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IVO DE JEU

About This portfolio is a collection of some of my works over the last couple of years while obtaining my Master’s degree in Architecture at the Delft University of Technology. It ranges from a wet dÊrive, a carbonfibre freeform air filter to a reflective dissappearing act in the polder and concrete philosophy. Enjoy!

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 1

13-6-2012 23:23:15


BORDER CONDITIONS

“A designer´s approach to randomness on a riverbank in Kiev, Ukraine

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 2-3


RANDOM SPECIFICITY or CHANNEL VISION?

e” KYIV UKRAINE

13-6-2012 23:23:16


BORDER CONDITIONS

The map is a graphic representa-

Studio

sions are drawn from the col-

tion which facilitates a spatial un-

The studio Border Conditions plays

lective investigation, while the

derstanding of objects, concepts,

with the idea of the blurred reality,

individual researches are taken

conditions, processes or events in

of the vague and the indecisive. It is

further into design proposals.

the human world.

out of this apparently uncontrolla-

The first part of this book focuses

Maps are parallel worlds, rich and

ble and actually misunderstood no-

on the collective effort of the stu-

powerful out of their own specific

tion of marginal that new concepts

dio. The second part is dedicated

properties, producers of new and

of space arise. It speculates on the

to the individual work, comprised

other spaces, of alternative and

potential of these urban patches

of the theoretical essay and the

unprecedented geographies. Maps

where the undetermined still leaves

personal investigation and map-

and cartographic practices are

room for interpretation. An inter-

ping.

perhaps more correctly rendered

pretation that is transformed into

as heterotopic projects, dealing

a strategy through a thorough and

with or seeking or suggesting

precise process of mapping.

counter-worlds, other territories,

The studio is set up in three devel-

new spaces. Contemporary geog-

opment stages. The first stage fo-

raphy and cartography knows that

cuses on creating an entrance point

maps create space, that maps

to the subject city by enunciating a

generate the territory, that maps

series of problem statements and

produce or generate the real.

developing a number of investigational methods. The entire team of

BB3, Pavilion no. 12 vol. 1

students work together in creating these, the collective effort is crucial to the success of the studio and can be seen as a defining aspect of the methods. At the same time students are required to formulate their own theoretical research and start developing it through essay

Mapping

writing and practical testing. The

The studio Border Conditions

methods are applied on site in the

is involved in the research and

second stage of the studio, extract-

development of potentially new

ing information and dissecting

design tools and methods. The

the subject locally. Along with the

investigation focuses on mapping

collective research students define

as a method of discovering and

their personal area of investigation

harvesting underlying attributes of

and start working on the individual

the contemporary urban condi-

projects. During the third and final

tions and everyday life; translating

stage of the research project the

these into spatial readings and in-

data is analyzed in depth and the

terpretations able to form a basis

information is converted through

for architectural design.

mapping into a design tool. Conclu-

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 4-5


KYIV UKRAINE

Walking through Kyiv

universe accessible to the reader

The studio requires the develop-

through the map’s particular lan-

ment of a method of approach

guage. It is selective in its render-

to the subject city. Based on the

ing of information and offers a

developments of the first phase a

meticulously constructed image

navigation strategy was devised

out of the thousand images held

and applied on site. The way to

within the object. Each map can

approach a city is a key element in

unveil a different characteristic

grasping it. It is not merely a mat-

and each map can unveil a paral-

ter of moving through it randomly

lel universe extracted from the

or efficiently as much as a matter

same reality. The map offers not

of experiencing it from an architec-

only the precision of a reading but

tural and spatial stand point. The

the possibility of interpretation

act of moving through a city is re-

and variation.

evaluated and converted into a tool of comprehension. Exact details of how and why this movement is performed are established prior to the site visit. The validity of the navigation strategy and the specuGetting up close and personal

lations made are tested during the

During the first stage group

confrontation with the city itself.

effort focuses on creating an image of the city that will allow a

Mapping as a method

certain comfort with the environ-

The experience of the city is trans-

ment prior to the actual contact.

