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Endorsedbv Universítyof Cambrídge InternationalExaminations

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Exam overview I{ow to use this book

IY vl


IMPROVING YOUR INFORMALWRITING I Differentkindsof English 2 Friendlyregister 3 Friendlyletters:the basics

I I 3 5


PRoDucrNG INFoRMAL wRrrlNG I 2 3 4


Friendly Friendly Friendly Friendly

letters: descriptive letters: advice letters: narrative letters: descriptive narrative

rmenovrNcyouRFoRmAr wRtlNG I Basictools 2 J Opinions 4 Views and arguments


enoouclNcFoRMAT wRtlNG I Compositions 2 Formal letters o School magazine articles 4 Book reviews

READING I Overview 2 Summaries

tr I I

\2 t2 5l รณt 8l 81 87 88 92 94 94 tl8 t24 r38 t4l I4t t49

TISTENINGAND SPEAKING I Listening overview 2 Speakingoverview

l7l L7l

REFERENCE I Register 2 I(ey grammarpoints 3 Essentialprepositions 4 Word partners and sayings 5 Confusedphrases 6 Spellingtips 7 Problem spellings 8 Exam hints for the writing exam


r80 I82

r86 200 2t6 2t9 220 222 224





IGCSE as a SecondLangwage is designed primaril)¡ for students preparing for the Intemational General Certificate ofSecondary Educ¿tion (IGCSE) examination in English as a Second Language, but will also be extremely useful to students taking a course in English as a first languagc. All parts ofthe exam are covered, with strong emphasison the written component) which is the areawhere students usually r.reedmost help. Detailed units, geared to exam techliques, cover each aspect of the written paper, including letter rvriting, formal writing, school magazine articles and summaries. The skills needed for tlle written component are taught through the extensive use of examples in a step-b1,-step,hands-on guide, designed to boost students' confidence in their ability to answer exam questions successftilly.Equal attention is paid to the importance of style and content as well as accuracl', with reference to regular rnistakesmade by students in these areas.Many units include students' answersto previous exam questions, annotated with teachers' comments. Much emphasisis placed on the coffect Lrseof different registers, and a unit in the reference section outlines marry of the common register mistakesmade by students and how to overcome then-r.AIso included in the reference section is a selection of grammar points relevant to the requirements ofthe IGCSE exam. In an attempt to ensure that there is no barrier to understanding for the student r'vorking alone, every effort has been made to use clear, carefully selectedlanguage throughout, and grammatical terms are included only where absolutely n€cessary. The IGCSE English as a Second L':urguageexam is very demanding, requiring intimate knowledge ofboth language and culture. To bridge the gap ofcultural difference, the final section of this book, Database oftopicrelated vocabulary and ideas, provides students rvith relevant cultural information and encouragesboth development ofideas and ways of expressingthem. IGCSE as ñ, Seclnd is an irvaluable guide lor students preparing fbr dre First Certificate in English (FCE) and Certificate in Adr.anced English (CAL) exams,for any students keen to impror.e their level of'language proficiency and u'riting skills, and for teachersofstudents at these levels. t-

trxomovervrew The IGCSE exam is offered at both Core and Extended tier. Candidates ¡lüo take the Core tier may obtain Grades C to G. Candidates who take the Extended tier may obtain Grades A* to E. At both Core and Extended levels there are tr.vocompulsory papers and an oral component. Marks for the oral component do not contribute to the overall grades candidatesreceive for rhe reading, rwiting and listening components. Results are given on a separatecertificate with grades fi'om r (high) to 5 (lo$.).

lntroduction I


Reoding qnd Writing Poper | (Core) or Poper 2 (Extended) Weighting: 70 per ccnt. Reading and u'riting skills are equalll' s eigh tc.l lvithin the component. At both Levelsthe question paper is divided into seven exerclscs g E r r r c i s c sI a n d 2 ¿ r er c a d i n gc r c r c i s c s . a Exercise 3 requires you to read á passagcand then complete a fbrm or some notes using the information from the passage. a Exercise4 requires you to read á passagc,ancl make notes Lrsing infbrrnation fron the passage. a At Core level, excrcise 5 is linked to exercisc4 and requircs you to rr rite a paragraph-length slrmmary xbout an aspect of tl-rcpassage)¡otl rcad using the notcs ,vou made in excrcise4. a At Extcnded level, exercise5 rec¡uiresyou to read anothcr passageand rvrite a paragraph-lengthsummaryabout an aspectofit. s At Core lcvcl, exercises6 and 7 each rcquire vou to $.ritc 100 150 t'ords ofcontinuous prose in responscto x stxtcmcnt and/or prompts. s At Extended ler.el, exercisesó and 7 each requirc y611to rvrite 150-200 rvords ofcontinuous prose in responseto a statencnt and/or pron-rpts.

Listening Poper 3 (Core) or PoPer 4 (Extended) Weighting: 30 per cent. At both lcvels there are three parts. x Part I involves listcning to six short spoken texts and giving short ansrvers. a Part 2 involves listening to trvo longer spoken texts and using the information to complete a form or cl-rart. a At Core level, Part 3 involves listening to two longcr spoken texts and ticking True/False boxes. s At Extended level, Part 3 involves listening to tr.volongcr spoken texts and giving short or scntence length anslvers.

Orol Componenl 5 (Exominotion) or Component ó (Coursevvork) Orol exom Tl-re oral exam lasts about l0 15 minutes. It includcs: s conversation on general topics such as thc student's fanily, hobbies, 'warm ñrture. This part is not asscssed,and allor.s the student to rclax and up' (2-3 minutes) x talk by the studcnt on a topic from ar-rAsscssmentCard (2-3 minutes) a assessedconvcrsation betu'een the student and the assessor,det'eloping the topic (6-9 minutes). I h c e r ¿ m i s ¿ t s c s s c i.rl t t e r n ¡ l l v .

V¡ N /NTRODUCI/ON Orol courserwork Oral courscwork is deviscd b), individual Centres, and involrcs students being assessedon three oral tasksuüich arc assesscdintcrnal.Ly. For both ofthe oral components, a recorded sample ofcandidate performance is sent for external moderation by Cambridge Intcrnational Examinadons. For ideas and development of likely topics in the oral component, see the Database of topic-related vocabulary and ideas tou,ards the end ofthis book.

E How to usethisbook Nole When you reodtheexompes of students' work incudedin lhlsbook,you wlll noticethot noleverymisiokehosbeen correcled. Thisis becouse indlviduol efrofsore nol o woys re evoniw¡er] leochers ond exorninefs ore ookingfor overolllingrislic ment.

This book may be used as a course book in classor by students rvorking alone. In order to benefit tlom the material includcd in the book you should work through the units in order from the beginning. It is essentialthat you spend time working through the exercisesmethodically. If usirg it as a course book, your teachef may ask you to do certain exercisesin pairs or groups. \Vhenever possible, compare your ansr'verswith other students. You can learn about 1.s¡1¡strengths and u.eaknessesthis way. Remember that there are many different ways of producing good answers from the prompts given, and the answerspror.ided in this book are only suggestions. Under no circumstancesshould you learn arry ofthe suggested answersin order to reproduce them in an exam - this will be seen as cheating. Every answer must be original. Various features are used throughout the book to help 1'ou; s Remember boxes remind you of very import¿urt information. n Exam tips contain useñll info¡mation about what to do in the exam. I Language Point boxes highlight and explain various in-rportant language fi:atures. Colour is used in Sections I and 2 to show the kev features of irformal writing. ¡ Words or phrasesin this color¡r are being Lrsedto creirte interest. ¡ Worcls or ¡rhrasesin this colour are trcing uscclto nrirhcthc l riting nrule personal. I Worcls or phrases in this colour are treing used to support rr poirr r. Colour is used in Sections 3 and 4 to show the key features of formal nriting. ¡ I ¡ I t s r f,

Words or pl-rrascsin this colour arc cxprcssing generalisations. \ \ ' t , r r l :r r t ¡ r l ¡ ¡ , ¡ . 'i,r.r t l t i *. , , 1 ¡ u r¡ t ( ( \ l r r ( \ \ i I I gr ' u g t ¿ , ( r t i u n s . W o r d s o r p h r r s c si n t l r i se o i o u r r r c e r p r e s s i r rogp i n i o n s . Words or ¡lhresesin this colt,ur lre cxprcssin! vir,'wsrrTarguments. \¡y'olrjrrr"¡rlirasi'sin ilris coli;u¡ ¡rc l¡ciriq r¡scri;rsti¡rlr: lixs-t's. Words or phrascsin this colour arc trcing uscclto introduce points. Words or phrasesin this colour are beírg used to join points. Words or phrasesin this cc¡lc¡urarc treing uscd to support a point.

Tl-refirst unit in Section I explainswhat is neant by key lvords referred to in thc IGCSE syllabusand givcs examplesof different levelsof English, both writteit and spoken, to makc you alvareof the differences.The following units dren concentrate on dre informal rvritten languageyou need il tl-rcexam, using 'fiiendly' letters. examplcsto show you how to begin to write informal or

k¡ndsof Engl¡sh Different In ordcr to achieve the best possible grade in the exam, it is inportant to be ar.vareof q.hat the examiner cxpects flom your IGCSE s1'llabus 'en.rployappropriate for the uriting paper states that ).ou should be able to register/style'. It also statcs that the tasks for the rvriting paper'u'ill be distinguished by requiring different purposes/formats/audienccs/register'. 'the use of socially \\4ren reibrring to language, register can be clefincd as appropriate language' - in other r¡'ords, using the correct level of langr,ragcto suit a particular situation. Most languages have diffcrent registers or lcvels. The register -r,ouuse rvhen speaking to your friends u.ill be very diffcrcnt fr<lrn the registcr you use to speak to your grandmother. The rvords you choose üll be differcnt beceuse vour grandmother is probably not fámiliar r'vith thc mc¡dern exprcssionsyou use lvith friends. The sentence strlrcture ,vou use l'ith friends rvill be morc flcxible, too. Even the granmü could be more relaxed. Compare these examples of spoken language: tley \üzt Yaü airi.qht'lYr:u4oin' up the {ily lrtand}'y'? (_r,oungpe.son speaking to a fiielrd) Hellú (ründfflr]. how Grc yúu? Ar? yau grring 1,oi.he .'¡t.tton l"40nday? (young person spcaking to his grandmother) Ifyou are writing rathcr dran speaking, there will again bc diffbrences dresc will depend on whom you are rvriting to. Writing generally uses a more formal register than speech. Comparc these exhrnplesofu'rittcn ancl spoken languagc: irieaf lat n( líúaw whr:n vüi'rf ür vfttg. (informal, u,ritten) iime tif arriv'tl. I should be grnteful if yawwauld in{onn v'E r|f yaff ¿r:pecred (formal, written)

2 ¿ IMPROVING YOUR/NFORMA¿WR/I/NG r..outdyau fi.1lin this fcrrn, ytltqst? (fbrmal, s¡rokcn) 1shauld be qftrt:lul if ya;"twculd L.!nüi:j, ytrr.tvit)r thz I j{:(r.slitr!rirtlrtrmui.ianarr ihe fjftt't atJ.úLhei¡. (formal, rvritten) In thc cxam, vou are expecteclto shou, arvrrenessof thc clifli:rences trctr'r.ccnlbrmal and infbrmal registers and the atrility to use thc corrcct rcgistcr accordingto the situation in the c¡ucstion.

Friendlyregister In the IGCSE exam vou ma)¡ be asked to \a.ritea letter to a friend, a penfriend or a rclativc. Wc rvill call all such lcttcrs "friendly letters', because1.¡ru¡ccd ¡o use informal or 'friendly' register lvhen you write thcm. So lrüat is friendly register¡ I Altl-rough it is called friendly, it is rrt as inlormal as the language you u,ould use when speaking to a fliend. I Although written, it is n¿l as lormal as the language )'ou u,ould use rlüen r.vriting a letter applying fbr a job. r In other *,ords,, friendly register is a level oflanguage r.vhichcomes between inforna.l spoken language and formal written languagc.


Writingin friendlyreg¡ster \\4-renrvr-iting in friendly register, be careful not to maf<eyour level of language too informal. Do ro¿ include the fbllorving three leatures r'vhich are ofien used rvhen speaking to a fiend: I Words, pl-rrasesor sentence structures r'vhich use slang: ¡ /

| l¡keto chillout atthe be6ch. | l¡keto relaxat the beach.

, /

HTngingout at the club is realeBpl. we enioygoingto the club.

, /

My Mum, wellshekindalikefreaksoutwhen I tell her about ... My Mum getsupsetwhenI tell her about ...

, My friend, ./ My friendsaidlreplied ... 2 Words shortened to look phonetic (in other ll.ords, to look the x.ay they sound), such as: t /

Howya do¡n? Howare you?

3 Text message/SMS-sq4ephonetics,such as'u'fbr'vou', or small 'i' instead of 'I', or a numbcr to rcprcsclt a rvord, for cxample '4' instead of 'for',, and so on: , /

Howr u? Howare you?

On the other hand, u'hen writing in f'riendlyregisterbe careful ¿¿tto make your lcvel oflanguage too formal: :

socidl interact¡oncan be one of the beneÍts of sport.

This looks like a sentence fi'om a textboc¡k!

4 J IMPROVINGYOUR/NFORMA¿WRII/NG In fáct, r.vhenwriting in flicndll, rcgister, yor-rshould try to simplif, your Ianguage as much as possible. When you try this, you rvill find that simpli{'ing langLragevery often ilrvolr.esexpanding it; a largcr number of simple rvords are needed to explain or replace bigger words. t-or exan-rple,imagine your f icnd is having dif'ficulty undcrstanding a ccrtain section of a scicnce textbook and asks).<¡ufor help. you begin to explain nüat the text meáns) you find that you automatically replacc long, complicated u.ords r,vith shorter,,easicr ones; you alsr¡need to use more lr,ords, and this helps to make ),our language less fbrmal. Applüng this to the exampleabovc, thc meaning ofthe phrasc: súLit¿linteractiort could be expressedin fricndly register by a phrase sucl-ras: mi:r¡r,qGfid üetw{4 an \Dit:hpeopl(, and the phrasc:

beneliLs af spot't could bc replaced by a ¡rhrasesuch as:

aneaf theqaodthinqsübúutsporL So üe r.r,holephrasc could l¡e reu,ritten in tiicndh, regi5¡s¡ ¿5; Anp-o! ihe qo,r{}thtn^s nbjut s,farl. is thal. yrtu {jet La be \Nith peú'pleúnd leari¡ htswtú üet ati with theyn.

Exercise I

Rewrite thefollowingsentences usingfriendlyregisler. 1 Tokingup empioymeni in o childreniholidoycompoffersexcellent oppotunities for qdvenlure. 2 Demond for woter is doubling evefy h^/oyeors. 3 ll ls essent¡olthcl meosuresore token lo prevenlmolofislsfrom exceedingspeed i mi l s . 4 Reguor exerciseis beneficicll1o hecrlh. Moreover,it moy resullin weighi reduclion. 5 Tourismrepresentso significcrnt conlributionto ihe nolionolecofomy.

The Rcgistcr unit on page l82 hclps lrou to understiurd more about the diffcrence betr,r,eenformal and informal registcr. It also shor.vsyou horv to change f'rom formal to informal registcr and gives examples.As vou rvork through this book, Itou rvill also find some piecesof r,vorku4rich were written by students and have been correctcd to shou, their registcr mistakes.This s l r o u l , .hl c l p l o u ¡ v o i t l m r k i n g t h c \ ¿ t n cm ¡ \ l J k c \ .

Friendlyletters:the bosics Beforeyou write Re¡nember Ever/pieceof infomotion conlonedin cl quesfionls l¡erelor o feoson- tor you lo respond lo. moginehow differeni yorr onswerwould beto o mofhsquestionif you ignoredhof of o mofiemotico equoror'i!

Before you begin to write your answer in the exam, it is extremely in-rportant to read the question severaltimes and analyseit carefull¡r Often some parts of the question are implied - in othcr words, not all the details about the situation are actuall,vgiven to you. Florvcver, you must shorv that y6¡ are a\varc that infc¡rmation is missir"rgb)'refbrring to it or including it in vour letter. Many students are unaware ofthis; others, perhaps becauseofexam nerves or lack of time, fail to recognise t1-reimplied part and lose many marks. Only the students who are rvcll prepared lvill find the hidclen implications and supply a flll ansrver.Look at this cxample ofa friendlv letter question: Wf iteto o relolivewho missedo fomilyce ebrolion,teling her/hlmq oboutil. A ftill answer will not only give details about what hap¡rencd at the celebration, but also inform the reader uúl the relative missed the party. (We rvill look at more examples and how to deal with them in this and the follorving unit.) As vou rcad a cluestion, try to follor,v these steps: r Establish the ñcts according to the information both given and implied in tlre question. Were are you writing fromf Homc| Another townf Another countq¡¡ Wúy arc vou rvritingf How do yo:ufeel at the time of u,ritingf r Establish the audience: Wr¿ are vou rvriting tof You may be asked to r,vrite to a relatir.c, a fliend, or a penfiiend. (A penfriend is usually sc¡mconervho lives in another country - England is a good choice for the purpose of this exam and llüom you har.e probably ncver met, but to r.vhom J,ou write mainlv to improve ,vour English.) I Establish the implications. r Establish rvhich type of friendly letter is required (see Section 2).


Formotof o friendlyletter Friendly letters can be divided into the fbllowing sections: r I r I I r

Greeting Paragraph l: Introduction Paragraph 2: Transition and body Paragraph 3: Body Paragraph 4: Conclusiorr Ending and signature

There are severaldifferent tlpes of friendl,vletter you may be asked to .lyrite in dre exam. The body of cach qpe has certain feantres,r,vhichu.e will look at se¡raratelyin the four units ofSection 2, together with the rclevent conclusions. We u.ill look at the other sections of a friendly lctter in this unit.


Greeting Be sure that vou l(now the rlavs of starting a lcttcr to diflérent people. rz To a fiiend: Dear + first niunc t ,

To a brother/ sister: Dedr+ first namc DearBrotherOmar

./ To your mothcy'father: De6rMumlDeTrDad , De6rMotherlDear Father rz To y¡r¡1¡parcnts: De6rMüm and D6d t DearParents / To a cousin: Dear+ first nallrc a DearCoustnOmar -lb ¿ an arü]f: Dear Auntie+ first name rz To an unclc: DeorUncle+ lirst neme *

Remember (eep the nomeshodond simpe. Groupsol consono¡ts, suchos lh, gh, d¡, hnt,are dlflicut for Engishreoders, for exompe Khadijo,Mcthrnoud.

In evcr1,casc, use only the standard Deor. l)o n¿rtbe temptcd ro rr'rire: t Dearest t My Dearest t, My BestFr¡end Although most peoplc norv r.rite their letters on computers, renrenrtrerthirt the npe ofletter \¡ou will be lvriting in the exxrrris hand u'ritten. Paragraphs nccd to bc clearlv shou,n b,vinclenting the first linc of cach nerv paragrapl.rso that it lines u¡r unde r thc comma following thc name:

DearOmar, ll wa( lovely

I live¡n a larqehouse. . .

R¿rrnember O n eo f l h em o i ¡o i m so f i h e exoT¡ s fo ¡esl yolr owofe nessof differentregislersond your obi iry to hondJethem, so on inlroduclio¡wfiiie¡ i¡ lhe oppfopfiole fegislerwi be very ettective

lntroduction Most types of fi'iendl,vletter should havc a short introduction. As this tvpe of introductiorl is onl,v used for fricndly lcttcrs, it disthguishes them fi-om any other kincl of letter. It u'ould bc quitc r.rong, fbr example, to use this t)?e of introcluction in a formal lcttcr. More importantll', as soon as the exarnir.rer rcads your introcluction slle rvill knorv rvhether you arc ablc to shorv that you understand difli:rent resisters.

Friendlvletters:the bosics |


Whot is the purpose of the introduction? Thc introduction $.arms the rcader up and prepares lbr the main part ofthe lctter, so the rcader knor'vsuüat to expect and can gct in the right nood. Look at dris example of a lctter without an introcluctior.t: t

De6rUncleomar, I'm writing becauseI want to comeand stayw¡th you for a month.

This sounds ver¡r blunt and rude. Even if Uncle C)mar agreesto your reqllcst, he maJ,consideryour languageirappropriate (not suitable)! F{erc is another example: t

DearHeba, lf you want my adviceon how to loseweight, stopeating chocolate.

Again, this sounds very cold and definitely unfriendlyl Although the advice itself relevant, the language uscd to expressit sounds uncadng becauseit is too direct. The introduction also establishcsthe relationship be$'een thc rvriter (yotl) ard the audience (tl-rcpcrson you arc to). Looh at this phrasc: l't:'nsjr{y I hüven't w{¡tten this \Neek,hut ... The phrasc this weektells us horv fliendly the rvriter ancl the rcacler are' becauscit implies (ancl u'e understand) that the,vr.tsuallylvrite to eacl'rother every rvcck - so thev must be good friends.

Whor do I write in on introduction? Tl-rerearc severalset, or fixed, wa)'s of u'riting an introduction. In each case, the grammatical structurc of the sentence must not be cha[rged. Howcver, the od-rerparts of the sentcnce can be adapted to suit thc question. I Using an apologv 2 Not using an apology 3 Personal referer-rcc I A far.ourite rvey to bcgin an informal letter is by using an apolog1..There arc trvo kinds of apologv introductions. a) Apologising uücn there is a genuine reasonu'hy the r'r'riterl-rasnot rvritten Reason viritten far aA1\, bLlt Lve bc,enbus¡istttrhl)ngnnLl t'm scrry t hG,,itifi'i. ha',{'ii'i.vür¡[tPn far aqt:,, ha,tr'.rftht¡d thl- c.ime. l{orv can the sentcnce be adaptedf r Thc construction u'ith for (+ length of time) could change to c long time or to so long. t fiA,es ,"^s:ifttn I'yfi{\| ttüvert't fú{ | sá tnn¡1 ) ú iang r,¡¡v1g r Thc construction with for coulJ be replaceclb], a construction r'vitl-r since(+ s¡recifictimc).

8 .

IMPROVING YOUR/NFOR/A¿ WRII/NG yourbirthday l'm sorry| haven'twríllens¡nce theparLy welastmet I The actual reason for not wdting can change.

I ... t'vebeen"'' aur, I I t

movtng" t'YlinT intomy ne\r'r house rehearsinq pl6y. thc school for qett¡ngfrl üLthegym.

If no ¡eason is given or implied in tl.requestion, tien 'studying'or 'revising for my exams' cal be used. Suggesting that y6¡1 are a serious, hardworking stlrdent will probably mal(e a good impression on the examiner! * Longuoge Point a Noticetheuseof thecontrocted formof theverbin theintroductory (t'ff, se¡tefce lorshort) haven't, l'veJ. Do notthi¡ktholio shorten theverbis poorEngish.n foci,theshodformls - so il mustbe usedin thisportof theexom,ondony mosloppfopfiote in fiiendly regisier in thispqrtof theexom.


b) Apologising when there is no real excusefor not rvriting

Theshortformof theverb shouldonlybe usedin tiiendy fegisler wfiting

fve beenmeaningto writefar 6qes,but t'm nfraid, just hüven'tgot roundto it. Hoq. can the sentence be adaptedf I The consüuction r.vith for can change, as li'e have just seen above. r Again, the excuse can change, but becausethere is no real reason fbr not having written, the phrasesused are very vague: I've lleen meaninq to wríte sincethe party ...

t'm afraidI just haven'tqot but thingskeptcrapping up and raúndto it. but whatwithonethingand ünother t'm afraidI justhaven't hüdthetime. Look again at the two examplesof'apology' introductions:

l'm.sorryI haven'twr¡ffen..^ f vebeenmeTn¡ng to wr¡te... Both imply that the writer has been thinking about the reader and fbels bad about not having written. They also impl,v that the reader has been cxpecting a letter and n.raybe feeling disappointed not to have received one. In other v'ords, this is obviously a letter between friends. Other introductions to ftiendl)¡ letters do not involve an apology.


lou.lf ya_ur letter I vesftr,)av I cJ{eút¡o I g.t neúr "ro, I lrom you I latLweck. I

Friendlvletters:thebosics I 9

* Longuoge Point onreceive, equivolenl E Noticethe useof lhe word qet.Thisls thefrlendlyregisler whlchwould b'e1ooformolhere. D Noticethe useof lhe word heor.Thisis thecorreciwotd 10use,eventhoughwe 'lo useour eyes, nol our eors to reod o leÍ, hearfrom meclns teceive¡ews f r o m ' o n di s u s e di n i n f o r m osli t u o l i o n s . hoppenedot theend of week:il is lmportofilo scy whensomething a yesterday|ast doesnol soundcompele io the English the sentence senlences ike this,otherwise eot.

Exom tip Awoys keepin mindthotcr ot IOO-l50 composition words (Corelor I 50-200 words (Extended) is not very long,so everyword is ond mustb-^ lmportont corefuy selected.Morkswi nol be givenfor simpy filling the pogewilh words,every word mustbe the fighion,ond ln the rlghtp oce.

An introduction to an informal letter can also begin with somethingvery personal,to show )¡our friendship. tongratulationson püssingthe exam! . I vou'refeelinabetter. I n o' q e , ' I you ve gor overme ltu. Jt Longuoge Poinl ond is usedinsleodot D Noticethe phroseto getoverls informoregisler to recover from.whichwould nol be suilobe here.

Tronsition How to wr¡te o tronsilion sentence After lvriting a srútable introduction, the next step is to lvrite a üansition sentence. This will be the first sentencein the second paragraph of the letter, and it is needed to link the introduction to the main body of the letter. We rvill nolv look at three different rvaysto begin üe transition: I Using the rvords Anryay, or Anyhow, 2 Using üe past tense 3 Using other methods I A common \a'ayto begin the transition is to use the \vords Anplyl or ,lrnyhow,especiallyafter an apologv-qpe ir.rtroduction. Remember to put a comma after the se words. /

Dears6rah, I'm sorry| haven'twritlenfor agesbut I'vebeenbusyrehearsing my part for the schoolplay. Anryav.I thoughtI woulddropyou a lineto ...

In other words, what the writer has been doing, "rehearsingfbr the school play', is not really important or interesting to Sarah and is not dle n-rain reason for lvriting. Be careful about using anway or anyhowincorrectly Both u.ords suggest that arrything referred to in the previous sentencedoes not matter and is not irnportant. In effect, they cancel out the sentcnce that comes befbrc them. In some situations it can be completely r'vrong to use these words.

IO .

IMPROVING YOURINFORA/AL WRII/NG Look at these examples: r

M¡sssm¡thhasgivenus loadsof mathshomework tonight.Anway, I won't havetime to do ¡t becausethere'sa good film on .N.

The meaning of the example above is ,The fact that I har.ea lot of maths homework is not important. Watching the film is rnore important to me ., or er.en 'I don't ca¡e about my maths homervork. What reall), matters to me is tl-refilm on TV.' Clearl¡ this can sornetimes give a bad impression. F{ere is another cxample: ,

I was so y to he6ryou feel lonelyand are missingyour friends.Anway, we are all Fne and going to play tenn¡stomorrow.

The use of arywa¡ gir.esthe following mear.ringto the sentence: ,I don't care ifyou are lonely \ 4rat matters to rne is that I have friends and things to look forward to. These are more important than my friendship rvith ' )'ou 2 The second way to begin the tránsition is to use the past tense.

you m¡glXltketo knowsometh¡nq I th.p..agbI übaut... The English way of showing respect for the person )¡ou are lvriting to, and that you accept that your ne\¡s, suggestion or advice may not seem interesting, important, wanted or tvelcome to the other person, rs to use the past tense. * Longuoge Point Ll Noliceihollhe se.nlence usinglhe posllensesoundsmorerespecfuwhen compoed to thefolow.inge,ompe of whol sludents often*,it in o clesclptrve etTeT okt'out ftomeond lomly. , |

I am go¡ngto tell you about my fam¡ly. | w¡ll tell you aboñ my family.

o Nolicelhe useof thewordswillor goingto is veryslrongond forcefuin Fngish ond shoud be ovoidedin thissituotion. Ll Noticethcrltheword tell is notoppiopriole:o letter¡swfitten,noi spoken,,:nd the verbtellls generolyreoled to s¡:eecn. F{erc are some morc examplesoftransition sentencesintroduced bv the past tense:

I fupughtl Wqú.ddro¡tyou a lineta lp_t yau knowsamething aboutrny family. Again,the meaningis 'I hope).olrdon't mind if I ...'. rk Longuoge Point D Noliceherethephrose dropyoua trnecof repocewritefoyouin informol regisler

Friendly letters:the bosics I

| |

I thgAghtJ_wgaw dropyou a lineto letyou knowI'm reallyhappyyou can corlteto staywith us. * Longuoge Point o Notice how the phroseletyou knowreplocesthe formolword inform. a¡ Noticethe word that, whichsornet¡mes folows letyouknow,hosbeendropped fromlhe senlence; thisis crnoiher feolureof friendy or informolregisler 3 Other ways to begin the transition include:

I *lshort) r¡otr - .",:'. 'lusfa | qrr¡cK¡e I

[o letyoü know...

;k Longuoge Poinl tr Nolicetheuseof lhewordnotein fhisphrose, evenlhoughreferring to o etier. t

l'm just wr¡t¡ngto you to let you know ...

This is an obvious statement. Who else are you rvriting to except the readerl

Exercise I

Wrife the greeling,infoductlonond tronsilion of o letterto: I o penfriend who is coming1osloywithyou r o friendwho is golngfor on lnlerview I o relolivewho missedo fomilycelebrotion.

Signoture When you have finished rvriting the letter and appropriate ending, rvrite on a separateline, either on the lcft or in the middle of tl-repage, one ofthe follou'ing: L.OV?,

Lovefr¡Jm With lovefrorn Yoürs, Note the use of capital letters and r.hich phrascsneed a comma after them. When you sign at the end of a fricndly letter, do not inclllde your fhmill, nan-rc.Write your name in your normal hand-rvriting. It is not a formal srgnature. , /

w¡th love from Anna Hutchins w¡th love from Anna

Thc different types of friendly letter 1rcu mat' be asked to write in the exam, together with their individual fbatures, including appropriate conclusions and endings, rvill norv be considered separatelyin the following units.

Section 2 looks in detail at four qpr:s of friendly letter - descriptive, advice, narrative and descdptive narrative. The four units show you the techniques for producing each of these letter types, by highlighting certain features ald giving examples ofhow to use them accurately and effectively. \Vtren answering a writing question in the exam, you should aim to lvrite four paragraphs.You are usually askedto write between 100 and 150 words (Core) and between 150 and 200 words (Extended). This meansthat each paragraph should contain 25-40 words (Core) and 40-50 r.vords(Extended). On the basis often rvo¡ds to a line (for average-sizehand-uriting) this me.ansyou need to write about drree or four lines (Core) and four or five lines (Extended) in each paragraph.

Friendlyletters:descriptive The key words 'describe' or 's.rite about' in the exam question indicate that a descriptive friendll' letter is required. Descriptive letters need to be written in friendly (infbrmal) register. These are letters s.ritten either to a relatir.e or to someone the same age asyou, such as a fiiend or a penfriend. A penfriend is someone who usually lives in another country and to whom you write, mainly to impror.e your knolvledge ofthe language of that countT. You have p r o b a b J ¡n e v e rm c t e a c ho t h e r . There are usuall,vonly a few things 1'o¡ can be asked to describe, including: r r I r

1.our home your family your school your hobbies/free time.

We will look at each of these in this unit. The main points to keep in mind when writing about anJ¡of these topics are: I

frcdte rltcfcsL

I personalisctbr the reader t support cach idea ¡ do not list. Before considering exactly what these points mean, and horv they help 1'ou to produce an excellent letter in terms ofcontent and sq.le, you sl6¡ld remember that the basic principles of r,vriting a letter ir the exam should be no different from r.witing a real lctter.

Friendly letters:descripfive I


l\4ren you write a real letter to a friend, you know something about the character ofthe person you are writing to. You have a mental picture ofthat person. You may even know about where they live, what they enjoy doing, how many brothers and sistersthey have, and so on. Every sentcncc ¡'ou write is lvith that particular person in mird. In the exam, before you can begin to rdte anything at all, it is essentialto har.ea real picture in your mind ofthe person )¡ou are rvriting to, so that you can include that person il your letter in order to make it sound real. (We will be looking at exactly how to achievethis later.) Without this, 1.our letter will only consist offactual information about your family, school and so on, and will sound formal. A q'pical exam question for a descriptivc letter might be : Wrile lo o penfriend who is coming1osloywilh you for c monih.TeI her/himcrbout y o u rh o m ey, o u rf o m i l yo n dy o u rs c h o o . In reality, you probably do rot have a penfriend. You cannot write a fiiendly letter to someone you do not know. So you should start by creaLinga penfriend in your mind. Build up a mental picture of this person. Make a full character, so that even you can believe your penfriend exists.As you do this, write down the ansrversto the following questions: ¡ Where does my penfriend lir.el In a house or a flatl In the city or the country¡ r Is my penfriend sportyl S¡udiousl t What is my penfriend's favourite fbodf r \\4rat subjects is my penfriend good or bad atf I \4/hat kind of music does my penfriend enjoy listening tol r What kind of TV programmes/D\rDs does my penfriend like to rvatchf r Is my penfriend quiet and s\ or out-going and ftii'r-loving)

Exom tip Creollng o be levobe penfiiendtokestimeLYou shoud proctise doingthis beloreyou go to theexor¡ unli yor..r co¡ writewithoui thinking. Useyoufimqginqtion.

These details r'"'ill be used to help you create irlterest, support your ideas and ¡rcrsonalise. Now that you have a clear picture of your penfriend or friend, it is ¡ime to consider the best way to describe your home, family, school and hobbies in a letter to this person.

X How to describeyourhome Before looking in detail at ways ofdescribing 1,o¡r home, it is rvorth being sure that you knolv the diflerent kinds ofhouses in England. a Aflat- all the rooms are on one floor. There'ma1'beothcr flats on the same floor. The building is called a 'block offlats'. t A houst - most people in England live in houses. Usually they have üving rooms dor.ynstairsand bedrooms upstairs. Most have a garden at the back of the house and some also at the front. A'detached house'is usua.Lly expensive becauseit does not join onto any other house. A 'semi-detached house' (or'semi')' as the name suggests,is joined to a neighbouring house on one side.

I4 '

PRODUCING /NFORMATWRIIING t A tew'ace¡lhous, - one ofa row ofhouses joined onto each other. t A bwngalow- all rooms are on one level, like a flat, but a bungalorv stands alone at ground level, and usually has its own garden.

Remember ll i( ñ^t.ó.a((ñ^/

1^ ^a(.,il^ta

yourreol house.Youore hee lo useyour imoginotion.This is yourchonceto creolehe . houseof yourdreomsif you wishl

There are no \¡illas in England. Villas usually have flat roofs and are found in hot countries r'vherethere is not much rain. Flouses in your country may have a specialname or a particular design. If so, you should say\vhat the house is called, and give a brief description of it: I live in a (give the name of the house). lt's a hoLtsebu¡lt ol1 st¡lts to keep us

abovewaterin thetlaods. I{owever, the important thing is to make sure 1'on: a do not lis¡ ¡ do not state üe obvious. \4/trat is wrong with this sentencewritten bJ¡a student¡ r My hoüseconsists of ter¡rooms- a kitchen,a livingroom,a d¡n¡ng-room, four bedrooms and threebathrooms.

Remember :fi:ir. is borifg ond suggests to the exomlnerthot Ll yolf slyle ls weok ¡

your knowedge o[ , , ^ - ^ 4 ,^ ^ , . A ^ . .

o yoLJKnow on y wo¡os, nol consh!clions.

a k¡tchen,a liv¡ngroom,a dintng-room, and threebathroomsis an four bedrooms exampleof listing; To mention tiat y6¡ have a kitchen and a bathroom is stating the obvious. 't

Longuoge Poinf ó.tón-e tr Noli' - Lot -hereis .ropp'op-o e )e o egi' e o cons¡sts of Thisis formo regisler. J Jhe senlence beginswilh o€. Replcrcing ihe nounwilh person+ verb,for exomoletlive....wil mokethesentenceessformol. It would be better to write somethins like:

t l¡ve¡n a four'bedroom hause. (The number of bedrooms indicates the size ofthe house.)

Describing locotion Describing the location ofyour house is one lvay to creatc intercst. Where can houses be locatedf Here are a few ideas to start \¡ou thinldns. Be c a r e f u lr r i t h t h e p r e p o s i t i o n sl w o r d s I i k e i n , o n , o l w i t h l ; r h e s c a r c d i f f i c L r |i ¡ English, and give a bad impression if incorrect. Make sure you learn them perfectly.

Describing on inner city locot¡on (quite)nearthe ciLycentre . . , ., I in thercnLre . I thecitv ' t' n'a n' ü , .. o't t t n t n e h e G f t P a n t ) I

... with , ]

lovely maNeuous wondeqüt viewof gfeat fantastic

thebusylnoisymarketsquare thefamouslwellknown riverNile the busstation a parkflake thecathedral lmosque


PRODUCING /NFORMAL WRITING I A. ten"actd,hous, - one ofa row ofhouses joined onto each other. t A bangalow all rooms are on one level, like a flat, but a bungalol'l. stands alone at ground level, arld usually has its own garden.

Remember ll is noi necessory 1odescribe your reo house.Youore lree to useyourimoginotion. This is yourchoncefo creolethe, houseof yourdreomslfyou wlshl

There are no r.illas in England. Villas usually have flat roofs and are found in hot countries where there is not much rain. l{ouses in your countrT may have a special name or a particlllar design. If so, you should say what the house is called, and give a brief description ofit: , live in a (give the name of the house). lt's a house built on sti,ti to keeir us übave water in the Íloods. F{or.vever,the important thing is to make sure you: ¡ do not list I do not state the obvious. What is rvrong with this sentencewritten by a studentf r My houseconsistsof ten rooms- a kitchen,a living room, a d¡n¡ng-room,four bedrooms and threebathrooms.

Remember irj f! is bofingc1¡dsuggests to theexorninerlhol ¡ yourslye is weok ¡ yourknowedge of .,^-^lr

' ^^/

a kitchen,a l¡v¡ngroom,a d¡ning-room, and threebathroomsis an four bedrooms exampleof listilg. To mention that you have a kitchen and a bathroom is stating the obvious.

i< h^.i-

Ll you Know only woros, noi conslrucltons.

* n

Longuoge Poinl Nn





ro¡ <lar'n lh . <a¡a¡¡^

tr consisti of Thisis formolreglster. tr Thesenlence beginswitho noun:Myhouse. Repocinglhe nounwilh person+ verb. for exomole¡ l¡ve....wi I mokethe senfence lessformo. It lvould be better to write somethine like :

I livein a four-bedroom house. (The number of bedrooms indicates the size ofthe house.)

Describinglocotion Describing the location ofyour house is one $.ay to crcatc interest. \44rere can houses be locatedf Here are a few idcas to start volr thinkins. Be crreful r¡ith the prepositions ¡wurds likc in. on- of. wirhl:rhise.rre ditficuh in English, and give a bad impression if incorrect. Make sure 1'ou learn them pedectly.

Describing qn ¡nner c¡fy locot¡on (quite)nearthe Lirycentre ...,


t' 'f-l a n u , )

... with a

i n t h ec e n l r e .

.. 0- '1 tnLneneaft

I t h e t i't v

t 1>a{$ J

lovely MAr,/euous wonderlul viewof greüt fantastic

thebusy lnoisymarketsqvare the{amouslwell-known riverNile the busstat¡on a púrkllake thecathedralfmosque

Friendly letters:descriptive I


or ) I ... overlookingI I )

thebusylnoisymarketsquare riverNiie thefamouslwellknown station thebL¡s a parl<llake cathedral thelamouslwellknown lmosque

For example:

viewof ther¡ver;eine. witha mawellaus I liveriqhtM thecentreof Par¡s, Gpark. overlooking I livequitenearthe citycentre, . viewof thefamousmosque I livein theheartof Cairo , witha fantastic Describing o locotion on the oulskirfs (edge) of c ciry notfarfrom orithe outskirtsof of in thesuburbs

I | + nameofcity )

I wolk abouthalfanhour'sI drive from + nameof city ride bus ) For example:

of Athens. I \¡vean theoutskirts I liveabouthalfan hour'sdr¡veframMadrid" Describing o Iocqlion in the countryside in heart - . ' ' , of ; , -the ';,; : the .:'

tn tke mtddle ol tne

) I countty(s¡de) j

tovety mawellou.s


Y'.?::'qut 9"?' . lantasüc breathtaking

I tha,no*-aou,redmountaús viewol I thepineforesr ) truitorthards

or II thesnow-cove redmountains ... overlookinqI thepinelorest ) fruit orchards For example:

Remember Moke sureyour preposilions ore occurole.

Exercise I

viewof thepineforest. I livein themiddleaf thecountryw¡tha wonde$ul with a view I l¡vein theheartof thecauntry fantastic of themountains. overlooking I livein theheartof thecountryside, fruitorchards. descripiions of whereyou live,one reo Uselhe exompes obove1owriletwo different ond lhe olherimoginory.

I Ió T PRODUCING /NFORA/AL WRITING Adding support Describing the location ofyour house to your friend also involves adding support. Look at a sentencewithout suppol-t: I l¡veriqht in the centreof Athens. In order to find what to include in the support phrase, ask yourself: r Why am I telling my friend üisf I \\4ry should this interest my friendf

I liveright ¡n the centreof Athens,sowecango sightsee¡ng anyt¡me" The support phrase will depend very much on the character and personality of 'friend' and how well you know this person. Think back to the friend or )¡our penfliend you imagined on page 13, and consider the following pornrs. Ifyour fiiend is looking fbr social life, \yants to meet ne\\¡ friends, go to parties, go sightseeing and perhaps join in some sport activities, then a house in a rural location, fár from city life, lvill not seem attractive to her (or him) (unless there is public trarsport available). This rype of fliend u,ould be happy to discover 1.ou lir.ed ir a city! The same may app\, if her own house is in a quiet area and she would appreciate a change ofscene. It on the oüer hand, 1,our fiiend is hoping to relax and unwind after a hectic school term, then being in the middle of norvhere with no local facilities may be jr-rstnüat she is looking for. The same will apply if your friend lives in a nois1,,polluted city and is longing for some fresh air and peaceand quret. Ifyou know your friend enjol,s sl.ropping,for example, you co¡ld write:

I liveright¡nthecentreof M¡lan,sowecangoshopping whenever you like! Make sure that the support phrase links to the friend,s character.

... soyou'llneverbe6t a loose end ... sowecango shopp¡ng whenever you l¡ke . .. sowecaneas¡ly walkto thetenn¡s club ... sowecansttandwatchtheworldgo by ... soyoucanputyourfeetup, relaxand enioythe view

(she gets bored easily) (she enjoys shopping) (she is sporty) (she is happy to stay at home) (she comes from a stressñrl environment)

Ifyou realise the location may not be what )¡our friend was hoping for, then you should support it in a favourable way, to persuade her.

t l¡veon t.heoutskirts r.ft>ctris, onlyhalfan hourbytrainfromthecentre* so wecango shopping whenever you like! Ifyou live in the middle ofa rnountain range or a desert, and shops are days away, it would be better not to mendon this aipect at all. Instead, try to persuade your friend that a complete change rvill be a totallv new experience, which she would definitelv not tvant to miss. Exercise 2

Referbockro exerciseI ond odd suppor o eochdescriplion of whereyou live.

Friendly lefters:descriptive I


Creofing interesl One of the best ways to create intcrcst when you write is through contrast. So, when you 'invent' your imaginary friend or penfriend, try to make his life different from yours. Ifyou choose your house to be in the countryside, why not imagine your friend is living in a big city! However, do not try ro draw a contrast in every single case,or your letter will not sound natural. Look at the following example sentence, describing where you live:

I livetn a three-bedroom houserightin the centreof the c¡V.ft'svery d¡fferent andtherearesomanythingsto do,youwillneverbe fromyourquietvillage bored! Notice the following: n I líve- Always use person + verb instead of a noun (my house)to create friendly register. ) in a three-bedroomhouse- Why should this interest your fliendf The number ofbedrooms in a house usually gives an indication of its size. Ifyour friend is coming to stay, this might interest him. s right in the centreof the city - \44ry should this interest your friend) This will probably be a contrast with where he lives. a lt's verydifferentfrom your qu¡etvillage. - This crcatesinterest through contrast. - This personalisesthe situation for your friend becauseit is relevant to his personallife. - This also shows the reader that your relationship is a friendly one because you know your friend lives in a quiet village. t thereare so many th¡ngsto do, you will neverbe boredl- This supports your statement by explaining d:y your friend will enjoy coming to stay in a noisy city.

Exercise 3

Referbock to exercise2 ond try to odd interestto eoch descriplionof whereyou live.

Describing living orrqngements Describing your house also involves describing the living arrangements, especiallyif your friend is coming to stay. Consider the following points:


¡ l\4rere will he (or she) sleepf r Will he have a room of his own, or will he have to shareI Some people do not like to share, odrers welcome the idea they may feel more securein a strange house, or they may just find the idea fun, especiallyif they are an only child, o¡ have never shared with anyone before. r Will someone have to 'move in' with a brother or sister so that the suest can have his own room|

INFORMA¿WRIIING 18 T PRODUC/NG Use the past tense as a polite rvay of giving information. lt rvould be quite rude to write to your f-riend: . we've only qot three bedrooms,so you'll haveto sharewtth me. or , Youwill st6y in the guestroom. Tlre use of will and going to can be very strong in English. It is far more considerate and polite to use the past tense. Look at these examples:

I thauThtyou m¡ghtl¡keto sharevnyroomw¡thme,sowecanl¡stento n¡y musictogether, buttheguestroamisall ready,¡fyouprefer. room¡f soyoucanhavemy brother's I thaaghtyaumightl¡kesameprivacy, you l¡ke,6nd he'llmovein withme. Note that it is polite to give y6¡¡ guest a choice. Remember, he may prefer not to share, or he may f'eelunhappy to be alone in a stránge house.

youcanshare Mumhasqot thespareroorfireadyforyau,but if youprefer, rnyroom. Support your sentenceand take the opportunity to ¡rersonalisc- in other words to shor'vhow well you know the person you are writing to. A list of plrrasesused for personalisirg can be found on pages 24 and 25.

soI thoughtyoum¡ght I knowyoush6rea roomw¡thyouryoungerbrother, roomall to yourselfl likethe luxutyof havinga peaceÍul sobring Myroomison theothersideof thehouse frommyyoungers¡ster's, to themat fullvolumew¡thout thosefavowrite cDsofyoursandwecanl¡sten anyone! havingto worryaboutdisturbing Do not fall into the trap of listing rvhen discussingthe advantagesofyour bedroom. t ln my roomthere'sa'N, a Co player,a DvDplayer,a computer,a piano,6 minilibraryand a Playstation.

Remember u Usetheposllenseos o polltewoy ot giving informolion. i <,, .^^ r '.^


clndtokelhe opportunlry io perso¡orse.

Exercise 4

This just sounds like showing off. Choose one ofthe items in your room that is interesting to your friend so that you can support and pcrsoualiseit. If your friend spends a lot of time playing football and watching horror films at the cinema, he probably will not be interested in vour piano or your stamp collection!

¡n my room,sowecan You'llbegladto knowl'vegottheoldfamilycomputer games, you likel playing your ¡f spendhours favourite for o vislfor. oboulwhereyou liveond thelivingorrongemenls Write o descripllon ising. supporlond persono ncludeinterest,

Friendly letters:descriptive I



How to describeyourfomily \\4rat is urong rvith the following sentenceu'ritten by a studentf - myfather,my mother,my sister * Myfamilycons¡sts of fivemembers and myselÍ. myfather,my mother,my brother,my s¡ster and myselfis an exampleof )isting. *


Longuoge Point, -

Lnt -l^e'e . nlcn


. o nI







r cons¡sts of Thisis formo regisler. tr Thesenlence b,egins wlth a naú. Myfam¡ly.Repoclnglhe nounwilh person+ verb wl I mokethe senlence lessformol. A better way to write the sentencemight be: I have an olde{ brother, Ma(k, and ú sístercalledMaria, who ¡s two ye¿?rc

yaungerthanme. Notice how important it is to give brothers and siste¡snames. These are supposed to be real people whom your penfriend will soon meet and get to lcnow. There is not enough spacein a 150-200 word con-rpositionto describe each member of the ñmily. It ¡.ould also be a form of listing, and would definitely be boring for,vou and for the examiner. Instead, pick lne peÍson perhaps the one with a strong personality, or the one your penlriend will see most while he staysr'vith you. My older brother, Mark, is mad about computers,JUstlikeyou! (ust likeyou - In other words, I know you well enough to know how interested you are in computers. )

getan wellw¡thmy Dad.Heloves f m sureyou'll footballalmostasmuchas you! (l'm sure- In other words, I know you we LIenough to judge uüo you u.ill like. I also know how much you love football.) This gives your friend a clear picture ofyour brother or father. The support phrasesirform your friend that your brother and father sl-rarethe same interests as your friend (that's rlü¡r you mentioned them) and this will make your friend keen to come and stay. The pcrsonalising phrase again emphasises your friendship. * Remember ¡

Loo^ ^.1




om I telli¡gmyfriendthis? ond wÁyshoud thts inleresl hlm? D SLJpport eochsentence ond personcr ise it for the reoderif possibe.

My sister Müriúis |.noyearsyounqerth6nmeand loves to s¡ngat thetopof hervoicewhenever I am tryingto studytDon'tworry^ she'sqoinqto summer campsowewon'tbeseeing muchof herl (Don't worry - In other r'vords,I knolv you so well that I am ali.are of the things that worry )¡ou. Wh)¡ tell your fliend that your sister is going to sun-rmercampf So he knou's she will not be there to bother him! This suggeststhat your lriend prefers a quiet lifel)


ldeos for describing fomily members FIere are some ideas to help you describe men-rbersof your family. You can use the r.ocabularJ.and phrasesin you¡,.tr..r.

Molher/Fother r Is she a football fan/con-rputer nut (= someone very keen on computers)/ television addictl I Is she easyto talk to/to get on rvith/always interested in other people's viewpointsf I Is she a workaholic (= 56¡166tteaddicted to rvork), always at the office/business, so you don't seemuch ofherf I Is his bark worse than his bite? (In other words, is he strictf Does he shout a lot) but never take any real action or carry out his threatsl ) r Does she fancy herself as a linguist, and is she looking forward to trying out her English (which she hasn't used since school) on your penfriendf r Is she young at heart¡ (In other words, does she still have the outlook ofa young personl ) I Is he easyto talk to/a1i.vaysready to lend an earf ¡ Is he a brilliant cookl Can he make your penfriend's favourite foodf Be careftil not to make these common mistakes: , My father is a tall man with black hair. Of course ),our father is a man! This is stating the obvious. OnLy describe a p h y s i c alle a t u r ei f i t i s u n u s u a il n s o m ew a y . t My father¡snice. This is stating the obvious. Of course your ñther is nice - and if he isn't, you would not tell your penfriend, as this would definitely discourage him from comrng. t My mother is an excellentcooker. (cooker: a kitchen appliance!)

Older brothe r I sisler I Is he hard-working/studious/always in his roomf t Do )¡ou never really seeher - not even at weekendsf ¡ Does he listen to music at full volume wheneve¡ he's at homel

Younger brother/sister e Is she a nuisance/always disturbing you/always playing tricks on youl r Is he a bookworml (In other words, does he read books all the timef ) r Does he have any panicular featuresl Round face/orange hair/spiky haiy'thick-rimmed glassesf(Think of a cartoon character!) Does he (or she) look chee\, innocent, a genius! Now ask yourself: why an I telling my friend this and rvú} have I selectedthis piece of informationl By answering these questions, you will provide tie support for your ideas.

Friendly lefters:descriptive |

Exercise 5



Proctise on yourown, tryingio wrileos monythingsos possible obouldiffereni people in yourfomilyin thesomewoy ond tryingto usesomeof the phroses obove or others of yorr own. Remember, iheydo notneedto be lhe reo members of yourfomiy.You ore free to useyour ¡maginal¡on. Try to odd ,f,l¡filehumourif you con, to moG the exominerloughI

How to describeyourschool When asl<edto write a letter to a friend describing your school, all the points mentioned previously apply.

Remember UseyoLJr in-roglnolionl

Describingthe schoolbuilding Is there anythingspecialabout your schoolor its buildingsf Is it very oldf

- it was \t::,i!* t soto a veryordschoor qufiL )

l :':::: neany )

twohundred vears Ggo.

Is it very newl I go to 6 verymodernschool-ln fact ¡twas only built lastyear! Is it nearyour housel my house. I! ,walk. , r t 5 o t l r v o I, "fifteen-n¡inute ',-. t o s c n o ol'',.._ rt"" o..m I! half-hour bus ride where t live. J J 1 ft only túkesme ten m¡nutesto b¡keto school(from home). Or is it far awayf I haveta get up at sixo'clockto cotchthe busta school- ¡t tokesalmostan haurfit'sabout an haur'str¡p! Remember Support ond pefsonoise w¡enevefpossto e.

You'llbe glad to knowit's onlya ten-minutewalkto schoolfrom my house,so you won't haveto get up early, Do not give a guided tour ofyour schoolbuildings. , on theleft¡sadm¡nistr^t¡on andtwobqthrooms, on therightarethree c¡d5sr00ms. Why are you telling your friend thisf Shewil.l almost certainly not be interested.l\4rat canyou find to interestyour friend, to makeher look forward to coming to schoolwith youf You haveto createinterest.Think backto the mental picture you producedofyour imaginaryfriend, and considerher (or his) interests. Ifshe is keenon (= enjol's)sp6¡; r write to her about the new gym - it should be filished by the time she arrives r te11her how popular the volleyballcourt is at lunch breal<s. Ifshe is part of a team at home/a brilliant pla¡,er,everyonewill want her to join the school teamrvhile sheis stayingwith you

22 J PRODUCING INFORA/ALWRITING r you could mention the Olympic-sized indooy'outdoor s.ivimming pool (heated if you live in a cold climate, cooled if you live in a hot country). She can relax/gct her excrcise therc each day'after school/at .rveekends. If he is keen on music: I write about the music room - he can practise the guitar at lunch break r perhaps he can join the school orchestra/choir. Ifshe is keen on reading: r write about the rvell-stocked librarf,. She can shut herselfin there whenever she likes - while you are pla),ing fbotball, if she is nor keen on sporr. There are other topics you can mention to make 1.6ur friend interested.

Describing the teochers Describing teachersis another way to create interest and should be approached in the same lvay as describing your family. Choose only one teacher to describe (do not fall into the trap of listing). In order to be irteresting for your friend, tie teacher you choose should either ha\.e a srrong personality or have some connection with your friend's particular interests. You rnay describe the sports teachcr, for example, ifyou friend is sporty. Alüough it is not a good idea to be rtde about te achers(remember it is teacherswho mark your exam paper!), you can be light-hearted about them. Exaggeration is often a good way to produce a comic effect.

Waittillyou seeMrJones, ourTbsent-mtnded physics teacher! Henever remembers ta combhishü¡r,hisJücket sleeves are too shortand he'salways dropp¡ng lhings! Be cáreli not to make these common mistakes: , Thereare teachersin my school. This is stating the obvious. t My teachersare n¡ceNiceis a weak adjective. r At my schoolI study maths, biology,physics,chem¡stry,history,geography, econom¡cs, bus¡ness and Engl¡sh. This is an example ofboth listing and stating the obvious - these ar-esubjects which almost everybody studies at school, not stamp collecting or skating!

Describingyour school friends Of courseyou want to include1.ourfriendsin the letter, but avoiclstatingthe obvioLrs. * Myfriendsarenice. I My fnends6reveryfr¡endly. Try somethingindirect: ... theycan'twait ta meetyou! ... they'rercallylook¡ngfoward to meetinqyoLt! ... they'redyingto meetyou!

Fríendlylefters:descriptive |


This reassuresyour friend that she r'vill not feel lonely and will probably encourage her to come . Exercise ó

Describe yourschoolio o penfriend. Includeinlerest, supportond personolising,

n Howto describe yourhobbies ond Iree Irme The best lvay of approaching this is to be realistic. Holv much free time do )'ou really have each weekl Studying probably takes up most ofyour week and some ofyour weekend, too. Your penfriend is about the same age asyou, so he will probably also be busy. This is something you have in common. \\4ry not start by sayrng that, like him, you do not har.emuch free time during the rveek becauseyou are studying for your examsl Perhapsyou have an hour or so free in the evening) How do you spend itl Watching televisionl Playing computer gan-reslTalking to ).our friends on the phonei What about r'veekendslDo you have a morning or an afternoon or an evening off(not studying)l Do you do the same thing every weekendf By using sometimesor ¡f I havet¡me or if he is not busywith standard activities such as go round to my fnend's or listento mustctogether,your letter will sound natural ald therefore convincing. How many different hobbies do you haveI Do not be tempted to write down all the hobbies you can think of, and then strirg them together - and do not feel that yolr should be doing something adventurous all the time. , on saturdaymorningt go deepsead¡v¡ng.rhen at ten o'clocklgo mount6¡nAfterlunchI go trekking.fhent go sailing. climbing.At elevenI go water-skiing. ln the even¡ngI go ...

Remember yourideos. Support

Rbmember Cf,,,'ore lnlefeslby lnc uding your fiiend ond emphosising lhe simllorilies ond compofisonsbeNveenyou.

\4/hat is wrong with the sentence abovef It is clearly an example of listing. As with the rooms in your house, the members of your family, and the teachers at school, choose one or rwo hobbies to describe. Choose a popular sport. Why do you enjoy playing squashl The answer to this question will be you¡ 5.,nport phrase: it keeps you fit/gives you a chance to meet other people of the same age. Does your friend share the same hobby or enjoy the same sport¡ Ifso, this is an opportunity to personalise.Perhapsshe does not enjoy sport of any kind. This is a chance to personalise/create interest through contrast. Writing this way involves your penfriend and the examiner, ar.oidslisting and makes the lvhole letter sound interesting and natural. It takes practice, though! lI¡hen $.riting about your free time, one ofthe dangers is, once again, Iisting. Do not be tempted to write a complete timetable of your week, starting from when you get home from school. , on Monday,I comehomefrom school6t2.30. Atthreeo'clockI havea shower. ThenI e6t lunch.AfterlunchI go to sleep.At spm I wakeup and watch'N.At At 8pm | ... 6pm I playcomputergames.ThenI do my homework. This is repetitir.e and not interesting for the examiner to read.

24 I


Exercise 7

Describe how you spendyourfreelimeto yourpenfriend. Includenlerest, support ondpersoncrllslng.

Exercise 8

Describe yourhob,bies lo yourpenfriend. Includeinlerest, supportond personollsing. t\




T rersonoilsrng Pnroses

Here is a list ofphrases which help you to join your ideas toget¡er and also personalisethem for the reader - in other words, these phraseswill make the reader feel that he is i¡cluded in your thoughts as you write and that his feelings and opinions have been taken into account. Using these phraseswill result in a more personal and friendly letter. These phrasesapply to all qpes of friendly letters . L Y o u ' l lb e q l a d t o k n o w . . .

. l k / ¡ o w I> .v.u^u. . , I,>, l o v e. . . t'msureÍ'""" wellwith... I geLon (really)

2 - .,


I s e e. . . wa¡t unt¡lyou I meet... ) taste...

4 You'llreIllyenjoy..É | can'twaitt¡llyou .-. 6 Asyor/Know,| ... 7 lknowyou... 8 ... - fiust)líkeyout 9 . . . - a su s u 6 l ! The following examplesshow you hor.vto use these phrases.

Phrose I You'llbegladto knowthere'sa fitness centrenearwhereI live,sowecanwork out in thegymanyt¡me. vou'llbegladto know= personalising;it showsyou know somethingabout r'vhatmakesyour &iend happy,her hobbies,character,etc. there'sa fltness centrenearwhereI live- \4/hytell your friend thisl To create interest. = pcrsonalisingagain,becauseit shows sowe c6nworkout ¡nthegymanJrtime. you know your friend likesto work out. It is alsosLrpport)because it explains why your houseis in a good location for your frjend.

Phrose 2 I'm sureyou'll get on reallywell with my brotherSamt!He'smad 6bout football,justlikeyou! I'msureyou'llgeton reallywellw¡thmy brothersa¡¡i¡= personelising = sllpport He'smadaboutfootball, justlikeyoul = pcrsonalising

Friendlylefters:descriptivea 25 I know you'll love my mum's cook¡ng!she can make almost anyth¡ng especiallyyour favourite,p¡zz6! I knowyou'll lovemy mum's cookingt= personalising;it shows you know your friend well enough to know what food she likes, - especially your favour¡te,pizz6!= personalising again; you know your friend loves pizza. It is also support.

Phrose 3 wa¡t unt¡lyoutastemy mother's cook¡ng! You'llneverwantto go homet physics you wa¡t unt¡l meetour te1cherl What can you put to support this sentence¡

Phrqse 4 You'llreallyenioynothav¡ngto walktoschool iÍ themornings! = personalising; You'llreallyenioynothav¡ng you kno{¡your to walkto school friend hates walking to school. He 's lazy!

Phrose 5 (Support I can'twaitt¡llyoumeetmyfr¡ends! this.) I can'twaitt¡llyougethere!(Supportf)

Phrose ó Asyou know,I'm notmuchgoodat sw¡mming, but... =personalising; Asyouknow, I'mnotmuchgoodat sw¡mm¡ng thisshowsyou havetold your friendpersonalthingsaboutyourself. ... but(supportf) Phrose 7 I knowyouenioys¡ghtseeing, soI thoughtyoumightliketo go andseethe Pyram¡ds. I knowyou enjoysightseeing= persor.ralising . . . so I thought you might l¡keto go and seethe Pyram¡ds.= support I know how much you love music,so ... I knowhow muchyou lovemusic= ¡rersonirlising ... so (snpport?)

Phrose 8 My s¡steradoresp¡zza- justlikeyou! Phrose 9 At theweekends I am quitelazy- asusual! as usual! = personalising; your friend knows your habits.



Conclusion of o descriptive letter The conclusion for a descriptive letter should be quite short; probably tlr.o or three lines, and, ifpossible, should return to the point which began the letter. For example, if you are writing to a friend who is coming to visit you for the fust time , )'ou¡ introduction might have started something like this:

It waslovelyto getyourletteryesterday and to hearthatyou'recomingto stay!| thoughtI'd dropyoua lineto giveyousomeideaaboutlífeoverhere. Your conclusion should reflect dle points made in the introduction and also bring the reader back into the letter.

Anway,I hot)eth¡sgivesyousomeideaabautushere,andth6t vou,re getttngexcited aboutcoming! This is particularly important if )rcu have been r,witirg mainLy about yourself, for example, 1rcur hobbies.

Anway,nowyouknowall abouthowt spendmyfreetime,Maybewhenyou writeyou couldtellmewhatyou do in yours^ Ifpossible, add a personal sentence:

Don'tforgetto letrneknowwhattimeyourflightarrives. Don'tforgetto packa sw¡msuit! wr¡tesoonandletmeknowwhetherlwhen lwhere... r-



Endrngond signoture soon.

(r'm)looking you l on Friday. forwardto seeinq ) nextweek.

tookingforwardto hearingfromyou! And finally, W¡thlove, Lovefrom Withbestwishes, Yours, + )'our first name only,inwiúng

that the examiner can read.

Friendlvlefters:descriptive g 27

m Furtherexercises to improveyour t.,.1

oescflpilve reiler wflilng Exercise I

Creoleon imoginory friendforyourse f fromyourlocoloreo.Thismeonsshewillshorethe someculture os you,knowwhotfociiliesoreovolloble, whoillmeschoolstorls, which doysore Ée weekend,whol fesllvcrls yourcounlrycelebrole:,the typeof food you eol in yourcounlry, ond so on.Thr pe soncon be b,osed on o reo frle¡d,if you ike. Mcrkenolesoboulyourfriendunderlheseheodings: c x x N x

physicooppeofofce choroctefisl¡cs l i k e so n d d i s l t k e s hobbies fomily

ond mokeo ¡ole oi how iheseore diffeienffrom,or thesonreos, youfs. Now creoleon lrnoginory frlendfromonolhercountry proboblyEngond, or onother Engishspeokingcoun1ry, who you knowthroughwritingond receivingeltefs(o penfriend). You moynoi knowlhispersonquileos we I os lhe friendfromyour occr oreo,ond he proboby ivesin o lololy differenlkindof oreoond differenlhouse, goeslo schoolclldifferenl limes,hoso differenl weekendfromyou, eolsdifferent food, hosdiffere¡lcusloms, ond so o¡. Sxercise N0 Exom tip Adding sLrpportond perso¡crsifat phrosesis rol eosy lo do Llndefexclm co¡ditio¡s. Pfcrctlse os muchos you con before the erom. Try to keep f¡p¡ov ng on youf suppon ond P-'rsonn;.'nn Ontoa",

ñxercise I I

M o l - o t o f p h o . ^ s ' o. L r o p o f ¡,^ . 1 6q . ^ ¡ ¡ . o h ^ r o g i n o lr r i " n d , o u. ^ o -d in exefcise 9. lf posslble, personcr iselhemoi thesome1lme. looko1someexomp esof howto oddsupporl isingphroses ondpersono oboulo klendwho les reoding. YoutsI {eGrJ my hrúlhet"srúlle(.i.¡on *,fnúvels.Hewon't mtnd- he'sat un¡versiLy now. He'sa bookvvorm,just likeyou! Yaü'ltbe qlad V) kna\\ithe l.awltlibrar'¡is fl()t[ar lram wherc| l¡vr.Youcan havea lookroundwhtleI go to footballpract¡ce,il'y*u ttant. I knowhow much you dislikesport! I knowyou lovereading,so I'm sureyou'll wantto jointhe schoolbookclub. Wrifeoboulo memberof yourfomiy.Tryto describe h¡voor fhreepeopleto slof wilh, thenseleclihe oneyou fee mosthoppywith.Tryreodlng11oui 1ofriendsond orf iheir opinion or oskyourEngishtecrcher. Remember thcrtthepersonyou finolychoose shoud hovesomere/evcrnce lo yourimoginory friend,in orderlo be convincing. Add suppofond personolising phroses lo lhe descriplion of lhe chosenmemberof your fomiy. Wrile descriplions of yourhome,schooond how you spendyourfreelimein lhe somewoy. Spendtimeproducinghesedescriplions. Write them.leovehem for crfew doys.Then ieodñem ogoin,edllond improve fhem.Youmoyneed1orepectthisp ocedue severol Whenyouoresureyouconnolmokeonyfufiher limesunfilyouofe sollsfied. improvemenis, lrywrilingone or ,\iofrommemory,unliyou becomefomillorwlthúem ond fee 'h^ .^,h^^ -^^-^^+^[ ,.l^.-.i^ri ,^ ^Hrrwfilifg in friend comforloble crbout y register.



Exam-style questions Now you are ready to attempt the following exam-style questions.

Quesfion I


Youore goingto tokepo in on exchongevisitwlih someone fromonolhercounlry. She/Hewill be comingto stoywilh you ond yourfomiy in lhreemonlhs'lime.Wrile o letleroboul l50 words ong in whichyou: . soysomething oboulyourfomily . describeyour oco ofeo . exploinwhol oclivilies you con do logelher . suggeslploces10visil. * Note visilsore verycommonbe\¡¿een Exchonge ln Engiish sludents schoolsond olher counlfles in Europe.Not ol sludenls underslond the phrose,becousetheydo not expefience themln lheirporlicuor counlry.Exchonge visilsore usuolyorronged be[rreenschoos. A groupof sludents fromon English schoolgoes1oFronce,for exomple;eochsludentstoysoi lhe homeof o Frenchstudent ond occomponies the French studenl1oschooifor o weekor hlo (usuoliy ot theend of theschoolyeor).The fo lowingyeor,fhe Frenchstudenis go to Englondond sloywiththe English sludents. Thisgivesbolh notionolities lhe choncelo improvelheirforeignlcnguoge.Sometimes thestudents wi I hovebeenwfiting10eochother,os penfriends, for o yeoror more; ^ .+ ..1^.rrh^yhoveneverwrlllenlo before. somelimes thesch^^ ^l^.^. rL^_ ,^,r+L Before you begin to answer question 1, consider the following points: r Decide how well you know the exchange student, and make it clear in your answer. I Do you need to mention your visit to the exchange student's country¡ ¡ As you are writing in English, it makes sensefor the exchange student to come from an English speaking country. r Remember to write something about all four of the points given and be particularly carefirl to avoid listing.

Glueslion 2

An Engishsludeni who hosneverbeento yourcounirybeforeis cominglo sloywifhyour fomilyfor threeweeksond wi I oisogo lo schoolwithyou.Writeo efteroboul200 wordslongleiing thesludenl oboutyourhomeond schoolond thesortof thingsyou do.

Queslion 3

Wrile lo yourpenfriend oboulhow you spendyourfreelimeofierschool.Describe your usuoeveningond weekendoclivilies.

Glueslion 4

A cousinyou hovenevermetbeforehoswriltento soyshe/heis cominglo sfoy.Wrile ond te I her/himoboulyourfomily,yourhomeond thgoreoyou ive in. *

Exom t¡p Considertheimplicotions of o queslion. Here(question 41,o thoughyou hove nevermel,you ore wriling¡o yaurcous¡nwho hosprobobyseenphologrophs ol heordoboutyourportof thefomily.Usethisknowedgewhenyou write.

yau'veheardaboutJames(theyoungest)! I suppose l'm sureyou'veseenthe photasof my birthdayparry!

Friendlylefters:descriptive| Glueslion 5



A friendfromyouro d schoo is comng to spendo few doyswilh you in thenew oreo you hoverecenllymovedlo. Wrife ond te I her/himoboultheoreo,yournew house ondwholyouwi be ob e to do logelherBeforeyou begln,thinkcorefuly oboulyour relolionship ond how wel yourlriendknowsyourfon,,y.

letters Sfudents' descríptive .

Read the following selection of descriptive letters written by different students in responseto exam questions, and the comments related to tl-rem. * Note Theseore origino etierswrillenby IGCSEstudenls ond moystiI contoinminor 1opoinlsin theRegisfer unilon mistokes. n fie commenls co umn,the eilerR refers poges182-5, ond lhe e er G referslo poinlsin theGrommoruniton poges1Bó QQ. Theorrow(-;) poinls1owhol thelextin theletershoud be chongedlo or repocedwih.

Queslion I

Write o elterlo o penfriend who is comingto sloy,teling her/himoboullhe oreoyou ive in ond yourschool.

Commenls Dear5am,

Lovey openingporogroph

How are you? lt wasnice to getyour letter la¡t week and even nicer to know that you areo coming to Dubai for a three-week staywith ur.

Q Ró > to hearyou're

Anyway,@ | thought l'd drop you a line about my plácec) and the school I go to. You wíll be living with u¡ in our ¡emi-detached house@ in the country. lt has4 bedroomsone of which@ you might like to rtay in, that I have already prepared.@ But of courseyou are welcome to stay in any bedroom you would like,@ perhapsrhare my room, where we could enjoy lütening to music totetier or watching DVDs.I hope you don't mind being set up in practícal jokes,@ asmy younger brother Ír afwayrat it. He is actualfyvery different from my sister- rhe's 'the quiet type'. Yolr will recognisemy father becausehe's got a bushy He'squite understanding and I think .moustache. -you would enjoyg talking to him, ar well asmy mother (not with a moustache!)(EAltiough we live far from my school the school buscomer right up to my houseand takesme to schooljust in time for the first lesson.The school is quÍte largewith a nosy princip¿1,but quite caringteachersand friends. Anyway,l'm looking forward to seeíngyou soon. BestwÍshes HÍsham

o o

unnecessory R1 Replocenounwith person+ verb -+ whereI live


Too slrong, not needed -> we havea 4-bedroom 5emi in the country


Inoppropriolefegislef-+ My mum hasgot one of the roomsreadyfor you.


R3 -+ got ready

o Confusedgfommof -+ any bedroomyou like @

Confusedphrose+ beingsetup or havingpractícal jokes played on you


Good personolising

@ Nice humourl

Generol commenls a o o o

Thiselierhoso good introduction. Thesludenthossucceeded in creotinglnlefest. Thereis no 511¡it. l h e r eo e 1 0 n o n g r o ' " r ' r oc o o r - e gs e - r i s - o l e s .

f owever: nsleodof wrilingoboultheoreo he ivesln, os lhe queslion osked,Hlshomhoswrlllenoboulhishouse the crndfomily.Thlsis on exompleof notonswering queslion, crndwoud losemonymorksin theexom. Thebodyof the e er is onevery ong porogroph.

30 T PRODUC/NG /NFORA/AL WRITING Queslion 2 Ansnrer A

Wrife o letterto cr penfrtend who is coming10stoy,1eling her/htmoboulyourhome, fomilvond school.

