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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office:

P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 The History of Hydropower and Its Nonpower Benefits 8 Hacker Breaks Into Florida City Water Supply and Tries to Poison it With Lye 18 Climate Impacts on Energy Production and Use 22 How to Steer Employees to Effective Digital Manners 38 News Beat 42 2021 Florida Water Resources Conference Canceled 43 Correction

Technical Articles 10 Facing Sea Level Rise, Miami Beach Uses Geographic Information Systems to Prioritize Flood Mitigation Projects—Roy Coley and Nelson Perez-Jacome

Education and Training 13 FWPCOA Training Calendar 29 TREEO Center Training 34 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Exhibitor Registration 35 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Call for Papers 36 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship Fund 37 AWWA ACE21 38 FSAWWA 2020 Awards 39 FWPCOA Online Training Institute

Columns 14 FWEA Focus—James J. Wallace 16 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 24 Reader Profile—Emilie Moore 26 Let’s Talk Safety: Don’t Get in a Bind With a Backhoe 28 FWEA Chapter Corner: FWEA Southeast Chapter News—Eric Antmann and Isabel Botero

30 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Fred Bloetscher 32 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 40 Legal Briefs—Sea Change?: Water Policy Under the Biden Administration— Kyle Robisch

Departments 44 Classifieds 46 Display Advertiser Index

Volume 72

ON THE COVER: A purple gallinule in the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, which is 145,188 acres of northern Everglades and cypress swamp protecting the remaining Everglades ecosystem. (photo: Randy Brown)

March 2021

Number 3

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2021


The History of Hydropower and Its Nonpower Benefits Humans have a long history of using the force of water flowing in streams and rivers to produce mechanical energy. Hydropower was one of the first sources of energy used for electricity generation and, until 2019, hydropower was the largest source of total annual renewable electricity generation in the United States. Hydropower, also referred to as hydroelectric power, is electricity produced from generators driven by turbines that spin from falling or fast-flowing water; these technologies convert water’s kinetic energy into mechanical energy, and then into electricity. Pumped storage hydropower has the added capability of reusing fallen water, which has already been used to create electricity, and pumping this water back up to a higher reservoir for storage until it’s needed to meet power demand. In 2019, hydroelectricity accounted for about 6.6 percent of total U.S. utility-scale electricity generation and 38 percent of total utility-scale renewable electricity generation. Hydroelectricity’s share of total U.S. electricity generation has decreased over time, however, mainly because of increases in electricity generation from other sources.

History of Hydropower Thousands of years ago, people used hydropower to turn paddle wheels on rivers

to grind grain. Before steam power and electricity were available, grain and lumber mills used hydropower. The first industrial use of hydropower to generate electricity in the U.S. was in 1880 to power 16 brush-arc lamps at the Wolverine Chair Factory in Grand Rapids, Mich. The first U.S. hydroelectric power plant to sell electricity opened on the Fox River near Appleton, Wis., on Sept. 30, 1882. There are about 1,460 conventional and 40 pumped-storage hydropower plants operating in the U.S. Most hydroelectricity is produced at large dams on major rivers, and most of these hydroelectric dams were built before the mid-1970s by federal government agencies. The largest U.S. hydropower facility, and the country’s largest electric power plant in generation capacity, is the Grand Coulee hydro dam on the Columbia River in the state of Washington, with 7,070 megawatts (MW) total generation capacity.

Hydropower Relies on the Water Cycle Understanding the water cycle is important to understanding hydropower. The water cycle has three steps: S Solar energy heats water on the surface of rivers, lakes, and oceans, which causes the water to evaporate.

(source: National Energy Education)

(source: National Energy Education)

4 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S W  ater vapor condenses into clouds and falls as precipitation—rain and snow. S Precipitation collects in streams and rivers, which empty into oceans and lakes, where it evaporates and begins the cycle again. The amount of precipitation that drains into rivers and streams in a geographic area determines the amount of water available for producing hydropower. Seasonal variations in precipitation and long-term changes in precipitation patterns, such as droughts, can have large effects on the availability of hydropower production.

Nonpower Benefits of Hydropower Hydropower is generally thought of as a source of electricity generation and storage, but these facilities also provide several other benefits. Here are six nonpower benefits that hydropower has to offer. Food Security As a reliable source of water for irrigation, hydropower facilities support food production activities. According to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ National Database of Dams, at least 276 dams in the U.S. provide both hydropower Continued on page 6

(source: National Energy Education)

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Continued from page 4 and irrigation services. The Water Power Technologies Office irrigation modernization project is exploring ways to accelerate the modernization of irrigation infrastructure across the U.S. and help capture additional value from these systems. Water Quality and Quantity The increased control of water enabled by hydropower offers an opportunity to improve water quality through targeted releases that deliver improved environmental flows and temperature for the health of aquatic species. High-Paying Jobs The hydropower workforce is expected to grow and evolve toward a more digitalized future. Based on retirements alone, the industry is projected to need thousands of new workers over the next decade—offering many highwage jobs across the country. Flood Protection Many dams provide flood control by capturing floodwaters and then releasing them under controlled circumstances to the river below. In the case of pumped storage, the excess water can be stored and released when power is needed—avoiding a potential disaster while creating a net benefit for energy storage. Recreation and Tourism Most hydropower installations offer access to the reservoir, allowing the public to take full advantage of opportunities for recreational

activities, such as fishing, swimming, and boating. River releases provide opportunities for kayaking and whitewater rafting, and many of the nation’s largest hydropower facilities are a draw for tourists. For instance, Hoover Dam, crossing the Arizona-Nevada border about 30 miles southeast of Las Vegas, is the most-visited dam in the world, with nearly 7 million tourists visiting each year. Savings for Consumers Globally, hydropower remains the cheapest form of electricity. That’s why some U.S. states with a high percentage of hydropower generation, such as Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, can boast about having some of the lowest electricity rates in the country on an annual basis. The U.S. has roughly 80,000 dams, and many were developed primarily to provide one of the benefits listed. Hydropower, while representing only 3 percent of U.S. dams, often provides these same societal benefits, while also creating power. The nonpower benefits are sometimes under-reported, and operators face challenges assessing how to optimize these facilities to maximize the different benefits. Hydropower sits at the intersection of the nation’s water and energy systems, and communities look to it for reliable and affordable services. The Water Power Technologies Office continually investigates new technologies that can help deliver more of these nonpower benefits from hydropower.

Aerial view of Jim Woodruff Dam.

6 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Hydropower in Florida In Florida, hydropower will continue to supply some baseload electrical capacity using existing facilities, such as the Jim Woodruff Dam, which is a hydroelectric dam on the Apalachicola River, about 1,000 feet south of that river’s origin at the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers. The dam impounds Lake Seminole on the common border of Florida and Georgia. It’s named in honor of James W. Woodruff Sr., a Georgia businessman who spearheaded the development of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Project. New hydro facilities may meet local needs in some cases, such as in Tallahassee and Leesburg; however, hydropower is not expected to make important contributions to Florida’s energy needs, largely because of the state’s flat topography. The use of hydro for generating peaking electric power is technically and environmentally undesirable in Florida; its lakes have minimal storage capacity and water fluctuations have adverse effects on fish and wildlife, as well as water quality. Limited potential may exist for small hydro installations to serve local and individual needs at existing dams in Florida.

The Future of Hydropower Nationwide, small hydropower projects will be at a disadvantage because they will not have a dependable capacity and will have high capital costs. Small hydro will probably not offset the need to build new power plants for this reason. Advantages of reliability, efficiency, and lack of atmospheric or thermal pollution will continue to make hydropower worthy of consideration. It’s possible that small hydro will be able to contribute 8000 MW to the nation’s energy picture with minimal impacts on land and water resources. Large hydro projects can contribute 46,000 MW, but with potential major impacts on water resources.  S

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Hacker Breaks Into Florida City Water Supply and Tries to Poison it With Lye A computer hacker gained access to the water treatment system in Oldsmar on February 5 and tried to increase the levels of sodium hydroxide—commonly known as lye—in the city’s water, officials said, potentially putting thousands at risk of being poisoned. Oldsmar is a city northwest of Tampa with about 15,000 residents. The incident took place when an operator noticed the intrusion and watched the hacker access the system remotely. The hacker adjusted the level of sodium hydroxide to more than 100 times its normal levels, according to Pinellas County Sheriff Bob Gualtieri. Immediately after the hacker changed the sodium hydroxide from about 100 parts per million to 11,100 parts per million, the employee reversed the change and notified a supervisor who ensured that “steps were taken to prevent further remote access to the system.” At no time was there a significant adverse effect to the city’s water supply, and the public was never in danger, Gualtieri said. It’s unknown if the breach happened from someone locally, nationally, or even outside of the United States. Early intervention prevented the attack from having more serious consequences, said Robert M. Lee, the chief executive officer of Dragos Inc., an industrial cybersecurity company. He said this type of attack is precisely what keeps industry experts awake at night. “It was not particularly sophisticated, but it’s exactly what folks worry about, and as one

of a very few examples of someone making an attempt to hurt people, it’s a big deal for that reason,” Lee said. Oldsmar extracts its water from the ground, which is often fairly acidic, and treats it with chemicals to make it drinkable. Sodium hydroxide is used to help balance the pH of the water. The chemical is also used as a corrosion control strategy to protect the pipes that transfer the water from deterioration and to make sure they stay intact. Excess levels of sodium hydroxide, however, could accelerate corrosion. Sodium hydroxide is the main ingredient in liquid drain cleaner. Symptoms of sodium hydroxide poisoning include breathing difficulties, lung inflammation, throat swelling, burning of the esophagus and stomach, severe abdominal pain, vision loss, and low blood pressure, according to the University of Florida Health System. If ingested, contaminated water with a concentrated level of lye could damage human cells. Long-term effects of poisoning depend on how fast the poison is diluted or neutralized in the system. Damage to the esophagus and stomach can continue to occur for several weeks after the poison is swallowed. Death can occur as long as a month later. It’s unknown if the increased levels in Oldsmar would have led to any of these symptoms. Gualtieri said it would have taken 24 to 36 hours for the water to reach the system and the

Pinellas County Sheriff Bob Gualtieri speaks at a press conference on February 8 about the attempted hacking of Oldsmar’s water treatment system. (photo: Pinellas County Sheriff’s Office)

8 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

public, and that there are several redundancies in place that would have alerted workers that the levels were too high before that happened. The city has taken steps to prevent further access into the system. The Pinellas County Sheriff ’s Office, FBI, and Secret Service are jointly investigating the breach. The FBI’s field office in Tampa is working with Oldsmar and the sheriff ’s office, offering resources and assistance in the investigation. The near-miss incident was the latest alarming sign that critical infrastructure in the United States is vulnerable to cyberattacks. In July of last year, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency warned that infrastructure, such as water and power plants, emergency services, and transportation systems make “attractive targets for foreign powers attempting to do harm to U.S. interests or retaliate for perceived U.S. aggression.” Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals nationwide have also seen a surge in cyberattacks. Florida Sen. Marco Rubio wants the hacking of the water treatment system handled as a national security measure. “I will be asking the @FBI to provide all assistance necessary in investigating an attempt to poison the water supply of a #Florida city,” he said in a tweet. “This should be treated as a matter of national security.” So far, police have not identified suspects and are unclear of the motive, but said they are following a few leads.  S

A water tank at the Oldsmar water treatment plant.



