Studio Border Condiďż˝ons: Masters of Mapping
Studio Border Condiďż˝ons: Masters of Mapping
KYIV KIEV КИЇВ КИЕВ CITY UNDER (DE) CONTSTRUCTION
capital of Ukraine, the borderland
STUDIO BORDER CONDITIONS
KYIV KIEV КИЇВ КИЕВ
CITY UNDER (DE) CONSTRUCTION
Ukraine - border evolution
Kyiv - city evolution
mobile phone map
MOSTISCHENSKA MONTAGE Carolien Schippers
CITY MEMORY Christian Meezen
ROUTE-CANAL TREATMENT Ivo de Jeu
SEQUENCES Maria Ionescu
CUL DE FIELD TO POINT CROSSING THE NODE Sara Bilge
APPROPRIATION/ADAPTION IN SOVIET FABRIC Nadine de Ripainsel
DOMESTIC ACTIVITY IN THE URBAN CONDITION SeongHeon Oh
STUDIO BORDER CONDITIONS Experimental architecture in socio-political contexts
The studio Border Conditions is involved in the research and development of potentially new design tools and methods. The investigation focuses on mapping as a method of discovering and harvesting underlying attributes of the contemporary urban conditions and everyday life; translating these into spatial readings and interpretations able to form a basis for architectural design. The map is a graphic representation which facilitates a spatial understanding of objects, concepts, conditions, processes or events in the human world. Maps are parallel worlds, rich and powerful out of their own specific properties, producers of new and other spaces, of alternative and unprecedented geographies. Maps and cartographic practices are perhaps more correctly rendered as heterotopic projects, dealing with or seeking or suggesting counter-worlds, other territories, new spaces. Contemporary geography and cartography knows that maps create space, that maps generate the territory, that maps produce or generate the real. BB3, Pavilion no. 12 vol. 1 The studio Border Conditions plays with the idea of the blurred reality, of the vague and the indecisive. It is out of this apparently uncontrollable and actually misunderstood notion of marginal that new concepts of space arise. It speculates on the potential of these urban patches where the undetermined still leaves room for interpretation. An interpretation that is transformed into a strategy through a thorough and precise process of mapping. bc kyiv - 8
THE STUDIO STRUCTURE
The studio is set up three development stages. The first stage focuses on creating an entrance point to the subject city by enunciating a series of problem statements and developing a number of investigational methods. The entire team of students work together in creating these, the collective effort is crucial to the success of the studio and can be seen as a defining aspect of the methods. At the same time students are required to formulate their own theoretical research and start developing it through essay writing and practical testing. The methods are applied on site in the second stage of the studio, extracting information and dissecting the subject locally. Along with the collective research students define their personal area of investigation and start working on the individual projects. During the third and final stage of the research project the data is analysed in depth and the information is converted through mapping into a design tool. Conclusions are drawn from the collective investigation, while the individual researches are taken further into design proposals. The first part of this book focuses on the collective effort of the studio. The second part is dedicated to the individual work, comprised of the theoretical essay and the personal investigation and mapping.
Getting up close and personal During the first stage group effort focuses on creating an image of the city that will allow a certain comfort with the environment prior to the actual contact. Research begins by creating a collection of data from a large number of sources without any initial filtering. The collection was then mapped onto a large scale satellite image of the city in order to create a spatial dimension of the datascape. In the end a combination of the horizontal (the data) and the vertical (the satellite projection) views taken on the city provide the researcher with a three-dimensional impression of which speculations and opinions arise and become investigation topics.
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Walking through Kyiv The studio requires the development of a method of approach to the subject city. Based on the developments of the first phase a navigation strategy was devised and applied on site. The way to approach a city is a key element in grasping it. It is not merely a matter of moving through it randomly or efficiently as much as a matter of experiencing it from an architectural and spatial stand point. The act of moving through a city is re-evaluated and converted into a tool of comprehension. Exact details of how and why this movement is performed are established prior to the site visit. The validity of the navigation strategy and the speculations made are tested during the confrontation with the city itself.
Mapping as a method The experience of the city is translated into an architectural discourse through mapping. Mapping provides the opportunity to extract and reassemble conventional concepts into spatial ones by shifting the perception of the viewer. It is a translation tool of the everyday language of the city into the complex and sometimes cryptic vocabulary of architecture. It appeals to the pragmatics of language in order to construct a new vocabulary. The specialized nature of the map makes its reading uniquely appropriate to the mapped content rather than the original. That is to say the map generates its own universe accessible to the reader through the mapâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s particular language. It is selective in its rendering of information and offers a meticulously constructed image out of the thousand images held within the object. Each map can unveil a different characteristic and each map can unveil a parallel universe extracted from the same reality. The map offers not only the precision of a reading but the possibility of interpretation and variation.
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KYIV KIEV КИЇВ КИЕВ
CITY UNDER (DE)CONSTRUCTION
Kyiv has flowed in and out of the European consciousness throughout its long and tumultuous history. Founded in the 5th century it has pendulated between roles as capital of the first Slavic empire, cultural hub of Eastern Europe, forgotten village within a foreign empire, soviet city and its current status as the capital of an independent Ukraine. During this time the city has contracted and expanded repeatedly, as it was completely destroyed on several occasions. The last 60 years have greatly influenced the way the city looks today, accounting for over 50% of contemporary Kyiv. It was in these last few decades that the center received its wide boulevards and plazas in order to accommodate soviet party parades, huge residential complexes pushed the city limits well beyond and across the Dniepro River, massive industrial sites were carved in the city fabric and one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most famous metro lines was build in order to make this new giant organism functional. Bits and pieces of the old city remained trapped amidst the concrete slabs. Today Kyiv stands at a gateway between past and future, confronted with the task of redefining its identity. Its role as one of the oldest centers of Ukrainian culture, its soviet heritage and its desire to become a Western capital are all determinants of this identity, but which will become the strongest influence is still debatable. Torn between history and destiny, communism and capitalism, East and West, rich and poor, village and metropolis, the city comprises all in a heterogenic mix, a patchwork of colors, textures and ideas. Finding its way through a process of trial and error, it builds and destroys almost randomly, constantly redefining its trajectory. While new developments collect on the banks of the Dniepro River, old industrial and residential structures are left to decay. The new developments are competing for space with the increasing sprawl of informal structures lining the streets and boulevards forming an almost continuous bazaar stretched for kilometers through the city. Contrasts of scale, shape and aspect occur with such frequency that they become the norm rather than the accident. The surprise is that nothing is surprising anymore in this rich collage.
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CITY UNDER (DE)CONSTRUCTION
‘Ukraine’ literally meaning ‘borderland’ has since its constitution been dominated by a constant fight for its territory. The biggest disadvantage is its geographical position between Russia, Poland and its adjacency with the Black Sea to the south. The drawing below exemplifies the constant shifting of the borders of the country that Kyiv has been part of, from 800 until its final independence in 1991, by overlaying each specific border onto the next. It shifts from being independent with its constitution during the Kievan Rus period in the early Middle Ages, to the take- over by the Polish-Lithuanian empire, the Russian empire after which a short period of independence is followed by being part of the Sovjet Union. The Nazi regime rules only for a couple of years before the Sovjet Union restores its grip again after a brief period of independence. Only in 1991 did Ukraine regain its current independence and in recent years the expanding European Union reached the borders of Ukraine.
KYIV BUILD UP
900 - ‘Mother of all the Russian land’ - A large settlement ruled by warrior Oleg and part of the great Russian Empire. 980 - ‘City of Vladimir’ - Finalised the long process of territory’s formation determining the borders of Kyiv. 1030 - ’City of Yaroslav’ - Kiev developed largely in culture and education by Yaroslav ‘the Wise’. 1073 - ‘City of Izyaslav’ - A period defined by the construction of a lot of new monuments and temples/churches in the city. 1113 - ‘Fight for the throne’ - Fight between three princes led to the destruction of the city. The border dispersed and new settlements where constructed around the townwall. 14th - ‘Lithuanian feudal state’ - The city was a second time in large part destructed by the raid of the Krim Horde. 16th - ‘Christian Centre’ - In the Russian empire Kiev was a primairy Christian centre, attracting pilgrims, and the empire most important religious figures, however its commercial importance remained marginal. 19th - ‘Paris of the east’ - Starting from 18th century the city blossomed. Building regulation calling for bigger streets, monumental facades and development of infrastructure. early 20th - ‘Capital of the Soviet republic Ukraine’ - Stagnating growth because of food shortage and epidemics known as ‘the great famine’. 1960s - 1980s - ‘Constructing Kyiv’ - The soviet five-year plan of restoration and development of national industry changed the face of Kyiv. Presumably 80% of the city emerged in this after war construction. after 1991 - ‘A European Capital’ - Still today the city is a stage for reconstruction of old monuments and the construction of a new economy.
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early 20th century
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IMAGE SCREEN At a distance of 2042 km the first impression of the city is based on the information that is accessible to us. Today the most accessible source of information is the internet. Although initially it was a more text-based medium, the internet in changing more and more into an image databank. The abundance of images accessible resulted in an image screen that is a collection, a selection and categorization of the first impressions of Kiev and the Ukraine.
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ZENITH VIEW In the introduction phase of the Kiev project, useful materials were searched to begin with the mapping of the city. The most accessible and detailed map became the basis for these first mapping attempts. The Google Map of Kiev was a tool to observe a large amount of information and to bring the found data, characteristics and the first impressions of Kiev in the map. It became a carpet of 5mx6m where all the research material was projected.
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COLLECTIVE MAPPING RESEARCH METHODS/ NAVIGATION METHOD A navigation strategy was conceived as a means to tackle the city. During the research, undergone prior to the site visit, it was decided that walking is the optimum method of moving through the city because of its hands-on type of experience. A series of specific walks was devised and the paths were decided in relation to spatial and programmatic features of the city, prejudices on Kyiv and/or Ukraine, intuition and wonder.
COLLECTIVE MAPPING RESEARCH METHODS/ REGISTRATION TOOLS Along with the navigation a data registration strategy is created. The walk is recorded through several media in order to separate the sensory perceptions into distinct experiences. Focusing on one specific perception will give a very accurate and complete image from that particular point of view. It is the overlap of these images and the combined information that renders the final analytical view on the subject, offering both an idea of the whole and an insight into the intricate relations of its components. In order to separate the experiences each member of the group is assigned a different recording tool. Throughout the walk the team-member is restricted to that sole means of data registration. All sensory perception is filtered through the recording method with a certain emphasis on a particular type (visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile or gustatory) depending on the tool used. The tools used were photography, video recording, sketching, sound recording, journal notes and time recording. The first three methods are variants of visual perception with differentiations in point of dynamics, subjectivity and analytical criticism. The last two methods not only complete the audio-visual perception, but also convey a sense of humanity which relates to our perception of space and space in time.
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girls to guys appartment
21-03-08 disocvering the city by metro
22-03-08 the end of the metroline
finding Darnytsia sta on
heavy snow day
individual loca ons
tutors chao c visit
mee ng local people
last minute mapping
arranging a taxi
MOBILE PHONE MAP
The mobile phone map is a representation of the gradual discovery of Kiev by the research group and redefines the city from an egocentric stand point. By recording all the telephone calls and mapping the exact position of the persons conversing the Mobile Phone Map relates the city to the groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s movement. The base camp becomes the new center of the city and the diverging lay-lines connect the various points within the explored space, expanding and contracting the city boundaries. This dense network imposes a new hierarchy within the city, shifting the weight based on a purely personal interest. bc kyiv - 42
16h map The purpose of gathering data using multiple tools is to obtain different readings of the walks. The readings are then combined in the map, resulting in a comprehensive overlay of information contributing to the complete image. Map elaboration was systemized through a well defined work method in order to ensure the same objectivity as in the data recording. The method consists of assigning a 2 hour work slot to each member of the group during which he/she has full control of the map. After the 2 hours the map passes on to the next person, which in his turn has 2 hours to read, reshuffle, throw away or continue with the present map. Every pass is accompanied by a short written explanation on the work. The product resulting from a full session is evaluated by the entire group together with the studio mentors and the process is repeated until the desired goal is achieved.
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music garageale s
milit m ilitary ary zone. zone..? ?
pow heate r er
ZOO communi(ty)s parc bikes m
Shulyavs’ka Metro stationsBeresteys’ka - 5 tools - 2 groups - 1 sensing body Politeknichny Institute
mma sicis rke clas t
er mm hu
tram d roa er t wa
und gro erund
e danc rd s bi
ent donm aban
v ut la dc enc
fo rre st
bu ild er
s tras h f ish ing
ac oniissac n
undergr pig fat
$$hoppingmall marketdead rat
CY FAN quietit elegant
Part of main urban segment District segment Local cluster Single item
Rush hour Roadside
Walking passage Transport
tram road r te wa
er mm hu
ut la dc enc
powe heate r r
music garage sale
ZOO communi(ty)s parc bikes m
lenin casino casino
bu ild er
storage crossing BUNKER
cro ss in g
flane unde grou rnd
m sicism arke clas t
hair products embassy
24:00 - 19:10
Telephone boxes Slow passing car
et et et markmarkmark
people eating market minibuses bu
Streetsale High heals
Closed attractionpark Park
trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees
waiting minibusses minibusses minibusses
Car parking Empty casino
old cars s nice old house
new concepts for dwelling..
BIG old old BIG old BIG BIG
$$hoppingmall empty empty
dea d rat market pigf at
zone..? tary zone..? milit military
casinocasino empty empty empty empty
Busstop Waiting line
Part of main urban segment District segment Local cluster Single item
Group 2 underground metro ride
Group 2 walk
Industry Park Living and commerce
Metro line M
Group 2 walk
Depth perception line
Group 1 underground metro ride
Living Density and commerce
Group 1 walk Group 1 underground metro ride Sound perception line
Density Meating point
Heavy built border Permeable border
Depth perception line
Group 1 walk
Transportation hub Sound perception line
Height Meating point
Group 2 walk
Park Living and commerce
Permeable border Public green Transportation hub
Legenda Group 2 underground metro ride
Group 2 underground metro ride M
Group 2 walk
Group 1 underground metro ride
Metro line M
Depth perception line
Living Density and commerce
Group 1 walk Group 1 underground metro ride Sound perception line
Density Meating point
Heavy built border
Group 2 underground metro ride
Group 1 walk
Heavy built border Permeable border
Depth perception line
Transportation hub Sound perception line
Heavy built border Permeable border Public green Transportation hub
Beforehand Kiev was defined as a city of contrast and extreme juxtapositions. The close adjacency of extremely different city atmospheres and their transition zones are investigated through the metrowalk. For this walk the group was split in two, the area of investigation was the metro line on the east west axis of Kiev. The purpose of the walk was to test the difference in perception of the two groups walking different intervals of the same trajectory, one passing through the transition zone between two stations on foot, the other travelling by metro and just sampling two different atmospheres at the station. The metrowalk was our first real introduction to the physical reality of Kiev. The method to record this experience aims at dissecting information into distinct sensorial experiences, recombining data in a later phase in order to obtain a complete multilateral image of the walk. Each member of the two different teams was assigned a tool, a specific registration method focussing on a specific perception of the trajectory. The tools that were used per group were photography (view), video (sound/view), notes (smell, sound, touch), and sketch; the team member would be strictly confined to this single method of registration. Together the team becomes a sensing body moving through the city. Afterwards the obtained data is filtered and recombined. The various lines of sensory information are interdependent and should be read accordingly. Both the upper and lower half of the map represent two completely different cities but are in fact samples of one and the same city, Kiev. bc kyiv - 48
I tried to adjust the depth of perception map and added some text on geografical map by my impression. but, i did not finish depth perception map.
From Chris to Seong I tried to rewrite the geografical map. I think, and some more that the current one along with the adjustments Dennis made was sufficient. (read back) So what I did. The colors indicate the area that we realy walked through. So no representation of a tourist map, but a representation of the walk itself. Than the hight of the strips indicates what the scale of the part is, if its for example one singular building you walked through in an empty area. Or if the building is part of a large urban segment. The dotted line indicates the
density of the surrounding hight of the surrounding
ok It is still goin slow, too slow actually. or the time is going too fast. I dont know. Anyway, I continues on the depthperception map, and adjusted the other one a bit as well. I Think it is looking ugly at the moment, too dominant, and I didnt know how many meters far or depth for one group is. I looked at every picture I took and tried to guess the dept of the view. Maybe it is not readable for everyone, I can write notation on it if it is necessary. For example at one point
we entered a
, and the view was very narrow, but once we reached the top, we actually had a view over the whole district. I wanted to adjust Dennis’ his map, to each of the walks, but since the time is flying I can not do that anymore. Maybe next person?
ok, it’s going slow (but playing with the fonts is nice, this is dutch bold, which you guys are, so..)
I startedon the map, but it’s pretty intuitve so people who have pictures please adjust it to make it more accurate. completed the legend as much as possible. i thought the city layers strip should relate more to the walk and the experience of the walk itself so i moved the strip next to the time lines and hope somebody can crop out the respective parts (adjust it to the walk itself), sorry didn’t have time for that. if nobody does let me know and i’ll do it when the map is finished. i don’t have a to do list, i have advise from the teachers comments:
Anyway, good luck Nadine
The continious line indicate the
-get rid of residual information
These three things configurate the space.
-not -be a little more precise (i think we’ve heard that one before) -give more information on the experience of the walk -stratification, this map is about layers of information and how they are connected to eachother
tooo much abstraction
Still to do:
hope it helps, have fun with it Maria
Finish depth perception Maria started Sound map Geografical thing i did for group 2 (layer experience map is dennis work) Greetz Chris
I didn’t yet fully finish but updated the sound map...
I started to change the circular metro things, that Maria had put back in. I though it was a bit too dominant, and the curcular didnt really seem to be based on anything but guess. So I made a lillte system for it, based on connection to big road, tram, junction, train station and the numbers of exits. Each ring stands for one of those elements.
now.. I tried to add the experiences that i wrote during the walk, what we saw and etc. and i added the bordes (traffic/ builded) for our group.
I tried to add parts of images that illustrate or compose so
objects that relate to the . I for example leave out grass and advertisement, because that does not generate of relate to sound.
I gave Chernigivs’ka also a tram as Beresteys’ka.
hub because it has the same connection to ,
To strengthen the idea I also added some key words. It could be good that I finish the idea after the last person.
Then I adjust the depth perception map from group I a bit in the end, I think it is more or less ready now. The end seems very ‘monotoom’ but is was more or less the reality. we just walked along the big straight road.
Greets Christian I also put some extra info on the walk experience which Sara started I think (like public green and road barriers). It still looks a bit ‘empty’ compared to your group., but it is also not completely finished. I have to go every picture... maybe i can finished that in the end since there is no one from our group left. This is all I can think of at the moment, I think the map in general is pretty much finished, maybe you can just try to make everything look prettier ;), add a bit of make-up. :D good luck ciaaaao Nadine
it is almost finished, only the last walks, because of the time. and the walk van teatralna to the other station. because nadine and me we were lost and we were back to one station before. Dennis and Seong did the right walk perhaps they can add. good luck! sara
Hi..! First of all, i put the time for each walk we did, and changed the speed line. corrected some lines which were changed. as you can see above I was working on the text and the fonts for it. it took a bit time but i found a website with fonts categorized by theme, like you can find
or or fonts. and it explains most of the time why the font is designed like that. “store2.adobe.com” you must to pay for it but we can perhaps download them illegally like carolien said. but if that is not possible on the website you can write you text and see in any font you want how it is looking like and then we can bring it to the illustratot with print scrn?? anyway sinds my notes are with nadine i didnt change a lot in the notes but i will do it i think on the weekend or something. list to do still inserting the sound map?? and whatever bla bla (look to the previous explations:)
Hi there, good to be back. First read carolien’s text. That will explain quit a lot. I started with the inserting of the geographic map. I cutted the original map and folded/transformed it in a straight line along the metro. I didnt had time for depth perception so somebody should make it. I started the legenda as well. With the colors i used. The legend should be completed at the end of your ad-ons and the colors which you used in the 2e generation map which are still active. For now, the legenda is outside the map because it will grow quit a bit and i can not for see where it should be. Maybe a system of layers in the legenda will make it more clear. My layers start with D3, Dennis
3rd generation and are locked.
Illutrator doesnt have a lot of nice fonts....so I am trying to illegally download some fonts from the internet, but doesn’t work at TU, so I will try it at home and maybe change it later this week. a preliminary to do list... -
to do list... - Complete legenda after your work, one of the last persons could work on a good legenda with layers or sub devisions. etc.. - times with the walks
- inserting (?) - inserting geografic map (Fragments or with depth perception) - whatever you think is missing and should definetly be there
OK, I tried to put words in the map like sara started for her group. (IVO maybe you can elaborate on this with help of the notes) I am halfway through with the changing of fonts, positions and colors, so if anyone thinks it is worth to continue, please do. The first walk, I was in the other group so maybe chris or ivo needs to put some words in there.
- times with the walks - inserting soundmap (?) - inserting geografic map (Fragments or with depth perception) - whatever you think is missing and should definetly be there have fun and see you soon! Carolien
Dennis Note: When i opened the file, fonts used by carolien were not detected by my compu and the layers kaart.jg and nadine.pdf were missing.
I am still a little confused about the depth perception map. It is suposed to show how far you can look around right? It gets a little distorted by the lines vertical lines. Well i dont see how we can really improve it. I made them gradient so make it clear that it is about 5%.
perception of depth. And i dropped the oppacity with
I made the geographical thingy for group1. And i tried to change some linetypes and aligned some texts and heigts. We [group1] should ad some information along the route which group 2 has in abundance. I added some. Ivo kicked out the black wale. The actual depth of the
land. Yeah, maybe it is totally irrelevent. And th stay healthy
OOPS MY Capslock was still on. I switched off the black whale thing and moved the depth perception map to the metroline and the transportation hubs back to the metro point. I’ve added some more traffic borders . What is very important I think is that now a lot of the elements have this linetype: like the traffic road, permeable borders and the transporthub. I think we need more differentiation there, because they seem related to one-another when they are not (always). Maria changed the sound map, it’s better like this; not-centred like it was before the 3rd generation, but I’m not convinced how it is still, some room for improvement, but can’t think of any way now. This geographical thing still needs to be done for group one, and maybe the depth perception too. Well that’s it for now. Enjoy it
hey, i tried to reintroduce some information about the walks and the metro stations themselves. i’m thinking about the things we had initially on the map and that simply dissapeared (excuse the spelling), like how busy or monumental the metro stations are. i tried to get carolien’s metro cities back, but i don’t know how that file was made so they ended up as concentric circles that represent the area of influence of the metro hub. i also marked the switch points as far as i remembered, there must be some more on the left bank. i added information similar to the one we have in the train map (see legenda) and restructured the sound map along the walks and not the metro line. the scaling is a bit weird on those and i hope i didn’t fuck up the concept on that one ( the original is still around if you want it. ok, that’s pretty much it. good luck for the rest maria
Hi, I tried to do the same thing as christian did for group 1. Its in layer pictures 2, but it is not finished yet, thats why it is turn off. It is actually quiet a lot of work, and I am not so pleased with the result as chris result is much nicer. I also guessed a bit where the actually sound cut came from, can someone (who did this) tell me this precisely? so it can correspond to the picture? just to be extremely precise... I changed a bit of the words, I think the smallest it can be is 3pt. smaller than that is impossible to read. Thats it for now, my 2 hour session is over, maybe we can discuss together the absolute final final version.? greets Nadine
Finetuning here we go, Must say that i like chris his ads, maybe a bit to late because we are finetuning but what the heck... it looks nice. If somebody wants to do it for our group, feel free...
