__MAIN_TEXT__
feature-image

Page 1


table of contents

目录

01: Research at Three Scales 三个尺度的研究分析 02: Problems And Strategies 问题和策略 03: Urban Framework 城市框架 04: Masterplan + Design 总体规划与设计 Warehouses 铁路车间 Intersect 交汇点 Frame 框 The Void As Framework 留白作为框架 New City Fabric 新城市肌理 Appendix: Cost + Research 技术经济指标+前期研究

1 14 32 40 48 56 66 74 84 92


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

01 research at three scales

三个尺度的调研 The Region, The City, The Neighborhood 区域尺度,城市尺度,街区尺度

1


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

南通

Highway Routes 高速公路 Highway Route

NANTONG

Railway Routes Railway Route铁路 Transit Systems Transit System轨交系统 Highway Entry PointsPoint Highway Entry 高速入口 Railway Station Railway Stations 火车站

7,280,000 ppl

常州

1h 50min 130km

CHANGZHOU 4,592,000 ppl 2h 40min 187km 1h 05min

无锡 14

mi

n

WUXI 6,372,000 ppl 1h 50min 140km 42min 15 mi n

苏州

Shanghai Railway Station | SITE 上海火车站 | 基地

SUZHOU 10,578,000 ppl

SHANGHAI 上海

1h 20min 106km 26min

Hongqiao Railway Station 虹桥火车站

嘉兴

JIAXING 4,501,000 ppl 1h 50min 100km 34min

杭州 HANGZHOU 8,844,000 ppl 2h 30min 180km 1h 40min

绍兴 SHAOXING 4,912,000 ppl 2h 30min 180km 3h 22min (no high-speed)

2

宁波 NINGBO 7,639,000ppl 3h 220 km 2h

27


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Shanghai 上海 24,000,000 pop.

regional analysis

区域分析

The site lies next to Shanghai's Railway Station which links the city to a surrounding constellation of urban areas with 20 million inhabitants, all roughly an hour train ride or less away. With the establishment of integral rail transit system of Yangtze Delta Area, this railway station will become the Central Station, reinforcing inter-city business communication. How can we leverage this inflow of people? What programs and construction project could be supported by this untapped potential?

我们的基地毗邻上海火车站,上海周边、长三角地区 的各大城市均与这个车站相连,几乎都在一小时高铁 车程以内。这些城市人口达到2000万,结合上海本地 的2500万居民,未来内外一体的轨道交通体系将使上 海火车站成为这五千万人口的“中央火车站”,强化 长三角地区的城际商务交流。我们如何利用这样的人 流?什么样的功能和项目可以支持这样的潜能?

regional objective

区域目标

While at first glance the site may not be an obvious location for adding world-class amenities, because of its centrality within the regional context, we claim the site is a perfect location for new business, exhibition, arts, and research institutions. These new programs would enjoy direct access to regional and city users through its location next to the main train station and near subway lines. Furthermore, these institutions would form the heart of a radical rethinking and transformation of the site, while simultaneously helping Shanghai continue its position as one of the pre-eminent cultural and economic centers of China.

尽管这块基地给人的第一印象并不会是一个国家级别 的场所,但因为它在区域环境的中心性,此处被认为 将是新兴经济、展览、艺术和科研机构的理想基地。 由于毗邻上海火车站和多条地铁线路,这些新的功能 将会吸引来自长三角和上海的居民。不止如此,这些 新的功能将会成为这片区域重大变革的核心,同时将 帮助上海继续保持中国的经济和文化中心的地位。

南通 + 常州 + 无锡 + 苏州 Nantong + Changzhou + Wuxi + Suzhou 0.25 - 2.00 hours 小时

30,000,000 pop.

CONVENTION 会议 CENTER 中心

MUSEUM 博物馆 HOSPITAL 医院

CONCERT HALL 音乐厅 ARBORETUM 植物园 CORPORATE 公司 HEADQUARTERS 总部

3


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Gro 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团 Transit Stops 地铁站 Research Site 研究范围

Hongkou Stadium Commercial Area

Urban Design 设计范围 City Centers 城市中心区 Transit Lines 地铁线路 Road Network 路网 Main Roads Connecting the SIte 连接基地道路 Commercial Corridors 商业走廊

North Sichuan Road

Shanghai Railway Station

Lujiazui Business Area

The Bund Century Avenue East & West Nanjing Road

Huaihai Road

4

30


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

city analysis

城市分析

Development of Shanghai's primary commercial and office districts has historically occurred within one central node, the Lujiazui district, and along three urban lines which correspond to major transit corridors (see in black in the diagram) and cultural centers. In order for Shanghai to continue growing and redeveloping at higher densities, it will need to define new commercial zones.

上海有浦东、虹桥两个主机场,上海站,虹桥站和上 海南站三个主火车站。市级商务中心包括,南京西 路,淮海中路,四川北路,陆家嘴金融中心,以及周 边的徐家汇、五角场等次级中心。而我们的基地上海 火车站与这些商业走廊紧密连接在一起。为了保持上 海的增长和高密度开发,必须定义新的经济区块。

city objective

城市目标

As such, we propose that the established pattern of urban lines be extended into and thru our site. Here, existing rail lines and multi-lane streets provide the same level of connectivity which makes the current commercial bars successful.Furthermore, these new commercial zones would mutually benefit the proposed addition of regional scale programs. With these two programmatic additions in mind, it also becomes clear that this site would be ideal for new office and residential towers, startup incubators, and research labs, completing the transition of the area to a new city center designed for a sustainable, high-tech future.

为此,已经建立的城市通廊应当延伸进入并穿过我们 的基地。在这里,现有的轨道交通和主要干道将提供 同等级别的可达性,为商业通廊的成功创造条件。此 外,这些新的经济区还会与之前提出的区域级别的功 能相互受益。在新的功能的基础上,这一基地将成为 办公、住宅、创业孵化器和研究实验室等的理想场 所,逐渐转型成为一个可持续的、高科技的未来城市 中心。

5


Rail Station 轻轨站

Informal Fabric 不规则肌理

Main Station

Rail Yard 铁路车场

Park 公园 Historic City 历史街区 Market 菜场

Park 公园

6

Historic City 历史街区


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

neighborhood analysis

街区分析

The research boundary for the competition includes a number of important programmatic and infrastructural elements. The main rail-station, rail warehouses, and rail lines are the most prominent due to scale and functional hierarchy. In addition, there is a lively, year-round marketplace under the highway…A beautiful but unconnected park…A number of well functioning historic fabrics…And less well functioning and ill-defined fabrics in the north. The site boundary defines the limits within which we will propose urban and architectural changes to the city.

基地研究范围包含一些重要的功能和基础设施。西侧 的主火车站,铁轨,以及铁路维护车间是最显著的。 其余包括西侧高架桥下的一个菜场,基地西北侧一个 漂亮但是可达性不高的公园,几片较为完整的里弄历 史街区,以及北侧很支离破碎的街道。基地的设计范 围则确定了我们城市与建筑设计改造的范围。

The research in the following pages makes it clear that the site has great potential to take advantage of its central location within the region and city of Shanghai. There is a good base of established institutions and the area already has substantial investment through redeveloment. Now is the time to establish an identity for this area, one centered on the rail as both a critical, and perhaps under-appreciated infrastructure, and also on its ability to transform the area into a mixed-use neighborhood that is walkable, liveable, and attractive to a full-range of program typologies and city dwellers.