Comments Dear John, t'm sorryfor notwr¡t¡ngto youfor so long,but we had exams and I hadto study. Anway ,O I wasgl6dto knowthat you'recoming to stdywithushe@t andI thoughtyou m¡ght liketo knowsomethtng aboutl¡feoverhere.@ Tostart w¡th@ t'll tell you@about my homeand family.Gtr/hehouseiO a s bedroom tlaton the17tnfloorof 6 buildtng¡na we|Lknownarea.@weryoneof us hash¡so ownroomand I thoughtyoum¡ghtliketo stoyin fiy roorfl.(EW€ff,O ¡f not, there is a roomc4¿. readyforyouwhereyoucanbefree-| wouldlike to warnyouaboutmy útin s¡sters. Theylove play¡ngtr¡ckson people.rhey'll tty to driveyou crazyby exchang¡ng their clothes everynowand then.ButI'msureyou'regoingto lovethem because theyarekind-hearted. Aboutschool,@ ¡t is situated@¡na remoteareaneara militarybqse.@ Thebest thtnqaboutour school ¡soursports gymnasium.@ lt ¡soneof the b¡ggest¡nthe c¡ty and any kind of sport con be doneÍDthere. AIso@f'd l¡keto tellyouaboutthe most personalibl spectacular of ourschool. she¡sour Headmistress. she¡san old ladywho drcsses up@asif she's only16yearsola. As for my free time,@ I'm neverfree@. dur¡ngtheweekdays because study¡ngtakesall of mytime.I hardlygetan hourto watch'Nor pl6y computergames.Welf,@) duringthe weekend, whích ¡s,by the woy, different from yours,@| go horse-riding, and well|¿/. occasionally I go to the cinemawith my friends.@ youan ideaaboutlife I hopethisgtves overhereandth6tyou'reexcited aboutcomingDon'tforgetto tell mewhen your flight will be.@I'm lookingforward to see@ you soon. LOVe, M0utaz

os.lohn's Q Usedconeclly.Hisstudyis nol os importont visi1. @ Whereese wouldhe stoy?Nol needed. Remove lhe flrst,irrelevont here. @ Repetition. ()

iisr fq

et @ @ @ @ @ @

) | thought you'd liketo know Avoidrepelilion of wordingof tiie. t is formolregister. Replocenounwilh person+ verb+ | livei/¡ Why te i himfhts?Support ncorreclgrornmqf-+ Weeachhaveour Why? Supporr A leotureof spokenlonguogewhichts inoppropriote f efe: femove.

@ -+ Thespareroom is @ C o n i i n u o l i o nf l s t l | c @ R4 -+ | go to school @ Why te I himthis?Support @ Confused) sportshall at gym @ R4 -+ you can do any sport @ l ; s t, 1 9 @ Wrong word -+ dresses @ l : i l n , ;o g o i n (D Repetllion.RemoveAsfor my freet¡me whichis ifoppfopfiote @ A feofureof spokenlcrnguoge here:remove. @ Why te I himthls?Support @ Good phrose lensefor limetobed @ inconeclgfomrnor;usepfesent your fulure > what time fltghtis due This musi leornl be occurole/y + lookingforward to @ seetng

Generol comments a This eltef hos o godd inlroducllonond conclusion. ¡ The e er soundsI uenl becouselhereore no1mony gfommof or regislermislokes. F]OWEVET:

¡ Thereis no ollempl10suppodof personQise. o This efteris too ong fo be wriltenunderfimed exom condllions.

Friendly letters:descriptive I

Queslion 2 Answer B


who 1scomingto stoy,tellng her/himobouiyourhome, Wrile o elleflo o penfriend lcr¡i , ord scl'oo. Commenlt

Dear Satomí, I got your Letter last w eek and t am happy you wíII at last man ge tb come. I would líke to gíve you t genera| ídeaQ about my famíly, home and school.Q tty famíL@ ís very fríendLy.@ t have onúl bígger brotherQ who ís a bit nauglty , and a smaller pretty síster.O My hom@ ís a ftfteen-mínute walkQ fr om the beach. I go to a bíg school.@ | [íke it very much. There are nany tctívítíes$ ín my school and t pútícípat@ ín tl:.e musíc, chess andbasketball actívítaes@ ln the morníngsI a[wayshavea ftvemínute wall<Q before goíng@ to school. Lfter coming@ from school.t study and pass my free tílnfi eíther reading or watching televísion. As you would@ comeín the wíftter va.atíon,lLowever r we would@ go out almosteveryday. I hopeyou wouldS eftjoyyow time stayíngwíth us. I am w aítíng to ',r'.eety o u.@

-+ Q Confusedphrose t thoughtI would(Ietyou know),/ míght Liketo know I thouglt you of wordingof liie. t is formolregisler. @ Avoldrepelilion @ Repelition @ Stotinglhe obvious @ R9 -+ a(n) brother @ oLder O ayouftger,prettysister @ RI Repoce nounwith person+ vefb @ Support? @ Why te I herthis?SuppoÍ? @ Support? @ R3 -+ takepart ise? @ Supporl/personcr ise? @ Supporl/persono @ R2 -+ beforelgo @ R2 -+ afterl come(home) fteetime timephrose-->spendmy @ Confused grommof:wronguseof tenses-+ aryou're @ Incorrect to . . . go out comínginthe wintervacztíonwe'IIbeabLe aLmost everyday.

lour fríend,@ MíraL


of lhissenlence needexplolning.n Theimplicotions monycounlries theweolherls bod in winter.Why is lhe weothergood in winterwhereMiro lves? grcrmmor: wronguseof lenses-->lhopeyou ncorrect wíll


lnoppropriote phrose : I'm Lookingforward to meetiftgyou


lnopproprloteending -+ Lovefron1.

Generol comments Thereore lotsof probeinswilh this etter. o Thebeginningond endingore b'olhconfused. of thewordsusedin thelite o Thereis repelilion (remember titlesore in formolregister). ond grommor. o Thereore probemswilh regisier o Thereis no oitempl10pefsonolseor suppo .

32 A PRODUCING /NFORA/A¿ WR/IING Quesfion 3 Answer A

write o lefierto o cousinyou hovenevermetbeforecrndwho is comingro stovwilh you, teling her/himoboutyourhomeond fomiy.

o How are you?@ It wai lovefyto getyour letter yesterdayand I wasso ple¿redto hear thatyou'll be coming to staywitll us.@lt is reallya great feeling to know that at last you're goíng to meet the cousinyou've neverseen. Don't you think ro?@Anyway,I thought you might fike to know some more about us,apart from the picture you've seen. We live in a fiVe-bedroomsemí,We all have our own roomsand I thought you might líke to rtay with me ín my room. lf nol there ir a spareroom for you to stay in. By the way, a word ofwarníng my twin sisterulove playingtrick on people. For example,Gt they'll try to drive you crazyby lwapping their drerseseverynow and then. But l'm rure that@ you're goíng to love them becausethey're very kind hearted.They are rímilar in rome waysto my mum but neitlrer of them is a good cook líke her. You're going to taste many deliciousdishe¡ whích l'm sure you'll like.@ By the way,@ my dad ísnot a¡ seríou¡as he look in the picture you have. He's an easy-goingsort of person who love¡ life and alwayslikesto lay jokes@ and my brotJ.rer takesafter him. He is a great man and I really love him so much.@ Anyrvay,I hope this tives you ¿n Ídea about usand you're excited about coming. LOVE,


€ommenls f) ShouldhoveDear... @ Thefirstl¡neof eochpofogfophshouldbe indented. infoduciion @ LoveJy @ Nice useof Don'tyouthinkro? regislef:femove @ Inopproprioie @ R5 Removethat @ Nice supporl @ Excelentinfoduciionto yourfolherond personolising wilh the mentionof the phologroph @ Confused+ to telljoket @ -+ | lovehimverymuch.

Generol commenfs o Generolyo verygood efier. o Theinlroduction ond conclusion ore oppropriote ond welfwrilten. o Thereore nol monyproblems wilh grommoror regisler. o Thestudent hcrsincludedo voriedrongeof expfess ons. a Theleilerconloinsexomples of persono isingond support.

Friendlyletters:descriptivet 33 (luestion 3 Answer E

Write o elteflo q cousn you hovenevermetbeforeond who is comingto stoywiih y o u ,t e l i n gh e r / h i mo b o u yt o u rh o m eo n df o m i y . Commenls

Dear Jinbin, HitHowis lifegoingzt reallydon't knowwhatto writeto my unknowncous¡n . Anway I wasveryhappyto knowl| that@ you'recomingto stdywíth us¡n Egypt. we liveino 6 big housewitha small gardenanda baclEard. You'llbestay¡ng ¡nmy small@brother'sroomand he'smovinginto mtne. w6¡t till youseemy He'sa complete nutroam¡ng aroundthehouse. you My6dv¡ceto isto stayout of hisway,he'sgot dll typesof trick he'llmakeyoucryyoureyesout. Although hecanbea majornuisance anda pain iÍ the íeck,O the housew¡ll be@likea graveyardo withouth¡m. I havea b¡gbedroomwith a television . we , computerand a soundsystem -N couldstayall n¡ghtwltching andmessing w¡ththecomputer,that'stf we canflndthem underthemess. we alsol¡ve@nearthe beachsowe go can swimminganyt¡me.UnlikeEnglandg¡t's veryhotandsunnyoverhere. youand tookingfowvardto seeing hop¡nqyouw¡llenjoyyourstayw¡thus. Lovefrom Natalya

Good inlroduclion Q -+ happyto hear @ R5 Remove

o Goodl s ) younger o Good expressionl @ G2 Secondcondiliono: tf he were(post)not here, the housewould(conditiono I be .,

o Good expression @ No needfor alsohere


Conlrosllo cfeoleiflefesl

Generol comments o Thislefieris generolywe I'wrilten. o Thereis o relevont infoduction ond concusion. problems a Thereore noi mony wilh grornn'ror or regrsrer. o Thesludenihosincludedo rongeof expfessions. Flowevef: -h^ t d^ Lo ¡ or .or pl-,-'l o . \- ad ,La q - o'r e The e er includesinformolionobout fomilyond home, bul does nol lclkeinlo occounlthot it is being writtento h^ ^ , -..a. n Aelore. ". for personolisinghove been o Mony opportunities missedin this letter.

qdvice FriendlyIetters: Advice letters need to be unitten in friendly register (see page 3). These are letters rvritten to someone who is probablv about the same age asyou and has asked fbr your help lr.itl-ra particular problem. Usually, these are scf.ool related or personal problems, and include: r : I n

not doing very rvell in a certain subject at school being overweight moving to a new area and feeling lor-Lel,v being bullied.

Ifyou had one ofthese problems,,rvho rvould you go to for help or advicel Probably you 'ivould choose a particular friend lvho you feel would understand your probleir-rand take it seriously. Ifpossible, you would choose a friend who has had the same problem, and r,vhoyou ma)¡ therefbre think of as being in a better position dran you in terms of experience.Sometimes it is not easyto ask for help. Much depends on the relarionship betrveen the person with the problem and the friend who is asked for help. When you write a letter of advice to a friend rvho has come to yo¡, o¡,h " problem, bear the following points in mind: r You are a friend, and s_\¡mpathetic to the person's situation. ¡ You understand the problem; you may har.ehad the same problem or been through a similar experience yourself. I You must make vour friend feel comfortable and reassured,not intimidated. I Y o u m u s r n o t a p p e a rt o b c s r r p c r i o irl r l r r v r v r y . So, it wouLd not be at all appropriate to write the follorvirg kind ofsentence: r well, you couldn't haveaskeda beLterperson.Evetyoneknowshow hopeless you are at mathí I'm an 'A' stüdentso I knoweverythingYoudid the r¡ghtthinq to cometo me! Horvever, by far the most important point to remember is: do not give too much advice! There are two reasonsfor this. Firsdy, think ofoccasions rvhen soneone may be 1,azadvice fbr example, your father. If he spends a long tirne you the,you probably find that you stop listening after a r.vhile!Secondll,, to avoid listir.rgand to improve your writir.rg style,,yo¡ should follolv the method explained in the prer.ious unit abor-rtdescriptive letters, and tre at advice in the same way .r,oudealt q.idt rooms in your house, the members of your ñmily and your hobbies. In other rvords, selecrjusr a ferv pieces of adr.iceand then der.elop them. Limit yourself to a naximum of three pieces of adl'ice, and then remember to: I pcrsonalise I support each idea r avoid listiug. Norv lool< at a skcleton, or basic plan, for an advice letter.

Friendly leÍÍers odvice |



Advice letters- o bosicplon Introduction LIse a short introduction so you can get to the point - in other words, the advice - quicldy. The apology qpe ofintroduction is not appropriate here. Someone asking for advice obviousll, needs help and does not wanr ro wait, so it would rol be appropriate to use the following type ofintroduction: t l've beenmean¡ngto write for agesffor6 long t¡me. Instead, use a simple, direct introduction, for example:

¡r" ,n,.r. J lovely I to qetyou{IetÍey. ) greatJtohearfromyou. As the time factor is ir-rportant, saywhenyorr heard fron-rthe person you are writing to. By showing that you are writing back quickly, 1'our friend rvill realiseyour concern, r,vhichhighlights the sincerity ofyour friendship.

yesterdaylthis mornínglafewrninutesago Norv buiLd the sentence up:

tt waslavely ta hearlramyouthismorning,but ... The word but tells the reader a contrast is coming, in other lvords, something which is not lovelyor gre6t.

twds I . > 50rrv... tam


Shor'vyour feelings.

It waslovelyto hearfromyouthismorn¡nq, but I wassorry...

... {to hear)you're

hTvingtroublewith worr¡ed about unhappyw¡thlabout

yourschoolwork. beingovervveíght. notbeingfit" bullies-

It waslovelyt.ahearfromyouthismorning,but I wassorryto heayyaú're worr¡ed aboutyoürschoalwork. Now reassureyour friend and at the sar.netime confirm your friendship by pcrsonalising.

Dan'tworry. Tryr¡otto warry@bout¡t). I howyoufeel I know ¡ whatyou're qo¡ngthroughberause... J wnat it's nf.e' It wí¿sjovelyto hearframyou thismarning,bLttI wls soryyta hearyou're warrieúl aboutyourschoolwork. Don'twarty.l krtawwhatit'slikebecause ...


preser.rtperféct tense,so sentence nust encl ) | '''I !

., , ve hcctt ift Lke\finÍ h.út.

I \/.ts ttr Lhpjutq¿ Í'¡#i ) !--..ptsl lensc. \(r 5¿\wht,m

I | |

Jr.{si v¿¿{!ttft}1. úlhen I rúüved hr:rc. \t"l\tn I sLlrtii# iilJ( :ir'núOi'

!1,Nvú5lavel'y' he*r from yíjü t.his '{tr)rni{t?},b¿,tL I vrús súrw l.c heí,iryúü'rc ',tlaffiríl i7haui yout 5rhaolwotk. D(.in'tÁrar\/" I knaw \,^.rhí.tt i{ s lil;e br:rause I wtlt i't';t-t(, ba7t. (= samc situation) lÚ,stterrn. llere is another example using the same skeleton: 1t \^tcs.qteútia qel:yirffi iette{ yesterdú,l,hrÁT. i'tu so{,ryyaa're wor{ied btinq t'tertitti4ht. f rl !1ct LDwsyr! übouf it.. ¡ kytaiflhaw l,touft:tl beL{}useI'vpt¡e¡:.¡tin tht -\úraebaíjL.

'! *xeraüse

ldenti! thegood pointsond the problems in thefo lowinginfoductions 1oodvice efiers. 1 "m sorry| hoven'1 writienfor so long,l¡utI'vebeenbusystudyng ond hoven'lhod thetime.Anywoy,I thought woud drop you o lne to giveyou someldeoson how 1olosewelght.' 'm 2 "ve beenmeoning10wrilefor oges,but ofroldI irsl hoven'lgol foufd 1,lil. lt I lhought wou d dropyou o lineto hep you wos ovey to getyouf letleryesterdoy. orgoniseyourstudyinghours,os you oskedme in yourlostleiter.' 'How 3 ore you?| hopeyou'refeelng beÍer. thoughtI woud dropyou o ine to cheeryou up, becouseI hovebeenin thesomeboot before.' 'F1ow 4 ore you?h wos lovely10get yourletferthismorning,bul I wos sorryto heor 've lholyou'rehovingproblems withyourEnglish. Don'lworryl beenin lhe scrme boot oslyear.'


lls-oo seleriionof ihe nhrc'ses si r¡ied to wrilethe introduclion 1oon odvicelefierto o friendwho is belngbu lied.

Body of the letter *

Remember nclude twoor threepieces of odvice only, crnd lhe¡: I l]erao¡olse I

use lhe se ectlo¡ of crdvice phroses{see poge 3Z) -.l.Llpftofl I

ovold slol¡ngfhe obvious.

You hrve been asked to \vrite a letter of advice to a friencl u,ho has to lr¡se u,eight. What things d<tyow hnoD about his pelsonal lile that nehe him ovenveightl s F{c lovcs chocolatc. x FIe hates exercise. * He is a couch potato. Begin by using ¡rcrsonirlising phrasesto shor'vhorv rvell ,vouknorv him and to r c m i r t l l : i n ru l ' r o u r I ' r i c n d s h i p .

Fríendlylefters:odvice |


I k n o w- . . ... howmuchyoulove I chocolate youareto ) junkfood ... howaddicted .,, howmuchyouh6teexerc¡sel ... whata couchpotatoyouarc! or

I knowyou'renot (exactlftheworld's... . .. mosteneraetic) > 'Derson! ... sponresr ) eater! ... healthiest \4/hat three pieces of advice could you give your friendf There are marry possibilities, for example: r Give up chocolate. r loin a sports club. r Take up walking.

Advice phroses Introduce your ideas with a selection from the following advice phrases:

Exom lip ore fie Thefirst¡¡,o phroses mostbosicones. mpressthe exominerby lsl¡g someot lhe otherphrosesln this lsl.

Youcould... vou(realtry) should... You(really) oughtto ... whydon'tyou.."? Howabaut I *uerb* ina whatabout * no.,n of J Haveyout.hought lf I wereyau,I'd ... t should... if I wereyau. rhebestthinqyoucando is ... It woaldbeú goadideaif you+ pasttense Tr.j I R e m e m b e rI t o . . . Don'tforyet ) tty nappens, Wnatever remember to ... youdo, Whatever don'tforyet Try not to use the same phrase more than once as you can see)there ¿re many to choose from. As you have to give two or three pieces of advice only, that means you need to use only two or three ofthe advice phrases!

/NFORMAL 38 T PRODUC/NG WRITING Note how the sentence buildsup: person, I knowyou'renotexactly theworld'smostenergetic butif I wereyou, t'd takeup walking. I knowhowmuchyoulovechocolate, but h6veJ/outhoughtaf cuttingdown onjunkfaod? I knowyou'readd¡cted tojunkfood,butyourcallyoughtta give¡t up. When making your suggestions,ít makes sensefor the first piece of advice to be introduced like this:

The - best l , _, "'" . . , Lhina - -voucando¡s... tnemosttmpoftant ) and for the last piece of advice to be introduced like this:

tU whatever - . - - horornr. ) .'..: >remember to wnareverYou60, ) aon,tlorger The three pieces of advice you want to give your friend could be written as follows:

Thebestthinqyoucando isto tokeup walk¡ng. Itwouldbeü goodideaif yougaveup chocolate. happens, Whatever tty to joins sportsch,tb. Keep it simple When actuallygiving advice,simplicityis the key. Be surenot to turn your letter into a biology lecture,especial\¡if the topic is health,,sport, smoking, the environmentor any other topic most studentswill havelearnt at school. Whateverthe problem is, refbrences to adiposetissue,gaseousexchange, eutrophicationand catalyticconvertersareout ofplace and quite wrong here! I-ook at the following examplesto seehow simplethe adviceyou give should be: I Advice phrase+ eat the right things giveup ¡= sropcompletely,; I , , ._-, cut out { - stopcomplerely t | )::: 1::: Psr looa cut downon i- rcducer ) Re¡nember f-)^ .^,



a( ^, -,


r¡ineros, oboulvilomlns, corbohydrotes, proleinor lhe digesiivesystemherel

lf I wereyou, !'d cút down oniunk faa(). Whateverhappens,try to cut out chacolate. why don'tyau q|e up fastfaod? ttwoulúlbe 6 goodidea¡fyau ate the r¡ghtthings. 2 Advicephrase+ take up a sportltenn¡s do somespart do someexercise Haveyou thoughtof takingup tennis? Whydon't you do somespart? Itwould be 6 good¡deaif you did someexerc¡se.


Fríendlvletters:odvice |


:t Longuoge Poinl in o generosenseos opposedlo inocllvify meonsexefcise Thephrosedisomeexercise or who spendscrlol of timesittingwoichingielevision for someone ond is m-^ont of iheseore o flxedsequence withexercises; studyingol thelime.Do notconfuse performed for o specificteoson,for exomplewarm'upexercises. moveménts

easl., at ftrst ] qenny don'toverdoit warmup dosamewarm-upexerctses

3 Advice lhrase + take it

Yououghtto dosofrewarm-upexerclses. don'tforgefto tukeit e6syat first. happens, Whatever youdo,don'toverdoit. whatever Notice how the phrasedon'toverdoit changes: Youreallyshouldn'toverdo¡1. lf I wereyau, I wouldn'taverdoit. 'rry not to overdoit. Remember nat ta averdo¡t. Don'tfargetnot to overdoit. Give o reoson Finally, you needto give your friend a reasonfor carryingout your advice.In other words, you need to supportyour ideasin order to makethem acceptableto your friend. advicephrase

+ idea

+ support I

navevoutnouantol > J+verb+ing Note horv the sentencebuilds uP:

rt,ri ] hel? vou maKe' )

persan, but haveyouthoughtof I knowvou'renotthewarld'smostenergetic takinqup walking?lt'll makeyoufeelfitter. The support phrasesshould also be very simple:


helpyoufeelfitter. makeyou feelbetter. doyougood. begoodforyou.

weioht. you I lose Í | netp I keepI r rnsnape. ) It'll g¡veyou moreenergy.

qet rid of that spareryrc(of yours). tÍ tt netpyou ) íonr-up those flabbymusclei¡ofy,ours¡. |

40 * PRODUCING /NFORA/A¿ WRIIING tt'll helpyou meet peoplewith the sameinterestsas you. It'll be a goodway to get to knowpeople. whj/ dafl'Lyou.¡ainu sporrs.l¡"tbi lt'll toneup thoseflabbymuscles of yours good and be a way to get to knowpeople,too. what übctúitükinüuU f.?*ni\'ilt'll do you goodand helpyou keepin shapeat the samet¡me. Exercise3

dentlfy lhegoodpoinlscrndtheproblems in thefollowing senlences fromodvlce eilefs.

'You shouldolsolrylo concenloiemoreduringschoohours.Anotherhepfulpieceof odviceis lo lry1olookoveryourposlexoms,findyourmislcrkes ond correcllhem.' 'l 2 thinkyou shouldmokenew friendsond you shouldo so gef to I now ofherpeope becouse,os you know,it is verydifficut for someone lo iveon thelrown. think you shoud olso1ry1odo sport,os thiswoud giveyou lhechoncefo get together wilh peope who hovethesomelntefesls os you. 'You 3 con invilesludents fromschoolfo one of yourgreotporiies,ond l'm surelhey wil ove il. Thebel thingyou con do is fo spendh¡,¡o or ihreeweekends withthem ond theymoytokeyou lo new p oces.' I

€xereise 4

Useo selection of thephrosessludredlo wr le lhe bodyof q lefterof crdvlce to o friendwho hosmoved10o new oreoond is feelng ore y.

Conclusion of on odvice letter As rvith descriptive letters, begir.ryour cc¡nclusionüth a gcncralisation and retlrrn to the topic in the introductior: Well, I hope this q|es yor.tsame kleü whGl i. Lh úbaut ".. Be positive ancl optimistic. Do not u.ritc: , Goodluckl or . I hopeth¡shelps. Instead,l'rite something like: joininüj a -\po!1Lr.lúhiCü|1.¡nqdút/\iyt on jüfik.foad .""

.. ,\^t$rktdíct

tTt, . ) t't''r'st\ret,'' I n1ya! 1rntr, I ) tny ytenü,

) l'$t stlyeil;il ) it'z baun¡:ltts tr)


t inoii"rf tl

,tto,! ltt \,,ar,lql!

it'll I a{ conrse why shauicln't i+. )

As with tl"rcdescriptive letters, trv to pclsonalisc again befbre you concludc the letter by shorving vour interest. This shou.sthirt your conccrn for l,our friend is not onl¡, rvhile you rvrite the lctter - l¡olr $?nt to bc kept infbrmed about the situation and you also u'anr ro knor¡ ifvour ¿dricc hai helped yor-rr fricnd in a ¡wav.

Friendlv letters:odvice 1 4l

Do wriLeand lef me know how

) 'tn¡nás vouqet on. | ao.

) it qi"'.'

To encourage your fiiend evcn mor€, finish with fricrclly cnct-ruragcmcnt: t ' l l b e t h i n k i n go f y a u t

Exereise 5

for on odvlceelter. of úe phroses sludiedio wriietheconclusion Useo selection

questions X Exam-style Question I

Wrile o ellerof odvice1oo frlendwho needs1olokeup o filnesspfogfomme.

Queslion 2

schoolond her,/his A friendof yourshcrsmovedowoy to o new oTeoond is missing p her,/him suggesl things thot might he friends.Tryto mokeher/himfeelhoppier,ond enjoyher/hisnew life.

Quesfion 3

te lingher/himwhot Wrlte q leiterof odviceto o friendwho is goingfor on inlerview, ,:void moking suggeslions. 1o ond

42 ;


A Students' advíce letfers Read the follolving selection of advice letters written b), different students, and the comments related to them.


Queslion I Answer A

* Nole Theseore originoliefiers wrillenby GCSEstudents ond moystillcontoinminor mislclkes. ln thecomments co umn,lhe eilerR refers io polnlsin $e Register unilon poges182 5, ond thele er G refersto pointsin lhe Grommoruniton pogeslBó 99. Theonow (-+)poinls1owhol lhe texlin thelefiershouldbe chongedto or áplocedwith. Write o letterof odvice1oo frtendwho hosbeentoldfo go on o fitness progromme.

Comments Dear Lucas,

Q How are you, it wasnice to hear from you yerterday.l'm sorry| haven't w¡il*en for so longQ but l've been busystudyíng. Anywa¡ when you mentioned howyou neededto regain your litness,@ ín your lastletter, I looked through somerport5guiderto get an idea of what might help you. I thought it'd be a good ideafor you to startoff byjoggíngwery day for about ¿n hour or ro, but íf you preferworking in groups,you ought to conriderjoining an aerobicrclarsor swimming sessions. lf I were you, l'd join ín swimming session¡@ they help you get fit they also relax you@ ¿nd at the sametíme, iti quite fr.rnin the water. lf you're intereJted,there ¿re swímming ressions at the marínaclub besíde you,@ twice every week at f30 per month. While you're at it take care of your die!@ becauseI know what kínd of an appetite you have!@ Write soon and let me know what you decide to do. Yourl, Marc

'Apology' inlroduction inoppropriote for on odvice eÍer

@ R3 ond R1 -+ get fi't @ Repetilion @ R9 -+ tJreyrelaxyou,too @ -+ nearwhereyou líve/nextto yourhouse @ -+ watchwhatyou eat ising goodl @ Persono

Generql comments o Thisellerconloinsno grommofof speling mistokes. o Thestudent hcrsincludedsomegood odvicewlth suppofr. o Thereis onegood exompleof personolising. a Thereore somenicephroses, whichmokelhlssoundo very nollro lefier. However: o Theinfoduclionis notoppropfiote. o More personolising is needed. Overol, lhusis on excelentonswer,whichis welsiruclured, well-written ond of o good length.

Friendlyletbrs: odvice I 43 Qr¡c¡tion Answer


tWilte o later dl odvice rioo lfn.rend prcgrcrflrne. wh'o hos beer tofd 6¡ go ,ono lFitness

WrMv,tt, ¡búre?hsr!/l tttwwmyw@rrdhr@{/r IMtriiiltlHo&r@ lbrg h¿ft| m wt¡ M l¡|6,I,@n'T. M h e @r firs ¡rqrno ffr$lütirre.ltlG ffarnllro M g@WllÍ lM lñ hut ffi dü ard yau rEülf 16 l'ütno furítwwry añ d¡¡@/rup.flUioüqlitlldwrilrtu a @/rg fu üte Wu wiffi ülkfM Vs¡tw wtrdi¡ngdüf/,ñryF6kr|*ft WrcW.¡ffisfrydFilrs'@ Íle ldütfr¡tttrr c CoO ib@q@ @úillty útjtsr. ffid üterc ¡bno nnd @mdo !,li¡rgb NEre ülu &¡nn m¡r&g mwe Ifwrfinfriúrt qñd.Wfrde{gr lhWM,, Mt¡:ft@w @w ffory* trr iimqap.wmninq rry @m üry/@sqp ffiirrg W dre [qh,O ¡iorfrrc ftodb od¡iou hmrelo q|i.{€r¡tp€oüitgsü(ffi r¡fi a qaail dü wlti¡ú w¡lllwd@Vtw wM M lt@d.e lre@q[ei¡dttv@yW. ndtrasldW,@lV WWy i(fI wre y@+Mteft dfir@fit iiús N lü !f -rtlfie m@| lbd migliÉ. fl sü/arr¡ ü|P @Oc6 lBttrih@ ibüffi itúlll itnrpedqyaarbW We, @rd@l lhg,d'ffÍry/ wnü wlll rrdl@.yail d@ W tmww@yw ffi lnc sd$¡kttffie ¡rd tsilrqplrít.@) yo{JtKe,,@rnqfithú60rht4 ¡p.é. l@16, l|ühridk¡io¡r @@ñM df@/rW úrrwt@fid vary W WW fu w @r ywr dM w lotñr ywilll W afr. ard MW y@rnqwmr.rmrriT. Wfttu wile. @rdwrd frre e pituwe d.fW ittl üte@,flr.

rixtr¡o¡dte, s{mll

Gom¡¡sl¡ 'Ag"fqgy' llnfrodLucfion thrrodviice lefiren irnroppropniote O 'tMh,o lisge'tlrirng lfitt? @ llil* ie 'iev oon{usinrgll @ fhe leter,oeruldlhrvvesltored llrcre. @ Av,ordqpeifilron'df wod;ing lislbmnol |egiistdr.. @ Stoilirnglhe db,,vi.ous the dlqssest.Mn€d got me ft @ Rll, R5 -+ fuomu @ \We 'w.eree4pedti'ngltoiineor,olboufllhew¡lf'ers closses'¡u'mp'. Thiisis ,o @ g

,egefitiion lR| --ry@tisaúth€d@s lfhere,orrei<rorm:rony pieeesolfodvice l.lele"orte ofte,r tlrc otlhe¡..

@ fudllr¡g-+l@ qf i(]f¡'enrdlVlJ rregidter: hen4U(i[orno¡ o il@ü @ 'AAixed @ Good li: rmer,ltri.onll

@ RB--+rret<anlfrtlirot p@opk hMho lÚiiuh @üfr'er eqiqybe.toq @ Rll-+ y.our'llll dfr¡ole lliie somle imltateshl)

Gc¡nrr¡l Gommsúi slr,udl!.lre. a lfhs lélter,ho5hecÍ'nr.sdf odvce ¡ lilhestude¡t llnos¡'nd,Ldedo sdloo¡iono{ rcllevrormlt phrcses. ¡ llllrre3ur$en[l]mssuppoired lrc odvire. lltlow.aver: . Íhe biggcat pr'ohllernWilh rllirs fdrtefis ftie ln'opprqlñdkl .dfrnqgi3lel rerndrlilix,adLLlse ldter sou¡rdl o llhe [ookof pefsonols¡ng ntrokest]F're ,urlrienrdl,y, lke o lectur'e. aGerrereilV rn'rorrlks d[tlhougft'r rnoy ihis ie o grood,ofiemqpt" ltolllrie ,oihohe lo* lfolo oo¡ífui¡edqmd iirnopprqpriobdtorrlt ,of ,mi¡dlu,som lil¡ls llrnltnvdu¿llon liirfllrodudiron.. btfrer fl\e ond <¡r,enrrudhfoi'¡gerdhonril'ieyClmdldlbe..

44 f


Wrife o elierof odvicelo o t,i..¡ ^ L^ h^r A^^. r^1,-.1

f -...


Comments Dear f umL How areyov? I am sorry I haven't wrítten for so Longbut I're beenbusystudyíngand haven't had the time.l was reaIIy shockedwhen I knewQ thatQl you hare put up@ twelve kíIogrammes. So I thorght I'd drop you a Líneto teLL you how to redace your weight abi|@. I thiftk that the best thLngyou cando ís to waLk.w aLkingis a yery simpLeexercísebut it dtes good resuLtsand"it won't affectyour backínjury, lt also can be don$ anywhere and at anytíme, As a start you shouldw aLkfor at leasttw o hows every day. Thís wíII help you to put down some weíg!t.@ t furgot to mentíon that you'I[ needsome extra weights whíle walkíng.@ You canusethe braceLetwel.Shts that you hal,e,lou know,O tlrc oneswhíchyou carry around y our wrist Likea br acelet.You shouLdtry tojog a LittIe whiLew aLkingtoo. tfow aboqtswímmíng?@f ou've always [owd. swímming@ Swlmmíng@ wíLI heLpyou to get ínto good.shape,t'l/hat's more, ít won't .ost yoL anythíng more thtn a swímmíng suít and goíngto the swímmíng pool once a week,Q) ll'ave yotL thought of joining a heaLthcLubt f ou r eaLLy ought tojoín one,l know one whích has great facíLítlesand ís not at aII expeftsiye. l( s caLLed. the 'FaLcon ¡+eaLthCentre' andyou canget a membershíp of a. month Íor t1o only.@ The best thíftg G that it hasa steam room and a saqnaroom whích wíLI heLp yoq to burn the extra ht; The centre ako hx aerobíe classes.S ) oín ín íf yor líke aná.i( y our . doctor perrníts you@ Their exercises are yery basicbut they makeyou sweat Likehe[L.tjoíned. them for a whíLeand ít reaLLyhelps ín gívíng y ou flexíbílíty .@ Aftyway, I hope thísgfuesyou an íd.ea about how you canget backinto shape,Gite my regardsto your parents, Lookíng forward to hearing fromyou soon. withlove, 'f ómómí

Q -+ to hear O R5 removethat verb-+ puton @ Wrong phrcrsol @ R3 -+ [oseabit of weight @ R4 -+ you cand,oít . . . too. @ R2 -+ whiLeyouwalk ising good @ Persono @ Repelition @ Good sent-^nce @ Rl -+ youcanjoinfora monthforonlyLto. too. @ R9 -+ the centredoesaerobícc[asses, @ R3 -+ satsyorcaft @ R1 + helpsto makeyou moresuppLe.

Generol commenls a

hi. lettel on o ^\ 9 e o o- oI oduce n i-hgood supportond somepersono ising.

However: a Thereore someprobemswilh regisler. -Leo o s ' o - e ^ o u g lp e ro o I I n g o Thefirstholfof theinlroduclion is inoppropriole. f thestudenihod usedfewerideosond includedmore ' - . ^li in , ñ rh .^ [ o l o n c e de ¡ e r ¡ o . l d





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- - - - -v tu-q-



Friendlvletters:odvíce a 45 Guestior¡ I llnswer 0

Wrile o ellerof qdvicelo o fr¡endwho hosbee¡ toldlo go of o fllnessprogromme.

Comments Dearlo, It wa5lovely to hear from you yesterday.l'm rorryto hear ¡n your letter, thatQ you have to take up a fitners progiamme,@ | know how much you like food. Anywa¡ don't worry because l've been in the ¡ame i¡tuat¡on@ and I think I can help you in your "fi'tnes¡míssion". Eat@ complex carbohydrates and ffbrerich food,@ like whole grains, fresh fruit and vegetableio to boort your enerry levek.Why don't you take up walkingor swimmingand makethem a dailyroutine? They'reeasy,cheap and burn a lot ofcaloríes. It'r better to eat your m¿in meal earlierin the day and try not to eat within two hoursof going to bed. Listento your body, eat when you're hungry and rtop when you feel satirfied.@ How aboutjoining ¿ fitnessclass?| know you're busystudying but you could choosedaysto fi't in with your studyingprogramme.Sport increases mental alertnes¡ as well as physícal fftnesr. Sport also har prychologícal b6nefit5 ai ¡t makes you calmer and relaxed which meani ¡t will help you be more balanced and leen on studyíng. lf you succeed, ¡t gives you a ienie of personal achievement, self discipline and rerpect.@ When you've finishedoffthe f'tness programmeyou'll feel better and look healthier.@ You'll be really happy when you get r¡d of your exce¡¡ flab and all your tight clothe¡ become looser.@ Don't forget to write to me and tell me now you are doing. I wishyou all the bestand l'm looking forward to hearingfrom you. Yourr, PauI

O Poorstyleond wrongregisler of wordingof tille. t is formo @ Avoidrepefilion reglster. -) in the rameboat @ Register Thlssoundsikeo @ Where is theodvicephrose? commono. @ Reglsfer @


-+ you feel full @ Register @ Thissoundsikecrleclure.Why? lt is fu of formo .oo^d e g s - e^ o r d . o . r o o \ o r d o . h o - g h benefits, succeed, lromo book,e.g. psychological personal achievement. ond ls in @ Thlsis whol yourfriendwonlsto hecrr, friendy regisler good. . 1o so flab soundsimpersono @ GoodLBulexcess tholyourfriendls fotl Belterto soytie fl¿b confirms you thinkyou'vegot or the flabthat'¡worryingyou so mucn,

Generol commenls whichcontoln a Thisefieflncudesone of h,vosenlences supponeo oovrce. F]OWeVef:

o l o n g . e t o . o i r o p po p 6 ^ , u ^ d f o r r o reglslef. o The eiterconloinscr is1of unsuppoitedodvice. o Thereis nol enough personolslng. a



Write o letterlo crfriendwho hosmovedlo o new ofeo ond is feeino oney.

Commenls DearAnna, Howareyou?reelingbettert hope. Lostthat nasvflu?or ¡sit stillwearingoutyour nose? I thoughtt'd write b4,cl<O and try to youa that yourmovingwasn'tasbad convance asyou th¡nk.fry to think of all the th¡ngsthot are avaalablefor you now that aren't still her€O ¡n th¡sold, stngnanto town! For a.arnpleoyou ment¡oned in your lastleLter that your nor'tschoolhasLwofootballfelds.whilehere wedon'tsten havetwo ¡nches of feld to beproud ofl AndI hory you haven't forgotteno^our old classroom that would'vebeüerbeendescr¡bed as a can of sordines. All your ftiends heremissyou t@,O and sendthe¡r'Hellos'. Speciolly Tim-@I'm sure you'llfind fotsof rew ftiendsthere,at leastones thdt won't bon.ow oll your Wcket moneyo

fumyou. Anway, write soonand tell me how are do¡ng in yournewschool , and whichclub Wu youdecideto join. LoveFom ünda

sheis replying. Q Good. Personolising: @ R3 -+ makeyou real¡se @ R4 + you'vegot there,that we still haven'tgot here @ Good vocobuioryl regislef : fernove @ Inoppropriote perfectwith persono ising @ Good useof present lo Anno'slefiersoyingshe @ Excelenlwoy of referring missedeveryone ond coneciuseof tool ising. @ Glvingo nomeis o formo[ persono isingwilh humour @ Personcr

Generol commenls o Thisellerhoso good introduction whichincludes personolising. a Therecrresomeexcelenlexpfessions ond vocobulory 'l,en' ¡"1-. h nol e i- reod .en, 7. a lt conioinsplenlyol personcrlising. o Thereore noi monygfommoror regisfer misfokes. FroweveT: o Thereore no odvicephroses.

Fríendlylefters:odvice f

Gluestion 2 Answer B


Write o etlerto o friendwho hosmovedlo o new oreoond is feelinolonev.

Commenls OearSamar, tÍow are you, I'te been meanLngto wríte to you in your trew addressfor agesbut I'm a{raíd I just h^ven't got round ít, I re ly míss you so ''':vellÚD andl wassorry to hearthatyott'relery sadbecause yot moved to a new tea-Q That's why I thought l'¿ drop you a Líneto cheer you up@ ln my opíníon@ the best thíngto do when you míssyour old fríends ís to make new and.ínvíte friends, so why don't you make t ptq@ aLLtheboys and gírls ínyour area.of your z.g$. ,+nother good thing you cando ís to joín the nearest sports cLttbwhere youwíll meeQ peopLewíth the sameinterestsasyou. l( | wereyou, I would stop beíng sadbecauseyou canalways ame over and see nt@ and aIIyow aIL{riends some tíme.

missyou or I míssyourerymuch Q Confused t reaILy of wordingof is formol @ Avoidrepelition fegrster. @ Good phrose ) | thínk @ Register @ Confusedphrose. havea partyot throw a party there yoqr agewho Líves @ Rl ; everyone @ R6 --syou'ILmeet lsingshowsyou wontlo @ Good point persono even$oughyourfriendhos conlinuethefriendship, moved.

Generol comments a This lefief contoins some good ideos for odvice.


Ftowevef: o Thereis not much personolising. o Thereis no conclusion. o The introducfionis the firslthing fie exominerreods ond thisone giveso bod impression.


Write o le er lo o friendwho ls ooinofor on inlerview ond needsodvlce.

Commenls DearKni¡, lt waslovelyto hearfromyou.I'm so pleased youman1gedto getan interyiew at fhe Engineer¡ng College at the AUC. Well, you congratulat¡ons! lt mustbegreatbecause havebeenhuntingfor onefor solong.Anway I thoughtl'd dropyoua l¡neta calmyou down.O Don'tworry,I'vebeenin the same boot last yearo whenI wasopplying atg. ca¡ro Un¡versiv and I knowhowit feels.Allyou needs to calmdown.q) | thinkthat the bestthingyou cando ¡sto havea warmbathand go to sleep early@on the nightbeforethe big day. this will helpyouto relax.Whenyougo to the tnteNiew you're don'tpanic.Takeit easyand justassume hav¡nga smalllch¡tchato with oneof your 'father's fr¡endswhomyou'reseeingfor thef,rst t¡me.Allyou reallyhaveto do is talk in a friendly politewayand keepa smileon yourface.this will givea goodimpression. Duringthe ¡nteN¡ew,try to collect yourselfand ta orgoniseyourself.O Th¡swill helpyouto answerbelter. Trynotto rushor shout while answering.@ lt will showthat youare neNousand will g¡vethe ínteNiewer a misjudgement.gBythe way,try not to answer 'yes'or'no' o/¡ly.I was told so@whenI was¡n yourplacebut I don't knowwhy.I guessit's Írot polite.Onemorethtng,try to ga¡ncoÍtrol over(¡) yourhabitof yawning.I knowthat you don't feel it wfong,@ but theinterv¡ewer mtghtth¡nkthat . you'retelltnghimthat he'sbor¡ng. so iustcontrol :yoursel'ff or sometime.@ Eestwishes. Nittd

Q Nice thought personolising grommor:presenlperfectl've beencqnnol @ ncorrecl be usedwiih definilive timelastyear.+ | wasin the sameboat lastyear. + apply¡ngto @ Wrong preposition fromintoduclion @ Repetition @ -->havean early n¡ght/ go to bed early @ Good vocobuiory ore in lhe @ Repeotol yourself.collectond orgdn¡se wfong reglsler. @ R2 -+ whenyou answer @ Rl -+ the wrong idea @ Register) that's what I was told @ R3 -+ do somethingabout/stop @ - > you don't seean\/th¡ngwrong w¡th ¡t @ -+ for a while

Generol commenls a Thiseltefhoso good inlroduclion. o Mosl ideosore supported. FroweveT: o a a a o

Thereore loo flrofypiecesof odvice. Thereqre nol monyexomples of personolising. t conloinsloo muchformolregisler. Thereis no conlcusion. 'try'. Thestudenihosrepeoledlhe odvicephrose Other odvicephroses shouldhovebeenincluded.

Friendly lefÍers:odvíce I

Queslion 3 Answer B


Write o le er to o friendwho is ooinqfor on interview ond needsodvice

Commenls Dear MarLa, It wasLove[yto hear fromyor,I'm so pLeased y ou managedto let an íntervíew at The State coLLege, but t wí[[ be more pLeased íf you maftageto get x seatthere. lt wiLLmostLyd,ependon yotr interyiew, so please,do be carefuL. t know how well you speakQ tngLísh, and how weII yor put your thoughts ínto w ords, but íf you are nervous, thíngs can go wrong,@ So,try to reLaxat the ínteryiew, think of the intervíeweras someoneyou know and respect. Thís wíLI makeyou abLeto thínk better and wiLLgív eyou someconftdence. And@ at the sametíme ,l,on'toter reIax,lou míglt soundbored or oyerconftd.ent, 14)hatgtetQ) you do, don't rwh through. sLowdown and be steady, I know that'rush through' habít ofyours.@ tf you slow d,own,you would@ be ableto control what you say easíIyand not say anythingout of placeor wrong that wíII makeyou Lookbad. The bestthíngyou cando ís to answer briefly, and not to blabberabout unnecessary thíngs. Don't be too brie( either. Otherwi,sey ou wiLLLook hesítant ín eíther cases,@ You corl.da[waysadá a [ittle humour to what you say,or just smíLeíf you can't thínk of somethíng.@ tt'LLmake the íntervíewer [íkeyou. ,+nd by tlrc way, take care ofQ whatyouwear, it gLyesaft impressíonof who you are.Wríte sooftand teLLme ,rlJwthe ínteryíew went. Caood,luck,@ (ove, Antoftíeta

ising Q Persono withsuppod @ Good odviceslructure, here: @ Do notslof o senlefcewithand inoppropriole and joinslrvo posilivesentences. Hereyou need but, or..., though.-+ ,t t thesametíme,áon'tover-relax, thoughl


One word: wh¿tever




G2 -+ t(you sLowdown,you wíII


-) Lnboth cases


--i rnlthing used w lh neqo ve\ o'ld questio's


Wrong expression -->choosewhat you wear care(uLly /be carefuLwhat you wear


Be more pos¡tive.-) I'm sureyou'LLbeftne./ |m sure ít'llgo well.

Generol comments a a a o

Thislettefhoso good infoduction. ll conlolnsplenryof persono lslngofd suppod. Thereore somegood phroses. Thereis o broodrongeof vocobuory.


Write o lefieflo o friendwho needsodviceon how lo study. Commenls

DearAssem, l've been meanirg to wdte to you for ages,Q but l'm afraid ljust haven't got round to íL Anyway,I thought t would drop you a line@ to ansrver¡ome of tÍe questionron how to organise studyíng for an exam, now that you have mentioned them ¡n your prevíoui le(*er.C) In my opiníon,@ first@ when you rtudy you should try and find a quiet and well-l¡t room.@Then following that ít your abil¡ty to ret up a schedule@ includingyour dífferent subjects and de¡cion¡@ on how to allocate tl¡em@ duríng the coune of the week. The timetable should also ¡nclude certa¡n hour¡ of freedom@ to reduce your burdenr(l) after long hoursof study.You should alro try to concentratemore during your

for on odviceletter inhoduclion Q Inoppropriote osks @ Thisis o decisionmodeby thewrifer.lf someone you ore obligedlo onswer,you do you o question, nol decidelo. @ Poorslle -t I think @ Formolregistef @ lisllr¡1 @ Where is the suppod? @ R1 -+ makea tímetableífyou can @ Spelling-+ decisiont @ R3 + fit tl.remin (!) Rl, R3, R9 + try to giveyourselfsomefreetime,too

study hourt@ thur understanding the ínformaüon thoroughly. @ Another helpful advice(E ú to try and look over your examsor homework then find your místakerand try to correct tiem. Do not@ try and delay werythíng to the níght of@ the exam,since@ tlrat day ¡hould be usedfor quíck revisíonalong witJ.rmore refaxatíon. We can {:hus say that@ if you are able to@ studyweek before the exam,with carefull@ planníngtllen you feel lesrltres during the night of

-+ helpyou relax @ Register

tie exam.

-+ because register @ noppropriole

I hope thit giveryou rome ídeasabout how to organiseand plan your time. Keep in touch and I look forward to seeíngyou soon. Your¡. Adíl

@ RI -+ whileyouwork @ lnopproprioteregister-+ soyou completefyunderstand everythíng @ P ^ g i s e ' -. s eo r o d ' i . e p h - o s e . @ Ró:useshoriform-+ Don't @ -+ the nightbefore

regisler: soundslkeo science @ lnoppropriote expermenl. can regisler> if yor.r @ Inoppropriote @ Speling > careful

Generql comments conclusion. o Thisletterhoson crppropriote However: o Thereis loo muchodvicewith no pefsonolslfg. whlchindicoles a ll cofloinstoo muchformo regislef, registers. thewrlleris nol owofe of different ¡ Theletterdoesno1seemfluenl,bul orlilicio.

Friendlyletters:norrotive Narrative letters need to be written in friendly register. These are letters written to a friend to describe a seriesof events in the recent past. The narrative letter is similar in some ways to a telephone cal1,when you rush in and pick up the phone to tell your friend all about something which has just happened to you: 'hot news'! You phone becausewhat happened was exciting, or becauseyou think your friend will find it interesting. Before looking in detail at how to w¡ite a narrative, consider the üree types ofsituation that involve narrative writins in the exam.

Type I Situqtions Write a letter to a friend about something that could happen to you in everyday life, which may be exciting but which has no serious consequences (results). For example: r You get stuck in a lift. r You inüte your friends out for coffee, but when the bill comes you fild you have left your money at home ! r You lock yourself out ofyour flat/house. I You get caught in a thunderstorm. ¡ You meet a famous person in a restaurant. E You forget your ünes during the performance of the school play. ¡ A fire breaks out at your school. r There is a robbery at your local shop while you are there. Can you add to this list? As with all friendly letters in the exam, the story you write about does nlt need to be true, and you should use your imagination to make the narrative interesting. IIowever, there are two points to beware of:

Remember |





slory does noi so!nd believobleor convincing.

¡ Do not be over-dramatic when you write, or the story will not sou¡d conr.incing (in other words, the reader will not believe it). Ifyou are writing about a road accident, for example, do not describe blood and bodies all over the road! ¡ Do not make yourselfinto a hero. Do not refer to your photograph being in the newspaper, or you appearing on the television, receiving money, meeting or shaking hands with the mayor as a result of a heroic action!

Type 2 Situqtions Write a letter to a friend about something you have done that is daring, unusual or not what your friend would expect you to do. As with the Type I Situation examples,however, there are still no Serious consequences. For example: l You went sky-diving/parachute-jumping/for a hot air balloon ride. (Your friend knows you are scaredofheights.) ¡ You went scuba-diving. (Your friend knows about your fear ofwater.) ¡ You went horse riding. (Your friend knows about your fear ofhorses/ heights/speed.)

/NFORMAL 52 J PRODUCING WRITING r You took part in a school play or concert. (This rvasdifficult for you, becauseyou are embarrassedabout standing in fiont of an audienccf,ou are not very confident about playing the piano/violin, etc.) Can you add to this listl

Type 3 Situotions Write a letter to a fliend about your happiest or proudest moment. The most eflbctive kind ofletter u,ill be one about a simple, personal achievement. For example: t You won a scl.rolarshipto a well known school/college. (This was a surprise; you never dreamt you would it!) r You met a member of your famiLy for the fust time . (Perhaps they had been abroad.) I A teacher r'vho is alu,aystough on you said something cornplimentary about a piece ofyour work/gave you a good mark for a piece oflvork. I You lost enough weight to fit into your favourite clodres. ! You won a competition. (Perhaps a trip abroadi) Can you add to this listf As before, these situations should not feature you as a hero: : Do not write about the day 1'o¡ ¡...irr.¿ your IGCSE results and had all A*s. Many students choose this so it mlrst be very repetitive for the examiner to mark, and sounds as if you are shorving off- especiallyif your English is not A* standard! I Most IGCSE students are not married and have not yet been ro univcrsirr', so do r"rotwrite about your wcdding or graduation da,v!


Whot to includein o nqrrotiveletterl.l o oosrcpron To meet the exam requirements, your task is to understand and combine the features of both narrative writing and friendly letter writing. \Á4rcn writing a narrative letter, do not become so inr.olved in the development ofevcnts in other lvords telling the story - that you forget 1,s¡¡are supposed to be rvriting a letter. Narrative writing contains certain features and you should remember to do the following: r Write chronologically: in other words, r.vritea,bout the events in the same order they actuall),"O, including: - a defir'ritebeginning - a climax (the rnost dramatic or interesting monent in dre story) a definite conclusion. r Set üe scene,using wh questrons. I Include time sequencephrases. I Include colnectors. ¡ Include feelings and horv thcy ch¿¡gc during the narrative.

Friendlvlefters:norrative 1 53 Friendly letter writing invoh'es áppl),rng the techniques discussedin Section 2 Unit l. In other words- vou should remember to: : r I r

create tnterest persor.ralise Slrpport rvoid listir-rg.

This is more dilicult to do in a narrative than ir a descriptive letter. Now let's see how these features are included in a basic plan for the introduction, body and conclusion of a narrative lcnc¡.

lntroduction The most important thing about the introduction is to keep it short. Firstly, it is not easyto write a properly constructed narrative in 100-150 lvords (Core) or 150-200 words (Extended). A short introduction allor'vsyou more words to tell the story. Secondly, you are keen to tell your friend all about the incident becauseyou think he will flnd it interesting or exciting, so you will not \vant to waste tirne on a long introdlrction. Obviously, you will contact ),our friend as soon as you can after dre incident happened so make sure you are not writing about something that happened three weeks or two )¡earsagol Tl.remain purpose ofthe i¡troduction is to createintcrest in the story you are going to relate. Suitable introduction pfuasesfor the narratil.e letter include:

I can't wúit ta tell yau t'm dying to fell yau w6it until you hear

(tame)... happened aboutlwhatlwhüt wholhow...

Youwon't bP-lieve You'llneverbelie,ve You'llneverguess

(tome)... whathúppened wholhaw...

Don't forget to saywhenthe incident happened: ... this morning ... Lhisafternoon ...just now ... a few m¡nutesf mamentsaga

Body of the letter Sel lhe scene Begin this part of the letter by describing rvhat uas happening before and leading up to the main event. A good way to do this is by anslvering some of the following wh questions. r ¡ r I r

\44ro were ),ou r'vithf What were you doingf \\4-rerervere youl l\4-ren were you therel Whv were you therel

'NFOR/I,IA¿ WRMNG 54 ¡ PRODUC'NG ... I waswalk¡nghomefromschoolw¡thSaraon.Tu,csday |ook¡nq tn the cit:J centre mother and ¡ had been My for a birthdaypresentfor Dad.-. The scenc you dcsicrit¡cshould t¡c noutine and ud;wy- This xiinl Xxonide a ontr¿st witl¡ the nrain er"urt ad make úe stor¡'more iimercming¡ For oraryile:

Remember You con creoie iniefesl through conhost.

... I whctwehadfor hamawork ... Wewerechatttngabovt F whatweweregoingto da at theweekend the P}rty".. I to theradio.we werelisteninq I w6swüitingfar thebus.., I waslookingoutof mywindow... Include fime sequence phroses As you developthe story"rr¡oto intr,oducca sclcctkmotr'timcscrlocnac phrasesto givc chronology(in othcnnrords,to dcscnlt¡cer"entsin üc ondct indludingthe ftillowing! they happened).Therearernanyof,'thcscphrase$" t'dlHe'dlwe'd(onfy)just + pastt€nsc,when... whenthe fi,realarmwentoff. we'd onlyiust sstdownat our desks, tlhelwe+ px tense... . 1-hemomentkninute .rheminuteI walkedíntathe roam,I noticedsamethíng stqanEe. llHelwewaslwerejust6bautto . "., when+ pa$rtcnsc. . " we wereiustabautto catchthebus,whentherewasa deafeninqno¡se. Justasllhelwewaslwereabautto ..., Justaswe wereaboatto catth the bus,therewasa deafeningnoise. condnuous. . . Asllshelwe+ pasttense/past AsI openedthe door,t heorda scream. Ashewdsrunningaway,weúlled the police. Before+ activevertr (not the ingform of the verb"which is forrnal) I had my kEs. BeforeI shutthe door,I checked likeages... Afterwhst seemed likeages,the lift doorapened. Afterwhat seemed tn themorning | Tfternoon Ianening Allafternoon ln¡ght Bythistime ln tneend Forthe firsttimein my l¡fe tt onlytooka moment About... hourslater within no tiffie Avoid usingcommonphraseslike firsiy, then,atrerthot"na<t- thesesoundlike a mechanical sequencerather than a real life experience!

FniadfulHtug:n@irdi¡rca ltlt hchdatcilctqt lthe r¡m o$cr¡rumors ¡¡ucl¡m cnd"b¡ft"$rfullamdcihllctddh üinksSont merclrr¿eq t@g@d'aúdhd$s dle stony,tofllo¡r,.

m*¡dr&efqs ,tmnher'ftao¡ueof'nnntaqiqe wrritingl* to furil¡e yo¡ur'ffigs at erehsmge of'dheeveet The{eco¡ulldlbem many'm cfue di&{,¿fft gaem"enchmnked by, diiftrcntftelliings, r udhxed,mt er4recta:ng anry.tll'lurg to hoppm r excilted"fugfltened"amazeA(@ending on what y ür¡t@y'r¡i abomt) r rdi¡e{d (\yt¡endheloodbr¡t rsaülover)¡ Thri$risa very $imph an<{fuive

I was We were

disappointed horrifed sur0rtsed to delighted amazed

lntludc p.r¡onqn¡¡hg

xay to rÍeeur[be MngB: lea.rn reolise "-'-. thctt... ltn6 d$cover hect

qnd ¡üpport phrcrol

Pcrsonirlising in ¡¡anmtive lettemr[snot easy,-hoiw'canyou ffnd awW to rtncident your &iendin an furdtude that happenedrrhearhe \yas&ot tha{a}YoiJ needto exprcssyour ftiend"sknow{edgeo,fyour'ehatae'ter, rvtratyou wo¡¡trd do" lrorxyou wotrld rcactrincertainsituaEions andwhat your'viewsareon eemainto¡lic's.I{ere arcso¡neera¡nlüeel Youknowhowfrightened I om of I (ycrbh ünq)be¡ngalone Jf (rx)tln)heiqhts I don'tneedto telfyouhowexc¡ted I was... Asyoucan¡magine, t wasterrifed. Asyouknow,I can'tst6ndheights. Youknowme- | alwayspanicin emergencies. Anotherwayto personalise is to invohe your ftiend in the eventbr,rcfentng to his eharacteristics" abilitiesolikesanddislikes,This will be especial$efteve ifthey arein contrastto yours,asit will cre¡tc interest.Look at thes€ e-xam¡rlesl I wishyou'dbeenthere. lf onlyyou'dbeenthere. W&ydo tr'ourüsh your ftiend had tleentherel Tliis requiressupport. Youwouldhave ) knownwhatto do. I kepta coolhead. Ifit nas a good experience, something you rvere pleasedwith or proud of, for example, ar.rdr'vould have ükecl to share lvith your fiiend, you car-rr'vrite:

It'sa sh6me I (r tt'sa p¡ry )| parrrense)you weren'lthere. Wry is it a pi tyl This requiressupport.

/NFORMAL WRITING 56 1 PRODUCING It on the other hánd, it was a bad or unpleasant experience and y6¡1 ¿t. glad your friend did not share it with you, you can u,rite: I It's 6 good thing | {+ px\r rcnsc, you weren'LLhere. ) tt's 6 qood job Ren-ren-rber to add your support. Another r.vayto personaliseis to try to put your friend in the s¿mesituation: I wonder whatyou would have done? * Longuoge Poinl ony, ond implythesecondholf. tr Nolicehow we con usethefirslholfof th;sstruclure a I wonderwhat you would havedone- if you hod beenthere,bú you werenol lhere. seelhe Grommorunil, o Forthe useof the thirdconditionoin thlsslfuclufe, poges 189-91 .

Concluding o norrot¡Ye letter As with dre introduction, the conclusion will need to be very brief; firstl,v becauseofthe number oflvords needed to tell the story, and secondly becauseyou are in a hurry to te11everyone else about what happened!

well,I mustdashnaw- I'vegol to tellsam6ll aboutit! well,I mustgo now- | wanttocallSarahand teltherthenews! (tookíng maments I canever aneof thehappiest back)| thinkit wosprabably {emember!

X Applyingthe plonto o TypeI Situotion We r'vill now apply the basic plan to the first set of situations, rvhich involve rwiting about something that could happen to you in everydaylife which has no serious consequences. Our example sitlration is seeing someone famous in a restaurant.

Introduction You'll neverguesswho I sawwhen I w¿sat Mario'swith Fumiko a few minutesago.

Refnember Personolising phroses (under ined)lncludedhere ^¡¡ r^ lh. 1.. i"^ ^f ^ os we reoxedolmosphere, good os being friendy letter slye

Body Sel lhe scene We were síttingat our favourite table near the window; looking forwardto ¿ relaxing meal and trvine to decide what to order.You know how diffitult that ir when is ro delicious! ,. everytJ.ríng

Fríendlv/effers:norofive X 57

Introduce o selection of time sequence phroses, conneclors ond feelings Look at this exanr¡rleof horv these fc¿turcs could be joined together.

Remember Thereore monydiffereni woysol wrilingthisstory Do no¡leornihisstoryof thlnkof reproduclng il in lheexom. YoLrf storymuslbe origino

We were just about totf) call the waíter,whenQ suddenly() we were disturbedby the noiseof a largegroup of people coming into the restaurant-| tríed to seewhat the fus¡wasabout, buü€) it war imporrible because off) the cameraflashes.

x3 Q Timesequence

It wain't untíl rome time later,@ when@ | went to w¿th my hands,that I tot a clearview and@ wasa¡nazed to see@ the Presídenthimself!

x 2 @ Timesequence @ Conneclor @ F e ei n g s

I don't need to tell you@ how excited@ | war. I st¿redin surprise@ for what ¡eemed líke ager.@ | decided to get hir autographbefore@ he lefl and@ went to get lome paper from Fumiko.@

@ @ @ @ @ @

Jurt as I was about to@ approachthe Presidenl the whole grotrp got up and leftjust asnoüily as when@ they had arrived.I was disappoínted to realise@ | h¿d mÍssedthe chanceof a lifetime!

x 2 @ Conneclor

P--r:ono isin¡1 x 2 Feelings x2 Tlmesequence Connector Pcrsonc isirg Timesequence x 2

@ Feelings

Conclusion Don't you wirh you'd beenthere?Must dashto seeif there'sanythingabout it on the local news.

Exercise I

Wrile youf own eller oboul seeingsomeonefomousin o fesioufonl.

Exercise 2

- on ollempedrobberyoi your ocol Wrile o leiteroboulonotherType I Situclion beow ond lhenconli¡ueby sellingihe scene,usingo shop.Usethe lntroduclion phro:es,conneclors ond feeings,ond oddingon seJecl on of tirnesequence oppropriole conclusion. Youwon't believewhat happenedwhenI went downto the villageshopyerterday evening.

onswefon goge 24ó. Comporewhcrlyou hovewriitenwitho suggesled


Wriie o le er oboulgettlngstuckln o lift.Write c¡ lnfoduclion,se1lhe sceneond crndfeeingsond wrile lhenuseo seectlonof limesequercephrcrses, conneclors o n o p p r o p f ¡ o ct eo n cu s ¡ o ¡ . Compcrewhotyou hovewriife¡wifho suggesled onswefon poge24(t.



Applyingthe plonto o Type2 Situotion We will now apply the basic plan to the second set of situations, which involve writing about something you have done that is daring, unusual or not what your friend would expect you to do. As our example, we will use doing a parachute junlp.

Introduction You'llneverbelievewhaltI'vejueL ¿one!

Body Sel the scene I waa havin1my cofl'eethío mornin7anA reaA¡nqthe local paper, whenI not¡ce4an aAver\¡eemenl:for a free parachul;ejump, 9o I decidedto 4o alon7,

Exercise 4

Continuelhe norrolive, usingo seeciiono[ iimesequence phroses, conneclors ond feeingsond endingwith on oppropriote concusion.Thencomporewhol you hove wrillenwilh o suggested onsweron page247.

I Applyingthe plonto o Type3 Situotion Finally,we can applythe basicplan to the third set of situations,which involr.ewriting about your happiestor proudestmoment. Do not t:egSnyo:urstory by classifiring it: , I am writingto tellyouaboutmy proudestlhapp¡est moment. Put this in the ending instead,asifyou areloohing backover r.vhathappened and summarisingit: / (Look¡ng back)I think¡t wdsprobablyoneof theproudestlhappiest moments I caneverremember! The following plan is basedon a t)?ical Tlpe 3 Situation- a lottery win.

lntroducfion I can'twait to tellyoumy news!

Body Sel lhe scene I wasl¡sten¡ng to the resultrof the lotteryon the'fy whenI realised t'd won!

Friendly letters:norrotive á 59 Introduce q selection of time sequence phroses, conneclors ond feelings I can't tellyou how et<citedoI wds!Themomentot I heardthenews,I dashed to my bedroom to look whereI'd for thet¡cket buto I couldn'tremember put it. Youknow@whata scaüerbra¡n I am!

g Feelings @ Timesequence @ Connector ising @ Persono

I wasjust about to@ startsearchingmy room wheno thedoorburstopenand@Mumcamein withsometrousers she'dbeen¡ron¡ng. It onlytook a fiomenta'for meto look6tthe trousersand@ remember I'd beenwearingthemwhen9 | bought thet¡cket.

x 2 @ Timesequence @ Connector @ Timesequence @ Conneclor @ Timesequence

I washorrifredto reolise@they had been wTshedlBy this timelÍDmy heartwasrac¡ng becouse@ | feltsurethet¡cketwouldbe ruined.

@ Feeings @ Timesequence @ Conneclor

ln the end@¡t turnedout that Mumhadchecked and@ the pockets beÍore@washingthe trousers had put the ticket¡n a safeplace.I havenever Íelt so relieved@in my l¡fel

x 2 @ Timesequence @ Conneclor @ F e ei n g s

Conclusion rhe pnzemoneywasn'tverymuch- but at least¡t shouldp6yÍorsomednving theh1ppiest dayof my l¡fe lessons ... and maybea smallcar?Th¡swascertatnly - sofar!

ñ Exam-style qaestíans Qu¡estion I

whenyou fel down somestepscrndh,visled your Youwereenioyingo wo k by yourself qnkle.You hod 1owoil severohoursfor helpto orrlve.Wrife crlefterlo o friend e p l on i g n r o ' t o p p e r e d .t S e ep o g " 2 2 7 o o p o r [ o r L q u - t o 1 . ]

Quesfion 2

y, you Decome Recenfly you wenl on crschoolrip lo o loco museumUnfortunote f om thegroupond got osl.Wrile cl lefierto o frienddescribing whot seporoled noppeneo.

Quesfion 3

W i t eo é ' l - t o o I i - d o b o . -,ro r - o


'o rorá'-



narrafivelefter Student's Read the following narrative letter written by an IGCSE student in response to an exam cluestion and the comments related to it. * Note Thisls on ofigino le er wfiitenby on GCSEsludenlond nroysli conloinminor unilon co umn,the lefierR refers10o poinlin the Regisler mislqkes.n lhe commenls p o g e sl 8 2 5 . Theonow {+) pointsto whotthelextln úe efiershoud be chongedb or replocedwilh

Q¡.¡cstion I

Wrlte o lefter10o frlendteling her/himoboutthe hoppleslmomenlin your ife

Comments Dear Lee, l'm rorry | haven't written for ro long but been bury studyíngand haven't had the time.l¡) l've It war lovely to get your letter lart week ¿nd congratulatíonron passingyour exams.I thought I would drop you a line@ to tell you that this weekend I had the happiest moment ¡n my life.@ Two weeks agd) | heardtJ.rata large marathonwasgoing to be held all round the city. One of my friends,George,@suggestedthat I could try and run the m¿rathonwhichwould help me to loseweight. I thought about the idea and decídedto acceptthe challenge.

inlroduction Q Inoppropriote @ Good useof friendlyregister @ Do notc ossifyin the inlroduciion. phose @ Correctuseof limesequence @ Useof nomelo petsonolise usedcorrecly conneclor @ Friendyregisler phroseond oppropfiole @ Good useof limesequence IenSe

of feelings @ Good descrlplion good @ Personcrlising

5o@ ljoined tlre raceand althoughI didn't win, | finishedit before a lot of other¡. The moment I crossed @ the fini¡h line, I felt that I had overcome my fear@ of not finishingthe marathon,Jínceas you know,@ | wasoverweight.

@ R3 -+ at

Many of my fríendr were attendíng@ the raceand were sutprisédO that I managedto run 'continuously without stoppingthroughout the entire iacé.That day war probablythe happiert and proudertmoment in my life,

of forolive wfiiing. a Thlseltercontoinsmonyfeotufes jns of a ll conlo monyof thefeotures friendy writing, i n cu d i n gp e r s o n o l i s ionngd s u p p o r l . or grommormislokes. a Thereore nol mofy registef

Now you know all about the mott exciting goalwhich I set myselfand managedto do succesfully,Take good care ofyourelf. l'm lookíng forwardto seeingyou soon. Love, )o

of feeings- good @ More description

Generol commenls

f lowever: o l wouldlosemorksdye 1othe ong ond inoppropriole intfoduclion.



Stu,dent's narrativelefter Reaclthe follorving narrative letter r,vritten by an IGCSE student in response to an exam question and the comments related to it. * Note Thisls crnorigino ellefwrilienby on IGCSEsludenlond mcrysliI conloinminor mlslokes.n lhe commenls co umn,lhe lefierR referslo o poiniin the Regisler uniion p o g e sl B 2 - 5 . Theqrfow (-+Jpoinfsfo whotthetexlin the efiershouldbe chongedio or replocedwith.

Queslion I

Wrile o ellerto o friendte ling her/himoboutthe hoppiestmomentin yourlife.

Comments Dear Lee, I'm rorry | haven't written for ro long br.rt l've been bury studyingand haven't had the time.(D It war lovely to getyour letter la¡t week and congratul¿tíonron passingyour exams.I thought I would drop you a lineo to tell you that tiris weekend I had the happiest moment in my life.@ Two week¡ ago@ f heard that a large marathonwar goíng to be held all round the city. One of my friendr, George,@suggestedthat I could try and run the marathonwhich would help me to loseweight. I thought about the idea and decided to acceptthe challenge.


noppropriote inlroduclion

@ Good useof friendlyregister @ Do notclossifyin the lniroductio¡. phose @ Correcluseof ijmesequence @ Useof nomelo personolise regislefconnector usedconecily @ Friendly O Cood . .6 o r'-reseo é a ph-oseoro opp.op o a tense of feeings @ Good descriplion @ Personolisinggood

5o@ ljoined the raceand althoughI didn't win, | finishedit before ¿ lot of others.The moment I crossed €, the fnih line, I felt tüat I had overcome my fear@ of not llnilhíng the mar¿thon,sincea5 you know,@ | w¿r overweight.

of feelngs- good @ More descriplion

Many of my friendswere attend¡ng(E the raceand were surprír€d(¡f that I managedto run continuourly without stoppingthroughout the entire iace. That day wasprobablythe happíert and proudert moment in my life.

a Thislefiefcofloinsmonyfecrlures of noffolivewriting. a lt conloinsmonyof thefeotures of friendlywriling, i n c l u d i npge r s o nios l n gc n d s u p p o r l . o Thereore nol monyregislefor grommormislokes.

Now you know all abor.rtthe most exciUng goal which I ret myselfand managedto do successfully, Takegood care ofyourelf. l'm looking forward to reeingyou soon.

o t wouldlosemorksdue1oihe ong ond inoppropriole nlroduclion.

LOVe/ )o

@ R 3- + a t

Generol comments


Friendlyletters: descriptive l-"yl t4 t .. no rroltve


narrative' letters need to be rvritten in friendly register. These are letters written to a friend, relative or penfriend about an occasion or event. As the name suggests,descriptive narratir.esare a combination of descriptive and narrative writing. The occasionsyou may be asked to write about can include: I r r r r

a celebration a school show a sports day a festival or carnival a hoJiday.

As with other friendly letters, the main points to keep in mind are: I I a r


create lnterest personalise for the reader support each idea do not list.

Bqsicoutline Introduction The reason for writing a descriptive narrative is to passon information about a particular occasion. Although the occasion may be ofinterest to the reader, it is certainly not as exciting as the 'hot news'in a narrati\.e letter. As there is no senseofurgency, a descriptir.enarrative can have a standard introduction. Be particularly carefirl to look for hidden implications in descriptive narrative questions. Ifyou are asked to write a letter to your friend about sports day at your school, for example, the reader (the examiner) may expect to know why your friend was not at the sports day herself, and you should give a reason for this. On the otier hand, ifyou are asked to write a letter to your penfriend about sports day at your school, the reader would not expect your penfriend to be at the event, as penfriends live abroad. Look at the following examples. r To a friend who missed sports day you could write: DearAdam,

It'sa shame youmissed sporbdaylastweek,but t hopeyau're feelÂĄngbefter. In other words, he missed sports day becausehe was ill. I To a relative who missed a family party you could write:

Whata pityyoucouldn'tcometo thepafty- but I'm gladyoĂźenioyed yaur school trip to ... In other words, your relative was on a school trip at the time of the party.

