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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office: P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Lisa Prieto (FWEA) Prieto Environmental LLC Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

51 FWPCOA Training Calendar 65 TREEO Center Training

News and Features 4 It’s Time for P4: A Different Way to Manage Utility Services—Honey Rand 8 FDEP Northwest District Presents Environmental Stewardship Award 29 AWWA Announces Annual Utility Benchmarking Survey 30 Benefits of Membership in a Professional Organization—Debbie Wallace 43 North Port Facility Earns Water Landmark Award 44 Seven Entries Earn Awards in the 2019 Operator Ingenuity Contest 48 Traceability, Accountability, and Diversification Come to the Fore as the Energy Sector Enters a New Decade—Colin Beaney 49 It’s Coming: Water Conservation Month and Water Conservation Awards for Excellence— Keeli Carlton 60 Celebrate 2020 National Drinking Water Week! 62 WEF HQ Newsletter: States and EPA Coordinating on Best Approaches to Nutrients Permitting—Mark Patrick McGuire and Katie Foreman 64 News Beat 69 Correction

Columns 17 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 24 FWEA Focus—Michael W. Sweeney 32 Committee Profile: FSAWWA Water Equation Committee—Kristen Sealey 34 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kowalski 42 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 45 FWEA Committee Corner: Seminar Presents Timely Collection Systems Issues—Rich Schici and Fabier Fernandez 50 FWRJ Reader Profile—Jessica Green 52 Let’s Talk Safety: How to Conduct a Safety Tailgate

Departments 35 New Products 67 Classifieds 70 Display Advertiser Index

Technical Articles 18 Turn Emergency Engine-Generator Assets Into Revenue Sources—Lucas Botero, Steven Scott, Tammy Martin, and Jim Ferguson 36 Achieving a Reduced Energy Bill: From Planning to Implementation—Alonso Griborio, Eric Stanley, Janeen Wietgrefe, Steve Urich, J.J. Ameno III, and Carmen Sajin 54 Carbon Diversion and its Role in Energy Efficiency—Harold E. Schmidt Jr. and Sangeeta Dhulashia

Education and Training 9 25 26 27 28 29 31 34

Florida Water Resources Conference FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers AWWA ACE20 Golf Tournament FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest FSAWWA Awards CEU Challenge AWWA ACE20

Volume 71

ON THE COVER: The Rainbow River, which is part of the spring shed area in the City of Dunnellon. To learn how the city addressed costs, quality service, and regulatory and environmental issues go to page 4. (photo: City of Dunnellon)

March 2020

Number 3

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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It’s Time for P4: A Different Way to Manage Utility Services Honey Rand The City of Dunnellon had a struggling and costly water and sewer system. Most water and sewer utilities are revenue generators for local governments; Dunnellon, however, had serious challenges and they were piling up.

The Challenges of Growth In July 2011, the city had 1110 customers; by January 2012, its customer base had swelled to 3205. More than 65 percent of the customers were outside the city limits in acquired formerly private systems. It was planned to place an out-of-city surcharge on those customers to finance the system acquisitions. The plan was challenged in court, and Dunnellon abandoned the surcharge proposal, leaving the city with high debt, strained staffing, revenue constraints, and high rates. The city was in urgent need of improvement, including regulatory and environmental compliance projects. By 2017, its utility was seriously struggling. City leaders hired consultants to assess the situation and recommend strategies for the utility. The consultants recommended three potential approaches: S Outsource operations S Rebuild the city department S Divest and sell the system to a private utility The choices came down to two: divesting or outsourcing operations and maintenance (O&M) services. The city council debated the merits of outsourcing or selling, either of which would bring significant rate increases. The utility, however, already had some of the highest rates in the area.

The Privatization Option In the United States, privatization has never been a favorite option among government water/wastewater service providers. While many local, regional, and state governments outsource some services (including O&M), most prefer to maintain strict control over source water extraction, operations, and distribution and wastewater collection and treatment. About 75 percent of water/wastewater utilities in the U.S. are owned and operated by a government entity. Dunnellon, a beautiful little community positioned in a spring shed area that includes the Rainbow and Withlacoochee rivers, was concerned about

costs for customers, ensuring quality service, and regulatory and environmental issues. Dunnellon wanted—no, needed—to get to the best answer for its community. It needed a way out—a sustainable path going forward.

A New Path Forward When Robert Sheets established Government Services Group (GSG) more than 22 years ago, his vision was to be a partner with local governments by providing, from the private sector side, quality public sector options, services, and support. In 1999, GSG, in response to requests from local governments, found a solution based on legislation that passed in 1969. That year, the Florida Legislature adopted legislation that allowed for the formation of collaborative utilities. “All over Florida, governments were telling us about the challenges of dealing with small package plants for water and wastewater service delivery. These facilities were built by developers to serve new construction— sometimes small neighborhoods, sometimes larger areas,” Sheets said. Local governments were plagued by expensive and sometimes poorly functioning small water and wastewater plants, which dotted communities throughout the state. Sometimes, the developers sold the plants to private utilities; occasionally, they were transferred to the users. But consistently, the utilities cost more to operate, maintain, and improve, and struggled to be profitable. This led to maintenance deferrals, customer complaints, and other management issues. Residents often complained to local governments begging for relief from high rates and low-quality service. In some cases, drinking water quality suffered, and residents were concerned about health and environmental issues. Searching for affordable and accessible management solutions on behalf of local governments, GSG established the Florida Governmental Utility Authority (FGUA) in 1999. The purpose of FGUA was to create a structure for local governments to work together to acquire and manage these facilities on behalf of the member governments, which initially included Brevard, Lee, Polk, and Sarasota counties. Since then, FGUA has bonded more than $1 billion in funding for water and wastewater facilities, and currently serves 120,000 customer connections dispersed across Florida in 13 counties and 86 communities. The FGUA has no employees, though it’s a special-purpose governContinued on page 6

Location of Dunnellon and Marion County.

City of Dunnellon Wastewater Treatment Plant.

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Continued from page 4 ment held to all of the Sunshine Laws, and the transparency and accountability standards of every local government. It’s like an expressway authority or port authority, but for water and wastewater management. The FGUA board of directors is comprised of government officials appointed by the member governments where the utilities are located. They are not elected officials, but are city or county managers, utility directors, and other executive staff. The board oversees and directs FGUA policies, plans, and operations, but the member governments are not liable for any debt. Not every FGUA system “host government” decides to join the board, but each has the right to join when the FGUA acquires its facilities. For example, FGUA provides water and wastewater services to 25 systems in Lake County; the county elected not to join the board, but it operates under an interlocal agreement. This model has been so successful that FGUA has been contacted by other local governments to establish similar structures outside of Florida.

Dunnellon Takes the Plunge After considering its options, Dunnellon turned to FGUA. It was a fourth option beyond the normal public-private partnership (P3)—a public-public-private partnership, or P4. While every utility transfer and contract is complicated, Dunnellon’s situation called for more than due diligence. In a public meeting, Rick Hancock, Dunnellon’s vice mayor, noted that when the city took ownership of the systems in Rio Vista, Rainbow Springs, and Juliette Falls, the city "outgrew" what it had to "effectively manage, control, or afford" the utilities. "We also lost the ability to make these utilities a reasonable value to the utility or user," he added. "Debt costs will be high, and capital replacement could go unfunded. The FGUA option allowed us to get out of excessive debt and out of the management responsibilities.” To effectively manage customer rates, however, FGUA would have to do more than leverage its A-grade credit rating; it would need to seek additional funds from the state or federal government for improvements to lower the cost of the capital and ensure environmental protection. Because the majority of Dunnellon's customers live in unincorporated Marion County, the county would need to sign off on any purchase agreement. Concerned about its residents, and having already taken a pass on acquiring Dunnellon’s water and sewer system, the county was prepared to support the best solution for customers. It already had representatives sitting on the FGUA board, and there are nine other FGUA systems in Marion County. The P4 alternative from FGUA provided a level of accountability and participation that privatization alone never could. Different from a P3 solution, all of the risk would transfer to FGUA, lifting a considerable expense and liability from Dunnellon. Better still, having acquired so many facilities over two decades, local governments know that FGUA is "one of them." Moreover, FGUA comes with significant financial benefits.

Rainbow River.

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

As Dunnellon’s city council evaluated this opportunity, FGUA began the due diligence process. It took nearly a year to understand and document the system’s condition and finances and find appropriate funding. The working plan called for FGUA to execute the priority capital improvement projects, including removing small wastewater plants and septic systems in a fragile spring shed, abandon an outdated wastewater plant in Rainbow Springs, and interconnect that system with an existing environmentally compliant city plant. The FGUA also took over operation of the utility in advance of the acquisition.

National Involvement The FGUA began pursuing a loan from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Rural Development Loan Program for the acquisition. The loan has very low financing costs that are highly favorable to customers and it would replace the city’s higher-cost debt. “By using low-cost loans, we reduce pressure on the system,” explained Steve Spratt, GSG vice president for municipal services and FGUA system manager. “If we acquire it, we improve the system, maintain it, and stabilize rates; we also fix many items and overhaul plants. I think we're uniquely qualified to do all of these things and improve the system." Because it’s a government entity, existing and future grants from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the Southwest Florida Water Management District could be assigned to FGUA to carry out critical environmental projects. “We’re all very familiar with the poor choices made in the past that have gotten us here,” said Hancock. "With this sale, the city should no longer have to apologize for those mistakes, and it’s time to turn the page. Dunnellon can now spend its time and energy moving forward to new opportunities. The sale of the city utility is in the public’s best interest, and in the interest of all the public partners."

The Deal The term sheet included no rate increases upon acquisition and a consumer price index adjustment could happen in 2020, but FGUA has said it will decide what to do based on conditions at the time. The rate consultant (before the FGUA acquisition) estimated that, under continued city ownership, rates would have had to increase by 17.45 percent. The total purchase price was $12.2 million. After paying off $10.8 million in existing debt and other transaction fees, Dunnellon was left with $1.323 million for its general fund to replenish its reserves. The FGUA received all existing cash balances, including a bond construction fund to complete priority capital projects. The FGUA also applied for and received the first-ever Department of Agriculture Rural Development 40-year loan at 2.75 percent interest amortized over 30 years. This new debt structure results in savings to customers of $250,000. The city is eligible for future payments beyond reserved capacity for new connections up to 10 years. A $2.3 million springs grant from FDEP was reassigned to FGUA as a priority environmental project. The FDEP added an additional $2.7 million for expanded protections. The FGUA will own the facilities for a minimum of five years, after which the city has first right of refusal to reacquire them, and if they pass, Marion County can purchase them. “This deal represents the best option for the citizens of southwest Marion County who are served by this system,” said Walter Green, Dunnellon mayor. “Every effort will be made to continue to work on every grant opportunity that’s available through federal and state levels, and all grant money goes right back into the pockets of the citizens.” All contractual items were approved unanimously by the FGUA board, the Dunnellon city council, and the Marion County Commission, and there was no opposition at any public meeting. As it turned out, the search for a solution proved to be one that was win-win-win for everyone involved—especially the customers. S Honey Rand, Ph.D., is an author living in Tampa.


FDEP Northwest District Presents Environmental Stewardship Award District recognizes Pensacola for work to protect Florida's natural resources The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Northwest District has recognized the city of Pensacola for outstanding environmental stewardship. The environmental stewardship awards program recognizes businesses, professional and community organizations, and local governments within FDEP's Northwest District for proactive, innovative, and exceptional achievements that prevent or reduce impacts on the environment beyond measures required by permit or rule. To be considered for recognition, participants must demonstrate significant and measurable achievements that provide a direct benefit to the environment. “On behalf of FDEP and the state of Florida, I am proud to recognize the city of Pensacola for its accomplishments and environmental stewardship,” said Shawn Hamilton, director of FDEP’s Northwest District. “With outstanding community partners like the city of Pensacola that go above and beyond what is required of them, we can better protect, conserve,

and manage Florida’s natural resources for future generations.” The city of Pensacola’s nomination highlights stormwater projects to improve drainage and provide treatment of stormwater to help protect water quality. The improvements not only provide a higher level of treatment, but the city of Pensacola also chose to take an innovative approach and provide residents and visitors with attractive parks. The projects are colocated and incorporated into parks and gathering places, adding recreational, educational, and economic value to the community. The city’s program also improves water quality and helps to restore and sustain the biodiversity of bay systems by providing aquatic and wetland habitat for many wildlife species. Based on population and geographic size, the program is one of the most aggressive and effective retrofit programs in the state. Featured projects include: S The Bill Gregory Park Regional Stormwater Treatment Facility project provides treatment

From left: Kerrith Fiddler, assistant city administrator; Brad Hinote, engineering project manager; Chris Mauldin, engineering specialist; Derrik Owens, public works and facilities director; and Shawn Hamilton, director of FDEP’s Northwest District.

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

of stormwater runoff from 37 acres that previously discharged untreated stormwater into the eastern headwaters of Bayou Chico. Improvements include a two-tier treatment train system with proprietary pretreatment units upstream to remove debris prior to entering a wet detention pond. The pond is 2.5 acres in size, has an innovative approach to stormwater management, and includes multiple ecological benefits. In addition to providing treatment, the pond is home to a variety of plants, birds, and aquatic animal species. The park spans 5.9 acres and features two youth baseball fields utilized by parent-led youth baseball leagues. Additional elements and amenities include enhanced LED lighting, walking paths, a boardwalk, benches, extensive landscaping, parking, and passive reflection areas. S The “R” Street at Maggie's Ditch Stormwater Treatment Enhancement Project captures and provides an element of treatment for stormwater runoff from 225 acres of primarily commercial area previously discharging untreated runoff directly into Maggies' Ditch, an artificial wetland tributary that discharges to the headwaters of eastern Bayou Chico. Improvements include a proprietary underground treatment unit to remove an estimated 50 percent of total suspended solids and debris/floatables prior to release to Maggie's Ditch. It’s estimated that the system will remove approximately 20 tons of solids annually. The project also protects the already completed Maggie's Ditch Wetland Enhancement Phase I and II projects. The award was presented last year during the district’s annual open house on December 12, aimed at growing the awareness of the agency’s mission, increasing communication, and developing collaborative relationships. Guests were invited to meet the district’s staff and leadership team. Permitting and compliance experts from FDEP’s regulatory programs (waste, air, water and environmental resources) were on hand to answer questions and provide information about their respective programs to approximately 100 attendees. Additional FDEP staff members from the Florida Park Service, Office of Resiliency and Coastal Protection, and Emergency Response were also in attendance. S


IT’S ALL ABOUT Reclamation and Reuse FL Water Environment Environm Associa Associationn P t bl WWate Potable Water t Young Profession Professionals Women of Water Biosolids solid FL Section Ame American can Water Works AAssoc. oc S t i bilit Sustainability Resource Recovery FL Water & Pollution Control Operators Assoc. Green Infrastructures High School & University Students Regulatory & Legislative Stormwater

WA WAT W AT R AT and YOU! O

April 26-29, 2020 „ Palm Beach County Conventio on Center

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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Sunnday Su Sunday day a

FA C I L I T Y T O U R : FA We W est Palm Beach

Student Deesign Competition Resume Woorkshop President’ss Welcome Reception Young Proffessionals & Student Social Monday ay

Ope O rations ti Challe Ch ll nge g CCompetition in FWRC Awarrds Luncheon FL Select Socie S ty Sanitary Sludgee Shoveleers Breakfast & Inducttion Contractorrs Council Student Posster Contest Exhibit Flooor Reception “Nightcap wit w h FWRC” Tuesday uessday sday

FSAWWAA Reegional & Council Chaiirs Breakfast Young Proffessionals Symposium Top Ops Coompetition FWEAA Annuual Meeting & Awards w Lunch L Best Drinking Water Contest Prizes & Drrawings Hourly Wednesday ed essday ednes dayy

FWEAA Utilitty Council Annual Meeting t & Breaakfast

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Tou our the newly updated City of o West e Palm Beach 0 MGD G to include the C 50 City’s UV treatment process and d the historic 1926 West High H Service Pump Sta ation. To our departs from Convention Center Sunday, April 26 @ 1 p.m. Liimited registration.

HOTELS Hilt Hi Hilto ilto il lltto ton on

60 00 Oke Ok ke eech ec echo ch ho ob be ee e e Blv Blvd., lvd. d.., W WP PB

85 855 855-757-4 55--75 55-7 757-4 7--4 4985 498 4985 85

Ea asy to book hotel online or when calling, identify yourself as a Florida Water a Re esources Attendee and d obtain the discounted room rate, available until MA ARCH 15,, 2020. Reservatiions received after tha at date will be accepted on n a space-available basis only, and the group ratte may not apply. Bo oth hotels within walking dis stance of convention center.

Ma Marri arrri a arr rri riot i ttt iott

1001 00 01 Oke Oke eech ec echo ch ho hob obe be ee e Blv Blvd., vd d.., W d., WP PB

800 80 800-228-9 0---22 -2 22 28 2828-9 8--9 92 929 9290 290 29

Otther Hotels Nearby: Hilton Palm Beach Airport 15 50 Australian Ave. WPB •( 561) 684-9400 Do oubleT Tree WPB Airport 18 808 S Australian Ave. •(561) 68 89-6888 La a Quinta Inn & Suites WPB Airpo ort 19 910 Palm Beach Lakes Blvd. WP PB•(561) 689-8540


#1 South Florida Issues Monday, April 27 - 8:00 A.M. • Room 1F QQQQQ

#2 Air Quality Monday, April 27 - 8:00 A.M. • Room 1E QQQQQ

#3 Understanding Collection C Systems Monday, April 27 - 1:30 P.M M. • Room 1D The purpose of this workshop iss to provide attendees with a resourcee highlighting programs and practices to impprove various aspects of collection systems. The workshop will include informatioon on the topics below, as well as a roundtable discussion to give participants an a opportunity to share their own expperience and lessons learned. • I/I Programs • Sustainability Programs • Service Lateral Lining • Options for Septic to Sewer

Teechnic chniccal al Progra PPro rogrraaam m

QQQQQ

#4 Online Water Quality Monitoring for Drinking Water and Wastewater Utilities

South Floridaa Water Issuess:

Monday, April 27 - 1:30 P.M M. • Room 1E A growing number of drinking water and wastewater utilities is installingg online water quality monitoring (OWQM) sennsors in their source waters, distribution systems, and collection systems to provide real-time information that can be ussed to quickly detect changes that can impact system s operations and water treatmennt, determine their cause, and decide whetherr response actions are needed. This workshop w will cover how utilities have installed OWQM systems to achieve a range of o monitoring goals, provide information on thee guidance products and collaboration opportunities o provided by the U.S. EP PA to helpp utilities with OWQM system design, and a describe a utility user’s group for OWQM M that provides participants with an oopportunity to connect with other utilities, learnn from their successes and challengees, and apply lessons learned to improve their own systems.

QQQQQ

#5 The Rapidly Chaanging Landscape of PF FAS - Detection, Regulattion and Treatment Chaallenges

Panel Discussioon

Water Reuse, Resources and Recovery Roundtable

Tuesday, April 28 - 8:00 A.M. • Room 1F This session will address the im mpact of PFAS on drinking water, wasstewater, and reclaimed water. An overview off relevant and upcoming regulatory annd legislative activities will be presented by AW WW WA. A AW WW WA has developed a series of informational materials to support pp drinkingg watter systems y with PFAS issues. The new w Utilityy Risk Assessment Guide for PFAS wiill be presented. Traditional wastewatter treatment processes are not designed too remove PFAS. How will utilities address this emergent issue? An overview off typical remediation techniques for PF FAS removal will be addressed. The results foor trial studies at Australian commerciaal sites will be presented and explain how PFAS S moves in the water cycle.

Wommen of Water

Contractors Council

QQQQQ

#6 Wastewater Mod deling Tuesday, April 28 - 8:00 A.M. • Room 1E QQQQQ

#7 Legislative and R Regulatory Update Tuesday, April 28 - 2:30 P.M M. • Room 1F QQQQQ

#8 Land Application n of Wastewater Biosolids – Management and Challenges Tuesday, April 28 - 2:30 P.M M. • Room 1E Land application of biosolids thaat are treated to federal, state and locaal regulations is a cost-effffective method of w waste disposal; however, growing environmental and health concerns are drivingg regulators to reconsider existing rulees. In recent years, increasing algal bloomss in Florida water bodies have eleevated these concerns prompting counties sttatewide to consider banning land applicatio a n of

a overview of best management certain classes of bbiosolids. This workshop will provide an practices, p , upcoming p g regulations, g , contaminants of emergin g ngg concern and challenges g faced by utilities that are or will be afffected f by the ban. Online Water Quality Monitoring for Drinking Water and Wastewater Utilities. A growing numberr of drinking water and wastewater utilities u is installing online water quality monitoring (OWQM) sensors in their source waaters, distribution systems, and collection systems to provide real-time information thatt can be used to quickly detect changes that can im mpact system operations and water trreatment, determine their cause, and decide whetheer response actions are needed. This workshop will cover how utilities w have installed OWQ QM systems to achieve a range of monitoring goals, provide information on the guidance products and collaboration opportunitiees provided by the U.S. EPA to help utilities with OWQM O system design, and describe a utility user ’s group for OWQM that provides particcipants with an opportunity to connecct with other utilities, learn from their successes andd challenges, and apply lessons learneed to improve their own systems.