后面几页的分析,证明了这片基地有足够的潜力成为 上海乃至长三角区域的又一个中心。很多机构已在这 片地区建立起来,重新开发项目也已经吸引了众多投 资。现在,是时候为这片地区重新进行定位了;这片 地区围绕着铁轨这一重要、又不怎么被接受的基础设 施,同时又有足够的可能性来改变成为一个综合性社 区,适合步行,宜居,并能够吸引不同的功能以及不 同类型的居民。

7


International Student UrbanUrban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area |Area M.I.T. GroupGrou International Student Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station | M.I.T. 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

可操作区域

Main Areas of Interest:

高速公路与铁路间隙

1. Interstitial Strip between Highway and Railway Because of its undefined and residual character, this strip along the railway has a potentially high value of change, becoming a strategic site for the urban intervention. It is an area that can provide a connection between the North (2.) and South (4.) urban fabrics, offering spaces for transition from one to another. 由于其不确定的和剩余性,这沿着铁路条具有一 个潜在的高值变化,成为一个战略性的站点为城 市干预。它是一个区域,可以提供一个连接北(2 )和南部(4)城市织物之间,提供用于从一个到 另一个的过渡空间。

铁路北部街区

2. North Urban Fabric Adjacent to the Railway This is an area still not consolidated, where different building and urban typologies co-exist. It is a place where real estate marked will gradually impose more pressure, specially because of the new residential developments up North, and the urban renovation of the Railway Station Area. Along with the Interstitial Strip (1.), it is the area for first and largest direct urban intervention. The type of urbanism applied in this area can dictated the future form of the surrounding neighborhoods.

高速路东部及高架下方街区

南部历史街区

3. East Urban Fabric Across Hightway and Underneath Light-rail 4. South Traditional City Fabric Although not directly connected to the Rail yards, this area offers to While it is the more consolidated urban fabric possibility establishing an expansion vector of the intervention towards surrounding the site, this area is also the one East, while breaking with the unidirectionality North-South that bridging the with less infrastructural improvements, and one railways would generate. that should undergo a long-term process of urban renewal. 虽然不能直接连接到铁路车场,这个区可以提供向东扩展干 虽然它是巩固城市结构周围的部位,这个区域 预,同时与单向南北,弥合断裂铁路的产生。 也适合较少的基础设施改动,并进行长期的城 市更新过程。

在这个领域还没有统一,不同的建筑与城市类型学 并存。这是一个地方,标记将逐渐施加更大的压 力,地产,新的住宅发展起来的特殊原因北,城市 改造的火车站区。随着间隙空间(1),它是区对于 第一个也是最大的直接介入城市。的类型在这方面 的应用城市规划可以决定未来的形式 周围的居民区。

未定义区域

5. Undefined Area between New Residential Developments, Rail-way Service Buildings, and Park Because of its park and the railway service buildings, this area was spared from the aggressive real estate land development that happened Northwards next to it. The curren state of latency of this area can be used in favor of an urban proposal that envisions more publicly shared urban spaces. 由于其公园和铁路服务大楼,这个区域从激进的房地 产用地幸免发展发生向北在它旁边。目前这方面的潜 伏期状态,可以有利于城市中使用提议预想更多的公 众共享的城市空间。

3.

1. 2.

4. 5.

11

35


02 problems

+ strategies

问题 + 策略

analysis and proposal for site in

分4个部分的分析和方案

14

4

parts


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

4 MAIN PROBLEMS STRATEGIES 四个主要问题和策略 1. Discontinuity 不连续

Our analysis of the local neighborhood and site scale reveals two conditions are of primary concern. First, the rail lines produce a complete wall for pedestrian flows from North to South. This requires residents to either drive or walk around the rail lines which can increase the distance by up to 10 times.

Blocked Pedestrian Access 阻隔的步行路径

Second, the rail lines and major North South roads cut the surrounding neighborhoods into four quadrants, each of which has developed a different characteristic.

通过对当地街区和基地范围的分析,两个问题凸现出来。 首先,铁轨完全隔绝了行人自北至南的通行。这导致居民 必须驾车或步行绕过铁路,通行距离增长10倍。 第二,铁路线和南北向主要的道路把周围街区划分为四 块,每一块都行成了不同的特性。

Divided Neighborhoods 相互分离的街区

15


?

Objective: Re-Connect Neighborhoods

Where to Connect?

目标:重建街区的联系

在何处连接?

Our objective within the neighborhood therefore is simple: connect the four neighborhoods such that they can operate smoothly as one individual sector, sharing resources, housing, and places of work in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner, while still maintaining the identity of each discrete neighborhood.

16

个街区,使它们成为一个流畅运行的

But where should we connect the two sides? And how many connections are required?

整体,可以在经济和可持续的环境下

那么,应该在哪里连接两边的部分呢?需要多少连

共享资源、房屋和工作场所,同时每

接呢?

所以改造街区的目的很简单:连接四

一个街区又保留自己的特性。


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Park as Shared Link 公园作为公享的连接

Bridging in the center also provides a platform over which we propose to extend the park into the Southern neighborhoods. This move does three things simultaneously: first, it expands the park’s overall size in an area with limited access to green space; second, it produces a clear image of the park as a public infrastructure to be shared equally by all four neighborhoods; and third, it provides a common space for meeting. 在交叉点的桥接能够提供一个平台,将北侧的交通公园 延伸进南部的街区。这样的连接,一,能够改善这一区 域公共绿地的匮乏;二,创造一个清晰的信号,讲公园 作为一个公共设施被周围的居民共享;三,提供聚会约 见的公共空间。

Anchor Node for Commercial Corridors 作为商业走廊的固定节点 M

The Center Is Ideal

By bridging the city at this point we complete a continuous path between the existing subway stations located within a ten minute walk to the North and South of the site. This path becomes a spine for future commercial development towards our agenda of completing the historical figure of two sets of parallel commercial bars as discussed earlier in our city-scale analysis.

在中心联系是最合理的

M

The center point of our site is not only the best place to create connection between the Northern and Southern neighborhoods, but is in fact the only location that makes logical sense. First, it connects all four quadrants simultaneously producing a point of maximum interchange between the existing neighborhoods in an even manner, without preference for any set of two neighborhoods. Furthermore, given the intensity of activity and congestion already existing at the center-point, this knitting or bridging of both sides requires a substantial, and programmatically intensive project.

由于交叉点的桥接,南北两个八号线地铁站间约十分钟 左右的步行路线被连接起来。这条线路将成为未来商业 发展的干道之一,达到之前提到的在城市层面连接商业 通廊的目的。

要为南北街区创造联系,基地的中心交叉点不仅仅是最佳位置,也是仅有的合理 位置。首先,交叉点能够自然而然地均匀连接所有四个象限的街区。并且,在交 叉点已经有多条流线交汇的情况下,桥接两边社区的物体必须有足够的承载量和 功能。

17


Host to New Regional-Scale Program 区域尺度功能的核心 Shanghai Railway Station

Baoshan Rd Station

The proposed light-rail stop would be only a 2 minutes ride away from the central train station. Visitors to Shanghai from the surrounding cities Line 3 Route could access this new node without even having to Line 4 Route Sharedexit Route the train-station. As such, the center-point is the Line 3 natural Platform location to add world-class amenities such a concert-hall, conference center, and museum Line 4 as Platform exhibition space for these regional travelers. Sharedand Platform

新增设的三号线车站距离上海火车站仅有两分钟的 乘坐距离。对于从周边城市到达上海的访客来说, 相当于不用出站就可到达这个新的节点。因此,这 个节点自然成为音乐厅、会议中心、博物馆和展览 厅的良好位置,服务周边城市。

Park as Shared Link 公园作为共享的连接 M

To jumpstart the creation of this commercial corridor and serve new programs added to the M center point, we propose moving the existing Baoshan Rd Station of Line 3 to here. This further establishes the center-point’s centrality within the four-neighborhoods. It also reduces local traffic and air pollution, minimizes the number of additional parking spaces needed to serve this area, and provides the most energy efficient means of access to the larger metropolitan area. Shanghai Railway Station 上海火车站

Baoshan Rd Station 宝山路站

New Intersection Metro

M

Shanghai Railway Station

Baoshan Rd Station

为了创造新的商业通廊,并服务新加入的功能,我 们提议将三号线的宝山路站移至交叉点位置。这一 举措将更加确立交叉点在周边街区的中心位置,也 将缓解附近的交通和空气污染,减少附加的停车需 求量,创造连通整个都市范围最可持续的方式。

18

Shanghai Railway Station 上海火车站

Baoshan Rd Station 宝山路站

M New Intersection Metro


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Node as Pivot for Urban Transformation 交叉点是城市的交通枢纽

