantled before our eyes in the reflection of a led screen or a pair of Oculus glasses.

A more concrete reality, however, is the inevitable loss of jobs that the lockdown will result in. Close to one million people in the United Kingdom applied for benefits in the last two weeks of March. In Britain, the surge in universal credit applications followed government measures to limit the spread of the virus, including closing pubs, restaurants and non-essential shops. Many of those small and medium businesses will never re-open.

In the aftermath of this tragedy, Amazon’s surge in demand has driven the business to near peak holiday season levels. To keep up with the increasing customer pressure, the company plans to hire 100,000 new workers, and Jeff Bezos, who still owns 11% of the company, is now the richest person in the world. In Covid season, we have already forgotten the corner shop, and we are just slightly annoyed that our Amazon-prime subscription’s eta has gone up by a couple of days.

Pre-disease, the UK was already a great growing field for on-line retailers, as Internet shopping already accounted for 23% of the sector in 2016. Per capita, Britain had the largest on-line-purchasing population in the world, by more than 10% over the next country, Germany.

The beloved British high-street was already a place of monoculture, the consequences of the

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lockdown forcing more and more small businesses to pull the plug. In a very compartmented and polarized urbanism such as the British, where only a handful of streets are planned with ground floor commercial uses and the ‘defensive space’ is sacred, the cities are likely to become grimmer and more homogeneous when people hit the streets.

the individual did not exist as such. During the medieval period man was bonded to the feudal structure and the church, working the lands of those in power, that barely yielded any profit. Accumulation was selfish and suspicious. Private property was a just a concession to the frail nature of the human, a sort of collective communism was the ideal.

Another stress effect might be on the obsolete typology of the shopping centre. Temples of the Latter Days Saints of Consumerism, their unsanitary conditions make them a fit typology to re-think. Already declining in the UK, they are still an unfulfilled wish in booming consumerist economies in the developing south. Maybe they still have the chance to add some windows and green make-up to the type. Sadly, they might become even more appealing.

Meanwhile, under social distancing times, as customers turn to on-line delivery services out of fear of the plague, Amazon has the possibility of transcending its current outreach, becoming a global utility provider. In a big data world, the companies that gather the largest datasets are the ones that dominate the market, the more you consume, the more they know about you. Their finely-tuned AI algorithms can predict consumer behaviours and target their marketing strategies accordingly.

By the end of the Covid stalemate, their GLUTTONY will surely have eaten most contenders, and customers will virtually march to the smell of honey.

4. Sloth ( acedia ) / Diligence ( industria )

In The Fear of Freedom , Erich Fromm explains how for a large portion of the western tradition,

By the end of the 15th century, guilds became larger, some master craftsmen started to employ more and more men. Modern capitalism started to develop, in a process of individualization that made the German medieval expression ‘ Stadtluft macht frei ’ (the air of the city makes you free) very real. Trading cities blossomed and, in exceptional cases like Venice, Genoa or Lübeck, cities themselves became powerful states, sometimes taking surrounding areas under their control or establishing extensive maritime empires.

Fast forward into the early 19th century, the mercantilists empires of the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French and British had expanded Europe's larger capitals -in both the monetary and urban meanings of the term- on Atlantic trade. In the individualizing capitalist process, efficiency starts to be a central moral virtue. A new rising feeling of freedom and independence separates the individual from nature and the collective.

The free individual is also a fearful one. Freedom is not an experience we enjoy. Fromm suggests that many people, rather than embracing it successfully, attempt to minimise its negative effects by developing behaviours -namely masochistic and sadistic- that provide some form of security. That is the mechanism that explains why the advanced society of Germany of the 1930s was so willing to give away their freedom to Nazism.


More dangerous is the third mechanism that Fromm’s suggests to bypass individual responsibility and ease the fear of freedom: conformity. The SLOTH in adhering to the normative belief systems in place in society is just another way to cure anxiety-filled free-thinking.

In exceptionally stressful times, these narratives are key for fear levels to be kept high, and we know that in the light of two events that hit the US in recent years. In 1995, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols bombed the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 people. It was the largest terrorist attack on American territory at the time. A few days later, polls asked Americans: How worried are you that you or someone in your family will become a victim of terrorism? More than 40% said they were very worried or somewhat worried. However, over the next few years without another mass bombing, that number dropped steadily.

Six years later, the September 11th attacks raised that percentage to 58%. After a month, it was back to 40% again. It looked like fear would continue to dissipate. Instead, those levels never decreased lower than that figure. So, even after US troops killed Osama bin Laden, Americans returned to believing that the government wasn't doing enough to prevent further terror attacks.

constant feeling of threat impedes a clear vision of reality. In the US, the Patriot act, signed as law only a month after the attack, authorized of indefinite detentions of immigrants, granted permission to search a home or business without the owner's or the occupant's consent or knowledge and allowed the FBI to access any citizen’s telephone, e-mail, and financial records without a court order.

The times of the Coronavirus lockdown, when the whole globe is finally scared at once, are dangerous times for careful thinking. The epidemic has brought fear into our cities, and some new fears are already being packaged into the new-normal narrative. Fears of contagion may lead us to become more conformist and tribalistic. Our moral judgements become harsher and our social attitudes more conservative when considering issues such as immigration or sexual freedom and equality.

One of the differences from the Oklahoma and the September 11th attacks is the strong narrative that was developed after the second. Casting aside the implicit us vs them dichotomy, as hard-wired in human biology as the main broadcasting companies in the west display, a

Be careful with the promise of efficiency and safety that comes with the pandemic, we might be giving away more than our battered freedoms. When AIs understand our desires and our biology better than ourselves, who will contest their measures? At the moment of writing this text, my friends and family in Spain haven’t seen the light of day under lockdown, while I am enjoying global warming in London, going on sunny rides on my carbon-fibre road bike around the post-apocalyptic city centre, and people in Sweden have the only restriction of not gathering in groups larger than 50 people. Even if politicians elude their responsibility by showing the my-friends-is-an-epidemiologist-and-he-knows-better card, lockdown measures feel sloppy and improvised, still a human construct.

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But who will have the capacity to question the decision-making capabilities of an algorithm in the aftermath of the pandemic, one that reads the city and monitors the biology and psyche of its citizens and understands their very human difficulty with freedom in real life better than they do?

5. Envy ( invidia ) / Gratitude ( gratia )

In the mist of the pestilence, the richest 10 per cent of the households in Britain have over a hundred times more wealth than the poorest 10 per cent. Regardless who you are, you are counting on housing as your only way to climb up the ladder.

By 1995, the median 50-year-old in London had a net wealth of £66,000. Thanks to the housing boom, that figure rose to £187,000 by 2005. Everybody was thrilled, assets skyrocketed. It was relatively easy to grab onto the wagon. After the 2008 global housing crisis, parents are thankful they were quick enough and can help -sort ofwith their kid’s first deposit today.

By 2013, the average starting deposit for a house in London was £64,000, while the ratio of median house price to median gross earning per household in London increased from 6.9 in 2002 to 12.77 in 2019. Even that first deposit feels like an unmountable ladder for most households. The Lower quartile of property prices in London starts off at £355,000, and that’s the only quartile the ONS has on their website. Even the bank of mum and dad would need to break the piggy bank with these ‘cheap’ ones.

With an average net family wealth of £50,000 (2016) millennials (19 to 38 years old) can barely afford to even put down a deposit on their first home. On the flipside, they are the lucky ones.

Rough-sleeping figures in London hit a record high, with 8,855 people recorded as bedding down on the capital’s street in the 2018-19 period. Simultaneously, close to half of the U.K.’s billionaires call London home. London is the fourth wealthiest city in the world after New York, Tokyo and homeless-infested San Francisco.

Social rank, namely your relative position within the hierarchy, and not your material wealth per se, has proven adverse adrenocortical, cardiovascular, reproductive, immunological, and neurobiological consequences in humans. As real as a Covid infection, it is the realization of inequality that sickens. If you are a young professional living in a 10sqm room within a 4-people flat share overlooking Battersea Gardens in the luxurious Nine Elm Development, that is a constant reminder of your position in the socio-economic hierarchy. Even more flagrant if you are rough-sleeping in Victoria Station begging for money to a Sloane Square resident going for a walk to Hyde Park. No wonder you feel stressed. ENVY is a consequence of inequality.

And now we are constantly reminded. The Coronavirus lockdown has made us feel unworthy. No need to walk the empty Belgravia Mansions on our allowed one form of exercise a day. We have seen the rich and famous in full colour in our smartphone screens. Madonna’s Instagram post, claiming ‘Covid-19 doesn’t care about how rich you are, It’s the great equaliser’, makes it all that much ironic.

In a country where the only public housing investment that has expanded in the last decades is prisons and politicians claim they don’t know how many homes they own (D. Cameron, 2009), the Covid-19 could be the call that…


6. Wrath ( ira ) / Patience ( patientia )

…wakes citizens up in WRATH. There are 22,000 empty homes in London alone. Most in the richest areas of the city: Knightsbridge, Belgravia, Mayfair, Kensington and Westminster.

Angry citizens, in their crowded coops, keep listening to the government, to housing charities, to housebuilders loudly proclaiming: we are not building enough houses in the UK! The popular story repeats that the rate of home building is so slow that house prices have rocketed. The story, though, sounds more like a fantasy when now we have more housing in Britain - more homes and more rooms in those homes than ever before. Not just in absolute terms, but per family and per person. However, those homes remain close.

Problem is, since Thatcher and the Right-to-Buy, the public sector has deregulated the housing market. City of London and the Boroughs, amongst the biggest landowners in London, rely on the private sector to develop their land while taking a portion of the consequent raised value. They have a big interest in letting developers wait to start building so their land gets fat until selling prices are at their peak. They also enjoy the benefits of soaring selling prices when the homes are built. Both strategies translate in a bigger share of the pie for the authorities.

No surprise then, when affordability is so ill-defined. No surprise when the London Plan has already scrapped its pyrrhic requirements on room and dwelling sizes and now contains no requirements on the matter whatsoever. Barely an eyebrow rises when, in the last decade, London has lost 8,000 social-rented homes and crushed council estates are replaced with less and less affordable housing in high-end developments.

Large developers know many tricks to avoid matching the affordable figures -which are not overtly ambitious- set by the Boroughs. And they are acquiescently accepted. Rather than going into much more detail, the bottom-line is don’t ask what your Borough can do for you, because they won’t.

I wonder if this time of the Coronavirus might make citizens realize that they need to take matters into their own hands if they want to level the housing conditions up. Housing cooperatives, that join similarly minded citizens into building their own homes without much public or private intervention might become attractive alternatives for the abused middle class. They might appreciate the financing possibilities of co-housing and self-building, where the exclusive facilities and spacious interior spaces of higher-end dwellings are made affordable by sharing costs.

As for the have-nots, there are 22,000 empty homes in London…

Homo Sapiens population has been more or less stable for the past 200,000 years. In the last 200 years of our history, however, our population has sky-rocketed from 1 billion in 1800 to around 8 billion in 2020. And this trend is likely to continue. In just a little over 200 years we have managed to bring the environment to a halt and populate the Earth with either us or our products.

Our PRIDE tells us that we will be able to undo the effects of industrialization and consumption with more industrialization -this time wind, solar, or biomass production- and consumptionthis time vegan, healthy, macrobiotic, sustaina-

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7. Pride ( superbia ) / Humility ( humilitas )

bly-sourced, you name it. We are already using 50% of the habitable land on Earth just to feed ourselves. In the meantime, we have filled the world with 1.5 million cows and 23.7 billion chickens. Overfishing is rampant and stopping it has proven to be very hard. And with 10 billion humans walking the Earth by 2050, what will the consequences be?

Has any species before us voluntarily limited their growth in a conscious and democratic collective effort?

Even if wars have grown more frequent in the last centuries, the rise in population counteracts their effect as a way of limiting booming growth. In Europe, the last major war ended more than 70 years ago. And indeed, our population is growing old happier than ever before. In the western and westernized world, we are now smart enough to make ourselves sick from lifestyle-related diseases and diseases of old age. Meanwhile, the poorer and more congested countries in Africa -Niger, Angola, Congo among others- are growing at an unprecedented rate. In the struggle against natural calamities, the scale is tipping in humankind’s favour, the old in the north and the poor in the south are growing in number.

Has God sent this plague to save humanity from its sins? Or, out of unconditional love, have we prayed to Google just enough to purify us?

'The only regret I will have in dying is if it is not for love.’ ( Love in the Time of Cholera , Gabriel Garcia Marquez)

Lúcia Guimarães

Journalist and reporter. Former correspondent for TV Globo, TV Cultura, and the GNT channel, as well as a columnist for the newspapers O Estado de S. Paulo and O Globo. Correspondent and columnist for Folha de São Paulo.

USA / Note / 27-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, inequality, politics, urban

The pandemic will reignite concerns about the density of metropolises. The tension between democracy and authoritarianism in the US is increasingly reflected in the contrast between the culture of cities and rural regions.

Without public health, transportation, education, and recreation solutions to preserve the viability of urban density, inequality, which is already unsustainable, may grow.

Urban life must be reimagined to prevent the flight of talent and the erosion of the tax base of cities like New York.

Architect, researcher, educator, and critical theorist. Founder and Director at humaneLABS. Founder and Creative Director at DNKMN. Director at African Institute for Artificial Intelligence.

NAM / Narrative / 17-Jan-2021

Originally written in English urban, nature, responsibility, adaptation

In the dream factory of the western world, as one resource diminished, driven to find value in a now barren land, there emerged the ongoing project to redraw the post-agrarian landscape. The acts of reimagining the city or being reimagined by the city are defining factors for Los


Angeles as an urban environment. More importantly, it is the illusion or magic of mistaken identity that has fostered the beating heart of the city.

