Florida Water Resources Journal - May 2022

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Water Technologies & Solutions

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For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features


4 Process Page: A Visit to the Polk County Utilities Sun Ray Wastewater Treatment Facility: Challenging Influent, Excellent Results—Bartt C. Booz 8 Technology Spotlight: The P6 PolyMix® Difference: A Case Study 28 Ice Pigging: Award-Winning, Advanced Pipe Cleaning Technology—Paul Treloar 46 Keeping Regulators Happy: Actionable Asset Management Plans for Water Utilities—Juston Manville 58 Young Professionals Leave Their Watermark on Local Community 60 News Beat

Technical Articles

18 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Emilie Moore 22 Let’s Talk Safety: Don’t Get Bit or Stung: Safety Instructions for Insects 24 FWEA Focus—Ronald R. Cavalieri 26 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 44 C Factor—Patrick “Murf” Murphy 54 FWEA Chapter Corner: Operators Versus Engineers: Who Will Survive the Challenge?—Melody Gonzalez and Brad Hayes

Departments 60 Display Advertiser Index 62 Classifieds

12 The Right Tools for Planning: How Pearland Applied Apps, Data Analytics, and Visualization Tools to Optimize its Collection System—Kendall Ryan, Ishita

Rahman, Bailey Keller, and Jameson Appel

48 Surviving Ransomware Attacks: Prevention and Recovery for Water and Wastewater Control Systems—Bob George

Education and Training 21 CEU Challenge 27 FWPCOA Region IV Short School 38 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitor Registration 39 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitor Information 40 FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers 41 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship Fund 42 AWWA Water Equation 43 AWWA/FSAWWA Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month 57 TREEO Center Training 59 FWPCOA Training Calendar

Volume 73

ON THE COVER: The activated sludge packaged ring plant at the Sun Ray Wastewater Treatment Facility, which was awarded the 2021 Earle B. Phelps Award in the secondary treatment category. Polk County Utilities continues to lead the way with excellent operations and utilities management. For more information see Page 4. (photo: Bartt Booz)

May 2022

Number 5

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


PRO CE S S PAG E Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! This month’s column will highlight the Polk County Utilities Sun Ray Wastewater Treatment Facility, which won the 2021 Earle B. Phelps Award in the secondary category for facilities with a design capacity of less than 3 mgd.

A Visit to the Polk County Utilities Sun Ray Wastewater Treatment Facility: Challenging Influent, Excellent Results


Bartt C. Booz

he Sun Ray Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) was recognized in 2021 by the Florida Water Environment Federation (FWEA) as the winner of the Earle B. Phelps Award in the secondary treatment category for its impressive effluent quality and consistency. The award is presented annually to wastewater treatment plants that demonstrate exceptional secondary treatment throughout the year and maintain the highest removal of major pollutioncausing constituents, including total nitrogen. The WWTF has been the recipient of the award in 2019, 2020, and again in 2021. The consistency of the plant’s performance, and the awards it has received, are a testament to Polk County (county) and its dedication and commitment to protecting water resources and the environment.

Facility Overview The WWTF is a 1-miliion-gallon-per-day

(mgd), annual average daily flow (AADF), Type I, two-stage, packaged, extended aeration domestic facility, consisting of three parallel treatment trains that were originally constructed in 1997 and upgraded in 2012. The county identified the need for the 2012 plant expansion due to the growth and waste loadings from the county’s South County Jail, which provides the majority of the flow to the WWTF. Influent wastewater, which currently averages approximately 0.385 mgd, enters the plant through a master influent pump station. This pumps up to an elevated headworks, where an automatic bar screen removes influent screenings. Flow is split between three trains: Trains 1 and 2 consist of two anoxic tanks, two aeration tanks, three secondary clarifiers, four chlorine contact chambers, and two aerobic digesters; and Train 3 consists of a pre-anoxic basin, anoxic/aeration basin, clarifier, digester/holding tank, and chlorine contact basin (one each). Multistage centrifugal blowers provide aeration to the activated sludge process. Sodium hypochlorite is used to provide basic disinfection through an effluent flow-paced control system. Waste sludge is thickened in the digesters to 1.5 to 2 percent through aeration and decanting. The facility also includes a concrete pad for a mobile centrifuge dewatering unit and piping

Multistage centrifugal blowers for aeration, March 2022.

4 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

to convey centrate to the main influent pump station. Sludge is dewatered to 18 to 20 percent solids before being hauled to the county’s north central landfill for disposal. Following disinfection, effluent from the chlorine contact basins flows to an effluent splitter box and an effluent pump station wet well, where flow is distributed to one of three rapid infiltration basins (RIBs); one RIB is onsite at the plant, and the other two are remote. The onsite RIB is a four-cell, 4.02-acre parcel with a capacity of 0.098 mgd. The offsite RIBs include the Prine RIB, with a 0.650-mgd capacity, and the Hopson Road RIB, with a capacity of 0.350 mgd. Table 1 summarizes the typical plant loadings and effluent quality from January to December 2021. Polk County Utilities (PCU) uses a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), called Hach JobCal, to automatically generate preventive maintenance work orders and document corrective work that has been completed. This program is used by the operations team, trades helpers, mechanics, and electricians. The storage of information allows for easy access by all stakeholders. Preventive maintenance is Continued on page 6

Master influent pump station, March 2022.

Settled Solids Management

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Activated sludge packaged ring plant, March 2022.

Continued from page 4 set up as recurring events based on parameters dictated by the JobCal users.

Operational Challenges and Dedicated Staff

Headworks and activated sludge process tank, March 2022.

Lasseter, William Altman, and Andrew Martin. Doug has been operating the plant for over 26 years. The dedication and commitment to safety, education, and quality of the WWTF operations, maintenance, and electrical/instrumentation staff resulted in the WWTF consistently producing exceptional effluent quality, exceeding all regulatory

requirements, and earning the 2021 Earle B. Phelps Award for secondary treatment. This is a muchdeserved win by PCU’s dedicated team! Bartt C. Booz, P.E., is senior project manager with S Wright-Pierce in Maitland.

Those who are familiar with treating prison wastewater understand that the loadings can be highly variable. In addition, you never know what is going to come down the pipe. The South County Jail has an inline grinder onsite to provide preliminary processing; however, it’s not uncommon to see prison jumpsuits, thousands of candy wrappers, and other debris hitting the WWTF in slug loadings. While the influent screen catches a lot of the material, the county staff is often busy dipping the activated sludge tanks to keep the material from impacting downstream processes and effluent quality. The facility currently has one level A operator, one level B operator, and two level C operators responsible for the plant. The PCU operations staff is comprised of Todd Potter (south region supervisor), Doug

A process flow diagram of the plant.

Table 1. Plant Loadings and Effluent Quality

Pictured (left to right) are Doug Lasseter and Todd Potter. Not pictured are William Altman and Andrew Martin.

Annual Average Influent Annual Average Effluent Number of Occurrences Out of Compliance

6 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

cBOD (mg/L) 140

TSS (mg/L) 245

Nitrate (mg/L) 0.04

Fecal (CFU) N/A

Turbidity (NTU) N/A

TN (mg/L) 37

TP (mg/L) 3.8

TKN (mg/L) 37

NH3 (mg/L) 25.7



















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TECHNOLOGY SPOTLIGHT Optimization of Waste Sludge Thickening/Dewatering

The P6 PolyMix® Difference: A Case Study Biosolids sludge management has become exceptionally challenging for municipalities due to population increases creating greater wastewater treatment demand. This increased demand results in greater amounts of biosolids to process and dispose of, both economically and efficiently. Municipalities are now charged with finding new and creative solutions to handle the growing volume of wastewater biosolids. The patented P6 PolyMix® system optimizes various sludge thickening processes, specifically the belt filter press (BFP), but also screw presses and centrifuges. Optimization is addressed in the location of polymer introduction into the sludge, the process of how the polymer is mixed with the wastewater sludge, the volume of flow that is fed to the dewatering equipment, and the reliability of the press feed pump. As a result of these optimizations, the potential for reduced polymer consumption and cost, the potential for drier cake solids, the near elimination of feed pump maintenance, and the ability to process two to three times more

volume than that of conventional dewatering systems makes the P6 PolyMix system a powerful addition to a municipality’s sludge handling process

Background The conventional process for BFP sludge thickening is to pump dilute neat polymer into an injection ring located after the BFP feed pump between the pump and the BFP (Figure 1). Immediately after the polymer injection ring, a highshear mixer is used and is required to properly mix the polymer with the sludge particles so that the BFP can squeeze the water from the solids. The high-shear mixer immediately breaks the long-chain polymer strands into smaller pieces, resulting in increased polymer consumption and blinding off of the BFP belts. This system creates back pressure through the high-shear mixer, resulting in increased pump discharge pressure and horsepower (HP) requirements. Before the advent of the P6 PolyMix system, this was the normal process mode

Figure 1. Conventional High Shear Belt Filter Press Pumping Process

for conditioning sludge prior to delivery onto a BFP. On the other hand, the P6 PolyMix system optimizes the BFP sludge conditioning and mixing process (Figure 2). The dilute neat polymer is pumped into the P6 InjeX™ chamber ahead of the BFP feed pump. The P6 InjeX chamber receives the dilute neat polymer for initial mixing with the sludge, and then both flow into the P6 PolyMix feed pump, where final mixing and pumping are performed. The P6 PolyMix feed pump is a boundary layer/viscous drag centrifugal pump that gently “pulls” the sludge and polymer together through the pump. As it passes through the bladeless flat discpac (disc impeller), the sludge particles are gently mixed in a nonmechanical shear manner. The sludge particles and polymer are gently pulled through the discpac in a spiral motion from the discpac eye (center) outward to the pump discharge. The boundary layer/viscous drag pumping action creates a homogeneous slurry of polymer/solids, resulting in large, easily dewatered flocs. This process

also has the effect of conditioning the polymer strands by “pulling them through” the pump and unwinding the polymer coils, as opposed to “pushing them through” the pump. This conditioning of the polymer and sludge allows for more available charged sites on the polymer strands to attract the oppositely charged biological particles in the sludge for greater flocculation with less polymer. The homogeneous sludge/ polymer slurry is transferred without any additional mixing or damage to the floc to the BFP for dewatering/ thickening. The P6 PolyMix feed pump, with its boundary layer/viscous drag pumping principle, is illustrated in Figure 3. The gentle nonmechanical shear pumping action protects the pump from wear, and the product, which, in this case, is the delicate biological floc, from damage or degradation. Since the flocs, after forming, are not mechanically sheared and not broken apart with a high-shear mixer valve, less polymer is required to achieve excellent flocculation and better dewatering. Continued on page 10

Figure 2. P6 PolyMix Belt Filter Press Pumping Process

Technology Spotlight is a paid feature sponsored by the advertisement on the facing page. The Journal and its publisher do not endorse any product that appears in this column. If you would like to have your technology featured, contact Mike Delaney at 352-241-6006 or at mike@fwrj.com.

8 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal


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Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Continued from page 8 Likewise, the longer strands of polymer/sludge particles (floc) tend to allow for greater squeezing out of the water in the BFP and drier cake solids off a BFP. These benefits can also be obtained using the P6 PolyMix system with other dewatering applications, such as a screw press or centrifuge. Regardless of the thickening device, Gerber Pumps International Inc. provides a 10-year, 100 percent nonprorated wear warranty for the P6 PolyMix system, which includes the P6 PolyMix BFP feed pump.

Salisbury-Rowan Utilities Case Study The Salisbury-Rowan Utilities (SRU) Town Creek Water Reclamation Facility was having problems with its solids thickening system in spring 2019. The BFP was not able to handle the volume desired (averaging only 115 gallons per minute [gpm]) or provide cake as dry as desired at higher flow rates. Stephen

Gerber, GPi/P6 PolyMix operations manager, presented the new P6 PolyMix technology to Jason Wilson, P.E., assistant utilities director at SRU. The plant’s positive displacement BFP feed pump’s limited flow capacity to the BFP created challenges with handling the sludge volume of the plant. Additionally, SRU wanted drier cake, if possible, as well as savings in polymer cost. The plant was typically getting 14 to 16 percent Cw cake solids from its BFP, depending on the flow being pumped to the BFP. The flow ranged from 115 up to 150 gpm, with an absolute max of 220 gpm at minimum acceptable dewatering. The 115-gpm flow produced a higher percentage of cake solids, but also restricted the plant’s solids handling removal capacity. Wilson advised that SRU likes to be innovative and is very open to new technologies that make its operations more efficient and cost-effective. After initial conversations with Wilson, Gerber visited the SRU plant to review the onsite conditions. After

Figure 3. Boundary Layer/Viscous Drag Pumping Principle

Figure 4. P6 PolyMix System in Salisbury, N.C.

reviewing SRU’s current dewatering process, he and Wilson discussed the application and confirmed that the SRU Town Creek wastewater treatment site would be a viable location for a P6 PolyMix system (Figure 4). The GPi had a 20-HP P6 PolyMix demonstration. The wastewater operations/ biosolids supervisor for SRU, Bob Loper, coordinated the installation of the P6 PolyMix system with Gerber and the subsequent testing. A percent solids concentration test for various combinations of flow and sludge types on its OHAUS MB27 moisture analyzer was conducted in June 2019 (Figure 5). The test was a resounding success. The dry solids cake concentration was increased from an average of 16.67 percent with the existing positive displacement BFP feed pump up to 25.33 percent Cw with the P6 PolyMix system. Polymer consumption was effectively reduced by 47 to 55 percent. The feed to the BFP was increased from the plant’s typical range of 115 to 150 gpm, up to 250 to 390 gpm. This three-fold increase in throughput was significant. The purchase of another expensive BFP for the plant, with all the associated costs, could be forestalled due to the increased capacity of the existing BFP with the P6 PolyMix system. Ecstatic with the results and, due to the excellent performance of the P6 PolyMix system, SRU purchased a P6 PolyMix system for its Town Creek wastewater treatment plant. Additionally, SRU purchased a P6 PolyMix system for its Grant Creek wastewater treatment plant and

Figure 5. OHAUS MB27 – Moisture Analyzer

10 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

two additional P6 PolyMix systems for new centrifuges at its water treatment plant.

Conclusion The P6 PolyMix technology provided the following benefits to the SRU Town Creek wastewater treatment plant: S 50 percent polymer reduction. S 3 to 4 percent Cw increase in cake solids. S An increase of three times in the BFP solids removal capacity. S Increased pump performance and pump maintenance elimination. The director of SRU, Jim Behmer, commented that the utility likes to be on the “cutting edge, but not the bleeding edge” when it comes to new ideas. With this spirit of innovation, the SRU team has embraced the new P6 PolyMix technology, dramatically cutting costs associated with the biosolids handling systems. The utilization of the P6 PolyMix system has created savings for the citizens and customers of Salisbury, N.C., and the surrounding areas. The P6 PolyMix creative innovation for the dewatering of wastewater sludge (Figure 6) has provided SRU with a solution to the growing challenges associated with the treatment and processing of biosolids. Jason Wilson, P.E., is assistant utilities director with Salisbury-Rowan Utilities in Salisbury, N.C. Stephen Gerber is GPi/P6 PolyMix operations manager and Bert Gerber, P.E., is GPi/P6 PolyMix chief engineer with Gerber Pumps in Longwood. q

Figure 6. Excellent Dewatering


The Right Tools for Planning: How Pearland Applied Apps, Data Analytics, and Visualization Tools to Optimize its Collection System


Kendall Ryan, Ishita Rahman, Bailey Keller, and Jameson Appel

he City of Pearland (city) is home to approximately 130,000 residents and is situated in the southeast Texas metropolitan area 15 minutes south of downtown Houston. The city’s wastewater collection system (Figure 1) consists of five water reclamation facilities (WRFs), approximately 400 mi of gravity wastewater lines ranging from 2 to 54 in., and 70 lift stations throughout the system. The city recently engaged with Freese and Nichols Inc. (FNI) to conduct a wastewater master plan, with the goals of evaluating the existing wastewater system and developing recommendations for five-year and buildout (22year) wastewater capital improvement projects. The result was a $135 million capital improvement plan that included three treatment facility

expansion projects, 15 collection system capacity projects, and 67 lift station and collection system rehabilitation projects. The city is maturing and facing the challenges of aging sanitary sewer infrastructure. As such, the utility staff is focusing more and more dollars on data collection, asset rehabilitation, and system optimization. The wastewater master plan (project) included significant investments in field data collection, hydraulic modeling, condition assessment, and system analyses. Applying efficient methods of visualizing, collecting, and cataloguing large and disparate data sets throughout the project was critical to developing recommendations to optimize the city’s wastewater system.