lated into an architectural dis-

Research begins by creating a

course through mapping. Mapping

collection of data from a large

provides the opportunity to extract

number of sources without any

and reassemble conventional con-

initial filtering. The collection was

cepts into spatial ones by shifting

then mapped onto a large scale

the perception of the viewer. It is a

satellite image of the city in order

translation tool of the everyday lan-

to create a spatial dimension

guage of the city into the complex

of the datascape. In the end a

and sometimes cryptic vocabulary

combination of the horizontal (the

of architecture. It appeals to the

data) and the vertical (the satel-

pragmatics of language in order to

lite projection) views taken on the

construct a new vocabulary.

city provide the researcher with a

The specialized nature of the map

three-dimensional impression of

makes its reading uniquely ap-

which speculations and opinions

propriate to the mapped content

arise and become investigation

rather than the original. That is

topics.

to say the map generates its own

13-6-2012 23:23:16


BORDER CONDITIONS

Metromap

stations on foot, the other travelling

were used per group were photog-

Beforehand Kiev was defined as

by metro and just sampling two dif-

raphy (view), video (sound/view),

a city of contrast and extreme

ferent atmospheres at the station.

notes (smell, sound, touch), and sketch; the team member would

juxtapositions. The close adjacency of extremely different city

The metrowalk was our first real

be strictly confined to this single

atmospheres and their transition

introduction to the physical real-

method of registration. Together

zones are investigated through

ity of Kiev. The method to record

the team becomes a sensing body

the metrowalk. For this walk the

this experience aims at dissecting

moving through the city. After-

group was split in two, the area of

information into distinct sensorial

wards the obtained data is filtered

investigation was the metro line

experiences, recombining data in

and recombined. The various lines

on the east west axis of Kiev.

a later phase in order to obtain a

of sensory information are inter-

The purpose of the walk was to

complete multilateral image of

dependent and should be read

test the difference in percep-

the walk. Each member of the two

accordingly. Both the upper and

tion of the two groups walking

different teams was assigned a

lower half of the map represent

different intervals of the same

tool, a specific registration method

two completely different cities but

trajectory, one passing through

focussing on a specific perception

are in fact samples of one and the

the transition zone between two

of the trajectory. The tools that

same city, Kiev. Part of main urban segment District segment Local cluster Single item

Rush hour Roadside

Rainy wether

Highway

Highway

Fast speed

Water

Birds

Trees

Factory

Fishing

Calming

Rough pavement

Hubs

Walking passage Transport

18:45

18:40

17:30

17:25

15:45

15:20

14:00

18:10

17:20 17:00

15:50

19:20

18:30

caves

ur

SM BRUTALI

EXIT

flane

unde grou rnd

caves

er

mm

l

oria mem

mall

bridge

dark

highway

car

school

adds adds

communi(ty)s bikes m

AXIS

music garage sale

ZOO

parc

fo rres

worker

t

homelessSUV

storage

crossing

BUNKER

g

5 18

dogs

forest doors

bu ild

trash

in

powe heate r r

t casino

transi

casino

courtyard

lenin

rails rails

casino

under

s

casino casino

er

ss

woo

s

cro

cars

pipe

ut la dc enc

tram road r te wa

nment

hu

parc

bi

rd

s

abando

ve

ch

b

hu

chur

dance

classic

ismmar

ket

19:25

fishi

ng

Nyvky

Svyatoshyn

Zhytomyrs’ka

Beresteys’ka

Politeknichny Institute

Shulyavs’ka

Universitet

Vokzal’na

ss

elegant

FANCquiet Y

Hydropark

Dnipro

Darnytsya

Livoberezhna

Lisova

Chernigivs’ka

hair products embassy

teenagers

fishers

garages

market people

laughi

ng

on

us

new BIG

24:00 - 19:10

18:30

18:25

16:45

Car parking Empty casino

Slow passing car

16:40

14:50 14:45

Telephone boxes

14:05

20:15

19:30

18:00

17:50

trash

construction

pi

bottles animals

Youth groups

Rainy wether

minibuses

et et et markmarkmark

people eating market minibuses

Park

dogs

waiting minibusses minibusses minibusses

factory

new

16:00

19:25

Commuter Streetsale High heals

trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees trees

sewer

carwash

big&old

Highway access Junction

Rough pavement

19:35

garages

old

circus

abandoned

s

mafia

spooky

house

trash

bridge

new concepts for dwelling..

underground

old cars s nice old house

color

CONTROL

empty

old BIG old old BIG old BIG BIG

empty

casino casino

empty empty

disco

mall

military zone..?

pigf at

shooting

mall

casinocasino empty empty empty empty

market

$$hoppingmall marketdea d rat

casino casino

FUN

market bars

market market

���������� ����� �

en



playground

dle s

ne

dancing

Arsenal’na

Khreschatyk

Teatral’na

..

