Florida Water Resources Journal - December 2021

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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office:

1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Mish Clark

Mish Agency

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference: Connected Again!—Mish Clark 6 Process Page: Award-Winning Polk County Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility: Advanced Treatment Through Operational Efficiency—Bartt C. Booz 18 Emilie Moore to Lead FSAWWA in 2021 24 It’s Not About Pipes, it’s About Patricia—Steven Drangsholt and Stephanie Corso 28 Congratulations to WEFTEC 2021 Ops Challenge Participants 30 WEF Announces Awardees for Stormwater Innovation and Management 31 WEF Selects 2021 Fellows for Contributions to Water Profession 36 Register Now for the 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference Contests!

Technical Articles

14 Open Cut High-Density Polyethylene Pipe Installations per Updates in the Second Edition of AWWA Manual M55—Amster Howard and Camille G. Rubeiz 32 A More Perfect Union: Improving Design Through Distribution System Modeling—

Kristen Cartwright, Richard Weatherly, Jason Ward, and Jared Barber

Education and Training 19 CEU Challenge 20 FSAWWA Fall Conference Attendees Thank You 21 FSAWWA Fall Conference Sponsors Thank You 22 AWWA Membership Thank You 23 FSAWWA Holiday Greeting 27 WEF Access Water Platform 37 FWPCOA Training Calendar 46 Florida Water Resources Conference 47 TREEO Center Training


12 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Fred Bloetscher 26 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 38 Let’s Talk Safety: Eyes on Safety 40 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 42 FWEA Focus—Ronald R. Cavalieri 44 Reader Profile—Austin F. P’Pool


48 Classifieds 50 Display Advertiser Index

Volume 72

ON THE COVER: Chastain-Skillman designed the 3.2-mgd Mann Road Well Water Production Facility for Polk County Utilities Department in Polk County. (photo: Mike Leffler)

December 2021

Number 12

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021


2022 Florida Water Resources Conference: Connected Again! Mish Clark It’s going to be a great conference in Daytona Beach, April 24-27, 2022, at the Volusia County Ocean Center and the Hilton. We are hearing an overwhelming excitement to finally reconnect in 2022! Attendee registration opened on Dec. 1, 2021. As of midNovember, more than 60 percent of the exhibit floor is booked. We look forward to connecting again in April 2022!

Who Should Attend the 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference? S Academics - Communicate your research results and learn about other research being conducted in your area of interest. S Consultants - Demonstrate the power and dynamics in your client work and continue to learn from others in the industry. S Managers, Directors, and Policy Makers - Discover new technologies and innovations for your utility/organization. S Operations, Maintenance, and Compliance Professionals - Discover new technologies and what is happening in the water industry. S Practitioners - Show what is being done in your organization and learn what is happening in the water industry. S Public Officials and Regulatory Members - Meet water professionals who provide comprehensive information on every aspect of water usage. S Educators - Introduce your students to the water industry and share your efforts for the future of water. S Students - Share your research, get feedback, and network with the professionals.

Why Attend? S N etwork with thousands of other consultants and professionals onsite. S Explore the latest updates on innovative topics from industry leaders, researchers, and expert practitioners. S Learn about the benefits of industry-leading products. S Be inspired by practical applications and technologies from colleagues. S Enhance your knowledge on the latest work and research to apply to your organization. S Expand and strengthen your skill set and framework with hands-on workshops. S Earn educational credits at hot-topic technical sessions. S Present your research, project, and/or product to receive feedback.

Why Exhibit? It’s One of the Best Opportunities to Reach Your Target Market With over 350 exhibitors presenting new products and technical processes, there are more opportunities here than ever. The 2022 Florida Water Resource Conference can help you grow your market share, develop leads, connect with existing customers and prospects, and market-test new ideas. Get ready to be impressed with the latest and greatest from the best and brightest. Whatever your motivation or sales strategies, your bottom line will thank you for getting to the largest joint water/wastewater/stormwater event in the Southeast. It’s all here.

What’s Included With Your Booth Reservation? S E xhibit space is a 10-ft x 10-ft unit that includes: • booth carpet • 6-ft table • 3-ft side drape dividers • 8-ft back drape • 1 chair • 1 trash bin

4 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S S ingle line of one exhibitor company identification sign S Up to 10 staff exhibit-hall-only registrations per booth S Company listing in the official conference program issue S Discounted advertising rates in the Florida Water Resources Journal conference issue

Have You Booked Your Attendee Registrations? As we return to Daytona Beach, the east coast of Florida provides an excellent opportunity to reach those potential clients and workers who manage, design, and operate the water environment industry. There is access to technical papers being presented at sessions and workshops, and involvement in the Operations Challenge Competition, Top Ops Competition, and Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest. University students can participate in the Student Design Competition and the Student Poster Competition. With the popular “Women of Water” forum, young professionals sessions and activities, a facility tour, and more—there is something for everyone at every level at the 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference. Register today!

Where to Register for a Booth or Book Your Attendee Registrations? For all of the information you need, go to www.fwrc.org. See you in Daytona Beach! Mish Clark is the new executive manager of the Florida Water Resources Conference. Please do not hesitate to reach out to Mish at 267.884.6292. S

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PRO CE S S PAG E Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! This month’s column will highlight the Polk County Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility, which won the 2021 Earle B. Phelps Award in the advanced secondary category for facilities with a design capacity from 5 million gallons per day (mgd) to less than 10 mgd.

Award-Winning Polk County Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility: Advanced Treatment Through Operational Efficiency Bartt C. Booz The Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility (NERWWTF) is the newest, mostsophisticated, and largest of three regional plants currently in Polk County (county). The facility was recognized by the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) in 2021 as the Earle B. Phelps Award winner in the advanced secondary category for outstanding nutrient removal, secondary clarification, filtration, and high-level disinfection. The Earle B. Phelps Award is presented annually to wastewater treatment plants that demonstrate exceptional advanced secondary treatment throughout the year and maintain the highest removal of major pollution-causing constituents, such as total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP). This award demonstrates the county’s dedication and commitment to protecting the environment and serving the community.

Past Expansion

The original NERWWTF was built in 2001

with a capacity of 3 mgd. Due to the growth in the area and increasing waste loadings, the county identified in 2006 that the NERWWTF needed a significant expansion to 6 mgd due to rapid growth along the Highway 27 corridor. In 2012, construction was completed to expand the facility to 6 mgd, with a build-out capacity of 9 mgd. The expansion included a state-of-the-art biological nutrient removal (BNR)/oxidation ditch treatment facility. Other facility improvements of the 2012 upgrade included automated sequencing for digestion, biosolids dewatering, a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system operable throughout the plant from tablets, and aquifer recharge.

Current Expansion In 2019, a capacity evaluation of the NERWWTF identified the need to add secondary clarification capacity to the facility to accommodate current and future flows and loading, and address Class 1 reliability requirements. In 2020, the county began construction of two new 100-foot-diameter

Figure 1. View of the Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility during construction of two new 100-foot-diameter secondary clarifiers (June 2021).

6 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

secondary clarifiers (Figure 1) to expand the facility’s secondary clarification process from a capacity of 6 to 9 mgd. The project also includes a new return activated sludge/waste activated sludge pumping station, new screenings wash presses (Figure 2) for the existing screening structure, hydraulic improvements, and site stormwater/ drainage improvements. Construction of the project is expected to be complete by June 2022.

Process Overview Influent wastewater is screened with perforated plate mechanical screens at the screening structure before flowing to the BNR basin with flow equalization capability. The existing BNR contains selectable anoxic and aerobic zones, where aeration is accomplished with fine bubble diffusers prior to flowing to one of the two oxidation ditches, also with anoxic and aerobic zones. Following secondary biological treatment, the mixed liquor flows to three secondary clarifiers for settling, return sludge, and waste sludge. Continued on page 6

Figure 2. New screenings wash presses at the screening structure (September 2021).

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Continued from page 4 Upon completion of the secondary clarifier upgrade in 2022, the operations staff will have more flexibility to take clarifiers down for maintenance. Treated effluent from the final clarifiers is filtered through one of four parallel deep bed filters. The filters can be dosed with chlorine to deter algae growth. A polymer solution may also be added to the influent flow as a filtering aid, but it’s rarely used. Turbidity monitoring for compliance purposes takes place in the clear well of the deep bed filter before the disinfection process. Following filtration and turbidity monitoring, sodium hypochlorite is injected in a rapid-mix chamber before flowing through slide gates into the chlorine contact chambers (CCCs). Effluent from the CCC effluent channel

is monitored for total residual chlorine (TRC) before flowing by gravity into the effluent pump station wet well, where it’s pumped to ground storage reservoirs (GSRs). High-service pumps convey reuse water from the GSRs to the reclaimed water distribution system. The facility is equipped with a state-of-theart biosolids facility. Two screw presses process aerated, digested sludge at approximately 95 gallons per minute (gpm) and dewater liquid sludge from approximately 1 percent to provide 15 to 17 percent cake. The biosolids are then hauled to the local landfill for disposal. While the BNR can be run with many differing options for treatment, Figure 3 shows a block depiction of the NERWWTF in its current operational scheme. Note that the grayed-out

Figure 3. Block depiction of the Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility in its current operational scheme.

Table 1. Plant Loadings and Effluent Quality

8 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

structures are not in use, and only the mainstream treatment train is shown. Table 1 summarizes the typical plant loadings and effluent quality.

Advanced Secondary Treatment The biological treatment system utilizes oxidation reduction potential (ORP), both within the BNR and the oxidation ditches, as the process control parameter for aeration and anoxic areas. The facility previously utilized dissolved oxygen (DO) to control the oxidation ditch’s aerator speeds. By utilizing ORP, the NERWWTF has been able to significantly reduce power consumption and chemicals while providing far greater nitrogen removal, as compared to pre-expansion performance. While there is not a “set” level for ORP, the county’s operators worked to determine the optimum set points for the facility. This is the key to the low TN levels and enhanced treatment. The facility does not use carbon addition in the deep bed filters, but it has been able to average effluent TN of less than 1.8 mg/L for the past year. This represents a 97 percent removal of TN as compared to the 61 mg/L influent. Using ORP for process control, the power utilized per influent volume treated dropped by 12 percent from preexpansion levels and the total chlorine utilized per influent volume dropped by 49 percent. The net savings between the pre- and post-expansion operations from chemical and power represent nearly $120,000 annually, while the effluent quality from the plant has never been better or more consistent. One of the major enhancements that the county implemented to optimize the chlorine disinfection efficiency and to further reduce chlorine consumption was to add shade balls to the CCCs (Figure 4). While approximately 65 percent of chlorine savings are attributed to the county’s operation of the mainstream process, approximately 35 percent of chlorine savings came from the addition of shade balls. The NERWWTF operators experimented with the balls in the chlorine contact chambers to reduce chemical costs in August 2013. During the testing, it was discovered that the shade balls not only reduced chlorine consumption, they also stabilized the residual by occupying the area of chlorinated water exposed to the environment (ultraviolet [UV], wind, etc.). The balls virtually eliminated algae growth and iron oxidation that previously built up on the channel walls. The use of the balls has all but eliminated cleaning of the chambers, except where the channels are exposed to sunlight. To keep the balls in place, there is grating installed at the end of each contact chamber before the outfall. Continued on page 10


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Figure 4. View of chlorine contact chamber with shade balls (April 2015).