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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   Sessi on

T i me

Company

 

TRAC K A: U TILITY MANAG EMENT 1 8:00 A M Nestorr S otel e o, P E 2 8:30 A M James Murrin, P E 3 9:00 A M S hea Dunifon 4 9:30 A M Mike McGill 5 10:00 A M Frank Cougghenour, P E

Room 2A Hazen and S awyer B rown and Caldw well P inellas County Utilities WaterP IO Waterr & Wastew water E ngineering S vcs, LLC

TRAC K B: WASTEWATER TREATMENT I Room 2B matidis, P E , CDM S mith 1 8:00 A M Y anni P olem BCEE, EE PM MP 2 8:30 A M David O'Connor o , P E , B CE E A rcadis 3 4 5

9:00 A M Feng Jiang, P E 9:30 A M K evin Lee, P E 10:00 A M Mahsa Mehhrdad, P hD

Paper T i tl e

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: P inellas County Wasstewaterr & S tormwaterr P artnership E ffective S takeholdeerr Involvement in One Waterr P rogram ms Technical S peaking: Communicating E ffectively with Nonn-technical A udiences Using P ublic Communi u cations to Gain S upport for Infrastructure Fundin Innovative P retreatment P rogram is a Win - Win for Utility and Industries Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: Newerr Isn't A lways B etter: A Holistic A pproach to Headw works Rehabilitation o Challenges with Grit Removal and P errformance E valuation

City of Hollywoodd Mead & Hunt E nvironmental Operating S olutions E OS i

A Case S tudy: Modified E ffluent P iping Could B e Operated A s Weir Control B revard County WWTF E xpansion With Innovative B iologgical P rocess The Role of Glycerol on E B P R P rocess in Utilities with S hort A naerobic HRT

TRAC K C : STORMWATER & G REEN INFRASTRU C TU RE u as Molina, P E , 1 8:00 A M P hoebe Cuev LEED AP 8: 8 30 A M Natthan h Wal alker, A ICP 2 3 9:00 A M Md Y easir A rif Rahman 4 9:30 A M Tommy S trowd, P E 5 10:00 A M S hawn Walldeck, P E

Room 2C E rdman A nthony

As s is tant Moderator: Moderator: Reducing S ea Level Rise Impacts in an Intracoastal Water erway Community on S inger

Gannettt Fleming University of S ouuth Florida Lake Worth Drainnage District Jacobs E ngineering, Inc.

Using P ubl blic Funds d to Installl Green Inffrastructure on P rivatte P roperty B iocharr amended B ior o etention S ystems forr Nitrogen and E scherichia Coli Removal f K eeping P ace with Motherr Nature with Real-Time S tormwaterr Management Caloosahatchee River er C-43 West B asin S torage Reserrvooir GIS A pplications forr QA

TRAC K D : POTABLE WATER TREATMENT I mar 1 8:00 A M P ranjali K um 2 8:30 A M A shleigh S mith, P E 3 9:00 A M Lia Dombros o ki, E I 4 9:30 A M P aul B iscarrdi, P hD, P E 5 10:00 A M P eterr D'A dam d o, P hD, P E

Room 2D Carollo E ngineers City of Titusville A rcadis Hazen and S awyer HDR

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: S electing Right Technol h ogies forr Colorr & TOC Removal from Florida's Groundwater P rocess Optimizationn forr S olids Handling at the Mourningg Dove WTP Upgrades to Hollywood o Finished Waterr P ump S tation Ressolves V ortexing and Inc A Novel A pproach to Optimizing Waterr Quality in a Diverse Regional S ystem How Green is My Waater? A ddressing Harmful A lgal B loom ms through Ozone and P eroxon

TRAC K E: C OLLEC TION SYSTEMS I o an, P E 1 8:00 A M Michael Condr 2 8:30 A M Justin Midggette, P E 3 9:00 A M Jason Warren, P E 4 9:30 A M Nicholas E ckhardt, P E a mer, P E 5 10:00 A M Timothy P al

Room 2E E lectro S can, Incc. E merald Coast Utilities A uth. Tetra Tech B lack & V eatch Wade Trim

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: Hillsborough County's Innovative P ipe Inspection A dds E fficiency and A ccuracy S mall P roject, B ig Gains: S anitary S ewerr Lateral Lining E ffectiveness Weathering the S torm: K eeping Y our Lift S tations Clearr in E mergency Conditions Hillsborough County Wet Well Dilemma: Fall P rotection p 54-inch Force Main Condition A ssessment & Rehabilitation of a City of Tampa

TRAC K F - WORKSHOP 1 1 8:00 A M SOUTH FLORIDA WA ATER ISSUES TRAC K G - WORKSHOP 2 1 8:00 A M A IR QUA LITY

Room 1F

Moderator:

As s is tant Moderator:

Room 1E

Moderator:

As s is tant Moderator:

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12

March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


    Sessi on

T i me

Name

Company

Paper T i tl e

Room 2A AECOM B rown and Caldw well Freese and Nichools, Inc. Woodard & Curran a EMA Inc. Carollo E ngineers

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: Rehabilitation and Reenewal Focusedd Condition andd Operat a ional A ssessment Using Drones to Inspec p t Hard-to-reach A ssets Taking a Capital P rogram from $16M to $400M in 5 Y ears Flat 0 to 60: How Groveland' a s Utilities A re A dapting to E xplossive Growth Utility Focuses Their S CA DA Masterr P lan on A dvancing the Use of E xisting S ystems The Modern E lectronnic Operation Manual E OM S ystem

TRAC K B: WASTEWATER TREATMENT II b io, P hD, P E 6 1:30 P M A lonso Gribor 7 2:00 P M Duncan Lozzinski, E I 8 2:30 P M Teri P insonn, P E 9 3:00 P M Nicole S tepphens, P E a veloo, P E 10 3:30 P M E nrique V adi 11 4:00 P M Isaiah S happiro, P E

Room 2B Hazen and S awyer B rown and Caldw well S t. Johns County Utility Dept. S tantec Hazen and S awyer Hillsborough Couunty Water Resources Dept.

As s is tant Moderator: Moderator: Utilizing S electors to Facilitate the P ath to Densification of o A ctivated S ludge Impact of Hydrocycloneo based Wasting on S ettling and Nutrient Reduction S uccessful Fast-Track A dvanced Wastewater Treatmentt WRF Implementation To E xpand, orr To Inttensify? Chattanooga's A naerobic Diges g tion Question Three Case S tudies of S truvite Mitigation A lternatives Hillsborough County NWRWRF - Consolidated, E xpandedd and P owered by a Jet E ngine

TRAC K C : SU STAINABILITY / WATER SU PPLY 6 1:30 P M Matahel A ns n ar, P E 7 2:00 P M Maureen Wingfield, P E 8 2:30 P M Godofredo Canino,, P E , EE PMP, BCE 9 3:00 P M K athleen Gierok, P E mas, P E 10 3:30 P M Mary Thom 11 4:00 P M K irk Martin,, P G

Room 2C S FWMD City of S t. P etersburg CDM S mith

As s is tant Moderator: Moderator: First CE P P P roject Nearing Completion Will Deliverr More Waterr to the E verglades Informing P lanning thr h ough Operation with E nvision, a S us u tainability Framework Resiliency in Miami-Dade: B ridgi g ngg P olicy and Desiggn

Wright-P ierce Carollo E ngineers Waterr S cience A ssociates

Waterr forr a Thirsty Florida - A Regional A pproach P RWC Tackles Regional Waterr S upply Needs/E nvironment e al S tewardship Head-on Carbon Dioxide Treattment Revives Wellfield P erformance

TRAC K D : POTABLE WATER TREATMENT II b ti, P E 6 1:30 P M Jenniferr Ribot 7 2:00 P M Todd S turtz, P E 8 2:30 P M Christopherr Hill, P E , B CE E , ENV SP 9 3:00 P M Y uJung Chang, P hD 10 3:30 P M Jolynn Reynolds, P E 11 4:00 P M S amantha B lack, P hD, P E

Room 2D Tetra Tech Desalitech Mead & Hunt AECOM Florida K eys A quueduct A uth. HDR

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: P re- and P ost-Treatment Considerations forr P alm B ay's RO S RWTP E xpansion L est Life Cycle Cost RO A utonomous Closed Circuit RO: Highest Recovery and Low Impacts of P FA S annd E merging Contaminants to Waterr S upply and Treatment P lanning P FA S in Waterr S ystems: Treatment and Fate in the Watterr Cycle Florida K eys A queduuct A uthority's A pproach to A ddressing n Future Regulations P ilot Testing the Rem moval of P er- and P oly-Fluoroalkyl S ubstances from Groundwat

TRAC K E: D ISTR T IBU TION SYSTE T MS 6 1:30 P M S tuart Jeffccoat, P hD, P E 7 2:00 P M William Lovvins, P hD, P E 8 2:30 P M P eterr D'A damo, P hD, P E 9 3:00 P M Daniel K eck, P E

Room 2E HDR AECOM HDR Mott MacDonald

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: Utility's Guide to Undderstanding & P reparing for the Revised Lead & Copperr Rule Optimizing RO P ost-treatment forr Long-term Lead and Copperr Rule Compliance Diverse Distribution S ystem Challenges from Diversified S upplies Innovative Wtr P ump S tation Design P rovides S ubstantial a Capital & E nergy S avings

TRAC K A: U tility Management II 6 1:30 P M Jeremy K occh, P E , P MP 7 2:00 P M Tonya S immons, P E 8 2:30 P M Drew Hardin, P E d 9 3:00 P M Glenn B urden 10 3:30 P M Nicholas Claudio, P E n l 11 4:00 P M S tephen S nel

10 3:30 P M S cott Richaards, P E Carollo E ngineers 11 4:00 P M B ruce Neu, P E Mott MacDonald TRAC K F: WORKSHOP 3 Room 1F 6 1:30 P M UNDE RS TA NDING COLLE CTION S Y S TE MS TRAC K G : WORKSHOP 4 Room 1E 6 1:30 P M ONLINE MONITORING

P roactive E mergency: Replacing Daytona B each's Most Critical Waterr P ipe Implementation of Laarge Diameterr P ipeline Challenges annd Lessons Learned Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: Moderator:

As s is tant Moderator:

R Register Online e





ORG G Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

13


   Sessi on

T i me

Name

Company

Paper T i tl e

TRAC K A: REC LAMATI ON & REU SE I 12 8:00 A M S cott K nighht, P hD, P E 13 8:30 A M P ranjali K um mar 14 9:00 A M Lynn S piveyy 15 9:30 A M Justin deMel e lo, P E 16 10:00 A M A ndrea Netcher, P hD, P E

Room 2A Wetland S olutionss, Inc. Carollo E ngineers City of P lant Cityy Woodard & Curran a Tetra Tech

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: Quantifying the A ncillary B enefits of Constructed Treatment e Wetlands E nhanced S oil A quifeerr Treatment for Indirect P otable Reuuse in Florida E xpanding the P otabble Reuse P aradigm forr B road S trateggic B enefit Can a Low-income Community A fford a P otable Waterr Reus e e S ystem? S etting the S tage forr Innovative P otable Reuse Testing in Hillsborough County

TRAC K B: N U TRI EN T REMOVAL I 12 8:00 A M Weston Hagggen, P E 13 8:30 A M Derek B iebeer, P E 14 9:00 A M K evin Nash, h PE 15 9:30 A M Larry Li, P hhD 16 10:00 A M Daniel Dair

Room 2B Reiss E ngineeringg, Inc. Hazen and S awyer RK&K V eolia Waterr Tecchnologies World Waterr Worrks

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: S eptic to S ewerr in the h Wekiva B asin B uilt-In Operational Flexibility S trategy to A void Future Cos o tly Modifications P rocess Intensification o of an Oxidation Ditch using B ioMaag Technology How IFA S Helped Multiple Facilities in Florida A chieve E xtremely Low TN Limit Improved B NR P errfoormance Through S elective S ludge Wasting

TRACKK C:: MODELI N G / G I S / COMPU TER APPS 12 8:00 A M P radeep S udi u ni, P E 13 8:30 A M B en S tanfor o d, P hD 14 9:00 A M P eterr Martin, B S 15 9:30 A M A li A lnahit 16 10:00 A M A rturo Leonn, P hD

Room 2C A rcadis Hazen and S awyer X ylem Clemson University Florida Internationnal Univ.

As s is tant Moderator: Moderator: Tools-kit forr B uilding and Updating Hydraulic Models Case S tudies of Innoovation and Technology A doption in Waterr and Reuse Machine Learning andd A I forr Waterr Utilities - Junk orr Jewel? Triumph orr Trash? E valuation of P recipitation P roducts forr Waterr Quality Moni o toring Remote and Optimal Operation of a Network of Control Gates forr Flood Control

TRAC K D : WATER QU ALI TY 12 8:00 A M Christopherr Zavatsky, P E 13 8:30 A M Timothy V ander a rwalker, P E , MB A , CDTT 14 9:00 A M Nita Naik, P E 15 9:30 A M Michael S heerer, P E 16 10:00 A M Dave MacNevin, P hD, P E TRAC K E: BI OSOLI D S / RESOU RC E RE R C OVERY 12 8:00 A M K aramjit P aanesar 13 8:30 A M Y ong K im, P hD 14 9:00 A M Terry Gosss, P E 15 9:30 A M A nand Moddy, P E 16 10:00 A M John Willis, PhD, PE, BCEE

Tetra Tech Tetra Tech

Room 2D

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: Commercial / Industrial Corridorr S eptic to S ewerr and the B iscayne A quiferr S upply Improving Waterr Quaality forr an Island Community

A rcadis Freese and Nichools, Inc.

Color-related Waterr Quality Issues? - A Utility's P ath to Finding the Correct S o Rapid Design/Construction of a Membrane WTP to Treat Groundwaterr Quality Issues

CDM S mith

DP R as a Tool forr Rev e italizing B rackish Groundwaterr Dessalination: WQ, Operations

Room 2E University of S ouuth Florida US GI S olutions, Inc. AECOM B rown and Caldw well B rown and Caldw well

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: Food Waste Reductioon and Recovery at the University of S outh Florida P olymerr 101: Chemistry, Handling, A ctivation/Mixing, andd Optimization Innovations with B iossolids P rocess Technologies Challenges of S tartinng Up a B iosolids-to-E nergy Temp-P hhased A naerobic Digestion A B igger-P icture Loook at Florida's Nutrient Loadings

Room 1F Moderator: TRAC K F: WORKSH OP 5 ANDSCAPE OF PFAS A - DETECTION, REGULA ATION AN A D TREATMENT CHALLENGES 12 8:00 A M RAPIDLY CHANGING LA Room 1E Moderator: TRAC K G : WORKSH OP 6 A EW WA ATER MODELING 12 8:00 A M WAST

Monday N ight Networkin g • 9:00 - 10:30 PM • Galley Bar/ B Hilton N ightcap with F WRC - Stop b y on youur way back from dinner and have a d rink with your collleagues

14

March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


    Sessi on

T i me

N ame

Company

Ro o m 2A

Paper T i tl e

TRAC K A: REC LAMATI ON & REU SE I I / SOU TH FLORI D A 17 2:30 P M Ryan P opko, o PE 18 3:00 P M B en S tanfor o d, P hD 19 3:30 P M Melissa V elez, P E , LE E D 20 4:00 P M Michael S chmidt, P E , 21 4:30 P M Chris Tilman, PE, BCEE

JE A Hazen and S awyer B lack & V eatch CDM S mith A rcadis

Mo derato r: As is tant Mo derato r: P otable Reuse Implem e entation in Northeast Florida Filter Upgrades forr Waterr Reuse: P athogen and E mergingg Contaminant Removal Tertiary Filtration P ilot o Testing at MDWA S D's CDWWTP to Meet HLD S tandards Miami Forever: Resilient S tormwater Management forr a Changing Climate How Grant Funding Will Help Relieve K ing Tides and Floooding Issues in S E FL

TRAC K B: N U TRI EN T REMOVAL I I 17 2:30 P M A mit K aldatte, P hD a P E ng, M S c 18 3:00 P M Niclas A strand, 19 3:30 P M B enjamin B arker, M S c 20 4:00 P M Jose Jimennez 21 4:30 P M Nicole S tepphens, P E

Ro o m 2B S uez Waterr Techhnologies S uez Waterr Technol h ogies Y S I Inc. a X ylem m brand B rown and Caldw well S tantec

As s is tant Moderator: Moderator: Improved Intensificattion and Resilience underr P rocess V ar a iability with MA B R ZeeLung MA B R Deaammonification P rocess for High S treength Centrate Treatment New Improvements in A mmonia-B ased A eration Control A B A C Demonstration of S iddestream B io-P and A dvanced A eration Control S trategies S idestream Nitrogen Removal goes Head to Head

TRAC K C : FAC I LI TY OPERATI ON S & MAI N TEN AN C E 17 2:30 P M S cott A ldridge d 18 3:00 P M Timothy War a e, P E , CRL 19 3:30 P M Mark Ludwigson, P E 20 4:00 P M James P appadimitriou, P E 21 4:30 P M Joshua Meinig, P E

Ro o m 2C CDM S mith A rcadis Carollo E ngineers Wright-P ierce CDM S mith

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: K nowledge Capture Using Mixed Reality - A P ilot S tudy Is It Really Critical? Clarifierr E valuation and a Rehabilitation S CA DA Masterr P lannning forr Reliable Operations Leveraging B IM Technol h ogies forr Client Operation

TRAC K D : PFAS o PE 17 2:30 P M Reed B arton, 18 3:00 P M Randy B raley e , PE 19 3:30 P M K risten Jennkins, P E 20 4:00 P M John B raccio, P E 21 4:30 P M S udhakarr V iswanathan TRAC K E: MI X ED SESSI ON 17 2:30 P M S teven K ingg, P E 18 3:00 P M Zack Fuller, P E , P MP 19 3:30 P M K risten Jennkins, P E 20 4:00 P M Nick Landess, P hD, P E 21 4:30 P M Christophe Robert, P hD, P E

Ro o m 2D CDM S mith Carollo E ngineers GHD Wright-P ierce V eolia Ro o m 2E B lack & V eatch MWH Constructor os Mott MacDonald Freese and Nichools, Inc. Reiss E ngineering, Inc.

Moderator: As s is tant Moderator: Utilities Tackle P FA S Contamination in Drinking Water P er- and P olyfluoroalkyl S ubstances in A dvanced Treatment forr P otable Reuse P FA S - What does it mean forr Florida? Treatment, Costs and Otherr Considerations Will P FA S Impact Y ourr B iosolids Management P lan? Challenges forr Real World Treatment of P FA S -laden S luddge As s is tant Moderator: Moderator: E valuation of E nergyy Use and Optimization S trategies for or the City of V enice S ystematic & Ongoing 10-Y earr CIP P rogram to Refurbish 50-Y ear Old Facility Capturing P roject Cos o t S avings from S mart E xcavation and a Construction Design Too Much S alt? Idenntifying and Remedying TDS B ottleneecks in a Reuse S ystem First 30-Y earr CUP in S JRWMD - City of Melbourne

TRAC K F: WORKSH OP 7 Ro o m 1F 17 2:30 P M LEGISLATTIVE & REGULATORY UPDATE Ro o m 1E TRAC K G : WORKSH OP 8 17 2:30 P M LAND APP PLICATION OF BIOSOLIDS

EARN CONTINUING EDUCATION UNITS and PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOURS Circle Below the Track, Session and Papers you have attended (Corresponds with printed Techni e cal Program). Complete all information, drop at Registration Desk or place stamp on front and mail. MUST BE RECEIVED WITHIN 5 DAYS OF EVENT DATE. Program eligible for CEUs and PDHs are as advertised/approved. PPlease leease CCircle ircle Those Those YYou ou AAttended: ttended: Track #

Session #

Paper Presented

Subject

p y Workshop Sundayy Speciality

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2020 FWRC C Cards must be received by 05/05/2020

1 30, 202 o April t 1 ly p p , 28 202 CEUs a bruary e F o t pplyy PDHs a

10

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EARN CONTINUING EDUCATION UNITS and PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOURS

6

11 to 15

C

As s is tant Moderator:

Circle Below the Track, Session and Papers you have attended (Corresponds with printed Techni e cal Program). Complete all information, drop at Registration Desk or place stamp on front and mail. MUST BE RECEIVED WITHIN 5 DAYS OF EVENT DATE. Prograam eligible for CEUs and PDHs are as advertised/approved. Pleease CCircle Please ircle Those Those YYou ou AAttended: ttended:

6

6 to 10

A

D

Moderator:

p U s e M o bil e A pRecording Your o Continuing Education Unit nitttss or and Proofessional Developm ment Hourss d r a C n e Gre

11 12 13 14 15

H

B T u e P s M d a y

3

1 1

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As s is tant Moderator:

Sunday Speciality Workshop

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By signing my name, I attest that I have attended the above for the times indicated. ENTER NUMBER COMPLETE BELOWW:

By signing my name, I attest that I have attended the above for the times indicated. ENTER NUMBER COMPLETE BELOWW: P.E. . # : ___________________________ Print Name: _______________________________ P.EE. # : ___________________________ Print Name: _______________________________ State:___________________________ Emplooyer: y _________________________________ State:___________________________ Emplooyer: y _________________________________ Water Lic. #: ______________________ E-Mail: __________________________________ Waater Lic. #: ______________________ E-Mail: __________________________________ WW Lic.#:________________________ Day Phone: _______________________________ WW Lic.#:________________________ Day Phone: _______________________________ Wtr.Dist.Lic.#:____________________ Signature: _______________________________ Wtr.Dist.Lic.#:____________________ Signature: _______________________________ Other: __________________________ Other: __________________________

Yo ou can track the Technical e Seessions you attend by utilizing g the Mobile App - or continuee to log in on the green CEU/PDH card in your registrration packet, at the registration n desk, in the technical session and workshop. Yo ou are responsible for completing and d returning the card to be awarded d units. Circle the paper in the track/ /session that you attend (corressponds with Technical e Program m matrix), and complete i information at the bottom of th he card. Room monitors will haave sign-in sheets that they circculate; please sign in on t these clip board sheets as well. Cards should be turned into the registration desk at the end d of your FWRC experience, orr stamp and mail to the DGGUHVVRQWKHĂ LSVOLSCards must m be received no later than n 7 days from the conclusion off the conference. At that WLPHFHUWLĂ€FDWHVZLOOEHHPDLOHGDQGDUHSRUWVHQWWRWKHVWDWH

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

15


ease

o

PERSON ON per form

eg gby

Name: ______________________________________________________________________ Company Name: ____________________________________________________________ _________________________ ____________________________ Work Address: _________ City: ________________________________

April 26 6-29,, 2020

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____________________ Pho one Number: _________________ E-mail: ________________

Palm Be each County Conven ntion Center

Your Name to Appear on Badge: ______________________________________________ CONTINUING EDUCA ATION T UNITS AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELLOPMENT HOURS Earn 0.1 CEUs or 1 PDH per hour of participation as app prro oved by Prrovider o

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FULL CONFEREN NCE REGISTRA AT TION*:

INCLUDES: Daily D il R Rec ceptions, ti T Technical h i l Sessions, S i Ex Exhibits, hibit AM & PM W Workshops k h each hd day, T Technical h i l Proceedings, P di cheon, & Eligibility for Daily Drawings. Earns CEUs or PDHs as stated Monday & Tuesday Lunc s above.