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Facing Sea Level Rise, Miami Beach Uses Geographic Information Systems to Prioritize Flood Mitigation Projects Roy Coley and Nelson Perez-Jacome Roy Coley is public works department director and Nelson Perez-Jacome is city engineer at City of Miami Beach.


he City of Miami Beach lies on a barrier island a few mi off the coast of Miami and is one of the most vulnerable areas for sea level rise in the United States, if not the world. By the end of this century, global mean sea levels could rise by about 11 to 43 in., according to the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). South Florida is likely to face 17 to 31 in. of sea level rise by 2060, according to projections made last year at the Southeast Florida Climate Leadership Summit. Miami Beach has a unique, bowl-like geography, wherein the center of the island is lower than the sand dunes along the Atlantic beaches to the east and the coastal defenses along Biscayne Bay to the west, making it even more prone to flooding. That’s why the city has been working with ESRI partner Jacobs, a technical consulting engineering firm, to find out where its biggest flooding concerns are and determine how to consolidate public works projects to better prepare for sea level rise, while minimizing disruptions to residents. Using ArcGIS Pro and ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, the team at Jacobs combined climate change projections with the city’s own infrastructural data, and now, Miami Beach is tackling these projects in a more efficient and effective way.

Flood Management That Works— But There’s More to Do The city already experiences frequent flooding from higher-than-normal tides, called king tides, which flood the city streets regularly.

At left: By showing the elevation of all the roads in Miami Beach, the city can prioritize which roads need to be elevated to reduce flood exposure.

10 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

“It could actually be a sunny day, and you’ll see flooding in the streets and have to wade through water to get to your car,” said Matt Alvarez, the Miami-Dade executive manager at Jacobs. “Adding significant rain events to those high tides causes substantial flooding in the lowestlying areas of the city,” added Roy Coley, director of the public works department for the city. The city began mitigating tidal flooding back in 2013, by implementing a cutting-edge stormwater management plan that took into consideration 30-year forecasts for sea level rise. Miami Beach started elevating its most vulnerable roads and improving its stormwater pumping system. “We were one of the first cities to actually take bold steps to manage flooding,” said Coley. Predictions have changed since then, and by 2017, the city’s new mayor, Dan Gelber, wanted to ensure that Miami Beach was on track to actually diminish the effects of sea level rise. Working with the Rockefeller Foundation, the city brought in the Urban Land Institute (ULI) to review the projects and plans it already had under way. The organization did a comprehensive analysis and concluded that, overall, the city had

done many things well; however, there was still room for improvement—especially when it came to implementing blue and green infrastructure (a way of using urban greenspaces to manage floodwaters) and ensuring that each project provided multiple benefits to the surrounding neighborhoods. To put ULI’s recommendations into action, the city enlisted Jacobs. The team there— consisting of Alvarez; Jason Bird, the company’s Florida resilience lead; hydrologists and planners; and a robust group of geographic information system (GIS) experts and spatial analysts—used GIS to visualize all the data and inform the capital project prioritization. “It was fundamental for us to map out where things were happening, where the needs were, and how to prioritize the different neighborhood projects,” said Alvarez. “I’m not sure how we would’ve done this project without GIS.”

Taking on Sea Level Rise While Minimizing Disruptions

it determined ways to improve how the city is preparing for sea level rise. The city provided extensive amounts of data from its asset and capital management program, which the team combined with its own data on flood risk and city service needs. The project had three aims: S T  o figure out how Miami Beach can better incorporate blue and green infrastructure to mimic nature’s water cycles and reduce flood risk. This includes coming up with ways to preserve the island’s freshwater lens, which keeps salty groundwater at bay, protects trees and infrastructure, and supports public services and facilities. S T  o evaluate the city’s road-raising strategy and ensure that it fits Miami Beach’s evolving needs. S T  o examine project size and sequencing so that the city can prioritize the most important ones and see if any are too large (and thus take too long) or too small (and don’t provide adequate benefits).

With ArcGIS Pro and the Spatial Analyst extension, the project team mapped out Miami Beach’s infrastructural priorities. From there,

“The city has done a great job identifying tidal flood risk areas that require immediate Continued on page 12

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Continued from page 11 intervention,” said Bird. “We’ve been able to add additional layers to previous analysis to capture other city needs, such as water, wastewater, and stormwater management, and road enhancement projects. By spatially analyzing all of these different critical city functions and understanding how they interact with one another, we’ve been able to review city projects and ensure that, when a capital project is performed, we can minimize disruptions in the neighborhood.” “Flood risks, water and sewer needs, and other utility and infrastructure needs have been mapped out, so the city has a plan on where to go in first,” Alvarez added. “The GIS has been a very useful tool for our team to set project and neighborhood priorities across the city.”

Projects Get Prioritized and Consolidated After approving Jacobs’s recommended flood adaptation guidance in July 2020, the city was set to start implementing the suggestions that came out of it—beginning with consolidating roadraising and infrastructure improvement projects in certain high-priority neighborhoods. “Now, something is no longer just a pump project or a pipeline project,” said Alvarez. “We’ve developed groups of infrastructure projects that provide significant value to the community or neighborhood where they’re being implemented. The groups of projects are very thorough and cover the needs in an area, allowing the city to go in once, do the work, and then have everything be done at the same time.” One area that the team focused on specifically was helping the city preserve its freshwater lens. “As sea levels rise and saltwater pushes up, there’s a layer, or lens, of freshwater between the surface of the land and the saltwater,” explained Coley. “If we lose that, our vegetation will go away, but by using blue and green infrastructure, we can constantly replenish that freshwater lens and abate the sea level that’s rising beneath us.” “Flooding is a nuisance, but that freshwater is a very valuable asset to the city for preserving its freshwater lens and keeping seawater down,” added Alvarez. “In this way, we can convert what is initially a liability for the city and bring it into use.” Being able to group blue and green infrastructure projects like that, together with road-raising and stormwater system improvement plans in areas with the most pressing needs, is going to make this work more efficient and effective than ever.

Blue and green infrastructure projects, as shown in these three renderings, use floodwater to manage and enhance greenspaces in urban areas.

12 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

This article originally appeared in the winter 2021 issue of ArcNews, a publication of ESRI, and is reprinted here with permission.  S



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You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2021



Energy Efficiency and Environmental Stewardship: Great Ideas, Dedicated Professionals, and Environmental Stewards Worth Protecting James J. Wallace, P.E. President, FWEA


he March issue of the Florida Water Resources Journal spotlights “Energy Efficiency and Environmental Stewardship” in Florida. As I pondered this month’s focus, I thought about the great work that is ongoing in the development of energy-efficient alternatives for water and wastewater facilities that are providing significant cost savings, rapid payback, and impressive reductions in greenhouse emissions. I also think about what environmental stewardship means to me, and the tremendous work ongoing throughout Florida to reduce nutrient loading, develop alternative water supplies, and push the narrative on reuse to consider all options. This great work is fully transparent in the fact that there is not one single solution to the challenges around water in Florida. Our industry continues to develop and support the many options and opportunities available to solve our water challenges. Environmental stewardship also brings to mind the many professionals who work so hard to protect and improve our water environment. As I’ve written here before, this begins with our utility workers, the “essential” workers in our industry who are on the front lines operating our water and wastewater treatment plants. I will provide you with the tools and

guidance to show how you can provide support and prioritization to this ever-so-important group of environmental stewards in our industry.

Energy Efficiency Did you know that the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides an “Energy Use Assessment Tool” that can help you benchmark your energy performance? It has been around for a while, but it still provides great information if you’re looking for a snapshot of your energy performance. Just go to https:// www.epa.gov/sustainable-water-infrastructure/ energy-efficiency-water-utilities and check it out. It’s also beneficial to know that EPA’s Clean Water and Drinking Water State Revolving Funds (SRF) are available sources of funding for energy audits. In the end, understanding energy usage, and the opportunities for increased efficiencies and decreased usage, provides valuable information for our professional utility operations that’s both good for the environment and good for the bottom line. This is a lesson that would also prove useful in our personal lives as well.

Environmental Stewardship The essence of the water and wastewater profession involves environmental stewardship. Both the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) have been leading voices in this effort. With WEF’s Water’s Worth It® and the combined WEF-AWWA efforts in the Value of Water Campaign, the guidance is clear. As stated on WEF’s website:

14 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

“As a critical part of our mission, WEF works to elevate clean water, the water profession, clean water services, and the infrastructure that supports it as essential to protecting public health, the environment, and quality of life.” This captures the essence of what it means to be a good environmental steward. There are examples in every corner of the state of Florida every day of professionals pushing further and further to develop improved tools and solutions to continue raising the bar in support of a clean water environment.