"Her jaunt included Koreatown, East Hollywood, Larchmont, Windsor Square, and Hancock Park. She returned after just a few days...". A bi-resident of Central and Downtown burrows, she travels for work and food, transient during the good months, bedded down permanently only once a year. Reliant on garbage sorters, stray cats, rodents, and twice-yearly fruiting fig trees, food is plentiful in the burrows. She understands the city in terms of continuous movement, fluent in her diffusion through the urban texture; navigating alleyways, backyards, sewerage, and storm drain systems like pathways, roads, and highways. She and her community reject the bounds of their reservations in Elysian and Griffith Park. Redrawing concrete Los Angeles as five 'burrows'; South Los Angeles, Central Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Hollywood/Los Feliz, and Northeast Los Angeles, each defined by massive transport infrastructures and natural geographies. Through acts of resilience, displaced flora and fauna innovate to reoccupy urban spaces, occurring "naturally" by means of extreme adaptation to human-made environments. If the process of adaptation is understood in terms of codependency and cohabitation, wildlife has the innate ability to redefine human architectural artifice as a new natural environment. Consistent with the transformative nature of Los Angeles, the new natural landscape is an incubator for new forms of occupancy. She is a testament to thisthe matriarch of a marginalized albeit successful community, drawing and reimagining Los Angeles as new nature, a Coyote landscape.

The new natural landscape is rich with resources; it provides infrastructure for shelter and safe transit to its diverse population. Co-occupied by both human and non-human species, the city is continuously remapped and redrawn by its inhabitants. Wildlife engages the city as a large expansive home, defined by weather, seasons, and food sources. Imagine a home whose kitchen is decentralized and distributed across the city, a living room stretched between West Hollywood and Koreatown, and a secluded underground bedroom in Silverlake. Corridors and stairwells are drawn out across entire urban ranges or burrows, creating an entanglement of travel pathways. Coyote 144 survived and raised her litters in a densely populated area with very little natural habitat -- never visiting national park lands like Elysian or Griffith Park but persisting entirely within the confines of an extremely urbanized habitat. Coyote 144 is a glimpse at the underpinnings of an incredible illusion; one in which the human environment, gilded by illusions of imperialism over nature, exists only as a continuation or translation of the natural environment.

As we look to the future, there is an implicit opportunity for optimism and adaptability as the world presents a continuous cycle of renewal. Our entanglement with the natural world is critical and persistent and forever defines the progress of our ever-emerging cultural framework. These times are anything but unprecedented; they are rich with the unpredictability of the world we live in. They do, however, offer an exciting opportunity to refine and improve the human architectural artifice, our relationship with the natural world, our health, and the future. In the dream factory of the western world, as one resource diminished, driven to find value in a now barren land, there emerged

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the ongoing project to redraw the post-agrarian landscape. The acts of reimagining the city or being reimagined by the city are defining factors for Los Angeles as an urban environment. More importantly, it is the illusion or magic of mistaken identity that has fostered the beating heart of the city.

"Her jaunt included Koreatown, East Hollywood, Larchmont, Windsor Square, and Hancock Park. She returned after just a few days...". A bi-resident of Central and Downtown burrows, she travels for work and food, transient during the good months, bedded down permanently only once a year. Reliant on garbage sorters, stray cats, rodents, and twice-yearly fruiting fig trees, food is plentiful in the burrows. She understands the city in terms of continuous movement, fluent in her diffusion through the urban texture; navigating alleyways, backyards, sewerage, and storm drain systems like pathways, roads, and highways. She and her community reject the bounds of their reservations in Elysian and Griffith Park. Redrawing concrete Los Angeles as five 'burrows'; South Los Angeles, Central Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Hollywood/Los Feliz, and Northeast Los Angeles, each defined by massive transport infrastructures and natural geographies. Through acts of resilience, displaced flora and fauna innovate to reoccupy urban spaces, occurring "naturally" by means of extreme adaptation to human-made environments. If the process of adaptation is understood in terms of codependency and cohabitation, wildlife has the innate ability to redefine human architectural artifice as a new natural environment. Consistent with the transformative nature of Los Angeles, the new natural landscape is an incubator for new forms of occupancy. She is a testament to thisthe matriarch of a marginalized albeit successful

community, drawing and reimagining Los Angeles as new nature, a Coyote landscape.

The new natural landscape is rich with resources; it provides infrastructure for shelter and safe transit to its diverse population. Co-occupied by both human and non-human species, the city is continuously remapped and redrawn by its inhabitants. Wildlife engages the city as a large expansive home, defined by weather, seasons, and food sources. Imagine a home whose kitchen is decentralized and distributed across the city, a living room stretched between West Hollywood and Koreatown, and a secluded underground bedroom in Silverlake. Corridors and stairwells are drawn out across entire urban ranges or burrows, creating an entanglement of travel pathways. Coyote 144 survived and raised her litters in a densely populated area with very little natural habitat -- never visiting national park lands like Elysian or Griffith Park but persisting entirely within the confines of an extremely urbanized habitat. Coyote 144 is a glimpse at the underpinnings of an incredible illusion; one in which the human environment, gilded by illusions of imperialism over nature, exists only as a continuation or translation of the natural environment.

As we look to the future, there is an implicit opportunity for optimism and adaptability as the world presents a continuous cycle of renewal. Our entanglement with the natural world is critical and persistent and forever defines the progress of our ever-emerging cultural framework. These times are anything but unprecedented; they are rich with the unpredictability of the world we live in. They do, however, offer an exciting opportunity to refine and improve the human architectural artifice, our relationship with the natural world, our health, and the future.


Marko Brajovic

Architect. Founder and Creative Director of Atelier Marko Brajovic. Graduated in Architecture at the University of Architecture of Venice, Master in Digital Arts at the Institut Universitari de l'Audiovisual de Pompeu Fabra, Master in Genetic Architecture at the Universidad Internacional de Catalunya, and a PhD candidate in Genetic Architecture at the Universidad Internacional de Catalunya.

BRA / Essay / 20-Apr-2020

Originally written in English isolation, responsibility, expectation, restart

Time stopped for a while, and humanity became present, right here right now, perceiving the moment we are living. And what we call reality, a reductionist relational prototype unveils and reveals an unsustainable model of existence for the human species on this planet.

Only from this specific point of view, humans seem to understand the fundamental and existential need for solidarity, and eventually perceiving solidarity with other species. From this crack of the global financial system chimera, our collective hypnosis, we can finally envision a new world of tomorrow.

During these days of isolation in our forest house, new subtle connections opened, and encouraging news comes out every day, news coming from the future. Online I have been able to read about stories of wildlife animals conquering back the urban area, once covered with forests. Sika deer walking downtown in Japan, goats in Spain, monkeys in several cities in Asia, bears, goats, wolves walking down the mountain, dramatic drop-down in pollution, clean rivers, drastically reduced consumption, unseen international solidarity, collaborative medical research... And honestly, this is a future I want to live in.

And what about humans in this scenario? Do we need to disappear from the planet in order to make coexistence possible? How can we coexist with animals that are coming downtown to live with us? I believe we just need to open our hearts and shift our perception from the world made just for us to an interrelated web of life. A world that is good for all of us (all life on earth).

Our planet is a living organism, made out of a coexisting interdependent whole. In fact, that's nothing new to ancestral knowledge. For a long time, this information was clearly expressed by North American Native Americans, Brazilian indigenous people, wisdom from ancient times, till contemporary Krenak, Kopenawa, and many other wise humans, freed from our Matrix. We are all made from billions of bacteria and trillions of cells. And if we scale it exponentially, we go from a gene to Gaia. Your individuality is a multiplicity, a "dividuality" and interconnectivity with all other species that create conditions for life.

We came from a world of separation, a binary determinism of "us" and "them" and aestheticized by a romantic existentialism of a binary "human (us)" and nature (them) dialectic. That is the narrative of intersubjective reality we have been living in for centuries.

The imminent collapse of our mechanistic civilization is opening a beginning of something that we need to be brave to imagine. And the future seems to have happened in the present, as a specter of our genetic extinction, demanding our full presence.

The future I see is not at all the Black Mirror scenario or a catastrophic dystopia, and yes more an illuminated opportunity to overcome

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the destructive relations we created with ourselves and all other species.

A future to be designed right now, from this position of freedom and solidarity, panarchy from the running neoliberal agrologistic system is a future for all species.

And life is all about relationships.

The recent images from Venice's crystalline water and even no predatory tourism touched my heart, as I spent a good part of my life there, imagining different futuristic scenarios. And those images are even more surprising eventually not being real and, in fact, digital visualization. Reality is not important here because the reality we thought was real does not exist anymore. Wildlife blended in the urban environment is as an image coming from the future projected in the present, untangling from a distance, and almost disturbing.

Cities occupied by non-humans at first view create that strange sensation, as it's not a place for them, once our romantic separation of nature and culture positions artifacts as artificial in a natural environment. That obsolete dialectic, reminiscent from the Age of Enlightenment, is still mainly running our process of making architecture and designing our cities. The urban space is designed only for humans and eventual domesticated animals. So, when wildlife comes downtown, we are scared, and as well deeply seduced with our ancestral perception of co-living with other species. While in fact, cities are constantly saved by mangroves from devastating hurricanes, microorganisms are cleaning our air, trees producing oxygen, fishing cleaning rivers, and plenty of other species collaborating to make our cities better. This is happening all the time, we are alive thanks to other organ -

isms, our invisible partners, not appreciated for their contribution, hardly trying to keep the web of life operating. The last great architecture movements from the XX century were driven to a mechanical and separation mentality, where houses are "machines for living" and our cities should function as closed systems of feedback loops with controlled inputs and outputs. Eventually, megalopolis is collapsing or artificially sustained against entropy decay by colossal energy bursts corroding the exterior borders and unbalancing the relation between development and growth.

Unpredicted events would disrupt any structural system as any city as well, but how can we design cities and buildings that are better prepared to absorb such shocks to the system and afterward be able to heal back. We are talking here about resilience, that sustains ecosystems, connections, and operations after structural stresses. Where all living organisms in synchronic scales, as singular, symbiotic, colonial, or other kinds of collaborative organizations.

Nature is a 3.8 billion-year-old designer, so let's learn some lessons for better designing our cities and building attuned for co-existence with all species. Let's take an example of a forest, highly complex, distributed, and decentralized systems that operate among billions of components as a superorganism. A city could learn a great deal from the forest and the ultimate technology of cooperation, diversity, redundancy, self-organization, networking, and high technology that produces energy through photosynthesis, water distribution, highly efficient communication, recycling waste.

The "law of the jungle" is partnership. The intelligence of the forest is possible thanks to cooperation, different from the manipulated


concepts of "survival of the strongest (fittest)". In most cases, the alliance between organisms guarantees survival and only in minor cases predatory strategy is present.

I see tomorrow building as trees and cities as forests proposing an evolution of modernist architecture paradigms from mechanical to organic. Where architecture is designed through regenerative processes that mimic ecological interrelationship and adapt to changing conditions.

We should envision such cooperative cities, imagine them as wildest dreams, where the urban environment operates "as" and "together" with other organisms. At this very moment, we urgently need architects to project themselves in time and imagine the bright tomorrow, products, buildings, and cities designed for all species.

We are living in a unique perception shift, a critical and privileged moment in human history, and we cannot lose this chance of change.

We don't need to save our collapsing world and unsustainable model of inhabiting this planet, neither our globalized economy. Today we need to be brave and dream in lucidity our tomorrow, we need now to envision the ecological evolution of our consciousness taking into consideration our interconnected multiplicity with all organisms.

Trained lawyer, book author, and researcher. Master's in Cinema, specializing in intellectual property. First Brazilian to be featured as a signatory in a Taschen book - "Food & Drink Infographics."

USA/BRA / Narrative / 30-Jun-2020

Originally written in English challenges, technology, urban, hope

I have been thinking a great deal about food and food security in urban areas. The Covid-19 pandemic instilled a sense of urgency in ongoing debates relating to the food system and shifted some paradigms.

Tomorrow, we need to reconsider our food choices.

We need a more resilient, healthier, and just society. We also need to concern ourselves with the preservation of the environment, so it is imperative that we are aware of how foods are produced, distributed, and consumed. All species need food to survive, but as humans, our food options are charged with cultural, emotional, and socio-political beliefs. These layers intertwine and shape our food choices. Moreover, when we eat, we support specific outlets, business models, and practices. It is important to exercise our choices responsibly and wisely.

It is essential to support our communities and facilitate access to quality food for everyone.

We are all privy to the disproportionate impact that Covid-19 has on working-class demographics. Lower-income communities are underserved when it comes to preventive health, and poor diet reflects this problem. Malnourishment in the 21st century often comes associated with obesity, diabetes, or other forms

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of food-rela ted ailments (i.e., heart conditions, high blood pressure). These conditions increase vulnerability to the virus. They are also directly related to massive consumption of industrialized foods that are sugar-filled and nutrient-poor, instead of fresh foods rich in fibers and nutrients. Impoverished communities are often "food deserts," where it is hard to find good varieties of fruits and vegetables, and when available, their relative cost is higher than that of industrialized foods, ubiquitous in every grocery store. One of the ways to address this specific problem is supporting widespread initiatives that bring fresh food to food deserts, either by means of facilitating distribution or by implementing community gardens. Incentivizing the growth of green areas in urban spaces should be regarded as a requirement for survival and preservation.

A future with efficient and more sustainable cities.

Minimizing waste and employing underused technologies that help with a cleaner environment and productive greenspaces should be a priority. Fresh produce is crucial to our diet, but it is also important to emphasize alternative ways of maintaining and preserving nutrients from fresh produce during times of instability. Cooking with kitchen and pantry staples, preserving surplus, and composting are synonymous with a more sustainable way of thinking about food.

be devastating. To secure the viability of their far ming business and to safeguard their production, alternative solutions must be used. Reverting to traditional methods of "processing" and "preserving" foods is not intrinsically bad. Ever since humans ceased to be chiefly hunters and gatherers and started to domesticate animals and plants, preserving and processing foods have been part of our diets. Maximizing the life of fresh produce is not equal to over-processed and chemical-infused industrialized goods. On the contrary, our ability to preserve and process foods may help conserve the nutritional value of foods, enable distribution, and minimize waste during times of uncertainty. I am not contending that processed and preserved foods should be prioritized in lieu of freshly harvested crops; there is nothing more satisfying and rewarding than cooking with and eating fresh produce. However, supporting ways of making healthy and delicious foods more widely available during periods of scarcity is an interesting and useful exercise from which many would benefit.

Professor and PhD at FAU-UnB, CNPq researcher, research group Topos — Landscape, Project, Planning. Local coordinator for the Urban Planning Thinking Chronology research.

BRA / Note / 15-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, uncertainty, urban, expectation

Preparing for a new age and a new normal.