Haaai, There we are again for the final cut. What has to be done is at least the textsizes.
I focussed on tuning fontheights and colors and tried to keep the actual walk in the
middle of attention
. That is simply a lot of work to correct every font, skew them, color the nice, make other lines thinner and lighter, try to give the red line more attention. Well sometimes it is just enough.
Healthy for sure, Dennis note: i missed a lot of .jpg files while opening. Please put them in a .rar file as well with the .ai or .pdf
What I did is creating
distorted images with the sound. The soundline to look at it
itself does not attract the reader more consiously, nor does it give the proper information. One could see the image both with the line a create an idea of how the space (soundbased) must have been like... at least that is what I hope to achieve. If someone feels to do the same thing for the other, feel free. I just used one image that complements the line, and cut out the parts that not add something to the sound of that space, and than used desaturate and a grafic pen filter. Greetings, Christian
SNOWMAP â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;A 7 hour walk, no registration, little visibility, physical casualties, wet cloths and a map to produce two weeks later......â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;
So many nights I've heard the rain, ma Have heard matter weeping ... I am m alone, alone my mind is drawn TTowards To rd dss la d lacustrine dwellings. A ugh I slept on wet boards, As though A wave willl sla slap me in the back I start from sleep, ep, and it seems eb I haven't drawn the bridge from the bank.
A void of history extends,
ple want to go back
An sense how through so much rain And The heavy timber stilts are tumbling.
ple want to go back want to go back
g intuitive and wing
So many nights I've heard the rain, Always starting, always waiting ... A I am alone, my mind is drawn Towards lacustrine dwellings ...
which grows and shrinks depending on m and the color which represents the erience to emotion
George Bacovia (1881-1957)
ent from rain to snow and growing f view, more chaos less visibility
Legenda Hard build border
ange of weather and visual experience
Train Metro A few people want to go back More people want to go back Almost all want to go back Connecting intuitive and traced drawing ow and growing less visibility
Trajectory which grows and shrinks depending on enthousiasm and the color which represents the visual experience to emotion Hard build border
nd visual experience
Train from rain to snow and growing Development obstacle of view, more chaos less visibility Metro A few people want to go back More people want to go back Break
Almost all want to go back
City edge Connecting intuitive and traced drawing Trajectory which grows and shrinks depending on enthousiasm and the color which represents the visual experience to emotion
Development from rain to snow and growing obstacle of view, more chaos less visibility
Break City edge
The snowwalk was based on the original idea to follow a trajectory along the Dnipro River and see the northern city edge at the Obolon district. Both the riverside, which splits the city in two parts, and the city edge, in large part created by an abrupt ending of former Soviet housing, are defined to be the most physical â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;border conditionsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; in the city. Our primary plan to investigate the river and the city edge by use of different tools: sketching, notation, photographing, filming, proved to be impossible during the walk by a rapid change of weather conditions. From that moment on the weather determined our walk. With the increase of rain and later snow both visibility and enthusiasm dropped. The weather determined the physical route and the tempo by the stops we made; for dry shoes, umbrellas, shelter and the warmth and speed of the metro. The impossibility of recording with the predefined method actually becomes the recording in itself for this map. bc kyiv - 54
That was confusing. I did not really get into the drawing, that’s why I also did not change that much. I connected Chris’ memory drawing with the traced map. The fact they are rotated gives the drawing a nice dynamic I think. I did not change the fonts, because everytime I opened a drawing from you guys, at least a couple of fonts are always missing and are replaced. So maybe
at the faculty
that can be done on monday , if we meet at least, which now is not really clear to me, yet. I’ve changed the hard built border, where it represented the water, because the water is, for me at least, spacious and open. I moved the part of the walk where we started at the water edge and saw this church on the water, this was more down than was drawn, (just being precise...) Added a couple of words here and there, connected some more parts of the poem. And added
phonecalls when Seong was missing some more
I hope I cleared it up a bit, if not...sorry.Goodluck and see yall tuesday. Ivo
Ok Ivo, First of all I added some text ( in de layer diary) because it was important for the way we walked. At one point I remeber Carolien wanted to go home, so we decided to go to the nearest metro station. We ask a person at the juinction, so he gave us that direction. I didnt do anything with the fonts yet( maybe you can look into that?). You missed last studio, but Oscar put some emphasis on using fonts. each font has its own history, and it should represent what is says or add some etra value to it. Than I add some ‘hard build borders’, which are garages, the hill were the trainrail is located, and the water border. I think it was important for our walk, because we wanted to cross the trainrail but it was not possible until the rail was on ground level. I also adjust the walkline a bit. In podil we lost each other at one point, and got back together because of the phone call and the explanation of the boat cafe. The same happened at the train station, we walked back, looking for a toilet, and than it seemed to be the direction of the metro station. Anyway thats all I could think of at the moment. If you dont understand something, you can mail me today. Maybe to add some information, Christiane drew the
on the map I changed the part along the river of the “exact” route on the map. I recall we really walked along the river there over a bridge that was under construction thats why it was not on the map. but not on the pedestrian bridge.
I tried to add the change of perspective on maria’s working. At that time we can not recognize view of perspective due to snowing. so, I want to express the perspective of
experience by emotion in certain atmosphere.
second i made the cuts in weather change on the map. the plan is to cut there parts out on the map when it is finished (on monday) and sprinke/bathe the paper according to the rain/snow.
intensity of the
further i connected the parts of the that are black to places on the map, that fit with my experience of the place. o and in the lower left corner a start of a legenda enjoy! Carolien
memory and Sara drew the actually reality Both walklines are still in the map according to his
drawing, but you can always adjust something. Maybe connect? And the Obolong circle is a zoomed in map. Good luck and see you tuesday, nadine
fo esuaceb( elfi eht gnidaolnwod htiw smelborp emos dah i ko nepo i nehw dnA .)elfi eht fo esuaceb osla kniht i tub tenretni ym yromem fo esuaceb elbisiv ton si gnihtemos taht syas rotartsulli saw ti epoh i .emas eht llits si ti tub sgniht fo tol a deirt i .melborp .tnatropmi yllaer gnihtemos ton t’ndid ti yhw s’taht depots tsuj rotartsulli ym krow emos retfa nikool s’ti .dedeen yllaer ton yawyna si ti kniht i dna ,tol a egnahc ): !LUC yrev ,kniht i doog
with downloading the ok i had some file (because of my internet but i think also because of the file). And when i open illustrator says that something is not visible because of memory problem. i tried a lot of things but it is still the same. i hope it was not something really important. after some work my illustrator just stoped that’s why it didn’t change a lot, and i think it is anyway not really needed. it’s lookin good i think, very CUL! :)
ok what i did, i changed the of the ivo’s snow (i think this is the layer ‘new snow’)in some places. made it denser where the rain/snow was more. (perhaps we should make them some times shorter en so, to make the quantity of rain/snow more clear _i didnt have the time but if you think is relevant than may be you can..) I dont know if we should keep both of the snow/rain lines actually, because in some points their combination is nice, in some not really. now i let them both but i made some of marias lines less dense when they were the same with the one of ivo’s . (there is a copy layer.)
siht kniht i( wons s’ovi eht fo ytisned eht degnahc i ,did i tahw ko eht erehw resned ti edam .secalp emos ni)’ wons wen‘ reyal eht si semit emos meht ekam dluohs ew spahrep( .erom saw wons/niar i_ raelc erom wons/niar fo ytitnauq eht ekam ot ,os ne retrohs uoy eb yam naht tnaveler si kniht uoy fi tub emit eht evah tndid )..nac senil niar/wons eht fo htob peek dluohs ew fi wonk tnod I ni ,ecin si noitanibmoc rieht stniop emos ni esuaceb ,yllautca sairam fo emos edam i tub htob meht tel i won .yllaer ton emos . s’ovi fo eno eht htiw emas eht erew yeht nehw esned ssel senil ).reyal ypoc a si ereht( era yeht fi kniht tnod i esuaceb ,reyal taht esolc i :sllac enohp eht tsuj naht era yeht skniht ydobemos fi ,klaw siht rof tnaveler yllaer .niaga elbisiv meht ekam .yaw eht yb yraid eht tuoba neilorac htiw eerga I !nuf evah
the phone calls: i close that layer, because i dont think if they are really relevant for this walk, if somebody thinks they are than just make them visible again.
I agree with carolien about the diary by the way. have fun! sara.
ok, what i did. carolien took out the end of the
what i did:
actual route because we were not able the see anything there, thats why i took out the whole gray thing which was there (hard build border) because it is a bit strange if we cannot see it where we were how we can see the rest? but i put it onder an other layer (hard build border on the city edge) if we want to make it visible after.
adjusted the snow lines took out the actual route at the end of the trajectory, at the city
I dont really remember anything
edge. but that there were some garages and a lot of wind. So i blanked out the route (in the layer no perception, if you wish to switch it off )
i looked to the snow lines again i changed the tickness and the density of them in some places. but i dont know in the begin maria was talking about taking one out the map, and i said on the second generation too, that in some places it is confusing to have both of them. but i didnt do anything about them perhaps we can discuss about it when we r going to meet each other.
I adjusted in some places the direction and the density of the snow (the one from ivo) according to what i remembered. (but who can think about snow when its weather like this! :)
i still think the phone calls are not relevant for this map i make them invisible again, but we can still discuss about it! and i changed some line weights.
good luck! and i would like to meet on monday or friday to talk about the groupwork and to actually test these prints. I think that after such a long time apart we should be able to sit down for a few hours to spend some time on the groupwork together.
i put the legenda in one seperate layer and took out the information which was not anymore on the map. but i didnt understand what carolien means with adding the snow lines, because i tought the last item on the agenda was about them?
what should be done: I saw just now that the legenda is a little strange. the snow and wind lines should be in there, so please add this.
ok i see you tomorrow to talk about the maps! till then! sara
o and about richard long. I have a picture of this wind drawing in the book walkscapes. But what is looks like is a circle with on every point an arrow that symbolizes the dominant wind direction. I will take it tuesday.
the inversion For nadine, i think that maria just made a tryout and did not have the intention to just do one square, it was more like a test right? It is probably faster in photoshop once we are finished.....and we should test some ways of printing it. I liked the texture of the snowlines when you print black on white. So the drawing reads not only visually but also in touch, almost like braille. have fun & enjoy! Carolien
this is the most confusing thing i’ve ever seen or done. i couldn’t make a decision on which trajectory to use, especially because the obolon part is an
unfortunately :) i begin with same sentence as Christian.. I redrew the trajectory. but now via the original map (look underlayer map). I tought perhaps
we should be
i offed the extra obolon circles dennis put in because i find them confusing, we didn’t get lost. oscars
were for the train comments on map, where we did get lost, so i didn’t see the point of it. i tried to add something to show the change of perspective due to weather, but it is pretty hard in plan. i put the cone/circle thingy as a litteral representation of the amplitude and focus of the angle of view. reminder about the
So here is the snowmap, 2th generation but from scratch.
“extremely precise” :).
Then i tried to show the trajectory like Christian did. With the change of the thickness and color of the line. (for what these means look to the Christian’s explanation.) and because i didnt know which drawing of the trajectory we are going to use, i added the breaks that we did and the train line on Christian trajectory and in the ‘trajectory by map’ too. Ok now the three layers ‘Trajectory by map’ and ‘breaks by map’ and the ‘train by map’ are drown via the map of obolon. And the layers ‘new trajectory’ and ‘train’ and ‘breaks’ are not.
other than that... good luck for the circels go to dennis explanation.. maria
I tried to start a map where it is all about the loss of visibility and orientation over time and so
I redrew the . First part from metro to metro along the river Second part, from metro to river back. The color of the line indicates the
experience on the way in relation to emotion. At certain point it almost dissapeared, at then gets back. You get a sort of zombi, and than suddenly you see something so you get back in the real world. The thickness of the line indicates the enthousiasme witch we brought with us. In the beginning big, after coffee even more, than with the rain lesser and lesser along with people getting crippled that influenced the mood. Hope its clear. To do: Legenda. Greets Christian
good luck!! Sara.
over distance. We were not at any point really lost but there was a problem of orientation when we entered the circle and when we tried to get back. The orientation of the group on the map and the actual position differs. Combined with the drop op sight. And i tried to combine it with the triangle theory of oscar. The point where you want to go [metro], the point where you are and the point where you think you are or going. So i copied more metro stations. These are the ones we have in our mind. The low transparency equals the lack of orientation. The lines where we want to go become thicker because more people want to go home the futher we get. People get cold is represented in the color of the line. It is all quit hard because we need eyelevel sight combined with a plan. So maybe i started a drawing that will end up with the same result as last week. I am not happy with the simple trajectory line. If you’ve got a better idea please draw it next to this one. Maybe the combination can be interesting. There are more interpretations possible to this walk. Maybe there should be more maps. And again... the legenda in the end. So all radical ideas, this should be the most experimental map. Feel free to alter them or let them out. Futher inspiration: A splash of water in the end? Lost, cold, points for wishing to return.
The big circle dennis drew is the metrosquare.
I hate micheal schumacher! Sightless. Umbarela ela ela... Goodluck, Dennis
I tried to make snow...
little memory on the C drive, I finally started
no really, I used Maria’s layer as a background but put
on the snowmap, so not much has changed. But I think it already turned out really cool with the previous work. I think that its nice to keep both the layer of maria and ivo or the snow experience. What I was trying to do...., was adding some more differentiation with different lineweights for the snowlines made by maria. So the differences become a little bit more readable, there is a little more constrast between a little rain and the a snowstorm.
snow perpendicular (loodrecht) to the obstacle on our way, I used normal straight lines that shift
After a lot of phonecalls a laptop with CS2 and
to me. i this snow map remains a added a “snow layer”, that is the 1000 dotted lines that try to define the density and intensity of the rain also making the image of the walk more blurred, so the worse it is the less you can see.
trajectory, because it is a kind
and rotate and create more chaos and a bigger obstacle as there is more snow. I also put some more lines about wanting to go back, like when Carolien got injured etc. for printing and layout: I adjusted some line weights and worked on the legenda. I think this drawing needs to be on landscape A0 (2 cheap A1’s) it already doesn’t fit on the A1 boundary, and will be too small.
So if someone feels like we should continue with this, please do! And the other thing I changed is switching of the diary layer. And for the poem i made the connectionlines to the map less visible.. I think the poem is enough text for this map, because it is graphically strong and too much text always attracks a lot of attention that should be for the actual lines. If yo don’t agree you can switch it back on. enjoy this
i just don’t know,. the comment was that you still cannot
feel the snow if you guys have ,
So here is the 3th generation snowmap, I started to clean up the drawing i accordng to what is on the original hardcopy. I removed the obolon circle, and changed the trajectory to Chris his idea. Updated the legenda where possible. And raised some font heights [7 to 5 pt depending on importance] whereever i spotted them, and aligned them better to the lines. And i updated the phone lines. They were very small in print. I made them bigger and used red. Oke, color was not suposed to come on the map but with everything gray you cant spot such small lines.
other ideas... oh, i tried to apply some filters to the lines, increas the confusion, but it was technically not possible, you can play with that, maybe it works for you.
I like Chris his trajectory which grows and shrinks. depending on enthousiasm and the color which represents the visual experience to emotion. I changed the metro line in the same way because enthousiasm raised during warming up in th metro.
have fun, good luck maria
And i still like Carolien’s plan to mak cuts in weather change on the map and to cut there parts out on the map when it is finished and sprinke the paper according to the intesity of the rain/snow. Lets do it for next week. And more poetic input? check out famouspoetsandpoems.com
that’s it for now, enjoy it.
i read some snow poems but they are
quit corny. Have a lovely time, Dennis
Note: One might say that we have two double notations but i think they are quit different. 1.
Enthousiasm vs desire to go home:
The lines from Chris which show enthousiasm The lines from Dennis which tells desire to go home, but give the direction where home is [metro station] 2. Sight level The cones that show amplitude and focus of the angle of view The color of chris his trajectory which shows the visual experience to emotion Hey guys,
very frustrating but my computer just 15 minutes before time, and off corse I didnt save stuff. Grrr Ok the basic points; I think it is better to inver the whole drawing, not just one square. It was too visible, and the overal impressiong about this walk was snow, and bad weather. and because of this we were not able to see a lot, what happens as well as we invert everything. We should so this at the faculty, print it, adjust, print again and so on... Than about rescaling to A4/A3, I think it becomes almost impossible to keep in nice on that format. We will lose so much information on such a small scale. I had an other idea. What about we adjust/force the dwaring into something more horizontal so that we can spread it over a few pages in the book. ( I dont really like a folded A1 in a A4 book). We can add some kind of text for the book as a manuel (gebruiksaanwijzing). Ex. turn the book 90 degrees (if the drawing is suppose to rotate) or someting like that. Ok than the hierarchy of the line, I think the walkline should get more attention as the rest. So I made it a bit darker, and the snowline a transparency of 70%. The
fact&fiction line is also a bit thinker, becasue when we will invert, it is needed. Then I took out the too dominant snow line, the thick ones, it took too much attention I think. I swiched off the cones, maybe the next person can adjust the snowlines a bit more to the cones (visibility perception, and weight of the view). Ok thats it for now, good luck and enjoy the nice weather. Nadine
Wauw.. this map is getting
Please read Dennis e-mail over the quotes first.
Please read my send mail over the quotes first.
Well, after the black square was put in and somebody made a clipping mask, we missed the trajetory after the square until the city edge. So I had to find it in an old drawing and put it back in, from version2. Nobody noticed before me, or was it intentional? Anywho...
I’ve looked up richard long’s windmaps, well couldn’t
I really like the look of the black square with inverted lines on top of it. It works rather well, only am not sure about the choice of spot and size, but a great start. Had to rework some of the layers there to make it all work out. And I agree with Dennis, it will be also very nice to really cut in the map, but for publishing this looks good. I switched of the cones (old or new) because: they look like moments where we stopped, stood still and looked around, very static in other words, as opposed to our experience where we were just walking, so much
more dynamic. That’s also why I put both ways of snowmapping in the drawing, they reinforce/strengthen each other, when just one layer is on, it feels like something is missing. I agree with “no diary”, only the poem is in. It’s enough text, links to spots of the walk and looks good. That’s all
remain healthy indeed Ivo
find anything. is more a landscape artist or i didnt look that well. I leave the cones to chris but i think that after maria’s intervention they already do meet up quit well, but we will see chris his result. I am not sure about the black square. I think that cutting out the drawing is more extreme and clear. What is important is what you see after cutting out., because the white presentation wall is not sufficient. It should be a black paper and with the drawing hanging a little bit to the front so space is generated between the black and the drawing. Than we create a blind spot.
hello adjustments on the snow map. I guess the problem remains the representation of snow and how tha affects vision. I adjusted the new snow layer, incresed width and density along the way. So we have to make a decision between the two snow layers we have (that is the snows and the new snow) but since I made the first one I’m kinda attached to it so I don’t want to make the decision. I also think that if we keep the cones we keep the first type of snow, if we don’t we keep the secon type. I also like the cones :) I like the cut out idea very much. I think it’s the best represenation. Problem is the two walk lines (going and coming back) are very close together and how do you cut out just one of them? I made some attempts at this black-out bit, they’re in the layers called blank, check them out.
Black alone printed on the drawing indicates
good luck and enjoy
or the moon going before the sun :) And i think that the white lines wont be visible after print out. Of course, in the bookwork it will be a black square. Nice
I focussed on finetuning. Changed some lineweights, linecolor, font height, fontcolors. Keep in mind that thesse maps are represented on the wall as A1 but eventually have to go into the book. So the last generation have to be adapted to A3 or even A4 size. That will alter quit a lot. And why is the diary left out? remain healthy dennis
TRAINMAP Deceived by the city. On projection and orientation.
n d o n
Aba ndo ned str eet s
d s t r e
25 k k h at
25 k m/h
k h at
k h at
enture rT amadv urney Tramjo
of lig 25 k m/h 25 k
h m/h 0 km/h
at A b a n d o
Aba ndo ned str eet s
tria l li gh
men ent er
sa lesm an
e d s t r e
? B l ac
k h at
k h at
25 km /h
k h at
k h at
venture Tramad urney Tramjo ?
ng dark 19:55 Getti
Str pe ipe/h less 0 km road
25 km 18:10 in!
re is The
Pe op le
co me fr om
Imagined walk Public transportation Public transportation_ night Public transportation_ night option 2 Hard border Heavy traffic barrier Permeable enclosure Telephone call Projection line Dachas Public greenery Industry Legenda Walk diagram Bridge Index of social activity Dispersal of people *
Zoomed in courtyard Visual orientation line
Point of (dis)orientation Train track Walk scheme Real walk Imagined walk Public transportation Public transportation_ night Public transportation_ night option 2 Hard border Heavy traffic barrier Permeable enclosure Telephone call Projection line Dachas Public greenery Industry
59 - bc kyiv
plastic 17:30 s
Co ns p truc tio t ns ite i
Point of (dis)orientation Train track Walk scheme Real walk
Visual orientation line
17:45 2 km
Zoomed in courtyard
Dispersal of people *
Index of social activity
s wi th
Alco hol smel l
Co /h lle ail ct bo ive xe at s en stree tra nc t e
ials erc comm
0 km 2 km /h /h
Calmness 3 km ergrou /h nd
/h 0 km 20:30-21:00
The initial purpose of the train walk was to experience Kiev through the pursuit of the railroad, which encircles the city. Discovering the impossibility of that aim made the walk an attempt to reach by two groups a certain train station from opposite directions. Two metro stations, one on the north and the other on the south of the specified target, were chosen as the starting points. During this walk both groups had a similar division of tasks; each person focused on the walk by utilizing one specific tool: sound, notes, pictures and film. As one of the groups got lost, the mapping technique proved to be relevant. At this point the walk and the map get a completely different meaning. Instead of recording information about the surrounding, the surrounding becomes a tool to map the trajectory. The map of the trainwalk focuses on the route itself and the difficulty of orientation. Connection and displacement lines are used to represent confusion about the actual location and the way the location is read on the map. The two converging trajectories never meet and so they are separated. bc kyiv - 60
Chris to Seong
Seong to Ivo
Ivo to group
I’m sorry I did not really understand Seong’s position on the drawing, but I tried to find places or ideas that were not yet drawn by you guys. So I added the building we went through and where Chris sprayed in the courtyard. I switched off tram option 2, added a beer, and tried to
our group( dennis, carolien, maria),
Sara to Christian
I wanted to integrate the
exprience by inverting the colornotations
and then took bus and metro. So, i was tried to put some Images by myself i feel during bus and metro.
image of the walk by
(but I failed) so used the traffic and built borders to add a bit more detail.