Continued from page 8

Personnel The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) requires that the plant be staffed with state-certified operators for a minimum of 16 hours per day, seven days a week. The facility currently has three Level A operators, two Level B

Figure 5. Pictured (left to right): Edward Clark, Todd Tysinger, James Welch, and Charles Nichols Jr. Not pictured: Nathan Silveira, Oswaldo Lopez, Bryan Osborne, and Richard Moore.

operators, and two Level C operators on staff. The operations staff is comprised of Edward Clark, Todd Tysinger, James Welch, Charles Nichols Jr., Nathan Silveira, Oswaldo Lopez, Bryan Osborne, and Richard Moore (Figure 5). The dedication and hard work of the entire NERWWTF operations, maintenance, and electrical/instrumentation staff resulted in the facility consistently producing exceptional

10 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

effluent quality, exceeding all regulatory requirements, and reducing chemical usage and energy consumption. The 2021 Earle B. Phelps Award for advanced secondary facilities is well-earned by this dedicated team! Bartt C. Booz, P.E., is senior project manager with Wright-Pierce in Maitland. S


2021: A Challenging and Fantastic Year! Section Staff and Executive Committee Officers Kudos Fred Bloetscher, P.E., Ph.D. Chair, FSAWWA


e have reached the end of 2021, so this is my last column as FSAWWA chair. I want to thank the past chairs and Executive Committee (EC) members who believed I could uphold their legacy in this position. Thank you all for your trust. I believe we have continued to build on our FSAWWA organization, and the future remains bright. The year has gone by so fast, and behind the scenes, a lot has been happening. This was a year of reopening and adjusting to the “new normal,” as I outlined last month in my column. It was also a year to put the infrastructure in place to restart the Florida Water Resource Conference (FWRC) with new leadership. The 2022 FWRC in Daytona Beach will be here before you know it.

A huge thank you to Peggy Guingona, the section’s executive director, and the staff at FSAWWA headquarters for all the hard work they do. If you don’t know Jenny, Casey, and Donna, you need to! The team is fantastic and the section has grown and runs smoothly because of their efforts. They make being chair way too easy! We also have great EC officers. Emilie Moore, Greg Taylor, and past chair Kim Kowalski have been part of weekly meetings where the issues that need our attention are discussed and recommendations made. Most of those discussions are summarized and reported at our two section meetings each year, one of which is at the FSAWWA Fall Conference. Thanks to the EC members for all of your guidance and participation as we have navigated the issues of the day: COVID, office and school re-openings, conference issues, FWRC, awards, scholarships, and more. We held the past chairs meeting this year. It was good to see and talk with the past chairs and gain their insight on the section. It has come a long way in 20 years.

Leadville, Colorado.

12 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Section Fall Conference As you are reading this, our annual conference is complete. I’m hopeful everyone had a good time and learned a lot. Thank you to all who sent in abstracts for the technical program, and I’m sorry we could only take half of them; there was so much good information submitted. Thanks go out to Steve Duranceau for his help with the program; Pam London-Exner, Bina Nayak, and Marjorie Craig, who were this year’s best paper selection committee; and all of the moderators for helping to bring the program to life. We cannot do this without all your efforts. At the close of the conference, the chair position for the section was passed to my longtime friend, Emilie Moore. She will make an excellent chair in 2022. Congratulations Emilie! Well deserved. Hopefully, there will be fewer challenges than we faced in 2020 and 2021. The section is doing well and that is because of our members! Thanks go to all of you.

Water Industry Issues and Challenges Moving ahead we have much to look forward to and be thankful for, but there is still much to do. As I noted last month, infrastructure conditions, funding, and staffing are big issues. We had utility and local government entities in the state attacked by ransomware, so we must be diligent in the war against cyber criminals. The conference technical program included a session about this topic and we must remain vigilant. We included a session at the conference on people issues. Workers want better salaries and better working conditions to return to their jobs, and there is a lot of competition for good workers. The market that we compete in has moved ahead of our human resource departments. Salaries are well below what will be needed to lure younger, qualified candidates and it’s part of our decadeslong challenge to attract and retain employees. When you pay an engineer $20,000 below market, you will not fill the position. Engineers are not the only positions below market. Our human resources surveys need to expand beyond comparisons among utilities— we all pay too little. We need to compare ourselves to other industries with similar skill needs to see how far behind we are. Educated and talented people will make us more innovative and more

efficient. Our past chairs noted this at their recent meeting. Water is a vital resource—we all need it and the value of water is underpriced. We had a session on this at the conference. We need water and sewer more than cable television, internet, and cell phone service; our elected bodies and local government managers need to understand this challenge. If you are doing a rate study comparing your rates to the cable and phone utilities in your community, they will of course be higher. Finances were an issue at our conference. We noted that we need to be careful when we compare ourselves to similar utilities (treatment, customer base and character, usage, etc.), especially with respect to rates. We tend to look at our neighbors, but you can’t compare yourself to the big utilities or utilities that have different treatment methods. Comparing Dania Beach to Fort Lauderdale makes no sense because there really is an economy of scale that exists in our industry. I have more than 20 years of data, with the same results every time I look at them. Smaller utilities will have a higher cost per thousand gallons to the customer than a large utility; if your utility doesn’t, you are not funding something. Economy of scale says it cannot happen. We also had several conference sessions dealing with assets and management/assessment of those assets. A geographic information system (GIS) is a tool that needs to be used in our utilities; however, any GIS-based asset management system need not be complicated, but it must involve the field staff. If staff members gather the data, is solves two issues: they get to know the system and they can address the issues with drawings. We need to share information. The top-down GIS system or the one tightly controlled by one or two people is doomed to fail in the long run. That was one of the messages from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)/asset management session. Being innovate is a continuing theme. If it rains and your wastewater flows go up, you have an inflow problem. That’s a very different fix than an infiltration issue, such as groundwater. There are simple methods to solve inflow. Davie, Pembroke Pines, Dania Beach, Hallandale Beach, Venice, Deltona, St. Cloud, and Clewiston are among the utilities that have or are trying to solve inflow, then focusing on infiltration. Clewiston’s efforts over the past two and a half years have cut wastewater flows in half and eliminated flows that exceeded plant capacity during rainstorms. Maybe they didn’t need that consent order—just inflow and infiltration projects? But our systems are not stationary—things constantly change. Potable reuse is now a thing in Florida! We have been studying this for 15 years, first in south Florida and now in central Florida. This is the future, as noted in our conference session on

Gorgeous high-mountain lake in the snow.

potable reuse. People continue to move to Florida, but much of the state is water-limited or limited in its ability to manage excess; potable reuse will resolve this issue. We have the technology: reverse osmosis, ultraviolet processes, and peroxide were demonstrated to remove emerging contaminants in Pembroke Pines, but we need the protocols to ensure reliability of the technology and operations. The reality is that most surface water supplies have been doing indirect potable reuse for years—your water supply was someone else’s discharge. The current problem is the “yuck” factor, which will require public education. Public education is a challenge, in part, because of attacks by elected officials on the media, science, education, public health, etc. Everyone has a job to do and most do their best, as was noted in our session on this topic. There is one set of facts, and we depend on that one set of facts, but in truth, the full set of facts may not be known. Uncertainty is the world we live in, and that troubles many people who want cut-and-dried decisions. We all know those decisions are hard to come by—we must deal with uncertainty every day. That’s part of the challenge that we have accepted in our industry. Radical uncertainty is a term to identify the “unknown unknown” that often has a major effect on our efforts. COVID-19 was one. We have no idea what the next “unknown unknown” will be.

Stronger Together Our Founding Fathers used the Latin phrase E Pluribus Unum, or “out of many, one” as our country’s motto. We used the motto

on our coins and other instruments until 1954 when Congress changed it to “In God We Trust.” Our Founding Fathers were onto something; they understood the significance of this motto, and its importance in the survival and growth of an infant nation. It remained true in 1858 when Abraham Lincoln said, “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” It remains true today—for the country and in our industry. We are stronger together. We have many challenges to face and we need to face them together. As I have tried to note through my columns this year, what affects one, affects us all. Gone are the days when issue arise, affecting only one. We are better working together. Our section provides the opportunity to share experiences and gain knowledge on how to meet the challenges we face; however, we need to understand that we must listen, understand, and act together. We are in this together and we do a fantastic job—truly, a fantastic job.

Thank You! Congratulations to everyone on a fantastic year and thanks to all of you for your efforts. Be proud of what you do. Talk about it, because people need to know. They depend on you even if they don’t realize it. I leave you with a few photos of my travels to Colorado—we need a little winter in our lives this time of the year. Happy Holidays to all of you. Enjoy those close to you, and may 2022 allow us to fully reopen and enjoy the activities we have in the past! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021



Open Cut High-Density Polyethylene Pipe Installations per Updates in the Second Edition of AWWA Manual M55


Amster Howard and Camille G. Rubeiz

he Second Edition of AWWA Manual M55, High-Density Polyethylene Pipe – Design and Installation, was published in 2020. In this edition, there are significant updates to the design and installation recommendations that users of high-density polyethylene pipe (HDPE) for water pipe should be aware of. For design, the new manual will now include PE4710 compounds that have been added in the ANSI/AWWA C901 and C906 standards. Design updates also include higher Eʹ (modulus of soil reaction) values, use of composite Eʹ values, use of Uniform Soil Classes, and terminology. For installation, M55 contains revised information on trench width, flowable fill, inspection and soil testing, and compaction requirements. These changes reflect the recent revisions to the ASTM D2774, Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping1. The M55 encourages the use of HDPE using two types of open cut methods: basic installation and engineered installation. The basic installation is for HDPE pipe (up to 24 in. nominal diameter) that is stiff enough (with SDR <=21) to avoid the need for special bedding and embedment, for burial up to 10 ft. with no live load within 6 ft or less, and for stable trench wall support. In this case, the HDPE pipe can be laid on the trench bottom and backfilled with compacted soil from

the excavation. This covers the majority of HDPE pressure pipe installations. For other conditions, the engineered installation means selecting an HDPE pipe and corresponding installation details to meet deflection, buckling, and compressive stress requirements. In addition, M55 has a new chapter describing trenchless technology and has new appendices on model specifications, seismic performance, marine applications, case studies, and PE4710 pipe data. This article will focus on HDPE external load design and commensurate open cut installation methods as presented in Chapters 5 and 8 within M55.

Background Deeper pipe burial, less expensive and environmentally friendly backfill, uniform language for contractors and inspectors, simplified installations for common pipe sizes, and allowable construction in poor soil conditions are presented in the latest edition of M55, and all benefit the designers and owners of HDPE pressure piping systems. The M55 was first published in 2006. The manual covers engineering properties, design procedures, underground installation, acceptance testing, and maintenance for solidwall HDPE pipe used in pressure applications.

Amster Howard is a civil engineering consultant in Lakewood, Colo. Camille G. Rubeiz, P.E., F.ASCE, is senior director of engineering with the Plastics Pipe Institute in Irving, Texas.

The revised manual includes: S C hange in trench section terminology S Change in classification and descriptions of soils S Revision of equation for estimating pipe deflection due to dead and live loads S New table of Eʹ values, the modulus of soil reaction of supporting soils (use of Uniform Soil Classes) S Use of composite Eʹ for incorporating effect of weak trench walls S Use of basic installation and engineered installation For installation, the changes include: S T rench width requirements S Compaction methods and testing S Use of flowable fill for embedment and backfill S Use of uncompacted bedding to lay the pipe on In the interest of uniformity, similar changes were made in 2020 to AWWA Manual M23, Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe – Design and Installation. New information is also provided for PE4710. Model specifications have been added, along with actual case histories of HDPE installations and PE4710 pipe data. Refer to M55 for details.