62 I

PRODUCING /NFORMA¿WR/I/NG r The san-reapplies when writilg to a friend who missed a school trip. \Á/hy did he miss itl School trips are usually ftin. Think ofa suitable reason for your friend to miss üis trip. Having a cold, fbr example, would not stop him from going, whereas a broken leg may be a more appropriate excuse. The transition sentence can be short and straight to the point:

. I thoughtyoumightliketo knowwhatyou missed you knowhowit went. I thoughtI'd tet about... I thoughfyoumightliketo knowsomethir1g about... to knowsomething t thouqhtyoumightbeinterested

Body of the letter The starting point for the body of this kind ofletter is to consider the essential features which go together to make the occasion and without which there rvould be no occasion. These will usually include the following: ¡ People The most important requirement for an event is people;it is simply impossible to have a party or hold a festival without people! r Atmosphere People usually find an event more attractive if there is food, drink, music and so on, and this is often what createsthe atmosphere. ¡ Weather This can also be an important factor, especiallyfor an outdoor event, and it can add to the atmosphere. ¡ Individual incidents There will be a number of sma1l,unrelated incidents which seem unimportant, but which probably add to the atmosphere and so help you to remember the occasion later. The i¡clusion of these small i¡cidents help to make this letter dillbrent from a narrative letter. At the same time, you need to remember to apply the features of friendly letter writing. In other rvords, you should: ! r I I

create intcrcst personalise support rrvoidlisting. * Nole 'hot news',becouseil hoppenedsome As menlioned eorlier,theoccosionilsef is not thot limeogo - you ore goingovef il in yourmemory,tryinglo seleclinformolion wou d inieresl yourfriend.Noie thotthe fesultof lhisseeciionprocessis lhollhe you recollwl I nol comein theordertheyhoppened.Timesequence incidenls phroses ore nol cenlroin lhisIypeof lefier.Anotherreosonwhy thereis no needlo referio limels thoinothingmoioroctuollyhoppenedol úe evenl. Theseore ¡¡¡o of lhe foctorswhich mokethistvpe of letterdifferenlfromo norrotive letter.

Conclusion of o descriptive norrotive letter The conclusion fbr a descriptive narrative letter should be quite short; probably only two or three lines long, and, ifpossible, should return to the point which began the letter. Now you know whatyou missedl

. Hopeyou'll befeelingbetterfor |o'sparLythisweekend

Friendly letters:descriptivenorrafive á 63 Let's now apply the features oudined abovc to four differcnt exam-sq'ls descriptive narrative questions.

II Puttingit oll togetherI Wrile lo crrelolivewho missedo fomilyce ebroiion,telinq her/himo I oboutit

People In order to avoid listing, select only one or two of the guests.Write about them in such a way as to create interest by giving details about their clothes, their behaviour, their personality or character. Remember to support every statement. Very often in this qpe of letter, the person 1'ou describe is known both to you and the person you are writing to. In other words, you have common knowledge of the person's characteristics,habits and so on. This provides an excellent opportunity for personalising. Look at an example:

I wascaughtby UncleKen,whastdrtedgivingmetheusualadviceabout whafI shouldstudyat ún¡versiLy, andthenspenthalfan hourtellingmethe sameoldstories we'veheardsomanyt¡mesabouthisstudentdays! (Note üe ¡rersonalisingphrases.) Compare the example above with the follorving sentencewritten by a student: , UncleJimwasthereand sowereGrandmaand Grandad , Auntysusan , N¡n6and the tw¡ns.

Remember The people you describe do nol hove lo be reol peop e, bul con be lrom yolr ¡moglnoiion.

The student's sentence is a boring list with no interesting details, no support and no personalising. To the exan-riner,this suggeststhat the student cannot construct a good sentence and knows only basic vocabulary. It is always n-ruchmore difficult than it seemsto 'invent' charactersin ¡n exam, and so it is a very good idea to practise when you are not under pressure. Here are some ideas to start you thinking.

Clorhing Someone who wears: clothes that are too tight, so the person bulges out of them cloües that are loose and shapelcss- perhaps creased/not ironed trousers that are too short sleevesthat are too long very brighdy coloured clothes bright yellory'shocking pinl</brilJiant orange (sorneone who wants to be noticed!) n colours that do not go together an orange shin with a red tie, brown shoeswith blue trousers) one green and one brorvn sock (someone who has no senseofcolour co-ordination when it comes to clothes) ¡ r N I x

\\4rat do these features ofclothing tell us about the character ofthe person who lvears theml



r has a booming (very loud) voice which can be heard anywhere in the room (Friends and relatives tly to avoid having personal or private conversations with such a person for this reason!) r dlinl(s he is amusing and is alwa,vstelling jokes, although no one else finds them funn-r' r falls asleepin a chair on all family occasions(Does he snorel) ¡ is knorvn to be clumsy perhaps needs glassesbut is too vain to wear them (Your mother puts her glassand china ornaments in a cupboard vüen this p e r s o nc o m e st o r i s i t .) r is a bore rüo is alwal.sgiving you good 'advice' based on her own experience (This gives her a chalce to talk about herself for hours, usually repeating stories which you have heard man)¡ times beficre.) r likes to give the impression he is still a teenager - even if he is 55 I has a particular hobby (fishingf car enginesl butterfliesf cake makingf ) and can talk about notiing else r is always talking about people who have recentll, died r is permanentlJ¡on a diet(!), but who helps herself to multiple slicesof tl-re chocolate cakel

Exercise I

Tr"vto odd vourown seisof chorocterislics ond mokesenlences wiih them.

Exercise 2

Moke onolherlisloboutyourfriendsDo theyhoveony hobitswhichinltoteyou? Do nol forqelchildren I

Afmosphere The best way to w.rite about atmosphere is to consider the senses: I t t I

what what what what

you you yo¿ yo¿

hear (usually music) taste (usually food) smell (coolcing, flowers) see (entertainment, dancing).

There is no point in mentioning these factors unlessyou can support what )¡ou write in some r'vay.Look at some possible ways you could write support about the music at a family celebration: Itwas really out of the ark (.=old-fashioned).(So what did the young people dof )

Remember q ^^^


t ^^.L



tt wasdeafen¡ng! Someone hadbroughta karaoke machine, but luckilylsadly nooneknewhow to useit. (= old people)begansingingoldsongstogether. someof the'wr¡nkl¡es' It wdsthebestpartof theeven¡ng! we d1nceC till wedropped.

Friendly letters:descriptivenorrotive |


when Alexarríved,he had broúghthis cDsalongand volunteered to be the DJ.Thenthe parLyreallylivenedup! uncle Mtke'sselection of ynL¡sic is,asyou know, out of the ark, so we allwent into the otherroomqnd playedour own cDs, Exercise3

Try1othifkof somemofeexomp esof yourown. Look at some possible wavs you could write support about the food at a fálnily celebration:

It wasmuchtoosp¡cyfor my liking. It wascold- and I wasstaNing(- veryhungry)! Itwas my favount€l (or ye¡¡¡ lij¿¡d's favouriteif 1.ourvant to makcher jealous! Sayr'vhatit was- pizza/chips/chocolatecake/somethinghome-made.) Therewas not enoughfood for everyone.(So r,vhathappenedl) Nobodyate anüthing.(Whv notf) AunbJLenahad m6dean enormausversionof her delicious chocolate cake, and w¡th everysl¡ceI ate, I thought how much you would h6veenjoyedit! Therewas loadsaf mouth-w7tering spentthe food.Crandmah6d obviously whole day in the kitchent Auntysusanwas hüppilytuckingintotke chocolltecake,sl¡ceby slice, to be on! forgeft¡ngaboutthe diet she'ssupposed

lndividuql incidents Remember

Select one or tw.o incidents to write about) for example:

Theseore mi¡o¡ incidents, 'scenes' smoI of no consequence.

¡ I ¡ r r

Someone spilt coffee on the white carpet. Someone tripped over u.hile dancing. A ñlse bleli'and caused a temporary po\\,er clrt. A precious vasewas knocked offthe shelf. A child pulled the tablecloth - and everything that was on it - offthe table.

These are incidents u.hich do not change the course ofthe evening. They do not become more important than the party itself. They mal, involYe one or tlvo time sequencephrases (underlilred below).

I wasjustabaulta seNemyself a secand helpingof Eateau, when! accidentally knocked overa cupof coffee. lt anlytaaka mqynentfor meto see that it hadsplashed 6ll dawnthebackaÍ)ulía'swh¡tedress! Note that it is not important to attachtheseminor eventsto a specifictime. If ¡,6¡ -... involvedin an incident, take the opportunity to personalisc. Youknowhow clumsyI am when I get nervous,well ... I was justgelting mysefü spoanwhen,clumsyas ever,I ... I thought I'd mTnagedto get throughthe eveningwithoutcaus¡nga scene, but...


s FWAñN@ tlt'tF@MÉdLWNIIItlttG' howcarefulI am ... Youk¡now downand saw... it whent looked I couldn'tbelieve


h d¡coriltrc



üilüñrohila|s llaters pos* dtresume¡xddlans,m fior Pcrsonalisingúndeatripite marri:wixle Duffiatiqelhtuis. Iiaorur exuufltn,uyour fiibnüru,m nolt wtdh \(errlÉ dh¿6{¡d¡ft, lhoq'cu¡ Xou rndt¡ehii¡¡r$sdliiñdlü¿l¡dP,fuui¡\ 5¡otüs'iitÍ tfidgdto rure¡dhr.m*

sü tf you'dbeenthereyou'dhave. .. burstoutlaughingt twish Il ., il youa seen facr.when... I only lJ [f tneiooton crandma's Youshouldhaveseen t '.:',:1t!:*" it. youcouldn't(p¡*ttrdn¡e) makethe patly.You'dhaveenioyed t t s a p t L y )u lpdst ftdfa¿

the party.You'dhavebeenbored It'sa qood thinq ..^.. ) missed - you job to tears. tt's aiood ¡l couldn't make Y,nücun dko iirdh¡& sol¡r¿{dfdherldher pcrsonalisinggdhrwe lli*tod torr

qrqs2G2É.Fordururr1ile, ... asyov Know. . . . a su s u a l !

fsilrpdfr* Tlh.fiidllinñrirgBruryr{dh,r¡m¡tOorrhya*¡¡üarftiihnqpd¡Betodhe,qu*aionron pqt63,tti$ttlglttsrmur¡ydfdhe ¡prddl¿neiwrdrii*tsürr¡$ilhwttttitgdeotipi'rtt rruu¡utirelffiqg. ¡r U4dll,¡lqflit{ddtüle@@,r{irif¿hwnsithtny4,tu¡Égllwe,6Íts{en@dkrdk.4dt ,(ep4'ks{€r"¿ndkljlf @frt(d.,9f !üh 4frf ie{6¡ ül€@ @riíú.'fMf VÑ ift,(aftrlWlld qafu owrtwmqlsu¡ttlikdffi-,}tM wtdfÉll @ndle@Í. S're gDüoll('pMl. Ikwü6,a nr@ltttv¡wrhfrd q¡úMlo WWt. Wnftn\ryffi¡lhtry4l}uttr$hooe:lllhtpotsotrlyo¡rmerwrrtü¡Sftoru¡mii¡¡vtteüftodlÉ pu$j¡lü¡risdÉ,sollr¿ll¡¡ro'r+srnlher¿iltttotiktdlu¡c.Ronarrlb¿rdhwtyor¡rrure rrdluii're¡,no ryo¡r aürft iiblpialbddfylliit aum, noo. TIlh¡rcii¡ ruoru¡td fto rr¡rikenlj¿. Tlhi¡$Ikdtt dhiü. <¿diülüt rr,sutlttt¡n: / \ wfi@ ú.tuttftt*wdl* ww.... 4rt9s{@?raid[r¿k:Tlineii¡rn¡rt<¡¡nrdlt¡ordé¡¿tiFi're¡nunuiirellufters.lkbr*rto iir4purtturr<e.lflyrorrlrn¿miiorr süñ¿,tdheniks¡*gag ifo¡muEtlbeiil¡lp¿nftu¡&,iih So, iindüb rulliidhcu¡¿$orrnu¡gt supportydürs¡¡ltgnie hysbdü¡g rülrry. gtderirh, dklp üsdlf: ii¡ *ue¡roitdto¡&run urn¡n¡dl ttine to,uÍlile a*tdheBldfE¿ II¡ ikeuill¡,,orlkr fibrdfepurt¡y, und ilfgo rll¡lrü(¡3rElydüeu{ly<oirllusdf

Friendlyleuers:descriptivenanative |


If there was a specific reason to mention the tin-re,the time fáctor should be introduced in a general, casualrva,vand this sentencecould be rewritten: / | got to AuntMary'saboutan hour beforethe p6rLystarfed,to helpher lay the table. On the other hand, if seven o'clock is the normal time to arrive at the party, and ifthere was no reason for being ear\, or late, then you should not refer to the time . At five past sevenlJncleJim arr¡ved:another 'dead' sentence.Is it important to l<now whenUncle lim arrivedl Wú1,are you mentionir.rg this specific time in your letterf If time is refi:rred to at all, it should be in a general rvay, widr slrpport: / UncleJim got there soonafter me and we setup the stereosystemas a surprise. Why is specific time mentioned in the two lbllolving sentences? At ten past seventhe food arr¡ved:(Note: food does not usually 'arrive'. ) Is ten past seven very early, or very late to sen¡ethe foodl If not, do not refer to the time. It is not relevant or important. At half p6st sevenI sp¡lledcoffeeoverMary'swhite dress:Is the reference to specific time necessarlror important in this sentence?Surely what happened is more important. Could you reaLlyspill the coffce and notice that at that moment it just happened to be seven thirtyf Shefainted 6nd fell on the floor. Shehit her head and had to go to hospitol:This is not a mino¡ incident. It lr¿J have a consequence.It d.oesdevelop and become more in-rportant than tlle pafi,v. Therefore, it is not suitable for a descriptive narrative letter and shoulcl not be included. It was a n¡cepaÉy: This is a 'dead' sentence. It provides no information

* [onguoge Point Avoid the word nlce; it hos no reo meoning.Replocell with somethlngike norvellous or wondeful.

Exercise 4

(suppon). Most parties are nice. Ifthe party was reall¡' good, or not good, for some reason) then say what the reason was. Otherwise, do not classifyit at all. Take care to be logical; ifyour friend rvent to hospital as a result of it, holv could you say it was a great partyf

Usingol the informolion givenobove,wfileo elleflo o reolivewho missed o fomiy celebrotion, tellinoher/himol oboulil.

X Puttingit oll togelher2 \^/fileo etlefto o lriendoboulo sporlsdoy thofwos hbldrecently ot yourschool. Begin by asl¡i¡g yourselfr'vhat factors are essentialfor any sports day. r People Try holding a sports day u.ithout people! ¡ Weather This can m¿Lkeor brcak any olrtdoor event. r Individual incidents Not ncccssarilysponing events; this could lead to a boring list. Try to think of social events or small incidents (without consecluencesr oI course).

/NFORMALWRITING 68 J PRODUCING r Atmosphere In this case,the atmosphere is created by a combination of the other factors. As sports day is an outdoor event, begin with dre weathe¡.

Weqther Unless you have something relevant to say about the tveather, it will result in 'dead' sentencesofno interest to the reader. For example, do not say: t Theweatherwas ntce. Instead, think about how the weat:hercan change.

Remember ah^"^-



r The day can star-tsuru'ryand fine, but be wet by the time the spons day begins. r The da)' can start wet and dull, but be fine and sunrry by the time the sports day begins. How would each situation change the atmosphere of the da),| Would it be more interesting/easier for you to q.rite about sport in the rain and mud, or sport under a blue skyf Look at drese phrasesto describe the weathcr:

wasnútü cloudin thes(yThere havebeenbetter. Theweathercoulaln't wasavercast ra¡n. rhe sl<y andthreatening Thewe1thercauldn'thavebeenworse.

People \44-ratpeople are in olved in a spons da1,l I the students those taking part and spectators r the PE staff r the parents.

Porents 'dead' sentences. Let's look fust at the parents. Ber.vareof t Therewere lotsof qarents. Describe the parents in a general way: r How were they dressedl Were their clothes too smart for the occasionl Were they trying to 'look the part' by wearing sporty clothes themselvesf How would either of these situations make you feel/reactf r Hoi.v did the parents behaveI Were they entl-rusiastic(more enthusiastic than the students perhaps)l Did they jump up and dor'vn in excitenrcnt, programmes and shouting words of encouragement at the top of their voicesl Were they at the finishing line sl\outing your name to urge you on and taking your photographf Or were they bored, onl), there becausethey had to be, appearing not to notice that sports day was taking place, and leaving rvithout apparendy even noticing youf Did they see the whole afternoon as a social e\¡ent, a chance to meet other parents and discuss/compare their childrenl How would the different behaviour make vou fecl,/reactl

Friendly letters:descríptivenorrotive E 69 The PE sroff Nou'consider thc PF,staff.Try to nakc them scemreal, perhapsthrough cxaggcration. x Wcre they behavir.rgthc r'r'a.1, r¡16¡n sports icssons? 1fi¡y 11s11all¡r 'tn ñ Was tlrere a change their behaviour that malr sss¡1 intcrcsting to your fricndl Are the staffnormally tough or you in PE classes,shoutiltg lt yor-t in e rude rvay like a sergcant major in the armyf Were they morc polite tode1,,smiling at the studcnts and thcir parentsl Did ¡'ou féel those smiles rveresincereor'¡rlastic'f r Were the PE teachersrvcll organiscclso that everytlting rán snoothly or $?s there conftlsionf l'crl-rapsthc public adclresssvstem l]roke do$.n.

The studenfs Finally, consider the students. llorv u,ere yon and the othcr studcnts f'eelingf Remember tl)at clntrdst proviclesintcrcst. Werc you neffous) excited,confident, cmbirrrasscdf Horv did evcryonc bel-raveiWas sofireone shorving offncr. sports kit or e nctv hairsq,lei Was someone trying to get attcntion by preter.rciingto flint or to have en acciclentf Up to this point, the letter has mainly involvcd dcscription of people and their behaviour, and creating the atmosphere ofthc day to involve the reader. l)cr not fbrget to include the fbod and drink aspecthere, fbr exanrple: a a refie shmcrt tcnt/stall a d)¡iDg ofthirst x homc-nade cakes.

Individuol incidents A fcly minor incidents should bc carcfully included. Take cre that the incidents clo not becomc morc importent than the sports day itsclf, or 1.ou rvill end up l,riting a narrative. IIere arc sonrc cxamplcs. x A pair ofncw trainers(yoursl) rveretoo big/small and fcll offes vou l r r r / g a r c \ ' o r rf l j n h t l b l ¡ \ l c r s . 5 Someone's¡rarclts (yoursl) took part in the parents' racc and camc in last. I Somconc's button (yor-rrsl)came oflthe zip brokc ancl l.ou had to hold l¡our shorts up as you ran along. Someone r'r,earingncu'kit (youf ) 1-ellover and got it covered in mud.

Other po¡nts to consider Look agein at thc qucstion: 'Write e letter to a fiiend atrout a s¡rorts day that r.r,asheld reccnth¡ f,t yollr school.'The question may spccific ly mention 'l fricnd in another country'or'a pcnfi'icnd'or'a friend u,üo misseclit'or'u'as runableto ettend'. Hor. r..oulcl vour letter be dil1'erentin cach casc)

Friendly letfers:descriptivenorrotive |


The PE stoff Now consider the PE staff. Try to make them seem real, perhaps through exaggeration. I Were they behaving the wa)¡ they usually do in sports lessons? r Was there a changein their behaviour that may seem inreresting to your friendf A¡e the staff normally tough on you in PE classes,shouting at you in a rude way like a sergeant major in the armyf Were they more polite today, smiling at the students and their parentsf Did you feel those smiles were silcere or 'plastic'f r Were the PE teacherswell organised so that er.ery.thingran smoothly or was there confusionl Perhaps the public addresssystem broke dolvn.

The students Finally, consider the students. I IIow were you and the other srudents feelingl Remember that contrast provides interest. Were you nervous) excited, confident, embarrassedl r How did everyone behavef Was someone sho$¡ing offnew sports kit or a new hairstylef Was someone trying to get attention by pretending to faint or to have an accidentf Up to this point, the letter has mainly involved description ofpeople and their behaüour, and creating the atmosphere ofthe day to involve the reader. Do not forget to include the food and drink aspecthere) for example: r a refreshment tent/stall r dying ofthirst I home-made cakes.

Individuol incidents A few minor incidents should be carefullv included. Take care that the incidents do not become more important than rhe sports day itself, or you will end up wdting a narrative. Flere are some examples. r A pair ofnew trainers (yoursl) were too big/small and fell offas you ran/ gaveyou painft1 b.listers. I Someone's parents (yoursl) took part in the parents'race and came in last. I Sorneone's button (yoursl) came oVthe zip broke and l¡ou had to hold your shorts up as you ral along. I Someone wearing new kit (youf ) fell over and got it covered in mud.

Other po¡nts to consider Look again at the question: 'Write a letter to a friend about a sports day that was held recently at your school.' The question may specificallymention .a friend in another country' or 'a penfriend' or 'a friend who missed it, or .was unable to attend'. How would y6¡¡ 1.¡¡.r be different in each casel

70 f

WR/I/NG INFORMAT PRODIJCING Firsdy,considerthe introduction. To dre friend you might s.rite: (m sorryltt'su shameyou couldn'tmakesy:afts day lctstweek,but l'm glad to t'd hearyou'refeelingbeLternow.I thought iustdropyau a ltneta letyoú knowhow it wentlwhatyoumissed. to give somereasonwhy the friend had to missthe event. Ren-rember To thc penlriertd ¡ ou might rvrire: and ta he-ar6ll yaur news.I thaugnt It wds foveiyto qetyour leLteron Tuesday ta hear about rny sc.hoolsportsday which was you might liketolbe ¡nterestecl |ast süturday. held In the body ofthe letter to a schoolfriend, you canreferto other studentsand becausethe friend knowsthem' staffby nameand referto üeir characteristics aroundat the to¡rof his Mr Robedswas hisusuülbossyself, orderingeveryone parents him| notice wauld voiceto m6kesure6ll the but as she rania had put her ha¡r up in yetTnotheroneof herfancysryles, haveseen You should her sprinted6longtt carnedownand fellall over facel her! Shelookedsucha mess! To describethe sameinformation to a penfriendyou would need to write: was shoutinqinstructiollsat the top of h¡svo¡ce Aur PEteacher,Mr Robevts, hopingthat all the parentswould not¡cehim. girls in my classcalledTaniaturned up with a one of the fashíon-conscious new hairstyle,but as shesprintedalonqit fellall averher facet To a friend you could write a conclusion like this: happened.t don't well, I hopethút qivesyou someideawhat you missedfwhat thinkyou missedmuch,really,and anway itwon't be long till the nextone! To a penfriendyour conclusionmight look like üis: well, I hopethat givesyou someídeaaboutthe ktndof thing that happensat sportsday overhere.Doyou haveany eventlikethisat your school?lf so'I'd Iiketo hearübout it sometíme. well, nowyoa knowabautwhat we get ttp to on spoltsday overhere"Howare by the way? you gettinqon with your drivinglessons, Exerci¡e 5

givenobove,wrileo le erto o lrlendobouto spofsdoylhoi Usinglheinformolion oi vourschoo. wosheldrecentv

70 J PRODUCING /NFORMALWRITING Firstly, consider the introduction. To the friend you might write :

I'm sarrvllt's a shameyoucauldn'tmakesporfs d6ylastweek,b\tt'm gladto hearyou'refeelinqbeüernow.I thoughtt'd iustdropyaua lineto letyou youm¡ssed. knowhawit wentfwhat Remember to gir.e son-rereason lyh)' the friend had to miss the event. T o t h c p e n f r i e n dy o u m i g h t w r i t e :

It wdsfovefy to getyourletteronruesday andto heatallyournews.I thought yaumightliketolbeinterested ta hearaboutmyschool sportsdaywhichwas heldlastsaturday. In the body ofthe letter to a school friend,,you can refer to other students and staff b¡,r¡¿1¡s and refer to dreir characteristicsbecausethe friend knows them.

Mr Roberts washisusualbossyself,oyderinq everyone Traundat thetop of his voiceta makesurea theparents wauldnoticehim! Tan¡ahadput herhairup ¡nyetanotheroneof herfanalsLyles, but asshe spr¡nted alongit ramedownandfellall overherfacetYaushauldhaveseen herl Shelaokedsucha mess! To describe the same information to a penfriend you would need to rvrite :

aur PEteacher,M( Raberts, wasshautinq,nstruc.tions c¿tthe top of hisvoice hopingthat all theparents wouldnotic,e h¡m. q¡rls¡n my class Oneof thefashion-conscious calledTan¡aturnedup witha newhaírstyle, but as shesprinted along¡t fellall overherfacel To a fiiend you could write a conclusion likc this:

well,I hopethat qivesyousomeideawhatyoumissedlwhat happened. I don't thinkyoumissed much,really,andünywayitwon'tbelongtill thenertone! To a penfriend your conclusion might look Jike this:

yousome¡deacboutthekíndof thingthat hTppens well,I hopethat g¡ves at sportsclayaverhere.Doyouhaveanyevent|ikethisat yourschaol? tf so,I'd liketa hearaboutit sometime. wetl,nawyouknowaboutwhatwegetup ta onspoftsdayoverhere.Howare yau qettingon withyour dnvinglessons, by theway? Exercise 5

Usingthe informotion givenobove,w lle o elter10o frlendobouto sportsdoy thot wcrshed recently ol vourschool.

Friendly letters:descriptivenorrotive |

I Exom lip Reodthe questionvery 'home corefully. f lere low¡ or villoge'meonsyourlocol lown or vi oge lt does no/ 'home, soy townof vi oge'.


Puttingit oll together3 Wrlte o letterto o friend oboul q festivcrl of cornivo thot took p oce recenly in youf home lown or vilioge.

\\4rat kind of festival could you ll.rite about) r Avoid festivalsconnected to religion. r A'"'oid festivalsconnected to u,ars, victory days or any kind ofpolitics. r Try to choose somedring cultural such as the arrival ofspring, new year celebrations or a festival offlowers, fbr example. Begin by asking yourselfwhat factors are essentialfor any that rnany fbstivalsare large, perhaps even national, often outdoor public events. Carnir.alsalso involve music and dancing in the streets.) Again the same list ofpoints should be considered: r Weather This can make or break anv outdoor event. r People It's impossible to hold a festival r,vithout people ! r Individual incidents Try to think of sn-rallircidents (wiüout or courseJ. r Atmosphere.


Weother We have already looked at how to describe the weather (sce page ó8) but,, for this question, you should think about horv thc r,veadreraffects the festival.

People ¡ Wherc have the people come from to attend this fbstivali Are they local peopleI Have they come from nearby ¡6¡'¡s/all over the countrlf How many of them are theref Hundredsl Thousandsl

r'eaplelvis¡tors ín theirhundreds flocked r Hor'v do they feell in a relaxedmaad in a festivemaod r What arc tl-reydo¡tt¡ 6Y0und stYalling wafideringarot}fid

Individuql incidents Try to create the atmosphere by using the senses- r,vhatis there to see, hear, smell and tastel r What is there to see¡

twinklingfairy lights with)brightlvcolouredbunting(: flagsuscdasdecoration) ld,ecarated

72 g PRODUCING /NFORMALWRITING dantinq dirytlay utlaurfulfolkdances tr¡¡diiianuiLústumes sideshow= a small attractiol where you pay to takc part in a game stalls= small shops lvith open fionts (lihe in a market) where you can buy refieshments tug-of-war: a sporting event \vhere t\\¡o teams pr"rlloppositc cnds of a rope until one tean drags the otller over a line marked on thc ground ftost (matn event): a,lorrv decorated in the thenre of tl'rc carnival, uüich drives slorvly through the streets rafle = a game uüere you buy a tickct with a numtrcr on. If the number on your ticket is the same as that on a prize, \,ou win thc prizc. procession: a lir.reofpeople a¡d vehiclesthat rnoves along slolvly. What is there to smell,,or tastef

smellaf cniansfrying candy floss: a type ofsu,eet made from sugar spun rouncl a stick toffeeapple: an apple olr x stick covered l'itl-r harcl toffcc What is there to heárf naiseal the ffiusit

mür.hingbünd tr údit¡anül iN1 sLrurñenfs Exereise ó

givenob,ove,wflleo ellef10o frlendoboulo feslivoor Usingthe informolion cornlvolthotlook plocefecentlyln youf homelow¡ or viloge.

Fxercise 7

oboulcornivcs, q¡d rewrllethem ReodtheseortlcLes lokenfrom oco newspopefs crshiendlyletlers.


The sun came out for Cranfield School's annual carnival - and so did hundreds of local residents. The show was as spectacularas ever, with nine huge floats touring the streets of the village on Saturday aftemoon, led by the Cranfield Golden Band. This year's processiontook the themeof school visits and each year group werlt to town with superbcostumesand settings. Among those watching was the mayor,

Mr PeterSmith, whe went onto the school playing fields where stalls and sideshows, rides, displays and refieshments were available. The event was sponsoredby the local emerggncysgr-vrces. It is hoped that up to f2000 will have been raised to benefit children of the school, with thc headmaster saying the community involvement reflected'the real spirit and essenceof our carnival'.

Friendly letters:descriptivenorrotive ñ 73



Somer,r,üere over Lherainbow . . . the sun .' ,.n thr. ;.,r - Stoko Kc)'rcr r . ' r r ¡ l , r , r r r l l ' f n - r ¡ r i r l " a i na n d dark clouds looked like putting the dampers on the 4l' annual show on Saturclay but by late morning it u,as hghts, camerasand actlon lbr the spectacular parade with a favour-itefilms ¡heme. Among the floats were beautifully decorated lorries dedicatedto the mosl popu LarDisney films. ' ' Ir ' r r o t , r , . l r n t r l o l o [ e f o r ti l r L o it and it looked like Lhe rveather would -;.d V"rrd¡ . o-PnlJn. r . - nr t h . r g '

Carnival Court chaperone,"but then the raln stopped ancl the sun came out and the sho$'$-enton," she saidA¡ Rir'¡r <irl \.'allew ¡¡¡ni¡,¡l lo'"' " L \ !r . r { r ' J r ' . i lr L r J h o > ( o l J t ( r J . L r c r . including tug-of-war, martjal afis, fun fair and slcam train ¡des. Since it began, many youngstershave been Stoke Keynes Carnival Qucen and Pdncesses. ( ¡ n h i .p . . . A n n l ,. a g a l . Tlr¡< velj< ll,¡¡p¡ . aged 1B, is now looking forrvard to a year represenringthe town at tétesand similar

There were rabbits rolling on in*line skates and di¡osaurs in net stockings dancin¡J to the rhythms of a rolling rock band. 'Having Fun', the theme of the 43'd Roses Parade, was well in evidence on a day with highs in the 70s and clear, blue skies. Spectator Simon Barrow, 12, sprayed his five-year-old sister with crazy foam and thrilled at the passing floral whales and other motorised floats decorated entirely with roses.

Martin Jones, 23, of Stagswood, trained his camera on his girlfriend as she marched by, playing the clarinet in the unive.rsity band. The parade, feafuring 54 floats and 22 marching bands, suffered the usual problems. Five floats broke do.ran arld had to be towed because of radiator and engine problems, dnd four speclators were overcome by the heat. A t o w e r ¡ n g m ¿ c e r e n dd a n c i n g c at e r pillar lost one of its hands, but rolled ¿ l o n g w i f h l l o f h e r ss t i l l i r p l a c c .



tr.,",-,.1 r]."


Puttingit oll together 4 Wrlte o eller1oq friendoL-'out o ho idoyyou wenl on recenlly. Thcrc are severxlpoints rvhich need careñll considcration in this cxtegory. Firstly, check the tense of the qucstion. Arc 1.o1¡¡¿;¿ on holiday, or have you rcccntly retrrrnecl fiorr the holida,vi Sccondly, is it (or rvasit) a school l'rolidalrf ft¡l¡dly, is the fliend you are rvritilg to from ).olrr schoolf If so, you nlust ref¿r to the reáson u*ry hc I'irs unablc to go. Lastlv, does.,,tliclthe holiclay takc placc ill yollr o\1¡llcountry or abroadf

Exencise S

Mclkeo islof thedifferences you wouldneedto con:lderif you werewrilingo) 1oo friendfromschoolor b) to o penfriend.



Anolysingquestions Analysing the follor'ving exam style questions on the same topic will shorv horv important it is to read the question carefully to understand exactly what is required. You hove receniy been of o visillo onolherlown. Wrlle o ellef to o ffiend, lelling h i m / h e rw h o t y o u d i d o n d s o w .

you haverecentlybeen:This means you have returned and are now home again. a visit: This slrggestsa short boliday; perhaps a weekend, a day trip or even a school trip. anothertown must mean in your own country. The weather and food is unlikely to be r.ery different from your own town, although there may be a regional speciality. whatyou did and saw: Be careful not to make this a narrative in any way - they are events without conseqlrence.Be careful not to list. Create interest by telJing the reader rúy you went. Youore on on oclivllyholidoywithyourschoo.Wrile ond te q friendo I oboutit. you 6re on: This means J,ou are still on holiday as you write )¡our letter. Be careful ofyour tenses. an activityholidayis specified.Are you in your o!\'n country or abroadf Decide on an activity you know something about, even if the question contains other suggestions or er.enphotographs about other activities lvhich may look more exciting. You will have more things to say ifyou choose a topic you are fan-riliar with. with your school'.is your friend from the same schoolf If so, why is he not \\.ith youl Remember to include details about other students and teachers,their behaviour, appearance,etc. all about ¡t'.But do not make it sound so marvellous or exciting tlat your friend feels unhappy not to be with you. Show that you miss your friend by using the third conditional phrasesdiscussedon page ó6. Show you have been thinking of him by saying you have bought a sour.enir or have taken photographs to shorv him when you get back. Remember to include tlle essential1éaturesof descriptive narrative rvriting: r Weather If you can contrast it with weather in your own country, this ü'ill crcatc rnterest. r People (friends/teachers) How did drey feel/behavei Could you include them in son-reofthe individual incidentsf Describe, for example, a teacher falling over, or getting on the wrong bus, misplacing her passport, loclcing herself out of her room. r Indiüdual incidents These may be both the activit,vitself and events withowt conseqttencethat have happened until nor' (the moment 1.ou are lvritir-rg), perhaps on the journey, or at the hotcl.

Friendly letters:descriptivenorrofive K 75 m Atrnosphere To aclcltt> the atmosphere ilcluc{e cletailsof thc journev, accommoclation ald tbod,lvhich is alr'¿rvsirn¡rortant! Is thc fbocl cxccllcnt or ¿uvfulf(lirn vou conrbinc fbod rvith a nrinor incidentl Somconc fccls ill rfter catin¡5t<¡ornuchl What did vou do rvhcn nt:lton thc activitvl 'I'n, to ¿cld¿ little humonr ! Youore on o uxuryholidoyobrood.Wriie c lefier1oo frlendteling her/h¡mc I o b o u li l . you are: This Íneansyolr are sti/.|on holiday at the time,vou arc rrriting vour letter. 6 luxuryhol¡day:'I'hisis clearly something special. fYúl,are you on this holichr'f Pcrha¡rsvor-rrvor ir compctitionf Pcrha¡rsit r'vasa rervarcl/tlrank vou/prcscnt frorr sollrcolrclbr somcthing 1.ouhavc achicvcdi Pcrhapsvou lrc trking the placc of a rclirtivc l'ho r'r'asunablc to go at thc lirst rnonrentf l)id ,vou go ri'itlr ntrvottcI Hot

coultl l¡ou includc thc fbur csscntial tcaturcsf

e Wcatlrer Protrabll' you arc on holid¿rvsc¡meu4rerervith difli:rent u,elther fi'om vour own colultry. Contrast hclps to crcirlc inlcrcsl. w People What irbout ¡rcoplc (ncw f'ricnds,hotel stafl, local pc<4rlc)f(ian ,vou include thcrr in an indiviclualincidentf w Atmosphere l)cscritrcthc hotel, especiallyfixrd, clrink ancluhat there is to clo thcrc: lovcly viovs of thc ¡rark (r'onderfirl to escapefiorr all the pollution of thc ciq'); cxotic fbocl (con¡rarc witl¡ local tirkc-irwa\.) s Individual incidents Wl-rat heppened u'hcn 1.oLrr.r,'cnt: to the cinemr¡ (horror fiLn couldn't sleep a r.vink all night) to the liyrrl¡ (couldn't turn oif the cxcrcisc m¡rchinc - achc all ovcr) to the pool) (got sunburnt) rvater shíingl (guess *'l-ro fbll o11'l)

€xereis* I

given. Now lry lo onswerthethreequestions onoysedobove,usingo I the informolion


ond betweennorrotive W Differences t. norrot¡ve descriptive Comoarc thc nvo stvles in this tlblc. Descriptive norrct¡ve

Norrotive t - o g e n e r o l o c c o s i o on e . - r '

A generoloccosionor eve¡tis lokingploce...


crione momenl

overo voryng lengthof t me

o specificincidenihoppens

with vorioLrsincidentshoppening

eodingto o climox

wllhoul consequenceor c inTax

Sometimes it is not imn.rcdiately clear fiom thc c¡rcstion rvhether a narrativc or e descriptivc narrative lnsrver is requircd. Look at the fblloiving topics ancl see horv each onc could tre written either as a n¡rrative piece of l'riting or as a , l c s r. i ¡ r t ier ¡ r ¡ r r r t i r c¡ i c r c o f r v r i t i r r g . Narrative sports day clay trip loc fbstival p¡.rty school sl.rorv liolida,v rehcarsals

you trrokc your leg J.ou got lost you we re fi:stival qr,reen,&ing you tlinte d your proudcst moment vou caugl-tta tummy bug you fbrgot ,vour lincs

lnoves flom xction to ¿ctiolr in sec¡rence, until thc climax

Descriptive narrative Tahing plnce over n Jbn' hourt s¡rorts dav d¿)' trip local f[stivrl pilft.y

school shorv Tnhing place oter o felt weehs: holiday Tahin¿¡place ow" a Jbw wonths: rchearsalsfbr a concert,'show

includes description and cvcnts rn thc form of smell 'scencs',but has z¿ climax or conclusion

Friendly letlers:descriptívenorrotive |



Studenfs'deseríptivenüfffifive leffers Read the fbllolying selcction of descriptive narratir.e letters r.ritten bv different students in rcsponsc to cxam questions, and the comments related to them. * Note Theseore ofigino elterswritlenby IGCSEstudents ond moystil conloinminof uniton In lhe comments co umn,lhe ettetR refers lo poinlsin theRegisler mislokes. pogeslB2 5, ond theletterG referslo poinlsln theGrommorunl1on poges1Bó-99. Thecrrow (-+)poinls1owhol thelextln the eftershoud be chongedto or replocedwith.

Quesfíon I Answer A

teling hlm,'hero lobout il. Wrife o ellerlo o reolivewho missedo fomiy celebrolion,

Comments DearAlessandra, How areyou? | hope you'refeeling better now. I thought you míght líke to know how Grandpa'r 60ü b¡rthday party went.O Everybodywasdressed up@ for the par$ - or ratherthey thought they had. Uncle Max@ came in that awful lime green shirt of h¡so with the glittery material on the collar, and Aunt Marie wa¡ wearínga huge yellow dresswith frílk at the sleevesand the collar. Theywerejust a sight! When the muric rtarted, everybody got to the dancefloor and beganto dance.I didn't want to dance at the only availablepartner wasmy cousinAnthony - you know how much I hate him,@ To my bad luck@ he came up to me and offered to dance witJ.rme, so I went along dreading the whole idea.You know how short he ¡JO - it reemshe grou rhorter each time I seehÍm - he only came up to my shoulders,and he steppedon my .feeto twice! I

S¿raand Clara,the terríble hvíns m¿de sucha messwhen food war laíd on tüe table.@ They were hiding under the table and when theír father, Uncle 5am@ spotted them, they shriekedand knocked offthe saladbowl. It was fun.@ | hope Grandma's . 76th@ birthday partywill be asgood ar this one or better. Seeyou there. LOVe, Mandv

Q Correcluseof grommorond idlom @ ncorrecluse fhisphroseis usuoy usedwhen -+ smartly dresred or someoneis weofingo coslume. hadgot rmartor ín their bettclothes @ Givingo nomeis crformof personolisinggood. ising theshifiis commoni¡formolion shored @ Persono beMeen ne n r er ond q¡cls ¡ ¡L^ l^¡¡ising- good @ Persono @ Confused-+ Unfuckilyfor me or Asluckwouldh¿veit ising- cfeclles o ovey menlolpicture.@ Persono ' o ó . . A o p . - d o . e . t i o .[ G o ] mokesit soundreol,ond is funnyl @ Creofesinleresl, @ -+ broughtin wil knowwho @ No needfor theirfather.A/essondro hels. ) All in all,it w¿sfr.¡n. @ Shof senlence @ Good linkbockto Grondod'sBO"'

Generol commenls o A¡ exce lenl letter,usingmony of the feoluresof descriplivenorrotivewrillng. o The e er conlqinsgood exomplesot humoufoud deloilsto cfeote interesl. o The studenlhos inc uded severo exomplesol Pefsonos ng. o The ock of registeror grommor mislokesmoke lhe eller soundfluent.



Wrile o ellefto o relolivewho missedo fomily ce ebroiion,te ling her/himo I ob'outit.


DearHeb6, I knowyouwerelook¡ngforewordo to l,eo at AuntJ¡ll'sb¡rthdayparty,buta I hope youarefeelingbetter.Anyway,OI thouqhtI'd drop you s lineet on what you have |//' Thes6meoldpeople showed up,onebyone, UncleHenryObe¡ngl6teas usual. At thebeg¡nn¡ng, my s6terandI were at s looseend@but frnalyo tuned into(E the p6rry1tmosphere ossoollds themusicand dancingstlrted. tuckilyyouweren'tthereto hear the way theysang,A everyone try¡ngto s¡ngin tunebut in hisownw6y! Thebuffetwasquiterich,andI d¡dn't hesitateto go@for a secondhelpinq. However,@ AuntJennydectded to stickto herdiet after the sirth or seventhhelping.@As ususl,@ I hadto put up w¡th@unclerod'scritic¡sm aboutwh6tteen\gersweartod6y, untilI got backat him@whenhetrippedoverwh¡lettytng to wdsn'tuntillDthesmall hoursthat peoplestartedto leave,w¡sh¡ngAunt J¡ll6 h6ppybirthday. I'm suretherew¡llbemany morepartys@that youwill beableto cometo. with lovefrom Amal

Q Speling ) forward Q lookingforuvardto shoud be fo owed by crverb + ing or o noun+ Iook¡ngforward to Aunt Jill's b¡rthdayparTy @ but ioinso negoliveond posilive:e.g. lon naughty (negcrtive) but'everyone /lkesme (posilive). So il doesnotfit here:you werelookingforward (posilive); t hopeyouare feelinqbetter(positivel. Remove but, pufcrfu I slopofterpady ond begino new senlefcewith I hope. useof anyway;seepoge9. @ lnoppropriote @ drop you a lir¡eshoud be fo owed by to or o noun-+ to letyou knowabout @ Wrong tense needssimplepost+ you m¡ssed @ PersonolisingtheybolhknowUnce Henryis olwoys lcrle.

o Good phrose o Spellng -+ flnally @ + got ¡nto


Nlce delol: creoleslfleresl,ond is funny. R3-+ thinkh¡yice aboutgoing

@ @ RB + but @ P e r s o n o l i s ionngd, g i v e so f o r n u s i nlgn s i g hi ni l oh e f chorocler

@ Personolising 'formo' 1oreploce @ Good useof verb+ preposition verbs(R3l @ Good useof timephrose @ Speling) part¡es

Generol commenls o o o o a

Thisis generoy o verygood le er. ll i¡c udessevefoexornpes of persono ising. Thesludenthasused'owide rongeol vocobulory. Thesfudenlhoscrec¡ted inleresl ond includedhumour. Thereore nol monyregislef or grommormistokes.

However: a Severolprobemsin lhe infoduclion giveo bod r m p f e sosn .

Friendly letters:descríptivenarrotive I

Gluestion 2


ot vourschool. Wrile o elterlo o friendoboulo soorlsdov thotwos heldrecenllv

Comments Dear)ennífer, | ün't k^ow wher e to ttarL'fhís year's Sports Day was the best o^e in the school'shístory.I'm rcaILysotry ít - well I guesstjwt hate to b[añe ít olt your you missed. LíttLesíster,why did shehw e to choosethís day to be sickt You shouldhaveseenthe pareíts

they were

aLL áresseá. Lnthesecool sports kíts,\ríth the odd.parent here rnd there wearíngjeans or regular clothes. some pupíIs were showing o(f t|rcír tanned arms andlegs but they were a bug!írg somethínp

stockQ \lhen ít carne to ectuelLyplayí¡tg - trúy speakíng@ they wete hopeLessat

sport. rtLI the y ear 10 and above pupils were the most reluctant ones- you know how embarraseil@ they get when they aresupposedto pl¿yo íft (toflt of theLrftienás

T he Re(reshfient tent was packed as usual with l<ídsrunning ín and out and the helpers ,rere telríng theír haír out.@ The smeIls driftíngo

out of tlv tent

were dangerously appea[íng maklngme forget my ¿iet. our very smart ftíetrd Nína@ managed to escapeto the tent tnd help ín servíng ou@ pancakes.tucky hert fhe best moment was when we aLILínedup fut tlrc obstacle race. ,ts mr e ell@ blew hi s whistle,we aILsprínted furward, then two year 11pupíIs bumped.Lnto eachother and ftlL knockíng orer one o( tle obstacLes.'rhen another pupíI tripped over another obstacleand soonwe w ere aILover the playground, wítlt the obstacleseíther above or under us, rollíng around wlth lalu.ghter.A Then.eme tlaetlrree' [eggedrace, whLchw as a dísaster, tlrc cloth that lrcId our

Good slorl- bu1ihe ¡eosonforJennifermissing3port5doy jeo5 .pots do\, "6- ¡eql, nole se'lse Did sheris. wos ill? becousehersrsler Q Good vocobulory @ vtayis olwoyso probem word. You playag,melof tennisor footbol) butyou needto d.,spoÍ. Hefe, though,you needlo takepartso ) takingpart -+ hoftestly ot to tellyouthetruth @ Register l d o u be r . @ S p e l n g l R e m e m boe rd o u be ' o n c o o betler @ Agoin,notqullethe fighlword. Perhops word hefewould be compete. @ Good phfoselh meonstheywerebeingdrlvenlo i n s o n i l(ym o d n e s s )boer h o v i nm g o d l yd u et o OVETWOTK, . e p oe , sc o m i n g . @ G o o d . o c o b . l o ^ iR ising @ Persono -+ helpwíth butwrongpfeposillon @ Good expression seryrn9 oul lhonsoyingthe ising muchmofeeffeclive @ Persono os..lennifer knowsMr Bel loo teacher, (D Good expression isingeffecl,qs doesI @ Agoin,the nomehoso persono ¿.on'tnee¿ to teIIyouhowBIGsheis informolionshored by bolhreoderond writ,^r. @ Good oflemplto returnto lhe beginningof the lefier, bul siiI nolveryrelevonl.

legstogether kept fall ing off.'f he [ast r rce w asthe parenti race wíth the usual parents teking pert an¿.of course the

Generol commenfs

usual oneswinning.

a Thisis on excelenlletler buttoo longlo brewrlllenin on exom.(Thlswclsselfor homework.) a l contoinsmqfy exompesof personolising. lhroughthe useof o Thestudenlhoscreoledinleresl ond livey descriplions. snro, oftenlunnyincidents mislokes. a Therecrrenol monyregister Thereoderhoso c eor o Theslyleis veryopproprioie. Al thefeotures of menlolpiclureof o I theevents. S p o . D o , - . p r i I o b , o c l e ' o c e t L. e a ^ o q ' d o e in p o ' e - , o - 6 ¡ ^ i r r . d - do r d o r e n e l s u o p o - e d eochcose,oflenwith humour.

Denís@ camewearíngher brand new sports kit and as sher an - | doft't íeed to tell you hovr BIG she ís@.- slrc toppLedover and was rea[Iy very angry because shehad mud onher kít.l was \reariÍg my bÍother's treiíers whích were two sizes bíger tl:.l:n my shoesízc, so of course they kept s[i,ppíng and.t had to limp aII day long. x[though a \ot o( thíngs happened that weren't exactLyperftct, l thínk ít wasgreat, l really had fun I hope your skter@ wí[I fteI weL[by next year'ssports D ay!


Wrile o ellerlo o friendoboulo feslivoor cornivcll tholtooko oce recentlv in vour homelowf of vi looe. Comments

DearMaryam, How6reyou?| hopeyouarefeel¡ng belternow.I thoughtyou m¡ghtl¡keto knowhow thtsyear'scarnival¡nmy countryOwent. Therewasn'ta cloud¡nthe sl<y, whtchwasquitesurprising asit w6sovercast the yearhundreds daybefore.Every of bc6l people and touristscometo the placewhereit's heldth¡syeartherewerethousands and the placew6s to capac¡ty! ThsJwereall ¡na festivemood full and werelaugh¡nguproar¡ouslyoastheyrode themerry-go-round. someothertour¡sts bouqht balloons their children, and one child's for bllloon managedto escape his clutchand ftew aw6y.Theotherch¡ldren thought¡t was6 g6me andthE all released theirballoons intotheslry. Thestreamers andbunL¡ng wereall aroundthe stallsand tents.Dangerously temptingsmells weredriftingout fromthefood corner . A marchingband¡n froft of the floats that were@in the process¡on consisted of (t volunteer students all the school bands. from Everyone stoodto watr,h the electionof the Spring Queen@- all the little girls wereverypretly,and thejudgetookqu¡tea t¡me to selectthe littlequeenfor thisyear6nd hertwo dssistants. Thisyear¡twasa pet¡teblondecalled LauraI hopeth¡sg¡vesyouan ide6about how the carnival goesin my country.@ l'm eagerto know how ¡t is ¡n :yours.OPlease do wr¡teback6nd let me know. LOVe, Hoda

Q Give thenomeol yourlown. ro'o @ c , . l e r . o c o b l o n r .B u n o l. o r ' ^ .t e g s - e --> friendy efier loudly @ R5 -+ Removethdt were -+ whtchwasmadeup of @ Regisler @ RI + seewho was chosento be spr¡ngQueen @ -+ aboutour springcarnivll O ) Doyou have/ Arethereany specialcarnivalsin your town? Generol a o o o


Thisis on excellenl lefier. Theinlroduclion is simpe ond direct. i includes o vorielyof incldents to hep creoleinlefesl. lf refers1oo numb'er of feolrresossocioted wllh cofntvo 5.

a ll conlolnsgood vocobulory, ond nol monyregislef misiokes.

Section 3 focuses on the new topic of formal r'vriting. Unit I introduces tlle type of exam questions which need to be answered in formal writing, togedler with some basic rules related to formal register. It then describesa variety of features for you to include when you write in formal register, using examples relevant to exam topics. Units 2--4 focus on specificphrasesand expressions used for making suggestions, giving your opinions, and putti-ng forward your views and arguments.

Bosictools Apart from friendly letters and certair casesin school magazine articles, everything you write in the exam, includhg compositions, sumn-rariesand the answersto the reading comprehensions, requires formal register. Formal register is (among other things) the language oftextbooks and for this reason it is usuall), less of a challenge for students. Some general rules apply to formal writing. I When writing formally, it is zol appropriate to include the following: I contracted or short forms ofr.erbs , lt's / lt ยกs a Im / lam ยก Worยก't ./ wยกll not , Hasn't / Hasnot r words or phrasesrhat belong to the friendly register t lt'll do you good. ./ It wยกll beneft you. r slang words or phrases r guylblokeldude t man t Youneedto chilla. / Youshouldrelax. : He'swellsdfe. / He'savery goodperson.

82 .

IMPROVING YOURFORALAL WRIIING r humour - most ofthe topics are ofa serious nature, or factual t exclamation marks I personal style. 2 \\4ren giving ye¡¡ opinion or point ofview, details about how the situation affects!0a perslnally are not appropriate. When giving ye¡¡ opinion abolrt dre provision of cyclirg lanes, for example, it lvould not be appropriare ro explain your reasonswith refereitce to )¡our own situation by mentioning that y6¡ [¿y¿ a bike, or to include itformation about what time ofday ¡'ou ride it or for what reason. In othcr words, the style should be impersonal.


Thetoolsfor formolwriting Before considering the different qpes of composition yo¡ ¡¡ut be asked to rvrite using formal writing, and the different rvriting techniques involved, rve n.tustfirst examine the tools needed to produce fbrmal writing. These include : I I I I t I

tirse iirei ¡rhllsr--s phrasesfor intloducing pornts phrasesfor joining points phrasesfor adding support phrasesfor making gcncralisations f<¡rmallanguage structures

sugges¡l()n opinion viervsanclarguments

Time fixer phroses When writing formalll,,it is often good styleto begin the introduction tvith a tjunciircr:,suchasone from the selectionbelotl': j'.lo!.-,c {:¡{¡y5 These{¡{:J-t,s UntiinOW yen r Fveiyc.icylrr.-,eek¡ Recenlfy Fc¡r|¡üny ye$i's I the pGst fe¡i ycn''sú{gü ¡n ihe itist le!4,¡'$v€ld nysli,veeky'*r ontli sfyer.i rs Since+ specifictime/noun Lool<at t lrcsecranrplcs: Th¡'"qryefifsd¡g$,rlefirlyal¡ (h¡ldrenwentta 5¡nqlesexschools. yÉi¿.ri's, ¡Lrrlflri yr-V env¡ronmentül¡sts havebeenvtarning abautthe effecLs of tlkrbGl w1rminq. ynastteenaqers i\trt'iüdcr1i,s, own a mobilephone.

Bosic fools I

Ifthere has beer, a change in the situation yolr are Iriting ir;.,i:¡scar-rbe used to sho\v contrast and crcltc illtcrcsl.

about, tr,vo trrrr'

'irt:¡.¡ ¡ -..rrii.:ii,l. ref,irily' ilil i,?1iidr,¿flwent tü sin,gle -t\a\sthiúli. tnii5f ar!1ot)lair! I'hi,; artfintty catt:ritiv.:,J" jliii.\


Ii ( '


Introducing po¡nts As discussedin the units on frienclly letters, Ll\lirrij is considercclto be poor stvlc. Lr ft¡rmal r'r'riting also you should remember to limit thc idcas, opinions or suggestions to a naximum of thrce. Look at the examplcs shorving holv to iutroclucc poitrts chronologically, r"rsingthe lenguagc of fbrmal rcgister.

M the flrst place, Ftrstly, rhe ma¡n ] Themostimporfaft | gointlreason rhe first ) Secondly, A n o t h epr o i n t . . . An}therreíson -.. rhirdly, l n a d d i t i ú n. . . F¡nally, Lastly, t n et a s Íp o r n .f . . Thefinalreason... To sum up, ln canclus¡an,

Joining po¡nts In fbrmal rriting, there xrc certain $.xvs to join points together) or add more points of thc sanrckind. n \\4-renjoining siwilnr points, use thc fbllowing addition rvords:

Furthermore, Moreover, Besides, 'L.ent:f)r-ial in vteir¿ht it rr,n¡re:"rslt r:,xitr.ise Moreover, ts ,:.r-r¡*lar ltr hrr'tlLh. t?-d.¿!.-l-aaú. (Botl-r scntencesre Positite.) tTakitltJ t-7,r'tviausiy dñniaü( h?all.h.Furthermore,it it an Gnii"sati7lht"|oi!.. (Bottr sentences¿rc ne!ñt¡Íc.)

84 I

IMPROYINGYOURFORMALWR/I/NG r !\&en joining clntrtrsting plints, or beginning a new paragraph that introduces an opposite opinion, use the follorving concessionwords: However, Nevertheless,

Onthe otherh6nd, Although . -., Note: eaclr ofthe above phrasesbeginsa sentence.

' Iourísrnrepresents a siqnifiúntcontribüt¡or? to thenatianalecanomy. However, it ísarguedthat largenümbers of tour¡st5 c6ndaffiagethe enviranffient. (The fust sentence is positirte,and the second sentenceis negntite.)

Adding support In formal writing, asmentionedabove,it is zrotappropriateto pcrsonalisc, becauseyou arenot wdting for a readerwho knows you. The sq4eis impersonal throughout. This meansthat support in formal writing is factual,and can be irtroduced in marrywa1's,including the following: lh¡s meansthat . -. Asa result,... Th¡smay leadto .-. Th¡smay result¡n .. consequently, .. . therefore,... because .., whichmeansthat ...

Generqlisotions Sometimes a minor modification (change) can make a big differcnce ro 1.our sentence.Some statements can sound very dull. For example:

Tourists drop l¡tter" Sentencescan be modified by the use ofvarious generalisations.You can use these on tl-reirov'n, or in combination throughout a sentence. r One of the simplest ways is to use one of the following gencralisrtions, at the beginning of the sentence.This makes it more acceptableto the English ear. Your sentcnce lyiLl also sound more convincing.

Almostall Thevast majo(iry of A largenumberof Most Many Some A few Not many Hardlyany

tauristsdrap l¡tÍer"

Bosicfools I ln almost6ll cases, tn themajor¡ty of cases, ln a largenumberof cases, ln mostcases, ln manycases, ln somecases, ln a few cases, Onthewhole,


tour¡sbdrop litt€r,

Lool< at these examples:

Almost all teenlgers enJoy watthingtelevision. rhevastmajorityof teencqers eniaywltchingteievision. pollution ln manycases, ¡sthe resultof ignarance. Nolé Genefoisotio¡sofe o so very useful [or writingsum¡¡c]rles ^f




conloinligures,numbers or sfolisfics.

These phrasescan add focus to a dull statement (as above) or can rcplace exact figures, numbers and percentages(see below). Look at this example from a summary passagelvhich includes the following sentence:

A studyshowsthat 95%of teencgers spendflvehoursa tNeek wütching telev¡sion. A summary must not contain figures or percentagesor specific numbers. Tl-rerefore,a generalisatiott could be used to expressthe same information:

Thevastmajor¡Wof teenagers enjoywatchingtelevision. A frequency word, suchasgenerally, usually,oftenor sometimes canalsobe usedasa generalisationto achievea similareffect. Teenúqers oftenwatchtelevision. cenerally,teent)gers enjaywütchingtelevisÍon. generallyenjoywatch¡ngtelevision. Teenagers the verb can generaliseyolrr scntenceand makeit more informative. Replacethe basicverb with the verb tend: pollutiontendsta be rhe resultaf ¡gnor7nce. ln many cases, to. It the subjectis a person,you can usethe phrasehavea tendency This suggeststhat whater.erfollows in the sentenceis this person'shabit. For example: wamenhavea tendencyto spendmaretime at homethan men. My brother hasa tendencyta shaut. The following examplesshow how generalisations can be combined: Almostall ltúlilns havea tendencyta ndp (= ha\.ea short sleep)in the alternaan. (: shy, ln mostcases, have6 tendencyto feelself-cor.rscious teen7gers embarrassed).

86 I

IMPROVING YOURFORMALWR/I/NG Without generalisations,the above sentencewould look like this:

Teenügers feelself-asnsciaus. Compare tlis with the modified sentence and notice the difference. The sentencewith generalisationsis much more fluent and more likely to make l g o o d i r n p r e s s i oonn ü e e x ¿ m i n e r . *

Exom t¡p In ihisros-oihc rs-oof oeneroisolionshosincreosed ihe numberof wordsin the if you do not hovethe senlence by seven.Thisccrnbe veryusefulin summorles requirednumberof words.

Formql longuoge slruclures The most important tools needed for formal writing are the lbrmal language strucfl1restl]emselves. In the exam, the question will usually contain a firnction word, for ex a m p l e: o p i n i o n .r i e us . a r g rr m e n \l o r \ u q $ (\ t j () n \ . One of the most elTectiveways to study formal writing is through learning various phrasesassociatedwith selectedlanguage functions. For example, considertJ-t esetvaysof maldrtgsrrggtstiorrr:

pollutian, ln orderto {educe theqovernment taxan peval. should¡ncrease ( T l r i si s a s i m p l es t r u c t u r ei n t e r m so f g r a m r n a r . )

increased tüxan petrol. Súrely lt wouldbea gaodideaif thegovernment (This is a more advanced süucturc, using the second conditional rvith the past tense.) tax an petral. It is high time the ga\ternmentinc.reased (This is an adr.ancedstructure, using the phrase 'it is time'with tense.)

thc past

All the phraseslisted in this unit usc fonr-ralregister. Some are more advanced in structure than others, but this does not mean that the1,are better or more lbrmal than drose widr a simpler structurc. The ke,vis to use what ),ou feel comfortable with.

Remember A¡y slfuclLrre thoiyou intend r^ l-^ " .^--fi-^ ., f^. -.^pufposesmLrsr De reofnr lhorough y, throughprcrctice, untilyorore confidenlthol you con reproduce I occuroley. Thislokesllme.

In the remaining units of this section, wr: examine in detail the formal language structures we have been referring to, under the headings: I S u g g c rito n r r Opinions I Vie\a'sand arguments. We will then apply them to a range of qpical exam composition qlrestions (Section4).

Suggestions There are severalwa1.sofintroducing, or putting fonvard, a su.+¡t.ti,,n ir.r lormal register, including dre follorving st1-ucturesand phrascs.FIere each one is follolvcci by an exanr¡rlesenterrccrclcvant to al cxam topic. f {SurelyJ+ subject + could/shor"lkl af ... {Surely)on advert.ising|fimpaiErt cauld hr:.ip iOromote.nv,tareness

2 I {woul{r) suoqest + vcrb+ ing t (woulci) suq0est introd cinglavts1.oüeútv,lithlLu:prot:iewof deft:restatk:rt. i [x'ouldjsüEgest+ that + subject+ shoui¿i I wonldsuqqestthat driversshor¡l¿J peiral^ rse unleade.d ii woul¿,(rie{¡riy/sLrrelyJ be a qoodideaif+ subject+ pasttcnsc L we ,aa I


) tt$Lersncrn fat:iities I ,,l i¿rrrol' I r, tintma ttuü i

st.udentt werennatle autrtrc of lheirnportanre It worrirlbea üaa6l ¡dect I qoo,J ttuct,t cl fu¿hír: " I | fue betterinfornredc¡boul: thp" ¡tublicwere púllutian. oongrru af ) 5 Subjcct+ huve-ü resirünsibility ... relevisian campanie,s (clearly)haveo responsibiiity ... . t,¡sl¡ot',' ... ta hftiú1(ft\l "". ta s(.reen ... io tr7nsmlt

l un<¿utr¿bie far thildrenlai.e | ltroúvonnme: in Lheevenir,q. I )

tjc.haois (.leú y) h{rve{r responsibilityto rnakesiuclentr,aw,ire üí the itúnqers a{ swtating. 6 tt is (ltigh)t;/yre(thcit)+ subjcct+ pasttense it is h¡ghtifie lhfit s.hoo¡sintro¿i¡¡ced c.lastes iú inlrsrrvt¡u,¡",'tot abúutthe dúnüen o{ :'ffiak.inq. Éxerei¡e I

Mokesentences pulting forwordsuggestions, usingihefolowingprompts: I Schoo s/promote cworeness/dongers of smoking 2 / tnlroduce ows/problemof polulion 3 /drivers/tcke o moredifficu i driving lest A )¡/chtdren/modeowoe/ mporfonce/good eotinghobils 5 Tourists/responsibility/respect lhep ocestheyvist ó lt/lime/ doclors/give more odvice on heolth

Opinions waysof giving1.6¡¡¡i¡pinionin formalregister: Thereareseveral tn myopinion, tn myvtew, Personally, It see/vrs to methat ... Asfar asI am concerned, 45| seert, I think l I feel I that... I believe )

I think I people I f:",!. I thot... rrtany Dereve )


The follolvirg examples show hor.vthe above phrasescan be used:

tn myopinion , sportisvetyimportüntfar ourhealth " studies. ln myview,singlesexschools üllowstudents to toncentrate fullyonthe-ir In many cases,sentenceswhich begin with giving an opinion continuc by making a suggestion. Look at the following examples: Personally,I feel th6t sporl shauld he p6ft af e\rer! schaoltimetlble.

by hisaúiansandnotby his ft seems to methatweshould a pe{san 1udqe. appeGrúnce. íshight¡mewebeganta respeütheenvironment. Asfar asI am concerned,lt thildrenabautthedünqers Asf seeit, schaols havea responsibil¡ty to edwcate o{takingdrur¿s. havea respons¡biliv ta motivate stu(Jents" uany people believe thct schaals Exercise I

Moke senlences whlchbeglf b'ygivingon oplnionond coftlfue by moklfgo suggeslion, usingthefo lowingprompts: 1 ludge o personby hisoctionsond not by h s oppeoronce. (Asfar as I am concerned, + should) 2 Educote childrenol¡oulihe dongersof tokingdrugs. (AsI seeit, + it is high timeschools) 3 Tokestepsto reducethe negoliveospeclsoi lourisn. (eersonally,I feelthat + countnescould) y' Preserye theenvlronmenl for futuregenerolions. (tn my opinion, + schoolshaved respons¡b¡liq) 5 Poriof everyschoo limelobe (Asfdr ds I am concerned, + sportshouldbe)

Opinions I


ó Secrlbelts prevenlsefiouslfiufies in cor crccidenis. ( o p i n i o n+ c o u l d l

Ringroodsbuil oroundrÍroiofcities. ifl {oprnjón + wouldbe sensivle Moke students oworeof lhe problems cousedby po lution. lopinion+ havea respons¡bil¡Lyl

Remenrber ¡c ¡de delollsoboulwhose op n on (underined1nthese é - ^ m ñé . t . h é ñ ¡ é ^ ^ , é . ( é / l

A large number of ,¿slqE believethat s¡-h,¡o,s h{:¡v€G rirsfrü$sib¡lity tú r\{}r:ivGle stndt:v"ta,. ln many cases,!.e_(..I(]4tJlfeel i{it ú il pürcnii titLen.d that iI'¡¡cl.ri¡Jbe r.¡í.{oo¡J '¡itw. i-l¡eir ¡s'i pcinL ta rhevast major¡Wof :¡¡eytttsBbelievethat hir4h1.í$e'./'Ebe7rí{ltü (i.t'p€:..t thr anvircnrfreú!..


Exerqise 2

phroses to formsenlences Useo vorielyof generolisolion, opinionond suggeslion from thelol owing prompls: 'f generoisolion+ pdrents+ opinion+ goodideaif + schools Mot¡vated children 2 generoisalion+ teendgers + opinio¡+ high time + parentsl¡stento the¡rpoint of view 3 generoislrlion+ people+ opinion+ havea responsibility + beginto respectthe envlronment 4 genefoisotlon+ people+ opinion+ high t¡me+ government reducedthe price petrol oÍ + opinion+ should+ responsible 5 generoisotion+ studer¡ts membersof sociebl

Emphosiseor develop your op¡n¡on I When vou arc conlidcnt atrout using thc irl¡ovc sclcction of o¡rit.riot.tpl-rrascs, ,vou could try to cmphasiscor develop your opinion. As opinions arc closclv linked to thc rvalr 1rs¡1f)¿l¡trout somcthing, \¡oLl call Llscscntcilccs containing vcrtrs offeeling to cxprcssJ¡our rcactior) to soncthing. fJsc vcrbs such as: 0t nGTt: 5x¡16ti(.=Iess than angry) '/lor¡z {,¿(:'!{¿ss emflartúa,s

f u i r ¡ hnr . i*{uria'r:t:(: r'nakcyo¡ vcry angry) SniJLlr. r¡pst'i (= makc ¡rou fccl Lrnhiippy) wlr/'l

90 I

IMPROYINGYOURFORMALWR/I/NG Ilerc arc somc cxamples: annoyme. Peaplev,thahaveno respectfar t.heenvironrnent who lire Lruelta únimülsinfunateme. Peot)le Photag{aphs of childre.rt vrithincurablediseüses upsetme. By turning the r.erbsinto adjectivesyou canproducea slightlymorc formal scntcnccin the following rvay: t find pe-ople wha hüvena respec,t fa{ t.heenvironwentannoying. infuriating. I fnd peoplewho are cruelto an¡Nnals t frnd phatr:qraphs of ch¡ldrenwith in{u{ablediseases upseüing. Exercise3

you?Mokeo lisl,using Now tryio mokesomesenlences of yourown.Whotonnoys 1othelopicsin fheDolobose of topiclheshuclures in lheexomp esondreferring relcried vocobuiory ondideos(poges 231 44).


Howdo youfeeloboulpeoplewhowolch1Vo I doy?Useiheverbsof feeingond givenin theexomp es.Mokea listof othertopicsyoufeelstrongly lhesfuclures obo.f. Pefer-o -fe t ni.

' tLo -)¡trhn o ^ I ni.- - .,l'.d ¡r nhr n'

r'd ¡d^.'

(Poges 231 441.

Emphosise or develop your op¡n¡on 2 Anothcr $.ay to develop your opinion is to expressyour attitude by Lrsingthe pl-rrasethe way. Look at the follo{.ing examples: I verb + the way + noun Sentencesconstructcd this u.ay can be positfue:

progrcmmes t likethewaydoctimentary te6chusaboutwild!ífe. yaü. müstcrelúxes I lovethe wayü{Ássitúl Sentcnccs constructed this lvay can also be ne!ñtirei

I obiectto the wayteenagers úretreatedlikechildren. 2 onethinglwhat I likeabout + nolrn + ¡sthe wdy Sentencesconstructed this way can 6c positite:

phavrcs ¡sthewaytheymakecommuní:atian east/. whatl l¡keaboutrnabile Sentenccsconstructcd this way can also be negatite:

oneth¡ngI disl¡ke aboutpareng¡sthewaytheyneverstoptalkinqabaut stúdying. 3 whatlonethtng thdt + verb + 6bout + noun + is the way

arerepeated. what ¡rr¡tates meaboutw isthewaytheprcqrürnmes one thing that ¡nfuriates meis thewaysamepeagtewústepaper.

Opinions ffi 9l

Exercise 5

Now ook ol your crfswefslo exerclse4 ond rewrllethem usingthe different cofslfucllonsg¡ven ln the exompes obove.

Exercise ó

Use the foiiowing prompisq¡d fhe stfucfures ouiiinedcrboveio produceo wíde voríely ol senlences,posiliveond negolive.For exompe: leenogers/smoke

I objectto the way te-enttútrssmakete toait:(r)ú1. one thing I dislikeabout ieenaqffs ¡sthe way ?.hrysrnok¿to laakraai. one thing that annoysme is the way t(.e{t{Áqers synúktt¡; laaktool. I peope/ore crue1oonimols 2 computers/never do wholyouwonl 3 lecchers,/mokelessonsinleresling A cars/po uie lhe envlronmenl

Emphosiseor deyelop your op¡n¡on 3 Arother ü'ay to clevelop personal opinion, is to use an adjective + ir.rfinitive:

It is

difficult easy friahtenina narÍ1

inte{esting upsetting

believe ... near... imag¡ne.. . think -,. s e e. . . realise ...

It ¡s upseftingto think that Nn3y1'¡ ;iiilir,zn lia¡e Á.ids. In othcr r.r,'ords,I th¡nk or ln my op¡n¡onit is upsctting to thinl( that many chilclren have Aids. €xenEise7

Usethefolowingpromptsto mokesimilorsenlences. I 2 3 4 5

ol - p-opl- 01 o' ,-od lhord ir og'eJ I . i n - i o . r h ^i a o ^ { u p. ^ l - i r gt é o r l Troveling L,roodens the mlnd{eosy/underslond) Polulionis destroying theenviro¡me¡tlfrighten ing/reolise) Revision is imporlonl(ecsy/see)

Viewsond orguments There are sevcralli'a¡rsof putting lbnvard 1'iervsancl ¿rgiumcntsin formal register, including:

I oneof themainarguments\ in favouro¡ -' ¡sthat " ' lsomethtng) rnematnlrgument oqio:rtt I 2 Somepeople(would)arguethat ... 3

I think people fee.l. rvtany I

that ...

) Delteve

4 lt can be arguedthat ... Thema¡nargumentagainsttourisfi is that largenumbersof visitarstendto spailthe natural tteawtyof a place. In phrasesI to 4 above,you areputting for-rvardpoints of viervwhicl.rareq.ell loown, lrut which you may or r¡xy not agreewith. Phrases5 to 8,, expressyour own, personalpoint of view. For this reason,someofthese phrlscscanalsobe rrscdfor giling opiniolrs. 5 Personally, I wouldarguethat ... ó , ^ ." I verymuch I in favourof ... tam I stronqN > aqa¡nst... ) oiposedto... 7 It seemsto me th6t .. 8

I think | | feel that ... betieve )

I am stronglyopposedto the useaf illegaldrugs. It see,fls to me that morepeopleare becorning enviranmentally friendly. Exercise I

Usethefollowing prompls ondthephroses givenin 1-4 oboveto produce sentences e p e)5,-9 \,o\^5 O d o,9Jnó1'5.