Furthermore, sara in my working edited on black thick line made by previous drawing .
Have a nice day! in Poland.
trip by tram, what do you see from fragments at high
the tram window, like only
way the route.
Furthermore I started to write down a collection of details in text parallel to the route to create a
I put some borders that we saw in the walk. I tried to show what happenned with the dachas. (like the dachas which were added and the borders around them) i showed our breaks and where we took the tram. and i added an other tram route with the name
tram option 2” because i think it can be also
Something which is not yet finished before deadline, but available for comments tomorrow.
“ the one that we did.
i think that’s it. any way i hope the name of the layers are clear enough to find what u r searching. good luck!!
Dzien dobry, I’ve changed the small courtyard, made it more readable and changed the spray-icon. I’ve added some times to the drawing although not all of them are from fact, because my camera did not have correct time/date, so looked at content and map to figure out where and when. The fonts are a bit confusing for me, but don’t have a better option yet, changed some spelling-errors. The legenda looks complete, so didn’t change that. I’ve looked at the line-weights etc. and adjusted it here and there. But all looks quite confusing to me, but I can
Hallo, I rearranged texts. Rewrote them, and used different lettretypes. Personally I have doubts if it add’s something, I mean the fonttype. Its like writing ‘green grass’ with a green color. However a comment for Ivo. The small plan you’ve drawn of the courtyard was discussed mainly about the used icon for spraying. And the redability of the thing, They at firth did nog recognize what it could be. No suggestions on what to resume... Greets Christian
mission accomplished! still understand it, so
Hi!!! ok.. First, i changed the tram lines again because i agree that at one point we took an other direction but i think the one which was drawn was not the correct one. That’s why i changed the direction and i changed the line that indicates the night. I let the night line begin earlier because it was almost night when we took the tram in front of the train station. What i did next i put the hours on the trajectory to show how long we did about the walk and as reference i used my pictures. but because the battery of my camera was finished after the first tram trip, i couldnt give any information about the rest. IVO, i remember that you took a video, perhaps you can complete the rest. I put also some information which was missing like high traffic barriers in other places and stuff like that. I changed the
First of all, i read maria and dennis’s artcle who were our group. so, i tried to adjust some texts on dennis’ working to express the confusing.
legenda too, deleting the information and adding the missing ones. but it is still not complete i think. But actually what i think is still missing, is the phone calls because we talked 2 times that‘s why we should have 4 lines to show them, one to the actual place that you were and the other to the place you think you were. That’s why i added for one of the talks an other line to show the place that we tought we were talking to (i looked to the projection lines). but the other one i didnt know because it is not on the trajectory that the other group made?? That’s why CAROLIEN if you can look and change them i t would be good. Oh, and i added the last phone call too, to show as the lost group you were still earlier home :) , actually to show that we were still in the walk and you finished it. ok, this is basicly what i did. Good luck !! sara
What did I do?
well no major changes on my part as well. just scaled the whole drawing 120% so it still fits the page nicely but we make everything a little bit more readable. Futher I scaled up some texts that were not readable in print.
I added orientationpoints and disororientationpoints to the group 1 map (we where group one of course!). Secondly I introduced a way to symbolize the
encounter of people, and the way they where disperced along the walk. Through small blacks dots. For the rest I’m very satified with the result and redability of the total. Greets for the weekend, Christian
i added some more info on the second half of the walk. that there was industry behind the wall and the other courtyard nxt to the road. Maybe it is too much info....well we can always delete it again. so well that’s it for this map. I think for all the maps we are now working in black white and red. Is his already a start for a general layout or just a coincidence. because also on the metro i am now changing the colors into this b/w/red scheme. ok I think it looks great! good luck chris with
doing something..... have fun!
i didn’t change sooo much, because i don’t think it is needed anyway. but what i did? i change some lineweights, because they were not the same with the legenda. about the circels that nadine is talking about i made them as the linetype with the heavy traffic bareer because they mean the same thing, and that’s why too there is not anymore a circel on the legenda called high traffic bareer. i added some words to the map. and i used the name of the
coffee and cigarettes
movie “ ” to show our cofee break. :) it is the same way how the name of the movie is written (print sc and some photoshop). i connected the circel on the walk of the first group with the original one which was already there. so your walk is still seperate because we were really seperate but it is still connected to the actual map. and at the end i added some stuff missing to the legenda. that was for my part! good luck / greetings / love it /
stay healthy / enjoy / have a lovely
Ok guys, I agree on the fact that this map is more or less finished. We can always keep on changing stuff but I’m not sure if it will become better. At one point too mich information may reduce the actual readable information. I think the walklines fade a bit away because of all the adjustments. I rearrange the lagers a bit, so that some are on top of the others. I change the lineweight of the walking lines into 1 (instead of 0.8) so that they are all the same. , and I changed the color of the tramline from black into blue. I think it was already dark at the time we went back into the tram after the coffee break. At least the time says 19.15 and the text says getting dark... I adjusted the dashed line of the telephone conversation, I think it is nicer like this,. Ow and I updated the legenda. There was some stuff missing. I dont know who did the round cicle thing called ‘high traffic barrier’ because there was already a heavy traffic barrier existing. The heavy one is dashed, the other one not. I leave it like this at the moment, because a dached circle is not really nice, and the other lines not dashed makes it confusing. So maybe the next person has a
fresh mind and idea :)...? Thats all for now, good luck!
have fun / best of luck / czesc / greets /
the mistery gets some shape now.. after making my hands and the table in the smoking room covered by coffee, i made our coffee stain and i burned with a cigarette. :) but anyway i let it in the original size of the mug and the cigarette. i let all the drops, we can take them out when we want. i made the stain a bit transparent. (i dont know how strong it is when we will print it out). i tought i could change the lines too, but i let them to you carolien, i didnt want to change the deal. :) have a nice weekend!!
start explanation with the map carolien to maria
Nadine to Sara (wihtouh h :)
maria to nadine
I tried to remap our walk, sorry it seemed double work since you already did that on the first generation of the metro map... The red dots are orientation points, which I still remembered. I made some sketses so the red lines are orietation lines. Then there is the grey lines, which indicates
i took notes on this walk so i tried to add impressions of the urban fabric to the map. the first part of the walk up to the intersesction seemed to be rural, with very permeable borders that contain public greenery. so the grey patches are public greenery, the dotted rectangles the courtyard projected border (not very precise)
the phonecall from Ivo to Carolien. I remembered they said highway somewhere, and I though at that moment it was there. When they told Ivo they were lost is they were on a
the second line, and Carolien actually told me were they were in reality. The traffic barrier is also added for our walk, I also did the ones I
remember as a barrier. Then there is the greenery wich we say as the end of the city. The maps should be deleted in the end, so that the whole maps can be scale to a bigger size. If you dont understand something, you can always call me :D ciao
Ok sara, I took away the too dominant ‘night’ line from Chris, which Maria made less by putting the transparency down, and added a second tram line in a different color. It indicates the time (night) and also it wasnt exactly on the same tram line, because it was in the other direction., and I clearely remembered that at one point we took a different direction. Ok than i tried to put the speed, which is when we walked slowly 2 to 3 and 0 when we stopped to sketch and take pictures. I guessed the speed for the tram, which is 25 I think (it was kinda slow) but you can always adjust. Then there is the time, which I dont really know
I didnt take any pictures
because , so maybe you can look into that. I only remeber that it was more or less 8 when we arrived at the mc donalds. I tried to adjust a bit the lineweights, so maybe that is better for the last person indeed. I didnt change green for orientation and red for desorientation cuz it is probably more precise if someone from that group does it. So that is still a to do thing.
as dotted line the walk we thought we did to darnytsa station the second part of the walk had this abandoned industrial, dense traffic feel. the thick black lines are the built borders (high walls or obtuse fences, factories, garages, in any way opaque deliniations). the barred line is dense traffic flow, dense enough to become a border between you and the other side.
then the projection lines, so where we thought we were at the moment on the map. I put in the projected darnytsa station where we thought we would find it. Then the bus and the metro.
, that is the red dots i added are things that make an impression and organize my walk cronologically, i didn’’t say what they were because i think density is important, rather than fact, so the fact that i only remember things befor the intersection and not after when everything is a monotonous blur. that’s it for me, good luck with the rest.
The red lines are the points where we looked at the map and tried to orient ourselves on certain points. the red line is from the point where we looked on the map to the object or place we oriented on. maybe it is handy to cut out the background again and only put the walkroutes (real & thought) and the points of orientation (like the rayon office we entered the two traintracks, the statue of the motherland and the metrostation.) have fun with it! Carolien
First of all, read maria’s explanation. So i tried to focus on the remark of oscar. “how do you represent confusion without making the map unreadable?” This is not easy. Text can be a powerfull tool. And the projected route versus the actually trajectory should be underlined. So i made them harder. The only connection of the two groups is the telephone call and this conversation did not alter our route but made us seek for a casco building [landmark] which was between us. And in the end our group finally spotted a train which finally made clear where we were.
train map take 2 i deleted the icon layers, but didn’t replace them with another type of graphics (can’t think of any) the bus and metro rides for going home are just offed, (marc said) they are residual information and irrelevant to the walk, but if any of you guys feels they should be there they’re still around. i separated the
two walks as they are in fact completely we did not meet in the
different and i think the fact that end should be more obvious. and i added a walk scheme.
I think that the walk stopped where the orientation was final. So the
get back home. But we were still trying to confirm our location so the
bus ride is not included because it was only to
route is not inluded but the orientation lines are. So the bridge in not there, its a blank map with only orientation points, represents
. confusion. And i added the I dont really like their represenation but it is a start. Maybe insert of green for orientation and red for desorientation.
Good luck Nadine
on the map I drew our real walk (in the courtyard there is a dotted part because we were already a bit desoriented there, so the map is not exact.)
I think that the map is allready pretty good. It might need some better hatching or lineweight.
it may be interesting to add some to the walks, one seems a lot longer than the other one, but that relates to speed, so tram group can you add some stuff on that. i made a legend for the lines, feel free to expand, contract and modify it, at least i did. i’m still not convinced by the lineweights as it seems to be illegible at print scale. this is maybe a task for whom ever is last, make the thing legible in print scale!
represent confusion without making the
“how do you map unreadable?”
Fine tuning...Fine tuning...
Well, I was one of the people who felt very satisfied with the map last week. My only concern remains lineweight and scale as some things can still not be seen in print scale. But this is a task for the last guy in line.
So yeah, this map is almost finished. With the absence of hard critique from the tutors not a lot should be changed. Only fine tuning.
What I revisited was the map of the surroundings o the walk. At least for our group I think the two halves were very different and somehow that is still not very evident. I added a social interaction index
( of course), but I want to mark the difference in how busy one part was as opposed to how boringly liniar the other one was. I put some “walk text”, just one word, the font is made up and the word is a graphical object not a text box, so if someone wants to change that you have to redo it from scratch. I don’t feel any action is further neccessary on my part. I’m still pleased with the thing. Good start good finish! Love it! Maria
train map final? take,
I changed the (des) orientation points, i spotted blue so i thought i could use green 1 pt lines, but appeared very ugly, red is the color of 2008 so i turned them back to red. If you do not agree, you may turn them green, purple or yellow. Still a little confused about the ‘landmarks’ vs orientation points. Sometimes the line of orientation
So what is a landmark? I added some text where needed.
ends in a dot, sometimes not. When there is a landmark?
since the map is almost ready, I didn’t change much, only this courtyard at the beginning of our walk and the green stuff with a gradient because it is not a hard border/wall I’ve put some kind of hatch in the dachas to represent order and chaos at the same time, not sure about that. I’ve changed the traintracks to fit the other maps so it’s precise and i’ve changed the M at the end of our route into McD logo. that should be it if not than let me know. greetings Ivo
I changed some drawing orders and aligned some lines, and words better. I hope that we are not correcting ourselves all the time :) I upgraded some font heights [really ... 2.5 pt cannot be seen, and no it does not change if it is A1 or A6. Remember that you are working on a 400% zoom-in-level or even higher. Thank god these are vectors] Best of luck, Dennis The map is a little small compared to the paper. It looks artistic, all that white, but in the end it should be scaled up with 20% or so, just as much that the tramline does not fall off the map. During working it should stay this size because of the hidden layers, but just before printing, the visible layers should be scaled up to max. Because the actual map where all the information is, is only a quarter of the page or so...
hi guys.. there is something mysterious happening with this map.. :)
well, to make a long story short, spill any coffee on the drawing, or printed it. But that it was on the correct spot, that’s weird. I put some cigarettes in there too, maybe we can burn some holes in the drawing :-)) tried to work on some lines etc, and tested some prints, to see how it starts to look on paper, not bad, not bad. I changed the courtyard where Chris sprayed something, hopefully now it’s clear added some dots here and there. It’s difficult to establish a hierarchy about the lineweights and walks and borders. enjoy, Ivo [oh during the coffee break some people had some chips and some bread, maybe we can put that in too, and I had a chocolate milkshake at McD.... ]
hi guys.. there is something mysterious happening with this map.. :) i played around with lineweight some more. reverted the traffic line to thick, but changed its transparency and size of the gaps. i also made a different representation for the hard borders (the originals are still in a layer somewhere). increased the thickness of the walk line (i think, cause i played so much with it i don’t really know anymore). other than that i don’t know.. i still think it’s not visible enough but i have no clue, i tried colours and dotted lines and i just don’t like anything.. hope you’re
there is something map.. :)
mysterious happening with this
everybody remembers this coffee colored big thing on the map that
we printed out on tuesday, and because it was on the place that we drink the coffee we said that probably it is symbolizing the coffee, and because Ivo was the only one not there and everbody was saying that i didnt do that we said oh, then it is Ivo... BUT.., i opened the map there were no cofee stain on the map and Ivo was last week the first one who worked on the map.. i dont know how that thing came on the map, maybe because of the printer.. but anyway i changed the INVISIBLE COFFEE STAIN with some mug stain that i made home and took the picture of it and bring it on the map. i dont know how the print is going to be. and i did two one for our group and one for the other, but because i didnt know where the other group took a coffee break i didnt put it probably to the right place. the other things that i did are i changed the line weight of the walks, i made them thicker and i made the heavy traffic barrier line a bit thiner. i made the hard build borders too a litle bit thinner and its color a bit lighter but i think they are still too dominant. i bring also all the changes that i made on the legenda. those are what i did on the map. that’s it! probably this is the last time that we are working on this map. enjoy it!
The three collective maps are the result of our navigation strategy. They are not so much specific to a certain place, as they are to a certain moment in space and time. Where geographical maps apply to the same territory and can be used for years. These maps serve a completely different purpose; they grasp the specific conditions in a specific place at a specific moment before it passes by and evaporates. These maps should be read as the solidification of a piece of urban space/time, where not only the spatial, more permanent conditions are taken into account but also properties of the city that operate in the realm of time; weather, movement, meetings, atmospheres, events. The method of navigating and making the map is on the other hand generic and could be applied to any city at any time. But it would create a different set of walks and with these a different set of maps applying to a specific moment in that city. Maps that can not be recreated; of experiences that can not be relived. bc kyiv - 64
Chris an Meezen
Ivo de Jeu
Nadine de Ripainsel
Seong Heon OH
Appropria on/Adapta on in Soviet fabric
Cul de point to field crossing the node
Domes c Ac vity taking place in Urban Condi on
Mos schenska Montage
INTRODUCTION â&#x20AC;&#x153;Can it be? Has all this been staged for me? Am I expected to play a role? What kind of play is this?â&#x20AC;? 1 From Russian Ark, Alexander Sukorov
These thoughts were the thoughts that crossed my mind when I entered the area around Mostischenska. It seemed like someting staged, timeframes assembled into a continuous decor that told as much as it concealed about its history and presence to its spectator. The surreal atmosphere of the continuous assembled decor presented itself throughout the city. Historical timeframes and spatial scales are put together without the slightest effort or interest. It trigered speculations on a more general attitude towards spatial and temporal difference. A search into the history of Russian artistic disciplines and the experience of the spatial reality of Mostischenschka village intertwine in an investigation on mental constructs of space and spatial constructs of the mind.
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RUSSIAN TIME SCULPTURES
Creativity is the mystery of freedom. 2 Nikolaj Berdyaev
Russian philosopher Nikolaj Berdyaev, who studied at Kiev University, is one of the first to be pre-occupied with what he calls the ‘Russian Renaissance’. He characterized the beginning of the 20th century as a time of “great mental and spiritual excitement of tempestuous searchings of the rousing of creative powers” 3. In between the tsarist and totalitarian communist regime a period of weakened governmental control allowed for a flourishing cultural life. Through his writings on Russian thinking, Berdyaev is in a continuous search to define the characteristics of this thinking and to get to what he calls the “Russian soul”. Berdyaev concludes that the Russian soul is influenced by the geographical location of the country in between east and west but also by the vastness of the country itself which makes it impossible to determine and categorize every element. For Berdyaev Russian thinking could be characterized by inner conflict and the tendency towards the unlimited and the boundless. In his essay The Russian Spiritual Renaissance from 1935 Berdyaev points towards the literary works of Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky, among early Marxism and the philosophy of Nietzsche as the wells for the flourishing of arts and spiritual life in the beginning of the 20th century. “Another well-spring of the cultural renaissance of the beginning of the century was literaryaesthetic. Already at the end of the XIX Century had occurred for us a change of aesthetic consciousness and a transvaluation of aesthetic values.” 4 The elements of Russian thinking that Berdyaev emphasizes as typical for the Russian soul; inner conflict and boundlessness are essential to the fiction of Dostoyevsky. His characters are often torn by inner conflicts. For instance in his book, Crime and Punishment where a young student in money trouble decides to kill and rob his pawnbroker. First he justifies his act but as the story evolves he gets more and more torn by feelings of guilt and regret. Even the choice of title illustrates fascination of Dostoyevsky with the dark side of human nature. The Russian word for crime in the title mean literally ‘stepping over’ or transgression.
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It is about crossing the rational boundaries between ‘good’ and ‘evil’. Not only the content of the story shows this kind of inner conflicts and boundlessness. Also the form of Dostoyevsky’s writings shows these characteristics. His writings are categorized under Russian realism, a style where the hierarchy of subjects and the hierarchy of genres as they used to exist in classicism are absent, there is no objective description of the “fundmental” features of a classical literary work; space, time, characters and events. In Crime and Punishment, Dostoyevsky consciously blurs the sequence of time and space for the reader, to add to the confusion and troubled conscious of the main character. Although Dostoyevsky uses the perspective of a selective omniscient narrator to be able to give pieces of objective information to solve the plot, he mostly lets the narrator take part in the complex confusion of the Raskolnikov. None of the information given through his eyes can be considered objective. For example the following passage: “He lay like that for a very long time. Occasionally he seemed to wake up, and in those moments noticed that night had come long ago, yet it did not occur to him to get up. Finally he noticed light, as if it were already daytime. he was lying on his back on the sofa, still stupefied from his recent oblivion.” 5 There is no possibility for the reader to have any objective sense of time anymore. By using this narrative technique not only the sense of time but also that of space for the reader is distorted. “Can this be a continuation of my dream?” came once again to Raskolnikov’s mind. Cautiously and mistrustfully he stared at his unexpected visitor.” 6 The narrative technique adds depth to the experience of confusion and instability of the novel as a whole, the reader feels himself confused while reading. The possibility of conscious manipulation of time and space to strengthen the effect the story has on the spectator is what relates this narrative technique of Dostoyevsky to the technique of the Soviet montage developed by filmmakers like Eisenstein and Vertov.
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“Language is much closer to film than painting is.” 7 Sergei Eisenstein
Sergei Eisenstein did not only concentrate on the similarities and distinctions between language and film, but as a former theatre director he also focused on the relations between theatre and film. Where in theatre the stage space is the constant in relation to the audience, the film frame creates a box for every shot. Eisenstein considers the relationship of this box and the action in the shot an important topic of investigation. The murder-scene as described before from Dostoyevsky’s Crime and Punishment was an exercise for the students of Sergei Eisenstein. In one single shot without any camera movement they had to tell the story of the murder. By setting these constraints Eisenstein was focusing on the technique mise en cadre. The depth relations within on single shot. (see illustration 1.1-1.3) The corresponding passage from the book tells the following; “Trying to untie the string and going to the window, to the light (all her windows were closed, despite the stuffiness), she left him completely for a few secondsand turned her back on him. he unbuttoned his coat and freed the axe from the loop but did not take it out yet; he just held his right hand under the coat. his hands were terribly weak; he felt the growing more and more numb and stiff every moment. he was afraid he would let go and drop the axe....suddenly his had began to spin. (...) She cried out but very faintly, and her whole body sank to the floor, though she still managed to raise both hands to her head.” 8 Eisenstein uses the relation of the action and the frame to recreate the tension Dostoyevsky describes. Sometimes very subtle, where in the first frame the axe is placed next to head already anticipation where it is going to hit the old woman. but mostly his referencing is more literal, in the second frame the faint scream of the woman is depicted as a vague silhouet of a scream through the shot.
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top left top right bottom left bottom right
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4
For Eisenstein the use of mise en cadre was being coordinated by the act of montage. The unitary shot is a “montage complex” that can potentially be broken up into single shots. The murder scene contains this “potential montage” but remains as continuity. This technique is a different one than the one used for the Battleship Potemkin, where the montage of shots draws two dramatic lines together. The sailboats speeding towards the Potemkin and the people of Odessa watching the event. “The inscription of the plot (syuzhet) in the details” 9 D. Bordwell on The Batteship Potemkin
In the first shot (see illustration 3) the horizontal movement of the ships dominates the shot; the vertical masts of the ships are secondary. In the following shot the vertical columns in the foreground dominate the horizontal line and the arch appears in the frame. In the thirds shot the arch becomes dominant in the frame. In the fourth shot the man and woman are the dominant vertical motive while the arch becomes subordinate in the form of the parasol. The schemes of the forms that dominate in the shots create a visual pattern that connects the two dramatic lines of the plot. Eisenstein used many different techniques to put shots together after The Battleship Potemkin. The melodic montage where the shots and the soundtrack were connected not only rhythmically in the sequence of shots but also in the graphic design of every single shot. Later on also tonal montage, the arrangement bc kyiv - 72
of shots by color in relation to the plot and the music became another variable in his complex montage system. For Eisenstein this vertical montage, where different aspects of a movie are “designed” and taken into account as a whole make the film into a poetic composition. David Bordwell even argues in his book that by redefining montage as polyphonic and vertical Eisenstein achieved to take cinema out of the realm of experimentation. And that Eisenstein with his new definition made montage a method by which film “achieves an organic unity parallel to that found in the greatest works of literature, drama, music and the other visual arts.” 10 But one could also argue that by defining every single aspect of montage and its relation to the whole of the movie, the initial goal of Eisenstein to use “principles of montage to enable artistic form reproduce the process through which new images are built up in the mind of a person in real life” 10 not achieved. Whether Eisenstein’s ambition to reproduce the associative process of the images in the mind is successful stays arbitrary. Mental associations are guided by unconscious processes of that can not be pinned down in a system of hierarchy and are not defined into detail, like Eisenstein’s principles of montage. Where Dostoyevsky was able to create a sense of confusion and thereby leave a large portion of the interpretation of the story up to the reader. Eisenstein’s montage techniques start to be over-defined and bombastic, especially in his later work where his extreme focus on the pre-determined effect the images should have on the audience tends towards plain propaganda. Maybe the scenes designed for Crime and Punishment are the ones that come closest to the subtle unconscious association of different images in the mind. Where the means are hardly defined and keep the associative process up for interpretation of the observer.