Figure 1. Trench Terminology

14 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Trench Cross Section The new terminology for the trench cross section is shown in Figure 1, with definitions as follows: S Foundation. The foundation is the native soil in the bottom of the excavation. If the foundation is unsuitable, remediation





will be required to provide a stable trench bottom. Bedding. The bedding is the soil placed in the bottom of the trench on top of the foundation and serves as a cushion for the pipe. Haunch Zone. The haunch zone is from the bottom of the pipe up to the springline. The haunch zone and the initial backfill provide the side support for the pipe that resists deflection. Initial Backfill. The initial backfill extends from the top of the haunch zone to 12 in. above the top of the pipe. The initial backfill, combined with the haunch zone, acts as lateral support for the pipe. Embedment. The embedment includes the bedding, haunch zone, and initial backfill. Final Backfill. The final backfill extends from the top of the initial backfill to the final grade.

Uniform Soil Classes The other major change in terminology is the use of Uniform Soil Classes, as shown in Table 1. These soil classes have now been adopted for use in ASTM C12 (clay pipe), D2321 (thermoplastic gravity pipe), D2774 (thermoplastic pressure pipe), D3839 (fiberglass pipe), AWWA M23 (pressure polyvinyl chloride [PVC] pipe), M55 (pressure PE pipe), and M45 (fiberglass pipe), and are planned for inclusion in a revised edition of Manual M9 (concrete pressure pipe). The soil classes, Class I to Class V, are in descending order of stiffness when the soil is compacted. Class I and Class II soils are usually considered cohesionless and are best compacted using vibration; Class III and Class IV are usually considered cohesive and are best compacted with pressure, impact, or kneading; and Class V soils are considered cohesive, but are not recommended for use in pipe installation2. Soil Compaction The soil support for the pipe is dependent on the degree of compaction, referred to as “percent compaction,” which is defined by ASTM D6535 as the ratio of the field compaction to the laboratory maximum density, expressed as a percent. The field compaction is measured by in-place density tests, such as sand cone or nuclear gauge. For soil classes III, IV, or V, the laboratory maximum density is determined using the standard Proctor compaction test ASTM D6986. For soil classes I or II, the laboratory maximum density is determined using a vibratory compaction test* ASTM D73827 or D42538.

Table 1. Uniform Soil Classes for Pipe Installation

Class I

Crushed Rock 100% passing 1-1/2-in. sieve, ≤ 25% passing 3/8in. sieve, ≤ 15% passing #4 sieve, ≤ 12% fines

Class II

Clean, Coarse-Grained Soils Or any soil beginning with one of these symbols; can contain up to 12% fines (Note 1)


Coarse Grained Soils With Fines


Sandy or Gravelly Fine-Grained Soils With ≥ 30% retained on #200 sieve


Class IV

Fine-Grained Soils With < 30% retained on #200 sieve


Class V

Fine-Grained Soils, Organic Soils High-compressibility silts and clays, organic soil

Class III


Notes: 1. U niform fine sands (SP, SP-SC, and SP-SM) with more than 50 percent passing a #100 sieve should be treated as Class III material. 2. S oil classification in accordance with ASTM D24873 or D24884. 3. F ines are soil particles that pass a #200 sieve. 4. C lass I: crushed rock particles should have all-fractured faces. 5. R ecycled concrete, slag, and shells should be considered Class II. GW = well-graded gravel SW = well-graded sand SP-SC = poorly graded sand with clay GM = silty gravel SM = silty sand ML = silt MH = elastic silt OL = organic silt Pt = peat

*ASTM D7382 is a new procedure using a vibratory hammer to obtain a maximum density and is considered more reliable than D4253. Use of the term percent compaction is recommended in ASTM D6535. The percent of the maximum density of the soil is followed by the ASTM test procedure used to determine the maximum density. For example, 95 percent (D698) means that the in-place density should be equal to or higher than 95 percent of the maximum density obtained using D6986.

Estimating Deflection Flexible pipe derives its load-carrying capacity from the soil-structure interaction of the installation. As illustrated in Figure 2, the pipe tends to deflect due to load, thereby developing passive soil support at the sides of the pipe. At the same time, soil arching over the pipe due to the deflection transfers a portion of the vertical load to the soil at the sides of the pipe. Installed correctly, the strength of the pipe-soil system can be very effective.

GP = poorly graded gravel SP = poorly graded sand SP-SM = poorly graded sand with silt GC = clayey gravel SC = clayey sand CL = lean clay CH = fat clay OH = organic clay

The deflection of the pipe is the change in vertical diameter divided by the original diameter, stated as a percent. Conceptually, the relationship between load and deflection may be expressed as: Load Deflection = Pipe Stiffness + Soil Stiffness (Equation 1) The soil stiffness depends on the soil classification and the soil compaction. The soil stiffness is referred to as Eʹ, the modulus of soil reaction. Eʹ, Modulus of Soil Reaction Table 2 is an updated version of the First Edition table and contains some higher values, which allow for deeper burial. Composite Eʹ (Soil Stiffness) While the embedment soil is normally the primary source for the passive resistance, support for the pipe may also be influenced by the trench walls. Very weak or very stiff native trench wall soils can affect the pipe deflection, Continued on page 16

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021


Continued from page 15 and their stiffness should be combined with the stiffness of the embedment soil to calculate a composite Eʹ to be used for estimating deflection. The composite Eʹ varies depending on the soil type and the degree of compaction of the embedment material, native soil stiffness, pipe diameter, and trench width. To find the composite Eʹ, the EʹE of the embedment material and the EʹN of the native soil are combined, similar to calculating footing settlement on layered soil. The composite Eʹ is calculated as follows:

Where: Eʹ = composite modulus of soil reaction (psi) Sc = soil support combining factor EʹE = EʹE of the embedment In the manual, tables of Sc values and EʹN are presented to help determine the composite stiffness value. The composite Eʹ can be higher or lower than the embedment Eʹ, depending on how stiff or weak the trench walls are.

Basic Installation and Engineered Installation There are some combinations of pipe selection, external loads, and soil stiffness that may not need design verification for deflection,

Eʹ = Sc EʹE (Equation 2)

Figure 2. Flexible Pipe Deflection Table 2. Eʹ Values, Pounds Per Sq In. (psi) Compacted Soil Group USCS Class I Crushed rock Class II GW GP SW SP Class III GC GM SC SM. CL ML (≥30% sand/gravel) Class IV CL ML Class V CH MH OH OL Pt




85%- 90% compaction

≥ 95% compaction












buckling, and compressive stress. Accordingly, the design and construction may be divided into basic installations and engineered installations. Basic Installation Under certain conditions, some installations using pipe with an adequate stiffness will not exceed the specified deflection limits, will have a safety factor of at least two against buckling, and will not exceed the allowable wall compressive stress. These pipes may be used for construction without performing the verification calculations in this manual and may be installed with minimum soil support. Typically, the embedment material is the soil excavated from the trench. The pipe can be laid directly on the trench bottom, and minimal testing and inspection are required. Basic installation is frequently suitable for rural transmission and distribution lines. A basic installation can be used for the following conditions: S Pipe diameter is 24 in. or less. S Dimension ratio (DR) is equal to or less than 21. S Depth of cover is 10 ft or less. S Natural groundwater level is below pipe. S There will be no live load or surcharge load for cover depths less than 6 ft. S Final backfill does not need to be compacted. S Embedment soil stiffness, Eʹ, will be at least 200 psi. S The foundation and trench walls are stable and have a minimum unconfined compressive strength9 of 5 psi, a N value of at least 5 from the Standard Penetration Test10, or an Eʹ of at least 400 psi. S Th e foundation does not consist of expansive clays, collapsing soils, or landfills. S Th e soils in the foundation and used for the embedment do not contain rock particles larger than the maximum particle size, as shown in Table 3. An engineered installation should be used when any of these conditions are not met. In

Table 3. Maximum Particle Size in Embedment Do Not Use

Notes: 1. Soil classification based on ASTM D2487 (Unified Soil Classification System). 2. Percent compaction based on ASTM D4253 or D7382 (vibratory tests) for Class I and II soils. 3. P ercent compaction based on ASTM D698 (standard proctor) for Class III and IV soils. 4. Class I crushed rock particles should have all-fractured faces. 5. Recycled concrete, slag, shells, and coral should be considered Class II. 6. Uniform fine sands (SP, SP-SC, and SP-SM) with more that 50 percent passing a #100 sieve should be treated as Class III material.

16 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Pipe Diameter Up to 4 in. 6 to 8 in. 10 to 16 in. 18 in. and greater

Maximum Particle Size in Embedment* ½ in. ¾ in. 1 in. 1 ½ in.

* For final backfill, the maximum particle size is limited to 3 in. per ASTM D2774.

some cases where live or surcharge loads may occasionally occur, such as road crossings, the pipeline may consist of a combination of basic installation and engineered installation. Native materials that are Class III or Class IV soils can provide an embedment Eʹ ≥ 400 psi if moderately compacted. The embedment soil must be compacted to at least 85 percent (D698). Class I or II soils, whether native or imported, can provide an embedment Eʹ ≥ 400 psi when dumped in place beside the pipe without any compaction. Class V soil is not recommended for embedment. Engineered Installation When the basic installation is not appropriate, the pipe design will require additional checks for deflection, buckling, and compressive stress, as prescribed in the manual. An engineered installation design may need to consider the trench wall support, the effects of groundwater, selection of embedment material, increased compaction, time before the pipeline is pressurized, live load, and surcharge load. Construction may require imported embedment material, placing bedding for the pipe, soil testing requirements, and more-stringent inspection. Where the pipeline would cross under any kind of pavement, pipeline, cable, or waterway, an engineered installation should be used.

Installation Trench Width Rather than recommended values, the manual states that the excavated trench should have a width based on the excavation equipment used by the contractor, but this width must allow for clearance between the pipe and trench wall (as applicable) for joining the pipe, snaking the pipe, shovel slicing, compacting the embedment, testing the percent compaction, and checking the joints. In poor soils, the width may need to be increased to properly support the pipe; therefore, if the installation was designed using composite Eʹ, then the pipeline must be constructed using the design trench width.

should be placed so that the soil can be shovelsliced into the haunches. The thickness and compaction of the remaining lifts should be appropriate for the type of material and the compaction requirements. Preferred options to shovel slicing are flowable fill or compacting Class I or Class II soils with saturation and vibration, as recommended in ASTM F 16682. If flowable fill is used in the haunch zone, it should also be used as the bedding. Flowable Fill Flowable fill is a fluid mixture of Portland cement, soil, and water that hardens into a solid mass. There are several ASTM standards relating to the mixing, placing, and testing of flowable fill; they refer to flowable fill as controlled low-strength material (CLSM). The hardened flowable fill is typically about two to five times stiffer than compacted soil and thus provides good support for buried pipe. Flowable fill can range from material obtained from a concrete batch plant to a mixture using the native soils excavated from the trench or borrow source. The fresh flowable fill should have a spread of 8 to 12 in. and the hardened flowable fill should have a compressive strength of 40 to 80 psi2. Many contractors have developed equipment and methods for using the soils excavated from the trench and mixing onsite, which provides considerable cost savings when compared to ordering from a ready-mix plant. While sandy soils (such as in Florida) are best, soils, such as fat clays, have been successfully used with the proper processing. The Eʹ for flowable fill depends on the amount of cementitious material, the aggregate, and the time after placement. Unless it’s a high early-strength mixture, flowable fill should not be backfilled until the day after placement. Flowable fill gains strength after placement, so the stiffness for estimating deflection will depend on when the backfill load is placed over the pipe and the flowable fill.