We define a set of self-sustaining and mutually reinforcing activities and public spaces. Here, local, city, and regional residents alike will converge at all hours of the day and night to eat, go the market, sit on the roof garden to read and relax with their families. They will meet with friends for tea, to listen to Lang Lang play Rachmaninov, and to look at exhibits of Impressionist paintings and modernist sculptures. Researchers will present their ideas to clients and potential funders for new start-ups aimed at sustainable products, better software tools, and biomedical breakthroughs. All of these new activities will produce jobs for local residents across the entire spectrum of income levels, and spur the growth of two new commercial corridors which cross at this node. As you will see, our proposal for this intersection will radically transform the center of the four neighborhoods from its current condition as a blocked infrastructural crossing, into a civic, cultural, and business hub. 这些功能区块的结合,也将定义一个自给自足并互相强化 的活动与公共区域。在这里,当地的、上海的、周边城市 的居民将汇聚在这里,每天在这里用餐,购物,休憩,以 及娱乐。人们可以在这里与朋友见面,喝茶,去音乐厅听 朗朗的演奏,到美术馆欣赏印象派和现代主义的画作。创 业公司的研发者们将在这里和客户以及投资者探讨新的产 品,前沿的软件,亦或是突破性的科研成果。 所有这些新的活动将为当地的居民提供不同收入级别的工 作机会,并刺激穿越基地的两条商业通廊。 我们的方案将一改这片街区固有的基础设施当道的形象, 创造一个属于市民的文化和商务中心。

19


4 MAIN PROBLEMS STRATEGIES 四个主要问题和策略 1. Discontinuity

不连续

2. Fragmentation 不完整

Inevitably, as a city’s rail network expands in response to population growth, so does its own secondary infrastructures, service areas, and administrative complexes. Over time, however, these buildings have become randomly scattered throughout the site, leading to the fragmentation of rail operations and inefficient use of space. As such, we propose to consolidate all of these functions into a single area around the existing repair and maintenance warehouses. Bringing all of the different rail activities under one roof will improve communication between departments and promote better rail-system operation. Furthermore, clearing the existing buildings frees the priceless land for new uses and redevelopment.

20

人口的增长造成了城市轨道交通网络的扩张,也不 可避免地增加了二级基础设施,服务和行政设施。 随着时间的推移,这些设施建筑不受控制地散落在 铁轨周边,造成了空间的不完整以及使用效率低 下。 我们的提仪是,整合所有散落的功能空间到现存的 大型维护车间周围。将不同的铁路服务功能整合在 一个屋檐下,将促进不同部门之间的交流,提供更 好的铁路服务系统。不仅如此,清理出来的极具价 值的土地将用作新的功能和开发。


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Location of Existing Rail Buildings 现存轨道建筑的位置

Consolidated Rail Functions = Better Communication + New Land 轨道交通功能的整合=更好的商业+开发新区域

Existing critical ground level operations are not touched, allowing continuous use of the railyard during construction. New program is fitted in existing voids and added above in multi-levels. There is an opportunity here to develop a new architectural typology where command and control centers can overlook the actual operations of the railyards functioning in a meaningful way. As in the frame in Sector 1, the operation of the rail becomes a scenographic backdrop for internal offices.

现有的对于地上层面的改造措施并非十分有效的,而这种改造措施却 能在建设铁道系统时保障其的长期运作。新的实施计划将会包括开发 现有的空地和向上增加立体的交通层级。这便提供了一个产生新的建 筑类型学,其中的命令和控制中心将会富有意义地俯瞰整个铁道系统 各个职能部门的日常运作。作为剖面1的结构,日常的铁道运作成为了 指挥部的三维透视背景。

21


Existing rail repair sheds and warehouses become scaffolding for new programs to attach to. 现存的铁道修理棚和辅助房屋作为新体系的支持物加入

22


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

23


4 MAIN PROBLEMS STRATEGIES 四个主要问题和策略 1. Discontinuity 2. Fragmentation

不连续 不完整

3. Indeterminacy 未定义

The relationship between rail yard and the immediately surrounding city is unclear because the block structures and immediately abutting fabrics have no meaningful relationship to the rail yard. This produces an incomprehensible mush of rail and abutting buildings and fabrics. It also creates an incredibly thin block along its southern edge which cannot be meaningfully developed as a single entity.

24

由于铁路车场与周边的肌理和街区结构没有任何关 系,他们之间未定义的空间非常不完整,也导致了 铁路车场南侧一个极为细长的街区,给更高质量的 开发带来难度。周边的建筑和街区都背朝铁路车 场,之间的未定义空间没有任何积极的功能。


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Objective: Re-Connect Neighborhoods 目标:重建街区的联系

The result is that buildings and neighborhoods turn their back on the rail yard, and the border between city and rail yard becomes leftover space with no clear identity or usefulness.

这样的结果是建筑物和它们所处的街区背朝铁路系统,而 城市与铁路之间的界限成为了剩下的,缺乏明确定义及功 能的消极空间。

25


What is this? 这是什么?

26


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Framing the Rail Yard to Receive the City 围合铁路车场来响应城市

The rail yard must be re-qualified for what it really is: a critical urban infrastructure which allows the city to function well. It does not need to change, and it should not be turned away from. We propose therefore to frame the rail yard as a structural-void which receives the city and order its future development.

铁路车场需要被人重新认知:它是一个维持城市运行的重 要基础设施,它不应该处于被遗弃的处境并且会一直存 在。我们的提议将铁路车场围合成一个城市结构性的空 地,积极地响应城市,并为未来的开发创造框架。

27


4 MAIN PROBLEMS STRATEGIES 1. Discontinuity

不连续

2. Fragmentation

不完整

3. Indeterminacy

未定义

4. Inefficiency 低效率

As Tianmu Road kinks in the middle it cuts off the top of the historic neighborhoods while simultaneously creating a tapered block that has resulted in multiple building typologies and wasted space negotiating the uneven geometry. The blocks North of the rail yard are similarly ill-defined with randomly kinked roads preventing a clear understanding of the street grid. Limited to non-existent access along these block’s southern edges leaves the land immediately adjacent to the rail lines under utilized and cut-off from the rest of the city. Cumulatively, The resulting streets are fragmented, irregularly shaped, and incomplete.

28

作为天目路纽结的中间它切断所述历史街区的顶 部,同时创建已导致多个建筑类型和浪费的空间谈 判不均匀的几何形状的递变嵌段。该块北铁轨车场 也同样不明确与随机扭曲的道路阻止街道网格有清 醒的认识。有限沿着这些区块的南部边缘不存在的 访问离开土地利用下从市内其他地区的铁路线紧邻 和停产。日积月累,所产生的满街都是零散的,形 状不规则和不完整的。


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

29


Proposed Operations

提议:

1) Straighten the kink in Mid Tianmu Road to create a rational block of consistent depth along the north of the road. The neighborhoods can then extend into the voided out area, allowing a buffer between the historic fabric and new development.

1)拉直天目中路,在路的北侧创

2) Straighten the kinks in Qiujiang Road while extending and complete Jiaotong Road along the Northern edge of the rail line.

2)拉直虬江路和铁轨北侧的交通

3) Straighten the remaining NorthSouth roads and extend Huiwen underneath the rail yard and connect it to Zhejiang road, providing another North-South route between the bordering neighborhoods.

30

造一个厚度固定的规则街区。路 南边的肌理可以延伸至路边,创 造一个新开发项目与历史街区之 间的缓冲区;

路; 3)拉直剩余的南北向道路,并 通过铁路车场的地下延伸会文路 至浙江路,创造另一条南北向通 廊。


New Street Grid

新街道网络

These operations result in a clear, well-defined block structure which gives efficient and complete access to all of the blocks around the railyard.

拉直其余的南北道路,延长汇文 铁路场的下面,并把它连接到浙 江路,提供接壤的地区之间的另 一个南北路线。

International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

31


03 urban framework

城市框架

theoretical guidelines for acting on the city

城市的理论导则

32


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

1 Clear Boundaries 清晰的边界 Clear, well defined, discrete boundaries are needed for good development. 良好的发展需要清晰、明确和独立的边界

A

B

C

D

E

Uncertainty of interiority and exteriority leads to confusion over control.

Which leads to underutilized spaces near contested, or unclear areas. Which multiplies the problem.

Clear boundaries provide control over the entire territory.

Which maximizes use of the area. No need for buffers.