Akademmistechko

Closed attractionpark Starting car

18:25

Busstop Waiting line

Part of main urban segment District segment Local cluster Single item

Legenda Legenda

Industry Industry

Industry Industry

Group 2 underground metro ride ride Group 2 underground metro

ParkPark

Group 2 walk Group 2 walk

Park Park Living and and commerce Living commerce

Group 2 walk

Group 2 ride walk Group 1 underground metro Group 1 underground metro ride

M

M

Metro line line Metro M

Depth perception line line Depth perception

Living andand commerce Living commerce Density Density

Group 1 walk Group 1 walk Sound perception line line Sound perception Group 1 underground metro ride Group 1 underground metro ride

Height Height Density Density Meating pointpoint Meating

Speed line line Speed

Height Height Meating point Meating point

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 6-7

Legenda Legenda

Group 2 underground metro rideride Group 2 underground metro

RiverRiver

Group 1 walk Group 1 walk

Speed lineline Speed River River

M

Metro lineline Metro

Heavy builtbuilt border Heavy border Permeable border Permeable border

Heavy built border Heavy built border

Public green

Permeable border Permeable border

Depth perception lineline Depth perception Public green

Transportation Transportation Sound perception lineline hub hub Sound perception

Public green Public green Transportation hubhub Transportation


KYIV UKRAINE

Legenda

0 km/h

Walk diagram Bridge Index of social activity Dispersal of people Zoomed in courtyard

*

Visual orientation line

?

Point of (dis)orientation Train track Walk scheme Real walk

25

km

/h

Imagined walk Public transportation Public transportation_ night

/h

0 km

19:35

?

Public transportation_ night option 2 Hard border

50

Fir

/h

km

st wo

ial lig hts

men ent er

Heavy traffic barrier

us tr

Permeable enclosure

Ind

Telephone call Dachas

lost in

5min

Projection line Re d co

ss

ple

Ma

n d o

sa

a

ue

b

Gl

A

Industry

Aba ndo ned str eet s

at

Public greenery

n

lesm

e

an

d s t r e

19:45

? B l ac

Blac

k h at

25 km

s

mp

t

sta

e

19:25

Tram

/h

k h at

s

s

25 km /h

? Blac

k h at

s

Blac

k h at

s

of Lack

venture Tramad urney Tramjo ?

light

er riv

ge

brid

25 km

19:05

/h 18:15

?

0 km

/h

/h

ing dark

19:55 Gett

Str ipe/h less 0 km road

/h

2 km

25 km

19:58

Crowded

19:15

?

18:20-18:55

nk

ht ba

Rig

/h

25 km 18:10

re is The

Pe

in!

a tra

op

le

co me

fr

om

Pe o

wo

ple

20:05

D

D

is

rk

gr e

et

18:06

is

ta

ta

n

t

n

t

v

ie

25

v

ie

w

w

km

/h

/h

25

Legenda

25 km/

Heavy traffic barrier

Public greenery

0 km

nk er bu

smel l

/h

m

km 1

rruga

plasti 17:30 cs

m

3 km

/h

*

1 km

/h

17:20 17:10

truc p tion t site i

n

0 km 2 km /h /h

3 km

e

/h

s

s

1 km

/h 17:00

/h 0 km 20:30-21:00

notes, pictures and film. As one of the groups got lost, the mapping

which encircles the city. Discov-

a completely different meaning.

ering the impossibility of that

Instead of recording information

aim made the walk an attempt

about the surrounding, the sur-

to reach by two groups a certain

rounding becomes a tool to map

train station from opposite direc-

the trajectory.