Eisenstein’s history as a theatre director affected his thinking about film and set him somewhat apart in his attitude to montage from his contemporaries. Dziga Vertov for instance denounced theatre as artificial. And argued that the camera should be taken into raw reality to prevent it from getting a purely reproductive role. Where Eisenstein was more concerned with the effects on the audience and the composition of the film guided by montage principles, Vertov took a more techne centred approach, which related to the context of 1920’s Soviet art. Where Eisenstein referred to the composer in analogy of the filmmaker, Vertov referred to the builder. 73 - bc kyiv
“I am kino-eye. I am a builder. I have placed you, whom I’ve created today, in an extraordinary room which did not exist until just now when I also created it. In this room there are twelve walls shot by me in various parts of the world. In bringing together shots of walls and details, I’ve managed to arrange then in an order that is pleasing and to construct with intervals, correctly, a filmphrase, which is the room.” 11 Dziga Vertov
Eisenstein tries to form a unity in his sequences of shots, Vertov on the other hand consciously talks about “construction with intervals” and about the construction of a newly created subject and object, the room, created out of a relation between images. The single shot exercise of Eisenstein for the murder scene in crime and punishment approximates more Vertovs construction of intervals. The cut is not consciously made and put back together with a contrasting image like in Potemkin. But the more subtle change of relations between foreground and background do not determine the interval. In between the scenes the tension of the story is created in a new kind of space. The Soviet montage seemed to challenge not only the conventions of the sequence of time but also the conventions on the concept of space. The challenge of space and the ambition to transcend the limitations of the perspective in a 3-dimensional model of space was also a motive in other fields of artistic expression in 1920’s Russia. El Lissitzky for instance consciously challenges the limits of space, by advocating the end of the perspective as the dominant mode to perceive space. For Lissitzky perspective limits space and makes it closed. 12 The aspirations of Lissitzky to challenge perspective and to create “irrational” space were most successful in his works on paper.
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Not only in his paintings and graphical work but also his less known photomontage work. The runner in the city (see illustration 3.1) where photographs of a hurdler and two pictures of the same city skyline (an old photograph by Fritz Lang) are brought together and cut up in strips. The illusion of speed and change of perspective is created. The technique of bringing together of different perspectives can also be seen in the portrait of Kurt Schwitters (see illustration 3.2) where two photoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and graphic information is put together. The time and therefore the space created with this image is infinite when compared to a single shot of the same person from one perspective point. In other works of Lissitzky one can also recognize his ambition to create this infinite space. In his book On 2 squares, written for children this is made clear. (see illustration 4.1 & 4.2) We see an axonometric assembly of red figures organized on a black square. On the next page the black square moves away while the oganized red figures stay behind on the circle. The red square is floating above the figures. By the grayscale circles movement is expressed. The accompanying text is Thus its end --- further. The translation of it endsâ&#x20AC;Śand goes further, implicates the infinity space and time in which this process takes place. It is extendable into infinity. The use of axonometric projection in both these drawings is therefore not a coincidence. The axonometric allows for the order of red figures to be extended infinitely, both the process itself and the space and time in which is occurs are infinite and boundless. Throughout the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century all creative disciplines in Russia challenge the boundaries of the existing space of styles in which they operate and 75 - bc kyiv
have the ambition to operate in a whole new field of boundless space and time. In the realm of cinema, which emerged as a new form of expression around this time, the ambition to challenge conventional forms of narrative and space became the foundation of the discipline. But the interest of the constructivists and their 1920’s contemporaries evolved, under the influence of censorship, into a more mechanistic and plain realist realm. The poetic was banned and moved to the background but off course never disappeared.
“Through poetic connections feeling is heightened and the spectator is made more active.” 13 Andrei Tarkovsky
Tarkovsky, a Russian born director, is considered one of the greatest directors of the minimilist expressionist cinema. In very long takes and very few cuts, Tarkovsky wants the spectator to feel the passing of time, the time that is lost. The slow sequence of shots, the abundance of symbolic references, strange occurence of sound and the often deserted setting contribute to the “intoxication” of the spectator. The com plete alienation of the spectator with the reality of space and time. Although Tarkovsky considered film the only form of art that was able to manipulate time, his strategy of confusion of time and space relates to the strategy Dostoyevsky uses in his literary work. He also valued the active role of the spectator to extract the story themselves from the movie. By using the minimal ammount of images to tell the story the maximum of freedom is given to the spectator to interpret the images. For Tarkovsky the possibilities opened up by associative linking of images are far more fruitful than the possibilities offered by the logic of classical drama. Where Eisenstein tried to reproduce and manipulate the logic of a person’s thought Tarkovsky tries to ‘lay open’ this mental logic. “I am radically opposed to the way Eisenstein used the frame to codify intellectual formulae. My own method of conveying experience to the audience is quite different... Eisenstein makes thought into a despot: it leaves no “air,” nothing of that unspoken elusiveness which is perhaps the most captivating quality of all art...” 14 Andrei Tarkovsky
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Not only in film but also in the contemporary works of literature the rich realm of associative thinking is explored by for instance the Ukrainian writer Juri Andrukhovych. Already around 1985, when Andrukhovych founded together with Neborak and Irvanets the group Bu-Ba-Bu, he expressed his objections to socialist realism that sufficated the imaginationthrough experimental performances with satirical poetry. The Bu-Ba-Bu group, which stands for BurlesqueBlusterBuffonery, established a faithful group of followers and played an important role in the increasing freedom of Ukrainian art towards the independence of 1991. The work of the group was characterized by total aesthetical freedom, no boundaries. Although in a far less serious manner the resistance of Tarkovsky and the resistance of Bu-Ba-Bu are related. In Andrukhovychs later literary a complex structure and a non-hierarchical use of narrative structures is employed. In his book “Recreations” from 1997, the life of 4 continuously drunk poets during a surreal poetry festival is described. The four are in search of the absolute freedom after the independence, they transgress every boundary. This is where they meet Dostoyevsky’s Raskolnikov.
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EPILOGUE: RUSSIAN SPACE/TIME
Similarities between disciplines occur on a level above the actual techniques of a discipline; in the realm of their guiding principles and the preoccupations of the artists. What is significant is that throughout the development of Russian creative disciplines the motives of the inner conflict and the inclination towards the boundless reappear in all of them. And are possibly rooted in something more essentially Russian than their rational analysis can show. The pre-occupation with inner conflict and the boundless have led to numerous experiments with a non-linear approach to time. Through several disciplines one can see the development of a poetic attitude towards these inner conflicts making them into a tool specific to the medium used where not only the conflict but also the boundless space of the interval becomes accessible. This process maybe touches upon an attitude towards space and time that could be called ‘Russian’. The interval in between conflicting elements is the infinite space in which this possible ‘Russianness’ occurs and manifests itself, whether in literature, painting, sculpture, architecture and even spatial practice. The similarity between all of the disciplines is that infinite space of the interval can only come into being and can be accessed by passing through the different instances of the artwork, whether it is reading a book, watching a movie walking around a sculpture or moving through the city. In the encapsulated village of Mostischenska the urban space/ time of the interval manifests itself. Mostischenscka is a pocket in the city that did not accept the general speed of urban the urban pace of Kiev. It moves slower and faster at the same time. By passing through it one can get a glimpse of the infinite irrational space of the interval. This condition seems to be staged, fake and fictional. But it seems to be fictional only to someone with a western spatial background. In the ‘Russian’ attitude towards conflicts of space there is no urge to neither categorize nor determine the actual nature of the difference of the space of the interval, because by doing so the possibility of access to its infinite possibilities is cut off. In the organized, fully determined western city, these conditions are increasingly bound to the realm of art.
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Op Rusland krijgt het brein geen vat, Zij gaat de gewone norm te boven: Zij meet zich met een eigen lat, In Rusland kan men slechts geloven. 15 1866, F.I. Tjutčev
Русский ковчег (Russian Ark), directed by Alexander Sukorov, 2002 Berdyaev, Nikolaj, The meaning Of The Creative Act, 1916 translation by Donald A. Lowrie, London: V. Gollanz, 1955; New York, 1955 on http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/ Philosophy/Sui-Generis/Berdyaev/qc.htm 3 Berdyaev, Nikolaj, The Russian Spiritual Renaissance in Journal “Put’”, oct./dec. 1935, No. 49, p. 3-22. translation by Fr. S. Janos, 1998 on http://www.chebucto. ns.ca/Philosophy/Sui-Generis/Berdyaev/essays/rsr.htm 4 Berdyaev, Nikolaj, The Russian Spiritual Renaissance in Journal “Put’”, oct./dec. 1935, No. 49,p. 3-22. translation by Fr. S. Janos, 1998 on http://www.chebucto. ns.ca/Philosophy/Sui-Generis/ Berdyaev/essays/rsr.htm 5 Dostyevsky, F.M., Crime and Punishment, translation by Richard Peavear and Larissa Volokhonsky, Knopf, New York, 1993, page 89 6 Dostyevsky, F.M., Crime and Punishment, translation by Richard Peavear and Larissa Volokhonsky, Knopf, New York, 1993, page 281 7 Bordwell, David The cinema of Eisenstein, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachussets, 1993 p.56 8 Bordwell, David The cinema of Eisenstein, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachussets, 1993 p. 56 9 Dostyevsky, F.M., Crime and Punishment, translation by Richard Peavear and Larissa Volokhonsky, Knopf, New York, 1993, page 68 10 Bordwell, David The cinema of Eisenstein, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachussets, 1993 p. 190 11 Allen, Stan, Practice, architecture technique and representation, Routledge, Lon don & New York 2000 p. 26 12 Allen, Stan, Practice, architecture technique and representation, Routledge, Lon don & New York 2000 p. 17 13 Tarkovsky, Andrei, Sculpting in time, translation by: Hunter-Blair, Kitty, University of Texas Press, 1989 p.20 14 Tarkovsky, Andrei on: http://www.ce-review.org/00/39/kinoeye39_halligan.html 15 Tjutčev, Een Laatste Liefde, translation by Frans-Joseph van Agt, Nina Targan Mouravi, Wil van den Bercken uitgeverij Azazello, Amsterdam 2005 2
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SOURCES Books Allen, Stan, Practice, Architecture technique and representation, Routledge, London & New York 2000 Bordwell, David, The cimema of Eisenstein, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachussets, 1993 Dostyevsky, F.M., Crime and Punishment, translation by Richard Peavear and Larissa Volokhonsky, Knopf, New York, 1993, 8th print. 1st print 1991. Leyda, Jay Voynow,Zina, Eisenstein at work, Patheon Publishers/Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1982 Pallasmaa, Juhani, The architecture of image: existential space in cinema, Building Information, Helsinki, 2001 Tarkovsky, Andrei, Sculpting in time, translation by: Hunter-Blair, Kitty, University of Texas Press, 1989 Tjutčev, Een laatste liefde, 1866 translation by Frans-Joseph van Agt, Nina Targan Mouravi, Wil van den Bercken uitgeverij Azazello, Amsterdam 2005 Vertov, Dziga, Kino-Eye : The Writings of Dziga Vertov, Michelson, Annette, editor; translated by Kevin O’Brien, University of California Press, 1995 Weststeijn, Willem, Russische Literatuur, Meulenhoff, Amsterdam 2004 Hilpert, Thilo, Geometrie der Architekturzeichnung; Einführung in Axonometrie und Perspektive, nach Leonardo da Vinci, Gerrit Rietveld, Friedrich Weinbrenner, Albrecht Dürer, Le Corbusier, El Lissitzky, Braunschweig Vieweg 1988
Movies Eisenstein, Sergei, The Battleship Potemkin, Russia (USSR) 1925 Vertov, Dziga, Man with a movie camera, Russia (USSR) org. 1929 Tarkovsky, Andrei, Stalker, Russia (USSR) 1979 Sukorov, Alexander, Russian Ark, Russia 2002
Internet On two Squares, El Lissitzky http://www.ibiblio.org/eldritch/el/pro.html On Nikolaj Beryaev http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Philosophy/Sui-Generis/Berdyaev/
Image sources Illustration 1.1-1.3 Bordwell, David, The cinema of Eisenstein, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1993 p.153 Leyda, Jay Voynow,Zina, Eisenstein at work, Patheon Publishers/Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1982 p 81 Illustration 2.1-2.4 Bordwell, David, The cinema of Eisenstein, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1993 p.183-184 Illustration 3.1 El Lissitzky, Runner in the city, from the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art New York published on: http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/photographs/ Runner_in_the_City/viewObject.aspx?&OID=190017326&PgSz=1 Illustrations 3.2 El Lissitzky, portrait of Kurt Schwitters, published on http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/digitized_collections/lissitzky/7_marketing/images/Liss054L.jpg Illustration 3.3 El Lissitzky, Wolkenbugel, published on http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/ Photomontage_of_the_Wolkenbugel_by_El_Lissitzky_1925.jpg Illustration 4.1 & 4.2 El Lissitzky, On 2 Squares, page 13 http://www.ibiblio.org/eldritch/el/pro13.html El Lissitzky, On 2 Squares, page 15 http://www.ibiblio.org/eldritch/el/pro15.html
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Mostischenska is a so-called private sector on the north-eastern outskirts of Kiev. One of the several communities in the city that succeeded in keeping their private houses during the communist era. The resistance resulted into a spatial condition that can be characterized as defensive towards the invasive surroundings that came closer and closer. The village is encapsulated by a market (M), a busstation (B), a powerplant (P) and a shoppingmall (S). The proximity of surrounding functions has also had the opposite effect and has formed extreme commercial interdependancies between the village community and the city. The diverse nature of the zone in which the village communicates with the outside world became the point of investigation. The walk made in reality is transformed into a linear sequence of experiences which will be the backbone of the map. The walk is an isolated personal experience solidified in a â&#x20AC;&#x153;one takeâ&#x20AC;? continues drawing of a mental spatial image. The drawing on the nature of the space develops into an investigational tool for the infinite continuous process of construction of a mental space of a real spatial experience.
THE ASSEMBLED DECOR
The real experience is deformed into a drawing of the mental image of the space. In the first drawing the spatial aspects of the walk are dominant, but it is not a realist image but combines the experiential aspects with realistic details. The old village houses for instance contribute to the unreal atmosphere of the whole area, they give the feeling something is â&#x20AC;&#x153;wrongâ&#x20AC;? or out of the ordinary. Therefore they are drawn in axonometric. They also contribute to the surreal feeling of the drawing. The overall result is a deformed spatial image. In the second drawing a relation to the more abstract conditions of the site is made. For instance the interdependency between certain spatial elements of the village boundary and the surrounding functions. The words are used to give more specifics to the drawing, they emphasize certain aspects of the drawing or give an interpretation to spatial elements. In the third drawing the spatial aspect are erased from the drawing. What remains is the abstract mindmap of the walk. The abstraction takes the drawing to realm of mental space that allows it to break with the sequence of real space and time.
fold-out pages: the photopages are the documentation of the walk as a series of movie frames that give an overview of the abundance of colors and the nature of the boundary zone.
shoppingmall B = busstation P= powerplant
= projection of detail
= movement actors
M M garden
ruble chimney isolation scars transport territory farm garages
TV funnel flowerpot WC
shoppingmall B = busstation P= powerplant
= projection of detail
= movement actors
ruble chimney isolation scars transport territory farm garages
TV funnel flowerpot WC
= projection of detail
car entrance guard
material stacks bar
= main connection
= field of influence
= symbiotic relation
car entrance guard
material stacks bar
= main connection
= field of influence
= symbiotic relation
water mystery gate
The abstract space of the mental image allows for a freedom of order that transcends the boundaries of a sequence in time. The deformation of the drawing resembles the process of transformation of a mental image.
THE FOLD & THE CUT
car entrance en-
buffer zones: specific zones that have been created to be able to control the degree of interaction.
conflict: physical and personal defence constructions have been put up to prevent interactions.
symbiosis: the interaction is benificial for both the village and the surroundings.
The method of folding the drawing with folds perpendicular to the direction of the drawing actually resembles the editing of a film. Frames are cut out and the others are put back together, the continuity of time is broken and new associations are made. But still the sequence of fragments does not change the the ordering principle of the drawing, the sequence of time. The beginning is still the beginning and the end is still the end.
free folds: the folds can be in any direction. It is not limited by the sequence of space and time, only by the physical limits of the paper.
The folding is based on the preliminary hypotheses that the relation between the village and its surroundings could be characterized as either symbiotic, conflictuous or neutral. In reality all three conditions were present and give three distinctly different mental images of the boundary of the village.
FOLD: EDITING folding by association keeps only a selection of the drawing visible and erases other passages out of the image, while still keeping the overall linearity of the map intact.
pipes guar guard
e ga screen
e ga screen
shop ater levels
BOUNDLESS CUTS The process of editing by folding still does not fully explore the freedom of the abstract space of the mental. Therefore another map is made that allows for the drawing to be reshuffled completely by cutting it up and rejoining the pieces according to assiociations of the words on the pieces. The result is just one of the many possible images. It is a personal process at a specific moment in time that can not be redone by anyone or at any other time. The concentrations of meanings that occur by the adjacencies of words in the drawing will be interpreted differently by every reader. This resembles the cinematic techniques that were used by for instance Tarkovsky. Frames are put together and the interpretations are left upto the viewer. The possibility of reshuffling of the pieces and the interpretations of the adjacencies open up the endless possibilities of the interval, the boundless space of interpretation where categories are just momentary constructions of order that continuously solidify and evaporate.
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CITY MEMORY Christian Meezen
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The de-physicaliza on of new borders in the Ukraine
What is striking in the current Kiev, and possibly legitable for many other ci es in the former Soviet Union, is the visible shi from a communist system into a ‘free’ system. Visible in the flaneurs on the new Boulevard to the Dnieper River, visible in the 69 year old woman that sells her packets of Marlboro Lucky Strike for 35 cents, audible in the ambi ons of the educated youth. A transi on that in the past decade(s) exposes itself in new spa al implica ons, cultural development of both Ukraine and Kiev, economic reforma on and a new social construct. The no on on modernity in the western city today is so omnipresent to such a degree that it tends to become invisible. The word modernity has disappeared from the public discourse and already tries to make place for a new phase describing the current urban condi on. A diﬀerent kind of situa on is at hand in other ci es. The former Soviet capitals are dealing with a far more recent introduc on with a capitalist or Western a tude towards commercialism and the eﬀects for social life. On many levels these countries and their inhabitants under communist dominance stood s ll. As if a society has been frozen for a period of 70 years. Here I believe a theory on modernity seems to be especially both recent as to be relevant for the current period. The city itself has now finally reached its op mum condi on to engage in this process of moderniza on. Reflected in society it means the development of a premature state of modernity. In the essay the connec on is made with theory on modernity that determined the formerly and contemporary condi on in the city. A theory that goes back to late 19th century and early 20th century by thinkers as Walter Benjamin and Georg Simmel. But also contemporary wri ngs will be introduced by Lieven de Cauter and Wim Nijenhuis and Rem Koolhaas. The emphasis will lie on the no on of modernity in rela on to its societal determent.