Protect Florida’s Essential Work Force I hinted at the beginning of this column that I would provide you with an opportunity to show your support for our utility workers who are on the front lines operating our water and wastewater treatment plants. As the United States, and the state of Florida, continue the distribution of the coronavirus vaccine, the health and well-being of the professionals in our industry are of utmost concern, as they are charged with providing clean water 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. I encourage each of you to continue to learn more about the COVID-19 pandemic and the vaccines behind our new wave of optimism. There are links to valuable information regarding the coronavirus and the vaccine located on the WEF website at https://www.wef.org/coronavirus. What I would like to urge you to consider is your own personal support and the support of your organization in providing a voice to ensure that water utility workers, per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) designations, receive higher priority for vaccines. This would take the form of correspondence with state and local health departments, and to assist in the effort, WEF has created a “template letter” that can be utilized and modified to communicate to our state and local health departments. The letter can be found at the website listed in the previous paragraph. Let’s all do our part to make sure that all of our essential water utility workers are properly protected! S

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Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Consumer Confidence Reports?

Donna Kaluzniak

1. P  er the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Best Practices Factsheet: Consumer Confidence Report (Best Practices Factsheet), community water systems (CWSs) must deliver Consumer Confidence Reports (CCRs) to their customers by what date each year? a. January 30 b. March 1 c. July 1 d. July 30 2. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-550, Drinking Water Standards, Monitoring and Reporting, CWSs must demonstrate compliance with the CCR requirement by sending a copy of their CCR to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) by the same date required for distribution to the customers. They must also send FDEP a Certification of Delivery of Consumer Confidence Report form by a. July 30. b. August 10. c. September 30. d. December 31. 3. P  er the EPA Preparing Your Drinking Water Consumer Confidence Report – Guidance for Water Suppliers (Preparing Your Drinking Water CCR), which contaminants must be included in the required table showing the highest level and range of contaminant values? a. All contaminants that were tested for. b. All detected contaminants. c. Only contaminants that were violations of the maximum contaminant limit (MCL). d. Only primary contaminants. 4. P  er the EPA Preparing Your Drinking Water CCR, the CCR is required to provide information about the water system. This information includes a contact name and number of a person to answer questions about the report, information for non-English speaking customers, and a. a list of all chemicals used in the water treatment process. b. detailed information on the specific components of the treatment plants. c. opportunities for public participation in decisions affecting drinking water quality.

d. the names of operation and maintenance personnel for the water system.

5. Per the EPA Preparing Your Drinking Water CCR, in addition to detected contaminants, the CCR rule requires that what type of violations must be reported in a detected contaminants table? a. Laboratory quality control (QC) violations b. Monthly report violations c. Operator attendance violations d. Treatment technique violations 6. Per FAC 62-550, what data are included in the table of secondary contaminants analytical results? a. All secondary contaminant results. b. No secondary contaminant table is included in the CCR. c. Only detected contaminants. d. Only results where the single highest result exceeds the MCL. 7. Per FAC 62-550, where the proportion of non-English speaking residents served by the system exceeds 20 percent of the total number of consumers, CCRs shall contain information in the appropriate language(s) regarding the nature and importance of the report and a telephone number or address where such residents may contact the system to obtain a translated copy of the report or assistance in understanding the report. Where should this statement be located in the CCR? a. Anywhere in the report, as long as the statement is in bold, capital letters. b. At the end of the report, in bold print. c. After the data tables. d. Immediately after the title of the report. 8. Per the EPA Preparing Your Drinking Water CCR, a CWS required to comply with the Groundwater Rule must provide a special notice for either of two situations: uncorrected significant deficiencies, and/or a. fecal-indicator positive groundwater source sample. b. disinfection byproduct violation. c. system pressure loss. d. total coliform positive distribution samples. 9. Per FAC 62-550, all CWSs must mail or deliver the CCR to every customer; however, CWSs serving fewer than what population may obtain a mailing waiver and publish their CCR in a local newspaper provided they have no MCL or

16 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

monitoring and reporting (M/R) violations, nor have been issued formal notices of violations (NOVs), consent orders, administrative orders, or court-ordered civil actions during the year covered by the CCR? a. 5 00 b. 5,000 c. 10,000 d. 25,000

10. P  er the EPA Memorandum, Safe Drinking Water Act: Consumer Confidence Report Rule Delivery Options, which delivery method meets the requirement of “directly delivering” the CCR? a. Including a website address that is a direct link to the CCR on customer utility bills. b. P  ublishing a press release with the utility’s website where the CCR is found on the drinking water page. c. P  osting the CCR on social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.). d. U  sing automated phone calls (emergency telephone notification systems). Answers on page 46 References used for this quiz: • F  lorida Administrative Code 62-550 Consumer Confidence Reports: https://flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome. asp?Chapter=62-550 • E  PA Memorandum - Safe Drinking Water Act - Consumer Confidence Report Rule Delivery Options: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/ files/2015-12/documents/ccrdeliveryoptionsmemo. pdf • U  .S. EPA Preparing Your Drinking Water Consumer Confidence Report – Guidance for Water Suppliers: https://nepis.epa.gov/exe/ZyPDF.cgi/P10072FC. PDF?Dockey=P10072FC.pdf • U  .S. EPA Best Practices for Water Systems in Preparing Consumer Confidence Reports https://www.epa.gov/ccr/best-practices-watersystems-preparing-consumer-confidence-reports

Send Us Your Questions

Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2021


Climate Impacts on Energy Production and Use Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and the frequency and severity of extreme weather events will affect how energy is produced, delivered, and consumed in the United States. Energy plays an important role in many aspects of our lives. For example, we use electricity for lighting and cooling, and we use fuel for transportation, heating, and cooking. Our energy production and use is interconnected with many other aspects of modern life, such as water consumption, use of goods and services, economic growth,

transportation, land use, and population growth. Our production and use of energy (most of which comes from fossil fuels) also contribute to climate change, accounting for more than 84 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions.

Temperature, Energy Demand, and Energy Supply In a warmer climate, Americans will use more electricity for air conditioning and less natural gas, oil, and wood for heating. If the

Increases in temperature around the world will likely increase energy demand, as well as change the ability to produce electricity and deliver it reliably.

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nation’s climate warms by 1.8°F, the demand for energy used for cooling is expected to increase by about 5 to 20 percent, while the demand for energy used for heating is expected to decrease by about 3 to 15 percent. Net expenditure in annual heating and cooling could increase by 10 percent (at about $54 billion) with a 4.5°F warming, and by 22 percent (at about $118 billion) with a warming of 9°F. Heating demand would decrease the most in the northern U.S., and cooling demand would increase the most in the southern parts of the country. Since demand for electricity for cooling is expected to increase as a result of temperature increase and extreme heat events, the balance in energy delivery is likely to shift from natural gas and fuel oil used for heating to electricity used for air conditioning. Changes in energy demand will likely affect greenhouse gas emissions, but the net effect depends on which energy sources, including alternative energy, are used for electricity and heating. Warming is likely to increase summer peak electricity demand in most regions of the U.S. Meeting increases in this peak demand could require investments in new energy generation and distribution infrastructure, and new mechanisms will need to manage system reliability and peak demand, which can be more expensive than average demand levels. Based on a 6.3 to 9°F temperature

Water and energy flows. (source: U.S. Department of Energy)

Hydroelectric dam.

Before and after photographs of the “Mars” offshore drilling and production platform damaged by Hurricane Katrina in the Gulf of Mexico.

increase, climate change could increase the need for additional electric-generating capacity by roughly 10 to 20 percent by 2050. This would require hundreds of billions of dollars in additional investment. A warmer climate may reduce the efficiency of power production for many existing fossil fuel and nuclear power plants because these plants use water for cooling, and the colder the water, the more efficient the generator. Thus, higher air and water temperatures could reduce the efficiency with which these plants convert fuel into electricity. Energy demand is shifting in the early 21st century. The number of cooling and heating “degree days” refers to the sum of the number of degrees that each day’s average temperature is hotter (or colder) than 65°F over the course of a year. The increase in the number of cooling degree days is expected to be larger than the decrease in number of heating degree days, comparing the historic average and the projected average over the last 20 years.

Water Availability and Energy Energy and water systems are connected. Energy is needed to pump, transport, and treat drinking water and wastewater. Cooling water is needed to run many of today’s power plants. Hydroelectricity (electricity produced by running water) is itself an important source of power in parts of the U.S. Changes in precipitation, increased risk of drought, reduced snowpack, evapotranspiration, and changes in the timing of snowmelt in the spring will influence patterns of energy and water use. As an example, power plants can require large amounts of water for cooling. On average, a kilowatt-hour of electricity requires 25 gallons of water to be withdrawn from rivers or lakes. Parts of the Southeast and Southwest face increased competition for water to meet the demands of population and economic growth, while also protecting natural ecosystems. Many local governments in these regions have slowed or stopped plans for new power plants that require large withdrawals

of water due to concerns about adequate availability of cooling water. More-frequent and more-severe heat waves will likely increase the demand for electricity in the Southeast and Southwest. At the same time, these areas are likely to experience reduced water supplies due to increased temperature and evaporation, as well as possible decreased rainfall. Since water is necessary for electricity production, these combined effects could stress water resources.

Hydroelectricity and Desalination Hydroelectric power plants are sensitive to the volume and timing of stream flows. In some regions, especially during times of increased rainfall, dam operators may have to allow some water to bypass the electric turbines to prevent downstream flooding. Maintaining stream flow for hydroelectric dams could present conflicts with other activities, such as salmon habitat restoration in the Pacific Northwest. Continued on page 20

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2021


Continued from page 19 Rising temperatures, increased evaporation, and drought may increase the need for energy-intensive methods of providing drinking and irrigation water. Desalinization plants can convert salt water into freshwater, but consume a lot of energy and can disrupt the ecology of an area. Climate change may also require irrigation water to be pumped over longer distances, particularly in dry regions across the western U.S.

Sea Level Rise, Storm Surge, and Extreme Events A large portion of U.S. energy infrastructure is located in coastal areas and therefore sensitive to sea level rise and storm surge. For example, fuel ports and the generation and transmission lines that bring electricity to major urban coastal centers are at risk. Changes in the frequency and severity of storms and other extreme events may also damage energy infrastructure, resulting in energy shortages that harm the economy and disrupt peoples’ daily lives. A substantial portion of U.S. energy facilities are located on the Gulf Coast or offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. Several coastal power plants in the U.S. are less than three feet above sea level, and facilities that import or export coal, gas, and oil are also located in coastal regions. Sea level rise and moreintense storms and hurricanes in coastal areas could increase the risk of energy supply disruptions.