References 1. A STM D2774, Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Penn. 2. Howard, Amster, Pipeline Installation 2.0, Relativity Publishing, 2015. 3. ASTM D2487, Standard Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Penn. 4. ASTM D2488, Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Penn. 5. ASTM D 653, Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Penn. 6. ASTM D698, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Penn. 7. ASTM D 7382, Standard Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight and Water Content Range for Effective Compaction of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Penn. 8. ASTM D4253, Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils using a Vibratory Table, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Penn. 9. ASTM D2166, Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Penn. 10. ASTM D1586, Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and SplitBarrel Sampling of Soils, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Penn. S

Bedding for Engineered Installation A layer of Class I or Class II material should be placed on the trench bottom and left uncompacted. The bedding should be 4 in. thick for pipe, less than 60 in. in diameter, and 6 in. thick for 60-in. and larger pipe. If the bottom of the trench is rock or contains cobbles or boulders, the bedding thickness should be increased at least 2 in. Haunch Compaction for Engineered Installation A successful installation depends on the correct placement and compaction of soil in the haunch zone of the pipe. The first few lifts

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021


Emilie Moore to Lead FSAWWA in 2021 On Dec. 1, 2021, Emilie Moore became the 96th chair of the Florida Section American Water Works Association at the section’s annual Fall Conference. She succeeds Dr. Fred Bloetscher. Based in their Tampa office, Emilie is a senior project manager with Black & Veatch. She is a proud graduate of the University of Florida (Go Gators!), graduating in 1991 with a bachelor of science degree in environmental engineering, and is also a proud graduate of the University of Kansas (Go Jayhawks!), graduating in 2007 with a master of science degree in engineering management. Emilie is a licensed Florida professional engineer, project management professional, and Envision Sustainability Professional (ENV SP). Emilie joined AWWA in 1997. She credits her mom for engaging her volunteer spirit at an early age, her dad for fostering dedication to doing the best you can while you can, and all of her family and friends for providing encouragement and support to give back through volunteering. Emilie’s home region of Region IV holds a special

place in her heart as it’s the springboard for her involvement in FSAWWA. During the mid-2000s, she served on the section’s Technical and Education Council (TEC) as Distribution Division chair. Beginning in 2009, she became involved with the Region IV Model Water Tower Competition. Emilie chaired the regional competition in 2010 and 2011, and in 2011 she was awarded a FSAWWA Distinguished Service Award by the Public Affairs Council for her work with the competition. Emilie attributes FSAWWA mentor Kim Kunihiro for encouraging her involvement in section-level activities and Ari Copeland (a former Region IV vice chair) for encouraging her to run for Region IV vice chair in 2012. After serving as Region IV vice chair, Emilie served as Region IV chair from 2014 to 2015 and has endless gratitude to the Region IV family for supporting the region and section with countless volunteer hours and close friendships. When asked about leading FSAWWA in 2022, Emilie responded, “FSAWWA provides

opportunities at all levels to engage professionals in growing and improving our water industry. We all are doing our part on this large team to provide the best drinking water to our communities. I hold FSAWWA’s mission of uniting us and providing solutions to effectively manage water, the world’s most important resource, close to my heart. It’s an honor to work with all of you in helping Florida lead the nation with the best drinking water.” Emilie is a native Floridian living in St. Petersburg and treasures time spent with her family and friends, traveling to new destinations stateside and overseas, and anything outdoors, from beekeeping to camping to open-water swimming.S

800–826-7699 watertc@watertc.com

watertc.com Serving the Southeast since 1976

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Metering Pump Skids Tablet Feeders Analyzers Scale Systems

Factory Trained Technicians - Emergency Repair Services - PM Service/Plans 18 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Distribution and Collection. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!


Open Cut High-Density Polyethylene Pipe Installations per Updates in the Second Edition of AWWA Manual M55 Amster Howard and Camille G. Rubiez (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW/WW02015393) 1. R evisions address the use of ___________ for incorporating the effect of weak trench walls. a. structural compressive pipe strength b. c rushed rock c. c omposite Eʹ d. d epth of bury restrictions 2. C lass ____ soils are considered cohesive, but are not recommended for use in pipe installation. a. I b. I I c. IV d. V

3. A n engineered installation is required when a. natural groundwater level is below the pipe. b. d imension ratio is equal to or less than 26. c. depth of cover is 15 ft. or less. d. pipe diameter is greater than 24 in.

4. I n a typical trench cross section, the pipe does not extend into the __________ zone. a. final backfill b. e mbedment c. haunch d. initial backfill

SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

___________________________________ (Expiration Date)

5. F or soils classes III, IV, and V, laboratory maximum density is determined by using the standard __________________ compaction test. a. soil resistance b. h ammer deflection c. Proctor d. sieve analysis

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021


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American Water Works Association

•\\ ® Florida Section


Water Environment Federation ®

the water quality people


It’s Not About Pipes, it’s About Patricia Steven Drangsholt and Stephanie Corso If we want people to pay attention to our story as a water sector, we cannot leave out the people who make it as special as it is. If you’re like me, you can probably think of at least one person who was pivotal to your involvement and passion for water. I certainly can. It was a cool autumn evening in downtown Boise, Idaho. It was my first time at a water sector conference, and my emotions ranged from excited to nervous, like an emotional ping pong match taking place in my brain. I stepped into Bittercreek Alehouse, completely unaware that the course of my life and career was about to change forever. I noticed a group of vaguely familiarlooking people at a large corner table. I was new. It was hard to remember all the faces and names, but they seemed to recognize me and called me over. I nervously introduced myself for the hundredth time, and being so young, I felt like I had little to share. They knew each other quite well. They welcomed me and asked me questions to get me talking. The server stopped by to ask for my drink order. My anxiety went sky high. What’s the approved drink order for this kind of social situation—beer, wine, whiskey? I felt everyone’s eyes on me as I blurted out, “Can I get a Car Bomb shot?” Soon we were all enjoying Car Bomb shots, and I learned I had sat down with

the entire Pacific Clean Water Association Board and Water Environment Federation (WEF)-invited guests. My fate was sealed. I had found my people.

Real Connections For many of us, we don’t just go to a conference for the agenda, no matter how valuable the content. We’re there because of the people we get to sit next to, share a meal with, or text to grab a beer. Whether you want to admit it or not, it’s not the water or technology that makes this sector essential—it’s the people. If you asked me two years ago about communication, story, and audience, I would have struggled to make the connection between that sphere of my work and my work as an engineer. My friends at Rogue Water taught me how to bridge that gap and introduced a world of resources to me that elevated my work as an engineer by leveling up my skills as a communicator.

24 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Technically minded people, like myself, struggle with the fact that emotion, not logic, drives most of our decision making. And yet, I continue to notice instances where we’ve missed the mark by dehumanizing our work and the people we serve.

COVID-19 This pandemic completely upended our world and our sector. Water became an essential part in the fight against its spread, with a heightened awareness around the importance of handwashing. Unsurprisingly, our communications jumped straight to the importance of water as essential; however, the focus of the story became handwashing, rather than the men and women providing the water for the handwashing. The water professional should have been framed just like the healthcare professional—a guardian of public health. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, firefighters and police officers are specifically listed as frontline essential workers and given first priority for the COVID vaccine. States have left water and wastewater workers in the ambiguous category of “public health,” which means their priority groups vary state by state. We missed the opportunity to focus on the people, rather than the service they provide.

Crisis: Texas Winter Storms When Texas and surrounding states experienced that unprecedented weather in February, with temperatures plunging to single digits, it created devastating consequences to homes and public utility systems. Social media was flooded with stories of pipes bursting, boil-water notices, and the need for improved infrastructure to handle an increase in extreme weather events caused by climate change. The frustration felt by water utility staff was palpable online as many seemed to ask: “What about us?” These sentiments were not always welcomed with empathy and understanding from many customers. Those customers were dealing with their own stress and challenges as they managed the storm’s effect on their own families and livelihoods.

Infrastructure Funding Infrastructure Week, held each spring, is a decades-long awareness campaign that is lacking. Our sector focuses on all the challenges, including the red tape, lack of federal funding, ideological battlelines (e.g., debt), and the public’s abysmal understanding of the work we do and its value. When our ability to provide safe, reliable drinking water and wastewater services is challenged by emerging contaminants and dilapidated systems, we excel at talking about pipes and treatment facilities, but this doesn’t move our communities to change or politicians to increase funding. We need to talk as much about the people at the pipes as we do the pipes themselves.

People First Our work matters because of the people we serve, not because of the pipes in the ground. It’s time for a communication revolution because our story is not about pipes, it’s about Patricia; it’s not about microbes, it’s about Marco. Our stories need an audience-first focus. Over the last several years, I devoted myself to the study of storytelling and found one method that works every time: I craft each message for the intended audience. The book, Building a Story Brand, by Donald Miller, describes this approach in detail. In short, any story is about the hero; it’s not about the guide. By positioning ourselves as the hero we have made it all about us, and therefore, we are marketing and talking to ourselves. The specific audience we want to reach— communities, politicians, neighborhoods, regulators—should always be positioned as the hero. We, the water sector, take the role of guide to solve their problems.

Our fatal flaw is we often position ourselves as the hero in the story instead of the guide. You are not the hero—you are the guide. Good stories are about people and not about things or technology. To see this in action, consider these two similar ideas: Water worker as hero. Water workers are essential to public health and the environment, and without them, our society will crumble. Thank water workers for all they do today because without them our communities would not exist. Water worker as guide. Our communities are incredible places to live, but suffer the effects of COVID-19. As water workers, we support healthy, vibrant communities by providing clean water to stop the spread of the disease. A community’s health and safety are our top priority. Ask yourself: Which message would resonate better with you as a customer if asked about rate increases or if your street needed to close for repairs? If you take only one thing from this viewpoint, take this: You are not the hero, you are the guide, and the hero needs to overcome adversity.

Get Comfortable With Being Uncomfortable Focusing carefully on how we communicate may feel daunting and completely outside of your wheelhouse, but if we ever hope

to create a world that understands what we do, values our work, and invests in our future, we have to do the work to reconnect to the people we serve. The first step is opening our minds to the valuable role communication plays in our sector. Clear, relatable communication is as much a part of our shared mission as the pipes in the ground, and we all play a role. Putting this into action can mean many things: investing in your own skills, hiring communication professionals, or ensuring that your existing communication team has a seat at the table (and the budget) to make a difference. It’s all a part of being a guide to serve your audience and provide the foundational element of life—water. The article originally appeared in the May 2021 issue of Water Environment & Technology and is reprinted with permission from the Water Environment Federation. All rights reserved. _____________________________________ Steven Drangsholt, P.E., PMP, is Idaho muni operations leader in the Boise, Idaho, office of Brown and Caldwell (Walnut Creek, Calif.) and speaker-elect of the House of Delegates. He can be reached at sdrangsholt@BrwnCald.com. Stephanie Corso is chief executive officer and cofounder of Rogue Water (Fort Worth, Texas) and member of the WEF Public Communication and Outreach Committee. She can be reached at stephanie@roguewatergroup.com. S

Storytelling Books Here are a few resources to get you crafting an effective story. Building a Story Brand: Clarify Your Message So Customers Will Listen By Donald Miller Includes a storytelling model anyone can follow. Has online resources and courses for deeper dives into marketing and messaging. You will not be able to watch a movie or TV show the same way again. This Is Marketing: You Can’t Be Seen Until You Learn to See By Seth Godin Reframes marketing as a tool used to create positive effect. The marketer is there to solve your problem, not to sell you something you may not need. Seth’s case studies are relatable and profound; you cannot help but be changed forever. Stories That Stick: How Storytelling Can Captivate Customers, Influence Audiences, and Transform Your Business By Kindra Hall In-depth advice and story types to better connect others to your purpose through story. Includes multiple examples of how stories transformed floundering businesses and changed teams.

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021


Test Yourself

What Do You Know About 403.064 Florida Statutes – Reuse of Reclaimed Water? 5. P er 403.064 FS, FDEP shall approve a plan that does not provide for a complete elimination of the surface water discharge, but does demonstrate which of the following conditions that applies to the remaining discharge?