Kendall Ryan, P.E., is associate and water/ wastewater master planning manager; Ishita Rahman, P.E., is water/wastewater master planning project manager; and Bailey Keller, EIT, is water/wastewater master planning assistant project manager with Freese and Nichols Inc. in Houston. Jameson Appel, PMP, CFM, is engineering and capital projects senior project manager with City of Pearland, in Pearland, Texas. The licenses for Ryan, Rahman, and Keller are in Texas only.

The application of the following three tools was key to the project: S M apping and dashboards to visualize inflow and infiltration (I/I) S M obile apps to collect condition information S F lagging to catalogue hydraulic model data source

Visualizing Inflow and Infiltration

Figure 1. City of Pearland Exiting Wastewater System

12 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

As part of the wastewater master plan, 32 flow meters and six rain gauges were installed throughout the collection system. The data were also utilized to measure I/I throughout the system and prioritize flow meter basins for future sanitary sewer evaluation study (SSES) projects. Flow meters were generally placed near the WRFs or larger-capacity lift stations and strategically situated throughout the system so that the linear footage of gravity lines between each flow meter was relatively consistent (Figure 2). Consideration was also given to areas of the wastewater system with known or suspected I/I issues. For this project, flow monitoring was conducted from February to May 2019, for a total duration of 91 days. The flow meters and rain gauges utilized in this study have the ability to collect data in five-minute increments, which resulted in over 26,000 data points per flow meter and rain gauge. During the monitoring period, seven significant

rain events were recorded by the field-testing equipment. Reviewing and analyzing this data was made more efficient by the application of PowerBI visualization dashboards; an example dashboard is shown in Figure 3. This tool also gave the city the ability to filter through the data and look at specific rain events and the corresponding response from the collection system. Included in the dashboard tool was a scattergraph view of the flow data to identify surcharging in the gravity lines and potential causes. Unique data statistics for observed flow, velocity, depth of flow, and rainfall were also summarized for easy viewing in the dashboard. The flow meters utilized throughout the city’s collection system helped subdivide the collection system into 32 smaller flow meter basins. Each of these basins represents the portion of the collection system upstream of each flow meter. Utilizing the data collected from the flow meters and rain gauges, a wet weather analysis was performed to calculate the volume of I/I in each flow meter basin. The I/I represents the amount of rainwater in the pipes that has entered the system through cracks and defects in sewer infrastructure. This additional flow results in a loss of capacity in the system and an increased risk of pipe surcharging and manhole overflows. Quantifying the volume of I/I within the collection system allowed the city to create a prioritized plan to address the sewer basins contributing the most I/I. Charts and mapping were developed to help visualize the volume of I/I within each flow meter basin, normalized by the linear footage of gravity lines per in. of rainfall. Figure 4 demonstrates the ranking of basins throughout the city based on calculated I/I values, while Figure 5 shows the spatial distribution of I/I and the leakiest portions of the collection system. In Figures 4 and 5, low I/I (less than 2 gal/lin ft/in.) is shown in blue, moderate I/I (2 to 4 gal/lin ft/in.) is shown in yellow, and high I/I (greater than 4 gal/lin ft/in.) is shown in red.

Figure 2. Distribution of Flow Meters in the Pearland Collection System

Figure 3. PowerBI Dashboard for Visualization of Flow Monitoring and Rain Gauge Data

Apps for Lift Station Data Collection An important component of the wastewater master plan was evaluating the existing condition of the city’s 72 lift stations and creating a complete prioritized lift station rehabilitation plan. In order to accomplish this, a risk-based assessment of the lift stations was conducted, which considers the likelihood of failure and the consequence of failure of each asset. In this study, a detailed field condition assessment of each lift station informed the likelihood of failure. Seven component groups were evaluated at each lift station site to assess the condition (Table 1). Continued on page 14

Figure 4. Prioritized Inflow/Infiltration by Flow Meter Basin (Gal/Lin Ft/In.)

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Figure 5. Inflow and Infiltration by Flow Meter Basin

Figure 5. Inflow and Infiltration by Flow Meter Basin

Continued from page 13 To streamline the field data collection process, mobile apps were developed that incorporated the condition assessment component groups. The mobile data collection tool was developed utilizing a combination of customized ESRI™ Collector and Survey 123 for ArcGIS applications. As these apps are based on ArcGIS, the project team was able to import the lift station locations into the tool for both navigation and spatial identification of the lift stations during the site visits. Each location entry also included a predetermined list of condition assessment questions. These questions were developed by a multidisciplinary project team to efficiently collect electrical, structural, mechanical, and site-specific information. The app also had options to enter photos taken during site visits and additional comments. Because it’s mobile-based, team members could load the app onto their mobile phones and enter data simultaneously. This allowed the project team to conduct over 60 lift station condition assessments in a four-day period and eliminated the need for transcribing handwritten notes. A screenshot of the app is show in Figure 6. The updated geographic information system (GIS) data were also utilized to assess consequence of failure. This criticality assessment was conducted for each lift station based on the four categories shown in Table 2. The GIS tools were utilized to determine the distance from each lift station to the high-impact and environmentally sensitive areas. The GIS, modeled networks, and utility billing information were utilized to determine the served connections and lift station hierarchy. The results of the likelihood of failure and the consequence of failure calculations were utilized to develop the risk-based assessment of the city’s lift stations. Figure 7 shows an example of the detailed lift station risk-based assessment sheets that were developed for each lift station, which included facility information, individual component group scores for condition and criticality, and additional comments for each lift station. In order to prioritize rehabilitation recommendations, the lift stations were divided into four risk categories: Continued on page 16

Table 1. Condition Assessment Component Groups

Table 2. Criticality Assessment Component Groups

Component Groups for Lift Station Condition Assessment

Component Groups for Lift Station Criticality Assessment Proximity to High-Impact Areas Total Served Connections Proximity to Environmentally Sensitive Areas Lift Station Hierarchy

Site – Drainage, Access Drive, Fencing, Security, Pavement Mechanical (above ground) – Crane, Vent, Screen, Odor Control Instrumentation – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Alarms Electrical – Panel Condition and Others (including Emergency Power Provision) Structure - Hatches, Wet Well Condition, Material and Piping, Odor Control Pumps and Motors Piping and Valves

14 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Continued from page 14 S E xtreme risk S H igh risk S M oderate risk S L ow risk The risk scores were calculated by considering the condition and criticality scores for each lift station and enabled the ranking and prioritization of lift stations for rehabilitation. The lift stations were arranged into a risk-rating matrix, which graphically shows the condition and criticality ratings, as well as the overall risk-of-failure rating. The risk matrix is shown in Table 3. Utilizing the lift station risk-based assessment, a 20-year lift station rehabilitation capital improvement program (CIP) was established for the city.

Modeling With Flagging

Figure 7. Lift Station Site Visit Records Table 2. Criticality Assessment Component Groups

As part of this study, the city’s wastewater collection system hydraulic model was updated within Innovyze ICM® software. The hydraulic model included all gravity lines 10 in. and larger and the associated facilities. This included approximately 125 mi of gravity lines and associated manholes, 54 lift stations, 128 pumps, and five treatment facilities. The basis of the wastewater model was the city’s GIS database. The city provided FNI with GIS shapefiles of the collection system components (lift stations, gravity lines, force mains, and manholes). These shapefiles were imported into the modeling software and the wastewater network was reviewed for proper connectivity. The data sources utilized for the model update included the following: S Th e city’s GIS database S P revious wastewater hydraulic model network (2008) S A s-built information (17 plan sets) S Th e city’s 2019 light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data To preserve and catalogue the source information in the city’s wastewater model, information flags were created that identify the source of the information used to populate the model component data. A summary of the information flags utilized in the city’s wastewater model are shown in Figure 8. These flags are useful records for future updates and serve as a repository of source information throughout the city’s collection system network. Figure 9 shows the use of the flags in the InfoWorks modeling interface.

Immediate Benefits The city leveraged the right tools for its wastewater master plan. Each tool had a direct and immediate benefit to the city:

16 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 8. Wastewater Model Information Flags

S Q uantification and visualization of I/I in the collection system informed the study area for a follow-on SSES and rehabilitation project that is already underway. This SSES and rehabilitation project is consistent with the city’s goal of optimizing the collection system and maximizing the capacity of the conveyance and treatment infrastructure. The project is incorporating focused flow monitoring to isolate problematic areas, field inspections (smoke testing, closed-circuit television [CCTV], and manhole inspections), and the development of rehabilitation recommendations and subsequent design efforts. S Th e condition scoring data collected via the mobile apps fed the risk-based assessment utilized to develop the city’s 20-year lift station rehabilitation CIP. This CIP helped to remove uncertainty from the annual budgeting process for the city’s 70 lift stations and provided a prioritized business case for the rehabilitation of each of these critical assets for the city. S H ydraulic modeling applications, such as development reviews and CIP updates, can identify what asset information is known and what should be validated in the future based on the data source identified in the model flags.

The data collection, visualization, and analysis tools utilized in this project helped the city staff and elected leadership better understand the collection system challenges and optimize the

right solutions for their city. The planning tools that were utilized can also be successfully applied at other county, municipal, and private water and wastewater utilities facing similar challenges. S

Table 4. Summary of Planning Tools Planning Tool

Mapping and Dashboards

Visual Example

Key Highlights and Additional Information Culmination of data from: • 32 flow meters • Five rain gauges • GIS database • I/I volume analyses Visual Representation of Quantified I/I • Normalized I/I values in units of gal/lin ft/in. • Easy-to-understand color scheme highlights areas of the collection system for investment in I/I reduction efforts Utilization: • Informed the study areas for follow-on SSES and rehabilitation projects Mobile field data collection combining: • ESRITM Collector • Survey 123 for ArcGIS

Mobile Apps

Apps Customized with: • Asset location • Predetermined list of condition assessment questions • Condition score entry options (1 - 5) Utilization: • Direct input of field-collected data into GIS

Summary Successful master plans aggregate large quantities of data and transform numbers into an optimized action plan for better utility management. The success and applicability of the city’s wastewater master plan was largely due to the data collection, visualization, and analysis tools implemented throughout the project. Table 4 summarizes these planning tools, along with some key highlights and additional information about each tool.

Figure 9. Information Flags in the Wastewater Hydraulic Model Interface

Modeling Software: • InfoWorks ICM has built-in flagging capabilities • Flagging process can be utilized in other modeling software Data Flagging in Model

Utilization: • Stored reference information for future updates • Catalogued information from multiple sources, including survey, as-builts, LiDAR, interpolation, etc.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022



Water Resources: Past, Present, and Future Emilie Moore, P.E., PMP, ENV SP Chair, FSAWWA


he United Nations estimates that nearly two-thirds of the world’s population could be living under water-stressed conditions by 2025 (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs [UNDESA]). According to UNDESA, there is enough freshwater on earth for seven billion people, but the current worldwide population is approaching eight billion people (U.S. Census Bureau, 2022). The U.N. reports that, by 2050, more than five billion people are expected to face a shortage of water. Access to water and sanitation are recognized as human rights by the U.N., which defines that the “right to water entitles everyone to have access to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible, and

affordable water for personal and domestic use” and the “right to sanitation entitles everyone to have physical and affordable access to sanitation, in all spheres of life that is safe, hygienic, secure, and socially and culturally acceptable and that provides privacy and ensures dignity.” In Florida, with rising seas changing the quality of groundwater near coastlines, continued migration of people calling Florida home, and increased source water withdrawals to meet Florida’s water demands, it’s all hands on deck to thoughtfully manage the state’s water resources.

Managing Florida’s Water Resources The eastern Unites States inherited a system of water rights from English Common Law. Riparian rights are seen throughout the eastern U.S., except Florida, which uses a statutory system (Smolen, M.; Mittelstet, A.; Harjo, B. “Whose Water Is It Anyway? Comparing the Water Rights Frameworks of Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida.” E-1030. April 2017). Riparian rights are a doctrine

of water law that gives water rights to every person whose property touches a natural watercourse. In Florida, the Legislature enacted the Water Resources Act (WRA) of 1972 to establish the “management of water and related land resources” and “administrative water law that brought all waters of the state under regulatory control” in Florida Statutes 373.016(3)(a). Additionally, WRA established the development of the state’s five water management districts (WMDs) based on local hydrogeology. Before the passage of the WRA, only two WMDs existed: the Southwest Florida WMD and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District (the predecessor to the South Florida WMD). The act established five WMDs and provided the regulatory agencies the responsibility of addressing issues such as water supply, drainage/flood protection, water quality, and protection of natural resources (Florida Statutes 373.026). The boundaries of the WMDs were determined by the five major water basins in the state: S Northwest Florida WMD S St. Johns River WMD

Silver River, Florida, 2022. (photos: Emilie Moore) The Silver Springs System (Silver Springs and the associated Silver River) has experienced a decline in flow of approximately 32 percent since the 1930s due to long-term rainfall deficit, flow suppression related to increases in submerged aquatic vegetation downstream in the Silver River, and, to a lesser degree, regional groundwater pumping (St. Johns River Water Management District, 2022).

18 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water demand projections in Florida by user. (source: Regional Water Supply Planning 2020 Annual Report, FDEP, December 2021)

S S uwannee River WMD S S outh Florida WMD S S outhwest Florida WMD By establishing five WMDs, the WRA provided a statewide comprehensive approach to solving water issues (Borisova, T; Olexa M.; Caracciolo J. “2021 Handbook of Florida Water Regulation: Florida Water Resources Policy”). Rather than land proprietors’ ownership of water adjacent and under their properties (as was practiced under historical riparian rights doctrine), the WRA established that all water in Florida, underground or on the surface, is a public resource managed by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the WMDs. While WMDs address regional issues, according to the WRA, statewide authority for water resource management is vested in FDEP, which has general supervisory authority over WMDs and delegates water resources programs to them wherever possible. The legislative intent is to provide for the continuity of the statewide water management policy, with regional implementation taking into account the variability of water resources in the state (UF/IFAS #FE1043. Borisova, T; Olexa M.; Caracciolo J. “2021 Handbook of Florida

Water Regulation: Florida Water Resources Policy”). The need to transport water between WMDs based on “environmental, technical, or economic reasons” is set forth in the policy of the WRA; however, the law also stipulates that such transport is allowed only when the receiving area has exhausted all local sources, including “desalination, conservation, reuse of nonpotable reclaimed water and stormwater, and aquifer storage and recovery.” The use of water from the nearest sources is encouraged, and conservation and proper utilization are the main themes throughout the WRA (Smolen, M.; Mittelstet, A.; Harjo, B. “Whose Water Is It Anyway? Comparing the Water Rights Frameworks of Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida.” E-1030. April 2017). In addition, water resources management benefits from Florida’s overall water conservation goal are defined in the Florida Statutes (§ 373.227, F.S.) as “to prevent and reduce wasteful, uneconomical,

impractical, or unreasonable use of water resources” (Borisova, T.; Dukes, M.; Warner, L. Publication #FE1009. UF/IFAS, 2021).