F

Member/ Utility y, State or Federa al Employee Non-Me ember Spouse Retired or Life Member

Befo ore April p l6

After April 6

$ 39 90 $ 460 $ 46 60 $ 520 $ 10 00 $ 100 $ 85 8 $ 85

AMOUNT T

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1-DA AY-ONL - LY CON NFERENCE REGISTRA ATION*: T

INCLUDES: Technical Sessions, Exhibits, Daily Recepption, Proceedings, Lunch that day, d AM & PM Workshop, & Eligibility for daily Dra awings. above. awings Earns CEUs or PDHs as stated above

1

1-Day Monday M Registration, includees lunch and One (1) AM & (1) PM P Workshop

1-Day Tuesday u Registration, inclludes lunch and One (1) AM & (1) ( PM Workshop 1-D DAY SPEAKER - Name must app pear in program. Badge requ uired. 1-DAY MONDAY CONTEST TANT A PA ARTICIP PA ANT T, includes luncch. 1-DAY TUESDAY CONTEST PAR TANT A A TICIP PA ANT T, includes luncch.

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*Earns CEEUs or PDHs as stated above witth submittal of completed p Green Card and Sign-In g Sheet in room m.

S

SPECIAL EVENTS E & MEAL TICK KETS SUNDA AY T2 Facilityy Tour o West Palm Beach MONDA AY M4 FSSSSS Shovelers Breakfast M5 FWRC A Aw wards Luncheon TUESDA AY T6 FWEA Aw wards Luncheon WEDNESDA AY W7 FWEAUC C Annual Breakfast

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Test Yourself

Water and Wastewater Safety Mixed Bag Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.146, Permit-Required Confined Spaces, a confined space is large enough and configured so an employee can enter and perform work, has limited means for entry and exit, and is a. above ground. b. constructed of concrete or other similar material. c. not designed for continuous employee occupancy. d. underground. 2. Per OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146, Permit-Required Confined Spaces, what is an example of a permit-required confined space? a. Located within a water regulated by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection b. More than 10 feet deep c. Has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere d. Requires National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit 3. The OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200 requires identification and communication to ensure chemical safety in the workplace. What is the title of this standard? a. b. c. d.

Chemical Standards Rule Hazard Communication Process Safety Risk Management

4. Per OSHA’s Hazard Communication webpage, a common and coherent approach to classifying chemicals and communicating hazard information is based on the a. b. c. d.

Global Hazard Classification (GHC). Globally Harmonized System (GHS). Universal Labelling Method (ULM). Worldwide Safety Classification (WSC).

5. Per OSHA’s Hazard Communication webpage, chemical manufacturers, distributors, and importers must provide which form to communicate the hazards of their products? a. Chemical Hazard Summary Sheets (CHSSs) b. Hazard Communication Safety Sheets (HCSSs) c. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) d. Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) 6. Per OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication, when must employees receive training and information on hazardous chemicals in their work area? a. At the time of their initial assignment and every year thereafter. b. At the time of their initial assignment and when a new chemical hazard is introduced. c. Every two years. d. Once per year between January 1 and March 31. 7. Per OSHA’s Hazard Communication webpage, hazardous chemicals must be properly labeled. Labels are required to include a signal word, hazard and precautionary statements, product identifier, supplier identification, and a. the manufacturer’s address. b. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) markings. c. pictograms. d. supplemental information. 8. Per OSHA 29 CFR 1910.28, WalkingWorking Surfaces Rule, existing fixed ladders installed before November 2018 must be equipped with a personal fall arrest system, ladder safety system, cage, or well if the ladder extends how many feet above a lower level? a. 15 feet c. 24 feet

9. Per OSHA’s Trenching and Excavation webpage, trenches five feet deep or greater require a protective system of sloping, shoring, or shielding. At what depth does the trench require a protective system designed by a registered professional engineer? a. 10 feet c. 20 feet

b. 15 feet d. 30 feet

10. Per OSHA’s Lockout/Tagout Fact Sheet, available on the OSHA Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) webpage, employers must ensure that lockout/tagout devices identify the individual users. Employers must also develop a policy that permits which employees to remove a lockout/tagout device? a. Any employee, if directed by the person who applied the device. b. Only an employee who has been working on the locked-out, tagged-out equipment. c. Only a manager or supervisor. d. Only the employee who applied the device.

Answers on page 70 References used for this quiz: • 29 CFR 1910.146 Permit-Required Confined Spaces • 29 CFR 1910.1200 Hazard Communication • 29 CFR 1910.28 Walking, Working Surfaces • 29 CFR 1926 Trenching and Excavation • 29 CFR 1910.147 Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) • OSHA webpage – www.osha.gov (Type any subject in search box to get specific web pages, fact sheets, and regulations.)

b. 20 feet d. 30 feet

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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F W R J

Turn Emergency Engine-Generator Assets Into Revenue Sources Lucas Botero, Steven Scott, Tammy Martin, and Jim Ferguson he Miami-Dade Water and Sewer District (MDWASD) required new engine-generators at its South District Wastewater Treatment Plant (SDWWTP) facility. The new engine-generators would be located in a new electrical distribution building 3 (EDB3) that would replace existing engine-generators at the existing EDB1. The new engine-generators were to have a total capacity of approximately 20 megawatts (MW). Additionally, MDWASD wanted to evaluate converting its seven existing dieselfueled and low-speed engine-generators to have dual fuel capability. The seven existing diesel-fueled engine-generators are in EDB2 and they have a total capacity of approximately 20 MW. Black & Veatch evaluated a total of nine different engine-generator alternatives for the facility, which included the evaluation of load curtailment or nonload curtailment operation; low- or high-speed enginegenerators; and diesel, natural gas, and diesel-gas blend fueled units. Plant staff has indicated the following preferences with respect to the new enginegeneration equipment:

T

S The new engine-generators should have the ability to run when required. This includes early unit start-up to facilitate load transfer and the ability to run the units continuously for an extended period after a major hurricane. For this reason, the preference is for the continuous-duty and low-speed two-cycle engine-generator units, similar to the units in EDB2. S The ability to continue operating the units if there is a shortage of diesel fuel after a major hurricane event. For this reason, a request was made to provide units capable of operating on either diesel or a dieselnatural gas blend (dual fuel). S Maintain the same type of enginegenerator equipment at the plant (EMD engines). S Transfer the current Florida Power & Light (FPL) curtailment agreement in place at EDB1 to the EDB3 engine-generators to keep the benefits of the reduced electricity rate in the areas to be served by EDB3. Additionally, staff wants to add EDB2 engine-generators to the curtailment agreement. S Convert the existing EMD units at EDB2 to

Table 1. Engine-Generator Comparison Pros and Cons

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Lucas Botero, P.E., BCEE, ENV SP, is senior process specialist, and Tammy Martin, P.E., is engineering manager, with Black & Veatch in Coral Springs. Steven Scott, P.E., is process mechanical engineer with Black & Veatch in Orlando. Jim Ferguson is senior program manager with Miami-Dade Water and Sewer District.

dual fuel units to utilize cheap gas costs, while extending their runtime.

Evaluation There are several engine-generator options available on the market and the following is a discussion of curtailment agreements, the different regulatory requirements, and the engine-generator technologies available, including the challenges or advantages associated with each. These engine-generator options are the basis for the cost evaluation. Curtailment Agreement A curtailment agreement can be made between a power provider and a utility that requires a utility to use a portion of its enginegenerators to offset peak power demands in the system, which in turn relieves the power provider. In exchange, the utility would receive a very favorable electricity rate. Curtailment agreements typically require that an engine-generator be available for a certain number of hours of operation per year. Engine-generators classified as emergency units are limited to 50 hours of nonemergency operation per year. Operating an enginegenerator for the power provider under a curtailment agreement is considered nonemergency use. If the utility exceeds the 50-hour limit, it’s subject to fines. To avoid this, utilities should have nonemergency-rated engine-generators. Entering into curtailment agreements is typically very favorable for water utilities; however, smart use of engine-generators could bring even more savings to the utility. Using


natural gas is more cost-effective than using diesel fuel due to the substantially lower cost of natural gas. Depending on the location of the plant, natural gas units for emergency use have proven effective; however, most plants, especially those in coastal areas, do not want to rely on natural gas only and prefer to use diesel units to allow fuel storage for emergency events.

Table 2. Engine-Generator Alternatives

Regulatory Requirements Emergency Versus Nonemergency Given the plant’s desire to continue the load curtailment agreement and prestorm operation, the new units would need to be classified as nonemergency units from an air permitting standpoint. This will likely trigger different requirements with regard to monitoring and recordkeeping with respect to new source performance standards and national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Dual Fuel Requirement Diesel-fueled engines are a “compression” ignition type; therefore, the engine will need to meet the requirements of Subpart IIII from the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). These are a set of standards defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for a variety of emissions sources, such as engines, turbines, boilers, and many others, where the engine will need to be certified by the manufacturer and there is no option to purchase a “noncertified” engine. If the engine manufacturer does not certify the dual fuel engine to the Tier 4 standards (diesel engine standards that are the strictest EPA emissions requirement for off-highway diesel engines), it will not be possible to obtain an air permit for this type of engine. Engine-Generator Technologies Cycles Two- and four-cycle (stroke) engines are available. Table 1 provides a comparison of the pros and cons of each type of engine. Fast Starting and Load Acceptance Plant staff prefers the two-cycle engines because of their rapid starting time and load acceptance. It was confirmed with manufacturers that four-cycle high-speed engine-generators have similar starting and load acceptance profiles as two-cycle lowspeed engines. Low-Speed and High-Speed Engines Low-speed units last longer due to reduced wear; however, research indicates that

there are very few wastewater plants using low-speed engine-generators, and the industry standard is the high-speed units. Tier 2,3, or 4 Stationary emergency engine-generators are required to meet Tier 2 or Tier 3 emission limits (also governed by EPA), depending on the cylinder displacement of the engine; however, nonemergency engine-generators are required to meet Tier 4 emission limits based on the current air permit regulations. Certified Tier 4 diesel fuel units are available from manufacturers; therefore, these units can be permitted. Most Tier 4 units utilize diesel exhaust fluid for emission controls. Natural Gas Engine-Generators Natural gas-fueled engine-generators are available and they do have the inherent limitation of depending on the gas utility main for emergency conditions; however, their operational cost is substantially lower than diesel units due to the cost difference between diesel and natural gas. There are natural gas units that operate at 1800 revolutions per minute (rpm), or 1500 rpm with a gear box to operate the alternator at 1800 rpm. Natural gas engines comply with the air emission requirements in the south Florida area without the need for additional treatment. Engine-Generator Availability Based on recent research and experience, there is limited competition for specific categories of engine-generators. It should be noted that low-speed two-cycle units are limited to electromotive diesel (EMD) units, whereas high-speed diesel Tier 4 units seem to

be limited to Caterpillar and Cummins, although Kohler has indicated that there is a high-speed Tier 4 product line coming out in the near future. It should be noted that Cummins does not have continuous-rated Tier 4 diesel units with capacities as large as Caterpillar or EMD and therefore may require additional units to match capacity.

Alternatives Black & Veatch evaluated nine enginegenerator alternatives for SDWWTP. For the evaluation it was assumed that the duty engine-generator total capacity is approximately 18 MW (with the addition of two redundant units) and each alternative is sized to meet this requirement. Any variation from the number of engine-generators and any variation in total capacity should have a relative impact on rankings of the alternatives. The MDWASD requested 30 days of diesel storage onsite for EDB 3. For this evaluation it’s assumed that six 50,000-gal tanks are needed, which would provide approximately 10 days of storage at peak demand. The existing emergency enginegenerators in EDB 2 were built prior to 2011, and therefore are grandfathered under the air permit regulations, such that the units can be reclassified as nonemergency enginegenerators without the need to add Tier 4 emissions controls to the engines. The evaluation considered repurposing the existing emergency diesel units to dual fuel, but it was estimated that the cost to repurpose Continued on page 20

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Table 3. Evaluation Input Parameters

Continued from page 19 the existing units for dual fuel functionality would be $500,000 per unit. The repurposed existing units would consume 75 percent less diesel when running on a dual fuel blend than its diesel-only counterpart. The cost associated with repurposing the existing diesel engine-generators for dual fuel functionality is included in the hybrid alternatives (7, 8, and 9), and operational costs for the repurposed engine-generator units are considered in alternative 9. Additionally, the cost associated with adding an additional dual fuel unit in the existing building was also considered in Alternative 9. An additional eighth dual fuel enginegenerator may be needed at EDB2 to meet new plant loads. The new dual fuel enginegenerator emissions would not be grandfathered under air permit regulations like the existing units due to the year of manufacturing; therefore, the unit would be limited to emergency-only operation and would need to meet Tier 3 emission requirements. The engine-generator alternatives evaluated for SDWWTP are described as follows: Alternative 1: New Low-Speed Two-Cycle Diesel Emergency Engine-Generators This alternative includes the use of new low-speed dual fuel units used as emergency generators for EDB3. Ten days of diesel fuel storage would be provided. No natural gas storage would be provided as it would be too costly from both a capital and operational expenditure standpoint, and impractical due to the storage volume required. The alternative assumes that the engine-generators will run only from the natural gas line. Alternative 2: Low-Speed Two-Cycle Diesel Nonemergency Engine-Generators This alternative includes the use of new low-speed units as nonemergency enginegenerators for EDB3. These engine-generators require Tier 4 emission control and can be used for load curtailment. Ten days of diesel fuel storage would be provided. Alternative 3: High-Speed Four-Cycle Diesel Emergency Engine-Generators This alternative includes the use of highspeed diesel units as emergency engine-generators for EDB3. These enginegenerators require Tier 2 or Tier 3 emission control and cannot be used for load curtailment. Ten days of diesel fuel storage would be provided. Continued on page 22

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Continued from page 20 Alternative 4: High-Speed Four-Cycle Diesel Nonemergency Engine-Generators This alternative includes the use of highspeed diesel units as nonemergency engine-generators for EDB3. These enginegenerators require Tier 4 emission control and can be used for load curtailment. Ten days of diesel fuel storage would be provided. Alternative 5: Natural Gas Units Emergency Engine-Generators This alternative includes the use of highspeed natural gas units used as emergency engine-generators for EDB3. No natural gas storage will be provided, for reasons indicated in Alternative 1. Alternative 6: Natural Gas Units Nonemergency Engine-Generators This alternative includes the use of highspeed natural gas units used as nonemergency engine-generators for EDB3. No natural gas storage will be provided, for reasons indicated in Alternative 1. Alternative 7 (Hybrid): High-Speed Diesel and Natural Gas Nonemergency Engine-Generators This alternative includes the use of highspeed units, consisting of some diesel engine-generators and some natural gas engine-generators, used as nonemergency

generators for EDB3. This requires Tier 4 emission control for the diesel engines so that they can be used for load curtailment. The natural gas engines can meet the air emissions standards without further treatment. No natural gas storage will be provided, for reasons indicated in Alternative 1, but ten days of diesel fuel storage would be provided. This alternative also includes the costs associated with modifying the existing diesel-only enginegenerators to be duel fuel units for EDB 2. Alternative 8 (Hybrid): Low-Speed Diesel Nonemergency and Low-Speed Dual Fuel Emergency Engine-Generators This alternative includes the use of lowspeed diesel nonemergency engine-generator units and low-speed dual fuel enginegenerators used as emergency generators for the EDB3. This requires Tier 4 emission control for the diesel engines so that they can be used for load curtailment. The dual fuel engines can meet the Tier 3 air emissions standards and would be for emergency generation only. No natural gas storage will be provided, for reasons indicated in Alternative 1. This alternative also includes the costs associated with modifying the existing dieselonly engine-generators to be duel fuel units for EDB 2. Alternative 9 (Hybrid): High-Speed Four-Cycle Diesel Nonemergency Engine-Generators and

Interconnection With Existing Engine-Generators This alternative includes the use of highspeed diesel units as nonemergency engine-generators for EDB3. This requires Tier 4 emission units that can be used for load curtailment. Ten days of diesel fuel storage would be provided. This alternative also includes an evaluation of an interconnection between existing EDB 2 and new EDB 3. This provides SDWWTP the flexibility to transfer electrical loads from EDB 3 to EDB 2 during a load curtailment period or other nonpeak conditions in which generator power is needed. This alternative also includes the costs associated with modifying the existing dieselonly engine-generators to be duel fuel units and assumes the addition of an eighth enginegenerator at EDB 2. Operation and maintenance costs of the converted EDB2 units operating EDB3 loads are considered in this alternative. For the purposes of this evaluation only, the eighth engine-generator is assumed to be included under Alternative 9 because interconnecting the generating facilities has the potential to require this added capacity at the existing facility. Conceptually, interconnection of EDB2 and EDB3 will require an additional switchgear section added to each bus. These electrical costs, as well as others, were included in the evaluation. This alternative will enable MDWASD to maximize the use of natural gas over diesel during engine-generator operation. Additional generator capacity is not required to allow implementation of the proposed interconnection between EDB 2 and EDB 3. Table 2 summarizes the alternatives evaluated for EDB3.

Parameters

Figure 1. Probability Functions for All Alternatives Considered

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Different engine-generator alternatives were compared from a financial standpoint. Given the large number of input variables required to predict total cost (capital expenditures [CAPEX] plus operating expenses [OPEX]), a probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. In this evaluation, each of the main variables affecting the total cost of each alternative (CAPEX plus OPEX) was assigned a probability function specific to the variable. Then, a Monte Carlo-type simulation (a computerized mathematical technique that allows people to account for risk in quantitative analysis and decision making), with over 100,000 iterations, was run for each of the alternatives and the probability curve envelopes of the total cost for each alternative were generated. Figure 1 shows the


probability functions for all alternatives considered. Since the low-speed engine-generators are anticipated to last 50 years, the total cost of ownership was assessed over a 50-year period. No financial costs were included in any of the evaluations for simplicity. It was assumed that the high-speed enginegenerators would need to be replaced once over the 50-year period. Table 3 includes the input parameters considered in the evaluation.

Results The evaluation included the results of a probabilistic present-worth analysis, with probabilities for the different variables affecting CAPEX and OPEX, as shown in Figure 1. It can be seen that there are substantial savings from moving from a diesel-only engine-generator alternative to a hybrid or natural gas solution (between $80 and $250 million in 50 years).

Findings From Figure 1, the following were discovered: S Natural gas alternatives represent the best business case; however, given their inherent risk of full dependency to the natural gas utility, these alternatives are not considered viable for SDWTTP’s emergency enginegenerator use. S Diesel-only alternatives have the highest total cost of ownership. S There is an obvious advantage to having a curtailment agreement with the local electric utility, as the total cost of ownership for the alternatives with the curtailment agreement are lower than alternatives without curtailment in every scenario evaluated (notwithstanding the fact that the curtailment agreement alternatives with diesel engine-generators have higher capital costs due to their need for Tier 4 compliance). S The hybrid alternatives provide the best compromise, as their total cost of ownership is much closer to the natural gas only alternatives. To further evaluate the alternatives, the annual operating hours were evaluated against the maintenance-only cost and maintenanceplus-capital cost for the generators. Given the conclusions, only curtailment and hybrid alternatives were evaluated further. This evaluation was conducted to

Figure 2. Annual Average Operating Cost of Alternative 7, 8, and 9 (Hybrid Alternatives) Versus Operating Hours (Capital and Maintenance Only)

determine the operating-hour break-even point between the remaining alternatives. The annual costs were calculated based on maintenance costs per hours of operation and the capital cost of the units split over an assumed 50-year replacement period. This was done to evaluate the operation of the enginegenerator technologies specifically. Figure 2 compares the annual operating cost of Alternatives 7, 8, and 9 versus annual operating hours. Note that it’s assumed that the high-speed units require a major overhaul at 25 years. Alternatives 7 and 9 are the lower annual cost alternatives at the current average usage rate of approximately 130 hours per year. Additionally, the break-even point, in which the annual operating cost of Alternatives 7 and 9 are less than Alternative 8, is approximately 1500 hours per year. Therefore, Alternatives 7 and 9 are more cost-effective when operated less than 1500 hours per year. Black & Veatch developed a revised future estimate of hours of engine-generator operation since the Tier 4 units will have more unrestricted operation, which should increase the running time of the engines. The revised estimate includes hours for emergency, maintenance, curtailment, and prestorm avoidance, and could conservatively result in the generators running up to 750 hours per year. Although this is significantly higher than the current usage (approximately fivefold), the conservative number of operating hours is still well below the break-even point between diesel-only and hybrid units, suggesting that a hybrid alternative is the best option for MDWASD.

Conclusion To capitalize on the cost savings offered by natural gas alternatives, but not be dependent on a natural gas utility line, it’s been proven that a hybrid solution of combining diesel and natural gas provides substantial total cost savings to utilities. The savings are even more pronounced if the utility enters into a curtailment agreement. Hybrid solutions can be achieved by either diesel-gas blend units or a combination of different fuel generators (diesel plus natural gas). The hybrid engine-generator solution advantages are: S Maximizes the use of lower-cost fuel. S Extends the diesel fuel storage onsite by using natural gas, while reducing operating costs. S Allows extended run time compared to diesel-only units under emergency conditions, if the natural gas supply is not impacted. S Unrestricted engine operation, which allows the engines to be turned on for conditions, such as prestorm, or to provide completely flexible maintenance testing operation. S Provides plant staff with more flexibility for operating the engine-generators. S

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FWEA FOCUS

The Noble Goals of Strategic Planning Michael W. Sweeney, Ph.D. President, FWEA

t’s been a quick five years since the FWEA board embarked on the important task of updating FWEA’s strategic plan. Designed to be a five-year outlook in 2015, this was the year for an update—to take stock of the past and a hard look at what our future could be and what our strategic focus areas should be. Strategic planning has been compared, by many people, to watching paint dry. It can be very detailed, tedious work, but it’s absolutely necessary for large organizations like FWEA to make sure our members are heard, and our time as volunteers and our dollars are well spent—in the interest of our members and achieving our mission. Without a plan, we risk descending to a state of irrelevancy suggested by Alice in Wonderland author Lewis Carroll: “If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will get you there.”