Several thousand oil drilling platforms offshore of the Gulf Coast are vulnerable to extreme weather events. For example, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita damaged more than 100 platforms and 558 pipelines in 2005, impacting markets as far away as New York and New England. Flooding and intense storms can damage power lines and electricity distribution equipment. These events may also delay repair and maintenance work. Electricity outages can have serious impacts on other energy systems as well. Oil and gas pipeline disruptions following extreme weather events are often caused by power outages, rather than physical damage to the infrastructure. Railways and marine transportation that move large amounts of oil and coal in the U.S. are also vulnerable to climate change. Moreintense rainfall and storms can threaten railways by washing out railway beds. Changes in precipitation could affect marine transportation by reducing the navigability of rivers.

Renewable Biofuels

Growing crops for biomass and biofuel energy could stress water resources in certain regions, depending on the type of crop, where it’s grown, agricultural production in the region, and current water and nutrient management practices. Given the many factors involved, more research is needed to understand how climate change may affect these resources.

Agriculture grown for biofuels.

Power plants susceptible to sea level rise in California by type and size. (source: U.S. Global Change Research Program)

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Solar panels.

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 established the first Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), mandating that biofuels be integrated into transportation fuel to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Energy Independence Security Act (EISA) of 2007 increased the required amount of renewable fuel to 36 billion gallons per year by 2022. Annually, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets volume requirements for each category of renewable fuel. The volumes are determined by technology and the availability of each type of renewable fuel. Every three years, EPA is required to send a report to Congress that evaluates the environmental and resource conservation impacts of increased biofuel production and use.

Wind Speed, Cloud Cover, and Renewable Energy The impact of climate change on wind, cloud cover, and solar power is still a developing area of research due to the challenges involved in modeling wind and cloud cover changes at the necessary spatial scales. The current pace of technological development makes it commercially viable to harness energy from sun, wind, geothermal, and many other renewable sources. As renewable power plants continue to expand, it will also be necessary to determine their optimal sizes, locations, and configurations. The energy/power output of these plants is defined by environmental factors, such as wind speed, the intensity of solar radiation, cloud cover, and other factors. This in turn necessitates the prediction of other environmental factors, such as wind speed, direction, and solar radiation in the region of the power plant. There is a critical need of gaining realtime high-fidelity observability, control, and renewable generation forecast accuracy to enhance resiliency and keep operational costs sustainable. These climate challenges have motivated the industry to employ machinelearning techniques to support better management of renewable energy generation and consumption. As climate change makes the weather more extreme (and many parts of life more vulnerable), the water and energy industries have an obligation to prepare the country for its effects and increase the understanding of the implications for energy security, water availability, technology development, and business. S


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Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2021


How to Steer Employees to Effective Digital Manners While electronic communication has made our lives easier and our work more productive, there’s something many of us didn’t see coming: workplace conflict that revolves around the use—and misuse—of digital devices. Today, don’t be surprised to find your employees glaring at a coworker, or a customer looking askance at one of your employees; it’s probably the result of bad manners in the use of his or her electronic device. And, as this environment detracts from productivity and output, many business owners and managers are establishing protocols for the use of mobile devices at work. For the moment, most directives surrounding hand-held technology are more guidelines than rules. Management professionals in many companies have opted for persuasion techniques, encouraging employees to use smartphones, tablets, and other devices in ways that will not offend others, with the assumption that offenders don’t realize they are misusing their devices and will change their ways. Today, with more employees working at home because of COVID-19, it’s more important than ever to encourage good use of digital devices. The all-important first step in implementing guidelines is for management to model the behavior they expect from their employees and adopt good digital manners themselves. You don’t want any of your employees—yourself included—to become so attached to their devices that they fail to properly engage with colleagues, coworkers, and customers.

Digital Etiquette Digital communication etiquette refers to a set of rules that should be present in the workplace to govern behavior and use of digital devices. In turn, digital communication refers to the different means of communication over the internet or other digital means. While digital communication may be advantageous in the workplace, there are also instances when abuse and disrespect can prevail. In these instances, the internet has failed to become a proper and effective form of communication. That said, there are good reasons why every workplace needs to practice digital communication etiquette.

Awareness and Avoidance of Bad Behaviors—and Creating Good Ones Getting employees to change a behavior means making them aware of the behavior in the first place. Here are some behaviors to avoid when using digital devices: S Simultaneous talking and using a computer or iPad such that it interferes with clear communication between workers or customers. S Checking email or texts during a conversation or while teleconferencing (which makes a person appear uninterested and distracted). S Texting during formal or informal meetings and generally ignoring coworkers for the lure of the smartphone.

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S D  istraction from family members when teleconferencing or phoning from home. S D  iscussing confidential company information in public. Have you ever been in a public place where a person was having a very private business conversation? Not only is this a company risk, but how focused can the employee really be? S N  ot silencing your ringer. If family members have to get in touch during the workday, set your phone on vibrate. You will know when someone is calling or texting and can discretely take the call or answer a text privately. S P  laying games or watching videos on electronic devices. The company can set a policy that only allows such use during working hours at breaks. Employees can also misuse emails and texts. They’ll text or email about inconsequential matters or political topics, and/or use hackable devices for sensitive issues. Ensure your employees know that, when issues are confidential, a one-on-one, in-person meeting is required. Treating Others the Way You Want to be Treated In the workplace, everyone—from the lowest to the highest rank—should practice the golden rule; that is, they should treat others in the manner that they wish to be treated. Without digital communication etiquette, however, this can be very hard to achieve. It can be very easy to embarrass or insult someone, or rant about an issue on social media sites. Doing this, however, does

nothing but create gossip and division—in an environment where everyone is supposed to be working together. Misunderstandings Can be Controlled With verbal communication, the message sent to be put out is usually (but not always) done in a clear manner. Whatever grievance or concern an employee has is usually understood. With nonverbal communication, however, this isn’t always easy to assert. It can be so easy to make false assumptions or to create an inaccurate interpretation of things. This applies significantly to digital communications, as these are done in nonverbal forms as well. The last thing that you’d want in the workplace is for misunderstandings to be so prevalent. Hence, the need to set ground rules for everyone to abide by. Helps Foster Positive Messages Across the Workplace The ease of digital communication also makes it easy for delivering inaccurate, abusive, and hurtful messages. Not only can this be done by one person, but it can also spread across many different people, too. In just a few clicks, hateful messages can quickly be passed around the workplace (and beyond). Setting ground rules can help establish positive and truthful posts. Messages should be constructed so as not to contain any rude, sarcastic, or negative messages. Having etiquette rules in place can put a stop to the possible spread of gossip or false messages. Cyberbullying can also be a huge problem, and you wouldn’t want any of your employees involved in such behavior. Improving Trust, Authenticity, and Credibility How can you trust people in an environment where gossip is prevalent, misinformation is delivered, and employee

infighting is happening? How can you show your customers, and other people in the industry, that your company culture is authentic? This starts in the workplace. Companies should monitor and learn to put emphasis on the good behavior of their employees when engaging in digital communication. Otherwise, it might result in a negative situation where these representatives are placing your business in a bad light. Double-Check Messages First Once you’ve written an email or text, and hit the “send” button, in most cases, this can be very hard to undo. If there’s anything in the communication that shouldn’t be there, then your company is in for some serious trouble. This is precisely why it’s important to have updates on digital communication etiquette from time to time. If you have new employees hired to be members of your team, brief them on how to communicate over the digital medium effectively and respectfully. Communicating properly through digital communication should be a part of the skills necessary to constantly upgrade your entire workforce. In all cases, the attitude should always be to check messages before sending them. Don’t Practice Bad Etiquette Here are some examples of bad digital etiquette that can quickly happen without setting down ground rules: S Typing and sending out messages in ALL CAPS S S ending spam messages through work email S Using street language S Distributing illicit or illegal material through email Emergency Situations Employers can provide for emergencies by instructing employees to set their ringtones for specific people, like a hospitalized relative, a sick child, or a pregnant spouse. Employees

should also let their superiors know that such a call could be coming in.

Use of Digital Media in the Field, Warehouse, Vehicle, or Construction Site is a Safety Issue Talking on a cell phone or texting when working in the field, at a warehouse or construction site, using machinery, or operating a vehicle can be a huge distraction from work, increasing the risk of employees hurting themselves or a coworker. When performing onsite job-related tasks, employees should completely avoid using a cell phone or other device in any capacity that could cause even the most minor distraction. Answering calls, texting, checking social media, or using the internet are all activities that fall under dangerous cell phone usage. There are many instances in which workers cause traumatic injuries or even death to themselves or others due to cell phone or other digital device distractions that could have easily been prevented.

Conclusion When you communicate with a person face-to-face, there isn’t much left to interpret; almost everything that needs to be talked about is clear. The body language is also very apparent, such that it can also help ease out whatever was unclear during the communication process. In digital communication, however, this isn’t the case. All you can do is read through the words sent to you or listen to the recorded voice. This shows the need for strong digital communication etiquette in the workplace that should be practiced every day. That way, any miscommunication and other errors can be avoided, and workers and customers will remain productive and happy. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2021


FWRJ READER PROFILE Volunteering has expanded opportunities to impact the lives of others through trainings and mentoring and has provided long-lasting professional relationships and opportunities. What do you like best about the industry? The people are the best. I’m always inspired by the outstanding professionals in our industry who are fully dedicated to protecting water supplies, delivering the safest water to the public, and treating wastewater for its next use.

Our water industry touches millions of lives and protects the environment each day. What do you do when you’re not working? I like anything outdoors. I love traveling and camping with family and friends. I love triathlons, open-water swimming, hiking, yoga, birding, and beekeeping. I love off-road bicycling and volunteer with the SWAMP Mountain Bike Club to promote trails in Pinellas County. S

Emilie Moore

Black and Veatch, Tampa Work title and years of service. I’m a senior project manager with 29 years of service. What does your job entail? My job is a client-facing role that includes client management, business development, mentoring younger professionals, managing projects, scope and fee development, quality control reviews, and successful project delivery. What education and training have you had? I have a B.S. in environmental engineering from the University of Florida and an M.S. in engineering management from the University of Kansas. I’m also a Project Management Professional (PMP) and an Envision Sustainability Professional (ENV SP). What do you like best about your job? I love the people I work with, the variety of the work, mentoring, solving challenges, and the opportunities for continuous improvements in our water and wastewater industry.

Emilie recruiting new readers of the Florida Water Resources Journal.

