Florida Water Resources Journal - February 2024

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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority

News and Features 4 Why Do WE Walk? Facing Tough Times, People and Water Equation Unite—Jay Madigan 10 Athena Tipaldos Elected as FWPCOA President for 2024 12 2024 FWPCOA Officers and Committee Chairs 26 Harnessing the Power of Ultraviolet Treatment: Driving Global Momentum for Sustainable Wastewater Reuse—Giuseppe Faretra 46 Nonflushables Create Havoc for Wastewater Operators—Debbie Wallace 48 Revised Lead and Copper Rule: Testing at Schools and Child Care Facilities—Pierre Kwan, Ameerah Palacios, and Anne Cron

Vice President: Joe Paterniti (FWEA) Clay County Utility Authority

52 Tnemec Announces 2023 Water Tank of the Year Winner 55 It’s the 75th Anniversary of FWRJ in 2024 and You’re Invited to Help Us Celebrate!

Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority

Technical Articles

Secretary: Mish Clark

Mish Agency

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

16 Florida Water Loss Program Assessment—Jessica Jagdeo and Drew Blackwell 40 Overcoming Biological Nutrient Removal Challenges (Aeration, Recirculation, and Hydraulics) in Water Resource Recovery Facilities: A Case Study—Lucas Botero, Timur Deniz, Helene Kassouf, Mike Tache, Chloe Crouch, Aaron Isley, Patience Anastasio, and Javier Vargas

Education and Training 14 CEU Challenge 20 Florida Water Resources Conference 32 FSAWWA Membership Thank You 33 FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest 34 FSAWWA Awards 35 FSAWWA Top Ops Competition 36 AWWA Celebrates Black History Month 51 FWPCOA Training Calendar


27 Test Yourself—Charles Lee Martin Jr. 28 Let’s Talk Safety: An Open and Shut Case (and the Ups and Downs) for Gate Valve Safety 30 C Factor—Athena Tipaldos 38 FWEA Focus—Suzanne Mechler 54 Reader Profile—Lisa Lotti


53 New Products 56 Classifieds 58 Display Advertiser Index

Volume 75

ON THE COVER: A water tower in Dunedin, which was one of the finalists in the 2023 Tnemec Water Tank of the Year contest. For more information, see page 52. (photo: Tnemec)

February 2024

Number 2

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 3

Why Do WE Walk? Facing Tough Times, People and Water Equation Unite Worldwide, optimism for the coming year appears to be on the rise. Ipsos, a multinational market research and consulting firm headquartered in Paris, did a recent survey and found that 70 percent of respondents think 2024 will be a better year than 20231. This is up by 5 percentage points from 2022, when “likelihood of improvement” expectations dipped to a decade low of 65 percent. Here in the Sunshine State, we always see blue skies. For instance, Ken Broome, vice president and director of project management for water at Stantec, accepted a request from Peggy Guingona, the Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) executive director, to lead the statewide Water Equation (WE) effort. The WE program provides funding for the Community Engineering Corps. The Corps and its alliance partners—American Society of Civil Engineers, American Water Works Association, and Engineers Without Borders USA— create volunteer teams that provide technical and engineering expertise to underserved communities across the United States for clean, safe, and abundant drinking water. The program also provides academic scholarships to graduate students in water technology studies, along with leadership opportunities for students and young professionals to work alongside community members to identify water-related issues and challenges and design effective solutions.

WE Walk Fun in the Sun! Ken is beginning his tenure in this effort by encouraging, coordinating, and facilitating the WE Walk Fun in the Sun! If you’re interested in participating in WE Walk (registration starts on March 1 and WE Walk steps tracking is from April 1 to May 26) or donating to WE, please visit the website at we.awwa.org/WE-Walk-Florida. Ken can be reached by calling 813-204-3305 (direct) or 813-390-9569 (mobile) or at kenneth. broome@stantec.com.


I PSOS.com. Global predictions for 2024: Optimism is on the rise as more think next year will be better.

Now is the time to prepare for WE Walk, an eight-week virtual walk to fund the operator scholarships and young professional leadership development. How does one prepare, you ask? Ken is on it and will contact the WE representatives for all 12 Florida regions, but for now think fun, sun, and getting some walking done.

The Beginning of WE Walk Some of us have a hard time recalling that in early spring 2020 we had no idea that COVID-19 was on its way. That was the first year of WE Walk. In preparation for Ken beginning a new season, we checked in with several people who had led us in the right direction just when we needed it. For Michelle Hektor, senior manager of development and donor relations at AWWA, COVID-related restrictions began on March 17, 2020. That’s right—employees at AWWA’s Denver office had to pack up and leave starting on St. Patrick’s Day. In just her third year of leading AWWA’s Water Equation, Michelle went home facing a crisis, as her annual budget depended upon charitable contributions. She wondered, how could she possibly even come close to raising her annual scholarship budget with everyone’s offices shut down? “I was walking my dog,” Michelle recalled, “and I thought: people can still walk, and they want to connect while walking, so we can all walk for Water Equation!” Compelled to cancel multiple to-and-fromDenver plane tickets, Michelle jumped into action—at home on her laptop. With a websitein-the-making she pinged friends in Florida, the Pacific Northwest, and New Jersey, and at companies, such as Jacobs, Arcadis, and HDR, and multiple other sources of support for WE. The scoop on the beginning of WE Walk, said Michelle, is that “people wanted to do something together. When we feel stress, our gut reaction is to come together and support one another. That instinct began WE Walk.” Before too long another human instinct arose. As Michelle remembered, “No time for trash talk—it’s game on! Right after I launched our website our membership’s competitive spirit lifted our WE Walk idea right off the ground. Before I knew how this would work, WE Walk

4 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

teams began forming naturally: groups of friends, companies, and entire AWWA sections! That was the most fun. Then people started going completely nuts: riding bikes and horses, running insanely long distances, and walking everywhere.” WE Walk grew faster than anyone imagined: 28 teams and 400 people involved as team members and supporters, $26,000 raised, and 17,768 miles as people walked, ran, and biked. Even some miles were made by a mule!

WE Walk in the Sunshine of the Sunshine State Decades ago, the Florida Section AWWA organized scholarships for water-related studies through the Roy W. Likins Scholarship. Each year, the Likins Scholarship Committee distributes multiple awards to deserving Florida operators and undergraduate or graduate school students. When word spread about a WE Walk competition, the Florida Section quickly engineered a way to be involved. As Peggy Guingona, FSAWWA executive director, said, “In our Florida Section, promoting learning comes naturally, it’s who we are.” Telling anyone who will listen, Peggy elaborated, “Engaging the next generation—this is our essential work.”

WE Walk Participants Tell Their Stories Talking with a few of the folks of FSAWWA who participated in WE Walk, we asked them to share their experience and motives. Terri Holcomb: Director of Engineering, Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority When WE originally connected with Terri back in 2020, her participation made it clear that WE Walk was going to succeed. She immediately recognized this as, in her words, “an opportunity to give back to an organization that has been so instrumental in my professional growth!” Terri explained that today, “The impact that membership in AWWA has had directly on my career has been profound. As a technical resource early in my career, to professional relationships Continued on page 6

Terri Holcomb with (left) Joe Jacangelo, AWWA immediate past-president, and (right) David LaFrance, AWWA chief executive officer.

Ari Copeland

Continued from page 4 and friendships that will last a lifetime, the past 25 plus years as an engaged AWWA member have been instrumental in my professional development in the water industry.” Terri sees the WE programs as a practical means to advance our future water workforce. She says to her Florida Section teammates that WE Walk is her way of “paying it forward.” Like many participants, Terri involved her family in her WE Walk campaign. “The scholarships and leadership programs that will benefit from the generous donations from family, friends, and colleagues supporting my WE Walk campaign will have a positive impact on the entire community, especially the future water industry workforce.” Ari Copeland: Senior Operations and Maintenance Specialist at Black & Veatch, AWWA Director at Large, and Vice President “It was important to me to connect with people during COVID, as well as support the water industry workforce. The WE Walk gave me a chance to connect with professionals I have not seen physically for years, as well as think of creative ways to fundraise,” said Ari. “I feel it’s a very doable way to give back to the industry in a meaningful way and also get exercise and have a lot of fun.” Ari also noted, “I loved being able to use my LinkedIn network to support this cause. During WE Walk 2021 and 2022, I was able to raise over $6,500 using my LinkedIn profile. I loved seeing how my posts encouraged others to post and raise more money for their teams as well. The walk is both fun and important and WE is a means to help support younger professionals, folks new to the water industry, and operationsand maintenance-related professionals to obtain education, skills, and/or licenses to help us provide our most vital resource—water. I enjoy Continued on page 8

6 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Continued from page 6 WE Walk because I can do it anywhere in the world and still feel like I am on a large support team of water professionals.” Luis Ortiz: Arizona State University School of Sustainability Alumnus and Professional Athlete Luis has been an AWWA member for years now. He joined FSAWWA’s WE Walk team as a student member while on an athletic scholarship to Arizona State University (ASU), but because of COVID he had to stay home in Florida and take classes virtually. Born in Puerto Rico, Luis’ family moved to Florida when he was very young. Now a professional triathlete, he has raced at some of the highest levels, even taking part in two Junior Triathlon World Championships. He is a big part of how FSAWWA racked up the most miles for We Walk three years in a row. Though he remains a Florida resident, Luis successfully graduated from ASU with a bachelor of science in sustainability.

“I’m excited to learn even more about how we can make our world more sustainable for future generations. The AWWA’s Water Equation is a key to supporting exploration and learning in every aspect of the water industry.” Mark Lehigh: General Manager III at Hillsborough County Mark’s bike riding was so extreme that electric vehicles going the same distance had to stop and charge before he was done for the day. When asked to explain his superpower, he said, “As a longtime member of AWWA and avid bicycle rider, I’m always eager to give back to the water community and the WE Walk team seemed like a perfect opportunity to do that. I enjoy friendly competitions and when you can do it for a great cause and with some of the best volunteers in the world it’s a win-win. I have enjoyed working with Jay Madigan and the Florida team and look forward to teaming up with Ken Broome. Go FSAWWA and go WE Walk!”

Luis Ortiz

Mark Lehigh

8 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Emilie Moore: Senior Project Manager at Black & Veatch Recruiting Emilie Moore for logging miles in walking was easy—she measures her swims in miles! She’s not one to brag, so few knew she swam solo for eight ocean miles off the coast of Islamorada in the Florida Keys in 2021. Her time in this competitive race was 5:08:41! Truly, Emilie brought her best game to WE Walk. As she explained, “Bringing the highest-quality drinking water to everyone is something I feel very passionate about. Working with thousands of likeminded water professionals to make this happen inspires me.” Sharks, gators, jellyfish— lookout because here comes Emilie on her way for a WE Walk!

Game On! “Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier,” said the late, great General Colin Powell. It was during his early college years when he discovered his purpose and direction in the Reserve Officer Training Corps. He went on to greatness, but he never left this learning behind. When people consider entering the water business at any opening—in the field or the laboratory or an engineering firm—they will hear our stories. Now is the time to make them and tell them. Encouraging and pursuing dreams is what WE Walk is made for. It can remind all of us that we can do great things! Jay Madigan is chief resilience officer for Graham Inc., an 8(a) certified and economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB), providing strategic water management services to both public and private sector clients. He serves as a trustee on the FSAWWA board of directors and volunteers as executive director of the Lake Cane Restoration Society, a nonprofit dedicated to protecting Florida’s raw water resources. S

Emilie Moore


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Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 9

Athena Tipaldos Elected as FWPCOA President for 2024 Athena with outgoing association chair, Patrick “Murf” Murphy.

10 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Athena “Thea” Tipaldos was elected president of FWPCOA for 2024 at the association’s October 2023 board of directors meeting. She is the third woman to serve in this role. Athena has been an active member of FWPCOA since 1999, serving first in Region 11 under the mentorship of Mark Shoup. He encouraged her to join Region 11 the first time she attended a region meeting. She soon was elected the region’s director in January 2014. After attending numerous state board meetings as Region 11 director she was nominated to the state board of directors where she served as secretary-treasurer-elect until being elected vice-president in January 2020. In addition to FWPCOA, she is a member of the Florida Industrial Pretreatment Association, where she served two years as vice president and eight years as president (the first female to be appointed to that position); International Code Council; American Water Works Association; and National Stormwater Center. She is very proud of working closely with Region 11 to grow the membership and bring training opportunities to all members in FWPCOA, which has been a key factor in her professional development. “Training with certification can provide a pathway to job advancement and personal growth,” says Athena. With the shutdowns that were due to COVID-19, online meetings and the FWPCOA Online Institute became a way to continue reaching the needs of the membership, and Athena was a big supporter. She is currently the assistant stormwater division manager for the City of Orlando, where she is responsible for the monitoring of water quality in 80 lakes; maintains 84 retentions ponds and 86 control ditches; oversees street sweepers that cover 81,517 miles of streets; and maintains 49,616 inlets and structures associated with stormwater, 548 inlet baskets, 1,060 miles of stormwater pipes, and 4,055 outfall pipes discharging into lakes and ponds. Before joining the stormwater team she served as the city’s wastewater compliance program manager and still holds a Class C wastewater operator license. She is also a Class C wastewater treatment plant operator, has a Class A industrial pretreatment certification, and is an International Code Council/American Association of Code Enforcement property maintenance and housing inspector and a certified stormwater inspector. As president of FWCPOA, an important issue for Athena is education, which she feels should be easily available to all who want to make a career in the industry. She also encourages networking among the members to build a stronger tomorrow for Florida’s essential water personnel. Athena continues to have high hopes for the association’s growth S in the coming year.