And leads to multiple, discrete areas, each with their own identity.

室内外空间界线的不明确 可能导致混乱和失控

IN

?

结果将导致交接处空间与 模糊空间的利用率低下, 使得问题进一步加剧

清晰的边界将为整个空间 领域提供有力的控制

从而将空间利用率最大化 。无需产生过度空间

继而产生多样化的、独立 分离的区域,每个区域都 会拥有独特的个性。

OUT

33


1.1 Protected Voids 受保护的留白

1.2 Legibility 辨识性

Each area can develop at a different rate without hindering the cities functioning. Selected areas can remain intentionally undeveloped, in anticipation of future needs yet unknown.

Clear boundaries gives orientation to the inhabitant: giving them clear signals about where they are, and how the city around them operates.

在保证城市正常功能的前提下,每个区域能 够保有各自不同的开发强度。 选择一些区域进行不开发的保留,以备满足 未来不确定的发展需求。

清晰的边界为居民提供明确的方向感:清晰 标示告诉他们身处何处,以及他们周围的环 境是如何组织的。

MARKET 市场

OFFICE 办公

N

34


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

2 Large Scale 大尺度 The larger the framework, the more options are left open. The smaller the framework, the less options are available. Limited options 有限的选择

框架尺度越大,留下的可能性就越多 。框架尺度越小,留下的可能性就越 少。

Open possibilities 开放的选择

or

or

or

Small frameworks limit the typological potential of the architecture within. Given natural contraints of day-lighting and other human spatial needs, the smaller the framework, the less and less room for creative responses and new architectural spaces.

The larger the framework, the more flexibility the architectural design has to resolve problems, or create new combinations of public and private space, built and natural conditions.

小的框架将会限制未来可能放置的建筑类型。考虑到采光及其他人 类活动的基本空间需求,框架尺度越小,给创造性解决方案和新的 建筑空间创新所预留的余地则越小。

框架越大,为建筑设计解决方案预留的灵活性 则越大,或者创造全新的公共与私密空间、建 成于自然环境的结合方式。

35


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

4 Autonomy 自主性 Clear, well designed frameworks ensures that each project can maintain its autonomy when recombined into a larger assemblage. It replicates the logic of the city as an assemblage of smaller city fabrics, infrastructrual systems, and individual buildings.

A

清晰的、合理设计的结构框架保证每一个项目都能够保有各自的自 主性,同时形成更大范围的有效集群。它复制了城市自身的组织逻 辑,是更小的城市肌理、基础设施系统和单体建筑的集合。

C

Clearly defined frameworks for development allows each individual frame to be designed as an autonomous project.

When they are brought together into a larger assemblage, each project will maintain its own identity and strengths...

清楚定义的结构框架允许每一个结构单元成为一个自主的项目 ,进行设计与开发 。

当他们重新组合成为一个更大的集合是,每一个项目将保 有它自己的个性与能量。

B

D While the pre-existing framework ensures each project operates well wtihin the larger context of the city. When each project is as strong as possible individually, the theory of assemblages argues the sum of their parts will produce a more resilient, and more mutually beneficial emergent whole.

When each project is given autonomy to articulate itself in response to its own specific problems and agenda.... 此时每个项目获得了足够的自主性以明确地应对自身 独有的问题和需求。

同时事先存在的结构框架保证每一个项目在更大范围的城市文脉中进行有效组织。当每一 个项目作为个体能够发挥最大效用,集群的理论能够证明它们作为整体的一部分将产生更 加灵活的、协同的有效整体。

1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______

1 _______ 2 _______

1 _______

3 _______

2 _______ 3 _______

37


5 Control of Specificity 特性控制 The use of clear, well designed frameworks gives the urban designer a comprehensive tool for controlling the degree of architectural specificity within each frame. 采用清晰、合理设计的结构让城市设计师能够综合控 制每个结构单元内的建筑特性。

38

A

B

C

Where specific architectural typologies or projects are required to resolve problems, the urban designer can pre-specify the conditions to receive those projects.

The framework can provide the minimum set of zoning or design guidelines to ensure good form and public spaces, as well as designating areas to remain undeveloped.

From this moment of control on, the city fills in through the normative process of parcilization and regular typological deployment.

在需要特定建筑类型或者项目才能解决问题的地 方,城市设计师可以预先设定其特殊的情况,以 便实现其项目。

结构框架能够提供最小尺度的区域划分或者设 计导则,保证良好的形态和公共空间 ,同时设 定那些不开发的保留区域。

从开始控制的这一刻起,城市 开始了标准的发展及部署调度过程。


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

6 Reconfigurable 重构的 The use of clear frameworks let the buildings re-configure itself over time as needed without costly infrastructural changes while maintaining the overall relation that was previously stablished with the city. 使用清晰的结构可以让建筑在时间推移的过 程中不断地进行自我重构,不需要付出高昂 代价对基础设施进行改造,同时保留之前建 立的城市整体关系。

39


04 masterplan 总体规划 setting the frames

创建框架 40


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

41


ing

Rd

d

Rd

y

hwa

Hig

ain

nR

ena

zang

rth Xi

ted

Eleva

H

ᡸH

෱Ӯ

No

ӑᡸ

᜴ᘨ

outh

rth-S

No

n Rd

ena

ᡸH

෱Ӯ

纵剖面(部分1)

ᰳ౵

Rd

y ghwa ted Hi Eleva

Longitudinal Section (Part 1)

Ӯӑ

ang Xiz

ᲲТ

ain ing Rd H

Rd xing

ong ᡸH

߰

ᲲТ

新道路系统

新人行系统

Rd

ay ighw

ed H

Rd ing

߰

ang

Xiz

Elevat

ᡸH

ongx

orth

outh orth-S

౵N

ࠂࡢᡸBaoshan Rd

N ӑᡸ ᜴ᘨ

Ӯӑᰳ

rth No ӑᡸ ᜴ᘨ

outh orth-S ౵N Ӯӑᰳ

Nor ӑᡸ ᜴ᘨ

zang th Xi

Rd

ted eva th El -Sou th Nor ᰳ౵ Ӯӑ

y hwa Hig

44

ࠂࡢᡸBaoshan Rd

New Road Network New Pedestrian Network


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队 ᜴ᘨ ӑᡸ Rd zang rth Xi No

No

ᰳ౵ outh rth-S Eleva H ted a ighw y

新轨道交通系统

Ӯӑ

New Transit Network

45


Longitudinal Section (Part 2) 纵剖面(部分2)

46


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Commercial + Retail 商业 + 零售 Residential 住宅 Office 办公 Mix(Residential+Office) 混合 ( 商业 + 住宅) Hotel 酒店 Public Amenities 公共设施 Rail Department 铁路部门

Program Diagram 功能分区

47


warehouses

铁路车间

consolidating rail operations

+

defining new public spaces

整合铁路设施 + 定义新的公共空间

The railyard warehouses become scaffolding around which existing rail functions attach themselves. The consolidation of rail functions produces a centralized location for all rail management and repair, providing better interaction and communication between each part. Around the outside of the new megasheds we propose bars of private development with ground level programs such as restaurants, offices, grocery stores, and day-care centers, all appropriate to the day to day needs of the local community. By consolidating the rail program and creating a series of linked and vegetated public spaces, the human scale and the monolithic scale are combined in mutually reinforcing manner. The zig-zagging of the sheds defines deep pockets of protected space away from the highway interchange and busy road. Here, children, families, and market-goers alike can find respite from the crowded city. 所有散落的铁路功能空间被整合到现存的大型维护车间周围。将不同的铁路服务功能整合在一个屋檐下,将促进 不同部门之间的交流,提供更好的铁路服务系统。在新的大型车间四周,我们设置了条状的底层商户开发,包括 餐饮,办公,超市,日常中心,都是当地社区日常所需的功能。整合铁路功能,并创造一系列连续的绿化空间, 人的尺度和单一的尺度相互融合并互相收益。之字形的建筑形体创造了有进深的空间,远离繁忙的高速路的纷 扰。在这里,孩子们,家庭,买菜的人都能找到在这拥挤的城市得到缓解。

6.

1.

5.

3. 2. 4.