Regional Water Supply Planning In December 2021, FDEP published the “2020 Statewide Annual Report on Regional Water Supply Planning” in accordance with Florida Statutes, Section 373.709(6). The report reflects updated information reported in regional water supply plans (RWSPs) as published by the WMDs. A RWSP is a planning document developed by a WMD that projects future demands for at least a 20-year planning period and is updated every year. A RWSP is required when existing sources of water are not adequate to supply water for existing and future uses, as well as to sustain water resources and natural systems for the planning period. A RWSP includes two primary components: water supply development and Continued on page 20

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Continued from page 19 water resource development (FDEP, 2022). In some instances, multijurisdictional plans are developed, such as the Central Florida Water Initiative and the North Florida Regional Water Supply Partnership. Elements in these RWSPs include: S W ater supply and water resources development S F unding strategies for water resource development projects S W ater supply development public and cost impacts S T echnical data S W ater bodies with listed minimum flows and minimum water levels (MFLs) that are established or pending S R ecovery strategies for water bodies not meeting MFLs S L ist of water reservations Florida’s current freshwater supply is projected to be unable to meet all of the growing needs of Floridians in the future (FDEP, 2022). The shortfall in freshwater supply will be supplemented with alternative water supplies, such as reclaimed water, brackish groundwater, and seawater desalination, in addition to water storage opportunities, such as surface water reservoirs, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), and aquifer recharge with stormwater and reclaimed water.

The Future of Water: Florida and Beyond Per the FDEP “Regional Water Supply Planning 2020 Annual Report” (December, 2021), water demand for all users (power generation, domestic and small public supply, recreational/landscape, commercial/ industrial/institutional, agricultural, and public water supply) is anticipated to be about 7.4 billion gallons per day in 2040. This is a projected 15 percent, or a 950 million gallons per day (mgd), increase from 2020. Public supply in Florida is anticipated to increase by 573 mgd between 2020 and 2040, a 22 percent increase. Agriculture is the second largest water user and that demand is anticipated to increase by 83 mgd between 2020 and 2040, an increase of 3 percent. During this same 2020 to 2040 time period, the population in Florida is expected to grow by 22 percent to 26.4 million people. As examples of water needing to be developed in the next 20 years, the highest future demands have been identified by

the North Florida Regional Water Supply Partnership (112 mgd needed) and the Central Florida Water Initiative (95 mgd needed). Beyond Florida, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) Water 2050 initiative, which seeks to establish a long-term vision of the future of water, is scheduled to officially launch on June 13, 2022, at ACE22 in San Antonio. The five critical drivers for the future of water include: S S ustainability S T echnology S E conomics S G overnance S S ocial/Demographics The first steps of the program aim to gather “thought leaders” within and outside the water sector for interactive discussions, enlist and collaborate with strategic partners from all sectors, foster intergenerational responsibility, and capture the collective knowledge. Collaboratively, we can guide the future of responsible water use by applying water policy and facilitating water supply planning grounded in science. We are the water visionaries who will help shape this water S legacy.

Future water demands in Florida. (source: Regional Water Supply Planning 2020 Annual Report, FDEP, December 2021)

20 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Operations and Utilities Management. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 334203119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!


Kendall Ryan, Ishita Rahman, Bailey Keller, and Jameson Appel (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW02015400)

1. A primary consideration in the placement of flow meters throughout the system was a. force main size. b. maintaining consistent linear footage between each meter. c. average gravity sewer depth in each basin. d. t o capture rainfall disparity within the service area. 2. ___________ analysis was performed to calculate the volume of infiltration in each flow meter basin. a. Wet weather b. Hydraulic c. Lift station pump performance d. Statistical 3. The development and utilization of ___________ helped streamline the lift station risk-based assessment. a. mobile apps b. a hydraulic model c. a visual inspection regimen d. a historical maintenance database 4. Which of the following is not specifically listed as a lift station criticality assessment component group? a. Lift station hierarchy b. Proximity to high-impact areas c. Regulatory consequence of failure d. Total served connections

SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

The Right Tools for Planning: How Pearland Applied Apps, Data Analytics, and Visualization Tools to Optimize their Collection System


___________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Ice Pigging: Award-Winning, Advanced Pipe Cleaning Technology Paul Teloar

(Article 2: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW/WW02015401) 1. W hat approach is used to avoid disturbing tubercles in unlined cast iron pipe during ice pigging? a. L ow driving flow b. Preliminary cleaning with a soft polyethylene pig c. Th inner ice slurry is used d. T ubercles are physically removed before pigging 2. A n ice slurry filling _____ percent of a pipe’s volume cleans with shear force up to 1,000 times greater than water alone. a. 5 - 10 b. 10 - 20 c. 2 0 - 30 d. 3 0 - 40 3. T o maintain the correct consistency of the ice pig, ___________ is used in most cases as a freezing point depressant. a. e thylene glycol b. c arbon dioxide c. c alcium oxide d. s odium chloride 4. I n which of the following pipe types is the thinnest ice typically used? a. O ld unlined cast iron b. S ound concrete lined c. P lastic d. A sbestos cement 5. Th e measure of ice crystals as a percentage of total volume is known as a. v iscosity. b. slurry gradient. c. i ce fraction. d. f reezing quotient.

5. In mapping the city’s inflow and infiltration (I/I) problem areas, a flow rate of 4 gallons/linear foot/inch of rainfall was considered ______. a. too low to accurately measure. b. low. c. moderate. d. high.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Don’t Get Bit or Stung: Safety Instructions for Insects Insects can be more than annoying; bites and stings can be carriers of disease or cause allergic reactions that, when severe, can often be deadly. Every workplace needs to be protected from such occurrences. As a good employer, you want to protect your workers from diseases spread from insect bites and stings, as well as complications that can arise as a result of allergies, bacteria, viruses, and parasites. With this in mind, you need to take the right precautions and measures to protect your employees from insects.

Mosquitoes Mosquitoes may carry West Nile virus, which can cause very severe flu-like symptoms and even death from a fatal brain infection. The mosquitoes carrying West Nile are around in the summer, particularly August and September, and feed on humans, horses, and birds. We’ve known about the virus only since 1999. The mosquitoes can contaminate multiple victims, but West Nile can’t be transferred from human to human. Most people who are bitten don’t even know they have been and never develop symptoms, but some can get very ill, and some die every year. To prevent a proliferation of mosquitoes, don’t leave standing water around work areas for

them to breed in. Turn empty flowerpots, buckets, and other containers upside down and don’t let water accumulate in old tires or tanks. If there is a birdbath, change the water at least once a week, and stock fish in a pond or water fountain to eat the mosquitoes and their larvae. Wear long-sleeved shirts and pants outside, especially at dawn and dusk, which is when mosquitoes are feeding. Use a sunscreen with diethyltoluamide (also known as DEET), which provides the best deterrence to these pests. The West Nile virus is particularly dangerous for older workers and those who are immunocompromised. They should use a repellant with 10 percent DEET or less. The repellant also works to keep away spiders and other insects. A chemical called Permethrin, found in some repellants, is good for clothing, shoes, etc., and it retains its effectiveness through many washings. Other chemical products you can use for protection, and their active ingredients and minutes of protection, are shown in the sidebar.

Bees and Spiders Bees and spiders can be encountered anytime, and their stings or bites usually cause only itching, redness, and maybe swelling at the

bite or sting site, but sometimes these encounters can be serious. The victim may have a severe allergic reaction, or the bite may be poisonous. For bee stings and spider bites: SM ake sure you and the victim are safe from further contact with the pests. If the victim is allergic to insect bites or stings, or shows signs of an allergic reaction, summon medical help by calling 911. S I f stung by a bee, look for the stinger. Scrape away the stinger and venom sac with something with a dull edge, like a credit card or ice scraper. Don’t touch it with your hands. Squeezing the attached venom sac can make things worse. S Wash the bite or sting area with running water and soap, if available, or with waterless hand cleaner. S Use ice wrapped in a towel, if available, to reduce swelling. S Benadryl® or calamine lotion can help with itching. Don’t scratch. S Watch the victim for at least 30 minutes for signs of a severe allergic reaction. Signs of a bad allergic reaction are: ST rouble breathing S S welling of the tongue and face or hands SF ainting

Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

22 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

If any of these occurs, call 911, get a first-aid kit, and look for an epinephrine pen (EpiPen). You or the victim should open the pen and push it into the leg, between hip and knee. If the victim stops responding, begin CPR. For poisonous spider and scorpion bites, call 911, then follow the procedures for insect and spider injuries. If the victim stops responding, start CPR.

Later-occurring symptoms of the disease include tingling and numbness in the hands and feet, poor memory, weakness of the face muscles, and trouble focusing thoughts. Lyme disease can be successfully treated with antibiotics.


Insects can be found in almost every area in and outside the workplace, but can be more prevalent in dirtier or messier areas. Keep areas like workbenches, closets, and under desks as clean as possible. The cleaner you keep the work

Ticks are found on the bodies of animals and in the woods. While most are not dangerous, some ticks carry Lyme disease, which can make people very sick. As soon as you find a tick on yourself or a coworker, remove it and look for others. The longer the tick stays attached, the greater the chance of getting a disease. Don’t use the old remedies of trying to burn the tick off or pouring alcohol on it. Grab the tick by its mouth or head and gently pull it straight up. When you lift the tick and skin, hold it there a moment; the tick may let go. Wash the bite under running water and use soap, if available, or waterless disinfectant hand cleaner. If you live in an area where there may be Lyme disease, or if you don’t know if you do, call a doctor for advice. Ticks spread bacteria via their bite, which the victim may not even notice. Infected ticks do not usually spread their Lyme for the first 36 hours. The first symptom of infection is likely to be a round, red rash, and a blood test nay show antibodies in the blood. Then can come flu-like symptoms, joint and muscle pain, headache, fever, and severe tiredness. The symptoms may not appear for up to a month, and the victim may have long forgotten how the tick may have been acquired.

Keep the Work Area as Clean as Possible

area, the lower the chances are that insects will come for, let’s say, discarded food. As a company manager or safety expert, you need to be the most prepared of all. Understanding risks from insects is just one more piece of an overall safety program. Given that insect stings and bites can be just as common as typical workplace hazards, they must also receive the same amount of risk assessment to provide a safe workplace for all employees, regardless of that workplace being an office, a bushy hillside, an aging warehouse, or out in the field. For more information, visit the Mayo Clinic website at mayoclinic.org, and search “insects.” S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022



What a Great Organization We Serve! Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE President, FWEA

I noted in my first column here that we serve a noble cause. The rich quality of life that we enjoy in Florida and across the United States is dependent on ensuring that sufficient, clean water is available for all reasonable and beneficial uses within our community, while protecting natural systems and the environment. Reliable access to clean, safe water is essential to our way of life. As water professionals we are proud to serve this noble cause. Our vision at FWEA is: “A Clean and Sustainable Water Environment for Florida’s Future Generations.” Although our vision may never be fully achieved, we always strive to attain it. The association is dedicated to this vision through its mission, strategic goals, and core principles. It has been an honor for me to serve as president of FWEA this past year and I’m proud

to say that this is a great organization we serve. I have thoroughly enjoyed working with the board of directors, and the chapters and committees, to serve our members. I appreciate the relationships that we have built together to achieve our goals and objectives.

Success in Achieving Our Goals and Objectives Strategic Plan and Website Update In Fiscal Year (FY) 2020-2021 FWEA updated its strategic plan. The plan identified four strategic goals: S Member Engagement

Southwest Chapter sporting clay event.

South Chapter joint holiday party with FWEA, Florida Engineering Society (FES), and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) members.

24 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S P ublic Awareness and Outreach S Partnerships and Sound Science-Based Public Policy S Workforce and Professional Development In FY 2021-2022 FWEA was successful in achieving these goals. Through its chapters and committees FWEA completed over 45 separate events throughout Florida. A significant achievement this year was an update of the FWEA website. A website committee was formed to update and refresh existing information, add content, and provide recommendations for further enhancement and maintenance. I want to give a special thank you to Mike Sweeney and the entire website committee for a job well done. Local Chapter Events The events completed by our local chapters were amazing. They included golf tournaments, sporting clays, beach cleanups, webinars, the Southwest Florida Water and Wastewater Exposition, oyster reef building, and a first-time ax throwing event. In total there were over 35 local events. What better way to attract, engage, and grow new members through these events?

Ax throwing event at the West Coast Chapter Member Appreciation Night.

Our committees were also very active, completing both virtual and in-person professional development events. After a year of virtual meetings and seminars it was great to see people face to face again. Some of the events were: S The Collection Systems Committee conducted several webinars during the year and a septic-to-sewer seminar in November last year. S The Wastewater Process Committee conducted “The Future is Now” seminar at St. Petersburg College on Nov. 2, 2021, and it was tremendously successful, with more than 100 attendees. S The Water Resources, Reuse, and Resiliency (WR3) Committee held its annual seminar on February 3 at the City of Plant City’s Sadye Gibbs Martin Community Center and had more than 50 attendees. S The Air Quality Committee conducted its annual seminar on February 17, with more than 60 attendees. The committee also recently launched “The Odor Oracle,” a quarterly newsletter for FWEA members.

FWEA Utility Council Activities The FWEA Utility Council (UC) continues to serve an important role in achieving our goal of promoting sound science-based public policy. The UC mission is to assist its members in achieving sound public health and environmental goals for the millions of users it serves in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The UC works for the reduction and elimination of water pollution in Florida and supports the adoption and implementation of effective wastewater legislation, regulations, and policy, primarily at the state and federal level. Having participated in FDEP Day on January 7 and the joint legislative weekly virtual meetings while the Florida Legislature was in session, I have seen first-hand the important contribution the UC makes to our organization; for example, the influence that the UC is having on the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) potable reuse rulemaking process, which is ongoing.

Each of these events achieved our goal of delivering high-quality and relevant seminar content to provide value to FWEA members.

The FWEA members are excited about the upcoming Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC), being held April 24-27 in Daytona

Florida Water Resources Conference and Annual Awards

Air Quality Seminar speakers and committee members.

Beach. After two years of cancelations, we are looking forward to seeing one another in person. All indications are that this year’s FWRC will be highly successful. The exhibit hall is nearly sold out and conference sponsorships and attendee registrations are strong. We especially look forward to the annual meeting and awards luncheon, where we recognize excellence in the industry. The FWEA believes that individuals and groups should be recognized for meritorious achievements for their accomplishments during the previous year. What better way to showcase what a great organization we serve?

Acknowledgments The FWEA truly serves a noble cause and is a great organization. Serving as your president has been a highlight of my career. I want to give a special thank you to FWEA and its members, and the board of directors, for working together this past year to achieve excellence in all our endeavors. I appreciate your service and support. I also want to thank my wife for her encouragement and support. She has been a blessing to me. Most of all, I want to thank God for the ability and talents that He has given me to have served in this position. S

Water Resources, Reuse, and Resiliency (WR3) Committee seminar audience.

Wastewater Process Seminar speakers.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Test Yourself

What Do You Know Wastewater Collection Systems? Donna Kaluzniak

1. P er Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62604, Collection Systems and Transmission Facilities, groundwater that enters a collection/ transmission system, including service connections, through defective pipes, pipe joints, connections, service connections, manholes, or pump stations, is defined as a. b. c. d.

infiltration. inflow. leakage. sanitary sewer overflow.

2. P er FAC 62-604, emergency pumping capability, including an in-place emergency generator, must be provided for pump stations that receive flow from one or more pump stations through a force main or pump stations discharging through pipes of what size or larger? a. b. c. d.

8 inches 10 inches 12 inches 16 inches

3. P er FAC 62-604, copies of record drawings and the operation and maintenance manual shall be available. The operation and maintenance manual shall include an emergency response plan. The emergency response plan shall assess water quality monitoring for sanitary sewer overflows affecting surface waters, and hurricane and severe storm preparedness and response, as well as a. b. c. d.

customer service. cybersecurity. monthly operating reports. utility billing.

4. P er the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Guide for Evaluation of Capacity, Management, and Operation and Maintenance Programs at Sanitary Sewer Collection Systems” (CMOM Guide), to help prevent the corrosion of metal components or loss of concrete from pipe walls or manholes, utilities

should have a program to monitor areas of the collection system that may be vulnerable to the adverse effects of a. c hlorine. c. methane.

b. h ydrogen sulfide. d. sulfur dioxide.