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Kiev The city of Kiev today is a city with a lot of dynamism, as rapid growth brings rapid change. A city full of excitement and unplanned unexpectedness as large parts of the city are experienced as forgo en places, undisturbed but most of them at the same me barely maintained. A city of excesses since anything is though possible a er communist suppression. Freedom is o en confused with the dispensa on of any restric on. Authority lacks any common ground where large parts of its prac ce are dominated by corrup on as the accepted working method. So at the same me its shows a city that is full of confusion. When we look back into history the cer fica on of Kiev as a metropolis city is an evident one. During early medieval period it was reputed to be the biggest city in the world. Regarding its history as both its current condi on the defini on of Kiev as a metropolis can s ll considered be as a valid one. A city that grew the last 40 years 2,5 mes in scale, and s ll a racts a lot of people from the countryside with the expecta on to find a be er and modern life in the city. The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 in the history of the country is the latest transforma on and meant also the defini ve fall of the communist poli cal dominance. This however was already preceded by large poli cal and economic reforma ons in the USSR by president Mikhail Gorbachev. The 1980s is the period that already introduced the downfall of Communism and a gradual change towards a new system. These main events are most significant for the change of both public and private domain. But can we s ll feel this or is it s ll visible when walking thru the city? Is our consciousness of the diďŹ&#x20AC;erence between the Ukrainian condi ons and our own grounded by this history? Does this new condi on reflect itself in the type of social interac on that we encounter now in this metropolis? A first confronta on with public life in Kiev is one that confuses our own understanding of for example behavioural pa erns. Apart from the challenge that the large language barrier has to be overcome, there is a more intricate and unknown part in the way people tend to communicate here. There seems to be distance between each other. On that more relates to a mental than a physical. Physical is one already impossible to maintain as the metropolis is overcrowded and physical territories are diminished to the minimum. Metros are packed and underground shopping malls are mee ng points for the large crowd and masses, apart from its great func onality during rainy days. A distance is recognized, looking to behaviour, in the avoidance of straight eye contact or the absence of any welcome, hello or spontaneous smile. A pre-maturity that is strengthened by the strange fact that us tourist are really looked at from a distance when passing the escalators. The only real engagement into some kind of social and communal interac on seems the large amount of demonstra ons for and against the current poli cs. The sincerity in it is s ll ques onable as during the latest presiden al elec ons the poli cal party funded large parts of the demonstrators. This mental condi on is something we try to understand in a larger context. What are the implica ons that create such a condi ons? bc kyiv - 98
In this we recognize the phenomena that Georg Simmel describes as the blasé. The blasé is result of several features inherent to the new metropolis. ‘The blasé a tude results first from the rapidly changing and closely compressed contras ng s mula ons of the nerves. A life in boundless pursuit of pleasure makes one blasé because it agitates the nerves to their strongest reac vity for such a long me that they finally cease to react at all.’1 This is something created by the city itself, that in every part is confronted with rapidness, temporality and change. This is the condi on for the everyday life. The blasé here is however strengthened by the fact that it also includes in a larger me span the sudden shi between two systems. In comparison to the normal construc on of any system in a country, introducing capitalism took 2 centuries in the West; we are here confronted with only 3 decennia. Furthermore the two systems are in many ways counter poles of each other that make this shi even more impressive. So if we now walk the streets in Kiev one can not avoid no cing the abundant presence of expensive personal goods. Especially the excessiveness and applicaons are fascina ng. SUV’s with blinded car windows seem to be the standard, for fied Mediterranean villas in the middle of dacha quarters are not uncommon, and new urban developments are packed products of an image it tries to represent. The city centre is being transformed by large scale projects that comprise all func ons. The generic city is a city of simula ons.2 The project are for those few who are becoming more isolated self-contained communi es. Typical Kiev inhabitants find themselves total strangers in these developments. The ques on rises if these examples are represen ng the current image or just the excep on. Disturbing is the fact that it total lacks the presence of examples that proof the contrary. This illustrates a second a tude and is created by the modern metropolis that is supplied almost en rely by produc on for the market. ‘It creates anonymity where the diﬀerent par es ac ve
New city developement Obolon Boulevard Kiev
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Sunday demonstrations at Khreschatyk Kiev
in this field apply ma er-of-factness. Modern mind has become more and more calcula ng.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; 3 This results in the a tude that consists of the blun ng of percep on. Objects are perceived but the diďŹ&#x20AC;erent values of things are not recognized and thereby the things themselves are experienced as insubstan al. On individualism and individualisa on This func onal fundament where society is more and more bases on is not something new since the fall of the USSR. Soviet society was already inscribed in very centralized ins tu onal planning. All land was in state ownership and land development was part of the ideological machine of social and economic regula on. Urban planning was subservient to a complex system of economic planning. Since the na onal priority was produc on for collec ve needs, urban plans normally focused in servicing industrial enterprises. Social infrastructure, including housing, services and green spaces was allocated according to the standard norms of minimum individual needs. Under such a system, pa erns of residen al se lement were ed to place of employment more than to incomes. This city design can be seen as a very hierarchical but complex urban, social and economic machine. The system was visible in every part of society and every person had to conform to this. This obliga on went into such an extend that even a lot of societal gatherings as for example military parades were obligated to a ain. If we look to what modern man in our society created is that it found himself by freeing itself from all the historical bonds. In both state and religion, in economics and morals. The urge that manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nature could debc kyiv - 100
velop unhampered, reflects the changing idea on the individual and the collec ve as both a changing perspec ve on man and its environment. The collec ve is no more; the existence of community has diminished since nothing reminds the current city dweller from it being. The only existence of a crowd lies in their internal disguise. Walter Benjamin refers in Das passagewerk to Valery Larbaud on the moral climate of the Parisian street. ‘Rela ons always begin with the fic on of equality, of Chris an Fraternity. In this crowd the inferior is disguised as the superior, and the superior as the inferior – disguised morally, in both cases. In other capitals of the world, the disguise barely goes beyond the appearance, and people visibly insist on their diﬀerences, making an eﬀort to retain them. However it is almost impossible to summon and maintain good moral character in a thickly massed popula on where each individual, unbeknownst to all others, hides in the crowd, so to speak, and blushes before the eyes of no one.’4 A disguise that is only made possible by the existence of the newly growing middleclass. A larger and larger group that is able to par cipate with the virtuous that this capitalist free Kiev has to oﬀer. To appropriate its life by its own ideas As communism was based on the eradica on of any excep ons or diﬀerence in society and the equal spread of income, the community was seen as a whole. The individual could only exist within this social framework and conform to its rules. The individual would only exist within this, behind closed doors, within the narrow bonds of family and friends. The existence of the true individual, as we know it is then also is one of the many discoveries the Kiev city dweller had to undertake in this ‘free’ society. The gradual understanding of the concept of man as the fundamental idea. An individualiza on in a society based on the individualis c ideal as a social process. Before using the terminology further I would like to expand on our understanding of the defini ons individualism. The three central points in the concept of man are power, freedom and the will of man to his own choices and his own interests to pursue. Individualism describes that man is characterized by a degree of autonomy, independent of others. (Freedom and power cannot be seen independent of each other.) As third there is the supposed desire of people to shape their lives. Man is by nature a liberated being and should be unrestrained as far as possible in its environment. The growing realiza on of the individualis c ideal as a social process here is called individualiza on. Although individualiza on as a trend already grows for centuries and is actually nothing new, the last few years it became a more dominant condi on. The German sociologist Beck, describes: ‘What is historically new is that something that was earlier expected of a few, to lead a life of their own, is now being demanded of more and more people and, in the limi ng case, or all ‘. 5 Such cultural ‘requirement’ to life itself is fed by the increased opportuni es for this 101 - bc kyiv
process in today’s society. That increase creates more space for people to accommodate their own desire to sa sfy. The current consumer culture makes it possible for people to develop their own iden ty, to make the choice for diﬀerent lifestyles in areas such as clothing or dwelling. All that space makes people also expect that they make that choice. The ones who don’t distance themselves towards the mass the general accepted. Elderly people or homeless children are hardly talked about in Kiev, as if non-exis ng. Re-appearance of a new fron er As can be seen, our understanding on the subject is based more on a theore cal level than the physical one. As the physical implica ons in the city now encountered reflect towards my understanding mostly an ideal full of confusion in a transi onal period towards the construc on of a stable capitalist European city. Physical space where people today in the city are confronted with has in this perspec ve a miner influence to the changes now put in accelera on within current society. Construc on of a new society means the construc on of a new hierarchy, new social division or unity based on an individualis c mass, or a collec ve. But it also means at the same me the rise of new borders. Diﬀerent types of borders, as the physical borders have disappeared. Maybe this could include the deforma on or former one, or the appearing of new ones. The ques on rises in what way the border is reappearing in the new post-Soviet city? The disappearance of the city fron er plays an important role in our modern culture. Star ng by the dysfunc onality of city walls, fortresses and city gates, the city has been occupied by the search for its lost shape. Wim Nijenhuis ques ons if we are witnessing a uniform disappearance, and if there is something reappearing too?6 This search for its shape is something more recent and can be called more lively in this example Kiev, than for most Western capitals. As the city was in this search in the past century dominantly controlled by communist planning. One can understand the search for new city planning in the Ukraine as overcoming the loss of the former direc ve Soviet planning. But this search, and its findings can be seen as twofold. The search for its border in a physical sense indeed includes the search for a city shape. A city that in its modern version is constructed by a clearer dis nc on between its centre and its periphery. ‘In its transi on from an industrial to the post-industrial, from a petrochemic to an micro-electro age, the historic centre have either been abandoned, or been re-invented for tourist.’6 This latest case has been the judgement of Kiev large and highly historical centre. Disnifica on goes hand in hand with reconstrucon of what once was there. Recently the biggest Church of Kiev has been totally reconstructed and now one of the most visited places of the city. It tries again to create a new image for the city. At second level the search for its borders is occupied with something other, and dealing with a whole diﬀerent scale of what the border defines. Some mes referred to as the Capsular City, as a word introduced by René Boomkens and further prolonged in The Capsular Civiliza on by bc kyiv - 102
Lieven de Cauter.7 A civiliza on referred to as being trapped in capsules. Capsules made by large buildings and towers comprising all func ons in an own interior town. Capsules made by personal media trapping ourselves more in our own de-physicalized space. Crea ng an ar ficial distance between people and their interac on. Does this and our further developed understanding of individualism create the real new borders of the city? Maybe the real borders to overcome in this Post-Society are those thickening and lying in between man? Kiev aims itself towards becoming a developed capitalist capital. Something that it is rapidly trying to realize with the construc on of a whole new cityscape, and the joined ventures with Europe. These seem the first steps necessary to reach that goal. This moderniza on however is crea ng at the same me a rupture, that lies in between people. Modernizing man is something not done over the years and while the city develops further its society has the risk of arriving again in a stand s ll.
References: 1. Simmel, Georg. The Metropolis and Mental Life, edited version by Kurt WolďŹ&#x20AC;, New York Free Press, 1950 2. Koolhaas, Rem, Bruce Mau, OďŹ&#x192;ce for Metropolitan Architecture, S,M,L,XL;The generic City, 010 Publishers Ro erdam, 1995 3. Harvey, David, Spaces of global capitalism; towards a theory of uneven geographical developement, Verso Publishers London, 2006 4. Benjamin, Walter, The Arcades Project, edited by Rolf Tiedemann, Harvard University Press, 2002 5. Beck, Ulrich & Beck-Gernsheim, Elisabeth Individualiza on: Ins tuonalized Individualism and its Social and Poli cal Consequences, Sage Publishers, London, 2002 6. Nijenhuis, Wim, Assemblage, No. 16, pp. 42-53; City Fron ers and Their Disappearance, MIT Press, 1991 7. de Cauter, Lieven, Reflect #03; The Capsular Civiliza on, NAi Publishers, 2004
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Introduc on to the project City memory Na onality issues are the everyday discussions in Ukraine, both in poli cs, social life and religion but as much related to architecture. Most searches for a replacement of the former Soviet ideals are immediately transformed into new urban plans, squares, monuments, and malls within the city. This signifies an urge for a new ideal, a new city image, an iden ty and a new religion (the broader meaning of the word). But what does Kiev really contain? What has the city stored in itself? The research is to create a more grounded image of the city, based on the city and its memory. The idea of memory and the city is not a new concept and discussed by various writers as Aldo Rossi in ‘L’archite ura della ci à’ 1966 and refers to it as, collec ve memory. The concept I would like to formulate is that of memory as a new domain, in the sense that it borders both a new area of inves ga on. It formulates a new context that describes the city. In my no on the city cannot be understood by the image that it presents, the thing we see, nor by the physical processes that cons tute urban life. What makes this city a diﬀerent one than its western examples are the events and construc ons that the city collected during its past and stored within its memory. This project will try to construct the idea of the city by a memory based context. A context cnstructed from out of the inves ga on into 14 sites disperced in Kiev. This allows us in a later stadium to come with a design proposal for the city where both site and program are dependent of this new domain. 105 - bc kyiv
ON THE MAPPINGS Memorymap model 1 The design project started from out of the search to draw or represent how memory in a city works. As a tool the first map is drawn that is composed of eighter the 2D eigther a perspective representation of the sites. The arrangement of an diverse combination of drawing perspectives represent both site and their underlying idea and as a final map the city memory as a whole. The sites, at random rearrangement The first map was based on the intiutive arrangement of the different sites into a total composition. The believe is that memory of place is not merely placebound but representing an idea of the whole city. A further developement of the map is now started from out of the at random re-arragement of the different sites into a new map. Revised memorymap model 2 The revised memorymap, as started from out of the existance of 14 locations within the city, does now represent the inbetween. Which means that within the process of drawing the sites themselves are drawn as well as new concepts coming forth from the adjacencent placement of them. Towards the design project For the design project the site is one constituted by drawing the memory map. This is the actual context to design within. This is the map representing the actual city. As the initial investigation 5 sites are being proposed within this map for the further developement of the project. They can be read as a proposition exercise, or questioning of what this context offers.
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14 memory based sites The research has started from out of several intui ve walks in the city. Both the groupswalks as the personal walks are part of this observa on. My personal facina on in the city was trickered by the presence of a lot of spaces in the city, which in the end are understood as an ever present layer in the city that exposes a sign of the speciality or importance of place. Some mes physicalized as an object or topografical characteriscs of the site. But at the same me the total absence, the emp ness of space could construct a strange awareness of something unknown on these sites but stored within and part of the memory of the city. 107 - bc kyiv
1. Town wall 2. Wet fields 3. Chimney collec on 4. Fizkoeltoera! 5. Baby Jar 6. Graveyard 7. Produc on of labor
8. Between rail and road 9. Hospital garden 10. Collec ve fireplaces 11. Holy places 12. Bridging the river 13. Underground bunkers 14. Deporta on bc kyiv - 108
Memorymap model 1 109 - bc kyiv
1.0 Memorymap The sites, at random rearrangement 111 - bc kyiv
Revised memorymap model 2
Towards the design project
Relate: Some sites within the city are un-no ced, ignored or invisible, where the places themselves possess high poten al. Rela ng them within their surrounding context creates new sort of places and a more honnest image of what the city is.
Open: The surface of the city is one constructed out of many layers. Opening up some of them, reveiling the inner stucture could reveil a heighly valuable groun for the further developement of the place.
Objects covering the surface of the city both old and new are build on a founda on. Some mes a founda on that is more interes ng than the thing build on top. Why disguising it? bc kyiv - 114
Involving means some mes the emptying out of spaces. Removing some parts reveil the other. They become ac ve and involved in the city. 115 - bc kyiv
The Garages The garages proved to be even more interes ng than speculated. Not only did they prove to be an important part of Kievan society from a social point of view, but they also provided a rich architectural substance and the possibility of a mul - faceted reading of the space that would become the core of my research project. A series of statements were made in the beginning of the research Re-using ar facts means also introducing a new typology. By adding project based on the on-site observa ons. I described the garages as a an object, the composi on as a whole could get new meaning and “military object”, a “wall”, an “interior”, a “village”, a “system”. purpose. bc kyiv - 116
ROUTE-CANAL TREATMENT Ivo de Jeu
INTRODUCTION “My artform is the short journey made by walking in the landscape. [...]The only thing we should take of a landscape are photographs. The only thing we should leave are footprints” Hamish Fulton
This quote from Francesco Careri’s book Walkscapes - Walking as an aesthetic practice that we read during one of the seminars came back to the surface as I was walking the 14km route of the Lybid Canal.
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ARCHITECTURE & DRAWING “architects do not make buildings, they make drawings for buildings.” –Robin Evans 1 This essay is an attempt to discuss the role of drawing in architecture. By taking a look at how drawing and architecture have been closely connected, from the Renaissance to the Russian avant-garde and into the last three decades, some of the underlying forces and processes could come into focus. It is not only an attempt to discuss, but also to try and understand the relationship between drawing and architecture and what that means for present and future architecture. Already Alberti writes in his De re aedificatoria about the important role of lineaments, linear constructions projected “in the mind” in preference to the physical material reality of buildings. But it is a bit blunt to simply oppose those projected constructions to actual buildings. Robin Evans writes in The Projective Cast: “What connects thinking to imagination, imagination to drawing, drawing to building, and buildings to our eyes is projection in one guise or another, or processes that we model on projection” 2 Projections are the way how the architect bridges the gap between the idea and the material. So let’s take a closer look at some of the projections. The invention of perspective enabled painters and architects to recreate their surroundings in a natural but scientific way by geometrical means, finding a mathematical logic in everything. The Golden Section and its Divine Proportions illustrate this by putting Man, and thereby the creator of man, God, at the center of all creations. The fact that man is forced in an uncomfortable and unnatural pose to prove this mathematical logic was being ignored.(fig. 1) Now it became possible to represent space on a two-dimensional surface in a natural way. By the introduction of depth and thereby space in the drawing, also time was introduced in the drawing. The viewer could “travel” through the represented perspectival space which creates certain sequences and a possibility of a narrative. Architects could add a new tool to their palette. Stan Allen writes about this “In architecture, the smooth space of mathematical reason allowed the architect to reverse perspective’s temporal vector and project precisely imagined constructions into the future.” 3 But there was unease about how perspective could be used in the realization of actual spaces. The use of perspective relies on the vanishing point to complete the composition. But when the viewer is not at the predetermined viewpoint, the composition could fall apart. That is why the perspectival projection was used more conceptually in Renaissance architectural theories of perception and pro1. De architectura libri deci
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portion. “[…] design is not visualization (empirically “testing” successive versions) but rather the manipulation of a series of highly abstract devices–primarily the orthographic projections of plan and section–that serve to describe and construct the space.” 4 These projections, orthogonal or perspectival, are no autonomous objects; they represent relationships between aspects of the drawing. These relationships can be interpreted and reconfigured in different ways and representations while “reading” the drawing. In analogy to the reading of drawings; can the production of drawings be called “writing”? El Lissitzky explained “Perspective limits space; it has made it finite, closed.” Axonometry “has extended the apex of the finite visual cone of perspective into infinity [...]” 5 The perspectival projection on a plane represents a threedimensional space, whereas the axonometric projection is “the ultimate illusion of irrational space” that makes it possible to navigate through and around the subject, “constructing new worlds”. Although perspective is a mathematical invention and has scientific roots, it has mostly been used in a pictorial way, imagining the known world according to worldly principles. When the revolutionary avant-garde of the early twentieth-century wanted to construct new worlds they chose to use axonometric projection, it communicates abstract information, is measurable and precise. Axonometric projection has its origin in the military, was taught at engineering schools and became very important during the industrialization period. If perspective is related to the École des Beaux-arts than axonometry is related to the École Polytechnique. Axonometry is not trying to map vision; it deals with construction and measurability. These very aspects attracted the avant-garde. Perspectival drawing eventually ends in the vanishing point, closing it up in space and time. Axonometric drawing has its vanishing point at infinity, which “suggested a continuous space in which elements are in constant motion.” Attempts to realize axonometric works in a physical built form have had similar results as the anamorphous projections on church domes; the impact and energy of the drawings was lost.
2. El Lissitzky Proun Spacedrawing, 1923
3. El Lissitzky Proun Space, Berlin 1928
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When visiting El Lissitzky’s Proun Space in the Van Abbemuseum in Eindhoven (fig. 2&3), it can feel quite disappointed. When experiencing the space physically, the potential and dynamic that it could generate from looking at the drawings wasn’t there. Or when looking at the model of Van Doesburg’s Café Aubette it also looked much more static and flat than the drawings suggest. So there is a difficulty in translating these avant-garde axonometric visions to a true physical experience. This difficulty resulted in a role in the margins of architecture for axonometric experimentation for approximately fifty years; until the so-called de-constructivist experiments of for example Daniel Libeskind (on paper) or Peter Eisenman (also in models, fig. 4) among others. What was the backdrop of the rise of a new avant-garde who became the “starchitects” of today? In the early 60’s innovations in arts and film inspired for “architectural speculations on paper”. The ’68 strikes fueled a “distrust of […] institutions and social conventions” and architecture came to distrust conventional type and program; and the conventional “collaborating architecture–would soon, and easily, be replaced by a more radical, democratic, free, uninhibited world.” 6 The perspectival drawing method became synonymous for the collaborating corporate architecture and had to be opposed. The oil crisis of the 70’s slowed down the building production and talented promising architects took on teaching positions, “where the graphic experimentation […] condensed into a primary mode of research.” 7 Architecture was preparing itself to take the lead in radical social and political reinvention. This condensation led to the objectification of the drawing as a means on its own, as a strategy to launch the architectural debate. The drawings were able to reveal a reality that goes beyond any built reality. These multiple interpretations and readings of the drawings show a richness that is outside the scope of the physicality of the building. Daniel Libeskind gives a very clear description of the state of architectural drawings at the time of his 1979 project Micromegas: The Architecture of Endspace: “Architectural drawings have in modern times assumed the identity of signs; they have become the fixed and silent accomplices in the overwhelming endeavour of building and construction. In this way, their own open and unknowable horizon has been reduced to a level which proclaims the a priori coherence of technique. In considering them as mere technical adjuncts, collaborating in the execution of a series made up of self-evident steps, they have appeared as either self-effacing materials or as pure formulations cut off from every external reference.” 8
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4. Peter Eisenman, axonometric model House X, 1975-78
The drawing becomes, once again, more than depicting the various views of the building, they construct a narrative and show not only the appearance of the project but also its meaning in a broader sense. A dialogue is opened by this narrative that questions the formal and spatial dimensions, subjective content and interpretations are taking into questioning the supposed objective realistic perspectival view. Spatial and physical continuity, best represented in the perspectival view are undermined by cinematic and choreographic techniques like in Bernard Tschumi’s Manhattan Transcripts (fig. 5). Which is a mix of an anti-hero involved in the Russian avant-garde meets Georges Bataille and Jacques Derrida, has the subversiveness of Archigram and is on a Situationist dérive through Manhattan. All represented in photographs, conventional architectural drawings and motion diagrams.
5. Bernard Tschumi, Manhattan Transcripts 1976-81
Or Rem Koolhaas’ AA thesis project Exodus (fig. 6), “A work set in three equal registers: a scattershot set of emaciated, anemic parodies of traditional architectural drawing; a storyboard of colorful collages; and a text/script.” 9 Or like Peter Eisenman’s House I–XI series, who used the analogy of language with its fixed set of words, to liberate design from the burden of functional and contextual requirements by proposing the transformation of a fixed set of elements like walls, columns and stairs into a “process-driven design”. So by explaining parts of the projects/process in the drawing instead of “depicting the resultant form” the “evolution of the concept” becomes the subject of the project. Patterns emerge that are as much part of the project as the final form.
6. Rem Koolhaas a.o., Exodus 1972
7. Peter Eisenman, House VI 1976
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8. Daniel Libeskind, Micromegas, Little Universe 1979
9. Daniel Libeskind, Chamber Works 1983
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But the most radical attempts, in approaching architectural drawing from a completely different angle, are carried out by Daniel Libeskind in his Micromegas and Chamber Works series. (fig. 8 & 9) In these drawings all preconceived conventions about architectural drawings are being destroyed, and all that is left is a state of architectural anarchy. The drawings are almost autonomous works of art. The Micromegas works can be seen as the final step in axonometric drawing and fit perfectly in El Lissitzky’s description as “the ultimate illusion of irrational space”. It is as though a multitude of Prouns have collided that are in a constant flux. Or consider Libeskinds Chamber Works drawings of which John Hejduk writes: “This phenomenological work of Libeskind has turned the body inside out, but with a difference. Before there was the possibility of transcendence, of the release of a soul that could be free in the unknown heavens. Now, the new drawings produce the antithesis. […] But here we also have the soul being discarded, carried by a landscape of inexplicable meaning. […] Libeskind silences all; we see the very soul.” 10 So, did Libeskind’s drawings announce the end of/the final stage of the evolution of the architectural drawing? Is it like Malevich and his White on White (fig. 10) or Black Square paintings? Libeskind himself writes about his Chamber Works drawings: “[…] This work in search of Architecture has discovered no permanent structure, no constant form and no universal type. I have realized that the result of this journey in search of the ‘essentials’ undermines in the end the very promise of their existence. […]” 11
10. Kazimir Malevich, Suprematist Composition White on White 1917
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Libeskind certainly maneuvered himself in a very difficult position. He not only silenced all, he almost silenced himself. In Pandora and the modern scale model machine Albert C. Smith writes that by engaging in the construction of three scale model machines Libeskind wants to re-enter the realm of architecture. In his Three Lessons in Architecture (fig. 11,12&13) he builds a Reading machine to teach (himself?) the process of building. He then builds a Memory machine, which “consists of what can still be remembered in architecture.” And finally he builds the Writing machine that “teaches the artless and scienceless making of architecture”. These machines can be seen as an attempt to provide Libeskind a new framework and a set of reference standards to test his concepts. It certainly proved impossible to compete with these drawings on a similar platform. That’s when the attention shifted to the diagram during the nineties. Which allowed for continuous, folded surfaces and smooth transitions, as opposed to conflict and instability. What is the position of architectural drawing today? The rise of the computer in the design studio and the development of Building Information Modeling (BIM) could change the role of the architectural drawing once again. In the communication between architect, client and contractor, 3D computer models are becoming more and more important to express the ideas of the architect. Not only in photo-realistic representations but the complete building can exist in virtual reality. The architectural drawing could be less and less designed to express the idea of the architect, but a result or revelation of complex processes of which the architect is the director. Does that lead to good architecture? Sometimes a bad script results in a good movie, sometimes a good script results in a bad movie and sometimes a good script results in a great movie. It all depends on the director.