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Effective Strategic Planning Practices This time, like the last time, we want to choose the right road to a strategic plan that is most direct and we want to plan inclusively by including these three waypoints (aka, practices) on our route:

1. Include input from as many members as possible. In December and January, an electronic survey was completed and sent out to 1,446 members to extensively solicit opinions and input. Surveying a “population” of this size strives for at least a 10 percent response rate to ensure an adequate representation of our membership categorically. We exceeded this rate by receiving 249 responses, or 17 percent, thanks to you! 2. Obtain experienced facilitators outside of FWEA. Last fall, we reached out to WEF staff knowing that we needed “adult supervision” (one of my favorite tongue-in-cheek management expressions) and were fortunate to engage two terrific WEF facilitators to join us in planning and executing a strategic planning workshop. Linda Kelly, who has many years of experience as a utility executive, and later, with WEF senior staff, enthusiastically agreed to help us, as did Brad Lovett, new to WEF and fresh from the utility world. Through many emails, conference calls, and a few “homework assignments,” they helped us prepare as much as possible as part of the run-up to the workshop. 3. Invite the entire board to be workshop participants. After executive committee-level discussion, it was quickly decided to open up the process and make it as transparent as possible. We also wanted to be sure that young professionals (and “near” YPs), the Utility Council, chapter and committee chairs, and our directors at large were

involved. We choose a centralized location (Toho Water Authority) and had plenty of food and light refreshments available throughout the workshop day to maximize productivity.

Results So Far We had an excellent turnout for the workshop and diligently formulated our draft strategies and goal areas, which I’m pleased to share. 1) Member Engagement a. Communicate membership value and opportunities b. Transition members into leadership roles c. Explore opportunities for branding/imaging d. Enhance networking opportunities 2) Public Awareness/Outreach a. Educate and empower our professional members b. Utilize available resources to educate the public about water 3) Partnerships and Sound Science-Based Public Policy a. Leverage partnerships to increase reach and participation as part of the FWEA brand and leadership b. Increase communication between FWEA Utility Council and FWEA members 4) Professional Development a. Deliver quality, relevant seminar content b. Develop an online presence to distribute FWEA seminar content c. Develop a comprehensive standard operating procedure for chapters and committees to organize seminars and events

Summary A quote that became our workshop mantra still resonates: “When we try to be excellent at everything, we end up be mediocre at everything.” That dose of reality from Linda Kelly navigated the challenge of strategic planning. The workshop was a significant milestone achievement, but it was just the beginning. There is still much to build onto this strong foundation, such as action plans and metrics to set our course for next year and beyond. We want a living plan that is achievable, as well as flexible, knowing that opportunities may require adjustment. So, are we on target so far? What do you think? Let me know at msweeney@tohowater.com. S

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AWWA Announces Annual Utility Benchmarking Survey This year’s survey is organized by performance indicators in five areas: S Organizational development S Customer relations S Business operations S Water operations S Wastewater operations The American Water Works Association (AWWA) has announced the opening of its annual benchmarking survey. The AWWA benchmarking program was developed to help utilities track their own data and compare it to established standards among their water industry peers. The program focuses on two areas: an annual survey to collect performance data, and publication of that data for utilities to utilize. Benchmarking utility performance indicators is an essential element of continuous improvement to help utilities identify areas that could be strengthened to improve their operational efficiency and managerial effectiveness.

The data collection period for the survey will end on April 1. Utility performance data that was collected from previous survey results is currently available in the AWWA publication, “Utility Benchmarking: Performance Management for Water and Wastewater.” It’s available to order online in the AWWA Store at www.awwa.org. Utilities interested in participating in the survey should visit the online survey portal on the benchmarking page at AWWA’s website. Survey participants will receive a report with their confidential results relative to the collected results of similar utilities, as well as a 30 percent discount on the publication. S

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Benefits of Membership in a Professional Organization Debbie Wallace Early professional organizations were created by medieval stone mason guilds to safeguard secrets, and they later established apprenticeships for their members. Today, the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) holds classes for career advancement and oversees regulation of professional standards and practices. It provides a venue for communication and networking, conventions, trade publications, and workshops.

background and character. It’s well known that FWPCOA adheres to a strict code of ethics, and those in the industry know the quality of the training you receive. Conferences can give you a broader perspective of the profession—inspiring, energizing, and refreshing you. You could attend a workshop or technical session, get information to help you improve you skills and knowledge base, or you may meet the person who will help you move up the ladder. The association also has a job board to help you find employment. Available jobs are often announced at meetings or discovered through networking. We often hear people say, “I can’t find a job because they want experience, and I can’t get experience without a job.” Networking really helps. If you’re fresh out of school and have no work experience, becoming a member of FWPCOA could be a great addition to your resumé. Having a professional membership indicates to a potential employer that you are current with changes in the industry and its technology. It also shows that you can multitask work, life, and volunteer activities. It should also be noted that membership in the association can gain you some great friends.

Being Involved Advantages of Membership Joining an association provides a competitive advantage to its members. We all have busy lives, but carving out a little slice of time for the association will help keep you up to date on important industry trends, new legislation and regulations, advances in technology, and innovative techniques. Through meetings, trainings events, and industry publications, you will gain valuable affiliations and insights, and bond with likeminded industry advocates as you share success stories, as well as work challenges. Professional contacts are a valuable source of information and are a support system to boost your confidence. As you work in group activities with your peers, you gain interpersonal and communication skills. Being around other utility professionals can bring out different viewpoints, ideas, perspectives, and outlooks that you may not get from those you work with evert day. Being affiliated with FWPCOA gives you name recognition, as well as credence to your

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Once you’re a member, volunteering is a great way to get ahead. Getting behind the podium as a speaker or trainer, or coaching others, are rewarding ways to practice what you know, showing that you’re an expert in your field and a high achiever. Helping to organize a conference, writing articles, and mentoring young associates shows strong commitment to giving back to others, and to growing your managerial, organizational, and communication skills. Through participation in committees you can influence the direction of the association and your profession. Looking at the history of FWPCOA, our organization was responsible for utility workers being considered licensed professionals and not just laborers, which turned experience and training into assets that resulted in better compensation. Established professionals build their resumé by sitting on boards and committees. If you become a chair or officer, you help yourself and the organization, and increase your leadership skills.

March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Making an Impact The association has an established support system of motivated, experienced people. Its state and regional committees track federal, state, and local regulations that impact the water and wastewater utility industry. Because of its position as a training provider, the association is often asked to render an opinion on future regulations that affect operators, such as direct potable reuse. Altruistic giving is a socially conscious way to support community efforts. Partnering with an FWPCOA region allows you to be a part of its philanthropic activities. Licensed operators require accredited ongoing education to retain licensure. The association offers continuing education unit (CEU) classes and courses to enable members to advance in their field. This ensures that they have the latest experience to provide the best service to their customers and the public.

Staying Ahead As an association member, you receive the monthly Florida Water Resources Journal and the region newsletter, Pipeline, which keep you informed and a step ahead of the competition. The FWPCOA is always looking for new members who can service the association and the industry, and at the same time, move their career forward. Growth opportunities abound. So, escape the norm, think outside the box, and meet new people. Come out, learn, and have fun. Be an active and serious participant in FWPCOA, your professional organization!

Debbie Wallace is secretary of Region 7 in FWPCOA. S


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Energy Efficiency and Environmental Stewardship. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 334203119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Carbon Diversion and its Role in Energy Efficiency

Turn Emergency Engine-Generator Assets Into Revenue Sources

Harold E. Schmidt and Sangeeta Dhulashia

Lucas Botero, Steven Scott, Tammy Martin, and Jim Ferguson

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1WW02015362)

(Article 2: CEU = 0.1DW/DS/WW02015363)

1. If an advanced primary treatment process has an integrated biological treatment process, _____________ will be removed. a. nutrients b. total dissolved solids c. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) d. excess moisture

1. Engine generators classified as emergency units are limited to _____ hours of nonemergency run time per year. a. 25 b. 50 c. 75 d. 100

2. Which of the following pretreatment options offers the lowest percentage of total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency? a. Conventional b. Biologically enhanced c. Mechanical screens d. Chemically enhanced

2. Which of the following is not listed as an advantage of a fourstroke high-speed generator engine, relative to a low-speed engine? a. More manufacturers, competitive pricing b. Quieter c. Lower estimated cost per kilowatt d. Longer life, less maintenance

3. What is the principal advantage of advanced primary treatment? a. Allows additional biogas production b. Enhances clarifier settleability c. Reduced air diffuser maintenance d. Enhances effluent disinfection

3. Existing EDB2 generators are exempt from Tier 4 emissions requirements because they a. are below the regulatory size threshold. b. utilize a different fuel source. c. already meet the newer exhaust standards. d. are grandfathered under air quality regulations.

4. Which of the following was not a primary treatment objective of early treatment facilities? a. Maintaining receiving water aesthetic quality b. Nutrient reduction c. Importance of maintaining dissolved oxygen in receiving water d. Measurement of organic matter as BOD 5. Incorporating advanced primary treatment into a facility utilizing aerobic digestion could result in a. higher organic loading to the biological treatment system. b. odor. c. increased effluent total dissolved solids. d. Increased biological system operating costs.

4. It’s anticipated that repurposed duel fuel generators will consume ______ less fuel than the diesel powered units. a. 25 percent b. 50 percent c. 75 percent d. 90 percent 5. Which of the following statements is true? a. Tier 4 emission standards are less restrictive than Tier 2 standards. b. Natural gas is less expensive than diesel fuel. c. Diesel engines require the same emission control equipment as natural gas engines. d. There are currently more suppliers of two-cycle generator engines than there are suppliers of four-cycle generator engines. Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

Florida Section AWWA Water Equation Committee Affiliation: FSAWWA Current chair: Kristen Sealey, P.E., water/wastewater engineer, Gainesville Regional Utilities Year group was formed: November 2018 Scope of work: Being fairly young, an important goal of the FSAWWA Water Equation Committee is to spread awareness about AWWA’s newest philanthropy, Water Equation (WE). Other objectives of the committee include organizing Florida Section WE fundraisers, supporting regions with their local WE activities, and bringing programs that WE supports to the Florida Section and its members. What is Water Equation? AWWA Water Equation was founded in 2015 to “fund the future of water” by supporting and funding workforce advancement, scholarships, young professionals, and the Community Engineering Corps (CECorps). Specifically, WE helps fund the following programs: S One AWWA Operator Scholarship - WE addresses the issue of a retiring workforce through its One AWWA operator scholarship. Matching funds to AWWA sections provide books, tuition, education, and certification training to operators at water and wastewater treatment facilities. S Academic Scholarships - The AWWA academic scholarship program is a partnership with corporations to provide educational funding for students who want to join the water industry. WE raises funds for the Abel Wolman Fellowship and Larson Scholarship, while the bulk of the scholarships are funded by corporate partners. S Youth, Student, and Young Professional Programs - WE provides funding for youth, student, and young professional programs. WE funds the annual AWWA Young Professionals (YP) Leader Training Day, which is held one day ahead of the YP Summit to provide networking and professional development for the next generation.

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Additionally, one of WE’s newest programs is Women for Water Circle of Giving that provides funding for youth programming in the water industry for students in grades K-12. S Community Engineering Corps - CECorps is an alliance among AWWA, American Society of Civil Engineers, and Engineers Without Borders-USA to bring underserved communities and volunteer engineers together to advance local infrastructure solutions in the United States. WE raises funding to support AWWA volunteer project teams that assist communities with addressing water and wastewater system issues.

How to donate and join the cause: WE is funding the future of water. One hundred percent of your donations benefit WE programming to advance the water industry. There are different ways to allocate your donation, including: S The Greatest Need Fund - A donation to this fund will allow your gift to be designated to the WE program that lacks funding to meet its goals. S Designate Your Donation – You may designate your gift to an AWWA WE program (i.e., One AWWA Operator Scholarship, Wolman and Larson scholarships, Student and YP leader training, or CECorps).

Recent accomplishments: The FSAWWA WE Committee had a strong first year. Long- and near-term goals were established in early spring and the committee organized several noteworthy events at the FSAWWA Fall Conference: S The “Battle of the Florida School Flags“ was the Florida Section’s first WE fundraiser, and was held at the membership booth. This friendly competition helped spread awareness about WE’s mission, while raising money for its programs. S A CECorps “What’s in My Backyard” workshop was facilitated by Steve Barr, AWWA community engineering programs manager. Participants learned about the CECorps project process and best practices, and were given tools on how to develop and implement a CECorps project in Florida. S The Florida Section had the pleasure of welcoming Michelle Hektor, AWWA Water Equation senior manager, to the conference. During her visit, Michelle shared information about WE and made connections in the Orlando area in preparation for next year’s AWWA Annual Conference, ACE20. WE will host its second annual golf tournament at ACE on Sunday, June 14, 2020.

To learn more about the programs that WE funds or to make a donation please visit www.fsawwa.org or contact the Florida Section at (407) 979-4804. Thank you for your contribution!

In addition to the Florida Section efforts, regions around the state organized WE fundraising events throughout 2019, including a Texas Hold’em Roundup, a golf tournament, and a charity night with the Tampa Bay Lightning, to name a few.

March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Committee members: S Ana Maria Gonzalez FSAWWA Director and Marketing Chair Hazen and Sawyer S Peggy Guingona Executive Director Florida Section AWWA S Kim Kowalski FSAWWA Chair Wager Company of Florida Inc. S Ann Lee FSAWWA Region X Chair Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority S Jay Madigan FSAWWA Member Engagement and Diversity Council Chair Lake Cane Restoration Society S Gina Parra FSAWWA Region III Treasurer Kimley-Horn S Kristen Sealey FSAWWA Water Equation Committee Chair Gainesville Regional Utilities S Jacqueline Torbert AWWA Diversity abd Member Inclusion Committee Chair Orange County Utilities S


Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT

ACE 2020: Call for Volunteers Kim Kowalski. Chair, FSAWWA

The American Water Works Association’s Annual Conference and Exposition (ACE20) will be held in Orlando, from June 14–17, with the theme, “Future So Bright!” The association provided the following information about the conference: Water professionals are optimistic about the health of the sector as they try to solve global water challenges. Recent successes in developing solutions to effectively manage water are fueling this outlook. Despite the many challenges in the water sector, such as infrastructure renewal, supply, quality, resiliency, affordability, and workforce, providing safe water transcends these challenges. Water professionals are leveraging innovation, advocacy, and new

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programs to address the critical issues to protect the world’s most important resource. We expect more than 12,000 attendees to come to AWWA’s Annual Conference and Exposition (ACE) to learn the leading-edge solutions and exchange knowledge to help ensure that we create a “Future So Bright” for our profession and people around the world. The last time ACE was held in Orlando was 2004; it was also held there in 1988. Make sure to join us for the third visit in 2020!

S Being local ambassadors at the welcome/information booth. S Providing helping hands during the conference competitions. S Helping host international visitors at the conference. S Incorporating a professional session tract to appeal to the local audience. S Providing volunteers—up to 150—for the professional sessions as room monitors. S Managing the Young Professionals Scavenger Hunt.

We’re excited that FSAWWA is the local host section for 2020. The section has assembled a very energetic and dedicated group of volunteers to make up our Local Host Committee. It’s the responsibility of the committee to work as an advisory group to the AWWA headquarters staff to inject the local “flavor” of the host city into the conference planning. Although AWWA staff is responsible for the coordination and management of the conference, the local committee assists with several key areas to help make the conference a success. These areas include: S Development and planning of facility tours.

With over 12,000 attendees, 100 technical sessions, and 1,000 exhibit booths, this year’s ACE20 in Orlando will surely be the highlight of the water industry in 2020. As you can see there are a lot of events happening during ACE20, and the Florida Section could use volunteers. If you are interested in volunteering at ACE20, please contact Terri Holcomb at tholcomb@regionalwater.org for a list of volunteer opportunities and requirements. This is an exciting time for the Florida Section, and we hope to see all of you at the conference! S

March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


New Products Leica Geosystems, part of Hexagon, has announced that the Leica Zeno Mobile data collection app now integrates HxGN SmartNet postprocessing service and Esri’s Geospatial Cloud, a leading provider of geographic information systems (GIS). The new functionalities allow workforces with limited surveying knowledge to optimize data accuracy and precision in the field and office and enable a seamless data flow to Esri’s GIS products. With the HxGN SmartNet, Zeno delivers high-accuracy RTK positioning. In areas without internet connection, Zeno Mobile records all the raw GNSS measurements. When the internet connection is restored, raw data is processed in HxGN SmartNet’s new cloud service, which is now seamlessly integrated in Zeno Mobile. Measurements previously taken without RTK are improved to high accuracy, directly on the mobile device. Postprocessing is simplified as additional software or specific knowledge is no longer needed. “Capturing data has never been easier. With the latest version of Zeno Mobile, data are always accurate, no matter if there’s an internet connection or not. Thanks to the new Esri connectivity, data collected in the field is now synchronized on the fly with the GIS database. By simplifying processes and automating tasks workers are able to spend more time on new projects and accelerate their business,” said Matthias Beisswenger, project manager at GEO DATA GmbH. Zeno Mobile enriched its data flow capability and simplified the data exchange to Esri products. Through Esri’s Geospatial Cloud integration, a seamless connection between Zeno Mobile and Esri’s ecosystem allows users to benefit from a completely remote data flow from office to field and back. Layers, data, and roles can be defined directly in the browser through ArcGIS Online or in Esri’s Desktop software. Once the data is shared through the cloud, workers can start data acquisition in Zeno Mobile and synchronize it back to the office instantly. The tight Esri integration enables data synchronization between Zeno Mobile and the database in the office and maximizes the overall performance. “To respond to the daily problems in the field, innovative and simple solutions are needed to transform how personnel can operate more efficiently,” said Bernhard Richter, geomatics vice president at Leica Geosystems. “Zeno Mobile’s latest innovations help everybody capturing accurate geospatial data quickly and effectively by fully automated processes in the background.” Zeno Mobile is available on Leica GeosysContinued on page 66 Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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F W R J

Achieving a Reduced Energy Bill: From Planning to Implementation Alonso Griborio, Eric Stanley, Janeen Wietgrefe, Steve Urich, J.J. Ameno III, and Carmen Sajin Table 1. Summary of Existing Liquid Treatment Facility Design Criteria Alonso Griborio is senior associate, Eric Stanley is an associate, and Janeen Wietgrefe is associate vice president, with Hazen and Sawyer in Hollywood. Steve Urich is utilities director, J.J. Ameno III is superintendent of wastewater operations, and Carmen Sajin is lead operator, with City of Plantation.

he City of Plantation (city) owns and operates the Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (RWWTP). The permitted plant capacity is 18.9 mil gal per day (mgd) based on a three-month average daily flow basis. The RWWTP utilizes an activated sludge treatment process for liquid treatment and an anaerobic sludge digestion system for handling the sludge produced from the liquid treatment process. The liquid treatment facilities include screening, grit removal, primary clarification, an activated sludge system with mechanical aerators, and secondary clarification. The solids treatment facilities include centrifuges/gravity belt thickeners, anaerobic digesters, and sludge dewatering by belt presses. The plant effluent from the secondary clarifiers is discharged into two onsite 24-in. deep wells for injection to the Boulder Zone, between 3,000 and 3,500 ft below surface. The plant reuses about 1 mgd of the treated wastewater onsite for landscape irrigation and treatment process water. A summary of relevant existing liquid treatment process facility design criteria is presented in Table 1 and an aerial view of the RWWTP is shown in Figure 1. A summary of discharge limits for the underground injection well system is presented in Table 2. Hazen and Sawyer was retained by the city to perform an energy savings analysis for proposed energy conservation measures (ECMs) at the RWWTP and for the design of a new fine bubble diffuser aeration system to replace the existing mechanical surface aerators, which provide the required air to each aeration basin. Because the aeration treatment process consumes the majority of energy at this facility (as with most Continued on page 38

T

Figure 1. Plantation Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Table 2. Discharge Limits for Underground Injection Well System

Continued from page 36 WWTPs), improving the efficiency of aeration can result in the largest cost and energy savings. It’s been well established that diffused air systems, specifically fine bubble diffused air systems, are more efficient at oxygen transfer than the mechanical aeration systems. In addition to implementing fine bubble diffusers, another way that the RWWTP can save energy is by optimizing the amount of air that’s supplied to the aeration basins from the blowers by implementing an automatic dissolved oxygen (DO) control system.

Aeration Systems in Activated Sludge

     

  

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Figure 2. Typical Electricity Requirements  at Activated Sludge Treatment Processes

in the United States (SAIC, 2006)

Approximately 70 percent of WWTPs in the United States exceeding 2.5 mgd utilize activated sludge secondary treatment, where 45 to 75 percent of electricity use is consumed in the aeration process (Rosso and Stenstrom, 2006). Because the aeration treatment process consumes the majority of energy in WWTPs utilizing secondary treatment, improving the efficiency of aeration can result in the largest cost and energy savings to utilities. Figure 2 demonstrates the typical energy usage at wastewater treatment facilities in the U.S. utilizing the activated sludge treatment process. Existing Mechanical Aeration Process Versus Proposed More-Efficient Fine Bubble Diffused Aeration The two most common methods of providing oxygen to wastewater in the aeration basin are mechanical aeration or diffused aeration systems. Mechanical aeration is provided by large impellers that are submerged in the wastewater and rotated using high-capacity electric motors, which consume a large amount of electricity. The RWWTP utilized six 100-horsepower (hp) and three 125hp mechanical aerators in its aeration basins, for a total nameplate horsepower of 975 hp. The mechanical aerator impellers agitate the wastewater so that it’s splashed into the air at the water surface, which increases the rate of transfer of oxygen from the atmosphere into the aqueous phase. A view of one of the old mechanical aerators at the RWWTP is provided as Figure 3. Fine bubble diffused air systems are more efficient at oxygen transfer than mechanical aeration (Shammas et al., 2007). The small bubble size produced by the fine bubble diffusers has a high surface-area-to-volume ratio, which allows much higher oxygen transfer efficiency compared to mechanical aeration. Thus, the implementation of

Figure 3. Surface Mechanical Aerator at the Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Figure 4. Fine Bubble Diffuser (photo: ITT Water and Wastewater – Sanitaire)

fine bubble diffused aeration at the RWWTP will lead to cost and energy savings. A view of a fine bubble diffuser is provided as Figure 4. Automatic Dissolved Oxygen Control In addition to implementing fine bubble diffusers, another way that the RWWTP can save energy is by optimizing the amount of air that is supplied to the aeration basins from the blowers by continuously varying the amount of the air supplied based on the amount of oxygen required by the treatment process. An automatic DO control system utilizes DO sensors that are permanently submerged in the wastewater of the aeration basins and continuously take readings and “feedback” signals to a controller. The controller then automatically adjusts airflow to maintain a predetermined DO set point (typically 1 to 3 mg/L) by continuously adjusting the blowers and/or motor-operated air distribution control valves to each basin. The automatic DO control feedback strategy greatly reduces electricity costs when compared to manual DO control by preventing overaeration.