100m

48

100m


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

49


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Warehouse 车间 Rail Service 铁路设施 Rail Department Office 铁路部门

18

17,200 sqm 68,400 sqm 96,400 sqm

182,000 sqm

Ware Rail Se Rail D

20

+ Co

Warehouse Cross Section 铁路车间横向剖面

50


82,000 sqm

ehouse 车间 ervice 铁路设施 Department Office 铁路部门

International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Warehouse 车间 Rail Service 铁路设施 Rail Department Office 铁路部门

17,200 sqm 83,000 sqm 105,000 sqm

205,200 sqm + Commercial 商业

16,250 sqm

17,200 sqm 83,000 sqm 105,000 sqm

05,200 sqm

ommercial 商业

16,250 sqm

51


56


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

intersection

交汇点

linking the neighborhoods and placing new program

串联街区并置入新功能 The point of highest congestion, where three rail lines and a buried highway all converge, is not an obvious place to locate Shanghai’s newest cultural center. However, it is precisely this congestion that we seek to intensify and leverage by creating an apparatus and public node for the city. First, by covering the existing railyard and elevated tram line with a gently sloping public lawn, workers and residents from all four neighborhoods have a shared space of meeting and interchange. Underneath the roof we install a space for permanent markets, where local vendors can sell to the daily influx of new visitors, as well as define areas for new, world-class amenities: a performance hall, a 15m high exhibition hall, and a conference center. All of which are directly linked to the 50 million inhabitants of Shanghai and its regional satellite cities through a new tram stop which itself access the central railroad station just 2 min away.

三条轨道交通和一条隧道交汇在这里,是最多功能汇集的点,乍一看不适合成为上海的一个文化中心。然而, 正 是这样的汇集,让城市利用起来成为一个公共的节点。首先,通过一个缓缓的公共坡道覆盖起现存的铁路车场和 轻轨线路,周边的居民和工作的人们将拥有一个共享的约会场所。在屋顶下面,我们设计了一个市场,在为当地 的卖家提供商机的同时,也将定义新的世界级设施:一个音乐厅,一个会展中心和会议中心。这里新增设的轻轨 车站距离上海主火车站只有两分钟车程,所有的功能和设施都将通过这个新车站与上海及周边地区的五千万人口 串联起来。

57


1. Ground Slope 底层斜坡

6. Concert Hall 音乐厅

3. Public Market

8. Service Rooms

2. Car Parking 停车

7. Light Rail Platform 轻轨站台

3. Public Market 市场

8. Service Rooms 服务设施

4. Exhibition Gallery

9. Commercial 4. Exhibition Gallery 展览厅

9. Commercial 商业

1. 2.

5. Convention Center 会议中心

2.

6.

10. Vertical Circulation 垂直流线

3.

4.

1.

7. 8.

5.

2. 9.

5. Convention Center

2.

10.

6.

10. Vertical Circulation 4. 3. 7.

8. 5.

9.

Intersection Exploded Axon 交汇点分解轴侧 58

10.


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Node Plan: + 270 cm 交汇点节点平面: + 2.7米 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Parking 停车 Commercial 商业 Office 办公 Conference Center 会议中心 Lecture Hall 报告厅 Performance Hall 演艺厅

7. Exhibition Hall 展览厅 8. Tram Stop 站台 9. Public Plaza 公共广场 10. Market 市场 11. Conference Rooms 会议室

1

2

2 6 3

1

11 4 10

7

10 5

2

2

3

9

2

59


交汇点分层

INTERSECTION LEVELS

Intersection as Moment of Maximum Programmatic Congestion 功能交汇最大化

60


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Intersection Cross-Section 交汇点横剖面

61


structural system diagram

结构系统图示 To allow for maximum flexibility below the roof, a long-span (25m +) concrete module is used. By using long span concrete beams, with dedicated, full-height columns, the following benefits are achieved. 1. Faster construction 2. Ability to span railyard using same structural system, providing continuity of space on both sides. 3. Ability to reliably calculate and support heavy loads of roof above, which includes trees and 0.75m + of continous soil cover, while disengaging roof loads from dynamic floor loads. 为了达到屋顶下层最大的灵活性,我们使用了跨度超过25米的混凝 土模块。这种大跨梁以及专门用于承载它们的通高柱将会带来很多 好处: 1. 更快捷的建造速度; 2. 更好的延展性,现有空间可以很方便地通过这种结构生长形式向 外扩张 3. 更可靠的强度,通过转换屋面荷载为楼板荷载,来达到支撑包括 树木、植被以及厚度超过0.75米的覆土层的核载量。 Sitecast Concrete Beams + Girders

1500mm

1200mm

900mm

600mm

300mm 4.5m

62

13.5m

18.5m

22.5m

现浇混凝土 + 大梁

现浇混凝土柱 - 高

Sitecast Concrete Beams + Girders

Sitecast Concrete Columns - Tall

1500mm

14.5m

1200mm

11m

900mm

7.5m

600mm

3.5m

300mm

0

4.5m

9.0m

9.0m

13.5m

18.5m

22.5m

Sitecast Concrete Columns - Tall

0

300mm

600mm

900mm 1200mm

Sitecast Two-way Flat Plate (Floor)

Roof Beam Diagram 梁图


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

exploded axon

分解轴测图

Concrete Slab Roof + 0.75m + Soil 混凝土板屋顶+0.75米厚覆土层

Concrete Diagrid 混凝土斜肋梁

Irregular Column Grid to Span Rails 跨越铁轨的不规则柱网

63


modular system diagrams

模块系统图示 60 - 300 cm topping soil The structural system is based on a repeating triangle grid with a secondary, unsupported triangle grid spanning the mid-points of the supported girders. The primary girders typically span 25m or less, and the secondary beams span 12.5m or less. This allows the reinforced structural slab to span no more than 6.25m. 结构系统是由若干同一样式的三角形网格作为主梁,主梁中点之间 相互连接形成非支撑作用的三角形次梁。主梁跨度一般在25米或以 下,次梁跨度12.5米或以下。这样的体系使得结构楼板跨度最大可 以达到6.25米。

60-200厘米厚覆土

soil trays with integrated watering system 覆土承载集成灌溉系统

waterproof membrane 防水层

15 cm rigid insulation 15厘米厚刚性隔热层

26 cm reinforced concrete slab 26厘米厚钢筋混凝土板

reinforced concrete girders (200cm x 25cm) 钢筋混凝土梁架(200cm X 25cm)

concrete column diagrid (60cm diam) 混凝土斜柱(直径60cm)

concrete foundation 混凝土基础

64


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

normal roof module

skylight roof module

一般屋面单元

天窗屋面单元

planting module

种植屋面单元

+ Allows plantings with roots up to 50cm deep + The construction profile of 60cm soil / 15cm rigid insulation / 26cm of concrete, provides two large thermal mass bodies seperated by a high R-value insulator which absorbs heat in the summer, and slows heat loss in the winter.

+ Skylight module removes concrete slab triangle between beams, extends a concrete curb through the soil layer, and provides a rigid seating for the large glass panes.

+ For planting larger trees with root systems past 50cm, the concrete slab is lowered 2m to in-line with the bottom of the beams. This produces a clean profile from below, while providing a deep pocket of soil for multiple trees to grow.

+ 可用植被根系深度达50厘米 + 屋面上60厘米覆土和26厘米混凝土板两种热导体由15厘米厚的 隔热层隔开,通过使用高热阻值材料隔热层,能够在夏天吸收部 分热量,冬天减少热量流失。

+ 此单元移除了梁之间的三角形盖板形成天窗,取而代之为 一圈混凝土挡土翻边,并为窗玻璃留出安装位置。

+ 为了种植根系深度达到50厘米的植物,这一区域做了降板 2米,与主梁梁底齐平。这一措施也让屋面底部更平整,同时 提供更多覆土空间种植树木。 65


66


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

frame

definining the protected void, receiving the city

定义受保护的留白,迎接城市

The frame as a theoretical device is used here to delimit a clear boundary between infrastructure and city. We propose to wrap the railyard with a continous three story, 21m thick plinth, thus physically tracing the frame as object. This maximizes the narrow space between road and railyard and sets the foundation for a series of wide towers rising higher towards the intersection and Eastern end. The tower typology utilizes lateral cores to provide full-depth office and research spaces with very good day-light and cross-ventilation. Even though the railyard is left completely untouched, we achieve an FAR over 5.0 with better environmental performance than typical block structures, all the while simultaneously protecting a void in the center of Shanghai which can be used in the next 20 to 40 years to resolve unknowable future problems.