Donna Kaluzniak

1. P er Chapter 403.064 Florida Statutes – Reuse of Reclaimed Water (403.064 FS), domestic wastewater utilities that dispose of effluent, reclaimed water, or reuse water by surface water discharge had to submit a plan to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) by Nov. 1, 2021. The plan calls for eliminating

a. b. c. d.

a ll wetlands discharges. i rrigation of crops with reclaimed water. n onbeneficial surface water discharges. surface water discharges from wastewater plants at mobile home parks.

2. P er 403.064 FS, FDEP shall approve or deny the plan on what time frame after receipt? a. b. c. d.

T hree months Six months N ine months One year

3. P er 403.064 FS, if the plan was submitted to FDEP by the Nov.1, 2021, deadline, the utility must fully implement the plan no later than what date?

a. b. c. d.

J an. 1, 2028 Jan. 1, 2032 D ec. 31, 2030 Dec. 31, 2035

a. b. c. d.

J an. 1, 2028 Jan. 1, 2032 D ec. 31, 2030 Dec. 31, 2035

6. P er 403.064 FS, FDEP shall approve a plan if the utility operates domestic wastewater treatment facilities with reuse systems that reuse a minimum of what percent of a facility’s annual average flow as determined by the department using monitoring data for the prior five consecutive years? a. b. c. d.

4 0 percent 50 percent 7 5 percent 90 percent

7. P er 403.064 FS, which domestic wastewater treatment facilities are exempt from providing a plan?

4. P er 403.064 FS, if the plan was not submitted to FDEP by the Nov. 1, 2021, deadline, the utility must fully implement the plan by what date?

a. T he discharge is associated with an indirect potable reuse project. b. The discharge is a currently permitted dry weather discharge. c. The discharge is from a facility that provides tertiary treatment. d. The discharge enters any stormwater management facility.

a. F acilities that upgraded treatment capabilities within the last five years. b. Facilities located in large urban areas. c. F acilities located in municipalities with less than $10 million in annual revenue. d. Facilities located in municipalities with less than $5 million in annual revenue. 8. P er 403.064 FS, FDEP and the water management districts must develop and execute a memorandum of agreement providing for a coordinated review of all permits associated with the construction and operation of an indirect potable reuse project by what date?

a. b. c. d.

Dec.31, 2021 Dec. 31, 2022 Dec. 31, 2023 Dec. 31, 2024

26 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

9. P er 403.064 FS, FDEP shall submit a report to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives by Dec. 31, 2021, providing the average gallons per day of effluent, reclaimed water, or reuse water that will no longer be discharged into surface waters by the utility and the dates of such elimination; the average gallons per day of surface water discharges that will continue and the level of treatment received before being discharged into a surface water by each alternative and utility; and any modified or new plans submitted by a utility since the last report. How often must this report be submitted?

a. b. c. d.

Annually Biannually Every six months Every two years

10. P er 403.064 FS, FDEP initiated rule revisions for potable reuse. Rules for potable reuse projects must meet or exceed federal and state drinking water quality standards and other applicable water quality standards. The rules must also address

a. b. c. d.

c ontaminants of emerging concern. infrastructure costs. irrigation loads. reuse for fire protection. Answers on page 39

References used for this quiz: • Chapter 403.064 Florida Statutes Reuse of Reclaimed Water: https://flsenate.gov/Laws/Statutes/2021/0403.064

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

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Congratulations to WEFTEC 2021 Ops Challenge Participants The Water Environment Federation (WEF) 34th Annual Operations Challenge Competition took place in Chicago this year on October 18 and 19, and Florida was well-represented. In the competition, teams compete to earn the highest score in five different events. Each team includes four members, and often a coach as well. Each event is designed to test the diverse skills required for the operation and maintenance of water resource recovery facilities, collection systems, and laboratories.


The five events are: ollections systems C Laboratory Process control Maintenance Safety

Winners are determined by a weighted points system. Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) teams from Polk County and St.

The BioWizards team members are (from left) Cody Deihl, Dave McGrotty, Chuck Nichols (coach), Jeff Goolsby, and Ed Clark.

Third Place Division III Award

BioWizards running the lab event.

BioWizards running the process event. From left are Ed Clark, Cody Diehl, Dave McGrotty, and Jeff Goolsby.

St. Pete Dirty Birds run the lab event.

28 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Petersburg competed against 30 other utilities from across the United States. The Polk County BioWizards brought home a third-place overall win in the Division III category. The team is the first from Florida to place in the competition in 10 years. The Dirty Birds from St. Petersburg won the award for “Team With Best Effort.” The team also finished sixth overall in Division III. Congratulations to this year’s participants for representing Florida water professionals at this national event. S

BioWizards also won the contest for “Best Hard Hat Design.” The graphics are by Southern Graphics Design in Mulberry.

BioWizards in team jackets. From left are Dave McGrotty, Cody Diehl, Chuck Nichols, Jeff Goolsby, and Ed Clark.

The Dirty Birds team is (from left) Ben Gibbs, Doug Larue, and Reggie Crocker-Wilson. Coach Anthony Lee is not pictured.


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WEF Announces Awardees for Stormwater Innovation and Management The Water Environment Federation (WEF) is proud to recognize 16 communities in the United States for excellence in municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) program management and innovation as part of the 2021 National Municipal Stormwater and Green Infrastructure Awards program. “Stormwater management is one of the most dynamic segments of the water profession,” said Lynn Broaddus, WEF president. “This year’s MS4 award winners demonstrate that they keep up with the ever-changing landscape of regulations, technologies, and best practices; lead the way on trends; and set an example for stormwater programs around the world.” The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency separates MS4s into classifications based on the population of the communities they serve: S Phase I, which encompasses cities with more than 100,000 customers. S Phase II, which encompasses smaller storm sewer systems, including public universities, departments of transportation, hospitals, and prisons. S Small or mid-sized municipalities.

Winners received their awards, as well as formal recognition, at WEFTEC 2021 in Chicago, which was held Oct. 16-20.

Award Winners

The winners of the 2021 MS4 awards are:

Phase I and II Winners S Phase I, Overall Winner - Anne Arundel County Bureau of Watershed Protection and Restoration, Maryland S Phase II, Overall Winner - Capitol Region Watershed District, Minnesota S Phase I, Program Management Winner - City and County of Honolulu MS4 Program, Hawaii S Phase II, Program Management Winner - Central Massachusetts Regional Stormwater Coalition S Phase I, Innovation Winner - Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, Georgia S Phase II, Innovation Winner - City of Alexandria, Virginia

In addition to the winners, each applicant

30 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

is designated a gold, silver, or bronze-level status in both program management and innovation, which signifies their status among other MS4 communities across the country. Gold Recognition in Program Management Phase I S City and County of Honolulu MS4 Program, Hawaii Phase II S Capitol Region Watershed District, Minnesota Silver Recognition in Program Management Phase I S Anne Arundel County Bureau of Watershed Protection and Restoration, Maryland S City of Birmingham - Planning, Engineering, and Permits, Alabama S Fairfax County Government, Virginia S Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, Georgia S Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District, Kentucky

Phase II S Central Massachusetts Regional Stormwater Coalition S City of Alexandria, Virginia Bronze Recognition in Program Management Phase I S City of Dayton Department of Water, Ohio S Jefferson Parish Environmental Affairs, Louisiana Phase II S City of Bothell, Washington S City of Greenwood, Indiana S City of San Marcos Stormwater Management, Texas Gold Recognition in Innovation Phase I S Anne Arundel County Bureau of Watershed Protection and Restoration, Maryland S Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, Georgia S Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District, Kentucky Phase II S Capitol Region Watershed District, Minnesota S City of Alexandria, Virginia Silver Recognition in Innovation Phase I S City of Birmingham - Planning, Engineering, and Permits, Alabama S City of Dayton, Department of Water, Ohio S City of Minneapolis, Minnesota S Fairfax County Government, Virginia S Montgomery County Department of Environmental Protection, Maryland S City and County of Honolulu MS4 Program, Hawaii Phase II S Central Massachusetts Regional Stormwater Coalition Bronze Recognition in Innovation Phase I S Jefferson Parish Environmental Affairs, Louisiana Phase II S City of Bothell, Washington S City of Greenwood, Indiana Visit www.wef.org/MS4awards for further details about the MS4 awards program. For more information about WEF’s recognition programs, visit https://www.wef.org/awards. S

WEF Selects 2021 Fellows for Contributions to Water Profession The Water Environment Federation (WEF) has announced 15 distinguished members as its 2021 class of WEF Fellows. This prestigious designation recognizes the contributions of members to the water sector, as well as their professional achievements and stature. “This year’s WEF Fellows join a growing group of water-sector innovators that help to ensure that our industry remains fresh, dynamic, and able to adapt to any challenges to public health and the environment that may emerge,” said Lynn Broaddus, WEF president. “We are proud to add this newest group and look forward to their future accomplishments.” The WEF Fellows Recognition Program underscores WEF’s role as a leading water quality resource, which is due in large part to the expertise of its diverse membership. The WEF Fellows are recognized in various areas of expertise, including design, education, operations, regulation, research, utility management, and leadership. Raynetta Curry Marshall, P.E., chief operating officer at JEA in Jacksonville, is one of this year’s recipients.

2021 WEF Fellows The Fellows for 2021 are: S J anet Hurley Cann, Water Environment Association of South Carolina S Peter Cavagnaro, Michigan Water Environment Association S Sylvan Coles, Kansas Water Environment Association S Marlo R. Davis, Water Environment Association of Utah S Francis L. De Los Reyes III, North Carolina Water Environment Association

Raynetta Curry Marshall

S J ennifer Hartfelder, Rocky Mountain Water Environment Association S S idney Innerebner, Rocky Mountain Water Environment Association S J acqueline Jarrell, North Carolina Water Environment Association S C hris Johnston, British Columbia Water and Waste Association S R aynetta Curry Marshall, Florida Water Environment Association S K ristin Morico, New England Water Environment Association S E rin Mosley, New England Water Environment Association S A isha Niang, Water Environment Association of Texas S C hristopher Peot, Chesapeake Water Environment Association S P rakasam Tata, Illinois Water Environment Association This year’s recipients were recognized during WEFTEC 2021, which took place October 16-20 in Chicago. For more information on the WEF Fellows Recognition Program visit https:// www.wef.org/weffellowsprogram. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021



A More Perfect Union: Improving Design Through Distribution System Modeling Kristen Cartwright, Richard Weatherly, Jason Ward, and Jared Barber


he City of Huntsville, Texas, (city) executed an aggressive $25 million bond program to modify its water system and hydraulically separate its two existing pressure planes. Without the modifications and accelerated bond program, the city risked violating minimum water system pressure requirements and being unable to serve increasing water demand due to growth. The city’s bond program involved 6 mi of water lines, two new pump stations, and a new elevated storage tank (EST). A unified design and hydraulic modeling team was key to addressing the challenges of a complex design and simultaneous project construction by providing the capability of evaluating design decisions in the model prior to implementation. By utilizing the hydraulic model during design, the city

has saved approximately $2 million in construction costs based on a total of $21 million in awarded construction contracts, compared to the original construction estimate of $23 million.

Background Freese and Nichols Inc. (FNI) was retained in 2015 by the city to prepare its water and wastewater condition and capacity assessment studies. The city is located 65 mi north of Houston and provides water and wastewater service to approximately 40,000 people, including seven Texas Department of Criminal Justice units and Sam Houston State University. By 2041, the population within the service area is projected to grow from 40,101 to 55,156 for water service and from 39,894 to 54,949 for wastewater service.

Figure 1. Existing City of Huntsville Water System Figure 2. Recommended Capital Improvement Projects

32 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Kristen Cartwright, P.E., is project manager with Freese and Nichols Inc. in WinstonSalem, N.C. Richard Weatherly, P.E., is vice president, and Jared Barber, P.E., is project manager, with Freese and Nichols Inc. in Pearland, Texas. Jason Ward, P.E., is project manager with Freese and Nichols Inc. in Houston, Texas.