Industry

17:50

17:45 2 km

3 km rgrou /h nd

this point the walk and the map get

Dachas

17:58

Calmness unde 20:15

through the pursuit of the railroad, Projection line

/h

ns

technique proved to be relevant. At

Telephone call

km

Co

walk was to experience Kiev Permeable enclosure

25

tra

E

h

The initial purpose of the train

ss

ted

Point of (dis)orientation

Public transportation_ night option 2 Hard border

bo

sy

/h

Train track Walk scheme Real walk

Public transportation_ night

ith

oi

ap co

Visual orientation line

Public transportation

sw

Che

Zoomed in courtyard

Imagined walk

ad

N

M

Dispersal of people

Trainmap

k he

ms

ts arke

Index of social activity

*

blac

hol

25

Bridge

com

Alco

mer

ht

Lig

km/h

Co /h lle ailb ct iv ox e es at en stre tra et nc e

18:04

ls

cia

Walk diagram

?

km

tions. The map of the trainwalk focuses Two metro stations, one on the

on the route itself and the difficulty

north and the other on the south

of orientation. Connection and

of the specified target, were cho-

displacement lines are used to rep-

sen as the starting points.

resent confusion about the actual

During this walk both groups had

location and the way the location is

a similar division of tasks; each

read on the map. The two converg-

person focused on the walk by

ing trajectories never meet and so

utilizing one specific tool: sound,

they are separated.

13-6-2012 23:23:20


BORDER CONDITIONS

t to go back

t to go back go back

ive and

grows and shrinks depending on the color which represents the to emotion

m rain to snow and growing more chaos less visibility

Legenda

f weather and visual experience

Hard build border Train Metro A few people want to go back More people want to go back Almost all want to go back

Connecting8-9 intuitive and _PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd traced drawing


KYIV UKRAINE

Snowmap

With the increase of rain and

The snowwalk was based on the

later snow both visibility and

original idea to follow a trajec-

enthusiasm dropped. The weather

tory along the Dnipro River and

determined the physical route and

see the northern city edge at the

the tempo by the stops we made;

Obolon district. Both the riverside,

for dry shoes, umbrellas, shelter

which splits the city in two parts,

and the warmth and speed of the

and the city edge, in large part

metro. The impossibility of record-

created by an abrupt ending of

ing with the predefined method

former Soviet housing, are defined

actually becomes the recording in

to be the most physical ‘border

itself for this map.

conditions’ in the city. Our primary plan to investigate the river and the city edge by use of different tools: sketching, notation, photographing, filming, proved to nt to go back ntuitive and ng

be impossible during the walk by a rapid change of weather conditions. From that moment on the weather

ich grows and shrinks depending on and the color which represents the ence to emotion

determined our walk.

t from rain to snow and growing ew, more chaos less visibility

Legenda

ge of weather and visual experience

Hard build border Train Metro A few people want to go back More people want to go back Almost all want to go back

So many nights I've heard the rain, Have heard ma matter weeping ... I am m alone, alone my mind is drawn Towards lacustrine dwellings. T To rd dss la d A though As ugh I slept on wet boards, A wave willl sla slap me in the back I start from sleep, ep, and it seems I haven't drawn the bridge from the bank. eb A void of history extends,

Connecting intuitive and traced drawing Trajectory which grows and shrinks depending on enthousiasm and the color which represents the visual experience to emotion

An sense how through so much rain And The heavy timber stilts are tumbling. So many nights I've heard the rain, Always starting, always waiting ... A I am alone, my mind is drawn Towards lacustrine dwellings ...

Development from rain to snow and growing obstacle of view, more chaos less visibility

George Bacovia (1881-1957)

Break City edge

13-6-2012 23:23:22


BORDER CONDITIONS

While on one of our groupwalks I stumbled upon the Lybid Canal. Part of Kyiv’s irrigation system. In total it is around 14 km long and it leads into the Dniepr river. The following mappings are an attempt to uncover the richness of what I have experienced while walking.