What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) and Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA). How have the organizations helped your career? Starting in college, I did not fully appreciate the educational and volunteer opportunities available with these organizations; it truly is a function of a little bit of commitment goes a long way. I am currently most active in FSAWWA, and the camaraderie deepens each year. With our top-tier staff and volunteers, we can accomplish anything we put our minds to.

24 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Emilie at Table Mountain in South Africa.








L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Don’t Get in a Bind With a Backhoe


he backhoe is a highly productive machine—the true workhorse for most projects involving trenching and earth moving. A backhoe, however, is also a complicated and dangerous machine that requires continuous vigilance during its operation. Backhoe operators have a responsibility to analyze and react to all situations in order to keep themselves, fellow workers, and the public safe from potential accidents. It helps to brush up on backhoe loader safety, even if you’re an experienced operator. Remember, safety at the jobsite is everyone’s responsibility, but a lot of it falls to the operator. The best way to operate a backhoe safely and efficiently is to understand the jobsite, the equipment, and, as a driver, yourself.




Backhoe Basics Before starting work, make sure that you go through this checklist: S E  very jobsite needs a reliable system of communication between the ground crew and the backhoe loader operator. S M  ake sure that the machine is fit for the task. Walk around the backhoe and inspect it with care. Look for damaged or missing parts, and check for fluid leaks, cracks, and


excessive wear. Make sure the control levers are working properly. Make sure pre- and post-operation machine inspections are performed every time. Select the right size bucket for the job. Make sure it matches the workload. Review the equipment’s warning and safety signs—they are there for a reason. Take the signs seriously and heed their warnings. Replace any damaged or missing decals. Inspect the jobsite. Is it safe for the backhoe? Stake out the area to be excavated using marker flags; however, do not disturb the markings made by an underground utility locating service. Call before you dig! Did you call 811 two working days in advance so the locations of all underground utilities, in addition to water, are clearly marked at the construction site? Don’t rely solely on your company’s charts—you need to be certain. Be sure to always look up for overhead power lines. If power lines are on the site, always keep them firmly in mind and point them out to your coworkers. Never allow a fully extended boom to get any closer than 10 feet from a power line, and greater than 10 feet is even better! Never move the machine while the boom is elevated and never work in areas that have

inadequate overhead clearances—it’s just too dangerous. S Be honest and ask yourself: Am I qualified to operate the equipment? To be a qualified backhoe operator, you should not only have mastery of the operating skills, but also have a strong sense of safety. Good operators will instinctively focus more on their safety sense than on their operating skills.

Backhoe Loader and Scooper A backhoe operator needs to know how to operate both a front-end loader and a backhoe scooper. The front-end loader is not as complicated as the backhoe attachment, but the operator must use a joystick control while simultaneously driving the tractor. The frontend loader will either remove excess dirt and material from the site or place it back in the trench. The front-mounted bucket can also tamp down loose soil and create a level grade. Even though backhoe models vary, all have a few standard safety features, which include steps and grab handles for getting on and off of the machine. Frame lock levers and attaching levers keep the backhoe securely fastened to the loader frame during operation, as well as when it’s being transported.

The 2020 Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the 2020 Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

26 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Some backhoes provide a safety chain to prevent the backhoe mounting frame from rotating backward and unexpectedly trapping the operator; therefore, it’s important to know and check all of the mounting and attachment points and the safety chain before you operate the backhoe.

Be Sure to Wear the Right Safety Apparel Wearing the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is important when operating a backhoe. In addition to sturdy pants and shirt, safety shoes, gloves, and a hard hat, the work may require one or all of the following: S S afety goggles or glasses S H  earing protection S R  espirator for dusty conditions

Backhoe Operation




the weight over the back of the machine— never to the side—to avoid tipping. Be sure the load you are lifting is balanced, and move the boom slowly to avoid swaying the load. Confirm that the boom is locked and that the swing lock is in place before loading. Keep the boom tucked in close when moving a load to preserve stability. Shift to a low idle when lifting for optimum control and to reduce noise that can interfere with ground communication. When operating on a hill, push the bucket up the slope and dump on the uphill side of the trench; if you must swing a loaded bucket downhill, do so very slowly with the bucket as close to the ground as possible. Keep the weight over the back of the machine—never to the side—to prevent tipping when using the backhoe as a hoist. Stay clear of the swing radius and elevated loads if you’re on the ground near a backhoe loader in use.

S G  o at a slow speed on rough or uneven terrain and when there are people around. S About every eight hours, grease all of the Zerk fittings. Check the hydraulic fluid and oil daily. If the fluid is low, the backhoe will not operate properly. S Any time you leave the operator seat or lower the bucket or attachment to the ground, turn the engine off and remove the ignition key.

Resources Many heavy equipment manufacturers have free backhoe safety videos on YouTube and safety tips on their sites, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has a student backhoe safety manual online at http:// www.oshacampus.com/pdf/loader_backhoe/ loader_backhoe_student_manual.pdf. A backhoe will save you from backbreaking work. By following these tips, you and your coworkers will also stay safe. S

Always keep the following in mind when operating a backhoe: S C  abs are for a single occupant only. S The seat belt is there for a reason—use it. S Check guards and shields, lights and mirrors, and the backup warning system. S Operate the backhoe only from the seat. S Know the maximum load capacity and specifications for lifting height and distance. S Engage the stabilizers before starting work and spread as far apart as possible while getting the wheels clear off the ground. Use blocks or cribbing if the ground surface is too soft. S Always lower the stabilizer feet to provide extra grip and leverage. Level the machine for maximum stability. Always keep the backhoe loader as level as you can. S Make sure there’s enough clearance to swing the loader bucket to one side for dumping. Keep the bucket low to the ground while transporting a load to maximize stability and visibility. S Keep bystanders and other workers out of the bucket swing area. Always be aware if other people are around you and where they are standing. S Double-check the lock on the backhoe attachment. S Never swing the bucket over a truck cab. S Dump the bucket uphill if possible when operating on a slope. If you must dump downhill, swing slowly to avoid tipping the machine. S If using the backhoe as a hoist, do so with

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2021


FWEA C H A P TE R CO R N E R Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water EnvironmentvAssociation hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Melody Gonzalez at gonzalezm@bv.com.

Melody Gonzalez

FWEA Southeast Chapter News Eric Antmann and Isabel Botero

Golf Tournament On Nov. 22, 2019, the Southeast Chapter of the Florida Water Environment Association gathered for an afternoon of fun and fundraising with our 21st Annual Golf Tournament. Held at Eagle Trace Golf Club in Coral Springs, the tournament was well-attended by multiple local utility employees and consultants. Kevin Carter, from Broward County Water and Wastewater Services, was the keynote speaker during the luncheon held prior to the tournament.

FWEA and FSAWWA Hold Joint Event Our Southeast Chapter also partnered with FSAWWA Region VI to hold a CIP Night. The joint event featured a panel of local utilities to highlight their proposed capital improvement plans (CIPs) for the upcoming year. The panelists gave an engaging discussion of their goals and approaches to meeting them. Panelists from the following utilities participated in the event: S City of Lake Wirth Beach S Loxahatchee River Control District S City of Pompano Beach S City of Dania Beach

Left to right: Eric Antmann, with Hazen and Sawyer; Emeliz Torres, with Calvin, Giordano & Associates Inc.; Isabel Botero, with Black & Veatch; and Lia Dombroski, with Arcadis volunteer at the golf event.

Luncheon speaker Kevin Carter (standing at the back of the room) is with Broward County Water and Wastewater Services.

28 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The Southeast Chapter has curtailed activities due to the current coronavirus situation, and gathering events have been limited. In March of last year, only a few days prior to the Annual Broward Matters Day that was to be held at Tree Tops Parks, Broward County canceled the event. Our chapter was planning to continue our long-held tradition of hosting an educational booth for students attending the event. Our team delights in the experience of educating the community and we are enthusiastically awaiting the possibility of holding the event next year.

Board Members Our current board is comprised of the following members: S Chair: Eric Antmann, Hazen and Sawyer S V  ice Chair: Isabel Botero, Black & Veatch S T  reasurer: Nandita Ahuja, Hazen and Sawyer We are always looking for new members and professionals interested in volunteerign and adquiring valuable leadership skills. Eric Antmann is principal engineer with Hazen and Sawyer in Fort Lauderdale and Isabel Botero is a project manager with Black & Veatch in Coral Springs. S

The FWEA Southeast Chapter volunteers at the 2019 Water Matters Day Celebration.

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The Bad Budget Policy Utility Budgeting Fred Bloetscher, P.E., Ph.D. Chair, FSAWWA


s we all know, the Florida Water Resource Conference will not occur in 2021—because of COVID-19 and the slow roll-out of vaccines. We need vendor participation at conferences, and if people won’t attend the event, vendors are unable to connect with customers—and vendors are the major sponsors of the conference. So, the question is how long will conferences be affected? We assume (hope?) that the state and federal governments figure out the vaccine distribution and we are all good to go in November with respect to the vaccines, as the Florida Section AWWA Fall Conference is planned to be an in-person event. But what COVID-19 limitations might remain in place for, say, the barbecue or the exhibit floor? And how many people will come to Orlando to attend? We are already hearing that local governments have restricted travel in 2021 for budget reasons.

Travel is the tip of a larger budget problem we need to talk about. The budget issue is associated with the fact that saletax revenues, shared among state and local governments, are significantly lower than expected, which has led to a proposal to cut education funding in the state. Lower revenues to local governments means belttightening for local officials. But should utilities be affected by that belt-tightening? As a former city manager who inherited this type a problem, the question is: What to do? Friends who are city or county managers have used the “fairness” argument (everyone should feel the pain) and the political argument (the commission will not differentiate funds) as reasons to apply the same limitations to the utility system as the general fund. That’s the easy way out, but it represents the “bad manager syndrome” in action. I’m using the following example from my infrastructure management book to illustrate the fallacy of this approach.