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11. Daniel Libeskind, Reading Machine 1985
12. Daniel Libeskind, Memory Machine 1985
13. Daniel Libeskind, Writing Machine 1985
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NOTES 1 Allen, Stan Practice: architecture, technique and representation p.1 2 Ibid p.183 (notes) 3 Ibid p.7 4 Ibid p.7 5 Ibid p.17 6 Kipnis, Jeffrey Perfect Acts of Architecture p.10 7 Ibid p.11 8 Libeskind, Daniel Countersign p.14 9 Kipnis, Jeffrey Perfect Acts of Architecture p.14 10 Libeskind, Daniel Countersign p.122 11 Ibid p.111
IMAGE CREDIT Figure 1. De architectura libri deci, source Smith, Albert C. Architectural Model As Machine Figure 2. El Lissitzky Proun Space drawing, 1923, source http://www.usc.edu/ schools/annenberg/asc/projects/comm544/library/images/305.html Figure 3. El Lissitzky Proun Space, Berlin 1928, source http://www.tate.org.uk/ research/tateresearch/tatepapers/07autumn/berndes.htm Figure 4. Peter Eisenman, axonometric model House X, 1975-78, source http:// blog.miragestudio7.com200708peter-eisenman Figure 5. Bernard Tschumi, Manhattan Transcripts 1976-81, source Kipnis, Jeffrey Perfect Acts of Architecture Figure 6. Rem Koolhaas a.o., Exodus 1972, source Kipnis, Jeffrey Perfect Acts of Architecture Figure 7. Peter Eisenman, House VI 1976 source http://www.kjabaird.blogspot. com/ Figure 8. Daniel Libeskind, Micromegas, Little Universe 1979 source Libeskind, Daniel Countersign Figure 9. Daniel Libeskind, Chamber Works 1983 source Kipnis, Jeffrey Perfect Acts of Architecture Figure 10. Kazimir Malevich, Suprematist Composition White on White 1917 source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Marevich,_Suprematist_Composition-_White_ on_White_1917.jpg Figure 11. Daniel Libeskind, Reading Machine 1985 source Smith, Albert C. Architectural Model As Machine Figure 12. Daniel Libeskind, Memory Machine 1985 source Smith, Albert C. Architectural Model As Machine Figure 13. Daniel Libeskind, Writing Machine 1985 source Smith, Albert C. Architectural Model As Machine
BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, Stan (2000) Practice: architecture, technique and representation. Routledge Forty, Adrian (2000) Words and Buildings. A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture Thames & Hudson Kipnis, Jeffrey (2001) Perfect Acts of Architecture Thames & Hudson Libeskind, Daniel (1991) Countersign Academy Editions Smith, Albert C. (2004) Architectural Model As Machine Architectural Press
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ROUTE-CANAL TREATMENT While on one of our groupwalks I stumbled upon the Lybid Canal. Part of Kyivâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s irrigation system. In total it is around 14 km long and it leads into the Dniepr river. The following mappings are an attempt to uncover the richness of what I have experienced while walking.
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ABOUT THE MAPPINGS The whole process of the mappings can be divided into a couple of steps. THE WALKS After the discovery of the Canal, I started walking alongside of it, wherever possible. At some times there would be blockages, fences, tunnels or the water itself that prevented from continuing. But after a detour or some climbing the route would be continued. GATHERING INFORMATION While walking I was busy trying to absorb all the experiences that I encounterd. Through memory, writing texts, recording film and audio, drawing and taking photographs I tried to grasp it. PROCESSING AND SELECTING INFORMATION After returning home the processing began of all gathered information. RESULTS TO START THE MAPPINGS This lead to a collection of data that I tried to put into mappings. THE MAPPINGS The first mapping is a panorama of the complete route from start to finish captured in photographs, the first deformation. The second mapping is a tracing of the first mapping. Bringing it back to its essentials, the second deformation. Then I made an audio-collage of the route and let this digitally influence and alter the second mapping. This third mapping is a 2 dimensional distorted mapping, triggered by the audiocollage, it responds to the loudness and frequencies of the audio-collage and pushes away or pulls closer the elements of the drawing. The final mapping is another deformation of the previous mapping based on the same audio-collage. This deformation generated a 3 dimensional mapping. The amount of vertical extrusion depends on the loudness and frequencies of the audio-collage. The final result is still related to the first mapping but uncovers new territories.
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SEQUENCES Maria Ionescu
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My familiarity with the post communist situa on has led me to inves gate similari es and diďŹ&#x20AC;erences between two ci es with resembling history. While the essay a empts to discover a general pa ern of development of Central and Eastern European Post-Socialist ci es the research focuses on a very rich urban phenomenon which is par cular to the city of Kyiv. Overall both the familiarity and the novelty of the Kyievan urban culture and landscape are addressed in the work through a series of snapshots that capture various relevant instances of a con nuous transforma on process.
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The Post Socialist City
“Capitalist urbaniza on occurs within the confines of the community of money, is framed by the concrete abstrac on of space and me, and internalizes all the vigor and turbulence of the circula on of capital under the ambiguous and o en shaky surveillance of the state.” David Harvey, Consciousness and the Urban Experience (1985)
It has now been seventeen years since the fall of communism and although the world has taken considerable interest in the poli cal, economical and social transforma ons of post – socialist states few studies have addressed the urban transforma ons. There are several reasons for this lacuna; the first two would be the general interest in the transi on of the post communist countries to free market economy through economical and poli cal reforms and the short me span considered insuﬃcient for a major transforma on of the urban ssue. To this I would add the high degree of confusion induced by these ci es as they are in a state of transi on with an uncertain outcome. A certain fear in assigning a label or hin ng at a possible future is keeping both experts and inhabitants in a state of perpetual expectance. It is precisely because of this uncertain future that more a en on should be paid to the post communist city. On the one hand this is a place eager for change, it is an opportunity for experimenta on and a breeding ground for new architecture and urbanism. With a tumultuous history and a sound cultural context it can become a resource of rich theore cal study. On the other, the overwhelming enthusiasm of genera ng the new can lead to self destruc on. An uncontrollable urban sprawl that a acks the exis ng ssue will eventually make the city collapse under its own pressure. This paper will try to create an outline of the recent history of Central and Eastern European post socialist ci es and speculate on the opportuni es and dangers they provide. The first sec on will give a short account of the principles of communist urban development and their implementa on oﬀering some insight into the legacy of soviet urban planning and the ground zero of this transi on period. The second secon will follow the array of transforma on that arose out of this paradigma c shi and their direct impact on urban form. In the last sec on I will speculate on the future of these ci es from a purely theore cal point of view.
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The communist legacy The communist revolu on adver sed a new world order. It envisioned a classless, stateless society where collec ve property and labor would benefit all without discrimina on. This new world order would have to be implemented gradually as it was (righ ully) considered that the society was not yet ready for it. The cradle of this new society was to be the city. The city was the birth place of the proletariat and it would be its future. In order to provide an adequate environment for the crea on of a new social order the city itself had to be reborn as a physical embodiment of communist ideology. An ideology that emphasized the role of industry in the development of the proletariat, the elimina on all hierarchies including that of country and city, the importance of collec ve way of life and a break with the past that had lead to so much injus ce. During the first decades of Communist rule in the newly formed Soviet Union architects and urban planners started developing the theore cal basis of this new urbanism. Two schools of thought appeared in the a empt to formulate the ideal solu on for the city of “the new man”. The Disurbanists based their ideas on the Garden City movement. Influenced by the proposals of Ebeneezer Howard and Frank Lloyd Wright they envisioned an infinite network of small community based se lements stretching across the soviet landscape, thus forever oblitera ng the tradi onal image of towns and villages. The Urbanists advocated a more moderate approach, aiming to reshape the exis ng ci es to the communist ideals rather than start from scratch. This trend fell closer to the newly formed Modernist principles that also oﬀered a strong ideological basis. The conflict between the two frac ons went on for several years un l finally the economical argument was brought forth and the Disurbanists were accused of undermining communist frui on with their utopian plans. In the end the plans for urban development incorporated ideas from both schools. The ci es would be developed on top and around the exis ng urban centers. The form was to follow Modernist ideas while the organiza onal principle of the new quarters would be closer to the Garden City movement. The Modernist model provided solu ons for cheap prefabricated standardized dwelling units that served both the economical necessity of building easy and fast and the ideological one of eradica ng class diﬀerences by providing everybody with equivalent living spaces. The Garden City principle upheld the values of communal life which was crucial for the development of the new society. The collec ve was such an important aspect that the community outranked any other form of social structure, even that of family. Some projects were so extreme in their views that they extracted all family related ac vity from the space of the dwelling and relocated it to massive communal areas, this included laundry, cooking, entertainment and relaxa on. The dwelling was no longer a living space as much as a res ng place, all the “living” had moved within the community. Child educa on was also a collec ve concern, child care would pass to state responsibility almost as soon as he was born. bc kyiv - 140
Although ideas as radical as this never came to be implemented, structuring the residen al around collec ve ac vi es did. The residen al neighborhood was based on the micro-rayon unit which was centered around a school. Several such units would make up a residen al complex centered around a cultural and shopping center. Several residenal complexes would service an industrial produc on unit. This was thought to provide suﬃcient interac on between the inhabitants and cater to all needs they might have for work, educa on, entertainment and nourishment. Travelling to the city center was deemed unnecessary unless for occasional mass poli cal or cultural events like parades or Party fes vi es. In fact a lot of the urban developments that were built lacked some of the intended quali es. The ever growing need of housing units for the working popula on that was being forcefully dispatched to the city made building dwellings a priority and le secondary func ons such as playgrounds and cultural center to be dealt with later. These superblocks became massive dormitories with li le social ac vity to sustain a healthy collec ve life. The dwellings themselves were built in haste, with poor materials and on standardized plans that stressed the economical importance of minimal living area that was some mes reduced to unbelievable numbers. In short they were small, noisy and cold and could barely provide the “comfort of home”. Strict land-use alloca on procedures were enforced in order to segregate residen al and industrial areas due to pollu on issues. Nevertheless the “minimal journey to work” principle that stated travel- me between home and place of employment via public transporta on should not exceed 40 minutes, kept the industrial areas within the city boundaries. This also put an emphasis on the importance of transporta on through the city. The residen al complexes and the produc on areas were to be connected by large fairways dedicated solely to public transporta on (it was only in the late ‘70s that private car ownership was encouraged and that only because the automobile industry needed a boost). These large thoroughfares wrapped around the residen al complexes that were designed completely car free, as all movement of the inhabitants, except travelling to work, would be pedestrian. Exis ng city centers almost lost its meaning while newly built ones would hardly acquire any. Commercial and administra ve facili es
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became decentralized as they relocated to the various micro-rayons throughout the city. Private enterprises were suppressed and the city center lost most of its tradi onal func ons, remaining mainly residen al with occasional spurs of interest for the mass cultural ac vi es held within (parks, museums, theaters) and the poli cal ac vi es. With the aboli on of private property all open space became public space, at least speaking from the point of view of ownership. Whatever used to be public space (squares, streets, ins tu ons) could almost be considered private space of the Communist Party. The public space ceased to be a place of interac on and became one of enforcement of power. The new “civic centers” that were being built focused on one thing – power. Power was represented by the state, the state was the Communist Party, and headquarters of the Communist Party would reign over the empty space, space devoid of meaning or purpose. Most of the prac ce of socialist urban planning was done a er the Second World War both in the USSR and the countries under its influence. The principles propagated from Moscow as rules rather than guidelines, although some na onal influence was allowed, some mes even encouraged as it provided a good means of strengthening na onal iden ty (folk crea on was highly regarded by the Communists as the true valuable heritage of the proletariat). The eﬀects of Communist rules on the Central and Eastern European ci es varies with the poli cal influence the USSR had on the country and with the cultural and economical factors that determine the “availability” for change. Therefore ci es like Budapest, Prague or Warsaw have kept most of their historical centers intact (some have even been rebuilt a er the war), while Bucharest or Kiev have suﬀered incredible mu la ons, loosing most of their architectural heritage. Albeit the diﬀerences within the evolu on of these ci es all the “modern” developments are unnervingly similar and the familiarity of the atmosphere of a never before seen place proves the homogenous and anonymous result of socialist urban development. The overall eﬀect was a dead city. A city that estranged its inhabitants. A city without past and seemingly without future. Post communist transforma ons With the fall of communism the en re world that came out from under the Iron Curtain saw the dawning of hope in their newly achieved “free-
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dom”. This instant panacea turned out to be a long and sinuous road that for many has s ll to reach its des na on. Freedom is a vague concept, it has “a broad range of applica on from total absence of restraint to merely a sense of not being unduly hampered or frustrated”. Freedom is portrayed in its most extreme form when it occurs immediately a er extreme oppression. The freedom of a ci zen is the liberty to think and act in accordance with his own will as long as in doing so he does not infringe the liberty of others to do the same. Somehow the second part of this statement seemed to get lost on the way. If finally I as an individual count then I as an individual will take decisions regardless of the others. The idea of any type of restricon was seen as an infringement of one’s freedom. This misunderstanding of the no on of freedom, coupled with opportunism and an avid desire to overcome the poverty stricken status of the worker, has provided for a morally shaky society groping it’s way to democracy. The changes brought on by the fall of communism were almost instant and aﬀected all aspects of life. Socially it was a me of confusion, with a frac on of society hoping for a return to “the normal” and the achievement of well desired democracy, a frac on specula ng on the opportuni es of uncertainty, gaining both economical and poli cal influence, crea ng the contemporary oligarchy, and a vast majority submerged in the civic ignorance taught by the communist regime that awaited pa ently for the new leaders to take decisions for them, but this me with a posi ve outcome. There are two major factors determining urban transforma on: the economical shi to capitalism and reinstatement of private ownership. The economical factor is responsible for completely unforeseen and new developments that reconfigure the city on all levels, from micro to macro. First stage of development implemented a plethora of small private businesses all over the city. These came in all shapes and sizes, populating courtyards, sidewalks, bus and metro sta ons. Selling of goods of any type took all possible forms from simply trading out of a box or a car trunk, to adding an extra window to your ground floor apartment with a 24 hour schedule, to pu ng up a full fledged enterprise in the shape of a kiosk wherever found suitable on public ground. This type of commerce was probably the first physical expression of the new situa on the post-socialist city found itself in and most definitely the first
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urban implementa on. Although a universal manifesta on, the extent to which this phenomenon grew diﬀers from city to city. For some ci es it remained a brief transi onal phase to the new style economy while for other it became an integral part of the urban system. Bucharest for example suﬀered a process of sani za on in 2003 when most kiosks were removed from public ground during an ini a ve called “kiosckariada” (an explicitly aggressive term). The event was welcomed by the ci zens, who considered the various clusters encumbering for circulaon and esthe cally unappealing as the general image of the street did not resemble any known image of a Western European capital. S ll some kiosks remain to this day, but their future is uncertain. In comparisons, Kiev’s small market economy thrives. Not only have the kiosks popped up everywhere but they grew into a complex system overlaid on the city’s transport network. A strange symbiosis between movement and trade has developed here as large commercial areas build up along and around major transport arteries and hubs, modifying in their turn the way people move in between and within these arteries. The simple kiosk (or an even more primi ve structure) is repeated infinitely to form maze like spaces that in some areas replace the city itself by absorbing all focus of the pedestrian. That which is by nature temporary has become so well rooted that it becomes a defining element of the urban ssue. A second stage of the transforma on is represented by the drama c change of use of ground floor areas. All poten ally commercial spaces were quickly priva zed and converted to retail areas. This was mostly possible for the city center, reinves ng it as a focal point. It also changed dynamics of the area due to the late opening hours and large number of visitors. And most no ceably, it changed (one again) the image of the city. Suddenly the quiet familiar facades exploded in a kaleidoscope of colors and lights as businesses opened, closed and moved in the unstable market. The strong visual impact of the ever changing facades was both enchan ng and confusing. It oﬀered a lively image of an acve, thriving city, but undermined its stability by constantly reorganizing symbols and orienta on points. The risk is that eventually it will run the pedestrian into a visual overdrive that would render him immune to the city’s presence. Along with the inflow of businesses comes an inflow of adver sements. As the main engine behind the free-market economy, adver sing becomes a rule for the transi oning city. Large billboards and banners stretch across boulevards, rise from the sidewalks and cover en re facades. The neon sign is the new icon of the city. The most prominent buildings within the city are branded with famous company names. Their iden ty is dissolved into this universal concept which is the trade mark and which has nothing to do with the building, with its role or its inhabitants. En re streets and neighborhoods are lost behind colorful banners in a feeble a empt to cover the “ugliness” of decrepit facades, fla ening the city into a two dimensional magazine page. Ads have the power to replace meaning. Kiev’s most defining place, the Independence Square, is a curious collage of historical replicas, newly concocted bc kyiv - 144
na onal symbols and a drove of adver sements. Which of these has the most impact on the consciousness of the Kievans is hard to determine; one thing to no ce is the shi in the replica of St. Michael’s Gate in order to clear the view for the Metrograd Mall dome. The no ons of public space and commercial space have come to overlap almost completely. The public space has become commercial space while the commercial space has become the new public space. A consumer society generates a mall culture. This is the new space that conforms to Arendt’s defini on as “the place to see and be seen”. These massive construc ons start colonizing the city, absorbing a great deal of its public life. Each new implementa on polarizes the interest of the inhabitants, shi ing the a en on from one point in the city to the next. One could say there is not much diﬀerence between the mall and the shopping center of the residen al complex, but in fact its impact at urban level in what concerns circula on and convergence of inhabitants is huge. Its notoriety and popularity rivals that of the most important ins tu ons and that is o en reflected in its architectural form. The design of such buildings falls back on this role of icon within the city. The design is simply glamorous, with shiny surfaces, rich textures and intricate shapes. Almost 20 years a er its glory days, the Post-Modernist concept of “historical quota ons” is stronger than ever. They are a mix of Western ambi on with local snobbism. It’s o en here that the diﬀerence between the old and new city is most obvious. Most malls are built in residen al areas, on the open spaces le in between the Communist superblocks, here the most drama cally opposing structures, in both ideology and form, dwell together in a remarkable harmony. Dissolu on of the Communist regime also meant the return of private property as the primary form of ownership. In the residen al sector people became owners of their own home. An overwhelming wave of picturesque modifica ons to the façade added to the already colorful image the banners had created for the city. Private property was asserted by marking one’s territory through whatever means possible – color, shape, texture, fencing, pu ng oneself out there for the world to see. A slow erosion of the no on of public, as something that belongs to all and not just to some, begun. The no on of “what’s in it for me” is the drive force behind any endeavor and thus the concept “the community” is abandoned as a relic instead of being reevaluated. This abandonment or some mes denial of the community is felt even
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stronger when looking at the modern residen al developments. The market for single family houses skyrocketed and the phenomena of suburbaniza on appeared almost overnight. But these are a far cry from the tradi onal suburbs of Western Europe, they are more a mix between a suburb and a gated community in which poten al quali es of both species are lost. They are the ul mate proof of the degree of autonomiza on and individualiza on within post-socialist socie es. All traces of a poten al community have been erased. The individual houses are protected from view by high, opaque, solid walls. Even the benefit of having a gated community, with emphasis on community, is denied. Neighborly rela ons are mostly hindered by this layout. What you have is a collec on of gated individuals, and proud of it. The benefits of social isola on are many and overcome things like lack of sewage, garbage disposal service, current running water, public transportaon and other urban features. It is complete autonomy that grants the ci zen his freedom within democracy and it is for this reason that some of the most expensive residen al areas fit the descrip on above. The streets have become something like a necessary evil, necessary because they connect the inhabitants with the rest of the world, evil because they are walked by others. In fact walking is so frowned upon that these areas have abolished the no on of sidewalk. The flaneur is dead. Meanwhile former socialist dwelling areas remain heavily populated due to prohibi ve prices of new housing. Since the priva za on of these buildings restora on and rehabilita on no longer fall under government concern and private investors fail to see the benefits of such an undertaking, not to men on the inhabitants themselves that cannot aﬀord the endeavor. In the past fi een years no investments were made to renovate or simply clean the face of the city. Thoughts on the ma er What is the post socialist city about? Is it about finding iden ty? Is it about erasing its past? Is it about becoming European? There are hints towards several trends of development, but none oﬀer a viable soluon. There is the trend to return to the past as the source of na onal iden ty, a highly conserva ve a tude set on rebuilding the historical heritage through contemporary replicas (the most eloquent example is St. Michael’s Cathedral in Kiev rebuilt en rely in 1999 a er the Communist regime tore it down in 1967 for a new Civic Center). Second trend relies on Communist nostalgia. It stems from the inability to deal with change, finding comfort in the familiar and trying to preserve it as much as possible. Third trend is to align to Western standards, which has so far meant copying blindly sta c pictures of “capitalist wealth”. The fourth “trend” is probably the most note-worthy, but has so far proved quite illusive in defini on as it remains a blur of op ons. A mix of conflic ng ideas emerges when looking at all this, making it diﬃcult to pinpoint a specific image or predict a future. The lack of control from the authori es, consis ng of a lack of policies and/or their enforcement, has paved the way to apparent chaos. There is a need bc kyiv - 146
to break with the past and a desire to “become European” through synchronism based on the implementa on of form rather than content, superficial modifica ons believed to generate a more substan al change in the future. As if capitalism would be defined by the banners and the tall glass skyscrapers. This contradic on between appearance and substance creates the urban paradoxes that make up these ci es. The expansion of the European Union by incorpora on of Central and Eastern European countries means the implementa on of the European Union policies in these countries. Ques on is whether these policies are suited for such ci es, which at the moment grow without them. What can be expected out of the implementa on of regula on which will not be well received (simply because it is a form of restraint) and what kind of policies are suitable in the first place? We are dealing with an organism of incredible vitality that has long broken away from its western counterpart and has been proceeding on a separate path for more than half a decade. The post-socialist city is a breed on its own and its uniqueness should not be underes mated nor faded out by a set of rules meant to sani ze it. Major scale reimaging has been the goal of many genera ons in the past and it has almost always failed miserably damaging the urban ssue beyond repair. But the me of top down implementa on is long gone. Insofar these ci es have changed and grown through their own means. They give a new scale to grass-roots development for as long as there is no plan for them any type of implementa on comes as a personal input from a private party. No ma er how large or small, any urban interven on can be considered a “tolerated” one from the point of view of the administra on. It is public acceptance that validates it and this is always done retroac vely and in a very direct fashion. All this leads to a seemingly uncontrollable, naturally growing organism. An organism that is actually in a learning process. Learning trough experimenta on. The only ques on is what will it learn? What conclusions will it draw and how fast it will do it? As all reasoning beings it learns out of its mistakes, but how many can it aﬀord? If consistency s a trait of maturity, than these ci es are s ll in their puberty, subject to changes that they might not understand at mes, but to which they have to adapt. The period of transi on is crucial for the success of the city, but what if this state becomes permanent? What if the state of indefinite uncertainty becomes the normal state? A state of permanent temporality? There is a need for overview. It is not a ma er of control but a ma er of the city ge ng a grasp of itself. Defining an iden ty in order to define a goal and get some foresight. The rate and rhythm at which the city is growing do not aﬀord for it to have this blank spot, because as much as it can develop, it can also destroy itself.