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2024 FWPCOA OFFICERS AND COMMITTEE CHAIRS For more information on officers and committee chairs, visit the association website at www.fwpcoa.org.

• C hair Ken Enlow 04-chair@fwpcoa.org • V ice Chair Jeff Pfannes 04-treasurer@fwcpoa.org • Secretary Debra Englander (727) 892-5633 04-secretary@fwpcoa.org • T reasurer Pete Cavalli 04-treasurer@fwcpoa.org

CORPORATE OFFICERS • President Athena Tipaldos (407) 246-4086 president@fwpcoa.org • Vice President Kevin Shropshire (321) 221-7540 vice-pres@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer Rim Bishop (561) 627-2900, ext. 314 sec-treas@fwpcoa.org

Region 2 Director David Ashley (904) 665-8484 02-director@fwpcoa.org

• C hair Pierre Vignier (772) 462-1150 05-chair@fwpcoa.org

• Vice Chair Randy Ellis 02-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org

• V ice Chair Eric Dickinson 05-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org

• Secretary-Treasurer Jackie Scheel (904) 665-8473 02-sec-treas@fwpcoa.org

• S ecretary-Treasurer Luiza Yordanova 05-sec-treas@fwpcoa.org

• Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Kyle Schoettler 02-sec-elect@fwpcoa.org

• Past President Patrick Murphy past-pres@fwpcoa.org

Region 3

Region 1 • Director Dakota Millican 01-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Russel Burton 01-chair@fwpcoa.org • Vice Chair 01-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer Albert Bock 01-sec-treas@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect James Tucker 01-sec-elect@fwpcoa.org

• D irector Stephen Utter (772) 978-5220 05-director@fwpcoa.org

• Chair Larry Johnson 02-chair@fwpcoa.org

• Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Scott Ruland st-elect@fwpcoa.org


Region 5

• Director Russ Carson (321) 749-5914 03-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair June Clark 03-vicepchair@fwpcoa.org • Vice Chair Russell Sheridan 03-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Secretary Jessica Erdman 03-secretary@fwpcoa.org • Treasurer Marcy King (321) 221-7570 03-treasurer@fwcpoa.org

Region 4 • Director Bob Case (727) 892-5076 04-director@fwpcoa.org

12 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Region 6 • D irector Phil Donovan 06-director@fwpcoa.org • C hair Vincent Munn 06-chair@fwpcoa.org • V ice Chair Pat Lyles 06-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • S ecretary Jessica Hill 06-secretary@fwpcoa.org • T reasurer Patti Brock 06-treas@fwpcoa.org

Region 7 • D irector Mauricio Linarte 07-director@fwpcoa.org • C hair Renee Moticker 07-chair@fwpcoa.org • V ice Chair Maria Loucraft 07-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • S ecretary Carel Bent 07-secretary@fwpcoa.org

• T reasurer Tim McVeigh (954) 683-1432 07-treasurer@fwpcoa.org • S ecretary-Treasurer-Elect Nathaniel Watson 07-st-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 8 • D irector Nigel Noone (239) 565-5352 08-director@fwpcoa.org • C hair Diane DiPascale 08-chair@fwpcoa.org • V ice Chair Manuel Herrera 08-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • S ecretary-Treasurer AP Dougherty 08-sec-treas@fwpcoa.org • S ecretary-Treasurer-Elect James Morris 08-st-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 9 • D irector Glenn Whitcomb 09-director@fwpcoa.org • C hair Tom Mikell (352) 393-6614 09-chair@fwpcoa.org • V ice Chair (West) Syed Hasan (352) 393-6769 09-vice-chair-w@fwpcoa.org • V ice Chair (East) Brian Terry 09-vice-chair-e@fwpcoa.org • S ecretary Amos Kelley 07-secretary@fwpcoa.org • T reasurer Jim Parrish 07-treasurer@fwpcoa.org • S ecretary-Treasurer-Elect Jose Torres 09-st-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 10 • D irector Edward Clark 10-director@fwpcoa.org

• Chair Christopher Nichols (863) 701-1149 10-chair@fwpcoa.org

• Teasurer Arnold Gibson (386) 466-3350 13-treasurer@fwpcoa.org

• Vice Chair Conrad Odum 10-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org

• Secretary Bill Ewbank 13-secretary@fwpcoa.org

• A udit Tom King audit@fwpcoa.org


• E xam Consultant Ray Bordner (727) 527-8121 exam@fwpcoa.org

• Awards and Citations Renee Moticker awards@fwpcoa.org

• F WRJ/FWRC Tom King (321) 867-9495 fwrj@fwpcoa.org

• Secretary-Treasurer Katherine Kinloch (863) 632-5994 10-sec-treas@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Cody Diehl 10-st-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 11 • Director Steve Schwab 11-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Ally Munyon 11-chair@fwpcoa.org • Chair-Elect Erick Valazquez 11-chair-elect@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer Steve Shelnutt 11-sec-treas@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect (Vacant) 11-st-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 12 • Director Steve Saffels 12-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Isaiah Moss 12-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Vice Chair Kevin Doorman 12-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer Zoé Chaiser (813) 757-9191 12-sec-treas@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Brent Laudicina (941) 792-8811 x 8057 12-sec-treas-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 13

• Director (Vacant) 13-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Tracy Betz (386) 935-2762 13-chair@fwpcoa.org • Vice Chair (Vacant) 13-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org

• Constitution and Rules Ken Enlow const-rules@fwpcoa.org • Customer Relations Peter Selberg cust-rel@fwpcoa.org • Dues and Fees Tom King dues@fwpcoa.org • Education Tom King education@fwpcoa.org • Ethics Scott Ruland ethics@fwpcoa.org • Historical Al Monteleone (352) 459-3626 historian@fwpcoa.org • Membership Rim Bishop (561) 627-2900, ext. 314 membership@fwpcoa.org • Policies and Procedures Athena Tipaldos st-elect@fwpcoa.org • Program and Short Course Tom King programs@fwpcoa.org • Publicity Johnathan Torres publicity@fwpcoa.org • Systems Operators Jeff Elder sys-op@fwpcoa.org • Website Debra Englander webmaster@fwpcoa.org


• L egislative Mike Darrow legislative@fwpcoa.org • Nominating Raymond Bordner (727) 527-8121 h2oboy2@juno.com • Operators Helping Operators Albert Bock oho@fwpcoa.org • Safety Charles Nichols Sr. safety@fwpcoa.org • Scholarship Renee Moticker (954) 967-4230 awards@fwpcoa.org

EDUCATION SUBCOMMITTEE CHAIRS • Backflow Glenn Whitcomb backflow@fwpcoa.org • Continuing Education Charles Nichols Sr. CEU@fwpcoa.org • Industrial Pretreatment Kevin Shropshire (407) 832-2748 ipp@fwpcoa.org • Plant Operations Jamie Hope (352) 318-3321 plant-ops@fwpcoa.org

• Stormwater Brad Hayes stormwater@fwpcoa.org • Utilities Maintenance Robert Case (727) 893-5076 util-maint@fwpcoa.org • D irect Potable Reuse John O’Brien dpr@fwpcoa.org

ADMINISTRATION • A dministrator Darin Bishop (561) 840-0340 administrator@fwpcoa.org • T raining Coordinator Shirley Reaves (321) 383-9690 training@fwpcoa.org • W ebmaster Debra Englander webmaster@fwpcoa.org

FWRC/FWRJ BOARD APPOINTMENTS • T rustee Ken Enlow past-pres@fwpcoa.org • T rustee Patrick Murphy president@fwpcoa.org • T rustee Athena Tipaldos (407) 246-4086 vice-pres@fwpcoa.org • M ember Kevin Shropshire (321) 221-7540 st-elect@fwpcoa.org • M ember Rim Bishop (561) 627-2900, ext. 314 sec-treas@fwpcoa.org • M ember Al Monteleone (352) 259-3924 scooter1030@embarqmail.com • M ember Glenn Whitcomb Champ95@cfl.rr.com

• Reclaimed Water Jody Godsey (904) 813-1159 reclaimed@fwpcoa.org

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 13

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Water Supply and Alternative Sources. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119, or scan and email a copy to memfwpcoa@gmail. com. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ____________________________________

Overcoming Biological Nutrient Removal Challenges (Aeration, Recirculation, and Hydraulics) in Water Resource Recovery Facilities: A Case Study Lucas Botero, Timur Deniz, Helene Kassouf, Mike Tache, Chloe Crouch, Aaron Isley, Patience Anastasio, and Javier Vargas (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW) 1. In the existing manually operated air distribution system, blowers trip on surge because a. t he blower room doors are closed, restricting air flow. b. b asin air valves are throttled, then not reopened when more air is needed. c. blower building louvers are left fully open. d. b lower bearing types are not optimal. 2. A disadvantage of panel-type air filters is that they are a. p rone to bypassing unfiltered air. b. l ikely to falsely trip differential air pressure alarms. c. considerably more expensive than alternative style filters. d. d ifficult to install and remove. 3. W hich of the following is identified as a problem arising from the facility’s oversized drop leg air flow control valves? a. Th ey are difficult to open and close. b. F low control is only achieved when the valves are nearly closed. c. When fully open, they result in blower current overdraw. d. Th ere is inadequate space for safe operator accessibility. 4. Th e proposed drop leg metering and control design proposes that the flow meter be installed a. fi ve pipe diameters upstream of a fitting. b. fi ve pipe diameters downstream of a fitting. c. downstream of the flow control valve. d. immediately adjacent to the flow control valve.

LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

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5. I f the process blower is expected to routinely start and stop based on changing air flow, ___________________ might be considered a good choice. a. magnetic-bearing turbo blowers b. p ositive displacement blowers c. air bearing high-speed turbo blowers d. dedicated blowers for each oxic system, regardless of type

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EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

14 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Florida Water Loss Program Assessment


Jessica Jagdeo and Drew Blackwell

ater industry leaders and managers throughout North America recognize the importance of optimizing distribution system efficiency through water loss control management as a potentially cost-effective water conservation measure. The American Water Works Association (AWWA) Manual M36, “Water Audits and Loss Control Programs,” which addresses water loss methodology, is the recommended best practice in North America to support informed decision making for water loss control and revenue recovery. The Florida Water Loss Program (FWLP) is providing comprehensive training and technical assistance on the M36 water loss methodology to over 100 Florida water utilities, starting in 2023 and continuing in 2024. The FWLP is hosted by the Florida Section AWWA, administered by Cavanaugh and E Source, and funded by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) at no cost to utilities. This program utilizes the project team’s experiences with administering past water loss control training programs throughout the United States, including California and Colorado. Utilities participating in the FWLP are learning how to prepare water loss audits using the AWWA Free Water Audit Software (FWAS) Version 6.0. Utilities may use their audit results to pinpoint areas for data improvement and water loss control. The overall objective of this program is to equip utilities with tools

to accurately estimate system water loss and develop cost-effective water loss management strategies. As of January 2024, utilities have been exposed to the water loss methodology through in-person workshops and virtual conference calls to review their completed AWWA water loss audits with national water loss experts. These utilities are now participating in the next set of in-person program workshops that reinforce the water audit methodology by thoroughly exploring water audit data validation and the connection between water auditing and water loss control.

Water Loss Auditing The International Water Association and AWWA jointly developed a standard methodology for water auditing used by utilities around the world. The FWAS is a digital tool that provides utilities a convenient way to perform a water audit. It provides standard definitions for each input of the water balance. Version 6.0 also asks the users to describe data quality and review practices in the interactive data grading matrix. After completing all the audit inputs and answering all the relevant data validity questions, the FWAS presents the user with a suite of standardized water loss performance indicators, which provide direction in assessing next steps in water loss interventions. The FWAS water balance compares

Jessica Jagdeo is project manager with E Source in Orlando. Drew Blackwell is director of water efficiency with Cavanaugh & Associates in Winston-Salem, N.C.

the total volumes of water supply and water consumption; the difference in these volumes is attributed to water loss in the potable water distribution system (Figure 1). The basic components of water balance, water supply, and water consumption are further subdivided in the water audit. The water supply volume consists of the volume obtained from sources owned by a utility and water imported to a utility, but excludes water exported from that utility. Authorized consumption includes billed and unbilled consumption, which is further subdivided based on metering. In total, authorized consumption consists of the following: S Billed metered S Billed unmetered S Unbilled metered S Unbilled unmetered authorized consumption The difference between water supplied and authorized consumption is water loss. Water loss can be separated into apparent and real loss. Apparent loss (nonphysical or paper loss) may be attributed to customer metering inaccuracies, unauthorized consumption, and systematic data handling errors. The water audit subtracts apparent loss from total water loss to estimate the volume of real loss. The real loss (physical leaks) may be attributed to leakage in transmission and distribution mains, leakage on service connections up to the point of customer metering, and leakage and overflows at storage tanks.

Florida’s Water Loss Control History

Figure 1. Water balance schematic.