5. Per FAC 62-604, when is inflow and infiltration (I/I) considered excessive? a. A ny I/I is excessive. b. I/I is excessive if it causes or contributes to sanitary sewer overflows. c. I/I is excessive if it exceeds 10 percent of the annual average daily flow. d. I/I is excessive only if it affects treatment plant performance. 6. Per the EPA CMOM Guide, maintaining accurate, current maps of the collection system is critically important. How should manholes and sewer cleanouts be identified on the mapping system? a. With a numbering system to uniquely identify each manhole and cleanout. b. With manholes and cleanouts shown in different colors. c. With various shapes to identify manholes and cleanouts. d. With specific names for each manhole and cleanout based on addresses. 7. Per FAC 62-600, Domestic Wastewater Facilities, utilities shall submit annual reports to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) regarding costs and expenditures on pollution mitigation and prevention, including the prevention of sanitary sewer overflows, collection and transmission system pipe leakages, and I/I. The annual report must be submitted by what date after the end of each fiscal year? a. March 31 c. August 16

b. J une 30 d. September 30

8. Per the EPA CMOM Guide, a relatively inexpensive and quick method of detecting sources of inflow in sewer systems, such as down spouts, or driveway and yard drains, is a. b. c. d.

flow monitoring in specific areas. sewer cleaning. sewer televising. smoke testing.

26 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

9. P er FAC 62-604, unauthorized wastewater releases or spills in excess of 1,000 gallons per incident, or other abnormal events where information indicates that public health or the environment will be endangered, must be orally reported within 24 hours to the a. b. c. d.

lorida Department of Health. F FDEP only. State Warning Point. State Watch Office.

10. Per 62-604, which collection system construction project would require a permit? a. C onstruction of an individual service connection from a single-family residence. b. Installation of odor control facilities. c. Modifications associated with routine maintenance. d. Replacement of a major pump station that has no in-place generator. Answers on page 66 References used for this quiz: • Florida Administrative Code 62-600, Domestic Wastewater Facilities: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome. asp?Chapter=62-600 • Florida Administrative Code 62-604, Collection Systems and Transmission Facilities: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome. asp?Chapter=62-604 • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency “Guide for Evaluation Capacity, Management, Operation and Maintenance Programs at Sanitary Sewer Collection Systems”: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2015-10/ documents/cmom_guide_for_collection_ systems.pdf

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

FWPCOA REGION IV IS PLEASED TO ANNOUNCE OUR JUNE 2022 SHORT SCHOOL WILL BE OFFERING CERTIFICATION AND CEU COURSES COURSE Utilities Maintenance Level 3 SUPERVISION and Stormwater A Water Distribution Level 1 Wastewater Collection A Water Distribution Level 3 Water Distribution Level 2 Reclaimed Water B Reclaimed Water C Utility Maintenance level 2 Stormwater C Stormwater B *Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators Wastewater Collection C Wastewater Collection B

COURSE NO DS/DW/WW02014057 DW/DS/WW02004042

CEU’S 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU

DATES June 6 – 10, 2022 June 6 – 10, 2022

DW/DS02004043 DW/DS02004040 DW/DS/WW02014123 DW/DS/WW02014124 DS/DW/WW 02014170 DW/DS/WW 02014026 DW/DS/WW02014025 WW02004001

3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 2.8 CEU

June 6 – 10, 2022 June 6 – 10, 2022 June 6 – 10, 2022 June 6 – 10, 2022 June 13 – 17, 2022 June 13 – 17, 2022 June 13 – 17, 2022 June 13 – 16, 2022

WW02014034 WW02004041

3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU

June 13 – 17, 2022 June 13 – 17, 2022

*CEU’s only All courses will be given at: Pinellas Technical College, St. Petersburg Campus 901 34th Street St. Petersburg, FL 33711 Water Distribution 1,2,3, Water Treatment Plant Operators /Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators Utilities Maintenance 2, 3, Wastewater Collection A/B/C, Stormwater A/B/C Full Courses $325/$355/$80 Members/Nonmembers/Exam Only (if applicable) Abbreviated Courses $125/155 Members/Nonmembers Monday-Thursday 7:00 A.M. – 4:00 P.M Exam 6/10/2022 - Friday 8:00 A.M. – 11:00 A.M. at Pinellas Technical College. St. Petersburg Campus Exam 6/17/2022 - Friday 8:00 A.M. – 11:00 A.M. at Pinellas Technical College. St. Petersburg Campus

CREDIT CARD payment available. Click Here For Credit Card Authorization Form For questions please contact Ray Bordner 727-798-3969 / h2oboy2@juno.com Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Ice Pigging: Award-Winning, Advanced Pipe Cleaning Technology Paul Treloar Ice pigging, a sustainable cleaning method for potable water distribution mains and wastewater force mains, was developed in the United Kingdom and introduced in the United States in 2012. The method involves pumping a slurry of ice into a main through a hydrant, or other existing fitting, and using system pressure to push the ice pig downstream to exit through a similar fitting. The ice slurry, filling 20 to 30 percent of a pipe’s volume, cleans with shear force—between 100 and 1,000 times greater than with water alone—providing more-effective cleaning and using significantly less water than traditional flushing methods.

Introduction An ice pig works like a glacier does. Rather than bulldozing sediment and biofilm, it incorporates them into the ice. Because the ice pig enters and exits through a hydrant, specialized launch and retrieval stations are not required, as with mechanical pigging or swabbing; customer service isolation usually is not necessary either. Sediment; fats, oils, and grease (FOG); and debris accumulation in wastewater collection systems clog force mains and siphons, causing pipeline restrictions. Theses restricted flows can cause increased energy use and sanitary

sewer overflows and can lead to needed capital improvements, including increased pumping capacity and force main replacement. Other technologies, like flushing and water jetting, are inefficient and sometimes ineffective. In addition, these processes use a lot of water, which may not be readily available.

Background Developed by the University of Bristol in England, ice pigging is an innovative, low-risk, advanced pipe cleaning technology to clean drinking water pipes, sewer force mains, and siphons. The ice slurry can be inserted and removed through line taps, air valves, and other existing fittings, so expensive excavations are not required. Ice pigging harnesses the characteristics of a semisolid material that can be pumped like a liquid, but behaves like a solid once the pig is formed in the pipe Because ice pigging relies on the natural glacial effect of ice to pick up unwanted sediment, it uses approximately 50 percent less water than standard water flushing and takes significantly less time. Typically, the section of main being cleaned is out of service for no more than 60 minutes. A central feature of ice pigging is that it cannot get stuck. If for some reason that were to happen, time would be allowed for the ice

Figure 1. Ice production setup showing the delivery rig (left) and ice machines (right).

28 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

to melt and flush it from the main. Pipe bends, changes in diameter, or butterfly valves can all pose problems for swabbing or pigging, yet ice pigs can easily negotiate these obstacles. To launch and receive traditional pigs, excavations may be required to allow the installation of launch and reception stations. This can mean extensive and costly interruptions to any system and may require the installation of bypass pumping or a temporary water supply. Ice pigging is far less intrusive to any system it’s used on.

The Benefits Ice pigging represents a sustainable best practice and unique approach to pipe cleaning. The advantages include: S I t’s efficient, rapid, and environmentally friendly. S C ombines operational benefits of flushing with the impact of solid pigging. S Ice slurry injects through existing fittings. S System pressure pushes the ice. S Suitable for pipes of all sizes and materials. S E ffectively removes biofilm, iron, manganese, FOG, grit, and sediments. S Produces quantifiable results. S Exceptionally low risk.

Figure 2. A french press measures ice fraction.

Figure 3. Typical potable water main setup.

Methodology To maintain the correct consistency of the ice pig, a freezing-point depressant is used; in most cases, food-grade, fine table salt is used, which is approved by the National Science Foundation (NSF). This is dissolved in potable water, which is always sourced from a public water supply. The current maximum batch capacity is 2,700 gallons. The brine is made in a 316-stainless steel delivery tanker and hose connections are made to the ice machines that are mounted on a separate trailer (Figure 1). The brine is fed into the ice machines which, in turn, freeze the liquid and return it to the delivery tanker. This cycle continues until the ice slurry is at the thickness known as ice fraction, which measures the amount of ice crystals as a percentage of total volume. Ice fraction is related to the cooling capability of the slurry compared to pure ice (100 percent); this is known as the calorimetric value. Ice pig operators use a simple French press coffee plunger (Figure 2) to test the “ice fraction” (or the ice thickness) onsite prior to pumping it into the main.

Figure 5. Force Main Setup.

Typically, the thickest ice is used on plastic and sound concrete-lined pipes, as well as asbestos cement, but when older unlined cast iron pipes are cleaned a thinner ice slurry is used that does not clean as aggressively. The thinner ice slurry will not disturb the buildup of tuberculation, which could damage the integrity of an old and heavily corroded unlined cast iron pipe.

Ice Delivery Setup for delivery varies slightly for each different application; a typical setup for a potable water main is shown in Figure 3. The delivery rig connects to the inlet hydrant or other suitable fitting (2 inches or greater tapping with valve Continued on page 30

Figure 4. Taking samples.

Figure 6. Sewer Siphon Setup.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Continued from page 29 control) and at the outlet, a flow analysis system is connected. This system measures and records the flow, pressure, conductivity, turbidity, and water temperature as the water and ice are discharged. Once set up, the main is flushed briefly to note and record preflush readings. The main is then isolated by the owner’s operators and the required amount of ice is pumped into the main. At the same time, the outlet hydrant is opened to create a flow and allow water to be displaced as the ice enters the main. With careful control between the inlet and outlet, the flows are balanced to allow slightly more ice into the main than the amount of water being displaced. This has the effect of the ice forming as a pig against a pressurized wall of water. Once the required amount of ice is in the main, the delivery pump is turned off and the upstream valve is opened to allow the system flow and pressure to “push” the ice pig along the

main toward the outlet hydrant. The flow rate is controlled by the outlet operator at this time. As the ice pig approaches the outlet, the conductivity reading will rise as the salty water of the melting pig arrives in front of the pig. The monitoring equipment will show the water temperature falling and conductivity rising as the ice arrives. At this stage, the operator may collect samples of the ice at regular intervals for later analysis (Figure 4). The temperature and conductivity will return to preflush levels when all the ice and salty water has flushed out of the system and the flushing continues briefly to allow the turbidity levels to return to preflush levels (or lower) according to instructions from the owner. The main is then returned to normal service. No disinfection is necessary.

Sanitary Sewers The setup for sewer force mains and siphons

is similar to the water main setup detailed previously, except no monitoring equipment is used on the outlet. Instead, the ice is pumped to a gravity main or the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), as shown in Figures 5 and 6. The delivery rig will connect to a suitable fitting for ice insertion (Figure 7). This may be an existing fitting, such as an air release valve (ARV), or a lift pump bypass fitting. In the event there are no existing suitable fittings, a 2-inch or greater tap and control valve can be installed. On a typical force main, the lift pump will be isolated, and the wet well will be allowed to fill to near high water level while the ice is pumped in. The ice can only travel in a direction away from the pumps due to the check valve at the pumping station. The ice will form as a pig against the head of water existing in the main. Once the required amount of ice has been inserted, the pump is turned on to give the pressure and flow to “push” the pig along the main. The main is returned to service immediately. Continued on page 32

Figure 7. Various means of ice insertion can be made. From top left clockwise: fire hydrant, air release valve, pump bypass arrangement, and pig launch station.

30 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 30 With siphons, inflatable packers are used to create a pressurized environment in the siphon; ice is then pumped into the siphon via a valve-controlled flow-through pipe. Once the desired amount of ice is in the line, the packers are deflated and pulled and the siphonic action takes place as gravity takes over and the ice flows through the siphon, taking any sediment or other debris with it, leaving a clean pipe.

Case Studies Western Hills Water District – Diablo Grande, Calif. Sewer Siphon – September 2013 Diablo Grande is a small community in the hills near Patterson, Calif., approximately two hours south of San Francisco (Figure 8). The water and sewer system is run by Western Hills Water District (WHWD). There is one main sewer that runs by gravity over 6 miles down to a WWTP in Patterson. It was designed to cope with the large flows that future development will bring. The sewer passes under two aqueducts: the California Aqueduct and the Delta Mendota Canal. At each aqueduct the main splits into two pipes, one at a slightly higher level than the other, to allow for peak flows. It’s designed as a siphon to allow the contents to pass under the aqueducts by means of a siphonic action. The WHWD had noticed a reduction in the flow capacity and believed it to be due to a buildup of sediment, grit, and sludge at the low point of each of the siphon. Although the main was designed with mechanical pigging launch stations at the high end of each siphon, the district engineer was reluctant to use this method in case the pig should get stuck in the main. Designed and built into the siphon is the ability to flush the line with raw potable water from the California Aqueduct. This connection can be used to inject large volumes of water into the sewer line for flushing purposes. Unfortunately, the flushing had not proved effective on the buildup, causing a partial blockage of the siphons. The WHWD determined that ice pigging may be the solution,

rather than traditional pigging, to eliminate the risk of getting a pig stuck under the aqueduct where excavation for retrieval is not an option. The theory was that if the siphons could be plugged off at the lower end, then the siphon could be allowed to fill naturally from residual flow back up to the higher-end point where the ice would be injected. The stations were already in place for mechanical pigging, so these were adapted for ice injection. Once the siphon was full, it could be isolated and the residual flow directed into the second bypass siphon. Ice could then be injected into the full siphon, while the inflatable plug at the lower end would allow water to be displaced via the flow-through pipe in the plug. This took very precise communication between the operators at the injection end and the contractors operating the flow-through plug at the “outlet” end. Prior to this, a backup supply of over 10,000 gallons of raw water was pumped into the sewer at one of the flushing points 6 miles away at the community treatment works. This was the water that was to “push” the pig through the siphon. It was estimated that it would take approximately three hours for the backup water to arrive at the siphon once it was released. Once the full tank of ice was injected, the flow-through plug was isolated, thereby holding the ice pig suspended in the first section of the siphon. It was then a matter of waiting patiently for the backup water to arrive. The timing of this was very crucial so as not to allow the ice pig to melt before being able to clean the main. After a few tense moments, the backup water arrived; simultaneously, the plug was pulled, and the flow diverted into the siphon containing the ice pig. Again, a few more moments of waiting; this time it was for the ice pig to arrive at the lower end of the siphon. Finally, the water started to darken in color and lumps of sludge and debris passed though the manhole at the lower end of the siphon. The water turned darker (signs of the melted front end of the pig), and then, thicker. The decreasing temperature was monitored using a thermal laser thermometer. Eventually, the ice was visible in the manhole and a huge slug of ice squeezed out of the main. Once the main body of the pig passed, the fluid quickly turned clear, indicating

the main had been thoroughly cleaned. The siphon was returned to service and full flow was resumed. This concluded the world’s first known ice pigging of a gravity sewer siphon (Figure 9). _______________________________

Statistics Delta Mendota Canal • T ype of main: Gravity sewer siphon • L ength of main: 2 x 1,400 feet • Diameter and material: 12-inch and 14inch high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe • I ce quantity: 2,700 gallons • I ce fraction: 90 percent • T ime main out of service: None • R esults: Siphon returned to full flow California Aqueduct • T ype of main: Gravity sewer siphon • L ength of main: 2 x 3,151 feet • D iameter and material: 12-inch HDPE • I ce quantity: 2,700 gallons • I ce fraction: 90 percent • T ime main out of service: None • R esults: Siphon returned to full flow _______________________________ Middlebury (Vt.) Main Pump Station Wastewater Force Main – October 2013 The Middlebury Main Pump Station conveys wastewater through 12,000 linear feet of 16-inch and 18-inch ductile iron and 18inch polyvinyl chloride (PVC) force main to the wastewater treatment facility (WWTF). During some wet weather conditions, the pump station could not keep up with incoming flows and raw sewage was discharged to the Otter Creek (combined sewer overflow [CSO] events). The pumps were able to discharge 6.2 million gallons per day, with two pumps running during the first few years of operation (as designed), but pump rates decreased by more than 10 percent (620,000 gallons per day) over time as the force main collected grease, grit, and sediment. The objective of what turned out to be

Figure 9. Ice discharged from the siphon. Figure 8. Diablo Grande Community.