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References: Dings, Mieke & Wagenaar Cor (2004), Ideals in Concrete, Exploring Central and Eastern Europe, NAi Publishers, Ro erdam Harvey, David (1985), Consciousness and the Urban Experience, Basil Blackwell Ltd. Harvey, David (2000), Possible Urban Worlds, Twynstra Gudde Management Consultants Stanilov, Kiril (2007), The Post-Socialist City - Urban Form and Space Transforma ons in Central and Eastern Europe a er Socialism, Springer Tsenkova, Sasha & Nedovic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Budic, Zorica (2007), The Urban Mosaic of Post-Socialist Europe - Space, Ins tu ons and Policy, Springer, www.shrinkingci es.com bc kyiv - 148
Point of Entry into Kyiv The research stems from the minute observa on of a par cular urban phenomenon within Kyiv. The phenomenon consists of large areas of the city being occupied by small scale structures that span hundreds of square kilometers (some reaching as much as 10 ha) and func on primarily as garages. Although func oning on a legal base, the loca on and appearance of such developments resembles a tolerated grassroots ini a ve, which makes it an interes ng study subject for mapping natural urban growth pa erns and their spa al expression. 149 - bc kyiv
The Garages The garages turned out to be even more interes ng than speculated. Not only did they prove to be an important part of Kievan society from a social point of view, but they also provided a rich architectural substance and the possibility of a mul - faceted reading of the space that would become the core of my research project. A series of statements were made in the beginning of the research project based on the on-site observa ons. I described the garages as a “military object”, a “wall”, an “interior”, a “village”, a “system”. bc kyiv - 150
The â&#x20AC;&#x153;military mapâ&#x20AC;? emphasizes observa on and control as the two defining elements. Using a combina on of plan, eleva on and perspec ve, the map highlights the self asserted strong-points of the garages (the surrounding wall and the watchtower) and establishes the (hierarchical) rela ons between the observer and the observed.
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LEGEND RESIDENTIAL AREA ACCESS ROUTE STREET TOPOGRAPHIC LINE RAILWAY CONTROL POINT/ BARRIER WALL OUTER PERIMETER INNER PERIMETER
ENTRANCE SURVEILLANCE INTERIOR/ SELF SURVEILLANCE OUTER SURVEILLANCE LINE OF SIGHT
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The “system map” uses a classical graph representa on in order to analyze the diﬀerent types of rela ons that occur among the units. Based on these diﬀerent types of rela ons diﬀerent communi es are formed. The relevance of the rela onal bond is thus evaluated by comparing the rela onal community to the physical one. It also provides an insight into diﬀerent types of organiza on of a very basic func on by defining several coagula on factors. 153 - bc kyiv
LEGEND SYSTEM NODES PHYSICAL CONNECTION SOCIAL CONNECTION DISTRIBUTION GRAPH
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Interior Map The â&#x20AC;&#x153;wall mapâ&#x20AC;? relates to the wall as an informa onal obstruc on and builds on the specula ve nature of human percep on. The map is an ar ficial reconstruc on of an obstructed image, based on a minute amount of informa on le available to the viewer. The map provides more of a tool than a representa on, as the image behind the wall and the method of reconstruc on are based on localized circumstances. The image can generate an infinite amount of projec ons and is in fact irrelevant to the result as only a small percentage is transmi ed, the reconstruc on method, which is en rely dependant on the perceiver can, in its own turn, generate an infinite number of projec ons. What the map does is provide the framework for this process of reconstruc on. 155 - bc kyiv
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Wall Map The â&#x20AC;&#x153;wall mapâ&#x20AC;? relates to the wall as an informa onal obstruc on and builds on the specula ve nature of human percep on. The map is an ar ficial reconstruc on of an obstructed image, based on a minute amount of informa on le available to the viewer. The map provides more of a tool than a representa on, as the image behind the wall and the method of reconstruc on are based on localized circumstances. The image can generate an infinite amount of projec ons and is in fact irrelevant to the result as only a small percentage is transmi ed, the reconstruc on method, which is en rely dependant on the perceiver can, in its own turn, generate an infinite number of projec ons. What the map does is provide the framework for this process of reconstruc on. 157 - bc kyiv
Vernacular Map The â&#x20AC;&#x153;vernacular mapâ&#x20AC;? is derived from the village image of the garages. But in opposi on to a rural image, the garages rely on a form of urban vernacular. The ques on of context and culture becomes less relevant in this case (as the urban culture and context are less specific and therefore less of determinant traits in urban vernacular). The focus of this map is on diversity within repe on. Through indexing the whole range of architectural vocabulary of this kind of programme is revealed and more importantly the extent and area this diversity can have within a repe ve sequence.
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CUL DE FIELD TO POINT CROSSING THE NODE Sara Bilge
“A city of great changes, Istanbul. It started out as the Greek city Byzantium; then as Constantinople it became the Byzantine capital, the second Rome, and, after that, capital of Ottoman Empire; now it is Turkey’s economic and political hotbed. (...) It is a city of many layers, a pulsating palimpsest.” (Bunscoten, R. & Hoshino, T. & Binet, H. “Urban Floatsam Stirring the City”, 7) As an Aramaic who grew up in this city of diverse and interlocking layers that defines the heart of Turkey and that is everything other than Turkish but the pride of every Turk, it is diﬃcult to determine how much am I an Aramaic or how much am I a Turkish. The lines are quite blurry. What are the extents of the influence of my French education given with French values, by French teachers, from an early age until adulthood on the development of my Aramaic-Turkish identity? Did speaking three languages within one day and continuously being exposed to various characteristics of all three cultures instigate who I am today? However, a couple years into living and continuing my education in a Dutch city, did I have developed a new layer of identity that is more European and quite diﬀerent from the Aramaic-Turkish base of self? It is tough to distinguish whether this European layer has been a part of my identity from early on. Even though its long term existence in my persona might have facilitated my adaptation to be so quick and second nature, my Aramaic/Turkish identity is maybe so strong that sometimes rather than adapting to the situation I might tend to appropriate it. Is my identity a palimpsest or a collection of diﬀerent layers? Kiev, first an outpost of the Khazar Empire, later consecutively ruled by Varangian nobility, Lithuania and Polish Crown became a part of the new ‘Ukrainian’ Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921 after the Russian revolution in 1917. In 1920 the Ukrainization began with the rural Ukrainian speaking population migrating to Kiev. Couple years after the revolution the city became the capital of ‘Soviet’ Ukraine, and finally after its independence in 1991, it became the capital of only the Ukraine. (http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiev) It was a struggle for a city with 95% Russian population just 90 years ago (Boelkagow, M. “The white guard”) to become a Ukrainian city. However after visiting Kiev, it was clear to me that this transformation had not yet happened completely and that the city, after 17 years of independence is still more Russophone than Ukrainophone. I questioned if the extend of the influences that the independence and change of regime had on this city’s rituals also would present the city a diﬀerent identity, a more Ukrainian one. I wondered if a city nowadays could either have only one specific identity, or even any identity for that matter. To be able to give an answer to this question, first the meaning of the term identity should
be clarified. The term identity, which is derived from the Latin root idem implying sameness and continuity has various definitions in diﬀerent contexts. Here I am going to concentrate on the two diﬀerent explanations within the context of philosophy. According to the first definition, identity (also called sameness) is whatever makes something the same or diﬀerent; it makes an entity definable and recognizable in terms of possessing a set of qualities or characteristics that distinguishes it from entities of a diﬀerent type. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity) This definition examines the likeness of someone, something or someplace to another rather than inspecting their unique characteristics. The second definition is about personal identity. Here “identity refers to a self-conscious person, that which makes him or her uniquely what they are at one point in time, and which further persists over time despite superficial modifications, making him or her same person at diﬀerent points in time also.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_ identity) According to this definition a person’s identity is built of any characteristics of his/her body or mind which is constant despite any happenings during his/her life. This definition of identity ignores any characteristics changed/developed in a period of time in relation to space, situations, surrounding, etc.. It also ignores many characteristics that make a person unique. The definition in itself may be self contradictory because it is not realistic to consider identity the sum of the characteristics of a person which never change. Identity is the relation of ‘self’ with the ‘context’ which are both highly subjective, and mostly unstable. The subjectivity of these features of identity makes the subject actually hard to discuss about. The feature ‘self’ is already a complex topic since it is changing everyday due of everything that men can think about. The feature ‘context’ which is mostly the reason of these changes is also unstable, but this instability presents diﬀerent degrees with each person or space. This is the reason of the examples above of a city with a lot of changes and a person in a lot of diﬀerent circumstances. I think these examples gave an introduction for ‘eclectic identity’ in a person’s and maybe also in a city’s case. “Increasingly we live within a global cultural supermarket, in which the world’s cultural forms, in areas from food to religion to music to architecture, are to some extent available for appropriation by everyone.” (Gordon Mathews, “Cultural Identity in the Age of Globalization: Implications on Architecture” in the book “The Domestic and the Foreign in Architecture” edited by Sang Lee and Ruth Baumeister, 47) From the examples at the beginning of this essay, one may consider that the first reason of the existence of an eclectic identity is the development of the self in a highly instable context. But nowadays the context doesn’t need to be so instable to aﬀect the cultural purity. Via technology and diﬀerent communication means everything is so close to each other to generate an instable context. One doesn’t need to be in Japan to eat sushi or in Turkey to smoke a water pipe. One is able to live, lis-
ten, see, taste, read, wear anything that one wants/chooses. This is the way how people try to define the ‘self’ in ‘diﬀerent’ contexts which results in the creation of the highly instable ‘self’. The development of defining one’s self along with the subjectivity supplies the unique features of a person and forms his/her identity. Because the diﬀerent contexts are endless and thus the instability of the self is highly stable, in a men’s entire life, the formation of identity is never completely finished. There are always layers that are added, deleted or changed and the appearance or the disappearance of these layers in relation with other forms the identity of a person, creates his/her eclectic identity. If we go back to the question: “Can a city have one specific identity?” and if we state that in a city’s case, identity is also the relation between the self and the context, the answer appears to be negative. Because, in my belief, it is impossible to have a city expressed by a ‘self’, it is much more plural than that. A city might be a combination of ‘selves’ in a context. Each self would then symbolize a place in the city which has a specific atmosphere and which diﬀers from other places in the same city. Like in the personal identity, the self is also changing in a city’s case with time and the context, but the plurality of the selves makes the issue of the identity for a city even more complex than it is for a person. That is why I think the characteristics of a city are not comparable with the ones of a person. People’s characteristics have a connection among each other or at least they cannot be totally incompatible, but in one city you can have places (selves) with totally diﬀerent and even incompatible characteristics. Maybe the characteristics of a person are not comparable with the characteristics of a city but because a city is made/ built by people and for people, and it is the people which make the city what it is, what it looks like; I think the personal identity, the identity of social/ cultural groups had/ have/ are going to have a great eﬀect on the city’s characteristics, like those characteristics had/ have/ are going to have an eﬀect on the personal identities of the citizens. “The built space of the city not only evokes financial progress and the spatial appropriations of power but it also gives us cultural residues, dreams of the future, as well as intimations of resistance. Built space therefore must not be understood only as spatial forms, but also something that produces and is produced by cultural practices.” (Ackbar Abbas, “Hong Kong Culture and the Politics of Disappearance”, 79-80) The statement above does not mean that the cities’ identities are only constituted by their social content but also that their past and present social aspect changed and changes the place, and made and makes the cities what they are. Of course the geography of the place aﬀects a city’s built space, its urban identity, but it is men who bring change to that place while geography is a tool which helps man with this process along with the city’s economy, government and technology in further cases. Man changes the place, creates the context and provokes ‘the development of the self(s) in that context’. Man, while changing it, adds from his characteristics to the place and creates the uniqueness of the built space in cities. People and the built space created by them give a place
characteristics, create an ambiance with features which later become the identity of that place. And like Abbas says in the quote above, from the book “Hong Kong Culture and Politics of Disappearance” the ambiance of the place, its characteristics aﬀect the people, their ideas, future, and maybe even their identities. A city is not anymore one place with an ambiance; it became a collection of places with diﬀerent characteristics. Currently, finding a city entirely explained with features of one ambiance is as hard as to find a person with cultural purity. The city and places in the city are revolutionizing constantly with the change of the time, technology, economy and surroundings. Thus, as the context changes the places (selves) and accordingly the city are trying to redefine themselves in this changing environment. That makes a city a collection of selves, with diﬀerent characteristics, ambiances, and architecture. This development of the self within its contexts gives a place its features, forms its identity and the combination of these selves gives a city its eclectic identity. Thus, the combination of the places within a city, defined with diﬀerent characteristics gained by the change of these places in the context and time, gives the city its eclectic identity. The change of the places changes the city that they are part of, and then the city together with the places tries to define themselves again and again. The degree of the change is sometimes diﬀerent and could aﬀect the situation of defining: some cities are changing but some cities are mutating. While before it was hard to realize the change of a city in centuries, now with the facilities and the technology, a city is able to change much faster. But again there are some cities changing even faster (mutating). Those are cities mostly in a new, highly instable context with question marks on the issue of the self. The ‘self’ of these mutating cities missed (because of various reasons) various time periods which gave ‘great features’ to others, they are literally taking over these characteristics which are by others gained by process. These cities are in between diﬀerent times and spaces, and they try to catch those by adopting characteristics of the cities which already have them. This creates cities which has almost ‘copy paste’ places, and mostly gives the city a character with an ultimate complexity. Kiev can be an example of these mutating cities. Kiev after changing hands for a lot of time, being a city or capital for diﬀerent countries, winning or losing importance, being expanded and destroyed, being a soviet city but always being someone’s than self’s became 17 years ago free with the independence of Ukraine. All those developments and changes gave some features to the city; they helped the city with what it looks like but the looks of the city mostly are defined by the last half century. Now after the independence, the city has for the first time the chance to be ‘Ukrainian’ and define what it could be, look like just by itself. “Hong Kong did not realize it could have a culture. The import mentality saw culture, like everything else, as that which came from elsewhere.” (Ackbar Abbas, “Hong Kong Culture and the Politics of Disappearance”, 6)
It is not sure if Kiev had also a ‘voluntary’ import mentality and also saw culture as that which came from elsewhere like in Hong Kong’s case, but the situation was the same that for the city. Belonging always to somewhere and getting mostly everything from elsewhere made Kiev kind of complacent and that is why left also the city with a big confusion 17 years ago. After its independence Kiev should decide what it is, what it can be, what it wants to be and how to make that happen; and this is not only for culture, for anything. For the first time being free to choose what to be but also being responsible from what would happen, create confusion. Kiev is confronted with the issue of its identity: the city wants, and sees as it should, define its identity. “Hong Kong is experiencing a kind of last-minute collective search for a more definite identity.” (Ackbar Abbas, “Hong Kong Culture and the Politics of Disappearance”, 4) This sentence would be also completely true if you would read Kiev instead of Hong Kong. Having their capital for their self, Ukrainian people wants the city to be the pride of their country by being a mirror of the Ukrainian culture. The soviet history is still so alive that it reminds itself in every opportunity. Being on the border of Europe and watching the developments there provokes the wish to be a western city more and more. Kiev then, is a Ukrainian city but it is not, it is a soviet city but it is not, it is an Eastern city but it is not, it is a European city but it is not. Kiev is between its past and present. The city is in a trial period, with adopting European features, partly trying to be extremely Ukrainian, partly still missing its soviet history, the city is trying to draw a trajectory. This trial period, and the confusion with it, is also reflected on the built space. Kiev is constantly building, demolishing and rebuilding. “The building and rebuilding suggest that space is almost like a kind of very expensive magnetic tape that could be erased and reused. (…) What is erased are cultural memories; what is rebuilt are more profitable buildings.” (Ackbar Abbas, “Hong Kong Culture and the Politics of Disappearance”, 80) The shiny tall towers of Europe are occupying more and more space in the city of Kiev, while the old residential buildings are left with their destiny, and probably the reason of not demolishing them is economical problems, that the city cannot aﬀord the costs of replacing all the memories of its soviet past. The new developments are taking more and more space in Kiev but the ‘almost formal’ informal structures, like the markets, are not less dominant in the city. The square meters and the interest that these structures get are competing with the new projects. The markets of Kiev are more Ukrainian then the shopping malls which gives an answer to the rich ‘want to be European’ citizens. The monuments in the city about the Ukrainian culture, the quantity of the demonstrations about the Ukrainian ideas and unfortunately the existence of racism’s problems show the ambition of a part of the society about the Ukrainian purity. There are still people, mostly the victims of the capitalist system, who are wishing for the coming back of the communism. And the city of Kiev is in between and changing by those ideas, way of use of space and urban forms created throughout these diﬀerent
characters of the city and their trials. Ackbar Abbas in his book Hong Kong Culture and Politics of Disappearance suggests that these cities need another kind of reading of the space than other and propose to look to the built space and architecture of Hong Kong in a diﬀerent way and he divides the Hong Kong’s built space into three main types which represent some diﬀerent aspects of the city. One of these types is the Merely local, “which consists of all those buildings largely belonging to another historical era, existing now, if they exist at all, mainly on the economic margins of the city.” The other type is Placeless. “These buildings could be found almost anywhere in the world and they seem to have just landed on their sites out of nowhere.” Between these two types there is the third one according to Abbas acting as a buﬀer zone, Anonymous; “all those nondescript commercial and residential blocks that seem to replicate themselves endlessly.” (Ackbar Abbas, “Hong Kong Culture and the Politics of Disappearance”, 81-82) This way of reading of the built space, actually specialized for Hong Kong, would be a good basic way to look at the city of Kiev. These three diﬀerent main types of built space could be also the main types of urban space in Kiev. Merely local is functioning like a memory for the citizens. One of the examples of this type in Kiev’s case is for example old soviet buildings on the borders of the city which are giving home to the largest part of the Kiev’s community. Those are not demolished mostly because of the economic problems; and now they are a used but not wanted memory in the city. The other example for Merely local are in Kiev’s case the new copies of the old churches of Kiev. These churches which were demolished are built again to change the memory of the citizens, to give a made impression. Last example for this type would be the ‘almost formal’ informal structures, like the markets, or like the garages. The markets which are endlessly continuing in the city are made by local people and used by them, and the way of use of the garages which are only for the local people would be a great example of the Merely local for Kiev’s case. Those are totally made and used by local people and they are their expression in the city of Kiev. The examples for the other main type “Placeless” are the super shiny buildings which fit in Kiev as much as they would almost in any city. “The placeless do not look local, but they are highly vocal.” (Ackbar Abbas, “Hong Kong Culture and the Politics of Disappearance”, 83) They tell how good, how expensive, how tall they are. Those are one of the ‘great features’ of others that Kiev is adopting; they are the symbols of the capitalist and rich Kiev. The Anonymous are the type of buildings similar to the new residential or oﬃce blocks that pop up suddenly in the city. “We find the same standardized forms replicating themselves whenever there is a site available.” (Ackbar Abbas, “Hong Kong Culture and the Politics of Disappearance”, 8) They look like each other and their quantity increase more and more in the city. Where or how they are built are irrelevant since they are just responding to the need.
While these three main types Merely local, Placeless and Anonymous are changing the built space of the city; their reasons to be, created by the confusion of being between the past and the present; the Ukrainian purity, the soviet history and the wish of becoming a western capital are competing for the identity of the city. Among all the diﬀerent characters dominating the city, Kiev tries to define its identity and actually understand its present eclectic identity. “Neither the cultural supermarket nor cultural purity is suﬃcient for comprehending cultural identity today, and this is as true in architecture as in any other field.” (Gordon Mathews, “Cultural Identity in the Age of Globalization: Implications on Architecture” in the book “The Domestic and the Foreign in Architecture” edited by Sang Lee and Ruth Baumeister, 51) Like the quote above indicates, neither the cultural supermarket nor the cultural purity or the reminiscence to its history in Kiev’s case would be a solution alone to define Kiev’s identity. It is impossible to have something pure in such a city like Kiev. The contrast of people, ideas, communism-capitalism, urban forms, along with many more aspects make this city so heterogenic that it is not possible to let the city have only one identity. Kiev is searching its eclectic identity or at least trying to understand it. If the eclectic identity is the combination of the places in a city changed via their context, the change in Kiev’s case is much more exaggerated: it is a mutation. If this mutation loses speed and if the cultural purity of the soviet inheritance and the European characteristics collaborate instead of compete with each other, the eclectic identity that I believe Kiev already has, finally would be more visible and understandable for the city and its citizens.
Literature: Abbas, A. “Hong Kong Culture and the Politics of Dissappearance” (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008) Augé, M. “Non-places, an introduction to the anthropology of hypermodernity” in the book “Dat is architectuur Sleutelteksten uit de twintigste eeuw” edited by Heynen, H. and Loeckx, A. and Cauter, L. de and Herck, C. van (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2004) Boelkagow, M. “The white guard” (Oorschot B.V., 2002) Bunscoten, R. and Hoshino, T. and Binet, H. “Urban Floatsam Stirring the City” (Rotterdam: 020 Publishers, 2001) Koolhaas, R. and Boeri, S. and Kwinter, S. and Fabricious, D. and Obrist, H. U. and Tazi, N. “Mutations” (Bordeaux: Actar, 2000) Mathews, G. “Cultural identity in the Age of Globalization: Implications on Architecture” in the book “The Domestic and the Foreign in Architecture” edited by Lee, S. and Baumeister (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers,
Cul de field to point, crossing the node.. Market phenomena in Kiev During the visit in Kiev, we were confronted with a huge amount of markets which were spread all over the whole city. But what makes these markets a specific characteristic of Kiev was not the quantity of the markets but their diﬀerent typologies. After an investigation during the excursion, it was clear that in total five diﬀerent typologies can be distinguished in the city. Every typology has its own spatial characteristics and qualities, and they are totally diﬀerent from each other. This diﬀerent characteristics, spatial qualities and experiences become the core of my research. The five typologies found in the city of Kiev are defined as: ‘Cul de Sac’, a typology build in one specific place with one entrance/ exit (i.e. almost a shopping mall) ‘Field’, a typology spread out in an area inbetween, with diﬀerent entrances/exits; there are diﬀerent flows in the area and the market becomes the frame of these flows ‘Point to Point’, a typology situated where there is a flow between two points; the market here is much more flexible and spontaneous, the shops change during the time because of diﬀerent circumstances ‘Crossing’, a typology located in an underground passage under a motorway where the users of the passage have no interaction with the above ‘Node’, a typology situated in a passage under a tram station where the users of the passage have an interaction with above Next pages give an overview of the maps made to express the caharacteristics of each typology. To highlight the diﬀerentiation of the typologies, they are expressed by diﬀerent mapping techniques. The diﬀerent typologies of markets are an important urban phenomena in Kiev. It is the city, the characteristics of the space which makes them derive but they change the way of working of the urban space, of the city of Kiev. Below are the locations of the five markets regarded as an example for analyzing the five diﬀerent typologies.
cul de sac point to point
Market Cul de Sac
Way of unfolding of the facades
Borders/extensions of the facades created by the products
Openings of the facades
Cars to move the products of the shop | break points for the shoppers
In Cul de Sac the organization of facades and the storages are importan charcteristics. This map where the elevations of the shops are unfolded in the place of the plans shows the experience of the user of the market. The unfolding allows also to show the spatial eďŹ&#x20AC;ect of the facades and the storages.