There may come a time again when it could be necessary to rely on processed and pantry goods with a long shelf life. From a farmer's perspective, an interruption of the supply chain can

The future will only be a continuum, interrupted by events similar to this one. With each breath, a new socio-technological adjustment. Cities will reorient their vocations, economic activities will adapt, governments will meet their interests. But with each blow, a possibility


of new horizons... It will be up to us to choose. Is this the moment for a shift towards a more sustainable planet? I think not yet... structural changes take more time and after other interruptions.

Cauê Capillé

Architect and urban planner. Professor at the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism (FAU UFRJ) and at the Graduate Program in Urbanism (PROURB FAU UFRJ).

Bachelor's degree in Architecture from FAU UFRJ, PhD in Architecture from the Bartlett UCL, FAPERJ Postdoctoral Researcher at PROURB FAU UFRJ, Urban Studies Foundation Fellow at ENSA Paris Malaquais, and Visiting Researcher at the Royal College of Art.

possibility to produce a new, to produce a break with the forms that have been, to update the future.

It is clear that we can collectively build an agenda of emerging critical folds for this political map of tomorrow: the nature with which we inhabit the earth; infrastructures and the commons; new forms of work, production, and domesticity; the revision of models of densification/concentration of power and access to full and collective health.

However, this agenda does not predict where we will go: the future is not given.

BRA / Narrative / 30-May-2020

Originally written in Portuguese

challenges, technology, urban, responsibility

Crisis and escape

The current crisis consolidates the complete urbanization of the planet; it consolidates the Internet as one of the infrastructures that has fundamentally transformed the world's "physical/virtual" space; it aggressively critiques the entire relationship of domesticity and productivity in the contemporary capitalist economy, from the most intimate and domestic to the regional and international scales; and it lays bare the global inequality of access to a healthy life. The crisis finally traps us: there is no escape, no other humanity.

Tomorrow and the map

Clairvoyance about tomorrow implies disregarding the power of political practices now. The power of politics resides precisely in its

Desires and project

Instead of "what will be different tomorrow?", the pivotal question unfolds into "how will I/ we be different tomorrow?" and "why this difference?" Mode, agency, and responsibility. In what way will we actively react to and transform the contemporary mundane?

This agency, this critical revision of the position of our own desires vis-à-vis the future make this crisis fertile ground for profound collective transformations about how we design and inhabit the world.

We must now actively desire and struggle for everyone to breathe "without the difficult and breathless conditions" (as Mbembe describes them in The Universal Right to Breathe ) that have been imposed on entire populations.

We must now actively desire and fight for this right to be guaranteed.

I wish, at last, for this beginning, for this responsibility, for this project.

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A project front: transit

Latin-American metropolises are often spatially characterized by three interrelated and deeply breathless conditions: by a center-periphery structure of economic, cultural, and political dependency; by territorial distances between urban activities; and by numerous infrastructural deficiencies. These three conditions—dependency, distance, and deficiency—contribute to the naturalization of a daily and precarious "state of transit," especially for residents of the peripheries of metropolises, who have an average daily commute of over 4 hours, accustomed to daily traffic jams, pollution, and accidents.

Traffic infrastructures thus form the chronic scenario of the daily metropolitan collective experience. However, the pandemic crisis has made this situation not only chronic but critical: in a recent study by the Inter-American Development Bank (2020) on the evolution of transit in Latin-American metropolises (Bogotá, Buenos Aires, Mexico City, Guadalajara, Guayaquil, Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago, and São Paulo), it is clear that public transport remained essential during the pandemic (an average of 56% for all these metropolises), especially in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, where about 70% of the population continued to use it daily in 2020. In fact, in these two metropolises, buses, trains, and subways became even more crowded, as there were several fleet reductions in operation. In particular, in unequal Latin-American metropolises, the work of those living in the periphery—the most economically fragile part of the population—could not become remote: they form a fundamental backbone of the metropolitan economy. This

highlights the deep and critical entrenchment of the condition of the "transit state" in Latin America, where transit infrastructures form the obligatory collective that must remain operative even in the face of a global health crisis.

However, as we argued above, there is no escape, no farsightedness: it takes design from within this breathless condition. Only when we understand the morphologies and dispositions of infrastructures—and design with them and within their "state of transit"—will urban and architectural projects be able to counter the metropolis' current conditions of dependency, distance, and deficiency. Precisely, we advocate a "typological critique" of the current reality of the "state of transit," describing its elements to, with this repertoire, draw through the invisible dispositions of the "infrastructural backstage," using them as triggers for micro-revolutions in the daily lives of millions.

The ultimate intention with this approach is to transform, through architectural design, the very logic and function of infrastructural space: to make it support other futures, other narratives; to harness its potencies. For this, we cannot impose predefined ideas of public and civility and speak in a language exotic to the current infrastructural and metropolitan condition: we must know it and act upon it from within.

262 Recall

Philip Yang

Urban activist. Founder of URBEM (Institute of Urbanism and Studies for the Metropolis). Master's in Public Administration from the Harvard Kennedy School. Career diplomat of the Brazilian foreign service (1992-2002). Member of the Arq.Futuro Committee, the Orquestra Sinfônica do Estado de São Paulo (OSESP) Harvard University Brazil Office Advisory Group. Former MIT Corporation Visiting Committee of the Department of Urban Planning (2012-2016); City Council of the Municipality of São Paulo (2013-2016); Rio de Janeiro City Council (2013-2016).

BRA / Essay / 15-Jun-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, urban, adaptation, restart

The city after the virus

What will be the model city that can shelter us in the post-pandemic period?

Epidemics and cities are products of the same phenomenon: human agglomerations. And modern urban planning not only defines the city as an agglomeration of people, but also advocates that the ideal city is the so-called "compact city"—one whose territory integrates housing, work, leisure, commerce, and services, within a radius of proximity, easily accessible by foot, bicycle, or public transport. In the context of the pandemic, there is one question that remains unanswered: is the ideal of the compact city still valid? What is the measure of agglomeration—of building and population density—that will be desirable or acceptable after the tremendous trauma of the contagion on a planetary scale?

Perhaps the closest reference we have for examining the consequences of an epidemic on a compact city is provided by Hong Kong. For two reasons: (i) it was the city hit hardest by the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) epidemic in 2003, and (ii) it boasts the world's

highest rate of building and population density : 5 2,000 inhabitants per square kilometer in the central region. The disease spread exponentially there from two main foci: the Metropole Hotel, which, by hosting a doctor suffering from the disease, quickly infected sixteen of its guests; and the Amoy Gardens residential complex, a group of buildings whose defective drainage system allowed sewage gases to enter the bathrooms, leading to the spread of virus particles in several units.

Has Hong Kong gone backwards in its hyperagglomeration process after the outbreak? After all, has the trauma of the epidemic jeopardized the ideal of the compact city?

This is an embarrassing question. For several decades, environmentalists, sociologists, economists, and urban planners have fought hard to convince the world that a denser city is a better city. It has not been an easy task to enchant the general population and policy makers with the idea that urban agglomerations are more sustainable because they are less dependent on car use and require more energy-efficient buildings and infrastructures. Economic agents have more easily perceived the advantages of agglomeration, since the geographic concentration of productive activities reduces logistics costs, condenses, and diversifies the labor market, gives rise to complementary activities, promotes the diffusion of knowledge, and induces collective creativity.

Awareness was slow. And any hesitation or retreat by Hong Kong post-SARS seventeen years ago could jeopardize the progress made. Fortunately, this was not the case. Even after the 2003 outbreak, the Chinese administrative region continued the process of building and

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population densification. The net population density (which divides the total number of inhabitants by the buildable area of the city) did not decline, going from 26,200 inhabitants/ km2 to 30,000 inhabitants/km2 in the period from 2000 to 2020. Of course, building regulation has become more careful. Rules regarding ventilation parameters, insolation, and health safety have become more restrictive.

The vision of the compact city became hegemonic. Most countries and their cities adopt policies, master plans, and zoning that aim to promote compact urban form. Gradually, the population, especially the younger middle class, seeks to live in central areas and, going against urban sprawl, has abandoned the desire to live in remote residential neighborhoods. The change in lifestyle is motivated by the perception that the advantages offered by density and compactness (greater supply of goods and services, and accessibility, among others) are greater than the costs (congestion, urban monotony, and sense of isolation, for example).

Can we take the case of Hong Kong as a representative example of what may happen to cities after the Covid-19 pandemic? I dare say yes. The shock of the epidemic outbreak of a disease with a high lethality rate (it is known that today SARS kills three times more than Covid-19) did not imply a challenge or a retreat from the ideal of the compact city. But some caveats and pondering are necessary.

The first, and perhaps most important thing, is to remember that, while we talk here about the future of the compact city, the informal city is advancing by leaps and bounds in virtually every major city in the Global South. Mike Davis, in his classic Planet of Slums, shows us

how 21st-century urbanization tends to resemble the most painful situations of 19th-century industrialization in terms of living conditions. Peripheralization and sprawling into slums are on the rise, as is the housing deficit.

In Brazil, after ten years of the Minha Casa Minha Vida program and an expenditure of R$ 430 billion, the housing deficit has increased, remaining at around 7 million units. And the advance of organized crime in the real estate business is growing. In a moment of crisis, and of a natural increase in demand for government spending, nothing is more appropriate than investing heavily in urban infrastructure and in housing, as an anti-cyclical resource for the simultaneous combat of unemployment and inequality.

A second caveat, so that densification continues to be a valid premise of urban development, is to keep in mind that urban and construction forms will need to adapt to new modes of social coexistence, forms of work and, of course, to possible new epidemic outbreaks. Zoning and master plans need to be increasingly flexible regarding the mix of uses, allowing not only the coexistence of commercial spaces and housing but above all the combination of spaces for the production of goods, around and even inside housing units. Special attention will need to be paid to the logistics of provisioning and distributing emergency medical equipment such as respirators, tests, and vaccines.

The ongoing change in the productive paradigm substantially changes the profile of the workforce, the new spatial relationship of work-housing, and the general geography of displacement brought about by new transportation modes will certainly bring about major


implications for urban design, in the scale of the territorial organization of cities, metropolises and their infrastructure networks, but also in terms of building typologies, which from now on will have to contemplate facilities for receiving and dispatching goods, domestic production spaces, and the forecast that, most likely, everyone will stay home longer. New product agenda for developers.

The emerging production mode also implies the emergence of new specializations and exchange possibilities. The Internet of Things, robotics, and artificial intelligence expand the alternatives opened up by commercial exchange platforms, and the architecture, logic, and flow generated by digital networks will need to be reflected in and incorporated into the overall architecture of the building environment.

One last thought. The urban environment cries out for public safety and solutions to stop violence. In the post-pandemic context, the demand extends to bio-security issues, which now, as seen in several Asian countries, involve massive and detailed analysis of personal data. The use of big data for the monitoring and analysis of flows of all kinds (financial, especially, but mainly geographic) constitutes one of the most promising frontiers for the control of crime, violence, and the spread of diseases. In this context, it is essential that we seek a regulation that enables access to data and mitigates the risks to individual privacy, as pointed out in a recent report by Data Privacy Brazil, a research center on the subject.

In a moment of crisis, nothing is more difficult than distinguishing passing facts from historical events, separating what is conjunctural from what is really defining long-term tendencies.

The great French historian Fernand Braudel says the analytical eye must separate the "short time," episodic, from the secular trends that conform the "historical time."

My opinion and hope are that the pandemic, an episodic event that takes place in a short time, should accelerate—and not reverse—secular tendencies. On the urban level, I believe and hope societies should catalyze the densification, the mixing of uses and people that characterize compact cities. On an economic level, the post-pandemic period should be marked by a deepening of globalization and international cooperation, given the many limitations of national states in managing global phenomena, the epidemic outbreak being just one among several other issues and threats that we face on a planetary scale.

Of course, without a temporal distance, such a prognosis will be marked by controversies. Especially when the brilliance of today's event is superimposed not only on secular trends but also on an inflection of such a deep order that specialists are nowadays invoking the dating of a new geological time period for the Earth, the Anthropocene, which has in human agglomerations the great apex of transformations. But the prognosis, in any case, is worth a vote of confidence in the power of the renewal of large cities. After all, agglomeration can be dangerous, but deagglomeration can be even worse, given the serious environmental consequences that urban sprawl entails.

Originally published in Época Negócios Magazine.

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Writer, psychotherapist, and psychiatrist at Unifesp. Master's degree in Clinical Psychology from USP. Ph.D. candidate in Literary Theory and Comparative Literature at USP. Columnist for Universa UOL.

BRA / Narrative / 31-Mar-2022

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, helplessness, nature, responsibility

Tomorrow it will rain and be sunny, very sunny. It will rain a lot. And be very sunny. And it will dry. And melt. And water will rise where it shouldn't. And it will change. It will change our world a lot. Children, today's children, my children, all children, I really wish I could, with words, with my strength, with ours, change this course.

That my son had not woken up this morning with a nightmare: "Mom, I dreamed there was a tsunami." And that I could say, when hugging him: It was only a dream, everything is fine.

Photographer, documentary filmmaker, reporter, activist, and writer. Author of the book "Sete Anos em Sete Mares". Co-founder of the Liga das Mulheres Pelo Oceano.

BRA / Narrative / 04-Apr-2022

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, politics, expectation, hope

Society is more integrated with the environment and acts according to the needs of the planet.

It was not easy to make this decision, but we received subtle but also disastrous signals to understand that a transformation was necessary.

After historically experiencing several wars, pandemics, deforestation, and realizing that the ocean was about to become pure garbage, a great wave changed our frequency.

It became clear that this was the only option for human survival. Governments integrate socio-environmental consciousness into their dynamics and public policies. Individuals listen to nature because young people are a big part of this change! We are in harmony with the Earth in a spiritual, present, and balanced way. We understand, after all, the meaning of respect and love.

Scientist and meteorologist, specializing in studies related to global warming. Coordinator of the National Institute of Science and Technology for Climate Change (INCT). Senior Scientific Advisor to the UN Panel on Global Sustainability and a member of the Scientific Council of the UN Secretary-General.