32 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 10. Utility Service Group winners of the ACEC grand award for engineering excellence on the Middlebury project.

an award-winning project (Figure 10) was to clean the force main by pigging to regain the lost pumping capacity and eliminate CSO, improve pump efficiency, and save energy. It was determined that “industry standard” solid poly pig techniques would not work due to the changes in pipe size, no available insertion and retrieval stations, bends and wyes in the force main that would have restricted travel, and the difficulty of handling the volume of water that would back up into the pump station wet well if the poly pig got stuck. Because of this risk, a local conventional pigging contractor would not even provide a quote. Ice pigging was offered as an exceptionally low-risk solution, and following evaluation, it was considered to be the best solution, given the conditions. Calculations were made to determine the number of pipe segments to be pigged and the location of insertion points based on the pipe diameter, pipe length, and temperature of the wastewater to make sure the ice pig slurry would hold together as it traversed the pipe segment. The force main was divided into nine segments with nine insertion points. Of those nine points, seven were located in existing air release or cleanout manholes, saving both time and money. The force main was exposed and taps were installed for the other two insertion points. The project was completed on schedule over a three-week period. This project was the first use of the ice pigging technique to clean force mains larger than 8 inches in diameter in North America. It was also the longest continuous run of sewer force main (12,000 linear feet) successfully cleaned with ice pigging. The project demonstrates that large-diameter force mains (both ductile iron and PVC) can be cost-effectively and successfully

Figure 11. Drawdown tests show a steady increase in flow after each operation.

cleaned by ice pigging, avoiding other moreexpensive and invasive pipe cleaning and repair methods. The ice pigging successfully cleaned the force main, and force main capacity was returned to 6.2 million gallons per day, based on daily drawdown tests at the pump station after each day of pigging (Figure 11). Through ice pigging, accumulated deposits were removed, decreasing friction loss and increasing capacity in the force main by more than 640,000 gallons per day. Pumping efficiency was increased, lowering pump run times and saving energy and wear. The success of ice pigging was evident each day when sand, grit, organics, and grease discharged at the WWTF. The increase in pump capacity should eliminate sewer overflows, protecting public health and the environment. The Confirmatory factor, or C factor, analysis, which is used to determine the factor and factor loading of measured variables, has shown that the friction loss in the pipe is now typical of that of a new pipe. After determining pumping velocities for different pump speeds, the town engineer was also able to recommend programming changes in the pump cycles and pump speeds to increase the velocity of flow through the force main during pumping to achieve a “scour velocity” that should greatly reduce buildup of sediment in the future. Middlebury should be able to operate the pump station at full capacity, saving energy and eliminating sewer overflows for many years to come. Capital improvements to increase pumping capacity or replace the existing force mains were avoided.


Statistics Middlebury (Vt.) Main Pump Station • Type of main: Wastewater sewer force (pumped) main • Length of main: 11,772 feet • Diameter and material: 18-inch PVC and ductile iron pipe • Ice quantity for each run: 2,700 gallons • Ice fraction: 85-90 percent • Time main out of service: One-hour maximum during each run • Results: 15 percent increase in flow _______________________________ Dallastown Borough – Dallastown, Penn. Wastewater Pumping Station – December 2012 The first sewer force main in the U.S. to be cleaned by ice pigging was performed at Dallastown Borough, located in south central Pennsylvania (Figure 12). The borough was experiencing an underperforming wastewater pumping station and consulting engineers discussed capital upgrades to the pumping station to meet the current demands. After being introduced to the ice pigging technology, the borough agreed to an ice pigging cleaning project as one last attempt to put off any expensive capital improvements. No other options were considered because of the long disruption to service and cost of required enabling works. This wastewater force main project of 1,200 Continued on page 34

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Continued from page 33 linear feet of 4-inch-diameter unlined cast iron took approximately two hours to complete using 600 gallons of ice slurry. The ice was injected in two batches to allow a primary partial clean, followed by a secondary clean, which cleared out any remaining sediment. This was done to avoid any potential heavy buildup of sediment in the small 4-inch pipe. The entire operation took just two hours and the ice pigging technology removed an obstruction in the main, increasing the pump flows by almost 30 percent. The borough could abandon the capital expenditure and put the money to good use elsewhere. _______________________________

Statistics Dallastown Wastewater Pumping Station • Type of main: Wastewater sewer force main • Length of main: 1,200 feet • Diameter and material: 4-inch unlined cast iron pipe • Ice quantity for each (of two) runs: 300 gallons • Ice fraction: 80 percent • Time main out of service: 30-minute maximum during each run • Results: 30 percent increase in flow capacity _______________________________ Town of Danbury – Stokes County, N.C. Distribution Network The water system for the Town of Danbury is over 30 years old and is supplied by two wells,

both having some iron and manganese that, over time, had resulted in a buildup on the interior lining of the system pipes. Regular customer complaints about discolored water made it necessary to search for a solution. Having limited water production capabilities and only 100,000 gallons of storage, flushing was not a viable option. A number of calls were made looking for a company that had experience in pigging water lines. After some research, the Stokes County Public Works Department learned that ice pigging had many advantages over the moretraditional cleaning techniques, such as minimal interruption of service, up to 70 percent less water required, and no digging necessary. The department identified the need to clean 18,500 feet of 6-inch PVC potable water mains, with the aim of removing as much sediment and manganese matter as possible to improve water quality and reduce customer complaints of discolored water. A desktop study was carried out using the water maps provided by the department to measure out the lengths of pipe to be cleaned in order to determine ice quantities and set out a proposed schedule of work. This was backed up by a detailed site survey to determine the suitable insertion/extraction points. The objective of the project was to provide a service that was a sustainable best practice method of cleaning the water pipes using minimal amounts of water, providing the mosteffective results, and with minimal disruption to the water supply for the client’s customers. The project team consisted of three people, supervised by the ice pigging project manager, and the project equipment included a 10-ton ice delivery tanker (Figure 13), a 10-ton ice production unit powered by a portable diesel

Figure 12. Dallastown, Penn.

34 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

generator, and a Ford F-250 carrying a flow analysis system. The project features included: S E xisting hydrants used to insert and extract ice. S E xisting fitting in a pressure-reducing valve (PRV) pit that was used for ice insertion on one run. S E ntire project carried out in a total of four runs over two days. S M aximum supply interruption time was two hours on each run. S I ce samples were collected for further analysis. S W aste tanker was used to capture and dispose of the discharged ice. _______________________________

Statistics Town of Danbury Distribution Network • T otal length of mains cleaned: 18, 500 feet • A verage time taken during run: 2 hours, 20 minutes • A verage volume of water used: 1.6 x pipe volumes • A verage amount of sediment removed: 87.6 pounds per mile of pipe _______________________________

Summary As of February 2022, over 1,000 miles of pipe in the U.S. have been cleaned using ice pigging across 43 states and over 410 projects (Figure 14). Continued on page 36

Figure 13. A 2,700-gallon (10-ton) ice delivery rig.

Ice Pigging: Frequently Asked Questions How much salt is used in ice pigging and what effect does it have on a wastewater treatment plant? The process uses a brine solution with a salt percentage similar to seawater. The salt used as a freezing depressant is food-grade, NSF-approved table salt. The effect on a wastewater plant needs to be considered as the salt can harm the good bacteria used in the treatment process; it’s a simple matter of dilutions and a question of what quantities the plant takes in a typical day. Generally, the ice quantities are insignificant compared to the capacity of the treatment plant. Is it effective on cast iron pipes that have heavy tuberculation? The ice is effective on any pipe material. A certain amount of care is required when applying it to heavily tuberculated cast iron. The ice slurry is prepared with a lower ice fraction; therefore, it’s runnier and less aggressive. This allows the pig to give an effective clean, removing all the loose sediment, biofilm, and manganese buildup without breaking off too much of the tuberculation. What pressure is required to push the ice through the main and will it require excessive force? The ice flows through the main using the normal system flows and pressures; there will be no undue pressure applied to the main. Prior to ice insertion, the static pressure is tested so that the bar is set when inserting the ice. The operators have the experience and skill to control the pressure by adjusting and balancing the flows as they inject the ice.

Is the equipment clean, or is there a risk of cross contamination? The equipment is disinfected prior to every new project and at the end of every workweek. All hoses are disinfected, capped, and stowed in clean boxes ready for use. There is a separate set of hoses clearly marked for potable water and wastewater. No hose is ever used on a main for which it's not designated. How is the discharge disposed? Once the ice is delivered into the main, it becomes the property of the pipe owner; disposal will be according to the owner’s instructions. Public sewer is the preferred choice, but in the event of a sewer not being suitable or available, a waste disposal tanker can be arranged. A last resort would be to discharge to the ground, but only after written approval from the state is obtained by the customer. How does it perform in the heat? Extreme temperatures are not the ideal situation, although ice pigging can still be effective in these conditions. Ice quantities would normally be increased to allow for the expected higher water temperature. This may add to the cost to the customer, so the work could be done in the cooler periods of spring, fall, or winter. Will the cold ice cause the main to break? No. Tests were conducted on an exposed pipe that was ice pigged in the usual manner. Strain gauges and temperature sensors showed no undue stress on the main at all when the ice passed through the main.


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Continued from page 34 Pipes ranging from 2 to 42 inches in diameter have been cleaned and the maximum length cleaned in one pass in the U.S. to date is 2.7 miles on an 8-inch PVC main in Sutcliffe, Nev. Ice pigging is currently being used on potable water, raw water, and sewer force mains, and sewer siphons, all with successful results. Ice pigging is also being adopted as a cost-effective method of pipe cleaning in many countries around the world. The experience gained has shown that the technology offers an opportunity to make real cost savings by reducing energy bills. More importantly, large capital expenditures on new pumps, pipelines, and structures can be avoided with a system that provides the owner with a rapid, environmentally friendly, and effective solution with exceptionally low risk.


Figure 14. Map of the United States shows the green-shaded states where ice pigging has been performed.

36 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 10 is used with permission of Aldrich + Elliott, PC Water Resource Engineers. Paul Treloar is head of business development at American Pipeline Solutions in Merritt Island. S


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Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

Exhibitor Registration Starts June 1!

Attendee Registration Starts August 1!

Aging Well - Protecting Our Infrastructure

November 27 to November 30, 2022 Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress


Exhibit Schedule Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

Exhibit Registration Starts June 1, 2022

Monday, November 28 Set-up: 7:00am - 3:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Tuesday, November 29

Hall Open: 8:00 - 11:30am | 1:30 - 6:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Wednesday, November 30 Standard Booth @ $900 Includes:

• 8-foot X 10-foot booth space • One (1) six-foot draped table • Backdrop • Side drapery • Two (2) chairs

• Company sign • Wastebasket • Three (3) exhibit staff registrations • Additional exhibit staff $50/each

Exhibit booth spaces can include heavy equipment, workshops, portable equipment and showrooms. Flammable materials are prohibited. No modifications will be made to the backdrops or sidewalls without approval from the Exhibits Chair.

Online Registration is strongly recommended!

Hall Open: 8:00am - 12:00pm Tear Down: 1:00 - 6:00pm

Sponsorship Levels Premier | $1700

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Platinum | $1000

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Gold | $800

10% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Online Exhibitor registration at: www.fsawwa.org/2022exhibits

For additional info on sponsorship levels and benefits, visit:

No Refunds after September 1st.

Please Note: All promotional activity other than product demonstrations must be approved by FSAWWA prior to the conference.

Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2022hotel


Aging Well - Protecting Our Infrastructure Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 27 to November 30, 2022.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Abstract Submittal Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

Abstracts will be accepted in WORD ONLY via email to:

Call for Papers

Frederick Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E., Technical Program Chair at h2o_man@bellsouth.net

Abstracts must be submitted by: Thursday, June 30, 2022 To participate in an FSAWWA conference, the first step is submitting an abstract to be considered for a presentation at the conference. There is no guarantee that the paper you submit will be chosen, but if your paper is well thought-out and pertinent to the subject matter of the conference, then your chances of being selected go up. FSAWWA wishes to invite authors and experts in the field to submit abstracts on a variety of sustainability topics, including:

Potential Session Categories 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

Cybersecurity Asset Management and GIS Sanitary Sewer Systems Potable Reuse PFAS/PFOS Emerging Water Quality Issues (UCMR 5 Testing, LCRR, etc.) Alternative Water Solutions – No-Surface - Discharge Rule, I Need More Water! Solutions for Water Treatment Challenges Hydraulic Modeling – Solutions to Increase Knowledge and Address Challenges Funding the Utility System Workforce planning – Is It Us? Water Conservation

Please attach a cover page to the abstract which includes the following information: a) Suggested Session Category b) Paper Title c) Names of Authors d) Name of Presenter(s) e) Main contact including name, title, affiliation, address, phone, fax, and email

“Best Paper” Competition Each year awards are presented to the best papers during the Fall Conference Business Luncheon.

Questions? Call 239-250-2423

Aging Well - Protecting Our Infrastructure Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 27 to November 30, 2022.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Scholarships valued up to $7,000 will be awarded in both undergraduate and graduate categories by the Florida Section American Water Works Association.


• Must be a student enrolled (not online) in a Florida university and living in Florida Must be a full-time student or part-time student enrolled and completing a • minimum of 6 credits during the current semester. Student must remain registered for 6 credits and pass them successfully.

Must be a student within 60 credits of graduation with a bachelor’s degree. • Note: Seniors who are pursuing a graduate degree may apply and use the

scholarship for their graduate studies, but must provide proof of acceptance to their graduate degree program

Maintain good standing in academic status with a GPA of 3.0 or higher based • on a 4.0 system Must intend on pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field with a plan to • remain in Florida to pursue their career (outlined by the applicant in the application) Or enrolled in one of the CIP educational codes (for a list visit fsawwa.org/2022Likins) • and have indicated an interest in pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field

Added Value:

All applicants receive 1-year free student American Water Works Association • (AWWA) membership.

Key benefits of Student Membership:

• • Gain Experience • Stay Informed

Jump-Start Your Career



Apply by June 30, 2022 For application, please visit:

fsawwa.org/2022likins Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


WE2022 2022Goal Goal WE WE Annual Fund/ WE Annual Fund/ Greatest Need Greatest Need $31,000 $31,000

Academic Academic Scholarships Scholarships $49,000 $49,000

YP YP $15,000 $15,000

One AWWA One AWWA Operator Scholarship Operator Scholarship $75,000 $75,000

Community Community Engineering Corps Engineering Corps $65,000 $65,000

Thank usus toto Thankyou youfor forhelping helping reach reachour ourgoals! goals! Investing in our and and Educating water andand Investing in students our students Educating water young professionals with with wastewater operators young professionals wastewater operators leadership programming through certifications, leadership programming through certifications, that includes mentoring books, tuition and that includes mentoring books, tuition and and skills training conference attendance and skills training conference attendance Support of Community Continuing the legacy of Abel Support of Community Continuing the legacy of Abel Engineering Corps for water Wolman and Thurston Larson Engineering Corps for water Wolman and Thurston Larson infrastructure projects in with academic scholarships infrastructure projects in with academic scholarships underserved communities Funding K-12 STEAM underserved communities Funding K-12 STEAM in the United States programs to teach kids in the United States programs to teach kids about water science about water science 100% of your generous gifts benefit this programming in North 100% ofYou your generous gifts benefit this programming North America. can see our impact through stories gathered in and America. can see our impact through stories gathered and added to ourYou website at awwa.org/we. added to our website at awwa.org/we. Please consider joining our 1881 Society with your annual $1000 gift consider joiningorour 1881 Society with your annual $1000 gift asPlease an individual, Section, corporation. Cumulative Giving Circle as an individual, or with corporation. Cumulative GivingCreate Circle Recognition is givenSection, to donors contributions over $3000. Recognition is your givenplanned to donors with contributions $3000. Create a legacy through giving goals by makingover an appointment a legacy through planned giving goals by making an appointment with Michelle Hektoryour @ 303.734.3613. with Michelle Hektor @ 303.734.3613. Donate today at awwa.org/we

Donate today at awwa.org/we



MAY 2022

Asian American

Heritage Month Dr. Chi Ho Sham, AWWA President, 2021-2022

better world through better water.