铁路战场周边的框作为一个理论性框架,重新划定并定义了基础设施和城市应有的界限。我们提议围绕铁路建立 连续的,三层高,21米厚的基座。这个基座将最大程度利用现在铁路车场和马路之间的空间。基座上方可以建造 一系列较宽的高层,这些高层的类型使用侧面的核心筒,能够提供完全进深的办公和研究空间,并拥有足够的日 照和通风。即使铁路车场被完全留白,容积率也达到了5.0。这样的街区组织将拥有更优越的环境表现,并自然而 然地在上海的市中心保护起一个空白,在未来的20至40年间可以用来应对未知的城市需求。

67


8 4

7 2

1 4

1 1

2

4 8

7

1

2

Frame Plan: + 270cm 框架平面: + 2.7米

68

2

1

2


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队 7

Key To Plan 平面功能 1

3

1. Office 办公 2. Commercial 商业 3. Start-Up 创业 9

1

3

4. Bio-Medical Research

4

生物制药 5. Train Station 车站 6. Railyard 铁路车场

7

7. Public Garden 公共花园 8. Housing 住宅 9. Housing Tower Core 住宅核心筒

6

1

2 1

9

9

2

2

69


10

7

4

2 1

1

4

10

1

2

11

10

11

10

Frame Plan: + 1300cm 框架平面: + 13 米

70


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

7

Key To Plan 平面功能 1

1

3

1. Office 办公 2. Commercial 商业 3. Start-Up 创业 4. Bio-Medical Research

4 3

10

生物制药

1

5. Train Station 车站 6. Railyard 铁路车场 7. Public Garden 公共花园 8. Housing 住宅 9. Housing Tower Core 住宅核心筒 10. Roof Terrace 屋顶花园 11. Pedestrian Bridge 人行天桥 6

1

2

1

1

9

1

9 1

71


the void as framework

留白作为框架

flexibility of development in the unknown future

未来开发的灵活性

74


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

options for future development

未来发展的可能性

The future is inherently unknowable. New technologies, new develoment patterns, changing resident and infrastructural demands combine to produce very different urban conditions in the span of 10 or 20 years. Because of this, and specifically because autonomous vehicles may completely alter mobility demands in cities in the next 15 + years, we claim that the railyard should be conceived of as an open frame-work to be filled in later. The following diagrams show potential responses to the following three possible future conditions: 1) Rail capacity demands increase and the site needs to be retrofitted for more train storage; 2) Rail capacity remains the same as today, and the site can be developed to accomodate both rail and other public programs; 3) Rail capacity remains the same or drops, and any cost to burying or re-locating the existing capacity is compensated for by the benefits and rents of new construction within the frame. This could mean covering the railyard, burying the railyard, or completely removing the railyard.

未来本不可知。新科技、新发展模式、变化的居民和基础设施需求在10到20年时间会综合产生与现今不同 的城市情况。基于此,特别是因为自动车辆也许会在15年之后完全替代城市交通需求,我们主张铁路修车 场将在不久成为一个被填充的开放框架。下面的图解展示未来三种可能情况的答案: 1. 铁路需求提高,基地需要被更新以适应更多的火车容纳量。 2. 铁路需求和现在持平,基地可以被发展以同时容纳铁路和其他公共活动。 3. 铁路需求持平或下跌,覆盖或转移现在容量的费用被框架内的新建设利益和租金所补偿。这意味着可 以上盖、掩埋、或是完全转移铁路修车场。 在等待自动汽车、网络和智慧城市范例自己发展的同时,铁路修车场可以更加策略和节约的在空间展开。 它被认为是一项在城市中心的投资,特别是在这个位置,只会在经济和功能上增值,所以它的功能不能太 刻板的局限于一种。

By waiting until the effects of autonomous cars, the internet of things, and the smart-city paradigm have worked themselves out, the railyard can be more strategically and cost effectively deployed the space. It is an investment in the belief that land in the center of the city, in this location specifically, will only increase in value (both economically and functionally), and it's use should therefore not be fixed in-place by too rigid a project.

Towers 高层

BUILT PROGRAM

建造项目

Research Campus 研究机构

INFRASTRUCTURAL PROGRAM

Urban Farming 城市框架

基础设施 INFRASTRUCTURE

基础设施项目

Automated Manufacturing Cells 自动化制造单元 Rail Service Sheds 铁路设施车间

INFRASTRUCTURE

3X Capacity Railyard 3倍载量铁路车场

基础设施

Existing Railyard Remains 现存铁路车场 Railyard + Autonomous-Car Parking 铁轨 + 自动化停车场

INFRASTRUCTURAL OPEN-SPACE

Railyard + Park 铁轨 + 公园

设施性公共空间 OPEN-SPACE

Park 公园

公共空间

Past 过去

2015

Future 未来 75


1.

built programs

建造项目

1.1 — towers 高层

If over the next few decades the need for rail infrastructure decreases, or pressure for new built space increases to the point that the costs of burying / moving the railyard are justified, then the frame becomes opened up to for new development projects. By holding this land as-is for the immediate future, therefore, the cost of land around the railyard can naturally increase from other redevelopment projects. Once freed for development later on, therefore, the land will be worth more, and this increased cost can help pay for burying the rail, or for other public projects. The most profitable use of the frame would be placing a number of very tall, 200m + towers. The railyard void has the space to accomodate this without ruining the surrounding plinth and frame buildings.

76

如果今后的几十年铁路设施的需求降低,或者新增空间的压力增加到埋藏或转移铁路修车场的 成本适中,那么新发展项目的框架就开放了。控制了这片土地在不久的将来,铁路修车场周围 的土地花费可以自然地从其他重建项目增加。

一旦今后可以自由发展,这块土地将会增值,

增加的价值可以支付覆盖铁路和建设其他公共设施的花费。这个框架最大收益的项目将是置 入200余米高的多座塔楼。铁路修车场的空间可以在不破坏周围基础和楼房的容纳这些新增塔 楼。


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

1.

built programs

建造项目 If the surrounding area begins filling in with medical or other research institutions, the frame could offer a future space for their continued growth, or the establishment of educational institutions to support existing research and development projects. Here, the existing plinth and tower logic is expanded into the frame while connecting directly into the Southern plinth, creating a series of protected courtyards. These courtyards serve as public space for multi-building educational, or public institutions. Connections between the courts come through passages ways cut thru the plinths (see detail). 如果附近的土地开始填充制药和研究机构,框架将会提供 给他们持续增长,或是支持研究和发展项目的教育机构的 未来空间。在这里,现存的基础和塔楼逻辑扩展到框架里

1.2 — Research Park

研究公园

和南边基础直接相连,创造出一系列受保护的庭院。这些 庭院充当教育和公共研究院的公共空间。院落从基座路径 相连接(参看细部图)。

If the site becomes highly attractive for regional and city scale programs, expansion of these amenities can happen in the frame. At the most extreme, a continous space could fill the entire railyard (which may be buried at this point). Inside might be a mixture of exhibition spaces, museums, gardens, sports facilities, and other programs. 如果基地变得在城市和地区非常有吸引力,这些设施可以 在框架内扩展。最极端情况下,一个连续的空间可以填充 整个铁路修车场(在这里也许被覆盖)。空间里面也许是 一个融合展览、博物馆、花园、运动等其他设备的综合

1.3 — Special Program

体。

特殊功能

77


2.

programatic infrastructures

功能性基础设施

2.1 — advanced manufacturing 高级制造业

An alternative future use for the railyard is to leverage its existing connectivity with the larger rail and freight infrastructure. This connection allows industrial scale material flows both into and out of the site. If manufacutring technologies continue to improve at their current rate, within 10 or 20 years it will be possible to have fully automated, super-productive, zero emissions, and highly flexible manufacturing cells placed within existing urban fabrics. When placed within the city center, the highly flexible production cell can respond immediately to the demands of residents, taking orders in and immediately constructing and deliverying material goods. By distributing production cells throughout a city, the need for trucks to criss-cross the city distributing goods is removed. By connecting the factory directly to the existing rail infrastructure raw materials and waste flow in and out on dedicated and highly efficient rail corridors. This reduces congestion and pollution, while lower costs of operation and increasing customer satisfaction as products are delivered within the same day. 78