BRA / Narrative / 05-Apr-2022

Originally written in Portuguese politics, nature, responsibility, hope

What will be different tomorrow? The Amazon rainforest contains the greatest diversity of plants and animals in the world. It also contains the greatest diversity of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and many others. The forest has evolved over tens of millions of years, creating the conditions for a balance between this complex biological world of interactions between species. Humans arrived in the Amazon about 12,000 years ago and evolved into more than a thousand different ethnic groups, all of which have always maintained a culture and practice of keeping the forest stan ding. This was essential to maintain the balance


between humans, other animals, and microorganisms. However, with the model of "development" with deforestation implemented more than 50 years ago that saw trees as enemies and only served by burning them as fertilizer for cattle ranches, coupled with the large increase in wildlife trafficking, enormous forest degradation, and the use of fire, the risk of a virus naturally lodged in an animal host, such as countless species of bats, rodents, birds, among others, spreading to humans, generating epidemics and even a gigantic pandemic, such as Covid-19, is very high. In fact, it is a scientific mystery why a devastating pandemic has never originated in the Amazon, knowing that all the vectors for its emergence have been present for many decades. Tomorrow will only be different if we quickly end deforestation, forest degradation, and the use of fire throughout the Amazon, especially in its most devastated regions in the so-called arc of deforestation in the south of the region. For this, it is also essential to maintain the indigenous ethnic groups and territories with their cultural value of keeping the forest standing. The continuity of the model of destruction of the Amazon Forest will almost certainly generate serious epidemics and even pandemics.

BRA / Essay / 21-Jul-2020

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, politics, nature, responsibility

We are in a time of extreme uncertainty, amidst a global pandemic that brings a lot of pain, death, and misery to millions of people. Although this is not the first pandemic (and probably will not be the last), this is the first one that has occurred on a global scale where we know for sure what the causative agent is, we know the ways of dealing with the disease, the rate of transmission and mortality with good accuracy, and yet we have seen countless countries and leaders make grotesque errors in decision-making because they have no commitment to the truth. Many inept leaders prefer to cling to a fantasy reality rather than face the facts. In a way, this deeply discourages me because never before have we had so many possibilities to deal with a crisis in an objective and rational way, never before have people been so well-educated, well-nourished, and had such access to healthcare, but still, irrational or purely emotional decisions continue to be taken by leaders because the truth apparently does not interest them or does not fit into their power projects. My impression is that history repeats itself, but it doesn’t teach us anything. People don’t seem to have a very lasting collective memory.

The world today is going through a crisis, but what if I tell you that this crisis is not even the worst one we will face in our lives? What if I tell you that this crisis can only be a prelude to a new era where we will need to rethink and

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Agronomist and Software Engineer at Globo. Bachelor's degree in Agricultural Engineering from the Federal University of Viçosa.

rebuild our economic development models so that people’s lives do not collapse along with the environment? What if I told you that the new Coronavirus pandemic is a much more manageable crisis than the one that is already underway? Global warming already impacts our lives, and whether you like it or not, this crisis will be much, much bigger than a pandemic. We may be experiencing a tragedy that could teach us to deal with the great problems of humanity that lie ahead, but apparently most people don’t seem to be willing to have the courage to see the painful truth.

The new generations are being handed a world with a gigantic environmental and ecological debt, a world where even as economies have grown, most of humanity remains excluded from the markets, comforts, and prosperity that the globalized economy has produced. It seems that our consumption-based economic model, with a capital market disconnected from the real economy, is reaching the limit of what is possible. The disassociation of human beings with nature that the industrial revolutions have caused is reaching the limit of viability, unfortunately, many technocrats forget that we need to breathe clean air, drink pure water, eat healthy food, and exercise our bodies and minds in order to live and consume, for today’s economy to work. Our abuses and fetishes of domination over nature cannot last forever, the planet is finite, and I am sorry to tell you there is nowhere to run.

lution of machines with artificial intelligence? What will a world be like where knowledge of genetic engineering and gene manipulation is so advanced that, theoretically, people with access to this technology will be able to live much longer and better lives than others? What will a future look like where some people have access to technologies that create an interface between their biological body and mind and a computer? What will the future look like when the quantum computer becomes viable in the hands of a few? How will we be able to close this monstrous gap that has widened between the very poor and the very rich in the past 30 years?

My desire is to build a tomorrow where we can return to the etymological meaning of the word economy. Economy is taking care of the house, it is taking care of where we live, the space that surrounds us, taking care of where we live so that we can protect ourselves and live our lives in a holistic way. Today the meaning of the word economy has moved more toward the accumulation of material goods, distancing itself from that original meaning of taking care of our homes. Anyone who talks about economy and doesn’t talk about taking care of the space where we all live doesn’t know the meaning of the economy. Economy is not about capital markets, the economy is not about financial indicators, the economy is about taking care of the house, and this is one of the things that were forgotten in the past and that I want to see again in our tomorrow.

Besides the serious environmental issues that have been known since at least the 1980s, we have countless complex challenges with possibly profound impacts, without clear answers and which a few people are addressing. How will the new labor relations take place with the evo -

While crises accentuate the problems that already existed in our society, perhaps we have never had the opportunity to understand local and global problems so well, and, although I believe that people hardly ever learn from the past, tomorrow can be better than today. Per -


haps today is the time in human history on this planet when we have the best chance of facing and overcoming the great challenges that lie ahead. Reality will always surface, no more ideological speeches or systematic propaganda will stop the truth from emerging. I just hope that when most people realize the size of the planetary crisis that global warming is creating for us, it will not be too late for us to change the way we treat the world around us so that we can deliver a fairer, more honest, and healthier planet for us and all the other living beings that share our planet



The pandemic, the war, and the existential crisis

As I write this, it has been more than two years since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, and as society begins to open up and interact more closely again, I ask myself the question: Will we come out of this crisis better than before? Maybe it is too ambitious a question, maybe it is too abstract, maybe it is not even the best question to ask at this moment, but regardless, I cannot help but look at my present and compare it with my pre-pandemic past. It is true that before the pandemic several crises were already haunting Brazil and the world— economic, political, and environmental crises—, but the pandemic catalyzed many of these issues and caused deep changes in how society interacts, communicates, works, and sees itself in the world. And to complement this complex moment in which we are living, Russia, a historically imperialist country, violently invaded Ukraine in late February 2022. As I look at this moment and ask myself the question of how we

are today compared to how we were two years ago, I don’t find a clear answer. What I find in myself and in the society in which I am inserted, in fact, is a real existential crisis. And I mean an existential crisis not in the individual and psychological sense, but in the social and systematic sense of how we see ourselves and the impact we have on the world. As I look at the way in which Ukraine reacted to being invaded by Russia, what I see is an entire nation asking themselves this existentialist question of who they are, what is worth fighting for, and eventually sacrificing, so that their peers can live as they wish. While Russian imperialist rhetoric says that Ukraine never existed, Ukrainians have been asserting themselves as a nation and as a people and have been fighting for their own sovereignty and their right to exist in whatever way they can decide for themselves. Of course, geopolitics is more complex than a simple view of the struggle of good versus evil, a view that is childish and Manichean, the reality is much more complex than this. History is opaque, we cannot observe the past internal events unfolding in the present, and it is not because in war one side is clearly wrong that the other side is necessarily right, but this sequence of events makes us rethink to what extent we can deal with the crises of the past and reorganize the way we live in society as a whole. Ghosts of the 20th century that seemed to have disappeared are revived and the whole structure of modern societies is shaken. The pandemic and war unveil a new chapter in world history, and the changes that have begun are already perceptible. We have changed the way we work; why do we need to commute to work when our production can be delivered virtually by computers connected to the Internet? Entire nations have called into question the economic model that is extremely dependent on hydrocarbons and the cartel and

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oligopoly to which this model is subject; how can entire countries depend on very few institutions that are tied to unreliable groups of people? We have changed the way we produce and consume goods in the globalized world; how can we produce goods on demand and consume goods produced far away from the consumer when the global logistics chain becomes expensive and uncertain due to the stresses caused by the pandemic? We have changed the way we live together; do we all need to live in dense urban centers when geography is no longer necessarily a limiting issue for income and jobs? Are we at a turning point in contemporary capitalism, liberal democratic societies, and a cosmological view of reality? Most of these changes scare me and make me doubt what is to come, but if we look closely, we can see that many of them point us to a possible better future. Individual and collective habits that were comfortable but that at the same time make us dependent and fragile are now being questioned. It is the first pandemic in human history in which we managed to discover and isolate the causal agent of the disease in less than a year and develop safe and efficient vaccines in less than two years, something absolutely unprecedented, and that unfolded into the advancement of many other vaccines and medicines for diseases that did not exist until then.

The war in Ukraine has already spurred research into and the adoption of new, sustainable, and possibly more democratic energy matrices. The possibility of being able to work from home without necessarily living near clients and institutions has the potential to improve the quality of life for millions of people. Despite these advances, many deep-seated problems in society still haunt us: the brutal income inequality between an absurdly wealthy few and the many

hundreds of people who are still living in poverty, all of this in a reality where the scarcity of the basics would be (or should be) a problem of the past; the political model of liberal democracies where extreme individualism seems to override the notion of society and the common good; global warming caused by human activity accompanied by the destruction of nature that impacts and endangers much of life on planet Earth, including that of our species. And based on these problems and the existential crisis that occurs to me thanks to the recent facts, I will rephrase my question at the beginning of the text. A simple temporal comparison no longer seems to be enough for me to judge the value of our life and what we want for our future. So, inspired by the Ukrainians’ struggle and by all those who, even in the face of seemingly asymmetric and overwhelming powers, fight for their right to exist as they see fit, I ask myself: what is the dream of life that is worth fighting to conquer? In a world where utopias seem to have died out at the same time as the life model created after the Second World War becomes clearly unviable in the short or medium term, we will need all our creativity and strength to reinvent ourselves and fight for the existence we dream of and want. After all, a calm sea never made a good sailor.


Filmmaker, videographer, entrepreneur, and writer. Creator of the "Jornada das Heroínas" [Heroines' Journey]. Master's student in Cinema at IMACS – International Master in Cinema Studies.

BRA / Narrative / 31-Apr-2022

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, nature, responsibility, restart

How many truths have gone down the drain in the last 24 months?

Every deconstruction is an invitation to rebuild. Life is a journey, and the oracle's signs are presenting themselves at every moment to those who have the space to receive them.

The past year was difficult. This year is being difficult. Life is difficult. Even more for those who have sensitivity and empathy for others.

One of the best pieces of advice I ever received was from a herbalist who told me that I could not help anyone. I couldn't force anyone to change their habits and improve their health. On the contrary, the only thing I could do was to take care of myself and set an example.

I followed this advice to the letter.

I can't interfere with anyone's choice, each person has their own free will. I cannot choose how others eat, how others buy, vote, if they have self-responsibility, if they are happy, if they dance, listen to music, or if they just complain all day.

The truth is that I cannot interfere in anyone's life.

I can only choose to inhabit MY body the way I believe is best.

And I believe in consuming local products, consuming local art. I believe that letting go of excess stuff helps clear the mind in a way that is hard to describe.

I believe that honesty, work, discipline, respect, and kindness are more than words.

I believe that what is right is right and that's it.

And that there is no other place except here, and no other time except now.

Vice President of Ashoka Latin America, board member of the Sao Paulo Education City Council, and the idealizer of the Movement for Innovation in Education. Undergraduate in Social Sciences from the University of São Paulo, master's in Sociology from the University of São Paulo, and doctorate in Sociology from the University of São Paulo (2000).

BRA / Narrative / 15-May-2022

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, politics, responsibility, expectation

Tomorrow, we will have to have overcome the three great challenges of the present: socio-environmental degradation, economic inequality, and colonial, racist, and sexist authoritarianism. The pandemic has revealed these challenges: deforestation and massive food production have brought us closer to viruses that did not circulate among us before; the probability of becoming infected and dying, as well as the effects of the pandemic, have hit the poor, Black, Brown, Indigenous people, and women harder; misinformation has been produced and distributed by those in power as a strategy to weaken our confidence in democratic institutions.

The confrontation of these great challenges of

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the present is made by projecting the world that we want to build. The first pillar of this new world is the sense of public, which must overcome our immediate vision that equates it with state facilities and free services. The sense of public that we need to build must refer to universal rights, social control, and a shared sense of quality. In other words, we need to guarantee everyone the rights to live with dignity and to fully realize themselves, promoting the common good. This materializes in public resources (from taxes paid directly or indirectly by all) that finance the construction and maintenance of public equipment, managed by the state or by the community, which serve all who need it, either free of charge for all or only for those who cannot pay, and are controlled by those who use them. That is, the purpose, the quantitative and qualitative goals are defined by this public. It is the users who collectively arrive at common visions of what quality education, quality healthcare, quality housing, quality transportation, quality culture, and so on are.

The second pillar is integration, which means the recognition that the times and spaces of life are not fragmented between education, work, production, leisure, rest. We learn from the moment we are born and continuously until the end of our days. Therefore, schooling is a very small part of our educational experience and, to be meaningful, it needs to be articulated with all the other agents: families, community organizations, companies, leisure spaces, cultural and health agents, etc. Work, on the other hand, is not reduced to jobs; it includes individual care, care for the family and for the world, and forms of collective organization, whether for subsistence or for the promotion of the common good. We are not productive only in the context of work. Our daily and lifelong times of

rest and leisure are also opportunities for learning, development, and personal fulfillment.

Hence, we come to the third pillar of the world we need to build: balance. We need to reinvent our ways of life by refusing the conditions that brought us to the pandemic, and this necessarily involves putting the environmental and social dimensions on an equal footing with the economic dimension. We need models of production, distribution, and consumption that seek this balance. These models can be invented, but we must also learn about other ways of life, such as those of Native peoples, Quilombolas , peasants, and other so-called traditional societies.

By structuring these three pillars today, tomorrow our societies will be more just, democratic, and integrated.

Writer and indigenous activist belonging to the Krenak people. Developer of several educational and cultural promotion projects. Author of the books "A Onça Protetora" and "Krenak Ererré". Coordinator of the Shirley Djukurnã Krenak Institute

BRA / Note / 21-Mar-2022

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, collectivity, nature, responsibility

My name is Shirley Djukurnã Krenak.

I am from the Krenak people of the Atorãn village.

I am the coordinator of the Shirley Djukurnã Krenak Institute and currently at the National Articulation of Indigenous Women Warriors of Ancestry ANMIGA.

I grew up hearing my father speak of the sacred


force of the earth and the Universe. Our body is water and earth. But it is as if human beings have lost the sacred link to mother earth.