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 10-11


KYIV UKRAINE

The walks After the discovery of the Canal, I started walking alongside of it, wherever possible. At some times there would be blockages, fences, tunnels or the water itself that prevented from continuing. But after a detour or some climbing the route would be continued. The mappigs The first mapping is a panorama of the complete route from start to finish captured in photographs, the first deformation. The second mapping is a tracing of the first mapping. Bringing it back to its essentials, the second deformation. Then I made an audio-collage of the route and let this digitally influence and alter the second mapping. This third mapping is a twodimensional distorted mapping, triggered by the audiocollage, it responds to the loudness and frequencies of the audiocollage and pushes away or pulls closer the elements of the drawing. The final mapping is another deformation of the previous mapping based on the same audio-collage. This deformation generated a threedimensional mapping. The amount of vertical extrusion depends on the loudness and frequencies of the audio-collage. The final result is still related to the first mapping but uncovers new territories.

13-6-2012 23:23:24


BORDER CONDITIONS

“From panorama to draw drawing and into the 3rd d _PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 12-13


KYIV UKRAINE

wing to exploded dimension� Small S ll fragments f t off the th mappings i showing h i the th development d t

14-6-2012 7:59:45


BORDER CONDITIONS

Translation from drawing to models

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 14-15


KYIV UKRAINE

13-6-2012 23:23:48


BORDER CONDITIONS

“A sequential stitched dou axonometric section, top-

fishing pond bbq deck bio filter

cs

-s

cs-r

exercisedeck

swimmingpool

ls-s level -1613mm

bio filter

divingpool

ls-r custom 90-90 axonometry level +250mm

ls-s level -1750mm

solardeck

level +250mm

kitchen

terrace level -4000mm

bar

level +280mm

cs-r

-s cs

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 16-17

ls-r


KYIV UKRAINE

uble-flipped - and bottomview in one�

fish farm

fish farm

fish farm

laboratory

bio filter

fish farm

water treatment

custom 90

floorplan water/ground level scale 1:200

13-6-2012 23:25:18


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BORDER CONDITIONS

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BORDER CONDITIONS

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KYIV UKRAINE

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CITY FOYER R’DAM

“A digital buildings a movement

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 24-25


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13-6-2012 23:26:03


CITY FOYER R’DAM

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A VISITOR’S HUB

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CITY FOYER R’DAM

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A VISITOR’S HUB

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CITY FOYER R’DAM

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A VISITOR’S HUB

“Digital development of the structure” 13-6-2012 23:26:37


CITY FOYER R’DAM

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A VISITOR’S HUB

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ERASMUS HOUSE

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A PHILOSOPHICAL CENTER

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g concrete allows the double as benches� 13-6-2012 23:27:27


ERASMUS HOUSE

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A PHILOSOPHICAL CENTER

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CONCEPT•NL

“A new Catshuis disappearing in the Polder”

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PRIME-MINISTER’S RESIDENCY

REFLECTIVE PERSPECTIVE 13-6-2012 23:27:40


CONCEPT•NL

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PRIME-MINISTER’S RESIDENCY

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langsdoorsnede A-A' schaal 1:50 13-6-2012 23:27:56


CONCEPT•NL

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PRIME-MINISTER’S RESIDENCY

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CONCEPT•NL

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PRIME-MINISTER’S RESIDENCY

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BORDER CONDITIONS

ARCHITECTURE & DRAWING “architects do not make buildings, they make drawings for buildings.” –Robin Evans 1 This essay is an attempt to discuss the role of drawing in architecture. By taking a look at how drawing and architecture have been closely connected, from the Renaissance to the Russian avant-garde and into the last three decades, some of the underlying forces and processes could come into focus. It is not only an attempt to discuss, but also to try and understand the relationship between drawing and architecture and what that means for present and future architecture. Already Alberti writes in his De re aedificatoria about the important role of lineaments, linear constructions projected “in the mind” in preference to the physical material reality of buildings. But it is a bit blunt to simply oppose those projected constructions to actual buildings. Robin Evans writes in The Projective Cast: “What connects thinking to imagination, imagination to drawing, drawing to building, and buildings to our eyes is projection in one guise or another, or processes that we model on projection” 2 Projections are the way how the architect bridges the gap between the idea and the material. So let’s take a closer look at some of the projections. The invention of perspective enabled painters and architects to recreate their surroundings in a natural but scientific way by geometrical means, finding a mathematical logic in everything. The Golden Section and its Divine Proportions illustrate this by putting Man, and thereby the creator of man, God, at the center of all creations. The fact that man is forced in an uncomfortable and unnatural pose to prove this mathematical logic was being ignored.(fig. 1) Now it became possible to represent space on a two-dimensional surface in a natural way. By the introduction of depth and thereby space in the drawing, also time was introduced in the drawing. The viewer could “travel” through the represented perspectival space which creates certain sequences and a possibility of a narrative. Architects could add a new tool to their palette. Stan Allen writes about this “In architecture, the smooth space of mathematical reason allowed the architect to reverse perspective’s temporal vector and project precisely imagined constructions into the future.” 3 But there was unease about how perspective could be used in the realization of actual spaces. The use of perspec-