16 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida utilities have been estimating their water losses for several years. All utilities must submit a water conservation plan for consumptive use permitting. Each water management district (WMD) has its own specific Water Use Permit Applicant’s Handbook that must be followed by utilities within its jurisdiction to obtain a permit. If the utility’s water loss is reported to be greater than

10 percent, the utility must discuss water loss reduction in its water conservation plan. The Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) specifically has a water audit report, the Public Supply Annual Report (PSAR), which has been used by the utilities in its district since 2015. The water loss portions of the PSAR worksheet were adopted from M36 concepts; the PSAR does not, however, completely follow the AWWA definitions of water losses. For example, the PSAR requires raw water volumes, contrasting with the AWWA water loss audit, which requires only finished water sources. If the PSAR’s estimate of water loss exceeds 10 percent, the utility is required to complete additional reporting for submission to SWFWMD. The M36 water loss audit was introduced to several Florida utilities from 2018 to 2019 through the Florida Water Loss Technical Assistance Pilot Program. From September 2018 to June 2019, this pilot program was developed by Tampa Bay Water in collaboration with FDEP and assistance provided by SWFWMD. The purpose of this program was to provide technical assistance to a pilot group of water utilities to implement best management practices for water loss control following M36 water loss methodology. Based on a postprogram survey for the pilot, participants generally believed that the technical assistance provided was very helpful and vital to completing the water audit. Most participants stated that they would be interested in receiving assistance with validation if offered in the future. One of the key recommendations from this program was to offer an expanded technical assistance program to utilities to teach the M36 methodology and conduct standardized water loss audit validation. In 2020, FDEP provided a grant to fund the FWLP, with the goal of training 100 Florida utilities in the M36 water loss methodology and FWAS. The FWLP officially kicked off in 2022.

Florida Water Loss Program Introduction The FWLP is instructing the Florida utilities on water loss auditing, with the goals of contributing to broader conservation efforts and providing insight into potential avenues for water loss control planning and revenue recovery. The program team is ushering FWLP participants through four stages, from 2023 to 2024 (Figure 2). Stage 1: In-Person Workshops (February 2023 – May 2023) In-person workshops cover the basics of

Figure 2. Florida water loss program stages.

Figure 3. Map showing the utilities enrolled in the Florida Water Loss Program as of January 2024.

the M36 water audit methodology and water audit data validations are presented. Stage 2: Remote Calendar Year 2022 Water Loss Audit Validations (April 2023 – September 2023) Remote work sessions are presented in which water auditing experts and each utility’s water audit team examine the utility’s calendar year (CY) 2022 AWWA water audit in a practice validation session. Stage 3: In-Person Focused Workshops (November 2023 – February 2024) A second round of in-person workshops focusing on avenues for water audit data refinement based on water audit results are presented. Stage 4: Remote Calendar Year 2023 Water Loss Audit Validations (March 2024 – June 2024) A second round of remote work sessions

Table 1. Count of Utilities Enrolled in the Florida Water Loss Program as of January 2024

Water Management District Southwest Florida South Florida St. Johns River Northwest Florida Suwannee River

Count of Enrolled Utilities

33 26 26 14 5

with water auditing experts and each water utility’s team that conducted a level 1 validation of the utility’s CY 2023 audit are presented. As of January 2024, a total of 104 utilities Continued on page 18

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 17

Figure 4. Stage 1 workshop in Orlando.

Continued from page 17 have enrolled in the FWLP, exceeding the program’s initial goal of training 100 utilities. Figure 3 displays the distribution of enrolled utilities throughout the state as of January 2024, with the state’s WMD boundaries provided as additional reference. Most enrolled utilities are in the central and southern regions of the state (Table 1).

Utility Workshops

Figure 5. Stage 1 workshop locations.

Figure 6. Stage 1 workshop utility participation.

Figure 7. Stage 1 workshop attendees count.

18 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Stage 1 In-Person Workshops Stage 1 of the program consisted of in-person workshops from February to May 2023. These workshops taught utility participants the foundations of the M36 water loss methodology through presentations and exercises on water balance, components of nonrevenue water (unbilled authorized consumption, apparent loss, and real loss), and the nonvolume audit inputs (system data and cost data). The workshops also introduced the audit’s interactive data grading matrix, which describes the utility’s data maintenance and review practices for each audit input. The workshops concluded with preparations for the next stage of the program, in which each utility’s water audit team completed a CY 2022 water loss audit and reviewed these documents during a virtual conference call with a national water loss expert. The photo shown in Figure 4 was taken during the workshop at Orlando Utilities Commission on Feb. 15, 2023. Stage 1 consisted of 12 in-person, full-day workshops throughout the state. The locations were selected based on the distribution of FWLP-enrolled utilities and provided ample opportunities for utility attendance (Figure 5). Four workshops each were administered in the northern, central, and southern areas of the state. A virtual workshop was hosted for utilities unable to attend the in-person workshops. A total of 97 utilities participated in the Stage 1 workshops (Figure 6). The northern and central regions of the state saw the greatest utility participation. Utilities often brought several representatives from diverse roles in the organization (Figure 7), including supply and operations, customer metering, billing and finance, and management. Workshops in St. Augustine and Land O’ Lakes were added to the roster to accommodate demand. Additionally, a virtual workshop in June 2023 was hosted for utilities that were unable to attend an in-person workshop. Stage 2 Remote Water Loss Audit Validations In Stage 2, each FWLP-enrolled utility

Table 2. Upcoming Stage 3 Workshop Location and Dates

WORKSHOP LOCATION Miami Port St Lucie Pompano Beach Ft Walton Beach Land O'Lakes Lakeland Arcadia Lake City Gainesville Orlando

WORKSHOP DATE Jan. 9, 2024 Jan. 10, 2024 Jan. 11, 2024 Jan. 23, 2024 Jan. 30, 2024 Jan. 31, 2024 Feb. 1, 2024 Feb. 6, 2024 Feb. 7, 2024 Feb. 8, 2024

Figure 8. Stage 2 remote session participation.

participated in a two-hour virtual conference call to review its draft CY 2022 water loss audit and supporting documentation, consisting of monthly water supplied volumes, authorized consumption volumes, and supply meter testing results as available; assess its interactive data grading selections; and discuss the water loss audit’s key performance indicators. This stage began in April 2023 and ran until December 2023. Although this stage technically concluded in December, utilities still have the option to schedule a Stage 2 call by directly reaching out to the program management team. As of January 2024, a total of 43 utilities completed a virtual conference call (Figure 8). Most utilities scheduled their calls in August and September 2023. Stage 3 In-Person Workshops Stage 3 consists of additional in-person workshops, starting in November 2023 and concluding in February 2024. During these day-long workshops, the program’s national water loss experts will review the water audit methodology before more deeply discussing water audit data validation and the connection between water auditing and water loss control. Additionally, the workshops will include summaries, reflections, and main findings from Florida utilities and their CY 2022 AWWA water loss audits. The workshops will conclude with preparations for Stage 4, which consists of another virtual conference call, with each utility to review its completed CY 2023 water loss audit. The first Stage 3 workshop occurred on Nov. 27, 2023, during the FSAWWA Fall Conference at the Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate. Sixteen representatives from 10 utilities attended this workshop. The photo shown in Figure 9 was taken during this workshop.

Figure 9. Stage 3 workshop.

Figure 10. Stage 3 workshop attendee registration as of January 2024.

Ten more workshops are scheduled throughout the state in January and February 2024 (Table 2). Figure 10 shows the number of utility representatives registered to attend the upcoming Stage 3 workshops in January and February 2024. Stages 4 Goals In Stage 4, utilities will once again meet with FWLP staff in virtual conference calls to review their CY 2023 water loss audit and supporting documentation.

Conclusion In the concluding stage of this program in 2024 and beyond, utilities will continue working toward data refinement to better assess their water loss and guide them toward cost-effective water loss control strategies. To join or learn more about the FWLP, visit www.floridawaterloss.org or email the program management team at team@floridawaterloss.org. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 19

April 2-6, 2024 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL Exhibit Hall open April 2-4, 2024


All tickets available including Full & 1-day tickets, Exhibit Hall only, Booth staff, Speakers, Students, Retired and all add-on options such as b'fast and lunches. This year, all Government Utility Employees / Operators receive a FREE Exhibit Hall only pass, but must still register!

RESERVE YOUR BOOTH Book you 10' x 10' booth today!


Numerous sponsorship packages from $800 to $9,250 are still available. Reserve today!


Link to book Gaylord Palms AND Courtyard by Marriott is on www.fwrc.org

GET A PROGRAM AD Go to www.fwrc.org to reserve your ad

www.fwrc.org 20 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

All Gov’t Utility Employees / Operators receive a FREE Exhibit Hall Only Pass! Must register.

Technical Session Schedule is available on www.fwrc.org


Includes Exhibit Hall

Includes Technical Sessions

Includes FWRC &/or FWEA Lunch(s)

Price (valid thru 2.29.24)

Full Registration





Exhibit Hall Only





1-Day Registration (Wed OR Thur)



Wednesday: FWRC Thursday: FWEA


1-Day Contestant (Wed OR Thur)





1-Day Speaker (Wed OR Thur)





Booth Staff (4 free/booth)





Student Tickets





Book before price increase on 2.29.24 at www.fwrc.org Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 21

April 2-6, 2024 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL Exhibit Hall open April 2-4, 2024

Showcase Area

EXHIBITOR REGISTRATION Only 82 booths still available! Ops Challenge



Have you reserved your 4 free Booth Staff Tickets?

All booths include four free Booth Staff tickets. Go to www.fwrc.org to register before 2.29.24.

22 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

SPONSORSHIPS AVAILABLE Title Sponsor: $13,000 Platinum Plus Sponsor(s): $9,250 each Registration Area Conference Bags

App Conference Badges

Platinum Sponsor(s): $7,750 each Hotel Room Keys Staircase

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Night Social Events

Gold Sponsor(s): $5,500 each FSSSSS Breakfast FWEA Utility Council Breakfast Overall Technical Sessions

Silver Sponsor(s): $3,750 each Network Lounge Charging Tables

FWRC Awards Luncheon FWEA Awards Luncheon Escalators Operations Challenge Coffee Area Snack Area Overall Scavenger Hunt

Bronze Sponsor(s): $1,750 each Tour bus Water Stations

Top Ops Special Events

Supporting Sponsor(s): $1,250 each Individual Technical Session(s): $750 each Scavenger Hunt Stop: $300 each

Book today at www.fwrc.org

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 23

April 2-6, 2024 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL Exhibit Hall open April 2-4, 2024


HIRING? OR LOOKING FOR A JOB? Looking for applicants, purchase a hanging or tabletop sign to let attendees know! Both versions available on www.fwrc.org. FWRC for these signs in booths on the Looking for a job? Look Exhibit Hall Floor.


Available for purchase on www.fwrc.org

Hanging Sign

Tabletop Sign

NEW LUNCH OPTIONS In addition to the FWRC & FWEA lunches plus Gaylord restaurants, FWRC has secured the lawn area with ‘grab ‘n go’ lunch items. Both cash and credit cards will be accepted. Enjoy some sunshine and affordable lunch options on both Wednesday 4.3.24 & Thursday 4.4.24.

24 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

April 2-6, 2024 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL Exhibit Hall open April 2-4, 2024



Don’t miss Food Trucks, DJ & Dancing, Ping Pong, Corn Hole & more.

FREE EXHIBIT HALL PASSES for all government / utility employees and operators! Registration required. Simply go to www.fwrc.org and click on Attendee Registration button on home page. Then, click on ‘Gov't Utility Employee/Operators’ in bottom left to register for free Exhibit Hall only pass. Please note, if you want to earn CEU or PDH, you must register for Full or 1-day registration!

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 25

Harnessing the Power of Ultraviolet Treatment: Driving Global Momentum for Sustainable Wastewater Reuse

Giuseppe Faretra Governments worldwide are striving to find effective solutions to address the planet’s environmental challenges. One area that’s coming into sharp focus is the treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater. Wastewater treatment facilities play a vital role in maintaining public health by removing harmful contaminants from wastewater before it’s released into the environment. These contaminants may include pathogens, like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can cause a wide range of diseases, from cholera to hepatitis to typhoid. Treatment facilities rely on various disinfection and filtration methods to remove these pathogens and ensure that the

treated water they release is safe for use in nonpotable applications, such as irrigation and toilet flushing. Chlorination has long been the goto method for wastewater treatment. Still, concerns about its hazardous byproducts and the possible danger they pose to surrounding areas and human health have prompted many governments and municipalities to explore alternative disinfection methods. Ultraviolet (UV) treatment has emerged as a popular and effective solution among those alternatives. The UV disinfection equipment market was $5 billion in 2022 and is projected to grow to $9.1 billion by 2027, with water and wastewater disinfection applications driving a majority of that growth. Wastewater treatment with UV involves exposing wastewater to UV light and has numerous environmental advantages over chlorination. Primary among them is the ability of UV to eliminate a wide range of harmful contaminants from water without the need for adding chemicals. The UV light damages the genetic material of

26 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

microorganisms and renders them unable to reproduce—without chemicals. Governments can bolster their environmental stewardship by adopting chemical-free UV treatment for wastewater. With UV treatment, harmful chemicals are kept out of the ecosystem, and the strain on freshwater resources is also alleviated. The treated wastewater can then be used in lieu of fresh water for applications like irrigation, industrial processes, and groundwater replenishment. Implementing UV treatment systems can also help reduce the discharge of untreated or poorly treated wastewater into natural water bodies, like rivers and lakes. This safeguards the water quality of those bodies and protects the ecological balance of these sensitive ecosystems.