And today humanity is destroying itself with the greed of having power over other people and the greed for money.

Within spirituality, we, the indigenous peoples, are the guardians of this sacred land.

But, even knowing this, the society that surrounds us kills us.

What will be different tomorrow?

That is a good question. I hope we can seek to start over. A new beginning in which we can be truly heard. Listening is important at this time.

The world is out of balance. We have little time to seek a different tomorrow. A more collective tomorrow. A more human tomorrow.

A tomorrow with more love and dignity for others. I still have hope for tomorrow.



BRA / Narrative / 26-Jun-2022

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, nature, responsibility, hope

A new tomorrow will only be possible with the recognition and respect for all forms of life. From what is big to what is small, from the highest to the lowest. From the living beings that inhabit the breadth of the oceans and produce the air we breathe to the living beings

that inhabit the interior of our bodies and allow us to breathe. Recognition and respect are the ways to value life and, thus, restore the multiple habitats where it can thrive, providing the necessary balance so that all beings that share this planet can coexist horizontally, in harmony.

Ricardo Bayão

Architect and urban designer, graduated from PUC-Rio.

BRA / Narrative / 15-Jul-2022

Originally written in Portuguese uncertainty, nature, responsibility, hope

What is our scale?

I believe that the Covid-19 pandemic has expanded the view of human frailty in the face of nature's unforeseen storms. Starting from a small to a large scale, the pandemic taught us that small actions do generate enormous consequences. Just as I was taught in urban planning, starting processes from small scales is important for a better understanding of the interferences with which such processes influence a wider field. Not by chance, the promotion of the simple habit of washing hands was, at first, one of the main measures against the spread of the virus.

So, being aware of our own scale is an extremely important factor when we talk about the future. The implementation of social distancing in 2020 made the effects of human activity in the world (reduction of CO2 emissions on a global scale, natural depollution of water bodies, among others) more obvious, questioning such effects and contributing to a deeper debate about global sustainability.

Our scale has never been so spread out. The

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recently widespread practice of working from home proves that we are increasingly distancing ourselves from the physical space of the world. The Metaverse would be the culmination of this perception. And I believe that the future will flourish within these new realities that we are literally designing. We are the scale of our own future.

Indigenous activist, belonging to the Omágua/Kambeba ethnic group. Writer, poet, composer, presenter, actress, and speaker. Graduated in Geography from UEA. Master's degree in Geography from the Federal University of Amazonas. Ombudsman of the Municipality of Belém. Ph.D. candidate in Literature - UFPA.

BRA / Narrative / 23-Feb-2022

Originally written in Portuguese challenges, collectivity, nature, responsibility

For indigenous peoples, it is important to understand and respect the timing of things and the essence of being. In recent years, we have experienced challenging times during which nature has suffered significant violence at the hands of human beings.

We are currently facing an environmental crisis, and the world is on the path towards a catastrophe due to a lack of comprehension of the meaning of a good life and our inherent connection with nature. We are part of nature, and we reside in our shared home.

further casualties. The role of the shaman has become crucial once again, employing medicinal herbs for healing.

I believe and hope that tomorrow will bring more humanism, greater unity among peoples and cultures, respect for differences, and a commitment to the future of our youth and children in the pursuit of a world where all can coexist. We can learn from one another, embracing the sacred essence that exists within all communities and within our own bodies and territories.

To achieve this, we must delve deep into the exploration of this sacred essence, reflect on our aspirations for tomorrow, and make a difference by considering others as we do ourselves. In our quest to value life, we work towards the concept of the good life, where nothing is mine alone, but everything is shared.

What will be different tomorrow?

Diving is essential, To sense the heartbeat, To make every being's life pulse In the depths of unity.

What will be different tomorrow?

It depends on our actions today, Deconstructing prejudice, Reminding the human being

That it's not just about the pursuit of wealth, Life is a precious gift, and we carry a legacy, Within our chests, a heart beats.

Amidst the ongoing pandemic, Covid-19 has claimed numerous lives, greatly impacting indigenous communities. We have lost many brave warriors, elders, indigenous women, and young individuals. Many have retreated to the forest, accompanied by their elders, to prevent



Sônia Guajajara / Beto Veríssimo

Indigenous leader and Brazilian politician, Sônia is the executive coordinator of the Articulação dos Povos Indígenas do Brasil (APIB) [Articulation of Indigenous Peoples of Brazil]. She holds a degree in Literature and Nursing and specializes in Special Education from the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão [State University of Maranhão]. In 2022, she was named one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time magazine. In 2023, she became the Minister of Indigenous Peoples in the Lula government.

BRA / Interview / 29-May-2022

Originally written in Portuguese collectivity, nature, expectation, restart

Sônia, you have been at the forefront of the fight for the rights of indigenous peoples from a very young age. It has been almost two decades of activism against the invisibility imposed by society on native peoples. Therefore, we would like to start our conversation by talking about your journey.

How did you first get involved in the political struggle for indigenous rights?

It is hard to pinpoint a specific moment when I became involved in this fight, because for me, it is a routine, a daily occurrence. I am always defending something and trying to enter spaces that appear closed. That has been a constant in my life. But I think there was a moment when I began to understand the existence of an organized indigenous movement: it was in 2001 when I participated in the First National Indigenous Movement. It was a post-march conference.

In 2000, we had the March of the 500 Years, "Brazil, Another 500”. This march to Porto Seguro brought together indigenous people from all over Brazil who traveled in large groups and gathered for a “counter-celebration” of the 500 years. At that time, there was a major internal struggle within the indigenous movement because the government of thenPresident Fernando Henrique Cardoso made agreements with some indigenous leaders to support his government, while another part of the movement did not agree with that.

There was also a direct confrontation with the police, who tried to attack the movement’s camps. It was supposed to be a peaceful moment, a celebration of the 500 years, but it ended up being very violent. Indigenous people, as well as activists and members of social movements, were beaten by the police. It was a remarkable moment not only because of the date itself but also because of the confusion and violence that had characterized those 500 years of Brazil, which were portrayed in that time.

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Tomorrow Anew Sônia Guajajara

In 2001, the Conference evaluated the 500 years and discussed the future of the indigenous movement, as we had almost split apart. It was the first time I came to the National Movement in Brasília. There, I listened, paid attention. and understood the need to fight for land. It was the moment I discovered that there were landless indigenous people, without demarcated land, living in repossessions, camps, by the side of the road, without their villages... Before, I only knew my world, my land, my state. That troubled me, and I came back thinking, “I can’t be the same anymore; I have to go back, organize my state –Maranhão - and fight in a broader way. I came back by bus with my head spinning.

When I arrived, I called state leaders and leaders of other peoples, and we started to talk. I had no idea how to organize a movement, so I asked around. We gathered fifteen leaders and started to discuss the indigenous movement in the state of Maranhão. Of those fifteen, only five remained, and we held an assembly in 2002 to discuss the creation of an organized indigenous movement in Maranhão. We held a large assembly; I still don’t know how we managed to gather so many people without resources and support. Someone paid for the food, another for fuel. We planned the meeting for 70 people, and we had 150 in attendance. It was an incredible moment.

The following year, in 2003, we held the assembly to create the actual organization. I was a member of the board. At that time, people still saw women in the movement as “secretaries.” I became the “directorial secretary” within the executive coordination because that was all we were allowed to be. I stayed for two terms in Maranhão in that role. My role was very important in the movement and in the state because we were able to mobilize all the bases. I traveled all over the cities of Maranhão, all the people, offering courses... All of that through articulation with other movements and supporters, without resources.

With this work, the Coordination of Indigenous Organizations of the Brazilian Amazon (COIAB, in the Portuguese acronym) realized that I was good at mobilizing people, and in my last year, they invited me to join the executive coordination, but once again, they wanted me to be their secretary. At first, I hesitated, but then I accepted without much questioning. When I told the other women, they said that I could not be secretary, that they would only support me if I became the General Coordinator or Vice-President. I agreed and realized that I could handle it. I informed the guys that I would run for vicepresident; they said there was already someone for the position, but I told them that the assembly is sovereign, and I was going to fight for the votes. There were three of us in the race, me and two men, two traditional leaders. I received more votes than the two of them combined.

This departure from the context of Maranhão, from the Amazon as a whole, made me understand the logic and what was at stake. That's when I began to participate in the climate struggle. COIAB was like a university of the movement because it was there that I started this relationship of international articulation. I only served one term and decided


to return to Maranhão in 2013. On my way back, in Brasília, I was elected executive of the Articulação dos Povos Indígenas do Brasil (APIB) [Articulation of Indigenous Peoples of Brazil]. I didn't even make it home; I stayed in Brasília. Now I'm in my ninth year with APIB. When I finished my first term, I started to plan my participation in party politics, and in 2018, I stepped away from APIB for a year to run for the presidency of Brazil as a vice. In 2019, I returned, and I've been there until August when my term ends.

For me, the recognition we have achieved to this day is the result of this entire trajectory and the collective actions that took step by step, from the regional to the national level, with international repercussions. As Guilherme Boulos says, it's not a 100-meter sprint; it's a marathon we run every day. It's a combination of factors: support from family, trusted individuals, the territorial base that lifts us up, the ability to articulate with other movements... This articulation is still difficult for us because few leaders have the flexibility to relate to other movements. I have always been very careful about that, understanding that as an indigenous movement, we could not strengthen our struggle without partnerships with other movements. Today, we are one of the strongest social movements in Brazil, especially in the fight against the Bolsonaro government.

In addition to serving as the executive coordinator of APIB (Articulação dos Povos Indígenas do Brasil), you are also a co-founder of the Articulação Nacional das Mulheres Indígenas Guerreiras da Ancestralidade (AnmigaOrg).

Could you talk about your work with these organizations? And how do they operate within politics to ensure rights and amplify the voices of indigenous peoples?

APIB is a national articulation, created 18 years ago, and composed of macro-regional organizations. We have only 7 executive coordinators, each coming from one of the 7 different organizations that make up APIB. For example, I represent COIAB within APIB. We have a national leadership forum, a meeting we hold based on the indications of these organizations. In it, we discuss our annual priorities, what is at stake in Congress, the Executive branch, and which actions we can take in the Judiciary; we make a general analysis of what is on the table for the year. For example, last year, Bolsonaro presented the 31 priorities of his government. We were involved in all of them, except for exchange rate policy. I said, "That's where you're mistaken, that's where we are." Because he wanted to change the way international resources are received, aiming to make it difficult to access the resources that strengthen our mobilizations. What apparently had nothing to do with us, I realized at the time that it was a strategy to make our struggle unfeasible.

We remain alert all the time and engage in direct confrontation in Congress to prevent these anti-indigenous and anti-environmental measures from progressing. We gather an overview of what can impact us, whether they are ordinances, provisional measures, bills, or constitutional amendments... We assess the legal aspects with our lawyers and

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T. A. S. G.

organize ourselves to face each one individually. We coordinate with the advisors of the parliamentarians who are within our field in Congress and form partnerships with supporting entities. We have a group called Mobilização Nacional Indígena (National Indigenous Mobilization), with more than 40 entities in Brazil that meets every Monday to organize the week based on the analysis of the current situation. We also organize the Acampamento Terra Livre (Free Land Encampment), which is the highest assembly of indigenous peoples in Brazil, where we consolidate our ideas with everyone, approve agendas, and continue the pressure with marches.

Therefore, APIB follows the entire national, indigenous, and environmental policy. We don't always win because the opposing blocs are much larger, but we have managed to veto many contrary policies through our constant presence in Brasília. The regression is not worse precisely because of the pressure exerted; because of the monitoring and coordination we do within Congress, with supporting entities, and with the international community. We always work with these three networks.

The articulation of indigenous women has always existed. When I joined the movement, it was already there. But we never had a name, an identity. In the context of the pandemic, during one of our on-line discussions, I said that we needed a name to highlight women within APIB. In 2021, when the vaccine came out, I proposed doing a series of live streams in February to educate people about the importance of the vaccine. I called on women from the movement, and we did weekly live streams for each biome. One week it was about the Amazon, the next about the Cerrado, the next about the Atlantic Forest... We talked about the importance of the vaccine and debunked the lies. We called it "Vacina, Parente!" (Vaccine, Relative!).

In March, during Women's Month, we continued with the live streams and started thinking about a name. I thought of the name "AMIGA," but what would "GA" stand for? "Guerreiras da ancestralidade" (Warriors of Ancestry)! It fit perfectly! Everyone liked it. We created ANMIGA on March 8, 2021. We already launched a website with its history and did the March of the Originárias da Terra (Native Women of the Land) in March. We had a launch live stream with 80 women speaking, divided into 8 blocks of 10 women. It started at 3 pm and ended at 9 pm! I started in Maranhão, doing the opening, then traveled to Rio de Janeiro, and in Rio, I did the closing. It was amazing; the women got excited.

Last year, we held our second march because the first one was not yet formalized as ANMIGA. This year, we are organizing the Caravana das Originárias (Caravan of the Native Women), which is already in circulation. It is currently in the Northeast and will travel to all regions to mobilize all the territorial women. We have the "Raiz" (Roots) women who are at the base, in the village, and belong to the territory. Every indigenous land and every people have a woman representing, sometimes more than one. We have the "Semente" (Seed) women who are in the states. We have the "Biomas" women, one for


each biome, who form a smaller and more emergent council. We have the "Terra" (Land) women who were the creators of ANMIGA. They are a reference for everything we do and are now traveling with the caravan. Finally, we have the "Água" (Water) women who represent us internationally; they transcend borders and oceans. This way, we can reach all peoples and all levels of contact and participation of women.

The caravan summarizes well what we have as an agenda: the participation of women in politics – the role of indigenous women in facing climate change; the valorization of women's socio-bioeconomics; combating gender and domestic violence; and strengthening networks. The idea of the caravan was also mine, with the aim of doing something broader and more democratic. The girls asked me how we would do it without resources, and I replied, "Just have the idea, and the money will come."

Now we are in the process of finalizing the candidacy of indigenous women; we will strengthen the Cocar (Feathered Headdress) Caucus. Our pre-campaign is called "Chamado pela terra" (Call for the Land), with the aim of strengthening women's participation in politics.

You were recently named by TIME magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. In a society where indigenous voices are harshly silenced, and whose roots have suffered for over 500 years from historical processes of prejudice and delegitimization, the national and international projection of an indigenous female leadership demonstrates extreme importance - which we know is the result of years of resistance, struggles, and collective efforts.