Figure 5. New Multistage Centrifugal Blowers at the Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant

each basin, for a total of 9,000 diffusers. Some of the unique features of the system include: (a) The activated sludge process will also be used for odor control by directing foul air from the headworks to the fine bubble diffusers. This implementation resulted in significant capital savings for the city. (b) The first zone was provided with an onoff modulating valve that would allow operation in anaerobic mode. Operation in this selector mode is anticipated to improve sludge settleability and potentially further reduce energy consumption. Figure 6 shows a photo of the diffused aeration system at the RWWTP. Evaluation of Energy Conservation Measures A model was developed to estimate the energy

savings and resulting cost savings that could be realized by implementing ECMs at the RWWTP. The model used historical plant monitoring data to project the energy savings achieved by implementing the improvements detailed previously. The energy savings were estimated at approximately 50 percent, for an annual savings of $200,000. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted and demonstrated that the energy savings do not deviate greatly from the base case when considering the effects of changes in key variables, with a variation in predicted energy savings of approximately 45 to 55 percent. The proposed ECMs will also result in a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. The estimated energy efficiency and resulting savings are shown in Table 3, and Figure 7 provides a graphical description of the implemented ECM. The predicted annual cost savings is based on the Continued on page 40

Diffused Aeration System A summary of the proposed fine bubble diffused aeration system for the RWWTP includes: S A multistage centrifugal blower arrangement of two 150-hp and two 300-hp multistage centrifugal blowers. This small-large blower arrangement allows for the automated blower system to provide adequate turndown and optimal efficiency throughout the entire range of current and future operation. Figure 5 shows the new blowers at the RWWTP. S Flexible membrane disc diffusers were recommended for implementation at the RWWTP. It was proposed that the diffuser layout consist of four grid zones totaling 3,000 diffusers in

Figure 6. New Fine Bubble Diffused Aeration System at the Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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Table 3. Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant: Estimated Energy and Cost Savings

Continued from page 39 RWWTP average cost per kilowatt hour (kWh) of $0.074 for 2011. The energy savings analysis performed prior to design and construction of the project was useful for the city to justify the project to the city council and other key decision makers. Sensitivity Analysis Key variables were isolated and manipulated in the model to determine their effects on the efficiency gain calculations, which are demonstrated in Table 4. The results generally do not deviate greatly from the base case, which indicates that the energy savings analysis for the RWWTP was generally resilient to certain variations in key variable values. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Table 5 presents the amount of total annual electricity saved by implementing the proposed ECMs at the RWWTP. The table also shows various greenhouse gas reduction measures that municipalities may employ and shows the equivalent units for each method that result in an equal amount of annual greenhouse gas emissions reduction.

Activated Sludge Diffusion for Foul Air Treatment

Figure 7. Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Proposed Energy Conservation Measures

Table 4. Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Plantation: Energy Efficiency Sensitivity Analysis

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

As mentioned, the activated sludge process will also be used for odor control by directing foul air from the headworks to the fine bubble diffusers; this process is referred herein as activated sludge diffusion (ASD). This involves collecting odorous air, directing it to the suction side of the aeration blowers, and diffusing it into activated sludge basins. The blowers then push the foul air through the fine bubble diffuser system and into the mixed liquor in the activated sludge treatment units. The odors are removed by a combination of mechanisms, including absorption, adsorption, condensation, and biological oxidation in the basins. Typical odor removal efficiencies for ASD are reported in the 80 to 99 percent range for moderate- to high-strength odors. This process is limited by the efficiency of the absorption of the gases from the vapor phase into the liquid phase, which is limited by pH. The advantages of an ASD system include low capital and operating costs (if blowers and diffusers already exist), no chemical handling or storage, no spent media disposal, and the ability to accommodate wide fluctuations in hydrogen sulfide and other reduced sulfur compound loadings. Disadvantages include the potential corrosion of unprotected steel blower inlet filters and piping, and the buildup of a “tar-like” substance on internal components of the blowers. These disadvantages can be minimized through the use of inlet


components constructed from corrosion-resistant materials, such as fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) or stainless steel. The tar-like substance can be removed by routine steam cleaning, by cleaning with a grease-cutting solvent, or by using protective coatings in the blowers and by installing grease filters upstream of the blowers. By implementing ASD for the headworks foul air instead of a two-state wet scrubber system, the city accrued savings of approximately $800,000 in capital cost and $60,000 in annual operating cost.

the headworks’ foul air results in additional $60,000 in annual savings for the city.

References • Rosso, Diego and Stenstrom, Michael K. 2006. “Economic Implications of Fine-Pore Diffuser Aging.” Water Environment Research, Volume 78, No. 8 (August): 810-815. • Sanitaire. 2010. “Aeration Products for En-

ergy-Efficient Biological Treatment.” Company brochure. • Shammas , N.K. et al., 2007. “Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Volume 5: Advanced Physicochemical Treatment Technologies.” Totowa, N.J.: The Humana Press Inc. • USEPA, 2011. EPA Greenhouse Gas Equivalency Calculator. http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/calculator.html. Accessed Sept. 10, 2011. S

Table 5. Greenhouse Gas Prevention Equivalency

Fine Bubble System Operation Construction of the project started in January 2017. Aeration Basin (AB) No. 3 improvements were completed in October 2017, AB No. 2 in May 2018, and AB No. 1 in February 2019. The city started observing and accruing the energy savings since AB No. 3 was commissioned. In fact, the city received a call from the Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) asking the reason for the drastic reduction in energy consumption. Figure 8 shows the historical energy bill for the RWWTP. The historical average energy consumption prior to October 2017 was 27,600 kWh/day. For the period between May 2018 to February 2019 (when the system has been running solely on fine bubble diffusion), the average energy consumption dropped to an average of 21,400 kWh/day. The 6,200 kWh drop in energy consumption is equivalent to 260 kW (350 hp) and represents an annual energy cost saving of approximately $170,000. These savings are just 15 percent short of the estimated $200,000 annual savings, but it’s within the range shown in the sensitivity analysis. At the moment, the city is running with relatively high DO, typically higher than 2 mg/L, and these savings are expected to increase after final optimization and completion of the project.

Summary After implementation of the fine bubble conversion project, the RWWTP is achieving an energy reduction of approximately 6,200 kWh/day, which is equivalent to 260 kW and represents an annual savings of approximately $170,000. These savings are in line with estimates from an energy savings analysis performed during the design phase, and are anticipated to increase over time with full utilization of DO control techniques. In addition, the activated sludge process is being used for odor control by directing foul air from the headworks to the fine bubble diffusers. The implementation of the activated sludge diffusion of

Figure 8. Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Historical Energy Bill Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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C FACTOR

Short School Registration; PFAS in Water Kenneth Enlow President, FWPCOA

reetings everyone. I hope you’re all getting ready for the FWPCOA Spring Short School being held in Ft. Pierce March 16 through March 20. I hope you’ve already registered for the classes you need, but if not, do it now as time as is running out. It’s very helpful for the program coordinators to know ahead of the school how many students have enrolled. This gives them time to schedule instructors and gives the instructors time to prepare for the class and make their travel arrangements. Short school instructors are all volunteers and many of them take vacations from their work to teach at the short school.

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The following classes are being offered at the March short school: S Backflow Repairer Certification S Backflow Tester Certification S Backflow Tester Recertification S Facility Management S Reclaimed Water Distribution S Reclaim Water Distribution (abbreviated course) S Stormwater Management S Utilities Maintenance S Utility Customer Relations S Wastewater Collection System Operator S Wastewater Process Control S Wastewater Troubleshooting S Water Distribution System Operator You should have already made you hotel reservations by now, but if you haven’t, get it done as rooms fill up quickly in the spring in Ft. Pierce. I’ll see you there!

PFAS in Water In this issue of C Factor, I want to take some time to talk about water quality issues, specific PFAS. What are we talking about? The acronym PFAS stands for per-fluoroalkyl substances and poly-fluoroalkyl substances. Many of these substances were developed and manufactured as commercial or industrial chemicals, such as firefighting foams, Teflon, waterproofing sprays, nonstick food wrappers, nonstick cookware, stain-resistant textiles, and other similar nonstick or waterproofing materials. Many of the PFAS products were replaced in about 2002 with newer, similar products, named Gen X compounds, that were supposed to be nontoxic. The Gen X compounds are primarily short-chained carbon-containing materials that include fluorinated and nonfluorinated products. Gen X (also known as C8 and primarily manufactured by DuPont) refers to the special high-performance fluoropolymers now used to make Teflon and other nonstick coatings. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported late in 2018 that the Gen X compounds are just as toxic as the predecessor chemicals that are no longer made. What are the health effects? A generic definition of PFAS is provided in the EPA literature as a class of anthropogenic chemicals containing fluorinated carbons with a charged functional group (usually carboxylic acid or sulfonic acid) that are extremely resistant to degradation and have a half-life of several years, either in the environment or in human blood. It’s believed that more than 3,500 PFAStype chemicals exist and may be in the world environment. Most of these substances contain carbon and fluorine (C-F) bonds, which are the strongest bonds known in chemistry. Chemical and physical reduction of these bonds is not possible by ordinary treatment methods, making PFAS compounds very persistent and resistant to biological degradation. For these reasons, PFAS compounds tend to bioaccumulate in the human body (and in animals) from multiple exposures. The bioaccumulation at some point can reach a level that becomes toxic to individuals who’ve been exposed to PFAS.

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


How does it affect the environment? The PFAS are water soluble and can be prevalent in groundwaters, storm runoff, wastewater treatment plant discharges, and industrial releases to the environment. Consequently, PFAS exposure can occur from drinking water consumption and its presence creates removal difficulties for many conventional water treatment systems. Some reports state that, due to PFAS in collection systems and the lack of PFAS removal treatment at wastewater treatment plants, municipal wastewater plants may be the largest contributors of this contaminant to surface water sources. Wastewater treatment plants typically do not have treatment capabilities to remove PFAS levels from influent sewage, but PFAS can be concentrated in activated sludge and returned to the environment from biosolids disposal under normal land applications methods. Landfill leachate also is a major source of PFAS back into the environment. Water plants that utilize biologically active filtration (BAF) have been observed to concentrate PFAS in the biological media that can be released back into the water during customary bacteria mortality. What is the regulatory impact? The EPA has long been anticipating regulatory actions on PFAS in water. The Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR 3) in 2012 listed six perfluorinated compounds under the required monitoring actions. Reports from UCMR 3 showed that about two percent of public water systems in the United States had perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) greater than 20 nanograms/milliliter (ng/L) and that 0.3 percent of public water systems had PFOA greater than 70 ng/L. In 2016 EPA issued new lifetime health advisories for PFOA and perfluorooctane sul-

fonate (PFOS) at 70ng/L as a combined advisory level. Florida is following EPA’s health advisory at 70 parts per trillion (ppt). How do we remove PFAS from drinking water? In 2016 the Water Research Foundation (WRF) published conclusions (Project 4322) for treatment technologies and their capability for removal of PFAS from water. An evaluation of 15 full-scale treatment operations across the U.S. was used to determine those treatment technologies that showed any reduction in PFAS levels through the process trains. About 23 separate PFAS chemicals were evaluated in the studies where various conventional and advanced technologies existed in the treatment plants. Two treatment technologies were evaluated on bench-scale assessments that included granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. In general, many of the conventional treatment processes were not effective for removing PFAS levels in the water (typical removals were less than 10 percent). Other advanced technologies had some success for removing PFAS to nondetectable levels, but based on the WRF research data, conventional treatment process does not effectively remove PFAS from water. Oxidation of PFAS is relatively poor using chlorine, permanganates, chlorine dioxide, chloramines, ozone, and advanced oxidation processes (AOP). Anion exchange can remove high percentages of some PFAS compounds and is relatively effective at removing PFOA and PFOS. The spent brine though is considered a hazardous waste and must be disposed of properly. The GAC can remove most PFAS chemicals from water, but the lower molecular weight compounds are difficult to adsorb using GAC.

The NF and RO membranes remove many PFAS chemicals, but the concentrate is considered a hazardous waste and must either be treated to remove PFAS or disposed of properly. A summary of the WRF report shows that anion exchange, GAC, and high-pressure membranes (NF and RO) can be used to effectively remove PFAS, depending on molecular weight of the compounds of interest. The WRF cautions that not all GAC is the same, not all anion exchange resin is the same, and membranes must have sufficiently small pore size to capture the PFAS chemicals being treated. Further, anion exchange and GAC are effective for the long-chain compounds, but natural organic matter (NOM) and desorption must be accounted for in these processes. Observations were also made by WRF that spent brines and membrane concentrate will contain high levels of PFAS and must be properly destroyed to prevent introduction of PFAS back into the environment. The GAC can be reactivated using thermal processes that destroy PFAS and those that are not returned to the environment. These considerations should be taken into account while selecting removal treatments, as well as conducting pilot testing onsite to verify individual process removal efficiencies. There are no conclusions or clear-cut methods for removal of PFAS compounds or final rulemaking, but you can expect to hear much more about this in the near future. Don’t forget to register for the March 1620 FWPCOA Spring Short School in Ft. Pierce, and for the April 26-29 Florida Water Resource Conference in West Palm Beach. Keep up the good work, stay active, and make a difference! S

North Port Facility Earns Water Landmark Award The Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) has recognized North Port’s water treatment facility as an American Water Landmark and as a Florida Water Landmark. The award recognizes and preserves water landmarks at least 50 years old that have had a direct and significant relationship with water supply, treatment, distribution, or technological development. North Port received the Landmark Award on December 11 last year during the FSAWWA Fall Conference held at the Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate. Originally established by General

Development Utilities Inc., a subsidiary of General Development Corporation, the Myakkahatchee Creek Conventional Treatment Plant began to service the city in April 1961. Ownership of the facility and its infrastructure was transferred to North Port in 1992. The city had since invested in the preservation, repair and replacement, and expansion of services that comprise potable water treatment within its borders. North Port produces 3.8 million gallons of potable water a day to over 22,000 customers. Rick Newkirk, North Port Utilities director, said, “This water treatment plant, over the years,

has had many changes, but the city of North Port has always been able to rely on this surface water facility for a reliable water source.” Teri Holcomb, with Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority and chair of the FSAWWA Public Affairs Council, added her congratulations: “This is a great honor and a testament to the city’s dedication to its potable water infrastructure.” S

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Seven Entries Earn Awards in the 2019 Operator Ingenuity Contest Every year at the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC), the Operator Ingenuity Contest recognizes operators who find simple, applicable solutions to everyday problems. The 2019 WEFTEC hosted the eighth annual contest awards ceremony on September 25. Seven new winners joined the ranks of the nearly 50 other fixes that have made people’s jobs easier and safer.

This had the risk of splashing scalding water or chemicals on the operator. It also consumed a lot of diesel, electricity, and water. Her fix was incredibly simple, as she fixed a squeegee to a flexible broom handle. The tool just peels the slime off the tank wall.

The Sewer Sailor Award

This award went to Mike Wenner of the City of Napoleon (Ohio) for creating a tool to help solids dry more quickly. Wenner fabricated a large rake from a piece of steel angle and welded to it several portions of cut pipe. The rake gets attached to a front-end loader, which can be used to rake the solids in the drying bed, increasing its surface area and drying it much faster than was previously possible.

This award went to James E. Segrest Jr. from the City of Auburn (Ala.) Water Resource Management Sewer Department. Segrest had a wide-diameter sewer main that had to be inspected. The flow in the main was too great for the facility’s crawler camera to be feasible. So, instead of sending a human in, Segrest attached a GoPro camera and flashlights to a cooler lid and floated it through the main. He attached the float to a reel of kite string to control its progress. The facility has successfully used the sewer sailor several times.

The Goody Bag Award

The Bottle Bump Award

William Paddock of the South Orange County Wastewater Authority in Dana Point, Calif., received this award for his invention of a fisheye filtration system. After discovering that fisheyes (globules of polymer) were blocking his facility’s polymer flow switch and ball checks, which triggered multiple “low polymer flow” alarms daily, Paddock knew something had to be done. He and his staff decided to create a filter using an old chemical tote. They cut a hole in the tote and fashioned a filter from screen door material. It worked, but the process was laborintensive because they had to frequently clean the filter to maintain flow. After a few iterations, they landed on using a replaceable 600-micron bag filter that could be replaced easily when full. They also installed a removable filtration platform that could be placed on top of any tote, and a pneumatic double-diaphragm pump, which enabled them to place the filtration system above the tank. Paddock credits his success to communication with staff. “I went to every single operator and asked ‘What would make this better?’ and we got some really good ideas.”

Perhaps the simplest and cleverest of all, this award went to James Petalio of the Rodeo (Calif.) Sanitary District, who was dealing with constant chlorine dosing alarms after hours. The alarms triggered the facility’s sodium bisulfite metering pump to automatically run at 100 percent to prevent a chlorine violation. The problem was solved by simply raising reagent bottles (acetate and potassium iodide buffer solution) from below the analyzer unit to above it. Removing the need for the reagent dosing pump to overcome the head by lifting it up to the analyzer stabilized the process and eliminated the alarms. This straightforward fix saved the district $1,200 in overtime costs and more than $12,800 per year in sodium bisulfite costs.

The Muckraker Award

The Tight Squeegee Award This award went to Johanna McHone with Charlotte (N.C.) Water for inventing a device to peel polymer slime off the polymer tanks at her facility. Before her invention, she had to use a heated pressure washer to clean the tank sides.

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The Smooth Move Award This award went to John Presta and George Pelzowski of the Corbett Creek Water Pollution Control Plant in Whitby, Ontario, who were dealing with aluminum channel sluice gates that were jammed. The aluminum gates had fused to the aluminum channels, and staff members were often resorting to cutting out the gate to resolve the problem. To address this issue, the Corbett Creek team ordered new gates from various suppliers, but their clever twist came in how they installed them. They welded side slide tabs to the new gates, which allowed them to fit in the original channels perfectly. They also added a rubber stop at the bottom of the gate to help the seal.

The Rag Spear Award Matt Haggler from the City of Meridian (Idaho) received this award for solving an irritating problem. The city’s 800,000-gallon anaerobic digesters hadn’t been cleaned in several years and the influent screens weren’t working well. This meant wipes, rags, and hair had built up in the tank. The bound-up material had created massive rag flotillas, which soon began to affect digester performance. Haggler’s solution was a 25-foot-long and 2inch-thick solid steel spear head with collapsible tines. The spear can be attached to a crane and forced into the rag balls. Once stabbed in, the crane pulls the spear back out and the tines unfold. The tines then hook into the rag ball like barbs, and the mass of material can be pulled out. The spear has removed rag balls weighing nearly 1000 pounds. The spear cost less than a few hundred dollars, while saving the city significant money in down time and enabling the digesters to work properly.

Apply Now for Operator Ingenuity 2020 This year’s contestants will certainly have big shoes to fill, but if past years are any indication, the ideas will only get more creative and ingenious. If you have a simple fix that has made your job safer, easier, cheaper, or more efficient, submit it for the 2020 contest. The application period is open now and closes June 5. The contest is open to all (the entry form includes a field for a WEF member number, but this field is optional.) Find full submission details online at www.weftec.org/ingenuity. S


FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association committee activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included from your chapter send details to Megan Nelson at megan.nelson@ocfl.net.

Megan Nelson

Seminar Presents Timely Collection Systems Issues Rich Schici and Fabier Fernandez The FWEA Collection System Committee recently presented a regional seminar hosted by Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department titled, “Understanding the Collection System.” The seminar centered on how owners, engineers, and utilities are using technology and information to better inspect, understand, and address collection system issues. The goal of the seminar was to educate attendees on crafting proactive approaches that stay ahead of sanitary sewer overflows (SSO) and other major problems with cost-effective methods. The seminar topics focused on sewer rehabilitation, pumping improvements and management, inflow/infiltration (I/I), and innovation and technology for the collection system. There were 10 presentations, including a keynote address from Marisela Aranguiz, assistant director–capital programs management, and Antonio Cotarelo, deputy director of operations, from Miami-Dade. This team from the water and sewer department is responsible for

the planning and execution of six capital infrastructure programs that have an estimated value of over $7 billion and the operation of 7,357 miles of wastewater pipes. Participants heard from Miami-Dade, the largest water and wastewater utility in the Southeast, and presenters from the following organizations: S City of Coral Gables S ADS Environmental Services S BLD Services LLC S City of Fort Lauderdale S Arcadis S Nova Consulting S 300 Engineering Group S Pannone Lopes Devereaux & O’Gara LLC S Palm Beach County Florida Water Utilities Department S Environment One Corporation S In-Pipe Technology LLC The seminar opened with discussion of an I/I reduction strategy with flow monitoring, sanitary sewer evaluation studies, and I/I rehabilita-

Speakers Jorge E. Acevedo (right), from Coral Gables, and Paola Davalos (center), from 300 Engineering Group, kick off the seminar discussing Coral Gables’ successful strategies for inflow/infiltration reduction.

tion using innovative dashboards for tracking and reporting results. Attendees then learned of an innovative approach to minimize overflows and maximize operations by applying machine learning, which employs artificial intelligence to evaluate conditions within gravity sewer flows. By applying the tool in real-world scenarios, the audience learned that users were alerted to future blockages a week in advance. Next, BLD Services LLC, the largest company in lateral rehabilitation in the United States, offered an overview of achieving 90 percent reduction of I/I with cost-effective solutions to repairing the sewer with trenchless technology. After insightful presentations on pump station repair and rehabilitation for asset management risk, and long-term funding needs and infrastructure strategic evaluations for pump station improvement programs, the audience learned about life cycle cost analysis for decision making in collection system rehabilitation. All of these topics addressed data-based management programs, placing an emphasis on Continued on page 46

Audience members tune in as Antonio Cotarelo and Marisela J. Aranguiz from Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department deliver the keynote presentation, “Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department’s Collection System: Operation and Maintenance; Inflow/Infiltration; Program and System information Protocol; Public Service Reform Program; Capacity Management, Operations, and Maintenance; and Everything in Between.”

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Continued from page 45 the entire infrastructure life cycle—from planning to operations—using tools to allow utility owners to make sound project decisions, considering both capital and operating costs over a long-term analysis period.

Closing the seminar were two unique topics (pressure sewers and bioaugmentation) on the collection system. Pressure sewers are not always embraced by engineers and operating personnel due to concerns about the operation and maintenance efforts and costs. Through a retro-

A slide from Miami-Dade’s presentation showing how it has managed to keep wastewater treatment flows down in spite of population growth.