The city’s water system, shown in Figure 1, consists of 279 mi of water lines, ranging in size from ¾ to 30 in. in diameter. The city relies on treated surface water from the Trinity River Authority Surface Water Treatment Plant and seven groundwater wells to provide water to its residents. The Palm Street and Spring Lake water plants distribute water throughout the city. The

Figure 4. Potential Lower-Pressure Plane Pump Station Sites

Figure 3. Potential Upper-Pressure Plane Elevated Storage Tank Sites Figure 5. Potential Upper-Pressure Plane Water Line Routes

distribution system facilities also include four ground storage tanks and two ESTs. The city’s water distribution system currently has two pressure planes (upper and lower) separated by 17 pressure-reducing valves (PRVs). A small PRV zone also exists in the Elkins Lake subdivision. A hydraulic model was developed as a tool in the evaluation of the city’s water distribution system. The city selected the WaterGEMS software by Bentley® for modeling the water system. Hydraulic analyses were conducted to identify deficiencies in the existing water distribution system and to identify capital improvements plan (CIP) projects to address deficiencies and meet projected water demands through 2041.

Major Water System Challenges Challenges facing the water system include low water system pressure in high-elevation areas, high water system pressure in low-elevation areas, excessive headloss in undersized water lines, low fire flow availability, poor condition of the Palm Street pump Continued on page 34

Figure 6. Potential Lower-Pressure Plane Water Line Routes

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021


Continued from page 33 stations, and challenging operations. City staff and FNI developed and identified water system improvements to accommodate future growth, while optimizing the existing system operations and infrastructure. The recommended operational changes and capital improvements (shown in Figure 2) to the distribution system included: S N ew upper-pressure plane EST with higher overflow elevation S R epurposing the existing Palm Street EST for use in the lower-pressure plane S N ew Palm Street pump station for the upper-pressure plane S N ew lower-pressure plane pump station S I mproved distribution system connectivity between pump stations and ESTs S Pressure plane boundary modifications to address low pressures in the lowerpressure plane The city had FNI design all projects simultaneously. The water model, developed as part of the water and wastewater study, was used to assist the design team and verify that the proposed water system improvements under design would operate as intended.

Hydraulic Modeling to Support Siting Studies During the traditional design process, engineers would typically conduct facilitysiting studies, based on a desktop analysis, with a narrow hydraulic analysis perspective and cost as the main drivers. The incorporation of hydraulic modeling allows the design

and modeling teams to evaluate systemwide impacts, conduct operational analyses, and assess the impact of route selection on site performance. For the new upper-pressure plane EST in the city, there were two main categories for site selection. The primary criteria consisted of generally siting the new EST south of the existing ESTs, staying outside or beneath Federal Aviation Administration height limitations, and locating a site with a ground elevation of at least 450 ft. Secondary criteria included elevation and EST height, length of the connecting water line, length of driveway access, cost of property acquisition, and cost of land clearing. Nine potential sites were identified for the new EST and were reviewed with city staff; after considering cost and landowner restrictions, the number of potential sites was reduced to five, shown in Figure 3. After continued evaluation of the five sites, a sixth site was added for consideration and was ultimately selected as the site for the new EST. The site selected is the location of an existing city fire station and, in exchange for utilizing available space on the property, the new EST was designed to include firefighter training facilities, such as elevated windows and anchor points for rappelling. In addition to the new EST site, a site selection process was developed for the new lower-pressure plane pump station. The selection criteria included ground elevation, proximity to the treated surface water supply line, cost of property acquisition, cost of pump station construction, and accessibility. Five potential sites were identified for evaluation, shown in Figure 4.

Figure 7. Model-Generated System Curves

34 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Early in the site selection process, two sites were removed from further evaluation due to landowner intentions for the property and accessibility issues. Site 1 was ultimately selected due to closest proximity to the treated surface water supply line and cost of property acquisition.

Hydraulic Modeling to Support Route Studies Route studies typically involve a desktop analysis that assumes pipe sizing based on the original project description. Similar to siting studies, traditional route studies have a narrow hydraulic analysis perspective and are primarily cost-driven. Including hydraulic modeling as part of the route study allows for the potential to reduce the pipe sizing based on a systemwide assessment. The impact of site selection on the route study is also accounted for when hydraulic modeling is incorporated. Two route studies were conducted by the city: one for the upper-pressure plane water line connecting the new Palm Street pump station with the new upper-pressure plane EST, and one for the lower-pressure plane water line connecting the new lowerpressure plane pump station and the existing Palm Street EST. The selection criteria included easement acquisition, stakeholder input, hydraulic analyses, constructability analyses, coordination with the city’s water line renewal program, and road conditions. Routes are shown for the upper- and lowerpressure plane water lines in figures 5 and 6, respectively.

Figure 8. System Curves for Pump Selection

Figure 9. Hydraulic Modeling Results

Option 1 was selected as the preferred route for the upper-pressure plane water line since it had the shortest overall length, lowest cost, minimal interactions with the Texas Department of Transportation infrastructure, minimal disruption to residents, and coordinated with ongoing water line and roadway rehabilitation efforts. Option 4 was selected as the preferred route for the lower-pressure plane water line since it had the lowest cost, minimal street repaving, and allowed troublesome existing water lines to be abandoned. During the route selection process, the hydraulic model was also used to evaluate possible reductions in the new water line sizing when installing the new water line parallel to existing infrastructure, instead of completely replacing existing water lines that were still in good condition. This resulted in a significant cost savings of more than $1.7 million in the water line components of the project.

Hydraulic Modeling to Support Pump Selection Hydraulic conditions serve as the basis for pump selection during pump station design. Traditionally, pumps are selected

based on a single design point or system curves generated from limited system information. It’s challenging to change the pump selected if the project conditions, such as the site or the route, change during the design process. Hydraulic models allow for the quick generation of system curves that account for varying operating conditions and/or changes in the site or water line route selected. For both of the new pump stations, the hydraulic model was used to develop system curves for average- and maximum-day, and near- and long-term, head conditions. This resulted in an envelope of system curves representing a full range of potential pump operating conditions, as shown in Figure 7. The envelope was simplified into a maximum, average, and minimum system curve for the actual evaluation of potential pumps, shown in Figure 8.

water system pressure, available fire flow, pipe velocities, and pump cycling. A portion of these results are shown collectively in Figure 9. The ease and speed of evaluating multiple site and route options in a hydraulic model can lead to more-informed decision making, fewer assumptions, and results in cost savings when reevaluating changes during design. For the city, the use of the hydraulic model in the design process resulted in cost savings of more than $2 million, while also improving operations and optimizing system widgets. S

Summary of Benefits Incorporating hydraulic modeling during the design process provides a systemwide perspective. Throughout the siting, routing, and pump selection process, the water model was used to assess tank drain and fill rates, EST turnover, minimum

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021


Register Now for the 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference Contests! Participants are encouraged to sign up for the Operations Challenge and Top Ops Competition, which will be held at the Florida Water Resources Conference in Daytona Beach on April 24-27, 2022, at the Volusia County Ocean Center.

Operations Challenge Treatment plant operators from across Florida will compete in the annual Operations Challenge. Participants will be timed in five separate operational competitions to determine the state’s representative for the

national Operations Challenge at WEFTEC 2022 in New Orleans. The contest promotes team building, leadership, education, and pride within a utility. Any utility that didn’t have a team in

the 2019 contest is especially encouraged to participate in next year’s event. For information and entry forms, contact Chris Fasnacht, Operations Challenge chair, at 407-254-7224.

Top Ops Competition The annual statewide Top Ops contest will also be held at the 2022 conference. Top Ops is the “College Bowl” of the water industry. Teams of one, two, or three water operators or laboratory personnel from the FSAWWA regions compete against each other in a fastpaced question-and-answer tournament at the conference. A moderator poses a wide range of technical questions and math problems, and the team scoring the most points in the final round is awarded the Florida Section AWWA Top Ops championship. The winning team will earn a trip to ACE22 in San Antonio, where it will compete with teams from other American

36 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water Works Association sections in the national Top Ops contest. Utilities throughout the state are encouraged to enter. Teams do not have to consist of employees of the same utility, and multiple utilities can sponsor a team. No video, audio, or digital recordings will be allowed during the competition. For registration forms, more details, and to receive the competition rules, contact the Top Ops Committee chair, Andrew Greenbaum, at 352-667-4138 or at agreenbaum@regionalwater.org, or visit www.fsawwa.org/topops. S



for the latest updates on classes December

6-9..... Backflow Tester...............................................................Deltona............... $375/405



10-14..... Water Distribution Level I................................................Deltona............... $325 10-14..... Wastewater Collection A.................................................Deltona............... $325 24-27..... Backflow Tester...............................................................Deltona............... $375/406


7-10..... Water Distribution Level III.............................................Deltona............... $325 17..... Reclaimed Water Distribution C abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155 18..... Reclaimed Water Distribution B abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155 21-23..... Backflow Repair..............................................................Deltona............... $275/305 24..... Backflow Tester Recertification.....................................Deltona............... $85/115


14-18..... Spring State Short School..............................................Ft. Pierce Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. *B ackflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021


L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.


Eyes on Safety

early 500,000 eye injuries occur in the workplace every year in the United States. Experts say that 90 percent of those injuries could have been avoided if workers were more safety conscious and if they used the proper eye protection. Breaking down these injuries, it adds up to more than 2,000 work-related eye injuries each day! Most injuries occurred while the workers were performing their regular jobs. Of those injuries, between 10 and 20 percent are disabling. This means the damage to one or both eyes was serious enough to result in temporary or even permanent loss of sight. Besides serious eye injuries, some workers may also be at risk of developing diseases from eye exposure. Some infectious diseases can be transmitted through the mucous membranes of the eye. Direct exposure to blood splashes, respiratory droplets from coughing, or from touching the eyes with contaminated fingers or other objects are often culprits. The good news is that safety experts and eye doctors believe that eye protection can lessen the severity of eye injuries, and in some cases, even prevent them. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that the majority of employees who injure their eyes either were not wearing any eye protection at the time of their accidents or were not wearing the right kind of protective eyewear for the particular job.

Workplace Injuries The top causes of eye injuries in the workplace are: S F lying objects (bits of metal and glass)


ools T Dust and small particles Chemicals and thermal burns Harmful radiation A combination of these or other hazards

Protective Eyewear Basics Follow these basic safety tips to help prevent eye injuries: S Always wear the proper eye-safety gear. There are several types from which to choose, depending on the task you are performing: • Glasses • Goggles • Face shields • Welding helmets S Follow all operating procedures correctly. S Know where the first aid and eye cleaning stations are located and how to use them properly. S Always wear safety gloves and wash your hands after touching chemicals to prevent accidentally rubbing harmful substances into your eyes. S Do not assume that wearing regular eyeglasses will protect your eyes. Regular eyeglasses are not designed for protection, and often they won’t. Don’t chance it. S Make sure all protective eyewear fits properly and is not damaged. If it has been damaged, throw it away immediately. Protective eyewear should be made of polycarbonate plastic. If you are working with liquids, your goggles should be splash-proof. Never rely on eyewear that is not designed for safety, such as reading glasses or sunglasses. So why don’t workers use protective eyewear when there’s so much at risk? Researchers at Liberty Mutual Insurance found that the top issues cited are: S Discomfort or poor fit S Lack of availability S Wrong style S Inconvenience S Interference with eyeglasses S Cost

S Inappropriateness for the task In addition, they’ve learned that workers tend to skip eye protection if they don’t perceive the task to be high-risk, if it will only take a short time to complete, or if the employer doesn’t provide the right eyewear along with consistent encouragement, training, and enforcement that stresses a safety culture in the workplace. Don’t make excuses, and don’t be one of the workers who thought it would never happen to them. A workplace eye injury can threaten your vision, your employment, or both.