I 2 3 ¿

moderntechnology/domoging our plonei windmils/environmento ly frienoy leomsporls/couse oggression c o r r p e li , e l o o . rs p o r l .s pr i ro f c o o p e , o ' i o r

Víewsond orguments * 93


glvenin 5 8 obovelo producesenlences Usethefo owing promplsond the phroses expfessing viewsond olgumenls. I 2 3 4

c¡¡d mlslnform lelevlslon/mislecrd oppeoronce,/personolity pcrssengers/seolbelis ctime breokdownof socio vo ues/lncrecsed

Giving dctails aborlt fiho is involved in thc controvcrsy cau makc thc scDtence rlorc intcresting. Compare tllese t\r,o examples: t:l'1,ti.(¡ii¿ti some {:,j?.()pie would argue that,-1úy5ttfl| r:lktsí}t,: ht¡tr{}kll \'t\'¡ilí:?t srúrNilteiti. 'aebc.LtYtz would argue that btjjl' ttnri girit;üt. h.i'ü'pitr'trn¿ne'lit.$t-ed some 5.:ptifai:ely.

Exereise 3

lo Usethefo lowingpromptsond includedelols oboulwhoseview is beingexptessed senlefces. mokemoteviewsond olgurnenls 1 2 3 4 5

(psychoLogists) teomspofs,/violence compelilive (teochersl society mixedschools/mixed (doctorsl regulo r exerclse/heolth economy(lhegovernment) tourism/notlonol (socioogisls) poverly/crlme

Section 4 examines the techniques for producing different q¡pes of formal r'vriting, incorporating the features and expressionsintroduced in the previous section. Each ofthe four units focuses on a particular qpe of formal u.riting and inc.ludesclear, easy to-remember plans so you can be sure to ans\vera question in a illl and relevant \Á.ay. As r.rotedin Section 2, rvhen answering a rvriting question in the exam, 1'c,1¡ should ain-rto urite four paragraphs.You are usually asked to rvrite betrvee¡l 100 and 150 rvords (Core) and betrveen150 and 200 words (Extended). This means tl-rateach paragraph should contain 25-40 r.ords (Core) and 40-50 words (Extended). On the basisof ten words to a line (for average-size hand-writing) this means you need to writc about three or four lines (Core) ¿ n J l o u r o r f i re l i n c sr E x ¡ c n d c dI i n e l c h p a r . r g r a p l r .

Compositions This unit shors you ho\\, to apply the basic tools of fbrmal u'riting (introduced in Section 3) to the different qpes of composition you may be asked to r.yritein the exam, and covers the follox,ing categories: r r ¡ r


Opinions and suggestions Vier'vsand arguments Problems and solutions Projects

Opinionsond suggestions There are usualll' s¿vs¡¡l ke,vwords or phrasesin the exam q¡estion that indicate the qpe of ansrverand the range ofphrases the examincr is cxpecting you to write. Rcad the question carefully. Does it contain one of the fbllowing underlined phrasesl r I I I

gir.e your opirion sayrlüether vou agree or disagree savwhat ].ou drink about cive r our yft¡¡

If so, then the phrasesthe examiner certainly expectsto seeu.ill include thosc fbr giüng opinions, as oudined in Section 3.



Writingon op¡n¡oncompos¡t¡on Every composition should be planned (see Exam hints for the writing exam, pages224 30). In an opinion composition, onl1, ap¿ui.*otnt is expressed. Usc drc lullowing basicplan lor cvcry opiniun comporition.

Remember to Oplnionisofienllnked suggesr on.

I General introduction - explain the importance of the subject you have been asked to write about. Put forward your own opinion. 2 Support - explain the first reason for your opinion. 3 Support - explain the second reason for your opinion. 4 Conclusion - summarise and write your opinion. Include a sLiggestior),if nossible.

Expondingthe plon Firstporogroph This is a general introduction which explains the importance ofthe subject. Put lbrward your own opinion. Make sure you include the features of formal writing outlined in Section 3: ¡ Time fixers $üwr¡d.,J].,sllhsse dcysfrec$rtiyr.rrrtil no'qiI the pirsLl ¡r!€¡]11j y,:r,ltsr¡$iljin iilr :,i\i lJVi i'i1'.|s r Generalisations

nearlyalllmanylalargenumberoflseveral r Opinionphrases I th¡nkllfeeulbelievefes far as I am concerned Secondporogroph Support - explain the first reason for your opinion. Introduce it lr.ith one of the following phrases:

Firstly,ltn thefrst place,/First of all, Thirdporogroph Support - explainthe secondreasonfor your o¡rinion.Introduce it with a phraselike: Anotherreason Fourthporogroph Conclusion- summariseand rwite your opinion. Include a silggcstion,if possible.Make sureyou include the followirg: r Phrasesto introduce points

Tosumup,fln canclusion, r Opinionphrases (that)leersonally,ltn tn myopinion,lt believe my view, I am verymuchin favourofltam strongly opposed toll am aga¡nst

96 N PRODUCING FORMA¿WR/IING I Suggestionphrascs It ',¡,/oükJ be {¡ good idsc if + past tcnsc r Support phrases


Remember Refer1othe Dotoboseof lopicrelotedvocobuory ond ideoson poges231 44 B-ofore the exom, mokesure yor ore fomlior withihe conlenls. Add yourown oeoS

When asked tbout a topic, )¡olr may not bc surc cxacth. ¡.üat )'oLrropinion is, becauseyou can see good things and bad thir-rgsabout it. In an opinion composition it is important to \\'ritc about eithff tl]'e good things ,r the bad things, but not both. (Ifyo¡ ¡n.1.r¿. both, thcn l.ou would be \vritin€ir \ie\\s anclargumentscomposition - scc pagcs98-f07.) So, befbre vou start \\'riting yorlr ans\\¡er,mxke a list ofpoints in fávour and ir list ofpoints against. Ifthere are two or three points in fávour, for cxamplc, and only one ágainst, choose \¡our opinion to be in fávour, bccauseyou will have r.noreopportunity to include sr-rpport.

Exomplequest¡on Now look at the opinion composition, baseclon a question from a past exam ¡ra¡rer,ancl thc cxamplc answer that fbllows. Zoosore cruel1oonimolscr¡dshouldbe cosed down.Whot do you thin[? Considcr thc points in fhvour of and egainst zoos. In favour Zoos could: I I I r I r

savc animals from cxtinction pror.idc a safc brccding environment ofli:r dav trips oflér cducational cxpcricnce providc cmployment for local peo¡rle need lessspácethan a safhri park.

Against Zoos might: r causer'vild anim:rls to suffcr arvayfrom their naturxl environmcnt. In this casc, as therr: are more points in favour of zoos, you rvould take this as your opinion. *

Remember LJ Youony neediwo (ormoximum three)poinis,so chooselhe moslfeevonl,or lhe mosl mporlo¡i,or theonesyou con supporteosily. LJ Useos muchreevonlvocobrlcrry os possible. tr Useihe bosicp on os oLrlineclollove. Ll Neverdivedirecilyintothetopic Alwoysbeginou¡s¡de thetopicilsef,lo sellheconlext, lhenr¡ove n io lnfoducelheexocllopicu¡defconsidefolion. Herethelop c ls zoos,so beg n withthewide¡lss¡eof co¡servollon, endongered specles, eic

Comoositions |


Exompleqnswer PorogrophI Generalintroduction explainingthe importanceof conser.¡ation.


of noturalists (time fi,rer)a sígnificantnumber(generalisation) lrtowadays, (sayrvho) havebeencampaígninglgainst zoos(explainwhat the problemis), arguingthat (viewsand arguments)it is cruelto keepwild an¡malsm cüges, away f{om their natural environment.However,(joining points - contrast)like n) | bel¡evethot (opinion) zooshavea mony other people,(generalisatio pasitiverale to play. 42 r.vords Porogroph2 Explain the first reasonfor your opinion. (generalisation) of lntmal arein F¡rstof all, (introducingpoint) manyspecies is dueto their naturalhab¡tat d¡sappearing, dangerof ertinctionbecause (support).Some,l¡kethe elephant,(example)are huntedfar their deforestat¡on ivrsryor the tiger for their skins.rherefore,if animalsare kept in captivitythey whichwill prcventthe species can breed¡n safe|'J, from dyingout (support).

,",r,33I31Íi Porogroph3 Explain the secondreasonfor your opinion. is AnotherreTson(joiningpoints- addition)for keepingan¡malsin cTpt¡v¡bl that it g¡vesmanyof us a chanceto seeanimalsfrom all roundthe world w¡thout havinq to travel (support).A tnp tú the zoa is ún exampleway to and learnaboutanimalsat we can enioyourselves spenda day out because the samet¡me(support).

T.r"l',;l;:::: Porogroph4 Conclusion. ro sumup, (introducingpoint) in my opin¡on(opinion)zoosshouldnotbe both to humansand to because they6re beneficial closeddown (suggestion) onimals(support). ' Exe¡ciseI

22 words Total: 175 words

to thefolowingoplnlon Usingtheplonondinformotlon obove,writeyourownonswer queslion. compositlon zoosare cruetto sniynalsanclshauldbe closeddawn.what do you think?


I * Note Thisis on originolcomposition wriitenby on GCSEsludentond moysí]1conloinmi¡orrnisfokes.

Glueslion I

Sfudent's composítíon: opinion/suggestíon Read the following opinion/suggestion composition written by a student in response to an exam question. The comments on the right show how the student has consüucted the answer using the features discussedin Section 3.

Do you ogreeor dlsogreewith the ideo thol it is impodonllo keepAntorctico unlouched?

For many yeart,ll) man hasbeen looking for the bert wayr to exploit nature and benef't from itr resourcel.However,in most cases@ fJrese exploitationr have reiulted in harmíngthe environmentand rnany specíes.@

Comments O


i'r¡,.:i ¡q:i

@ Generolsolionx 2 llfstpoinlln lisl @ ntroduclng

To begin with,@ animal rpecieslíving in Antarctica tend to be@ more raredue to the rcarcityofthis specíalhabítat.Many people believe that it would be sen¡ele¡s to deitroy the¡r only habitable home.O Th¡ will fead to their extinction and consequently a huge disturbance in nature would arise.@ Another reason@ to prevent oil companíe¡from ínvadingAntarctica ir th¿t it is almort impossibleto obt¿in the oif yithout adverselyaffectingthe environment.Furtüermore,@ the amount of oif oroducedwould not be worth the efforL

@ Generoisoiion @ Op niol @ Supporl @ intoducingsecondpoinlin isl p o i n i s- o d d i l l o n @ Joining point+ opinion+ srqo-.stion phroso @ niroducing @ Suppod phrose @ Suggeslion

To sum up, ¡n my opínion oil companiesshould be@ prohibited from drilfing for oíl in Antarctíca because tfiis would completely destroy wildlifu there.@ Surely we have a reiponr¡b¡lítyo to protect it?

t ,.


Viewsond orguments

There are usually severalkey words or phrasesin the exam qucstion that indicate the qT)e of ¿nswer and the range ofphrases the examiner is cxpecting you to write. Read the question carefully. Does ii contain one ofthe following underlined phrasesf r r r I I

plrt forward your views and arguments p u t l o r u a r d y o u r i d e a s¡ n d a r g l m e n r s put fbrward 1.our opinions and arguments oudine J¡our opinions for and/or against set out yolrr arguments for and,/or against.

Composilions |


Ifso, then the phrasesthe examiner certainly expectsto seewill include those for putting forward vier'vsand arguments, as outlined in Section 3. See page 94 for infbrmation about how much to write in the exam.

Writing d v¡ewsond orgumentscomposition Every composition should be planned (see Exam hints for the writing exam, pages 224-30). In a views and arguments composition, the word 'argument' indicates that you must shor.vboth points of view. Use the following basic plan for everyr.iews ald arguments composition.

Remember Thereis ¡o rightor wrong qnSwef.

I General introduction explaining the importance of the subject you have been asked to write about. 2 Put forward one side of the issue behg argued - for example, the argun-rentin favour. 3 Put forward the other side of the issue being argued - for example, the rrflrrnerrt

¡ oainct

4 Conclusion - put forward your personal opinion.

Exponding fhe plon Firstporogroph This is a general introduction which explains the importance ofthe subject. Put forward your own opinion. Make sure you include appropriate features of formal writing as oudined in Section 3. r Time fixers

nowa¿lúyslth esed aysI r ecently I until no@in the postl ye¿7rs tr,venty 6g0l¡nthe lastflveyears r Generalisations

ne1rlyalllmanylalargenumberoflseveral I Opinion phrases

I thinkllfeeutbeliarclAs far as I am concerned Secondporogroph Put fonvard one side ofthe issue being argued - for example, the argument in fawur Make sure you include the following: I Views and arguments phrases

Oneof themainarguments in favourof ... isthat people (would) Some arguethat... tt isa factthat ... r Additionphrases Furthermore ,IMoreover ,lwhat is more,I Besides , r Supportphrases whichlthislwhichmeansthltlth¡smeansthatlasa resultl consequently

IOO T PRODUCINGFORMALWRII/NG Thirdporogroph Put fonvard the other side ofthe issue being argued - for exampLe,the argument ngñinst. Make sure you include the following: r Concession phrases (for contrast)

on theotherhand,I uowever, lNevertheless, r Vie$.s and arguments phrases

Oneof themainarguments aga¡nst ... ¡sthat It canbeargued that .-. It hasbeensa¡dthat... r Additionphrases Furthermore, is more,lBes¡ des, IMoreover,lwh6t r Supportphrases whichlthislwhichmeansthatlth¡smeansthatl6s6 resultlconsequently Fourthporogroph Conclusion - put forward your personal opinion. Remember that opinion is often linked to suggestion. Can you put forward a suggestion¡ Make sure vou include the following: I Phrasesto introduce points

Tosumup,llnconclusion, I Opinion phrases

tn myopin¡on,lt (that)lPersonally,ltn believe myv¡ewl I sm verymuch¡nf1vourofll am strongly opposed tolt am against I Suggestion phrase Itwould be a goad tdeü if + past tense I Support phrases


Exomplequest¡onI Now look at the following tiews nnd arguwrzls composition, based on a question from a past exam paper and t1-reexample answer that follows.


Note n sómeexomqLlesions ol thisk nd, os in lheo¡e here, yor ore oiveno isfof cor¡menlslhofpeoplehove moderelotedto the topic Theseore givento he p you by providing youwithideos, buiyou ore usuollyfreeio useideosol yourown os wel


Thereis o plcn to buildq wind formin youfofeo to provideelectricity for thelocoJ popuotion.Pulforwordyoufviewsond orgumenls concernifgthe proecr 'This a wii reoly benefit uscrll we'l hqveo reioblee ectriclty suppy at ast.' 'l b lhlnktfs outrogeous ond drecrdful. lt wtlfbe on eyesorefor milesorou¡cll' 'The c omounlof eleclriclly thesethingswi i generoteis iuslnotwodholl thedisruption it wi couse.' 'We d l, lt wi ook nice,won'l 11? A I ihosewindmils, knowthey'rethemodernkt¡d, b u li l r e m i n dm s ec rb i to f H o I o n d . ' 'h e wi e¡obleus1ohqve¡ew smolli¡dustries, ondthotmeonsiobs.Thcrt's good,isn'1 it?' 'Peop f e scrytheyore environmento ly friendy cnd ol th,:i,buttheydo mcrke o noise il'sqn owlu swishingsound.I certoiny do¡'i wonl lo heorthotwhen 'm outenioying lhe counlryside.' 'ln g otheroreoswherethey'veputihesethingsmotorists hovehcd occldents wclching thewindmillblodesinsleodof the rood.Theycon be rotherhypnotic.' Ifyou havc stuclied the l)atabase of topic-rclated vocabulary and ideas (pages 231 44), irnd are fámiliar r,vith the topic, it is very ¡rossiblethat you will heve your o\Á..nideas ready. If so, do not wastc time reading the conrrnclts given. Your olvn icleaswill be more original, end."vill alrcadv be in your or.vnr,vords. FIor.vever,if thc topic is onc you feel unsurc of, then you will neecl to rcacl thc comments. If this is the casc,remember to car-ryout thc followir.rg steps: I Rcad each commcnt and marl<with a tick or a cross r,vhetherit is in fávour (positive) or against(negativc)in meening. 2 M¡rke trvo hcadings,one tn fcvourand the othcr Against. 3 Rervritc cach comment in your orvn rvorcls,remembering to changc the commcnts fion fricndly into fbrmal rcgister r.r,hercnccessary. 4 Nunrbcr the commcnts in orclerof importance;\¡ou rnay not need to use thenr all. Norv read thr: comments given in the $'indmills composition carcful\'lntl e¡rpl,vtl'rc steps outlincd above. a)'This ivill rcally Lrenefitus all - r,ve'll har.ea reliable electricity sup¡rly at last., Is tl-rispoint in fawur or ogninstl (.k ts in favour. Mark ivith a tick: y') b)'I think it's olltregeous and drcadfirl. It rvill trc an eyesorefor- miles arollndl' Is this point in favowr or ngainst? (It is ngainst. Mark lvith a cross: l) c)'Thc arnount ofelcctricitv these things will generatc is jLrstnot $.orth all the clisruptionit rvill causc.' (This poirt is against. Mark rvith a cross: l) d)'Wcll, it rvill look nice, rvc¡n'titf All those u'indmills, I knou'thcv're the modern hind, but it reminds me a bit of Hollanc{.' (This point rs in fawar. Mark u,irh a tick: y') e)'it rvilJcnableus to havc ne\\, small industries,enclthat meansjobs. That,s goocl, isn't itf' (This point is in fawnr. Mark ivith a tick: /)

IO2 .

PRODUC/NG FORMALWR/IING f) 'People say they are environmentally friendly and a1lthat, but they do make a noise - it's an afful swishing sound. I certainly d6¡'¡ 1¡¡antto hear that rvhen I'm out enjoying the countryside .' (This point rs against. Mark with a cross: t) g)'In other areaswhere they've put these things n-rotoristshave had accidents watching the {.indmill blades instead of the road. They can be rather hypnotic.' (This point ts against. Marh with a cross: l) Now make a heading tr¡favourand go back to the points marked wiü a tick. Reu.rite them in your own words, one by one. It is important to remember that many of the comments given are people's actual spoken words - this meansthey are in informal register. \\4ren 1.ou res'rite the con-rments, make sure you change them into formal register. Then number them in order of imponance. M favour a)'This will really benefit us all - we'll have a reliable electricity supply at last.'

L A reliabte supplyof electric¡ly willbebeneficial ta everyone. d)'Well, it will look nice, N.on't itl All those windmills, I knorv they're the modern kind, but it reminds me a bit of Holland.' 3 fhey w¡if be attract¡ve. e)'It will enable us to have nen'small industries, and that means jobs. That's good, isn't itl'

2 A rel¡able ta beestablished, electr¡ctry supplywillallawsmallindustries vthíchwillbegoodfor thelacaleconomv. Now make a heading Againstand go back to the points marhed with a cross. Relvrite them in your own r.vords,one by one. Then number their-rin order of importance. Against b)'I thint it's olrtrageous and dreadful. It rvill be an e\¡esorefor miles around!' I They utill be ugly " c)'The amount of electricity these things will generate is just not worth all the disruption it will cause.'

3 Therew¡ll be a greatdealof inc.anvenie.nce for nothing. f) 'Peoplesaythey areenvironmentallylriendly and all that, but thel' do make a noise- it's an arlful sr.ishingsound.I certainlydon't want to hearthat uüen I'm out enjoyirg the count4rside.' 2 TheycausenoisepolluLion. g)'In other areaslvherethey'veput thesethings motoristshavehad accidents watching dre li'indrnill bladesinsteadofthe road. They can be rather hypnotic.' 4 fhey can distractdriversand c6useaccidents. Now, refer to the Databaseoftopic-relatedvocabularyand ideasfor additionalinformation. This mav be oarticularlvusefulin the introduction and conclusion.

Compositions f

I 03

ln fovour Wind farms: r r r r I

are environme ntall_vfiie ndll,, no dangerous fumes, no air pollution are more atüactive than a convenúonal pclr,verstation provide a reliable source ofclcctricity rnakesmall industriespossible,which ... ... crcatecmploymcnt in the area.

Agoinst Wind 1'arms: I r r r r I

arc ugly, cycsores,spoil the natural treaut¡,ofa place may put tourists ofl, reduce tourism - bad for the economy encourage noise pollution, rna1,disturb local rvildlitc ¡ r e L l i \ l r a e l i n gc. s p c c i a J l ¡o r m o t o r i s l s may causepollution by blowing dust and dirt around n c e . ll a l g c ¡ r e a o f l ¡ r J r n a r b e u s e dl o r l a r m i r r g .

Rcfcr back to your plan. Ncver dive directly into the topic. Ahvays begir outside the topic itself, to set the contcxt, then move in to introduce the exact topic under consideration. F{ere the topic is windmills, so with the wider issue of power generation.

ExompleonswerI Nou, look xt xn example xns\ver to the tiews nnd nr¿¡uwentsqlucsli.onon pagcl0l .

PorogrophI Gcncral introduction cxplaining thc importancc ofthe subject. i.jliiii i'ii \.'!.(timc fixcr) pa)werüene{útittfihas relie.¡lan natu{Gl tesau{ces,such {¿st.úGl,Eos rnci oil (exarnples)"A:;thtse-tLrpúlit:sbegin ta irt out. sci€nt;st5 have,br:.e,n inve:tí'¿ctinl últ$nr;l-i\je '*rcthods of ysrodur-ingeiectric¡t,v,*¿ch ús ¡uintlrnill-t(link to rnain topic). 34 u.ords

Porogroph2 Introducc one point of r.ierv. one of the ma¡nargumentsagatnstw¡ndm¡lls is thot (viervsand arguments) ihei' .t{?,r}ft tye-sore, an4,spailare.asal r:rsturaly}emrtJ - Ihis may lead to a reductionof tour¡sm,wh¡chwouldbe bad for the localeconomy(support). Moreover,(joining points - addition) many people(gcneralisation)arc ¡¡¡inclwtills thn".l.l¡t'. r:nr.e,rneri t.¿{(. not onlya distract¡on to motor¡sts, but that the no¡setheymakemay d¡sturblocalwildlife(sr-rpport). 60 words Total: 94 rvords


PRODUCINGFORMAL WR/I/NG Porogroph3 lntroduce the oppositepoint of view. Qn the otherhand,(joiningpoints contrast)the main argumentin favourof windmillsis that (viewsand arguments)theywill provídeü much morerelilble powersupplyto remoteare6sand consequently small ¡ndustriesw¡ll be and at established whichwill prov¡deemployment for localpeople(sLrpporr) the sametime(joiningpoints addition)boostthe economy(support). 47 r'vords Total: l4l words Porogroph4 Conclusion. ln conclusion,(introducing poinr) | belie\tethat (opinion) it would be a good plansfor the windmillfarm we.ntahead,as theyposeno ideaif (suggestion) (sr-rpport) in termsaf GirpollutionGndtheywould threatto the env¡ronment certa¡nlybe more attract¡vethan a convent¡onalpower station(support). 44 r.vords Total: 185 words


to thefolowing givenobove,wrileyoufownonsweT Usingtheplonondinformolion viewsondorgumenls composllion. Thereis a plan ta build 6 wtnd faml in your area ta p{ovtdeeiectrici4/for the yaur viewsand TrrJuvtnents concern¡ng the localpapulat¡on. Putforuvard proJect.

Exomplequestion2 Now look at another tiews and arguwrrefs composition, based on a question from a past exam paper, and tl.reexample ansrverthat follorvs. shoud tokepof in Thegovernors of yourschoo hovedecidedfhcrlo I studenls for end/or ogolnstcompusory compelilive leomsporls.Se1oul yourofgumenls compelillve leomsporls. I I E Everyword in he quesllon I is lherelor o reoson. I J


Moke sureyou hove reod everywotd beforeyou begin.

o I sludents- That means everyone. compulsory- That means there is no choice, vou must take part. compelilive- That means playing to win, not just for fun or keeping fit. teomspo s - That means games like football, volley ball and hockey.

'You are The exam contains comments for you to use. The question says lree to use ideas of 1.our own'. In this example, we will use our own ideas. List each fáctor under positive and negative headings.

Compositions f

I 05

In fovour Compulsory competitive team sports should be encouraged because: r they prevent students from becoming unfit due to laziness I sport should be part of the timetable/makes you fit/gives you more energy/a healthy ¡1i¡d in a healthy bodl' r team games encourage the idea ofworking together, co-operation I t h c y e n c o u r a g es o c i d i n t c r a c t i o n .

Agoinst Compulsory competitive team sports should not be encouraged because: r lvhen people are forced to do things, they are not enthusiastic participants I students who do not like sport may weaken the team/may be bullied or even sociallv isolated I too much emphasis on sport can result in obsessior.rwith u.inning, which c a n r e s u l ti n a g g r c s s i vbce h ¿ ü o u r . *

Remember Neverdivedlrectly intotheiopic.A woysbeginoutsde lhetopicil:eI toserrneconrexr, thenrnovein io infoducelheexocilopicunderconsiderolion. Herethee,oct topic s spori ln schoos, so beginwiththelorgerlssueof heolth.

Refer back to the plan on page 99.

Exompleonswer2 Norv lool< at an example answer to the question on page 104.

PorogrophI Generalintroduction explainingt1-re importanceofthe subject. Now6düys, (time fixer)due to the medtaand üwTreness campaigns,the vast maior¡tyof people(generalisation) realisethe impoftanceof exercise, and the benefitsít can haveon health (explainthe importanceofthe issueand the effectit has).In an effortto promatethis idea,a largenumber(generalisation) of schools w6nt to makeparl¡c¡pation in team sportscompulsory (link to main toDrc ).

4ó rvords

Porogroph2 Introduce one point ofvierv. Oneof the main argumentsdgd¡nst(viewsar-rd arguments) anjrthtng campulsaty is that whena studentis forcedintasomething,he w¡llnot be an paft¡cipant,and th¡smay weakenthe performance enthusiastic of h¡steam (support).Consequently, he couldbecomeunpopular,isolatedsoc¡ally, or even becomea victimof bullying(suppon). 47 words Total:93 rvords

106 I

PRODUCING FORMALWRITING Porogroph3 L-rtroducethe oppositepoint ofr''iclr.. On the otherhand (joiningpoints- contrast),many people(generalisation you can sav¡lúo exactly)TeachersfDoctorsi) would argue that (t'iclvsand argnments)spott tliakesus lit and qivesus energy" ln order to (support) hnve ú healtttyt{tindin a healthybady,sporfshoüir{be (suggestion) a caffipulsayy subiectan everysr.hor:l (joiningpoints- conrrasr),it ¡s t¡wrctable" Furthermore a fact that (r.ier'vs and argumcnts)team sportencourages co-operation and promotessoc¡alinteractton(support)" 52 rvords Iotal: 145 u,ords Porogroph4 Conclusion. Tosum üp (introclucing poinr). ¡n my opin¡on(opinion)it wou¡frl be o qood ide;.ríf (suggestiorl) tecm spartswererllde aam{iulsúry in schocrls to establ¡sh healthyhabitsearlyin life,and to preventstudents becoming unfit due from (support)" to laziness 37 r'vords Iotal: 182 r,vords

Exercise 3

Usingthep on ondinfofmolion obove,writeyourownof swef1othefo lowingviews ond orgunlenisquesliof.

Theqavemars ofyaurschaalhavedecided pürt thct all sudenLs shoL4ld tt4ke in caynpetitive fea!'nspo{+s. setaul.yoüto{gurnents anafar aqainst for ccmpulsúty t ornpetitiveteümspans. Exercise 4

UsethepromptsgivenbeJowto wrileo ful plonond thenon onswerto thefolowing q u e sol n . '!'he qoveffime-nt. G{eplanninq ta build an a¡rpart neú{ yoúr {}re?.wyite ú letter ta c4lacal newspaper,seftíngoúf.yoti{ viewsünd arqurfientsüb(lutthe

issue. 'l

why importo nt

poof ]|ofspon/

decr-^ose ln lourislinduslry 2 vlewsond oflluments ogoinslthe proposcr

(+ support) noisepol uiion/distrrbloco peope,/ (+ support) lossof fcrrm oñd/drop in cropyield

(+ support) 3 viewsond orgumenls efcoufogefourists/improve economy/ (+ in fovouro[ the proposo support] morelobs 4 concuslon+ opinion

good woy lo boosltheeconomy

No\^/compofeyoufonswerwithonewfillef by o sludenl,on thenexipoge.

Composilionsa l07

t Note Thisis on originollefier wrllie¡by on IGCSEstudenl ond moystilconloi¡ r¡¡nor misiokes.

Question 2

Student'scompositíon:víewsond argumenfs Read the following views and argurnents composition written b1,a student in response to this exarn question. The commints on the right shorv how the student has constructed the ansq,erusing the features dlscussedin Section 3. Thegovernmenl ore plonningto bui/don oifportneofyouroreo.Write cr lefierlo o oco newspoper, sellingoui yourviewsond orqumenjs obouftheissue.

Dear5ir, For many yearr,Q t¡ansport¿tionha, been a major problem in this town which has re¡ulted in a decrease ín lüe touri¡t industry@ leading to ffnancial díff¡cutties.G) For thrsreason,aswe are all aware,tJ.regovernmentdecided to build an aírport on the outikírt of the town. One of tüe main argumentr against@ tj.reschemeisthat it will cause¿ fot of noire pollutrbn, wh¡ch would disturb a sígniÉeant number of people@ ín the nearbyruralarea.Morcover,@ buildingan airport requiresa vastareaof land,which would mean the lois of farm land,O rince atntultural land wilf be abr.r¡ed. The¡eforea droo in crop yield would definitelybe the effect ofruch ¿ction. On the other hand,@ many people believe@ that our town does not lack any resources and is beautiful to the foreign eye, so it would be senseless@to mirs¿n opportunity to facilitate the entry of tourtutrto or.rrtown. Thi¡ will not only improve the economy@ but will also províde more jobs(! for our unemployed citizens.At a later rtage, it would be earyto rerto¡.ethe farmland by purqhasíngfertiliseruthat would íncrearethe crop. Personall¡@ the plan seemsto be an effitient way to booit the economy of our town, making it a prospe¡ous one,@ and in t}re end the most important factor to conrider is the welfare of our peoole. YouR faíthfully, Jane5mith l¿ne5mith lMis¡)

Comments O rin¡.:ii¡,'.i @ Why thisis impodoni @ Effect @ Viewsond orgumenls @ Support @ Joiningpoints- odd¡tion @ Suppof @ loiningpoinis- confost @ Opinion @ Srggesiion @ Supportx 2 @ Opinion @ Support


Problems ond solutions Problems and solutions compositions are, basically,a mixture ofdre other types of composition. Many ofthe phraseshere are ones you have already met. You lvill need to include opinions and suggestions. The main difference is that the introduction will probably be .Longerand more detailed. There are usually severalkey words or phrasesin the exam question that indicate the type of answer and the range ofphrases the examiner is expecting you to write. Read the question carefully. Does it contain one of the following underlined phrasesl r \\4rat can be done to overcome ...f ¡ Wavs of soh ingJx problcm r l{orv can the p¡ablcm_be_sa,lygdf Ifso, then the phrasesthe examiner certainly expects to seewill include those for giving opinions and making slrggestiolls. Seepage 94 for information about how much to write in the exam.

compos¡tion Writingo problemsond solutions Every composition should be planned (see Exam hints fo¡ the writing exam, pages224-30). Use the following basic plan for every problems and solutions composition. General introduction to the topic, explaining what the problem is, u.hat is causing it and rvhat the results will be. 2 + 3 Put fonvard suggcsti¡¡nsfor overcon-ringthe probleil. Support your sngqcstjons. 4 Conclusion - explain that you are sure the problem can be overcome. I

Exponding ihe plon Firstporogroph Introduce the topic and explain rvhat the problem is, uüat is causing it and what the results rvill be. I Begin with a tituc il-r,¡r. Now¿ui{i}¡s,/These dnys,lUore thúr¡ ev€r Ilefore,lnecently, r Explain rvhat the problem is. There are ser.eralpossible rva,vsto do this, including: a\ Tralfic


I a rflaior

Tou;isyn I hasbecome I a serínrs p{oblerl. SharLaqe ofwater ) ) aql.obal b) rhereisa

lsenous of ... I warldwide shortaqe qtabal )

, r ) avtareness. I no (eante ' > tw.reüsetnte " . . . . - . ,1. . -tn || t..h en u m h e t l c') T h c rhea \b c e no i . . . ; - . . , . ; .'-. ' " . ' - , - . tn . I , marKea r -ae(rea'e J a w l u n t o f. . . w7te,r d) \NeGreunning oui.of timeftre€sf lnú"

Compositions f

I 09

I Explain the reason for the problem. L

r h ¡ si s I a u e r c " . o e c d u s eo l )


fne reason for thisis ... I If there is more than one reason, link them with addition phrases.

Moreover, f Furthennore, I Bes¡des, notonly...butalso... both... and... For example:

Wtndrn¡lls areün eyesare. Windmills arebadfor the localeconomy. (two negative ideas)

Windmills arenotonly6n eyesare but alsobadfor theloul economy. Windm¡lls arebothan eyesore andbadfor the localeconomy. r Explain what the consequences(result, effect) will bc. \'\

resuft rn... .. . w n r c n)! w. )I c a u s.e. . Thtsmeünsthat ... that ... ",. wh¡chmeans ... if wedo notprotecttheenvironment, will suffer. futuregenercttions ... rrniess weprotecttheenvironment, generat¡ons willsuffer. future Secondond third porogrophs r Mal(e suggestiols about hou, to o\¡ercome the problem. + past tense

Clearly it wouldbea goodideaif It is6bouthightime

a campaign. I\ weorganised pos¡tive jI we taok tookpasitive action. action.

t Remember to support your suggestions.

Itwouldbea goodideaif we setup awareof ... \ to maf.epeople a campaiqn people so that 6reawareof ... J tf wearganised peoplewould ] f a caynpa¡gn, more6ware... ) 0ecome Fourthporogroph r Make your conclusion short. Do not repeat what you har.ealready written. Try to be positive and confident about your suggestions- but do not repeat them! Explain that you are sure tie problem can be overcome.

I IO T PRODUCING FORMALWR/I/NG I c4trsur( l feeltaflfjdent

I t ¡ o t. . .


fi1ea5uves Me t7kefr ... ideasare tak€n ¡nf.aians¡(jerr,tt¡afr ...

... tf thP,st

suqqest¡ans Greltut ¡ntopraúice... rulesareapplie-r) ... l*wsarebrouglrtin1!farr:e. ..

vtatershrtrtage ) ,;o ution al stnokin'tr ¡trol:lem I .) nütvtn{1 l tourisr¡ neaa{tve a50e(*ol'"- I


) stt¿rlLt

) iooil ... wiJ¡ I)e I I )

overr.cne u thinr'J thepú"| ttau({a.úf lmp{aveü beLLer

tüter nta(.( Iat nc}t|nttr

Exercise 5


1 evenr'i)nt > " l." lo fuvein. I us {Átl )

Using the p on ond infofmqlionobove, wrile on onsweT1othe fo lowing problens ond so/uflonscomposilion.

viúlent incide.ntsat fúath¡tltltnt4tchesare an the-inuense. \Nhat can be dane to ove\camethe prableyn? Now comporeyouronswerwlth thesuggested onswefglvef on poges248-9.

Exercise ó

Uselhe promplsgivenbe ow 10wrlleo fu I p on ond ihef on onswer10ihe lo lowing ^,^^1^^.




-.r ^.

Many f¡Ltnt{iesin the warld ü{e súffp.rinüJ frrsmsevereshartTgeüf faod. What wteüsu{es cún bP-take:niú súlv(this prAblemT 1 problem couse(1) r",..l (' I ,rho . o, ? couse(2) resu1(2) 2) 3 1 "-

wordwideshorloge of food destruction of noluroenvironment/po lution lessondfo' q rir g er. 'o.r'nen olis , overpopulolion in somecounlries essfood per person

l . ' o r e r o o d , ^ , ^ ( o u ^ l r i e so h o . e o . ' r . , u : ro | . e e c L o l o 9 . o h ^ l od ^ . ^ l o on g c o - ^ r e s J i¡formclboutdongerso[ pol ulion

y' conclusion Now comporeyouronswerwilh theonswerwriffenby on IGCSEstudeni on lhe nexlpage.

Compositions f lll


Student's composifion: problemsond |

Note Thisis on originol compositionwrilienby on GCSEstudeni ond moysti contolnminofr¡istqkes.

Quesfion 3


soluftons Read the lollowing problems and solutions composition written by á student in responseto this exam question. The comments on the dght show how the student has constructed the answer using the features discussedin Section 3. Mony counfiesin theworldore suffering fromsevereshortoge of food.Whot meosures con be lokento sove thisoroblem?

Comments Nowad.ays,Q due to the mus media and globaI communicatíonweare more than eyerawareo( the problem of worldwíd,e food, shortage whích ís on the íncreaseQ rhís hopeLesssítuatíonhas been cause{@ envíronmentaListsLn{ormw, by destruction of the natur aLenvironment and pollution whích have led, to@ Lessármíngland. Furthermore,@ oyerpopulatíonín many coxntríeshas meant@ a substantíaL red,uctionin food per person, It would. seem to me thajo tutaLcommrtmeftt Ls requí er adicatethis problem for good,, lf we bury our headsin the sand.,the líveso( many ínnocent peopLewíII be at risk.tLow many peoplemust díe o( starvation beforewe take action? Surely ít would. be a good,ídea í@ countríes wíth a surplw of food were encouragedto dístribrte ít to tlpse wíth none. lt ís híg! tím{l we shared.our technoLogwith d.eve[oping corntries to help them makc better use of theír land'@ rurthermoref,fi we haye no aLternatiyebut to Lnform others of the dangersof pollution and reduce ít. ln my opíníon@ the difftcu[ties are not ínsurmountabl@ províded that we acttogether,

Q Tine flxer @ Expoin the probiem @ Explointhe reoson @ Consequences @ Joiningpoints- oddition @ Consequences @ Opinion @ Suggestion @ Suggesiion @ Suppof @ Joiningpoints- oddition @ Opinion outook @ Positive

I12 '



Proiects Sometimes the question asksvou to rvritc about á project. Bcfore rve look at how to \\.rite the con-rposition,considcr lvhat the projects involve. There are three typcs: J. Awarenessprojects These are usually carried out at school. As their name suggests,these projects aim to inform people and make them more aware of certail facts or circumstances.Thel' ds not involr.e raising nloney. Topics in this category include: I the environment I Conservatlon r smoking. 2 Raising money rvithin the school, fbr tl-reschool These projects aim to collect money to: t impro\.e the school facüties r buy equipment for the labs (laboratories), books for the library, more computers, a sports hall or a slvimming pool, for example. 3 Raising money for a good causeor charity These projects aim to collect money fs¡; r r I r

a charity, such as C:urcer Research victims ofa natural disaster: earthquake, drought, floods, famire victims of war a local amenity: health centre, library, hospice (= nursing home for d-re terminall), ill ).

When r'vriting about proje cts, keep the following points in mind: r The projects shou.ldinvolve as many students as possible. r You should include the benefits to the students, such as buildirg selfconfidence and team lvorl<. Now let's loc¡k at the types ofproject in more detail, taking into account the points given above.

ProiectI o Aworenessof the env¡ronment This aims to make students au'are ofpollution, and teachesthem to respect the environment. At school, this means, lbr exan'rple,not dropping litter. How con you involve 05 mony students os posbible? r Organise a 'design-a-poster' competition throughout the school, lvhere everyonc designs a poster showing the theme of the proiect. r IIow can you motivate everyonel Choose a winner from each Year group. The rvinning posters will be put up round the school and locally in the town library, for example, or on the supermarket noticeboard. One ofthe students mav become famous!


l 13

r Arrange for someone from the local environment group to come and give a talk. To avoid this being boring, make sure the person gives out stickers, leaflets, paper hats or paper flags. You could hand out a questionnaire and whoever answersthe questions correcdy wins an erwironment T-shirt. r Arrange to go on a trip to the town refuse collection department. Find out what happens to your rubbish after you throw it away. Meet a refuse collector (the person who collects the rubbish bags). r students discover what a landfill site is. (It is a very large, deep hole or pit dug to obtain clay for brick making, or minerals, then filled up with compressedmbbish over a long period of time . Eventually, after several tonnes of mbbish have been dumped, a large hill is formed.) r Hand out rubbish bags and rrrbber gloves to each Year group and make them responsible for clearing up certain parts ofthe school grounds. r Take some groups out to clear up a local park or beach. Make sure the local newspaper photographer is there to record their efforts. Another chance to become famous, r Arrange for your school to decorate a float (see page 72) in the local festival/parade. Some students could design the float, others take part on the float, and others walk behind it waving banners about pollution/ littey'the environment. Again, make sure the school mag¡zrne photographer is there. r Older Year groups could researchthe topic and put up a display in the recepüorrlor visitorsto admire.

Whot ore the benefitstroñe students? r They learn a great deal about the environment from fust-hand experience (they do it themselves). r S4ren they are actively involved,,the subject makes more of an impression on students than simply reading or being told about it. r They will remember it becausethey had fun learning about it. r As future citizens they will use their knowledge to behave in a more resoonsible wav.

ProlectI b Awqrenessof conseryqtion This aims to teach students about conservation of natural resources.At school, this means looking at recycling.

How conyou involveos monystudents os poss¡ble? IJse many of the ideas outlined for the awarenessofthe environment project above, including: I losters r Speakers I Visits - this time to a recycling factory. Let the students discover what happens to a soft drink can after it is thrown away. r Decorate a float in the recycling theme. r At school, put out containers round the grounds: one for empty soft drink cans, one for glassand one for paper. Seeifyour school can fiIl more containers than it did last year. r Put up a display in reception

FORMALWR/IING I 14 T PRODUCING Whot ore the benefitsf,othe siudents? The same as those mentioned for the awarenessofthe environment project above.

Proiect2 Roisingmoneylo improveschoolfocilities Many ideas should spring to mind here, for example holding a cake sale or having a jumble sale. (A jumble sale is when people bring in old but respectableclothes, toys or unwanted items from home to be sold very inexpensively.) Remember, though, the important factor is how to involve as many people as possible. One idea would be to put on a school concert or play:

How conyou involveos monystudenlso5 possible? Consider how many people are needed for a concert or play: r r r r r r r r r r

the actors people to design and make the costumes people to design and make the scenerl' people to put make-up on tlle actors musici¿nsto perlorm tJ-temusic backstagecrew - Iighting, sound people to produce posters for advertising people to design and produce prograrnmes people to make and sell refreshments at the performances people to make recordings/take photographs.

Clearly, a very large number of students can be involved in this project! Wiü such a variety of skills required, there should be something to suit or interest everyone.

Whot ore the benefitsto thestudents? The¡e are many. Putting on a production takes months ofpractice. r It means missing lunch break or staying on after school. This requires dedication, sacrificeand patience. r Working together teachesteamwork and the spirit of co-operadon. r You also feel that, however small the part you play, you are important; this increasesself-esteem(= having a good opinion ofyourself ); üis, in turn improves your self confidence. r You understand that achier.ementcomes as a result of hard worl<. r Worhing as a grolrp developsyour social skills. r It is an experienceyou will never forget; it becomes part ofyour personal development. I You feel a senseof pride that 1'our effort contributed to the new swimming pool, for example. I You have ftin and enjol' 1.o¡¡sElf. Arodrer idea N'ould be to organise a sponsored event. Again, this usually involves everyone at school. Sponsored swims are often popular. They are quick and easyto organise. Each student cán swim either a maximun'r number of lengths of the pool (40, fbr example), or for a


l 15

maximum length of time (an hour, for example). Each student tal<eshome a sponsor form for parents to fill in, agreeing to pay the young person whatever amount of mone)¡ they choose for every length their child swims. Ideally, parents should also passthe form to their friends and colleaguesto complete. On the day, there is a great deal ofcheering and noisel Teachers count off the lengths as the students swim, and stamp the form when each student finishes, certifiring the number of lengths swum. Parents then multip\' ¡¡s number of lengths by the amount per length promised, and send the money to school.

Whol ore the benefitsio thestudents? Again, there are many. Most were mentioned in the notes about putting on a school concert or play and include the following: r r r r

pride to be doing something worthwhile increasedself-confidence and self-esteem,becauseyour effort is important development of social skills awarenessthat effort is recuired for achievement.

Proiect3 Roisingmoneyfor o goodcouse Putting on a play or holdhg sponsored events are the projects most likely to be successful.The benefits to the students will be the same as those mentioned above. It will develop in the students a senseof charity, and the importance of giving. Now you have all the ideas, and are aware of the kind of points the examiner exDectsvou to include.

Writing q pro¡ectcompos¡tion Seepage 94 for information about how n-ruchto write in the exam.

Introduction The introduction should start outsidethe actualtopic. Ifyour project is concernedwith raisingmoney for a new X-ray machinefor your local hospital, for example,your introduction could startwith health. Begin in the sameway asusualfor formal compositions,, using a rinc iir,,:r'. rvtcsg ¿rtt\ 5. ' Nc',',fiiln\\.

I dueto | .. > rntr¡Kst0 |



) awareness camnaians .". I > aocumenÍ.aN 0roarammes.. . | ..

ol ) fnemeata... ) asa resurr

we people teenGgers The-ie dü_v-s, asa resultof awareness úmpüigns,wearebetterinformed about theimporttnce of health. programmes, peopleareveryawareo{ the ¡'or,v¿.¡n'¡¡vs, thanksto docvmentary importance of Wotecttng theenvironment.

I Ió T PRODUC/NGFORMALWR/I/NG Go on to cxplain what thc problem is: r a lack of equipment at the healtl-rcentre l r inaclcquate sports facilities at schoolf r a lack of respect fbr thc environment among schoolchildrenI Go on to explain rvhat has causedthe problem: r lack of ñrnclsl r increasein the local populationl Ther-rexplain lvhat dre consequencesare: l h ¡ s m e ú n sl . h a t. . . . " . w h l t h m e c n st h ü t . . "

Body Norv move on to ¡he body of the composition: Aur sthjút p{oject.¡nv,}lvts... Bearingt,hisin wtincl,we have chasefl. . . t|s cüt' schaolWajert^This involves. "^ Then continue l-r1,o.¡tt the ideasprcviousl,voudincd. Remember to include: r horv the studcnts are involvcd r the benefits to them. €onclusion The conclusion should be sl-rortand reler.ant: us. wp-hope yau \¡Jil!cúffÉ alonq únd sL¿ppa{t ?leaseg¡vE{JenerrJusly. t:very iiffle heltts. Nü Gffiauftti5 tco sntúll. When r'r'riting about a good cause,trv to make ,vour con-rpositionrelerrantto thc rcader. If it is to do r'vith health, for exernplc, renember to point out that none of us knou,s r.vhenu.c may need me dical help. Wren you practise lvriting these con-rpositions,you r.vill find it is easicr to rvrite about the project in the pxst tensc, as if it is finishcd, especiallywhen yoll come to $,rite abolrt the benefits to the students. It is hard to saywhat these are if thc project has not stxrted!

C o m o o s i l i ofn s l l 7



&ues2\*r¿ Z

Youwonl lo co leclmoneyforo ,peco proect Wr te o feoiurefor your ocol newspoper, lhe reodersto give mofey1011. You describing yourproieclond persuodlng moychooseone of thefollowingprolects of ofy you qre i¡leresledi¡. " Supportyourloccrlhospice a Computers for schoolsL ' Pubic swimmlngpoolfor our town

{hwestían 2

YYrileon entryfor thecompelition odverllsed h'eow lo win o compulefforyourschool.

lf yourschoolis involvedin a project thatyou believeis interesting, we wantto hearaboutit. Thetype and sizeof schooldoesnot matter,and nor doesthe natureof the project,whetherit is improving the schoolenvironment, for example, or raisingmoneyfor charityor producing a play. To enter,you mustwritea descriptionof your projectin about 200wordsgivingdetailsof your aims,methodsandthe people involved.

Qwes\ífin 3

how theschoocon roise Wrlle o shortarllclefor yourschoo mogozinesuggesling for excmplethelibrcrry/new compulers/sporls moneyfor foclltiesor equipmenl, e q u i p m e nW t . r i t eo b o u ll 5 0 2 O Ow o r d s .

Formolletters Sometirnes the letter you are asked to wdtc may not be to a fliend. You mar. be asked to write to a group or socicty, asking for information of some kind, or you may be asked to write an application fbr a job. As an IGCSE student, you are probably still at school or college, and u,ould only be looking for an o.ening or holiday job. This may involve beirrg a receptionist, a tour grúde, or someone who helps organiseplay activitiesfor childrel.r.It is important to remember drat this kind ofjob is not your career. You u,ant the job for the money, the experienceand something to fill your tin-re. For these reasons,the language in a job application letter (that you u.rite in an exam) should be formal, but not over formal. Do not include information about previous employment experience or qualifications. Write simply about yourself as you are now. Ansr,verthe points made in the adver-tiseme nr, rcmembering to creatc intcrcst ifyou can. This ma)¡ involve contfast: ifyolr want to join a singing group, for example, you may mention that your voice is n o t e x c e p r i o n a l lgyo o d . M o d e s r yi s i m p o r r a r r . Look at this example, based on a question from a past exam paper: Youore lookinglor o hoiidoyiob ond you seelhisodve tsemenl.


HELPERs The VillagePlaygrouplooks after childrenaged5-10 while their parentsare at work and duringthe schoolholidays. Playgrouphelpersare neededto organiseindoor and outdoor activities and to take part in children's gamesand outings, Helpersmust: . be ableto supervisemealsand make snacks . accompanychildren on day trips to local placesof interest. The ab¡lity to speakanother languagewould be an advantage. Applicationsfrom studentswill be considered.

Wriie o le er of crppicotionexpolf ing why you thinkyou woud be suitol¡le. l\4rere did you see the advertisen-rent¡You probably sarvit locally (it is a village play grottp), perhaps: r r r I

on the noticeboard in thc public library in tlre local ne\vspaper(Citizen, Herald, Smalbille Tiwes) in the r.illage newsletter in the Post Office window.

Begin your letter by refcrring to the job, saying u'here you sarvit and when. You may want to give )¡our age ald explain your situation: Dear SirlMadant,

I wús¡nterested to seeyaurüdveft¡sement far playgraup helpersin thisweek'sCitizen.



I am revisingfor my tCCSEs. I haveiustfintshed takingmy tCCsEs. I havebeenundera lot of stress revisinqand wouldwe-lcome ü complete changefromacademic work. I wouldliketo put myenerLyintosometh¡ng completely d¡fferent . from studying You may want to mention any languagesyou have been studying. Be careli not to list the languages (one is enough) or to give the impression that you are brillia¡rt at it. Instead, say somethirg like:

I havea wark¡ng knowledge of Russidn. Russion wosoneof my TCCSE subjects, but my spokenexperience is limited. \Vhen writing about your qualities and abilities, try not to start by boasting: ,

I a m g o o da t . . .

./ | enioy OI

y' Myfriendstell methat I am goodat ... y' Myteachers tell me ... y' My musiclsportslcookery teacheris usuallypleasedwithmy worklefforls. Remember Creoteinterest through conlrosl.

Although I do not enjoycoaking,I regularlypreparea varieryof snacksfor my ne¡ghbours' childrenwhen I babysitfor them eachweek. Although I am notldo not considermyselfta be a particularly sportyperson,I h6ve successfully organisedfun racesfor local childrenon severaloccasions. Perhapsyour parentsboth work and it is your responsibilityto look after a younger brother or sister(or both!) when you comehome from may haveaccompanieda classofyounger chldren from your schoolon a day trip to the zoo/theme park, etc. As with all compositions,do not attempt to answereverything,just pick out one or two points and expandthem to createintercst.Do not try to soundwonderful at everything:be modest. Finish offwitl-r somethinglike: I shouldbe gratefulif you wouldsendme an applicatjonform and any other relevant¡nformation I details . Then the formal: I lookforwardto hearingfromyou. Yot)rsfaithfully, Sign the letter wirh your fust and family name, then write it underneath the signaturein capitalletters,with your statusin brackets:

Suzanl4enilprt. SUSAN MENDES (Miss)


Exompleopplicotionlettrer This job appJicationletter r'vasrwitten by a student. The comments shou' hor. the student has written the letter usinq the features discussedin this unit.

Commenls DearSir, I wai very intererted to read your advertisem€nt for a play-workero tie notice-board ín the public library@ yesterday.@


I am seventeen year old@ and am currentlyrtudying for my IGCSEsO rightnow and feel I whichwill end on the 17thJune, I am undera lot of pressure necd a break after tfie exami.O I am good at handlingchildren and although@ | am not particularlykeen on rports,my fríendi tell me I am good at organísing games and children's activit¡es.€) I used to go baby-síttíng twice a week for our neíghbour's chíldren and usually prepared ¡nacks for them. I took a courue in cookery lait year at tüe Food and Health Centre.@ I should be grateful íf you would send me an application form and any other relevant details. I look forward to hearíng from you.

o o

Sloleswhereshesow lhe cldverlisemenl

o Stoleswhenshesow lh-^odverlisemenl

@ Stoiesoge



lhrough @ Creolesinteresl conlrosl


<.r^1-.^,,^lir ^. ^"¡

obi ities


th-^ Furiher supporls qpp icolion.Two mooeslexompres


Appropriole ending

Yours faithfrrll¡@


Stoteswhotthe job is


Exercise I

oboutioiningo Lookot theodvefisement below(bosedon o poslexomqueslion) ond lhe nolesgivenon musicgroup.Usingthesludeni's letleroboveond $e exomples yourself the nexlpoge,wrileo elierdescribing , expoiningwhy you woni lo becomeo memberof thegroupond oskingfor moredelois.

&":-ff,yK'& musicfrom different culture¡? Doesthe idea of taking part in a concért interestyou?

6-'';ü:i.S"#;" 6

Formol lefters a l2l

Pointsto cons;der r Your sq4c should bc formal rvith no short forms anc{no sleng. llorvever, it shoulcl not be over fbrmal - yoLr\r?nt to join thc krcal music group, not an intcrn:rtionll


ir¡stitrrrrorr r

r Sclect one or two points from the ¿dvcrtiscmcnt and cxpand thcnr to crcr'tfc i r t c r e s t .B c n t o d c s t .U s c c o r l . r a 5lLo ( r ' ( r l l ci r l l ( r \ ' \ t. ¡ Remember to stlrt bv u'hat the advertisement is about ¡nd u'hcre J¡OU SA\V It:

iti.izt: !t:'r rt;tt,; t tnüs ini.üü1:e{¿io re*r} yaur ntl.Lütiseft'tr-tLin k¡sI.v.'ieel<'t; vy,eml]ffsta jain tW iivit. ¡\411,,ic 6rcup. r lVhen you are describing )¡ourselfyou should rvrite about your charactcr end relo.ant qualities, not a ¡rhvsicaldescription. Why ¿¡s tt.t suddenly interestec{in joining thc groupl Here are some idees to start -r.outhi[rking. Have vou recendy movcd to thc area ancl r'voulclu,elcomc an op¡rortunitv to meet people s'itl-r thc sf,mc interests¡ - 1)o you finally have some liee timc, having just finishetl ,vour exams, ancl $ant to rclax, expanclsocially) llave 1.s¡ bccn too busy until t.tou'f Are you under strcssbccausenost ofyour time is spcnt rcvisingf Do you u,ant to make d-remost of ,vour linited avaihble fiee time ) lVoulcl thc Civic Music Group help you rclax and unr'r,inclfGive vor-tsomcthing \4,orthwhile to dof Do ¡'ou ¿tt;oy.Utging cven though you clo not havc thc bcst I'oice in the rvorldf Crcatc interestthrough contrast. - l)o you go to an international school/livc in a cosmo¡roliten socicty and have friends from c¡ther culturesl Woultl you lil<c to lcarn sonrething about people liom othcr cultures becauseyou ncvcr mcct thcm¡ Will your or'r'ncultural trackgrouncl be of intcrcst to/cnrich the groupl H . t v ey o u a l r v r l sr v a r t t c dr u t . t h c¡ ¿ ¡ ¡ i r r ¿ e o n c c r t ) r Remember to rsk for more information: I shsftitl !.)(.úrül.tiul tf y"auüúL¿l{¿ tmd irÉ r}n a{i2l;Lat.¡an lú{trt tlnr} i}ny u|..iún aetGiis. {!t-hertrk:va{tt-inlaN'rú I

Remember n thisk ¡d ol etler,yoLrdo ¡ol knowihe personyou ofe wfil¡rglo so youf eilef ¡ot i¡c ude shoL'ld p , - f 5 ir ¡ c s L ¡ . : l .

Exercise 2

r Tl'rcn thc fbrmal ending: t lrsakfarward b hertrin¡¡ frr:rn '¡oLt. r Sign the letter lr.ith your first irnd fámily name, then $¡ritc it undcrneath the signature in cepital letters, rvith l.our status in brlckets.

Now lry 10wrilethe ellerto theClvicMusicGroupseverolimes,usingthesuggestions givenobovein different combinotions ond o so usingyourown ldeos.

122 .


Useof descriptivenorrotivein formol lefiers Some letters may require 'descriptive narratir.e' trcatneift. Look back to Section 2, Unit 4 for the features of descriptive narrative r'vriting. In exercise3 )...r going to write to thc manager of a hotel yorr stayed at ".. recently to inform him that you lost a personal item while you were there. r Writing to a hotel manager means: - no short fbrms - no slang - no personelising. r What did you losef Spend some time thinking about this. Consider its size and value and why it is important. Many students will r'vrite about an expensiveitem so, be different! \\4ry not choose son-redringwith sontitnental valte, which would have no real appeal to a thief- for example: a digital camera with photos of your 82 year old grandmother who you had travelled to visit for the first time a mobile phone (with the number of 多mold friend) - a special souvenir or gift. r D o n ' t f b r g c t t o s a yu h i c h r o o m ) o u $ e r c s l a \ i n g i n . r How did you lose/forget the itemf This is the narrative part. Create the circumstances. r When did you realiseyou no longer had itf r You are hoping to have the item returned, so be diplomatic, not rude. Do not r'vrite in an accusing tone: Do lrrt suggest the item rvasstolen, sayyou wtisplaced. it. Do lurtsuggest the stafl are dishonest. On the contrary, make it clear that ),ou feel certain they would have handed the itern in if they had found it. Do 多多t make any other complaints about the hotel. r Decide r'vhatyou \y多rrt the manager to do with the item if he finds it. - forward it to youf keep it fbr someone to collectl telephone you with the infbrmationl


givenobove,wrileo lefl'er Usingtheinformolion io themonogerof o hoie you sloyed in recenlly, lo informhimlhoiyou oslo personoilemwhileyou werethere.Then comporeyouronswerwiththeonewrittenby o siudenlon the nexlpoge.

Formolleftersa 123


formsl letter Student's Read the following formal letter written by a student in resposeto this exam question, and the comments related to it.


Qr¡esfion I

* Nole wrifienby on IGCSEsludenlond moysliI contoinminof Thisis on ofigino composilion ln thecommenls column,the lefierG relersto poifls lf lhe Grommorunilon mislokes. poges I Bó-99. Theonow (-+)pointsto whothe lexlln üe ettershoudbe chongedio or repocedwilh. lo infofmhim/herthot Wrile o ellerto the monogerof o hote you sloyedin recently you loslo personolilemwhileyou werefhere.

DearSir, I am writing to inform youo that duringmystaytnyour hotellastweekI unfortunatelymisplacedon important personal item.O I was stayingf' in Room'1042, havinga greot time,@ I looked¡n when9 I decidedto buysomething for my qrandmother. 'forher.Theselect¡on was all the shopstryingto findsometh¡ng ln theendI but6 I wTntedsomething memorable. marvellous, to shehappens founda uniquephoto6lbum,theshapeof dolph¡ns, wantedto buyit andsinceit wasthe 6dorethem-Another customer lastone,I convinced himto leave¡t for me. on walkingbackto my roomI stoppedat the o6sisPoolto meeta friendof mine.rhenI wenrb packand completely Íorgota íboutthe presentl had bought.Olt was ,lot untilg I unpacked I nust have@leftit 6t my bag at homethismorningthat I realised thepool. it is of specialvalueto meand Although¡t ¡s¡nexpens¡ve, offlce wouldmakean old maybe ¡n the lostproperLy asoneof yourhonesto stuffm6yh6vefoundit. lf so,I shouldbe gratefulif youwouldforwardit to the hboveaddress. in th¡smTtter. Thankyou foryourco-operation I lookforward to hear¡ng fromyou. Yoursfaithfully, ola Kassem OLAKASSEM íMiss)

Commenls ¿el tl) Conectuseof lormolregister. you knowis friendy regisler ond woud 'o- be oppropio e Lere. @ As o rule,do nol repeollheword Here,the usedin thequeslion. studenl chongedlastla m¡splaced ond includedimportant.Goodl @ Norrolive:sellinglhe scene -+ | was @ Thisis friendlyregister havingan enjoyable st6y... usuoly @ when:limesequence: inlroduces o suddenconlfosl. l)ere,and woud be beifer. @ C 5 o r d G a W ' o ' g u s eo f b u t : butioinso posilivelo o negotlve f lerebothportsof the sentence. s e - t ó nó( o t F p o , e . U s eo n d . @ Nice word porlners @ Correcluseof posfperfecl phrose @ Timesequence @ Deduciion good grommorpoint @ No need10meflionlhis

Schoolmogozineorticles Whqt is o schoolmogozine? Mary IGCSE ESL students have never heard of a school magazine until they read the exam question. I A school magazine is usually produccd once a year (but is not to be confused with a Year Book), and is printed on good quality papcr, often lvith colour photographs. r It contains information about nerv and retiring members of staff, ne.ivs about school clubs and societies,sport, school trips both at home and abroad, exchange visits with language students, exam results and, of course,, original contributions written by students of all ages. I Articles for a school magazine are mainly r,vritten by students fc¡r studcnts: in other words for people about the same áge as you and with almost the same education, background, culture, ideas and oudook on life as you. It is like lvriting to a large number offriends all at once!

Therightopprooch When r'vriting a school magazine article, bear in mind the following. I Do not give the inpression that 1,o¡ are an expert and the readcrs knoly noüing. r Be enüusiastic. Whatever you rvrite must be something vou are enthusiastic about and firmly believe in becausecontributions to the school magazine are voluntary. No one approachesyou and asks1.ou to write an article. This enthusiasm should shorv through in 1,ourwriting. I Be convincing. Ifyou r.vantyour article to be printed in the magazine, ir must be written in a convincing way becausenot every contribution is automatically included. Usually an cditorial committee, which consistsof studcnts and one or two members of stafl, reads evervthing and selectsthe bcst. r Be interesting. Remember that most of the readersare at school lvith l'ou and knolv the things y6¡ know, so be careñrl not to give them a biology Iesson,for example, ifyou rvrite about smoking or keeping fit. To avoid doing this, ).ou have to present information from a different, more interesting angle. I Personalise. Emphasise anv points you have in common with your readers (attitudc to parents, school work, friends, for example). Try to replace I Nüenever possible with rr. This has the effect ofpersonelising the article, and makins the rcader feel involved.

Register in schoolmogoz¡ne orticles The register (or level of language.lused i¡ ¡ school nragazine article can vary. Much depends on how serious the topic is. Some topics can be treated in a light-hearted wav and can be N.ritten in informal (frienclly) register. f)ther topics are more serious and will need formal register. Sometimes the language needed may fall halfrvay betrveen the t$..oregisters.

SchoolmogozíneorÍiclesa 125 F







" formot of o school mogozlne onlcle

School magazine articles can be divided into the following different secdons: r I r r

Title Introduction Body Ending

Let's look at each stage in detail, beginning with the title, introduction and ending,, and then looking at different qpes of body separately.

Tiile Always give the article a title , and underline it. Make it interesting. From the very beginning, sholr. the examiner that you know exactly what you are doing Try to thirk ofan effective, interesting tide. Compare the nvo following titles: How to Preporefor Exoms Exom Nerves Cure From these titles, which article would you prefer to readl Not many teenagers about to take multiple IGCSEs would bother to look at an article rvidr the first title. IIow much advice have ]'ou been given about horv to prepare for examsf Certainly your teachers,your parents, older broüers and sistersand perhaps er.en friends have all passedon tieir own tips, hints and advice. The title sounds dull, boring and uninspiring. There is no suggestion that an arti cle about such a serious subject might be treated in a light hearted way. Most readerslvould probably turn the page as quickly as possible! The second title, on the other hand, looks more interesting. Perhapsyou have exam nenes (most students do, although not maly ofthem admit this in pubüc), and it is nice to know you are not alone. It is ahvaysinteresting and ieassuring to find people lvho are in dle same situation and how drey are dealing with it. Could there be something to calm you down in this articlel Is there really a cure fbr exam nervesl Clearly, there is more chance ofthe reader being attracted to an article with the second tide. This means the second title is more effective. (It is interesting to note, however, that bodl articles clubl' contain almost the same ideas., Unfortunately, good titles do not ah,'aysjump into your mind just when you need them. You will find, though, that with practice, titles will come to you more easily dran you may think. Read as many English newspapersor teenage magazines as possible and take note of the titles. Look at some more tides and w\ they are successful. SummerHolidoys Loom 'holidays' uiually means something to This is interesting becausethe rvord look forward to, something positive' the idea offreedom and happiness.The word'loom' usually gives the feeLingof something very large, unknor'vn and unpleasant, dark and threatening, alwaysin the distance but coming slolvl¡' cloier. Clouds loow in tbe sky. Exams loowl yott cannot escapefrom then-r!So 'lhis is a good tide becauseit does zar explain to how could a holidal, loow? the reader exactly what the article is about, unlike I{or to Prepare for Exatns, and this makes it interesting. In other words, it is an effective tide becauseit crcatesintcrcst throush contrast.

126 .

PRODUCING FORMALWRIIING What could an article with this title be aboutf We all know that. after the fust few days, long holidays can become really boring. This article could be to encolrrage readers to take up a sport or a fitness programrne, read a particular book, become involved in charity work and so on, in order to get some benefit from the holiday. TV: The Teenooer'sViewooinl This is interesting becausethe letters Tand Zhave been used as an abbreviation for tslepisionand then reneated in the extended title. TV-ATeenageVíew This is another variation of the same techliclue.

lntroduction Al effective introduction often starts with a question to involve the reader and encourage him to continue reading. Look at some examplesand w\ they are successful.

Areyüu oneof the manystudents w¡thexamnewes? r The use ofthe word you makes this personal, and the reader automatically relates to himself. r The use of the phrase one of the many suggeststhat the reader is not alone a n d g i v c sa l e e l i r r go f b e l o n g i n ga n d f a m i l i a r i q. An introductory question c¿rnoften concern a topic such as bullying, academic performance or being overweight, which a student may prefbr not to discussor admit to in public, and this makes it very personal indeed.

Areyou a secretN addict? You probably know the kind ofperson who saysdrat TV is rubbish and a waste of time, but uüo then goes home and watches it every evening. Or fiiends who sa)¡they are far too busy studying to watch TV, but talk about all the charactersin every programme! Anothe¡ ad\¡antageofusing a question in the introduction is that it gives no indication of the content of the article. In the example above, the article could be about: r infbrming the reader about the dangers ofwatching too much TV r informing the reader about the educational benefits ofwatching TV r waming readers that too much time in front of üe TV screenwill affect their schoolworly'exam grades r suggesting readers spend their time on more useful hobbies such as sport a r d r e a di n g . Creeting intcrcst in this way makes the reader want to read on to find out what the article i.r about. This makes it a successfulintroduction.

Areyou a self-confessed cauchpotato? A couchpotato is someone who lies on a couch (= sofá, settee), usually in fiont ofthe TV and usually with a box ofchocolates) a container ofpopcorn or other lattening snack, for hours without moving. This introduction is successñrlfor the same reasousas mentioned above.

Schoolmogozineorticlesa 127 Try to think whatthe followingexamples of possible introductions could possible be about,remembering that, to be effective, thereshouldbeseveral meanings. Areyou sabusywarkingthcttyou haveno timefor sport? quickly Doyoulongto finishyourhomework soyoucancallapse in frontof the 'W screen? you haveheardagainsttelev¡sion? Areyoufed Lrpwith all theargumenfs Areyoud{eadinq thethoughtof thelong,boringholidays? Tronsition Introductions using questions are often followed by a transition sentence, which acts as a link between the introduction and the body ofdre article by preparing the reader for what the article is about. If the topic is of a serious nature, it also marks the beginning of the formal language. l{ere are some introductions from magazine articles, using the question technique. The transition sentencesare undedined.

Look,nostressllDon'tweall wishwecouldsayth¡severydayof our |ives- and rneani0 Newc_des$Iesl5€en4jlo bethe oneword.that'so{rslgrybw;And. (An article on stress)

Looking dull andstressed? well,don'tworry.YpurcEdnotspendtheentire ae!ügJLths-bsltlepa, (An article on health or beauty)

w6nt to exper¡ence thejoysaf thecounttys¡de? There's nathingtQbeata canalhol¡dIyto take:/ou closerto naturc(An anicle about canal holidays)

Whatdoestheterm'wo(k¡ng woman'evoke? Arewomen's aftítudes chang¡ng? tsfeminismoutdated? Twostud]3,s llJglilighllü€_.,issu€S at stske glJQLthe roleof today'swomen. chang¡ng (An article about the tu o studies¿nd their content)

Thereis no lawthat prohibitsdrivingwhilefatigued,but shouldwetaketherisk? (An article on road safety)

Ending A school magazine article ending should be fairly short and use the same personal style and register as the introduction and transition. The purpose of tlle ending could be: I to summarise lhe a¡ricle r l o e\pressyour olr n opinion r to leave the reader with someüing to think about. If the topic ofthe article can be treated in a light-hearted way, then the style and register will be the same throughout. If the topic (and, therefore, the body) of the article is serious (and, therefore, formal and impersonal), the ending will be in contrasting style,

I28 ¡ PRODUCING FORMALWR/I/NG similar to the introduction and transition, and linking to them. The ending r'vill be direct and personal and will try to involve the reader again. Look at the endinss ofthe articles oudined in the rest ofthis unit.

Body of mqgqz¡neqrt¡cle Beforeyou begin The basic ideas fbr a serious (formal) or a light-hearted (informal) article will be the same, but will need to be adapted to the question according to register. It wiLl be helpful to consider each topic and the different phrases associatedwith different register beforethe exam. (Refer to the Database of topic-related vocabulary and ideas on pages 23144.) Before you begin, decide whether you can treat the topic in a üght-hearted wa)¡ or not. It is often easie¡"to write a serious article, but nrlre intel'estingto write in a lighthearted waY.


Typesof schoolmogoz¡ne orticle quest¡ons There are severalqpes of school magazine article questions you may be asked to answer in the exam, including the following: I 2 3 4

Giving your vier'vor opiniory'putting fonvard arguments ¡lor and against Dealing with problems and solutions Giving advice/making suggestions Narrative sometimes referred to in the question as ñn accoant

Lct's look at each tvoe of article in detail.

I Givingyour v¡ewor op¡n¡on/puttingforword orgumenls for ond ogclins¡ Clearl¡,,dre instruction words are the sameas those used for formal writing and the topics rvill often be ofan apparently seriousnature. This qpe ofquestion involves 'sandwichhg' a formal body between an informal introduction ald ending. Look at dre kind of question that has or could come up:

Remember E How muchto wfile in he exo¡¡. LJ Referto the Dotoboseof toplcre oted vocobulory ond ideosto r¡okesure you knowoll theprosond - ond odd consof iourism o¡y ol yourow¡ ideos.

I r r I I I

the eflects of modern sciencc the effect ofcars on the environment single sex schools toufism compulsory competitive team sports at school the in-rportanceof appearance.

Let's look at a qlrestion based on a past exam paper. ^A^ Write on orlicleforyourschool pullingforwordyourideosond o fgumenrs.

t t h o o f f a.¡ .t <. ¡,f . t n- '., r i s ^ -or '

y o u rc o u n - J /

For the body ofthis tlpe ofarticle, begin by writing the first three paragraphs of ¿ riews and argrrnents composirion.

Schoolmogozine orticles J


Firstporogroph Generalintroduction explainingthe importanceof the subject.Make sure vou include the folloüng: r Time fixcrs ¡'ror4¡{¡dGJ,s¡/thess dnystrecenl.lylu irtil slo\'\¡f¡$ tl,¡itpúst/l.tA.,ey¡ty yecrrsor¡oJirillt: lú¡sti'jr¡eyeürs I Generalisatiorrs nearlyalllmanylalargenumberoflseveral Secondporogroph Put forward onesideof ¡he issuebeing argued;for example,the argurnentlz fawur. Make sureyou include the following: r Vieus and argumentsphrases one of the main argumentsin favourof ... is thot Somepeople(would)6rguethat . . . tt is a fact that .. . r Joining points - addition Furthermore, f Moreover, fwhat ¡s more,I Bes¡des, r Supportphrases whichlthislwhich meansthatlth¡smeansthatlas a resultlconsequently Third porogroph Put forward the other sideofthe issuebeing argucd;fbr example,the argumentagainx. Make sureyolr include the following: r Joining points - contrast on the otherhand,fnowever,lNevertheless, I Views and argumentsphrases Oneof the main arguments against... ¡sthat It can be arguedthat .. . It hasbeensaidthat ... r Joining points - addition Furthermore,f Moreover, lwh6t ¡s more,l Besides, r Supportphrases whichlthislwhichmeansthatlth¡s meansthatf as a resultlconsequently Fromcompositionlo schoolmogozineorticle To tu¡n a vieu,sand argumentscompositioninto a schoolmagazinearticle, follorv the three stepsbelorv. I Add a schoolmagazinearticleit.rtroductionwithout a clearexplanationof the topic (to get thc reader'sattention). Haveyou everbeenfr tüunst?Dttlyou cansideryourselfa ynen6c.e?