Budgeting in Business Assume you were the chief executive officer in charge at Ford Motor Company. Let’s further assume, for simplicity, that the company makes only two vehicles: the F150

pickup (the largest selling vehicle in the United States for nearly 30 years by a wide margin), which has a high profit margin; and a passenger vehicle, which does not have a high profit margin and does not sell nearly as well. If you’re faced with the same situation as local government managers, whereby your overall revenues have decreased as a result of the economy, where do you make cuts, especially since the F150 demand is relatively inelastic? In industry, the answer is obvious: cutting costs and reducing production of the passenger vehicle might actually maintain or improve Ford’s profit margin. So, that manager looks like a brilliant leader when that decision is made. Let’s now assume you get hired at a city because of your success at Ford. The city of course has a revenue shortfall, so what do you do? This is far more difficult. The city has police, fire, parks and recreation, planning, etc., so where do you make cuts? Fire, police, parks? None of these are profit centers; they are all services that cost money, the value of which cannot easily be measured. You could evaluate the risk of higher losses if you cut the fire department, but that creates other issues. It’s the same with police. If you have reserves, you can manage the challenge, but if not, the easy answer is to cut all services by the same amount—sharing the pain because there is no means to measure the impact of success of cutting costs. Every government employee recognizes this method most commonly used to meet budget limitations. It’s easy, but not fair, or in many cases, appropriate.

Business Principles for Utilities Compare how such a decision would have worked out back at Ford. Cutting back

30 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

on the F150 and the passenger vehicle the same percent would likely make the overall situation worse, not better. A Ford executive making that type of decision would be roundly criticized and likely dismissed, but would that same person be viewed as a successful manager in the public sector? The pattern persists because it’s easy—no hard decisions have to be made. Utilities are like the F150; unless there is a major loss of population or industry, utility revenues are relatively inelastic. Many utility managers I have talked to have suggested that, during the past year, their revenues are up (although there are certainly places where they’re not—generally high tourism-based utilities). So why curtail travel for utilities? For that matter, why curtail anything? Look at this as an opportunity to get more bang for your buck, since interest rates, job costs, etc., are likely lower in troubling economic times. Since public officials are going to have to deal with tough issues, like rebuilding deteriorating infrastructure, leaky sewers, stressed water supplies, and a more demanding electorate—in addition to energy and climate concerns—why not use the economic challenges today to start the process? Our economy grew in the 20th century due to our investments in infrastructure, and innovations like automobiles, airplanes, computers, and cheap energy. Innovations and investments continue, but infrastructure lags, as the American Society of Civil Engineers report card shows us every four years. The need to fix the infrastructure that made our economy strong should be a priority, but many things are a higher priority in Washington, D.C., and unfortunately, at the local and state levels as well. Perhaps this is the time to restart the argument that the utility budget should not be cut, and in fact, that some of our planned improvements should be accelerated to take advantage of the economic distress and lower costs and interest rates, while helping to improve our systems and being part of the solution at the same time. Infrastructure investment equals jobs— so you’re putting people to work! That’s a positive for the local community, and our industry as a whole. S

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Getting Up to Speed on Potable Water Reuse Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA


reetings. I hope your new year is progressing well. We now have a new president of the United States in the White House. I want to welcome Joe Biden on behalf of FWPCOA. I’m expecting to see changes relating to the environment moving more quickly and impacting our industry in many ways over the next four years.

Potable Water Reuse Workshop Held by FDEP The Phase II workshop on potable water reuse was held by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) on Jan. 14, 2021, to discuss rule changes. Revisions to Chapter 62-610 F.A.C., Phase II, as well as 62-600 and 62-625 F.A.C., are being proposed to ensure proper regulation for the implementation of potable reuse programs in the state of Florida. The proposed revisions would support and be consistent with the necessary changes to be in compliance with the Florida Clean Waterways Act of 2020. The rules amended in Chapter 62-610 F.A.C., Phase II Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application, will address updates necessary to be consistent

with updates to adopt recommendations of the Potable Reuse Commission’s 2020 report “Advancing Potable Reuse in Florida: Framework for the Implementation of Potable Reuse in Florida” as required by the 2020 Florida’s Clean Waterways Act. Changes to F.A.C. 62-550 and F.A.C 62-555 were discussed as well. Revisions to Chapter 62-555 F.A.C., are being considered to ensure proper regulation for the use of reclaimed water in the state of Florida. Particular attention for the implementation of direct potable reuse programs in public water systems is important for these revisions proposed to Chapter 62-555 F.A.C. The Division of Water Resource Management is proposing amendments to Florida Administrative Code, Chapter 62555 F.A.C, entitled Permitting, Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Public Water Systems, which regulates the establishment, continual operation, and expansion of public water systems. The proposed revisions will update the chapter to be consistent with other Title 62 chapters, correct regulatory references, and clarify current language, as well as identify the requirements for implementing treated reclaimed water as a source for public water systems. Two separate rulemaking efforts will be undertaken by the department in order to amend the chapter. Phase I would address changes as outlined; Phase II will address revisions to Chapter 62-550 F.A.C., and Chapter 62-555 F.A.C., which are necessary to adopt recommendations of the Potable Reuse Commission’s 2020 report I mentioned previously.

32 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Use this link to access the FDEP website on potable reuse rulemaking for more details: https://floridadep.gov/water/domesticwastewater/content/water-reuse-newsrulemaking-information.

FWPCOA Training Update The spring short school will be held in Ft. Pierce at the Indian River State College the week of March 15-19, 2021. The following courses will be included: S B  ackflow Repair Certification S B  ackflow Tester Certification S B  ackflow Tester Recertification S F  acility Management S R  eclaimed Water Distribution S R  eclaimed Water Distribution (abbreviated course) S S tormwater Management S U  tilities Maintenance S U  tility Customer Relations S W  astewater Collection System Operator S W  astewater Process Control S W  astewater Troubleshooting S W  ater Distribution System Operator For more information, please contact Shirley Reaves at (321) 383-9690 or at training@fwpcoa.org.

Class sizes will be limited due to COVID-19 compliance. All guidelines will be followed that are set by the Indian River State College and FWPCOA. Walk-ins will not be permitted. The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor please contact the training office at 321-383-9690. In the meantime, and as always, our online Training Institute is up and running.

You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. This is a good way to get those needed

continuing education units (CEUs) for your license renewal coming up on April 30, 2021. Time is getting short. For more information, contact the Training Institute program manager at OnlineTraining@fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at training@ fwpcoa.org. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2021


Abstract Submittal Abstracts will be accepted in WORD ONLY via email to:

Call for Papers

Abstracts must be submitted by: Wednesday, June 30, 2021 To participate in an FSAWWA conference, the first step is submitting an abstract to be considered for a presentation at the conference. There is no guarantee that the paper you submit will be chosen, but if your paper is well thought-out and pertinent to the subject matter of the conference, then your chances of being selected go up. FSAWWA wishes to invite authors and experts in the field to submit abstracts on a variety of sustainability topics, including:

Potential Session Categories 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

Potable Reuse Alternative Water Supply Options Utility Finances in Challenging Times Strategies to Communicate Your Message in the Changed World Increasing Optimization of Utility Systems (Pipes, SCADA, Sewer Systems) Asset Management PFAS, PFOS, Lead and Copper, and Other Regulatory Strategies What’s New with Covid-19? And How Does it Affect our Workplace? The New Workplace Normal – Zoom, Remote, Home and Office Challenges for Utilities Water Conservation



Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.

Frederick Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E., Technical Program Chair at h2o_man@bellsouth.net Please attach a cover page to the abstract which includes the following information: a) Suggested Session Category b) Paper Title c) Names of Authors d) Name of Presenter(s) e) Main contact including name, title, affiliation, address, phone, fax, and email

“Best Paper” Competition Each year awards are presented to the best papers during the Fall Conference Business Luncheon.

Questions? Call 239-250-2423

A L Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Scholarships valued up to $5,000 will be awarded in both undergraduate and graduate categories by the Florida Section American Water Works Association.


• Must be a student enrolled (not online) in a Florida university and living in Florida Must be a full-time student or part-time student enrolled and completing a • minimum of 6 credits Must be a student within 60 credits of graduation with a bachelor’s degree. • Note: Seniors who are pursuing a graduate degree may apply and use the scholarship for their graduate studies, but must provide proof of acceptance to their graduate degree program

Maintain good standing in academic status with a GPA of 3.0 or higher based • on a 4.0 system be pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field with a plan to remain • inMust Florida to pursue their career Or enrolled in one of the CIP educational codes (for a list visit fsawwa.org/2021Likins) • and have indicated an interest in pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field

Added Value:

All applicants receive 1-year free student American Water Works Association • (AWWA) membership.

Key benefits of Student Membership:

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$5,000 SCHOLARSHIP Apply by June 30, 2021 For application, please visit:


Experience ACE Your Way in 2021 Join us in person or online Wherever you are in the world, you can now register to attend AWWA’s Annual Conference & Exposition (ACE) in person in San Diego OR online from your home or office. However you choose to participate, you’ll find a forum for you and your colleagues to responsibly gather for the premier education, timely insight, and networking you need to solve the water sector’s immediate and future challenges together.

Learn more at awwa.org/ace

Co-hosted by the California-Nevada AWWA Section

June 13–16 San Diego, CA #AWWAACE

NEWS BEAT CHA Consulting Inc. (CHA), an engineering, consulting, and construction management firm, announced that it has acquired Reiss Engineering, an engineering and consulting firm specializing in water and wastewater solutions, with 40 employees and four offices in central Florida. “The joining of CHA and Reiss Engineering expands our water and wastewater capabilities into the growing Florida infrastructure market, while providing both teams greater resources and reach into the Southeast. The combined capabilities of our two firms will bring tremendous value to both CHA and Reiss water clients,” said Jim Stephenson, chief executive officer of CHA Holdings. “This is a great complementary fit for both companies, and we look forward to coming together as one firm in the coming months.” C. Robert Reiss, Ph.D., P.E., Reiss Engineering president, said, “Our combined teams will bring some of the highest-caliber talent in water and wastewater together to expand our services throughout Florida. Working as one integrated team will open up meaningful opportunities for our staff and

provides our clients with the added value of the many resources and specialized services offered by CHA.” “The need for clean water and innovative wastewater and reuse solutions is accelerating with the changing Florida demographics. This union deepens our combined water resources capability, furthering CHA’s reach as a leading full-service water and wastewater provider to serve the essential water infrastructure needs of our clients,” said John Hensley, CHA infrastructure sector president. Reiss and CHA have a shared commitment to client service and will ensure that continues as the two firms come together. Reiss will be rebranded, effective immediately, as Reiss Engineering, a CHA Company.