Do You Work a Desk Job? You’re likely sitting in front of a computer most days and have begun to realize that blue light is a real thing. Digital eye strain emitted from screens is the culprit. Thankfully, there are several potential solutions. S Computer glasses with special lenses or lens coatings can help filter blue light emitted from screens. Talk to your eye doctor about these lenses if you spend two or more hours a day in front of a screen or under an LED light. S Limit screen time before bed. Ideally, put away your devices a couple of hours before you retire for the night. By following a few safety precautions, you can greatly reduce your risk of eye injury. It takes only a few moments to think “eye safety” and put on safety goggles. A few seconds of eye protection could save you a lifetime of problems. For additional information go to the Prevent Blindness website at www. S preventblindness.org.

The 2020 Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the 2020 Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

38 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Test Yourself Answer Key From page 26

4. A) Jan. 1, 2028

Per 403.064(17)(d), “If a plan is not timely submitted by a utility or approved by the department, the utility’s domestic wastewater treatment facilities may not dispose of effluent, reclaimed water, or reuse water by surface water discharge after Jan. 1, 2028. A violation of this paragraph is subject to administrative and civil penalties pursuant to ss. 403.121, 403.131, and 403.141.”

1. C ) nonbeneficial surface water discharges.

Per 403.064(17), “By Nov. 1, 2021, domestic wastewater utilities that dispose of effluent, reclaimed water, or reuse water by surface water discharge shall submit to the department for review and approval a plan for eliminating nonbeneficial surface water discharge by Jan. 1, 2032, subject to the requirements of this section.”

2. C) Nine months

Per 403.064(17)(b), “The department shall approve or deny a plan within nine months after receiving the plan. A utility may modify the plan by submitting such modification to the department; however, the plan may not be modified such that the requirements of this subsection are not met, and the department may not extend the time within which a plan will be implemented. The approval of the plan or a modification by the department does not constitute final agency action.”

5. A) The discharge is associated with an indirect potable reuse project.

Per 403.064(17)(a)1., “The department shall approve a plan that includes all of the information required under this subsection as meeting the requirements of this section if one or more of the following conditions are met: 1. The plan will result in eliminating the surface water discharge.”

6. D) 90 percent

3. B) Jan. 1, 2032

Per 403.064(17)(c), “A utility shall fully implement the approved plan by Jan. 1, 2032.”

Per 403.064(17)(a)2.d., “The department shall approve a plan that includes all of the information required under this subsection as meeting the requirements of this section if one or more of the following conditions are met: The utility operates domestic wastewater treatment facilities with reuse systems that reuse a minimum of 90 percent of a facility’s annual average flow, as determined by the department using monitoring data for the prior five consecutive years, for reuse purposes authorized by the department.”

7. C ) Facilities located in municipalities with less than $10 million in annual revenue.

Per 403.064(17)(g)3., “This subsection does not apply to any of the following: 1. A domestic wastewater treatment facility that is located in a fiscally constrained county as described in s. 218.67(1). 2. A domestic wastewater treatment facility that is located in a municipality that is entirely within a rural area of opportunity as designated pursuant to s. 288.0656. 3. A domestic wastewater treatment facility that is located in a municipality that has less than $10 million in total revenue, as determined by the municipality’s most recent annual financial report submitted to the Department of Financial Services in accordance with s. 218.32.”

8. C) Dec. 31, 2023

Per 403.064(18)(e), “The department and the water management districts shall develop and execute, by Dec. 31, 2023, a memorandum of agreement providing for the procedural requirements of a coordinated review of all permits associated with the construction and operation of an indirect potable reuse project. The memorandum of agreement must provide that the coordinated review will occur only if requested by a permittee. The purpose of the coordinated review is to share information, avoid the redundancy of information requested from the permittee, and ensure consistency in the permit for the protection of the public health and the environment.”

9. A) Annually

Per 403.064(17)(f), “By Dec. 31, 2021, and annually thereafter, the department shall submit a report to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, which provides the average gallons per day of effluent, reclaimed water, or reuse water that will no longer be discharged into surface waters by the utility and the dates of such elimination; the average gallons per day of surface water discharges that will continue in accordance with the alternatives provided in subparagraphs (a) 2. and 3., and the level of treatment that the effluent, reclaimed water, or reuse water will receive before being discharged into a surface water by each alternative and utility; and any modified or new plans submitted by a utility since the last report.”

10. A ) contaminants of emerging concern.

Per 403.064(18)(a), “By Dec. 31, 2020, the department shall initiate rule revisions based on the recommendations of the Potable Reuse Commission’s 2020 report ‘Advancing Potable Reuse in Florida: Framework for the Implementation of Potable Reuse in Florida.’ Rules for potable reuse projects must address contaminants of emerging concern and meet or exceed federal and state drinking water quality standards and other applicable water quality standards. Reclaimed water is deemed a water source for public water supply systems.”

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Jody Cline Regional Distribution Sales Manager JOCL@kamstrup.com 850-557-0145 Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021



2021: The FWPCOA Year in Review Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA


reetings everyone. I hope you all are doing well. It’s December—I can’t believe another year has passed. This has been another one of those years that has challenged us in the same way as 2020 did, dealing with COVID–19, and also the Delta variant. That being said, once again we have demonstrated our resilience and have experienced a successful year. In this C Factor I would like cover some of the highlights of the year for FWPCOA and discuss some of the upcoming challenges moving forward as utility professionals.

The Year in FWPCOA Training: Short Schools The FWPCOA held two successful state short schools in 2021. The spring short school was held March 15-19 at the Indian River State College in Ft. Pierce with 225 students, and the summer short school

was held August 9-13 at the Indian River State College with 250 students attending. The students spent the week studying and preparing for their certification exams. Besides the state short schools, many of the 13 FWPCOA regions also held their own short schools or training. The FWPCOA Online institute had another successful year providing a verity of noncontact online training throughout the year as well.

Florida Water Resources Conference Board Members From FWPCOA The FWPCOA members of the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) board for 2021 are: S Ken Enlow S Patrick Murphy S Rim Bishop S Al Monteleone S Athena Tipaldos S Mike Darrow S Glen Whitcomb The FWPCOA members trustees of FWRC for 2021 are: S Ken Enlow S Patrick Murphy S Athena Tipaldos



The FWPCOA worked with FSAWWA and FWEA to re-establish the structure of FWRC following the resignation of President Scott Kelley and Executive Director Holly Hanson. Tim Madhanagopal was elected the new president of FWRC. Tim has had over 18 years of experience as vice president of technical programs for the conference. Michelle (Mish) Clark was hired as the executive manager of FWRC to replace Holly. Mish has an extensive background organizing events and owns her own company. The FWRC is scheduled to be held April 24-27, 2022, at the Volusia County Ocean Center in Daytona Beach. I’m looking forward to seeing all of you there, and don’t forget to visit FWPCOA at booth number 405 in the exhibit hall.

FWPCOA Training Manual Development and Publication As an organization of utility professionals, FWPCOA wants to provide training manuals that are specific to Florida and incorporate the latest methods, rules, and regulations related to our industry. To this goal we have completed the following manuals: S B ackflow Prevention Repair S B ackflow Prevention Tester S C ustomer Relations S S tormwater Management C and B S W astewater Collection C and B S U tility Maintenance Level III The following manuals are in production now and are to be released in the near future: S U tility Maintenance II (in final review) S R eclaimed Water Field Site Inspector S W ater Distribution S S upervision I want to thank Darin Bishop and Tom King for their efforts working with ProEdit in the production of the training manuals, and a special thanks to all of the FWPCOA professionals who have dedicated many hours of work providing material, graphics, slide presentations, test questions, and manual reviews, making this very important project a success now and in the future.

40 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Planning for the Future: Operators for the Industry The FWPCOA Short School Committee and training office are planning a spring short school at Indian River State College, which is expected to be held March 14-18, 2022. Training staff will be meeting with the Indian River State Collage staff in the near future to finalize dates and other details. We continue to see the future as being bright. We have learned much through the challenges we have faced through 2021. Our resilience has prevailed once again, making us better as an organization for the future.

Regulatory Updates and Revisions On the regulatory front there are several rules to note. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) is still developing protocols by which direct or indirect potable reuse systems might be approved. Rule development is underway for a number of Florida Administrative Code sections, including 62-640 (biosolids), which will effectively end land application of Class B solids, and 62-604 (wastewater collection systems), which will require annual reports, no sanitary sewer overflows, and certain certifications for all lift stations. The HB 53 requires 20-year financial plans for all wastewater and stormwater management systems, and SB 64 requires that wastewater utilities with surface water discharges submit a plan for their elimination by Nov. 1, 2021, and to fully implement that plan by 2032. Hopefully you submitted your plan on time. The Lead and Copper Rule Revision new effective date is Dec. 16, 2021, and the full compliance date for the rule is Oct. 16, 2024. There are several changes that take into account the greater number of people at risk, including children in school. You can use the following link to see all the information on the LCRR: https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-anddrinking-water/revised-lead-and-copperrule. The Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) 5 final rule publication will be December 2021. Focus is on the sampling of assorted 29 perand polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) unregulated containments, plus a lithium

chemical that could have potential health risks. Monitoring begins in 2022 through 2026 and proposed sampling is 2023 to 2025. You can use the following link to see all the information on the UCMR 5: h t t p s : / / w w w. e p a . g o v / d w u c m r / f i f t h unregulated-contaminant-monitoring-rule.

New FWPCOA Officers for 2022 The election of new officers for 2022 was held at the Oct. 24, 2021, board of directors meeting at Seacoast Utility Authority’s new administration building in Palm Beach Gardens. The new officers for 2022 are: S Patrick (Murf) Murphy – President S Athena Tipaldos – Vice President S Rim Bishop – Secretary-Treasurer S Kevin Shropshire – Secretary-Treasurer Elect

on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. For more information, contact the Online Institute program manager at OnlineTraining@fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at attraining@ fwpcoa.org.

Happy Holidays! I personally hope that each of you has a very happy and joyous holiday season. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work! S

FWPCOA Training Update The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor, please contact the training office at 321-383-9690. In the meantime, and as always, our Online Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021



Happy Holidays! Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE President, FWEA

Rejoice and Give Thanks To all of my friends and colleagues at FWEA, FSAWWA, and FWPCOA, I want to express my deepest appreciation for your contributions to our organizations this past year. Thank you to all who are part of the noble profession that we serve. Utility managers and operators, consultants, contractors, equipment and material suppliers, regulators, and those in academia all play an important role in striving to achieve our vision of “a clean and sustainable water environment for Florida’s future generations.”

Appreciate Our Resources and Accomplishments In Florida and throughout the United States we are blessed with an abundance of natural resources. Florida has abundant surface water resources, including coastal waters, lakes, rivers, streams, and springs. In addition, Florida has one of the most-plentiful freshwater aquifers in the nation, which supplies water to hundreds of springs and provides the base flow for many of Florida’s rivers and streams. The state’s surface water and groundwater resources are connected and support our drinking water supplies, agriculture, industry, wildlife habitat, and a vibrant and thriving economy. While increasing population and emphasis on protecting the environment has put a stress on available resources, it has brought about a heightened awareness on the value of water. Florida’s water professionals are meeting this challenge through innovative technologies, such as direct and indirect potable reuse, and an

42 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

integrated “one water” approach to water resource planning.