I3O T PRODUC/NGFORMALWR/I/NG 2 At the end ofthe introductory paragraph, inscrt the úansition sentenceto prepare the rcader for u'hat is to come. Da \Np {eally warti ta be r,lat¡dtd \^t¡thtaur¡si-|? Perhlps it'5 t¡vqewe siopped t.t t'::nsjderthe neqctíveasp€(t\ of i:tlura\tn 3 After the formal controvcrsy paragraphs,r'vrite a school magazine articlc ending. lil<t:tc Nevr time yúu qa Úbractrl r?,rlÉvttbil{tr} behave the wúv yau "!rtJt)lr} seet.auris6 behave here. Exercise I

ob,ove,wrileon orlice foryourschoolmogozineoboulthe Usingthe informotion Then effeclsof lourismon youfcounlry,pultingforwordyourideosond orgumenls. ond lhe leocher's commefls compoieyoufonswerwilh lholwrillenby onothersludent on pogeI 34.

2 Deolingwith problemsond solufions Lct's look at a qucstion based on a past cxam paper, uüich deals with dre apparcn d y s c r i o u sl o p i c o f p o l l r r t i o n . Mony siudenlshope lo hove fheirown cqrs one doy bul young peop e ore we I owore Wrile on orlic e for your schoo of the problemswhich cors cousethe enviTonrnenl. mcgozine explcining how driverscon reducethe impoct the cor hcrson lhe efvlfonme¡T.

Is there any \\'a,vto make this serious subject more interestingf Look again at thc clues in the qucstion: 'Many students hope to have their own c¿üsone day. . .' Most you¡g ps.ple consider being able to drive and ou'ning a car to be an important milestonein their lives.Wryf It represents freedom and independence :u'rdyou can go where you like rvhen you like without rclying on parcnts or public üansport. This is the positivc, opúmistic side of driving. On the other hand, as the voung ¡reoplein vour school are educatedand intelligent, they must be 'arvare of the proble ms r'vhich cars causethe environnrent'. This nreansyou nust be extra careful not to make vour article sound like a lesson or a list of boring fácts r'vhich the reader has heard befbre, iust as you have, from the teachersat school. It is important not to bcgin r'vith anything negativc, thrcatcning, pcssirnistic or too serious. In odrer words, do not begin with a formal introduction. Do not launch into an attack on cars! If your introcluction in any rvay suggests that cars are trad or that driving should be banned, this rvill not correspond r'vith the feelings and attitude of the young readers.Tl.reyn.rayeven f'eel anno)¡ed by the article - what position at eyou in, they mav ask, to point owt tbe bad,things about ¿¿rsfIn other words, readers will not be encouraged tcr continue reading. Your task is to make the article ñctual, but readable and convincing at the same time - to point out the facts in an acceptablervav to fbllor'vstuclents. Norv carry out the following steps to write the article.



Step I Before you begin, it will help ifyou list your real feelings about the topic in other words, from a young person's point of view. These are the views likell, to be shared by most young people. For example:

I don'tcareif carexhaust causes air pollut¡on; I wantto drive: . so I cdn visitmy friendswhenever I want . because I can'taffordpublictrTnspaft . because t'm fedup relyingon Mumcnd Dadto takemeeverywhere . because t wantto beindependent. My brotherdrivesandsodo my parents, sowhyshouldn'tt? Allwe hearaboutthesedaysistheenvironment. Step2 Make su¡e you begin r,üth a school magazine anicle introduction. Try to write something the reader can identify with. This may be the complete opposite ofthe theme of the article, as shown by the list ofreal feelings above. The introduction of üe article may be something like this:

Howmanyof youarecounting thedaysuntilyoucandrive? Howmanyof usarenearlyreaching drivingage? Areyou lookingforuvard to geftingbehindthewheelaf yourveryfirst,very owncar- or eventak¡ngyourDad'sout for ú run? Behonest. Howoftendoyoudaydream abovtbeingat thewheelof an apentoppedsportscar whenyou shouldbe revising your Business Studies? This involves the readers and makes them want to continue readinq.

Step3 Now üat you have the readers' attention, you can slowly bring them back to reality by beginning to introduce the serious side of the topic, usrlg a transition sentence:

... but haveyoueverstapped to cansider thedownsideof driv¡ng? ... but howoftendo westopto thinkof thedamagecarsaredoingta the worldwe livein? Step4 Look again at tlle instruction words in the question. Decide which format of formal writing is required (problems and solutions/suggestions) and plan out the paragraphs.

Step5 Write an ending to the school magazine article.

Sowhenyoudo actuallyget behindyauawnsteerinq wheer, remember to consider theenvironment. Happydnving!


Exercise 2

Mony sludentshope lo hove iheir own cofs one doy but young people ore very owore of the prob ems which cofs couse 1o the environmenf . Using the informollon crndbosic p on ob'ove,wrlfe on orliclefor your schoo mogozlneexp oining how drlverscon reducethe imDocllheif cor hos on the environmefl.

3 Givingodvice/mokingsuggest¡ons Most of the topics you n.raybe asked to give advice al¡out are well knorvn tcr students. For example, most of the students reading t1-remagazine rvill already knor.v er.erything there is to knorv about healthy eating. The kev is to find a light l-reartedapproach to the topic, as üis will make a morc interesting and more readable article. Possiblc topics includc: r r r r ¡ ¡ r

how to str.rdylbr exams the benefits of sport the benefits ofhealth¡' eating the dangers ofu,atching too much TV hou, to improve the school the trencfits of disciplinc at schoo.l thc bcncfits of school unifbrm. Let's look at a question based on a pást exam páper.

Write on orlice for yourschoo mogozinegivingodv ce ond suggestions on thebesl Exonr lip woy io fevise lor excrms. Seepcrge 94 lor i¡lormotio¡ oboul how mLrchlo wfite ln lhe exam.


Exercise 3

Begin rvith an introduction suitable for a school magazinc articlc but without a clcar cxplanation ofthe topic (to get the reader's attention). Write a transition sentenccor trvo to prcparc thc rcadcr for rvhat is to come. The nvo or three selious paragraphsshould includc adr.icephrasesand includc the kincl of support.r'ou lvou.ld put in a liiendly letter. Try to include we, for pclsonalising, and perhaps refer to teachers,otller students or relevant incidents rvhich may add humour. 1-he ending should retum to thc school magazinc articlc stl'lc

Uslngthe informolion obove,wr]lethecrrlic e. Thencomporeyouronswerwilh lhof wrl11en by onolhersludenlond theteocher's commenls on poge 135.

4 Norrotive You may tre askcd to \\'rite a narrativc (or account) about thc follou'ing: r e holidav you have been on recent\ I a school trip y¡r¡11y.n¡ on recent\ I a place you r''isitcd rccentlv. Most studentsgo on school trips with the intention of having fun and rvithout nruch thought for the educational purposc. An account ofa school trip or holiday rvill be very successñrlif it is r'vrittcn in a humorous, almost conversational sqde, as ifyou are actuall,vtelling your fi'icnds about it. The style of u'riting should be the samc as your mood on thc trip.

Schoolmogozineorticles f


Do not lvorrf if dris sccms impossible for you to achievc. Remenber that accollnts of trips are, basically,descriptive narrative stvle and, at thc same timc, school magazine articles. You shoulcl irclude: r an introduction whieh scts thc sccnc by giving ¿u intlic¿rtiorrof: the rveathcr, thc time of \¡ear ... . . . a n u r c t d S ú t ü { d ú ym a r t ' t i n gi n N o v e m b e r . . - an the l st í)úiyú[ fhe survwle{term

r I I : Exercise 4

- the number of students(and teachers) - thc qpe of transport - thc gencral moocl or atmospherc a selection of small, probably amusing incidcnts u'ith no consequencc- in other u,ords, interesting but not important a serious section describing thc things you saw/places you visited refcrencesto members of staff and other students to pcrsonirlisc an cnding uüich sayshor.venjo),able/successful the trip rvas.

crbove,writeon occouulof crschoolripyou weniof fecenlly. Uslngthe informollon Thencomporeyouronswerwilh tholwriltenby onolhersludenlond theleocher's commenls on poge I 37.



Students' schoolmagozineorticles Read the following selection of school magazine articles written by different students in responseto exam questions, and the comments related to dlern. The comments in questions I and 4 show how the student has written the answer using the structure discussedir this unit. * Note Theseore originolorticles wriltenby GCSEfudenisond moyslillconloinminor mislokes. In lhecommenls co umn,lhe eflerR refers lo poinlsin lhe Regisler unifon poges182-5, ond thele er G referslo poinlsin theGrommorunilon pogeslBó 99. Theorrow(-;) poinlslo whol fie lextln theorticleshouldbe chonged1oor repocedwith.

Quesfion I

Write on orlice for yourschoo mogozineoboultheef{eclsof lourismon youfcounlry, pullingforwordyourideosond orgumenls.

A problem called touri¡m(D When was lfie last time you travelled abtoad?Q Dld you follow the rule¡ of the place and respect {ñe environment?@ lf you d¡dn'L tüen you ought to give it some füoughL@ Recentl¿@ there hal been a great íncreaie ín the tour¡it industry@ which hasled to various environmental¿nd socialproblemr in a large number of@ countries. It ha¡ been argued thaóO the tourirt indurtry i5 one of the largestin the worfd, yielding a profit t¡at ü often enough to support a whole country'seconomy. Furthermore,@ ít provídesjobr for m¿nyyoung people, leading to@ a decrea¡ein the level¡of unemployment which is tüe reason for@ many crimeJin Jociety. On tüe other hand,@ tourirtr seemto spoil tie beauty of tJ.resitesthey invadedue to fittering ar well ar the fumes pumped out from their carswhich le¿ds ' to the oollutionofthe olace. Besides,@ sometouristr do not respecttl-recultures and tfaditionr of the placesthey visit and asa reruft influencethe community and changeitr habits. Whenevervou travel abroad bear in mind thatthe way you behavereflectsthe societyyou are from and you don't want people to tJrink we don't care about the environment do you?@

Comments youwonderhowlourism conbe Q Goodiile mokes o pfoDlem.

questions @ Nlce, schoo mogozineortice lnlroductory -) lf no! bearthesepointrin mind @ Uncleorhonsllion nexttimeyou go abroad@

i r , ei ' . .

the problem @ Exploining @ Generoisotion (vlewsond orgumentsl phrose+ firslpoinl @ Conlroversy in fovour of secondpoinlin fovour @ lntroduction €) Suppo phroses phrose+ firsipoinl @ Confoversy(viewsond orgumenls) ogornsl o[ secondpoinlogo]nsflouflsm @ lniroduction @ Schoo mogozineortice ending Generql comments a Thisis o verygood orlice. ¡ Thereis o good iflfoducllonusingquesiions lo involve tne leooef.

o Thesubjeclls treoledin crserious woy. o Thestudenlhosincudedo good viewsond orgumenls seciion,wilh good useof supportond formolregister. o " e e ' d i n gc o no r o l r e g , s l ^o' n o o o d e ' .o ' " "lo the reoderdireclly.

Schoolmogozine arÍiclesf (luestion 2


Write on ortice for yourschoolmogozinegivingodviceond suggestions on the besl woy 10fevisefor exoms. Comments

lf you have been FILLINGBUCKETSwiti your own 'Exam', rweat at hearingthe word GETA GRIPOF YOURSELF!A solutíon har been found. You will not haveto worry about exami any more after readíng this page.o 'Studying' is the leyrvord.@ All of us,or at any rate, most of ur study before exams,but how welf we study i5ímportanL To study,@ you should be in a state of concentration,O ro try to find a quiet, well-lit room to work in. While you are at ¡tO you might aswell get rid of@ your mp3 player- it will not help you witJ.rgrammar! The bestthing you can do ísreü¡ion. Revísef,) your notet everyweek and askyour teacherifyou 6nd anythingthat ír not clear.You might alsocon5ide¡. makinga revision timetable, it could be very helpful in sorting out your time.@ lf I were you, I would not only stick to my noter, but alsouseother reference¡like cou¡sebook and exerci¡ebook. That wilf help in ¡ncrGaJíngg your knowledge. lf you take some of this adúce, you might actualfy be goíng ¡nto the exarD with a smile on your face!@

Thereshouldbe o liile, underined. O

Excelent lnlroducllon

@ S h o d ,s i m p e o n d d i f e c t lg

study: repetltion

@ Rl -+ you should concent¡ate @ Whifeyou are at it: good expression: oi lhe some lrme @ R3 get rid of: friendy regisler,phrosolverb. Good @ revision.Revise:fepetilion @ Weok suppori of courseo limelobe helpsto sort oullime. @ Grommor -J help to íncreaJe @ lfyou ... face! Lovey ending. Nlce ideo sureto onoool ^ ^ h-r .l ,j-n s l-.^ncl -se oI erc oro- on mork lo indicole how un ikely thiswould be

Generol comments o Thisis on excelenloÍicle. a lt hoso verygood inlroduclion, whichis effective becouseil doesno¡mokec eor whottheorticleis obou1.1is directond oddresses sludenls personolly. Theuseof copilol etlers(osif shoutingJ geisthe reoder'sollention. o Thestudenltreolsthesubiectin o ightheortedwoy to ^^^a^l

t^ <n r^Áñt


o Thestudenlhosusedgood express¡ons ond vocoourory. o Thereis o verygood ending,usinghumour 1omoke lhe reoderreloxoflero I theserious odvlceoboul sTudyrng.


how 1oimproveschoo. Write on orlicleforyourschoolmogozinesuggesling Commenls

how¡t wouldfeelif youcouldchange lmag¡ne schoolrulesto onesyou like!lt wouldbegreat, but we all knowthat ¡t ¡snot l¡kelyto happen. rulescouldbechanged and¡mproved, School a l¡üle,w¡thoutbeing though,Oto suitstudents overdone.A Takethe old greyand whiteschooluniform, but a b¡tdull,I must common in ú lotof schools, get boredwear¡ngthesameclothes say.students quarters lt of theyear... whowouldn't? three for wereallowedto come would be nice@if students theywishaslongas¡t ¡sdecent. in whatever HairsryIes, too!we are not allowedto haveour hair cut in anyw6ywe l¡ke.I think thot should bechanged.O Howcana h1ircutaffectour schoolwork? insteadof justone How abouto 6 secondrecess húmans, too! whole day? studenB are the for now and then, need to h6ve a break evety fhey and not iusts¡ton chairslearningtheirheodsoff! Even Anryay,theserulesshouldbeconsidered. rulesisverylimited, school thoughchang¡ng mightaddmorehfeand somechanges to school. excitement

Thereshouldbe o llte. Q R8:Useal though1orepcrcebut @ Excelenlinlroductlon G2: Correctuseof second @ Firslsuggeslior. condilionolense () Secondsuggeslion phrose @ Anolherodvice/suggeslion Generol comments o A verygood orlice. 1o is directond eosyfor sludenls o Thelnkoduction identii'y' with. o Thesubieclls tfeotedin o ighlheortedwoy. ond expressed wilh ore sensible o Thesuggestlons thotthe respecl, whichshowsthesfudenlunderstonds buto so orliclemoybe reodnol ony b'yolherstudenls, by leochers ol theschoo. of crnykind. a Thereore fol monymislokes

Schoolmogozíneorticlesa 137 Quesiion 4

Wrile on oriicJe for yourschoolmogozineoboulo schoollripyou wenton recenlly

Commenls Year 77 frip to MantonThemep3:rko ltfter a month of boríng revísío6 fuLLowedbyanother month of totgh exam5 | caft saythat most o( us neededa good day out, We were lucky becausethe weathetQ on that áay was really hot and sunny.@ After a very Longand sticky coachjourney@ Zz excíted yLpíLs and {our anxíous teachers frnalLy arrived at the theme park. As you can ímagtne,becauseít was so hot, the water rídes had by hr the Longestqueues,so havíngwaited for agesand c[ímbed ínto the Iong [og thing, we were reaL|yin the mood, for abit o( funA Due to this f4ct, when we fl.oatedpast Mr Brown and, Mrs Smíth,@ who were stíLLwaitiftgpatiently ín the queu;e,we soakedthem both with water. ttnfortunately lor thetn the water was rather green and, dírtyQl By Lunchtímewe were starting but had to facemore queues,whether (or burgers or pízza and anytl.ting co[d to drínk. we were not surpríseá. to seethat M:Es Green@ had sensíblybrought along sandwíchesanda fl.askof tea and seemedto haveenoughto sharewíth Mr Brown (who had recoyered from tlrc soaking),The most popul¿r rL¿.ewasfhe Trolan,a roLLercoaster whích climbsup steepLyandthen dropsyot ínto a deep ho\e. Sallft {oL!,ndout that after a meaLís perhaps not the best tíme to try thís ride, as it made her quíte síck, and, many others complaíned. of headaches.@ fhe rest of the afternoonwasgreat fun, eatingícecream, Laughíngtogether and, goingon as many rides as we couLd,.Soonít was time to Leate,but as we clímbed back onto the coachw e r eaLisedthat Sarah and,l ulíe v¿eremíssíng +@ A(ter a quick paníc, and.seyeral calk t:o mobíLephones they were founá. safe and soL!,nd - they had gone to the wrong car park and couldn't ftnd the coach. After half an hour, the coachLeftfor Londonwíth 3z exluustedpupíIs aná,four re[íeved teachersra{ter a really good day out.

tite O Appropriot-^ ol theweother @ Description of ihe journey @ Description of theotmosphere @ Descripfion @ Personolising @ Humour @ Personolising @ M i n o ri n c i d e n l Generol commenls a Thisis o good descriptive norrolive schoo mogozine o r tc l e . o Thetrip is obvious y o funone ol theend of theschool yeor, ond hcrsbeen lrecrledin o ight-heorled woy, usingo rnixlure of formo qnd friendy register. o Thesiudenthosinciudedminorlncidenls fo creole inleresl ond personolising lo oppeo lo thestude¡l reooefs. o Thereis description of theweother,the journeyond fhe ofrnospnere. o Theinlroduclion ond endingore well wriifen,wilh the endingreferring bockto theiflfoduclion.

Bookreviews Sometimes one of the composition questions in the exam inr.olveswriting a review, usually ofa book. A book review has an almost standard layout in Enelish.


How to write q book rev¡ew Begin by writing the tide ofthe book and the author as a heading and underlir-re it. For example:

'Oliverrwist' by CharlesD¡ckens

lntroduction Abookt read recentlyand en)oyedwas... (book tide) by ... (author), ... Next give dre type of book: romance) drama, üriller, crime, horror, science fiction, classic,contemporary (= modern). Then set the book geographically and historically (in time); for example:

Geogrophicolly I I r r r r

in rural France in suburban New York in the suburbs of Cairo on a remote/desert island on a distant planet/star in the foothills of tlle Himalayas

Historicolly r at the turn ofthe lastcentury r before/afterthe FirstWorldWar r r r r r

in dre twenty-third century before/after the revolution in pre historic times in the early1800s in üe late 50s

(.=beforethe industrial -.. a classicraynancesetin pre-industrialisecl revolution)rural England.

Porogroph I: thesüoryline Do not tell the story. Take one sentenceto conrpare how the situation at the end of the book is different from how it was at the beginning of the book.

lifeof ... (character), Thenoveltraces/oLltiines/sketches/follows/the a ... (define), who... Thenaveltracesthelifeaf Christina, an orphanwho,afterspending many yearslivingwtthheraunt,findsherself transported ta a man'sworldwhenshe ¡"r¡oves ir¡withheruncleandh¡¡ocousins. Markandwilliam.



Porogroph2: thechqrocters Begin with a general statement about üe characters:

Therearemanywell-drawnlstronglconvíncing characters, suchas... (character's occrptaon/agc/ name),a (defineusingthe character's personality/role played),who ... and ..- (repeatfor anothercharacter)suchasTom,thestable Thenovelcontains a var¡ety af welldrawncharacters, aremore¡mportant than boywhoshowsthat morulvalues andcompassion imaginat¡on and spirit often cause socíal¡cosition, andwilliam,whase free tendonbetween himand histraditionally-rninded father. Then move on to select one particular character to describe slightly more ful\'. This ma)¡ be the central character ir"rthe book. name, etc.). 8y far the most interestingfappealing to m?-was ... (cl-raracter's Why do we like a certain character ir a book or film more than anotherl It is usually either becausethis character reminds us ofourselves in the way he (or she) reacts, or becausethe character is totally the opposite ofus, someone we would like to be (ifwe dared!). It could also be becauseofthe situation this particular character is in. It is important to explain the connection you feel with the character at this point. Look at the following examples:

I was Byfúr the mostGppeíl¡ng cha{acter to me,thouqh,was..., because . thewayhefeltwhen . . ableto identifywithhim,especially labout Thecharacter on mewas... because I was that madethe mostimpression whenlthe waylhow she... ableto relüteto her,especially Byfar themost¡nterestinq character to me,though,wos... . I admiredthe way hedealtwith the situat¡on when, .. howcver,I rhe charaúerI mostadm¡red, '| reDresens .-,.-._,__ I lusflce. , | was... Decause t ne I .. t '. l!Í.?!!-, . rhe character I admiredmost,hawever, I tn, I lv,Yl"lÍ.| pr )| compasston stanas ) was... because I

incident Porogroph3: memoroble This is the most difEcult paragraph in the book review. It is agood id.eato choosea suitable incident beforethe exñrit.I{ere are some tips abolrt how to make your choice. r Remember that the reader may not be familiar with you¡ selectednovel. In other words, your reader may not ha\.e read the novel you are revierving. Therefore, the íncident should have a relevanceofits own. r Do not include reference to a large number of characters.As each character needs to be defined, and this takes time and space,including too many would be confusing to the reader. ,

M6ry,Jack'syounger sister,decidesto take revengeon her step-sister, J6ne, whosehusbTndJohnis blackmailing Mark,M6ry'shusband..

I4O T PRODUCING FORMALWR/I/NG I Do not refer to earlier events that the reader will not be aware of. *

to h¡m. of what her fatherhad sa¡dldone lamesw6ntsto help Rachelbecause

Can you be sure that the reader knows whatitwas that Rachel'sfather had said or done to ,ames?Ifnot, you will need to explail it and there is neidrer spacenor time to do so in dre exam. Begin this section with a phrasesuch as: one af the vnastmeffiarablemomentsin the novelw1s when ^..

when... aneof theincidents t shüllneverforgetv\/as on ynewaswhen... oneof theincidents whichmadea lüstingimpression I thinkoneof thebestúa{tsin thebaokiswhen...

Porogroph4: recommendoiion In the final paragraph, you should give y6¡¡ overall opinion ofthe bool< and support your opinion. Do zol say: , ¡ , ,

I ltkedthe book. lt was a nicebook. Youshouldre6dthe book. I th¡nkyou will likethis book.

Wúo exactly do you think the book is suitable forl Teenagersl All age groupsf Romanticsl Those with a senseof adventurel Wry do you think the book is suitable for that particular group ofpeoplel

Anyonewith a tastefor adventure wouldceftainlyenioythefastmov¡ngact¡on o{ .. Theuseaf ¡magintionir¡thisnovel woulddeFn¡tely .."

appealto a widerangeof ages. cross theagebarúer. gap. close thegenerat¡on

Thedescription af rur6lseü¡ngs andtheweaving of complicated relatianships {yúkethisnovela rnustfor all romantics. hcs6 message Th¡snovel,aswithüll class¡cs, of relevance today. \\¡hat is the messagcf

fhe tr¡umphaf goodoverevil" Thepawerof love" rhe importúnrc 0f friendship. Happiness cannotbefoundthraughwealthalone. Ihe mysteryof life-. Exercise I

l,.Jsing the informotion givenobove,writeo reviewolo bool,you hovereodrecenty, soyingwhy you enioyedit.

Section 5 sets olrt the different taskswhich you will find in the reading exam. Unit I includes examples ofeach tvpe ofexam question, to enable you to fan-riliariseyourself $.ith them, togetier with hints on how to approach the questions and suggested answers.IJnit 2 then looks in detail at the tcchniques you need to summarise a reading passage,and explains the importance of skim reading. The techniques are applied to fully r,vorkedexamplesof fbur different types of summary and exercisesare included to give you practice and build vour confidence.

Overview Thc reading passagesare found in Parts I and 2 ofPaper I (Core) and Paper 2 (Extended). In the reading part ofthe exam, Core candidateswill have four texts to answer questions from, and Extended candidateswill have fir'e texts.

Exercises I ond 2 The texts for cxercisesI and 2 are the same for both levels, but there are more questions to answer for each text in thc Extended syllabus. The texts are usually taken from a brochure or an advertisement or a pamphlet.

Answering the questions r Read the inúoduction to the exercise.Look at the passage.Notice the title, the illustrations and the headings ro understand what the text is about and how the infbrmation is arranged. Do not read the text. I Read the fust question and underline the key rvord(s). In a condnuous passage,the answerscome chronologically (thc answer to question 3 comes afier the answer to questions I and 2). Sometimes arl ans\\¡ermay appearin the introduction to the passage.In a passagewith headed paragraphs,you will need to refbr to the relevant paragraph. r Skim read (see Unit 2) to find the answers.Ignóre any vocabulary you do not understand. Sometimes a date or name will be refbrred to in ¿ ouestion a n d w i l l b e e a s yt o f i r d i n t h e r e x t . Y o u r a ¡ s w e r ss h o u l db e b r i e f sometimes just one word. Complete sentencesare not reqJired. Look at an example Exercise I question fron-ra Core level reading paper on the fbllorving pages.

142 .




AVAIIABLE: COURSES DINGHY SAILING Our boat¡ are chosen carefullyto provide a wide range of safe and exciting learning opportunities. Instructorswill take you through of riggínglaunchingand sailíng. the basrcs

CATAMARAN SAILING For thole with little or no experience, this course is a good introduction to thk fast and excíting form of sailing. lf weather conditions are favourable,studenb should be able to duringthe handlea catamaransingle-handedly coune.

Costfor each course(age 16 yearsand over): f I ó5 non resíd.enttal fl 80 residential CANOEING gt KAYAKING The Outdoor ActivitiesCentre is the ideal venue for kayaking.With the ¡ea cfoseat hand, our one-day cou¡se will introduce the skifk of kayaking at sea. There wilf be an opportunity to try a variety of different canoesand kayak and to take Part in a short kayakseajourney. WINDSURFING Our centre runs a JUNIOR WINDSURFING CLUB on Monday and Wednesdayevenings during the summer seasonand is open to anyone until they are 18 yearsold. Aimed at those who already have some windsurfi'ng experience(level one certíficate),thk club aims to give young windsurfersthe opportunity to progresswithin a safeand excitingenvironment. Cost: f7 per sessíonor f6 per sessionif four sessions are boohedín advance

SKIING AND SNOWBOARD¡NG Thiscentre hasthree ski slopes- each suface is easyto ski on and soft to fall on. The slopes have ski lifts, are floodlit and are sítuatedinside a hangar, offering an ideal learning envíronmentwh¿teverthe weather.

FIRSTAIDCOUR:'Es Our f,rst aid cour5esare ídeal for anyone concernedwith outdoor sporb. Our trainersare also sportr instructorsso they make sure that the first aid tr¿iníngSivenis alwaysrefevant for your sportor situation.

Overview f

Exertise tr


Cenlre,ond lheno¡swer Reodtheodverlisemenl oboulcourses ol theOuldoorActlvities thequeslions below. to seokoyoking o How longdoesil foke1ocompletethe infoduction course? r l n d s u r f i nCgl u b ? b W h o c o ¡ l o i nf h e J r n i oW sloylngcrilhe Cenlreto leorn1osoi? c How muchdoesll coslsomeone sovemoney? d How con criuniorwindsurfer e Why worldn'tcrskiinglessonc1llhe cenlrebe conceled ln bod weother? hove? f Whol olherusefuexperience do thefirstold inslruclots [Totol:ól


E m E

tr E

a ) H o r v l o n g d c ¡ c si L t a k c t o c o m p b 1 gt h e i n t r o . l u c t i o nt o t h c s c r k . r y a U + coursef 'canoeing ancl kayaking'. Underline key r.vords.Refbr to thc paragraph on d) Hor.v can a |ultiraUviltdsutfu save mc¡neyf Rcfcr tc¡ thc ¡raragra¡rhon 'rvindsurfing'. t-./|

trxerctseJ This uses different texts fbr eacl.rlevel, lnd requires )¡ou to transfer informatic¡n from the passagconto a fbrm. ¡ Thc anslvcrsmay not comc chronologically. r Do not read the passage.

Answering the questions l-ook at dre fblloiving exarnple ofan Exercise 3 question fiom an Extcnclcd levelpaper. &,xetxÁseS

residenliol coursein Toronlo,Conodo. Reodfheqdicl-^oboulo specioeducc¡liono lmogineyou ore Kim,ond compefelhe formon lhe fo owing poge (poge I 45). Kim Jones is 16 and attends AllC Intefliational School, 321 Town Road, Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar (situatecl io the Indian Oce¿rn,and the wodd's fifth largest island). fhc school's email address is ABc@educ¿, and its oflice telephone number is 8ó7100 (putting code 261 before it if clialint! from outside Maclagascar).In an emergency, when the school is closed, thc school sccrctary, Ms Smith, may be contacted on 867324. Kim's school has recently beefl lucky to win an anlazing pri7,e in ^ competiti()n. The prize is for a group of students (plus two of theit teachers) to visit Torohto, canada, to attend a Special Educational Residential Course - entirely free of charge. They will be staying at the Course Ccntrc duriflg their Yisit. Twenty students at Kim's school (including Kim) - ten bo1.5 ntr.1 ten girls - will attend the course, irnd they will be accompanied by their teachers Ms A. Roma and Mr V. Zachariah. The students will be ¿ccomm<xlated in pairs, with boys and gids occup,vinÉ!separate accommodation bbcks. The course will last for four days, from Monday 17 July until T'hursday 20 July inclusive, but because of the long ioumey involvecl the group will neecl to arrive one day beforc the start of the course,

144 '

READ/NG departing after breakfast on 21 July. They will fly out from Madagascar's main ailpoft, and the number of the flight they have book€d is MM001. The daily programme for the course will b€gin at 8.1i each morning. At the weekend, lunch is served at 1.0O pm, but is one hour earlier on all other days. The course finishes each day at 1.0O pm and thei.r thefe is a relaxatioll period of one hour, and study preparation of on€ and a half hours before diriner. There are facilities available for the group to relax, and there will be one aftemoon of a choice of organized actiyities. ln Kim's group most of the students are interested in dnwing and painting, and table tennis and/or perfbrming plays; the rest enioy swimlning and going for long walks. At the course Centre there is a swimming pool (but it is open on Saturdays and Sundays only). One of the days of the couÍse will involve a tour of the historic sigl.rts of Toronto, with a packed lunch provided; transport by bus can be supplied if requested. Eleven of the students in the group are strict yegetarians, and one of them is seriously allergic to wheat. Just over a third of the group speak Malagasy as their 'main' lanÉiuage when they are back at home with thet families; the main languages spoken by the others are (in alphabetical order): Afrikaans, Anibic, Dhiyehi, French, Greek, Kreol, Mandarin, Setswana, Spalish, Turkish and Urdu. All the students in Kim's group are used to t¿lking to their teachel]s and to each other in English at school, and they are all studying ¡t fbr an IGCSEc\amination. So that evertthing will run smoothly, the Course Centre organizers need Kim's school to give them some infbmation before arrival, ancl the t¿sk has been given to Kim.

Read the form r.erycarefu.L.Ly and n'rakesure you provide the ¿¡¿¿tinfbrmation needed.



Ifthe form asksfor'block capitals'you must write in capital letters. Check where they are to be used. In this example, it say5'i¡ this section' Ifthe form asksfbr a postal address'ircluding countrJ¡', make sure you include the country

it may be separatefrom the addressin the text.

With telephone numbers, check whether you sl"rouldinclude a code. When you need to choose datcs or times, check the informafion carefully. Sometimes the answer may scem obvious, but furthe r information later il the text ma)¡ change the anslver. For example, the form asksfor 'Duration of stay (give dates)'. The text reads: The coursewill last for forr days,from Monday 17Jr.¡lyuntil Thu6day 20 July inclusive,but becauseof the long joumey involved the group will n€edto ardve one day before the start of the course,depatting a.fterbreakfaston 21 July. In this example, if yo¡ -ro,. your answer ^s Monday11July to Thursday20 July, you would be \\¡rong. According to the infbrmation which follows tlrese dates, the correct ansrvcr should be sunday 16July to Fr¡day2'l )uly.

tr tr

If the form asksyou to tick (/),

then tick.

Ifthe form asksyou to circlc, thcn draw a circle round the answer.

Finally, if the form asks).ou to 'deletc as necessary',this nreansyou should cross out all the answersexcept the coffcct onc.

Overvíew f


TORONTOCOURSECENTRE- INFOBMATIONSHEET Complete all sections, and send to us at 1550 Helligan St., Toronto, Canada



(Useblockcap¡tals in thissection.)

Nameof personcompleting thisform.............

a E E

Nameol or9anization...................... (including Postaladdress country) .............. Contacttelephone numberout of hours(inemergency)......... Duration of stay(givedates).................. Studentaccommodat¡on required: numberof femalerooms..............-.. numberof malerooms SectionB To help us planyour leisurel¡me


Tickthe threeactivities at the Centremostsuitablefor yourgroupduringyourstay Art E

Basketball E




Swimming I


Suggestoneotheractivitynot listedabove

Wh¡chonelanguage shouldthetourguideusew¡thyourgroupduringyourtourof Toronto? ArabicD


EnglishI French E

Spanish Q

other(please state) ........"..........

SectionC To help our catering staff Foreachmeal,circlethe betterstarttimeto suityourgroup Lunch: 12.00 13.00 18.45 Dinner: 17.45 Specifyanyspecialdietaryrequ¡rements.....-.

SectionD Writeone sentenceof 12-20wordsto tellus whatyouaremostlookingforwardto dur¡ng yourt¡mein Toronto.


146 .



Exercises 4 ond 5 Exercise 4 at both levels requires you to read a text and make notes f¡om it. At Core level, the text tbr exercise4 is used for the sumrnary rvriting in exercise5. At Extended level, the tcxt lbr exercise4 is dillbrent liom the tcxt to be summarised in exercise5 r T l r e h e l d i n g sl o r n r a U n gn o l e sa r e g i v e nt o ¡ o L r . r The answersma)¡ not come chronologically.

Answering the questions Look at the following example ofan Exercise4 question fiom a Core level paper. Read the introduction to the exerciseso you know what the p¿ssageis about. Then, before you read the article, look at the qwrstionon page 147 to learn what points J,ou need to find. Code the points a, b, c, or 1, 2, 3 and mark them next to the passageas yolr read it. (This has been done for you on this examole. ) Exercise 4

Reodtheorlicleb'eow oboultheeffectsof theEl Nlño slormson seo ions, ond then whichfo lows.(Seo ions ore lorge seolsthot lve in compele thenoletokingexercise the PocificOceon,b'ulcon moveon lond.l

SEA LIONS SEEK REFUGE FROM EL NIÑO In a normal winter, this is the slow seasonfor the Friends of the Sea Lion Marine Mammal Centre at Laguna Beach, Califomia - a time to preparefbr the busy weeks of spring and summer, when the bulk of the youngestof the sad-eyedcreaturescome ashorein need of nurturing, food and rest. But this is an El Niño winter and it seemsnothing is as it should be, on land or at sea.

a a c c c


bb b

Around this time last year, the Centrehad sevensealions to care for and eventually release.Today there are 73, most ofthem weak and underweightyoung pups that have been beachedand batteredby the storms of El Nino. Filled to capacity, the Centre stoppedtaking in new sea lions on 4 February and eventually closed its gift shop becauseit neededthe spacefor its overflowing population. The Cent¡e's office has been convertedinto a specialcare unit, housing 13 of the smallest and weakestpups. To answer the telephone, the staff members sometimeshave to push a sealion off it first! Often when the sealions come in they have to be wrappedin blanketsbecause they are cold and skinny. Once they begin recoyering,they can be moved into the pools. El Niño, the huge body of warm water in the Pacific that has altered weather conditions around the world. has harmed the sea lions and their cousins in severaldifferent ways. It has made the winds and the waves worse, the ocean currentsstronger.And the waters off California are five degreeswatmer than normal, so much of the flsh population that the sea lions rely on has left the area in searchof colder waters.

Overview |



To f'eed their pups, the mothels have had to spend more time and energy searchinglbr food. In a nomal year about 1500 sealsand sealions end up on the beachesof California. This vear the orediction is for at least twice that number. But last Sunday, El Niño did not seeÍn so big and bad. Last Sunday was a releaseday. The Centre releasedfbur pups back into the ocean,including the first two t¿üen in during this long seasonof storms. The Centre's staff and volunteersloaded the sealions into pet carriers and drove them to a beacha little fiuther away than normal. The beach that the Centre usually uses to releasethe animalsis underwater.anothervictim ol'El Niño. The cageswere carried acrossthe sandby about a hundredbeachgoersand put down a few yards from the roaring surf. As the young sea lions disappezued under a big wave and bobbedup again a few momentslater, everyonecheered fiom the beach.

Youore preporing1ogive o shof tol[ to yourclossobouttheeffectsof E]Nl¡o. On thenotepodbeow, mokelwo sho nolesundereachheodingcs o plonforyour (Anexcrmpeis givenundertheflrstheoding.) presentotion Do nol usecornpeie seflences.


I48 T READ/NG You mav find more points than .vou are asked fbr. Only give the numbcr asked fbr. \,\4ren yor¡ fu1d the ansu'er, try to rewritc thc meaning in your orvtt rvords if yon can, as this shou's the exanincr that yo:u have understootl'what you l-ravcrcad. Your answerssholrld be short and shc¡uldnot be complctc sentcllccs.For example,you read: To feed their pups, the mothershave haclto spend more time and cnerg)' seafchin[ifor food. Your ansrverfbr'Ef}écts of El Niño on thc sealions' might be:

Hardfa( mol:he$ ta findfoodfor pups. You read: The b€achthat the Centreusuallyusesto releasethe animalsis under watcr, anothervictim of El Niño. Your ansrverfor'811écts of El Niño on the Sea Lion Marine Mammal Ccntre' might be: Ni}tLkin seü. {Flareta) driw lúrLhert{} pür.seals Nor.v look at an cxample of an Exercise 5 cluestion liom tl-rcsame Core level reading paper. Tzereáse5

1olhec os: in e erc5e4. Now your mcrgine tholyou hcrvemqdeyourpresentollon wllh for homework. leocherwonlsyou to folow thisup o surnmofy 4 obove.Uslngtheideosin yournofes,wfile o summclry Lookot yournolesin exefcise qboultheeffectsof the E Niño slornrs. Yoursummory shoud l¡e one porogrophof no morethonZO words.Youshoulduse yourown wordsos muchos you con. ITotal: 4] The follor'ving unit looks ir dctail at horv to answer questions that involvc rvriting a summary.

Summories Before we begin to look at how to approach a summary, it is important to understand what a summary is and to realise that we use sumrnariesin mauy everyday situations. Imagine you are reading an article in a magazine in 1'ou¡.wt 1.t*uage . As you seem very interested in it and becauseI cannot understand your language, I ask you what it is about. Of course you are not going to translate the whole thing, so your brain quicldy sons out what bits I might find interesting, and reorganisesthem so that you can then passon üe information using words I can understand immediately. The words you choose and the wa1,you expressthe ideas contained in the article are, il fact, your summary. As a result, I am better informed, without having to take the time and make the effort to work through a passagein a foreign language. Imagine you 1a's¡t to see a popular film at the local cinema. Later, you want to tell your friend about it. Again, you pick the parts you think will appeal to your friend and also give him an idea ofthe basic story of the film. In other words, you summarise it for him. This may even saveyour friend from having to go to the cinema himself; if your summary does not make the film sound interesting to your friend, then he may decide not to go and watch it! We do exacdy the same thing when telling someone about a conversadon we have had with someone else.We certainly do not repeat the conversa¡ion word for word exactly as it happened, nor do we always use the words used ir the actual conversation. We also select whatwe say depending on whowe say it to. Do you tell your mother everything your friend said to you at a partyl I doubt it! A summary allows you to understand quicldy and easily a passagewhich may be long and n-raycontain ditEcult or specialisedvocabulary.


quest¡on How to opproochq summory Stoge I r Read the question. \44rat exactly do you need to summariseI IIow many words do you have to usel Look at any pictures or headings for clues about the content of the passage. r As you read, undedine the key words in the question. For example, from the exam question'Write a summary about the causeand extent of the flooding', you would probably idenify cnuseand rj?rt as key words. r Code the key words ifthere is more than one. Choose whichever coding metlrod you prefer: either a, b, or 1, 2, or the fust letter ofthe key w6¡d(5). In the above example, and depending on which coding method you choose, causewlll be coded a or f or c; extent wlll be coded b or 2 or e.

Stoge 2 Pickout relevantpoints paragraph by paragraph. r Skim readthe passage and underline them. At the same time, use )'our code to identifl, each point at the side ofthe text so that you can find it easily. Continuing with the above example, every time you found a reference to causein the

I5O T READING passage,you would write r:t,orf or c \exf to the text. Every time you found a reference to extent in the passage,you would write b or 2 or r next to the text. See pages 14ó 7 for an example of rvhere this has been clone. I Sometimes the points related to each key rvord can be scattered throughout the passage.Coding in this rvay helps ].ou to locate the relevant points easily.

Stoge 3 r On a blank page of the exam question paper (or underneath the summary text ifthere is space),write a heading for each key word you are looldng for (if there is more than one). ¡ Take each ofyour underlined points and rewrite it in your own words under the relevar.rtheading. I Do not try to tralslate each q.ord and replace it with another. Instead, try to write dorvn lvhtt yoLt anrl,et"strrnlfrom the sentence.

Sroge4 r Group together any points that are similar, and then number the points according to hov' important you think they are, s'ith I for the most rmportant.

Stoge 5 I Compare horv many points you have found lvith the number of words asked fbr in the question. Ifthere are too man)¡ points: check that no idea has been repeated - trJ to connect sin-rilarideas - drop any point that seernsunnecessaq¡,or that you do not fully understand. r If you do not l-ravemany points, consider using generalisations¿mdtinir: ii :.ets.

Stoge ó ¡ Writeyour summary.


Whot is skimreod¡ng? The passagesto surnrnarisein the exam may be long and there is not enough tiure to read everv rvord, so \¡ou must be good at skim reading. You do this all the time in your own language. Imagine looking at a noticeboard to find out rvhich room to go to for your physics class.There are marry other notices on the board, but your eye quickly skims over most of them, deciding they are not \vhat you are looking for, until it seesthe relevant notice. In the same way, you should be able to look quichly at a paragraph and decide rvhat it is about and whether it is relevant. Manl paragraphs in the passagewill not contrl.inan! plints releynnt t0 the heywords in tbe qwestion.Shim reading allou,s you to recognise and quickl,v pass ovcr paragraphs uüich contain no relevant points so that J¡ou have more t.ime to concentr¿te on relevant paragraphs. Skim reading is a skill rvhich needs to bc practised befort the exam-

f 15 | Summories


Different Vpesof summory

Not everv sumÍrary is the samc. This unit loohs at four diflerent tt'pcs of sumnarv: t I I I

standarc{sllfllmirry rclationshi¡r summary history summar,v Structllrc sulnman/.

Stondordsummones Worked exomple of q slondqrd summory Let's lvork through a stancl¡rrdsummarv qttcstiott adapted fiom a past exan papef. Sloge


Fjrst read the question and underline the key words. Then oboutboysond compulers. the rightbutton') Reodthefolowing o lc e ('Flitting con he p boys.Yoursummory how compulers wrlleo summary of theodicleexploining shouldbe one por,:grophof ¡o motelhon IOOwords.Youshoulduseyourown wotds o s m u c no s y o uc o n . Teke timc to anal-vse the qucstion careñlll¡' betbrc vou begin to rcaclthe passage. The question docs zotask yc¡uto lltitc a sumnllry ofthc $üole pxssagc,but to sumnrarise cei-tain points only. Loc>k cercf. l-vat the key words. a computers:the passagclnay refi:r to othcr things rüich hel¡r bovs. Thcsc should z¿l be includcd in vour summary. : help: the passagemay rcfgr to col.nputcrs Ltcing e' bnd infltcnce on bo1's This should not be includcd in vour sttmrnary. r boys:tl-rcpass¿gemxv refer to girls, or hou. com¡ruters help girls. Ncr refi:rence to girls shoulcl be included in your sun-rmary.

Hitting rhe right button It has been found that in some countries, achievement in some subiects at school is not always as good for boys as it is for gids. It is possible that using comPuters may be a way to solve this problem. Many boys seelrr to have a natural liking for computers, but it can often be hard to lcave the screen and concentl?te on work the teachcr wants then to do. .{s computers are becoming more ¿nd morc impoftant in the wodcl r¡f education todal., it is natural to assume that cornputers can helP greatly with boys who clo not clo well at school and n€cd to raise their genefill 'fherc is growing research that shows studying ICT educational standards. (Inlbrmation Communications Technolog), is very motivating fbr bo,vs in pilrticular. Many boys appcar to t¡e more conflclcnt tha11gids in using it, and thc1. tencl to use compllt€rs more frequcntly, especially at home.

152 f READING Researchefs at uniyersities now think that it could be a really good way of rc-engaginla rÍtder-achieving boys in the learning process, and teachers haye indicated that it does work. They have found that, although lots of boys do not seem to like w¡iting in the classfoom, whefl they use a computer they are more williflg to compose longer pieces of writing aml use different styles. The issue of unintelligible handwriting is no longer a problem, either, as the neatness ¿ncl presentation standafds rise when boys use a computer to print out their work. Many boys welcome the 'hands-on' approach of computers. However, researchefs and teachers need to be careful that boys don't ilrst 'cut and paste' things that they ha\.e found on the intemet, but hayen't read, and hand it in as a completed assignment. Some boys oyer-estimate how good they are and think they can do things without any effoft. They need to deyelop propef research skills and make their written work more structu¡ed. Indeed, everyone needs to understand how to use computers to get the best results. They should always be clear about the aims and outcomes of the classroom work they are being asked to do. If they don,t see the point, then they are less inclined to make an effort. Some boys take short cuts, or look at internet sites they haven't been asked to look at. They may not plan or thint car€ft¡lly about their work, or they may try to finish their work quickly. This rendency is not going to be completely cured by using computers. One way to get boys to concentrate prope y on the work they have been asked to do may be to er]cotuage them to use theif computers at home. However, they also need to b€ set tasks that are tteresting and relevant to them. As in all things, the inter¿ction between the student, the teacher and the computer is crucial.

Sroge2 Begin by skim reading the passage,paragraph by paragraph, looking for an].thing that relates to h|w c1nxptutot s can help boys.Underlinc an1.relevanr point you find and mark it at the side ofthc text. It has been found that in some countri€s,achievementin somesubtectsat school is not alwaysas good for boys as it is for girls. It is possiblethat usingcomputersmay be a way to solv€this problem. As you look quicldy at this paragraph, you should notice generalisation words, such as somecountries,somesubjectsand also this problem.These lvords tell ).ou that this paragraph is a general introduction to the topic and does not contain arrything relevant to the question. There is no need to rvastetimc reading it in detail. Nou. read on: Many boys se€mto have a naruralliking for compurers,but it can often be hard to leav€ the screen and concentÉte on work the teacher wants them to do. In this paragraph),vou seethe .ivordsboys and computen,but nothing connected to helping bo1,s.This is just an extension ofthe introduction. Nor,vread on: As computers are becoming more and mor€ important in the wodd of education today, it is natural to assumethat computers car help greatly

f | 53 Sumrnoríes with boys who do not do wetl at school and need to raise their gen€ral educational standards. There is growing research that shows studying ICT Technology) is Yery motivating for boys in (Information Commuications particular. Many boys appear to be more confrdent than girls in using it' and they teÍld to use computers more frequently, esPccially at home'

Remember conolten Reevonlpoints come logelhet ln the some pofclgfapn.

Remember eoch poini. J Underline Ll Mork eoch pointoi the sideof thetext(seepoges l4ó-Z lor on exompe).

As you skim read this paragraph you should quickly seethe ke1'words computerscan help greatlywith boys.These are definitely relevant' so they should be underlined. At the same time, you should indicate at the side of the text wherever vou find a relevant point. IIere, for exan-rple,you could rvrite the letter ú (for'help') at the side ofthe text, next to the relevant polnt' Continue shim reading the paragraph, looking for arry more relevanr points' You see the rvor ds very motivatingfor boys.Perhapsyou do not understand the word motivating.If it n-reanssomething ltrsitlzr' it will be a relevaLrtpoiut' Read the previous sentence again. Motivdtingis a result of ICT, I'l-rich is an er.ample áf hor.vcomprters help t:oys. So rnotivdt¡ngis something pusirrur point Underline it, and mark connicted to cowpulers and is a relevaLnt it at the side of the text. You also see the word confiden\ which clearly refers to boys and in a positive way. What are boys confident about) Read the sentence again Boys '"r. 'it' refers to -or. cánfident in using¡t. Make sure you understand rüat here it is ICT, so this ls another relevant point. Underline it, and n'rarkit at the side ofthe text. Finally, in this paragraph we seethe positive r'vordsthey at home.Who does they refer tof tendto usecomputersmore frequently,especially so this is a relevant point is boys, Read the sentence again. The ansu'er Underline it, and mark it at the side of dle text. Norv read on: Researchersat universiti€s now think that it could be a really good way process,and teachers of re-engagingundef-achievingboys in the lezLrning ha\¡e indicated that it does work. They haYe folrnd that, although lots of boys c1o not seem to like writing in the classroom, when they use a computer they are more willing to composelonger piecesof writing and use different stytes.The issu€ of unintelligible handwriting is no longer a problem, either, asthe neatnessand presentationstandardsrise when boys use a computer to print out theif work. This paragraph contains both positive and negative ideas As y6¡ skim read boysdo not seemto likewriting, l,ou ;odce the pbrasesunder-¡chievingboys, unintelligiAleha;dwrit¡ng and a problem,uüich are all negative lt seemsthere is notlring about hetping boysherc Hou'ever, 1'ou also frÍd coltrasring, plsiti'e ideas, ionnected'ti cowputff\ introduced l:y although, such as whenthey usea compulertheydremor"*illirg,longerpiecesofwriting,d¡ffereÑsrylesandneatness 'problem' is standardsr¡sewhen boysusea computer.The and presentat:ion described as no longera problem All ofthese phrascsare clearly relevant, and should be underlined and marked at the side of dle text' Now read on: 'hands-on'approachof computers Howev€f' Many boys welcome the researchersand teachersneeclto be careful that boys don t just cut and paste' things that they have found on the internet, but haven't read, and hand it in as a completeclassignm€nt.Someboys over-estimatehow good they are and think they can do things without any effort They need to develop proper research skills and make their written work more



I54 T READING stnrctured.Indeed, eve4.oneneedsto undefstandhow to use computers to get the best results.They should alwaysbe clear about the aims ¿rnd outcomesof the classroomwork they are beinÉ¡askedto do. If they don't seethe point, then they are lessil.lclined to make an effort.

Remember Not everypofclgroph wi .^.rñin

ro 6"^.f


As you skim read, you notice that this paragraph also includes the rvords boys and computers.The first sentencetells us that boys like (welcome)computers, q.hich is somethtng positire. The next sentencebegins with the $'ord However, and this indicates a contrñ.st\vrth the previous sentence.In other words, it indicates something negatite .lust by 166¡i¡g at the text, lvithout even reading it, yolr can see the negative rvords dor¡'t and haven't. Skim reading the paragraph, you furd more negative ideas: teachersneedto be careful(this is a 'rvarning), w¡thout any effort and lessinclir¡edto makean effort. None of these ideas relates to computers helping, so there are no here. Now read on: Someboys tafte short cuts, or look at internet sites they haven't been askedto look at. Th€y may not plan or think carefullyabout their work, or they may try to finish their work quickly. This tendencyis not going to be completelycured by using complrt€rs.One way to get boys to concentrate propedy on the work they have been askedto do may be to encoruage them to use their computersat home. However, they also need to be set tasksthat are interesting and releyant to them. The beginning of this paragraph also contains negative ideas. You can see haven't,m6y not plan and not goingto be completely curedby usingcomputers. As properly you positive skim read notice concentrate and encourage, botl.r ),ou ideasand connectedto usingcomputers at home.This is a relevantpoint. Underline it and mark it at the side of the text. Now read on: As in all things,the interactionbet¡veenthe student,the teacherand the computer is crucial. Clear\ there is nothing relevant to the question in this short, final paragraph. Having nolv read the complete passage,underlining the relevant points and marking them at the side of the text, it is time to rno\-e on to the next stage.

Stoge 3 Rernember Dó.nottryto tronsoteeoch it with wird o¡d chonge crnother Thiswt soundvery ortlflcio. nstecrd, writedown fromthe whotvouu¡derstond oriqinálphroseor sentence or-o*hol..

The next stage of the summary task involves explaining the points -vou have found using ,vour own words, in order to shorv that you understand r'vhat they meanGo back to the first point 1,ou underlined and read it again. \\4rat do you undu,standl Now try to rrite the point in your ou.n r,vords. t ICT is very motiYatingfor boys This could be rewritten as:

./ boysaremore¡nterested ¡nthingswhtch¡nvolve usingcomputers r boys appear to be more conlident than gifls in using ICT This could be rerritten as: ./ boysare confldentaboutusingcomputingtechnology


I r r


lose marks if you include any plints in the extra words, as they will not be read. In a Core paper, candidatesare asked to write ,about'a certain number of rvords. You will need approximately ten lines to write 100 words. In this summary, you have found eight points: eight points in ten lines is comfortable. Ifyou had found ten points, you would need to combine ideas, or perhaps select son-relessimportant points to drop at this stage to ar.oid writing móre words than asked for. If, on the other hand, you had found only four points, you.lvould need to use generalisationsand joining points to reach the required number of r.vords.Do not include your own ideas or other irrelevant material in an attempt to n-rakemore words.

You will be given a maximum of 4 marks for finding relevant points (one mark for each point) and a maximum of 4 marks fbr the way you wnre your summary. llowever, if you lwite I00 words and do ¿¿¡ include any relevant points, you will not be given any marks for language!

Stoge ó Now write the summary. Your summary should zo, contain: r an1,kind of introduction r any direct speech (words inside speech said by people in the passage) I repetition ofwords or ideas I cxacl figures.numbers or st¡Listics ! arrything that is not clear.Lystated in the passage,especiallyyour own ideas, even ifyou cannot find many points in thc passage. Consider the different wa)¡syou could expressyour points and link them to fne next pornts:

Remember Thereore monypossibe woys ro wffe your sumr¡ory

I ThemaJor¡ty af boystendta be interested in samethin¡íf it involves Many I compute$, fusinq) Most I 2 becauserhey often

3 and theyarc

choose to spend(the¡rfreeltimean computers in theirfreetime use cúMputers outs¡de theclassroayn ,| 6t hame

aboutusina ) canf¡dent - I not by frightened | l cwnputingtechnotogy. nol afraid to use I )

4 (Using) Computers g¡ve(s) baysconftdence because fh6/ da natneedto worryabaú f.hei(handwriting. 5

'This meünsthev - are \ llppy ) Keen

ta wr¡te more

a | 57 Surnmories 6 and makesthemkeento usea varietyof s\les 7

) müketheirworklookgood. to I givetheirworka beLter appearance. improve the appearance of theirwork. )

their at homemayimprove 8 Civingboysworkto cloan thecomputer concentration.

Exomple qnswers There is no correct answer for a summary. Once you have grouped the similar points together, you can choose the order in which they shor d be included. Look at two possible versions of our example slrrnmary:

Firsf version Grouping the ideasin the order given above:(1,2,3) (,4,5,6,7)(8)

'rhe if it involves in something majorityof boystundto bemareinterested time oncamputers and ta spendthetrfree computers, because theyoftenchoase q¡veboysconfidence technalaqy. Computers arenotafr7¡dof camput¡ng ThismeansthE are because theydo nat needta taonyabout.the¡rhandwr¡ting. of sryles to improve happyto wr¡temorc6nd ffiúkesthemkeento usea var¡ery qiving interesting that boys their work. lt has been suggested theappearunce of . workta do an thecam\uteraf.homemavimgravetheircancentrat¡an (92words) Second vers¡on Grouping the ideasin the following ctrder:(4,5,6,7) (1,2,3) (8)

because theydo natneedto wo{ry tendto giveboysconficlence CantpLrters ta wr¡temarcand6sG Th¡s meúns they Ltrc happy thei{ handwriting. abaut resultthevare keet'¡ to usea vor¡etyof stylesto maketheirworklaokbetter. in something if it involves camputers, Mostlroystendto bemare¡r'terested and6re to spendtheirfreetimeoncompúters because theyaftenchoose that lt has been suggested technolagy. confident abowtus¡ngcomputing may improve their givinqboysinterest¡ng ctthome workta do an thecomputer concentratian. (94 rvords) Exercise I

con hep boys{seepoges Wrjle o summory of theorlice expoininghow compulers l 5 l 2 ) , g r o u p i n fgh ei d e o st o g e l h ei rn t h ef o l o w i n go r { e r :( 2 , 3 , 1 )l B )1 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ) . onsweron page249. Thencomporewhofyou hovewrillenwilh thesuggested


'Relotionship t. summones In a 'relationship' summary you are asked to trace the developwentof the relationship, often between a person and an animal. In this kind of sumnary, many stlrdents make the mistake ofincluding irrelevant fácts by concentrating on the events that take place instead of id'Lestgnificnnc¿of those events. Any relationship _r,ouhave with a friend, your ñther or your sister involves give and take and sacrifice.Ifvou want to develop a friendship with someone, you are willing to do things for this person that you would not consider doing for anyone else; 1.s¡1rnay even change the way you dress or the way you speak in order to please this person. Likewise, in these summaries, you should look fbr the rvay the person's life cbangn and what sacrificesthe person makes for the sake of the animal. Whenever a changetakesplace,youwlll need to include sentencestructures such as: To beg¡n v'/ith,... brlt t.hen...

M tnepast,.. but no', ..^ (hasi At frst ... butastherelatíonship

developed íntensifer) strengthened grawnl(grew)

To illustrate change, y6¡ lyill need to show comparison between: ¡ where the animal lived at the beginnhg and end ofthe relationship r feeding arangements at the beginning and end of the relationship r attitude torvards the animal at the beginning and end ofthe relationship.

Worked exomple of o relqtionship summqry Stoge I Read this qlrestiorr based on a past exam paper and underline the key words.

Remember Underi¡e the keywordsin tl¡a r

o<t nn hafnra



Reodthefolowingortice ond wrileo surnmory of thedevelopment of therelotionship beh.veen Rockyond Mlchoe. Yoursummory shoud be one porogrophof no morethon I OOwords.

Rocky the owl The helpless baby owl was delivered in a small cardboard box lined with an old towel. She was only about 20 minutes old and was no bigger than a hamster, but I knew that in less than a year this untidy, oft'-white bundle of feathers would grow into one of the largest and most powedul birds on ea h. Young chicks arc often brought to my owl rescue centre, but this unexpected anival was a completely new expenence, for it was a European eagle owl. With a

wingspan of almost two metres, these are the largestowls in existence.Adult females, larger fhan males, stand nearly 70cm high and needlots of food. Unlike a standardowl diet of nice and voles,theseeagleowls will eat dogs, fbxes and even small deer in the wild. lt uas cleir that this chick was going to be quite a handful. Wheneververy young chicks are brought to the cenhe, we try to place them with other families as quickly aspossible.Despitetheir wise image, owls a-renot the cleverest of

Summoriesf birds - to be brutally honest, they are surprisingly dim. A female never knows how many youngstersshe has in her family. lt's essential that young owls are adopted by their own species,for they take the identity of their foster parents.This processis called 'imprinting' and it happensduring the first few weeks of an owl's life. The baby eagle owl that was brought to me had been abandoned by her mother immediately after shewas born and none of my contacts had a breeding pair of eagle owls at the dght stage to take on such a young chick. Most owl keepers do their best to avoid this situation becauseonce an owl becomesused to humans,it is then too tame to release.With no alternative, I had to hand-rear the chick, and so began our unique relationship. Although eagle owls are nocturnal mammals, spendingthe daytime sleeping,I persuadedthe chick to eat during the day and sleep at night. Every two hours I had to cut up food and feed the owlet thin slivers of meat small enough to swallow whole. Within six days I had been completely acceptedas 'mother'. It is impossibleto work out the genderof a young owl as there are no extemal differences between the sexes. Any name we chooseis not always appropriate.The name of Rocky was chosenfor no specialreason, but it hasproved to be entirely unsuitableas we now know beyond doubt that she is female. Inside her cardboard box, Rocky went everywhere with me. For the first two weeks shedozed endlesslyon a bed oftowels. But as shegrew bigger and strongershe began to explore. The edges of the box became tom and ragged as she pecked at the cardboa¡d.Wheneve¡ she was hungry, which was most of the time, she would call me with a frantic, asthmatic sounding wheeze that couldn't be ignored. At about

t 59

this time her eyes openedfully and developed their full colour. Eagle owls are the owners of probably the most hauntingly beautiful eyes in the animal kingdom. Rocky's huge orange and black orbs are much more magnetic antl dramatic than any human's could ever be. Lectudng is a big part of my job and I often give talks to conseryatiol groups. Rocky, now a seasonedtraveller, has accompaniedme on hund¡eds of car Journeys, up and down the highways and byways of Bdtain perched on her own log on the back seat of my car. People in passing vehicleswatch i[ wonder as they realise that the giant owl peering at them is very much alive. As time goes on our relationship grows and intensifies.Rocky was presentedto me sevenyears ago and in owl terms sheis still a youngster the oldest surviving owl on record lived to a dpe old age of 68. Hopefully, she will be with me for mury yearsto come.Imprinting is for life and cannot be reversed. But despite olr mutual affection I would have prefened Rocky to have grown up naturally in the wild where she could have soared freely in the wide blue yonder. I am supposedto be a dispassionatenaturalist who views animals with an objective eye, but I would be lessthan honestif I said that Rocky was just another owl to me. Q u i t e : i m p l y s h ei s u n i q u el-h e t ¿ m e \ lr n i mal I have gyer met. Whe[ w9 are along the mutual Íust is so great that she gently nibbles my nose and ears,then carefully preens my hair. She will even sleep on my lap. Erery morning. before an¡one el:.e is up. we call to each other using the low, mourn ful 'oo-hoo' call of eagle owls. The conve¡satiolrs ¿rre long and repetitive, and although I will never fully understandthe meaning of them, the companionshipthey signify has enriched my life.

Stoge 2 Begin by skim reading the paragraphs, Iooking for the points which sho\a. the d e v e l o p m e n r o f t h e r e l a ri o n s hi p . The helpless baby owl was deliverecl in a small cardboard box lined with an olcl towel. She was only about 20 minutes old and was no bigger than a hamster, but I knes¡ that in less than a year this untidy, off-white bundle of leath€rs would grow into one of the largest and most powerñll bifds on eafth.

IóO T READING Here rve sec the r.yord helplessdescribing the or.vl at the beginning of the rclationship, and note that it arrived in 6 small cardboard box. These are nvo fe atures whicl"r may change as the relationship grows, so should be underlined. Nor. skim read thc next paragraph. Young chicks are often brought to my owl rescue centr€, but this unexpected arival was a completely new experience, for it was a European eagle owl. With a wingspan of almost two metres, üese are the largest owls in existence. Adult females, Iarger than mal€s, stand neady TOcm high and need lots of food. Unlike a standard owl diet of mice and voles, these ealaleowls will eat dogs, foxes and even small deer in the wild. It was clear that this chick was going to be quite a handful. Clcarl.r,, this is a descriptive paragraph about eagle owls in general. There are no relevant points here. Norv read on. 'Whenever very young chicks afe bfouÉiht to the centre, we try to place them with other families as quickly as possible. Despite their $¡ise image, owls are not the cleverest of birds - to be brutally honest, they are surprisinlaly dim. A female never knows how many youngsters sh€ has in her family. It's essential that young owls are adopted by their ow¡ spccies, for they take the identity of their foster pafents. This process is called 'imprinting' and it happens during the first few weeks of ¿urowl's life. This is another paragraph continuing no relevant points here, so read on:

the description of or,vl habits. There are

The baby eagle owl that was bfought to me had been abandoned by her mother irnmediately atler she was born, and none of my contacts had a breeding pair of eagl€ owls at the right stage to take on such a young

chick. Most owl keepersdo their best to avoid this situationbecauseonce an owl becomesused to is then too tame to release.With no alternatiye, I had to hand"rear the chick, and so began our uniqrle relationship. Flere dre r¡'ord abandonedagain describesthe condition of the owl at the beginning of the relationship. w¡th no alternat¡vetells us that Michael does not really r'vantthe orl4 at this stagc. The fact that he has to hand rear the chick is something which ma)¡ changc latcr. l{ere, too, is the fust mention of the quality of the relationship - unique.These points should be underlined. Now read on: Although eagle owls are noctumal mammals, spending the da}time sleeping,I persuadedthe chick to eat dufing the day and sleep at night. Every two hours I had to cut up food and feed the owlet thin sliv€rs of meat small enough to swallow whole. Within six days I had been completelyacceptedas 'mother'. llere rve see the owl's natur¿üroutine being changcd; it has to stay arvake during the day. Wc also seehow much Michael is r.villing to do for the orvl (cutting the food into small pieces lor the or'vl to srvallow whole; fecding the orvl everv trvo hours). These points should be undcrlined - but rememl¡er these are cxnrnplzsof Michael's dedication.Examples slrould not be included in a summary.Being acceptedas a'mother'is an important step in the relationship. Norv read on:

Summories I


It is impossible to work out the gender of a young owl as there are no extemal differences b€tween the sexes. Any name we choose is not always appfopfiate. The name of Rocky v¡as chosen for no special reason, but it has pfoved to be entirely unsuitable as we now know beyond doubt that she is female. This paragraph contains general information which is not relevant to the relationship, especially as the name was chosen for no spec¡al reason. Now read on: Inside her cardboard box, Rocky went €yerywhere with me. For the f,rst two weeks she dozed endlessly on a bed of towels. But as she grew bigger and stronger she began to explore. The edges of the box became tofn and ragged as she pecked at the cardboard. Whenever she w¿s hungry, which was most of the time, she worfd call me with a frantic, asthmatic sounding wh€eze that couldn't be ignored. At about this time her eyes opened fully and deyeloped their full colour. Eagle owls afe the owlters of probably the most hauntingly beautiful eyes in the animal kingdom. Rocla's huge orange and black orbs are much more magnetic and dramatic than any human's could ever be.

Remember Remember lo skimreod.

Again, the cardboard box is mentioned. While in the cardboard box Rocky goes everywlrere wiü Michael; could this situation changel There is a comparison between for the first two week and but as she grew bigger and stronger. There is also a refbrence to feeding; already the situation has changed; now the owl calls him when she is hungry and cannot be ignored. Notice that the description ofher physical beauty is not relevant to the development of dre relationship. Underline the relevant points. Now read on. Lecturing is a big pafi of my job and I often giye talks to conservation gfoups. Rocky, now a seasoned traveuef, has accompanied me on hundreds of car joumeys, up and down the highways and b'.ways of Britain pefched on her own log on the back seat of my car. People in passing yehicles watch in wonder as they realise that the giant owl peering at them is very much alil.e. We learn that the owl still goes on trips with Michael; but what has cbnnged? Underline the relevant points. Now read on. As time goes on our relationship grows and intensifies. Rocky was presented to me seven years ago and in owl teÍns she is still a youngstef the oldest surviving owl on record lived to a fipe old age of 68. Hopefully, she will be with me for many yeafs to come. Imprinting is for tife and cannot be reversed. But despite our mutual affection I would haye prefeffed Rocky to have grown up naturally in the wild where she could ha\¡e soared freely in the wide blue yonder. This paragraph contains direct ¡eference to the of the relationship. There is also reference to ñrture hopes. Notice phrases relbrring to th.. quñlity ofthe relationship - mutual affection and the regret Michael feels because Rocky can never be free. Does he feel guilty about thisl Underline the re.levant points, then skim read the final paragraph, still looking for the key features which show development ofthe relationship.

162 '

READ/NG I am supposed to be a dispassionate naturalist who vi€ws animals with ¿n objective eye, but I would be less than honest if I said tltat Rocky was just another owl to me. Qrúte simply she is unique, the tamest animal I hal.e ever met. lühen w€ are alone the mutual tÍust is so great that she t¡ently nibbles my nose and ears, then carefully preens my hair. She will ev€n sleep on my lap. E\¡ery morning, before anyone else is up, we call to each other using the low, mournthl 'oo-hoo' call of eagle owls. The convefsations afe long íLnd repetitive, and although I will never ftilly understand the meaning of them, the companionship they signify has enriched my life. In this final paragraph, we fir'rd more quality of relationship words such as un¡que arld mutuzl trust. Notice that the1, call each other in the mornings before Tnyone else is up. What does this tell us about the relationshipf Underline the point here, but remember that exatnples are not astd, in summaries. How does Michael summarise their relationship and hou. has this chansed his lifel

Stoge 3 Remember Picking out pointsshowsthe exclmnef your reoorrg comprehen sion skill s only. I o get fu morksyou hcrveto showlheexominer whoi you hove undersiood,o¡d to do thisyou muslexpress the pointsln q¡ o lernolive woy.

On a blank page ofthe exam question paper (or underneath the summary text if tlrere is space), go back to each point and rewrite the idea in your own w|t ds. Here are the points which you should have underlined in the passage,in the order in rvhich they appeared. The helpiessbaby owl was deliveredin a small cardbaard box (paragraph1) abandoned by her mother

onrcún owlbecomes usedta humans, it ¡sthentootúmeto release. Withno ,tlternütive, I hadta hancl-reat thechick,andsabegünaur unique relctionship.(paragraph 4) I persuTded thech¡ckto eatdürinEthedayúndsleepat night.Evety two haursI hadto cut t¿pfoadandfeedtheowletthinslivers ol meatsmall enoughto swülla\fl whale. Withinsixdayst hadbeencompletely accepted as 'mother'.(paragraph 51 Msidehercaydbaardbax,Raclgwentevewherew¡thme.Forthefirsttwo weeks shedozedendlessly on a bedof towels. Butassheqrewbiggerand stronger shebeganta explore. whenever shewashunqry,whichw7smo* af fhet¡me-, shewouldcallmew¡th (paragraph ü frsnt¡c,asthmatic sound¡ng wheeze that couldn'tbeignored. 71 nawa seasaned travellet perched on herownlogon thebackseatof mycar(paragraph 8) growsand intens¡fies. Astimegaeson aur relatioytship t-topefully, shewilt bew¡thmefor manyyearsto rcme. Despite out mutu}laffection I wouldhavepreferred Roclvto hdvegrawnup naturallyin thewildwhereshecouldhavesolredfreely. (paragraph 9) sheisun¡que mutua¡trust Evevy morninq,beforeanyane elseis up,wecúllto eachother thecampünionship hasenriched rnylife (paragraph I0)


I ó3

In a relationship sumrnarT, the mdn fbature is hor. things change. The passageu'ill probably be rvritten in chronological style (like a story, describing events in dre samc order that happened): to compare, you will have to take ¡roints from early on in the relationship and shorv horv theJ.havc changcd from points taken later in the passage. Exercise 2

chongedor deveoped.Then Grouplogetherpoinlswhichshowhow the reotionship withthesuggested onsweT on points in your own before comporing wrileout lhe wotds, oooes249 50.

* Remember

'rlghl' woysofexptessing whatyou understand Thereis no onswer.Therewi be monydifferent th ng is notto lronslole word fo¡ word butto givethemolnldeo. f yoursenlence Theimportoni lhem; do notwosielimelfylngto re-phrose lncudesone or n¡owordsfiomtheorlginosentence, eove themcrstheyore but do noÍ copy 'thole phrctses.

Sroge4 Numbcr the points according to horv important vou think the1,x¡s.

Exercise 3

you thinkthey 2 occordingto how imporlonl Now numberthe pointsmodein exercise l L o o . . q o n o o o o z O . o " r p o r ¡ g g e . ^ d o n s o e oe[ore Now look át the numbcr ofpoints and the number ofrlords askedfor (not more than 100). If ,1,o¡think y6¡ har.etoo many rvords ir a point, nolv is the time to rcduce thcm. Look at the words undcrlincd in the folloll'ing point. the aw'let was p!Áfryrctt

Lte,wtt:ld a d ttÁíchGtldeúicúted himsel{ to

p{,e-p.a{j.n-g-he4asd ülLf fecdi{{Lhct" saan saclg call him ggrytime. of the ttffie,,but at she!¿ELttrt sh( wanted {oad.At "{rstilve,ot¡l}:ua\5lr:.9)j?v1ost tILtlror!shebr:r..arne ntare(iemúfidinqend wto{eúI:tt respans¡bilily Ít[MiL!]a*. (57 rvords) Noticc horv the u'ordsunderlincdabovehavenorv beenremor.cdor rcplaced by fswc¡ $'o¡d5in the paragraphbclorv. Remember do nol need on Summc¡ries inifoduction.