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 52-53

1. De architectura libri deci


ESSAY

tive relies on the vanishing point to complete the composition. But when the viewer is not at the predetermined viewpoint, the composition could fall apart. That is why the perspectival projection was used more conceptually in Renaissance architectural theories of perception and proportion. “[…] design is not visualization (empirically “testing” successive versions) but rather the manipulation of a series of highly abstract devices–primarily the orthographic projections of plan and section–that serve to describe and construct the space.” 4 These projections, orthogonal or perspectival, are no autonomous objects; they represent relationships between aspects of the drawing. These relationships can be interpreted and reconfigured in different ways and representations while “reading” the drawing. In analogy to the reading of drawings; can the production of drawings be called “writing”? El Lissitzky explained “Perspective limits space; it has made it finite, closed.” Axonometry “has extended the apex of the finite visual cone of perspective into infinity [...]” 5

2. El Lissitzky Proun Spacedrawing, 1923

3. El Lissitzky Proun Space, Berlin 1928

The perspectival projection on a plane represents a three-dimensional space, whereas the axonometric projection is “the ultimate illusion of irrational space” that makes it possible to navigate through and around the subject, “constructing new worlds”. Although perspective is a mathematical invention and has scientific roots, it has mostly been used in a pictorial way, imagining the known world according to worldly principles. When the revolutionary avant-garde of the early twentieth-century wanted to construct new worlds they chose to use axonometric projection, it communicates abstract information, is measurable and precise. Axonometric projection has its origin in the military, was taught at engineering schools and became very important during the industrialization period. If perspective is related to the École des Beaux-arts than axonometry is related to the École Polytechnique. Axonometry is not trying to map vision; it deals with construction and measurability. These very aspects attracted the avant-garde. Perspectival drawing eventually ends in the vanishing point, closing it up in space and time. Axonometric drawing has its vanishing point at infinity, which “suggested a continuous space in which elements are in constant motion.” Attempts to realize axonometric works in a physical built form have had similar results as the anamorphous projections on church domes; the impact and energy of the drawings was lost. When visiting El Lissitzky’s Proun Space in the Van Abbemuseum in Eindhoven (fig. 2&3), it can feel quite disappointed. When experiencing the space physically, the potential and dynamic that

13-6-2012 23:28:09


BORDER CONDITIONS

it could generate from looking at the drawings wasn’t there. Or when looking at the model of Van Doesburg’s Café Aubette it also looked much more static and flat than the drawings suggest. So there is a difficulty in translating these avant-garde axonometric visions to a true physical experience. This difficulty resulted in a role in the margins of architecture for axonometric experimentation for approximately fifty years; until the so-called de-constructivist experiments of for example Daniel Libeskind (on paper) or Peter Eisenman (also in models, fig. 4) among others. What was the backdrop of the rise of a new avant-garde who became the “starchitects” of today? In the early 60’s innovations in arts and film inspired for “architectural speculations on paper”. The ’68 strikes fueled a “distrust of […] institutions and social conventions” and architecture came to distrust conventional type and program; and the conventional “collaborating architecture–would soon, and easily, be replaced by a more radical, democratic, free, uninhibited world.” 6 The perspectival drawing method became synonymous for the collaborating corporate architecture and had to be opposed. The oil crisis of the 70’s slowed down the building production and talented promising architects took on teaching positions, “where the graphic experimentation […] condensed into a primary mode of research.” 7 Architecture was preparing itself to take the lead in radical social and political reinvention. This condensation led to the objectification of the drawing as a means on its own, as a strategy to launch the architectural debate. The drawings were able to reveal a reality that goes beyond any built reality. These multiple interpretations and readings of the drawings show a richness that is outside the scope of the physicality of the building. Daniel Libeskind gives a very clear description of the state of architectural drawings at the time of his 1979 project Micromegas: The Architecture of Endspace: “Architectural drawings have in modern times assumed the identity of signs; they have become the fixed and silent accomplices in the overwhelming endeavour of building and construction. In this way, their own open and unknowable horizon has been reduced to a level which proclaims the a priori coherence of technique. In considering them as mere technical adjuncts, collaborating in the execution of a series made up of self-evident steps, they have appeared as either self-effacing materials or as pure formulations cut off from every external reference.” 8