Ultraviolet Treatment Shines Bright The science around UV treatment has significantly expanded over the past two decades, dispelling previous misconceptions about its effectiveness. For example, it was once believed that UV was relatively ineffective against Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoans that cause gastrointestinal illness, but recent improvements in UV technology have made it highly effective in inactivating Cryptosporidium, even more so than chlorine. Moreover, UV treatment effectively removes emerging contaminants from wastewater, such as the residue from pharmaceuticals and personal care products. These substances, often not effectively removed by conventional treatment processes, can harm aquatic ecosystems and human health. The UV treatment offers an additional layer of protection by breaking down and deactivating these harmful compounds. Treatment using UV offers other key benefits. Because it’s a relatively compact and modular technology, it can be easily integrated into existing wastewater treatment

plants without requiring major infrastructure modifications. This makes it a cost-effective solution when compared to implementing entirely new treatment processes. Additionally, UV treatment is rapid, allowing for quick and continuous operation. The disinfection occurs almost instantaneously, as soon as the wastewater is exposed to UV light. This enables efficient treatment even during peak-demand periods and ensures a reliable and consistent supply of treated wastewater for reuse. From the wastewater facility operator’s point of view, replacing chemicals with UV treatment can also help to prevent accidents, mitigate risks, and protect workers. For instance, UV treatment eliminates the need for storing and handling dangerous and highly flammable chemicals, thereby eliminating potential hazards, like the risk of fire.

Ultraviolet Treatment in Action Proper UV wastewater treatment has played a crucial role in enabling countries and municipalities to achieve their sustainability goals. Singapore’s NEWater initiative is a prime example, producing high-grade reclaimed water through a combination of techniques. This treatment plays a key role in ensuring that Singapore’s water is safe and free from harmful pathogens, contributing to the country’s water sustainability and reducing its reliance on imported water sources. Another example is the groundwater replenishment system (GWRS) at the Orange County (Calif.) Water District. The system takes highly treated wastewater that would have previously been discharged into the Pacific Ocean and purifies it using a three-step treatment process consisting of microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and UV light. The GWRS has significantly reduced its reliance on imported water and provides a sustainable and drought-resilient water supply for Orange County. Embracing UV treatment as part of a water reuse strategy is a game changer for governments and municipalities worldwide. By harnessing the power of UV technology, wastewater treatment facilities can play a pivotal role in building a more-sustainable and waterwise future for communities around the world. Giuseppe Faretra is regional sales manager for S Nuvonic in west and central Europe.

Test Yourself What Do You Know About Reuse and Water Reclamation? Charlie Lee Martin Jr., Ph.D. 1. The treatment process by which wastewater is treated to make it reusable with definable treatment consistency and meet water quality standards is a. advanced wastewater treatment. b. secondary wastewater treatment. c. primary wastewater treatment. d. water reclamation. 2. The use of treated wastewater for some beneficial use, i.e., industrial cooling and agricultural irrigation, is a. water reuse. b. water disposal. c. water waste. d. none of the above. 3. What is the percentage of annual global withdrawals for irrigation that could have been for human use? a. Approximately 31 percent b. Approximately 50 percent c. Approximately 65 percent d. Approximately 10 percent 4. The device or activity within a typical singlefamily home without water conservation with the highest gallon per capita per day use is a. toilets. b. showers. c. clothes washers. d. baths. 5. The device or activity within a typical singlefamily home without water conservation with the lowest gallon per capita per day use is a. baths. b. dishwashers. c. leaks. d. other domestic uses.

6. The earliest case of industrial reuse within the United States was practiced at the Bethlehem Steel Co. in 1942 in a. Baltimore, Md. b. Hershey, Penn. c. Detroit. d. Pittsburgh. 7. The first major urban reuse system initiated in 1977 within the state of Florida was located in a. Miami. b. Tampa. c. Orlando. d. St. Petersburg. 8. Santee Recreational Lakes, supplied with reclaimed water, were opened for swimming and put-and-take fishing in a. 1978 in Sacramento, Calif. b. 1960 in Irving, Calif. c. 1965 in San Diego County. d. none of the above. 9. Groundwater recharge by direct injection of reclaimed water into aquifers began in 1975 in a. Tucson, Ariz. b. Los Angeles. c. Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando. d. Fountain Valley, Calif. 10. Groundwater recharge by surface spreading of reclaimed water was initiated at the Whittier Narrows spreading basin in 1962 in a. Tucson, Ariz. b. Los Angeles. c. Las Vegas. d. Red Canyon, Colo. Answers on page 58 References used for this quiz: Water Reuse Issues, Technogies, andnd Applications (Asano et. al.) 2007

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: charmartin@msn.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 27

L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.


An Open and Shut Case (and the Ups and Downs) for Gate Valve Safety

f you've ever had to install, repair, or replace a gate valve, you know how heavy, bulky, and awkward they can be to reach and move effectively. Adding insult to injury, water utility employees often work in wet conditions, making the gate valve slippery and hard to grip. To avoid accidents that can cost your company in terms of damaged materials, employee morale, worker compensation claims, and legal problems, it's important to use precautions when working with gate valves. Gate valves are used to regulate the flow of liquids or gases in a pipeline. They operate by lifting a gate or wedge (usually made of metal) into or out of the path of the fluid flow. When the gate is lifted, the valve is fully open, allowing the fluid to flow freely. Conversely, lowering the gate blocks the flow completely, creating a tight seal and preventing any leakage. This "on/off " functionality makes

gate valves ideal for applications where minimal resistance and precise control are required.

Gate Valve Use During Repairs Water service must often be turned off temporarily while emergency repairs or routine maintenance are performed on a gate valve. Sometimes a gate valve must be manually operated and it’s necessary to isolate the area where the work is being conducted. Because of the system’s location, such work often requires traffic control measures to be conducted safely. Manually operating gate valves can cause a variety of bodily injuries, including sprains and strains of the back, knee, shoulder, elbow, and wrist. It’s also important for employees to always follow safety procedures before, during, and after gate valve work.

Preparation and Operation In Traffic S Use warning lights and flashers if you stop your service vehicle in traffic. S If the valve is located in the middle of the road, park your vehicle between the valve and oncoming traffic. S Use traffic cones to mark your vehicle and work area to help protect you from oncoming traffic. S Wear appropriate protective equipment, which may include a hard hat, steel-toe safety shoes, work gloves, and a reflective safety vest. Operating the Valve S Remove the gate lid with a pry bar or other appropriate tool. S Use a valve key that’s the correct size and length. You may have to use a key extension to get the proper length. S Make sure the key fits tightly on the valve nut. Watch out for rounded or spalled nuts. S When operating the valve, the key should be at chest level. Do not use a key that is too long (above your shoulders) or too short (below your waist). S Know the proper direction for opening and closing the valve. Some valves are left-hand turn. S Grip the valve key firmly with both hands when turning it. S When operating the valve, maintain good footing, with your feet at least shoulder-width apart. S Position your body as close to the valve key as possible. S Turn the valve key with slow, controlled movements. Bend your knees if necessary. S If the valve becomes too difficult to turn, ask another worker to help you, or use a valve operating machine.

Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

28 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Don’t leave the key on the valve unattended or leave it behind because it may present a hazard for vehicles or pedestrians, or provide unwarranted access to the water system. S S ecure the gate lid when service is completed.

Lifting and Installing a Gate Valve The best way to safely lift a gate valve is to use mechanical assistance, in the form of a backhoe, forklift, or similar device, to move the valve straight up or down into position. How do you ensure the valve will remain attached to the chain? A small slip can damage the valve, costing your company money for repair or replacement materials, in addition to any injury done to workers in the process. Some may use a chain or strap to lift a gate valve, which leaves the installer to deal with awkward angles and the risk of slippage or broken straps. One solution is to use a valve setter, which is attached at the valve nut and has a bar for lifting the valve safely and securely, minimizing the risk of damage or injury. The valve setter securely slides and locks under the operating nut. It has a loop handle design to attach a lifting chain to easily lift and lower the valve

with a minimum of tilting and turning. Make sure any lifting device used is tested and tagged with lifting capacity. If there is no alternative but to manually lift the gate valve, due to tight surroundings, lack of access, or other concerns, make sure that workers are doing so safely. Dry off the valve as much as possible first, to help improve grip; heavy-duty gloves can be used to help prevent slipping or dropping the valve by improving the grip further.

Make sure that workers know to lift with their knees instead of their backs, and provide back braces where needed to provide extra support and prevent injuries.

Resources For more information, go to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration website at www.osha.gov. S

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Factory Trained Technicians - Emergency Repair Services - PM Service/Plans Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 29


FWPCOA: Providing Training and Opportunity for Everyone Athena Tipaldos

President, FWPCOA


hen asked what it means to me to be the third woman president of FWPCOA, my first thought is that I hope to inspire more women to serve in the future. The opportunity for women to achieve the same things that I’ve been able to achieve is so much more available now than it has ever been in the past. I hope to use this platform to open more opportunities, not only for women, but for young people, especially those who may not be college-bound. I want to let them know they can have a fantastic career in the operations world. Someone can start as a trainee, work as an operator, and eventually become a plant manager. The career

path is open to anyone who wants to work hard and apply their knowledge and skills. This association is a place to receive understanding and support. Someone once told me that if you have an operator license, you’ll always have a job. This has been true in my career, both inside and outside the plant. I used my experience, moved into the environmental field, and am now in my current role as assistant stormwater division manager at the City of Orlando. Being a wastewater operator and a member of FWPCOA provided more than just a career path for me; it also offered an

30 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

opportunity to broaden my knowledge and allow me to give back to the industry. I’ve had the joy of sharing my experience of developing programs to reduce sanitary sewer overflows, and starting an education center to help bring awareness of wastewater treatment and the effects of sanitary sewer overflows on the environment. I’ve also had the opportunity to teach and encourage my peers to advance their careers through certification training. The field of operations is not just for treating water, but also for protecting the environment and producing a valuable resource that can be used for irrigation instead of potable water. My days in the field of operations are my contribution to environmental sustainability—how we treat the environment today will influence it tomorrow and way into the future. I look forward to serving FWPCOA as president and I encourage and support everyone in their daily duties to protect the health of Florida’s citizens and preserve the state’s natural resources. S

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34 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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36 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal


The Future of Water? Suzanne Mechler President, FWEA


he title of my column might seem like an odd question. The water on our Earth is the same water that’s been here for nearly 5 billion years. As Olaf, the snowman in the “Frozen” movie, says: “Water has memory.” How could it not, right? With that said, it’s interesting that we have an official definition for alternative water, which is that water supplied by sustainable sources can be used to help offset the use of fresh surface water and groundwater. Is it only “alternative” because it wasn’t what we originally used, i.e., the first and easy access water? I’m not sure that’s true either. Didn’t we harvest rainwater as a source in villages not so long ago? Don’t we still do that in many places around the globe?

What we see now is a need to think differently as we deal with the ever-changing environment, regulatory drivers, and the complexities of our water supply system. It’s a call to think outside the box, remove restrictions to creative projects and supply concepts, and support our neighbors in the endeavor, as water knows no boundaries.

Alternative Water Supply in Florida Surface water used to be the largest source of fresh water in Florida, as it was easily accessible. With 60 inches of rain a year, that makes a lot of sense. In the last 50 years, groundwater became the largest source of fresh water in Florida. Today, groundwater withdrawals are expected to level off or be limited, with demand to be met by a combination of sources, including alternative water supplies. With current population projections, Florida is expected to grow by another 5 million people in the next 20 years. Water conservation, although a necessity, is not enough. Groundwater resources are insufficient to fully meet future demands in

Renderings of the Green Cay Phase 2 project and a promotion logo (center).

38 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

large areas of the state and protection of these resources is vital to manage the environmental impacts, including saltwater intrusion, reduction in spring flows, lowered lake levels, and loss of wetlands. So what does our future hold? Alternative water supplies (AWS) can come from anywhere and everywhere. At least in Florida, we’re lucky that you can’t go far without being surrounded by water. These supplies include seawater, brackish groundwater, surface water, stormwater, reclaimed water, aquifer storage and recovery projects, and any other nontraditional supply sources. These sources are frequently more expensive to develop and operate than traditional sources. There is, however, no right answer, as what works for some does not work for all. So where is Florida going when it comes to AWS?

Palm Beach County Green Cay Phase 2 Project I would like to use this column to highlight a project that will begin construction in 2024, but has been in the works in Palm Beach County for over 20 years. Palm Beach County Water Utilities District (PBCWUD) is building on the success of its popular Green Cay Phase I wetlands project, which has been operational since 2004 and provided more than 11 billion gallons of nutrient-rich water sourced from the nearby Southern Region Water Reclamation Facility. Native plants and soil filter the water, removing 75 percent of nitrogen and 50 percent of phosphorus, before replenishing the local water table. The thriving 100-acre wetland is home to various species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and fish. The Green Cay Nature Center is a popular destination, drawing approximately 1.3 million visitors annually. Now, PBCWUD is implementing the Green Cay Phase 2 progressive design-build project to help replenish local water resources as part of its strategic goal of becoming a sustainable and best-in-class utility. Phase 2 is a visionary project, creating opportunities for the public to connect with the local water environment and replenish water resources. The project will feature a 2-million-gallon-per-day (mgd) advanced water purification facility (expandable to 4 mgd), a state-of-the-art learning center, and a 63-acre lake system with crystal-clear water that meets all drinking water standards and is safe for groundwater replenishment and aquifer recharge. This would be one of the first projects in Florida permitted under the new potable reuse

rules. Although the rules are not final, PBCWUD elected to provide the highest quality of advanced treatment. An extensive five-month pilot testing program evaluated and optimized the proposed treatment train, which includes ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis (RO), and ultraviolet advanced oxidation. This state-of-the-art treatment train was selected based on the successful performance of similar advanced reuse facilities throughout the United States, Australia, and Singapore. The Green Cay pilot test demonstrated breakpoint chlorination as an effective solution to meet the Class III surface water quality standard for ammonia. Innovative water reuse projects, such as the Green Cay Phase 2 Park and Water Purification Facility, will mark an important step in defining sustainable water resources for the future.