© copywright 2022 American Water Works Association


Region 13 Shout Out! Patrick “Murf ” Murphy

President, FWPCOA


o, this is not an episode of “Chicago Fire,” but a rescue is involved. If you work or reside in FWPCOA Region 13, serving Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Hamilton, Lafayette, Levy, Madison, Suwannee, and Taylor counties, this is a shout out! If you work in one of the disciplines that FWPCOA supports training and voluntary certification programs for, which includes: S Water Distribution Level 3, 2, 1 S Wastewater Collection C, B, A S Stormwater C, B, A S Reclaimed Water Distribution C, B, A S Utility Customer Relations Level III, II, I S Backflow Tester and Recertification S Backflow Repair S Utilities Maintenance III, II S Facility Management Module I – Prerequisite Course for the Florida Class A Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Exam Here’s a shout out!

Membership in FWPCOA If you are not a member of FWPCOA, but you believe in protecting the health of the citizens and preserving the natural resources of the great

state of Florida—here’s a shout out! If you are not a member of FWPCOA, you are missing out on being a part of an association that has been advancing the professional status of water and wastewater operators for 80 years. Besides being the least-expensive association to be a member of, we provide diverse training, fantastic networking, and professional development opportunities. Join us—to better your career and help FWPCOA grow strong with you. Go to www. fwpcoa.org today and click on the membership tab (top left on the home page), then to the membership information tab, to find a membership application form. As a member of FWPCOA, you will: S Receive a subscription to the Florida Water Resources Journal. This is a monthly publication jointly sponsored by FWPCOA, Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA), and Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA). This publication keeps its subscribers abreast of current events in Florida’s water and wastewater professions. S Receive discounts on residency training courses provided by FWPCOA. Whether you work in the public or private sector, you can’t afford to let technology pass you by. Continuing education units (CEUs) are mandatory with license renewals, and many utilities recognize FWPCOA certifications to increase your eligibility for new jobs or promotions. S Get a chance to see other utilities in your area, network with your fellow utility workers, make professional contacts, and make friends. And all this for just 30 dollars a year!

Region 13 maps.

44 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Why We Need You to “Shout Out” The dedicated, longstanding, and outstanding officers of Region 13 have been fighting the good fight and holding the torch high for many years. A multitude of thanks go to the following Region 13 officers: S Tracy Betz, chair S Arnold Gibson, secretary S Bill Ewbank, treasurer The region’s director and vice chair positions are currently vacant, and Mr. Gibson has reliably substituted for the director for the state board of directors meetings. It’s not uncommon for regions to go through highs and lows, but it makes it tough when there are only 59 members in the pool of membership (1 percent of the association’s total) from Region 13. Not to mention that our arms get tired after awhile—the torch needs to be passed on! For my first real job, I went to see Grandpa Murphy, who worked me like a dog from the time I was 13 years old through high school each summer cleaning beachfronts and installing seawalls all around Winter Haven. I have plenty of stories about water moccasins, leeches, and gators. He walked me down to the picnic table near the lake, grabbed a bucket of water, and told me to stick my hand in. “That’s your contribution to your employer; now, take your hand out. See how that void filled in? It’ll happen every time.” Unlike certain businesses that believe a “body for a body” is succession planning, we are all volunteers in FWPCOA and have a passion to do the best we can for the citizens and environment of Florida. I know in my heart that there are more than a handful of dedicated, concerned, and

talented folks in Region 13 who are “willing and able” to carry the torch. If you don’t live and work in the region, but you know someone who does— we need you to shout out to them! Let us help you get involved; it might mean wearing a few different hats, but I can’t tell you how much this association has done for advancing my career and helping me see the bigger picture, as well as meeting people who have like-minded goals and attitudes. Please consider getting involved and sign up for membership. Contact me directly at pmurphy@plantcitygov.com, or any of the officers at FWPCOA. I’m asking that the June board of directors meeting be held in Region 13 on June 4, 2022, which is a Saturday. We will send more information in the near future, but please try to attend. Check us out and let’s talk!

FWPCOA State Short Schools FWPCOA 2022 Spring State Short School The FWPCOA 2022 Spring State Short School, which was held March 14-18 at the Indian River State College in Fort Pierce, was doggone successful! I did make it around to almost every class at the school, but missed a few since I had a couple of classes to instruct as well. Yes, I did wear some leprechaun bling on St. Patty’s Day, doing a lil’ jig out in front of the school before classes started. I then went around to classes, while they were in session and during breaks, to talk to as many of

the attendees as I could. When you’re as old and fat as I am, it takes a lot to be embarrassed, and my antics are either an icebreaker and folks are willing to talk for a few minutes, or it's a huge turnoff and they run like deer in the opposite direction! We had 260 students attending and about a dozen more show up for the certification/ recertification exams. The water distribution, stormwater, utility maintenance, reclaimed water, backflow testing, and supervision classes were well-attended. There were only five students in the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) class, but this was only the second time we offered it, so hopefully, word of mouth will increase the attendance next time! I talked to the students and they all enjoyed and praised the class. Thanks to everyone who attended the FWPCOA Spring State Short School! I’ve included some pictures here of some of the classes. I appreciated everyone who allowed me to speak with them for a little bit, get their insight, and share their work stories with me! I can tell that there are many of you who should be on the path to becoming an instructor for FWPCOA. FWPCOA 2022 Fall State Short School Scheduling is currently underway for the Fall State Short School, in cooperation with Indian River State College. It looks like it will be held the first or second week of August 2022, so I hope you consider attending this school. This will also be when the FWPCOA awards

luncheon will be held. The deadline for award applications and nominations for the bulk of the FWPCOA awards is June 17, 2022. Don’t fail to get someone deserving nominated for an award; this is good publicity for them and for their utility! For an award application go to www. fwpcoa.org.

Operators Showcase and Stormwater Management Workshop at Florida Water Resources Conference The Florida Water Resource Conference (FWRC) will be held April 24-27, 2022, in Daytona Beach at the Ocean Center and Hilton. This column is due before the conference, so details and pics about these FWPCOA events will have to wait for a future Journal issue!

Hurricane Season is Almost Here So, the 2022 hurricane season will officially start on June 1 (as always). Looks like the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is predicting 13 to 20 named storms, with six to 10 being actual hurricanes. The month of May would be a good time to get those fuel tanks topped off and do more than the normal weekly and monthly checks of your auxiliary power units. Let’s keep that water clean! S

Jeff Elder (standing) instructing the Water Distribution Level 3 course.

Brad Hayes (far right) instructing the Stormwater B course.

Ric Romanoff (standing) instructing the Utility Maintenance Level III course.

Joe Hanlon (left) instructing the SCADA course.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Keeping Regulators Happy: Actionable Asset Management Plans for Water Utilities Juston Manville Many states have Clean Water State Revolving Funds to develop strategic asset management plans (SAMPs). Since strategies used in asset management are very similar to those outlined in most consent order corrective action plans, why not be proactive by creating a SAMP before regulators come knocking?

Asset Management Framework The practice of asset management uses an active management framework to help organizations realize the best value for their assets. Asset managers do this by balancing capital expenditure (CapEx) and operational expenditure (OpEx) based on business risk exposure (BRE), with an eye on continuous improvement. The SAMPs are data-driven

and developed with engineering, operations, information technology, and finance department input. To maximize organization performance, using an asset management approach, the following steps should be taken: Develop an Authoritative Asset Register/ Asset Hierarchy There is a saying that “you can’t manage what you don’t know.” It’s not a coincidence that most corrective action plans start with the requirement for a mapped inventory of assets. The foundation of asset management is an authoritative asset register and an inventory of managed assets in a hierarchical format. Asset hierarchies can be organized functionally by systems and processes or by asset location. What’s important in organizing assets is that managed assets have a parent-child relationship. Each asset’s cost and condition can be “rolled

up” to make data-driven decisions across asset classes. Define Level of Service Goals Motivational speaker Zig Ziglar has said, “A goal properly set is halfway reached.” Setting level of service (LOS) goals is where active management of assets starts and, unfortunately, where most corrective action plans end. Too often, there are references to setting goals, but there is little follow-up. I recently worked with a client that has been under a “draft consent order” since 2005. In reading the mandate and the corrective action plan, I didn’t see targets or goals set around getting out of the order of consent. My immediate recommendation for this client was to develop LOS goals and measure the criticality to mitigate risk using BRE. According to the Water Environment Foundation (WEF), BRE is “a method of calculating (scoring) the

Continuous Improvement Method

46 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

nature and level of exposure that an organization is likely to confront through a potential failure of a specified asset or group of assets.” (WERF, Water Research Foundation, GWRC, GHD Consulting Inc., 2010). The assets with the most critical BRE have the greatest probability of failure, and the greatest consequence due to failure will be the assets that are the highest risk. Defining BRE related to LOS goals allows organizations to set short- and long-term performance management strategies based on their unique tolerance for risk. In addition, the ability to show progress against LOS goals, in my experience, is the best way to show stakeholders that a utility is performing well. Measure Outcomes Key performance indicators (KPI) help measure progress and focus on LOS goals. Developing meaningful and, most importantly, visible KPIs across all levels of the organization is a critical step in communicating an organization’s performance. This is what regulators and utility managers want to see. The KPIs and reporting of progress of goals may seem simple, but this step is highly dependent on robust data models and technology systems. The KPIs must provide a clean line of sight into organizational performance. Measuring outcomes and

capturing data is often the most significant part of any asset management program. Analyze Data and Modify for Performance Consultants like to talk about aligning people, processes, and technology; however, while measuring outcomes is technical and time-intensive, analyzing and modifying business processes for performance is always the most complicated part of asset management. The area, therefore, where the “people and process” intersect with the SAMPs can also provide the most benefit in organizational performance. Creating a culture of asset management is complicated, but worth it. Experience says that allowing every level of an organization to “own” its part of the process is where a winning culture is created. Adjust Goals for Improvement Strategic asset management is not a destination; it’s a journey. Humans are not perfect, and there is always a way to do something better and more efficiently. Regulators want to see a path for improvement, so don’t be afraid to scrap a plan gone wrong and start over. Always strive to be better, even if your goal is going well. Regular meetings

to adjust processes based on data are signs of high-performing organizations and make future change more manageable.

Conclusion Continuous improvement is the ultimate goal in any performance-driven organization; therefore, developing a SAMP before being mandated to create a consent order-driven corrective action plan makes sense. With the available Clean Water State Revolving Funds, why not get paid for performance? It’s proven that a strategic asset approach is the best path for high-performance utilities, and it also keeps regulators happy.

References WERF, Water Research Foundation, GWRC, GHD Consulting Inc. (2010). “What is Business Risk Exposure?” Retrieved Sept. 20, 2021, from https://simple.waterrf.org/simple/ media/BRE/index.html. Juston Manville, MIAM, is asset management leader with CHA Consulting Inc. in Winter Springs. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022



Surviving Ransomware Attacks: Prevention and Recovery for Water and Wastewater Control Systems Bob George Ransomware is now the leading cybersecurity concern for most organizations1. The demands to restore encrypted data typically run from tens to hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of dollars2. Extortion via ransomware has been a threat for over a decade3, and yet, today, rarely a week goes by that there aren’t headlines identifying that yet another high-profile victim has been affected. While ransomware isn’t new, the threat it poses cannot be overstated. This article summarizes the characteristics of ransomware, how it affects organizations, why it’s increasingly perceived as a direct threat to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and industrial control systems (ICS), and describes basic measures to protect against, and recover from, ransomware attacks.

Understanding Ransomware To protect against ransomware, it’s important to have a basic understanding of what it is and how it can swiftly and effectively affect entire organizations. S I n the simplest terms, ransomware is a class of malware—viruses, trojans, worms, and

other cyberattacks—that encrypts accessible files, which can be all files or a specific type of file, and demands payment for a decryption key. S Ransomware is a particularly effective method of attack. Once the malware has been introduced into a network, no external connection is required to operate or transfer data; everything occurs inside the victim’s computers and networks. A single ransomware attack can simultaneously and independently attack multiple victims without consuming attacker resources. S Pervasive and continuous network connectivity is now the norm in most organizations; networks have expanded faster than the ability to effectively manage and secure them. Poorly secured networks allow access from multiple locations, assuming that anybody on the “inside” can be trusted. It’s common to find that even a user with no login can connect to a network and access large numbers of files and systems. Ransomware has always been moderately successful in that it can rapidly

Bob George, CISSP, is the directory of cybersecurity and network infrastructure services with Tetra Tech, headquartered in Pasadena, Calif.

discover accessible networked files and begin encrypting them before detection. What has made it more effective is the incorporation of ransomware into increasingly sophisticated attacks: S Advanced persistent threats (APTs) are sophisticated cyberattacks that utilize multiple techniques to compromise, discover, infect, and ultimately attack a victim’s systems4. The first APT that gained widespread public awareness was Stuxnet in 20105. While, at the time, Stuxnet was considered incredibly sophisticated, the techniques it used have become commonplace and are incorporated into toolkits readily available to any would-be attacker. S Many APT attacks can be launched when the victim simply opens a malicious webpage or a seemingly innocuous email attachment while using a vulnerable






48 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Dan Kobialka, “IBM Security Report: Ransomware Top Cyber Threat in 2020.” IBM, 2021. https:// www.ibm.com/security/data-breach/threatintelligence (accessed Sept. 20, 2021). Steve Lasky, “A Rise in Ransomware Threatens America’s Critical Infrastructure.” Security Infowatch. com, 2021. https://www.securityinfowatch. com/cybersecurity/article/21228250/a-risein-ransomware-threatens-americas-criticalinfrastructure (accessed Sept. 20, 2021). Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC) Information Bulletin A-10. CISSA, “Advanced Persistent Threat Compromise of Government Agencies, Critical Infrastructure, and Private Sector Organizations.” CISSA, 2020. https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-352a (accessed Sept. 20, 2021). ICS-CERT, “ICS-CERT – 2010 Year in Review”, ICS-CERT, 2011.





device. This initiates several attack phases, starting from initial compromise of a victim's device to discovery, intrusion, exploitation, and compromise throughout the connected network— within minutes. If the victim’s computer is moved between networks, APT components will begin searching for vulnerable systems in the new network. While most APT attacks attempt to establish a covert communications channel back to an internet-based command-and-control server, many are fully capable of reverting a brute-force “dumb” autonomous attack mode. Cryptocurrencies have reduced the risk to attackers by allowing fully anonymous transfer of funds with no means of tracking transfers, or either party, in the transaction. Social engineering has grown increasingly effective as more nontechnical users engage with networked applications and devices daily. Techniques using email (phishing), voicemail, texting, and other communications have become increasingly adept at impersonating official communications, convincing trusted system users to effectively open the door to attackers, bypassing sophisticated network protections. Unlike “classic” malware, APT attacks are surreptitious. The days of an attack announcing itself are long gone and attackers go to great lengths to avoid, and in many cases, deactivate detection.

Every modern networked system is potentially vulnerable to some degree to an attack that can spread instantly and effectively throughout any connected system. Traditional models based on “insider” and “outsider” control are ineffective when trusted insiders can become unwitting agents of outsiders. Isolated systems can be attacked through inadvertent introduction of malware via support or contractor laptops. Any internal system that connects externally via email or web browser must be assumed vulnerable.

Ransomware Threats to SCADA and Industrial Control Systems As APTs have become increasingly sophisticated, they have also become more selective. In the past, SCADA/ICS tended not to be seriously impacted, as only static

program and image files were encrypted, and these were usually backed up. This, however, is no longer true. Criminal enterprises launching APT and ransomware attacks are fully aware of the importance of SCADA/ ICS and the technical details of these systems. While stored data is typically only significant from a historical perspective, attackers understand that the inability to operate critical software and devices can have devastating consequences for a utility. New generations of APTs specifically target SCADA/ICS applications, industrial networks, and control system equipment. With the long life cycles of SCADA/ICS and the difficulty of keeping these systems fully patched and protected, critical infrastructure has become a prime target for system-specific ransomware. A ransomware attack can be more devastating than even a large-scale natural disaster. While storms, fires, flooding, and other natural events are focused in geographic areas, ransomware attacks can engulf connected systems across a much larger area. With no advance warning or preparation time, an entire system can be disabled before any response is possible.