Two Orange County Utilities water conservation and reuse programs were recently recognized by a distinguished environmental agency and a global educational organization. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) named Orange County

Utilities as a 2020 WaterSense Partner of the Year for demonstrating its commitment to water conservation by providing and promoting WaterSense-labeled products and fixtures independently certified to use less water and perform efficiently. WaterSense, a voluntary partnership program sponsored by EPA, is both a label for water-efficient products and a resource for helping consumers learn ways to save water. In 2019, WaterSense-labeled products, homes, and programs helped consumers and businesses save 871 billion gallons of water, along with the energy used to heat that water and money on utility bills. “Orange County Utilities continues to promote conservation of drinking water for our residents and visitors,” said Jacqueline Torbert, manager of the water division of Orange County Utilities. “Conservation ensures that this most-precious resource is available now and in the future. We’re extremely excited to be recognized for our efforts to fulfill this important responsibility.” In addition to the EPA award, Orange County Utilities was recognized by the Continued on page 43

2020 FSAWWA AWARDS Outstanding and Most Improved Water Treatment Plant Awards Class A, Class B, Class C Deadline: June 30, 2021

Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Operator Award Deadline: June 30, 2021

AWWA Operator’s Meritorious Service Award Deadline: June 30, 2021

For more information please go to our website www.fsawwa.org/WTPawards or contact Paul Kavanagh at (813) 264-3835 or kavanaghp@hillsboroughcounty.org

38 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Sea Change?: Water Policy Under the Biden Administration

Kyle Robisch


ith the new year comes a new president. Will the new year and administration also bring new water policy? Bet on it. Just as President Trump undid President Obama’s signature water policy decision—the Clean Water Rule, which clarified and arguably expanded federal water permitting jurisdiction—President Biden is likely to rewind many of President Trump’s water policy (and, more generally, environmental policy) decisions over the next four or more years. Beyond reversing President Trump’s policies, expect

President Biden, and his nominee to helm the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), former head of North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality Michael Regan, to put their own stamp on federal and state water policy. What might that look like? Begin with the obvious: President Biden is likely to scrap, and perhaps even revamp, how EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers define “waters of the United States” (WOTUS). President Obama issued a new federal rule stretching the scope of that rule, and with it, the likelihood that a discharge or development activity triggered federal water permitting jurisdiction. President Trump undid that rule and issued a new, narrower one. Under President Biden, expect the regulatory seesaw to swing back toward the Obama-era approach. Whether President Biden merely revokes the current WOTUS rule, or also promulgates its own broader regulation, federal regulators are likely to require more federal water permits, more often.

40 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The recent EPA Lead and Copper Rule revamp could also change. Just before Christmas last year, EPA modernized federal regulations governing lead and copper pipes, which hadn’t been updated since 1991. Under the new rule, utilities are required to regularly test lead levels at child-care facilities and elementary schools, publicize information about lead water service lines, and tighten lead testing practices. Yet, some criticized the rule’s lead pipe replacement obligations, which require utilities to replace a minimum of three percent of known or suspected lead service lines in certain communities annually, which is facially less than the old seven percent annual replacement requirement. (The EPA did, however, reduce exceptions baked into the old rule—EPA estimated those exemptions functionally watered down the seven percent requirement to closer to a one percent annual replacement rate.) President Biden could tweak or redo the rule; if he does, expect a ReganContinued on page 42

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Continued from page 40 led EPA to toughen testing and replacement requirements. Other water policy changes could involve modifications to the Corps’ recently released nationwide permits (which preauthorize and precondition certain common dredgeand-fill activities estimated to have minimal environmental impacts) and the Trump administration’s rewritten coal-fired power plant wastewater regulations (which the Biden administration might simply stop defending in federal court).

More generally, environmental justice might animate more of EPA’s enforcement and policymaking agenda. An Administrator Regan could also crank up enforcement. In North Carolina, Regan prioritized environmental enforcement, landing major settlements from energy and chemical companies in the state. The EPA might even reverse the Trump administration’s decision to delegate dredgeand-fill authority to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. That decision, which made Florida just the third state to assume that authority, is already facing some headwinds:

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42 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

environmental groups challenged the rule in Washington, D.C., federal court in January, while Florida Agriculture Commissioner Nikki Fried publicly called on President Biden to rescind the decision. All of this is subject, as always, to litigation. Expect challenges to every Bidenled effort to backtrack from a Trump-era environmental decision. So, while we know what President Biden might try to do, whether his administration can get it done—and if so, how quickly, and to what degree—is the bigger question. Stay tuned! Kyle Robisch is an environmental, regulatory, and business attorney based out of the Bradley Arant Boult Cummings LLP Tampa office. He assists clients with a wide range of legal issues, including infrastructure development, federal and state environmental permitting, and all manners of litigation (environmental and otherwise). Kyle is especially experienced with the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. He recently chaired the American Bar Association’s Water Resources Committee and is a proud second-generation Florida Gator. You can reach Kyle at 813-5595595 or krobisch@bradley.com. He welcomes your ideas for future article topics. S

News Beat Continued from page 38 Water Environment Federation (along with the National Association of Clean Water Agencies, Water Research Foundation, and WateReuse Association) as a Utility of the Future Today honoree for its water reuse program. It was one of 65 utilities in the nation praised for transformational work in community engagement, watershed stewardship, and recovery of resources such as water, energy, and nutrients. “We’re honored to be recognized by the Water Environment Federation and its partners for embracing innovative ways to better serve our community with our comprehensive program that beneficially reuses 100 percent of the wastewater,” said Mike Hudkins, manager of the water reclamation division of Orange County Utilities. The utility currently operates three regional water reclamation facilities that treat and reuse 60 million gallons per day of wastewater. Its extensive reuse system provides reclaimed water for agricultural, commercial, and residential irrigation; aquifer recharge; wetlands; and cooling.


Rejecting arguments by the Suwannee River Water Management District, an administrative law judge has backed renewing a permit for a North Florida business to pipe hundreds of thousands of gallons of spring water a day to a nearby bottling plant. Judge G.W. Chisenhall issued a 44page order recommending that the district approve the permit for Seven Springs Water Co., which sells water to a Nestlé Waters North America bottling facility in the Ginnie Springs area of Gilchrist County. Seven Springs filed the challenge last year after the district indicated it would not approve the permit. In part, the district pointed to the water being used by Nestlé, while the five-year permit would be held by Seven Springs. “The greater weight of the competent substantial evidence establishes that the water allocation will be sealed in bottles, packages, or other containers for sale for human consumption at the facility, which is not owned or controlled by Seven Springs (one of the effects of this is that there will be no way for the district to ensure compliance with any conditions for issuance limiting the bottling/packaging use—the district will not be able to enforce the permit against Nestlé),” the district said in a document filed last month in the case. But Chisenhall pointed to a contract

between Seven Springs and Nestlé and wrote that Seven Springs “provided reasonable assurances, supported by competent, substantial evidence during the final hearing” that the plant would be able to process the requested amount of water. “Seven Springs provided competent, substantial, and unrebutted evidence of the contractual obligation between it and Nestlé, and of the obligation for all water to be used at the bottling plant,” Chisenhall wrote. “Thus, the district now has reasonable assurances that all of the water withdrawn by Seven Springs will be utilized for a beneficial use, i.e., bottled water for personal consumption.” Under administrative law, Chisenhall’s recommended order will go back to the district for final action. The proposed permit renewal has drawn criticism from environmentalists, who point to concerns about issues such as the effects of spring withdrawals on the Santa Fe River. The proposed permit would allow Seven Springs to withdraw nearly 1 million gallons a day from its wells and provide it to Nestlé.


The U.S. Department of the Interior has taken steps to strengthen the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) by rescinding Trump administration policies that significantly undermined the landmark conservation program. Secretarial Order 3396 revokes Secretarial Order 3388, an order signed on Nov. 9, 2020, that unilaterally imposed new restrictions to inhibit the availability of LWCF funding for federal land and water acquisitions. “The Land and Water Conservation Fund has been crucial to protecting public lands, conserving wildlife habitats, and improving access to outdoor recreation. The department’s actions affirm our support for

one of America’s most successful and popular conservation programs,” said Shannon A. Estenoz, principal deputy assistant secretary for fish and wildlife, and parks. “We look forward to further strengthening this successful program to ensure that all communities, from hikers and sportsmen, to urban and underserved citizens, have access to nature and the great outdoors.” In addition to rescinding the November 2020 Bernhardt policy, Secretarial Order 3396 instructs the National Park Service to revise the Land and Water Conservation Fund Assistance Manual to remove the restrictive policies implemented in the previous order, and to reinstate pre-existing implementation of the LWCF state assistance program and Outdoor Recreation Legacy Partnership (ORLP) program. The ORLP program is the only LWCF competitive grant program dedicated to addressing the recreational gap in underserved urban areas. Since its inception in 1965, the LWCF has funded $4 billion worth of projects in every county in the United States. Last year, Congress permanently funded the LWCF at $900 million per year with wide bipartisan support. At no cost to taxpayers, the LWCF supports increased public access to, and protection for, federal public lands and waters—including national parks, forests, wildlife refuges, and recreation areas— and provides matching grants to state and tribal governments for the acquisition and development of public parks and other outdoor recreation sites. S

Correction On page 16 of the February 2021 issue of the magazine, the first paragraph of the article stated that a municipal water tank in Destin was the winner of the 2020 Tank of the Year competition sponsored by Tnemec. The water tank belongs to Destin Water Users, which is a member-owned, nonprofit private utility.