Projects Throughout the State As we know, the drivers for water supply sources throughout the state are different. Central and north Florida have significant potable reuse and aquifer recharge projects moving into implementation to enhance the water supply and meet requirements related to minimum flows and levels (MFLs). Here are some highlights on the other great work being done: S The JEA H2.0 Purified Water Program, in planning since 2014, includes significant aquifer recharge, including a 1-mgd demonstration facility under construction and three water reclamation facilities (WRFs), which will go full scale by 2032, to achieve a total of 20 mgd of aquifer recharge. This program consists of pilot testing, demonstration, and implementation. S Th e Black Creek Water Resources Development Project includes a 10-mgd intake pump station, 17 miles of 30-inch ductile iron pipe, and an innovative treatment system that will restore two lakes (Brooklyn and Geneva), while also achieving 4.5 mgd of aquifer recharge. This project is a collaboration between the St. Johns River Water Management District and four local utilities (JEA, St. Johns County Utility District, Gainesville Regional Utilities, and Clay County Utility Authority) that contributed significant funding to meet their MFL offsets. S Th e Polk County Regional Water Cooperative is conducting multiple projects to deal with the increased population in the I-4 corridor, including utilizing the brackish, Lower Floridan aquifer and RO to deliver over 22 mgd of high-quality drinking water. These are just some of the amazing projects

happening throughout the state focused on AWS projects.

The Future is Coming Fast Last year, the Water Environment Federation’s first Circular Water Economy Summit convened in Nashville, with the intent to bridge the gap between industrial and municipal water leaders as we all pursue sustainable solutions to water challenges to better serve our communities. As Ifetayo Venner, WEF board president, has stated, “A transition to a circular water economy requires breaking down silos and fostering collaboration among all stakeholders. Although effective water stewardship is so important for thriving industries and communities, and industries may be major customers or users of the products from water and wastewater utilities, industrial water stakeholders have not traditionally had a prominent platform to discuss solutions to their water challenges or been included in conversations with municipal utilities about sustainable water solutions.”

The 2023 conference highlighted industrial water challenges, including circular water solutions from specifically targeted sectors: S Automotive S Manufacturing S Food and beverage processing S Pulp, paper, and packaging S Oil, gas, and energy

A second conference is scheduled for July in Dallas to continue the discussion and develop solutions for industrial water, explore opportunities for developing circular water systems, and learn how to commercialize the products that result from them. S

Renderings of the Green Cay Phase 2 project.

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 39


Overcoming Biological Nutrient Removal Challenges (Aeration, Recirculation, and Hydraulics) in Water Resource Recovery Facilities: A Case Study Lucas Botero, Timur Deniz, Helene Kassouf, Mike Tache, Chloe Crouch, Aaron Isley, Patience Anastasio, and Javier Vargas Lucas Botero, P.E., BCEE, ENV SP, Timur Deniz, P.E. Ph.D., BCEE , and Helene Kassouf, Ph.D., are process specialists, and Mike Tache, P.E., is a project manager with Black and Veatch. Chloe Crouch and Aaron Isley are plant managers, Patience Anastasio, P.E., is an assistant utilities director, and Javier Vargas, MPA, is utilities director with City of Venice.

T Figure 1. Aerial picture of the aeration basins and blower building.

Table 1. Biological Nutrient Removal Aeration System Blowers

BLOWER MODEL Small AirBearing Turbo Blowers Large AirBearing Turbo Blowers MagneticBearing Turbo Combined Capacity (Existing Units) Combined Capacity (Including Magnetic Baring unit)




1,300 – 2,500




1,300 – 5,000

2,500 – 5,000




2,500 – 15,000

2,220 – 5,300


279 1




1,300 – 20,000 2


1,300 – 25,300 2

(1) Motor size in HP converted from the unit rated at 208 kilowatts (kW). (2) Standby capacity is included in total number. (3) Includes try and buy unit not yet installed. (4) Flow in cu ft per minute (cfpm) at standard conditions.

40 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

he City of Venice (city) owns, maintains, and operates a system of potable water, wastewater, and reclaimed water utility facilities, including the 8-mil-gal-perday (mgd), three-month average daily flow (TMADF) Eastside Water Reclamation Facility (WRF). The WRF is a Type 1 facility that treats wastewater from the city’s collection system and areas of the City of Sarasota, and provides reclaimed water to its reclaimed water customers. The WRF consists of preliminary treatment and odor control, followed by upfront anaerobic and anoxic basins configured as two trains. Downstream are oxic and postanoxic trains (four trains), and two reaeration basins ultimately configured as a five-stage Bardenpho process, four secondary clarifiers, three dual-media automatic backwash traveling bridge filters, and a liquid chlorination system consisting of three chlorine contact basins. Effluent aeration is provided at the basins when the effluent is directed to surface discharge. The treated effluent can be discharged to either a cascade aerator at Curry Creek or at Roberts Canal, where the city’s reverse osmosis (RO) brine discharges from the water treatment plant, but mostly goes back to the reuse system. The current flows to the plant are around 2.8 mgd annual average daily flow (AADF), and the load to the plant is roughly 50 percent of the projected plant influent loads for 2045. In 2015, the city modified the existing biological nutrient removal (BNR) process

and converted from surface aeration to fine bubble diffused aeration with high-speed turbo blowers. The oxic reactor was also reconfigured as four plug flow parallel reactors, and mixed liquor recycle (MLR) pumps were added to the design to keep the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger process configuration preceding the second anoxic and reaeration zones. Three 250-horsepower (HP) and two 150HP turbo blowers were originally installed in this structure and a new blower building to house the new turbo units was added to the plant.

Aeration System Challenges and Identified Solutions The BNR aeration consists of four trains, with three aeration zones in each train. Each aeration zone has a fine bubble diffuser grid. An aerial photo of the aeration basins, blower building, and aeration pipe (shown as red lines) is presented in Figure 1. First Challenge: Blower Performance and Coverage Air to the BNR process is currently provided by five centrifugal high-speed airbearing turbo blowers, with variable frequency drives (VFDs) located indoors in a blower building. All five units have air foil bearings. The existing blower building has capacity for up to six blowers, with one slot currently empty. The city experienced issues with the existing blowers. Some of the issues include frequent starts and stops of the existing units caused by controls issues. These issues were more-damaging to the larger of the two unit sizes since these units are not suitable for as many starts and stops as the smaller ones. Another issue that occurred in the past is that the system pressure increased to levels that can cause the blowers to trip on a surge and could potentially be damaged. A pressure increase could occur as the basin air valves are manually throttled and then not reopened when more air is needed. Similarly, if a particular zone needs more air, blowers are ramped up to meet this demand. Due to lack of basin control, the air is not distributing properly, so the magnitude of the blower capacity increase may need to be much greater than it otherwise would. This results in additional header friction losses, increasing the system pressure. The city has been working with the blower manufacturer to implement a series of control modifications to reduce the blower issues; however, the improvements are limited due to the lack of proper aeration system control in the aeration basins. The city is also installing a Continued on page 42

Table 2. Biological Nutrient Removal Aeration System Sizing for Aeration Basins


2021 Min Flow 2021 Max Flow 2045 Min Flow 2045 Max Flow





1,300 – 25,289




1,300 – 25,289




1,300 – 25,289




1,300 – 25,289



(1) Flow in cfpm at standard conditions.

Table 3. Biological Nutrient Removal Aeration System Pressure Requirements

PARAMETERS Side Water Depth Diffuser Submergence Pressure at Diffuser (Static Head) Membrane Diffuser Pressure Loss Including Impact of Aging and Fouling Pressure Losses (Piping, Valves, and Fittings) Safety Factor Required Discharge Pressure Assumed Inlet Losses Differential Pressure

14.8 ft 13.8 ft 5.98 psi 1.50 psi 0.32 psi 1 0.20 psi 8.00 psig 0.20 psi 2 8.20 psi

(1) Does not include pressure spikes due to controls inefficiencies. (2) After implementing the intake modifications noted below.

Figure 2. Typical blower inlet pipe installation with cartridge filter/silencer. (courtesy of Endustra)

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 41

Continued from page 41 magnetic-bearing turbo blower as air-bearing machines are more susceptible than magneticbearing machines to damage when subject to frequent starts and stops. Table 1 shows a summary of the aeration

system requirement for the oxic zones of the WRF. Black & Veatch (BV) evaluated the existing BNR process using BioWin wastewater process model simulations and desktop calculations, and then estimated the

Figure 3. Pipit, the air modeling setup.

Step 1: Initial condition

Flow [ft3/s] T1 T3 2500 cfm Main Header 19.2 21.8 Drop 1 10.9 11.4 Drop 2 4.3 6.2 Drop 3 4.0 4.2

% Open Imbalance Valve T1/T2 T1 88.2% 88% 95.8% 85% 68.8% 100% 96.4% 100%

T3 100% 85% 100% 100%

Air Distribution 46.9% 56.7% 22.3% 21.0%

53.2% 52.2% 28.6% 19.2%

Step 2: Drop 3 valves set to 50 percent

Flow [ft3/s] T1 T3 2500 cfm Main Header 19.2 21.8 Drop 1 10.9 11.4 Drop 2 4.3 6.2 Drop 3 4.0 4.2

% Open Imbalance Valve T1/T2 T1 88.2% 88% 95.8% 85% 68.8% 100% 96.4% 100%

T3 100% 85% 100% 100%

Air Distribution 46.9% 56.7% 22.3% 21.0%

53.2% 52.2% 28.6% 19.2%

Step 3: Influent flow increases to 41 cu ft per second (ft3/s), drop 3 valve set to 50 percent

Flow [ft3/s] T1 T3 2500 cfm Main Header 19.2 21.8 Drop 1 10.9 11.4 Drop 2 4.3 6.2 Drop 3 4.0 4.2

% Open Imbalance Valve T1/T2 T1 88.2% 88% 95.8% 85% 68.8% 100% 96.4% 100%

T3 100% 85% 100% 100%

Air Distribution 46.9% 56.7% 22.3% 21.0%

Figure 4. The summary tables of one of the sequences run to balance flows.

42 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

53.2% 52.2% 28.6% 19.2%

airflow requirements based on the projected loading for the design condition. The results are summarized in Table 2. Required blower capacity ranges from 1,204 standard cu ft per minute (scfm) to 8,588 scfm and the installed capacity is adequate for the system requirements. At all times, one small blower and one large blower are available as standby units. It should be noted that, at the minimum flow requirement, a small amount of over aeration is likely due to turndown limitations. Second Challenge: Blower Pressure and Intake Air Flow The required blower discharge air pressure for an aeration system is a combination of the static head required to overcome the water levels in the tanks, the pressure losses due to friction in valves, fittings and pipe, and the diffuser loss, which varies with the type of diffusers. One key component impacting how much pressure a blower can produce is the inlet losses. High blower inlet losses can impact efficiency and may impact blower discharge pressure capability. The best practice design for aeration blower systems is to have the blower inlets/suction lines piped outdoors so that they draw air from outside the blower building. By doing this, the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in the blower building is not impacted by the relatively large volumes of air being drawn by the blowers. The volume of air required by the blowers varies since blowers are ramped up and down and turned on and off. If air is taken from outdoors, blowers are then designed for the outdoor summer ambient temperature, which is cooler than the indoor temperature for rooms that are only ventilated. These blowers have louvered inlets, taking process air from the blower room. During site visits by BV personnel, along with plant staff, it was noticed that the control dampers on the wall air intake louvers for the ventilation system were closed, which was extremely unusual. The BV team confirmed that air was being drawn into the room via the door thresholds (which actually make opening and closing the blower building personnel door more challenging) and that air was being pulled in through one of the penetrations associated with the room HVAC exhaust fans. This was unintended, but the air was taking the path of least resistance. This decreased the pressure in the room and may increase the inlet losses on the blowers. Typically, out of the two exhaust fans, only one operates at a time, which is why the system had not failed. This system of operation is inefficient, and the final recommendation was that the control

dampers on the intake louvers be properly set to open as required for ventilation, while intaking air from the inside of the room as a temporary remedial measure. Table 3 presents the parameters used to calculate the required discharge pressure for the blowers based on diffusers type, submergence, friction losses, and the total calculated pressure requirement. As noted on the curves, the blowers are rated at 8 pounds per sq in. gauge (psig) each, which matches the system pressure requirements shown in Table 3. Although the pressure capability of existing blowers seems adequate, it doesn’t have much room for inefficiencies in the aeration system operation. Blower curves also show 0.2 pounds per sq in. (psi) pressure loss at blower inlet. The solutions to this challenge were to change the operation of the blower louvers as indicated previously, or to evaluate converting each blower louvered inlet to a piped inlet. Limiting inlet losses will mean inlet filters must be changed more frequently. In addition, a panel HVAC-style filter is likely used instead of an industrial-type filter. Panel filters of all types are prone to bypassing unfiltered air. If the filter is simply a polyester pad with no frame, it tends to bow at the edges. The result is that if a differential pressure switch is provided to alarm, indicating the need for a filter change, it will never trip because a significant amount of unfiltered air will be able to bypass. This is especially damaging to air-bearing blowers, which can be sensitive to particulates in the air stream. Figure 2 shows the recommended best air intake design, which involves piping the inlet air in from outdoors, as previously described. The filter housings shown contain cartridge type elements, which can be changed out quickly by removing one central wing nut in the cartridge. Due to the housing design, simply hand-tightening the wing nut provides thousands of pounds of sealing force to prevent the bypass of unfiltered air. The cartridge element is pleated, providing a very low pressure drop and long filter life. Third Challenge: Existing Air Pipe and Control Valve Sizing The air delivery system is composed of individual pipe headers to each of the aeration zone reactors. Each header has a modulating valve and a flowmeter that reads overall flow to the whole basin. The basins are then divided into three aeration zones, each with a drop leg; a manual butterfly valve of the same size as the drop leg pipe; and no flow control elements. Diffuser densities change from zone 1 (highest density) to zone 3 (lowest density).