Mtf,h,ael himsel{to te-eégtq As tl,reowlel-wcs 9J..pI!!!EtL, dedit1it-e,tl bg. Saon ta call hitvtW?tyyt shewünted frrod.¿¡ ii¡"stRo:& 5l.e¿!rna5taf the Rockvi¿r1fl1f únd n o{eúl a matedemGndiil(4 liftte,bt4tü5 sheüre& she|secavvit {espcnsib¡l¡ty. (42 u'ords)

Exercise 4

lf ony of yourpoinlsseemloo long,removesomeof théwords.Thencomporewiththe ofswef on poge 250. suggested

Exercise 5

comporell wilh o suggested When you hoveflnished, Now wrileyoufsurnmcrry. onsweT on poge 250.



'History'summories Another qpe of sun-rmaryis the 'history' summary, whcrc )¡olr may be asked to outline thc hislor,1, of something, for example a sport or a hobby. ü/hen attempting a history sllrnr¡ary, yolr should be looking fbr ,/tztr that resulted in change,and hoN' the first attempt to do something rvas different from what camc later. Datcs often appear in these summaries, but can be misleading becausedre), are not alr'vaysrelevant. The important thing is to lool< for etsnts and ask yourselfifthc sport or hobby would have changedwithout the event. Ifnot, then the cvcnt itself is not relevant, even if it is connccted to a date.

Worked exomple of o history summqry Sloge I Read this question based on a past exam paper and urderline the kc¡vords. ob,outthe his1ory of Reodthefo lowlngnewspopef crrlice ond thenwriteo summory 'lOO more thon You should use greyhound rocing.Yoursummcrry shouldbe no words. yourown wordscrsmuchos you con. Greyhounds have been bred for thousands of years, but only in the last century have they been used for racing. The greyhound is an ancient breed of dog whose history can be traced back over 7000 years. Evidence from archaeological excavations shows that it was a popular breed among the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians. A marble statue 01 greyhoundsin the Vatican in Rome points to their popularity at the time of the Roman Empire. The b¡eed's name does not come ftom the colour grey, but is probably taken fiom the breed of dog known as Greekhound, which arrived in England from France around 2000 yeals ago. Becausethe letter k may have been difficult to pronounce at the time, the name may have become greyhound. The greyhound, one of the few remaining pure breeds of dog, has a physique which is entirely geared towards speed.But the earliest sur-vivingrecord of a dog being made to chase ¿rn artificial, mechanicalhare, or lure, was not until the nineteenthcentury. The first allempl to introduce racing took place in a field at Hendon, to the north of London. The event was reviewed enthusiasticallyin an a icle in The Times on September 11 1876. But the race was over a straight course of 400 yards, and after its novelty had wom off, the spofi died out. The biggest drawback was that the sfaight course proved no test of a

greyhound's skill, and victory almost always went to the tastestrunner. Many attempts were made to inYent a lure that could complete an oval circuit. But these met with continued failure and the idea was forgotten for almost a quarter of a century, until it resurfaced i¡ the United States. A new begínníng Coursing, in which animals chase a live bait, was pafiicularly popular in Ame¡ica at the turn of the Llastlcentury, and a man named Owen Patrick Smith becameone of the sport's leading promoters. But he came up agaínst increasing opposítion from anti blood spofis groups, which forced him to consider u:ing l dummy mechanical lure and transferring the eventsto an enclosedtrack. One of his fiISt attemptsused a stuffed rabbit attached to a motorbike. By 1919 he had refined his lure to a motorised trolley and, in partnership with coursing enthusiast George Sawyer, opened his fiISt race course at Emeryville in Califomia. But Smith was anti gambling, and refused to allow people to bet on the outcome of his races.Public support tailed off, but Sawyer overruled his partner and insisted on bookmakers being allowed to bet on the trackside. Within a couple of yean, the spoft was booming and in 1925 a deal was st¡uck to allow it to cross the Atlantic back to England.


| ó5

it is about 11 metres in fl-ont of the tr¡ps, Greyhoundracing made its British debut at the Belle Vue stadium in Manchesteron the doors spring upwards and open July 24th 1926. But only 1700 spectators autornaticallyto releasethe dogs. arrivecl,giving the organisers a lossof f50. The greyhounds,which reach speedsup Floweve¡,iust a week later, 16,O0Oturned to 61 km/h, usc thcir cunning to gain the position in the field which is most up and the spon was firmly established.A year later, the spofi moved to the capital, favourable to their particular racing style. with a meeting at west London's White City This mjght be the insideposition nearthe rails, or an outside position whcrc thc stadium which attracted an estimated 100,000 people. More and more tracks runnirg is less likely to be impeded. openedup, with 30 in businessby thc cnd Toclay, therc are 36 tracks, and over 17,000races run a yea.. They are watahed of the year. by over'3.8 milliol spectators. Just before the st¿ú of a racc, thc greyhounds, wearing muzzles and It seerns that the Bdtish public have diflérently coloured jackets with numbers taken a specialliking to seeingmirn'sbest tiiend in thc sporting arcna. attached, are led into traps. The artificial hare begins its run from behind, and when

Sroge2 Skim reed the passage paragraph b1. paragraph, undcrlining

rclcvant points.

Greyhoilncls have bcen brecl for th<.lrsandsof years, but only in the l¿st century have they been useclfor racingIs thcrc irnything relcvant to thc questionf Nr.¡.Clontinue skim reading. The lareyhouncl is ¿n ancient brced of clog whose history can be traced back over 70O0 years. Evidence from archaeolo{aical excavations shows that it was a popular brcccl among the ancient E!!]'ptians and Mesopotamians. A marble statue of greyhounds in thc Vatican in Romc points to their popularity at the time of the ltoman Ernpirc. Do not bc confllse d by tl-rc u'ord history. What docs the $'ord history refcr t() lrcrcf It rcfórs to thc history of thc dog itself, ancl not t() the history ofracing (rvhich rvas lskcd for in thc qucstiol). Is thcrc anything relevxnt to tlle qLrestion¡ No. Continue skin rcading. Tl¡e breecl's name cloes not come fron-r the colouf gfey, but is probably taken from the breed of c1()gknown as creekhound, which afivcd in Englantl fiom France ¿r<>und2(XX)ye:us ago. Becausethe letter k may havc been difficult to pronounce at the time, the namc may havc become grelüound. \M-rat is the paragr¡rph al¡outl Still thc history ofthe Are there xny relevent points¡ Nrr?¿. So movc on.

clog, and not dog rñcitu!.

The greyhound, one of the l€w rcrnaining pure breeds of ckrg, h¿s a physique which is entirely gearcd towards speed. But the earliest suryiving record of a dog being made to chasc an artilicial, mechanical hare, ot lure, w¿s not until the nineteenth century. Thc lirst attempt to introduce r¿cing took place in a licld at Hcndon, to 'Ihc the north of London. cvcnt was reviewecl enthusiastically in an afiicle rr't Tbe Times on Scptcmbcr 11 1876. But the r¿cc was over a straight course of 400 yards, and af'tcr its novelty h¿d worn off, the spofi died out.

166 . READ|NG Here rve fead the n¡neteenthcentury(did you knorv that the nineteenth century nrns from 1801 till 1900f). What event is rhis date referring tol The earliest recordof 6 dog chasinga hare. Cot:Jd this be relerant to the questionl Probably. So underlire it. Ifyou are searching only for dates, then the nexr one \¡ou seeis september't'l .1876. What does this date refer tof A review article ¡n The Times.\\4-rat does the article refer tof The first attempt to introduce racing. In orher words September11 1876is the date ofthe ,trticle, nof the date ofthe race. Obviously, the race took place in the same year as the article, so underline the year Remember that you should be looking for ways in qüich fhe rtr$ ñttowpt was different from what can-relater. Of course, asyou read through vou do not, as yet, l<nou,the answer to that question. So you should look fbr the significant characteristicsat each stage. So rvhat rvere the significant characteristicsof this f.rst anewptl (tt) tookpl6ce ¡n a fleld at Hendon,to the north of London.Is this relevantf 1?s.Perhapslater in the history ofthe sport it took place in a different location, and another town. So underline this point. Theracewas overa stra¡ght cou|f,eof 4ooy6rds. Is this relevant) llrs! perhaps Iater in the history ofthe sport, the shape or length ofthe course lüll change. So underline t1-rispoint. the sport died out. Wh¡,f Read on. The biggest drawback was that the str¿ight coufse proyed no test of a greyhound's skill, and yictory almost always went to the fastest runner. The drai.ybackwas that the course proved no test ofa grel'hound,s skill. So rvhat needed to be done to change thatf Read on. Many attempb were made to invent a lure that could complete an oval circuit. But these met with continued failure and the idea was forgotten for almosta quafter of a century,until it resurfacedin the United srates. attempts... to ¡nventa lure ... an ovalcircuit... metwith failure... ideaforgotten... So r.yasthat the end ofthe sportf Ifnot, why notf it resurfaced¡n the Un¡tedstates... o quarter of a centurylater 'lI-Lenext d,ateis 19-19.But if you jump to this, you wiil be missing not one, but ¡n, impoftanr points. So continue si<imreading. Coursing, in which animals chase a live bait, .\Á¡as pafiiculady popular in America at the tum of the century, and a man named Owen patfick Smith becameone of the sport'sleadingpfomoters. But he came up against incfeasing opposition from anti-blood spofts groups,which forced him to considerusing a dummy mecl.tanical lufe and transfering the eyentsto an enclosedtrack. One of his first attemDtsused a stuffed rabbit attached to a motorbike. 6t the turn of the centuryWhen does this meanf Rervrite in your orvn u.ords. This conr-rectsto the point mentioned above a quarter of a century... l¡vebatt ... opposition from anti-bloodsportgroupsImporrant pointl l'¿slThc sport mav not remain popular if people are against it. Sc¡what efli:ct did this haveI ... cons¡der us¡nga dummymechan¡clllure-.. enclosed track. Note that none ofthe last féw points is connected to a ddt(



... stulfedrabbit attachedto a motorbike.This is al exntnpleo{ a mechanical lure, so cannot be includcd. Continue to skim read. By 1919 hc haclrefined his lure to a rnotorisecltrolley and, i1l pafi.nershiP with coursing enthusiastC;eo¡geSawyc¡,oPc¡rcdhis first r¿ec ¡.ot¡rs¡r2l Erncryr.illein California. But Smith was anti-gambling,and refusedto allow pcople to bet on the outcome of his races.Public support tailed off, but Sawyeroverrulcd his pafiner anclinsistedon bookmakcrsbeing allowed to bet on the trackside. \Fithin ¿ couple of years,the sport was booming and in 1925 a deíLlwas strlrck to ¿llow it to crossthe Atlantic back to England. In thcsc paragraphsrve come to the datc 1919.Wlnt does this refer tol A continuation of thc mcchanical lure theme, this timc a motonsedtrolley.This is just another exn? ple. Er.en though it is connected to a datc, it is not relevant and necd not be included. Thc next ¡late in the passagcis 1925.Rut again, if yor,rjr-rmpto this, you will miss a vcry inrportant point. ... antigambling-.. publ¡csupporttailedoff.Norv the l.rti blood sportsgroups ere happy, so vüy i5 grcyhouncl racing still not popular) Becauseofdre ban on gambling. The other partner in the busincss ins¡sted-.. bet on the trackside.The rcsultl a As -voucan see,this is an itnportant pt rint, coupleof years... sportwas boom¡ng. even thouglr it is not attechcd to a specíhcdnte. -1925. Norv let's look et the significance of a dealwas struck.-. allowbackto England.An importent pointi Pcrha¡rs,scr urderlinc it. Nor'v carry on skim reacling. Grel'hound racing made its British d€but at thc Belle Vue stadium in Manchesteron July 24tr'1926.But only 1700 spectatorsarri\.ecl,giving the organisersa lossof €.50.Ho$.ever,iust a week latcr, 16,000turned up and the spolt was tirrnly established.A year later, the sport moved to the c¿pit¿l, with a meeting at west London's \Vhitc Ciry stadium which attractedan estimated100,000people. More and nlore tracks openeclup, with lO in businessby the end of the year. FIere comcs another date! July24th1926.Rcmcmber, the da,vand month are not really vcry i¡portant (they rre too exect for a surrmary,), only the ycar. only 17oospectatorsWh,vl only slrggestslailure . the sport movedto the cap¡tal...1oo,ooopeople.The problem had bccn location. Skim read the next paragra¡rh. Just befbte the start of a race, the greyhouncls,wearing muzzles and dilferently celoured iacketswith numbersattached,are led into traps.The artificialhare beginsits run f¡om bchiird, un,l s¡hcn it is about 11 metresin lront of the tr¿ps, the doors spring up$/arcls and open automatically to releasethc dogs. the racesare orgnnised.Are there any What is tlre paragraph abolrtf -F1¿lr, rclcr-ant poilrts ) No. Norv read on: The greyhouncls,which reach speedsup to 6l km/h, use their cuning to gain tbe position in the field which is most thvour¿bleto their pafticular

Ió8 T READ/NG facing style.This might be the inside position near the rails, or ar.routside position where the furulillg is lesslikely to be impeded. More details about the race. No relevant points. Norv read on. 'lbday, therc afc J6 tracks, ¿rndover lT,tltlU raccs run a ycar. 'lhey are watchedby over 3.8 million spectators. Contains statistics about racing today. This is part of the bistory. Underlíne the points. Norv read the last paragraph. It seemsthat the British public have taken a specialliking to seeingman's best friend in the sportingarena. Nothing relet'ant to ltistory. So, going through this summary shows clcarly that ify6¡ 5s...¡ for dates a l o n e .y o u u i l l m i s sm ¡ n y i m p o r r a n tp o i n l \ .

Sroges3-ó Exercise ó

Now relurnlo lhe poinlsyou hoveunderlinedond rewrifelhemin your own words, beforecomporingyourworkwilh thesuggested onsweron poges250-1. Thenwork throughlhe femoining stogeslo pioduceyoursummory.

I'Structure' summories The last type of summary can be called the 'ftinction' or 'stn-rcture'summary. In this case,the question asks1ou to write ¡ summán'using a ccrtain fünction or stnrcture of language. You nray be asked to gfut ndtice, or to explain the wnin nrgumtnts for and agninst sonethins, or to cxplail the benef,tsof something or ú:'e atltantages nnd d,isadtantagesof somctl-ring.Approach the sumnary in the normal rvay: I 2 3 4 5 6

U n d e r l i n c l < c ¡u o r d s i n t J r eq u c r t i o n . Slcim read thc passage,underlining relevant points. Go bac.kto the points. Write the idea they expressin your own words. C r o u p l o g c l h er s i m i l a ri d c r s . Chcck the number of points against the numtre r of words asked fbr. Write your summary.

In tlris kind of summary, you should wahe o separntc list of the stractural stnttnces askedfor, so you do not fbrget to include them. In a summary where you arc askcd to explain the tnain drgutnentsflr and. Dgñ.inst,your lisf may look something like this:

oneof thema¡narguments in favourof ... ¡sthiTt... It canbeargued that ... Ontheotherhand,oneof thearguments Gga¡nst ... isthot.. Once this is done, you simply have to fit the points inside the srructure pnrases.



Worked exomple of q struclure summqry Look at the fbllowing questionbascdon a questionfrom a pastexamPaPer. Stoge I Rcadthe questioncarefullyand underlinc thc ke,vr'vords. g jvifg odvjce Reodthefo owingodice oboulmounloinblking.Thenwf iteo Porogfoph responsible. biklngis sofeond environmenloly on woysof mokingsurelhcrlmounlc¡in much os possib e. own wotds os Wrlle oboul I O0 words.Useyout

Out in rhe wheel world Mourtain biking is the fastest-growing sport in Britain. The saddleof a bike is a tiu better vantage point from which to explore the countryside than a car, and you see much more thrn ¡ou nould wrlking.On top of this, it's great exercise: a day otlroad cycling will have everyone sound asleepat night as soon as their hcadshit the pillow. But peúaps the best bit of all is that after every lung-bursting climb comes the thrill of bouncing downhill. Access is one of the most contentious issuessurroundingthe spoft, with everyone from ramblers and horse dders to larmers and environmentalists wailing about the impact of moultain bikes on the countryside. However, if you are riding on a legal ly accessiblet[ail, you have just as much right to be there as thcy do. The nain thing, as with all outdoor sports, is to show consideration fbr othels: don't tear up behind warn them of your walkers or riders approach and ride past slowly. As tor ero sion, tr-y not to skid unnecessarilyon wet grass and soil, although independent

rescarch has shown that mountain b¡kes causeno more crosion than walkers' boots and a good deal less than horses' hooves. lf you pass through gates, always close or fasten them behind you. Don't d¡sturb livestock, and make sure you always know where you're going, so you don't end up riding through a field of crops alter making a wrong turn. Mark your routc on a map befbre you set out (and know how to re¿d it!) so it's easyto follow the trail. Everyonefalls ofl at somepoint a rock, a pot hole or tree root will catch you out eventually so the goldcn mle is to wear a helmet. Always. lt's also useful to canJ a basiofirst-aid kit, and, as an expefi advises, 'don't stray too lar out i¡rto the wilds, just in caseyou do have an accident.' Many of the more experiencedrjders who go up into thc moultains of Scotland and the Lake District take mobile phones in case they comg to grief in a remote area. You mlght i r ¡ r e , t h a tt h i su o u l , lh c a [ : o o do c ( r ¡ \ i ¡ t lno h¿ve one.

Sroge 2 Exercise 7

points,mcrkingthemot thesideof the relevonl Skimreodlhe possogeond underllne coding.Thencheckond comporewhol you hovedonewiththe thelextwith suitoble ofsweron poge 251 . suggesled

Stoges 3 ond 4 Exercise 8

one for ecrchof the keypoinls.(Lnlhe exom,do thiso¡ o b onk Moke h,vocolumns, lf therels the reodingposscrge poge of theexornqueslionpoper,or underneclh ln spoce.lGo throughyourcodingol thesideof thelexlond rewrileeochsenlence youfown words.The¡ pulyouf pointsln ordero[ impodofce.Checkond compore withtheonsweron poge 251

I7O '

READ/NG Sfoge 5

Remember Thissummory oskedfor cr porogrcphg¡'",¡ng odvicc.

Nor'r'check the number of points _y6¡1 fi¿y¡¡made. Cl-rcckholy man)¡ r.vords ( ]¡olr havc to r'vrite 100 rvords). In other rvords, r.ou har.eone linc for cach point. Don't forget the advicephrases,though. When vou include the advicc phrases,1.e¡1lyill havc too marry words, so you may need to join ideas. What are the adr.icephrasesf Look back to Section 2,Unit 2 on Friendl¡, letters: advice. Therc are many phrasesto choose fiom. Try to select ones rvhich are formal ones, and have not been used in the tcxt. For example: The ffiast iaportantlbestimüin thíng is ta . ^. neffi€mber.. " \Alhcteverhúppen5,... lvtthatetter you da, ... Tr,t .. . Y ú us h ú t Á l d l a ü a hAtr . . .

Stoge ó Exercise 9

Now wrileyoursummory. Thencomporeyourworkwilh thesuggested onswefon poge 252.

The first unit in this section sets out the different taskswhich 1'ou will find in the listening exam. It gives examples ofeach part in turn, together with hints on how to answer the questions. Unit 2 explains what to expect in the different components ofthe speaking exam. l.



Ltsfenrngoveryrew The listening passagesin the exam appear in Paper 3 (Core) and Paper 4 (Extended). Both papers consist ofthree parts and involve listening to six short texts and four long passages. Paper 3 (Core) lasts approximately 30 minutes. Paper 4 (Extended) lasts approximately 45 minutes. I You write your answersir"ra question paper booldet. t You must answer in pen. I You can write down anl.thing you like, at any time during the exam. I There are blank pages at the back of the question booldet, and you should use these for rough work. Any rough notes you make should be crossedthrough with one diagonal line at the end of the exam. Spelling mistakes are not penalised, unless the mistake produces a word wit h a different meaningwhich is nor appropriate. n,1

rorT I This part ofthe listening exam is relatively simple and servesas a'rvarm up'to Parts 2 and 3. In Part I I'ou will hear six short, spoken texts. These could include simple conversations, messagesleft on an answe¡ machine or a travel announcement. You will hear them all twice. You will need to be able to write down a string of numbers asyou hear them such as a telephone number, and to recognise the difference between sirnilar-sounding numbers, such as thirte en arLdtbir4, when you hear them. You will also need to distinguish benveen words srch ts whtn and wheretvhen you hear tllem. These questions test your understanding ofvery basic vocabulary and involve answering wh question words, such as wherel wbenl whyl howl whol This may involve simple phrasessuch as telling the time (wbat tiwe?, how longl), amotnts of money (how wwch d'oesit costl,how wwch doeshepayl), days ¿r¿ months (what is the closingdatel, wbich is the beo d'ay?)or giving directions (where wust yuu weetl, d.oyow hnow tho wttll). Part I requires very briefanslvers. Often one word is needed, and you should write as little as possible. You will see on the question paPer that

172 C ¿/SIEN/NG AND SPEAK/NG somc qlrcstions carry two marks. This mcans that there are tw() parts to the q u c \ t i o n : r n dy o u r ri l l n c e d l 0 g i \ c t w o ¿ n \ w c 1 5 .

Answering the questions

Exom t¡p Thequestions ofieninclude nomeswhichmoy not be fomlllorto you Tryto soy themto yorrsef so thotthey oo nofcontLJse you o¡o pfeveniyou heoringthe o¡swefwhenyou istento the 5e¡tences.

Púrt 1 l{&a}esti&ns'l-&}

Befbre you hear the short, spoken sentences,you will bc givcn tine to read the cluestions. L Skim read the questions and Llnderline key rvords. Thesc r.villinclude the nain question rvords such as how tnuch or wbere-Othcr key s,ords also need to be underlined. Look at the exanrple qucstions liom a Part I Core listcning paper, rvhere the kev words have bccl underlined.

1 Ccrrlos¡eedssomepetfo for hlscor. How muchwi I lt costhim per lilre? ¿l 2 A L h é a p Lo o r . n b e - s - o u d o I r g r o o o t :a-hg possenoers 3 How onq wi I hqve1owoil for ihelrfoin? Yourclossis goingon o lfip lo o loco sciencemuseum lomorfow. Where muslyou ncel ond crlwhol timedo you expecl10be bock? lsmoiis on c1wiflef snowsportsho idcry.Accordingto theweolherforecosr, whichwt I be the L,est doy for himto ski? Yosminqnd herfriendore goingshopping.Why doesherfriend suggestbuyingo l:s-L-a|gb-aealsl9?

Ir tl t1 t2l

trl ltl

In question I per litre shrnld be underlined. This is bccauscthc sentence you hear ma¡r 5¿yho$. m¡1chit costs Carlos to lill his tanl<. It.t clnestion 2 Jktber shodd be underlincd. This is becausethe sentence\¡olr hear may also contain reference to Fran contacting other people. In question 3 trnin shc¡t.lrdbe underiined. This is becausethe sentenccJ¡oLr hear mav refer to other types oftransport. In question 6 bar of cbocolateshould bc underlined becauseYasmin's friend maJ¡rcltr to other itenls ofshopping. At the same time, circlc questions u,hich need tu'o ansrvcrs.(FIere, question 4.) 2 \Mren you have skim read the questions and undcrlincd key rvords, read question I again. Nole Llsie¡irg possoges orenot pfovided n thlsoverview, ^. -^^+ l^

,L^ f -^l ^.^.^


on pogesI /B-9.

* Remember There is ¡o need lo wrile cornpele senlencesi¡ yoLrr onswer \¡y'fit-^os i1le crs possore.

This tinre makc sure 1,ou understand thc question. Use the infbrmation iu thc qucstion to guess what the sitlratiol yolt hear may be about, and anticipate (gucss) vüat ,vour ansrvcrmight be. 3 Listen to the spoken scntence. Ifyou féel confident yon knor.vthe anstvcr, lrite it in straight away. Ifyou are not sure ofthe ansrvcr,I'ait until vou hear the s¡roken scntcnce a second 4 \Mren ),ou hcar the spoken sentencethc sccond time, cl.reck\¡our answcr or complcte any answer \¡oll misscd the fust time. Never leavc rhc ¿nsl el bl¡rnh. Movc on immediate ly to rcad thc next question.

Lístenínq overvíew W 173

YOfi I In Part 2, you *ill hcar two longcr s¡rokcntcxts. Again, thesecould be r convcrsation,a monoJoguc(= onc pcrson spcaking),an intervicrvor a tall<.As 1,oulistcn, you nccd to usc thc infbrm¿tion to conrplctc gapson a chart or fbmr. You u-ill hcar both tcxts twice. This part often testsunderstandingof numbers used fbr age, mexsurementr time or cost. 'I'<> ansu.erthe qucstions, you oftcn nccd figurcs or groups ofrvords. Full sentencesare z¿t necdcd.

Answering the questions You u'ill bc givcn time to look xt the fon.n or chart before yor,rlisten to the text. I Looh at thc infbrmation given in the form or chart. Try to articipate (guess)the kind ofqucstion that needsto [¡e askcdin ordcr to pror'idc thc ansrvcrs.l{cmcmt¡cr tl-ratthc rvords 1,o1¡hcar uscd b,vthc spcakcrsarc oficn different ti'om thosc you rcad on thc form. For example,look rt a qlrestion fionr a Part 2 Core listeningpapcr on thc next page. a Look u,here the rvord 'nationaliqv' appcarson thc carccr profilc form. l-)o not expect a r'vord fionr thc qucstion to appeirrin thc spokc.ntcxt. l-)o not expcct the spcakcr to usc thc lr.orcls Whnt nntionnlitl, nre youl. Instead vou may hcar Wheredo you'owl or Wherent"eyoufrow originnll,i ot Tou're not English, are wul e Lool( at the career¡rrofile fbrm, uncler'Problems'.Thc firrm says 'tlr,o....... on left hnee'. What pr<>trlems can l tenrrisplaver hirvcon hcr kneef Could it be injuries <>rperhtps operations'f l)o not L-xpccrthc speakerto sav, Tou had hto 0peroti0t6 0n ylur lejL hne4 didn't youl Instead yon mav hear Tour left knee\ bcenlperatetl on twicc, hnsn't it? l)o not cxpcct thc u'ords in thc spokcn tcxt to cornc in thc same orcler as they clo on thc lbrm. 2 Listcn to the spoken te).t. If ,vou helr e r.vordantl knou,it is the correct answcr, but arc not sure how to spell it, lvrite it clorvn anyway. Yor.rr.villnot losc nerks for incorrect spelling, unless1'ou produce a r'vord r'r'ith e wrong mca.ning. For example, in the questiolr in our example lbc¡ut Rutry Chanclre'sranking in the r'r,orld,¡.ou l<nou'thc ansu'cris 'thir:d', but you arc not sure hou'to s¡rellit. Ifyou r"r'ritc'fird' tliis will bc acccptcd and ifyou r'vritc 'tird' this s'ill also bc acccptcd. l{or.cvcr, if 1.ou 'tircd' this will z¿r be .l.fcl)l( d.

3 Ifyou arc colficlcnt 1.or¡kr-rowthc ansrvcr,r'ritc it in straight arvay.If yor,r arc not surc ofthc ansr'ver,u.ait until yor.rhear the s¡roken text x second time. 4 When you hcar thc s¡rokcn tcxt tbc sccond timc, chcck 1'orrr ans\r¡cror c(rmpletc ally ins\r'cr volr mjsscd thc first timc. Ncvcr lcavc thc ans\\'er blank.

174 '


Fsn"f2: Exereise One {Questien 7l

lislenlo crni¡ferviewwilh RubyChondro,a younginlefnolionolennisp oyef, ond thenfi I in the detois below. 1wice. Youwil heorlhe inlervlew

Personaldeta¡ls . Namei Ruby Chandra . Dateof Bitlhi May 10n 1981


lll . Austral¡an opentoumament Problems . Two .....,..,......""" on leftknee . T¡meawayfrom professional tenn¡s:............

lll lll

General . Amb¡tion:to w¡nWimbledon . Recordlengthot women'ss¡nglesmatch: 3 hours45 m¡nutesín 1998

tll lTotal:5]

Nou' look at a question frorn a Part 2 Extcnded listening paper on the next page. Using the method olltlined in I abor.e,anticipate the kind ofquestions you might l.rearthat will provide t1-reanswers.

overview W 175 Listenino

Exerclse ?wcยก {&ueeiion 8}

Listen10 on ifleryiew with the directorof on inlernolionoolrPoยกl in ndlc:l,and lhen comp ele the detoils b'eow /ou wil heor lhe lยกtervew [,rice.


Mr Lยกm

'l Motto: .............. through......" . . . and customersatยกsfactยกon" Airport aยกms to offeri ........................ . flยกghtsand services A i r p o r tf o u n d e di n : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I1l t1l t1l

New ยกntematยกonal termยกnal buยกlt 2OO4t......................


. ......-- -" . . . .. . tonnes Cargo handled:near\y............. Environmental protection: qualรญtyconttol,monitorยกngof . .. ... Other passenger fa cilitiesi waยกtยกng .. . seats and coffee bars


. aยกrcraftused Privateaircrafthยกrei ............................................ kยกndergaften, a runnยกng , Community work: gยกvยกng aid ยกn tยกmes of disaster

t1l t1l tll tll l1l t1l

Future olans: ral /,hk


W Port3 (Core) In Part 3 you will hear two spoken texts. Again, these coultl bc a cot-tversation, a monologue, an inten'iov or a talk. You neeclto decidc u'hethcr statcments ebout the tcxt arc true or false irnd tick the apยกrropriatebox'

Answering the queslion I Read the introduction above thc stJtcments ()u thc cxant paPer so you l<rrow whntvott are going to hcar. Is it an intenierv or a convcrsation, fbr cxamplcf Hor'v maly ยกreoplc rvill you hcar) Look at the namcs. Will you hcar mcn or r'vomenf Wrat u'ill thcy be talking aboutf 2 Rcad the statemcnts quicldy, and underline the kev words' 3 The n read the first statcnent again, carefr-rlly.Makc surc you understand it and keep thinhing about it.

176 '

¿/SIEN/NGAND SPEAK/NG 4 Listen to thc spokcn text. Be carefirl ofnegativesl Sometimes a ncgativc senterlcein the text mcans thc samc as the sentencein the question, ilncl sometimes it me ans the opposite. -b-orexample: o) Hony is populorwilh oll h¡sfrl-^ndsTnreor FoLs,^? You hear: I wouldn't say that Harry is unitersall! plpahtr. b) Horryls rich.Trueor Fcrlse? You lrear: Hdryls nlt poor thesedays,is hel 5 Ifyou fecl confidcnt you knos, the answer, tick the box straight ar.vay.If you arc not surc, wait until 1'6¡1hear the spoken text for thc sccond time. 6 Check ),our answersas voll hear thc spokcn tcxt for the second time, and complete any arls\vcrsyou misseclthe first time. Never leave an answcr blank. Look at the fcrllowing cxample question taken fiom a Part 3 Core listening pasr exam papcr.

Pe¿rt3¡ E:r.ereise*ne f.&aesYÉ*n9j

lislenfo o¡ lnlerviewoboulboostingthe immunesyslem,crndthenl¡dlcolewheiher eochs|:lementis lrueor fo se by pultlngo lick ln lhe oppropfiolebox. Youwi heorthe int,^rview lwice.

True Folse (o) Dr mo hoscorriedoul reseorch on on lnternoliono sccrle.


(bJ Invcrders ore ollockedby our immunesyslem.


(c) Polutionhos,: big effecton our lmr¡unesyslern.

ntr n¡ trn nn trn

(d) Accordlngto thespeoker,liredness doesnol couseil ness. (e) Sugorhelpstheeffecliveness of the kilerce ls. (f) Exercise quickens circuotion. (g) More oxygenin thece ls is good lor yourheohh. {h) t ooo l-npc -o p^ep^ s'^


'eol ' ^ , to oe rhe


(i) Stress hormones mokeus ough.


(i) Thespecrker odvisesuslo colmdown ond en oy Jlfe.

trn [Tolol:5]

Listeningoverview W 177

K Port3 (Extended) In Part 3 l,ou will hcar two spoken tcxts. Again, thcsc could be a convcrsation, a monologue (- one pcrson speaking), an interview or a talk. You necc{to u'rite s}rort or scntence length ansr,vcrsto the q[estions.

Answering the questions I Rcad the introduction above the questiolrs cยกn the exam paper so you knolv n hat yott are going to hear. Is it an inten'iell. or a conversation, for cxamplel Hor.v many people u'ill ,vou hcarl Look at the namcs. Will vou hear mcn or womenf What rvill they bc talking aboutf 2 Read the cluestionsquickly, and undcrline the key u'ords. 3 Tl-rcn read the first qucstion again, carefully. Makc sure,vou undcrstand it and kcep thinking about it. 4 As 1.6ยก listen to the spokcn text, establish: x rvho is spcahing x thcir point of vicrv on the subjcct. 5 Wdte down anything 1.ou think may be relevant to the ansr'ver,using the blank pages at thc end of the ansrverbooldet, or the spaceunder the questlons. รณ Norv read the second question again, carcfully. Make sure ยกrou understand it and kccp thinking about it. As before, rvritc dor'vn anything 1,ou think may tre relevant to thc answer. 7 llepeat this procedure for each qucstion, remembering that the ans\.versto the questions cone chronologically (the รกnswer to question 3 rvill come before thc !lns\\ยกerto cluestion 4, for example). 8 When ,vou are slrrc )ยกou have heard thc answer to dre last question, begin to look through vour notcs and rvrite in anl. ansr'versyou are confidcnt about. Tl-rcrervill lยกe no more rclevant information to listen fbr even though the spokcn text may continlrc. Maximise ),our use of this time to produce ansrversfi'om yollr notcs. 9 Whcn lvriting in your,you shoulcl not repeat the u'ords in the question.-F-orexamยกrle: According1othespeoker,whlchthreequollliesmusto climberhove? Do not answcr: Accord,ing to the spenher,n cliwbeยก,.wwsthmr ... Simply list the thrcc qualitiesin a sentence.For cxample: I h e q u a i i t i t sรผ r e . . " m Ar-rsu'erthe qucstion dircctlยก' x Write a complete sentence. ยก U r c t l r es J m cl e n \ el r t h e q r r e s t i o n . lO Carry on r.vriting in your anslvcrsduring the second listening. I I Stop to listen for any answersyor,rhad problcms r'vith thc first time . 12 Ncvcr lcavc a qucstion unansr.ered. Marks r'vill not be deducted fbr a \vrong answer, so if vou are not sure, just guess!


Hints I Liste n for phrasessuch as the fbllor'ving: Whitl-lw{:.Gn$... \ {1íJtt' m tr-ving to say is . . . l n a t h e {w o r d s. . . Ta p6t it anather ',t¡a\j... l n a . n u t s h P -.l^l " These phrasesare used to indicate that a speakeris going to summarise his thoughts. Vcry oftcn, t.l-rewords used in the summary are those nccded in vour ans\\'cr. 2 Listen fbr adjectives.Thesc often indicatc a descriptive passage,tvhere there r'vill usr-rallybe no ansr,vers. 3 Listen fbr words like these: 'nar¡d h<livever,on the óihp-r and whererzs(introducing contrasts) unTo{tuncNt-et"v, the olawn sirje and n ff¡nus poír't (introducing disadvantages). 4 Iftlre qr,restionincludes the \l.ord 'attitudc', it rneans what docsb tbinh aboutl 5 Questions often include a phrase likc 'FIory have his f'eelingschangedl' lt is important that y¡¡¡¡ ansr' he felt btfore nnd nfter in the situation. Tl'ris could involve a comparison, such as happierthan. 6 Prcscntation is ilnportant. Crossings out look mcssy, and create a bad impression. Onl¡, rvrite in your ansrvcrwhen J¡ou arc happy r'vith it a¡d can put it in a sentence. 7 Cross 1'eu¡ notes thfough with one diagonal lirc rüen )'ou have finished. Fart 3z Exerr-ise Twg l$ues*áan l&N

Lislen to thisrcdio inlervlewin whichSo ly to ks oboutthedlfflcutiesof herson,who (c condilionwherepeope wllhdrowfromreoily),crndo¡swerlhe suffers fromcrulism queslions. Youwi I heorthe interview h,vlce. I Why wcrsGobrielgiveno p oce lf hisnew co lege? 2 G t v eo n ee x o m p l o e f G o b r i e l 'us n u s u o c l i o n s . 3 How hoveSo ly'sfeelingschcrnged oboutGobrie goingto thisco ege? 4 Whcrtwos theeffeclon Scrly of herfriends'ollempJs to he p her? 5 - l o h o ' J o b r i -r b . Lo . o

L o n g ^ lo L ^ l o b . o r o o d e ' Z

ó Why doesSo ly believeGobrielis lucky1obe going1othisco ege? &xereise I

Now osksomeone to reqdthelislefing lexl(seepcrgel29) 1oyou, ond onswerthe questions.

Listeningoverview W 179 Listening text A In today's 'Family Mattcrs' rvc begin by hcaring the str>nrof Sally ancl her autistic son Gabricl. Se1ly,can l.ou bcgir.l by ex¡rlaining u4rar autism isf B Ycs, it's reallvthc narnegiven to pcoplc r,vhoare seycrclvrncntalll. handica¡r¡recland lvhosc behaviour coulcl bcst be described as 'difficult' or 'challcnging'. As you can inraginc,ar,rtistic children can be veru cliflcult tc¡ look ¡.f'tcrand can complctcly dominatc thcir families. A I'm surc that must bc true. I understandthat Gabricl has a placeat a spccial college. Tcll us horv this has come about. B Yes, (iatrricl is leaving us soon to go into fulftime residential care he will come back for visits trut thc college r,villbc his home. I suppose most collegcsrcquire good school examin¿tionresultsto gct a place, but Gabriel'squalificationswerc his ... I supposcyou'd call it 'r,vild,behaviour. FIe rvoulcl cat ivith his hands or scrcatrrconstxnth'or climb out ofwindorvs rvith no rcgard fbr his safet1,. 1'hc cottcgc.]e¿lscxclusilclr u,ith chiltlren anci young people r,r.ithclisebilitiesof tl-rissort. But thc ñct that hc's going to collcgc is reallv wouderful ner,.r's, although as thc actual clavapproachesI nrust admit I am a little apprehensivc.When u.c first hearcl,rvc all tl-rought it r'vasrvonderful neu,s and I cor,rldhr.rcll,vu'¡iit lbr this mo[rent to arrivc. Norv rvhat I fear most is that he lnight forget all aLrout rrs encl somctimes I think that it is as ifr,ve are abandonir.rghim to strangers. I knou'perfi:ctly rvell, of course, that his neu, calcrs r,r'illgive him all the lovc ancl encouragementhe nceds but I still fbel rather uneasyabout rt. A Hrr, I cen see that. Br,rtI inraginc thet,vour fi-icnds lnd firmily heve trccn \¡cry supporti\¡e o\¡er the \¡carsf B Oh indeed thcy lx1,¡. lt's harcl to see how we could ha.r'esurvivcd r.r.ithout their support. Thev arc ah.vaysñlll of good intcntions ancl oftcn tell us ab()ut some neu miracledrug that could cure (iabriel, r>rthcv' u.ith nervs atrout a television programmc l,üich oflbrs hope of sonrc llctv developmcnt. Or thev rnight c<¡me¡:ounclu,ith ncrvs of sonre succcssstor1, about parcnts rvho dcvotecltheir livcs to their difñcult childrcl rrntl horv, afier ycars of flith encl devotion, the chilcl can drive a car or colr.rpletelv Iook after himsclf. The trouble u,ith all of that r.vasthat lrüile I realll. appreciatcd tl-recomfbrt u-rd support I just becar.ncmore confüsed and didn't knorv rüether I should trv harder with Gabricl or devorc |rorc to the rest of thc lamily or c\¡cn to m\¡self. Ald over timc there hat'c been changesin his behaviour.He still cen't speak and prcfers to slccp on the floor, but l-reis much stronger norv end more asscrti\¡e. And insteac{of mcrclv climbing out of a u'indou'he hes the get agitit.vto olrt on the rc¡of irnd do other horrifying things that as a l¡or¡ he coulcln't havc done. So I sup¡roseI will have vcrr¡ nixecl fi:elings uüen he gocs offto collcgc ncxt rveek, but I have to rentctrrber that hc's lucl( to havc this op¡rortur.ritv,and that not so long ¿go thc future for somcone like hjn lr.ould havc been in a long-term hospital r.ard u'ith his behavrour controllcd by clrugs. I'll l¡e the happiest ¡rerson in the u orld lrüen he nranegestr¡ nakc a cup of tea or get himsclf clressecl. . . ancl his onlv rcal I r o l r ci ' ' ¡ ¡ t ; . , , , ¡ ¡ ,* . . A'fhank you, Sallv.It looks likc changes¿ll round both for r¡ou ancl(iabricl. I arl sure all our listeners u.ish l,ou both thc bcst of luck. Thanh you.



JpeoKrngovervtew There are two different options for assessingspeaking: r Componcnt 5: cxamination a Component ó: coursework. Your school will probably decide which of these applies to you. Marks for the oral component are not included in the grade you receive fbr the written papers. For üe speaking part of the exan-r,you will receive a number gradc flom I to 5, with Grade I being the highest. For both components you r.vilLbe gil.en marks for: I structure I vocabulary r fluency.


Component 5 The exam lasts about l0-I5

minutes and involves:

¡ two to three minutes 'warm-up' conversation, r,vhichis ¡z¿tassessed.The examiner will ask you a few questions about yourself and tiings rvhich may interest you, such as your school or your hobbies, to make you fbel relaxed and comli:rrable rürh the exam situation r fwo to three minutes for you to read an assessment card and prepare an answer. The assessfilentcard will be about a toDic such as the ro]e of parents in a family, the advantagesand disadvantagesof mobile phones, problems faced by teenagers,what makes a good leader, life in the future, health and fitness, and so on. The card will give the topic for discussion and severalrelated points. You do not need to use all ofthese points or to use any of these points or to use rhe points in any particuLarorder. These points are given to help you with ideas ifyou get sruck. You are free to use your own ideas ifyo¡ Ot.6t. You are not allowed to write anything I six to nine minutes assessedconversation. \44ren the preparation dme is over, either you or the examiner will begin the conversation.


Component ó Your school or centre will produce their own oral tasks.You will be assessed on three oral tasks such as role play, inteniews, telephone¿tions, paired or group discussionsor debates.

f, Exomhints I Listen carefulll' ¡6 what the examiner says. 2 Do not give one-word answerssuch asyesor no. 3 Use a variety of different expressions.Instead ofrepeating I think, use other opinion phrases.The same applies to suggestions, advice and so on. 4 Give the examiner a chance to speak! 5 Give sensible answers.

Speokíngoverview ffi l8t

W How to improveyour speoking Vocobu lo ry Inrprovc yorrr voclbrrlary by: e using the Datablsc of topic relatedvocabullry and idcas (seepages 23144) irnd aclclingto it xl reedir-rganlthrng in English, cspccially newspaperarticlcs lr4rcre the *'ritcr tlevelops iur lrgument e listening to rs rnuch spoken English as possible - TV prograumes (espcciell,v intcrviervs),ratlio (Worlcl Service),tl'rcintcmet-

Fluency Inprovc ),gur fluency by: m recordirg just one minutc 1i'onr a 1'V programmc. Listen to ollc scntcncc at a timc and trv to copy it. Rccord your voicc on thc ta¡re.Complrc tbc t\\()Pe1,a¡¡an,;,,trt() pronunci]tion irnclintonetion :i, practising.

Slructure Improvc vour use oflanguagc struc¡-rresb\¡: x doing all <>fthe abovc üt prilctising-

Much of this section concerns language 1'ot.1 need to know at-tduse in ),our exam. Llnit I outlines key u,aysto change formal sentencesinto informal ones, while Unit 2 goes on to remind you of some grammar points which should be used coffectLy in the exam but which often causeproblems for students. Unit 3 looks at difTerentuses ofprepositions, Unit 4 at word partners and sayings, and Unit 5 at phrasesoften conñlsed by students, with examples ofcach, so yo¡ fulow how and where to use them in the exam. Llnit 6 helps 1.e¡1improve your spellirg by explaining some simple rules, rvhile Unit 7 is a üst of words with dillcult spelling, which you may need in the exam. Unit 8 examineshow to write plans for the rvriting tasks and gives 1ou somc useful final hints on how to approach the writing part ofthe exam.

R"gister Remember Simpilyingo formolword or phtosevery ofien involves erpondingyoursenlence, A^.^ .- ^ ^.^^, ",,-A^.^f simplewordsore neededto expoin of repoce biggef wofos.


In the exam, 1.ou are expected to sholv arvarenessofthe differences between fbrmal and informal register and the ability to Lrsethe correct register according to the situation in the question. Your relationship with, or'feel'for, register (different levels oflanguage as discussedin Section 1) comes through experience gained as a result of exposure to the language in a variety of situations. For this reason, it is not easyto 'learn'register from a book. As an IGCSE student, you r'vill probably be more familiar with formal register, so this unit concentrates on helping 1.ou to recognise features of fonr-ralrvriting and showing you hou. to change them in order to produce friendly register.

t plu.. an abstract noun with'person + verb' \{4-ratis an abstractnounl It is a tiing (noun) which,voucannot touch or see) for example:happiness, bravery,6rriva\ will¡ngness, abil¡ryan your Grriv1l -+ whenyou 6{ri\re shehasthe abilw + shecün he re.acherl hisúigs.X¡nr¡tíon ) he {eachedthe ptlacehe \ las gainqta ¡n my a_pu¡on + | th¡nk Abstr¿ct nounsarenot aJwa¡s eás)to recognisc. Replace 'verb + ing' (following words such as ajler, before,0n, etc) with 'person + verb'.

Registerf 183 The 'l.erb+ ing' thatyou needto replacecomesafterthe follorvingwords: after,before, since, when,while, once, on,unt¡\,during,as. Knockon the daorbeforeentetjngthe room -+ .. " beforeyougo in whenünswenng giveyournumber ) WhenVou\nswerfhe thephane, p h o n .e.. Onseeing myfather,I felthüppy ) WhenI saw... Sometin-resa¡ abstract noun (Rt) comes after these words. Replace the abstract noun in the same way, with 'person + verb,.

I met manypeopledWUg my --) ... whileI wasthere @

nept"ce 'formal' verbs with simple verbs and prepositions or phrases(see


to distinguish -+ to tell thedifference between to cans¡der+ ta thinkabaut to pastpone -+ to put off Replace the passive voice with the active voice. Revisionshould be done --> yau shoL d revise The music was played by my sister ) My s¡sterplayed the musi. Avoid the use of 'which' and 'that'. Oftcn the meaning ofa sentence does not change when these words are removed,

I wassorryto hearthat you feellonely(fbrmal) I wassoyryta hearyoufeellonely(informal) IJse contracted forms whenever possible in friendly register, as this is the only place in the written exam where they are appropriate. We w¡|, + I have -)


We'li I've

Avoia listing when writing friendly letters. This means when you want to introduce ideas one after anotier, you should replace r'vordssuch as fintly and secondlyand so on. To introduce the first point:

,:irstly, --) Tastürtwith, ... for o stdrt(artheendofthe senrence) Therearelots0l wdysta rev¡se for 6n exüm,Tastffrtw¡th,makea rcvision timetable. tf youreallywantto laseweight,yau'llhaveto giveup chips, fot a staft.

I84 T REFERENCE To introduce the next point: Anather{qood)thing is .. What'smorc NOtonlyth{rt


what's morc, tty ta havea breakfram revisianeveryhalf hour Anathergoodth¡nqis to makesureyo)!get a gaodnight'ssleep. To introduce the final (and perhapsmost important) point: Lastly +

And oneaf the bestthings And bestof alt Abaveall rhe mostinl?artantth¡n{l

Themostiynportantthinq is to allowplentyaf time to revise'


teplace joining words' used to develop a point made in formal writing'

Furthermo{e, ) _l Besides, | Moreover, )

natall onlythaLilhat's whot'smoreiNot

'but'. However is olten the first word is usedin formal registerto mean However good st)4e to begin a not it is register written In friendly in a sentence. you or cal use with but two sentences sentencewith but. You canioin ...,thoughat the end ofthe sentence. llawever -+


l'm not keenon bananas I lovemostfruit. Ho.\r4A/eL on bananas,fueugll. i fovemostfruit. {m nat t<een I love¡fiostfiu¡t, bu,XI'm not keenon b6nanasintroducesa The sameappliesto on theotherhandwhich, like however, contrastor oppositepoint ofview: on the otherhand --> ^..,thottgh. can spoilthe local spendü lat of múneyin loral shops.Tlley1ourists thauqn. enviranffient, Here area few more rvordsrvhichoften appearin formal registerand needto be replacedwhen writing in friendly register: of + because -+ so thr¡s s¡nce -) becüúse @


and apply the following points.

a) The word alsois used in formal register. It does nrt come at tlle beginning or the end ofa sentence.It comes before the main verb. 6nd | úlso -l¡keJazz' I lave classicult'v1us¡c,



In fiienill,vrcgistcr,replecealsou'ith ..-, too or ... as wellat the enclofthc sclttcnce. : ii::vt r:ittt,:; n*str., r¡niJ I iiic jr¡i-z, l.:¿.¡:'. ! |a,¡eci.i5:ai{:;iii",|.tsit. \!,idi. , :,triii i likl, t¡z:/ 1:¿':, 'l'hc b) rvorcl one somctirnes needs to trc rcplaced rvith a. Look at the folkru,ing scntcnces: I'ittti:;{ji(:it,.:t}i,t:h¡:¡¡r'/i)u'r¡:aúfi1irj4tt sirlriiút ai tviont-yí. t i,J,jt: t1 {:rtLntr Llúti a siiiÍr_ \i.|Z,,rr:,¡ii, ,.ktin,¿i,ar ü v\ttt:k. I tlí|'riim ,) Nnak. c) vtt',/ -+ re¡tily d) t:t r,tstt > tlsn c) r*tn'¡ ) kltt cliilúti(Jt rJi' Exercise I


I wos¡'t qb e


duri¡q mv obsence

3 4

she odvlsedme to | odviseyoL



look ot thefolowing istof the mosicommoffeglster mislcrkes modeby students ond try1rlproduceonguogesuilobefor friendiyletterwfiting.Where relevoni, indicole whichfegislefreference pointis beingused.


in my oreo


your qrfivo lime


i hope you will qttendthe nexl oor beloreqoi¡o to bed

I l0 l1 12

-) ,



befeltctol will be ol qreotbeneftito



I believe ce ebrofion

l3 14 l5

co¡cerni co¡icrins


we enlered lhe




ie I me iis ocollon

l9 20

r¡o¡y -+

in ¡¡y opinion

21 22

of- r-o l. )

23 ,...Eqgdlg 24



il wcrsn'tsuccessful

]., -)

durinqvourvislt whi e wolkl goin weight


25 26 27 28

K"y grommorpoints This unit does not cover every aspect of grammar required for the exam. The gramn-raticalpoints explained here are those r.vhichare regularl)' used incorrectly by students ofIGCSE English as a Second Language. Each point is explained through example, where possible, and with minimum referenceto srammatical ternls.


u.irrg tlre past perfect tense. past perfect

,-z------.. past participle +

pasf tense of bñre had naa had


Ín¡shed eaten forgolten

Moking events sound more inleresling

l\4-ren vriting narratives or descriptive narratives, telling stories or giving ¿ccounts, you can make events that happened in the past sound more interesting ifyou join them together using the past perfi:ct. r When referring to tro actions and r when both actions took place in lhe the past perfect is used to describe the frsr action whtch took place - although this ma1.notbe the f.rst wrb in the sentence. For example: I hzcl gone to lred (fust action) when I heard ü banging noise(secondaction). In the example above, the first r.erb in the sentence describesthe fust action. First I went to bed, then I heard a banging noise. Without the past perfect, the sentencer'vould seem much lessinteresting: I went to bed. t heard a banginq noise. Here is another example: I realised (second action) | hzd -lastnry keys (fust action). In the example above, the socondverb in the sentence describesthe first action. First I lost m1,kgys. Later I realised this. Witholrt the past perfect, the sentencewould seen-rmuch lessinterestilg:

I lostmy keys.Then¡ realised, 2 Moking evenls cleqr The past perfect is useful in narratives, descriptive narratives, stories and accounts becauseit makes clear to dre reader which event happened fust. Compare the following nvo example sentences.

\\/henI got hotnemy brotherleft" (using the simple past tense) Action l: I got home. Action 2: M), brother left. Flrsl I got home . Then my brother left. My brother rvasthere rvhen I got home. He lelt after I got llome .


Keygrommorpoinfs I


whrri t gú1.ltomervy br!)the|hLldleil.. (using the ¡riist pcrfi:ct) Actic¡n I: Mv brother lcfi. Action 2: I got home. Firtt r.'..1, broücr lcft, 77:czI got hon-rc, M_vbrotl-rcr left bejbreI got honre. -Botúscntcnces are correct) but they have Vcry diflcrcnt mcanings, so make surc you knou,r.r,hen to use thc past pcrttct. Herc arc somc other examples releYant to exan topjcs. p{e.;r:nIíút Dü,d. W.: h;tí) e€,¿{in ihr ;-ityr-ent-r+:. lookinq lor u )r:irl.liday (uscd hcrc in a narrativeletter, to set the sccne) Flrst rvc rvcrc in the cit¡r. Then arctther event took place. ,J,Lrhf*.ir(t.t t ítü'. d¡5.)p?útnir.JtD rcrt:'iict hr¡¡.iwiss¡:Cinr aü2,rrtLtsi'i'l (used herc in a narrativc,pcrhapsas a conclusion) Flrsr I n'rissedthc opportunity. Za¿rr I rcaliscd this. tht prv.ks?;r:efarr:src wtishe(l1,he t!-LtrNfri:ai út.iIihnt Mu'.t'1 nr¡ttr¡tzt'tz|;ieti lN0Á5r:Nat. (used here in a narrativcletter, perhapsas a conclusion) ,rirst Mttn:, checked thc ¡rockcts. Túrn she u'ashcd the trolrscrb. It is l¿otnecessaryto use the past perfi:ctu'hen thc ordcr c¡fevcntsis clear. / | had a shower,got dressedand went Íor breal<fast. u when I had had a showerI got dressed. when I had got dressed I wentfor brerldast.


Sentenceswith rl Sentenceswith if are called conditional sentences) and consist of trvo parts. One part dependson, or rtsultsfi,ow, the other part. Both parts arc usuallyjoined b¡. if. Therc are tbree mitn qpcs of conclitional scntcnccs in English, which rcfcr to difli:rent times and situations,and use ditferent tensepattcrns In ordcr to dccidc which conditio;ral to use, \¡ou shoulcl irskvoursclf if ,vou arc rvriting about: I a,future evert (the first conditional) 2 an event or situation wl'ich is itnaginnr\ or u.nreñl (the second conditional) 3 an event rvhich took placein the p¿.rt(the thircl conditional).

The firsr cond¡t¡onol If you r.vantto talk or r'vrite about things that v,111 wr1 proúaúft ha¡r¡renin the rLSe the firllou,ing pattern. tense futuye, if + prcscnt ... futurc ii I ttr jtlil?1, t'ii lt willj l.elihíft:.

I88 T REFERENCE r The verb after if must be in a present tense, e\¡en though it refers to the futat'e. I The ¡vo clauses(or parts) can ch';urgeplaces, but the verb after if must still bi3in a present tense: future



if t seehim.

r l\41en the sentence begins with the if clause,a comma is needed to separate t1-letwo parts ofthe sentencc: tf I seeJahn, t'll tell hiffi" t \M1en the sentence does not begin with the if clause,no comma is needed:

t'll tell)ohnil I seehim. This tense pattern can also be used to express: I warnings or threats (how a present action may result in a negative act.ion in the ftiture) vou'll put on weight if you e6t too much chocollte. (adviceletter)

lf thegovernment doesnotimprove thestandardof living,crimewill increase.(formalwriting) r offers or promises (horv a presentaction ma),resultin a positivcacdonin the future ) you'll do well ¡nyour exam.(adviceletter) tf you plan your revis¡on carefully, lf you covneta my schoolw¡th rne,you'll meet my friends.(descriptiveletter) The second cond¡f¡ondl Ifyou want to rvrite or talk about an eventor situationrvhich is iwaginory or unreal or not wry probable,usethe following tensepattern. if + past

.. . condit:,onal (would)

pounds, he'd(hewould)buya yacht. tf hehada míllion I The r.erb after if must be in the past tense) even though it refers to the present or futx,t7"t. ¡ The two clauses(or parts) can change places, but the verb after if must still be in the past tense: conditional (would.) He'd (he would) buy 6 yacht

... if + past if

he had a m¡llion pounds-

r When the sentence begins with the if clause, a comma is needed to separate the nvo parts oFthc scntence:

tf Tomhada millianpaunds, he'dbuya yacht. r When the sentencedoesnot begin with the if clause,no commais needed: Tamwauldbuy a yacht if he had a millionpaunds. The abovesitnationis unreal becatseTom hasnzt gor ^ million pounds.

Key grommar points |


It is possiblc tl-ratTonr rnav hlve a million pounds ilr the ftiture , but this is not !er! 1)rob/r,ble. Therefore, it is nlt wryt pt lbable that'Ictm will bu-va yacht. Tom is rvishing for, or drearning about, something that will probablv not happcn. tf Sr*ah *turried o ftirn star, rh?,'dtsht:wr-ttri) be f*rnous" It is possible that Sarah ma)¡ marry a film star in the futurc, bLtf nlt !er! probable. Thereforc, tt is not terl probable that Sarahx.ill bc finrous. Sarah is wishilg for, or about, somcthing that rvill probably not happen. lf i hücNr) t,{}m,.ra,I'd lent} iita ,!úu. Tlrc sitnation is unrealbecatse I havc ,?¿rtgot a c¡.nlera. Therefbre, it is impossiblcfbr nrc to lend it to yor,r. tf 1ytld ii brrsr.l¡er, I'd te-ar..!t hirn hrstw1L:play lurst:,ltali. Thc situation is wnreal, or iwaginnryt, bccause I haye nlt gof e brothcr. Here are some othcr cxam¡rlesrelevnt to exam topics. ytsts't)toveher senseal hún",oúr.(dcscriptiveletter) lf 'laL¿met my Aúnt:.1, YúLin{lpe{:pk. v'teuld bt. h¡:.althitr if Íhry spenl-lt:sstittt: \i''rútf,hin(i1! úni} t'Ytote 1:tmeplayinq rf ort. (forrrralwriting) This fbrm ofthe conclitionrl is also useclfbr giving advice. It 1vr.t. yr1i.i, f+ past +

{d ... I wowld (conditiontl)

This is particularlyusefulin fricndlv adviceletters. ¡¡veeks plltn ')everúJ rsre.¡ beft:re'l¡tw{€xatr - {lN1d ll i we{! ,vou,t'i} ft1nkasti.l<ia itt The rhird cond¡t¡onol Lrscthe If you u'ant to u'ritc or talk about an e\¡cntthat took placein thc 1rr¿$, firlloiving pattern of tenscs. z/ + past pcrfect had flnished had e6ten h a dg o n e

conclitional ¡rerféct wouldhavearnved would havefelt wouldhaveseen

tf I haci knr¡tNnyúu \Alerein hi:spitr.t!,i'¡to¡,iirthc¡ve'/isited/Dv. I Notl-ring c¡rl tre done to change thc situation becausethc f,ctions in botll are complctcd. The conclition is iwpossiblebectuse the action is clar.rses already over and thc action in the if clauseclid zot ha¡rpen.

I9O T REFERENCE I The nvo clauses(or parts) can change places, but the verb after if mr,rststill be in the Dast Derfect tensc: condirional perfect t'd (would) have visitedyou

+ r/+ past perfect if ld (hadJk.nownyau were in hospital.

I \44ren the sentence begins with dre if clause,a comma is needed to separate the t\'vo par$ of the sentence:

you. t'd (wauld)havevisited tf t'd (had)knownyouwerein hospttal, : When the sentence does zot begin rvith the if clause,no comma is needed.

yauif t'd (had)knownyouwere¡n hosp¡tal. t'd (would)havevisited The example above means I did rat knorv you were in hospital, so I did zar visit you. Nothing can charge the situation, becauseit all happened in the past. This construction is ofien used when looking back at a situation and wishing ).ou could change it., as it cannot be changed, tl.risleads to feelings ofregret. Consider the following situation: Your exam results have arrived. They ¿¡s not as good as expected. You look back to your studies and realisethat you did not i.vork as hard as you could have. You cannot change the situation, or the results, so you feel sadless or regret: tf I had studied harder, ! would hüve gat beüer reults" I did ror study hard and the results r'verenot good. *

Remember o d con be lhe conlrocledformof hed or would. lfyou'd (= had) beenthere,you'd (=would)haveknownwhattodo. tt Usethecontrocted formin friendlyregister.

FIere are some other examplesrelevant to exarn questions. If I h7dn't had such G big breaqcst beforewe wentto the theme park, I woLrldn't have felt sa sick on the rirles. (narrative) if the q¡rls hud listenedto whdt MissMútthews tald us, the\y'wouldn't have got lost in the museLrm.(narrative) Theseverb patternscan be introduced by Iwish ... and if only.... I w¡shyou'd (hadl been there! You'd (would) ha¡reknawn do.

(had)beentherelYou'd(would)haveknawnwhatto do. tf onlyyou'ctr You were ',xlt thefel and no one kneu, what to do. Sometimes, only onc of the two clausesis needed, as the other halfcan be understood from the story. I wish t'd (had) taken my mobtle (phone)with me! (But I did nlt rake ir, so I couldn't call anyone for help. )

Key grommor points I


tl Dtllv \^te'G(harJ,)taken ft i:arch ',^,ritrh tÁr! (But I dicl nlt ra,kea torch u'ith me. As a result, lvc had no light in a tlark place, so u,e couldn't sec tvhat lvc r,veredoing/a rvay ouy'a signal for help.)

ll anlyhe'd(hattitotcthis¡rcrrents wherehe wúsAoinql

(But hc did not tell his parents u'here hc llas goiug. As a result, they did not knor'vrvherc to start looking for him/hacl no idea hc rvas in dangey'they couldn't meet him.) The above thrcc exam¡rlcsare narrative stvlc. L , ' o l <. r t r n ex r m p l c i n l i r r m a lr v r i r i r r g . li tht pupits h¡tll been giver' ynrrreinfr:rslrs¡¡e, ihe.,¡wauit'l not have LakenulJ smok$tq.


uril'rg too ,,y. You clnnot use too rvhen yolr mean .verrr'ifyour scntencc h:rsa ¡tositivc meaning. r' My mother'scookingis verydelicious. ,. My mother'scook¡ngis too deltcious. / r

Ih¡s bookis very interesting. Th¡sbook¡s too ¡nteresting.

./ Iravelling abroad is veryexc¡ttng. t Travell¡ng abroad¡stoo exc¡ting./ The sl<y¡svery blue. ,. Theslryis too blue. In r'vritten English, rvc ose too as laft lfthe fbllotving grammatical construction to exprcssa ltegñti1)eyesub. too+xd,cctive+to Comparc the usc of too ancl veryin the two following examples: I

ihit lübl! is ueryheaw. This sentcncc is a sirnple statcment - it does zol express yesub.

-this túbieis too heavyto-iift. Tlris r.neansI cannot lift the table bccauseit is very hcalry. Tl-risis more than a sinrplc stxtemcnt. Being hcavy is something ntgatitrc. The result of the tatrlc being heaw is sometlring negotit)e . I can'tlífttt. 2

i üwt vetv ti{ed. This scntence is a sirnple statement

it does n r/ cxpress ytsub.

i úrn Ltiú l-iredtp {evise. This nreans I cannot wt>rk becauscI am vcry tired. Being tircd is sonething neltfiire . The resub c>fbciLtg tircd is something negatiye. I cnn't revise. 'l'his construction (to + adjective+ too) does not r.vorkifyou har.ea posi¡ive sentencc.Let's look again at the fust set ofscntenccs abovc and try to appl¡,the complctc constr-uction.

I9O T REFERENCE I The two clauses(or parts) can change places,but dre verb after if must still be in tl"rcnast oerfect tense: conditional pcrfcct I'd (waulr))have visiterlyou

+ f+ past perfect if t'c] (hadJ known yau were in hospital,

I \44ren the sentence begins rvith the if clause,a comma is needed to separate the two parts of the sentence: tf t'd (had) known yau were ¡n haspitai, t'd {would) have visitedyou. I When the sentence does zor begin u.ith the if clar-rse , no comma is needed.

t'r) (would)havevisited youif t'd (had)knawnyouwerein hospital. The example above means I did ro¿knorv )¡ou \\¡ere in hospital, soI dtd not visit yolr. Nothing can change the situation, becauscit all happened in the past. This constmction is often used when looking back at a situation and wishing ),ou could change it. However, as it cannot be changed, this leads to fbelings ofregret. Consider the following situation: Your exam results haye arrived. Thcy are not as good as expected. You look back to your studies and realise that )'ou did not work as hard as vou could have. You camot change the situation, or the results, so you fi:el sadnessor regret:

lf I h7dstudiedharder,I wouldhaveqot betferresülts" I did z¿rrstud), hard and the results u'ere n7t good. *

Remember 'd I con be lhe conlrocledformof hod or would. lf you'd (= had) beenthere,you'd (=would)haveknownwhattodo. o Usethecontrocted formin friendlyregister.

I{ere are some other examples reler.ant to exam qucstions. lf I hadn't had such a big breTqast beforewe \rventLa the themp-park, I wauldn't have felt so sickon the rides.(narrative) lf the q¡rlshat) listenedto whúit Miss hi1tthewstald us, t.heywouldn't ha\tegat lost itl the museum. (narrative) Thcse verb patternscan be introduced by I w¡sh... and ifonly.... t wish you' d (har))been therct Yau'd (would) have known what t.ado" tf anly you'd (had) been there! Yoa'd (vrould)have known what ta do. You were nltfhery

and no one l<newwhat to do.

Sometimes, only one ofthe two clausesis needed, as the other half can be understood from the stor-v. I wish I'd (had) taken my mobile (phaneJwith met (But I did nlt tal<eit, so I couldn't call anyone for help.)

Key grommor points I


if út1l'yvr('d {\1üdltútien ñ 1,o{.ltv'rithLrs! (llut I did l:lrt takc a torch l'ith me. As a result, rve had no light in a dark place, so lve couldn't scc lvl-ratrvc u'crc cloing/a r.vayout/a signal fbr help.) lf o*!y fie'd lttü{t} tatLlhis pü{cn{s u.¡herehe )Nusgoinq! (But he did z¿¿tell his parcnts u'l-rerehe rvasgoing. As a result, the1,did not knou. uüerc to start looking fcrr him/had no idea he lras in dangcy'they couldn't meet him.) The ebove three examples are narrativc st\.Ic. Look rt an example in iormal r.r.riting. It lhc trulril\ hr¡d l:eeytgiven ,fi'Jft inl'armat.ian, tltty woukl rlfjt have taken up st'taCKn{4.


u.itrg too ^nd ue/)r. You cannot use too lyhen you mean 'vcry'if your scntcncc has r ¡rnsltlrr meanrng. ./ My mother'scook¡ng¡sverydel¡c¡ous. , My mother'scook¡ngis too deltcious. / r

Th¡sbook¡sveryinterest¡ng. Th¡sbook¡s too ¡nteresting.

r' Iravell¡ngabroad ts veryexciting. t Iravell¡ngabroad ¡s too exc¡t¡ng. ./ The sl<y¡svery blue. I The sly ¡s too blue. In uritten English, rve nse too aspnyt oJ'thcfollol,'ing grammaticxl construction to expressa,nelotirc reyrb. too+adjectii'e+to Conrpare thc usc of too and veryin the tr,vofbllolvjng examples: L Thii table ís very-hea,,ry. This scntence is a simple státement

it does zol cxpressresub.

this l?lúc is 1.a.a_ hffivy tt !+t. Tl'ris means I cnnnotlilt the table becauscit is vcry hearry. This is more than a simplc statctncnt. Being lreary is somcthing negntire. The yesultof tb,etablc bcing hear,yis something ne[fñti1)e.I cnn't lilt it. 2

t úYnve\i tiri:d. This sentcncc is a simple stetement

it cloes n rt cxprcss resub.

| ürú Lo.ú_li! ed tü tevise. Tlris meens I connotv,ork bccauseI am \¡ery tired. Being tired is sorncthing nelntire. The resub < f beitrg tircd is somerhing neññtfue. I can'l rcvisc. This constmction (to + adjcctir''e+ too) does not rvork if 1'ou havc a positir e sentencc.Lct's look again at the first set ofsentenccs above and tr1 to apply the complctc constftlctron.

192 ' REFERENCE to eat. My mot.her's cook¡floistoo deiic¡or.{s (This does not n-rakesense.It would mean you cannot eat your rnother's cooking becauseit is very delicious!) rh¡s book is taa interesting to read. (This does not make sense.It would mean yolr cannot read the book because it is very interesting!)

'wavellíng abraad¡stoointeresting. (This does not make sense.It would mean you carnot üavel abroad because it is very interesting!) Remember Do nol usetoo in o senlence with positivemeoning. Replocelt wifh very. ln o sentence wilh o negotive resrliuseboth potrsof the conSltucloni too+odieciive+to.

In the written exam remember to us(] &0t parts of the construction to describe sometiing which has a negatite reswlt.

Myfather¡stoo frt to (idea bicycle. (This means my father cannot ride a bicycle becausehe is r.ery fat.)

istoodífficult to understand. Thisexercise (This means I cannot understand this exercisebecauseit is very difficult.) In spohenEng)tsh it is not always necessaryto use both parts ofa result clause if the negative result is clear to both speakersin the conversatton. 'why haven'tyou done this exerdse,Peter?' Teacher:


(It's too diffict;1tto do.) 'Do FriendA: VotJw6nt ta go to the cinevnath¡sevening?' 'No, thtnks. I'm l:ooüred.' FriendB: (I'm too tired togo.) 'shallweFriendA: fuylthe new sportsclub?' 'l FriendB: dan't thinksa - it's too expens¡ve.' (It"s too expensivetojoin.) @

Ionirrs positive ideas together. Sometimesyou needto join two positiveideastogether. I My s¡stersings.(positive) My sisterplaysthe piotto. (positive) 2 windm¡llsGreenv¡ronmentally friendly.(positive) w¡ndmtllsprovtdea (positive) rel¡ablesource0f electricity. In forwal register,the two ideascan be joined using also. alsogoesbeforethe main verb. I My sistersinqsand shealsoplaysthe pi6no. 2 windmillsare env¡ronmentally friendlyand alsoprDvidea rel¡ablesourceof energy.



also does not usually go at the beginning ofrhe sentence. r

My sisters¡ngs.Alsoshepl6ysthe p¡ano.

In fr'iendly register and spohenF,nglish,alsois replaced by ..., too or ... as well at the end of the sentence.

Mys¡ster singsand playsthep¡ano,too. M)isistersingsand playsthep¡anoaswell. @


contrasting id.eastogether.

Sometimesyou need to join two czntrñstingideastogether. I My brotheris nauEhty.(negative) we lovehim. (positive) 2 Lead-freepetrol is expensive. (negative). Lead-freepetrol would be less harmfulto the env¡ronment(positive) Two words you can useto join contrastingideasarealthoughand but. I

Althoughhe is naughLy,we lavehim. He'snaughry,bul we lovehim. Althauqhlead-freepetrol is expensive, it is lessharmful to the enviyonment" Lead-'free petrol is expensive, but it is lessharmful ta the envircnment-


althouqhand but canmotbe usedin the samesentence. . @

Although heis naughry, butwelovehim.

Wo"as with no plural in Bnglish. Some ofthe words you may need to use in the exam do not have a plural form in English, although they may in your own language. So be careful! These words include: ¡nformatton homework advice luggage news furn¡ture knowledge

I havefaundSpms abautEngland ontheinternet )nfQulaüpn I havegot lotsof homework to dotoniqhL. Myunclegavemeplenvol .aINJ!=c aboutstudy¡nq. whenhecdrneto visitus,hedidn'tbringünylugqqgs! I sawsomething interesting on thenewl. @

S.q,,"n." of tenses. If the main verb is in the pasttense, the other verbsin the sentencewill usuallybe in one of the pasttenses(rol tie presentor future). / , ./ t

| felt myfriendwasunhappyw¡thher resulBI felt myfriendis unhappyw¡thherresults. | thoughto'fyouwh¡leI wgseat¡ng . I thoughtofyouwhileI am eat¡ng.

194 I REFERENCE Remember Theposltenseof conis cou/d. Remember Theposttense of wil/iswould. Remember lookoutfortheposiperfect.


we went to lookfor a phoneso that we eqlu get help. we went to lookfor a phoneso that we can get help.