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spective examination of the service history of pressure sewer systems, the audience heard about the successful installation of this technology, with reliable operation achieved. Bioaugmentation provides sustainable solutions through utilization of existing infrastructure, with a natural, biological process employing competitive exclusion within the collection system. Microbiology can change collection system conditions that reduce operation and maintenance costs by a consistent dosing strategy near the point sources of fats, oil, and grease. With this broad range of topics, FWEA seminar participants heard how technology and information increase the understanding of the collection system. Special thanks go to Joan Fernandez, moderator of the session and past chair of the Collection System Committee, and Jamison Tondreault, Collection System Committee chair. For more information on how to get involved with the committee, please contact Jamison Tondreault at Jamison.Tondreault@kimley-horn.com. Rich Schici is regional manager–business development for IPR Southeast in Lithia and Fabier Fernandez is an engineer/owner at InfraTech Group in Orlando. S


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^ĞǁĞƌ ĨŽƌĐĞ ŵĂŝŶ ƌĞƉůĂĐĞŵĞŶƚ ŝƐ ĂŶ ĞdžƉĞŶƐŝǀĞ͕ ĚŝƐƌƵƉƟǀĞ ĂŶĚ ƵŶƉŽƉƵůĂƌ ƵŶĚĞƌƚĂŬŝŶŐ͘ ^ƚƌĞĞƚƐ ĂƌĞ ƚŽƌŶ ƵƉ ĨŽƌ ŵŽŶƚŚƐ͕ ĂŶŶŽLJŝŶŐ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌƐĂŶĚŝŶĨƵƌŝĂƟŶŐďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐ ǁŚŽƐĞ ĐƵƐƚŽŵĞƌƐ ǁŽƵůĚ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ĂǀŽŝĚ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŝƐĂŶĐĞ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ͕ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ďĞƐƚ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͕ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ďĞ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐĞĚ ĂƐ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ Ă ƌĞŐƵůĂƌ ŵĂŝŶƚĞŶĂŶĐĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ͘ ŶĚ ƵŶƟů ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨƌĂŐŝůĞ͕ ĐƌƵŵďůŝŶŐ ŵĂŝŶƐ ĂƌĞ ƐĂĨĞůLJ ƌĞƉůĂĐĞĚ Žƌ ƌĞƉĂŝƌĞĚ͕ ƐŽĂƌŝŶŐ ŵĂŝŶ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞƐ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ŬĞƉƚ ďĞůŽǁ Ă ĐƌŝƟĐĂů ůĞǀĞů ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ĚŝƐƌƵƉƟŽŶƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŵŝŶŝŵŝnjĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŵĂŶĂŐĞĚ Ăƚ Ă ĐŽŶƚƌŽůůĞĚ ƉĂĐĞ͘ Ƶƚ ŽŶĐĞ ƚŚĞ ƟĐŬŝŶŐ ƟŵĞ ďŽŵď ŽĨ ĂŶ ĂŐŝŶŐ ĨŽƌĐĞ ŵĂŝŶ ĞdžƉůŽĚĞƐ͕ĂůůŽƉƟŽŶƐĂƌĞůŽƐƚ͘

Ƶƚ ŚĞůƉ ŝƐ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͘ ĂƚĂ &ůŽǁ ^LJƐƚĞŵƐ͛ ^LJŵƉŚŽŶLJ - ,ĂƌŵŽŶŝŽƵƐ WƵŵƉ ĂŶĚ &ůŽǁ DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ŝƐ Ă ƉĂƚĞŶƚĞĚ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ĨŽƌ ǁĂƐƚĞǁĂƚĞƌ ĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ͘ tŝƚŚ ŶĞĂƌůLJ ϰϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ǁĂƐƚĞǁĂƚĞƌ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ͕ &^ ĐĂŶ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ƉƌĞĐŝŽƵƐ ƟŵĞ ƚŽ Ă ǁĂƐƚĞǁĂƚĞƌ ƵƟůŝƚLJ ƚŚĂƚ ƌĞĂůŝnjĞƐ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĚĞďŝůŝƚĂƚĞĚƐLJƐƚĞŵŝƐĨĂŝůŝŶŐ͘ LJ ƵƐŝŶŐ ^ ƚŽ ĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƚĞ ƚŚĞƐLJƐƚĞŵ-ǁŝĚĞŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶŽĨƐĞǁĞƌ

ůŝŌ ƐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ǁĞ ĐĂŶ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞƐ ʹ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƐĞ ŽĨ ĂŐŝŶŐ ĨŽƌĐĞ ŵĂŝŶƐ - ŝŶ ĐƌƵŵďůŝŶŐ ƐĞǁĂŐĞ ĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͘ tŝƚŚ ^LJŵƉŚŽŶLJ͕ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƐŬ ŽĨ ƌĞƉůĂĐŝŶŐ ĨŽƌĐĞ ŵĂŝŶƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĐŽŶĚƵĐƚĞĚ ŝŶ Ă ĚŝƐĐŝƉůŝŶĞĚ͕ǁĞůů-ƉůĂŶŶĞĚŵĂŶŶĞƌ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ŵĂŶLJ ŽƚŚĞƌ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ ďLJ ^LJŵƉŚŽŶLJ͕ ǁŚĞƚŚĞƌ Ă ĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ŝƐ ŽǀĞƌƚĂdžĞĚ Žƌ ŶŽƚ͘ KƉĞƌĂƟŶŐ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƌĞĚƵĐĞĚ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ůŽǁĞƌƐ ƉŽǁĞƌ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ůĞƐƐĞŶƐ ǁĞĂƌ ŽŶ ƐĞǁĂŐĞ ŵĂŝŶƐ͘ /ƚ ĂůƐŽ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ŝŶ ĨĞǁĞƌ ƉƵŵƉ ĐLJĐůĞƐ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĞdžƚĞŶĚƐ ƉƵŵƉ ůŝĨĞ͘ ^LJŵƉŚŽŶLJ ĂůƐŽ ĞƋƵĂůŝnjĞƐ ŇŽǁƐ ŝŶƚŽ Ă ttdW͕ ĐŽŵďĂƟŶŐ ĚĂŝůLJ ƉĞĂŬŇŽǁƉƌŽďůĞŵƐ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ŶŽ ŵĂŐŝĐĂů ĐƵƌĞ ĨŽƌ ĂŶ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ǁĞĂŬĞŶĞĚ ĨŽƌĐĞ ŵĂŝŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ŶŽƚŚŝŶŐ ĐĂŶ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ƚŚĞ ďĂƐŝĐ ĨĂĐƚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞLJ ǁŝůů ĞǀĞŶƚƵĂůůLJ ĨĂŝů͘ Ƶƚ ďLJ ĐŽŶƚƌŽůůŝŶŐ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞƐ ŝŶ ĨƌĂŐŝůĞ ůŝŶĞƐ͕ ^LJŵƉŚŽŶLJ ƐůŽǁƐ ƚŚĞ ĐůŽĐŬ ŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ƟĐŬŝŶŐ ƟŵĞ ďŽŵď ĂŶĚ ƌĞĚƵĐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ůŝŬĞůŝŚŽŽĚŽĨĂĐĂƚĂƐƚƌŽƉŚŝĐĨĂŝůƵƌĞ͘ ŽŶƚĂĐƚ ĂƚĂ &ůŽǁ ^LJƐƚĞŵƐ ĨŽƌ Ă ŶŽ-ŽďůŝŐĂƟŽŶ ĞǀĂůƵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ LJŽƵƌ ƐĞǁĞƌ ŵĂŝŶ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƵƟůŝnjĂƟŽŶŽĨ^LJŵƉŚŽŶLJ͘

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Traceability, Accountability, and Diversification Come to the Fore as the Energy Sector Enters a New Decade Colin Beaney The world has never been more aware of the importance of conserving resources and reducing carbon emissions, and nowhere is this growing consciousness more keenly felt than in the energy sector. Companies need to navigate increasingly demanding taxation regimes and government policies, as well as the negative perception connected to fossil fuels taking root among the general population and brought to the fore by the likes of Greta Thunberg, a Swedish environmental activist on climate change, and the Extinction Rebellion, a global environmental movement with the stated aim of using nonviolent civil disobedience to compel government action to avoid tipping points in the climate system, biodiversity loss, and the risk of social and ecological collapse. Besides the mounting social pressure on corporations, they must also consider the business imperative. This entails building long-term plans that insulate them from macroeconomic and geopolitical volatility and the prospect of a skill shortage as younger generations are less inclined to choose to enter a “dirty” industry. Against this background, I offer the following predictions for the energy, utilities, and resources sector. Prediction 1: Water providers will need to look internally in order to meet increasing external expectations In the next 12 months and beyond, the water sector must face multiple pressures caused in part by a significant increase in scrutiny from regulators and consumers alike on environmental impacts, sustainable supply, and affordability. For example, the sixth U.S.

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Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey and Assessment shows that $472.6 billion is required to maintain and improve drinking water infrastructure in the United States over the next 20 years. A large proportion of this investment will need to be directed toward distribution and supply, with EPA urging that $312.6 billion is needed to replace or refurbish aging or deteriorating pipelines. At the same time, utility providers are under pressure from consumers to reduce (or not increase) the amount they’re billed, maintain quality, and reduce leaks and losses. In fact, recent research shows almost one of every six units of water treated across the U.S. never reaches the end consumer. For these reasons, asset management will become an even more crucial part of utility business operations. Previously, the software to manage water assets, pipelines, and maintenance equipment has been the “best of breed,” isolated in its own management silo. But now, in order to bring asset and equipment data into business operations, water organizations will need to move to a software

March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

landscape that has asset management functionality within the core business application. Furthermore, it’s likely there will be increased investment in technology across the board. This will range from the cutting edge of using augmented reality (an interactive experience of a realworld environment where the objects that reside in the real world are enhanced by computergenerated perceptual information) and drones to maintain assets, to more established technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) to help better monitor equipment in the field and homes, as well as geographic information systems to better optimize workforce scheduling. The key caveat here is that these new data streams must also be absorbed into the core enterprise application underpinning utility organizations, otherwise they can’t provide internal visibility, let alone trickle down to better sustainability or customer initiatives. Prediction 2: In 2020, renewable and sustainable energy will attract 85 percent of all new investment, but demand for oil and gas will remain high. Demand for energy will increase as the equivalent of a

whole new China and India will be added to the planet’s global energy demand by 2030. In the light of this projection, oil and gas demand will remain high, while demand for renewables increases at a rate of double figures each year. The first and most obvious change in the market is that renewable fuel consumption is going to increase dramatically. Figures from the International Energy Agency (IEA) suggest that, by 2023, renewables would be in double figures as a percentage of fuels overall and that the size of the market will grow by one fifth between 2019 and 2024. A more pessimistic forecast was issued by CNBC as recently as November 2019; however, consumer demand for renewables has never been higher, and this is likely to increase worldwide. In fact, IEA has suggested that the world’s total renewablebased power capacity will increase to the equivalent of the current power output of the U.S. One notable point when considering these forecasts is that the estimated proportion of renewables goes up every time the organization makes a prediction. In 2017, it was suggesting that increases into the next decade would be small and would not reach double figures; every year the outlook becomes more optimistic. Even as wind and solar power are becoming more reliable and cheaper to install, it’s estimated that oil and gas will continue to meet around 50 percent of energy demand (before a sharp decline in around 2030), while renewables will continue to grow—and fast. Prediction 3: Traditional business models evolve as 55 percent of all major energy companies diversify over the coming three years.


Feeling the pressure to build a business that is sustainable in the long term, a number of traditional oil and gas companies have started diversifying and indeed marketing themselves away from being purely oil and gas concerns. Shell, which is known for oil and gas extraction, refining, and trading, is now retailing not just domestic energy, but also broadband, smart-home technology, and boiler services. In the world of telecommunications, there are similar moves by companies like Virgin, which is looking at allowing its cabling infrastructure to be used to carry charges to electric vehicles. Not all companies will choose these specific routes of diversification, but all companies in the oil and gas and power generation sectors will diversify in some way—whether its bringing alternative power generation methods into the mix or utilizing a company’s offshore expertise to pivot from fossil fuels to supporting offshore wind farms. In 2020 there will be many household names changing their businesses and offering new or peripheral services. This is not really servitization, with companies focusing on the outcomes of their products and services and creating whole new systems of value for customers—it’s much more. Major players will expand to dominate an energy value chain end to end or react to an adjacent opportunity, leveraging existing infrastructure that can be exploited relatively easily. The move to renewables, traceability, and the complete willingness of the industries to adopt new business models is going to characterize the market in 2020. As long as they continue to succeed, this should give hope to companies and their customers. Colin Beaney is the IFS global industry director for Energy, Utilities & Resources. S

It’s Coming: Water Conservation Month and Water Conservation Awards for Excellence WHEREAS, water is a basic and essential need of every living creature; and WHEREAS, The State of Florida, Water Management Districts and (your name) are working together to increase awareness about the importance of water conservation; and

Keeli Carlton 2020 marks the 22-year anniversary since April was first established as Water Conservation Month in Florida. During that time, great strides have been made toward understanding the impacts of water efficiency and water conservation programs. To recognize these efforts, the Florida Section AWWA (FSAWWA) and Florida's water management districts are once again asking local governments, water utilities, and other organizations to adopt a resolution or proclamation declaring “April as Water Conservation Month,” and then report this back to FSAWWA. It’s important that your organization add a Water Conservation Month proclamation to the statewide list. Each year, FSAWWA works with the state governor and cabinet to proclaim "April as Water Conservation Month.” By adopting Water Conservation Month and adding your proclamation to the statewide list, you’re letting Florida's elected officials know just how important water efficiency and water conservation practices are to local governments, water utilities, and other organizations in Florida. The FSAWWA wants to have utilities and other groups throughout the state adopt this proclamation to get your efforts in water conservation recognized! To add your proclamation to the statewide list of entities proclaiming Water Conservation Month this year, please email your proclamation and its adoption date to Jenny Arguello at jenny@fsawwa.org. The due date for the proclamations is April 15, 2020. Your continued support of water conservation and water use efficiency in Florida through participation in this 22nd annual event is appreciated!

Proclamation (Name of county/city entity) (Location)

WHEREAS, (your city or county name) and the State of Florida have designated April, typically a dry month when water demands are most acute, Florida’s Water Conservation Month, to educate citizens about how they can help save Florida’s precious water resources; and WHEREAS, (your name) has always encouraged and supported water conservation, through various educational programs and special events; and WHEREAS, every business, industry, school, and citizen can make a difference when it comes to conserving water; and WHEREAS, every business, industry, school, and citizen can help by saving water and thus promote a healthy economy and community; and NOW, THEREFORE, be it resolved that by virtue of the authority vested in me as (chairman, mayor, etc.) of (your city or county name) and (commissioners or councilmen, etc.) do hereby proclaim the month of April as Water Conservation Month (your city or county name), Florida is calling upon each citizen and business to help protect our precious resource by practicing water saving measures and becoming more aware of the need to save water.

Water Conservation Awards for Excellence This annual awards program of the FSAWWA Water Use Efficiency Division (WUED) recognizes innovative and outstanding achievements in water efficiency throughout Florida. Entry forms will be posted at www.fsawwa.org in July 2020. Keeli Carlton is chair of the FSAWWA Water Use Efficiency Division. S

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FWRJ READER PROFILE Work title and years of service. I’ve been the education program coordinator for Orange County Utilities for three years. What does your job entail? My chief responsibilities include providing conservation-focused knowledge, as well as information about resources available, to the diverse clientele that Orange County Utilities serves. I deliver presentations to K-12 classrooms, afterschool and summer camp programs, and other community groups, as well as execute special events and projects.

Jessica Green Orange County Utilities, Orlando

What education and training have you had? I received a bachelor’s degree of theatre arts, with a concentration in event management, as well as a master’s degree of

Jessica (far left) with the wellness team of Orange County Government.

nonprofit management, both from the University of Central Florida. What do you like best about your job? I like the outreach component, as well as the opportunities for networking at meetings, events, and conferences. As I possess a bit of a nontraditional background for a career in a utility field, I love the opportunity to acquire new knowledge from industry professionals. What professional organizations do you belong to? I’m the event coordinator for Region III of FSAWWA, and also provide joint program support with the Central Florida Chapter of FWEA. How have the organizations helped your career? Both FSAWWA and FWEA have provided me with opportunities to increase my knowledge about water resources, production, and conservation, which enables me to perform better in my role. I’ve received support from FSAWWA for several of our division’s initiatives, such as our conservation calendar art contest and the “Full STEAM Ahead” youth outreach program, which focuses on providing curriculum and activities to students that will inspire them to pursue careers in the water industry. What do you like best about the industry? When I go to a classroom, or I’m out at a community event, and I see someone’s face light up because they have learned something new about water, I feel great satisfaction that I’m able to provide them with that knowledge about how precious of a resource water is. I participate in fundraising events for Water For People, and feel a great sense of accomplishment when I am able to secure money and resources that will bring clean water and sanitation solutions to affected global areas. What do you do when you’re not working? My hobbies include traveling, playing Texas Hold‘em, serving on the Orange County government wellness team, and volunteering with organizations that include United Way and the After School All Stars program. S

A “Full STEAM Ahead” event.

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FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! March 2-4 ......Backflow Repair* ..................................St. Petersburg ......$275/305 16-20 ......Spring State Short School ....................Ft. Pierce

April 6-10 ......Wastewater Collection ..........................Osteen................$225/255 13-15 ......Backflow Repair ....................................Osteen................$275/305 20-23 ......Backflow Tester* ....................................St. Petersburg ......$375/405 20-24 ......Water Distribution 2 ..............................Osteen................$225/255 20-24 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution B ..........Osteen................$225/255

May 1 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ..................Osteen................$85/115 18-22...... Water Distribution 3 ..............................Osteen................$225/255 18-22 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ..........Osteen................$225/255 29 ......Backflow Tester recerts*** ....................Osteen................$85/115

June 8-12

......Wastewater Collection B .................................................. Osteen

Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

How to Conduct a Safety Tailgate he first step to being injury-free is knowing that you can be injured, regardless of how safe you think you might be. On-the-job safety is not your only work goal, but it must be the highest work priority—both for you and your coworkers. Employees are often forced to reconcile between competing goals: timeliness versus safety. There really isn’t a choice. You must always choose your safety and the safety of others ahead of everything else. If you see an unsafe work situation, you owe it to yourself and to your coworkers to immediately stop the work

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until the situation is made safe (more on this later). Most jobsite injuries happen with new workers who don’t know the safety rules and with older workers who become complacent about established safe work practices. These veteran workers have learned over the years to take shortcuts in established safety procedures. These shortcuts eventually become the working norm and get passed through the workplace, making it less safe.

Tailgates for Safety Within the water and wastewater utility industry, a standard work practice for field crews is to conduct a safety tailgate session before the work begins. While the focus here is on field crews, the basic principles apply to many office workers and projects as well. A safety tailgate session is about good communications. It helps everyone involved in the project fully understand the processes and procedures, and it can effectively reduce injuries. These meetings—whether called job briefings, tailboards, or tailgates—are intended to let utility and other work crews acknowledge potential hazards, review work procedures, and address safety measures before starting a job. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that these meetings be held.

How to Plan an Effective Tailgate The tailgate is conducted by the employee in charge. Consider these items when planning your talk: S Before the meeting, research the topic. Use materials such as the manufacturer’s operations manuals for machinery and other tools, or safety data sheets. Your insurance carrier and OSHA are other valuable sources of information. S Hold the meeting at the job site, preferably where everyone can sit and relax and become familiar with their surroundings. S Choose topics that directly relate to the project and job tasks. Make a short list of key points to cover. S Make a safety plan and an emergency plan—even if people are working alone! S Have enough copies if written materials will be distributed.

The 2019 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY19. The code is good for the 2019 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

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S Develop questions about work practices to encourage discussion and input. S Pick personal experiences or ask a worker beforehand to tell a story about a near miss or injury. S Plan to keep the meeting short—usually 10 to 15 minutes.

How to Run an Effective Tailgate S Use simple and plain language so that everyone knows and understands exactly what is being said. Encourage questions. S Hold the meeting just before work begins and again if any significant changes to the jobsite occur. S Review all applicable safety rules regarding your company’s procedures and the required personal protective equipment (PPE). S Review the job’s processes and procedures and discuss what safety and rescue issues could come into play if there is an accident. S Discuss everyone’s assignment. Make sure all know their jobs and the jobs of their coworkers. S Establish a worker buddy system where coworkers are assigned to watch out for each other, especially when in a remote location. S Ensure that those with new job assignments, or new tools or equipment, are properly and completely trained on the safety processes, procedures, and operation. Ensure that all PPE is up to standard and safe to use. S Determine if there are any hazards before work begins. S Discuss unusual and nonroutine situations. S Discuss emergency procedures. Determine ahead of time who is in charge in an emergency situation and who is the backup. S Know where all emergency resources are located: emergency plans, fire extinguishers, first aid and burn kits, and communication devices, such as a phone, cell phone, or radio. S Discuss how to direct emergency help to get to your location.

After the Tailgate After the meeting, consider the following: S Did the topic fit the job? S Did the crew participate? S Did someone demonstrate safety equipment or safety practices correctly? S Are employees now able to recognize and correct hazards?

S Walk the job site, ask questions, and observe work procedures. S Document the meeting topic, date, attendees, and any actions taken. S If there is a safety violation, determine what happened, when and how it happened, who was involved, and how can it be prevented from happening again.

Building a Safety Culture It’s unfortunate that employees are reluctant to warn coworkers when they observe risky behaviors, especially considering that most injuries have a behavioral component. Ironically, people underestimate others’ willingness to receive safety feedback. In fact, 74 percent of workers in a recent safety survey confirmed that they welcome peer observations for the purposes of receiving safety-related feedback, but only 28 percent believe other employees feel the same way. Employees will be more open to safetyrelated feedback if coworkers do a better job of providing and receiving it. If giving feedback, do the following: S When providing corrective feedback to others, don’t make it personal—focus on behavior. S Ask questions to facilitate discussion, and don’t lecture. S Give feedback immediately and one-onone, while showing genuine concern for others’ feelings and well-being.

S Offer the opportunity to work together to find better solutions. S Finally, thank the person for listening. If receiving feedback, do the following: S Actively listen and don’t interrupt. S Remain open and receptive and don’t get defensive. S Discuss better ways of doing the task. S Thank the person for providing feedback.