Figure 5. Butterfly inherent characteristic curve. (courtesy of Henry Pratt Company)

Table 4. Biological Nutrient Removal Aeration System: Air Flow Requirements and Pipe Sizes

FLOW CONDITION 2021 Zone 1 Max Flow 2021 Zone 2 Max Flow 2021 Zone 3 Max Flow 2045 Zone 1 Max Flow2 2045 Zone 2 Max Flow2 2045 Zone 3 Max Flow2 2021 Combined Max Flow 2045 Combined Max Flow

Flow Requirement, SCFM/ACFM1 595/556

Existing Pipe Diameter, in 12

Existing Valve Size, in 12

Required Pipe Diameter, in 6




































Recommended Valve Size, in 4

(1) Flow in cfm at blower discharge conditions (pressure and temperature). (2) Total air is distributed among six basins.

Two dissolved oxygen (DO) probes located in two of the basins, one in Zone 1 and the other one in Zone 3, control the aeration system. The lack of automated aeration control valves and flow elements, coupled with the oversized air valves (butterfly valves) to allow proper control of air, makes the system almost

impossible to balance and poses a significant challenge to the plant operators. To demonstrate the challenges of the current system, BV developed a virtual hydraulic model of the air distribution system in a proprietary software called Pipit. Continued on page 44

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 43

Continued from page 43 The WRF air piping system was replicated in the model, along with all of its features, as presented in Figure 3. One of the most important items for the model was to find the exact valve performance curve for the existing valves to properly reflect flow distribution at different valve opening settings. Several simulations were run, mimicking the real-life operation of the plant. The flows were increased from a previous setting to

mimic DO falling in the basin, and the valves were not moved after the first adjustment. As DO demand varied, it became evident that redistributing flows was an almost impossible task; as one part of the system was being tweaked to achieve certain flow distribution, the other side was completely modified. Figure 4 shows the summary tables of one of the sequences run to try to balance flows everywhere. The dynamic nature of the system was

Figure 6. Recommended drop leg configuration.

Figure 7. Suction piping mixed liquor recycle pumps layout.

44 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

demonstrated with the results shown, proving to the operation staff that balancing flows with variable air flow demands was an impossible task for a system that had manual valves. Another major issue at the WRF was the current sizing of the air control valves. The intent of the tapered aeration is to provide varying air flows for each diffuser grid to operate the diffuser within its capacity range. The most typical type of valve used for an aeration system is a butterfly valve, which is not an ideal control valve, but is economical and can be sized to work properly. The currently installed manual butterfly valves are oversized and would not provide adequate control if automated. Typically, aeration pipe is sized to maintain the fluid velocity of the actual air flow rate below 3,500 ft per minute (fpm). Following these recommendations will minimize friction losses through the pipe and mitigate noise associated with the air flow. The flow control valves should be sized so that maximum and minimum flows fall within the butterfly valve range of 30 to 70 percent when open. This is because the most linear proportion of a butterfly valve’s operating range is typically in that range, allowing for much better controllability. Figure 5 shows the inherent characteristic curve of a typical butterfly valve used in aeration air systems. Typically, to appropriately size the controls valves, a detailed calculation is performed for each zone, taking into consideration the highest and lowest flows on each drop leg; however, for high-level evaluation, the general rule of thumb is that the control valve needs to be one size smaller than the pipe size, but the pipe needs to be properly sized following the industry standard previously indicated. A detailed pipe sizing calculation was performed using the maximum flow requirements for each aeration zone (drop leg) for 2021 and 2045 conditions. Table 4 shows the required pipe size for each zone and for the pipe header leaving the blower building for current and future conditions and compares it to the existing pipe size. From the evaluation, it was concluded that the existing drop legs or pipe at each zone are substantially oversized (double the recommended size), and the flow control valves, which are same size as the pipe, are consequently and substantially oversized as well, as presented in Table 4. There is not a significant detriment to oversized piping, other than construction costs, which was already incurred in this case; however, there is a detriment to oversizing the butterfly valves. The combination of manually controlling the valves and having oversized valves is very likely to be the root cause for the overpressure

on the aeration system that’s causing the blowers to trip. Since the valves at the plant are oversized, it’s likely that controlling airflows is only achieved while the valve is almost closed (roughly 90 percent closed). At that stage, the smallest valve movement creates considerable airflow swings through the drop legs. Even if the valves were automated, valve “hunting” (the inability of the valve to reach a stable position) would likely result. Since the valves are manual, it’s impossible to balance this properly. In addition, there are no flowmeters adjacent to the valves, which presents an additional difficulty to control the system. When any valve in the overall system is moved, the “perceived system balance” is completely affected, causing severe flow redistribution around all the diffuser grids, which makes it impossible to control air delivery to the basin zones. When butterfly valves are sized, care should be taken to determine how to reduce from the pipe size to the valve size without impacting valve performance or adding significant additional friction losses. The solution to this problem is to replace the existing air manual oversized valves with properly sized automatic valves, and to install flowmeters in each drop leg (Figure 6) to allow automatic distribution of flows to be achieved in the aeration zones of the BNR basin. This would be consistent with having highly efficient blowers able to realize the energy savings potential of the units. The existing aeration system is a critical component of the BNR process to achieve low effluent nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Although the plant operators put significant effort into maintaining proper residual DO in each aeration zone, it’s often almost impossible to do so with the substantially oversized butterfly valves. This certainly results in over and under aeration and impacts the BNR performance. The plant also receives leachate from the county landfill. High ammonia content of leachate creates increased oxygen demand while the leachate is being accepted at the plant, which requires more air flow adjustment, in addition to the air demand variations due to diurnal influent flows and loads.

Mixed Liquor Recycle: Hydraulics The BNR modifications project added external horizontal end suction centrifugal pumps for MLR pumping from the end of the aeration basins to the first anoxic basins. To allow drawing mixed liquor from each of the four oxic zones, two MLR pump stations were added (one at each side of the BNR basin) and the MLR pump suction pipes were combined to allow mixed liquor collection from two basins

Figure 8. Pipit model for the mixed liquor recycle pumps.

each. Figure 7 shows the MLR system pipes and pumps. This single-suction concept has posed the challenge of uneven recycles from each basin, as the hydraulics in the suction line favor more flow in from the basin closer to the pumps. Similar to the air distributions system, BV developed a hydraulic model (Figure 8) of the MLR pumps to evaluate the impacts of the common suction. The results from the model, at a flow of 12 mgd (two trains), are shown in Table 5. Given that there is a 54 percent imbalance in flows, it’s not difficult to see that denitrification performance will be completely affected. First, anything over 400 percent in each basin only provides a marginal benefit in a pre-anoxic basin, and second, flows less than the target MLR can be severely hindering denitrification. These two, when combined, are completely unwanted in a facility that strives to meet advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) standards. The solutions proposed included modifying the suction lines to allow for a more-balanced flow condition between the two.

Conclusions The modifications at the WRF resulted in a facility geared toward AWT effluent quality; however, the operation staff found that operating the plant was difficult. Some of the lessons learned include: 1. It’s imperative to look at the blower operating conditions, including blower coverage, not only for future design conditions, but also the present. A blower’s coverage must be met at all stages for its useful life. 2. If turbo blower units are to be installed in a WRF, then it makes the most sense to provide an automated air distribution system to be able to realize the savings

Table 5. Hydraulic Evaluation of MLR Flows

Flow mgd

% Total Flow




Suction 1



Suction 2






potential the units are capable of. More importantly, when there are multiple basins with multiple droplegs fed from a single header, automatic valve operation is a must. 3. An automated aeration system is a must for the AWT facilities. Automated aeration systems will improve nutrient removal efficiency by providing proper residual DO levels in the aeration basins, energy savings by avoiding over aeration, and chemical savings. 4. If the process blower is expected to start and stop frequently due to changing air flow demand, air-bearing high-speed turbo blowers may not be the right technology. Magnetic-bearing turbo blowers might be considered under such operating conditions. 5. Sizing the air valves for an aeration system requires careful consideration of all conditions. Oversizing air valves is typically detrimental for the operation of the air distribution system. Dynamic hydraulic modeling is recommended to size the valves and piping. 6. Combining mixed liquor suction lines in BNR systems must be carefully studied. Flow imbalances can cause reduced denitrification performance, as S demonstrated in the East Side WRF.

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 45

Nonflushables Create Havoc for Wastewater Operators Debbie Wallace Wastewater operators are seeing a drastic change in the debris coming through their facilities as consumer use of “flushable” towelettes, mop wipes, disposable diapers, and women’s sanitary products increases. The towelettes may be marketed as flushable, in that they technically make it down the toilet drain, but they are not flushable in the sense that they do not dissolve and disperse. Britain had a huge so-called “fatberg” (cooking fats mixed with flushables) about three years ago that was so voluminous it nearly clogged a London sewer, damaged 20 meters of sewer pipe, flooded homes with sewage, and took six weeks to remove. As this becomes a bigger issue in the United States and around the world, could utilities sue manufacturers for false advertising?

Japan Uses Humor Instead of lawsuits, let’s ask manufacturers to stop touting products as flushable and reinforce that they’re trash-can-disposable, or they should be encouraged to make their wipes disperse in water in less than two minutes.

Japan has a flushable wipe that disintegrates in water in 10 seconds, almost like toilet paper. The country also uses humor to teach citizens to not flush nondispersibles and pharmaceuticals down the toilet. Until there is legislation requiring manufacturers to prove dispersion within a short amount of time to use the term flushable, what is a wastewater system operator to do?

Pesky Nonbiodegradable Towelettes Currently, these devilish towelettes do not break down, but instead jam pipes, wrap themselves around motors, clog screens and pumps, cause sewer obstructions, and when they mix with other substances, form monstrous, passage-blocking globules, all costing millions of dollars for utilities. Some utilities have installed specialized equipment to break material down before entering the treatment process. There are now vertical screening solutions that can be employed in the collection system, such as grinders, cutters, special impellers, and augers.

New Equipment Offers Solutions There is an anticlog product that uses a special nonclog pump impeller. Designed for a vacuum-primed and flooded suction pump, the X-PELLER Impeller, distributed by Smith & Loveless Inc., features a monoport design that effectively expels problem flushables using counterbalance hydraulic force, which creates a balanced single flow path that passes 3-inch solids and other large nonflushable items. The Dual Auger System (DAS) uses three Duperon technologies from Equipment Plus Inc. to remove a vast majority of

46 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

flushable wipes at or near where they enter the collection system, before downstream equipment can be impacted. The DAS is positioned in a wet well or manhole to catch the falling waste stream from the inlet pipe. Vertical dual augers lift wipes and other debris at the source. Then a flexible bar screen captures debris, cleaning itself without the need for additional brushes or liners. Finally, a discharge extension chute conveys solids to the surface for safe disposal. Also available are Vaughan chopper pumps, which combine the chopping and pumping mechanisms into a single process step. Distributed by F. J. Nugent Co., the pumps are generally applied to the wastewater stream in lift stations or septic receiving stations, or as sludge pumps where they are capable of chopping virtually any disposable diaper or wipe material into smaller uniform pieces. A mechanical seal requires no flush water to keep it cool, helping municipalities conserve water. The chopping design eliminates the need for a grinder. Wipes are wrapping around screens and they follow all holes and routes; even small pieces can rope together to clog screens and wrap around shafts. Wipes can also pass through some of these screens, then ball up to create issues in sludge pumps, aeration basins, and other wastewater treatment plant equipment. Barney’s Pumps Inc. offers grinders and screens by JWC Environmental as another solution. Grinders placed in the lift station capture items in the wastewater stream, including wipes, and drive the debris into a cutter where they are cut into small pieces, eliminating long strings likely to entwine together, wrap items, or form balls and large clogs called “wipebergs.”

Very fine screens then use brushless cleaning technology to remove the ground-up debris. The grinder and screening systems seem to work well together.

Nasty Problems Cited Wastewater utilities say they are facing increasing problems with wipes twisting into wads, then congealing with cooking fats improperly sent down drains to form sometimes-massive fatbergs that block pumps and pipes, sending sewage backing up into basements and overflowing into streams. Here are some examples: S I n Silver Springs, Md., 10,200 gallons of untreated sewage reached a creek after an estimated 160 pounds of wipes plugged a pipe. S A Charleston, S.C., utility filed a federal lawsuit against Costco, Walmart, CVS, and four other companies that sell wipes labeled “flushable,” alleging they have caused “massive” damage to sewer systems. The lawsuit stemmed from a blockage in which divers had to swim down 90 feet through raw sewage into a dark wet well to pull a 12-foot-long mass of wipes from three pumps. The gross factor caught people’s attention. S In Detroit, one pumping station began

collecting about 4,000 pounds of wipes weekly. S I n Seattle, workers remove wipes from pipes and pumps around the clock. S A 20-foot fatberg of congealed grease, flushable wipes, and other unsavory stuff was removed from a sewer pipe in Baltimore. S A 170-foot fatberg weighing “around the same as three elephants” took several weeks to fully remove from the sewer system in Great Britian. Wipes can cause backups in home sewage pipes, most of which are under the foundation and will need to be dug up, and can cause flooding of sewage into homes. Clogging can burn up sewage pumps in apartments and condominiums, causing fires and other damage. Wipes that end up at sewage treatment plants, causing massive clogs in pumps and pipes, can catastrophically damage a city’s entire system,

Dual augur system.