I promtsedthat I would alwayswork hard. I prom¡sedthat I will alwayswork hard.


Theytold h¡m theyhad beento the police. Theytold h¡m they havebeento the pol¡ce.

Urirrg th. present perfect tense. As its name suggests,this tense combines elements of the present and t1-re past. present perfect present tense of haw I have Hehas Theyhave



past participle seen eaten asKe6

Tolking obout fhe ñecent post

Usually, when talking about an event that happened in the past, we use the past tense and say when ithappened. I played tennis on Monday. I played tennís lost week. I plaved tenn¡s when I lived near the sports centre. However, when an eyent tool( place in the recent past, tbere is no need to say wben beca.ose'. r the event is completed (ir the past), but the results can be seen in the present. I the event itself is more important tian the time it happened. These concepts are expressedb,vusing the present perfect tense.

(ve {t havelcú myfinqerl The action of cutting is completed. We knorv it happened recently becauserve can see the bleeding finger, so there is no need to say when tt happened,. The fact that the finger is cut is more important than information about ."'hc-

it h"--¡-¿n

I've p1ssed 6ll my ex(tmsl The action of passing the exams is completed. We knorv it happened recentll' because1'ou are holding the results in your hand, so there is no need to say rvhen. The fact that \.ou passedthe exams is more important than information about when you passedthem.

Key grommorpoints |


You car cnphasisc the action Lryadding just. t.i tt' ii Itr:'itr'¿ ¿ir:::;t.tihti i' \iI j ti :ti :;i:a| 1! Horvcvcr, if you usc thc ¡rrcscnt¡rerfcct(+ just) in yollr scntcncc\rou c?nnot sttywhcn. jti',JrJit'.J r:i¡il¡i.r-¡' l-1t::Jü.rt(¿ roiit'tdthr {:¡.ttl<;.tt. r,l¡lt:.'r. Hestarted:past tcnsc; e¡ghto'clocktclls us wl'rcn. )l( 1,tnti.t,J li;;|'1intira}rti|, LLr {).1rliitatiul'i. Hestarted:past tense;in Julytells us \\4ren. t1ti5 itr:tt tIüytr:.ijijt-lq¡ni4r!) {.iirlt.. He'sÜust)strrted: prcscnt ¡rerfi:ct; nothing in thc scntcncc to saylüen.

2 Using sinceor for If 1.o¡r.unu,to talk abor.rtx sitlrxtion that began in thc past and has not changcd up until the presentm('nrert in tinrc, v,,n nrL1\rLlscthc present pcrfcct + s¡ncelfor. For js usetlfu¡ l spctiñc mument i¡r timc

iq nsed ti,r lerrgth<of tirne

Mondoy, Sundoy Morch, September 3 o'clock rnchtime ihls morning osl wee[ r¡y bldlrclcly De io's porly tfre wedding the wor

oges oqys (t'volweeks lsix)months (ten)yeors o o n gl m e q whie soT¡eltme

l 9 2 A ,t 9 8 ó , 2 0 A a

Rer¡lember Useihe cc¡focied, of shori form, in f iendy reglsier.

i |nlv?.iwri] ?r.rr:sinr.r-191:1.(and I still live here norv) 'r¡r:rc (and rve still live here norv) Wt' hú.le ii'¿eü f{i{ th{t:t.'./aLtrt. I htl Jt:hQü tl1ia,úr4 t¡n(a tn'¡ birl.liríÚy.(anclI still have it nor') ]",/ra t-tütlah)i lt¡;ir sir,t.t:C.hriil."it:tt. 3

Using ever,

never, yet, dlreddy

Other u,orclsused n-ith thc prcsclt pcrfcct to conncct thc past to the present inclucle: ever,never,yet,6lre6dy. Ii¡¡.r, :1,; ,\


t :.rt ii ii, ii"t .t.:

means at iny tinrc in )¡our litc) sincc you r'vcrcborn until no\v. tit:'a t\tit:r,üt) |/:,irr '.:itii.Íú.ttirii{,,

This rnc¡rnsat anvtime in his lifé, sincehe u,ls born until nou'. , i a,.r:'roi.¡a'Í)ri:.!t1 ! t ü f ( a'\;, 5ii)l t lrt:I-/ This mems at arv tirre in the past until no\\', this momcrt. :.,'rtl:;í,',hi:n{itj ,it;.:tit.),/l¡i.i:tni:ü ?itr ?,Jrri'.:.,u,.:rl,.i This means at sone uns¡rccificd timc in thc past bcforc nou'.

196 '



S"rra"rr... with questions inside them. There aremany rvaysofashing qllestionsin English.Look at four different typesof question: Type I 'lype 2 'lype 3 Type 4

Where¡s he? where doeshe live? wherehas he lived? fs he happy?

Ifyou want to aska question,but alsousean introductory phrase(suchas drosegiven 6elotv) befu,ethe question,it is imPortantto realisethat the whole stn-rctureof the questionchanges,and it doesnot behavelike a questronany more.

Introducfory (or prefix) phroses A I'd liketo knovt. .. I d o n ' tk n o w. - .l l d i d n ' kt n o w. . . I wantto know... I I wantedto know... ... I wonder... I I wondered t'm notreallysure... I I wasn'treallysure. .. I havenoidea... | | hadnoide6... I can'trernember ... remember ... I caúldn't Type I questions These begin with a wh question word: who, what, where,when,why, how + nw/ is/ are/ wns/were Ifyou use an introductory phrase in front ofa Tlpe I question, you must do the following. I Make the question into a stntewentl>y changing the word order:

w h e r el i s l oare ^ I

lis + suDJecl --)

sublect +

I was

lwos were

) (where) is {Howj


lo* | 6re




) were ¡s





2 Then selectan introductory phrase+ wh qlrestionword. I don't kno\ff+ where+ he is. Look at the exampleson the next page.

Key grommor points |

Remember ll the¡¡qi¡ verbis ln the *posilense,theotherverbs wi probobybe ln o¡e of the posTte¡ses.

Originol question

Prefix phrose

Why wos he ote?

lwonder/* wondered why

Whol are yor doing?

Who ls he?

ld,¡n't[¡ow *l dldn't k¡ow


Where om /?

co¡'t remember * couldn'lremember

wh word


Sfotement he wos ole.


you weredoing. who wnefe

/ wos.

lype 2 quest¡ons These begin r,.r'itha wh question word: who, what, where,when, why, how + do/does/ main verlr If you use an introductor,v phrase in front of a Type 2 question,,vou must do thc following. I Makc tlre question |nfo a stntet4rentand change Vertrforns end agreemcnt as necessar\". r)+e.5lrc lilt¡:.'¡ > tt¡: ii|e:; . ". lv\ii1ü1:] ,Jitlsh{:,4a7 ) shp-\Neul^.. ivvh!?r'¿) 2 Then select an introductorv phrase + wh qucstion ['ord. | {krfl'\.linú,¡¡+ wht;i + he.iikts. L r ¡ t r ki t ¡ ¡ l l c l o l l o r ri n g c r r r r r ¡ ' l ¡ s . Originol question Who doesshemeet?

Prefix phrose don I know

wh word




Why doesn'lhe phone?



he doesni phone.

Where do they ive?

l'd iketo know



Where did we go?

con f temernDer


we wenT

Whot did shestudy?

wo¡t to know


. L ^ ^ L - . 1 : ^ l-

How did you revise2

hove no ideo


you revised.

Type 3 quest¡ons Thcse begin rvith a wh qlrestion word: who, what, where,when, why, how + bns/hme/hnd + nain verb If 1,6¡ u.. an introductort phrasc in liont of a Type 3 cluestion, l.ou lnlrst c1o thc follorving. I Make the qlrcstion infc>t statewent l'tv changing the lvord order: lt¡liu:i ¡:i ) ¿¡;t,,iL: + sublect + main vcrb li::,





> sulrject+



';2) . mainVerb

| h::,



I98 T REFERENCE 2 Thcn sclcct an introductory phrasc + wh questi()n \\'()rd. I rj';;rit kr:a,,t¿ + N'nher:+ ?1rh:t.",rtrsn,¿. l,ook at the fbllou,ing cxirm¡rlcs. Originol question Who hove /heyvisited?

Prefix phrose don t know

wh word



¡hey hove visiled.

he hosn'tphoned.

Why hosn'ihe phoned?



Where hove ¡11-^y gone?

l'd iketo know


Where hod theybeen?



lhey hod been

Whot hoveyoudone?

wqnl to know


you ¡ove oone.

How hosshemonoged?

hove no ideo


sne /lo5 monogeo.

lype 4 quesl¡ons -l'hcsc

clo not have e wh qucstion tvorcl. If y¡11 ¡r" an introductory pl-rrasein front of a Tlpc 4 question, ,volr must do thc fbllou'ing. I Make thc qucstion into a statcmcut. 2 Selectan introcluctorvphrasc. 3 Use if/whether. I ha,tt nc i'l':¡; + il + ¡hr. ¡lri'.tes. I wana,lí:{ + 'r,/het-hr:.r + hc is i¡t¡nctry. Look at the fbllou'ing cxanples. Originol question

Prefix phrose

wh word


s Tom lonely?

I don't know


Tomis lonely.

Do theyploy tennis?

I'd lke lo know


theyp oy tennis.

hove no ldeo


theylo d him.

Did theylell him?

In all thc cxarlples of Tlpc l, 2, 3 and 4 questi<tns, thc scntcnceis no longer x cluestion end cloesnot necd a clucstion mark.

Introductory (or prefix) phroses B Some introducto4. pl-rrasesrre qucstions thewvhtes,fbr exaln¡rlc: úü vou l<niw? laú ,iou tei,irnt? iaGv':yt.)uíanviúr;ii' Whcn tlrcse ere usecl,\¡ou still nccd flle stñtewent form of the vertr, but u'ith a qu.estionmark at thc cnd of the sentencc.

Key grommor points |


Lo<¡k at the follorving examples.

Type I queslions Originol question

Prefix phrose

wh word

Slqlemenl + ?

Where is lom?

Do you I now


Ton is?


her nomeis?

¡ove you ony ldeo


Iom is orriving?

Origincl quesf¡on

Prefix phrcse

wh word

Slotemenl + ?

Who doesshe ike?

Do you know



Why doesn'the phone?

Con 7or te me


he doesn'tphone?

Wheie do they live?

flove you ony deo



Originol question

Prefix phroee

wh word

Sfofement + ?

Who hossheinvited?

Do you know


she hos invlied?

Why hosn'láe crnswered?Con you te1me


he hosnI onswered?

Whqt hoveiheybought? ¡ove you ony oeo


ihey hove boughtz

Whol ls her ¡ome? When is Iom oniving?

lype 2 questions

Type 3 quesl¡ons

lype 4 queslions Originol question

Prefix phrose

wh word

Stcfement + ?

s Tom lonely?

Do you know


Tomis loney?

Do theyploylennis?

Ccrnyou tell me


theyp oy lennis2

Did theytellhlm?

f.'loveyou ony ideo


they to d hirn?

Essentiol prepositions Wrerever prepositionsoccur, thev can causeproblcnrsfor studcntsof English. Unfbrtu.natel,v, the¡' clo leed to be learnt accuratcly: lvrongly uscd p r c p o s i t i o r .r r a k c l r c r r l r a d i ¡ n l l e s s i o l ro ¡ l c x a n r i l l c r s . Common preposifions o bout a ^ t ^ . ^ oher be ow o o n g l-^- i..l^


beNveen o founo L , , OT ODOVE

lor from

l:,. :L


through U ¡ O C I lo up

wilr withoui

This unit does not concentrate on the granrmatical narlcs of thc variorrs phrascscontaining prepositions, or the mles concerning thcir formation: this information is not essentill fbr thc exarr. Hcxvever- thc r¡hrascsthcmsclves arc c ] ( l r c n r e l i\ r r r ¡ ' o r l , r n t . The firllorving fbur groups list kcy pl'rrascscontaining prepositions, careñrlly selcctcd as bcing sLritablefor use ir.rthe exam. Make sure you allorv ¡rlclty of timc bcforc the exams to leun thern and trv to practise using thcm until 1.s¡¡ teel cornplctcly comfbrtable rvith them. Try to produce sentencesusing the ¡rrcpositions in as marry different sitlrations m possible. Ask your tcacher to chcck thcm for you. Whcncvcr you read envtl.rirrgin English (trooks, articles, magazincs), try to recognise these ¡rhrasesand othcr similar oncs: mark tl-rcm ¡rnd note /r¿l¡ end when they arc uscd. If _vouhar.c a chance, recorcl a conversxtion fiont the raclio, ¡rlav it back irnd cxaninc tl-rcphrases lvith prepositions.


Group 1 Tl-rc phrascsin tl-risgroup are produced rvhen a common, sim¡rle vertr combines r.r.ithvarious prepositions or adverbs to producc ir varicty of meanings. In some cases,each s.ord in the phrasc kcc¡rs its or'vnrleaning and so there is no ¡rrotrlem rvith understanding: fcrr examplc, sit ¡Lot¡n. On the other hand, it is ofien not possibleto seea logical rclationshi;r benveen the original verb and the phrasc ¡rroduced ll4ten tbat vcrb is combinecl rvith a ¡rre¡rosition. Or, to plrt it anothcr $.a]¡)vou cannot guessthe meaning of thc pl-rrasc,o'en if you unclerstandthe meening of each l'ord in tlrc phrase: for example, (to) turn up : (t0) an it)e, ñppeñr anexpectedly. The situetion is cc>rnplicatedby the tict that each comtrinatioll ma)¡ havc two or three diflbrent neanings. As explainec{in Section l, Unit 2 on fiiendly register, to sim¡rlifj' Janguagc usLrallyinvoh'es rrsing e iarger number of sim¡rle l,orcls to re¡rlacebiggcr 'l-hat rvords. is rvhv thc phrascsin Group I oftcn lppcar in inibrmal, or fiicnd lv, rcgistcr. i ]qn {trc ',it}t.t{¿f:.Tliji.tí¿.t)t..f!J.t'1.i vttLir hús,.anlatL:l: ¡rrogressing Thc cxarnplc shou,shorv the t\.vo or three sinrple u,orclsin the ¡rrepositionirl phrasc cirn replace e single, 'fbrmel' word: (.to) oet on with : (.to)prtgress.

Essenfio/prepositionsa 2Ol Used in the appropdate places, these phraseswill help ro convince the exami'er that 1'oq are familiar and comfor¡able rvith thi dif]'erent resrstersrn English, and this is required in the cxam. The list that fbllows has becn careñrlly selectedliom the thousands ofphrascs found in Englisl-r,and cacl-r one comes with example sentencesrelevant to the exam. you should learn them by heart and úJ to put them into sentencesofyour olvn. Aim to learn five a day. This may seem very diflcult et ñrst, but ir will become easier.Ask someone to test ]¡ou on them every day. Listen for tl.Lesecombinations whet] watching TV or talking to English people.

Breok-broke-broken r Break down: Stop r,vorking/functioning becauseof a fault. Usually relates to a car) blrs or train. Also used with ,talks', ,discussions',.negotiations,, etc. Nayratipc: t'll never fayget the night our car broke down and we had ta walk home. Forwnl: Cawrnunicatianaften breaksdawn bet¡¡eenDarcnLsana


I Break in: Enter somewhere ([ocked) br. force. Usuallv relates to a thief, a

burglar. Nan arite: I wúsalonein the hause,when I heürdbanginqand realísed thüt someone wrlstrying to breakin.

I Break out (l): Begin suddenly.Used to describewar, fue, clisease, argument,panic. Nay¡,atipe : we werein the supermarket,when a firc brake out. r Brea-kout ( 2 ): Escrpe . Nan ative: we werelockedin the museum,$nd thouqht \trewould haveto hreaKout. r Break up: Finish, end. Usuallyrelatesto schoolterm, n-re edngs. DescriütitL Schoolbreaksup an 6 Julyfa( fhe summer hotidays. Bring - broughr - brought r Bring in: Introduce a new rule or law. Forwal: Thegavernn'lent hasbroughtin a newlaw makingit compulsory passengers in the backseatsof corsto wear seatbelts. for I Bring on/about: Cause to happen, result in. Adpice: Sittinain wet clotheswill tefta¡nly br¡nT on a cold" Forwal: ) a changein attitude .... will bringabout an aw$renesslunderstand¡ng of

I trr ) Antmq{Aveme-nt

r Bring out: Produce, causesomething to be seen.

Forwal:iiving teenagers respansibílig br¡ngsoul thebest¡nthem. r Bring round (l): Bring sorrreonewho has fainted back to consclousness. Nan'atipe: . .. fainted when she heard she'd won the cornpetitionand we

hüdto thrDwwateron herfaceto brinaherraund.

2O2 A REFERENCE r Bring round (2): Bring something to my/your/his house. Descriptiye: At weekends!.nVfr¡ends bring their favourite CDsraund and, \Ne Jistento them an my brothef's system. r Bring up (l): Raisc. Llsually relates to a child.

F7rrnrrl:If ch¡lrjren cre-braughtup in a vialentenvironment, theymaygrow intaviolentudults" r Bring up (2): Highlight or refer to, remind others ofa question/subject/ topic. Descriptiye:You'll recognisemy 'Dadstraight away - he's always brtnginq

up thesubject of exams! C o l l- c o l l e d - c o l l e d r Call for: Collect. Descriptiye: Myft¡endcallsfor meat eightand tNewalkto schaoltagether. r Call off: Cancel. Descriptipe narrntiye:WhenI heardtheweath?-r I had thefeelinq farec,ast, sportsdaywouldbecúlledo[f. Gorry - corr¡ed - corr¡ed r Carry on: Continue. N/tw'r1.tit1e: we carriedon bcnginqon thedaar,hopingsomeane would hearus^ Colch-cought-cought I Catch up with: Reachthe samelevel (whenyou were behind). Desct"btiwnarratiye: I was only ¡ll far three days,butit's taken úqesto catch uu with the restaf the clclss. €leon - cleoned - cleoned ¡ Clean out: Thoroughly cleanand tidy. Descriptiye:I've cleanedout the spareractmand gat ¡t all readyfor you. €ome-come-come t Come across:Findlsomethingr unerpectedly. Narratiye: I was laokingfhroughthe drawerfor a pen,whenI c6meacrass an old photaqrúph. I Come up with: Think of an idea. Dessiptiye:I'vecútyteup with a brilliantideafar the end-of-teryn pafty! Nan atiye: My sisteralwüyscomesup with a goad erct)sefúr not daing her homewark! Cut-cut-cut I Cut down on: Reduce. (ve beencultinúclawnan the,time I spendplay¡nqcam!)uter Desn"iptivo: qüffies. r Cut out: Stop (using/taking). Ad.vice:l{ I tyercyau, t'd tt',/ta cut outjunk faod.

Essentiol prepositions f 2O3 r Cut out for: (Often in negativesentencr:s) Suited,good ar, enjo1,. Descriptipe: I'm not reallycut aut.far .¿ürdenin\ I spart. Do-did-done r Do away with: Abolish. Schoolwngazine: llow many of you feelwe sh7uldrlo away with schaol uniforffi? r Do up: Fasten. Narratiye: I rushedaüt inta the rain without.doing up my jacket. Drop-dropped-dropped I Drop in: Visit someonewithout officialinvitation or arrangement. Descripltit¿;At weekenrlsrny frlendsoíten drap in for a chot or ta barrow a DVD. Foll-fell -follen r Fall out: Quarrel,havea disagrecment. Scboolmagazine:Húveyou everfallen aut with one of your friends? I Fall through: To not be completed,not happen. Doscrbtiperuarratiye:. . . to ¡etyou knowthat my plans ta go campinq have hasbeeniat tao fallenthraughbeuusethe \Neather wet (ecefinY. Find-found-found ¡ Find out: Discover(through effort). Descriptiye:\\fhen theryfind out how f.lst you tun, they'll pL.ityou in the athletks team" Fix-fixed-fixed r Fix up: Arrange. Descri?tiye:You'll be qlcd ta knúv,rt've fixedup far us to jain the tennisclub. Gel-got-gol I Get av/ay from: Have a chanceto leave. Desct"ilttite: ... old Uncle5üw1strtrtedtelltngme abaut how lifewas wnenhe wasa hoy,6ndr iustcauldn'tqet away(framhim). Schoolmagazine: Nawthe holidaysare an the hanzan,t'm súreeveryoneis Iaokingfon"ttardta qetting Gwayf{am school,at teüstfo( a while. r Get away with: Commit an offenceor do sornethingunong and not be caugl.rtor punished. Schoolwagazine : we mLtstnot ollaw stu.ients to qet üway w¡th bullyinT. I Get on with (l): Progress, ask about hou'rvell somebody is doing something. Descriptiye: ltav¡ c|reyou qett¡ng an at schaal? Haw cre you ge.ü.¡nTún with the dn\/ing lessons?

2O4 I

REFERENCE ¡ Get on with (2): F{ave a positive, friendly, personal relationship with someone. Descriotitte: l've never 6ot on well with rnv sister - she's so extrovert! t'm surc you'll get on well with my Dad - he's rnad abaut cars,

just likeyowt ¡ Get over: Recover from. Usually relates to illness, shock, problem. Desrriptivc: I hope you've qot over the fiú.

He'sjustgeü¡ngoverthedisTppo¡ntment af lasingthematch.

Give-gove-g¡ven ¡ Give out: Distribute. Descriptiye narrative:Therewasa clúwnq¡vingout brightly-toloured balloons to all theyoungsters. I Give up (l): Stop. Usually relates to a habit, or a school subject. Schoolwagazine : How müny of us would like to give up müths! Forwal: fhe government hasa responsibiliry to encoür1ge smokers g | e u p to srnoktng. r Give up (2): Stop trying to achieve something.

Advice:I knowhawharditis foryouta loseweight,butyoumustn't giveup! Go-went-gone I Go ahead:Proceed. School n'tngnzint:Thecammitteehasgoneaheadwith plansfar a new library, r Go back: Return. Narratiye: when I got the shoeshome,I didn't l¡kethem,so I wp,ntbatk ta the shopand changedthem. r Go out (l): Spendtime ar'vayfro¡ ysur housefor entertainment. Descriptite: At weekendsI ga aut \Nithmy fr¡ends. r Go out (2): Extinguish. Descriptiyenan atiye: Theparty was in full swinq,when süddenlythe lights went out. r Go over: Repeat(often verbally). Nan ntiye: Aswe waitedoür turn to jump out of the plane,the instr ctor rÁrent averal! the safefysrcps^ r Go through: Examinein detail. Arl.yice:lf I wereyau, I'd stalt ga¡ngthraugh your notesa few weeksbefore the exam. I Go up: Increase. Srhoolwanazinr: Hovevou heardthat lhe o{iccol ,etrol it aainGuo saain? Hold-held-held I lIold up: Delay. Nayyatit,e/school wagazine: . .. the bus v\tasheld up ¡n the traffic anclwe misser) hatf af the play.

prepositíons Essentíol a 2O5 Keep-kept-kept r I(eep on: Continue. School ntagazine:Doyúu{ porcn\ keepon tellingyou haw imporfitntit is to study? r Keepup: Mrintain¿rreBbrt. Adtice: Yaa',-elost a lot af weiqht sint:evau st.ú¡tectr eaf.ingsensibly.l{eepit. yaü'l! yaur up Gnd soonbe ableta wear favauritejp-ans^ Let-let-lel ¡ Let in: Allow to enter. qot to the club,theywaútdn'fi?.1us in Nñrl,a.tit1e : when we eventúúlly because we weren'tvrecrinqties! Look-looked-looked r Look after: Take careof. Nnn atiye: ^. . rvewe'"eloakingafterLheirdog whilet.heywereon haliaay" r Look forward tó: Expector anticipatesomethingrvith pleasure,happiness. t'm reallylookingforwardta seeinqyou. Descriptiye: I Look out on: Overlook. Usuallyrelatesto windor.vs,buildings. ynaüntúins. DesniÍttiye: -.. my hedroamlooksout on the snow-rcvered r Look up: Searchfor somethingin a referencebook, suchasa phone book, dictionary,addressbook. Narrntiyr: I cauldn'tremember\Nhere shelived,sowe hc'i to lookher phone cÁddress up in the boak. r Look up to: Respect. Schoolwagazine: tu1ost of us htsvesomeone\ryeloak up to in aur lives;r¡ parent ar rel1tive,0 sportsst{rro{ evenü pap star! r Look down on: Not haverespectfor something. Adpice: -". whateverhappens,dan't th¡n¡< athetteenagers loakdownon you because you 6re a b¡f,overweiqht. Moke-mode-mode r Make for: Go towards. School wagazine:... in the suvnmerholidaysrnanyof us makefor the L'each " r Make up: Invent. Descriptipe:. -" my yaungerbratheris alwaysmak¡ngúp stor¡esabaLttghclsts" r Make up for: Compensate. yau may havernissed quitea School wngazine:Dürinqthe weeksof yevision few workaLftsin the gym: but now the holidayshave (finallyt)arrived,yau can mlke up for the lostexerc¡se. Move-moved-moved r Move in: Take your belongings';u'rdput them into a differenthouse,room etc., $¡hereyou intend to sta)¡. Descriptiye: .,. l've beenbusymovingin to our new house.

206 '

REFERENCE Pick-picked-picked r Pick up (I): Collcct and takc sorrlcone (or son-redring)with yo¡, often in a vehicle. De¡nitttit,e: .-. the schoalbus stoos to oick üs uú atthe end of rnv street. I Pick up (2): Learn, gain something u,ithout effort or expense.

Descyiptiye: lf yot)comeüw{ stüyin France you'll soonpick weeks, far thre.e up Frenth. P u l l- p u l l e d - p u l l e d r Pull down: Demolish.Usuallya building. yauheardthat thealdlibraryisEoingta bepulled Scbool wagazin{ HGve aown I r Pull up: Stop driving, somewhere at the side ofthe road where yolr can stop without obstructing the trafnc. Schoolwaaazinr: lf vau're feelinl tircd. whv don'tvau oull uo for a resl?

Pul-put-put r Put across:Explain. ¡nagazine:we hüveto put acrossaú{ ideasaboutschaaluniformif School wewanta chanqeI Put av/ay: Put something out ofsight in an organised manner.

Desrrintivr: Mvvüunaersisternevev Dutsawüvhertavs. r Put forward: Suggest. Schoolwagazine: fhts ts a chancefor you to come und putforuard your Fonnnl:

ideasabout how to savethe environffient. Suggestiorls havebeenputforwlrd concerning controlof air pjllution.

r Put off: Postpone. School magazine : lf yoa'rehapingfor goodexaynresults,do not betemy2ted tú put offrevision till the lastminute. r Put on (I): Wear, dressin c.Lothes,accessories,cosmetics,perfume.

yougotfor Advics:Whatabautputtingonyournewjacketandthec.alogne yaurbirthday? r Put on (2): Perform.Usualll'of ¿p1¡y,, concert,shorv. Scbool wagazine:We'relaok¡ngfor volunteers to püt on thisyear'sschool 5liúw-

r Put up: Offer accommodation. Drsrribtivr:We(an camo ifvou want. or I havea fr¡endwho can out us uo for a coupleof nighfs. I Put up with: Tolerate,stand,bearpatiently. Descripriw:t'm afraidyou'll haveta pút úp w¡thmy yaungerbrothe-r ptayinqtr¡ckson yau.

206 A REFERENCE Pick-picked-picked r Pick up (l): Collect and take someone (or something) with you, often in a vehicle. Descriotivc: the srhool bus rtorls to Di.k us uo at lhe end of mv súeet I Pick up (2): Learn, gain something without effort or expense. Desa,iptive: lf yau come ünd stúy ilt France for three weeks,you'll sool,rpick up Frenth.

Pull-pulled-pulled r Pull down: Demolish. Usuallya building. School wagazine:Haveyouheardthat the ald libraryis qamgto be pulled dawn? I Pull up: Stop driving, somewhereat the sideof the road whereyou can stop rvithout obstructingthe traffic. School manazint:lf vau'refeel¡natired.whv don'Lvou úull uD for u rest? Pul-put-put r Put across:Explain. Schoolwagazine: we hüveta pL¡tacrassaür ¡deasabaut schoolun¡fo(mif we vtanta chanqe. r Put away: Put somethingout ofsight in an organisedmanner. Desrriotiyc:Mv voun{/ers¡s[erneveroutsawav her fovsr Put forward: Suggest. School wagazine:Thisis a chlnce for yau to comeand putfowvardyaur ideasabout how to savethe env¡ronment. Fownal: Suggest¡ons havebeenput farwcrdconcern¡nq controlof air pallutian, I Put off: Postpone.

Sch\\lwagazine : lf you'rehopinqfor gooduarn resulfs, da not betempted to put o{frev¡sion till thelastmínute" r Put on (I): Wear, dressin clothes, accessories,cosmetics,perfume.

yaugotfor Ad.pice : Whataboutputtinqonyournewjatketandthecologne yourbirthdayT ¡ Put on (2): Perform.Usuallyof a play,concert,show. School wagazine:We'relook¡nqfor volunteers ta put on thísyear'sschool sfiow. ¡ Put up: Offer accommodation.

Descriptive: \ le cancampif yauwant,ar I hüvea friendwhocanput usup for a couplecf nights. r Put up with: Tolerate,stand,bearpatiendy. l'm atraídyaú'll haveto püt up w¡thmyyoungerbrothe-r Descri?tfue: playingtr¡cksanyou.

206 .

REFERENCE Pick-picked-picked r Pick up (l): Collect and take sorleone (or something) u.ith 1'o1¡,often in a vehicle. Descr.iÍttipe:. . . the school bü5 stops to picl<us up üt the encl af my street. r Pick up (2): Learn, gain something without effort or expense.

Descriptiye: you'llsoonpick threeweeks, t yaucameand stayin Francefor up French. P u l l- p u l l e d - p u l l e d r Pull down: Demolish.Usuallya building. School wagazine:Haveyouheardthattheoldlibrury¡sgo¡ngta bepulled down? r Pull up: Stop driving, somewhere at the side of the road where )¡oll can stop without obstmcting the tratEc.

School tf you'refeelingtired,whydon'tyoupullup for a rest? wagazine: Put-pul-put I Put across: Explain. Schoolmagazine: We hlve to put acrass oLdr¡decs about schaal uniform if we want 04chanqe. r Put away: Put something out of sight in an organised manner.

Descr'iptive: Myyoungersisterneverputsawayhertoys. r Put forward: Suggest. School wagazine: this isa chance foryaüto comeandput forwardyour ideasabouthowto s6vetheenvironment. Formal: Suggest¡ons havebeenput fa1vardconcerning cantralof airpollution" r Put off: Postpone. School magazine:lf you'rehap¡nüfor goodexamresults, do not betempted ta put affrevis¡an till thelastrninute. r Put on (l): Wear, dressin clothes, accessories,cosmetics,perfume.

Adtic€:Whatabautputtingonyournewjacketandthecologne yúugotfor yourbírthdcy? I Put on (2): Pedorm. Usually of a play, concert, shoN,. Schoolwagazint: We're laak¡ng for volunteers ta put on this year's school shavt. r Put up: Offer accommodation. Descriptire: We can c6mp ¡f you want, or I h6ve a friend who can put us up

for a coupleaf n¡qhts.

r Put up with: Tolerate, stand, bear patiendv.

(m afraidyou'llhavetaput up withmyyoungerbrother Descriptipe: anyow. ¡:layingt.rícks

Essentiolprepositions a 2O7 Run-ron-run r Run away with: Assessquickly lvithout careful thought or consideration. Usually + negati\¡e. Desa,i.ptiye:Wr: iive in the r'tiddle Df tlfle nunl:rtt¡i" - hut ílan't. run a\Nay

wlth the ideathút's nathinqtó {to! r Run into (l): Collide. Usuallyof vel.ricles. Naryative:Dad slútnwted an the.llrake.s 5ucldenlv, ünd the .úr behindran inLaus. r Run into (2): Meet bv chance. Nt rrñ,tfue:Yauwon't belíeve wha | {an into in totivnyestetdüy!Mr Brawn, aü{ ald physicti-ea.her. ¡ Run out of: Reachtl-reend of a supply. Narratipe:the Lürstopped.\ te thouqhtit hnd brakentJawn* but we had aüLtallyrun oL¡taf petrol! t Run over: Drive on top of. Nal,yatbe: 1'hecydistwabbledand feilaff her bik€"\ /e brakedhard and svíerved, missinqthe qirl, but runningaverher bikeand squash¡ytg ii. See-sow-seen r Seeoff: Sa1'goodbyeto someoneashe catcheshis train, planeor getsinto a carto leave. Schoolwagazine: All the parenLsaaffieto seeus off at t.heairport, btat.we we{eso excitedG.baut útchinq the f}lanethat ttvehurdly noticedthem" Set-set-set r Set off/out: Begin a journey. School wagazine:Qn rj $ld, \Nintermornin,j,36excitedgirlsand four melnbersof staffset off an the advenLureholicÁay. Show-showed-shown r Show off: Displaysomeability, only with the intention to rmpress. Desniptiye: M,/yaungerhrüther tr¡esto annay me by shov,tinqa{f his computerskiils! Stond-stood-slood r Stand out: Be noticeable,easil),scen. Nan atiye: Theautlineaf the housest1odaüt aq{Áinst the clectrnight sbl. r Standup for: Dcfclrd.Usuall¡in u ords. School wagazine:We must.stand üp far vict.wsof bultying. Toke-took-token r Take after: Be like a parentor older rclativein looks or ability. Descriptiye:t'm Tfraid ¡ tlan't take aíte( r y rnathervJhenit rcmesto cooK!ng:

2O8 l

REFERENCE r Takeup: Begin.Usuallya sportor hobby. Ad.yice: Whatabauttakingup tennis? lt'd keepyauflt {tnd... Tolk-rolked-rqlked ¡ Talk over:Discuss. youryiusttdlk School magnzinttfyou'rebeíngbullied, it overwíthyour pTrents ot someone ¡naüthor¡Vat school Try-tr¡ed-fried I TrJ¡out: Test. Advirc:Ihe qoadthingis thal yau(an try ot4tthenewequ¡pment ¡nthe qym. Turn-lurned-turned I Tur[ away: Not allow to enter. Nat ratiye: rhey tvrned ús aw6y fram the club becüusewe were under 18. r Turn down (l): Reject. Schoo!wagazine: Aw requeÍ for a swimming poal has been turned dawn,

sowhynot ra¡sethefundsfor it ourselves? I Turn down (2): Lower the volume, pressure)etc.

yaurconcentration, Adtice: lf the noiseof yourfriend'sradioisdisturbing whynot askhim to turn it dawn? I Turn on/off: Sr.vitchon or offthe lights, radio, TV, AC, etc. A d vi r t : . . . d o n 't t u r n o n yo u r r a d i o w h i l ey o u 're s L u d y i n g . I Turn out: The end result (unexpected); it was revealed. Nan atipe: lt all turned aut well ¡n the end.

Hed¡dn'twantto tellh¡sparents sbouthisexamresults, but it turnedouttheyknewalready. r Turn up: Arrive,appear. Descrit¡tipe natratille: Everythina wasreadvfor thedinneroart\'.but none of theü)eststurnedup - we hadpLttthewrongdate on the ¡nv¡tation! Wosh-woshed-woshed r Wash up: Wash plates, dishes after a meal.

Descriptiye: I ust)ally helpmy motherwashupldothewashingup after útnfier.

Essentialprepositionsa 2O9


Group2 This is a list ofrvords follc¡u,edbv ¡rrepositions, sritablc for use mainly ilr fbrmal rvriting. It is important to leam the relevant ¡rreposition ancl constructior that fi¡llorvs each ofthe r'vords.


Preposition Conslruction Exomple



+ nouTr + vefb + lng

worKr¡g nofo

¡ofo wofK

o¡¡o cl


+ noLrn + verb+ ing

cols, spiders,hord wofk flying

q ngfy


+ noun

someone lor doingsomelhing

on noyed


+ noun

for doingsome$ing someone


o boLrl

+ noun + verb + ing

ihe decision,lhe oro¡gemenls forgeltingyour blrthdoy

crpo ogrse


+ ¡OU¡ + verf,' + t/19

his behoviouf being rude

o ppfove


+ noun + verb + Ir0

r¡crrrioge, singe sexschools givingmoneyio chofily



+ noLrn

myself,the truth,the woy (something is d o n e ). . .



+ ¡o!n

lhe difficulties, thesltuofion, theserioLrsnessor lne pfooer¡



+ noun + vero + rr¡0

lennis,mc¡ihs, Engish,sport cooking,dfiving

+ noun + verb + ing

theconditionof hospitcrs, thestondord of educolion negecti¡gtheenvironmenl

DlomesoT¡eone lor



+ noun + verb + ing

chonge improvi¡g,solving,overcomlng



t noun + verb + ing

fev ston providlng,ir¡provi¡9, sl!dylng

(hoveldiffcu ty


+ noun


(hoveld fficulty


+ vefo + tfrg

losingwelght, concenlroiing


+ ¡oun

my porenls,my sisler,the ideaol ..



+ no!¡




+ ¡oun

my resulls,lhe decision

d isoppfove


+ noun + vetD + tnq

cheots,6ullles smoking, endongerlng



+ noun + vefD +

sport,thelfip p oyi¡g te¡¡is,orgonislng




+ noun + verb + ing

ihe trip,the porly visiting, loki¡g poÍ i¡, seelng



+ ¡oLrn 't' vefll + lng

lost food p crylngtricks,exoggefotlng



Preposition Construct¡on Exomple



+ ¡oun + verb+ Íng

thedc¡rk,thu¡derstorms drow¡lng,lofgelling



+ NOU¡




+ noun + vefll + Inq

tho o.^-

,o. ' r< fhó ¡^.i.i^"

brecrking,osing, missing



+ noun + vero + Inq

tennis,Engish,sport swlmn-ring, cooki¡9,wrlling

the ldeo


+ noun + verb + rr¡0

wo king,sludying withfriends lhe resuts, hisbehoviour, hlscooklng

m^' ri¡^é






+ noLJn






+ verb + ing


+ ¡OU¡ '+ verb + llg

spofr,musc sovi¡gtheenvironmenl




someone, someone's behoviour

(no) i¡tention


+ verb + Ing

improving, chonging,rectit¡ng



+ noun




+ noun




+ noun


+ noLln

thé i/lé^

+ verb+ ing

beinglreoiedllkeo chld


t noun

someone, lhe news


+ verb+ ing

posslng, winning



+ ¡oln + verb + Inq

you, theschoo,lhe ochievemenl winning,belngslccesslu



+ noun + vetD+ tng

lhe choncesof, theoulcome,thefuiure soving,reochlng

responsib e


+ noun + vefll + lr¡0

ltheir)behoviorr,{her)oclions pfoiecting, pfovldlng


+ noLrn + vefD + tttg




+ noun + verb + ing

sloryolon losing



+ nolfl + vero + ttq

heghts,loi ure oslngmy way, geitingosi


+ noun

hlm, you, ihe leocher



+ noun




+ noun + vetD + tng

thewi¡ter,theexoms,the ho idoys gettlngihe resuts,goir-rg io unive¡sily

^ ^^.^!

thé ( 'ñ^é<fi^.

tho n^i(Á

prepositionsa 2l I Essentiol


Group3 The prcยกrositions in this group are part of a scriesof exยกrrcssionsused very regularlyin dail]ยกsituations.Most of theseexpressiorrs arc taught at an carlv stage of language lelming. If 1,oยก tn"L. a mistake when using thcm, this indiclrtcs to thc examiner that your trasic knor4cdge of English is poor. The fbllou,ing list is of'timc-rclatcd phrasesintrotluceclby simple Man1, of these are ofien confirsccl. Make sure yo:u hnow ttรผicl't ยกrrepcrsiticrlrs. prepositionsto Lrsc.Cover them up mci test t'ourself' Preposition




' - - " - ' l Exomples 'o o., Al lhe crock of down At the moment At midnight At Chrlsimas

for festlvo s

iii"liii!*. At the weekend

On Thrrsdoy On Mondoymorning On Christmos Doy On Fridoyn ghl On 3 Seplember


q dole In

monlhs, yeofs crnd long periodsol time

Since.lonuory SinceMondoy Slncemy b rthdoy S i ยก c el 9 2 O Sincethe resuls come



n April n 1993 n the post n lhe tuiure

o /engthof time

Foroges Foryeors Foro whie Foยกever Forslx rยกoยกlhs

Mlke sure ,vouare totalhยก confidcnt about using dresesinple expressions.A snrall ยกrreposition ma\ยกnot sccm irnportant to ]ยกou 6ut it is essentialto be accurate. Nol,l' chcck thrtยกrrgh the firllorving list of connronlv misuscdsimplc orcuositions. ot




ot hom-o

by cof

go ยกor c1worK

on รne foo o

go tor o drlve

on lool

go for o swim

on ine pnone

or scnool ol work

Dy P one

oi Lrnivefslly

by lroin

ot Tnec ยกeTยกo

by brke

ol the office

by oir

on (the)teevision

212 '

REFERENCE The phrasesbelow can be particularly confusing. ¡ On tifne At the exact time: not early, not late. fhe flight from ltew Yorkarrived an time¡ In time Not late, early enough. we had to run to the station, butwe were in timeforthe |ast tra¡n. r At the beginning/at the end These phrasesrefer to something that lasts for a hnown length of time or has a hnown length, such as a show, a TV programme, a journey, a school term, a bool( etc.

youaremadeto think (ofthedetecttue booklprogramme) At thebeginníng at theend(of isonlyrevealed is Alan,but histrue¡dentity that themurderer thebooklprogramme). Atthebe\inn¡ngof a formalletter,youwríteDearsir,andatthe endyou wríteYoursfaithfully. r In the beginning/at firstlo begin with These phrasesindicate a changeof sit:uztion.

tn thebeginn¡ng, thesnowwaseasyto walkon,but ctswemovednorth¡t qot deeper anddiffcultto cross. At first,I foundthefoodtdsty,but aftera while,it müdemefeelsick. but we soangot usedto it. Tobeginwith,w¿foundthe heatunbearable, r In the end/at last After some time, eventually.

- but I gatthroughin the Every t¡meI triedsarah'snumberit wasengaged end. openedat last. likeages,the lift ¿/oors Afterwhat seemed

I Group4 This is a list of idiomatic expressionscontaining prepositions, which native speakersuse regularly, and which will n-rakeyour writing much more natural. F{owever, if they are used inappropriately the examiner will suspectyou have learnt them without fully understandhg them. Go through them one by one . Ifthe¡e are some )¡ou do not feel happy about, do not worry about them, but do not try to use them in the exam. Concentrate on the ones you are confident about. r Out of the blue: (Informal) Suddenly, unexpectedly, without warning.

Nan ntive:we we{ehavingdinnerwhen,outof theblue,thephonerang Tndweheardwehadwana holiday! r In the same boat: (Informal) In the same situation, having the same experience. Ad.tice: I know what il's like to be lonely - | was in the same boat last year

whenmy friendr\ovedawayta 1nothertown.

Essentiolprepositionsa 213

r On the brain: (Informal) Think continuousl¡r about (something). Scboolwngazine: At th¡s time ol year, {or one reasonar analher, many af us have examson the bratnl r Without a break: (Formal/inlbrnal) Without stopping, corltinuou$]y. Schoolwagazine/advice: lt yau spend haurs doing revisionwithout a break, it'll do ntare harYn thün qaod. r For a change: (Forrnal/informal) (Do) something dil}'erent. Advice: lf you'rc bored with drinking water, \ thy nat stlueezesomelresh orüngeiLlicefor a that\qe? I Off colour: (Informal) Unrvell. Nan otive: I decidedta stdy athome becauseI was feelinga b¡t aff úlou{. r In the dark: (Formal/informal) Uninformed, ignorant. Descrifttive nnn atipe: we kept her in the clark abañ fhe parv beuuse we vranted it l.a be G s ryrise. r Out of date: (Formal/inforrnal) Old fáshioned. DrcriÍttipe: I'm sure yau'll fnd our sciencelabs oat af rlate - we haven't

hadanynewer¡u¡pmeftt faryears.

r Up to date: (Formal/infbrn-ral) Informed, fashionable, modern. Schoolmagnzine: ioday's technalogyhelpskeeptfi u'pto date, but . . . ¡ On a diet: (Formal/informal) Trying to lose u.eight. Desct'iptipennrrative: . .. and 1o,who's sut¡tposedtrJ be {)n a diet, ate mast al the chúcolateúke! r On edge: (Formaly'nformal) Tcnse, anxious, excited. Scboolmagnzine/ad.vice: . . . gentle exerciseand plenty of sleepshauld stop

youfeelingan edgebefare theexams" r At a loose end: (Inlbrmal) Having nothing to do, bored. Schoolwagazine: Do you think yau're ga¡ng ta be c4ta loaseend durinq the

Ionqschoolhalidays'? I On fire: (Forma/infonnal) Burning, alight. Narrative: lt w(.rsn'lüntil I sowll7mescomingout of the ft)rrfthat I realised the superffarketwasan fire. r On holiday: (Formal/infbrmal) Time spentrelaxingawa)¡from schoolor work, bttt l wüson ltolidayand : I'm sarry| htJven'twriltenfor so.lonq¿, Descriptive bookl my ar,ldress ta tnl<e farTot I In a hurry: (Fonr-ral/informal)Quickly. in ú hu{rysothey Scbool wnqazine/desü"i Dtive:... oftenda their harnev,¡ork gcAffies ' LafiPIL.YLÚmluler r On the increase:(Formal) Bccominggreaterin size,amount, ctc. Schoolwagnzine: the nr.¡rfiberof cürsún the rcüclis on the tn.refise.

214 '

REFERENCE r At the latest: (Formal/informal) Not later than. School wngazinc:Putyoursüggestions in the boxautsideroam12 by FridTy luncht¡meat ihe latest. I Betweer¡the lines: (Formal/informal) Understandthe tnre meaningfrom what is implied. A¡l.pice:ReadingbebNeenthe lines,it seemsyau are stítlfeelinglonely. r On my mind: (Formal/informal) Thirking about. Advice:I'vehaclyour problemon my mind all day¡ In two minds: (Formal/informal) Undecided. Narrative: I wos ¡n two m¡ndswhetherta staywith my f(iend or go far netp. r In the mood: (Informal) Mentally preparedfor something. Adyice: Don't tN ta reviseif vou are in the mood for sacialisina- vou'll be wast¡ngyour t¡me. r Out of order: (Formal/informal) Not working/functionirg. Usually relatesto machines. Nannatiye:wehcd to usethestairsbecause the líftwas out af order^ I For your own sake:(Formal/i-r"rformal) In your own interests,for your benefit. you mLtsL repoftit to the Srhool wagazinr:lf youareavktimof butly¡ng, aúthor¡tiesfor your ovtn sake,or the s¡tuat¡onmay qet wo15e. I In pain: (Formal/infbrmal) The feeling1'ouhavein your body when you have hurt yourself-. A¡bict Remember ta da wúrm-upexerc¡ses, ar you'll be ¡n pain later! r Out of place: (Formal/informal) Different, not appropdatefor a situation. Drsct,ibtivc nnrrd!ivt lwasfhe onlvonewearin7ieans.soIfelt velvout of place. r Out of practice: (Forma/informal) (To be)lessgood at doing something than you were becauseyou havenot spenttime doing it recently. Desn"btiyt: I L{sedto play tennisot schoolin the past, but l'm out of pr1tt¡cenow. I At random: (Formal/informal) L.rany order. 'trhe Descriptitenawnt'ive: winnerswerc ltickedat random from a hat. t As a rule: (Forma/informal) Usually. Descriptiye:As a rule, I spendabout three hourseveryeveningon schoolw0rk. r In the long run: (Formaly'nformal)Eventually,in the end. Srhoolwaaazinr./aolvirt: tt mav be fashionable to sr¡okewhenvou Gre young,but remernber that in the long run you are your damaginq healthI From scratch:(lnlormaj) From tJrebeginning. Schoolwagazine,/adpice:Makesureyou reviseall your natesfram scratch.

Essenfio/preposítionsa 215 r Behind the tirnes: (Iiorn.ral/infbrmal) Out of date, unfashionable. DescriLtitgJ2oryqtlLg; !\L{nll May \¡,rúslher¿ iyl ¿¡hni ancl qlovest yau knov/ haw behind the times she al\¡Jays is! I Out of tune: (Forrnafnfirrmal) Not in harntony. Descriptittt:Yau shauld hüve heard everyo{te.inging 'Httppy Bitthdüy' - it wrls a,.tqul- üll lLinel ¡ In touch: (Fornlal/hformal) Not lose contact r.yith someone (fbr example, a fiiend if one ofyou moves away). Descriptive:(rn sending my new {)ho{ienurfibet and e-mc¡l address- so ?lecsekeegin túuth! r lJnder the weather: (Infbrmal) Ur.rrvell(but nothing scrious). Descriptive nnn'atiye: I was sú{ry ta hear ycu've been under the weúthet. I Without warning: (Forn.ral/informal) Sudclenlv. Na¡,rative : We were an the wúy la the,theúVe tNhenthe driver stopped the l l u \ w i l h o ü i .w a r r t n u .

Word portnersond soyings I

Word portners 'Word partners'refbrs to tlvo rvords regularly used in combinatior.r rvitl-reach ot.l-rcr.Tl-rcrc ere many morc than those listed here, lvhich have been selected as relevant to IGCSE topics. Ifyou u.ant to in-rproveyour knor4edge ofthese, try to listen to inten iervs ir English on the radio and teler.ision (try thc BBC World Sen'ice) or on the internet, or read good quality nev.spapers. Look at the second li'ord in the partnership. It could be a rvord you r'vant to use in your fbrmal writing. Then look carefully at its partner the r¡i'ord in fi'ont c¡f it. Try to use both lvords together, as this rvill make your English sound much n-rorenatural and flucr-rt.

Word portners lremendoLrs


yo! hqve ochievemenl = somethlng oonewnrcnyou ore very pfouoor

h. ^f



owo fe


comm 1T¡enr

T^l iñ^ ñ^rt in tho <¡hn¡

proy wos crTfemenoous ochievemenlfor my shy s slef. Roisingfundsfor our school swlmming poo wcrs o lremendous o c hieveÍr e¡ t.

grve ... ro someone My teochergove me some get .. . fiom someone very he pfu odviceoboui go to someonetof ... obout tevs on. revision/... on how lo Tevise

be ... thot be ... of the(problem(sll iolo


, ha



-^,.^,1 4,, A^-1^^ri.^


tio. /"1^"^o,.

something dependson/ ,^^ ^. /A^-^"4. /.^" ^ñ

Monypeopleoreocutely oworeof theproblems


A¡ ¡


footbcrer demondstoto coTnT¡[menI.

f e s !l o l . . .

disostrous/ serloLJs

something will leodto/ Tes!I r¡ .. .

Continuol emissio¡of greenhouse goseswi eod lo disostrous consequences. P-f,.i"^ r^ be I con hove serious consequenceS.



K e e p i ¡ gw i d a n i r ¡ os ^.la/l

i¡curob e

o Seose



A hospiceis o speciol nursing homefor people suffering fromincuroble diseoses.

Word portnersond soyings a 217

Word porfners




= someonewho drives withoLJtfespeci fo. tioffic rules

Sole! oworeness compoigns shoud fes!1ln


incredibly/ remorkobly


fo¡eseecr b -^


o tedllcJioñirj lbe nr)r¡)bet ol reck ess dfivefs on ou¡ foods.

To becomeon {) ympic olh ele you needio be lncred;byfit. in the . ./fo the .

Mon will co onise spoce in .L^¡^-^^^^^Ll^!r.^

\, tuo y


= olmostimpossibie

It ls vlduollyimpossib e to osewelghiwithoutdoi¡g exerclSe.

noficeob e


+¡ Therehosbeeno ... i¡

Regulor exercise will resuI in o ¡oliceobe irnpfovemenJ in yourheolth f yoLrp on youfievisiof corefuy, therewi 1be cr noliceoble ir¡prover¡enl in youTfes! ls

+ t¡ o ... ln ihe vo LJr¡eof hoffic on the roods

n fece¡i yeors, thefe hcls been o subslonliolincfeose in smokingJeloled illnesses.



frndomentol/ underJying

lhe¡eis cr .. . with lsomething)Thelundomentcrl probem i h e. . . l s ol pollution needsto be fesoveci.

ccrpitc I


considerobe/ substoniio


= deolhlof serioLrs cfimes ... shouldbe obo ished/ lnfoduced con/wl

couse,¡esLl11 in

disqppointing/ impresslve/ p eosng hormful,/

Mony coLrntries hove obo ishedcopitol punlshment. Blidi¡g cl ringroc¡dwould fesl.rll in o considerobe reducllo¡in thenumber of roodcrccidents. Bod p onningco¡ leodto disoppointlng results

side effects


somelhlngcon p¡oduce/ hove/couse/resr I in . . .

Vloe¡ce on TV,smoklng, eotingjunklood, ond cor --xholsls con oll produce hcrrmful side effects.





= someihlngwhich ls exfenre y dlfflc! t to resist

Whenyou ore o¡ o diel, chocoole co[e con be o¡ lrreslslib e lemplotlon.



= something youwonllo do verymuch{butknow you shouldn't)

SiLrde¡ts ore somellmes sorey templedlo sioy in beclond nrissleci!fes.

We musifind o procticol so utio¡ 10the problemof pollullon.



Soyings There are many sayingsin EngJ.ish.You n-rayknow some alreacl¡'.The fbllowing list is a very short selection of sayingsrvhich you may be able to include in your writing. Never use a saying unlessyou are completely sure of its meaning and that you are using it appropriately. t All work and no play makeslack a dull bay. If you spend all your time working, without having a break and being with other people, you will have no interest in life and will become a boring person.

. Iurn avera newleaf, To decide to change the way you think about or do something to produce an improvement. (Decide to give Llp fast food in order to feel fitter. Decide to plan your revision carefully so your results are better than last time. )

r Buryyaurhesdin thesand. Try to escapefrom a problem by pretending 1.ou are unaware ofit.

a Jumponthebandwagon. To become involve d in an activity that is likely to be successful. r lf you cün't beqt them, join them. Ifeveryone around you is doing something which you do not approve of, you can fly to stop them. Ifthey continue in spite ofyour efforts, then you will be 'úe odd one out' - in other words, left alone. If dris happens, you are in üe minority, which suggestswhat they are doing may not be as bad as you thought. So why not join them¡ (Spoft/fitnessy'elaxation classes/self-defenceclasses. )

. Every cloudhasa silverlining^ No matter horv bad a situation may seem, something good will usually result from it. (The misery of revision/the joy of passing the exam. The misery of being on a diet/tie pleasure of fitting into fashionable clothes.) Now note the ways in which sayingscan be introduced into your writing. r To a fricnd who needsadüce on e:*amrevision: 'All Yoü know what thev sav. work and na Dlüv makestcck ü dull bov.' r To a friend who needs to start a fitness programme:

' rfyau can't beütthem,io¡nthem'- or sethevsay. r To a friend who has moved away and is feeling lonely.

doud hasa silverlining.' Asrlu_gfgltgtü,hgtUSgtUg-Sy,'tvety

Confusedphroses Thc fbllor'r'ing list contxins phrasesr.vhiclrrcgulirrly causeconfirsion fbr str:dents. Studenl's mistoke

Correct senlence

A r".r .f ry*[

n arrn .t .V *. A roomlo mysef


Belevell or not F u n n i ye n o r g h o -d-oh^o, o ro. o-

hope yoLrwou d To sil i¡ home


I hopeyou wil I wishyou world To stoyot home flove crneorlynight Go to bed eorly

Formy uck

llckly for me m ucKy Decltuse

lLrckytof nol com¡ng

t's crgood thing/iobyou + negollve

Yor were uckyyou weren'tlhefe

+ negolive Thonkgoodness Whoi if you + hod + negoiive

My smo sisler

My yolrngefsislef

She'so brillontcooler

She'so brillic¡nl cook

nvle m7 f i"ndsto my horne

nvlle my lfiends folr¡d

To enjoymy lime

To enloy myseI f ^ l ^ . - ^ ^ ^ ^ . 1r - -

Yo¡ knowhow it is ike

You k¡ow whot lt is ike You k¡ow how il ls

As you know lhcll

As you know,(l om teffifiedof heghts) o¡ on lo ' or toa'edol-gt

To sitwlth someone

To spendtimewilh someone

In my pointof view

n my vrew Frommy poinl ol view

1fee sorrythotyou didn'lcome

l's o shomethotyou couldn'tcome m sony thof ),oLlaoLrdn t come

Everyone A -^.r ^r -, ^^^


A whotyou heoris

Theony thlngyou heoris

d*'l !y".""*pt .......-





"L]"": li "l'l"g -

To moke,/doc¡ncrccident

To hoveon ,rccdenl

i w i d o y o uo o i o f h e p

t will hep you o ot t will do you o ot of good

Someihlng wrongwill hoppen

Somethingwill go wrong

Spellingtips Spelling is very important in the exam. Learning a fbw rule s will improve )¡our spelling. Some ofthe spelling rules and exceptions to the spelling rules are complicated and not relevant to the exam, and so have not been included in this unit. Vowels are: a, e, i, o, u. Consonants are all the other letters which are not volvels. I When do you double a consonantf Consonants can only be doubled if the), are at the end ofa rvord. Words of ora sl.llable which end in one vowel + one consonant double the final consonant when you add 'er' or 'ing'.

thin + thinner get + qetting cut -+ cuü¡nq swim -+ swimming, swimme,r run -+ runninq, runner Words of r;¡r¿or wore syllab\es which end in one vowel + one consonant double the fi¡ral consonant when the stressfalls on the last syllable.

be'gin -+ beginning, beginner -+ ug'54 upsetting Comparewith tie following verbsuüere the stressf'allson an earlier syllable: de'velop -+ developed

'bgry:efrt -+ benefited

2 Whenyouadd'full'to theendof a word,thesecond'l'isdropped. wonder+ full = wonde(ul beauty + full = beautiful Note also, till -+ L¡r¡tíl 3 Adverbs are formed by adding 'ly' to the adjective, so adjectivesending in 'l' make adverbs with double 'l'. Adje ctir.e


beautiful+ly = beautifully awful +ly= au{ully 4 Learn the simple rule: 'i' befbre 'e'except after'c'. This r'vill help you if 1,ou always confi:se words which contain the same sound, but har.edifferent spelling, such as:

believe and

no 'c' in dre word, so


\ :' in the word, s o ' e ' b e f o r e ' i '

Spellingtips 1 221 The exceptions to this spelling rule are fairly cornmon and simple l'ords rvhich 1,ou use regulerlY:

Spellingtips 1 221 The cxceptions to this spelling rule are fairlJ,common a¡d simple rvords r.vhichyou use regularly: eight neighbour

either neither

lbreign their

height weight

leisure weird

You lvill notice that none ofthese words has the same pronunciation as believe,receive,in other words/i:/. 5 Words ending in a consonant+'y'usuallv changethe'y'to'i'when something is added.

easy ) eas¡et c7rry + carñed ha¡tpy -+ happily This change does zorhappen if the letters added begin with'i'.

study + cürry + buby +

study¡nq c}rrying babyish

Words ending in a vowel + 'y' do not change. buy -> buying play + pl7yed enJoy ) enjoyment ó Wordswhich end in a consonant+ 'e'drop the 'e'if the lettersaddcdbegin with anothervorvel. mo,ke ) hope -+

makinT hoping

Words r'vhichend in a consonant+ 'e'keep the 'e' if the lettersaddcdbegin with a consonant. hope -+ hopeful manaqe -- manaqe{nent 7 Words ending in 'ise' or 'izc' r In AmericanEnglish,only 'ize' is used. r In Britislr English,words rvith two syllablesend in'ise': ad.tise,swrprise. t Longer words in British Englishcan be speltcither way: cornpat erise/ cotnput erize.

* Nole t youhoveieornlAmericon Engish,therewi I be otherdlfferences in speling. Americon spelingswil be occepled in theexom,if theycrreusedthroughoui.

Problem spellings Makc sure you can spell these u'ords rvhich arc regularly spclt wrongly by studcnts.

A absolutely accommodation actually address answer apologise appearance appropnáte assure B beautifi,rl beginner believe benefit boring brcath breathe business busy

c centre chocolate chosen college colourful comrng competitive completely D decision delicious der.elop dil}érent disappointment documentary E embarrassed enthusiastic

equrpment especially except excitcd exerclse extren1el)¡

filll seum

F fabulous fascinating favourite finally fitness fortunatel)¡ forward friend


G gorgeous $'m H habit handsome hear here hoping horrified I immediately in-rprcssion intelligent interesting L laugh listened loose (adj) lose (v) M marvellous

mysterious N neighbour nervous


P panicked planning politely practically pracücelnJ practlse (v) -,. F..

preferable private profbssior.ral programme


quret qurte quiz R ráining really recelve recrpc relier.ed ricling S safbly settled shopping sincerelv sourrenir spacious specially

Problems spellingsJ 223 stefeo stopped studfing succeed surprise srvimming

T terrifuing their there they're

thorougl-rly throughout tmly

U understanding until usual

V r.ideo

w u'eight wear $'eather whcre whether without writing

Exomhintsfor thewritingexom Managing your time is essentialin the exam. Put your watch on the table and keep arvareof the time . Do notbe tempted to turn to the compositions and write them first. The exam starts with reading comprehensions requiring short answers,and these are intended to'warm you up': as you read you are reminded of vocabulary, structures ard ideas and this, in turn, builds up your confidence. In other words, the reading comprehension section prepñ'resyou for the writins section.

Plonning Why write o plon? r A plan gives you time to think. If you think for a fcw moments, it will stop you rushing into the question and probably making n-ristakesor writing an irrelevant answer. r A plan will also allow you to remember ideas, structures, phrasesand vocabulary that you may otherwise forget. r A plan also means fewer crossingsout; ¿ messypresent¿tion is annoying lor the cxaminer. A neat presentation índicates confidence. composidon, r A plan gives you a chance to produce the best possib.Le of logic, register, der.elopment, including all the important elements vocabularyand prescntation. r A plan indicates a methodical, serious approach which will impress the examlner. Time is precious, so make sure your plan is worthwhile and usefal to yots. Whatever happens, a plan should not be simply another versíon ofthe composition and should never be written after answering the question. In fact, if you run out of time, your plan should give the examiner a clear outline ofwhat you intended to include.

How long shouldo plon toke? Allow three to five minutes. This means 1.ou should have studied, practised and become familiar with dre relevant vocabulary, prepositions, word partners) grammar and register, together with the fbatures ofsq4e and writing techniques oudined in this book beforeyo:usit the exam. Plan to write four paragraphs, each containing 25-40 words (Core) or 40-50 words (Extended).

How to wr¡te o plqn Remember Yourp on is to helpyou

You will need a slighdy different plan for each type ofwriting task. You should aim to write a basic plan and then write into it any vocabulary and language structurcs yolr may want to include in )'our answer.Write your plan in pencil. Draw a line through arry plan you write when you have finished with it. l)o n|t rú) if out you want the examiner to seeyour effort!

Exom hintsfor the wrífing exon |


Plon l: Descriptive/odvice leffer First analysethe question, using the mctlrods outlined in the rclevatrt units of this book. Tl-rcn, on a bler < sheet ofthe cxat.nquestion papcr, in pencil, u'rite 'I'lan', Next, rvrite a sub-headilg "Intro'c¡r'Itrt¡o a¡rdtrarrsition'. Select tl-reappropriate introduction and if'necessaryadapt it to reflect the question or to pcrsonrrlisc.Write it down in note fbrrn. -F-orexamplc: I o\rfiy 'i') ütt i.ii(i.l:tti

. , t ' r r ! t . 0h : ' ú r i l i ) ü U t . . .

l)o the same tbr the transition sentcnce. For cxample: I t l i { r u ( j h i¿t l l r n ¡ y , ¡ ¿;,' 1 ' 1 f

i t t ' C n¡ v li h ¿ 1 L t t 4 \l t: i Í

Writc a heading'Bod1". Decide on trvo idcasvoll want to includc.'l'herl clecicleon the slrpport for each. Write thern down. Write down l selection of phrascsrelevent tc¡ the tvpe of letter, fbr cxamplc, advicephrascs.T:Lkea moment to sclectthe most apfroprirtc orrcs. Write dou'n any rvord partnerships/savings/preposition phrasesyoll $'ant to include. Look at the lbllowing friendl-v aclvicer'vriting task: A good friend of yours hos moved 1oq new ofeo cnd is feelinglonelv Write o eller 10 moke hlm feel hoppier ond help him like his ¡ew ife better.

F{or.vshoulcl you approach this tasl<iWrat rnight vour plan look likci First, anal,vsethe qucstion. Elcments to notice: r r r r

a goocl fiicnd moved erva,v(so ¡ra miss hirlr, too!) sacl,lonely (so are,vou) u'rites to you hoping you r'vill makc hinr féel hap¡rier. You may need to give him ecirriccor encouragclr.tent.

Wl-rat hind of introduction is a¡rpro¡rriatcf I)oes it nccd to be adeptedf

226 ' REFERENCE Your plan might look somedring like this:

Plan Intro and transítion; ... Iovefyto get letter ... but ... sadto hear lonely ... misJyou, too Bodv: The best.thíng you can do ís... Why don't you ...? Whateverhappens,... ldeas


1 Get involved in after-school activities;drama,music,choir

Get to know schooffriendson a socíalbasis.

2 Join a sportsclub

Keep you busy.Do you good. Meet people with the same íntererti.

Down in the dumps/underthe weather/in t}re sameboat/at a loose end/from scratch/dropín/find out/fi'x up/take up/in touch. Endíng Why don't you come over in the holídays?Keep wriüng.

Exom híntsfor the writinq exom J 227

norrqlive Plon 2: Norrotive/descriptive Look at the fbllowins narrativervritinq task:


oncl tokingrr p]-^nsont wolk by yours--lf whenyoLrf--1downsomesr-aps Youw-^r-^ lwistedyourknee.Youwereunobleto get helpond hod to wcil sevefqhoursfor help lo orilve.Wriie c letterlo o hiendexpoiningwhot hoppened. Hou' r'vould ),ou approach and plan this questionl An examplc is shorvn belor..

PLan lntro aftd tranítíonl Youii neverbelievewhat happened. .. I w as out oft nry usua[w aLk/favouríte path thr oughthe w oods. FeeLíngs daydreaming./head ín the cloud,s/waLkínghappí[y a[ong. Bodv: + tocabu[ary) Paragraph1;(events/feelings,/tímesequence 1 outofthe blue I sLippedon the steps/.overedwith Leeres/múst ha]r'ebeenwet 2

| wasjqst eboútto getup, Fek asif my Legwascút ín two.


fhe momeftt I realísedmy knee wastwísted, Lt mademy b[ood run aoLd.

Paragraphz: 1 Nothíngforit butto w¿it. z

sangsoftgs/re.ited geometrytlrcorems/had ptetend conversatío¡ts.


After whet teemedlíke ages.Mr . . . foqnd me takíng Rex for 4pm wa[k.


Never felt so relietedto seethat dogt

Ending It allturned out well ín the end. Nothíng broken. Must ¿aih to tell . . . ¿bt1útit.

228 . REFERENCE Plon 3: Opinions/suggestions composition Write tl-refollowing basicplan and includepoints relevantto the subject. I 2 3 4

Intro: Nowadays of ...linmyopinion... lthe majorยกty Support:Fยกrstly, of ... l dueto ... l which... l because Support: Anotherreason... Tosumup,ltbelยกeve ... litwouldbea goodideaif (+ past).

PIon 4: Views ond orgumenls composยกlยกon Write the following basicplan and include points relevantto the subject. I Intro: These doyslalargenumberof ...'explainingthe importanceofthe subject'. 2 Pointsin favour:oneof themaยกnarguments in favourof ...1 Furthermore ... lwhichmeansth6t ... 3 Pointsagainst:o/ยก theotherhand,...lmoreover... ... fconsequently 4 ro sumup,... lin myopinion ... lยกtwouldbea goodideaif ...

t Remember Thereis nolenoughtimelo mokemoiorchonges.These shouldnot be necessory onywoy, if you wrole o plon iirst.Youwoยกl lo mqinloin neolpfesenlolion.

Checkyouronswer Yoru wust aJlowa few minutes to check through each composition. Try not to check a piece of writing as soon as you finish it; your mistakeswill not be obvious if )'ou have just written them. Write both compositions, then go back ancl start to re-read them, starting r,vith the first. The following checldist is for bnsic mistakes,such as grammar and spelling. I Each student has his orvn 'favourite' or repeat mistake. Be aware ofyours and check for it. 2 Check that each sentenceis cotuplete(has a subject, verb and object) and is correcdy linhed to the next. In a long sentence)you may har.echanged constructions without realising. 3 Check that the sequenceof tensesis maintained: if the main verb is in the pa,st, a,Il orher verbs are usuallJ, in one of tยกe pยฟ-rt tenses. 4 Check that singular subjects have single verbs (+ 's'for he/she/it in rhe present tense) and plural subjects have plural verbs. 5 Check that verbs are followed by the correct preposition and reler.ant construction. 6 Then, remembering t1-ratcorrections should be minor and neat, look fbr: r r I r r I

words with no plural form, such as homework,ยกnformatยกon muddled constructions: hope + will (avoid wish) words tlrat can be removed in friendly register: that, which position of also (correct it with arrows) so + adjective + th6t / too + adjective + to reDetition.

Exam hintsfor the writina exon |



A lostfew helpfulhintsond reminders Write your answersin /ez not pencil (but your plan should be in pencil). If I'ou need more spacefor 1'ot1¡answers)use the blank pages at the end of the 'cófltifl[cd ófl answer booklct. W¡itc at thc bottom of the lined áñswér fráge blank page number ...'.

Friendlyreg¡ster Remember Do not LJsewords hom the queslionwhen wriling in friendy register,becousethe ,^,^.1. ^l rL^ ^ ,6cri^ñ ^ró

wrilten ln formo fegislef.

Support any inforn-ration you give, such as advice or personal details, rvith simple, relevant expl':mations.Personaliseto indicate ),our relationship u,itlr the reader, and to reveal personal details. 'plan' is given, for example: Sometimes, in narratives, a r r r r

Explain how y6¡ got lost. \\4rat did 1.o¡1do rvhen you realisedyou were lostf Horv did ),ou resolve the probleml Describe how you felt.

All points in this plan should be covered b1,1.s¡¡ nnswer, but it is only a base; in other words, you can develop it as much as you want. Remember to include feelings, incidents and atmosphere. Fl

rormql regrsrer Sometimes, in r.iews and arguments cornposirions, promp$ are gir.en; 1br example, a list of comments fiom otl-rerpeople on the subject. Do not incl.ode thern all. Select one or two to explore u.ith support and examples.LTsethc relevant language structures. Give relevalt support for m:ximum marlcs. 'school magazine' or 'newspaper'. Then use Check if the question specifies the correct register and linl< vour vielvs to the interests of the rcader. 'a If the question asks1.s¡1to present )¡our fbrmal il'ritirg composition as letter to a nervspaper',then the only modification ir-rlayout ),ou need to mal<e is to rvrite:

Dear'ir, before beginning yolrr introduction, and then at the end add:

Yours fa¡thfully, A. Student \44ren lwiting your signature, use your normal handr.riting and write eiüer: r the initial of yqut ¡r., name, followed by,vour family name (if you have n-rorethan one ñmil¡, name, use only the last one ) or I your first name fbllolved by your fan-rilyname (again, onl¡, <-l¡¿;. Finally, underneath yollr signature write the same namc in capital letters.

23O I

REFERENCE Ifthe question asksyou to present the formal writing as a ,letter to y orLrlocal newspaper', in addition to following the same style shown above, remernber that a local paper is very different from a n&tilndl paper. All the readersare familiar with the local area and what is happening there ifan airport is being planned, everyone will knorv about it and will be putting forward their own views about it. In many ways, what y6¡ lyri¡. may sound like a school magazine article, with the use of 'we'to emphasisesolidarity. You should mention local places, even local people by name to try to create the friendly atmosphere of a small community. As an example, let's look again at the .windmills, composition from Section 4, Unit 1, and imagine it being written for a local newspaper. \44rat differences would there bel ¡ The use of 'we': We h6ve all heard about the plans to bu¡ld w¡ndmillson our beaut¡ful

g.u beautiful hillslbehind woodslalong ourlovelynverbank.

r When outlining the arguments against windmills, try to tlint local community would be against them:

who in the

- People owning small hotels; give them names to make them sound real:

MrsMooreof theLakes¡de cuestHouse

- Local wildlifb group; give the narne of the leader, how many years the group has been meeting or how many members it has. t

Why are they against the windmillsf - Fewer guests are staying becausethe ugly windmills have spoiled the nahlral beauty of the area. - A rare speciesof owlfox/badger - only found locally - may be frightened awa)¡by the noise ofthe blades.

r Do the same thing when considering points in favour of windmills.

)ummorywntlng Remember to: r r r r r t t r

rvrite a list ofpoints put the points into logical order write the points using your own words write headings for notes check to see if1.ou need to include functions, such as advice use formal register not exceedthe number ofwords asked for , ? r lw r i l e ¿ l l i n t r o d u et i o n .

Throughout the exam, pay careful attention to yoru- spelling, punctuation, grammar and general presentation.