铁路修车场的另一种未来功能是利用现有的大型铁路货运基础设施连接。这种连接允许工业尺 度的材料流入和流出基地。如果制造业科技以现有速度提升,未来的10年或20年极有可能有置 入现有城市肌理的全自动、高效、零排放和高度灵活的制造单元。如果置入城市中心,这些高 度灵活的生产元件可以及时回应居民的需求,快速接收订单然后立即建立传送货物。遍布城市 的生产元件消除穿越城市运送货物的卡车。通过直接连接工厂的现有铁路设施,材料和废物将 会在精确高效的火车轨道上流入和流出。这减少拥堵污染和操作的成本,同时增加消费者的满 意度因为产品在同一天会到达家里。


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

2.

programatic infrastructures

功能性基础设施 Another option for material productivity is urban farming which is currently being developed using LED lights and offers 100x + the productivity per square meter of land by growing food year round in perfect conditions with zero pesticide, 90% less water, and with direct access to the consumers and restaurants who use them. The top floor could be a normal green-house, allowing for growth of plants which require the full-spectrum of light, or don't benefit from 24 hour growing cycles. 另一种物质生产的选择是都市农场。都市农场现在用LED 灯照明,种植的食品会提高一百多倍的产量,零农药,节 约90%以上的水,直接流入消费者和餐馆。顶层可以是温 室,允许种植需要全日照,或是不需要24小时种植循环的

2.2 — Urban Farming

植物。

都市农场

If, on the other hand, the rail system requires more repair and maintainenace space as a result of expansion or changes elsewhere, the railyard can be covered using the same basic shed typology as we have used in the Western section of the proejct. These sheds combine office and administration space and new rail switches to allow trains to navigate around the multi-story office blocks. 另一方面,如果在辈出的扩张变化使得火车系统需要更多 的维修和保养空间,铁路维修场可以用我们在项目西侧使 用的同样类型的基本覆盖棚。这些覆盖棚包含办公和行政 空间和使得火车在多层办公区块导航的新铁路转换枢纽。

2.3 — Rail Sheds

火车车间

79


3.

infrastructural expansion

基础设施扩张

3.1 — Three levels of railyard 铁路车场的三层空间

One possible future often not considered in urban design competitions is the need for the existing infrastructures to increase their capacity. This is not the most exiting project to design, but it often can be the most appropriate and responsible. In the case of the central rail station and connected rail-lines, there is no reason to believe that their capacity will not need to increase as the city's population grows. Because rail is the most efficient city transportation type, it would be irresponsible to not consider and plan for a future where the railyard would need to increase its capacity signifigantly to match demands for more trains in the local and regional system. In this event, then, bridging over the railyard, while keeping the current capacity, presents major obstacles to future expansion and could have larger ramifications for the entire transit system in Shanghai. As such, leaving the railyard as-is allows another layer of raillines to be built above, and better access to burying a third layer of raillines below if need be. This would triple the capacity of the railyard. Perhaps this could free land elsewhere, or allow the existing system to operate at higher capacity without needing to built new railyards far away from the city center? 80

城市设计竞赛中,一种通常不被考虑的情景是增加现有基础设施的容量。这可能不是最激动人 心的设计环节,但通常它是最适宜当下和最对现实负责的。在中央火车站和沿线,没有理由不 认为它的容量不会随着人口增长而增加。因为铁路是城市交通类型中最高效的,不去考虑和规 划铁路修车场容量未来的巨大增长以符合本地和区域系统中更大火车的需求量是不负责的。在 这个案例中,在铁路修车场上建设天桥,保持了现在的容量,但对未来的扩张产生了巨大的矛 盾,还对上海的整个铁路系统衍生影响。基于此,留下铁路修车场的空间,在上面建设多一层 铁路,如果需要还可以在铁路线下挖建第三条铁路线。这会使铁路修车场有三倍容量。也许这 会减少其他地方的铁路建设量,或是使得现有系统在高容量下运作,无需在远离城市中心的地 区建设新的铁路修车场?


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

4.

infrastructural open-space

基础设施扩张 In this scenario there is no pressure for increased square footages of any specific program, nor the economic incentive for development on land which will require either relocation, burial, or bridging over of the existing railyard. In this case, then, new development is left to the already existing neighborhood fabrics which are already linked to both transporation and water and sewer infrastructures. Demand and rents remain high but managable. In this case, then, and only this case, would bridging over and capping the railyard be the right solution in the present term. 这个场景中,没有任何增加特定项目的压力,也没有需要 置换、掩埋或上架现在铁路修车场的土地发展的经济驱动 力。新发展留给了现存的已经连接好交通、供水和排水系

4.1 — Existing Railyard

现存铁路车场

统的周边街区肌理。需求和租金保持在较高且可控制的状 态。有且仅有在这种情景下,覆盖并架起铁路车场才是正 确的选择。

This scenario assumes that the need for rail storage remains the same, but that overall mobility demands increase, but that the increased demand is met with new autonomous car technology. These cars are typically driving around the city being used, but during lulls in demand and overnight these cars still need a place to stay. By locating these cars in the center city, they can respond instantly to demand as it happens, and don't have to drive far out of the city for storage, saving energy and reducing pollution. 这种场景假设铁路存放的需求与现在一样,但是总的汽车 设备需求增长了,但是增加的部分是新的自动车。这些车 通常在城市中逡巡使用,但在需求暂停和过夜时这些车需 要停放。把自动车停放在城市中心区,它们可以在需求发

4.2 — Rail + Autonomous Car parking

生时及时回应,也不需要驶出城市很远来停放,节能减 排。

铁路 + 自动化停车场

81


5.

open-space

+ hybrirds

公共空间+复合体

5.1 — urban park 都市公园

In the event that pressure for public open space is greater than that for new public program, new office space, new productive factories, or increased rail infrastructure, by waiting for 10 or 20 years to build a park, there remains the option of simply planting trees within the existing raillines. The park could also potentially be built on-top of a buried railyard, though the weight of trees would increase costs, which is why the mixed option is presented above. However, if rail infrastructure can be removed in the future as a result of new technologies (autonomous cars, smart-city control off continous train use, etc.), then this option is extremely inexpensive and provides another segment of park space to connect with the bar of parks seen in previous diagrams.

82

在公共空间需求比新公共项目、新办公空间、新工厂或新铁路设施还要大的情景下,需要10到 20年时间建一座公园,使得简单地在现有铁路上种植树木成为一个选择。公园也可以在覆盖 的铁路修车场上建设,尽管树木的重量将会增加成本,这也是为什么我们提及上述混合的可能 性。但是,如果铁路设施在未来科技发展下北取代(自动汽车、智慧城市取代火车),那么公 园的选择会是经济且提供另一种公园空间片段来连接公园带。


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

5.

open-space hybrirds

公共空间+复合体 Maintaing the assumption of the above scenario -that no development pressure exists and the railyard is still needed, but at the same capacity -- we propose the city could build an elevated railyard on half the site, and use the remaining ground for park and open public space. This would likely increase the rents for the frame buildings, and those increased rents could be used to pay back the cost of the elevated railyard. 保留上述情景的假设——不存在发展压力,铁路修车场还 被需求,但保持现在容量——我们提出城市可以在一半的 铁路场地上建设第二层铁路,利用剩下的土地建设公园和 公共空间。这极有可能增加框架建筑的房租,增加的租金 可以用来偿付二层铁路修车场的费用。

4.2 — Dual Level Railyard + Park

双层铁路车场+公园

83


84


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

new city fabric

新城市肌理

building clear urban blocks

建立清晰的城市街区 The new street and block structure defines clear, well sized, and rationally shaped frameworks for parcelization and re-development. This new construction is further regulated in specific locations towards a plinth and tower typology which provides the following benefits: a) better access to the middle of blocks for shared public and semi-public spaces; b) special logistical / freight access for medical, technical, or advanced manufacturing research and production; c) more flexibility for programing in general due to larger ground and second floor footprints; d) public roof-space to increase outdoor areas in congested area; e) higher FAR's while maintaining good day-light and ventilation; and f), a clear signal to inhabitants between publically accessible program on ground floors and privately controlled office, residential, and institutional towers above. The improved urban framework also allows the city to reconfigure itself over time as needed in response to new challenges and opportunities. 新的道路和街区结构确立的清晰的,尺度合适的,形状合理的框架,用于地块划分和开发。这些新的建造将在某 些特定的位置强化基座和塔楼的建筑类型,提供一下的优点:1)街区中间的公共空间和半公共空间有更好的可达 性;2)为医疗,器械,高级制造研究和生产,创造特殊的后勤通道;3)更大的底层和二层将给功能带来足够的灵 活性;4)在高度拥挤的区域创造屋顶花园公共空间;5)高容积率的同时,保持优质的采光和通风;6)清晰地界定 底层的公共功能和上层的私人的办公、住宅和研究机构。改进的城市框架将让城市能够在未来面对新的挑战和机 遇的时候自行进行重塑。

2.