Sewage debris from pipes and other wastewater infrastructure.

resulting in more capital costs for utilities and increased taxes for their customers. While the convenience of flushable wipes and other products is appealing, they’re not precisely all they claim to be and are creating contaminants bigger than the legendary alligators rumored to lurk in city sewer systems. The problem is steadily growing and poses a catastrophic threat to wastewater infrastructure. No one wants to see another London fatberg. Debbie Wallace is FWPCOA Region 7 newsletter editor and historian. Disclaimer: FWCOA does not endorse any product cited in this article. Local representatives from Birney’s Pumps, F.J. Nugent, Equipment Plus, and Smith & Loveless allowed permission to print photos and descriptions of products. S



Nonclog pump impeller.

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 47

Revised Lead and Copper Rule: Testing at Schools and Child Care Facilities Pierre Kwan, Ameerah Palacios, and Anne Cron

As schools begin returning to session for the new year, water utilities across the United States are busy preparing for fall 2024 when the

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Lead and Copper Rule Revisions (LCRR) will require a new level of communication and cooperation with schools and child care providers. School districts can be great partners, providing utilities a way to tell their water story through public education and inspiring a new generation who may one day be water operators or other industry personnel. Schools, however, operate very differently than many government agencies—from their funding sources to staffing and overall culture. Getting ready to be compliant with the LCRR means water systems must pay special attention to the needs of school districts and how to best collaborate with them. Water utilities are required to provide schools and child care facilities with a copy of the EPA document, “Training, Testing, and Taking Action (3Ts) for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities,” as part of the LCRR sampling process. Utilities must sample at least 20 percent of elementary schools and 20 percent of child care facilities in their service areas for five years. During this time, utilities must also sample at secondary schools (upon a school’s request) and are required to collect at least five samples for each school and two samples for each child care facility. After this five-year period, water utilities will only be required to sample at any of these groups upon request. Exempt from sampling are facilities that were built or had all plumbing replaced after Jan. 1, 2014. A key difference between school and child care facility sampling and residential sampling is the sample volume. Schools and child care facilities require 250 milliliters (ml) in volume and have a stagnation period of eight to 18 hours; additional follow-up sampling is also at 250 ml. This task can feel daunting, no matter the size of a utility service area, but here are some tips to help.

Begin Reaching Out Now to School and Child Care Contacts So how do you find the right contact Continued on page 50

48 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 48 information for schools and licensed child care facilities? You have options. Your state Department of Education can provide a list of public and private schools, which both fall under the LCRR. The licensing or rating agency for a child care facility may be the Department of Health (DOH) at the local or state level. Another point of licensure for child care facilities is the agency that issues occupancy permits; the DOH and municipal occupancy permit agencies are potential sources for up-todate contact information about licensed child care facilities. This is particularly important because there are different environments for these types of entities, including a small business, nonprofit organization, or faith-based institution or school. Start by reaching out to facility leadership, such as principals, child care directors, and other administrators, to share basic information about upcoming testing. These leaders may direct you to central administrators for approvals or other support. Keep in mind that an entire school district may serve multiple municipalities and have more than one utility serving its system. Working first with building-level administrators establishes direct connections to the schools you will be testing.

Establish Protocols for Fountain and Faucet Repairs and Replacements Water utilities can work with schools and licensed child care facilities to establish protocols for decommissioning sites within a building that contain sampling exceedances. If a sample reveals lead, a school can temporarily shut off the faucet or bubbler until a long-term solution is implemented. Such solutions can include installing point-ofuse filters, removing the water outlet and any associated piping, or replacing a portion of the plumbing with newer lead-free materials. Consider meeting with child care facility owners to help them budget for these solutions ahead of time in support of the repairs their businesses will need.

Be Empathetic When Communicating With Families Keep in mind that parents and guardians do not often differentiate their children’s ages when it comes to health concerns, so while secondary school testing is optional, a parent or guardian may not respond as expected to this clear LCRR guidance. Utilities can be prepared for hurdles like this by: S Acknowledging concerns and listening. S Sharing relevant fact sheets and information in simple, easy-to-understand language, since technical information can cause speculation and fear. S Considering a water help line or landing page on their website to answer questions. Families with school-age children may not only be understandably cautious, but also have a strong network that can help or hurt a utility’s reputation in times of crisis. Empathetic, transparent, and clear communication methods help utilities manage expectations and provide parents and guardians with information they need to be confident their children are safe.

Have Funding Conversations and Form Partnerships Schools are often beholden to state and federal funding sources, with little room for surprises—even when that surprise is safe drinking water. Recognizing this challenge for schools and providing out-of-the-box solutions to school administrators can help keep students safe without taking funding away from the classroom. Consider having conversations with school and licensed child care facility administrators about grant support and identification. Explore whether a school could include service line, faucet, and fountain infrastructure in upcoming capital investment programs or bond referendums. Finally, help school and child care personnel investigate area foundations that

50 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

can partner with them. Consider setting up a plumbing apprenticeship that could reduce costs, while also investing in the classroom.

Consider Policy Implications for Local School Districts Some LCRR sampling requirements may trigger policy-creation needs for school districts. Reaching out to school boards early, before testing is implemented, will make things more efficient should problems arise. Each school district has different policies and procedures in place. Some schools may have requirements, like the ratio of drinking fountains to students or plumbing codes with a current set of testing standards. Keep in mind that school boards require multiple readings of new policies before they can be implemented, so if current policies are in place that make testing or remediation more difficult, getting in front of the issue will help everyone involved. There are many ways to partner with educators and school administrators to effectively develop a plan for LCRR sampling and testing notifications. By reaching out now to schools and licensed child care leaders in your service area, you can begin conversations that eventually turn points of contact into LCRR partnerships. This article was written for the American Water Works Association (AWWA) by Pierre Kwan, Ameerah Palacios, and Anne Cron of HDR to provide guidance on implementing certain requirements of the Revised Lead and Copper Rule by October 2024. It was originally published in AWWA Connections on Aug. 23, 2023. Learn more in a video conversation with Palacios at www.awwa.org. Additional information is available in AWWA’s Lead Communications Guide and Toolkit. Photos and graphic are used with permission of HDR. S

February 5-8........... Backflow Tester.............................................................Gulfport................ $425 8........... Backflow Tester recert.................................................Gulfport................ $115 5-8........... Wastewater Collection C............................................Deltona................. $375 19-21........... Backflow Repair...........................................................Deltona................. $355 21........... Backflow Tester recert.................................................Deltona................. $115

March 11-15........... Spring State Short School...........................................Ft. Pierce

April 9-12........... Water Distribution 2....................................................Deltona................. $375 15-18........... Backflow Tester.............................................................Deltona................. $425 18........... Backflow Tester recert.................................................Deltona................. $115

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 51

Tnemec Announces 2023 Water Tank of the Year Winner Tnemec Co. Inc. specializes in protecting surfaces and structures from corrosion with high-performance coatings and linings. Founded in 1921, it’s one of the largest privately held protective coatings manufacturers in North America. Since 2006, Tnemec has celebrated the innovative and creative uses of its coatings on

water tanks with the annual Tank of the Year and People’s Choice Award contests. Each year, potable water tanks of all varieties from across the United States and Canada are narrowed down to determine the most impressive coatings projects in the water tank industry. Over 320 water tanks were nominated in 2023, with over 46,000 online People’s Choice

Award votes cast. The Tank of the Year winner is selected by a panel of water tank enthusiasts based on criteria such as artistic value, the significance of the tank to the community, and challenges encountered during the project. With a record number of votes, Tnemec announced that the Dum-Dums water tank in Bryan, Ohio, was chosen as the People’s Choice Award winner of 2023. In addition to this honor, the tank, with its innovative design, was also chosen by Tnemec’s team of tank enthusiasts as the 2023 Tank of the Year. As the winner of this contest, the tank will appear in the most prominent position in Tnemec’s annual Tank of the Year calendar, alongside the other top finalists.

Contest Rules

The Dum-Dums water tower in Bryan, Ohio.

The rules for the contest are: S Tanks must be coated with Tnemec products. S New construction and renovation projects are welcome. S All potable water tank styles are eligible. S Tanks must have been completed by Sept. 22, 2023. S Projects must not be more than two years old and not submitted for previous Tank of the Year contests. S A high-quality photo of the completed tank must be submitted.

Tank of the Year and People’s Choice Award Winner The Dum-Dums water tower is owned by the city of Bryan, Ohio, but is located on the Spangler Candy Co. factory campus, which is the largest single lollipop manufacturing plant in the world. The water in the tower is the same water that is used to manufacture about 12 million Dum-Dums every day. Each of the eight 65-foottall Dum-Dums lollipops on the tower represents the company’s most popular flavors. A brightly marked “photo op spot” was created just across the street from the tower where visitors can take photos, with the tower in the background. This water tank iss coated and protected with Tnemec Series 700 HydroFlon.

Water Tanks in Two Florida Cities are 2023 Finalists The water tower located in Dunedin, Fla.

52 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Two water tanks in Florida were among the contest’s finalists.

Dunedin, Fla. The City of Dunedin sits along Florida’s Gulf Coast, is known for its beaches, and is the home of Honeymoon Island State Park. A local artist conceptualized the design of gopher tortoise “Henry” and sea turtle “Sylvia” hatching from their eggshells, recognizing Dunedin’s unique role in the protection of sea turtles. This 150-foot-tall Curlew water tower is coated in Tnemec’s Series 700 HydroFlon. Lake Worth Beach, Fla. Lake Worth Beach, previously named Lake Worth, sits along the east coast of Florida. The artistic soul of downtown Lake Worth Beach is demonstrated by an eclectic mix of art galleries, antique malls, a historic theater, live music clubs, coffee houses, and many restaurants. Lake Worth Beach is represented with a classic beachball design on the water tank, coated in Tnemec Series 700 HydroFlon.

Other Finalists Other water tanks among the top 12 finalists for 2023 are in the following cities: S A marillo, Texas

The Lake Worth Beach, Fla., water tower.

S Artesia, N.M. S Florence, S.C. S Hugo, Okla. S Lexington, S.C. S Pleasant Prairie, Wis. S Tell City, Ind. S Volga, S.D.

S Clinton, Tenn. The Tank of the Year will be featured as the month of January in Tnemec’s 2024 water tank calendar. All finalists and nominees will be included in the following months of the S calendar.

NEW PRODUCTS The Pulsafeeder XAE Stroke Length Controller provides fast and accurate response when there are changes to chemical dosing demands of diaphragm metering pumps. With microprocessor-based digital logical and a brushless stepper motor, pump chemical delivery response is nearly instantaneous. Onboard pushbutton self-calibration means that startup and commissioning is finished in a matter of minutes. It’s fault-tolerant and self-correcting after power loss or system fault, with settings automatically maintained and monitored even without power. The dry contacts and 4-20mA inputs/outputs allow it to communicate and integrate seamlessly with system controls to monitor pump ready-torun or fault-conditions status and shut down in the event of system alarm or diaphragm failure. Fast operation and service means operators can spend less time troubleshooting pumps and more time monitoring system efficiency, knowing the status of key aspects of pump performance and health easily and remotely. (www.pulsafeeder.com)


Stainless steel triplex pumps from Cat Pumps mounted to a gear motor can provide thousands of hours of maintenance-free slip pump service. Direct-coupling a pump to a gear

motor provides many advantages, including a smaller footprint, reduced noise, and increased ease of service, with no belts to maintain. A 316 stainless steel manifold, paired with elastomers, like NBR, FPM, EPDM, and PTFE, allow for many chemical and fluid compatibility options. Performance specifications range from 0.1 to 100 gpm, and 100 to 10,000 psi. Custombuilt power units include pumps, motor, base, pressure regulator, safety relief valve, pulsation dampener, and gauge. Custom builds typically have a three- to four-week lead time. Pumps and repair parts are stock items, with 95 percent of orders being shipped within 24 hours of order placement. (www.catpumps.com)


The Thin Film Dryer from Nederman MikroPul is a versatile sludge dryer that can process all types of sludge, including digested, undigested, and industrial sludge, as low as 10 percent dry solids (DS). It achieves a variable sludge dryness range of 30 to 95 percent DS, and the dryer has been successfully utilized for various applications, such as Class A, landfilling, composting, alkaline stabilization, incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, and solid fuel production. With a simple design, the dryer has a singledrive motor, requires no separate feed system,

and generates less than 200 cfm of exhaust vapor, which can be easily treated. Its highefficiency design consumes 1,150 to 1,300 btu/ lb of evaporated water and can recover up to 85 percent of this heat for other purposes, including digester and building heating. (www.lcicorp.com)