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 54-55

4. Peter Eisenman, axonometric model House X, 1975-78


ESSAY

The drawing becomes, once again, more than depicting the various views of the building, they construct a narrative and show not only the appearance of the project but also its meaning in a broader sense. A dialogue is opened by this narrative that questions the formal and spatial dimensions, subjective content and interpretations are taking into questioning the supposed objective realistic perspectival view. Spatial and physical continuity, best represented in the perspectival view are undermined by cinematic and choreographic techniques like in Bernard Tschumi’s Manhattan Transcripts (fig. 5). Which is 5. Bernard Tschumi, Manhattan Transcripts 1976-81 a mix of an anti-hero involved in the Russian avant-garde meets Georges Bataille and Jacques Derrida, has the subversiveness of Archigram and is on a Situationist dérive through Manhattan. All represented in photographs, conventional architectural drawings and motion diagrams. Or Rem Koolhaas’ AA thesis project Exodus (fig. 6), “A work set in three equal registers: a scattershot set of emaciated, anemic parodies of traditional architectural drawing; a storyboard of colorful collages; and a text/script.” 9 Or like Peter Eisenman’s 6. Rem Koolhaas a.o., Exodus 1972

House I–XI series ( fig. 7), who used the analogy of language with its fixed set of words, to liberate design from the burden of functional and contextual requirements by proposing the transformation of a fixed set of elements like walls, columns and stairs into a “process-driven design”. So by explaining parts of the projects/ process in the drawing instead of “depicting the resultant form” the “evolution of the concept” becomes the subject of the project. Patterns emerge that are as much part of the project as the final form.

7. Peter Eisenman, House VI 1976

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BORDER CONDITIONS

But the most radical attempts, in approaching architectural drawing from a completely different angle, are carried out by Daniel Libeskind in his Micromegas and Chamber Works series. (fig. 8 & 9) In these drawings all preconceived conventions about architectural drawings are being destroyed, and all that is left is a state of architectural anarchy. The drawings are almost autonomous works of art. The Micromegas works can be seen as the final step in axonometric drawing and fit perfectly in El Lissitzky’s description as “the ultimate illusion of irrational space”. It is as though a multitude of Prouns have collided that are in a constant flux. Or consider Libeskind’s Chamber Works drawings of which John Hejduk writes: “This phenomenological work of Libeskind has turned the body inside out, but with a difference. Before there was the possibility of transcendence, of the release of a soul that could be free in the unknown heavens. Now, the new drawings produce the antithesis. […] But here we also have the soul being discarded, carried by a landscape of inexplicable meaning. […] Libeskind silences all; we see the very soul.” 10 So, did Libeskind’s drawings announce the end of/the final stage of the evolution of the architectural drawing? Is it like Malevich and his White on White (fig. 10) or Black Square paintings? Libeskind himself writes about his Chamber Works drawings: “[…] This work in search of Architecture has discovered no permanent structure, no constant form and no universal type. I have realized that the result of this journey in search of the ‘essentials’ undermines in the end the very promise of their existence. […]” 11 Libeskind certainly maneuvered himself in a very difficult position. He not only silenced all, he almost silenced himself. In Pandora and the modern scale model machine Albert C. Smith writes that by engaging in the construction of three scale model machines Libeskind wants to re-enter the realm of architecture. In his Three Lessons in Architecture (fig. 11,12&13) he builds a Reading machine to teach (himself?) the process of building. He then builds a Memory machine, which “consists of what can still be remembered in architecture.” And finally he builds the Writing