SCADA and Control System Considerations Simply put, if a SCADA/ICS uses internet protocol (IP)-based communications at any level, it should be assumed to be vulnerable. If an APT doesn’t target a system today, it’s a safe assumption that threats will emerge in the near future. A multipronged approach needs to be adapted to protecting a system: 1. Identify the key assets—equipment, software, data, and communications—in

a system and prioritize protection of the critical components. 2. P rotect against and detect attacks. Traditional cyber protections, such as isolation, access control, and traffic filtering and monitoring, remain primary protections and can do much to delay and contain attacks. 3. P lan for, respond to, and recover from attacks. Resiliency is key. Assume that a system will be hit by a devastating attack and plan accordingly. Assume a system will go “lights out” and be prepared to recognize, respond, and quickly restore everything needed to resume operations. Without knowing what’s critical, effective planning is impossible. Consider the following: S Transient, time-sensitive traffic. Are any communications essential to system operation? Is central access critical to remote system operation? S Is any data stored on disk or in a database critical? How important is historical data? What data is required for compliance reporting? S What programs are essential to system operation? What is required to install and operate these programs? S What equipment is essential to system operation? What computers and network equipment must be operational? S Are dongles, drives, removable media, or other items required for restoration at hand? Continued on page 50


U.S. DHS, “CISA Insights – Ransomware Outbreak.” 2019.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Continued from page 49 S Can licensing be installed to sufficiently operate a system on a continuous basis? Identify the time window in which each critical asset must be restored in order to avoid loss of critical data or operations.

Mitigation Strategies The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) have issued guidance for basic protection against ransomware attacks6. This guidance can be readily adapted and applied to SCADA/ICS in the form of both short-term (immediate) and long-term protections. Short-Term Priority Mitigation In order to prepare for a ransomware attack, every utility should verify and, where necessary, implement basic strategies for recovery. Unsurprisingly, backups are the primary protection against long-term or

unrecoverable system disruption. Given the systemwide devastation associated with ransomware attacks, however, backup strategies must encompass recovery on a scale more akin to recovery from a large-scale natural disaster than loss of a single computer or device. Time to restore is key. In most scenarios, every device must be removed from the network and only reconnected once fully wiped and reinstalled, if not replaced outright. Other considerations include: S “Saving money” on automated backup and recovery capabilities can literally cost an organization many times any potential savings with the first ransomware event. Recognize that ransomware and APT attacks are a pervasive and ongoing threat. S Develop strategies for static data (computers and programs) and dynamic data (historical and compliance data). S Develop and, more importantly, document standardized templates for each computer and device type. • Try to standardize hardware for each type of device where possible.


• I n many cases, a “gold image” for each type of computer can provide adequate backup, provided it has been tested and is updated regularly. • W here standardization is not possible, be prepared to develop separate images for each type of device. S R egularly update and patch systems in accordance with the SCADA/ICS vendor’s recommendations. Develop strategies for timely updates, testing, and deployment of updates and patches. Here again, standardization will greatly improve the odds of successful recovery. S B ackup, and again, document programs and system configurations. S C onsider adopting a “bare metal” backup and recovery strategy that allows restoration of everything on the computer, from the operating system to patches and applications, in one step. Traditional recovery by installing a new operating system, then reinstalling applications and restoring data, is inadequate when faced with the loss of every networked computer. Be sure

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that such backups can be restored onto whatever hardware platform that can be acquired today. Look for solutions that can detect and restore to dissimilar hardware and can operate largely unattended when support staff is working on multiple computers simultaneously. Consider virtualization strategies to optimize disaster recovery. S B e sure backups and snapshot images are taken frequently enough that the system can rapidly be restored to full functionality within the target restoration time window. Automate snapshots and recovery whenever possible. The cost of backup media should not limit the ability to back up critical systems and data. Acquire sufficient drives. and media or capacity. to ensure that every critical system can be backed up regularly and without intervention to the extent possible. S Adopt a backup retention policy that will allow restoration to a point in time weeks or months back. In many cases, APT software can operate for extended periods

without detection, and backups may be contaminated. Given the virulence of APT attacks, there is no acceptable level of contamination. The software must be restored to a point before the initial compromise. S Consider adding equipment redundancy. While online redundant systems will typically be equally compromised during an attack, the ability to pull some equipment offline for restoration, while the system operates in a compromised mode, can significantly improve recovery times. S Add “overlay” security technologies that can be installed and operated without significant disruption of critical production systems. Many cybersecurity solution providers may not be in business over the lifetime of a system. Avoid vendor lock-in by insisting on interoperability with established standards so that equipment can be replaced as needed. S Develop a “secure interconnect” to provide an authorized means of





transferring programs and data, and accessing SCADA/ICS from other networks when, and only if, necessary. R equire contractors and third-party support to comply with in-house policies and procedures. Eliminate “back door” access, even by authorized support. Require that all external access (if any) use the secure interconnect. T est procedures. Verify the ability to restore each system to a fully operational state. Demonstrate the ability to bring back a system without accessing the original (presumed infected) equipment. D evelop incident response plans that recognize ransomware as a systemwide threat. Incorporate system owners and operators in planning and prioritization efforts. F inally, pay attention. Ransomware spreads, and an attack in a utility or organization should trigger an automatic threat awareness. Engage with the Water Information Sharing and Analysis Center (WaterISAC), the only all-threats security Continued on page 52

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Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Continued from page 51 information source for the water and wastewater sector, and share information with other utilities in the region. Long-Term Mitigation Long-term mitigation requires addressing cybersecurity as a core requirement for future system expansions and upgrades. The following steps can be taken to help ensure security for a system: S D evelop a secure network architecture for future system upgrades and replacements. Allow for incremental migration from existing networks to a secure architecture in a phased manner. S I ncorporate user and device access and identity control. Control the introduction of unknown users and equipment onto the SCADA/ICS network. S I mplement robust and secure remote access, if needed. S D evelop cybersecurity policies, standards, and procedures that identify and describe authorized modes of system access and communications. Ensure that access by other means is prevented.



As ransomware continues to evolve, it’s crucial to understand the threat it poses and for organizations to do everything possible to both avoid infection and prepare for recovery. Ransomware can be crippling and decryption is not always an option. The best way to avoid being exposed to ransomware—or any type of malware—is to always plan for and implement defense-in-depth: 1. Identify critical assets. 2. Protect assets by keeping operating systems and applications up to date as best as possible within SCADA system manufacturer guidelines. 3. I mplement detection and alarming within and throughout sensitive networks; don’t only detect at the perimeter or a single location. Ransomware outbreaks can start anywhere on a system and early detection is key. 4. Develop and test incident response plans so that staff knows how to respond when an incident occurs, regardless of when. 5. Develop and test backup and recovery plans, including the ability to recover and rebuild a system to a state weeks or months in the past.

Leading cybersecurity resources applicable to water and wastewater SCADA/ ICS include: S N IST SP 800-82 Guide to Industrial Control Systems Security S W aterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals for Water and Wastewater Utilities S D HS CISA Cybersecurity Assessment Tool (CSET) and other services S D HS CISA Insights – Ransomware Outbreak, Aug. 21, 2019

52 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

For more information: S Th e National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework (CSF) is the leading cybersecurity guidance for assessment and development of a comprehensive cybersecurity program. S Th e AWWA Cybersecurity Guidance and Assessment Tool is aligned with the NIST CSF and is recognized for use by water and wastewater utilities. S


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Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


FWEA C H A P TE R CO R N E R Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water EnvironmentvAssociation hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Melody Gonzalez at gonzalezm@bv.com.

Melody Gonzalez

Operators Versus Engineers: Who Will Survive the Challenge? Operations Challenge demonstration includes engineers Melody Gonzalez and Brad Hayes


uring the last FWEA Leadership Workshop, the Operations Challenge Committee members offered a demonstration of their abilities and took the opportunity to show off what hard work and many hours of training can do. To say that we all were impressed is an understatement. This group of operators performed a well synchronized “dance” on the floor—moving equipment, sawing, tightening, rolling, and twisting—while completing the preassigned task.

What is the Operations Challenge? The





“Wastewater Olympics” for professionals in the wastewater treatment industry, where teams of four compete in five separate events—process, maintenance, laboratory, safety, and collection systems—at the national competition at the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) representing their corresponding state. The Operations Challenge Committee provides support, training, and education for operators and maintenance personnel through involvement in the challenge. The committee helps to organize and implement the competition at the local level, as well as coordinate and channel resources, mostly in the form of sponsorships.

2022 Operations Challenge Team.

54 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Turning the Tables This year, the committee had a surprise for our FWEA leaders. After the demonstration, it was the engineers’ turn to form groups and select members to perform some tasks as Operations Challenge participants. In the actual competition, teams compete to earn the highest score in the five different events. Each event is designed to test the diverse skills required for the operation and maintenance of water resource recovery facilities, collection systems, and laboratories. All teams compete in all five events. Winners are determined by a weighted points system. In this light competition the winner was determined by time—the fastest team would win. One by one, each team had the opportunity to perform the tasks, while listening to the loud cheers and words of support from its peers. Just like in the national event, the solidarity was tangible, with the “public” and participants alike. It was very clear the tasks were not easy at all. It takes a lot of physical training and mental discipline to execute the tasks in a safe way and in a timely competitive manner. It’s noteworthy that the Operations Challenge participants train on their own time. Their passion clearly shows in the time they invest outside of their already crowded work and personal schedules. At the end of the demonstration, all FWEA leaders left the room with a much deeper understanding of the work these participants do, the amount of training and dedication involved, and the commitment to their profession. Engineers, operators, and all water professionals play a critical role in providing their communities with the best service possible. The FWEA is proud of the teams and the work the committee does to represent the state of Florida every year at WEFTEC.

This year the conference is in New Orleans; if you go, plan on attending the challenge and rooting for the teams!

An Everyday Commitment Besides competing in the challenge, it takes passion, commitment, and desire, along with the needed skills and abilities, for these operators to do their jobs on a daily basis. The competitive spirit, camaraderie, and support they give each other is something you just don’t understand, unless you are one of them. They don’t get the respect from the public that’s due them, for the most part, for doing their jobs—until there’s an emergency. Then they jump into action—sometimes at great risk—doing what they do because these men and women pride themselves on their work and serving their customers.

Team 1 was the engineers competition winner!

Show Your Support! The Operations Challenge is a fun event that needs sponsorship support to help the winners travel to the national competition and buy their personalized, one-of-akind helmets and shirts. If you need more information about the competition and/or are willing to support the teams this year, either as an individual or with company support, please feel free to reach out to Brad Hayes at BHayes@woodardcurran.com. Melody Gonzalez, E.I., is FWEA Member Relationship Committee chair and secretary/ contact for the South Florida Chapter FWEA. Brad Hayes is a member of the FWEA board of directors and the Operations Council representative. S

Competition engineers working hard to get the job done.

A demonstration at one of the events.

Engineers at the competition taking a water sample.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022



COMING SOON Wastewater Certified Professional Operator Certificate This program is designed to train professionals in the foundational concepts of wastewater operations.The program focuses on testing wastewater quality, process control and troubleshooting, and maintaining permit compliance with Department of Environmental Protection. Launch Date: July 31st


Wastewater Class C Exam Review


Introduction to Lift Station Maintenance

6-10 JUN

Wastewater Class C Certification Review

Davie, FL | $730

Virtual | $325 CEUs 0.8 DS WW

Gainesville, FL | $720

14-16 JUN

Microbiology of Activated Sludge

27-29 JUN

Introduction to Electrical Maintenance

27 - 1 JUN - JUL

Gainesville, FL | $699 CEUs 2.2 WW

Gainesville, FL | $605 CEUs 2.0 DS DW WW

Wastewater Class B Certification Review Virtual | $720

56 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

12-15 JUL

Activated Sludge Process Control & Troubleshooting

19-21 JUL

Train the Trainer

25-29 JUL

Wastewater Class B Certification Review

Virtual | $710 CEUs 2.5 WW

Gainesville, FL & Virtual | $745 CEUs 2.4 DS DW WW

Marianna, FL | $720

Visit www.treeo.ufl.edu for a full schedule of courses including: Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Assembly Repair and Maintenance Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Recertification

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Young Professionals Leave Their Watermark on Local Community During the AWWA/WEF Utility Management Conference (UMC), held in February this year in Orlando, more than 25 volunteers attending the Young Professionals (YP) Summit in sunny Florida took time to make a difference and leave a positive impact in the community. Participants in the summit, held in conjunction with UMC, included YP members from the Water Environment Federation (WEF), American Water Works Association (AWWA), and event host, Toho Water Authority (Toho), along with members of the Florida Section AWWA Young Professionals Committee. Volunteers spent the day helping to renovate the grounds of Hope Commons, an expansion facility of the Hope Partnership, which is a community organization

that provides services to neighbors experiencing homelessness and poverty throughout Osceola County. “This was a great way to kick off the conference while harnessing the passion and enthusiasm of the group to give back to our central Florida community,” said Tonya Sonier, AWWA YP Committee member and event organizer. Volunteers installed 90 bags of mulch, planted over 100 FloridaFriendly Landscaping™ plants, and gave a facelift to the organization’s business sign by adding several coats of fresh paint. “It was so satisfying to see what started as an idea at Toho realized as a vision that was embraced by the young professionals in the water sector, which led to us working as a team to improve our community,”

Gathering for a quick group photo as volunteers gear up for the day.

Volunteers loosening the soil with garden tools to prepare the area for new plants.

said Jacqueline Torbert, Toho’s senior director of stakeholder services. In addition, volunteers cleared leaves, pulled weeds, cut back existing plant beds, and removed all the debris. The freshly redesigned landscape will provide visitors with

an inviting and calming welcome as they seek necessary services. The YP Summit brings together bright, motivated water professionals from across the United States and Canada interested in exploring the best ways to serve the water sector. S

Testing out the future paint color with a creative message.

Taking a minute to relax around the water cooler after a successful day of landscape renovations.