This section contains kcy rvords and phrasesreleyant to a number of topics which are rcgularly cc¡vercdin the IGCSE exam, and which you would be expected to l<now at this level. Some ofthe vocabulary has appearedin appropriate units of this book, but has becn included agair here to provide a com¡rlete list. The table belolv lists the topics that are covered, together with the diffcrent registers need to show knowledge of in each case. Words or phrascs suitable for a particular register are marked as follows: = Fr = F SM =

Friendlv Fr¡rmal School magazine

Sorletimes it can be difficult to think ofbasic ideas. To help you, rvhere a topic can be developed for discussion,ideas have been included under separateheadings in the form of opinions, suggestiols>and views and arguments sentences. The separateheadings are usually bascd on past exam questions, although they obr.iously apply to the topic in general. Some words or phrasesmaJ¡ appear under diÍIerent headings. You ma)¡ have diflerent ideas and opinions of )¡our own, in which caseyou should use the sentencesgiven as a structural basisfbr vour sentence.

Arficle/School mcAozine I o b b e s , p o r to r o l e o , - l'1oidoys Crimeond sociolissues Smoking Television lmporionce of oppeoronce Enviro¡menl Toufism

Sofe! ond driving Anrmols Post,present ond fuiure Homeond fomly

232 .


g scHoot enCEDtCAMN comprehensiveschool - a government school which is free and available to everyone. private/independent school - parents must pay fees to send their children to these schools. traditional school - uniforms, discipline, academic, competitive sport (play to win), compulsory sport (J,ou must do it whether you want to or not. There is no choice. It is not optional.). progressive school - no uniform, prefer continuous assessmentar-rdcoursework to exams, may abolish complrlsory sport (r'vould be optional), may abolish competitive sport (would be for fun, exercise, social reasons). boarding school - you sleep, eat, relax, do your homer'vork in accommodation or.vnedand run by tlre sclrool. Pupils/students can be weehlyboardtrs (they go home o¡ to relatirresat weekends), or they c a u b o a r d f o r t h e t e r m . T h i s i s a c o r r t e n i e no t ption for parents who work abroad. Hor'vever, it is not possible to board at a comprehensive, and boarding is rerl expensive- usually double dre fees of a private day school. day school not a boarding school. You go home each day when school ends. to'ivin a scholarship to obtain a pLaceat a school on merit, based on tl-reresult of a rvritten entrance exam. Parents do not need to pay school fees. He ad/Headte acher I{e adn-raster Ileadmistress lots o/oads

of/not much homework (SM/Fr)

a.hearly'light workload (SM/F) clissroom: open plan, rows ofdesks sciencelaboratory (or lab. for short) equipment sports hall gym games pitch (for cricket, football, hockey) r v c l l - c q ü p p e dl o F l a b o r r t o r y .l i b r a 4 . g y m . e t c . ) out of the ark = very old up to date (used adjectively) tuck shop - sells crisps, sweets,snacks,for midmorning break (to have) school .lunch

after school actir.ities (clubs, societies, sports teams) extra-curriculum/curricular activities (F) to tate + a subject (Fr/SM)

What subjects are you taldng¡ (Fr/SM) Are you taking Englishf (FrlSM) a popular subject (SM/F) = many students stud¡, tie subject optional (SM/F) = you have a choice compulsory (SM/F) = no choice, 1'¡¡ must do it to u ork hard more common than 'study' to get good marks lf we want ta qo to a goad university, we h6ve to

getqoodmarKs " to be under pressure parental pressure (SM/F) = parents encouraging/forcing you to work peer pressure (SM//F) = students the same age as you, ir-rfluencing you or persuading/forcing you to dress or behave a certain lvay to settle into = get used to, accustomed to, begin to feel comfortable with somewhere new

My sisterdid nat |ikehernewschoolat f,rst,but novvshe'ssettled in (= setded into thenew school),shereallyenioysif" to settle down to = to start somethilg seriously, with serious intent

&efare my booksandcheckmy dinner,I o(qanise rev¡sian timetable, sathat I canseltledownta workstraightaftereatinq^

Exqms qnd revision (to do) revision to revlse cramming IO Cram allow time to revise (SM/F) give yourself time to revise (Fr) plan ahead work out/make a revision timetable/study plan stick to/keep to a timetable don't put it off (Fr) = do not delay distract (your attention) distraction (F) disturb (your concentration) (F) stop yolr concentrating (Fr)

Dotobase of topic+elatedvocobuloryond ideos ñ 233 r'villporvcr selfrdiscipline Iearn fbcts by saying them ovcr and over again pick out importent facts highlight key fácts $,rite kcy facts on revision cards record notes onto tape draw labelled diagrams makc your subject more visual draw cartoons so you can 'see' the information to bc under a lot ofstrcss (Fr) to casestrcss(F) to relieye tension (F) SüESS

headachcs feeling permanently tired acl.ringlimbs tenscmuscles to ache all over




to crack Lrp (under dre stress)= to become mentally unable to cope with exams and rer.ision don't overdo it don't work lbr long stretcheswithout a break don't bc tempted to ... don't think yolr can ... don't burn the midnight oil - don't study late into thc night don't drink too much coffee: it'll mess up )¡our srecp páttem listen to music unwind/relax before ,vou go to bed have regular breaks (every halfhour or so) do regular exercisc eat/havc fruit and vegetablesas snacks makc sure vou still see fiiends go Out at the weekends to to to to to to to to to

improve )¡our concentratior (F) help you to concentrate bctter (Fr) help to keep you alert make yoll feel more confident build up 1.our confidence (F) help y6¡ ¡¡ ¡gl¿¡ fecl under less pressurc achieve more have time to relax as rvell

the night before the exam . . . .. . have a warm, relaxing bath . . . havc an early night on th€ dily of tlrc c¡.rr¡ . - . . . . get up early so 1'ou don't feel rushed . . . have some breakfast to take an exam (also, to sit an exam) = to go to the examination centre, sit and rvrite your answersto the exam questions Fle'staking the Englishexam on Monday. He'll have taken the exaynby lun(htime. He's nat here üt the ffiúmenl.,he's taking an exarn. to passan exam = to get/obtain d1e number of marl<snecessaryto succeed to fhil an exam = to not pass,to not reach the necessarystandard to pass

¡l'youd,an'tpassltf yaufail thisexam,yau'tlhaveto resrt^ to do well = to get good results to do badly = to get bad results to make more eflbrt = to try harder Thcre's no time to lose = start (reüsion) immediatcly to get clown to work = couccnúate on study Look on the bright side = think positively about a deprcssing sitlratio.t.r Put your nose to the grindstone = start to make real effort Pull your socks up = try harder I(eep up the good work = keep rvorking to the san-restandard All work and no play makes lack a dull boy = if you work all the time and never relax or do anything you enjoy, then you becomc dull and boring Strike a reasonablebalance between schoolwork and other activities. Short bursts of study with frequent breaksare better ((F) = more effcctive) than long stretches without brcaks. When you finish, rer.vafdyourself r.ith a rest or a fun activity.

trs:u-t9*¡gpre.v*e*-!9h991 build better sports facilitics/a swimming pool provide lalguage laboratories enlargc the library to include modern/contcmporary fi ction

234 U DATABASE OF TOPIC.RELATED /DEAs VOCABULARYAND more/less discipline treet stlrdents as responsible men-rbersof society committee (of staffand studer.rtsf) to deal with bullying smaller classesand lriendly teachers (but remember friendly teachersshould be good teachers,too) r w i d e r r a n g eo f s u b j e c t s .i n c l r r d i n gp r a c t i c a l subjects educational trips Teachers should motivate students to learn fbr interest, not just to Passexams. Introduce your ideas rvith phrasesusing the second conditional (see Section 7 , Unit 2,I(ey grammar polnts):

I'd liketo seelhcve .." rhereshauld be^.. , , ) n r o v i d.e. . Inescnoat snouw | ' ." ) oler ... I th¡nk it'.1 It wauld

if ... j nenice

Ihe srhoolwouldbe betleri{ ... w-ewoúldenjoyschoolmoreil ...

Whor is bullying? Walting to fiighten or hurt someone by: w name calling x damaging their property x making threats.

Whql ore fhe effects of bullying? The victim becomes distressed, miserable and insecure, and ... his perfonr-ranceat school may 'be affbcted. tf ihc bullying lasts a long time, his personaliry

The victim sl-rouldsocialisemore . Loners (= people u.idrout friends, or who prefer to be alone) are more vulnerable (= at risk). Safety in numbers. The victim has a resporxibility to report bnllies to the authorities, or talk about it to his parents. There should be a support group for victims. A committee formcd from staff and other students could decide on appropriate punishment for the bully Bullies should be encouraged to make friends n-ith the victim to understand horv the victim feels. Bullies should be made to take responsibility for their actions. The objective is to break the cycle of bullying in a way that changes the behar.iour of the bully,, w i r h r h e b e s l r e s u l ¡f o r ¡ h c v i c ¡ i m .

School uniform Arguments in fovour of school un¡form no distinction betwecn backgrounds, wealthy or poor no time wasted each morning deciding nüat to wear no need to impress students feel they 'belong', like a family - leads to pride, self-esteem main reason for going to school is to learn, not to shor'voffyour clothes you can change out of uniforn-r after school and at weekends it is more appropriate to expressyour personality outside the school environment everyonewears a 'uniform': you would lvear different things when cleaning/cooking or entertaining friends and di11érentagain when going to work (shirt/blouse , tie, suit, smart shoes)

-^-. L^ ^¡tr-^.-'l rr¡dy ur drlrrLlq.

In other rvords, the effects are very serious and damaging.

Whot con be done? The school should have a zero-tolerance approach to bullying. The school should take bullying seriously. Every student in the school should be able to recognise bullying and not be afiaid to report it.

Argumenls qgq¡nsl school uniform s c h o o lu n i l b r m i r b o r i n g ,d o e sn o t s u i l e v e r y o n c feel like a prisoner students like to feel mature) responsible enough to select their own clothes no chance to be an individual Are these arguments relevant to different age groups throughout the schoolf

vocobulorvond ideos ¡ 235 Dotaboseof tooíc+eloted

E!¡gle sex orm¡xeC schoo depends on the individual school depends on the famil). background a child fiom a reserr,,edfhmily a child f¡om a sheltered background depends on the individual child self-conscious,inhibited (describes a s\ child) a sensitive child an only child = a child with no brothers or sisters feel awhl.ard, embarrassed feel comfonable, relaxed

to his appearance,hair, clothing, trying to be noticed or to make an impression, than on stud.ies. Rcscarch shorvs that boys and girls lcarn in a different wal.y'eact to information differently. Good teachersshould be alvare ofthis. In single sex schools teacherscan suit the lessonto either boys or girls. Statistics sholv that single sex schools consistently obtain better results in public examinations than mixed schools.

In mixed schools, teachersmust make sure there is a balance between the interests of both sexes. 'teach' children of both sexes Mixed schools may how to have respect for each other, what makes the other sex tick and what compromises need to be made for both sexesto eúst together balance harmoniously. to interrelate/relate with each oüer This is a slorv and ditEcult process, learnt through segregation = the separating of boys from girls experience. For many people, this processcontinues d.rough there are many factors to consider life/only becomespossibleonce thcy hrve (have to) look at it from the point of view of üe matured. individual child (have to) look at it from tlle education point of r.iew Should this lesson be learnt at the expenseof academic success/basiceducationl a child from a sheltered background may feel more University offers the opportunity for more mature comfortable in a single sex school interaction. parents may feel a single sex school is more suitable child for a sensitive bat socieq is mixed. The child $'ill have to come to terms with this sooner or later lnterview odvice Will the child feel ar'vkward/embarrassed/not knorv how to deal with the opposite sex Nüen he no need to be rvorried just relax leavesschooll be confident Will the single sex school have boosted her rl.ill age she so that by schoolJeaving be yourself confldence . presence of the opposite in the feel less arvkward nothing too trendy (Fr) sexf remember to polish your shoes for a change (Fr) Adolescence is a notoriously difiñcult stage for sit still, don't fidget/twiddle your hair/tap your many teenagers.Is there any evidence that feet (Fr) segregation from the opposite sex reduces be your usual, polite self(Fr) bullying or emotional conflictsf so much depends on .. . the overall impression you Is the problem wo rse in either casefor teenagers make (F) who are overweight, have spots or are wcak neat, smart appearance(SM/F) academicallyl Iook the inten iewer straight in thc eye (Fy'SM) H a r i n g m e m b c r so f t h c o p p o s i t es c x p r c s e n tm a y d i s t r a c l¿ l e e l l J g c r .H e m r l p a ¡ m o r e a t t e n t i o n be polite - just as you ahvaysare

adolescent/teenager = describesthe age group from 13 to 19 mature = behave(s) lil<ean adult to reach n-raturity well adjusted

236 ' !



to have a good appetite (usually applies to someone who eats a lot) junk food ñst food convenience food (F) a balanced diet to eat the wrong things healthy eating to be ñt/unñt/ out of condition out ofshape = unfit to be off colouy'under the weather to feel rotten to fecl sick = to be aboul to vomit to suffer ill-health (F) as fit as a fiddle = very fit i n c r e d i b l y / u n b e l i e v a b l y / r e m a r k a bf ilty to feel on top ofthe world to feel great to feel ful of energy/go/beans boost your energy (level) to get rid of (Fr)/break down (F) (fat) to build up (muscle) to tone up flabby muscles improve body shape (F) improve appetite/circulation/posture make your heart stronger L-l^ rnly

-.^,, yuu

^l^-^ ürrP


do you good to lose weight to be on a diet cut down = reduce cur out = stop completely to reduce the calorie intake (F) t<) trke up + noun ... thinking of taking up tennis/rowing to join a gym/health club/fitness centre out in the open/fresh air a senseof freedom to meet people witi similar interests a fitness fanatic = someone who is very keen on being fit

good brilliant quite good not bad hopeless no good at all keen on + verb + ing all you need is . . . it doesn't cost mlrch it doesn't need complicated equipment tennis racket l e n n i sc o u r t = w h e r ey o u p l a y t e n n i s football match football pitch = where you play football to play (tennis) for fun ro warm up do some warm-up exercises hobby pastime(F) recreation (F) to spend time + verb + ing change your lifestyle change your eating habits

N HOUDAYS touflst

holiday-maker coach tour ftilf board = all meals included bed and breakfast it'll make a nice change to . . . it'll be ftin to .. . there were clear blue skies there was not a cloud in the slg the weather couldn't have been better it couldn't have been a better day there was not a breath ofwind the slcywas overcastand úrreateningrain the weather couldn't have been worsc it couldn't have been a worse day it started to pour with rain it started to throw it down = to rain heavily it lvas raining cats and dogs = raining heavily

Dolabose of Íopic-relotedvocobuloryand ideos J 237 the heavensopened = it suddenly began to rain heavily to run for shelter

float (main event) = lorry decorated in the theme ofthe carnival, which drives slowly through the streets

to make a dasl-r for it:


to try tc, reach shelter

without getting too wet soaked to the ski¡ waterlogged = flooded The whole sportsfield was waterloggedin no t¡me. dressedup to the nines = beautifully dressedready for a night out in a relaxed mood in a festive mood strolling around to enjoy yourself to have a good time to go sightseeing to see the sights to visit local places ofinterest local entertainment colourful folk dances traditional costumes to to to to

buy souvenirs to take home charge tip-top prices take photos have a photo session

rn h"',


CqrnivqUfes'üyql people/visitors flocked in their hundreds refreshment stall/tent to do a good business dying of thirst = very thirsty to quench their thirst = to stop them feeling thirsty in a relaxed mood in a festive mood strolling around wandering around licking ice-creams ininino

in the firn

twinkling fairy lights (decorated with) brightly coloured bunting = flags used as decoration dancing display colourful folk dances traditional costumes sideshow/stalls tug ofiwar

tombola/raffle smellof onions frying candyfloss/toffeeapple makesyou feel hungry noiseof the music deafening couldn't hearyourselfthinly'speak traditionalinstruments *^ -^L: - Irdrrxrlé

L^-.J udru

t CRIMEqnd !9CIAIISSUES juvenile = youth, under 18 years old, not legally an adult juvenile delinquent - young trouble maker vandal = someone who spoils otler people's property by smashing it, breaking it, just for fun to vanda.lise hooligan = trouble maker football hooügan = someon€ who starts fights or damagesproperty at football matches hooliganism thug = s6¡1s.r. who is physically aggressiveto other people young offender mugger = someonewho knocl<sover a victim in order to steal a handbag, wallet etc. mlrggxlg burglar = someone who breaks into houses, buildings to steal the contents graffiti = writing of slogans,rude words on public walls and surfaces,usuall)¡with spray paint to be given a prison sentence to be sent to prison capital punishment/the death penalty - killing a criminal 1by electricchair, lethal injection. hanging, etc.)who has committed a serious offence, such as murder capital punishment is supposed to act as a deterrent = the thought that their actions may result in their death should make criminals tl-rink twice

238 .


shoplifter = someone who stealsfrom shops pickpocket joyriding = brealdng into a car, steáling it to drive dangerously at high speed u,itiout a licence jo1'rider unrepcntant (F) = not feeling sorry, not asking for forgiveness poverty can drive people to crime; people lvitiout basics,such as food, have no choice but to steal prosperity nurtures crime (F) nr a materialistic society, people steal to obtain things (mobile phones, for cxample) becausethey see other people with phones and feel the1,should have one) too drug-related crime - drug addicts have to steal in order to have something to sell to get the money ths¡r need fbr drugs thcft becomes a rvay of life to support a drugs habit (F) influence of violent films on TV and D\lDs

man1,of us know someone who has died as a result of smoking if tl-reidea ofcancer does not seem real to you, maybc thc thought ofycllow fingcrtips and fbul smelling breath will make you think tr4ce (SM) ifyou smoke already, it is never too late to gir.e up (SM) noq.adays,due to scientific researchand the mass medi¿.rve are ¿11¿warcoFthc dangcrsuf smoking (F) i t r v o u l db e a g o o d i d e a i f w e . . . smokcrs are becoming social outcasts, fbrced to sn-rokeoutside ofice buildings, as more and rnorc placcsbccornesmokc Freezones smokers are now n-radeto feel outsiders smokers 50 years ago were unaware ofthe dangers and were simply smoking to be ñshionable . With today's information, it makes sensenever to smoke

b r e a l < - uopf t h e t r ¿ d i t i o n ¿l a m i l y ( h i g h r a r co F dir.orce, children fron-r broken homes) to to to to

take a tough stand enfbrce legislation (F) introduce nelv laws (F) bring in new laws (Fr)

H g4o[ passivcsmoking - this applies to people r'vho do not smokc, but breathe in smoke from others who do. This is especiallyimportant for children with parents uüo sn-roke. d-rerights of d-renon-smoker no:sr.r.rokingareas smoke-free zones lung cancer brain tumour nicotine-stair-redfi ngers yellow teeth unfáshionable Arc you one of the set who thinL<sit is 'cool' to smokcf (SM) Do you think you know everything there is to knorv about smoking! (SM)

I rErEvllloN influence of TV/the internet educational entertaining controversial topic satellite chanr-rels- 24 hours a day, multi-cultural programmes ofpoor qualitv, often not suitable for younger viervers a TV addict = someone rvho rvants to r.vatchTV all the time a couch potato = someone who sits in a chair in front of the screcn, without moving, fbr the tvhole et ening Are you fed up rvith parents controllirg liüat you watch on TVf (SM) Do 1.o¡ fi¡d y6¡rself,rushing to finish your hc¡mework so ,vou can collapse in front of the TV screen every nightl (SM) De¡erbe. e.eqor- l, o". | ' ppo-d rob- bodror/o eyesondthotlt lsoddictive, thottinref leswhenyouwolchit PeopeoLso become o¡ti-socicr, becouse theyprefer to wotch T\/ '^ú-.



a,'t n¡¡l

<¡¡ ¡l <o

'we lf you woni1olncludelhesepoints,slodby soying oll k ¡ o wt h o t . . . '

Dotoboseof topic+elotedvocobuloryond ideos |


! o ¡ e . e ' o . e . e l o re o , - o d h e . eo o . r e r l - o r ¡ limesbefore,do nototlempt 10usethe¡¡to persuode sludenls nolto wolchTV.Youhoveio thin[of o newopprooch, o dlfferent onge. Beoring thisin mind,olwoyslrylo oppeollo yourfellow siude¡ls' moturily ondsense of responslblliry.

advertisers(uüo help finance programmes) like to be associatedr'vith feelings of happinessand contentment, not documentaries about AIDS, depressior.rar.rddebt

Do rvc reallv want to be reminde d of all the se things and go through all this ñlss cvcry time wc want to \\atch TVI If not, we have to ask ourselves'is TV reallyrvorth it¡' (SM)


Stand back for a moment and see horv boring the progr¿mmcs rc¿llvarc, how yoLrarc w¿sting your lilé uatching TV, when you could be doing sometling interesting and useful like playing tennis with friends. (SM)

Do you worry ¡6¡, you lookf (SM) "6or-r¡ you Are one ofthe many teenagerswho lose sleep over their appearance| (SM) rve should not judge people by their appearance the rvay you look saysa lot about your personality

Breal<the TV habit. (SM)

TV and magazines always show slim, attractive people, and this has made us lnsecure glamorous stars on TV and in glossy magazines have made us over-concerned about our looks

it is argued that by the age of 10, children are discerning viervers,rvhich means the1,can rccognise what is real and what is not

there is no need to follow the trends. Do not be afraid to be yourself some people may argue that people who look good

. . . controlling what childrcn uatch nakes them morc interested in thc 'censorcd' programmes it rvould bc a good idea if a censor board u'ere set up to classifyprogrammes it is time media classesr'vereintroduced into the school curriculum to help children interyret rvhat they see on TV ... youth clubs and schools could organise activities for yo¡¡tra... to curb the influence ofTV TV threatens our relationships with each odrer and our orvn identity

.--+ ó!r



not everyone can afford or has the time to look glamorous personal qualities are more important - looks can mislead dresswithin acceptablelimits eat a balanced diet and do regular exercise.Not only ll,ill you feel fitter, your skin will look healthy ¿¡d y6¡ l¡¡ill stay slim I üink it is important to be clean, wear respectable clothes and let your personality shine through

it can become an obsession,with people organising üeir lives round TV prograrnmes


s o r n cl o c a la c l i \ i n c c n t r c s .s u c ha s t h e i c e r i r ) l ( . :hevc had to close dolr.n, as )¡oung people choose to s.Lun-rp in liont of the TV instead of tahing part in physical acti\4ty

natural or scientific considerations, such as climate

it can be used to mislead and misinfonrr it can brainrvash r,rsinto bu.ving drings we may not really need it has the potcntial for education, Ianguage tcaching it could bc uscd to promote national cr"rlture the cost of producing a good qr-raliryprograrnme is l-rigl-r

Note:Thistoplcshoud be cons¡dered fromdifferent pointsof view.

change, global warming, natural disasters (floods, drought., earthqual(e) damage caused by nian/humans (pollution, damage to ozone la1.e¡,, deforestation) effect on life (human health, animals,vcgctation) environmentallv fliendly enr.ironmental issues(F) natural resources: oil, gas, gold, etc. conser¡,¡e natural resources: be careful not to use th.^.


24O .


natural resourcesare being depleted = used up, squandered = wasted a threat to the environment recycling (helps to conserve na,turalresources) compare the costs of recycling with cost of - . ^ - , , ¡ r ^^ ¡L,u, r r-ai ¡. í- -

noise pollution, may disturb local wildlife disLract ing. especidJylbr motorists may causepollution by blo'r'vingdust and dirt around will need large area of land - which may be used fbr farming


landfill site = an area where compacted rubbish is dumped an eyesore to upset the balance ofnature catalytic converter = fitted to car exhaust systems to reduce pollutants pollution to poison üe air/atmosphere/the seas/the land layer of smog = a mix of smoke and fog which sometimes hangs over industrialised areas,cities etc. number of cars/volume of traffic has grown at an alarming rate danger to public health health hazard = danger to health the situation is getting out ofha¡d things are getting steadily worse to darnage/spoil consider the future deforestation : cutting down offorests natural habitats are being destroycd endangered species global warming/climate change urban growth skyscrapers/high-rise blocl<s to tackle/address an issue

Arguments in fql¡our of v{ind


enr,'ironmentallyfriendly, no dangerous fumes, no air pollution more attractive thar a conventional power station provide a reliablesourcc of electriciry make small industries possible, which . .. . . . create employment in the area

Argumenfs qgq¡nst ugly, eyesore,spoil the natural beauty of a place may put tourists off, reduce tolrdsm - bad for the economy

E TOURISM package tour = a holiday where all the accommodation and travel are arranged by a l r a v e la g e n t l o r y o u , a n d i s n o t v e r ye x p c n s i v e popularity ofpackage tours has produced an increasein tourism more toudsts than ever before a marked increasein tourism cut-price and discount airlines provide more opportunities for more people to travel tourist tourist guide comfort convenience coach tour souvenir sellers to charge tip-top prices brings money into the counúJ tourists spend a lot of money in local shops, etc. provides work for many local people, often in isolated areaswhere there would be no other way of earning a living to spoil the natural beauty areasof natural beauty are at risk to pollute the environment to respect the enüronment to drop litter the way you behave reflects the country and society ),ou are from

ond DRMNG I SAFETY to commute = to travel a long distance to and ffom work each day the rush hour = 7.30-9.30 am and 4.30 ó.30 pm: the time when commuters are travelling to and from work traffic jam

DoÍoboseof fooic+elotedvocobulorvond ideos |

trafllc comes to a standstill congestion b u r n p c rt o b r r m p e r= l r e a l ] t r a m c i n a q r r e u e . moving slowly to crawl along = move slowly due to healy volume of traffic ring road = a road which takes traffic around the or.rtsideofa city or town to reduce congestion and speed up the traffic flow by-pass= a road which avoids going through the centre ofa town or city city driving to slow down to brake hard to slam on the brakes : to apply the brakes suddenly and sharply to skid .. . and crash into (for describing an accident) to run into the car in front = to hit the car from behind to swer,¡e= change the direction ofthe car to avoid an accident to have an accident to crash to run over a head-on collision a write-off: a vehicle which is so badly damaged in an accident that it cannot be driven again to overtake = if the car in front ofyou is going slowly, you move in front of it by overtaking a learner - someone who is learning to drive to take/fail/pass your driving test emergency services= fire, police and ambulance on the spot at the scene soaring cost of petrol pevement - paü zebra crossing : markings on the road where pedestrianshave the right to cross a roundabout a junction traffic lights pedestrian = someone on foot a bus/cycle lane to have the right of way


Wcrys lo moke driving sofer weár a seatbelt observe the speed limit usc ofspccd camcras

(on the spot) fines

Reducing pollution cqrtsed-by cqrs Are you counting the days until you can drivef (SM) Are you looking forwa¡d to following irr the footsteps of your parents/siblings (brothers and sisters)f(SM) Are you looking fbrward to getting behilrd tht: wheelf (SM) Are you reaching the driving agef (SM) Driving is associatedwith fieedom, independence, maturity (SM/F) F{ave you stopped to consider the down-sidel (SM) Stop for a moment to consider the down-side. We are all aware, from our topic work and the enüronment awarenesscampaign carried out by Y e a r I 0 , o f t h e d a n g e r st o ¡ h e e n v i r o r r m e n l caused by car exhaust. (SMr4F)

Whot we con do use lead-free petrol (SM/F) do not use the car for shon journeys (SM/F) keep üe car serviced/maintained/nme d up for maximum eficiency/minimum exhaust fume s

(sM/F) take passengerswhere possible (SM/F) No need to sacrificefreedom and irdependence, ... just be considerate and environmentally li"iendly (SM) ... just be considerate and think of the dan-rageyou could be doing to the environment (SM)

Whal fte governmenl con do An improvednetwork ofring roadsshould be brúlt to preventtralfic jamswhich resultin a build-up oFpollutants/exhaustfumesin the air. (F) Carsshouldbc scnyice d to cnsureminimum exhaustlevels.(F)

242 '


The government should encourage drivers to lcave üeir cars at home in far.our of public transport. (Ii) The govcrnment has a responsibility to pror.ide reliable and atli¡rdable public transport. (F) T h c r c s h o u l d b c a p u b l i c a \ \a r e n e s cs a m p a i g nr o highlight the dangers to public health and the environment from car exhaust. (F) The price ofpetrol should be raised and the profit put into improving public transporr. (F)

Advqntqqes of cgr.s convenient comfonable door-to-door: keep you dry in wet weather senseof freedom no need to rely on others: feeling ofindependence greater degree of mobility can choose fellow travellers not restricted to timetables can take unlimited luggage with you

PireCysdesee-efsrs expensiveto run, insure, maintain, park we become conditioned to our car and alwa),suse it even when we could walk makc us lazy modern day driving is very stressful- can lead to road rage (= bad language, rude gesflues, verbal arglrments or cven physical fights berwecn drivers ) tired and stresseddrivers may fall asleepat the wheel cars are regulady broken into or stolen b1,thieves



ublic tronsporf

reduces number of cars on the ¡oad. which means less air pollution kinder to the environment

DisqdvqntqEes oJ public trqnsport inconvenient and probably not much cheaper uncomfortable

N ANIMATS cruelty to animals endangered species in dangcr of extinction becoming extinct

natural habitat disappearing urban grouth = spreading of tor,vns,cities into countrysicie animal rights groups = pcople rvho campaigr.ron behalf of animals in captivity behind bars in cages senselesscruelty intolerable conditions safe breeding environment consen¡ationist inhumane treatment eclucationalvalue of zoos entertainment value of zoos zoos provide many jobs safari parks wild animals suffer arvayfrom natural efl¡ironment cruel to keep wild animals ir cages to saveanimals fiom extinction safé breeding environment day trips educational experience to provide employment for local people needs less spaccthan a safari park pets

ffi PAST,PRESENT gnC FUTURE In the_Lqsf life was less complicated, carefree,slower, more relaxed, there was lessstress there was harder ph).sicalwork to do there were stronger personal rclationships/social ties/closer knit communities there was no electricity/technology there q.asmore leisure time people r'veremore aware of'nature and the natural cyc.Le s there rvere incurable diseases,poor living conditions, lack of education People look back with nostalgia to the 'good old days'.

DoÍaboseof topic-reloted vocobuloryond ideas a 243

Inlhe presenf


Today, we have

Travelling to other planets rvill be common. Spaceshipswill be larger and fuelled by a new resource - possibly discovered on a trip to another planet.

r r r I r ! r ¡

technology medical advances üavel education stressand stress related illnesses the rat-race competition increased crime due to breakdown ofsocial v¿Llues r everl.thing impersonal, materialistic ¡ no concern for tl-reenvironment

l¡ th-elqlqe Advances in technology, such as computers, mobile phones and the internet will result ir.r more f'reetime . This is not necessarilya good thing. It could result in boredom and increased crime rates, as can be seen in areasaffected by higl-r unemployment.

Effecr of compulers could eventually replace teachersat school could replace schools as q.e krorv üem. Every student could study at home on a computer ünked to a teacher on a computer in her home. losc hu m¿n aspcct/corrt act/in t er¿ction books in a school library will be accessedby computer. Books themselvesmay have been replaced by CD-ROMs workers, too, r'vill be home-based. Fewer commuters lvill mean less air pollution, less stress people rvill become isolated at home and have no contact with others. In time, we may forget hor'v . to communicate with people and socialise both "essentialelements ofour nature cómputers of toda), will seem hopelesslyout of date, huge and slorv

I HOMEond FAMILY Home a detached house a flat a semi a terraced holrse a block offlats a skyscraper on the ground floor on the third floor upstairs downstairs in the suburbs of on the outskirts of not far from about l0 minutes' walk/drive/bus ride fiom (quite) near the city centre (right) in the centre/heart /middle ofthe city overlooking with a lovely'great/fantastic

vie$. of

the spareroom the guest room to share my room to get the spareroom ready

Fqmilv a kind-hearted sort ofperson an easy going kind ofperson eaq¡ to talk to easJ¡to get on with

Fomily 'Test-tube Will not be like the family unit of today. babies'. Cloning. No need for couples. Er.eryone will live alone rvith a computer to work at, which u.ill also ser-vehim (or her).


- ^ . . r . , ,L ^v t - - l


^- -..

. . . l o o k sl i k e . . . . . . t a k e sa f t e r. . . is very different liom . . . are very similar in some wa)¡s



a practical joker to tell jokes to play tricl(s on . .. to pull someone's leg cheeky a compufer /TY / junk food addicy'e nthusiast/ñn mad about ... k e e no n . . , ... fancieshimself as a ... a bookworm fashion conscious dressedup to the nines at a loose end up to date out of date to get on well (with) to see eye to eye (with) his bark is worse tian his bite ... sings at üe top of her voice . . . plays his music at full volume to have a sweet tooth to have a second helping to be on a diet brilliant at hopelessat excited about afiaid of

Eerl¡ly-€elebrsl¡or to have a party to throw a party to hold a party I thought you might .like to know how the parry wenl to get smart a frilly white blouse a gaudy üess = very brighdy coloured glittery mate rial shocking pint to spend agestrying to decide what to wear to make up your mind = to decide

dressedup to rhe nines = dressedbeaudfully a cheerful character a piercing voice laughing eyes to be the centre of attention to tell a joke to crack a joke to be bored to tears to have a good time to burst out laughing to burst into tears to be in f,rll swing = ¿¡ ¡¡s most lively it was a bit dull at fust, but quite good once it got gorng üe small hours = after midnighy'early the following morning it went on well into the small hours to have a sweet tooth = to enjoy eating sweet things to tuck into (the cake) = ro eat something with great pleasure, almost greedily to have a second helping = to have another offood a delicious smell a sizzling sound (of something frying) the music was much roo loud for my liking = I did not like the music becauseit was loud in tune all/complete ly out of rune to put up with/someone's behaviouy' remarks/jokes

I gotstuckwith uncleeeorgeandhadto put up w¡thhisusual,borinqadvicefor whatseemed I¡keagesuntilMaycameand rescued me. to run out of cake/coffee to go round

I had to eat my cTkelchicken off a papersevtette, üstherewercn'tenoughplates to go round. to go wit¡out

Nora'sspicychicken whssucha hitlsopopularthat it soonran outanda fewof ushadto go w¡thout.

r SECTION T UNIT2 Exercise I, page 4 Suggested onswers: I lf you work in o holidoycompfor kids,you'l get to do lolsof excitingthings. 2 Everytwo yeorspeopie uselwice os muchwoier. to slopcor driversspeeding. 3 We mustdo someihing 4 lt is good for you to exerciseregulorly, ond it con help you loseweight,too. it'sgood for thecouniry 5 When thereore tourists, becousei- neors o lot of noney is comirg in.

I sEcTtoN2 uNtT2 Exercise I, page 3ó I 'Apology' introduclion notoppropriote. Friends osking f.,' .,d"r. nce| n nrir-Lrenl" Soundsd s nteresled. in yourstudythonyourfriend's More inleresled probem. 2 meaningto wr¡tefor ages- notopproprioie.Friends oskingfor odviceneedo quickreply. 3 Good introduction, showingconcernfor yourfriend. I havebeenin the sameboat before- misuseof register ond phrose.-+ l've been¡n thesameboat ot I was ¡nthe sameboat be'fore {seeGB, poge 191 ord R ó ,p o g e1 8 3 ) . 4 Good conlentfor on introduciion. Guickreplythis mofn¡ng,ond reossufing. I've beenin the sameboat before- seenumber3.

Bxercise3, page 40 I You... hours- useof alsoisformol(seeR9,poge 184).No support. Anotherhelpful...them -li ' .ro. \o s-ppor or personolising. Useof adviceis formol(seeR1,poge t82). I think ... people- li' 'ng. or repeo-ing ihe some ideo?Useof alsois formol{seeR9,poge 184). as you know- o good otempl lo personolise. because ... own - o good o emptto supporl. of odvicephroseI th¡nkyou should- repe-iiio^ selecion olternotive. as this would - o good oliemptio suppori. the same ¡nterestsasyou - good ofiempl10 personose. Youcan - seleclo belterodvice phrose. your greatpart¡es- persono ising. I'm sure... loveit - support. they will -+ they'll. Thebestthing - shouldbe firslpieceof odvice.

246 I ANSWERSIO EXERC/SES r SECTION 2 UNIT3 Exercise 2, page 57 Suooesled onswer:

I wasenjoying m¡,lelf looking at the funny cards,tryint to choo¡e one for Susan,¡ birthday (don't forget, it's next Tuesday)Q. I wasjuit about toQ) make up my mind, when@ there wasa deafeningnoíse behínd me. I looked over the countersand@ wasterrified to see@ a man wíth a dirty scarfover hísface holding a koife at the cashier. I panicked@, and couldn't think what to do at lirst@. lt took a few moments before@ | rememberedI had my mobíle phone in my hand, although@, ar you know@, l'm not very good at uiint it! Anyway,by the timeQ I startedcalling the police, Pedro@ and hvo of hísfriends from the judo club@ had come into the shop. I have never felt so relíeved to see@ Pedro! Before@ they even realisedwh¿t washappening though@, the would-be robber dropped his kniÍe and hao run away in no time@.

tl) Personolising x 2 @ Timesequence Conneclor @ @ F e ei n g s @ Feelings x 2 @ Timesequence Conneclor @ ising @ Persono @ Tlmesequence x2 @ Personolising Fee ings @ @ Timesequence @ Connecior @ Timesequence

5o now you know all about the excitement¿t the shop, I mutt go now - | want to tell Alex about it.

Bxercise3, page 57 Suggesled onswer: |m dyíng to teIIyou what happenedto me on the w ay homefr om sclooL Jwt no\!. Nt¡i had her Luualtennis practice,soI wason my own, and everywhere wasqliet asLt aIw^ysis at dínnertíme. AsQ t steppedín the Lift,I was wonáeríngwhat Mum was makíngf or dínner. The mínut$ the Lift doors cLosed,lknew somethíngwas wrongq, bec¡¿.ls@ the Lightsdipped and@ there wasa strangenoiseít 'et my teeth on edg@. . I w^sjust about to@ pressthe button for a Lowerfl.oor, when .sudden$@ the lights went ort andct l was horrífred, to realísQ the Iíft had stopped moríng and l was stuck I felt my blood. run coldfl. you kftow@ how terriñed l am of the dark. I don't know how, butQ for the ftrst tíme ín my life@, l managedto keep a cool head$ and@ groped around tíll@ t {ound the alarmbutton. I supposeit must have been about ten mínutes lúer@ -though, as you crn ímagíne@, ít seemed.llke ages@,t was relieved to hear@ voices andbangíngso I caLmedd,owna bit. soon@ the doors openedandat lastfD I clLmbedóut to safebj. I thínk ít wasthe scaríestmoment ín my Life.I wonder what you'dhave done! | must lo now for tea.

Q @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @

Timesequence x 2 Feeings Connector x 2 Feelings Timesequence x 2 Conneclor F e e l i n gxs2 Personcrlising Conneclor Timesequence Feeings Connector x 2 Timesequence Personolising Timesequence Feelings Timesequence x 2

Answersto exercises J 247 Exercise4, page 58 Suggesled onswer: Aa aoon aalQ I qo1,lro lthe a¡rfieláI wae qivenclear ¡neltruat¡ongon how to uge tha parachuL?,About two houre laterQ, after lote of practice, ít wae tlme tA qet ín Lhe plane. Up untíl ther$ I hadn'i felt neryouQ, but, by the timfit iL wae my Lurn to jump, I wae terr¡fieflr. lf only you'á been ther$ then you know@how soared I am@ of heiqhLe. Juet aaQ) I wae abouL Lo chan^e my miná, the inetructor qave me a fr¡endlypueh, an@ beforQ I knew¡L,I wa6 amaze¿ to ñnñ myaetffallinq throuqh the a¡r! It only took a few minutee$ to reach t:heqround,an@ althou¡h@ it wae a fanl:aeLícexperience,I can't tell you how rel¡eve¿I wae to@ touch down eafely, 9o nawyou knowI can parachuf.ejump anA I can Lhorouqhlyrecomm1náiL! Muet aa naw and frn¿ gameLhinaelaeto Ao tomorrow!

(f Timcrcqucnccx 4 @ Feeings @ Timesequence @ Feelings isingx 2 @ Persono @ Feelings @ Timesequence @ Conneclor @ Timesequence @ Feeings @ Timesequence x 2 @ Connector F e e l i n g s @


5 A. I-' -. lñm .^ñ.ér¡é¡

Exercise l, page 87 'l schoos coud hep promoteoworeness of lhe {Surelyl dongefsot smoking. 2 I (woud) suggeslinfoducinglowsto deo wilh the problemof pol ulion. 3 i {would)suggeslthotdriversshoud tokeo mor-^ difficultdrivingtest. 4 lt wouldbe o good ideo if chiorenwefe modeowcrfe o[ the imporlonce of good eotinghobils. l r o T o u i . ^ 5 , o r ^ , o o r sb i l i l o - s p - c -t h eo o c e s ^ , visi1. ó 1ls (high)timedoclorsgove moreodviceon heoth.

everyschooltimetoble. Suggesled onswers: ó In my view,seotbehs couldprevenlserious injuries in cof occidenls. Z believethotit wouldbe sensible if ringroodswere b u iI o f o u n dm o i o cf i l i e s . 8 Mony peope believetholschoos hoveo responsibilily to mokesludenls oworeof lhe probems cousedby pol ullon.

r SECTION 3 UNIT3 Exercise l, pages 88-9 I A sI o . o " o r o . e r r e d . n e , o . ' o , u o g o6 O " - t o n .by hisoctionsond not by hisoppeororrce. 2 Ss I seeil, il is highlimeschoos educoledchidren óboutthedongersof loktngdrugs. 3 Persono ly, I feelthotcounfiescoud tokestepsto ' ^ d . c e r e r - q o l i ^ o . p e c l so r o .| 5 l 4 ln my opinion,schoolshoveo responsibi i! to preserve lhe efvifonmenl for fuluregenerotions.

.^^,r h^ lf h^ ^^,' ^f

Bxercise 2, prge 89 Suggesled onswers: 'l Thevoslmoioriry of porents fee thotit woud be cr good ideo if schoolsmotivoted children. 2 Almoslo I leefogefsthinkthotit is hightimeporenls lislened to theirpoinlo[ view. 3 A r n ^ . - h - ^ ñ ^ r n ^ h ^ ^ v e l h o l¡ ¿ en o r eo 'o n. n. f

, le ha^ n -^ r^.-^.

lhe en/ ronment.

4 On thewhole,peope thinkit is highlimerhe governmeni reducedthe priceof pefo. 5 Moslstudenls fee fheyshouldbe lreoledos responsib e members. of sociely.

248 J ANSWERS IO EXERC/SES Exercise 6, page 9l Suggesfed onswers: 1 objectto thewoy peopleore cruelto onimols. One thingldislikeoboutpeopleis thewoy theyore cruel to onimols.

Some people would orgue ihoi teom spodscon couse oggfession. l'co' be org .ed -ho-reor )por:sco. co,\e ogg.e)sor 4 One of the moif ofgumenlsin fovourof compelitive sporis is that they encouroge o spiiil of co-cjperolion. Some people would orgue thot competitivesports encourogeo spirilof cooperolion. ll cor be o.gued lhor conoe lir'e soo.t)er-o,.oge o spiriiof co-operolion.

One thingthofonnoysme is lhe woy peopleore crue toonimols. 2 Computers ihol neverdo whotyou wcrniinfurlole me. One thingI d¡slikeoboutcornpulers is ihe woy fhey nevefdo whol you wonl. Bxercise 2, page 93 One lhinglhcrllnfurioles me is thewoy compufers Suggesled onswers: neverdo whoi you wonl. I l seems to me lhotlelevision progrommes often 3 I ike thewoy teochers olwoystryto mokelessons .r s . fo,n u ewers nis eod ond inlefesling. 2 | fnny be levethofoppeoronceretectspersonoliry One thingI ike oboutlecrchers is thewoy iheyolwoys 3 I om verymuchin fovourof feorseolpossengers lry 1omoke essonsinleresling. weof¡ngseolbells. One thingtholinfurioles me oboulfeochers is lhe woy 4 Personolly,wou d orguethotthe breokdownof socicr lheynevermokeIessons interesling. volueshosresuled in increosed crime. 4 ob¡ectto thewoy corspolluletheenvironmenl. One thingI dislikeoboutcorsis fhewoy theypollute Exercise 3, page 93 lhe environmenl. Suggesled onswers: One thinglhofworriesme oboulcorsls thewcrythey I Mony psychoogislswoud ofguethotcompetiiive pol utetheenvironmenl. leomsportscon leodto vioence. 2 Themojorityof teochers be ievethotmixedschools ore Exercise 7, page 9l oppfopfiote for life in o mixed sociely. I lt is hordio imoginetholsomepeopleconnolrecrd. 3 Doclorsorgueihol regulorexercise is good for your 2 lt is upsetting to heorthoicrimeis on thelncreose. 3 lt is eosylo understond why/how,/thottrovelltng broodensthe mind. ¿ li is frightening to reoisehow/thotpo lutionis destroying ihe envifonmenl. 5 1is eosyto seewhy/thotrevision is impoiront.



Exercise l, page 92 Suogesled onswers: I One ol the moinorgumeflsogoinslmodern fechnology is thotit is domogingour pionet. 'Some peope wouldorguethotmodernlechnoogy is domoging o u rp l o n e t . Mony peoplethinkthotmodernlechnoogy is domoging o u rp l o n e t . 2 Themoinorgument in fovourof windmillsis thofthey ore environmentoily friendly. lf con be orguedtholwindmillsore environmenlolly friendy. Mony peoplethifk thotwindmillsore environmenio ly Iriendly. 3 One of the moinorgumenls ogoinslleomsportsis thot theycon couseoggression.


y' Thegovernment orguethollourismbeneflls the notionol economy. 5 A lorgenumberof sociologisls wouldorguethot poverlyond crimeore linked.

¡ sEcTtoN4 UN|TI Exercise5, pagell0 Introduction Form6nyyears,footballhasbeena popular international sport,attractinglargenumbers of spectators. Recently, howaner, therehasbeena marked increase in lnoticeable (incidents) of violenco l v¡olentlugly incidents Í at footballmatches worldw¡deI ...,-, -,_ wntcn assoctated w¡thfootball J I area¡vinatheslorta bad I name' J reputlt¡on.

Answerslo exercisesa 249

Porogrophs 2 ond 3 ft seeffsto methat thereareseveralwavsof dealingwith \ this oroblem. overcomtng ) tn the firstplace,| 'feelthat it ¡shightimethe government turo newtawsto I ?:::s"\t':" )I lií*, tnvoaucea .enforc.e! .

Bxercise 2, page 163 I Insideher cordboord box, Rockywent everywherewith me I now o seosofed foveleT I perched on her c¡wr¡lc.:gorr lhe bock sec.rlof riry

MichaeltakesRocWevewherewith beg¡n with, shetravelledin a cardboardbox,but nowshe hasherownperchin thebackof hiscar.

viotence. r

Theyshouldimposeheavyfnesand prison sentences on offenders to act asa deterrentto others. Furthermore, in myopinion,footballclubs

Theheplessboby owl - obondonedby hermother r hod to hondreorthechick r persuoded thechi(l to eo-du ing thedo¡ ord :leep ot night.Everyh¡¡ohoursI hod to cut up food ond feed theowletihin oyersof meolsmollenoughfo swollow wnore. r fo ther¡'.1-6 ¡,uo"(, h^ dozéd^1clles ^ ¡ h^.1

havea responsibitity to I ot Towets. should f Theowletwasall alonein theworldandMichael banalcoholfromfootballgrounds,as,in thevast hadnoalternat¡ve but to feed¡t himself . lt w6sa major¡Wof cases, violence tendsto be linkedto process time-consuming that meantchang¡ng the drinking. Theuseof metaldetectors at the entrance owl'snaturaleatingandsleeping p6ttern.The gatesto check'forknivesor otherpotentialweapons selfless waywtich aelpreparedthe owl'sfoodshows shouldalsobeintroduced. hisdedication andconcern rhe for herwellbeing. Moreover, a spectators' clubcouldbeformedto taskbecamealenmoredemandingwhenaoclE collectthe namesof offenders and preventthem learntto callfor h¡meverytime shewantedfood. grounds. entering At firstthe owl w6ssleepymostof the time,but as from football shebeganto growshebecame moreof a Conclusion responsibil¡W Mich6el. for | 'feelconfdentthat, if thesemeasures weretaken, ¡ lwould hovepreferred Rockyto hovegrownup theproblemof footballviolence wouldsoonbea noturoly in thewid whereshecoud hovesoored thingof thepqstandthegamewouldberestored free y to ¡tsformerglory. r SECTION5 UNIT 2 Exercisel, page157 Suggested onswer: gfouping theideosinthefollowing (2,3,I ) lB)14,5,6,7) order: the.mujoriLyof boysoften choose to spendtheirfree timeon computers because theyare confident about usingcomputing technology andtendto bemore interested in something if it involves For computers. thisreoson, ¡t hqsbeensuggested that g¡vingboys ¡nteresüng wotkto doon thecompvterat homemay improvetheirconcentraüon. Computers alsogive bo¡rs confdence because theydo not needto worry abauttheirhandwriüng.this means theyarehappy to writemoreand makesthemkeento usea vanety of styfes to improvetheappearance of theirwork. (9ó words)

r T h ec o m p o n i o n s h. .l p . h o se n r i c h em d yl i f e I Hopetuly, shewill be with me for monyyeors10come M¡chaelenjoyshaving coclg as a companion, and

lpprec¡ates the way shehaschangedhislif€.He is lookingÍoNv1rdto the futvre with Rocky, althoughhe regretsthat shewill neverbeableto fly free. r W tr'r sir doysI rod [,^o¡ r e¡p o-oy e, .optedo. 'mother' r As timegoeson ouf rólotionship growsond inlensifies I Everymorningbeforeonyonee se is up we collto eocn olnef.

ft tookfessthan a weekfor nocv to bondwith privately Michael with and nowtheycommun¡cate eachother.

25O ) ANSWERS IO EXERC/sEs r DespiteouTmuluq qffeclion- muluo trust she is unique 3 lt look essthono weekfor Rock)z to bondwith

theirrelationship isspecial , basedon funusual mutualtrustandaffect¡on. Bxercise 3, page ló3 4 Michoe tokesRockyeverywhere wilh him.To begin withshetroveled in o cordboordbox, bul now she hosherown perchin the bockof hiscor. 2 Theowletwos oll o one in theworldclndMichoel hod no ollernolive bui to feed it wos o iimeconsumifp g r o c e slsh o lm e o nct h o n g i n g t h eo w l ' s noturoleotingond s eepingpollern.Theselfesswoy Michoelpreporedthe ow's food showshts dedicolionqnd concernfor herwe being.Thetosk becomeevenmoredemondingwhen Rockylecrrnt to coll for himeverylimeshewonledfood. At firstthe ow wos s eepy mosfof the time,bul os shebegcrn o q r o " rs L o6 e o r o r o . e o r o - e s p o n . i b i, o M i c h o e. 5 MichoelenjoyshovingRockycrso componion, ond opprecloles thewcryshehoschongedhis ife. FJeis lookingforwordlo lhe fulurewith Rocky,o ihoughhe regrelsthotshewi I neverbe ob e 1ofly free. 3 lt took essthono weekfor Rockyto bondwith Michoelond now theycommunicote privoielywith 'l

eoch olhef.

r ,oe . ¡ lh M c h o eo n d n o ¡ h e . , - o m m - n i .ec o eocn otnei.

20 words 3 RockyquicklybondedwithMlchoelond... ó words y' Michoe tokesRockveverywhere wilh him.To begif wilh shetroveledin q cordboordbox, butnow glp hosherown perchin the bockof hiscor. 28 words 4 ...goeseverywhere wilh him.Sheused1ofove in o cordboordbox, bul now hoscrperchln hiscor. 20 words 5 M . | - q - ^" r , o ' , s L o , ' oP o c Lous o c o m o o n o nq n d oooreciotes thewov shehoschonoedhislife.He is lookingfor.,vord 1otheirfuturetogether, olthoughhe r e g^ t st Lo t s h e r ' l ^ e . e r[ e o o , e o l , f e e . 3ó words 5 M i c Lo e l o p p ' e i o r - t h e, r o , R o c t ,l - o sc h o n g e dh i s ife ond looksforwordto theirfuturetogether, olthough L^ ,^^.^u "l-^,,.i| ^^, ^. t.. t.^^

2l ¡,oras Afterthiseditingwork,the numberof wordshosbeen r e d u c e fdr o ml 5 l t o l O 2 . ( N o l i c el h o l l O 0 w o r d si s s m o l e trh o ny o u m o yt h i n k . )

Theirreotionshipis speciol/unusuo , bosedon muluol trustond offection. Bxercise 5, page 163 Thereolionship beh,veen Michoe ond Rockyis unusuol, Exercise 4, page 163 bosedon o speciolunderslonding ond fusl.As theowlel Nole how lhe wordsunderinedhou" ,.",, ,.,,,,-,u.c¡ wos orphoned, Michoe dedicoled himseI to feedlngher. ond/or repoced usingfewerwords. SoonRockyleornllo coll himwhenshewontedfood.At I Theirrelcrlionship is specio, bosedon muluolruslcrnd first,Rockys ept mostof lhe lime,bulos shegrewshe offecflon. 6 ^ c o re r o ' e d e ¡ o n d . r oo r d r o ' e o f o r - o o o i l i \ . RockyquicklybondedwilhMichoelond goeseverywhere 2 TheowlefwcrscrI olonein theword ond Michoel with him.Sheusedto fove in o cordboordbox,butnow dedlcotedhlmsef lo oreoorlnoherfood ond feedino hoso perchin hiscor.Michoeloppreciotes fhewoy . hcr. SoonRockyleorntio co hinreverylimeshe .wontedfood. Al firsltheowl wos seepv moslof the Rockyhoschcrnged his ifeond looksforvlord1otheir .-h- -L ^L 1..-,r.l-e., -e erf, tlme,l¡ulos shebegonlo grow shebecomemore a/ ¡o¡a demondingcrndmoreof o responsibiliry for Michoe. 5/ words Exercise 6, page ló8 2 As theowel wos orphoned,Michoeldedicoted a 1876greyhoundracingbegan(lhlsindicotes the himsef to feedlngher.SoonRockyleornlto co I htm beginningof the history) in a fteldllÁelocotionis going when shewonted food, At firstRockys/epimostof the lo chcrngec:ler)nearLondon{do not'wrile Hendon; llme,bul os shegrew shebecomemoredemondlng lhlsis 1ooexocton exomple) w¡thdogschas¡nga ond moreof o responsibi ity. mechan¡cal lurealongo stra¡ghtcourse(thisis 42 words r p o r o r l b e c o . s e[ e - [ o g eo L o o . r e i \ g o g o c h o n g el o t e r ) .

Answersto exercisesM 251 'lhe'l a Early19OOs sport(noteform no need1olncude becamepopularin USAw¡thdogschasinglivebatt ( t h i sw i l c h o n g eo t e r ) . . An¡malr¡ghtsgroups(onlibloodspodslprotested dr¡d a dummyhare (ihisis o new deveiopment) was used ¡n an enclosed trock(ihisis new,too). . 1919first racecourse opened¡n the tinited States. . cambl¡ngwas introducedand thisincreased populTrivof sport(nole no needfor 'the'). '1926 a sporlreturnedto Manchester, lo {imporlonl menlionlhishere,lo conlrcrsl with Londonlcrlerl England.Notvetypopulrr \do nol giveexoclfigures) ot f,rstlnote- no needfor fu senlence). t eefarelong,movedto cap¡tal.Hugecrowds(do no1 give exoclnumbers) attendedmeet¡ngs. . Today,tensof thousands(do nol give erocl numbers) of racesrun, watchedby nearlyfour millionfans\no erocl numbersl. Exercise 7, ptge L69 Suggesied c nswer: : e e n v i r o n m e n l or el ys p o n s i b l e s = sofe Mounloinbi[lng ls thefosteslgfowing spodin Bfltoif. Thesodde of o bi[e ;s o for bettervonlogepointfrom which1oexplorelhe counlryside lhonc cor, ond you seemuchmorethonyou wou d wolking.On top of this,it'sgreotexeTclse: o doy offrocd cycing wi I hoveeveryone soundoseep ot nlghtas soonos lhelf heodshitthe pilow. Butperhopsthe L,estbit of crl is thclofterevery ungbursting climbcomesthethril of b o u n c i ndgo w n h i.l Accessis o¡e of the mosiconlenous ssues surrounding thesporl,witheveryone fromrcml,'ers a¡d horserlders1oformers ond environme¡lo isls w o i l i n go b o u t h ei m p c cot f m o u n t c rbi nl k e so n l h e countryside. However,if you ore ridlngon crlegcly qcreslj_blcllqjl,you hove iuslos muchrighlto be if r;re:os lheydo. Themoi¡ thing,os witho ouldoor spods,is lo showconsiderolio¡ for olhers:don'lleor up behindw,:lkersor riders- worn lhemof vqtL oooroocho¡d rideoastslowly.As for erosio¡.lry ¡ol lo s[id un¡ecessori)¡ on wel grosscr¡dsol, olthough independent reseorch hcrsshownlhotmountoin blkes no mofe lhon kefs bools ond o couse efosion wo L e l r o o q ¡ ¡L g o o dd - o l

e , [ . o , r o . h r o - ochl o l e c , l ¡ o t . o e o r o l e r l] n e m e behindvou. Don'ldisfurbiveslc,,cr. c¡rurrure ¡ure e you o woysknowwhere'/ou' )roudo¡'1 end up ridingthrougho fled of croosoftermokingo .

A'O-O ¡ t1 M


U, O.'- O, O r OO b-O..

sul (ondknowhow 1oreodill) so it'seosyto fo low t h e1 r o i l .

s s s


Everyone fols off ql somepoinl o r<-ro,., cr po rroreol fee roolwi colchyou oul evenluqy so thego de¡ rue is lo weor o helmel.Alwoys lt'so so usefulo corryo bqsicflrstuidkit,ond, r:¡son expertodvises, 'don'l slrov1oolor oul inlofhewilds lustin cosevou A o , , o r ' L- r o . o - p - ^ ^ d doho^ riderswho go up intothe mounloins ol Scotlond ond tclkemobie phonesin ccsetheycome the LqkeDistricl 1ogriel1no rernolecrreoYoumightogreetholthis woud l¡e o good occosion1ohoveone.

Bxercise 8, page 169 Environmentolly responsible


On y bike whereyou ore o owed

Slowdown behind olhers

Don'lskidon wel gross

Weor o hemel

Closegoles behindyou especlolly formers'fields

Cofryflrsloid kil

Plontripfrombeginning io end

D¡n'r ¡a ¡ff rha beolen hock

Don'tridethrough fieldsof crops

Tqkeo moblle phone

Note lhottheoriglnoseflencesin lhissummory were simpe, ond so ll ls rnoredifficultto chongelhemwhen you rewfile lhemin yourow¡ woTds. Environmentolly responsible


2 O n i yb r l ew h e r ey o r o r eo o w e d

5 Slow down behi¡dothers

5 Don'tskidon wet gfoss

I Weor o helmel

4 C osegolesbehlndyou- especiolly, formers' fieds I Plonlripfiom beginning to end 'l ¡^"

l , ¡ ^ r L , ^ , ^ L f - . . 1 .^ { . , ^ ^ "


f i . . r ^ i . l Li r

3 Don'tgo off the becrtenirock 4 Tokeo moble phone

252 E ANSWERS IO EXERC/SEs Exercise 9, page I7O Suogesled onswer: Then:oslimporlonl ihingwhenyou go mounicrin'biking is to plonyourroulefrombeginningto end, so you con be sufelhoiyou ore bikingwhereyou ore ollowed,ond do notfindyourselfridingthroughfieldsof crops.Whotever hoppens,be considerole lo olhersond lhe envifonmenl by ridingresponsiby ond remembering io cose goles behindyou, especicr ly in formers'fields. Whcrlever you do, weor o hemelr:l o I iimesond corrycr fifst-oid kitwithyou.Tryto keepto recognised polhs,but lokeo mobie phonewithyou in coseof emergency. 9ó words

w 9,9üYg*u* t'?¿t\ ', Exercise I, page 178 'l He wos givencrp oce becouseof hiswi d behoviour. 2 He ecrts with hishonds/screoms constontly/climlcl oul o f r ¡ ; n d o ¡ J e o p. o r Lo f l o o r 3 So ly wos verypleosedwhenshe[irsiheqrd,bul now sheis woified. 4 Theymodeherbecomeconlused. 5 He is now muchslronger/more ossedive/more ogile ó Sheknowsit is hisonly hopeof geting befler.Without theco lege,hisfulurewoud be in hospitoon drugs.

r sEcTtoN7 UNITI Exercise I, page 185 Note iholthelefierR in thesecondcolumnrefefs10poinls i n t h eR e g i s t ue nr i o l n p o g e sl 8 2 5 .


I wosn'iob e

-+ R9


duringmy obsence


while I wos owoy


he odvisedme to

h^ .uggesl"d,/h. .o d ,ho¡ d ho -o o n'e to


| odviseyou

-) -+ R3



-+ R3


in my oreo

+ Rl

where l i v e / h e r e / l h e r e


yourcrrrivol time


whot timeyou onive/when you orrive


I hope you will otte¡d the nextporty



beforegoing to bed

-, R2

' I hoo^ 7or, , ono o go lo 'he 1F.| po \




will be of greol benefitto you



why don't you/whof obout/how obout/hoveyou thoughtof

belore I go to bed good llod will reollydo you good

| believe

-+ Rl -)










we enleredlhe shop

we we¡t iniofheshop

o ot oTloc¡dsol



t l n oy


tell me ils locolion

, -) -+ R3 +R7 -, Rl



-J R9


in my opinion





get reody


^h^, ,^^.1-t^^


it wosnI successlul

--) R3 -+ R2 -+ -)



---l R9




while yo! ore hefe

-, R2 -+ R3


ng g oI n

is fullof in the end tell me where it is

when(she)reoched/gotto oooul it didn'isucceed/ildidn'lwork


odviceorlicles 132 odviceleÍers 34 50 body of letter 36-40 conclusions 40 l exom-sllequeslions 4l exomtip 37 inlroduciions35 ó plonning 2254 sompleonswers 42-50 lenses,useof 3ó odvicephroses 37 40 opologies 7 B o f g u m e n l s9 2 - 3 , 9 8 - l A ó s o m pe o n s w e r l O 7 schoo mogozineorticles t28-30 bookreviews I 38 40 compositions 94-l l7 lengthof 12, 94 opinlons/suggeslions94 B problems/solutions108 I l pfolecls I l2-17 s o m p eo n s w e r s 9 7 B , 1 O 3 - ó , toT,lll views/orgumenls 98- I Oó conclusions odviceletters 4a-l descriplive norroliveellefs 62,

.74 nqrfotiveellers 5ó, 57, 59 condilionolsenlences187-91 couTsework lB0 descriplive letters 12 33 concusions 26 endings 26 exomslylequesiions 28 9 e x o r nl i p s 1 3, 2 7 , 2 8 sompe onswefs 29-33 t e n s e su,s eo f l 7 l B descriplive noffotiveelters ó I -80

bodyof lere' 62. ó3-q /A. 7t-2 c o n c l u s i o n s6 2 , 7 A exom-slyle questions ó3, ó7 , 71-73 e*on syle oue¡lons onoysisot 74-5 e x o ml i p 7 l inlroduclions61 2, 70 sompleonswers 77 BO lrqnsil¡ons62 endings descripfiveelters 2ó f o r m ol le e r s l 2 A , l 2 l schoolmogozineorticles 127-8, 130 e x o mh i n l so n d i i p s 5 , 2 2 4 3 0 odvicelelters 37 checkingonswers 228 composilion lenglh 9 descriplive le ers 13, 27 ,

2B descr¡ptivenorotive lellefs

7l tormolwriting 8ó l i s t e n i negx o m 1 7 2 , 1 7 7 - g plonnlng 224 7 quesfion onolysis 74-5 regislefs 229 3A s p e o k i negx o m l B 0 summories 23O writingexom 224-30 exomslruclufe iv-vi l i s l e n i negx o m 1 7 1 7 exomslle queslions odvice ellers 4l onolysis of 74 5 descripliveletlers28-9 descriptivenoffoliveellers 63-73 noroliveeilers 59 p r oj e c l s 1 1 7

form{illing143-8 formolefiers I 18-23 controsllo cfeole interest I lB,

lt9 descriptive nofrotive in 122 sompe onswers 12O, 123 formolregisler 8l , 229-3A formollonguogeslructuresBó prepositions in 209-10 f o r m ow l riting 8 l-140 bosiclools 8 l-ó book reviews I 38 40 exomt¡p Bó introducing points 83 ioiningpoinls 83-4 o p i n i o n s B B - 9 1 ,9 4 - 8 suggesiions 87, 88-9 lime fixer phroses 82-3 views/orgumenls92 3, 98-10ó seeoisocompositions; fofmol lellefs;schoo mogozine OIIIC ES

friendlyletters tofmol 5 | gr-^elings 6 introductions6-9 tenses, useof JO fonsilions 9-l I see o/soodvice eilefs;descriplive lefiefs;descriplivenorrolive lellefs,norrotivelellers friendlyregister, seeinformolregister generoisolions 84-6 gfommor lBó-99 c o n o - r o n os e r l e n c e s l 8 / 9 l j o i n i n gi d e o s 1 9 2 3 n o u nw s i i hn o p l u r o i 1 9 3 posl perfed lense 186-7 quesiions l9ó-9 since/for 195

254 I


grommof coniinued fenses, sequence an too/very l9l -2 greetings 6

193 4

historysummories I64-8 IOEOS

o n i m os 2 4 2 oppeofonce,imporlo nceof 239 c r i m e / s o c i o l i s s u e2s3 7 - 8 envlronmenl 239-4a r obb - . po. ord l-eol.r 2j 236 h oi d o y s 2 3 6 7 'J'4 ,zl lon- [o.,\ 243 4 post,presenlond fulure 242-3 sofeiy/driving 24A-2 school/educollon 232 5 smoking 238 le evislon 238-9 lourism 24O i d i o m o l iecx p r e s s i o n s2 1 2 I 5 eosilyconfusedphroses 219 informo(friendlyl reglster 3-l l, 182 5,229 pfeposilions in 200-8 inlfoduciions odvicelellefs 35-ó book reviews I 38 descriplive noffotiveellers 61 2,74 friendly efiers ó-9 noffotiveellers 53, 56, 57 , 5B prolecls I l5 1ó schoo mogozlneodices


t 2 ó - 7 ,t 2 9 3 0 ,t 3 t

in wrilingexom 228-34 r eo t i o n s h ispu m m o i ef s I 5 8 ó 3

o p l n i o n s B B - 9 1, 9 4 - 8 deveopmenlol 89-91 schoo mogozineodicles t28-30

sompleonswefs odvice ellefs 42-54 orgumenls,/vlewsl07 c o m p o s i t i o n s9 7 B , l A 3 - ó ,

n o fr o l i v eo r i i ce s I 3 2 - 3 n o fr o l i v el e t t e r s 5 l - ó O , 7 6

in schoolmogozíneoriicles


ta7,11t postpedectlense ) 86-7 personolising phroses 24-5, 55 6,66 phonelics 3 p r e p o s l l i o n sl 4 - 1 5 , 2 0 0 - l 5 mi<

<a.l ^ró^^(iti^ñ(

2ll c o n f u s i npgr e p o s i l i o n s2 1 2 i n f o r m or e g i s t e r 2 a 9 l A in idiomoticexpressions

212l5 in inlormoregisler 200-8 wilh lime-reloled phroses 2l I presenlperfecllense 194 5 p r o be m s / s o l u lsl o f I O B l l , I3A-2 proiects I l2-l7 e x o m - s l y e q u e s l i o n1s1 7 i n t f o d u c l i o n sI l 5 - l ó queslons onsweringfeodifg queslions I4t-8 grofnmclf 196-9 lpes of reodingquestion

t4t B

i s l e n l negx o m l 7 l 9 Porl: 171 2 P o ü2 : 1 7 3 5 P o r3l : l 7 5 7 exomhlnls 177-g sompe lislening possoge 178-9 ocollons l4 17

f e g l s t e r1 s2 f o r m o lB l , 2 2 9 3 A (friendly)3- l I , informol 182-5,204-8,228

6odyof eter 53-7, 58 c o n c l u s i o n s5 6 , 5 7 , 5 9 exom-sly e queslions 59 formol 52-6 i n i r o d u c l i o n s5 3 , 5 6 , 5 7 , 5 8 sompleonswer ó0 s i l u o l i o n s5 1 2 , 5 ó - q notes,moking 146-8

r T p e s o . . r o onl o g o . , o o I queslion 128-33 seeo/soexom-sly e questions recrding l4l-74 o n s w e f i n g q u e s t i o nl s4 l - 8 formfl ling I 43-8 mokingnoles l4ó-B quesllonlypes l 4l-B seeo/sosummof ies

descripliveellers 29-33 descripiive norrolive leflers

77 BO lormcrl lefters l2O, 123 norrolivelellers ó0 schoolmogozlneorllcles

t34 7 s t o n d o rsdu m mroi e s l 5 Z soyings 218 schoolmogozlneorlicles

t24 37 bodyof ortlce I28-q conhosi10creoteinieresl 125 endings 127 B formof 125-B i n l r o d u c l i o n s1 2 6 7 , I 2 9 - 3 0 ,

t3t norfolives 132 3 opinions 128-30 p r o b l e m s / s o l u l i o n1s3 0 I q u e s l l olfy p e s l 2 8 3 3 regisler 124 sompleonswers 134 7 1 lel s I 2 5 - ó fonsition 127 schoovocobuory ond ideos

232-5 .b u l l y i n g 2 3 4 d e s c r i p l i oonf 2 1 3 exoms/revlslon 232 3 iniervlew odvice 235 schoo improvemen ls 233-4 schoo uniform 234 singlesex/mixedschoos 235 .t1,26 signolufes s k i mr e o d i n g l 5 0

lndex W 255 slong 3, Bl 2 speoking lB0 I s p e il n g probem words 222-3 tips 224-l s l o n drod s u m m o rsi e I 5 l - 7 sompe clfswers 157 s l r u c l u sr eu m m o f l e sl 6 8 7 0 suggeslions 87, BB-9 seeo/5oopiflo¡s s u m m c r i e s1 4 9 7 0 , 2 3 0 exomhinls 234 gen-^rolisotions in 85 hisiorysummorles 164 B relolionship surnmories I58 ó3 s o m p ec l n s w e r s 1 5 7 slclges ln wfiling 149 50 s l on d o r ds u m m o r i e sl 5 I Z slu f c i u r se u m m o r i e sI 6 8 - 7 4 supporlphroses 84

Tenses postpeúect 186 7 pfesenlpefect 194 5 sequence ol 193-4 u s eo i l A , 1 7 , 3 ó limeflxerphroses B2-3 limesequence phroses 54 l i te s f o ro f i c e s 1 2 5 - ó lfonsllions óotar d ^ i p t i- o o t

e n v i r o n m e n2l 3 5 4 A hoL'bies, sportond heoth 23, 236 holidoys 23ó-7 h o m e , / f o m l l Y1 3 - l 4 , 1 7 - 2 A

243 4


f r i e n d lye t t e r s9 l l h^^ -^^^,i"^



verbs,shodformof B, B I vlews 92-3 , 98 I Aó s o m p eo n s w e f l O 7 voccbuory o n i m os 2 4 2 of oppeofonce¡imporlonce

239 crime/soclcll issues 237 B


posl,pfesenlond luture 242 3 sofely/driving 24A 2 schoo/educotion 232 5 smoking 238 ielevision 238 9 louflsm 240 w h q u e s l i o n s5 , 5 3 4 , 1 7 1 , I 9ó-9 w o r dp o Í n e r s 2 1 6 1 7 writlng excrm htnts 224 3A p ofn fg 224-8 r e g i s l e f s2 2 8 3 A summqries 234

E n d o r s e db y iU,iriversityof Cambridge Inlernational Examinations









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tGCliE English as a Second Language containsmaterialspecifically relatedto the International Examinations exa¡rination offeredby University of Cambridge andaimsto helpstudents improvetheiranswersandoverallgrade.lts clearexplanations and preparing make it for students for other extensive useof examples also extremely useful in English(FCE),Certificate in Advanced advancedexams,suchas FirstCertificate English(CAE)and IGCSEFirstLanguage English. Writíng, Listening andSpeaking coverthe exam,withfurther Unitson Reading, examination hintsextending the coverage. Thereis a strongemphasis on writingskills.Waysof producing thedifferent typesof writingspecified in the syllabus, including letlers,magazine articles, bookreviewsand introduced summaries, are usingstep-by-step examples. Aitentionis givento the importance of styleand content,togetherwithaccuracyandthe correcluseof differentregisters. Writingsections includeexaminer comments on answers to pastexamquestions lurritten by students. withadviceon howto correctthem. Commonerrorsmadeby students are highlighted, grammarpointsareexplained Relevant in easy-to-understand language, andare supportedby exam-related examples. ldeasconnectedto examthemes,togetherwithassociated vocabulary, are developed in a topic-related whichalsoprovides relevant information. database cultural