PRIVATE | PUBLIC MAP The boundaries of the shops in Cul de Sac define a private area in the market. Each shop has its own border, so the public area in each one is diďŹ&#x20AC;erent. The roof where the storages are located introduce another private layer. The layers are indicated with the two maps on the right. The transparent map shows the level of the storages (first level) and the map below shows the level of the shops (ground level). The model, where the plan view of the private areas are unfolded in the place of the facades, is an interpretation to show the impact of the private areas in the market..
CirculaĆ&#x;on on the ÄŽrst level
Cars to move the products of the shop | break points of the shopper
Private except some situaĆ&#x;ons
Mouvement of the cars Main circulaĆ&#x;on on the ground level
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take away facade _small extansions
take away facade _sample 2
take away facade _sample 1
Facades In Cul de Sac facades are the communication means with shoppers. They become the reflection of the stores. This map gives an overview of the diďŹ&#x20AC;erent layers of 11 basic facade typologies found in the market.
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half open facade
extended facade _door
extended facade _take away
This map demonstrates various sequences in Cul de Sac. It shows the spatial perception in the market from the perspective of the researcher. Different perspective and flat drawings lay emphasis on diﬀerent charecteristics of the sequences.
The street in front of the Cul de sac carries the people to the entrance of the market. The flatness of the market’s border is emphasized by an elevation drawing while the impact of the doors of the shops by a perspective one. The inner vision of a “takeaway” facade (which explains the permeability from outside) and the view from the small opening is shown. These are followed by the spatial characteristics of a roof with storages and a perspective view from the roof into the market. This map is a mental map drawn on the basis of the walk made in Cul de Sac in Kiev. The map has no fixed direction. That is changing according the drawings made on the basis of the indications of direction during the walk.
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Ňow and its density
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CONTEXT MAP Because Field is located in between diďŹ&#x20AC;erent functions the surrounding is an important and defining characteristic for this market. This map highlihts the context of the surrounding with plans and section drawings.
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ZOOMED IN MAP The programs and how they are changing in the space are one of the features of the market Field. This map is zoomed in the market and shows the programs and in addition the most important quality of the market, the spatial perception during the walk in the market. This is to see by serial perspective sections. These sections give an overview of how the market is experienced and how that diďŹ&#x20AC;ers from what one would expect from the plan.
8 9 13
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texƟel anƟque beauty electronica accesories Ňowers hardware store
food pet shop miscellaueous 5
kiosk toys store 4
furniture toilet administraƟon 3
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Market Point to Point The market Point to Point is about the flow and the shops added to that flow. The changing of the flow because of the existance of the market is shown by diagrams. The mapping of Point to Point is simplified to diagrams to demonstrate the working of the market and the changing of the flow in each step. Plan
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Ĺ&#x2021;ow and its density
the changing of the Ĺ&#x2021;ow to the shoppers
hard border weak border
the Ňow _Ɵckness of the line >density of the Ňow _color of the line >speed of the Ňow shoppers
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Kiev central train station
In the maket Crossing, the dimensions of the shops and their locations demonstrate that the market is not build spontaneously. However the extensions of the shops and their use of the space are intuitive and changes the space. This map shows the relation of the market with above and surrounding. This underground passage via the market inside becomes a space which makes a balance between its two sides. In the map the both sides of the market is shown and the flow in between. The shops are shown in two sections and all this information is connected to the plan of the market with stairs drawn in diďŹ&#x20AC;erent perspective views. The small details, like how they use the construction as a storage, or example of an extension of the shops, etc. are shown in the small pop-ups.
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level 1 secƟon view
interacƟon with passanger/seller
level -1 secƟon view
level -1 plan view
level 0 plan view
level 1 plan view
This map, through the combination of sections with plans, shows the unexpected spaces created by the locations of the stairs which connect the market with above and below. While this drawing technique demonstrates the changing of the space, the color gives an overview of the atmosphere of the market Node. The absence of the light elements beside the ones in front of the shops, gives a specific characteristic to the market. The changing of the black to gray and white shows the light and the visibility in the market. The abrupt choise of programs which were actually not aﬀecting the atmosphere of the market are shown by basic drawing hatching types in order to not aﬀect the actual idea of the map. Quantity of the diﬀerent line angles in a such hatch indicates the variety of the product types. The words in the map are showing the acts / thoughts of the people in the market, which gives some ambiance to the space.
This map is a serial of perspective drawings which follow each other with the right order, height and distance diďŹ&#x20AC;erences. The focus here is not on the whole frame but actually on the frame created by the objects or becuse of the light. That this frame is changing of shape constantly is demonstrating the perception of the unexpected places. The second map below is interpretating the market by connecting the frames together from the related points. Last map, by isolating the connection between the frames, is giving an overview of the experianced shape of the market.
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e 7_3 7_2
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APPROPRIATION / ADAPTATION IN SOVIET STRUCTURE Nadine De Ripainsel
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The primary sources in the development of soviet urban planning and architecture in the 1920s. The aim of this essay is to analyze Russian urban planning; the sources of influences in the developments in the 1920s and the achievements and heritage of this period. The 1920s can be regarded as the initial phase of Soviet urban planning, where two opposed theorist groups -the urbanists and the disurbanists- came together in a series of endless discussions. In the 19th century, when the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics saw that the capitalist economy had brought a widening gulf between rich and poor, order and chaos. Marx and Engels sought for an end to capitalist society and the systems they perceived to be responsible for the exploitation of the working class. They believed that a popular revolution was inevitable and the only path to socialism. This revolution took place in 1917 and became know as the October Revolution. The new regime was to ultimately create a communist society from which all traces of the previous capitalist economic system had been erased. This new society would enjoy egalitarian relationships between all its members and these would be reflected in their living and working environments.
FOREIGN INFLUENCES The architects and planners of the environment of work and life in the new Soviet city formulated their ideas on antecedents in both urban and social planning. They were influenced by developments that had already taken place in political, economic and sociological thought and in technological advancement. The concepts and principles of the new social order derived mostly from the principles of Marxist doctrine although the inspiration concept was often not so much Marxism as revolution in and for itself. Initially, it was the more radical ideas of the pre-revolutionary period that inspired the planners of the Soviet city the most, non more so than those of Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City movement. Howard’s influence had already reached Russia before the Revolution. His book, Tomorrow: a peaceful path to real reform, was translated into Russian and a Russian branch of the International Garden City Society was set up in St Petersburg in 1913. The reformist nature of Howard’s proposals held great appeal among revolutionary groups. Howard’s view that “ Town and country must be married, and out of this union will spring new hope, a new life, a new civilization ” 1 expressed in effect the prime Marxist aim of abolishing the distinction between 197 - bc kyiv
1.Garden Cities of To-Morrow, Ebenezer Howard, 1965
town and country. Howard also saw his proposed new type of urban environment as bringing about social change. His Garden City, as a Soviet city would have to be, was a planned entity. Moreover, Howard believed that planning ab initio would be more effective than attempting to adapt old cities. The emphasis on the Garden City movement on space and greenery for psychological and physical health was to become common ground to all the participants in the 1920s debates and to remain so in Soviet planning thereafter. If the ideas of Ebenezer Howard were the most widely influential, there were other architects and planners whose concepts were eagerly taken up by some post-revolutionary planners, for example Frank Lloyd Wright and Soria y Mata with his ciudad lineal in Spain. At this time, the Bauhaus group, headed by Walter Gropius flourished, first in Weimar, then after 1925 in Dessau and finally in Berlin; its Russian links were close and included the Suprematist painter Malevich. Architects influenced by the Bauhaus went to the Soviet Union to participate in building the socialist city, notable the Swiss Hannes Meyer and the German Ernst May and Bruno Taut, the last of whom had designed largescale housing complexes in Germany, described as ‘built socialism’. Mies van der Rohe exhibited at the first exhibition in Moscow of the Constructivist group at the Higher Art and Technical Studios. From France, le Corbusier came to the USSR three times between 1928 and 1930 to play an active role in the debate and perhaps, more than anyone, to turn his thinking into architectural realities in the world at large. For him, Moscow was a factory of ideas, a promised land for specialists.
URBANISM - DISURBANISM The decade of 1920s was marked by an endless discussion and controversy between two clear and opposed schools of planning, ‘Urbanist’ and ‘Disurbanist’. The first set of arguments arose over the concept of the ‘Green City’. The adherents of this idea were those most strongly influenced by Garden City theories. For them, the use of greenery and the rejection of geometric patterns were part of the overall vision of the natural beauty of a town. The development of more flexible forms of public transport was an expression of the modernity and needed to concentrate population in close juxtaposition to place of work. Towns would be small, not over 32 000 population, and linked to an administrative center. One of those most influenced by Garden City ideas was the German architect Ernst May, who devised a plan that kept only the inner core of Moscow within the Garden Ring and replaced the rest of the city with a dispersed scattering of small satellite bc kyiv - 198
garden cities. Some members of the Disurbanist movement saw the achievement of the Marxian goal of abolishing the difference between town and country through the total disappearance of the town, as it had existed. They envisaged people living in an ultimate form of ribbon development along roads through the countryside, with public buses taking them to work. One of the leaders of the Disturbanist school was M. Okhitovich. He planned triangles, with factories at the apices, with dwellings along the sides of the triangles, bordering park strips. The centre of the triangles was occupied by agriculture or extractive industry. The outstanding figure among the Disurbanists was Ginzburg. He envisaged all Moscow’s population and factories gradually being moved out, leaving only the old historic core as an administrative centre, set in the middle of parks. The population would be resettled in long zones of new communal houses through forests, with bus stations at regular intervals and zones of services, recreation and sport. The slogan “not greenery in the town, but the town in green plantations” was the inspiration for his entry in the 1930 competition for “Green City”, where they proposed a line of houses in forest to the northeast of Moscow.
1.Mikhail Barsch and Moisei Ginzburg, ‘Green City’, 1930 Generally opposed to the Disurbanists was the “urbanist” group, which is often referred to as ‘Socialist Town’ group. They did not expect towns to disappear entirely, although they believed that towns should be small and generously endowed with greenery. Most of the Urbanists believed in the break-up of the family unit and its replacement with a communal living, but this in fact was an equally widely held belief by proponents of Green City and the Disurbanists. Whether in towns or in individual buildings along roads through the countryside, the ideal house of the future would comprise of separate sleeping units, or “cells”, in buildings accommodating in some schemes up to 2000 people; under the same roof or in separate buildings would be communal kitchens and eating halls, separate crèches, kindergartens and schools for the nurture of the young and separate houses 199 - bc kyiv
for the care of aged and incapable. Extreme proponents of communal living planned that the lifecycle of each age group would be separately and precisely regulated, minute-by-minute through the day. From the concept of the communal house developed the ‘superblock’, a grouping of four- to six-storey blocks of flats arranged around a quadrangle. This concept of ‘superblock’ was complimented by the concept of the microregion. The microregion expended the communal house into neighborhood units of communal housing blocks, together with all the services needed for communal life. Further expressions of communalization were the ideas of standardization of buildings, building technique and materials, what became the forerunners of the standardized prefabricated techniques of the 1960s and later. Throughout the 1920s the debates continued and new group and subdivisions of groups were constantly forming and reforming in a kaleidoscope of acronyms. This multiplicity of associations and the crosscurrents of ideas and conflicting theories created a vitality and vigor in the debate. All participants shared Lissitskiy’s ‘unshakeable confidence in the future’ and all shared, as they did with the Bauhaus colleagues in Germany, the belief that they were free to devise the City of Socialist Man. The State, which in any case was to wither away as communism was achieved, was merely the enabler. All believed that the new city that was to arise would of itself bring about social engineering and the desired society. Equally, they all shared belief in the appropriateness and symbolism of new construction materials and, above all, in the power of new technology to fulfill the wildest imaginations. Technology would free the planners from all constraints. The dedication of the arguments was kept going by the many competitions launched by the various architectural and other bodies, all of which attracted innumerable entries. In 1922-3 the competition for a Palace of Labour in Moscow brought entries from Vesnins, Ginzburg and Golosov. In 1930 the competition for “Green City” evoked a major entry from the leader of the Disurbanists, Ginzburg, as well as other from Ladovskiy and Melnikov. In 1928 Le Corbusier won the competition for the Central Trade Union Building and saw his design being built. Most of the desins focused on the design of a communal living house. Perhaps greatest of all competitions was in 1929-32 a Palace of Soviets in Moscow, to occupy the side of the former Metropolitan Spasskiy Cathedral. Most of the leading architects, including Le Corbusier, Melnikov and Ginzburg submitted entries. Increasingly, as time went on, there was animosity between the various opposed groups. In a letter to Ginzburg, Le Corbusier referred to the Disurbanist view as a false interpretation of Lenin’s bc kyiv - 200
principles and said, “the facts will not allow this to be done”. In addition to all the shared concepts, there were compromise and intermediate positions as well as collaborations. A leading advocate of communal living, M. Barshch, collaborated with the leading Disurbanist, Ginzburg, in their entry for Green City. (figure 1) Milyutin, the outstanding proponent of the linear city, declared in his book Sotsgorod that, “there can be no controversy about urbanization of deurbanization”2 and the linear principle itself was equally characteristic of the Disurbanists. Milyutin’s famous scheme of parallel strips of residence and factories, separated by an green belt, was based on theoretical concepts of the new town as a producer. “If the pivot for capitalist economy is the market and its laws, then the pivot for socialist economy must be production and its planning” 2 . For him, the fundamental planning principle was the assembly line system. The zone of industry within the linear town would reflect production, as plants involved in primary production, in processing raw materials, secondary working and finishing lay in sequence along the longitudinal rail link. This therefore determined the linear layout of the city, although not necessarily straight lines but in linear zones adjusted to local topography.
2.Miyutin’s design for Stalingrad The linear line was first a centre of production, it also must be constructed so as to optimize the living conditions of the workers. The parallel strips would allow short, easy movement on foot between residence and work, through the intervening green belt at least 500 m wide. Social buildings, clubs and sporting facilities would lie on the far side of the housing belt from the factories, but technical colleges would be located near the relevant factories to allow sharing of laboratories and workshops. Housing would be placed up wind of the factories and their pollution. Every dwelling should have access to sunlight and should look out onto forest, field or water. Milyutin believed that communal living would characterize the linear city. He recognized the importance of greenery, expressed in his plans by the buffer zone of trees between houses and 201 - bc kyiv
2. Sotsgorod, by Miliutin, 1974
work-places and by the parallel zone of parks and open spaces beside the housing one. Yet he rejected the ideas of the Garden City, which he tough were an evil Utopia, that created the illusion of a possible escape from the situation without doing away the capitalist system. The flexibility of Milyutinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scheme, allowing as it did both Urbanist and Disurbanist variants, caused it to be the concept that came closest to being given expression in reality. By the time that Miyutin and others were designing the linear city the political and economic environment was already changing rapidly. Already hundreds of new towns and settlements of town type were rising on green field sites beside new sources of raw materials, while in existing towns new factories were pulling in ever-larger numbers of migrants from rural areas. There was no longer any reality in fostering the dissolution of urban areas. A decade of discussions and arguments had produced no blueprint for the city of the future, but the need was immediate. Most of the theoreticians assumed a new society and made little effort to understand the working of social groups in reality. The facile rejection of the family was a supreme example of such disregard. As Ersnt May acknowledged, it was no secret that the great majority of the Russian working class rejected the collective dwelling.
THE LEGACY OF THE 1920s IN PLANNING If buildings actually put up were relatively few and the application of town plans almost non-existent, the great debates did articulate or refine a number of principles of planning as a framework for subsequent town development. Even if many of these principles were ignored in the Stalin years, they remained in theory and in the plans conceived. Ten main principles were identified by Bater, as expressed in the 1935 Moscow master plan: limited city size, State control of housing, planned development of residential areas, spatial equality in the distribution of items of collective consumption, limited journey to work, stringent land-use zoning, rationalized traffic flow, symbolism and the central city, extensive green space and town planning as an integral part of national planning. Very few of these products have been practiced to any great extent and none of them has been fully implemented. Moreover, the principles that have been consistently regarded as crucial in theory are those that were derived from earlier theory. The first principle, that a city must be planned, and planned as a whole, derives from Ebenezer Howard. The functions acquired and their developments must be controlled and matched by the planned provision of a labor force and of facilities to give the workers an optimum life-style. This may not have happened to any great bc kyiv - 202
extent, but not only was this principle accepted by all the disputants in the 1920s, it was forever after the fundamental goal of the Soviet city planner. Equally derivative and again largely from Howard, but equally universally and continuously accepted, was the principle of creating an aesthetic environment for the physical and mental health of the city dwellers, with an emphasis on greenery and green space. Of all basic tenets, the greening of towns is probably the one that had been most widely and successfully implemented. The principle of a close relationship in space between residence and workspace – ideally within walking distance – remained firmly in Soviet planning thought, although real life saw this goal recede rather than approach. To achieve this aim has always meant the juxtaposition of the two main forms of urban landuse, residence and employment, rather than the separation sought by Western town planning or ‘zoning’ regulations, even if the two uses were intended in the Soviet context to be divided by belts of greenery. To the very end of the Soviet era, planners were trying to spread industry and employment throughout urban areas rather than concentrate them in zones away from residences. Standardization was a generally accepted principle among the architects and planners of the early Soviet period. Some saw it as deriving from the wooden peasant home; all saw it as egalitarian. Standardization of the appearance of buildings has been the hallmark of Soviet urban development. The principle of a maximum city size certainly lay behind the thinking of everyone in the 1920s. All regarded megalopolis with horror, as the ultimate expression of capitalism. The idea that towns should not exceed the variously stated maxima of 30000, 50000, or even 100000 people was already a lost cause in the 1920s. It reflected the widespread belief that the socialist town was to be created ab initio to replace rather than reconstruct existing towns. The principle of symbolism and the central city arose in connection with the 1935 master plan for Moscow, supposedly as a contradiction to 1920s ideas. One might see this as a part of a principle what might be termed the principle of ‘imperialism’. The Soviet Union as its capital in Moscow were seen as centers of the coming new world order, as the Tsar and St Petersburg had been of the old Russian Empire. The theme of imperial grandeur appealed immensely to Stalin and was put into practice by him when Moscow emerged as the capital of one of the two world superpowers. If ‘imperialism’ was a principle that survived the turmoil of the 1920s, so was ‘traditionalism’. Although the world at large identifies that period with the Constructivists and Rationalists there were architects who never lost sight of the traditional styles 203 - bc kyiv
that had preceded the Revolution. The period from the Revolution to 1931 can be regarded as the initial phase in Soviet urban development. It was a period when little was accomplished in practice, but when theories were elaborated about the way in which future town planning should go. The Revolution inspired ideas of change, of novelty, ideas that were reinforced by developments in technology and material. The arguments were fierce, lively and imaginative. But, at the end of the day, what was left, other than some Constructivist buildings, was a reversion to classicism, and a set of town planning principles that had individually first been enunciated well before the Revolution.
Bibliography Literature Alexei Gutnov, A. Baburov, G. Djumenton, S. Kharitonova, I. Lezava and S. Sadovskij (1971), The ideal communist city Alexander D’Hooghe, Public Form,Theorizing a new agenda for Architecture Henry W. Morton and Robert C. Stuart (1984), The Contemporary Soviet City R. Antony French, Kenneth Frampton (1995), Plans,Pragmatism and People, the legacy of soviet planning for today’s cities Alfed John DiMaio, Jr. (1974), Soviet Urban Housing Problems and Policies
Articles (scholar.google.com) Urbanism and Disurbanism in the Soviet Union, by Michael Gentile Urban planning in Russia: towards the market, by Oleg Golubchikov From ‘Soviet’ to ‘European’ Yaroslavl: Changing Neighbourhood Structure in Post-Soviet Russian Citien, by Susan Goodrich Lehnmann and Blair A. Ruble
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APPROPRIATION AND ADAPTATION IN SOVIET STRUCTURE The city of Kiev is designed and developed according to soviet urban planning. It is characterises in a scalelesness of space. Big apartment blocks enclose big green communal spaces what is often repeated several times. These spaces were originally designed to be used for leisure time. Since the soviet times came to an end in 1991, the area of interest is the contemporary use of these communal spaces. Two locations were chosen for a mapping research based on the topic appropration and adaptation; Vokzal’na and Politecnik, both different in scale. Appropriation has to do with the act of taking possession of something or assigning purpose to properties or ideas. Within the urban field it has to do with private use or self-claim of space or re-assigning a program into a space that have not been intended to be there originally. There is individual claim of communal property. Within the adaptation topic, there is no shift of property, but an individual change or adjustment in the urban fabric. People seem to have the personal need to inscribe their properties and make them their own. Through a mapping research the private input in the chosen location is investigated. The focus lies on research in balconyextensions, colouring of facades, window addaptations, private garden claim, preventing space for parking or making a individual one, placing garages on communal space, …
PART I: ADAPTATION COLOR CODES The following maps show a study of the color codes of the balcony colors that are diﬀerent from the original one. A pa ern is extracted from these RGB codes through a model.
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panoramaview of facade; Vokzalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;na
map 1: possible place for adapta on
map 2: changed colors of the facade; original color is le out
map 3: new color facade; sequence according to original place R-plane
model of the RGB codes of the adapted colors
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WINDOW PERMEABILITY This map only conserns the ground level windows of three different dwelling blocks. By extracting the different added layers (addition of fridges or flowerpots, fences, window frames, glass reflection, colors and curtains/sunshades) it becomes possible to study the permeability of the windows. The more layers a window contains, the stronger it is appropriated.
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fan / hatch
map 1: the balconies are drawn as a fold out map
JUXTAPOSITION OF LAYERS The different layers of the windows are extracted and printed seperately on sheets. The juxtaposition of these layers makes it possible to study the permeability.
BALCONY EXTENSIONS A dept-perception map (next page) is created through the study of the balcony extensions. By folding out the extensions, remodeling the outer lines it is possible to read the rythm of the facade.
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map 3: a reduc on of map 2 by connec ng the midpoint of each line
map 2: the outer lines of the fold out map
map 4: The outer lines are placed closer together and the midpoints are connected horizontally
map 5: remodeling the perspec ve created in map 4 into three dimensional
map 6: Abstrac on of map 5 by folding in and out of the midpoits
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PART II: APPROPRIATION OVERVIEW MAPS OF DIFFERENT APPROPRIATION TOPICS The different topics are: claims of private gardens, pop-ups of garages and claim of parking spots or prevention it. The overview maps show where the appropriation takes place on location and show the possibility for future claims.
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213 - bc kyiv possible place for claiming gardens
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actually claimed space, needed to drive in and out of the garage
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ZOOMED IN MAP A zoomed in area is drawn in order to understand the actully border of each territoty. Possible garage claim, garden claim and parking claim are shown. They each realte to each other and are dependent on the surrounding objects.
tree canopy possible garage claim possible garden claim possible parking claim
Plan view 1
Frontal view Environment
Facade Elements type 1
Plan view 17
Frontal view Environment 16
Facade Elements type 1
Frontal vie + Environment
Facade Elements type1
level of accessibility
plan + elements of influence
privat courtyard privat courtyard
level of accessibility
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