Safety Reinforcement Most employees say they almost never receive one-on-one praise or appreciation for their safety-related behaviors In addition to cautioning coworkers operating at-risk, it’s important to praise employees (individually and as a group) who regularly do their jobs safely. This builds a more open and positive safety culture and increases the likelihood that these work practices will be performed safely in the future. S

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Carbon Diversion and its Role in Energy Efficiency Harold E. Schmidt Jr. and Sangeeta Dhulashia ver the years, the wastewater industry has developed treatment technologies that are effective at removing pollutants and nutrients, even as effluent standards have become more and more stringent. There are, however, still obstacles to overcome. The cost of treating wastewater is always increasing, and the regulations are always creating lower effluent limits. This is a battle many municipalities are continually faced with. The real improvement now and moving forward is the goal of building and maintaining energy-efficient water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs). During the last decade, the wastewater treatment industry has rapidly advanced in the development of technologies to enable its facilities to be more energy efficient. One way to do this is to divert or redirect the carbon in raw wastewater. These carbon diversion technologies can capture more organics from the influent wastewater stream, resulting in a greater amount of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) load diverted to the biosolids line in lieu of aeration tanks. As a result, carbon diversion shifts the typical energy balance in a WRRF by diverting carbon-rich biosolids to the anaerobic digestion facilities, thereby increasing biogas production, while simultaneously reducing the amount of carbon oxidized in the mainstream activated sludge process.

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Background Wastewater treatment in the United States has evolved greatly since the 1800s when sewers were installed to replace pit privies and open ditches (with the primary purpose of disease prevention), and the treatment was mostly dilution into receiving waters. During the first half of the 1900s, the primary focus was on water quality. The earliest treatment plants that were constructed included the first tricking filter facility in Madison, Wis., and the first activated sludge facility in San Marcos, Texas, in 1916. During this period, wastewater treatment was linked with the importance of dissolved oxygen (DO) to aquatic life, aesthetic properties of surface waters (i.e., odor, color, and solids), and measurement of organic matter in sewage as BOD. In 1948, the

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Federal Water Pollution Control Act was passed, which primarily provided federal funds for water quality surveys and construction of wastewater collection and treatment facilities. The last 40 years of the 20th century brought dramatic changes to the way that wastewater was collected and treated, which has set the standards for treatment moving forward. An important milestone was the implementation of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (PL 92500) that were signed into law by President Richard M. Nixon and amended in 1977 (Clean Water Act) and 2002. The law provided for: S Water quality standards for receiving waters based on designated uses and related human health and aquatic life criteria. S Antidegradation policy with ambient monitoring. S Strategies and controls that would be put in place to improve impaired waters using a total maximum daily load (TMDL) approach. During this same period, there have been treatment process advances to improve receiving water quality, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal, improved biosolids management to improve the finished quality of the biosolids, incorporation of advanced technologies (membranes ultraviolet disinfection, etc.), and resource recovery (water reclamation, biosolids reuse, etc.). During this period, the analytical methods used to analyze pollutants in the wastewater improved, with the ability to analyze water quality parameters to lower levels of detection. Now the paradigm of wastewater treatment has changed, and many utilities have added to the goal of meeting permit limits a target goal of resource recovery. Water reclamation has become the norm at many utilities; in fact, Florida leads the U.S. in this form of resource recovery, reusing nearly 800 mil gal per day (mgd) of the wastewater treated. Many utilities are turning toward both energy and/or nutrient recovery as an added target goal to further optimize their facility’s operational costs.

March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Harold E. Schmidt Jr., P.E., BCEE, is south wastewater practice director with Stantec Consulting Services Inc. in Winter Park. Sangeeta Dhulashia, P.E., is senior project manager with Stantec Consulting Services Inc. in Sunrise.

Carbon Diversion The treatment of wastewater has always been a large burden on taxpayers. Typically, in most communities throughout the U.S., their WRRFs are the largest energy consumer. The goal now is to find a way to get these facilities to be less of a financial burden, and in some cases, act as an energy producer. The industry has a solid understanding of bacteria in the treatment process and has improved aeration processes to optimize the air provided to the bacteria so as not to waste one of the largest energy requirements at these facilities. The task now is figuring out how to apply these microbial populations in the most energy-efficient manner possible. Different studies have focused on solutions to increase the energy efficiency of WRRFs. The goal of having WRRFs as net energy producers is an ambitious—yet feasible—one (McCarty et al., 2011; Hao et al., 2015). The self-sufficiency target is deemed achievable since wastewater already contains two to four times the amount of energy required for the wastewater treatment process (Tchobanoglous et al., 2009; Water Environment and Research Foundation [WERF], 2016). Additionally, several other WERF reports state that raw wastewater contains nearly five to ten times the amount of energy needed for the wastewater treatment process. The energy content from wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 500 mg/L is 1.93 kilowatt hours per cu meter (kWh/m3), while typical energy consumptions ranges from 0.3 to 0.8 kWh/m3 (WERF, 2016; Hao et al., 2015). The industry has understood carbon diversion for a long time, but the goals for wastewater management have primarily focused on effluent criteria, rather than energy management. Historically, engineers and utilities have relied on conventional primary clarification


or chemically enhanced primary clarification (CEPT), with the goal of reducing the organic and/or solid load(s) on the downstream processes. In the latter half of the last century, high-rate clarification that combines the techniques of chemically enhanced settling with lamella plates or tube settlers entered the marketplace; however, this technology was mainly used for wet weather treatment. Figure 1 depicts where carbon diversion technologies are typically installed within a treatment process flow scheme.

Emerging Technologies The term carbon diversion (or redirection) has been adopted by the industry, and this technology can capture more organics from the influent wastewater stream, resulting in a greater amount of the BOD load being diverted to the Figure 1. Locations within a water resource recovery facility where carbon diversion can be applied. biosolids line, in lieu of aeration tanks. Diverting more organics to anaerobic digestion enables utilities to capitalize on renewable energy Table 1. Categories of Primary Treatment Options opportunities by generating more biogas. Several technologies have recently emerged to provide a higher degree of primary treatment, reduced footprint, and decreased operational and maintenance requirements when compared to conventional primary clarification (WEF, 2018). These emerging technologies can be grouped into two general categories: S Mechanical • Primary effluent filtration using disk filters. • Screened raw wastewater filtration using disk filters, rotating screens, or rotating belt filters. S Biological • Biosorption and bioflocculation incorporating gravity clarification or dissolved air flotation. Depending upon the goal of the utility, these technologies can either work in concert with the existing primary clarifiers or replace primary clarification all together. These technologies are designed to capture the wastewater solids and organics (achieving increased BOD and total suspended solids [TSS] removal) before discharging to the secondary treatment processes, thereby directing the BOD and TSS to a WRRF’s sludge stabilization facilities for further processing and conversion to energy. The overall performance of these technologies is site-specific and dependent upon the characteristics of the wastewater being treated: raw or primary effluent, design (hydraulic, solids loading rates, etc.), or operational conditions. Compared to conventional primary clarification, BOD and TSS removal can be increased by 30 to 50

percent using an advanced primary treatment technology. Although not a requirement, coagulants and/or polymers can be used to increase the removal efficiencies of each of these technologies. The mechanical technologies require effective screening (<0.25 in.) and grit removal. While the biological technology can operate with only screening, it’s still recommended that an effective grit removal process prior to the biologically enhanced primary treatment (BEPT) process be provided. Regarding the hydraulic throughput of these technologies, the biological technology system can be designed for a wider range of flowrates, though a single mechanical system is limited to flow ranges of 0.1 to 15 mgd, depending upon the technology used. Different advanced primary treatment

technologies offer different advantages, each with unique design and operational features, as well as treatment performances. For example, if removal is achieved by filtration media with relatively small pore size, particle size characteristics of the wastewater will be altered to enhance the effectiveness of the secondary treatment process (Callskaner, 2018). If the advanced primary treatment process has an integrated biological treatment process component, soluble and particulate BOD will be removed. Regardless of the carbon diversion method chosen, the technology that’s used must be based on the downstream treatment processes: liquid and solids. The advantages of these advanced primary treatment technologies include: Continued on page 56

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Continued from page 55 S Decreased electrical energy required for aeration in secondary treatment processes because of reduced organic loading. S Increased gas energy production in the anaerobic digestion process resulting from the high organic energy content of the removed volatile suspended solids. S Expanded facility capacity by reducing the organic loading upstream of the secondary process. Table 1 presents the advanced primary treatment options, in comparison to the conventional and CEPT processes. While the principle advantage of the advanced primary treatment technologies is the additional biogas that can be produced in the anaerobic digestion process, these technologies can also be installed at facilities that do not incorporate anaerobic digestion. For example, smaller facilities that incorporate aerobic digestion can benefit from this technology, primarily due to the lower organic load entering the downstream activated sludge process. Odors, however, could be a concern since additional primary solids will be entering the stabilization process, and aeration requirements to mix and oxidize these solids may increase due to the increased demand and thicker solids from the dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit.

Biologically Enhanced Primary Treatment While each of these technologies has been piloted extensively and can provide utilities with opportunities to further move their

WRRFs to being “net zero” energy facilities, the focus here is on the BEPT technology that has been developed by Evoqua Water Technologies, known as the Captivator®. This is a unique carbon diversion technology that uses biosorption to achieve high levels of BOD and TSS removal, as well as sludge thickening prior to anaerobic digestion. This process blends waste activated sludge (WAS) from the biological treatment process with raw wastewater in a contact tank that is mildly aerated to promote rapid biosorption of soluble organics. Within the contact tank, colloidal BOD is adsorbed onto larger flocs. The hydraulic design detention time of the contact tank ranges between 20 and 40 minutes and operates somewhat like the contact stabilization activated sludge process. The typical solids concentration of the blended wastewater/WAS stream is between 400 and 600 mg/L (WEF, 2018). The organic-rich WAS and raw wastewater particulate (organic and inert) suspended solids flow to a high-rate unit (DAF), where they are then separated (Ding et. al., 2015). The DAF functions as a highly efficient solid-liquid separator that operates at a high surface overflow rate (SOR), using about one-fifth the area of a typical primary clarifier, and cothickens the combined wastewater organics and WAS prior to anaerobic digestion. This thickening, which produces a float that is at least 3 to 4 percent solids, to as much as 6 percent solids, can eliminate the need for a separate thickening step (Doyle et al., 2018). Floated solids from the DAF unit are rich in organic material and can be sent to digestion, often without the need for intermediate

thickeners. The subnatant from the DAF unit flows to the activated sludge process that now operates with a lower organic load, resulting in less aeration energy demand and potentially smaller treatment volumes. The design hydraulic overflow rate of the DAF unit for this process ranges between 5,000 and 10,000 gal per day per sq ft (gpd/sf2) and the recommended solids loading rate ranges from 15 to 30 pounds per day per sq ft (lbs/day/sf 2) (WEF, 2018). A simplified process flow diagram of the Captivator system is illustrated in Figure 2. This technology has undergone a rapid progression over the past two decades, with the first full-scale installation in January 2014 at the 32-mgd Agua Nueva Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) in Pima County, Ariz. This facility was a greenfield plant and replaced the Roger Road Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF). An aerial of the Agua Nueva WRF is shown in Figure 3. An evaluation of conventional primary clarification, CEPT, microscreening, and BEPT was performed by the design engineers, and it was determined that the BEPT process was the best option for Pima County. This facility incorporates six contact tanks and DAF units that are each 60 ft by 20 ft, with a design overflow rate of 4,444 gpd/sf 2(Doyle et al., 2018). More importantly, the footprint of this BEPT process was approximately 65 percent less when compared to conventional primary clarification. In terms of performance at the Agua Nueva WRF, the BEPT process has typically achieved 65 percent TSS removal and 25 to 30 percent soluble BOD removal (Doyle et al., 2018). Additional information on the design and operation of the Agua Nueva WRF is provided in Johnson et al., 2014.

Design Example

Figure 2. Biologically enhanced primary treatment process flow diagram. (graphic: Evoqua Technologies Inc.)

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A better understanding of the actual benefits possible with the BEPT carbon diversion technology can be provided by looking at the comparison of biogas production and aeration tank BOD reduction in a full-scale design example. In this example, the facility has a two-stage activated sludge process: high-purity oxygen (HPO), followed by conventional activated sludge for nitrification. Conventional denitrification filters using methanol as a carbon source to promote denitrification are used, and screening and grit removal precede the HPO basins. Sludge from the primary and secondary treatment processes is thickened and then pumped to the seven mesophilic anaerobic digesters for stabilization. For this example, an


annual average daily flow (AADF) of 65 mgd, with influent BOD and TSS concentrations of 180 mg/L and 161 mg/L, respectively, was used. The BOD concentration was broken down into particulate, colloidal, and truly soluble fractions using values accepted in BioWinâ&#x201E;˘ and GPS-X process modeling software. Based on values from historic testing data, the BEPT performance had a 70 percent TSS removal rate in the DAF and a 35 percent soluble BOD (sBOD) that was bio-adsorbed in the aerated contact tank. The anaerobic digestion performance was based upon a steady-state model, which results in biodegradable volatile solids (VS) destruction and gas production based upon equal mesophilic digestion hydraulic retention time (HRT) for both systems. Table 2 compares the calculated performance of a conventional primary clarification system and a BEPT at this facility. As noted, by implementing a BEPT process there is a positive benefit to both the liquid and solids handling processes. In comparison to the conventional primary clarifiers, the increase in BOD removal nearly doubled (28 to 52 percent) when the BEPT process was Continued on page 58

Figure 3. Aerial view of the biologically enhanced primary treatment process at the Agua Nueva Water Reclamation Facility. (photo: Pima County)

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Continued from page 57 implemented. The solids sent to the anaerobic digesters will increase by approximately 15 percent, from 92,000 to 106,000 lbs/day. More importantly, since the makeup of these solids is predominately primary solids with less WAS, this mixture will be easier to digest and the biogas produced could increase by nearly an additional 41 percent, from 525,000 cu ft per day (cf 3/day) to 780,000 cf 3/day.

Summary and Conclusions Over the past decade several technologies have emerged to provide a higher degree of primary treatment, while providing a reduced footprint when compared to technologies currently practiced (i.e., conventional and chemically enhanced primary clarification), with lower operational and maintenance requirements. These technologies offer a utility the ability to divert more carbon to anaerobic digestion, rather than treating this organic load within the activated sludge process. These advanced technologies include: S Filtration of the primary effluent using disk or compressed media filters. S Filtration of the raw wastewater using disk filters, rotating belt filters, or microscreens. S The BEPT incorporating a mildly aerated contact tank and high-rate DAF unit. Regardless of the advanced primary treatment system implemented, they each can offer: S Decreased electrical energy required for aeration in secondary treatment processes because of reduced organic loading. S Increased gas energy production in the anaerobic digestion process resulting from the high organic energy content of the removed volatile suspended solids. S Expanded facility capacity by reducing the organic loading upstream of the secondary process.

S A smaller footprint when compared to conventional primary treatment and/or CEPT systems. A BEPT process, however, is more adaptable to all flow ranges, whereas the mechanical processes (filtration or screening) require more units due to their equipment sizes and configurations. Other benefits of a BEPT process include: S Typical removal efficiencies: • TSS: 60 to 65 percent or more • sBOD: 20 to 30 percent • Total BOD: 50 percent or more S Thickening not required prior to anerobic digestion since float from the DAF ranges from 4 to 6 percent solids with no chemical addition. S Equipment can often be retrofitted into existing primary clarifiers if the configuration of the clarifiers matches the needs for the contact tank and DAF units. Since each of these differ, their performance is site-specific and the engineer involved needs to consider specific design criteria when integrating an advanced primary treatment process into a new or existing WRRF. Effective screening (<0.25-in. openings) and grit removal are required prior to any advanced primary treatment technology, regardless of the process used. It should be noted that the BEPT process is more tolerant of poor grit removal, due to the ability of the DAF to capture biological solids as float, while grit and heavy solids are deposited in the bottom and removed. Also, care must be taken to ensure that the downstream performance of the biological nutrient removal processes is not negatively impacted by the organic load that is removed, and permit conditions are not exceeded. Therefore, regardless of the technology under consideration, pilot studies are recommended before the design of fullscale facilities.

Table 2. Calculated Performance Between Conventional Primary Clarifiers and Biologically Enhanced Primary Treatment (Evoqua, 2018)

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Acknowledgments Sincere gratitude is given to Evoqua Water Technologies for its support in developing this article and providing data from previous studies performed using this carbon diversion technology. Special thanks go to Nicholas Barczewski, Michael Doyle, Greg Chomic, Sergio Pino Jelcic, Patrick Regan, and James Steffen.

References • Callskaner, Onder (2018). “Carbon Diversion Decisions, Evaluating Advanced Primary Treatment Options Side by Side.” Water Environment Technology, August 2018. • Ding H.-B.; Doyle M.; Erdogan A.; Wikramanayake R.; Gallagher P. (2015). “Innovative Use of Dissolved Air Flotation with Biosorption as Primary Treatment to Approach Energy Neutrality in Wastewater Treatment Plants.” Water Practice and Technology, Vol 10 (1). • Doyle, M.; Erdogan, A.; Antonneau, N.; Johnson, B.; Babcock, R.; Tiow Ping Wong, T.; Bakri Eljerdi, H. (2018). “Biologically Enhanced Primary Treatment: A Summary of Experience from Pilot, Demonstration, and Full-Scale Systems.” Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation Residuals and Biosolids Conference, Phoenix, Ariz. • Hao, X.; Liu, R.; and Huang, X. (2015). “Evaluation of the Potential for Operating Carbon Neutral Wastewater Treatment Plants in China.” Water Resources 87, 424 - 431., doi: 10 - 1016 j.watres. 2015.05.050. • Johnson B.; Phillips J.; Bauer T.; Smith Gr.; Smith Geo.; Sherlock J. (2014). “Start-up and Performance of the World’s First Large-Scale Primary Dissolved Air Floatation Clarifier.” Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation WEFTEC 2014, (10) 712-721. • Tchobanoglous, G.; Leverenz, H.; and Gikas, P. (2009). “Impacts of New Concepts and Technology on the Energy Sustainability of Wastewater Management in Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Renewable Energy Sources.” (Thessaloniki: Environmental Council of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki). • Water Environment Federation (2018). “Design of Water Resource Recovery Facilities – Manual of Practice No. 8.” Water Environment Federation and the American Society of Civil Engineers/Environmental and Water Resources Institute, Sixth Edition, 2018. • Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) Energy Factsheet (2016). Water Environment & Reuse Foundation, Alexandria, Va. S


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Celebrate 2020 National Drinking Water Week! For nearly 40 years, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) has celebrated Drinking Water Week with its members. This year, it will be held May 3-9. In 1988, AWWA brought the event to the attention of the United States government and formed a coalition with the League of Women Voters, Association of State Drinking Water Administrators, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. That year, Rep. Robert Roe of New Jersey and Sen. Dennis DeConcini of Arizona sponsored a resolution to name the first week of May as National Drinking Water Week, and an information kit was distributed to the media and to more than 10,000 utilities across the U.S. Willard Scott, the NBC “Today” show weatherman at the time, was featured in public service announcements that aired between May 2 and 8. The week-long observance was declared in a joint congressional resolution and signed by thenPresident Ronald Reagan. The following year AWWA approached several other organizations to participate.

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Through that effort, the National Drinking Water Alliance was formed, consisting of 15 nonprofit educational, professional, and public interest organizations. The alliance dedicated itself to public awareness and involvement in public and private drinking water issues and continued its work to organize a major annual educational campaign built around Drinking Water Week. The power of the multiorganization alliance enabled Drinking Water Week to grow into widespread and committed participation throughout the U.S. and Canada. In 1991, the alliance launched a national campaign to inform the public about America's drinking water. The group distributed a kit containing ideas for celebrating the event, conservation facts and tip sheets, news releases, and posters. The theme was "There's a lot more to drinking water than meets the eye." That same year, actor Robert Redford recorded a public service announcement on behalf of Drinking Water Week.

March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Celebrating Drinking Water Week is an easy way to educate the public, connect with the community, and promote employee morale. Too often, water utilities receive publicity only when something bad happens; Drinking Water Week celebrations give utilities an opportunity for positive communication.

Public Communication Communicating to the public during Drinking Water Week is integral to any successful celebration. Some options and ideas are: S Advertise in local newspapers S Send bill stuffers to customers S Work with local librarians to set up displays S Use mall kiosks to reach a broad audience S Coordinate distribution of AWWA news releases S Publicize the release of water utility consumer confidence reports S Send public service announcements to local radio and television stations


S Set up a Facebook page and use other social media outlets

Community Events It’s important to be a part of the local community. Communitywide events are fun and festive ways to make sure that customers know about their drinking water—where it comes from, how they get it, and what they can do to help ensure their drinking water quality. S Invite your community members to an open house S Inaugurate an adopt-a-hydrant program S Plant a tree S Conduct plant tours S Hold a landmark dedication/anniversary celebration S Bury a time capsule S Partner with local botanic gardens or other groups S Plan a community cleanup

S Create a utility or company newsletter feature on Drinking Water Week S Record them talking about their job and what they do to make the public’s water safe and post the information on social media

Plan Ahead Drinking Water Week is celebrated during the first full week of May each year. Future dates are:

S S S S S S S

2021 – May 2-8 2022 – May 1-7 2023 – May 7-13 2024 – May 5-11 2025 – May 4-10 2026 – May 3-9 2027 – May 2-8

For questions about Drinking Water Week and the student artwork contest contact Dave Gaylinn at the email previously listed or at 303.794.7711. S

Youth Focus Drinking Water Week is a perfect time to educate children and youth about their water supply in an atmosphere of fun. S Feature a children's coloring contest or essay contest S Hold a poster contest S Have utility employees make presentations at local schools S Partner with a local school district and hold an artwork contest that encourages students to draw or color pictures showing how water is essential to their daily lives. If you do hole an art contest, submit the winning artwork to Dave Gaylinn in the AWWA Communications Department at dgaylinn@awwa.org by June 30, 2020. The winning artwork will be featured in AWWA’s 2020 Drinking Water Week print advertisements! All artwork submitted to AWWA for consideration must also include a signed image release form (which can be obtained from www.awwa.org in a pdf) at the time of submission.