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 56-57

9. Daniel Libeskind, Chamber Works 1983


ESSAY

8. Daniel Libeskind, Micromegas, Little Universe 1979

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BORDER CONDITIONS

machine that “teaches the artless and scienceless making of architecture�. These machines can be seen as an attempt to provide Libeskind a new framework and a set of reference standards to test his concepts. It certainly proved impossible to compete with these drawings on a similar platform. 10. Kazimir Malevich, That’s when the attention Suprematist Composition shifted to the diagram during White on White 1917 the nineties. Which allowed for continuous, folded surfaces and smooth transitions, as opposed to conflict and instability. What is the position of architectural drawing today? The rise of the computer in the design studio and the development of Building Information Modeling (BIM) could change the role of the architectural drawing once again. In the communication between architect, client and contractor, 3D computer models are becoming more and more important to express the ideas of the architect. Not only in photo-realistic representations but the complete building can exist in virtual reality. The architectural drawing could be less and less designed to express the idea of the architect, but a result or revelation of complex processes of which the architect is the director. Does that lead to good architecture? Sometimes a bad script results in a good movie, sometimes a good script results in a bad movie and sometimes a good script results in a great movie. It all depends on the director.

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 58-59

11. Daniel Libeskind, Reading Machine 1985

12. Daniel Libeskind, Memory Machine 1985

13. Daniel Libeskind, Writing Machine 1985


ESSAY

NOTES 1 Allen, Stan Practice: architecture, technique and representation p.1 2 Ibid p.183 (notes) 3 Ibid p.7 4 Ibid p.7 5 Ibid p.17 6 Kipnis, Jeffrey Perfect Acts of Architecture p.10 7 Ibid p.11 8 Libeskind, Daniel Countersign p.14 9 Kipnis, Jeffrey Perfect Acts of Architecture p.14 10 Libeskind, Daniel Countersign p.122 11 Ibid p.111

IMAGE CREDIT Figure 1. De architectura libri deci, source Smith, Albert C. Architectural Model As Machine Figure 2. El Lissitzky Proun Space drawing, 1923, source http://www.usc.edu/schools/annenberg/asc/projects/comm544/library/images/305.html Figure 3. El Lissitzky Proun Space, Berlin 1928, source http://www.tate.org.uk/research/ tateresearch/tatepapers/07autumn/berndes.htm Figure 4. Peter Eisenman, axonometric model House X, 1975-78, source http://blog.miragestudio7.com200708peter-eisenman Figure 5. Bernard Tschumi, Manhattan Transcripts 1976-81, source Kipnis, Jeffrey Perfect Acts of Architecture Figure 6. Rem Koolhaas a.o., Exodus 1972, source Kipnis, Jeffrey Perfect Acts of Architecture Figure 7. Peter Eisenman, House VI 1976 source http://www.kjabaird.blogspot.com/ Figure 8. Daniel Libeskind, Micromegas, Little Universe 1979 source Libeskind, Daniel Countersign Figure 9. Daniel Libeskind, Chamber Works 1983 source Kipnis, Jeffrey Perfect Acts of Architecture Figure 10. Kazimir Malevich, Suprematist Composition White on White 1917 source http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Marevich,_Suprematist_Composition-_White_on_White_1917.jpg Figure 11. Daniel Libeskind, Reading Machine 1985 source Smith, Albert C. Architectural Model As Machine Figure 12. Daniel Libeskind, Memory Machine 1985 source Smith, Albert C. Architectural Model As Machine Figure 13. Daniel Libeskind, Writing Machine 1985 source Smith, Albert C. Architectural Model As Machine

BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, Stan (2000) Practice: architecture, technique and representation. Routledge Forty, Adrian (2000) Words and Buildings. A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture Thames & Hudson Kipnis, Jeffrey (2001) Perfect Acts of Architecture Thames & Hudson Libeskind, Daniel (1991) Countersign Academy Editions Smith, Albert C. (2004) Architectural Model As Machine Architectural Press

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ir. IVO DE JEU Address: Anemoonstraat 10-I 1031 GX Amsterdam

_PORTFOLIO_Delft.indd 60

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