How do you see this recognition from major media outlets and the international community, in relation to how your fight is perceived locally? And how can you use this moment to give more voice and recognition to the indigenous issue in Brazil?

That was truly incredible. We were not expecting this outcome. There are so many people involved in the struggle today that receiving this nomination was not on our radar. This news shows that our efforts are worthwhile. Sometimes we feel like we're not making progress, that it's difficult, but when we receive this recognition, we realize that we need to strengthen ourselves even more.

It's not easy to reach certain spaces. The media itself here in Brazil took a while to see the indigenous reality as newsworthy. First, we crossed national borders, reached the international stage, and then we could come back. When it comes from outside, Brazil recognizes the issue. Now I think the situation has improved a bit, and we have gained more access. This is very important because it encourages us to continue, shows the result of collective actions, and highlights the importance of collaborating with diverse groups. Through this, we can reach an audience that we would never reach solely through our own means.

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We don't seek visibility to be on the cover of a magazine, but to transform our reality. If people become aware and interested, they will join the cause. One of the things we want to take advantage of is the opportunity to showcase the role played by indigenous peoples for all of humanity and the planet. People don't know how much indigenous ways of life contribute to the climate, the planet, and the preservation of biodiversity. Only a few city dwellers connect their lives to those who are fighting this battle daily. We want to seize this moment to make people sensitive and understanding of the fact that the indigenous struggle is humanitarian, civilizational, and for the good of the planet. There is an urgent need for this connection or reconnection with the Earth as a mother, not as a plot of land or an object. That's why our campaign is called the 'Call for the Earth.' We, as indigenous people, who hear this call, understand that we need to summon others as well.

This visibility that you are experiencing intersects with the representation of indigenous women. Much progress has been made in the fight for recognition and gender equality, but there is still a long way to go.

How do you, as an indigenous female leader, perceive the need for the articulation of indigenous women, as well as the strengthening of gender-related issues, their culture, and identity?

One thing we have been doing in this articulation and the empowerment that women are experiencing is being careful that it is not perceived as a dispute between women and men. It is not a competition for women to be ahead; we want to complement the fight. The nonparticipation of women can no longer be seen as cultural. Historically, it has been regarded as a cultural aspect, as if it were natural for us to be subservient, to occupy subordinate roles, and for certain communities to reject women in leadership positions. This is not culture; it is ingrained sexism that has also been inherited from colonialism in our territory. We have come to understand the need to be close, to stand together, to assume these roles, and to take control of our own history. The moment calls for strengthening the fight as a whole, not dividing and separating roles, but being complementary.

For instance, we organize Women's Marches, but we always invite men to learn about what we are doing. When we fight against violence, they are the ones who need to listen and to change. They also need to be close to us, building together; otherwise, the discussion remains confined within our own circles. In the last march, almost half of the participants were men. They insist on being there to provide security, to cook for us, knowing that the spotlight is not on them. I always say it: 'The microphone belongs to women; men cannot even relay a message. It is our time.'

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Deepening into this historical process of invisibility, we know that the traditionally told narrative of Brazilian history presents an extremely biased view based on ideas such as "discovery," the "domestication of a primitive state of nature," and the "glorification of the enlightened colonizing man." In truth, the history is one of massacres, abduction, and the dismantling of what existed on that land.

This disconnect between the reality and the history of Brazil's indigenous peoples, compared to what is predominantly known by society, creates a barrier that is difficult to overcome. This barrier is rebuilt every day by our educational system, for example, and our daily practices.

What are the biggest challenges you see in replacing this invented history with a real history of the origins of Brazil?

I believe that it is no longer possible to change the mindset of people from this generation. They may become more sensitive, but they won't have the organicity to understand and embrace this cause. For me, the investment needs to be in children and the current youth, so that we can change an entire generation. This needs to be firmly established in the educational system, from elementary school to university. It's astonishing how schools have not yet changed their curricula and continue to use textbooks that portray indigenous peoples as people of the past. If you talk to a child in the early grades, they will say, 'Indigenous people wear feathers.' It's a very stereotypical image of the 'Indian' with painted face celebrated on April 19th, and not of the 'indigenous peoples' – a change that is already recognized in the Constitution. It is unacceptable to reproduce a history from 1500 without mentioning the present-day indigenous people, their struggles, challenges, and difficulties they face. We have a law that establishes Afro-Indigenous education in schools, Law 11.645 of 2008, but this law is not implemented due to a lack of specialized teachers to teach this content in schools.

This law needs to be applied. Schools need to create space for indigenous voices to be heard. They only recognize someone with an academic diploma as a teacher. Both elementary schools and universities need to make room for indigenous people to speak about their history, diversity, culture... It means recognizing traditional indigenous knowledge as valid knowledge. We have made some progress today, as I am invited to several universities as a speaker and guest, which is already a step forward, but it is not enough. Indigenous people also need to be part of the teaching staff. Indigenous individuals who graduate from universities should also occupy roles as teachers, principals, and rectors. Why can't indigenous people do that? They should be able to compete on an equal footing, but this is still not seen as normal; their presence is still regarded as strange. The first step is opening educational institutions to be able to change the next generation. With those who already have formed opinions, we need to approach them and form partnerships.

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Rega rding the current political context, characterized by a hyper-conservative government openly anti-indigenous and against any socio-environmental cause: what is your assessment of the various attempts to roll back the rights achieved by indigenous peoples and the progress related to environmental protection? And what challenges do indigenous peoples face after four years of the Bolsonaro administration?

Indeed, this government has brought many damages. On his first day in office, Bolsonaro attacked indigenous rights by issuing a decree that abolished FUNAI, took away the demarcation of indigenous lands, and placed us under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture, which is controlled by the ruralist caucus. He materialized what he promised during his campaign: that there would not be a single centimeter of land demarcated for indigenous peoples under his government. Everything that was campaign threats became public policy. As if that weren't enough, he opened precedents to reclaim already demarcated territories. This was the first and worst attack because for us, territory is essential for our existence. He has not only dismantled our rights but also jeopardized the future of indigenous peoples.

The environmental policy was also completely dismantled through legislation that relaxed environmental regulations and allowed land grabbing and deforestation. The former Minister of the Environment, Ricardo Salles, went to regions where there were complaints and instead of punishing invaders, he granted amnesty for fines imposed by IBAMA. His statement in the secret meeting, about taking advantage of the pandemic to "pass the cattle herd," seems like a scene from a fiction movie. The Bolsonaro government is a government of destruction. It's not random, it's not because he doesn't know what he's doing; he knows very well what he wants and how to articulate it. He is the spokesperson for agribusiness, predatory exploitation, illegal mining, and land grabbing.

In 2022, we are in full support of Lula, understanding that he is our current option to defeat Bolsonaro. It is urgent, we need to remove Bolsonaro from power and continue supporting the government, as a social movement, to eliminate Bolsonarism from within the institutions. The institutions are impregnated with these ideologies, and unless they are renewed, we will not have a government capable of rebuilding. Another important aspect is to work intensively to replace Bolsonaro's allied lawmakers. We are working hard to elect diverse caucuses that represent the peoples, cultures, and society. Structural change is needed. We are supporting Lula not because we see him as the savior for everything, but because we want to participate, have an influence, and have a direct voice in a future change. Many people question us about what Lula did or did not do regarding land demarcation or the construction of Belo Monte, but one thing is to have a government with differing opinions, another is to have a declared enemy government that kills, reinforces fascism, and incites hatred. With Bolsonaro, today, supporting him means endorsing an authoritarianism that will continue with this policy of destruction. Now is the time to fight to prevent the loss of the democracy we have achieved.

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S. G.

The reality of Brazilian indigenous peoples is unfortunately still marked by numerous explicit acts of violence: attacks, invasions, threats, and fires. Currently, we are witnessing a deplorable scenario, such as the attack on Yanomami lands, with the advance of illegal mining within their areas. Another form of violence, however, that appears more silently in the media, is the one caused by the government's inadequate response to the pandemic.

What do people who are not connected to indigenous issues need to know about these two forms of violence? Can you explain to us how this violence occurred, and is still occurring, during the pandemic, and this new wave of aggression that we are seeing today?

We have these two types of violence: the blatant one that alarms everyone, the shootings, the rapes, the ongoing conflicts; and the negligence or even planned omission. There is a plan not to provide assistance. The case of the Yanomami child was alarming, with international repercussions, and people are now paying attention to this case. But this is just a snapshot of what happens daily in all territories due to the lack of security and protection.

In the past, we used to say that our main struggle was to demarcate indigenous lands. It still is, as non-demarcation is also a form of violence. It is a silent but equally violent action by the state. Without land security, we are subject to daily conflicts. It remains our primary cause because currently, we have 13% of the national territory as indigenous land, but of these 13%, 97% are in the Amazon.

Our other priority is security in the already demarcated territories because the hate speech of the Bolsonaro government ends up inciting invasions. People carry out invasions feeling authorized, which leads to insecurity. Previously, having one's land demarcated provided security, but today, indigenous people are being killed within their own territory. Another issue is ensuring the conditions and public policies that can enable indigenous people to manage these territories. The lack of these conditions leads to poverty, food insecurity, attacks, and indigenous people leaving for other places. Some go to cities without adequate conditions.

There are many types of violence that people do not see as such. Not demarcating land is the most significant violence of all. We feel it directly in our bodies. This alliance to expand agribusiness is not just a violence of conflict, but it also results in the poison that is sprayed on crops, contaminating water, air, and more. Illegal mining, all of this kills and contaminates water and rivers. In the Krenak land, for example, they say that children can no longer swim or eat fish from the river as they used to. There is no greater violence than that caused by mining. In the Munduruku territory, for instance, it has been proven that 70% of the people are contaminated with mercury. These are all forms of violence that only we experience. Those on the outside do not see this violence.

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We need public policies that address these specificities. A universal environmental policy is not enough.

The territorial rights of indigenous peoples are officially guaranteed by the Brazilian Federal Constitution. However, this right predates the Constitution itself, as it is an original and historical right. Nevertheless, the struggle for the demarcation of indigenous territories in Brazil currently faces significant challenges, such as the proposed Marco Temporal [Time Frame Limit] and the government's proposals to open indigenous territories for economic activities, infrastructure projects, and mineral exploitation.

If these bills are approved by Congress, what impacts can they have on indigenous communities and the demarcation of their lands? What are the most effective ways in which civil society is mobilizing to prevent the implementation of this regression?

The Time Frame Limit is one of the biggest attacks on indigenous rights and the Constitution. If approved, it will be a tragedy for us and the entire population. The Time Frame denies the original occupation of indigenous territories. By establishing October 5, 1988, as the reference date to confirm indigenous presence in those territories, everything that happened before is denied. This theory is one of the biggest absurdities because it violates the Federal Constitution. The Constitution states that territories traditionally occupied by indigenous peoples are recognized as indigenous territories. The Time Frame Limit and Bill 490 only recognize as indigenous territory those areas where physical presence of these peoples can be proven starting from 1988. For many reasons, indigenous peoples were not there at that time. That is not the main factor for proof; what proves it is ancestral presence and traditional occupation.

We are very anxious for the judgment of the Time Frame Limit; it will be the trial of the century. It is scheduled to resume on June 23, 2022. This outcome will guide the future of indigenous land demarcation in Brazil. If the outcome is not favorable, we will have to rethink our strategies of struggle because we will not accept the denial of our territories. There is a push in Congress to approve this measure and hand over indigenous territories for exploitation.

The struggle for the demarcation of indigenous territories has been configured as the main agenda raised by indigenous leaders to combat the current agenda of destruction. In the current scenario, marked by a development model based on the exploitation of resources and, consequently, by the gradual increase in deforestation, the existence of indigenous territories is configured as physical barriers against environmental degradation. In this way, ensuring the demarcation and protection of indigenous lands is also responsible for protecting our biodiversity, fighting the climate crisis, and environmental balance.

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Can you talk a little bit about the role of indigenous territories in the preservation of our forests, and how the way of life of these communities can help us design a new future relationship between society and nature?

In a moment when we are discussing the effects of climate change and when we cannot allow the planet's temperature to increase by 1.5°C, all these measures go against what should be done. One fact can help us bring non-indigenous society closer to the importance of these territories: we represent only 5% of the world's population, but 82% of protected biodiversity is found in our territories. People need to understand that this ensures the life of everyone. If we don't defend indigenous rights, their ways of life will be at risk. If indigenous ways of life are at risk, humanity as a whole is as well. Will you survive without water? The majority of water sources are located on indigenous lands. Therefore, land demarcation impacts everyone's lives. The press, us, and researchers need to talk about this to reinforce the significance of this struggle. Biodiversity is what guarantees life, and it is the indigenous peoples who are protecting it. However, they are also the ones who face the most attacks.

We would like to conclude by addressing the theme of tomorrow, which our book is about.

After difficult years marked by a criminal and anti-indigenous government, further exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, what is your vision for the future of Brazilian indigenous peoples once this current scenario has passed? What is your vision for Brazil tomorrow?

The fight for rights is important: for the environment, housing, health, education, and food. But we are realizing that all of this can only happen through the reforestation of minds. We launched this initiative during the Women's March: "Reforesting Minds." It's about reforesting ideas, thoughts, and, above all, hearts. We need a society with more love, more affection, and more solidarity among people. We need to eliminate individualism. The essence of life lies in collectivism.

If you reforest your heart, spread love, and acquire this political and ecological awareness, understanding that it affects your own future, you will naturally reforest the territories. Reforesting the territories is crucial to ensuring life on the planet. The call is to reforest the minds of all humanity to save Mother Earth.

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"One of the things we want to take advantage of is the opportunity to showcase the role played by indigenous peoples for all of humanity and the planet. People don't know how much indigenous ways of life contribute to the climate, the planet, and the preservation of biodiversity.
Sônia Guajajara
"I think we have a very limited understanding of the importance and complexity of the forest. This is not just a catchy phrase; it is a scientific realization. We don't even have the computational capacity to understand how the tropical forest functions. It is the pinnacle of all life on this planet. "
Beto Veríssimo

Has a background in agricultural engineering with a postgraduate degree in ecology from Pennsylvania State University (USA). Has been at the forefront of multiple initiatives to combat deforestation and illegal logging in the Amazon. Co-founder of Imazon, Director of the Amazon Entrepreneurship Center, Affiliated Scholar at Princeton University, Coordinator of the Amazon 2030 Project.