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2021


CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

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Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings)

TECHNICAL ASSISTANT III Palm Beach County (PBC) Water Utilities Department (WUD) In this highly responsible technical role, you will be reviewing water/ sewer operations and maintenance plans. Administers, designs, creates and updates Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) related to operations and maintenance functions. Assists with project management; prepares manuals, technical documents and reports for water and wastewater projects. Ensures compliance/adherence to PBC WUD Minimum Design Standards and provides independent plan review. Requires graduation from high school or equivalent recognized certification supplemented by a certificate of completion for a vocational training program or two (2) years of collegelevel course work in Civil/Electrical/Environmental Engineering/Drafting/Planning; three (3) years of experience in drafting, engineering or water and sewer. $51,007 Annually. For full description and to apply visit: www.pbcgov.jobs. Deadline 5:00 PM, 3/5/21. EO/AA M/F/D/V, Drug Free Work Place; All employees of Palm Beach County may be required to work before, during and/or after a natural or man-made disaster or hurricane

To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

Industrial Mechanic

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C

Seeking an Industrial Mechanic with considerable Journeyman level electrical/mechanical experience. Should be capable of performing skilled mechanical work on engines, pumps, motors, and other utility equipment. Should be able to read, interpret and work from blueprints and specifications, to diagnose or predict malfunctions and determine corrective actions. Must have and maintain a valid FL Driver’s License. The ideal candidate will be respectful, show integrity, and have a Team-focused and detail-oriented work style, with personal initiative and a consistently positive attitude. If interested, please email resumes to ramon.diaz@inima.com.

Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Machinist (Mechanical Work/Equipment Repair/Maintenance) & Utilities Mechanic (Maintenance Worker) http://www.cityofcocoabeach.com/619/Employment-Opportunities

44 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Foreman, Crew Leader, Treatment Plant Operator. Apply at www.titusville.com

3. C  omprehensive knowledge of the principles and practices of water and sewer pump and pipeline planning and design, data collection and manipulation, with experience in contributing to water and wastewater system master plans is preferred.

Utilities Treatment Plant Operations Manager $72,250 - $101,662/yr. Laboratory Manager $68,809 - $96,822/yr. Utilities Electrician $56,038 - $78,851/yr. Utilities Treatment Plant Operator or Trainee $48,408 - $68,114 or $43,907 - $61,782/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.

MIAMI-DADE COUNTY WATER & SEWER DEPARTMENT Senior Professional Engineer – Modeling and Data Analytics Water & Sewer Planning Division Salary Start and Cap Range: $ 85,248.8-$ 139,791.08 Miami-Dade County’s Water and Sewer Department (WASD) delivers safe, potable drinking water to nearly 2.3 million people every day – more than the total population of 15 states. As the largest water and sewer utility in the Southeastern United States, the department has a large Capital Improvement Program (CIP) which will have far reaching benefits to the community in terms of health, environmental, as well as economic. During the next two decades, the County will invest approximately $7 billion to enhance and upgrade WASD’s infrastructure utilizing state-of-the-art technology. It increases service capacity that will support more businesses to open in the community, improves the reliability and sustainability of the water and sewer system. The Water & Sewer Department is seeking an innovative and highly technical Senior Professional Engineer for the Water & Sewer Planning Division who will be responsible for managing the modeling and data analytics teams. The Senior Professional Engineer will coordinate all activities of the section with the new business team to support development in the County, and the master planning, capital improvements and operations teams to ensure proper planning and design of water and wastewater facilities to meet demands. Preferences: 1. Experience in hydraulic modeling of water/wastewater systems, data collection and analytics software, understanding of utility operations, and ability to guide the development of capacity planning reports is preferred. 2. Knowledge of civil/environmental engineering, land use planning, and integration with water and sewer planning is highly desired.

The Senior Professional Engineer of the Section will play an integral role in guiding WASD’s multi-billion capital improvement program, and the overall success of the organization. The position will be responsible for managing the hydraulic modeling group, researching issues to develop innovative alternative solutions to data gaps, modeling challenges, pump designs, and operational problems. This position entails the supervision of data and software resources for modeling, asset management, condition assessments, regulatory support, sustainability, and operations and maintenance optimization. MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Must possess a State of Florida Professional Engineer license. A minimum of four years of professional engineering experience to include groundwater modeling (including model design, construction, calibration and use) and in water resources planning is required. Miami-Dade County offers excellent benefits including full medical, dental, and vision insurance; life and disability insurance; optional 457 pretax savings plan; optional flexible spending accounts; paid holidays, vacation and sick time; membership in the Florida Retirement System; professional development; and a tuition reimbursement program. Resumes and other information submitted in response to this advertisement are public records pursuant to Chapter 119 Florida Statutes. Hiring decisions are contingent upon results of a background check and pre-employment physical with alcohol/drug testing. Applicants must apply online to Job Opening 61974 by March 07, 2021 at www.miamidade.gov/jobs.         Miami-Dade County is an Equal Employment Opportunity Employer

Certified Operator A, B, or C

The City of Cocoa is currently accepting applications for state Certified Operators. All applicants must hold at least a minimum “C” operator’s license. To view position details and apply online. https:// www.cocoafl.org/1204/Employment-Opportunities EOE/m/f/v/d


The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2021



Test Yourself Answer Key From page 16

January 2016

Editorial Calendar

January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index AWWA ACE21�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37 Blue Planet ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 47 Data Flow��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 33 Florida Aquastore������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Exhibitor Registration������������������� 34 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Call for Papers������������������������������� 35 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship Fund�������������������������������������������� 36 FSAWWA 2020 Awards����������������������������������������������������������������������� 38 FWPCOA Online Training Institute���������������������������������������������������� 39 FWPCOA Training Calendar��������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Gerber���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Grundfos���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41 Heyward������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 Hydro International������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 J&S Valve��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25 Lakeside Equipment����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Smith Lawless������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 UF TREEO Center�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29 Vaughn Nugent������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 15 Water Treatment Controls������������������������������������������������������������������ 11 Xylem���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 48

46 March 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. C) July 1

Per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Best Practices Factsheet, “A CWS must deliver its CCR to customers by July 1 of each year. It must also make a good-faith effort to deliver the CCR to consumers who do not directly pay water bills.”

2. B) August 10.

Per FAC 62-550.825(3)(e)(1)b, Consumer Confidence Reports, “Systems shall demonstrate compliance with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 141.155(c) by…sending to the appropriate office of the department a certification that the report has been distributed, that the information is correct, and that the information is consistent with compliance monitoring data. The certification must be sent by August 10 annually.”

3. B) All detected contaminants.

Per the EPA Preparing Your Drinking Water CCR, “An essential part of the CCR is the table that shows the highest level of each detected contaminant (this is usually the value you report to the state to determine compliance) and the range of levels of that contaminant you found during the CCR calendar year (assuming more than one sample was collected). A detected contaminant is any “regulated” or “unregulated” (as required under 40 CFR 141.40) contaminant detected at or above its method detection limit (MDL).”

4. C  ) opportunities for public participation in decisions affecting drinking water quality.

Per the EPA Preparing Your Drinking Water CCR, “You must provide the following information about your water system: • The name and telephone number of a person at the water system who can answer questions about the report: Preparing Your Drinking Water CCR 8 April 2010 • A list of known opportunities for public participation in decisions that affect drinking water quality (e.g., time and place of regularly scheduled water board or city/county council meetings). If you do not have regularly scheduled meetings, you should tell customers how to get information when meetings are announced. Systems that have a large proportion of non-English speaking residents must include information in the appropriate language(s) expressing the importance of the CCR or the CCR must contain a phone number or address where residents may contact your system to obtain a translated copy of the CCR or assistance in the appropriate language. The state or EPA will make the determination of which systems need to include this information.”

5. D) Treatment technique violation

Per the EPA Preparing Your Drinking Water CCR, “In addition to detected contaminants, the CCR rule requires that all violations of treatment techniques be reported in a detected contaminant table(s).”

6. D) Only results where the single highest result exceeds the MCL.

Per FAC 62-550.824(1)(j)1.b, Consumer Confidence Reports, “The table of secondary contaminants analytical results shall contain only analytical results for secondary contaminants where the highest single sample result exceeds the MCL.”

7. D  ) Immediately after the title of the report.

Per FAC 62-550.824(2), Consumer Confidence

Reports, “Use of Language Other Than English. Under 40 CFR 141.153(h)(3), where the proportion of non-English speaking residents served by the system exceeds 20 percent of the total number of consumers served by the system, consumer confidence reports shall contain: information in the appropriate language(s) regarding the nature and importance of the report and a telephone number or address where such residents may contact the system to obtain a translated copy of the report or assistance in understanding the report. A statement to this effect shall be included in the report immediately after the title of the report.”

8. A) fecal-indicator positive groundwater source sample.

Per the EPA Preparing Your Drinking Water CCR, “The Groundwater Rule requires that you provide special notice in the CCRs for the following two situations: Special Notice for Uncorrected Significant Deficiencies - If you are a groundwater system that receives notice from the state of a significant deficiency, you must inform your customers of any significant deficiencies that are not corrected by December 31 of the year covered by your CCR…Special Notice for a Fecal-Indicator Positive Groundwater Source Sample - If you are a groundwater system that receives notice from a laboratory of a fecal-indicator positive groundwater source sample and the sample is not invalidated by the state, you must inform your customers in the next CCR.”

9. C) 10,000

Per FAC 62-550.824(2)(d)1, Consumer Confidence Reports, “Mailing Waiver. In accordance with 40 CFR 141.155(g), the state of Florida waives the requirement that community water systems serving fewer than 10,000 persons mail or directly deliver to each billing customer their consumer confidence reports provided that the systems have not had any MCL or monitoring and reporting (M/R) violations, nor have been issued formal notices of violations (NOVs), consent orders, administrative orders, or court-ordered civil actions during the year covered by the CCR.”

10. A  ) Including a website address that is a direct link to the CCR on customer utility bills.

Per the EPA Memorandum, Safe Drinking Water Act - Consumer Confidence Report Rule Delivery Options, “1. Electronic delivery must provide the CCR in a manner that is “direct.” The EPA interprets this rule requirement to mean that CWSs can use paper or electronic communication (e.g., water bill) with URLs to meet their CCR requirement if the URL provides a direct link to the CCR, and if the communication prominently displays the URL and a notice explaining the nature of the link. In addition, the link must take the customer to the entire CCR so that the customer does not have to navigate to another webpage to find any required CCR content. 2. Use of social media (e.g., Twitter or Facebook) directed at bill-paying customers does not meet the requirement to “directly deliver” since these are membership internet outlets and would require customers to join the website to read their CCR.” 3. The use of automated phone calls (e.g., emergency telephone notification systems) to distribute CCRs is not considered direct delivery, because the entire content of the CCR cannot be provided in the phone call. 4. If a CWS is aware of a customer’s inability to receive a CCR by the chosen electronic means, it must provide the CCR by an alternative means allowed by the rule.”




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