Internal Communications and Events Don't forget employees! Drinking Water Week can help reaffirm to employees the importance of what it is they do—provide clean, safe drinking water for the public. S Hold an annual employee picnic during Drinking Water Week Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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States and EPA Coordinating on Best Approaches to Nutrients Permitting Mark Patrick McGuire and Katie Foreman or the past two years, the Association of Clean Water Administrators (ACWA; Washington, D.C.) and the Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.) have been working closely with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet and discuss a broad range of nutrients permitting issues. Beginning in December 2017, a diverse group of representatives from state clean water programs involved in managing nutrient pollution, along with EPA headquarters and regional staff, have been tackling this topic. These meetings will continue through 2021 as part of a cooperative agreement with EPA. To date, ACWA, with support from WEF and EPA, has hosted four workshops, with an additional three set for 2020 and 2021. The purpose of the workshops is to help achieve several environmental outcomes by bringing together state, tribal, territorial, federal, and other stakeholders to identify challenges and barriers to nutrient permitting program implementation, highlight opportunities for program improvement and enhancement, showcase innovations and achievements, and identify and attempt to solve the most intractable issues.

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permitting. More than 50 individuals from the states and EPA participated, with presentations given on technologies, permitting flexibilities and innovations, the interrelation of permitting for nutrients and other pollutants, and other issues. A group of attendees also visited the Dixie Drain project in Parma, Idaho. The second workshop, held in Columbus, Ohio, in June 2018, focused on the relationship between wastewater technologies and nutrient permitting. More than 40 individuals from the

Workshop Topics The first workshop, held in Boise, Idaho, in December 2017, was a broad overview of topics regarding nutrients

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March 2020 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

states and EPA participated, with presentations given on specific types of technology, optimization and alternative approaches to nutrients removal, costs analyses, operator training, small systems, and more. Also, attendees visited two facilities in the greater Columbus area to learn about treatment processes and technologies. The third workshop, held in Gulfport, Miss., in November 2018, focused on the connection between nutrient permitting and total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). More than 60 individuals from the states and EPA participated, with presentations and discussions focusing on breaking down barriers between TMDL and permitting programs, confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s), reassessing and reevaluating TMDLs, politics and public perceptions of TMDLs and permits, small systems, variances and compliance schedules, and water quality trading. The fourth and most recent workshop, held in Alexandria, Va., in November 2019, focused on identifying challenges and building solutions regarding water quality standards and permitting for nutrients. More than 70 individuals from the states and EPA participated, with presentations and discussions focusing on numeric and narrative nutrient criteria, the interaction between technology limits and water quality standards when permitting for nutrients, small systems, and staff coordination. A group of attendees also toured the Alexandria Renew


Enterprises facility to learn about innovative treatment processes and technologies. Each of the four meetings was livestreamed for individuals who could not attend in person.

Workshop Themes Through the four workshops, some themes have emerged, such as the need for permitting flexibilities, improving communication, working with nutrients criteria, and dealing with small systems issues. Regarding permitting flexibilities, state representatives have shared their experiences using watershed-based permits (in North Carolina and Virginia), water quality trading (in Connecticut), and integrated planning (in Ohio). States see permitting flexibilities as a suite of tools to help reduce nutrient pollution state waters in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. Communication between state programs and between states and the federal government has been a constant theme. Attendees have expressed that, to be successful, state permit writers need to have open communication with modelers, TMDL writers, standards and criteria developers, EPA headquarters and regional staff, and outside stakeholders. Breakdowns in communication are one of the main impediments to progress on nutrient pollution reduction. States such as Missouri and Montana have developed and implemented numeric nutrient criteria; other states, such as Iowa and Kansas, have narrative nutrient criteria. Both forms of criteria create challenges and opportunities when writing permits for nutrients. State representatives have discussed these challenges in each of the workshops presented, working toward solutions to challenges and sharing expertise. Lastly, the issue of small systems management has been discussed in each workshop. Representatives from EPA Region 7, Kansas, and Indiana have presented together in the workshops on the challenges faced by small systems in communities with less than 3,000 residents. Challenges include dwindling resources and populations, lack of operator expertise, need for system upgrades, and potential tightening of permit limits. Potential solutions that were discussed included longterm nutrient reduction plans, regionalization, general permitting, and variances.

states and EPA (as coregulators) the opportunity to identify and seek solutions for the diverse challenges associated with nutrient pollution. In 2020, there will be two workshops, in summer and autumn, with the final workshop of the cooperative agreement to be held in 2021. The organizations hope to continue to work toward solutions to one of the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s greatest environmental challenges.

Mark Patrick McGuire is an environmental program manager and Katie Foreman is an environmental program associate at the Association of Clean Water Administrators (Washington, D.C.), the independent, nonpartisan, national organization of state, interstate, and territorial water program managers who implement the water quality programs of the Clean Water Act. S

Future Meetings Both ACWA and WEF plan to continue offering interesting and important topics and discussions at the next three nutrients permitting workshops, which will provide Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ March 2020

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News Beat The Water Research Foundation (WRF) has hired Christobel Ferguson as its chief innovation officer. She has worked extensively in the utility sector, including consulting, government, and most recently, with Water Ferguson Research Australia. She has led teams engaged in research, development, policy and planning, modeling and data analytics, quality assurance, resource management, and customer service. She has also developed a strategic overview of the U.S., Australian, and international water and environment sectors through her involvement with leading professional bodies, including WRF, Water Environment Research Foundation, Australian Water Association, International Water Association, American Water Works Association, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Christobel brings a wealth of experience to this important role and I am very excited for her to join our staff and partner with the Water Environment Federation to oversee the Leaders Innovation Forum for Technology (LIFT) program,” says Peter Grevatt, WRF’s chief executive officer. "I'm thrilled to be joining the Water Research Foundation, which is leading the way in the implementation of research outcomes in the water sector and has developed a multipronged approach to innovation uptake and implementation. This is essential to improve the effectiveness, agility, and resilience of water and wastewater utilities.”

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In recognition of Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience Month, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) have collaborated to develop the new Water Sector Resource Typing Guidance. This guidance replaces the 2008 AWWA Water/Wastewater Mutual Aid and Resource Typing Manual and is the result of a memorandum of agreement between AWWA and FEMA. The new guidance has been developed and prepared for integration into FEMA’s Resource Typing Library Tool (RTLT). “Resource management and mutual aid is an essential component of the national incident management system, as it provides federal, state, and local jurisdictions a standardized means to provide, coordinate, and manage resources in incident response operations. It helps a utility determine what it could potentially provide to others through mutual aid, and equally as important, it allows

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a utility to assess internal limitations, and therefore understand what they may need to request from others,” said Kevin Morley, AWWA’s federal relations manager. “In addition, over the next year community water systems will be conducting risk and resilience assessments and updating emergency response plans in compliance with section 2013 of America’s Water Infrastructure Act (AWIA) of 2018. The emergency response plan requirements call on utilities to include the identification of actions, procedures, and equipment that can be used in response to an incident. Integrating this new resource typing guidance into a utility’s emergency response plan supports the objectives of AWIA.” Resource typing is also a recommended best practice in ANSI/AWWA G440: Emergency Preparedness Practices, and AWWA’s M19, Emergency Planning for Water Utilities. The new guidance and associated standards provide the foundation for water utilities’ risk and resilience programs that support compliance with AWIA. Additional training is available through AWWA’s Utility Risk and Resilience Certificate Program.

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The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) has acquired a conservation easement totaling approximately 3,562 acres within the Etoniah/Cross Florida Greenway Florida Forever Project, which is part of the Williams Wetland Preserve tract in Putnam County and adjacent to Rice Creek Conservation Area. The Williams Wetland Preserve is composed of mesic flatwoods, bottomland forest, floodplain swamp, and sandhill ecosystems. Numerous seepage streams originate along the western ridge of the property and flow eastward into Rice Creek, a tributary of the St. Johns River. “By partnering with local landowners through Florida Forever, the state is able to conserve critical habitat for native Florida species, protect heritage Florida ecosystems, and improve local water quality," said Noah Valenstein, FDEP secretary. "This project highlights the critical role private landowners can play in the protection of Florida's natural resources." Through past surveys, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission (FWC) has discovered that the property is home to the largest population of spotted turtles in Florida, 45 reptile and amphibian species, and over 100 species of birds. Additionally, 160 acres of timberland within the easement will be conserved specifically for gopher tortoise habitat.

March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

“The addition of this easement has an incredibly high biological benefit in protecting a wide diversity of sensitive species and habitats onsite, but also by the overall increase in wildlife movement and habitat connectivity, for the greater north Florida area as a whole,” said Jonathan Mays, with Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Florida Forever is the state's conservation and recreation lands acquisition program, a blueprint for conserving natural resources and the state’s natural and cultural heritage. The FDEP Division of State Lands is Florida’s lead agency for environmental management and stewardship.

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The American Water Works Association (AWWA) published a new guide to help water utilities initiate or expand their stewardship role in local communities. The new piblication, “A Water Utility Manager’s Guide to Community Stewardship,” can be downloaded for free at www.awwa.org. It outlines strategies, tools, and case studies for water utilities, as providers of an essential community service, to leverage their assets and operations to ensure services are distributed equitably. Among the topics explored are: S Capital planning: Eliminate disparities in access to service and service quality. S Project design, construction, and preventative maintenance: Reduce impacts and integrate positive cobenefits into these functions. S Contracting and procurement: Increase contracting and procurement services with local, small, minority- and women-owned businesses. S Finance: Make services affordable to all residents served. S Customer service and communications: Increase access to information and assistance. S Environmental stewardship: Increase opportunities for environmental stewardship and access to utility open space areas. S Human resources: Promote a welcoming culture and increase diversity, equity, and inclusion in hiring, promotion, and tenure. “Many utilities already integrate community stewardship throughout some of their functional areas as an integral part of their business models,” said Adriana Lamar, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department’s public affairs chief and a member of the steering committee that developed the guide. “This timely guide provides a flexible tool for utility managers to adopt strategies that are appropriate to their utility capacity and relevant to their local context.” S


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New Products

Continued from page 35 tems new tablet Zeno Tab 2 and on most Android smartphones and tablets. (www.leica-geosystems.com)

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VuSitu combines In-Situ software expertise with rugged and reliable instrumentation, giving a simple and streamlined way to access and manage water monitoring data from a mobile device. With the VuSitu Mobile App, there’s no need to bring a bulky, dedicated handheld or laptop into the field to read sensors. A smartphone or tablet can quickly find and recognize each of the monitoring sites, and instantly view, download, and share data from the office or the field. Features include: S Intuitive mobile app in an all-in-one software package that provides autoconfiguration, simplified calibration, directed data analysis, and automated report creation. S Wireless TROLL Com devices provide Bluetooth communication between nearly all In-Situ instruments and mobile devices. S View and record live readings for profiling and spot checks. S Real-time results can be emailed from the field, logged to a mobile device, or exported on the spot. S Site information can be consolidated on a mobile device, and data can be tagged with site photos and GPS coordinates. S The VuSitu Mobile App is free to download in the Google Play Store or the Apple App Store. S Pair VuSitu with the field-ready 7-in. Rugged Android Tablet, featuring a built-in barcode scanner, for rapid input of sample and other barcoded information.

Benefits of the app include: S Saves time and money. Never purchase another expensive, dedicated, handheld again, or waste countless hours learning and training others to use unreliable software. Simply connect the Wireless TROLL Com to the instrument, download the app, and follow the in-app instructions. S Streamlines data management. Use the mobile device in the field or at the office for easy setup, calibration, and data management. Site photos and GPS coordinates keep all projects in one organized, central location. S Quickly calibrates and updates instruments. Calibrate any instrument connected to the app with a guided, simple workflow. Receive instrument firmware and software update alerts, and perform those updates directly through the app. (www.in-situ.com)

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The Komax Triple Action Mixer provides the highest level of mixing of any static mixer. These “in stock” mixers feature very high mixing efficiency with short mixing length. The motionless mixer achieves high efficiency through triple-action mixing. They are designed for use where additives to the main pipeline flow have already been introduced upstream of the mixer. The simple, three-step design procedure allows the rapid choice of line size, number of mixing elements, and pressure drop. Available from stock, mixers are supplied with two, three, or four mixing elements. Materials of construction are carbon steel, 316 stainless steel, PVC and fiberglass. A unique flow straightener is built right into each mixer to eliminate any downstream centrifugal effects, which allows sensing probes to be located directly downstream of the unit. The additive port on the “A” series mixers may be used for a threaded connection to a male pipe thread, or converted to a flanged connection using a nipple and a threaded flange. Custom configurations of these mixers are available and include multiple ports; different end fittings, including grooved and plain ends; and different-style mixing elements. (www.komax.com)

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The Atlas Copco PAS 150HF 300 Surface Pump consists of a centrifugal pump and a separator, which enables air to be separated from the liquid and sucked by a vacuum pump, making automatic priming possible. Even with suction heights of several meters, the machine rapidly evacuates the air from the suction pipe and starts to pump. Additionally, thanks to the semi-open impeller, the pump is also suitable for pumping liquids with solids in suspension. Both Atlas Copco and Varisco have decades of experience in designing and producing pumps. They have put those years of expertise into providing a solutions portfolio that works across multiple applications. The PAS HF (high flow) range is packed with features that not only meet, but exceed the needs of the market. They are focused on an efficient, extremely versatile pump that is suitable for many industries, including construction, general dewatering, and emergency applications, such as flood cleanup. (www.atlascopco.com)

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The Sensaphone cloud-based Sentine PRO allows the monitoring of remote facilities, environments, and critical conditions of climate-sensitive commodities. The system monitors, delivers alarms, and data-logs input/output points from third-party Modbus sensors, transducers, and programmable logic controllers. The system supports Modbus RTU/485 and Modbus TCP. It takes the burden out of managing a system by giving access to readings from anywhere using a simple but powerful webbased interface. Alerts can be sent straight to a mobile device. (www.sensaphone.com) S

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

POSITIONS AVAILABLE

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater

Join South Florida’s Best�in�Class Water Utility! The third�largest water utility in the State of Florida, Palm Beach County maintains a state�of�the�art system that is focused on providing high�quality water, wastewater and reclaimed water services to the 600,000 residents we serve.

Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

POSITIONS AVAILABLE Utility Plant Mechanic $41,473.12 � $65,992.16 InstrumentationTechnician $54,115.36 � $86,112.00 Industrial Electrician $49,522.72 � $78,798.72 Professional Engineer $79,468.48 � $126,453.60 Project Manager (Engineering) $88,470.72 � $155,188.80 Utility Plant Operator I $46,681.44 � $74,268.48 Utility Plant Operator II $49,522.72 � $78,798.72 Chief Operators $60,896.12 � $96,907.20

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $47,675. - $90,281. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring 2 WWTP Operators. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA

Utility Plant Operator Apprentices $33,706.40 � $53,636.96 Utility Customer Service Superintendent (Call Center) $64,613.12 � $102,806.08 Enjoy great benefits including: Health, Dental, Vision, Life Insurance, Short�Term and Long�Term Disability, Flexible Spending Accounts, EAP and Florida Retirement System (FRS), On�Site CEU Programs and more! Apply online at PBCGOV.com/jobs

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available Pretreatment Coordinator, Utility Engineer, Industrial Electrician, Network Analyst SCADA, Laboratory Assistant, Pretreatment Assistant, Crew Leader, Maintenance Mechanic, Foreman, Plant Operator Trainee or Class A, B, C. Apply at www.titusville.com Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Positions Available Wastewater Plant Operator A License Operator: $45,715 - $69,226 B License Operator: $41,797 - $62,695 C License Operator: $38,314 - $57,471 Conservation and Sustainability Specialist $51,375 - $77,063 Please visit bsu.us/employment-opportunities to learn more about the available opportunities and view full job descriptions. https://bsu.us/employment-opportunities

Multiple Positions Available Construction Project Manager I, Locator/Mapping Technician, Equipment Operator, Utilities Mechanic, Maintenance Worker. Apply At: https://www.cityofnewportrichey.org/

Utilities, Inc. Area Manager & Water & Wastewater Operator Utilities, Inc. of Florida has an open position for a Water & Wastewater Operator in Lakeland as well as an open position for an Area Manager in the Lee and Charlotte County area. Applicants must possess FDEP Water and Wastewater licenses. The Area Manager position requires a Dual C water & wastewater license. Applicants must have a valid Florida driver’s license with a clean record. To view complete job descriptions & apply for the positions please visit our web site, www.myuiflorida.com. Under Contact us, click on Employment Opportunities. Search the Operations & FL categories.

GS Inima – Water Treatment plant Operator wanted Gs Inima is now accepting application for state certified water treatment plant operators Class C through A to fill full time operator positions, all shifts, at the City of Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Plant. Back-ground check and drug screening required. Full benefit package. Pay Range Class C $20.00 - $25.00, Class B $25.00 - $30.00, Class A BOE. Please send resumes to inimausa@inima.com attention COH

UTILITY PROGRAM COORDINATOR

Water Treatment Operations Supervisor $20.94 - $34.76 Depending on Qualifications Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license required. The City of Melbourne is currently accepting applications for the position of Water Treatment Plant Operations Supervisor. To learn more and apply, please visit www.melbourneflorida.org

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Key team member assigned projects involve budgeting, project planning, tracking performance, and financial management. Examples include: overseeing expansion of KPI programs, existing internal benchmarking programs and supporting the Enterprise Asset Management System (EAM) continuous improvement initiatives Excellent benefits / wellness programs, HPO team work environment and opportunity for professional development. For more information, go to: www.largo.com/jobs The City of Largo - Naturally A Great Place to Work!


Assistant Director Environmental Services (Utilities) $31.79 - $49.29 Hourly/ $66,123.20 - $102,523.20 Annually Minimum Education and Experience • Bachelor’s degree in Administration or a technical degree. • Seven (7) years of utility operations experience. • Or equivalent training, education, and/or experience. • Florida Class “B” Certification in Wastewater Operation. •Florida Class “B” Certification or greater in Water Operations. • Valid Florida Drivers’ license. See website for more details and to apply: https://www.clermontfl.gov/residents/employmentopportunities.stml

Indian River County Department of Utility Services

SCADA Coordinator If you are looking for a challenge to utilize your expertise and experience in Wonderware and VTScada with a growing utility, please visit our website at www.ircgov.com.

Village of Wellington Water Treatment Plant Operator positions The Water Treatment Plant at Wellington is searching for Water Operators: a Water Operator Level C, a Water Operator Level A, and an Apprentice. Job postings and application available on our website: https://wellingtonfl.munisselfservice.com/employmentopportuniti es/default.aspx Apply online. For further information, call Human Resources at (561) 753-2585. Wellington is located in Palm Beach County, Florida.

WASTEWATER PLANT OPERATOR, TRAINEE, I, II OR III Salary $19.84 - $27.94 Hourly FULL-TIME Department/Division: W&S -WASTEWATER TREATMENT Depending on qualifications, this position will be filled as a Wastewater Plant Operator Trainee, I, II or III. APPLY: Online at www.covb.org and review complete job descriptions. City of Vero Beach, FL 772 978-4900 EOE/DFWP

Indian River County Department of Utility Services Manager – Capital Projects If you are looking to assist a growing utility with your experience and expertise, please apply on our website at www.ircgov.com.

Correction In the February 2020 issue, the title of the FWEA Focus column on page 36 was incorrect. The correct title is, “Is Asset Management a Utility Standard Yet?” The magazine regrets the error.

Indian River County Department of Utility Services

Environmental Compliance Analyst If you are looking to assist a growing utility with your experience and expertise, please apply on our website at www.ircgov.com.

Deputy Director, Public Utilities (Finance): $88,506.33 - $141,610.13/annually Public Utilities Manager (Water Treatment Plant): $78,194.03 $125,110.45/annually Electro Technician: $47,670.98 - $72,459.88/annually For More Info and to Apply go to: http://agency.governmentjobs.com/hollywoodfl/default.cfm EOE M/F/D/V

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2020

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Test Yourself Answer Key From page 17 January 2016

Editorial Calendar January ............Wastewater Treatment February ..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..................Conservation and Reuse May ..................Operations and Utilities Management; Florida Water Resources Conference June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ..............Disinfection; Water Quality September........Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ............New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ........Water Treatment December ........Distribution and Collection

1. C) not designed for continuous employee occupancy. Per 29 CFR 1910.146(b), Definitions, “"Confined space" means a space that: (1) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; (2) Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example: tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry); (3) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.”

2. C) Has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere Per 29 CFR 1910.146(b), Definitions, “Permit-required confined space (permit space) means a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics: (1) Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere; (2) Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant; (3) Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; (4) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.”

3. B) Hazard Communication Per 29 CFR 1910.1200, “Title: Hazard Communication.”

Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

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March 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

4. B) Globally Harmonized System (GHS). Per OSHA’s Hazard Communication webpage, “The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is now aligned with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). This update to the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) will provide a common and coherent approach to classifying chemicals and communicating hazard information on labels and safety data sheets.”

5. D) Safety Data Sheets Per OSHA’s Hazard Communication webpage, “The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires chemical manufacturers, distributors, or importers to provide Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) (formerly known as Material Safety Data Sheets, or MSDSs) to communicate the hazards of hazardous chemical products.”

6. B) At the time of their initial assignment and when a new chemical hazard is introduced. Per 29 CFR 1910.1200(h)(1), Employee Information and Training, “Employers shall provide employees with effective information and training on hazardous chemicals in their work area at the time of their initial assignment, and whenever a new chemical hazard the employees have not previously been trained about is introduced into their work area. Information and training may be designed to cover categories of hazards (e.g., flammability, carcinogenicity) or specific chemicals. Chemical-specific information must always be available through labels and safety data sheets.”

7. C) pictograms. Per OSHA’s Hazard Communication webpage under the “Labeling” tab, “All labels are required to have pictograms, a signal word, hazard and precautionary statements, the product identifier, and supplier identification.”

8. C) 24 feet Per 29 CFR 1910.28(b)(9)(i)(A), Fixed Ladders, “For fixed ladders that extend more than 24 feet (7.3 m) above a lower level, the employer must ensure: Existing fixed ladders. Each fixed ladder installed before Nov. 19, 2018, is equipped with a personal fall arrest system, ladder safety system, cage, or well. New fixed ladders. Each fixed ladder installed on and after Nov. 19, 2018, is equipped with a personal fall arrest system or a ladder safety system.”

9. C) 20 feet Per OSHA’s Trenching and Shoring webpage, on the Working Safely in Trenches QuickCard™: “Prevent trench collapses: • Trenches five feet deep or greater require a protective system. • Trenches 20 feet deep or greater require a protective system designed by a registered professional engineer.”

10. D) Only the employee who applied the device. Per OSHA’s Lockout/Tagout Fact Sheet: • “Ensure that lockout/tagout devices identify the individual users. • Establish a policy that permits only the employee who applied a lockout/tagout device to remove it.”


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