58 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal



for the latest updates on classes May

2-6..... Reclaimed Water Field Site Insp....................................Deltona............... $350/380 9..... Reclaimed Water Distribution C abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155

10-12..... Water Distribution Level II...............................................Deltona............... $325 19..... Backflow Tester recertification......................................Deltona............... $85/115 16-19..... Backflow Tester...............................................................St. Petersburg..... $375/405 19..... Backflow Tester recertification......................................St. Petersburg..... $85/115 20..... Reclaimed Water Distribution B abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155


3..... Reclaimed Water Distribution C abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155 6..... Reclaimed Water Distribution B abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155

6-10..... REGION 4 SHORT SCHOOL 13-17..... REGION 4 SHORT SCHOOL 13-15 ..... Backflow Repair..............................................................Deltona............... $275/305 15..... Backflow Tester recertification......................................Deltona............... $85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


NEWS BEAT U.S. Water Services Corporation (USW), a provider of water/wastewater utility management, operations, and maintenance services, has announced that it acquired Ramboll Americas O&M Solutions LLC (company), a subsidiary of the Ramboll Group of companies and a leader in providing water/wastewater asset management, operations, maintenance, and repair services to industrial customers. The company is a recognized leader in the industrial water/wastewater contract operations business, led by a strong management team and

a dedicated team of operators and maintenance professionals, including mechanics, control system technicians, pipe fitters, heavy equipment operators, welders, and electricians. The company is a winner of numerous awards for environmental compliance and operational excellence and is the developer of a unique process control monitoring tool valued by an expanding Fortune 500 company customer base. This acquisition results in the establishment of USW Industrial Group, a division of USW, which will be focused on serving industrial customers. The acquisition of the company adds more than

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100 highly skilled professionals and provides USW with a broader and more-diverse range of technical expertise, access to proprietary state-ofthe-art system management tools, and an expanded footprint in the United States. The combined business will be comprised of 700 professionals, serving 800 facilities and operating in 18 states. In addition, as part of the acquisition, USW and Ramboll are establishing a strategic alliance focused on providing customers with utility asset life cycle services and flexible delivery methods tailored to suit customer needs. S

Display Advertiser Index American Cast Iron �������������������������������������������������� 50 American Pipeline ��������������������������������������������������� 31 AWWA/FSAWWA Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month ������������������������������������������ 43 AWWA Water Equation �������������������������������������������� 42 Baxter Woodman ����������������������������������������������������� 57 Blue Planet Environmental ������������������������������������� 67 CEU Challenge ��������������������������������������������������������� 21 Data Flow ������������������������������������������������������������������ 47 Envirotech ���������������������������������������������������������������� 51 Ferguson ������������������������������������������������������������������ 37 Florida Aquastore ���������������������������������������������������� 52 FSAWWA Fall Conference ���������������������������������� 38-40 FSAWWA Roy Linkins Scholarship Fund �������������� 41 FWPCOA Region IV ������������������������������������������������� 27 FWPCOA Training Calendar ����������������������������������� 59 Gerber ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Hartzell Air Movement ��������������������������������������������� 15 Heyward ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump ���������������������������������������������������������� 53 Hydro International ���������������������������������������������������� 5 Infosense ������������������������������������������������������������������ 65 Lakeside ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Orenco ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 61 PC Construction ������������������������������������������������������ 60 PolyProcessing �������������������������������������������������������� 36 UF TREEO Center Training ������������������������������������� 56 Vaughn Nugent ���������������������������������������������������������11 Wright Price ������������������������������������������������������������� 35 Xylem ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 68


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Learn more today. Visit the PC team at Booth #416 or call 802.734.5634 to learn how PC can help you achieve your goals. pcconstruction.com

60 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

AirVac ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Boerger ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 47 Charter Machine ������������������������������������������������������ 46 Complete Services Welling and Drilling ������������������ 7 Custom Controls Technology �������������������������������� 33 Halff Associates ������������������������������������������������������� 22 Gerber Pumps Internaational ��������������������������������� 15 Heyward Gordon ������������������������������������������������������ 40 Hober Technology ���������������������������������������������� 38-39 Hydro International �������������������������������������������������� 41 Indusco Enviro ��������������������������������������������������������� 45 IXOM ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 44 Logan Diving & Salvage ������������������������������������������ 27 McKim & Creed ���������������������������������������������������������� 9 Nuvoda US ��������������������������������������������������������������� 37 Schwing Biotec �������������������������������������������������������� 42 USGI �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43 US Submergent �������������������������������������������������������� 48 Wascon ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 35




CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

POSITIONS AVAILABLE CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Utility Asset Program Manager, Asst Chief Water Plant Operator, Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Crew Leader, Service Worker, Plant Operator, Laboratory Assistant. Apply at www.titusville.com

NOW HIRING Treatment Plant Operators and Field Personnel

Brevard County Utilities is seeking Treatment Plant Operators and field personnel to work in various locations throughout Brevard County, Florida. These positions are for a County-owned public water and sewer Utility. For more information and to apply, go to the employment website of the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners at https://career8.successfactors.com/career?company=brevardcou Brevard County is an Equal Opportunity/Veterans Preference Employer

62 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator “C” Salary Range: $52,645.98 - $84,011.20

The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority’s WASTEWATER DIVISION IS GROWING, and we need (2) WWTP Operators with a Florida “C” license or higher. You will perform skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant. This requires technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance on plant equipment, machinery, and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Location: Big Coppitt Key and Duck Key, FL. Must complete on-line application at www.fkaa.com EEO, VPE, ADA

Project Engineer Water and Wastewater Utilities - Tampa, FL Halff Associates, Inc. has an immediate opening for a Water and Wastewater Utilities Project Engineer in our Tampa, FL office. Qualifications: - Bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering - Licensed PE, preferably in Florida or can obtain within 6 months - 4+ years of experience designing Water/Wastewater utility projects including pipeline and facility planning and design - Pump station, water storage and large diameter pipeline design experience required - Water/Wastewater treatment plant experience desired - Ability to engage in plans production, coordinate project deliverables production, and support EI staff - Experience with AutoCAD, WaterCAD, SewerCAD preferred To apply: https://www.halff.com/join-our-team/ Halff Associates is an Equal Opportunity Employer, including disability and protected veteran status.

Project Manager Water and Wastewater Utilities - Tavares, FL Halff Associates, Inc. has an immediate opening for a Water and Wastewater Utilities Project Manager in our Tavares, FL office. Qualifications: - Bachelors or Masters degree in Civil or Environmental Engineering - 5+ years of experience to support Water/Wastewater Utility projects including pipeline and facility planning and design - Licensed PE, preferably in Florida or can obtain within 6 months - Water/Wastewater treatment plant experience required - Pump station, water storage and large diameter pipeline design experience desired - Ability to manage projects, clients, and support staff - Experience with AutoCAD, WaterCAD, SewerCAD preferred

Are you a Water Operator Super Nova?

Then come join our incredibly awesome team at one of the fastest growing areas in Central Florida. Must hold at least a Class “C” license and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $37,000 $39,000yr – 10% more if you have a dual license or a Class A or B. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Marc Correnti EEO/AA/V/H/ MF/DFWP.

To apply: https://www.halff.com/join-our-team/ Halff Associates is an Equal Opportunity Employer, including disability and protected veteran status.

Distribution/Collection Techs Needed!

CADD Technician–Water Wastewater–Tavares, Florida Halff Associates, Inc. has an immediate opening for a Computer Aided Design Drafter (CADD) Technician in our Tavares, FL office to perform drafting, plans preparation and to work with design professionals on our Water/Wastewater team. Responsibilities: - Prepare drawings for utility projects, including utility lines, plants, pump stations and associated infrastructure utilizing CAD software - Actively participate in implementing and monitoring continuous improvement initiatives to improve project quality - Support multiple projects when needed and help ensure timely completion of assignments Requirements: - 3+ years of working experience in the Civil Engineering industry, water and wastewater utilities preferred but not required - Experience in AutoCAD - Drafting Certificate or Associates Drafting Degree a plus To apply: https://www.halff.com/join-our-team/ Halff Associates is an Equal Opportunity Employer, including disability and protected veteran status.

Must hold at least a Tech III license or certification and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $35,000 - $37,000yr – 10% more if you have a dual license or certification. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Marc Correnti EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.

Seminole County Government Utilities Engineering Division Manager

Manages the Utilities Engineering Division to ensure timely completion of capital improvement projects, provides design services and engineering support to utility operations, and ensures review and approval of residential, commercial and industrial development plans. **Salary will be determined by qualifications of candidates who exceed the minimum requirements as outlined within the job description. **Additional compensation based on licensure. Bachelor’s Degree in Engineering and ten (10) years of progressively responsible experience in a water, wastewater and/or solid waste utility, including five (5) years of supervisory experience. Must possess registration as a professional engineer in the State of Florida, or the ability to obtain such within 6 months of employment. A comparable amount of education, training, or experience may be substituted for the minimum qualifications. https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/seminolecountyfl/ jobs/3494581/utilities-engineering-division-manager Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022


Fern Crest Utilities - Multiple Positions - Davie, Fl.

Utilities Field Superintendent $86,147 - $133,338/yr. Laboratory Manager $70,873 - $109,699/yr. Utilities Instrumentation Tech $60,606 - $85,278/yr. Utilities Treatment Plant Operator or Trainee $52,353 - $73,665 or $47,486 - $66,816/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.


The Department of Environmental & Engineering Services (DEES) is currently accepting job applications at: https://www.margatefl.com/207/Job-Opportunities

Chief Water Operator

Performs supervisory level work in the support of the operation, maintenance, and repair of the water plant. Responsible for the proper and efficient operation of the plant and for meeting all required governmental quality and production standards. Position typically manages a team of employees and schedules the ongoing work activities of the water treatment facilities to provide optimum efficiency and productivity. Position requires an advanced understanding and wide application of principles, theories, and concepts in water treatment and supervision.

Fern Crest Utilities is seeking to fill positions for Dual Licensed Operators, Operator Trainee, and Utility Service Tech. Licensed operator must hold at least a C-level water or wastewater license with the ability to obtain the other within 12 months. Operator trainee must have a minimum H.S. diploma and will be required to obtain a water or wastewater license within 18 months of hire. Utility Service tech must hold a minimum H.S. diploma with some mechanical experience preferred. Email resume to styler@thiscd.org

City of Gainesville - Water Wastewater Engineer and Utility Designer I, II, III or IV

Gainesville Regional Utilities’ Water/Wastewater Department is currently seeking to fill a Utility Engineer position in the Engineering Asset Management and Pipeline Infrastructure group. This position consists of routine professional and technical engineering work coordinating the planning, designing, permitting, and implementing of critical water distribution and wastewater collection pipeline projects. This is advanced, independent professional and technical engineering work requiring knowledge and application of the latest advancements in the field and knowledge of regulatory environment, and is fully accountable for work product. Positions allocated to this classification report to a designated supervisor and work under general supervision receiving technical guidance on unusual and non-typical complex problems and supervisor approval on plan proposals. Work in this class is distinguished from other classes by its lack of managerial responsibility and by its emphasis on the application of advanced engineering skills, development, implementation, and interpretation of policies, and coordination of small engineering staff to a part of a major project, a total project of moderate scope, or controversial project affecting the effectiveness of the organization. https://cityofgainesville.wd5.myworkdayjobs.com/en-US/ Careers/job/GRU-Eastside-Operations-Center-Building-3/ Engineer-and-Utility-Designer-IV_1304

Salary: $65,026 - $99,138 Please visit bsu.us/employment-opportunities/ to view full job description and apply.

USW - Multiple Positions Available

Dual Licensed Operator, Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator, Maintenance Technician, Water Plant Operator, and many more throughout Florida including MacDill Air Force Base. Visit our website to view all current job openings, job descriptions and apply online! https://www.uswatercorp.comcareers/?src=1&keyword=&city= &state=FL

64 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

BROWARD COUNTY Licensed Engineer (two positions) Job Title: Licensed Engineer Closing Date/Time: Continuous Salary: $75,848.03 - $121,052.88 Annually Job Type: Full-time Location: Water and Wastewater Engineering Division, 2555 W. Copans Road, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 To view and apply for this position, please visit: https://www. governmentjobs.com/careers/broward/jobs/3454025/licensedengineer-water-wastewater

Coral Springs Improvement District has multiple positions available Drinking Water Plant Operator Applicants must have a valid Class C water treatment license or greater and experience in Reverse Osmosis/Nano Filtration treatment processes preferred however not required. Position requirements include knowledge of methods, tools, and materials used in the controlling, servicing, and minor repairs of all related R.O. water treatment facilities machinery and equipment. Must have a valid Florida driver’s license, satisfactory background check and pass a pre-employment drug screening test. Salary range for this position is $47,008 - $74,880. Salary to commensurate relative to years of experience and license held in this position. Wastewater Plant A Operator Applicants must have a valid Class A Wastewater Treatment license. Operates sewage treatment, sludge processing, and disposal equipment in a wastewater (sewage) treatment plant to control flow and processing of sewage. This employee is responsible for keeping within permit discharge limits and routinely monitors the flow of wastewater and chemical levels. Salary range for this position if $58,240 - $74,880. Salary to commensurate relative to years of experience in this position. Excellent compensation including defined benefit and matching 457 pension plan. Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at www.csidfl.org/resources/employment.html and fax resume to 954-753-6328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Gainesville Regional Utilities Water Wastewater Engineer I-IV

This is advanced, independent professional and technical engineering work requiring knowledge and application of the latest advancements in the field and knowledge of regulatory environment, and is fully accountable for work product. Requires negotiating skills and diplomacy. Ability to write specifications with overall management direction. Designs, coordinates, evaluate, and supervise projects including planning, specifications, and construction monitoring. Coordinates engineering projects, studies, and activities with internal departments, outside consultants, and contractors. Assists in documenting and preparing budget estimates for submittal to the department head. https://wd5.myworkday.com/cityofgainesville/d/inst/15$158872/ 9925$1758.htmld

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Sunshine Water Services is accepting applications for Water & Wastewater Operators and Field Technicians in various locations. Applicants must possess required FDEP licenses and have a valid Florida driver’s license with a clean driving record. To view and apply for positions please visit our website, www.Sunshinewater. com. Under “Contract Us” click on Employment Opportunities.

Business Development and Area Manager Weston & Sampson – Ft Myers, Fl. For more information and to apply: https://careers-wseinc.icims.com/jobs

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2022



January 2016

Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Editorial Calendar

January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies .................... Florida Water Resources Conference Wrap Up August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection

Test Yourself Answer Key From page 26 1. B) cyanobacteria.

Per the Protecting Florida Together website, Education Center – Blue-Green Algae, “Bluegreen algae, or cyanobacteria, occur frequently in Florida’s freshwater environments. Blue-green algae are microorganisms that function like plants in that they use light energy from the sun and nutrients acquired from the environment to help them grow.”

2. C) nutrients.

Per the Protecting Florida Together website, Education Center – Blue-Green Algae, “some environmental factors that contribute to bluegreen algae blooms are sunny days, warm water temperatures, still water conditions, and a plentiful supply of nutrients. Reducing the supply of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus in particular, can help decrease the intensity and duration of blue-green algal blooms.”

3. D) Toxins

Per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) in Water Bodies, “Blooms with the potential to harm human health or aquatic ecosystems are referred to as harmful algal blooms, or HABs. In freshwater systems, cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) are microorganisms that can produce HABs. Some cyanobacterial HABs, or cyanoHABs, can produce toxins. CyanoHABs and their toxins can harm people, animals, aquatic ecosystems, the economy, drinking water supplies, property values, and recreational activities, including swimming and commercial and recreational fishing.”

4. C) Cylindrospermopsin and microcystin

Per EPA Fact Sheet, “Cyanotoxins Drinking Water Advisories”: “The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published national drinking water health advisories for the cyanotoxins microcystins and cylindrospermopsin.”

5. D) 10 days

Per EPA Fact Sheet, “Cyanotoxins Drinking Water Advisories”: “The health advisories provide the cyanotoxins levels in drinking water less than or equal to adverse human health impacts are unlikely to occur over a 10-day period of time. Health advisories are developed to help states and water systems assess local situations, and during emergency situations and spills. They are not a federally enforceable, regulatory limit.”

6. B) Conducting a system-specific evaluation for vulnerability to blooms.

Per the EPA “Recommendations for Public Water Systems to Manage Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water,” in the executive summary, “The stepwise approach includes the following five steps: • Step one involves conducting a system-specific evaluation for vulnerability to blooms; • Step two suggests activities for preparing and observing for potential blooms; • Step three describes monitoring activities to determine whether cyanotoxins are present in the raw water, and recommended communication and treatment activities if cyanotoxins are found in the raw water; • Step four describes monitoring activities to determine whether cyanotoxins are present in finished water and recommended communication and treatment activities if cyanotoxins are found; and • Step five describes continued finished water monitoring (confirming the initial finished water sample in Step four) and treatment and communication activities if cyanotoxins are found in the finished water above acceptable levels.”

66 May 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

7. D) Karenia brevis

Per FDEP Fact Sheet, “Harmful Algal Blooms,”: “In Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, the species that causes most red tides is Karenia brevis, often abbreviated as K. brevis.”

8. C) freshwater systems.

Per the Protecting Florida Together website, Education Center – Red Tide, “Blue-green algae blooms occur primarily in freshwater water systems, whereas red tides tend to originate 10 to 40 miles offshore. Although wind and currents can push red tides into nearshore waters, including bays and estuaries, the algae that cause red tides cannot survive in freshwater systems.”

9. C) diatoms.

Per FWC Fact Sheet, “Pseudo-nitzschia spp,”: “Pseudo-nitzschia is a single-celled, naturally occurring organism belonging to a group of microscopic algae called diatoms. Diatoms can bloom when cells divide rapidly, resulting in high cell concentrations.”

10. D) Water quality dashboard

Per the Protecting Florida Together website, Education Center – Harmful Algal Blooms, “The Protecting Florida Together water quality dashboard delivers relevant water quality information statewide, including blue-green algae, red tide, and nutrient monitoring data. [This] map helps to ensure transparency and accountability with respect to our water quality data and its exchange with the public. Information for [this] map is provided by FDEP and FWC.”




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Articles from Florida Water Resources Journal - May 2022