Low-maintenance blower technology can help minimize power costs with load splitting, sequencing, and superior multiblower controls. Rotary screw blowers from Kaeser are turnkey systems, available in sizes up to 335 hp and flows to 5,650 cfm, using up to 35 percent less energy than conventional rotary blowers, while energy savings of up to 15 percent can be achieved in comparison with turbo blowers. All blowers come complete with noise-insulated cabinets, inlet and outlet silencers, motors, and drives. The intelligent Sigma Control 2 on each blower optimizes machine performance via various control modes, and a full suite of sensors provides active condition monitoring to protect the machine. The combination of a blower air-end with high-efficiency SIGMA Profile rotors, flow-optimized components, efficient power transmission, and drive components, ensures wire-to-air performance year after year. (www.us.kaeser.com) S

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 53


Lisa Lotti

City of Orlando Work title and years of service. I am the stormwater compliance program manager with City of Orlando and have been employed there for 26 years. What does your job entail? My team educates and informs our citizens and business community about stormwater pollution prevention. We conduct inspections of businesses and industrial facilities to ensure all waste streams remain inside a building and do not enter the street, and ultimately, our lakes. Our team also responds to citizen reports of environmental pollution entering the stormwater system from other citizens, businesses, or construction sites. In both proactive and reactive investigations, our team documents a visit with photos and narratives in our database for tracking purposes. All inspections performed are a small, but important, part of our National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that requires us to keep our waters clean by stopping all illicit discharges through education and enforcement. Other responsibilities of my team include public outreach and water quality monitoring of 80 lakes. Our team also performs additional specialized sampling

and flow monitoring within six major basins that are within the city’s limits. In addition, our team also performs compliance inspections on private properties to ensure all owners are maintaining their stormwater system to permit conditions. These inspections ensure each system is removing the required levels of pollution before their discharged offsite and enter our lakes. Most importantly, these inspections ensure continued maintenance is being performed to make sure flooding does not occur under normal rain events. My role is to ensure our team is performing these tasks, documenting its work, and providing timely and consistent enforcement actions, when needed. Enforcement actions include violation letters and fines; however, we are beginning to update our internal processes to evolve with today’s business practices. My role is also to assist in the following: S Quantify the number of inspections and outreach efforts performed for our annual NDPES report to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). S Provide summary of each year’s water quality results to FDEP and the public. S Provide list of upcoming projects to FDEP that includes in-house and capital improvement projects, both structural and nonstructural, to document efforts the city is making to clean our lakes and remove pollution before it reaches them. My role is also to ensure we are providing our citizens with helpful information that will ultimately improve the water quality of our lakes for years to come. What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor of science in biology and a few random courses from local

54 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

colleges on various topics to help with my job. During my tenure, I received certifications from: S FDEP’s Stormwater, Erosion, and Sedimentation Control Inspector Training Program S FDEP’s Field Sampling Training Course for All Medias S Florida Stormwater Association (FSA) for Stormwater Operator – Level 1 S FSA for Stormwater Operator – Level 2 S American Stormwater Institute – Qualified Industrial Stormwater Inspector S University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences – Green Industries I also attended or passed courses in the following: S FDEP’s “Train the Trainer” for Stormwater, Erosion, and Sedimentation Control Inspector Training Program S FDEP’s Habitat Assessment training S FDEP’s Stream Condition Index field audit S FDEP’s Team Biannual Lake Vegetation Index audit My goal for 2024 is to obtain FWPCOA stormwater B and C certifications. In addition, I attended numerous conferences and stakeholder meetings over the years at: S Florida Lake Management Society (FLMS) S FSA winter conferences S Basin Management Action Plan (BMAP) meetings for: • L ake Jesup BMAP • Wekiva River, Rock Springs Run, and Little Wekiva Canal BMAP • L ake Okeechobee BMAP S L ake Tohopekaliga Nutrient Reduction Plan What do you like best about your job? I enjoy the opportunity to interact with our citizens and business community to help point them in the right direction, from a stormwater and water quality perspective. It is extremely helpful if you can reach out to them and help them understand why a specific practice is

harmful and the consequences of this activity. It is very rewarding to be part of an effort where my involvement helps make a better world, in the long run. I also enjoy working and collaborating with other government agencies on projects, enforcement cases, and outreach opportunities. We are like an extended family. What professional organizations do you belong to? I am a member of FLMS. How have the organizations (FWPCOA, FSAWWA, or FWEA) helped your career? To date, I have not been active in any of the organizations listed; however, as I mentioned, 2024 is the year when I plan to attend a couple of FWPCOA certifications in the stormwater discipline. Some of my team members have attended courses from FWPCOA and have appreciated the additional knowledge and networking these courses provided. We encourage our team to attend these certification programs and have incorporated these progressive courses as a component for internal promotions. What do you like best about the industry? I am proud of all the hard work and dedication from public works employees. The public doesn’t always understand how vital we are to their overall personal comforts and safety—we are their unsung heroes. I can only speak from a stormwater perspective, but it appears more technologies are becoming available to help retrofit stormwater systems and make different and mindful uses of stormwater runoff. What do you do when you’re not working? I like to garden, bird watch, spend as much time outdoors, travel, and “hang on” to the back of a motorcycle. S

It’s the 75th Anniversary of FWRJ in 2024 and You’re Invited to Help Us Celebrate! Since 1949, the Florida Water Resources Journal (FWRJ) has been providing pertinent, topical, and up-to-the-minute information about water and wastewater to the managers, engineers, chemists, operators, manufacturers, product developers, academicians, board members, students, and others who make up this vital industry and provide the public with clean, safe, and abundant water. The monthly magazine is supported by the Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA), Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), and Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association. The readership for FWRJ, the largest and most-read publication of its kind in the state of Florida and the entire Southeast, is over 8,500. You can view past issues of the magazine at www.fwrj.com.

A Year-Long Celebration We’re very excited about this upcoming event. Every issue in 2024 will include advertising and other content that celebrates FWRJ, the industry, and your company’s involvement with your products or services.

company and what it has to offer. Prices and ad specifications can be found at www. fwrj.com. You can tailor your advertising to note FWRJ’s anniversary and tout your company’s accomplishments over the years. Technical Content The Journal is looking for technical articles to keep its readers up to date on the latest technology and innovations and it’s a great way for you to reach a large number or people with information they can use in their careers. Articles are generally accepted 60 days before inclusion in a particular issue. The editorial calendar for the magazine can also be found at www. fwrj.com. Another way to reach your customers is with Technology Spotlight, which gives you, with an article and paid advertisement, the ability to promote both your technology and your company.

Come Join Us!

How You Can Be Involved

I’m happy to provide any information you need about helping us celebrate this publishing milestone. You can email me at mike@fwrj.com or feel free to call me at 352.241.6006. I look forward to hearing from you! S

Advertising Both display advertising and display cards are available to help publicize your

Mike Delaney General Manager Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 55

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $22 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

POSITIONS AVAILABLE Water Reclamation Facility Operator III This is skilled technical work, with supervisory responsibilities, in the inspection and operation of a water reclamation plant. The person in this position fills the role as the shift leader. Work involves responsibility for the safe and efficient operation of a water reclamation facility, routine adjustments to equipment and machinery operating controls, inspection of equipment inside and outside the plant site. An employee in this class exercises considerable independent judgment in adjusting machinery, equipment, and related control apparatus in accordance with established procedures and standards to produce a high-quality reclaimed water product. An employee in this class must be able to report to work outside of normally scheduled work hours at the discretion of management. Required Qualifications:

♦ Possess a valid high school diploma or GED equivalency. ♦ Possess and maintain a valid Driver License. ♦ Possess and maintain a State of Florida Wastewater Operator “B” License. ♦ Must be able to perform shift work. ♦ Acknowledge this position is designated as Emergency Critical (EC) and if hired into the position, you must be immediately available to the department before, during, and after a declared emergency and/or disaster.

Journeyman Electrician The Coral Springs Improvement District is currently accepting applications for the position of Journeyman Electrician. The qualified applicant must have a high school diploma or equivalent and have a Journeyman Electrical certificate of competency issued by Broward County. Must have a valid Florida Driver’s License, be able to pass a background check and pre-employment drug screening. What The Job Involves: Electricians, under direction, perform work on the installation, repair, and maintenance of high- or low-tension electrical systems for light, power, and communications throughout the facility. They install, repair, replace and maintain electric wiring systems and components, equipment and apparatus within district offices, water, and wastewater facilities. Electrical troubleshooting of motors, VFD’S, PLC, 3-Phase systems, Circuit breakers, etc. Knowledge of electrical tools and equipment, safety precautions used in electrical repair and maintenance including but not limited to Arc Flash & LOTO. CSID Offers: Salary Levels are at the top of the industry. The district has excellent company paid benefits including a 6% non-contributory investment money purchase plan, and voluntary 457 plan with match up to 6%. EOE. Salary: The salary range for this position is $30.94/Hr.- $38.23/Hr. Salaries to commensurate relative to level of licensure and years of experience. Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at www.csidfl.org/resources/employment.html and fax resume to 954-753-6329 or Email to Jzilmer@csidfl.org Attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Salary: $31.02 - $41.30 hourly http://www.stpete.org/jobs

Come Join our Team! The City of Zephyrhills is hiring for several career opportunities!

The City of Zephyrhills has multiple positions available in our Water & Wastewater Divisions. The City of Zephyrhills is a great place to work with an excellent benefits package. Positions available include: Chief Wastewater Plant Operator Scada Specialist Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator, I, II or III Utilities Service Worker I,II,II (Wastewater) FOG Inspector Meter Reader I To view the complete job posting, salary ranges and instructions for applying for this position, please visit our website at https://www.ci.zephyrhills.fl.us/Jobs.aspx.

56 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Clay County Utility Authority - Multiple Positions Available Cyber Security Specialist Senior Design Engineer/Project manager Apply at WWW.Clayutility.org

Water Wastewater Engineer with P.E. License Wanted!!

JEA is looking for Mechanical, Environmental and Chemical engineers who can design/redesign water and HVAC systems, pipelines and structures related to utility and infrastructure projects. Please review job description and apply at JEA.com/careers.

City of Naples Wastewater Treatment Plant Superintendent Salary: $74,592 - $112,627 annually Minimum Training & Experience: High School diploma or GED with some college coursework; three years of progressively responsible management experience in treatment plant operations; possession of a valid Florida Class E driver’s license and Class A Wastewater license. https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/naplesfl

The City of Delray Beach is hiring for Utilities Water Treatment Plant UTILITY MECHANIC SENIOR $$$$$ Sign-on Bonus $3,000.00 $$$$$ Salary Range $21.55 - $34.68 Hourly $44,824.00 - $72,134.40 Annually

SCADA Operations System Administrator

The Broward County Water and Wastewater Services – Operations Division (WWOD) is seeking highly qualified candidates for: SALARY: $50.6462 - $80.8312 / $105,344.10 - $168,128.90 LOCATION: Water and Wastewater Operations Division, 2555 Copans Road, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 DEPARTMENT: Public Works To view and apply for this position, please visit: https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/broward

Please visit our website to view other positions & BONUSES to learn about what Delray Beach – “The Village by the Sea” has to offer and submit your on-line application today! https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/delraybeach/ jobs/4344502/utility-mechanic-senior-wtp

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2024 57


Test Yourself Answer Key January 2016

Editorial Calendar January........Wastewater Treatment February.......Water Supply; Alternative Sources March............ Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April..............Conservation and Reuse May ...............Operations and Utilities Management June.............. Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ...............Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August..........Disinfection; Water Quality September... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October........ New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November....Water Treatment December.....Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index WWA Celebrates Black History Month ���������������������������������������������������������������������������36 A Blue Planet Environmental Systems ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 59 CEU Challenge ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Data Flow Systems �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57 Engineered Pump �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11 FJ Nugent ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37 Florida Water Resources Conference ��������������������������������������������������������������� 20-25 FSAWWA �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32-35 FWPCOA Trainiing Calendar ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51 Gerber Pumps ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 9 Heyward ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump & Equipment ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49 Hydro Internatioinal ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Lakeside Equipment Corporation ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 PolyProcessing �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 Smith & Loveless ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 US Submergent �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31 Water Treatment & Controls Technology ��������������������������������������������������������������� 29 Xylem ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 60

58 February 2024 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 27 1. D) water reclamation.

The treatment process by which wastewater is treated to make it reusable with definable treatment consistency and meet water quality standards is water reclamation.

2. A) water reuse.

The use of treated wastewater for some beneficial use, i.e., industrial cooling and agricultural irrigation, is water reuse.

3. C) Approximately 65 percent.

The percentage of annual global withdrawals for irrigation that could have been for human use is approximately 65 percent.

4. A) toilets.

The device or activity within a typical single-family home without water conservation with the highest gallon per capita per day use is toilets.

5. B) dishwasher.

The device or activity within a typical single-family home without water conservation with the lowest gallon per capita per day use is the dishwasher.

6. D) Baltimore, Md.

The earliest case of industrial reuse within the United States was practiced at the Bethlehem Steel Co. in 1942 in Baltimore, Md.

7. D) St. Petersburg.

The first major urban reuse system initiated within the state of Florida was located in 1977 in St. Petersburg.

8. C) 1965 in San Diego County.

Santee Recreational Lakes, supplied with reclaimed water, were opened for swimming and put-and-take fishing in 1965 in San Diego County.

9. D ) Fountain Valley, Calif.

Groundwater recharge by direct injection of reclaimed water into aquifers began in 1975 in Fountain Valley, Calif.

10. B) Los Angeles.

Groundwater recharge by surface spreading of reclaimed water was initiated at the Whittier Narrows spreading basin in 1962 in Los Angeles.




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