BRA / Interview / 12-Apr-2022

Originally written in English collectivity, urban, nature, expectation

We would like to begin by addressing your work as co-founder and associate researcher at Imazon, as well as your role as coordinator of the Amazon 2030 project. It has been years of study and fighting for the construction of a better future in the Amazon.

To start our conversation, could you please tell us a bit about the initiatives you have been involved in the Amazon? Throughout this period of engagement with the region, what advancements and gains can we highlight in terms of sustainable development and the appreciation of the Amazon Rainforest?

I have been working in the Amazon for almost 35 years. The guiding principle has always been the idea that quality information plays a decisive role in the destiny of the region. Everything I do is related to generating new knowledge, with information that makes sense in the socio-cultural and institutional context of the Amazon, as well as the politicaleconomic context specific to the Amazon, which is a territory with many unresolved issues regarding property rights and the forest itself that we have not been able to fit into the world institutionally. Solutions for the forest are always challenging. A large part of what I do is dedicated to generating new knowledge.

That's the thinking part, then there's the doing part. In the Amazon, you need to do in order to learn from the objective conditions of the region. For me, doing is an act of constant learning. You have an idea of how to combat deforestation, and you need to ground that idea. How to build local partnerships? Who are these local actors? It always involves these two aspects: I am thinking, but I am also doing. My mission is to protect the Amazon, the forest. My commitment is to the forest. At the end of the day, I am concerned about the beings of the forest, the entities of nature, and the people who are taking care of it.

I think we have a very limited understanding of the importance and complexity of the

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forest. This is not just a catchy phrase; it is a scientific realization. We don't even have the computational capacity to understand how the tropical forest functions. It is the pinnacle of all life on this planet. Nothing more complex has ever emerged, no ecosystem in the half-billion years of multicellular biological life. It has been here for 50 million years, shrinking due to planetary oscillations. At a time when it is already diminished, humanity, with its pressures, puts it at risk. For me, it is a more existential issue. I will do everything, between thinking and doing, collectively, and use all my time. Our generation is not capable of understanding and protecting the forest as it deserves. It's more about passing the baton, in the best possible way, to future generations. I will contribute to our better understanding, conserve as much as possible, and build the best cultural narrative. The institutions I participate in are instruments of this purpose; they are not an end in themselves but exist to serve this purpose. It is a collective task, with many people working on it, using different ways to tell this story. It may seem like I'm doing too many things, but they are all connected. Sometimes I think I'm involved in many things, but they have a sense of order. I am concerned with the existence of the forest, with this moral and civic duty.

Every day, there is another utilitarian reason to preserve the forest. Every day we learn that the forest is more important and necessary for the climate, biodiversity, and hydrological cycles. But there is another dimension, the "why." We don't save things solely for utilitarian reasons; there must be a greater reason. That's where other dimensions come in, which I'm not directly navigating in my work, but they are important: the cultural dimension, spirituality... If we only focus on the dimensions of science and economy, the dimension of reason alone cannot solve the problem. We won't be able to solve it with reason alone.

The importance of the Amazon in the global ecosystem is enormous and unquestionable. Among various factors, it represents the world's largest biodiversity reserve, playing a crucial role in the ecological and climatic balance of our planet. Consequently, Brazil, as the custodian of 60% of the forest within its territory, is internationally recognized as a crucial actor in mitigating global warming and the effects of anthropogenic climate change. However, it appears that this sense of responsibility is more prominent from outside perspectives rather than within Brazil itself.

In other words, it is more evident in other countries than within Brazil. How do you perceive this scenario?

I believe that there is an understanding abroad of the importance of the Amazon in terms of climate and biodiversity. There is also a cultural dimension related to indigenous peoples who resonate with intellectual circles, opinion leaders, and policymakers. In Brazil, however, I think the Amazon is poorly understood. Few people visit the Amazon, and we have a small number of Brazilian researchers studying the region. Brazil, in general, seems somewhat disconnected from the Amazon. The Amazon is treated as a hollow consensus,

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where everyone says it is important, but whenever it has been threatened, there has been little mobilization on the streets to defend it. Perhaps it will emerge in the future, but for now, it hasn't. Everyone talks about its importance, but actions are limited.

In the Amazon, there are interesting experiences taking place. We have indigenous peoples at the forefront of the fight to protect the forest. We have a generation that was involved with environmental organizations and has gone there, like myself and other researchers. We have a small but determined group of Brazilians in research institutions and universities who have done extraordinary work in innovation, creating protected areas, and monitoring the forest. We hope that solutions will emerge from there, as they have in the past with the struggle of Chico Mendes, self-demarcation efforts, and significant advancements in archaeology where Brazilian archaeologists are leading the intellectual discourse. At least in Belém, people are connected to their cultural origins. Of course, there are individuals who arrive in the Amazon with other interests, not understanding the forest, and generating conflicts in the region. However, resistance in defense of the forest comes primarily from the Amazon itself, with little support from the rest of Brazil and some international backing. This support, though not massive, comes from layers of political and financial power. It is still a significant contribution.

Given the current situation of increasing illegal deforestation in the Amazon, along with the advancement and impunity of environmental crimes, particularly illegal logging, mining, and land grabbing, how can the agenda of forest protection and restoration gain more visibility and support in Brazilian society?

When I came to work in the Amazon in 1987/88, the region faced many environmental and social problems. There was a lot of violence, assassinations of leaders connected to social movements, and deforestation was out of control. There was an initial effort in public policies during the Sarney government. This continued with each subsequent government doing a little more: Collor, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Lula. We were in a period of improving deforestation combat policies, which led to significant results until Dilma's first term. In the second term, with the political crisis, the impeachment, the entry of Temer, deforestation started to increase. Under the current government, Brazil lost control, and the situation worsened significantly.

I provide this perspective because it seems as though we are somehow going back to the 1980s. The situation is similar in scale. We have illegal mining, logging, and deforestation at very similar levels. The difference is that over these 30 years, we have discovered how much more important the forest is. In the 1980s, we didn't have this understanding; the climate agenda was emerging, and climate change wasn't being discussed. We were already concerned about the Amazon, but the understanding of why the forest needs to remain standing deepened during this period. Paradoxically, we understand more now, the world

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understands more, there are more conscious individuals in Brazil (although still insufficient), and we have more knowledge on how to address the issues. However, at the same time, things have deteriorated significantly.

This shows that a government can do a lot of good or a lot of harm. The power of the State is enormous, especially in the Amazon, where two-thirds of the territory is under the control of federal and state governments. This includes indigenous lands (where indigenous peoples have usufruct rights but not ownership), conservation units, land reform areas, and areas that are not allocated. All of this adds up to two-thirds of the territory. When the government adopts anti-forest policies with this heritage, the result is tragic, as we are experiencing now. There is a lack of demarcation, reduction of protected areas, weakened enforcement, permission for mining, and reduced efforts to combat illegal logging. The result is a worsening situation. This outcome is not accidental; it is a government project. The situation is extremely serious and puts us in a difficult position.

The Amazon has already lost 20% of its territory to deforestation, and scientists estimate that another 20% is composed of degraded forests (which appear as standing forests in statistics but are actually forests in intensive care or the infirmary). If extreme climate events such as droughts and El Niños occur, the fire is likely to spread in these "hospitalized" forests, and they will quickly perish. Within less than 10 years, we may reach the point of no return feared by scientists. In other words, from that point on, even if the world decides to take action and Brazil comes to its senses, it will be too late. The forest will have entered an irreversible process of savannization, with no possibility of recovery within our historical timeframe. It is an extremely serious situation that will be resolved in this decade. The way things are going, we only have this decade to save or condemn the forest. We need an extraordinary effort to contain the disaster that is happening. Perhaps this is indeed the most challenging moment in the forest's existence throughout its coexistence with humans. Humans have been here for 14,000 years, and for 99.9% of that time, they did not cause problems and interacted very well with the forest. This forest is also a product of cultural interaction with indigenous peoples. Then the white settlers arrived, but even then, they didn't cause major problems. It was only in the 1970s that all this confusion began. And even more so in the last three years, which is a spark in that timeline. It is a short period but dramatically damaging and frightening.

In an eventual scenario in which the public power takes the lead again in protecting the Amazon, what governmental public policies could be more effective as a means of curbing environmental destruction and ensuring forest restoration?

In the Amazon 2030 project, we have developed what may be the best synthesis for this issue. Let's focus on the positive aspects in this first part of the response: we have 83

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million hectares of deforested land, which is equivalent to the size of Germany and Spain combined in terms of deforested area. In other words, in 40 years, we have deforested all of that. Of this portion, 30% is abandoned. Deforestation occurred, but these areas are no longer being used and are degraded land. Additionally, 60% are underutilized, with only 10% being used optimally for agriculture. This means that we have a significant amount of deforested land that could accommodate the demand for urban expansion, industrial mining, reforestation, and more. Brazil could use these open areas in the next 10 years without the need for further deforestation.

The remaining 330 million hectares of forest have all these things we are discovering. The first good news is that we don't need to deforest this forest; it doesn't make economic sense. The economic sense lies in utilizing the already deforested areas. The forest is not an economic or social void; people live there and engage in economic activities. They need assistance and support. Internet and energy need to be brought to these areas. These people can be brought into the 21st century without losing their ability to enjoy their culture.

We can generate wealth in the forest. The forest is tirelessly working for humanity. We need to pay for these forests; there should be a mechanism for transferring resources to these people who are serving as park guardians for humanity at an extremely low cost. Humanity needs to create a mechanism to keep the forest standing by adequately compensating these individuals. We can envision various mechanisms, from income transfers (forest stipends, green stipends) to payment for environmental services through relatively simple mechanisms. Satellite technology can help ensure the preservation of the forest. However, the discussion about who has the right to receive compensation is complex and has caused us to stagnate for the past 10 years without making progress.

There are many people in the Amazon, including many young individuals who lack employment opportunities and quality education. An agenda needs to be developed for these people. Perhaps the solution is not in the forest or in the deforested areas, but in the cities. People in the Amazon could connect with the world if they have better Internet access. Studies show the potential of our youth and how they can integrate into the world. What is the differentiating factor of the Amazon? We still need to discover it; the model is not clear yet. That's why I thought of creating the Entrepreneurship Center.

There are three elements: young people (representing development opportunities), standing forest (a strategic asset), and many deforested areas (which can be used for various purposes, including reforestation and carbon sequestration). Taking all of this into account, there is a plan to present. Brazil has already shown that it knows how to combat deforestation. Now, we need to link the fight against deforestation with a socio-economic solution. Amazon 2030 is focusing on what solution we can test. I hope that a change in government in Brazil, towards a more democratic and responsible government, can bring deforestation rates to more manageable levels. In the next political cycle, we would have the

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potential to bring deforestation close to what it was in 2012: around 4 or 5 thousand km². Currently, we are at 13 thousand km². We need to decrease it to 4 or 5 thousand by 2026 and, from 2027 to 2030, deepen the progress and achieve an even lower number. To do this, we need to involve young people, improve cities, create mechanisms for transferring resources to the forest economy, and expand the agenda for utilizing deforested areas on a larger scale. Right now, we need to put an end to absolutely excessive, unnecessary, and criminal deforestation.

We would like to address the issue of deforestation in relation to agribusiness and land dynamics. Agribusiness, despite being the main economic activity in our country, and a significant portion of its production coming from the Amazon, is also one of the activities responsible for a large portion of illegal deforestation in the forest. In fact, there is a tripod when it comes to deforestation: agribusiness with soybean production, livestock farming, and land dynamics.

What is needed to recalibrate or rethink the model of these activities in the country? How can we, within the goal of reducing deforestation, address these three pillars of deforestation?

The reduction of deforestation in the period from 2004 to 2012 was the result of a clear understanding of how deforestation operated. There was an abundance of forest, and it was open for anyone to claim, while the state had difficulty in exercising its role as the regulator of such a vast territory. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Brazilian state opened many roads and frontiers for occupation. With each new road, favorable conditions were created for irregular occupation, invasion, and deforestation.

The necessary action was to close the frontier. How? By creating protected areas and radically changing the incentives related to land. The pursuit of the Amazon was a pursuit of land. People would sell timber, occupy land, and wait to sell that land when a road was constructed nearby. This was the dynamic that drove deforestation, particularly until the 1990s.

In the 1970s and 1980s, the government wanted deforestation to happen and would pay for it. The policy was: I'll grant you land title if you deforest it. Deforestation was the official policy. By the 1990s, the policy had changed. The government acknowledged the problem and no longer had the funds to pay for deforestation due to fiscal constraints. However, deforestation took on a different characteristic. Why did deforestation continue? Because economic forces continued to advance into the forest, benefiting from the surplus stock of abandoned roads. Every new road created a new wave of occupation. What did we learn to do? We created a wall of conservation units to block these expansion fronts. Conservation units grant land title in the name of conservation, discouraging invaders since they would never be able to obtain ownership rights if they encroached.

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Deforestation is an investment, costing between one to two thousand dollars to clear one hectare of land. Therefore, it is not profitable to enter protected areas such as indigenous lands or parks. The creation of these parks was strategic. There was not necessarily an increase in law enforcement, but there were better satellites and more intelligent and punitive monitoring capable of disabling the equipment of offenders. This set of measures yielded results and was well thought out. Many areas were created between 2003 and 2006, primarily. We established conservation units in an area twice the size of California in the Amazon. It is a significant achievement, but there is still an area corresponding to one and a half times the size of California yet to be protected, as there was not enough time to do everything. This remaining piece is where we currently witness a significant amount of deforestation and land grabbing. We need to complete this work. We know exactly where these polygons are located; this spatialized information is very clear.

We have a legal mechanism, a process for creating indigenous lands, and a set of available instruments that have not yet been fully dismantled by the current government (if it remains in power longer, it will dismantle them). We can still operate with these constitutional mechanisms, which are at the top of our legal framework.

There is a line of thought that sees technological advances as the main solution to the problems that are currently encountered in the Amazon - including, for example, realtime forest monitoring, the use of blockchain in the agro-products market, tokenization in the issue of land access, etc. In this way, through technology we would be able to establish new relationships between nature, the built space, production, and economic growth.