1.

4.

3.

85


Block Typology 街区类型 Against the traditional Perimeter Block 改变传统的围合型街区

86

1 Towards an Open Block 开放式街区

2

3

Plinth as an urban catalyst 基座作为城市催化剂

2 overlapping Systems Plinths + Parks 叠加的系统: 基座+公园


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Move 动作 2 Functioning Detail 运作细节: Interaction between the public space and the program on the plinth 公共空间与基座上功能的交流

Move 动作 2 Open block 开放式街区: System of plinths and open spaces 基座和公共空间系统 map key 图例:

Move 动作 1

Move 动作2: Plinth 基座 New Buildings 新建筑

Complete the existing urban blocks 填充现有的城市街区

Move 动作1: New buildings新建筑

87


2 2

9

1

2

2 4 9

1

7

7 1

1 3 3 9

Neighborhood Plan: + 270 cm 街区平面: + 2.7 米

88


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Key To Plan 平面功能

1. Office 办公 2. Commercial 商业 3. Start-Up 创业 4. Bio-Medical Research 生物制药 5. Train Station 车站 6. Railyard 铁路车场

4

7. Public Garden 公共花园 8. Housing 住宅 9. Restaurant 餐饮

6

3

2 7 9 2 1 1

89


1 3 4

10 1

10

3 9

7

9 4

9

1 10

1

Neighborhood Plan: + 1300 cm 街区平面: + 13 米

90


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

Key To Plan 平面功能 9

1. Office 办公 2. Commercial 商业 3. Start-Up 创业 4. Bio-Medical Research 生物制药 5. Train Station 车站 6. Railyard 铁路车场 7. Public Garden 公共花园 8. Housing 住宅 9. Housing Tower Core 住宅核心筒 10. Roof Terrace 屋顶平台

9

9

3

3

10

3

3

1

1

10

91


appendix: economic analysis 附录:技术经济指标 区块1 Sector1 铁路车间+广场 Sheds + Plazas

功能分区 Program Breakdown

建筑数量 # Buildings

3

总建筑面积 Total Building Area (M2)

204,250

商业零售 Commercial + Retail

总用地面积 Total Ground Area (M2)

98,340

研究+创新 R&D

容积率 FAR

2.07

面积 Area

单位造价 Unit Rate

总造价 Total Cost

(sqm)

(RMB/sqm)

(RMBx10,000)

16,250

x

10,000

=

16,250

0

x

--

=

--

办公 Office

105,000

x

105,000

=

44,310

铁路设施 Rail Maintainance

83,000

x

83,000

=

29,050

0

x

--

=

N/A

56,700

x

600

=

3,402

特殊 Special 公共空间 Open Space

预算 Total

区块2 Sector2 交汇处 Intersection

功能分区 Program Breakdown

建筑数量 # Buildings

2

总建筑面积 Total Building Area (M2)

113,500

商业零售 Commercial + Retail

总用地面积 Total Ground Area (M2)

35,500

容积率 FAR

3.19

面积 Area

单位造价 Unit Rate

总造价 Total Cost

(sqm)

(RMB/sqm)

(RMBx10,000)

16,250

x

10,000

=

16,250

停车 Parking

25,000 to 50,000

x

350

=

--

办公 Office

11,500

x

4,220

=

4,853

会议+展厅 Conference + Exhibition

12,250

x

3,950

=

4,839

特殊:屋顶花园 Special: Rooftop

34,000

x

10,000

=

34,000

特殊:车站 Special: Station

7,885

x

20,000

=

15,770

22,200 M (1,250 seat) x

20,000

=

4,400

特殊:音乐厅 Special: Concert Hall

3

预算 Total 92

239,262

80,112


International Student Urban Design Competition Shanghai Railway Station Area | M.I.T. Group 大学生城市设计国际竞赛铁路上海站地区 | 麻省理工团队

区块3 Sector3 南部街区 Neighborhood

功能分区 Program Breakdown

面积 Area

单位造价 Unit Rate

总造价 Total Cost

(sqm)

(RMB/sqm)

(RMBx10,000)

建筑数量 # Buildings

20

总建筑面积 Total Building Area (M2)

73,750

商业零售 Commercial + Retail

31,750

x

10,000

=

31,750

总用地面积 Total Ground Area (M2)

21,750

研究+创新 R&D

21,175

x

7,446

=

15,767

容积率 FAR

3.39

办公 Office

20,850

x

4,220

=

87,987

0

x

--

=

--

1,250

x

600

=

750

住宅 Residential 公共空间 Open Space

预算 Total

区块4 Sector4 框架 Frame

功能分区 Program Breakdown

136,254

面积 Area

单位造价 Unit Rate

总造价 Total Cost

(sqm)

(RMB/sqm)

(RMBx10,000)

建筑数量 # Buildings

24

总建筑面积 Total Building Area (M2)

539,575

商业零售 Commercial + Retail

58,975

x

10,000

=

58,975

总用地面积 Total Ground Area (M2)

106,750

研究+创新 R&D

78,500

x

7,446

=

58,451

容积率 FAR

5.06

办公 Office

400,575

x

4,220

=

169,043

酒店 Hotel

120,000

x

8,330

=

99,960

6,400

x

1,000

=

640

0

x

--

=

--

特殊: 屋顶花园 Special: Rooftop 公共空间 Open Space

预算 Total

387,069

93


区块4 Sector4 北部城市 City

功能分区 Program Breakdown

面积 Area

单位造价 Unit Rate

总造价 Total Cost

(sqm)

(RMB/sqm)

(RMBx10,000)

建筑数量 # Buildings

78

总建筑面积 Total Building Area (M2)

510,650

商业零售 Commercial + Retail

106,150

x

10,000

=

106,150

总用地面积 Total Ground Area (M2)

90,750

研究+创新 R&D

42,750

x

7,446

=

31,832

容积率 FAR

5.63

办公 Office

251,450

x

4,200

=

105,609

住宅 Residential

110,350

x

3,500

=

38,623

特殊: 屋顶花园 Special: Rooftop

10,150

x

1,000

=

1,015

公共空间 Open Space

8,550

x

600

=

513

预算 Total

总体指标 TOTAL

面积 Area

比例 Ratio

商业零售 Commercial + Retail

229,375

14.6%

住宅 Residential

193,350

12.3%

办公 Office

789,375

50.4%

研究+创新 R&D

142,425

9.1%

酒店 Hotel

120,000

7.7%

会议+展厅 Conference+Exhibition

12,250

0.8%

音乐厅 Concert Hall

22,200

1.4%

屋顶花园 Special: Rooftop

50,550

3.2%

车站 Station

7,885

0.5%

总建筑面积 Total Floor Area

1,567,410

100%

公共空间 Open Space

66,500

停车 Parking

25,000 to 50,000

文化 Culture

总预算 Total 94

1,126,440万元

283,741


Profile for Gabriel Kozlowski

Urban Proposal for Shanghai's Railway Station Area  

Urban Proposal for Shanghai's Railway Station Area  

Advertisement

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded