Florida Water Resources Journal - January 2019

Page 1

Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office: P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Lisa Prieto (FWEA) Prieto Environmental LLC Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features


4 TREEO Center Celebrates 40th Anniversary 12 Stormwater Project Opens in Clermont 14 Darrow Re-elected as FWPCOA President for 2019 22 In Memoriam 29 From AWWA: Illinois Section’s Partnership for Lead Reduction in Schools—John Donahue 43 Water Research Foundation Releases Proposals for Reuse Projects 44 2018-2019 FSAWWA Board of Governors 49 Water Research Foundation Names New Chief Executive Officer 58 WEF HQ Newsletter: EPA Office of Inspector General Releases Biosolids Report—Patrick Dube 59 News Beat

Technical Articles

22 FWEA Committee Corner: Student Design Competitions Give Students Valuable RealLife Experience—Matthes Priester 30 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 36 FWEA Focus—Kristiana S. Dragash 46 C Factor—Mike Darrow 48 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Michael Bailey 56 FWEA Chapter Corner: Water Professionals Convene at Clays Shoot—Mike Nixon 60 FWRJ Committee Profile: FSAWWA Young Professionals Committee—Nelson PerezJacome, Shelby Hughes 64 Reader Profile—Sondra Lee

Departments 65 Service Directories 68 Classifieds 62 Display Advertiser Index

6 Welcoming Activated Granular Sludge to the United States—Lucas Botero, Andrew Shaw, and Sean Scuras 16 Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal During Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in an Oxidation Ditch—Hélène Kassouf, Ann Sager, Luke Mulford, Gita Iranipour, Sarina J. Ergas, and Jeffrey A. Cunningham 32 Use of Modeling for Optimization of Activated Sludge Process Design—Jurek Patoczka 50 Can High-Strength Reverse Osmosis Concentrate Be Accepted Into a Wastewater Treatment Plant?—Rosalyn Matthews, Timothy Welch, Theodore Petrides, Roal Small, and Eric Stanley

Education and Training 11 15 23 31 38 41 42 43 47 61 63

FWPCOA Short School CEU Challenge Florida Water Resources Conference FWPCOA Training Calendar FSAWWA Fall Conference Sponsor Appreciation FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest AWWA Water Equation FSAWWA Awards AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference TREEO Center Training FWPCOA Online Training

Volume 70

ON THE COVER: The observation tower is the centerpiece for Victory Pointe, a $10.2-million stormwater project in the City of Clermont. (photo: South Lake Tablet)

January 2019

Number 1

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


TREEO Center Celebrates 40th Anniversary The University of Florida Training, Research, and Education for Environmental Occupations (UF TREEO) Center opened its doors to over 120 guests on Nov. 1, 2018, to showcase recent building renovations and celebrate forty years of environmental training. The celebration included walking tours through the building, guest speakers, a catered lunch, and giveaways. Guest speakers at the event included: S Dr. Brian Marchman, Ph.D., UF assistant provost and director of distance and continuing education

S Tom Frick, director of division of environmental assessment and restoration at the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) S Dr. Don Pohlman, commissioner of the Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) Guests traveled from around the state of Florida to attend the event that highlighted not only UF TREEO’s successes, but the successes of its students. “In four decades, the center has trained over 75,000 participants,” Dr. Marchman said. “This is so important because where would

Hurricane Michael first responders from Gainesville Regional Utilities were recognized during the celebration.

Guests enjoyed refreshments and tours of the newly renovated building.


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

we be without our drinking water, clean buildings, and clean air?” During the celebration, workers from Gainesville Regional Utilities, who recently returned from Hurricane Michael disaster relief, were honored with a standing ovation. These workers were deployed by Florida's Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWARN), which UF TREEO administers and is the formalized system of "utilities helping utilities" to address mutual aid during emergency situations. The center’s building renovations include a complete lobby remodel, fresh paint throughout, new flooring in classrooms and the canteen, new energy-efficient lighting, new air conditioning systems, and new classroom furniture. The next phase of renovations will include new landscaping and remodeling of offices. While UF TREEO celebrated past successes, a focus was also put on the future of the organization. “We have sustained excellence in environmental training for forty years by offering quality and relevant training, and multiple delivery systems,” said Carol Hinton, the center’s director. “In looking at where we go from here, we are adding more online courses to meet the demands of our students’ busy schedules.” The center plays a major role in the continuing education for environmental professions. It offers online courses in addition to its face-toface offerings in Gainesville, as well as in satellite locations all over the world. S

Testimonials from students describing the impact that the center has had on their careers lined the hallways during the anniversary celebration.


Welcoming Activated Granular Sludge to the United States Lucas Botero, Andrew Shaw, and Sean Scuras ranular sludge has been observed for a couple of decades in wastewater treatment. Originally, upflow granular sludge blanket reactors developed granulation based on the feeding patterns and characteristics of these reactors. More recently, researchers at Delft University in the Netherlands have achieved granulation of activated sludge in a sustained fashion and developed the concepts for making use of the excellent advantages that the granules provide, which include: S Exceptionally low sludge volumetric indices (SVIs), which allow more-efficient solids separation through settling using significantly less area for clarification compared with traditional activated sludge (flocculant) clarifiers. S Activated granular sludge (AGS) is a biofilm system that behaves like activated sludge; therefore, the biofilm can be engineered to provide the conditions desired to target specific removal of contaminants, allowing the removal of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in a single reactor. S The AGS is typically configured in a way to eliminate internal process recycles (mixed liquor recycle [MLR], return activated sludge [RAS], and anaerobic recycle), which minimizes the energy requirements compared with traditional activated sludge systems. Supplemental carbon addition in denitrification systems can also be minimized by maximizing denitrification when influent carbon is still available. S Higher concentrations of biomass can be used in the reactor, which further minimizes reactor volume and saves on capital. S Simplicity of operation.


Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant Activated Granular Sludge Pilot A bench-scale pilot study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of an AGS process as an alternative technology for the upgrade of the Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP).


The objectives of this study were to design (from the beginning) and operate a bench-scale pilot for the purposes of: S Determining if granulated sludge could be formed and maintained with low-strength wastewater (as compared to existing AGS systems treating higher-strength wastes). S Ensuring that the AGS process is a feasible and robust treatment alternative for the Tomahawk Creek WWTP upgrade. S Developing overall confidence in this relatively new technology in order to decide whether or not to take the next step in evaluation, which is a demonstration unit that is much larger than bench scale. The objectives were pursued by developing an understanding of the phenomenon of granulation and the AGS process through bench-scale operation and experimentation. If sufficient confidence in the technology and its benefits are established, then a larger Nereda® demonstration-scale trial will be conducted on site by Royal HaskoningDHV. The demonstration-scale pilot will be started with mature granules and will be large enough to assess the customized design criteria to reach the levels of performance required by the Tomahawk Creek WWTP. It would also provide physical confirmation of equipment selection and process control criteria for transition to a fullscale system. The set of three pilot reactors that were built for the testing consisted of a Plexiglas cylinder column supported on a polyvinyl chloride platform and an aluminum frame on casters. Each reactor column was made of interchangeable and stackable units to achieve various settling distances. For this study, there were three reactors in parallel (labeled red, white, and blue), with two units stacked on top of each other. Each unit has a 480-millimeter (mm) height and a 65-mm inner diameter. The units were constructed with a double-wall water jacket for temperature control; the temperature was held constant at 20°C. Aeration was done with compressed air. During aeration phases, compressed air was fed through a fine bubble diffuser. Mixing (without aeration) was per-

January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Lucas Botero, P.E., BCEE, ENV SP, is a senior process engineer with Black & Veatch in Coral Springs. Andrew Shaw, P.E., Ph.D., ENV SP, is global practice technology leader with Black & Veatch in Houston. Sean Scuras, P.E., Ph.D., BCEE, is national practice leader– wastewater, with Goodwyn, Mills & Cawood, in Greenville, S.C.

formed by bubbling nitrogen AGS through the same fine bubble diffuser. The AGS flow was measured and adjusted manually to approximately 1 to 3 liters per minute (L/min) using a 0.4- to 5-L/min Cole Parmer rotameter. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR), approximately 3 L in. in volume, was operated with a 4- to 8hour HRT and a 50 percent volumetric exchange ratio. A schematic of the bench-scale reactors is shown in Figure 1 and a photo of the pilot system is shown in Figure 2. The reactors were operated in a SBR mode, meaning that the reactor was batch-fed and treated in sequential phases, which, when completed, were repeated. Each repeat of the sequential phases is a cycle; Figure 3 shows an example of the sequential phases comprising one cycle. An example of the SBR operatingcycle phases and timing consisted of: S Anaerobic feed – 30 minutes S Pre-anoxic mix – 10 minutes S Aeration – 186 minutes S Settling – 4 minutes S Decant – 10 minutes The total cycle time is 240 minutes, or 4 hours. The cycling was controlled through a four-circuit control programmable timer unit and cycle phases were identical for all three reactors. The only difference among the three reactors was the influent feed during the process performance evaluation component of the study. The influent containers were mechanically mixed during both start-up and evaluation. Throughout the entire study, the only wasting of biomass occurred via washed-out effluent total suspended solids (TSS). Continued on page 8

Figure 1. Schematic of the Bench-Scale Activated Granular Sludge Pilot Reactor (courtesy of Black & Veatch)

Figure 2. Bench-Scale Pilot (courtesy of Black & Veatch)

Figure 3. Example of Sequencing Batch Reactor Operating Cycle Phases and Timing

Figure 4. Progression of Granule Enrichment (courtesy of Black & Veatch)


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 6 The influent to the AGS reactors was raw wastewater collected before primary clarification. The low-strength influent wastewater at Tomahawk Creek was supplemented with fermented primary sludge supernatant (fermentate). Fermentation of primary sludge converts particulate biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) into soluble and readily biodegradable forms. The primary sludge was collected from the primary clarifier underdrain and fermented for three to four days. The supernatant was then added to the raw influent wastewater to increase its strength (by 10 to 20 percent by volume) and the sludge solids were discarded. The primary sludge fermentation process was initially operated automatically as a timercontrolled process and temperature-controlled at 30°C. Complications with the automatic operation, such as clogged pumps and poor mixing, created methanogenesis and consumption of rapidly biodegradable chemical oxygen demand (rbCOD). As an alternative to automatic operation, the primary sludge was collected and fermented in the collection bucket, which was mixed once per day to represent the more-likely full-scale scenario. The automatic operation was conducted from October through December 2014, after which the passive bucket fermentation method was used. Both automatic and bucket fermentation methods produced approximately 5 to 10 L/day of fermentate. Pilot samples were delivered to the Johnson County Wastewater Laboratory one to three times per week for analysis. Influent and effluent samples of the fermenter were analyzed for soluble COD, TSS/volatile suspended solids (VSS), and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Influent and effluent samples of the reactors were analyzed for TSS/VSS,

total and soluble COD and BOD, ammonia-N, nitrite + nitrate-N, orthophosphorus, and VFAs. After start-up, the reactor was having difficulties achieving granulation due to the high initial settling velocity target of 15 mi/hour. After adjusting the settling velocity to 7.5 mi/hour, selective washout was achieved without hindering the biological coagulation and filtration. Two months after start-up, the reactors granulation was achieved (Figures 4 and 5).

Rock River Activated Granular Sludge Demonstration Plant The Rock River demonstration facility has an average capacity of 0.2 mil gal per day (mgd) average annual daily flow (AADF). The plant is part of Aquaerobic’s research and development efforts and will be used to validate (among other things) the AGS process in the United States. The plant consists of an AquaNereda® reactor (Figures 6 and 7) that takes primary effluent water and treats it in a single Aquanereda SBR reactor. The plant does include pretreatment, which consists of a grinder to remove solids that can impact the flow distribution in the Aquanereda reactor. The reactor itself includes influent flow distribution, aeration diffusers and associated blowers, effluent flow collection trough, sludge wasting mechanism, and sludge holding tanks. Granular sludge is onsite, which was imported from Europe to speed up the stabilization of the plant. Figure 8 shows a 3D perspective of the demonstration facility. The reactor has been in operation since January 2018. Imported AGS from Europe was used to seed the reactor to speed up the granulation process. Currently, the reactor has achieved steady-state granulation and training is being performed at the facility.

Wolf Creek Water Reclamation Plant The current Wolf Creek Water Reclamation Plant (WRP) has a permitted capacity of 2 mgd; however, to get an expanded plant capacity of 3.5 mgd, Riviera Utilities decided to replace the existing oxidation ditch process with an AGS system. The plant was built in 1980 and expanded in 1997. The effluent permit requirements include (summer/winter): S TSS = 30/30 mg/L

S Biochemical oxygen demand after five days (BOD5) = 7/10 mg/L S Ammonium (NH4) = 2/4 mg/L S Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) = 4/6 mg/L The current plant includes oxidation ditches, ultraviolet disinfection, screw press dewatering, and a sludge dryer with biosolids disposed at a landfill. City staff decided to upgrade the capacity to 3.5 mgd with the possibility of a 7-mgd final expansion. Other technologies were considered, including integrated fixed-film actiContinued on page 10

Figure 5. Granulation Development (courtesy of Black & Veatch)

Figure 6. Rock River Aquanereda Reactor (courtesy of Aquaerobic)

Figure 7. Rock River Aquanereda Reactor (courtesy of Aquaerobic) Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


Continued from page 9 vated sludge (IFAS), MBR, and ballasted floc, but AGS was selected for its simplicity and proven performance, given that the new process could be built while the existing process was untouched (small footprint process), with full BNR capability, and its reduced energy use. The project includes a new influent pump station, new headworks with rotary drum

screens and grit removal system, a repurposing of existing tanks to equalization basins, AquaNereda AGS reactor, and tertiary filtration and disinfection. Existing clarifier tanks will be converted from their existing usage to aerobic sludge digesters. Additional AGS tanks are planned for the site of the two small ditches (removed from service by the current upgrade) when additional capacity is needed in the future.

The AGS reactor will be designed for 8000mg/L mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). Hybrid blowers and fine bubble diffusers will be used for oxygen delivery. The AGS project was awarded in March 2018, construction is ongoing (Figure 9), and the AGS process start-up is planned for summer 2019.

Conclusions The AGS is a proven technology that is making its way into the U.S. market. Granulation has been observed in pilot and demonstration facilities, and by the time this article is published there will be multiple full-scale installations in design or under construction, with full-scale operation beginning in 2019. The AGS allows treatment process intensification because all biological reactions are achieved in a single reactor, minimizing tank volume and energy use (aeration and mixing). A possible obstacle of AGS implementation in the U.S. is the lack of suppliers, as the process control logic used for growing granules is patented, and there is only one supplier in the U.S. at the moment, limiting direct competition.

Figure 8. 3D Perspective Aquanereda Reactor (courtesy of Goodwyn, Mills & Cawood)

Acknowledgments The authors thank Aquaerobic Systems for its support and contributions in the development of this article. S

Figure 9. Wolf Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant Construction, September 2018 (courtesy of Goodwyn, Mills & Cawood)


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Wastewater Collection System Operator C, B & A .. .......$325/$325

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FWPCOA Training Office 321-383-9690 Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


Stormwater Project Opens in Clermont The City of Clermont held a grand opening last summer for Victory Pointe, a $10.2-million stormwater project, which is combined with an ecological public park and event space and is a part of the city’s award-winning master plan aimed at revitalizing its downtown and waterfront. As communities grow—like Clermont, with its 36,000 residents—the need for diverting and treating stormwater increases. Stormwater runoff from developed land can overwhelm city sewers and damage nearby slopes through erosion. A well-designed stormwater system can save millions in costly repairs that would otherwise be directed at correcting erosion or controlling flooding. A new stormwater pond and a filter marsh were constructed on a 10-acre site that extends from Lake Minneola to south of Minneola Avenue in the downtown area.

Project Inception The project started in 2013 under Darren

Gray, Clermont’s city manager. “Once we had a place to put our stormwater, we could begin redeveloping downtown. Several visioning sessions were held, involving more than 1,000 citizens, to Darren Gray get their input about what they wanted for their city,” said Gray. As Clermont’s assistant city manager, James Kinzler has also been involved with the project from its inception. “We worked with a design firm to capture the ideas from the visioning meetings and develop a plan for the stormwater facility and the other amenities the public requested. A downtown waterfront master plan was approved by the city council in 2015,” said Kinzler. “The stormwater part of the project serves the western part of downtown Clermont James Kinzler

An aerial view of Victory Pointe being constructed.

and has the potential to become a learning tool for local students and anyone interested in the environment.” As part of the stormwater master plan, a couple of dry retention ponds on the lakeshore were filled and the stormwater was redirected to Victory Pointe. The lakefront property is now available for other desirable uses.

Stormwater Protection: The Key to Clermont’s Revitalization The stormwater project was the starting point for the revitalization plan. The project was awarded $412,000 from the Section 319 Nonpoint Source Management Program implementation grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through an agreement/contract with the Nonpoint Source Management Section of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) to fund stormwater planters that collect and treat stormwater runoff before it enters

A view of Victory Pointe overlooking the wet detention pond, which settles suspended sediments, removes pollutants through natural biological processes, and creates new wildlife habitat.

A panoramic view of Victory Pointe from the observation tower at sunrise.


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the pond system at Victory Pointe Park, and eventually, Lake Minneola. After rain showers, water will drain into the stormwater planters, which consist of vegetation and porous materials. These elements provide the initial treatment to the nutrient-rich runoff. The stormwater planters, along with the pond, represent the first two stages of the water treatment process. The final two stages, before water enters Lake Minneola, include an inundated marsh and filter marsh. As part of the partnerships with FDEP, EPA, St. Johns Water Management District (SJWMD), and the Lake County Water Authority, the city will check the project to determine the impact the facility has on pollutants in the lake. It’s estimated that 19.09 kilograms per year of phosphorus will be prevented from entering the lake. The project also will remove much of the solid debris and trash that could potentially find its way to the water.

“As part of the larger Victory Pointe conveyance system, the stormwater goes through a second-generation baffle box prior to entering the wet detention pond, the cleaner water flows to an inundated marsh, and the final treatment takes place in the filter marsh,” said Terry Dykehouse, the city Terry Dykehouse engineer for Clermont. The stormwater system is basically a series of various types of treatment areas connected by pipes. Stormwater from the west part of downtown, and from what the city refers to as its waterfront district, is collected into a single pipe, which enters the treatment ponds at a baffle box, near what is now the Minneola Avenue Bridge. The first pond is divided into two sections by the bridge. The baffle box, which requires regular maintenance, removes solid debris, trash, sediments and oils from the flow of water.

According to Dykehouse, approximately 12,000 aquatic plants were planted in the marsh areas. “The aquatic plants consume nutrients in the stormwater, are critical for wildlife habitat, and add beauty to the park.”

Downtown Redevelopment In addition to the improvement of Clermont’s water quality, the project has played a key role in the redevelopment of downtown. As a result of the increased drainage capabilities, the project will act as a catalyst for future development. This means that downtown businesses will be able to utilize more of their property, since less area for drainage will be needed. To maximize the impact of the project, educational signage has been installed throughout the site providing information to visitors about the stormwater treatment system, how it functions, and the long-term benefits to the environment. Continued on page 14

A rendering of Victory Pointe that conceptualizes the area. Lake Minneola from the shore of Victory Pointe.

Victory Pointe Project Grants

A graphic showing the various stages in the treatment train that includes six different processes to clean stormwater prior to discharge to Lake Minneola.

FDEP - LP35142


Lake County Water Authority


SJRWMD - 28760


FDEP - LW651


FDEP - NF014


Lake County TDC - 2014


State Cultural Facilities - #18.c.cf300.307


State FDEP Recreational Trails - #T1713


State FDEP Florida Communities Trust - #UA007


State Agriculture and Consumer Services - #25082


State FDEP Land and Water Conservation - LW670

$200,000 $4,168,698

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


Darrow Re-elected as FWPCOA President for 2019 Mike Darrow was re-elected president of FWPCOA at the association’s October 2018 meeting. His second term starts this month. Darrow has been an active member of FWPCOA Region X since 2008, serving as vice chair, chair, and regional director. He has represented the organization in different areas of the region encouraging training, helping instructors, increasing membership, and promoting professional standards. He is dedicated to helping operators and industry professionals learn, grow, and achieve their goals for their personal betterment and overall industry enhancement. Darrow holds a bachelor’s degree in business economics from Eastern Illinois University and an associate’s degree in environmental engineering technology. Currently, he is employed as the operations superintendent for the City of Plant City. Its award-winning staff operates an advanced wastewater treatment water reclamation facility and potable groundwater treatment plants. He is a licensed class A water operator in Florida and Illinois, a class 3 wastewater operator and class K industrial wastewater operator in Illinois, and is now a Florida class C wastewater operator. He is also a certified backflow tester and a certified collection system operator with FWPCOA. He has been in the water/wastewater industry since 1984, working 20 years for Lake County, Ill., at a surface water plant on Lake Michigan, and for the City of Temple Terrace for 12 years, managing a groundwater lime softening plant, where he was involved in water distribution and wastewater collection system operations and maintenance. At the City of Plant City for over one year, he currently manages water and wastewater operations and compliance of an advanced wastewater reclamation facility and groundwater treatment plants. Darrow has received many awards for his service to the industry. In 2002 he was named the Illinois EPA Surface Water Operator of the Year, in 2014 he received the A.P. Black Award for Water Operations from FWPCOA, in 2016 he received the 25-year-member Silver Drop Award from AWWA, and he received the David B. Lee Award in 2017 from FWPCOA. In 2018


he received the Water Operator's Meritorious Service Award from FSAWWA. In 2016, he was elected supervisor on the Polk County Soil and Water Conservation Board. His role is promoting good stewardship of water resources to the urban and agricultural communities, where he serves as the district’s secretary. Darrow has been married to his wife, Mary, for 17 years and has a blended family of five children: Jeffrey, Kristin, Elizabeth, Megan, and Natalie. “I’ve tried to get them involved in our great industry with no luck; however, throughout my career, they have enjoyed the entertaining stories and adventures in the life of a utility worker.” Says Darrow, “My current role has been very challenging and has helped me to grow personally. I enjoy working in the industry and helping my city with its water and wastewater needs. I like helping residents, providing safe drinking water and treating wastewater to superior water quality. I think the time spent working with operators, mechanics, and technicians for the betterment of water resources and our profession is the right thing to do.” He also feels that the experience of working with FWPCOA has been very beneficial. “I have met many fine folks in our industry who are involved in the association. The organization has helped me personally, in my professional knowledge, and in my career.” S

January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 13 The revitalization project also includes Victory Pointe Beach, a multi-use venue that includes staging areas; start and finish lines for local triathlons; a new event area and green space for concerts; and a pavilion for awards, ceremonies, and other cultural events. Said Kinzler, “The park allows the city to move many events that are currently held in Waterfront Park to Victory Pointe, where they will more easily direct visitors to the downtown district for shopping, dining, and browsing. The project is also attractive to developers who want to build more housing downtown.” As part of the project, the new park also combines other recreational elements, such as trails, boardwalks, a boathouse and boat ramps, and an observation tower. “Although the boathouse will remain where it is, the public boat ramps—located west of Victory Pointe Beach—will be moved east of waterfront park,” said Dykehouse. “The trails in the park are part of a coast-to-coast system, reaching from the Gulf to the Atlantic,” said Kinzler, “with Clermont in the middle connecting both ends.” The city partnered with several regional and state agencies to fund the project (see sidebar). “6.2 million dollars of the project came from low-interest loans tied to a newly approved Florida 1-cent sales tax increase,” said Kinzler. “The rest came from the project grants. We didn’t have to increase property taxes or impact the city’s general fund.”

Project Success Continues Updates on the project will be provided on the master plan page on the city’s website at www.clermontfl.gov, and through social media. “Victory Pointe came to life exactly the way we envisioned it,” Gray said. "It significantly reduces the nutrient level in Lake Minneola, which benefits all the chain of lakes. Plus, it offers a huge incentive to businesses to develop on the west side of downtown Clermont, while creating a premier event venue. It's truly a game-changer for Clermont." S

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Wastewater. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal During Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in an Oxidation Ditch

Can High-Strength Reverse Osmosis Concentrate be Accepted into a Wastewater Treatment Plant?

Hélène Kassouf, Ann Sager, Luke Mulford, Gita Iranipour, Sarina J. Ergas, and Jeffrey Al Cunningham

Rosalyn Matthews, Timothy Welch, Theodore Petrides, Roal Small, and Eric Stanley

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. Studies indicate that simultaneous nitrification and denitrification can be achieved when reactor dissolved oxygen concentration is between ____________ milligrams per liter. a. 0.0 – 0.2 b. 0.3 – 1.1 c. 1.2 – 2.1 d. 2.2 – 3.1 2. The mechanism driving biological phosphorus removal in an oxidation ditch during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification is a. not yet identified. b. precipitation. c. adsorption. d. oxidation. 3. Of the processes used for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater, _____________ treatment is usually preferred in Florida. a. physical b. biological c. chemical d. enhanced 4. At the Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant, ________ is added in the clarifier to chemically remove phosphorus. a. polymer b. sodium silica c. alum d. ferric sulfate 5. Which of the following is not listed among the possible mechanisms by which simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurs in oxidation ditches? a. Novel microorganisms b. Disparate mean cell retention time c. Bioreactor microenvironment d. Floc microenvironment

(Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. Reverse osmosis concentrate entering the Springtree Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) a. contains high concentrations of dissolved iron. b. arrives at a constant rate and cannot be interrupted. c. has a total dissolved solids concentration as high as 20,000 mg/l. d. adds more than 10 percent to the WWTP’s average daily flow. 2. A Water Reuse Foundation study showed that a 25 percent reduction in nitrification rate occurs at a sodium chloride concentration of ________ milligrams per liter. a. 1,000 b. 2,000 c. 3,000 d. 4,000 3. Which of the following constituents are predicted to be within the established water quality goals for irrigating Bermuda grass? a. Calcium b. Sodium c. Chloride d. Total dissolved solids 4. After four years of blending reverse osmosis concentrate into the Springtree WWTP flow stream, the only area where impacts remain undetermined is a. fouling of fine bubble diffusers. b. adverse nitrification effects. c. settleability effects. d. toxicity to aerobic digestion. 5. In evaluating the feasibility of reverse osmosis blending, which of the following concentrate constituents was not expected to have an impact on plant operations? a. Ammonia b. Sulfate c. Silica d. Nitrate

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019



Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal During Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in an Oxidation Ditch Hélène Kassouf, Ann Sager, Luke Mulford, Gita Iranipour, Sarina J. Ergas, and Jeffrey A. Cunningham oint and nonpoint source nutrient discharges to surface waters can lead to eutrophication and endanger aquatic life. After years of eutrophication, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was successful in restoring Tampa Bay water quality by controlling the discharge of point sources, such as wastewater effluent (Morrison et al., 2011). According to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), treated effluent at Hillsborough County wastewater plants, including the Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (FAWTP), must contain no more than an annual average of 3 mg/L of nitrogen (as N) and 1 mg/L of phosphorus (as P) when it’s discharged to the surface water.


Biological and/or chemical processes can be used for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. Biological nitrogen removal uses ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOM) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) to oxidize ammonia to nitrate under aerobic conditions. Subsequently, denitrifying microorganisms transform nitrate to nitrogen gas (N2) under anoxic conditions. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) uses polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) to release phosphorus from bacterial cells under anaerobic conditions, and then take up phosphorus under anoxic or aerobic conditions, yielding a net removal of phosphorus from the aqueous solution.

Hélène Kassouf is a doctoral student, Sarina J. Ergas is a professor, and Jeffrey A. Cunningham is an associate professor in the department of civil and environmental engineering at the University of South Florida in Tampa. Ann Sager is an assistant engineer with Hazen and Sawyer in Detroit. Luke Mulford is a senior professional engineer and Gita Iranipour is a senior engineering specialist with Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department in Tampa. This work was carried out as part of a master’s degree at the University of South Florida.

Chemical techniques for phosphorus removal are based principally on the addition of coagulants, such as aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, or lime, all of which can result in the precipitation and subsequent sedimentation of a solid compound, such as AlPO4 (Tchobanoglous et al., 2014). Biological treatment is usually preferred in Florida, where warm temperatures favor EBPR; however, biological treatment does not always meet the requirement for phosphorus removal, so it’s frequently accompanied by chemical addition to remove the remaining phosphorus. Different reactor configurations are used for implementing biological removal of nutrients. In many of these configurations, such as A2O or Bardenpho, separate basins or zones are required with different oxidation-reduction conditions and carbon sources in each basin to induce the required conditions. In contrast, an oxidation ditch (OD) is a configuration in which only one reactor is used instead of separate aerobic and anoxic reactors for biological nitrogen removal. The OD can be preceded by an anaerobic stage to initiate EBPR. Many wastewater treatment plants across the United

Figure 1. Aerial photograph of Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant. (courtesy of Hazen & Sawyer)


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

States, including FAWTP, employ ODs. The OD is an economical and efficient design in Florida where land costs are: S Relatively low in many regions S Effluent carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus limits are strict S Large numbers of utilities have practical experience with this technology Previous research has shown that simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) occurs in ODs (Rittmann & Langeland, 1985; Daigger & Littleton, 2000; Sager, 2016). The SND is believed to occur by any of three possible mechanisms (Daigger and Littleton, 2000): S Bioreactor macroenvironment. A single bioreactor, such as an OD, can contain both aerobic and anoxic microenvironments, supporting nitrification and denitrification, respectively. S Floc microenvironment. A biological floc can contain a gradient of oxygen concentration, such that nitrification occurs near the aerated surface of the floc and denitrification occurs in the anoxic interior of the floc. S Novel microorganisms. Microorganisms that use denitrification by PAOs in a “previously unrecognized pathway” are able to remove nutrients from wastewater (e.g., denitrification by PAOs). A number of prior studies have been carried out to assess nitrogen removal during SND (Rittmann & Langeland, 1985; Daigger & Littleton, 2000; Hao et al., 1997; Liu et al., 2010; Sager, 2016); however, the fate of phosphorus during SND is still not well understood. A few studies investigated phosphorus removal in SND systems at the bench scale (Zeng, 2003; Rout et al., 2007; Datta & Goel, 2010; Filipe & Daigger, 1999), pilot scale (Peng et al., 2007), and full scale (Littleton et al., 2003; Datta & Goel, 2010). Some researchers have reported the occurrence of EBPR during SND (Datta & Goel, 2010; Peng et al., 2007; Littleton et al., 2003; Zeng, 2003), but the removal mechanisms and expected removal efficiency are still not well understood. Further research is needed on the fate of phosphorus during SND to efficiently and reliably meet permit limits by employing an OD, and to minimize the cost of additional reagents for chemical precipitation. The overall purpose of this study was to determine the fate of phosphorus during SND at FAWTP. More specifically, this article will: S Assess treatment performance and SND occurrence at FAWTP S Analyze phosphorus behavior and fate at FAWTP S Compare the results of this study to previously published results

Figure 2. Layout of the Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant and sampling locations. Numbers indicate sampling points. Location 1 represents plant influent and centrate combined; location 2 indicates fermentation liquid combined with return activated sludge.

Table 1. Volume and hydraulic retention time of fermentation basin, OD, and clarifier at the Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Methods and Materials Site Description The FAWTP is an advanced wastewater treatment facility in Hillsborough County that incorporates nutrient removal in its treatment system. It has a daily average influent flow rate of 9.27 mil gal per day (mgd), with a permitted annual average daily flow rate of 12 mgd. An aerial photograph of FATWP is shown in Figure 1 and the treatment process train at FAWTP is shown in Figure 2. Stages involved in wastewater treatment at FAWTP are as follows: S Screening and grit removal S Fermentation for phosphorus release and EBPR promotion S Carrousel® OD with two 200-horsepower mechanical aerators located at both ends for removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), SND (nitrogen removal), and biological phosphorus uptake S Sedimentation in circular secondary clarifiers for liquid and solids separation S Filtration of clarifier supernatant S Disinfection with ultraviolet (UV) radiation S Discharge to the Palm River, Hillsborough River Bypass Canal, or reuse for irrigation During sedimentation, alum (Al2[SO4]3) is added in the clarifier to chemically remove phosphorus not taken up by EBPR. A portion of the settled solids from the clarifier is returned to the fermentation basin, while the rest is wasted. The volume and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the fermentation basin, OD, and clarifier are shown in

Table 1. The average mean cell residence time (MCRT) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) between Sept. 1, 2010, and August 31, 2013, as well as mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) between Sept. 1, 2010, and August 1, 2011, at FAWTP were reported by Knapp (2014). The MCRT (7-d moving average), MLSS, and MLVSS varied between 15 and 51 days, 4000-7000 mg/L, and 3800-5200 mg/L, respectively, for all four ODs at FAWTP. Sampling Campaigns Three sampling campaigns were carried out at FAWTP on Oct. 13, Nov. 3, and Dec. 30, 2015. Six locations were sampled: S Influent to the fermentation basin (mixture of plant influent and filtrate) S Fermentation basin combined with return activated sludge (RAS) S Toward the beginning of the OD #1 S Toward the end of the OD #2 S Secondary clarifier S Waste activated sludge (WAS) Samples were collected in 1-liter acid-washed containers and transported on ice to the environmental engineering laboratory at the University of South Florida (USF) within two hours of collection and analyzed in duplicate for total phosphorus (TP), ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and alkalinity immediately upon arrival at the laboratory. The pH was measured in the laboratory and onsite. Additional details can be found in Sager (2016). Continued on page 18

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


Continued from page 17 Analytical Methods Samples were tested for TP via Standard Method 4500-P-E (Rice et al., 2012), employing Hach phosphorus (reactive and total) TNT plus test kits. Method detection limits are 0.5 mg/L when using low-range kits, 1.5 mg/L when using high-range kits, and 6 mg/L when using ultrahigh-range kits. Samples tested for TP were not filtered, representing phosphorus concentration in both solid and liquid wastewater fractions. For the phosphate test, pretreatment was necessary by centrifuging (at 8.5 revolutions per minute for 10 minutes) and filtering (using 0.45µm HA filter paper) samples. After pretreatment, samples were analyzed for phosphate via ion chromatography (IC) with chemical suppression of eluent conductivities using a Metrohm 850, Professional IC (MDL [mg/L]: PO43-, 0.02). Ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite were measured via IC with chemical suppression of eluent conductivities (Dionex 2001), employing a Metrohm 850, Professional IC. Method detection

limits are 0.2 mg/L for NH4-N+, 0.01 mg/L for NO3-N, and 0.04 mg/L for NO2--N. Alkalinity was tested with a Metrohm Dosimat Plus multipurpose dispensing unit according to Standard Method 2320 B (Rice et al., 2012). In the laboratory, dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were measured respectively with a Hach SC1000 Controller (range 0-90 mg/L) and an Orian 5 Star Meter Probe. A YSI 556 Handheld Multiparameter Instrument (range 0-14) was used to measure pH onsite. The pH was measured according to Standard Method 4500-H+B (Rice et al., 2012).

served in the clarifier, which can be explained by the addition of alum.

Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification Successful nitrogen removal in the OD at FAWTP is shown in Figure 4. Ammonium removal efficiency in the plant was 99.5 percent, reducing the concentration from 38.4 to 0.2 mg/L, as N. Approximately half of the removal (54 percent) was observed in the fermentation basin, indicating possible volatilization or occurrence of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Further research should be carried out to explore the mechanisms responsible for the removal of ammonium in the Results and Discussion fermentation basin at FAWTP. Nitrite and nitrate Plant Performance concentrations were low and similar across the six In order to understand phosphorus removal sampling locations. The near-complete removal of in ODs, it’s essential to assess plant performance. ammonium without accumulation of nitrite or niThe pH and alkalinity across FAWTP processes are trate is evidence of SND occurring in the OD. presented in Figure 3. The pH ranged between 7.1 Since nitrification and denitrification occur and 7.4 across the six sampling locations. The drop under aerobic and anoxic conditions respectively, in pH in the fermentation basin can be an indica- SND at FAWTP can be attributed to different aertion of organic acids production by anaerobic or- ation zones within the OD. Sager (2016) investiganisms. Alkalinity varied between 150 and 260 gated SND mechanisms in the MLSS from mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) across the FAWTP by running a controlled bench-scale explant. A noticeable decrease in alkalinity was ob- periment and reported that SND did not occur unless DO was cycled between 0.5 and 3 mg/L. The DO impact on SND is critical because denitrifying organisms are facultative aerobes, so they start to use oxygen as an electron acceptor instead of nitrate at high DO, which interrupts denitrification (Rittmann & Langeland, 1985). Also, very low DO can inhibit nitrifying organisms, leading to partial nitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. Nitrite formation was insignificant at FAWTP, which can indicate the occurrence of complete nitrification. Besides the macroenvironment, other mechanisms could be responsible for SND within the OD. Anoxic microenvironment theFigure 3. Average alkalinity and pH in the influent, fermentation basin, oxidation ditch #1, oxida- ory suggests the presence of oxygen gradient tion ditch #2, clarifier, and waste activated sludge at the Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treat- within the aerated floc, creating anoxic conditions in the inner layer, which supports denitriment Plant. fication (Schramm et al., 1999). Satoh et al. (2003) studied the impact of the DO level in the reactor on the oxygen gradient within the floc and reported that SND can be achieved when DO in the reactor is between 0.3 and 1.1 mg/L. Other suggested mechanisms that can facilitate SND are denitrification by autotrophic ammonia oxidizers (e.g., anaerobic ammonia oxidation [anammox] organisms) and aerobic denitrification (Littleton et al., 2003). Anammox organisms can oxidize ammonium to nitrogen gas (N2) using nitrite as oxidant, in the absence of oxygen (Jetten et al., 1999). In case of partial nitrification in the OD, nitrite production can serve as electron acceptor for anamFigure 4. Average concentrations of nitrogen species (ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) in the influ- mox organisms in unaerated zones and result in ent, fermentation basin, oxidation ditch #1, oxidation ditch #2, clarifier, and waste activated sludge SND. Some heterotrophs, such as Thiosphaera at the Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant.


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

pantotropha, are able to denitrify nitrate under aerobic conditions (Robertson et al., 1988). Biological Phosphorus Removal in the Oxidation Ditch The average TP concentration in the influent wastewater was 12 mg/L as P, which slightly exceeded the typical influent upper range of 11 mg/L as P expected in municipal wastewater (Tchobanoglous et al., 2014). The phosphate concentration fraction in the influent was approximately 50 percent of TP, falling in the range of the expected inorganic phosphorus concentration in municipal wastewater, which is typically 3-8 mg/L as P (Tchobanoglous et al., 2014). Average phosphate concentrations in the influent, fermentation basin, at two points in the OD #1, OD #2, and the clarifier, are shown in Figure 5. Phosphorus release by PAOs can be observed in the fermentation basin, where phosphate concentration went from 6.3 mg/L as P in the influent to 28 mg/L as P in the fermentation basin. Also, phosphorus uptake by PAOs in the OD can be observed. Phosphate concentrations decreased to 0.6 mg/L as P, indicating the ability of EBPR to occur in the OD. The efficiency of EBPR at FAWTP can be calculated to be 90 percent based on the decrease of phosphate from 6.3 mg/L in influent to 0.6 mg/L in OD, before alum addition. Knapp (2014) observed a similar release and uptake of phosphate at FAWTP. The remaining phosphorus was precipitated by alum addition in the clarifier, where the concentration of phosphate was below detection limits. These observations demonstrate the ability for EBPR to occur in an OD during SND; however, the mechanism driving the biological phosphorus removal is not yet identified. Observed phosphorus removal can be attributed to different mechanisms: S Phosphorus uptake in the aerated zones of the OD can be achieved by PAOs using poly-ß-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) stored during the previous fermentation stage as carbon source (Tchobanoglous et al., 2014; Peng et al., 2007). S Phosphorus uptake in anoxic zones of the OD can be carried out by denitrifying PAOs (DPAOs), such as the Bacillus cereus GS-5 strain, that have shown to denitrify nitrate/nitrite and take up phosphorus under anoxic conditions using an external carbon source other than PHA (Rout et al., 2017). Rout et al. (2017) explored the ability of the Bacillus cereus GS-5 strain to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from domestic wastewater by running a controlled experiment. The authors reported 96, 95, 84, and 81 percent removal of ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, respectively. Further research should be conducted to investigate the presence of DPAOs at FAWTP. S Phosphorus uptake can be carried out across

Figure 5. Average phosphate concentrations in the influent, fermentation basin, oxidation ditch #1, oxidation ditch #2, and clarifier at the Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (average based on sampling campaigns 2 and 3 only).

flocs. Anaerobic conditions may be present in the inner layer of the floc, enabling the release of phosphorus that accompanies the release in the fermentation basin. Phosphorus uptake occurs in the outer layers of the floc where aerobic conditions are available. In order to evaluate this mechanism, Datta & Goel (2010) conducted a bench-scale experiment where they assessed phosphorus release and uptake in mixed liquor with flocculated and nonflocculated biomass for comparison; however, results showed that intra floc micro zones did not add efficiency to EBPR. Further research should be conducted to assess the importance of this mechanism. Comparison of the Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant With Other Published Studies Biological phosphorus removal during SND has been reported in previously published papers (Datta & Goel, 2010; Peng et al., 2007; Filipe & Daigger, 1999). Peng (2007) looked into P removal in a pilot-scale anaerobic-anoxic OD system consisting of anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic zones. Results showed that the OD achieved efficient biological phosphorus removal of 85 percent, which is similar to the removal accomplished by FAWTP (90 percent). Datta & Goel (2010) monitored phosphorus removal in full-scale oxidation ditches at four wastewater treatment plants. None of these ODs were designed to remove phosphorus; nevertheless, it was found that phosphorus release and uptake occurred. The release rate, however, was higher than the uptake rate at the four full-scale ODs.

Conclusions The SND and EBPR were shown to occur in an OD at FAWTP. Biological ammonium and phosphorus removal efficiency at FAWTP were 99.5 and 90 percent, respectively. The net produc-

tion of nitrate and nitrite was insignificant. The SND in the OD can be attributed to different aerobic and anoxic zones in the OD, intra floc microanoxic zones and/or aerobic denitrification (e.g., Thiosphaera pantotropha). Typical EBPR behavior was observed, where phosphate was released in the fermentation basin and taken up in the OD. Phosphorus uptake can be carried out in aerobic zones by PAO and/or in anoxic zones by DPAO (e.g., Bacillus cereus GS-5 strain) in the OD. Another not-well-understood mechanism of phosphorus uptake could occur on a microenvironment level. Further research should be conducted at FAWTP to investigate the presence of DPAOs. Comparing these results to other published studies showed similar behavior of phosphorus removal at different wastewater treatment plants employing ODs for biological treatment.

References • Daigger G. T.; Littleton H.X. Characterization of simultaneous nutrient removal in staged, closedloop bioreactors. Water Environment Research. 2000, 72(3), 330-339. • Datta T.; Goel R. Evidence and long-term of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in oxidation-ditch type of aerated-anoxic activated sludge systems. Journal Environmental Engineering (ASCE). 2010, 136 (11), 1237-1247. • Filipe C.D.M.; Daigger G.T. Evaluation of the capacity of phosphorus-accumulating organisms to use nitrate and oxygen as final electron acceptors: A theoretical study on population dynamics. Water Environment Research. 1999, 71(6), 1140-1150. • Hao X.; Doddema H.J.; van Groenestijn J.W. Conditions and mechanisms affecting simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a pasveer oxidation ditch. Bioresource Technology. 1997, 59, 207-215. Continued on page 20

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Continued from page 19 • Jetten M.S.M.; Strous M.; van de Pas-Schoonen K.T.; Schalk J.; van Dongen U.G.J.M.; van de Graaf A.A.; Logemann S.; Muyzer G.; van Loodsdrecht M.C.M.; Kuenen J.G. The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 1999, 22, 421-437. • Knapp, L. (2014) Study of Process Control Strategies for Biological Nutrient Removal in an Oxidation Ditch (Graduate Theses and Dissertation); University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla. • Littleton H.X.; Daigger G.T.; Strom P.F.; Cowan R.A. Simultaneous biological nutrient removal: evaluation of autotrophic denitrification, heterotrophic nitrification, and biological phosphorus removal in full-scale systems. Water Environment Research. 2003,75(2), 138-150. • Liu Y.; Shi H.S.; Xia L.; Shi H.; Shen T.; Wang Z.; Wang G.; Wang. Y. Study of operational conditions of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a carrousel oxidation ditch for domestic wastewater treatment. Bioresource Technology. 2010, 101, 901-906. • Mamais, D.; Jenkins, D.; Pitt, P. A rapid physicalchemical method for the determination of readily biodegradable soluble COD in municipal wastewater. Water Research. 1993, 27(1), 195-197.


• Morrison G.; Greening H.S.; Yates K.K. Management case study: Tampa, Fla. Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science. 2011, 11, 31-76. • Peng Y.; Hou H.; Wang S.; Cui Y.; Yuan Z. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in pilot-scale anaerobic-anoxic oxidation ditch system. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2008, 20, 398-403. • Rice, E.W., Baird, R.B., Eaton, A.D., Clesceri, L.S., editors (2012). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22nd Ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. • Rittmann B.E.; Langeland W.E. Simultaneous denitrification with nitrification in single-channel oxidation ditches. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation. 1985, 57(4), 300-308. • Robertson L.A.; van Niel E.D.J; Torremans R.A.M.; Kuenen J.G. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in aerobic chemostat cultures of Thiosphaera pantotropha. Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 1988, 54 (11), 28122818. • Rout P.R.; Bhunia P.; Dash R.R. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from domestic wastewater using Bacillus cereus GS-5 strain exhibiting heterotrophic nitrification, aerobic denitrification and denitrifying phospho-

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rus removal. Bioresource Technology. 2017, 244, 484-495. Sager, A. (2016). Experimental Studies of Simultaneous Nitrification Denitrification Removal at Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (Graduate Theses and Dissertation); University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla. Satoh H.; Nakamura Y.; Ono H.; Okabe S. Effect of oxygen concentration on nitrification and denitrification in single activated sludge flocs. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2003, 83 (5), 604-607. Schramm A.; Santegoeds C.M.; Nielsen H.K.; Ploug H.; Wagner M.; Pribyl M.; Wanner J.; Amann R.; Beer D.D. On the occurrence of anoxic microniches, denitrification, and sulfate reduction in aerated activated sludge. Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 1999, 65 (9), 41894196. Tchobanoglous, G., Stensel, H.D., Tsuchihashi, R., Burton, F. (2014). Wastewater Engineering, 5th Ed., Metcalf & Eddy Inc., New York, N.Y. Zheng R.J.; Lemaire R.; Yuan Z.; Keller J. Simultaneous nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal in a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor. Biotechnology & Bioengineering. 2003, 84 (2), 170-178. S

FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included from your chapter send details to Megan Nelson at megan.nelson@ocfl.net.

Edward Hugh Pearch 1930 - 2018 Megan Nelson

Student Design Competitions Give Students Valuable Real-Life Experience Matthes Priester ompeting in the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) and Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) Student Design Competitions was a tremendous opportunity for us as students to gain valuable experience and make industry contacts. The amount of detail we had to consider to prepare our recommendation for our clients demonstrated what will be expected of us in our careers after graduating. In the process of competing, we practiced public speaking, interacting with the client and local government, managing vendors, submittal reviews, meeting organization, and time management. Attending FWRC and WEFTEC gave us an exciting look


into the water treatment industry, showing us new technologies and treatment processes in a way we didn’t get to see in school. We got to meet our competing colleagues from all over the country, learn from their presentations, hear about their experiences in school, and begin to have a professional outlook. Many engineering and contracting firms were at these conferences giving us strong networking opportunities unavailable elsewhere, and a chance to see the culture at various companies. In all, participating in these competitions proved to be a stepping stone to a solid career in the water treatment industry for everyone on the teams. Matthes Priester is a field engineer with Wharton-Smith Inc. in Tampa. S

Pictured left to right: Dr. Sarina Ergas, Joseph “Cove” Capodice, Jesse Hillman, Matthes Priester, Dustin Ballard, and Jackie Jarell, WEF president-elect.


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Edward Hugh Pearch (Hugh), passed away Nov. 13, 2018, after a lengthy and wellfought illness. Pearch was born in Miami to Mary Harrod and Edward (Ted) Pearch on April 19, 1930. He was an alumnus of the University of Florida and the University of Miami. Pearch was a senior vice president of Heyward Inc., a manufacturers representative in charge of Florida operations. He was a member of the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and served on its board of directors, and was also a former president of the Florida Water Environment Association. He served on the board of directors of both the Florida Water Resource Conference and the Florida Water Resource Journal, which he helped found. He received the Arthur Sydney Bedell Award from WEF and was a member of the Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers. He was also a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He enjoyed hunting, golf, skiing, raising and riding (particularly trail riding) horses, and watching his horses at the track. In recent years, his passion was adopting old and/or crippled dogs and giving them a loving home for the remainder of their days. Pearch leaves his wife of 62 years, Ida Dale (Micky) Wieder Pearch and three children: Noel W.C. Pearch (Mary), Linda Pearch Tutten (predeceased Tom), and Valerie Pearch Bow (Tom); he was predeceased by son E.J. Carlton Pearch. He will be greatly missed by his grandchildren: Craig Pearch, predeceased Sgt. Bryan Tutten (Constandina TuttenSendler), Morgan Bow, Teddy Pearch, Samantha Pearch Sturmann (Falk), and Ian Pearch. He will also be missed by his greatgrandchildren Catherine, Gareth, Svea, and Fenja. S

AWWA Section Services provides sections with content for their publications. These articles contain brand new information and will cover a variety of topics.

Illinois Section’s Partnership for Lead Reduction in Schools John Donahue One of the great values of American Water Works Association (AWWA) sections is their unique ability to identify local water policy issues and create workable solutions for utilities and their customers. A great example of this occurred in Illinois. Following months of discussions, debates, and negotiations, on Jan. 16, 2017, Illinois Gov. Bruce Rauner signed Public Act 00-0922 into law. The law established lead testing requirements at water sources used for cooking and drinking within schools. The level of engagement from the Illinois Section AWWA (ISAWWA) and its Water Utility Council (WUC) on behalf of member utilities in Illinois was unprecedented. By bringing water professionals’ knowledge and experience into a charged public policy conversation, ISAWWA helped assure that the requirements for schools and water systems both protected the children of Illinois and were scientifically and technically sound. The resulting law set the stage for water systems to work with local health departments and schools to assist in implementing the new requirements. The ISAWWA and drinking water systems across the state followed through on that opportunity.

Highlights of the Act The Act requires schools built before 2000 to test all water sources used for cooking and drinking by children in kindergarten through fifth grade. In general, schools are required to take two samples at each fixture. The first must be a first-draw sample, following an eight- to 18hour stagnation period, and the second must be 30 seconds (flushed sample) later. Should a sample or samples exceed 5 parts per billion, schools must notify the parents of students and offer information on the hazards of lead in drinking water and ways to mitigate risks.

the Illinois Department of Public Health as its official guidance for schools, and ISAWWA distributed the document to all school districts in the state. S Hosted webinars for school-district officials to explain the requirements of the program. S Hosted conferences, seminars, and webinars for utilities and encouraged them to reach out to schools to offer technical assistance.

Utility Support

Water samples are taken at an Illinois public school.

The ISAWWA and its member utilities recognized immediately the challenges many school districts would face in meeting the requirements of this new regulation. It was expected that many schools would not have anyone on staff who understood proper sample collection techniques and chain of custody requirements, so a multiphased program was implemented to educate schools and assist them in complying. Specifically, ISAWWA did the following: S Drafted a guidance document for schools describing the process of collecting samples, understanding results, communicating with parents and the public, and mitigating risks. Ultimately, the guidance document was approved by

Ultimately, the program was extremely successful. Many utilities did indeed reach out to their school officials and provided significant support. Utilities helped collect samples, evaluated results, assisted with mitigation, and presented their findings at school district meetings. The Illinois Department of Public Health was also appreciative of the support and has been very pleased with the better than 90 percent compliance rate for schools in the first year of the program. It continues to work with other schools and is confident they will come into compliance very soon. Those utilities that actively participated with the schools received something, too. They discovered they had earned credibility and trust from the community and increased confidence in the water being consumed by its school children. More information on lead can be found at AWWA’s lead resource community webpage at https://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/ water-knowledge/lead.aspx and at the Lead Service Line Collaborative at https://www.lslr-collaborative.org. John Donahue is chief executive officer at North Park Public Water District in Rockford, Ill., and is a past president of AWWA. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


Test Yourself

What Do You Know About TMDLs? Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) TMDL Program web page, “a TMDL is a scientific determination of the maximum amount of a given pollutant that a surface water can absorb and still meet the water quality standards that protect human health and aquatic life.” What does TMDL stand for? a. Tiered measurement of determined limits b. Total maximum daily load c. Total measured daily limit d. Totalized median direct loading 2. The first basic steps in the TMDL program are to assess the quality of surface waters to determine whether they meet applicable water quality standards. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-303, Identification of Impaired Surface Waters, if a water body does not meet water quality standards due to pollutant loadings or concentrations it is placed on a list of waters for which TMDLs will be developed. This is called the a. b. c. d.

Planning list Study list TMDL activity list Verified list of impaired waters

3. Per FAC 62-303, once the list of waters for which TMDLs will be developed is completed, the list must be a. adopted by FDEP only. b. adopted by Secretarial Order and sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). c. submitted to the water management districts for approval. d. submitted to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission. 4. Per FDEP’s TMDL Program web page, using the verified list of impaired waters, TMDLs must be established for each impaired water for the pollutants of concern. The TMDLs must then be


a. adopted by rule. b. listed and published in the Federal Register. c. placed on the planning list to determine how the TMDL will be met. d. submitted to the appropriate water management districts. 5. Per FDEP’s TMDL Program web page, to determine strategies and actions to meet the TMDL, extensive stakeholder input is needed to develop a “blueprint” for restoring impaired waters by reducing pollutant loads. This blueprint is called a BMAP (as described on FDEP’s BMAP page), which is a a. b. c. d.

basin management action plan. best management and practices. biochemical monitoring and protection. blueprint for managing activities and programs.

6. Per FDEP’s BMAP web page, why are BMAPs adopted by Secretarial Order? a. To make loans available from the State Revolving Fund. b. To make the BMAP activities enforceable by FDEP. c. To provide attorneys the opportunity to review the BMAP. d. To publicize the BMAP and activities. 7. Per FAC 62-306, Water Quality Credit Trading, water quality credit trading may be allowable between pollutant sources to reduce or eliminate which impairments? a. b. c. d.

Heavy metals Fecal coliform Mercury Nutrients

8. Per FAC 62-306, Water Quality Credit Trading, credits generated by a point source, other than a municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4), must be confirmed by a. a formula based on the type of treatment. b. effluent monitoring. c. estimation based on the type of operation. d. the maximum possible removal by the facility.

January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

9. Per FAC 62-303, Identification of Impaired Surface Waters, when establishing the TMDL development schedule for water segments on the verified list of impaired waters, FDEP shall prioritize impaired water segments according to a. cost and size of the project to meet the TMDL. b. estimated time to complete projects to meet the TMDL. c. severity of impairment and designated use of the water body. d. whether funding will be requested through the FDEP State Revolving Fund program. 10. Per Florida Statutes 403.0675, Environmental Control Progress Reports, a statewide progress report on the implementation of all TMDLs and BMAPs must be submitted how often? a. b. c. d.

Annually Monthly Quarterly Semi-annually

Answers on page 70 References used for this quiz: • Florida Department of Environmental Protection, TMDL Program Web Page – https://floridadep.gov/dear/water-qualityevaluation-tmdl/content/total-maximum-dailyloads-tmdl-program • Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Basin Management Action Plan Web Page – https://floridadep.gov/dear/waterquality-restoration/content/basin-managementaction-plans-bmaps • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-303, Identification of Impaired Surface Waters • FAC 62-306, Water Quality Credit Trading • Florida Statutes 403.0675, Environmental Control—Progress Reports

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! January 14-18 ....Wastewater Collection C ..........................Pembroke Pines $225/255 14-18 ....Stormwater C ..............................................Osteen..............$260/290 25 ....Backflow Tester Recerts*** ......................Osteen..............$85/115

February 4-8 4-8 18-21 22

....Water Distribution Level 3 ........................Osteen..............$225/255 ....Reclaimed Water Distribution C ..............Osteen..............$225/255 ....Backflow Tester ..........................................Osteen..............$375/405 ....Backflow Tester Recerts*** ......................Osteen..............$85/115

March 18-22 ....SPRING STATE SCHOOL ..............................Ft. Pierce

April 1-5 8-10 26 26

....Wastewater Collection C ..........................Osteen..............$225/255 ....Backflow Repair ........................................Osteen..............$275/305 ....Test Retakes ................................................Osteen..............$80 ....Backflow Tester Recerts*** ......................Osteen..............$85/115

May 6-10 6-10 31

....Water Distribution Level 2 ........................Osteen..............$225/255 ....Reclaimed Water Distribution B ..............Osteen..............$225/255 ....Backflow Tester Recerts*** ......................Osteen..............$85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org.

* Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019



Use of Modeling for Optimization of Activated Sludge Process Design Jurek Patoczka imulation software has been used for the design and optimization of wastewater treatment plants for several decades, with different program packages commercially available. The activated sludge modeling underlying the commercial programs is primarily based on the open-source research on activated sludge and other treatment processes published in the literature. While simulators cannot replace engineering judgement in all aspects of designing a water resource recovery facility (WRRF), they provide a useful tool in efficient evaluation of various treatment options and operational scenarios. Following a brief outline of some basic features of the commercial simulators, this article discusses several case studies from real-life design practice. In these case studies the commercial software was used to aid in some basic tasks in a process of WRRF design, primarily using steadystate modeling.




tion), various sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), media reactors for integrated fixedfilm activates sludge (IFAS) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems, trickling filters, and variable volume reactors. Anaerobic and aerobic digesters. Various settling tank modules, from simple “point clarifiers” to those capable of modeling clarifier performance. Different wastewater and chemical input elements: wastewater influent that is chemical oxygen demand (COD)- or biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)-based, metal addition for chemical phosphorus precipitation, and carbon source. Other process units: holding tanks, equalization tanks, grit tanks, filtration/microscreen, and dewatering units. Novel treatment units, such as aerated filters, thermal hydrolysis units, and sidestream-treatment deammonification processes.

Features of Commercial Simulators The initial thrust of the simulators was to model steady-state and dynamic behavior of an activated sludge process, particularly in respect to nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal. Modern commercial software packages include an ever-increasing range of various treatment units found at WRRFs that can be represented or modeled. These include the following: S A range of activated sludge bioreactors: suspended growth (diffused air or surface aera-

The simplest form of modeling uses the steady-state approach, where wastewater flow and characteristics remain constant. For more sophisticated, dynamic modeling, simulators provide the ability to program variable flow and wastewater strength pattern, among other factors. The commercial packages come with a userfriendly interface offering output that could be presented in various tabular and graphical forms, including broadcasting of “live” dynamic modeling and much more.

Figure 1. Representation of completely mixed versus plug flow (multiple tanks in series) flow regime.


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Jurek Patoczka, Ph.D., P.E., is vice president of process design with Mott MacDonald in Iselin, N.J.

Calibration As with any computer program, the reliability of the outcome will be heavily dependent on the assumptions and inputs provided. While models come with a full set of default kinetic and stoichiometric parameters, calibration procedures are highly recommended. During the calibration process, the model’s physical setup, solids mass balance, and consistency with actual performance (in a brownfield application) should be verified and tested. Depending on the available data and resources, the following levels of calibration could be accomplished: S Level 1- Defaults and assumptions only. Better than textbook design guidelines, this level could be used for comparative analysis of alternative configurations for biological nutrient removal (BNR), particularly in greenfield application. S Level 2 - Historical data only. Data from a period of stable operations should be used for calibration. Closing of solids mass balance could be particularly challenging if solids wasting and other data are not accurate. Include impact of sidestreams, estimating if needed. Availability of primary clarifier effluent quality data is important (if the case). Very useful for calibration is the availability of data from process upset, such as nitrification failure at low temperature. S Levels 3 and 4 - Special testing. These levels require collection of additional data and sitespecific testing for supplemental wastewater characteristics and influent fractionation data, and data from intermediate treatment points and recycle streams. The references noted at the end of this article provide comprehensive information on all aspects of modeling, including dynamic simulations and procedures for detailed calibration. Developers of commercial software pack-

ages have various training offerings, which could be highly useful in developing modeling proficiency.

As mentioned, a proper hydraulic representation of the aeration tankage in modeling is important for a realistic performance of the activated sludge system, particularly in terms of nitrification. Nitrification kinetics, being nonzero order, is affected by flow and mixing regime. Table 1 illustrates the effect of different hydraulic/mixing representation of the same aerated volume on the effluent ammonia under steady-state conditions.

Case Studies Simple examples from real-life projects are provided, illustrating how simulation software could be used to aid in several aspects of activated sludge design. These include the following: 1. Realistic representation of mixing and flow regime for nitrification 2. Modeling of oxidation ditch performance 3. Optimization of diffuser distribution for a swing zone 4. Use of dynamic modeling for determination of diurnal oxygen demand variations 5. Accommodation of variable dissolved oxygen (DO) set points 6. Design of pre-anoxic zone without internal recycle Realistic Representation of Mixing and Flow Regime Nitrification A realistic representation of the mixing regime and flow profile in the aeration basin could be important for proper modeling of the processes, such as nitrification and oxygen demand distribution. When a single, completely mixed tank or a series of tanks with well-defined segmentation (baffles) are present, the representation by the model is straightforward (Figure 1). When tanks with a high length-to-width ratio are present, a more realistic representation is a conceptual division of the long tank into two or more smaller, completely mixed tanks (zones). Further refinement could be achieved by introducing back-mixing between such conceptual zones, with a back-mixing stream flow rate set at one to five times the forward flow as a first approximation (Figure 2). A more rigorous mixed liquor flow profile could be established based on a tracer study or computation fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, but this would be practical only for larger facilities/projects.

Modeling of Oxidation Ditch Performance An oxidation ditch represents a special case of aeration tankage configuration, which may not be directly represented in a commercial software package. The unique feature of the racetrack basin from the standpoint of modeling is a high degree of internal recirculation with a single (typically) point of oxygen input and the resulting gradient of oxygen concentration. Figure 3 provides an example of simulator representation of Continued on page 34

Figure 2. Realistic representation of mixing regime in a rectangular tank with large length-to-width ratio (the baffle shown is “virtual”).

Table 1. Effect of mixing/flow regime on effluent ammonia.

Figure 3. Oxidation ditch configuration for modeling. Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


Figure 4. Oxygen profile along the oxidation ditch sections as represented in Figure 3. Table 2. Simulation of oxidation ditch performance at future flows.

Table 3. Diffuser distribution design of a swing zone.

Continued from page 33 a simple oxidation ditch with a single surface aerator. Subdivision of the ditch volume into several zones allows for a good representation of physical reality, with only one cell being aerated. The ditch recirculation factor is a key characteristic impacting the rate of depletion of oxygen and residual DO in the remaining zones, as calculated by the simulator (Figure 4). An initial assumption regarding the rate of recirculation could be derived from a typical wastewater velocity in the channel of, say, 1 ft/second, and the channel’s cross section. This rate could then be compared with a measured DO profile along the ditch to arrive at a realistic internal recirculation rate, which in this case would be 150 times the forward flow rate. A model calibrated in this simple fashion could then be used, for example, to determine the plant’s ability to meet ammonia and nitrate limits at future flow conditions. The internal recirculation rate for higher flows should be scaled back to provide a similar wastewater velocity for all flows. Table 2 provides the results of such simulations, with the lowest flow rate corresponding to the current conditions. The primary variable in striking the right balance between the degree of nitrification and denitrification is oxygen supply (DO set point) at the aerator, as adjusted by the variable frequency drive (VFD) and weir level. This, together with other physical model assumptions, will govern the aerobic versus anoxic conditions along the ditch and dictate the degree of denitrification (Figure 4). The results indicate that the plant should be able to meet the permit limits, even at the full maximum month flow conditions. Optimization of Diffuser Distribution for a Swing Zone Oxygen demand varies considerably along the length of an activated sludge tank, regardless of its configuration or the presence of physical dividing walls or baffles. To optimize air utilization and maintain a desired DO set point at all points in the aeration tanks, a tapered aeration system is commonly used. This primarily involves the use of staggered density of the diffusers in different sections of the aeration basin, with “virtual” baffles used, as discussed in the first case study. In the absence of adequate distribution of the diffusers, the operation of the system at the desired residual DO may depend on throttling air flow to various headers, which will result in increased pressure and inefficiencies. Simulation software could readily calculate the oxygen uptake rate in various sections of the aeration basin. In most cases this could be straightforwardly translated into a diffuser den-


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

sity, with the total amount of diffusers and air demand calculated through well-established “manual” procedures or with the use of special aeration system design features available in some programs. A special case of diffuser distribution design is present when a swing zone is incorporated into the treatment train. As the mode of operation of the swing zone impacts air demand distribution between the various zones, a distribution that is an acceptable compromise for both cases is needed. If an acceptable compromise is not possible, the alternative is an interlaced air grid design with the ability to isolate part of the diffusers in various zones, as needed, for the particular mode of operation. Table 3 illustrates a compromise design of the diffuser distribution for an expansion of a 33mil-gal-per-day (mgd) facility with a year-round nitrification requirement. Zone C1 is a dedicated anoxic zone, C2 is a swing zone, and zones C3 through C5 are aerobic. (Note that zones C1 and C2 are smaller than the remaining, dedicated aerobic zones in this example.) Column 3 provides actual oxygen requirement (AOR) calculated by a simulator software for each zone in the case of zone C2 aerating. Column 2 shows the relative air requirement distribution (equal to the relative number of diffusers) for this case. If air to zone C2 was switched off for such diffuser distribution, the relative air distribution among the remaining three aerobic zones will be as indicated in column 4. Columns 9 and 10 show the simulator-calculated AOR distribution for the case of C2 operating as an anoxic zone. Comparison of columns 4 and 9 indicates that the optimal distributions for the two cases are not far apart and that a compromise distribution could be constructed. This is shown in column 5, with the resulting diffuser distribution being a good compromise between both operating modes of zone C2. (Compare column 2 with column 6 and column 9 with column 7.) Use of Dynamic Modeling for Determining Diurnal Oxygen Demand Variations Diurnal flow and load variations impact oxygen demand throughout the day; however, oxygen demand is not directly proportional to the influent load. The equalization effect of the large aeration basin(s) and the distribution of residual carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) and ammonia in the tankage all impact the degree of oxygen demand variations. Simulation software could facilitate understanding of these variations to arrive at a realistic peak oxygen demand during an average day. Figure 5 provides a flow schematic of a 28mgd plant with two tanks in series and a stepfeed configuration. The plant was undergoing an

Figure 5. Flow schematics at a 28-mgd plant with step-feed configuration.

Figure 6. Output of dynamic simulation of diurnal oxygen demand profile.

Table 4. Summary of flow and oxygen demand peaking factors.

upgrade of the aeration system, including new blowers. Determination of a realistic, sustained daily maximum oxygen demand under typical conditions was an important factor in sizing new blowers. Lacking data on influent concentration variability during the day, the flow was used as a surrogate for load variations. A typical dry weather diurnal flow pattern was developed from plant influent data and the flow schedule was programmed into the simulation software. Figure 6 provides the results of dynamic simulation of the oxygen demand variability through a typical day in both aeration tanks. As evident in Figure 6, oxygen demand profiles in both tanks (orange and red lines) were much flat-

ter than flow (load) variations (green lane). Based on these results, the profile of a combined oxygen demand from both aeration tanks was determined. Table 4 contrasts the resulting diurnal peaking factors for the oxygen demand with the corresponding flow peaking factors. This information allowed for a more confident selection of the duty blowers to service the plant during normal operating conditions. Accommodation of Variable Dissolved Oxygen Set Points While the residual DO is typically targeted to be equal in all points of an aeration basin (usuContinued on page 36

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019



Work and Association Colleagues Pitch in for Family Transition Kristiana S. Dragash, P.E. President, FWEA

’m not sure that having a baby during my year as president of FWEA was the best planning, but that’s just how life works out sometimes. And it all really does have a way of working out; it’s not very often that you can completely hand off a dozen projects to an association of 1500 members and not worry about a thing. Yet that’s exactly what I’ve


Kristiana (right) with (from left) husband Rod and their sons Broderick (Brody) and Evanston (Van) Dragash.

Continued from page 35 ally at 2 +/- 0.5 mg/L level), some cases may call for a structured residual DO design. This may include the following cases: S Higher DO set point in the first aerated section in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal system, as there is some evidence that an ample supply of oxygen immediately after the anaerobic/anoxic zone improves phosphorus removal. S Lower set point in an aeration basin section from which an internal recycle (IR) stream for denitrification is withdrawn. S Lower set point in an aeration basin section immediately preceding a postanoxic zone. S Lower set point in the last section before the final clarifier to prevent overaeration/bubble entrapment in the mixed liquor entering the clarifier; or conversely, when in some cases a higher set point may be desired to minimize denitrification in the clarifier. The DO set point preference can be readily incorporated into simulation software, which will calculate air flow required for a specified condition of the oxygen transfer process. Alternatively, relative values of AOR/standard oxygen require-


ments (SOR) ratio for different zones could be calculated based on the temperature and the residual DO and translated into diffuser density design. Design of Pre-Anoxic Zone Without Internal Recycle One of the common activated sludge BNR configurations is the pre-anoxic zone with IR, which allows for utilization of organic carbon in raw wastewater to achieve a significant degree of denitrification. In cases where denitrification is not required by permit conditions, and IR is not desired or practical (owner’s reluctance to install and maintain large-flow IR pumps, constructability), incorporation of the pre-anoxic zone without IR may be an inexpensive and practical means of achieving partial alkalinity recovery and lowering oxygen demand. Use of simulation software allows for an efficient demonstration of the benefits of a pre-anoxic zone and optimization of its size.

Summary Modern simulation software facilitates an efficient assessment of the impact on perform-

January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

been able to do because of my fantastic and supportive colleagues at Carollo and the engaged, dedicated leaders of FWEA. My neighbor, mentor, and friend Julie Karleskint has reminded me time and time again when she sees me doing eight things at once: Don’t forget about what’s most important. I think about that often and could not be more grateful for this time with my family as we welcome our second son into the world and transition to a family of four. Thank you so much to those of you who stepped up to make this most important time possible for us. S

ance of factors such as recirculation rate, size of reactor, DO set point, temperature, etc. A graphical interface allows for an illustrative representation of the process flow schematics; however, not all aspects of plant design could be reliably modeled, including factors such as sludge settling properties (i.e., acceptable mixed liquor suspended solids [MLSS] levels) or the impact of factors such as the presence of inhibiting constituents.

References • Water Environment Federation (2014). Wastewater Treatment Process Modeling. WEF Manual of Practice No. 31; McGraw-Hill, New York. • International Water Association (2013). Guidelines for Using Activated Sludge Models. Scientific and Technical Report No. 22; IWA Publishing, London. • Henze, M.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Ekama, G.A; Brdjanovic, D. (2008). Biological Wastewater Treatment – Principles, Modelling and Design; IWA Publishing, London. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


Water Research Foundation Releases Proposals for Reuse Projects The Water Research Foundation (WRF) has announced that requests for proposals (RFPs) and a request for qualifications (RFQ) are available for four new research projects under the Advancing Potable Reuse Initiative. These RFPs and RFQ are funded through WRF and the State Water Resources Control Board in California (SWB). The projects are: S “Compiling Evidence of Pathogen Reduction Through Managed Aquifer Recharge and Recovery” (4957). The goal is to document and quantify performance of pathogen reduction through groundwater based on parameters, including residence time, aquifer characteristics, temperature, source water control, and method of introduction. S “Assessing the State of Knowledge and Impacts of Recycled Water Irrigation on Agricultural Crops” (4964). The goal of the project is to investigate how and to what degree the impacts of salinity, sodium, and chloride affect growth and production of different crops, and provide man-

agement guidelines for sustainable water reuse with different crops and cropping systems. S “Identifying the Amount of Wastewater That is Available and Feasible to Recycle in California” (4962). The goals of the project are to identify the amount of treated municipal wastewater that is available for recycled water production in California, now and projected into the future, and determine how much of the treated municipal wastewater is feasible to produce and use. S “Evaluation of a Validation Protocol for Membrane Bioreactors Based on a Correlated Surrogate to Achieve Pathogen Credit for Potable Reuse” (RFQ 4959). The goal of the project is to determine if a proposed correlated surrogate validation protocol for pathogen removal from membrane bioreactors is feasible for potable reuse applications, evaluate and adapt the propose validation protocol for potential application in the United States, and develop recommendations on how to test and potentially verify the protocol.

Proposals must be received before Jan. 22, 2019, at 2:00 p.m. Mountain Time. The proposals submitted must follow the WRF document, “Guidelines for Focus Area Program Proposals.” The guidelines contain instructions for the technical aspects, financial statements, and administrative requirements that the applicant must follow. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


2018-2019 FSAWWA BOARD OF GOVERNORS Mike George Manufacturers and Associates Council Chair R&M Service Solutions 10482 Dunkirk Drive Spring Hill, Florida 34608 P: (352) 200-9631 E: mgeorge@r-mservice.net

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Michael Bailey, P.E. Chair Cooper City Utilities 11791 S.W. 49th Street Cooper City, Florida 33330 P: (954) 434-5519 E: mbailey@coopercityfl.org Kim Kowalski Chair-Elect Wager Company of Florida Inc. 720 Industry Road Longwood, Florida 32750 P: (407) 834-4667 E: kkowalski@wagerco.com Fred Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E. Vice Chair Florida Atlantic University P.O. Box 221890 Hollywood, Florida 33022 P: (239) 250-2423 E: h2o_man@bellsouth.net William G. Young Past Chair St. Johns County Utilities 1205 State Road 16 St. Augustine, Florida 32084 P: (904) 209-2703 E: byoung@sjcfl.us Emilie Moore, P.E. Treasurer Tetra Tech 5201Kennedy Blvd., Suite 620 Tampa, Florida 33609 P: (813) 579-5107 E: emilie.moore@tetratech.com Greg Taylor, P.E. Secretary Wright-Pierce 601 S. Lake Destiny Drive, Suite 290 Maitland, Florida 32751 P: (407) 907-8087 E: greg.taylor@wright-pierce.com


Florida Section AWWA by Region

Ana Maria Gonzalez, P.E. AWWA Director Hazen and Sawyer 999 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Suite 1150 Coral Gables, Florida 33134 P: (786) 655-5484 E: agonzalez@hazenandsawyer.com Mark Lehigh General Policy Director Hillsborough County Water Resources Services 332 N. Falkenburg Road Tampa, Florida 33619 P: (813) 272-5977, ext. 43270 E: lehighm@hillsboroughcounty.org Marjorie Craig, P.E. Treasurer-Elect City of Delray Beach 434 S. Swinton Ave. Delray Beach, Florida 33444 P: (561) 243-7336 E: craigm@mydelraybeach.com

COUNCIL CHAIRS Michael Alexakis Contractors Council Chair Wharton-Smith 370 E. Crown Point Road Winter Garden, Florida 34787 P: (407) 402-6134 E: malexakis@whartonsmith.com

January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Tyler Tedcastle, P.E. Member Engagement and Development Council Chair Carter|Verplanck 601 S.E. 10th Ave. Pompano Beach, Florida 33060 P: (850) 264-9391 E: TTedcastle@cviwater.com Andrew Greenbaum Operators and Maintenance Council Chair Tampa Bay Water 2575 Enterprise Road Clearwater, Florida 33763-1102 P: (813) 929-4551 E: agreenbaum@tampabaywater.org Terri Holcomb, P.E. Public Affairs Council Chair Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority 9415 Town Center Parkway Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34202 P: (941) 316-1776 E: tholcomb@regionalwater.org Pamela London-Exner Technical and Education Council Chair P: (813) 781-0173 E: pamlondon2@gmail.com Lisa Wilson-Davis Utility Council Chair City of Boca Raton, Utility Services Dept. 1401 Glades Road Boca Raton, Florida 33431 P: (561) 338-7310 E: lwilsondavis@myboca.us

REGION CHAIRS David Roberts Region I Chair (North Central Florida) City of Tallahassee 4505 Springhill Road, Building A Tallahassee, Florida 32305 P: (850) 891-1228 E: david.roberts@talgov.com

Angela Bryan Region II Chair (Northeast Florida) Four Waters Engineering Inc. 324 6th Avenue North Jacksonville Beach, Florida 32250 P: (904) 414-2400 x51 E: abryan@4weng.com

Alicia Keeter Region IX Chair (West Florida Panhandle) South Walton Utility Co. Inc. 369 Miramar Beach Drive Miramar Beach, Florida 32550 P: (850) 837-2988 E: aak@swuci.org

Andrew May, P.E. Trustee JEA 21 W. Church Street Jacksonville, Florida 32202 P: (904) 665-4510 E: mayar@jea.com

Kunal Nayee, P.E. Region III Chair (Central Florida) Carollo Engineers Inc. 200 E. Robinson Street, Suite 1400 Orlando, Florida 32801 P: (407) 377-4321 E: knayee@carollo.com

Ann Lee Region X Chair (West Central Florida) Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority 9415 Town Center Parkway Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34202 P: (941) 316-1776) E: alee@regionalwater.org

Scott Richards, P.E. Trustee Carollo Engineers Inc. 200 E. Robinson Street, Suite 1400 Orlando, Florida 32801 P: (407) 377-4312 E: srichards@carollo.com

Dan Glaser. P.E. Region IV Chair (West Central Florida) Pinellas County 2165 Long Bow Lane Clearwater, Florida 33764 P: (727) 464-5209 E: dglaser@pinellascounty.org Mary Meima Region V Chair (Southwest Florida) Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. 11900 E. Terry Street Bonita Springs, Florida 34135 P: (239) 872-3502 E: mmeima@bau.us Tyler Davis, P.E. Region VI Chair (Southeast Florida) Globaltech Inc. 6001 Broken Sound Parkway N.W., Suite 610 Boca Raton, Florida 33487 P: (561) 997-6433 E: tdavis@globaltechdb.com Cristina Ortega-Castineiras, P.E. Region VII Chair (South Florida) Jacobs 3150 S.W. 38th Avenue, Suite 700 Miami, Florida 33146 P: (305) 962-7149 E: cristina.ortega@jacobs.com Richard Schoenborn, P.E. Region VIII Chair (East Central Florida) City of Port St. Lucie 900 S.E. Ogden Lane Port St. Lucie, Florida 34983 P: (772) 873-6485 E: RSchoenborn@cityofpsl.com


Elizabeth McAlister Region XI Chair (North Florida) DRMP Inc. 7525 N.W. 4th Blvd., Suite 70 Gainesville, Florida 32607 P: (352) 371-2741 E: emcalister@drmp.com Sean Lathrop Region XII Chair (Central Florida Panhandle) Bay County Utility Services 3410 Transmitter Road Panama City, Florida 32404 P: (850) 630-1954 E: slathrop@baycountyfl.gov

Peggy Guingona Executive Director Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4820 F: (407) 593-0251 E: peggy@fsawwa.org


Casey Cumiskey Membership Specialist/Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4806 F: (407) 593-0251 E: casey@fsawwa.org

Juan Aceituno. P.E. Trustee Jacobs 3150 S.W. 38 Avenue, Suite 700 Miami, Florida 33146-1530 P: (305) 441-1864 F: (305) 443-8856 E: juan.aceituno@jacobs.com

Donna Metherall Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4805 F: (407) 593-0251 E: donna@fsawwa.org

Monica Autrey, P.E. Trustee Destin Water Users Inc. P.O. Box 308 Destin, Florida 32540 P: (850) 837-6146 E: mautrey@dwuinc.com

Jenny Arguello Administrative Assistant Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4804 F: (407) 593-0251 E: jenny@fsawwa.org

Bobby Gibbs Trustee Bay County Utility Services 3410 Transmitter Road Panama City, Florida 32404 P: (850) 248-5010 E: bgibbs@baycountyfl.gov

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019



Planning and Messaging for the Future Mike Darrow President, FWPCOA

ell, its 2019 and Happy New Year to you! I hope you all had a good holiday season. I’m back on the weightloss plan again this year after all that good food for the holiday! My main thought going into this year is to thanks the vendors, consultants, and suppliers who work with us in our daily tasks for making water better with their bright ideas and new technology. I want to thank the sponsors of FWPCOA again this year and also the sponsors, vendors, and advertisers of this magazine and the hugely successful Florida Water Resources Conference. Last year, the operators association saw growth in participation, training, access to customer service, and website usage. Thanks go to some hard-working folks in our organization, like Shirley Reaves, Walt Symser, Darin Bishop, Tom King, Tim McVeigh, Ray Bordner, and Renee Moticker. And thanks also go to all of the members of our board of directors and regional boards who are helping to move thing along nicely. But more work is needed, so this why we must look forward.


Planning for the Future At my office at the City of Plant City, now is the time when we start planning our budgets,


capital improvement programs, and regulatory compliance for the year. I’m thinking about the city’s future and what it needs for the new year, and I’m also thinking about future plans for FWPCOA. As you know, our organization helps support treatment and system operators, technicians, mechanics, and coordinators through training and by fostering cooperation with each other to hone our craft. The association tries to focus on skills and train our members in successful methods and processes so that the future is enhanced—for the workers and for the profession. Our instructors try to mentor their students on the path to learning for all the disciplines in the industry. As I see it, when we perform our tasks each and every day we need to keep professionalism in mind. We must do our jobs in ways that meet the high ethics and standards we have set for ourselves (not to mention the regulations set by others) and get the jobs at hand completed. We all must work together across the state, in every different-sized plant, system, or facility, to support each other and make sure that a primary goal is consistency in all aspects of our jobs. The FWPCOA has a long history of working with its membership; participation from members across the state, especially in regional and state training, meetings, tours, and local outings, is key to the future of the organization. Involvement is paramount for all areas of FWPCOA. The association is actively looking for more instructors to help pass on their knowledge to others to mentor and train them for the future. Please see the website for the application for instructors at www.fwpcoa.org. You are needed, and I thank everyone who currently teaches classes for the association.

January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

I truly love working in the water and wastewater industry and am so glad I’ve made it my career. It’s an honor to work with the public, meet the daily demands of our community, and serve all citizens with professional standards and excellent service. These are also common themes within FWPCOA.

Telling Our Story Marketing and branding are other areas where we could use some help in the future. We need to get our story out concerning the positive impacts we make in the daily lives of our customers. We are behind-the-scenes workers, so this is a tough task for most of us, but more public outreach—making sure that customers understands the vital role we play in their health and wellbeing—can help to ensure that our industry has the resources it needs so operators can be more successful in their work. We are licensed by the state of Florida and certified for our roles and disciplines, working together protecting Florida’s waters and providing the necessary natural resources to our community. We must collectively brand this message and disseminate it throughout our communities, the state, and the entire country. Looking to the future and keeping up with the ever-changing technology of treatment, production, distribution, and collection is challenging. Our organization’s name, Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, may also need to be branded differently in the future to keep up with these changes. As you know, “pollution” is a dirty word (pardon the pun); the day may come when we’re called something different due to this word being in the title of our organization. This derogatory connotation may

hurt us in the future by having the public seeing our role as negative, instead of positive. My thoughts on this are to keep things clear and more professional when considering how we present ourselves. A name change is only a topic of discussion right now. Our industry is in the midst of change, including the new emphasis on renewal source water and sustainability. We will need to position ourselves for this future with task changes, increased training, regulatory changes, and different messaging. Some possible new names for our organization might be: S Florida’s Water Protection and Conservation Operators Association S Florida Water and Sustainable Operators Association S Florida One Water Operators Association

members to get low-cost and easy-access training anytime. We currently have many CEU courses available, and offer online short courses, such as: S Stormwater C S Utility Customer Relations I S Wastewater Collection C S Water Distribution Levels 2 and 3 S Drinking Water Treatment Plant Operator Class B S Water and Wastewater Class C Treatment Plant Operator

Give Me Your Feedback If you have any thoughts on messaging, forward-thinking ideas for the future, or namechange ideas, feel free to reach out to me at president@fwpcoa.org. You can also give your input by attending your local region’s meetings; you can check the regional website or newsletters for meeting times at www.fwpcoa.org. Have a great 2019, and remember: Go with the flow! S

I’m not trying to offend anyone in our membership with these ideas. I enjoy Willing and Able (the two mascots in our logo) and the FWPCOA name, our membership, and our association. In the 1940s, the name of the organization was Florida Water and Sewage Works Operator Association, and in 1964 it was changed to the current name to better convey what we do, so you never know what might happen next.

Executive Board of Directors for 2019 The 2019 election of officers was held at our October 2018 meeting in Jupiter and the results are: S Mike Darrow – President S Ken Enlow – Vice President S Patrick Murphy – Secretary-Treasurer-Elect S Rim Bishop – Secretary-Treasurer S Scott Anaheim – Past President This list is full of dedicated operators working on behalf of the membership. We have some great leadership in our association, both at the state and regional levels, and they are all true professionals leading the way for our members and our profession. I thank them for that. Our next state meeting is on Jan. 12, 2019, in Fort Myers, which is in Region 8. The board cordially invites all members to attend the meeting and you can visit the website for details and the agenda. See you there!

Continuing Education Units: FWPCOA Online Institute All of our state of Florida operator licenses renew in April of this year. The FWPCOA Online Institute (www.flextraining.com/flc8518) is available through our website and is a great place for Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019



Pumped for 2019! Michael F. Bailey, P.E. Chair, FSAWWA

ee what I did there? Pumped. . .water. . . I guess you had to be there! But before we start looking ahead to 2019, let’s reflect a bit on 2018.


Bill Young (right) passes the chair “crown” to Mike Bailey.

The Florida Section’s Fall Conference was held at Championsgate in Orlando, and what a great conference it was. I’d like to thank Kim Kowalski, now the incoming chair-elect, and the entire Manufacturers/Associates Council, as well as Peggy Guingona, the section’s executive director, and her staff, for a job well done. As usual, you guys knocked it out of the park with an event that was bigger and better than ever. Also, a great big “thank you” to our sponsors and exhibitors— there would be no conference without you all. Hopefully, you made some time to attend the opening general session, with Bill Young, then the section chair, and Ray Baral Jr., the visiting AWWA vice president, opening with great speeches prior to the keynote speaker, Tim Gard. Tim took the serious topic of handling stress in our daily lives and made it hilarious. I have no idea how we’re going to be able to follow his talk in 2019, but I think it might have to include nose whistles and tiny rubber chickens! (Again, you had to be there.) Another must-attend event at the conference was the now-famous BBQ Challenge. Thirteen teams cooked some of the best dishes I’ve ever tried, many of them starting their preparations on Sunday and smoking throughout the night. Congratulations to Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority for coming in as the top-ranked overall. The fact that Richard Anderson, past chair and the FSAWWA Finance Committee chair, was the event emcee was merely a coincidence (no, really!). In charge of the BBQ were Richard Anderson and Mike Alexakis, as cochairs, and Mike

George and John Fernald were committee members. Also, a shout-out goes to the event’s bar and food sponsors from the Contractors Council (see pages 38-40). Fundraising was handled by Mike Alexakis, incoming Contractors Council chair. Thank you! The fund-raising events for Water For People were very successful, thanks to Juan Aceituno, the organization’s chair, and his team. Through a combination of direct donations, the Jimmy Vaughan guitar raffle, and the duck race, they were able to generate over $6,700 for the charity. A special thanks to Tyler Tedcastle, Member Engagement and Development Council chair, for wrangling those stubborn little duckies through the lazy river on a very cold afternoon! With rolled pants and sleeves, he followed the duckies around the river to make sure they made it safely back. And the race wouldn’t be the same without the voice of Greg Taylor, section trustee. The competitions held at the conference were engaging and lots of fun, as were the poker and golf tournaments, which were very well-attended. Thanks to all who participated in those events. Of course, the workshops and technical sessions were excellent and also well-attended. Many thanks to Fred Bloetscher, section vice chair, and Pamela London-Exner, Technical and Education Council chair, for their work in assembling and coordinating these sessions! The annual business lunch and awards ceremony was held on Wednesday at the conference, with recognition awarded to several deserving individuals and agencies, including:

Above: Mike Bailey (left) receives gavel from outgoing chair, Bill Young. At right: Mike with wife, Jean.


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water Research Foundation Names New Chief Executive Officer

FSAWWA board members toast Mike as the new section chair.

S Landmarks Award to the Dania Beach Water Treatment Plant (built in 1952) S Allen B. Roberts Award to Lisa Wilson-Davis S Executive Committee’s Dr. Edward Singley Award to Bob Claudy S Robert L. Claudy Award to Kim Kowalski S George W. Fuller Award to Mark Lehigh Thanks to Jason Parillo for his “roast” about Mark for the Fuller Award—my goodness, what an interesting life Mr. Lehigh has led! Special thanks go out to Ray Baral Jr. and Susan Franceschi, AWWA member engagement and development group chief membership officer, for attending the lunch and for being there throughout the conference. We love the opportunity to host AWWA officers and staff, and to show off a little bit! Also at the lunch I was honored and humbled to accept the chair’s gavel from Bill Young, the outgoing section chair. Boy, do I have big shoes to fill! I would like to thank Bill for his service to the section, not only during his tenure, but over many years. He was an excellent leader for us all, and has been a mentor for me for several years. I know that he will continue to serve FSAWWA well, as past chair and into the future. Looking forward to 2019, we have lots of section and regional events, workshops, and seminars coming up, including the Tallahassee Fly-In on Jan. 22-24. Please visit the newly renovated FSAWWA website often, and keep an eye open for email notices of these and other events. Thanks again for being a member of FSAWWA and please consider volunteering for the various events and activities in your region. I look forward to working with you all toward an outstanding 2019! S

The Water Research Foundation (WRF) has named Dr. Peter Grevatt as chief executive officer, effective in February 2019. "We are thrilled that Peter will be leading The Water Research Foundation team,” said Kevin Shafer, cochair of the WRF board of directors. “Throughout his career, Peter has demonstrated strong leadership and exceptional communication skills, combined with extensive water research knowledge. He’s an experienced and respected thought leader throughout the water sector and an ideal fit to lead WRF into the future.” Grevatt has over 30 years of experience leading the implementation of public health and environmental protection programs, including significant national leadership experience in the water sector. Most recently, Grevatt served as director of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. At EPA, he was responsible for ensuring the safety of drinking water supply in the United States through the development and implementation of national drinking water standards, oversight and funding of state drinking water programs, and the implementation of source water protection and underground injection control programs. Prior to joining EPA in October 2012, Grevatt served as the director of the Office of Children’s Health Protection and as the senior advisor to EPA’s administrator for children’s environmental health. He has also held leadership roles in EPA’s national hazardous waste and water quality programs. Grevatt received his master of science and Ph.D. degrees in basic medical sciences from New York University Medical Center and earned his bachelor’s degree in biology from Earlham College. “I could not be more excited to join with the great professionals at The Water Research Foundation,” said Grevatt. “The organization is perfectly positioned to collaborate across the water sector, lead innovation in integrated

water resources management, and provide the highest level of service to our subscribers and the public.” Grevatt takes over as CEO during a time of unprecedented change and opportunity for WRF. In January 2018, the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF) and the Water Research Foundation integrated to become the world’s leading water research organization. The integration represented the evolution of water research issues; the overlap of water, wastewater, stormwater, and reuse; and efficiencies to be gained through a consolidated research program. The new organization serves as a model for collaboration across the water sector. While major strides have been made in the last year, much work remains in not only consolidating WRF’s research programs, subscriber services, and other programs, but tackling pressing water-sector issues such as aging infrastructure, dwindling water supplies, and lead in drinking water, plus opportunities in resource recovery and technology development and testing. Grevatt replaces Robert Renner, who will retire. Renner has led the Water Research Foundation since 2005, successfully transitioning the organization from addressing primarily drinking water issues to focusing on the entire water sector, and then overseeing the integration with WE&RF. “Rob’s technical knowledge, communication skills, leadership and management capabilities, and ability to nurture professional relationships and trust throughout the water community have served the foundation well, especially during this transition to a “one water” approach,” said Chuck Murray, WRF board of directors cochair. “Rob’s strong commitment to improving subscriber value is obvious in the many new ways WRF now prioritizes research and communicates results. It has been a great privilege to work with Rob for these last 14 years.” S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019



Can High-Strength Reverse Osmosis Concentrate Be Accepted Into a Wastewater Treatment Plant? Rosalyn Matthews, Timothy Welch, Theodore Petrides, Roal Small, and Eric Stanley n late 2013, the City of Sunrise (city) was preparing to bring a newly constructed reverse osmosis (RO) plant online at the Springtree Utility Complex; however, industrial injection wells for disposal of RO concentrate and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) secondary effluent were not yet constructed. To bridge the gap, the city temporarily diverted RO concentrate to the Springtree WWTP aeration basins, with secondary effluent pumped to Class I injection wells at the nearby Sawgrass WWTP. It’s common for WWTPs to discharge medium-strength nanofiltration concentrate into their activated sludge treatment processes, but a very limited number of facilities discharge higher-strength RO concentrate at significant rates comparable to the Springtree WWTP, with total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations as high as 20,000 mg/L and flow portions as high as 8 percent. This study evaluated the potential impacts of discharging RO concentrate to the aeration basins of the Springtree WWTP, which was completed in support of a permit application to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) for approval of this temporary condition. Based on the design concentrate characteristics and the predicted plant


concentrations, several potential issues of concern were evaluated, including effects on: S Settleability S Biological performance S Toxicity to potential future anaerobic digestion S Precipitation reactions S Concrete and metal corrosion S Potential future public access reuse An investigation was completed to locate other facilities in Florida that specifically introduce high-strength RO concentrate to the secondary treatment process, of which only a few were identified. A literature review was completed to determine if the resulting concentrations may have an impact on the secondary treatment process. Over four years of monitoring data and observations were collected during the operation period and are also presented. The photo in Figure 1 shows the point of RO concentrate discharge to the aeration basin influent channel.

Development of Concentrate Characteristics Design RO concentrate characteristics were developed for the design of the RO sys-

Rosalyn Matthews, P.E., Ph.D., is an associate, and Eric Stanley, P.E., is a senior principal engineer with Hazen and Sawyer in Cleveland. Timothy Welch, P.E., is utilities director, Theodore Petrides, P.E., is director of plant operations, and Roal Small is chief operator with City of Sunrise Utilities Department.

tem at the Springtree WWTP. Because the RO well at the WWTP was an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well prior to becoming an RO raw water production well, the water started more dilute and gradually became more brackish; therefore, conservative values of the design feed water concentrations were developed. The originally predicted design concentrate concentrations and the observed concentrate from March 2018 are presented in Table 1. It’s apparent that TDS and chlorides have not reached the conservative design values assumed for the original study, but are still significant. It was assumed that chloride, sodium, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, alkalinity, ammonia, and silica comprised the majority of the TDS and had the greatest potential impact

Table 1. Reverse Osmosis Membrane Model Input Feed, Permeate, and Concentrate Predictions

Figure 1. Photo of Point of Reverse Osmosis Concentrate Discharge to Aeration Basin


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Table 2. Design Versus Observed Wastewater Treatment Plant Influent Concentrations

Figure 2. Process Flow Diagram of the Springtree Wastewater Treatment Plant

on operations at the Springtree WWTP; therefore, the development of concentrate characteristics and subsequent analysis were limited to these constituents. Other components, such as iron, nitrate, phosphorus, and biological or chemical oxygen demands were expected to be at low levels (typical of the Floridan aquifer) and were not expected to have an impact on plant operation. Data were unavailable for other potential constituents including bromide, radium, radon, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, and heavy metals.

S Settleability S Biological performance S Toxicity to potential future anaerobic digestion S Precipitation reactions S Concrete and metal corrosion S Effects on potential future public access reuse

Plant Impact Evaluation

Settleability Several studies have reported that settleability may be affected by high monovalent ion, sodium, or sodium chloride concentration. The exchange of divalent cations for monovalent cations (i.e., Na+, K+) in the floc may affect settling of the floc by weakening biopolymer bonds and causing the release of soluble proteins. This phenomenon may also affect the dewaterability of the waste activated sludge (WAS). This effect was not observed in an appreciable amount when the sodium-todivalent cation ratio was less than 2 on an equivalent basis (Higgans and Novak, 1997). After dilution with the minimum day flow, the sodium-to-divalent cation ratio at the Springtree WWTP was expected to be approximately 1.8. In addition, bench-scale studies have shown that the effluent total suspended solids (TSS) concentration increased when sodium concentrations were approximately 500 to 1,100 mg/L (Novak et al., 1998). The worstcase minimum day flow sodium concentration in this analysis was predicted to be 448 mg/L and minimum hour concentrations

The plant impact evaluation prior to operation was based on the Springtree WWTP minimum and average daily flow (ADF) for the year 2013 of approximately 5.4 and 8.5 mil gal per day (mgd), respectively. Addition of a RO concentrate stream of 0.5 mgd with the minimum daily flow was examined as the worst-case scenario representing the lowest dilution scenario. From 2013 to 2018, concentrate flows have frequently reached approximately 0.5 mgd and the ADF is approximately 8.1 mgd. The concentrations of constituents of concern for the design values used for the original evaluation, compared to actual observed values, can be found in Table 2. A literature review was completed in order to predict if the resulting concentrations may have an impact on the secondary treatment process; potential impacts to plant infrastructure were also considered. Potential effects of adding RO concentrate to the Springtree WWTP that were investigated include:

Figure 2 shows the process flow diagram of the Springtree WWTP and the point of RO concentrate discharge into the process.

may be as high as 892 mg/L; therefore, it was recommended that the secondary effluent TSS be monitored for signs of plant upset, and if the treatment performance is affected, the RO skid could be shut down during low flows at night. In addition, the WateReuse Foundation (2008) reported that settleability changes from sodium chloride (NaCl) are not expected for concentrations less than 5,000 mg/L. Based on the predicted sodium concentration in the concentrate, the calculated NaCl concentration in the plant flow should not exceed 1,120 and 2,270mg/L during a minimum day flow and minimum hour flow, respectively. Effects on Biological Process Typically, only very high chloride concentrations would cause biological inhibition; for example, chloride concentrations greater than 8,000 mg/L would typically inhibit nitrification (WateReuse Foundation, 2008) and reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) degradation is not expected below 5,000 mg/L (WateReuse Foundation, 2008). One study showed, however, a 25 percent reduction in nitrification rate at a NaCl concentration of 3,000 mg/L in a batch assay (Campos et al., 2002). Based on the predicted sodium concentration in the concentrate, the NaCl concentration in the plant flow should not exceed 1,120 and 2,270mg/L during a minimum day flow and minimum hour flow, respectively. It was not expected that the NaCl concentration would reduce nitrification significantly, but it was recommended that the aeration basins should be monitored for signs of toxicity. Continued on page 52

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


Continued from page 51 Auxiliary discharge flows from the Springtree WWTP will be intermittent. The system design allows for the ability to neutralize cleaning solutions in the clean-in-place tanks by introducing any chemicals that may be required from the sodium hydroxide feed system or the clean-in-place batch tank. Instrumentation is provided to monitor pH. Once pumped to the scavenger system, there exists the ability to recirculate flows from either tank for purposes of mixing or further neutralization with other waste flows. Flow will be pumped from the scavenger tank and may include floor washdown water, a mixture of spent sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite solution from the odor control system at a pH less than 9.5, and cleaning system waste. The pH will range from 2 to 11. Cleaning is anticipated to be performed every three to six months. The plant staff will have the ability to schedule cleans based on monitoring the train performance, so taking the system offline for cleaning will be a planned activity. Based on this, it’s not expected that the auxiliary flows will have a significant effect on the Springtree WWTP process or effluent water quality. Toxicity to Anaerobic Digestion The Springtree WWTP was projected to possibly implement anaerobic digestion during the ongoing discharge of RO concentrate to the secondary treatment process. Sodium inhibition of anaerobic digestion is a possible effect of concentrate addition. It‘s recommended by the WateReuse Foundation (2008) that the sodium concentration be below 2,000 mg/L if anaerobic digestion is to be utilized; the pre-

dicted concentration is from 301 to 448 mg/L. Feijoo et al. (1995) found a 25 percent reduction in methane production, with a sodium concentration of 1,500 mg/L. Toxicity to anaerobic digestion is possible and should be considered if conversion to anaerobic digestion is planned for the future. Metals are also possible concentrate constituents that have the potential to inhibit anaerobic digestion and could partition into the biosolids and inhibit anaerobic digestion. Metals data for the raw source water were unavailable at the time of the analysis, so it was not possible to evaluate potential metal toxicity to anaerobic digestion. Precipitation Potential Precipitation of calcium carbonate or other compounds may increase the solids generated within the facility. The membrane manufacturer’s model predicted that the concentrate will contain barium sulfate (BaSO4) and strontium sulfate (SrSO4) above saturation in the concentrate; after dilution, BaSO4 and SrSO4 were predicted to be below saturations levels. Also, calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) were not predicted to be above saturation, but are present at 63 and 46 percent of saturation, respectively, and may precipitate if concentrations vary. The conditions indicate that precipitation may occur prior to mixing with the wastewater flow. It was recommended that the concentrate pipeline pressure be monitored for signs of clogging with precipitate. An uncalibrated BioWinTM model of the Springtree WWTP had previously been developed and was used as another tool to determine predicted impacts the RO concentrate may have on the potential for precipitation of

Table 3. Projected Reclaimed Water Effluent and Water Quality Standard

Table 4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Irrigation Recommendations


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

particular solids in the wastewater treatment process. BioWin has the capability of modeling ferric phosphate, ferric hydroxide, struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate), hydroxy-dicalcium-phosphate (HDP), hydroxyapatite (HAP), and calcium carbonate. The model results indicate the potential for precipitation of calcium carbonate. In addition, if anaerobic digestion is implemented at the WWTP, the model indicated that the struvite precipitation potential is significant. The Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) is a measure of scaling potential. The LSI values greater than 0 indicate the scaling potential and the values greater than 0.5 tend to exhibit noticeably increased scale-forming properties. The LSI is calculated to be 0.45 for the concentrate. After mixing with the wastewater flow, the LSI is slightly negative, which indicates that scaling is not likely. The Stiff & Davis Stability Index (S&DSI) is typically used for high TDS solutions (>10,000 parts per mil [ppm]) and is also used as a measure of scaling potential. Negative values indicate low scaling potential. The S&DSI is calculated to be -0.32 for the concentrate. Although the BioWin model indicates the potential for calcium carbonate precipitation, the S&DSI, which is used for high TDS solutions, indicates that precipitation in the concentrate is unlikely. Also, the LSI, after mixing, indicated low potential for scaling. Based on these results, it was recommended that the point of introduction of the concentrate be monitored for scale buildup, and that potential fouling of ceramic fine bubble by precipitation be monitored by measuring increases in the blower discharge pressure. Structural and Corrosion Concerns In addition to the potential effects on the biological processes within the plant, other impacts to the plant infrastructure are possible, including corrosion of concrete and metal due to sulfates, sulfide, or chloride. Concentrate from RO treatment of groundwater may include hydrogen sulfide, which may increase corrosion of concrete and other WWTP components. No data were provided on the hydrogen sulfide concentration in the raw water. High levels of sulfate typically are present in the RO concentrate. Although not a major toxicity concern, sulfate could increase concrete corrosion by either direct or indirect attack. The direct attack occurs when sulfates react with free calcium hydroxide in concrete to form calcium sulfate, and then with hydrated calcium aluminates to form calcium sulfoaluminate. These compounds cause concrete to soften. The American Concrete Insti-

tute reports the following levels of corrosion potential with sulfate levels: S SO42- (mg/L) < 150 mg/L – negligible corrosion S 150 mg/L < SO42- (mg/L) <1,500 mg/L – moderate corrosion S 1,500 mg/L < SO42- (mg/L) <10,000 mg/L – severe corrosion S SO42- (mg/L) > 10,000 mg/L – very severe corrosion The RO concentrate addition to the WWTP could result in a sulfate concentration from 238308 mg/L after mixing with wastewater, which would result in a moderate risk of corrosion under direct sulfate attack; under indirect attack, sulfate could be converted to sulfide under anaerobic conditions. Proper mixing and low detention time in the aeration basin influent channel will help to prevent conditions where sulfate may undergo conversion to hydrogen sulfide. Increased sulfate concentrations during minimum hour low-flow periods are not expected to significantly impact corrosion, but it was recommended that the concrete surfaces in the influent channel and airbays be periodically inspected. In addition, chloride concentrations greater than 1,000 mg/L could cause concrete deterioration and corrode metal surfaces. The chloride concentration should not exceed 883 mg/L in the plant flow during minimum day flow. Higher chloride concentrations during minimum hour low-flow periods are not expected to significantly impact corrosion, but it was recommended that the metal surfaces of nearby gates and equipment should be periodically inspected. Reuse Impact Although the Springtree WWTP does not currently distribute reuse water and is planning to dispose of its treated effluent and commingled RO concentrate to the new deep injection wells, the city’s 2008 master plan identified potential opportunities for public access reuse of the WWTP effluent. Potential monitoring well limits for sites where public access reuse is applied that may be impacted by RO concentrate addition are listed in Table 3; also listed are the average predicted effluent concentrations. The predicted reclaimed water concentrations are greater than the monitoring well limits for all parameters listed. Depending on the groundwater conditions, there may not be enough dilution of the high TDS and high-chloride reclaimed water with ambient groundwater to meet the monitoring well limits. Groundwater modeling would be required to determine if sufficient dilution is possible to avoid violation

Table 5. Water Quality Goals for Bermuda Grass (Burden et al., 2010)

Table 6. Summary of Facilities in Florida With High Total Dissolved Solids and Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids

of the reuse limits at the sampling point. Vegetation concerns may result from salinity, as well as other constituents, which adversely affect the growth of plants and/or grasses. The U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidelines for Water Reuse (2004) gives recommended limits for various constituents in reclaimed water used for irrigation. Table 4 provides the recommendations for the constituents that were predicted in the RO concentrate. The TDS concentrations above 2,000 mg/L could only be tolerated by salt-tolerant plants on sandy and well-drained soils, and the WateReuse Association also reported that grasses and citrus trees cannot grow with TDS

concentrations greater than 1,000 mg/L. Weinberg (2004) reported that TDS in the range of 1,100 to 2,200 mg/L may have growth effects on sensitive plants, but the effect is reduced by leaching. Sandy soils are typical in the region of the Springtree WWTP, but due to the variability in the literature, it is not possible to determine if the high level of TDS may present toxicity issues for irrigated plants and grasses; no irrigation issues are expected for iron or fluoride. The EPA also gives recommended limits for aluminum, arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, Continued on page 54

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, but the data are not available to compare these constituents to the EPA recommendations. Bermuda grass is a common vegetation type in the service area and is also a sensitive receptor for constituents that would be found in the reclaimed water with constituents from RO concentrate. The water quality goals for Bermuda grass and the average case concentrations for equalized flow rate (8.5 mgd + 0.5 mgd concentrate) can be found in Table 5. The predicted magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, chloride, and TDS exceeded the Bermuda grass acceptable range. Because of the sandy soils and annual heavy rainfall in the area (65 in./year) the higher magnesium and alkalinity are not of concern. The high-predicted sodium and chloride concentrations may be detrimental to turfgrass. The TDS concentration is 45 percent higher than the high end of the reported range. Kaffka (2001) reported, however, no yield Continued from page 53 loss in Bermuda grass for a TDS concentration as high as 3,800 mg/L. Karleskint, et al. (2011) also observed no significant difference between grasses irrigated with potable water versus those irrigated with reclaimed water, with a TDS of approximately 1,900 mg/L. Other Facilities Receiving Reverse Osmosis Concentrate It’s more common for facilities to receive nanofiltration concentrate, rather than RO concentrate. A limited number of facilities discharge RO concentrate into wastewater treatment plants. An investigation was completed to locate other facilities in Florida that specifically introduce RO concentrate to the sec-

ondary treatment process. In addition, wastewater treatment facilities for coastal communities that experience inflow and infiltration of salt water into the wastewater collection system can experience high background chlorides and TDS. In general, none of these facilities reported major treatment issues related to high chlorides and TDS. Table 6 provides a summary of the facilities investigated and compares them to the proposed application at the Springtree WWTP. Four Years of Operation at Springtree Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharge of concentrate to the Springtree WWTP aeration basins was initiated in October 2013 and has continued through 2018. The facility has operated with no reported issues related to concentrate addition. Daily monitoring data available for chlorides, sludge volume index (SVI), and effluent TSS show no apparent negative effects on operation due to concentrate addition, as demonstrated by Figures 3 and 4. Also of note, the RO concentrate is generally turned off on the weekends, and on Mondays, turned back on. The process generally shows no issues acclimating to the on/off discharge of concentrate into the aeration basins. Anecdotally, operators report beneficial effects of concentrate on the process. In addition to a small increase in settleability and SVI, microscopic analysis reveals healthier microbiological indicators during times of concentrate addition, with a higher occurrence of stalked ciliate communities.

Settleability Although reduction in dewaterability was not anticipated based on predicted and observed concentrations, the predicted minimum day flow sodium concentration exceeded recommended values for affecting settleability. After four years of operation, however, settleability remains excellent, with SVI rarely exceeding 100 g/ml, and effluent TSS and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5) permit requirements have been consistently met. Effect on Biological Process Nitrification was not affected by addition of RO concentrate. In addition, plant staff also reported no effects from intermittent discharge of RO system cleaning solutions performed every three to six months. Plant staff also reported anecdotal evidence that the addition of RO concentrate actually helps the process and promotes healthy microbiological populations.

Summary and Conclusions

Toxicity to Anaerobic Digestion Although a cursory analysis showed no concern at predicted concentrations, toxicity to anaerobic digestion is possible and should be considered further if conversion to anaerobic digestion is planned for the future.

Discharge of concentrate to the Springtree WWTP aeration basins was initiated in October

Precipitation Potential The BioWin model, S&DSI, and LSI indi-

Figure 3. Chloride Concentration Versus Sludge Volume Index (2015 - 2017)


2013 and has continued through 2018. The facility has operated with no reported issues related to concentrate addition. The predicted effluent concentrations of various parameters affected by concentrate addition versus levels of concern are summarized in Table 7. The following issues of potential concern were evaluated:

January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 4. Chloride Concentration Versus Effluent Total Supsended Solids (2015 - 2017)

Table 7. Springtree Wastewater Treatment Plant Design Effluent Concentrations Versus Levels of Concern

cated low potential for scaling. No evidence of scaling was observed at the point of introduction of concentrate and no signs of accelerated fouling of ceramic fine bubble diffusers were reported. Structural and Corrosion Concerns The RO concentrate addition to the WWTP could result in a sulfate concentration indicative of a moderate risk of corrosion. It was recommended that the concrete surfaces in the influent channel and airbays, and metal surfaces of nearby gates and equipment, be periodically inspected. No structural or corrosion concerns were observed or reported on concrete surfaces in the influent channel, or airbays or metal surfaces of nearby gates and equipment, after four years in operation. Reuse Impact At the concentrations anticipated, there is moderate concern for land application of reuse water; however, there are multiple examples of reuse being successfully applied with TDS and chloride concentrations higher than that predicted at the Springtree WWTP. Other Facilities Receiving Reverse Osmosis Concentrate An investigation was completed to locate other facilities in Florida that specifically introduce RO concentrate to the secondary treat-

ment process. In addition, wastewater treatment facilities for coastal communities that experience inflow and infiltration of salt water into the wastewater collection system can experience high background chlorides and TDS. In general, none of these facilities reported major treatment issues related to high chlorides and TDS.

References • • Boe, R., Brubaker, G. (2016). Factors To Evaluate When Considering a Reverse Osmosis Concentrate Discharge to a Wastewater Treatment Facility, Proceedings of 2016 Florida Water Resources Conference, Orlando, Fla. • Burden, D. G., Stanley, E., Arrington, D. A. (2010). Increasing Reuse Supplies by Blending Nanofiltration Concentrate with Treated Effluent, Proceedings of WEFTEC 2010, New Orleans, La. • Campos, J. L., Mosquera-Corral, M., Sanchez, R. M., Lema, J. M. (2002). Nitrification In Saline Wastewater With High Ammonia Concentration In An Activated Sludge Unit, Water Research, Volume 36, Issue 10, 2555-2560. • Feijoo G., Soto, M., Mendez, R., Lema, J. M. (1995). Sodium Inhibition in the Anaerobic Digestion Process: Antagonism and Adaptation Phenomena. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Volume 17, Issue 2, 180-188. • Higgins, M. J.; Novak, J. T. (1997). The Effect of

• •

Cations on the Settling and Dewatering of Activated Sludges: Laboratory Results. Water Environment Research, Volume 69, 215-224. Kaffka, S. (2001). Salt Tolerant Forages for the Reuse of Saline Drainage Water, In: Proceedings, 31st California Alfalfa and Forage Symposium 2001, Modesta, Calif., UC Cooperative Extension, University of California, Davis. Karleskint, J. L., Cooke, J. P., Fitzpatrick, G., Jiang, F., Perez, A. (2011). The Impacts of Salinity on Reuse Irrigation. Proceedings of the Florida Water Resource Conference 2011, Orlando, Fla. Novak, J. T., Love, N. G., Smith, M. L., Wheeler, E. R. (1998). The Effect of Cationic Salt Addition on the Settling and Dewatering Properties of Industrial Activated Sludge. Water Environment Research, Volume 70, Issue 5 984-996. U.S. EPA (2004). Guidelines for Water Reuse, Washington, D.C. WateReuse Foundation (2008). The Impacts of Membrane Process Residuals on Wastewater Treatment - Guidance Manual, WateReuse Foundation, Alexandria, Va. Weinberg, E. (2004). Nanofiltration Concentrate Blending: Dissolved Solids Plant Stress Concerns, EW Consultants, Stuart, Fla.; report prepared for the Town of Jupiter Utilities, Jupiter, Fla. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


FWEA CHAPTER CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Megan Nelson at megan.nelson@ocfl.net.

Water Professionals Convene at Clays Shoot Mike Nixon he Manasota Chapter’s most popular annual event, the Sporting Clays Shoot, was recently held for the fourth time on November 16 at Sarasota Trap, Skeet, and Clays. Fifty of the area's local water professionals were in attendance and there was fun, excitement, and perfect weather that were enjoyed by all. The event kicked off with a barbecue lunch and a live manhole coating demonstration done by GML Coatings. After the safety briefing and the initial sponsor gift card giveaway, the teams rode off to the shooting stations. Between the twelve stations, each participant had fifty clay pigeon targets to hit. The event provided an opportunity to socialize with teammates, while enjoying an afternoon of friendly competition. Back at the starting pavilion, individual and team scores were tallied and the remaining event sponsor gift cards were handed out to the lucky attendees. After a manual recount, the top three team and pigeon conservationist trophies were presented. The top six individual shooters then went on to a final shoot out. Congratulations to the winners! Special thanks to GML Coatings, the sixteen event sponsors, and the volunteers who helped plan and execute the event! We could not hold events like this without sponsorship and countless hours of volunteer planning. Please join us at next year's event. All are welcome, from first time shooters to the very experienced!


Top Shoots team members.

GML Coatings conducts a live demonstration.


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Mike Nixon is an engineering intern at McKim and Creed in Sarasota. S

EPA Office of Inspector General Releases Biosolids Report Patrick Dube routine investigation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General (OIG) has concluded that EPA’s controls over the land application of biosolids were incomplete or had weaknesses and may not fully protect human health and the environment. The EPA Office of Water, which operates the biosolids program, disagrees with the findings and states that the presence of pollutants does not automatically pose a risk to public health and the environment. Throughout 2017 and 2018, OIG investigated whether EPA “has and implements controls over the land application of sewage sludge that are protective of human health and the environment.” On Nov. 15, 2018, OIG released a report based on its investigation titled, “EPA Unable to Assess the Impact of Hundreds of Unregulated Pollutants in Land-Applied Biosolids on Human Health and the Environment.”


Office of Inspector General Process and Findings The OIG is an independent office that helps the agency protect the environment in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. Its main

activities include performing audits and investigations of EPA to prevent and detect fraud, waste, and abuse. Following an audit or investigation, OIG typically releases a report of findings. In the report on the biosolids investigation, OIG found 352 unregulated pollutants in biosolids and stated that EPA lacked the data or risk assessment tools to decide safety. These 352 pollutants are in addition to the nine regulated pollutants that EPA consistently monitors. The report pointed to a steady reduction in staff and resources in the EPA biosolids program as a cause of many of these weaknesses. The OIG recommended that the EPA Office of Water “address control weaknesses in biosolids research, information-sharing with the public, pathogen control, and training” and implement corrective actions with milestones to fix these issues.” The report and related materials can be viewed on OIG’s website at http://bit.ly/EPA-OIGbiosolids2018.

Office of Water Response The OIG provided the Office of Water the chance to comment on the report; this response is included in Appendix D of the report. The Office of Water took issue with how the science was presented in the report and stated that “there is no attempt to make it clear to the reader that the occurrence of pollutants in biosolids does not

necessarily mean that those pollutants pose a risk to public health and the environment.” The response also states that a top priority for the biosolids program will be to address the uncertainty of potential risk posed by pollutants found in biosolids, but uncertainties in the science do not mean that they are threats to human health and the environment. The OIG report resulted in 13 recommendations for the Office of Water to consider; the Office of Water response provides corrective actions and milestone dates for eight of them, with resolution efforts underway for the remaining five. The Office of Water conducts biennial reviews of biosolids that include a full literature review of potential toxic pollutants and determines if the pollutants detected pose “potential risk to human health or the environment.” The 2015 report analyzed peer-reviewed journal articles from January 2013 through December 2014 to determine their relevance to biosolids and potential pollutants. Overall, 46 articles met the eligibility criteria. Once analyzed, the biosolids program identified 29 new chemical pollutants. Following a risk assessment of these new chemicals, the Office of Water determined that no additional pollutants needed to be regulated. A 2017 report following the same intensive analysis is expected to be released in the coming months.

Water Environment Federation Actions During the OIG investigation, WEF staff members were interviewed and have since been tracking the report and working with other biosolids partners to coordinate responses after the release. It’s the position of WEF that decades of science have shown that biosolids are a safe, renewable resource that improves the environment, lowers costs to consumers, and strengthens farming communities. Biosolids undergo a rigorous set of treatment processes that include physical, chemical, and biological processes to aid pathogen reduction. Utilities across the United States have been safely


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

recycling biosolids for decades, while delivering innovative solutions that lead to stronger, more sustainable, and resilient communities. Continued research on biosolids is supported by WEF to ensure that regulatory requirements continue to be based on the latest science. The WEF Residuals and Biosolids Committee (RBC) is committed to developing and promoting costeffective practices and policies in biosolids and energy technologies associated with municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastewater residuals for the protection of the environment. Through education of WEF members, the public, and policymakers, RBC aims to serve the public interest regarding scientifically sound residuals and biosolids environmental practices and regulation. To learn more, visit the RBC page (www.wef.org/biosolids) to download fact sheets, white papers, and technical reports.

This article solely reflects the personal opinions of the authors, not necessarily WEF and its members. It is provided for educational purposes only, and is not intended to substitute for the retainer and advice of an appropriate professional. No warranties or endorsement of any kind are granted or implied.

Patrick Dube, Ph.D., is the biosolids program manager in the Water Science & Engineering Center at the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.). He manages the Residuals and Biosolids Committee and the Air Quality and Odors Control Committee. He can be contacted at PDube@wef.org S

News Beat The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) has approved a public-private partnership with the Lykes Brighton Valley LLC that will create the Brighton Valley Northern Everglades Public-Private Partnership Project. This project will treat water in the Lake Okeechobee watershed over the next decade. "Every gallon stored counts, especially with the current high-water emergency South Florida is facing," said Federico Fernandez, SFWMD governing board chair. "This board is thankful to Lykes Brighton Valley for stepping up and helping reduce nutrients in the Lake Okeechobee watershed." The project will create flow, averaging 40,000 acre-feet of water per year, through approximately 8,200 acres of privately-owned land in Highlands County. That water will be taken from the C-41A Canal during excess water conditions and conveyed across the project's land in order to reduce nutrients in the water. The governing board approved an 11-year lease and agreement for the project that includes $11.5 million for land improvements necessary to make the project feasible in the first year. Once the improvements are in place, SFWMD will pay the project an annual fixed fee, which averages to a cost-effectiveness of about $95 per acre-foot of water treated on the site for the next 10 years. The project includes flow-through cells that will help remove nutrients, such as phosphorus, from the water before it is discharged to the C-40 Canal. The project is expected to remove 3.2 tons of phosphorus and 27.3 tons of nitrogen from the water. The funding for the project comes from a 2016 appropriation by the Florida Legislature specifically for public-private partnerships to benefit the Northern Everglades. Future legislative

funding will be necessary to continue the project. Brighton Valley is the second large-scale public-private partnership on agricultural lands approved by the governing board that utilizes the 2016 legislative appropriation. In Martin County, the Caulkins Water Farm, which is on 3,200 acres of former citrus groves near Indiantown, is already operating and has stored more than 12,000 acrefeet of water during the recent high-water emergency, keeping that water from entering the St. Lucie Estuary. "The state is doing its part to finish major restoration projects that will protect the estuaries in the long term," Fernandez said. "Private landowners are giving us the flexibility needed to store and treat water in the short term, while helping to reduce the damaging discharges to the estuaries. This flexibility, combined with all the other critical efforts this district is undertaking, can help to mitigate the current high-water emergency situation." For years, SFWMD has utilized its dispersed water management program to store and treat water on public lands and has partnered with private landowners to do the same. Since record rainfall started in May, causing Lake Okeechobee to rise more than a foot in a matter of weeks, SFWMD has taken advantage of all available capacity to store or move water in an effort to protect the estuaries. These existing projects provide an approximate total of 54,000 acre-feet of additional storage. In other news, the SFWMD governing board voted to increase the minimum flow and level (MFL) established by rule for the Caloosahatchee River to further protect the estuary during dry periods. The updated MFL rule increases the minimum water flow required to prevent harm to the estuary in SFWMD's water management rules. The

flow called for in the rule will increase from 300 cubic feet per second (cfs) to 400 cfs. "I’m not a scientist, so thankfully I have what I consider to be the best scientists in the world advising this board about the right amount of flow needed to protect the Caloosahatchee," said Jaime Weisinger, a governing board member. "The peerreviewed science presented shows that this is the minimum amount of fresh water needed during the dry season to help maintain seagrasses, oysters, and other life in the estuary." The SFWMD evaluation of the MFL rule for the Caloosahatchee River has taken place over the past eight years. The board funded 11 scientific studies of the river in 2010; in 2016, the results of those studies were presented to the public at a twoday public science symposium in Fort Myers. The minimum flow greatly differs from a restorative flow, which is the amount of fresh water necessary to improve the existing conditions to restore ecological features that existed previously. The minimum flow is established as the threshold amount of fresh water needed before the estuary could experience significant harm. A violation of the 400 cfs MFL could result in ecological impacts in the Caloosahatchee River, taking as long as two years to recover. Last year, a panel of five independent scientists, with 158 years of combined experience, conducted three days of intensive independent scientific review of the recommended rule changes. This arduous review included public workshops and tours of the estuary, river, and watershed. The independent panel concluded in its peer review report that SFWMD had "crafted a well-documented set of field and laboratory studies and modeling efforts to establish MFL levels for the Caloosahatchee River and estuary." S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

FSAWWA Young Professionals (YP) Committee Affiliation: FSAWWA

supports other FSAWWA committees and activities by cohosting events and encouraging YPs to participate in regional activities. Young professionals are generally considered to be members or prospective members age 35 and under, or those new to the water industry. This includes those working for utilities, regulatory agencies, consulting firms, or academic institutions.

Current chair: The chair is Nelson PerezJacome, P.E., client service manager with Aecom in Miami, and the vice chair is Shelby Hughes, P.E., water resources professional engineer with Kimley-Horn and Associates Inc. in St. Petersburg. Year group was formed: 2004



Scope of work: The mission of the committee is to encourage students and younger water industry professionals to take an active role in the association. The YP Committee organizes and sponsors events to engage the younger members of FSAWWA and to encourage active participation in the association throughout their careers. The committee also

Allison Rainey, Lindsey Bohmann, Sarah Ecker, and Katherine Lee (left to right) attend the 2018 University of South Florida Career Fair to support the Membership Committee in Region IV.

Toral Hertzberg (left) and Shelby Hughes attend the 2017 YP Summit in Tampa.

Lindsey Bohmann, Sarah Ecker, and Allison Rainey (left to right) attend the 2018 YP Summer Seminar plant tour at the Tampa Bay Regional Surface Water Treatment Plant in Region IV.


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Recent accomplishments: Annual sectionwide events include: S Utility Management Conference – YP Summit S YP Summer Seminar S FSAWWA Fall Conference • Water Bowl Competition • Poster Competition • YP Meeting S Florida Water Resources Conference • YP Meeting • YP Social Continued on page 62

The Region IV YP members attend the 2018 YP Summer Seminar plant tour at the Tampa Bay Regional Surface Water Treatment Plant in Region IV.

Sarah Ecker (left) and Lindsey Bohmann at the St. Pete College Eco Expo raising awareness about FSAWWA and what services it offers.

Jordan Walker (left) and Shelby Hughes attend the 2018 YP Summit in Texas.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


The University of Central Florida and Florida International University teams compete in the second round of the 2018 Water Bowl. The Florida Section YP group at the 2017 YP Summit in Tampa.

Continued from page 60 Current projects: Grow the committee, promote active participation, and encourage public outreach to schools within the section. Future work: Upcoming events include the 2019 AWWA/WEF YP Summit, which is the premier water and wastewater industry workshop for young professionals.

The University of Central Florida teams compete at the 2018 Water Bowl held at the FSAWWA Fall Conference.

Some YPs show their support at the 2018 Model Water Tower Competition in Region IV.

Group members: POSITION Chair Vice Chair Future Vice Chair Past Chair Region I Region II Region III Region III Region IV Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII Region IX Region X Region XI Region XII

NAME COMPANY Nelson Perez-Jacome AECOM Shelby Hughes Kimley-Horn Michael Stanley Kimley-Horn Jordan Walker Kimley-Horn Samantha O'Farrell Rhea Dorris Kunal Nayee Neil Coffman

Jacobs Kimley-Horn Atkins Stantec

Kevin Cevallos Veronica Llaneza

Black & Veatch AECOM

Ingrida Barkauskaite Michael Stanley

Mantee County Kimley-Horn S

Display Advertiser Index 2018 FSAWWA Awards ....................................................43 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference..........47 Blue Planet ......................................................................71 CEU Challenge..................................................................15 Ferguson Waterworks ....................................................20 FJ Nugent ........................................................................57 FSAWWA Conference Sponsor Thank You ......................38 FSAWWA Conference BBQ Open Bar Sponsors ..............39 FSAWWA Conference BBQ Food Sponsors ....................40 FSAWWA Conference Drop Savers Contest ....................41 FSAWWA Water Equation ................................................42 FWPCOA Online Training..................................................63 FWPCOA State Short School............................................11 FWPCOA Training ............................................................31 FWRC................................................................................23 FWRC Information ..........................................................24 FWRC Exhibit Registration ..............................................25 FWRC Exhibit Booth Layout ............................................26 FWRC Contests ................................................................27 FWRC Attendee Registration ..........................................28 Grundfos ..........................................................................21 Heyward ..........................................................................62 Hudson Pump & Equipment ............................................37 Hydro International............................................................5 InfoSense ........................................................................64 Lakeside Equipment Corporation......................................7 Stacon ................................................................................2 UF Treeo ..........................................................................61 Xylem ..............................................................................72


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

FWRJ READER PROFILE What does your job entail? Most of my time is spent managing projects related to sewer collection and wastewater treatment. Other times I’m providing assistance to the maintenance and operations teams.

Sondra Lee City of Tallahassee Work title and years of service. I’m a program engineer and started working for the City of Tallahassee in 2002. Prior to the city I had about five years of experience in the private sector and had worked at the Florida Department of Transportation for four years.


What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from Auburn University. While at the city I became a certified public manager and earned a Six Sigma Green Belt certification. What do you like best about your job? I really enjoy working with the operations and maintenance team members who manage the city’s pump stations and the waste reclamation facility. They take a lot of pride in their work, and it’s fun to help them make improvements

January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

to our systems. I also like the wide variety of projects that I get to work on. What professional organizations do you belong to? Currently I’m a member of the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA). At this time, I serve as treasurer for FWEA and am a director at large for the Utility Council. How have the organizations helped your career? The FWEA has been helpful to my career in several ways. First and foremost is the technical knowledge gained by the training opportunities provided by its committees and chapters, and at the Florida Water Resources Conference. Networking and getting to know others in the industry was another benefit gained early on in my membership and continues to be an important role in my day-to-day work. Then, over time, through serving on different committees and in different roles, FWEA has helped me further develop my leadership skills.

What do you like best about the industry? There is a lot of energy and momentum from the people who work in wastewater to continually improve how it’s handled that makes this a great industry to work in. What do you do when you’re not working? Aside from hanging out with my extended family and reading, most of my hobbies and volunteer activities keep me outdoors. My hobbies include running, sailing (cruising and racing), hiking, swimming, bicycling, kayaking, traveling, and an occasional sprint triathlon. My husband and I plan to climb Mount Katahdin’s Baxter Peak for our 20th wedding anniversary. Many of these hobbies have led to my volunteer activities. In recent years, I regularly volunteer for a few organizations: S Apalachee Bay Yacht Club commodore S Apalachee Bay Community Sailing - board member at large S Wakulla County Fire Rescue emergency medical responder, firefighter 1 trainee, acting lieutenant for the Apalachee Bay Volunteer Fire Department S Gulf Winds Track Club - Turkey Trot volunteer coordinator S


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CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Solid Waste Worker I, II & III - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Engineering Inspector II & Senior Engineering Inspector Involves highly technical work in the field of civil engineering construction inspection including responsibility for inspecting a variety of construction projects for conformance with engineering plans and specifications. Projects involve roadways, stormwater facilities, portable water distribution systems, sanitary pump stations, gravity sewer collection systems, reclaimed water distribution systems, portable water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at http://www.cwgdn.com. Position Requirements: Possession of the following or the ability to obtain within 6 months of hire: (1) Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Stormwater Certification and an (2) Orange County Underground Utility Competency Card. A valid Florida Driver’s License is required. • Inspector II: High School Diploma or equivalent and 7 years of progressively responsible experience in construction inspection or testing of capital improvement and private development projects. • Senior Inspector: Associate’s Degree in Civil Engineering Technology or Construction Management and 10 years of progressively responsible experience, of which 5 years are in at a supervisory level.

City of Titusville – Senior Utility Engineer Competitive salaries. Great Team. www.titusville.com


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or pluming abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

City of St. Petersburg - Water Plant Operator IV (IRC45698) This is responsible technical and participatory work supervising staff responsible for the safe and efficient operation of the Cosme Plant in Northwest Hillsborough County and associated Distribution Pump Stations on a permanent or rotating shift. Work requires considerable technical knowledge and independent judgment in operating equipment related to the treatment and production of potable water, and the ability to provide lead supervision and training of skilled operators, and semi-skilled and unskilled workers. Work includes the inspection, monitoring and reading recording charts, meters, gauges and computer displays to determine production rates, chemical feed rates, equipment status, chemical analysis and electrical status; and the adjustment to controls to ensure that the treatment and production is in accordance with standard operating procedures. Requirements: Valid High School Diploma/GED; valid Driver License; State of Florida Class "A" Certificate in Drinking Water Treatment Plant Operation. Close Date: Open Until Filled; $53,747-$78,874; See details at www.stpete.org/jobs EEO-AA-Employer-Vet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets' Pref

Engineering Services Supervisor Loxahatchee River District (Jupiter, FL) Salary Range: $56,347.18 – $87,323.84 annually This position is responsible for the design review/approval, inspection and construction of the works of the District, repairs performed by inhouse construction crews and outside contractors, and permitting with the relevant jurisdictions. Six or more years of experience in utility/public works and a Professional Engineer in the State of Florida or ability to obtain a FL PE within 1 year of employment OR 10 years progressive working experience in utility/public works construction, inspection and/or design with supervisory experience. See https://loxahatcheeriver.org/governance/ employment/

The Coral Springs Improvement District – A GREAT place to further your career and enhance your life! CSID offers… Salary levels are at the top of the industry Health Insurance that is unmatched when compared to like sized Districts Promotions from within for qualified employees Continuing education courses to develop your skills and further your growth Retirement plans where an employee can earn 18% of their salary by contributing toward their future The Coral Springs Improvement District is seeking qualified employees in the following fields Wastewater Plant Lead Operator: Applicants must have a valid Class A wastewater Treatment license and a minimum of 3 years supervisory experience. The lead operator operates the Districts wastewater plant; assists in ensuring plant compliance with all state and federal regulatory criteria and all safety policies and procedures. Reports directly to the WTTP Chief Operator. Provides instruction and leadership to subordinate operators and trainees as assigned. This is a highly responsible, technical, and supervisory position requiring 24 hour availability. Exercise of initiative and independent judgment is required in providing guidance and supervision for continuous operation. Salary range: $62,000 - $72,000. Salary to commensurate relative to level of experience in this field. Water Plan Lead Operator: Applicants must have a valid Class A Water Treatment license and a minimum of 3 years supervisory experience. The Lead Water Operator operates the Districts water plant, assists in ensuring plant compliance with all state and federal regulatory criteria and all safety policies and procedures. This position reports directly to the WTP Chief Operator. Provides instruction and leadership to subordinate operators and trainees as assigned. This position requires experience in nano filtration/reverse osmosis. This is a highly responsible, technical, and supervisory position requiring 24 hour availability. Exercise of initiative and independent judgment is required in providing guidance and supervision for continuous operation. Salary range: $62,000 - $72,000. Salary to commensurate relative to level of experience in this field. Benefits: Excellent benefits which include health, life, disability, dental, vison and a retirement plan which includes a 6% non-contributory defined benefit and matching 457b plan with a 100% match up to 6%. EOE. All positions require a valid Florida Drivers license, high school diploma or GED equivalent and must pass a pre-employment drug screen test Salaries for the above position based on level of licensing and years of experience. Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at www.csidfl.org/resources/employment.html and fax resume to 954-7536328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Wastewater Operator – Public Wastewater Utility Key West, Florida Requirement: Class C or higher WWTP Operator’s License Salary Range: $50,000 to $90,000 KW Resort Utilities Corp. www.kwru.com Live and work as an Operator in the paradise that is the beautiful Florida Keys. Compensation package includes health, dental, retirement benefits, paid vacation, paid holidays, paid personal days, and paid membership to The Key West Golf Club. To contact the Utility for an employment application or for other inquiries please email: hiring@kwru.com. KW Resort Utilities Corp (KWRU) is a Public Utility operating a .850MGD AWT Wastewater Treatment Plant at a single location in Key West, Florida. The Utility is currently hiring a WWTP Operator, responsible for operating the treatment plant in a professional manner in accordance with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FEDP) rules and regulations. Class “C” or higher with AWT experience is plus. Qualified candidates must have demonstrated experience in the operation of a wastewater treatment plant. Candidates must have proficiency in process control and must have a demonstrated history of making process control decisions.

City of St. Petersburg – Senior Water Resources Manager Wastewater (IRC45776) This is very responsible professional, supervisory, and administrative work in the City's Water Resources department, directing the operations of the wastewater systems divisions. Work involves direct responsibility for planning, organizing, maintaining, operating, and coordinating the activities of the Wastewater division in the collection, treatment and disposal of wastewater including reclaimed water programs and provisions; and ensuring compliance with all applicable local, state and federal regulations. Work requires assisting with the development and implementation of long-range plans to meet the City's future wastewater and reclaimed water service needs; providing direction and leadership for the planning, development, administration, and review of the section's annual capital improvement and operating budgets. Requirements: Valid Bachelor's Degree; valid Driver License; Extensive knowledge of the theory, principles, modern methods and practices of the operation of wastewater utilities; extensive knowledge of federal, state and municipal environmental laws and standards concerning the treatment and disposal of wastewater, including provisions for reclaimed water. Close Date: Open Until Filled; $90,928-$138,227; See details at www.stpete.org/jobs EEOAA-Employer-Vet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets' Pref

City of Wildwood Water Treatment Plant Operator: Looking for a licensed operator to join our professional team at one of the fastest growing cities in Florida. Must hold at least a Class “C” license. Valid Driver’s license a must. Pay Range: $27,000 - $37,000/yr DOE Open Until Filled. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Melissa Tuck. EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2019


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 30 1. B) Total Maximum Daily Load Per FDEP’s TMDL web page, “Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) Program.”

2. D) Verified list of impaired waters Per FAC 62-303.150(1), Relationships Among Planning, Study, and Verified Lists, “The department shall only place a waterbody on the verified list if pollutant loading or concentrations cause or contribute to nonattainment of water quality standards. The resultant verified list of impaired waters, which is the list of waters for which TMDLs will be developed by the department pursuant to Section 403.067(4), F.S., will be adopted by Secretarial Order and will be subject to challenge under Sections 120.569 and 120.57, F.S.”

3. B) Adopted by Secretarial Order and sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Per FAC 62-303.150(1), Relationships Among Planning, Study, and Verified Lists, “The resultant verified list of impaired waters, which is the list of waters for which TMDLs will be developed by the department pursuant to Section 403.067(4), F.S., will be adopted by Secretarial Order and will be subject to challenge under Sections 120.569 and 120.57, F.S. Once adopted, the list will be submitted to EPA pursuant to section 303(d)(1) of the Federal Clean Water Act.”

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4. A) adopted by rule. Per FDEP’s TMDL web page, Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) Program, “What are the basic steps in the TMDL program? How does it work?” Item #3. “Establish and adopt, by rule, a TMDL for each impaired water for the pollutants of concern–the ones causing the water quality problems. (TMDLs - Chapter 62-304)”

5. A) Basin Management Action Plan Per FDEP’s Basin Management Action Plan (BMAP) web page, “What is a Basin Management Action Plan? It is the "blueprint" for restoring impaired waters by reducing pollutant loadings to meet the allowable loadings established in a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). It represents a comprehensive set of strategies—permit limits on wastewater facilities, urban and agricultural best management practices, conservation programs, financial assistance and revenue generating activities, etc.—designed to implement the pollutant reductions established by the TMDL. These broad-based plans are developed with local stakeholders—they rely on local input and local commitment”

6. B) To make the BMAP activities enforceable by FDEP. Per FDEP’s Basin Management Action Plan (BMAP) web page, “What is a Basin Management Action Plan?” Last sentence “These broad-based plans are developed with local stakeholders—they rely on local input and local commitment—and they are adopted by Secretarial Order to be enforceable.”

7. D) Nutrients Per FAC 62-306.100(1) and (2), Water Quality Credit Trading, “(1) This chapter establishes the requirements for water quality credit trading between pollutant sources to reduce or eliminate nutrient or nutrient-related impairments pursuant to Section 403.067, F.S. (2) The generation, registration, and trading of water quality credits provided for in this chapter are intended to provide flexibility among pollutant sources to meet the nutrient reduction requirements of an adopted Basin Management Action Plan (BMAP) or Reasonable Assurance Plan (RAP).”

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8. B) effluent monitoring. Per FAC 62-306.300(2), General Requirements, “Credits generated by a point source, other than an MS4, must be confirmed by effluent monitoring, which must be undertaken and provided to the department throughout the life of the trade.”

9. C) severity of the impairment and designated use of the water body. Per FAC 62-303.500(1) Prioritization for TMDL Development, “When establishing the TMDL development schedule for water segments on the verified list of impaired waters, the department shall prioritize impaired water segments according to the severity of the impairment and the designated uses of the segment, taking into account the most serious water quality problems; most valuable and threatened resources; and risk to human health and aquatic life. Impaired waters shall be prioritized as high, medium, or low priority.”

10. A) Annually Per Florida Statutes Chapter 403-Environmental Control, Section 0675-Progress Reports, “The department, in conjunction with the water management districts, shall post on its website and submit electronically an annual progress report to the Governor, the President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives on the status of each total maximum daily load, basin management action plan, minimum flow or minimum water level…The report must include the status of each project identified to achieve a total maximum daily load or an adopted minimum flow or minimum water level, as applicable. If a report indicates that any of the five-year, 10-year, or 15-year milestones, or the 20-year target date, if applicable, for achieving a total maximum daily load or a minimum flow or minimum water level will not be met, the report must include an explanation of the possible causes and potential solutions. If applicable, the report must include project descriptions, estimated costs, proposed priority ranking for project implementation, and funding needed to achieve the total maximum daily load or the minimum flow or minimum water level by the target date. Each water management district shall post the department’s report on its website.”


January 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The City of Edgewater is accepting applications for the following positions. Water Plant Operator “C” or higher Wastewater Plant Operator “C” or higher $35,172 - $52,977 (“C” pay scale) Apply online at http://www.cityofedgewater.org Open until filled

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.