However, there are several components that this way of thinking excludes. How do you see the role of technology in the development scenario in the Amazon?

Technology is always a promise, and it can play an important role, but it will not be able to solve the problem within the timeframe we need. The issue of the Amazon needs to be addressed in this decade, and technology will not be ready to provide all the answers to our problems. I believe that, above all, we need to improve certain aspects of technology that are necessary now. The good news is that progress is already being made. Satellite images today are much better and are used to combat crime, but also to generate new knowledge. The Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system allows us to detect archaeological sites beneath the forest canopy. I think it would be worth applying this system in the Amazon. We would discover numerous archaeological sites and could delineate and protect these areas. In terms of biodiversity knowledge, the possibility of genome sequencing would be fantastic. Science is ready to do that.

A third approach would be to bring Internet access to communities. Gold miners already have good quality Internet, while indigenous peoples, who are in conflict with the miners,

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do not. We launched a campaign to bring solar panels and Internet to the Munduruku people, but they are still poorly equipped. Indigenous youth want to engage with technology without losing their culture. They want to learn how to film. The Entrepreneurship Center should focus on bringing the best possible technology to those in the last mile, including quilombola communities and indigenous peoples. Once they have Internet and electricity, we need to provide them with the best tools to organize business ideas, such as NFTs and blockchain. We need to give these young people, who are on the front lines, the means to defend their territory under more reasonable conditions. They are facing a well-equipped opposing force and have nothing to defend themselves with. Some agendas can be pursued now, partially outside of Brazil. In a way, we have technology as an ally in the short term, but I don't think Silicon Valley will solve the level of complexity that tropical forests present. We need certain aspects of technology, but not all of them. Right now, we need good public policies. After 2030, when we pass the baton to the next generation, I hope that technology can make an even greater difference.

A nother side of the human component of the Amazon is the indigenous peoples. There is a strong dispute for land in the Amazon indigenous territories, while these are the places where the forest is most preserved and which provide a barrier to deforestation.

How can indigenous knowledge and lifestyle contribute to preserve the forest beyond their reservations? How can this knowledge be incorporated by public or private conservation policies, working in alliance with these populations?

Indigenous societies were more sophisticated, more complex, and more populous than ours. Archaeology is showing that there were between 5 and 10 million indigenous people in the Amazon before the arrival of Europeans. These peoples domesticated around 90 plant species. The process of domestication is a process of sophistication for a society, especially in a tropical forest with thousands of species. It requires the capacity to understand the autecology of a species, separate it, perform genetic improvement... Cocoa, cassava, açaí, passion fruit... these were domesticated. The indigenous peoples also manipulated their territories, creating organic soils. The indigenous Terra Preta soil is almost eternal, capable of maintaining its fertility for thousands of years. There was an organic society. People won't find stone monuments because there is no stone in the Amazon; it is a society of clay. We find sophisticated ceramic artifacts made of clay.

Archaeology, through the LIDAR system, is revealing the existence of a network of roads. This gives us a clue about the destiny of the Amazon. It is not an environment to be simplified and domesticated; the indigenous peoples had already understood that. It is a natural environment that needs to be maintained as such. In fact, we will have to restrict intensive human occupation in the already deforested 20%, which is a very extensive area. We need to protect the forest. If we are going to use it, it should be done with the accumulated knowledge of indigenous peoples, who managed it to improve the quality of

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life for 5 to 10 million people. When we find human remains in excavations, we can see that their dental health was good. Life was not on the edge; it was a life of abundance.

A particular lens is needed to understand the forest. Generally, only indigenous peoples, botanists, and ecologists can truly understand it. Most people see it as a mess, thinking it is chaotic. An occupant prefers to destroy what they do not understand. This is a somewhat deeper issue. We have rational reasons not to destroy, but outsiders have no appreciation for the forest. They see it as nothing. We hear things like: "There was nothing here. We arrived and planted soybeans. There was nothing before." This reflects how Brazilians, agribusiness, and the sectors that migrated to the Amazon perceive the forest.

Lastly, Eduardo Neves says that in a way, all peoples have their temples and great monuments. The Egyptians would not accept a new occupation that destroyed the pyramids. The Peruvians would not allow the destruction of the Inca monuments or Machu Picchu. They would not tear down the Eiffel Tower in Paris just because they discovered an oil field beneath it. The forest is our great cultural monument; it is the product of our interaction. This cognitive step needs to be taken. If the forest is perceived as cultural and natural heritage, its destruction would deeply hurt the sense of belonging of Brazilians. It goes beyond utilitarian reasons. These reasons are necessary but insufficient to protect the forest. We need to go beyond that.

If we take into consideration that this is a crucial year due to the elections, we would like to conclude by asking: what future can we expect regarding the preservation and maintenance of the Amazon?

The Amazon will only survive if we are in a fully democratic regime. The current government does not care about the Amazon; it is an anti-Amazon government. The future of the forest will depend on a change of government, otherwise, we will have a situation of conflict that could reach the point of no return. Then it will be too late. I fear greatly for a reelection; we would have an extremely dramatic situation. I wouldn't say it is irreversible because human dynamics always bring some hope, but I would say it would be extremely difficult to change the course. Political change through voting and democracy is absolutely essential. Every vote, every action, every protest, every pressure counts. This is the battle of human existence from the perspective of our relationship with non-human entities. This is the most important moment, so far, of our existence here.

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The pandemic has increased the distance between the private and the public realms. What started as a retreat to our houses continued as an aversion to that which was not familiar. The house, as the apotheosis of the private sphere, is that which exists in contrast to the public sphere. The house is not the place of politics, instead, it is the place of economy, as originally derived from oikos (oikonomia); that is, the management of intimate life.

Oikos, as it refers to the household and the family, is society’s basic unit, the private part that builds up the public whole. The household is our basic model of cohabitation. The house makes the exotic familiar, bringing it home and making it an object of care. There, war becomes impossible since one does not destroy their own house. Any disruption in that space is a destabilization within one’s most intimate domain, therefore, the need to care so disruption can be avoided. Every problem within that realm is one’s own problem, bringing responsibility back to each individual.

Thus, the cultivation of the domestic realm is a natural part of everyone’s social role: private actions reflect on the public sphere. These are actions that welcome and shelter; they bring to the management of the public realm the attention of the familiar. It allows us to organize that which is collective with the same principles with which we manage that which is private, despite the scale. So, when the planet is seen as our only possible house, every gesture within it becomes a gesture of care, of love.

“Care is detached from a simple idea of ‘caretaking’ and ‘caregiving.’ To say that we care for the world and the poor is to appeal to charity, which presupposes hierarchy. Of greater importance is a social and political practice of caring in ways that undo hierarchies between humans and humans, and between humans and the world—that, indeed, foster the creation of existential territories.” 1

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1. Conley, Verena Andermatt. "The Care of the Possible." Cultural Politics, vol. 12, no. 3, 2016, pp. 342.


For this reason, care demands a displacement; a shift from where one can encounter and empathize with another being. In fact, one has to be willing to eat the other, in the molds of Anthropophagy. This is different from cannibalism, Anthropophagy demands assimilation. 2 The consumed becomes a constitutive part of the consumer; the two no longer exist as separate entities. It is symbolic and mythical before it is material. What is eaten is a worldview, a perspective of the other. 3 Only when people are willing to eat each other’s perspective can new modes of coexistence emerge out of mutual affection.

The writings in this section expand on the possibilities of care. Care as an act of encounter, as an art of noticing, thinking and acting. Care as commitment, the provision of attention, welfare and health. They look after, feel concern, display genuine interest and protect not only those familiar to them, but also especially those who are strangers. Their reflections on care, however, go beyond. They not only care about people, but also about other species, our institutions, the environment and the planet. They acknowledge that the vitality of each of these material constituencies shares a common ground that has to be valued and made important. They negate individualism in search of a shared form of compassion. Care both for today and for tomorrow.

2. Andrade, Oswald de. "Cannibal Manifesto." In: European Vanguard and Brazilian Modernism: Presentation and Critique of Key Vanguard Manifestos, edited by Gilberto Mendonça Telles. Petrópolis: Vozes, 1979.

3. Castro, Eduardo Viveiros. "Shamanism and Sacrifice." In: The Inconstancy of the Savage Soul and Other Essays in Anthropology. São Paulo: Cosac & Naify, 2002.


Mohsen Mostafavi

Architect and educator. Alexander and Victoria Wiley Professor of Design at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. Former Dean of the Harvard Graduate School of Design (2008-2019). Former Gale and Ira Drukier Dean of the College of Architecture, Art, and Planning at Cornell University and Chairman of the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London.

IRN / Essay / 27-Sep-2020

Originally written in English politics, technology, responsibility, adaptation

How will we teach next?

Notes for a conversation on the futures of architectural education

Higher education is at a critical juncture. The ongoing pandemic, with its exponential consequences, has disrupted the sector in significant ways. Overnight, for reasons of safety and security, institutions everywhere had to close their doors, send their students away, and begin to teach on-line. Inevitably, faculties have had to go through a steep learning curve. So, too, have the students and the staff who provide administrative, technical, and emotional support. No one knows if the situation will ever return to "normal" pre-pandemic conditions. It probably won't.

Faced with enormous uncertainty about the future, academic institutions are fulfilling their duty of care by spending inordinate amounts of time planning alternative future scenarios. Will they continue to teach fully on-line for the foreseeable future? Will they commit to a hybrid or multi-modal model of teaching, combining physical and digital pedagogy? Should they bring all their students back to campus? Each model has its pros and cons, and different institutions will no doubt adopt different

strategies depending on their circumstances, their strengths, and their vulnerabilities. Also coming into play are the varied roles of the state and the private sector. The inequities present in some countries make it hard to even imagine the idea of on-line learning, while in other countries, the state's support of both the healthcare system and education should afford more opportunities.

Clearly, students and their families are deeply involved and implicated in these uncertainty. Some remain unconvinced about the comparative value of on-line education both academically and financially. Others view the geographically uneven disruptions caused by the pandemic and its political and regulatory impact as reason enough to delay the start or the resumption of their academic careers. Still, others will want to complete their education as soon as possible and move on to the next phase of their lives – whatever that may hold.

For many academic institutions, this situation will raise severe financial challenges. Will they have enough students? And sufficient resources to pay their staff salaries? How can they best protect their investments? How will they safeguard the well-being of their communities? These concerns and more point to the fundamental question of whether many current models for delivering higher education will be sustainable in the years to come.

And yet, every extreme disruption provides a major impetus for rethinking the status quo. One of the unexpected consequences of the global pandemic is the accelerated move towards on-line research and learning. These opportunities will not only be limited to on-line courses designed for mass participation, such as

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MOOCS, but will presumably involve dynamic models of on-line education combining "real-time" and "virtual" content.

One of the potential benefits of these explorations is the ease with which the barrier of geographic distance is overcome, allowing participants from multiple locations to engage in new forms of collaborative teaching and learning – even though early evidence suggests an inevitable prioritization of the time zone of the host institution. Equally, such proximities could affect the willingness of future students to travel for educational reasons as they have done in the past. Students with learning difficulties might also find it harder to cope with their studies without the benefits offered by intellectual and social interactions in physical space.

With the use of Zoom, Teams, and other platforms, everyone is more punctual and seemingly present and attentive, yet meetings lack the aura and atmosphere of exchange that you have in physical space. The small screen makes it harder to see people's reactions and register their physical movements and responses. Spontaneous conversation gives way to the need to raise one's hand before making a comment. At the same time, students can become more knowledgeable about each other's projects and perhaps even more engaged with them. Such is the Janus face of the current situation.

Much of the discussion of the pandemic within academia has focused on organizational issues, risk mitigation, and financial sustainability. Relatively little attention has been paid to the intellectual, social, and political consequences of on-line learning. The university as a physical space provides enormous opportunities for overcoming inequity, offering the same access

to resources regardless of an individual's financial status. The continuing use of on-line education will likely exacerbate the inequities between students and even faculty and staff. The realities of where people come from, the lack of space at home, or the lack of access to childcare, the enormous and important topic of mental health among the student body – all are issues brought into sharp relief by the move to on-line education. How will academic institutions fulfill their current obligations, including those to their faculties and their families, whose homes have de facto become an offshoot of their institution with the move to on-line learning? How will these concerns impact the already complex issues of race and gender within the academy? Out of sight, out of mind?

Collaboration and interaction

The recent experience of on-line education has also revealed the importance of one of the less visible or talked about aspects of the virtual academy, namely the reduced scope for serendipitous encounters. Daily occurrences in physical space, these chance conversations, whether with a friend or a stranger, will become something orchestrated and planned (via chat groups, for example), with less obvious benefits. It is not surprising that in the world of multiple daily Zoom meetings, a telephone call has assumed a new level of intimacy as a means of communication

In any form of collaboration, what is said or debated outside of a formal meeting often matters just as much as, or perhaps even more than, what is discussed during the meeting. The denial of these fortuitous experiences, and more generally of the informal exchange and sharing of ideas in physical space, can add to a sense


of loneliness and isolation. In this new situation the relation between the individual and the group is completely transformed. Constructing new dialogues and new opportunities for friendship, understanding and engaging with those different from ourselves; these are among the key responsibilities and benefits of the academy. How can these relations be rethought and reconstituted?

Architectural and more broadly design education is not immune to these questions and concerns, nor should it be resistant to the opportunities posed by change. Architecture’s studio-based model of education, with its reliance on small group, interactive teaching, is particularly susceptible to the complexities of the rapid shift to on-line teaching. Beyond addressing the immediate challenges caused by the pandemic, what lessons can we learn for the future of architectural education? How might the content and structure of the curriculum change to situate design pedagogy within a more fecund and productive cultural, historical, and social context for architecture – one more in tune with our contemporary conditions of life on the planet and at the same time more responsive to the nuances of design issues brought about by the current shift to on-line education.

made by hand. What are the consequences of this shift towards virtual means of representation for the ways we imagine future buildings and environments? And when buildings reopen and fabrication facilities resume operation, should everyone return to making models in exactly the same way?

Digitally made physical models are generally better finished and demonstrate a higher caliber of aesthetic quality. This is particularly the case with small-scale models that incorporate a high level of detail and visual coherence. Their quality is often due to the visible lack of joints between the pieces or elements of the model, something that is almost impossible to achieve by hand. Moreover, the logic of assembly of a printed model is not always the sam