A Joyous Holiday Season May your holidays be filled with love and joy. I hope you have a great time with your friends and family this holiday season. Wishing you a Merry Christmas and a wonderful, happy, healthy, and prosperous S New Year!

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FWRJ READER PROFILE Work title and years of service. I’m technical vice president with The Corradino Group. I’m been with the company for seven years and have 18 years of experience in the engineering industry.

Austin F. P’Pool, P.E.

The Corradino Group Inc., Miami

What does your job entail? The Corradino Group is a consulting engineering firm, headquartered in Miami, that’s been in business for more than 50 years. As a technical vice president and senior project manager, my responsibilities include the planning, engineering design, regulatory permitting assistance, and construction management support for various water and sanitary sewer systems. With Corradino I have managed and delivered all phases of approximately 180,000 linear feet of pipeline projects, in various sizes from 2 to 72 inches. What education and training have you had? My education in engineering started with the U.S. Air Force where I enlisted as an engineering assistant (3E5X1). I was able to further my engineering education at the Georgia Institute of Technology with my GI Bill where I received a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering. I have had various other training opportunities, with ENV SP and CPESC, and am licensed in several states.

My wife and I at our wedding December 2020 in Nashville.

We enjoy getting out in the water.

What do you like best about your job? What I like most about my job is helping to provide an essential service to the cities where we work. Many people have no idea how the water gets to or how the sewage leaves their house, and that is a testament to what a good

job our industry does. I like being a part of this unsung group. What professional organizations do you belong to? I’m active in Society of American Military Engineers, American Society of Civil Engineers, and Florida Engineering Society, but I am most active in AWWA where I am the chair of Region VII of FSAWWA. How have the organizations helped your career? I would advise anyone in our industry to get involved with these organizations. The AWWA has been an immense help in furthering my career. I have made contacts in all facets of the industry, from technical experts, municipal leaders, seasoned operators, and key decision makers, to the young professionals that will carry the organization and industry forward in the future. I thoroughly enjoy the diversity of people who attend the events and volunteer in the regions. It has made me a more-rounded engineer and given me many resources to call on for questions or to discuss new ideas. What do you like best about the industry? Our industry is always evolving, through technology and being driven by regulation, as well as innovation. I believe it will always be like this and it keeps everyone on their toes. What do you do when you’re not working? When I’m not working, I like to get outdoors. I like to fish when I get the chance. I also like to go camping where we can hike in S the woods and sit by a campfire.

We haven’t missed a mini-season in years.

44 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

I enjoy getting outdoors whenever I can. This was my first muskie fishing on Lake of the Woods.


46 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal



Introduction to Electrical Maintenance

11-14 JAN

Activated Sludge Process Control & Troubleshooting

18-21 JAN

Water Distribution Systems Operator Level 2 & 3 Training

24-28 JAN

Water Class C Certification Review

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Pumping Systems Operation and Maintenance

7-9 FEB

Microbiology of Activated Sludge

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Effective Utility Leadership Practices

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Visit www.treeo.ufl.edu for a full schedule of courses including: Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Assembly Repair and Maintenance Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Recertification

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MARCH 1-3, 2022 | GAINESVILLE, FL Join us at the 32nd Annual Cross-Connection Control Conference is designed to assist you in identifying and solving problems encountered in your cross-connection control program.


352.294.3874 Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021


CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

POSITIONS AVAILABLE City of West Palm Beach Director of Public Utilities Summary This position plans, manages, and directs the operations and services of the Public Utilities Department. The Director of Public Utilities reports directly to the Assistant City Administrator. This position is responsible for compliance with the regulatory requirements for water and wastewater permits including the water use permit for the health and safety of the customers, responds to and resolves sensitive and complex community and organization inquiries and complaints; responds to emergencies and natural disasters, manages and coordinates development of the department budget, monitors and approves expenditures, and advises staff on budget matters and adjusts budget as necessary. The incumbent of this position oversees operation of the department to assure all workflows in the department and is prioritized appropriately; integrates and evaluates the work of the department’s divisions and represents the department and/or city on boards, committees, at commission meetings, with regulatory agencies and/ within the community. Requirements: Bachelor’s degree with a major in civil engineering, business administration, public administration, environmental science, or related and seven (7) years of progressively and highly responsible Utilities administration experience in a water, wastewater or public works setting with responsibility for a large division within a public utility is required, or any equivalent combination of training and experience. Five (5) years of supervisory/management experience is required. Master’s degree in public administration, business administration, civil engineering, or environmental sciences, highly desirable. A current and valid Florida driver’s license is required. For application purposes, a valid driver’s license from any state (equivalent to a State of Florida Class E) may be utilized; with the ability to obtain the State of Florida driver’s license within thirty (30) days from date of employment.

Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include:

Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Salary: The salary range for this position is: $121,330 - $181,995. To apply for this position, visit our website at www.wpb.org and apply online. CLOSING DATE: Open until filled. EOE/DRUG FREE WORKPLACE

48 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available Laboratory Quality Manager, Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Crew Leader, Equipment Operator, Service Worker, Water Quality Technician, Utility Field Technician. Apply at www.titusville.com

Wastewater Operators

The City of Eustis is seeking Wastewater Operators. Please visit eustis.org for full job description, salary, and online application. Background check/drug screen required. Open until filled. EOE, V/P, DFWP

Water Treatment Plant Operator

Location: Florida City, FL Salary Range: $52,646 - $80,612 The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring a WTP Operator. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a water treatment plant according to local, state, and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery, and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA

GS Inima USA City of Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Plant

Salary / Benefits $65,000 to $85,000.00 (based on experience and qualifications) Health, Dental and 401K Accepting applications for a Chief Operator position. Must have experience with a Drinking Water Plant and Reverse Osmosis membrane. The Chief Operator shall possess a minimum of 15 years’ experience with operation of drinking water treatment facilities, including five years of management responsibility, five years’ experience with membrane treatment systems and shall hold a Class A (Category II) operators certificate issued by the State of Florida, valid drivers. Contact Jennifer.cruz@inima.com

Public Utilities Asst Manager Wastewater City of Clearwater - Public Utilities Department City of Clearwater Government is hiring now for the Public Utilities Asst Manager Wastewater! Under administrative direction, the Public Utilities Assistant Manager assists, supports in the supervision, oversight, direction, and coordination of activities related to the development, installation, operation, and maintenance of the City’s Public Utilities infrastructure, facilities, and systems. TARGET ENTRY SALARY: $62,062 - $65,165 annually APPLICATIONS SHOULD BE FILED ONLINE AT: http://www. myclearwater.com For Details about this position: See website

City of Panama City Beach Licensed Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators A, B, or C

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator

Salary Range: $52,646. - $80,694. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring a WWTP Operator. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA

Machinist (Mechanical Work/Equipment Repair/ Maintenance) & Utilities Mechanic (Maintenance Worker) http://www.cityofcocoabeach.com/619/Employment-Opportunities

We offer a full line of benefits. The city pays 100% of the employees’ health and dental insurance, STD/LTD, as well as 100% of a $25k life insurance policy on our employees. Our PTO plan allows employees to start accruing time their first day. We recognize 13 holidays + your birthday and offer a $2,100 hiring incentive. Class C - $17.60 to $28.16 Class B - $18.49 to $29.59 Class A - $19.43 to $31.09 https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/pcbgov

City of Edgewater Wastewater Treatment Plant Manager

Responsible for the 24-hour operation of a 2.75 mgd wastewater treatment facility ensuring compliance with all regulatory criteria. Position is responsible for the management of assigned personnel as well as planning, training, directing and maintaining operations of the wastewater treatment plant. Florida Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator “A” license required. Associates degree preferred. $53,809 - $81,369 Please visit www.cityofedgewater.org for complete job description and to apply. EOE/DFWP/VP Classifieds continued on page 50 Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2021


Classifieds from on page 49

City of Tarpon Springs PUBLIC SERVICES ASSISTANT DIRECTOR Tarpon Springs, Florida is on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in northern Pinellas County. Tarpon Springs was named the Best Historic Small Town in the country by USA Today yet it still offers the benefits of a metro area. The City of Tarpon Springs provides a wide range of traditional services including Police, Fire, Utilities, Library, Cultural & Civic Services as well as a Municipal Golf Course and Marina. The City offers beautiful beaches and parks in addition to recreational opportunities, historic neighborhoods, special events, and performing and visual arts. The City of Tarpon Springs has a multiple award-winning water and sewer utility and is now hiring a Public Services Assistant Director to perform highly responsible professional and technical work in the planning and directing of programs and projects within the Public Services Divisions. With an emphasis on water and sewer utilities and sustainability responsibilities, directs, coordinates, and oversees operational/administrative phases of the various divisions including utilities, golf-course, recreation, cemetery, customer service, capital planning, and environmental programs. Potential opportunity for advancement. Annual Salary: $74,415 - $115,051 D.O.Q. Closing Date: OPEN UNTIL FILLED For more information and to complete an application, please navigate to the following link: https://www.ctsfl.us/project/employment-opportunities/

Display Advertiser Index AWWA Member Appreciation ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 22 Blue Planet Environmental Systems ��������������������������������������������������������� 51 CEU Challenge �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Data Flow ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 FSAWWA Conference Thank you – Fall Conference ������������������������������ 20 FSAWWA Conference Thank you – Regional Sponsors �������������������������� 21 FSAWWA Holiday Greeting ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 23 FWPCOA Training Calendar ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 37 FWRC ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 46 Gerber Pumps ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Heyward ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29 Hydro International ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Kemstrup ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 Lakeside ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Plastic Pipe Institute ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 PolyProcessing ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 42 SEDA �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11 Smith & Loveless ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 UF TREEO Center ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47 Vaughn Nugent �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43 Water Treatment Controls �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 WEF Access Water Platform ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 27 Xylem ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 52

50 December 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

SYSTEM PROGRAM INTEGRATOR ASSISTANT PAY RATE: $20.20/HR 1. Experience or training related to electrical, controls/ instrumentation-PLC, Telemetry, SCADA and Ladder Logic To apply visit www.PlantCityGov.com/jobs

Capital Project Manager Government Services Group, Inc. (GSG) seeks a Capital Project Manager. GSG is a management consulting firm providing services to governmental agencies at the local, state, and Federal levels. One of GSG’s core services is the management of the Florida Governmental Utility Authority (FGUA). The FGUA is a governmental utility authority that owns and operates water and wastewater utility systems throughout the State of Florida. The Capital Project Manager manages a wide variety of water and wastewater utility Capital Improvement Projects, primarily for the FGUA, in support of the Capital Program Manager. The Capital Project Manager would work in our Longwood, Florida office or one of the satellite locations in New Port Richey, Florida or Ft. Myers, Florida. For additional information on this position and to apply, please visit: https://apply.workable.com/j/1554BEFD84 **Position open until filled***


Annual Salary: $58,754-$94,653 D.O.Q. Closing Date: OPEN UNTIL FILLED The City of Tarpon Springs is now hiring a Water Division Manager to perform the administration and management of the City’s Reverse Osmosis Water Facility, Freshwater Wellfield, Water Distribution Maintenance and Water Quality, and Meter Repair and Maintenance. Provides leadership and guidance through longrange planning, organization, scheduling, staffing, information management and budget management. For more information and to complete an application, please navigate to the following link: https://www.ctsfl.us/project/employment-opportunities/

Reverse Osmosis Water Facility Operators The City of Tarpon Springs Reverse Osmosis Water Facility is hiring for Operator A, B, and C positions. Please visit www.ctsfl.us for full job descriptions, salary, and application. Background check/drug screen required. www.ctsfl.us

Management and Hourly Opportunities The Town of Davie is looking for candidates to fill management and hourly positions in our Utilities Department. Salary Range $18.96 - $41.30 depending on the position. To learn more about the positions and complete and application go to https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/davie.




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