Food Safety Africa May/June 2022

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FOOD SAFETY

AFRICA

TECHNOLOGY HIGHLIGHT

ADVANCES IN BEER TESTING

EXECUTIVE INTERVIEW: PURITY HRISCA TOPICAL FOCUS: FOOD DEFENCE PEST CONTROL REGULATOR HIGHLIGHT: NAFDAC PRODUCT FOCUS: YOGHURT

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YEAR 1 | ISSUENO. NO.2 1 JUNE/ Y 2021 YEAR 2 | ISSUE JULYJUL 2022


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EDITORIAL

Join us as we celebrate the first anniversary of Food Safety Africa magazine

A

s we celebrate one year milestone of this publication, a lot remains to be done in Africa to make food safe for all. Perhaps one of the most interesting quotes I have heard recently is one by United States Massachusetts Senator Edward J. Markey which reads, “The only mystery families should encounter at mealtime is what’s for dinner, not what’s in dinner.” Regrettably, this has not been the case and one of the many reasons which motivated the idea to have a sector focused magazine in Africa. The Food Safety Africa Magazine, along with our annual Africa Food Safety Summit are two key platforms that we are using to promote the adoption of the right food safety, quality and compliance technologies, practices and regulations in Africa. As the world celebrated the World Food Safety Day in early June 2022, we at Food Safety Africa Magazine also celebrate one year of existence: one year of bringing you, our readers, some of the most impactful food and agriculture sector issues. The World Food Safety Day 2022 held on June 7 under the theme’ “Safer food, better health” shed light on the fact that food safety is essential for ensuring economic prosperity, human health, growth in agriculture and sustainable development as well. Observed just some days after the adoption of the updated WHO Global Strategy for Food Safety, it is a reminder that we all play a role in keeping food safe. This annual international day is an opportunity to strengthen efforts to ensure that the food we eat is safe, mainstream food safety in the public agenda and reduce the burden of foodborne diseases globally. According to the United Nations, around 420,000 people around the World die every year after consuming contaminated food, while children under 5 years of age carry 40% of the foodborne disease burden, with 125,000 deaths every year. Contamination can occur at any stage of the manufacturing process. However, the main vulnerabilities are in the production and supply chain. A single case can have long-lasting ramifications to a business. To that end, in this issue we look at food defence, biovigilance and bioterrorism as an overlooked threat in Africa. These are all issues which food business operators must be aware of and implement the necessary controls to assure their customers that their products are safe and secure at all times. Pests can also be another source of contamination in food manufacturing facilities, causing physical contamination of ingredients and processed products. As such pest control, FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET

which we have also covered, is an essential part of Good Manufacturing Practice in food processing from a hygiene, economic and regulatory viewpoint. In our Technology highlight section, we delve into the beer industry and discuss some of the latest developments in the testing that has ensured only the safest and high-quality beer lands on consumers’ glasses. To the ‘no-beer’ people, we’ve got you covered with a Product Focus on yoghurt. Get to know some of the safety and quality issues surrounding yoghurt and how to overcome the hurdles. The Regulator Focus this time takes us to Africa’s most populated country, Nigeria, where we look at the country’s main regulator, NAFDAC, and some of its milestones as the country’s food watchdog. We wish you a good read. Francis Juma Publisher

JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

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In this issue 1

Editorial

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News Updates: • • • • • • • • • • •

ON THE COVER Technology Highlight-

Advances In Beer Testing

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Rwanda invests US$ 1,372,575 for modernization of pig abattoirs FAO trains environmental health personnel in Zimbabwe on food safety risk analysis East African Standards Committee root for harmonization of standards to facilitate regional trade New phytosanitary facility to improve market access for South Africa’s deciduous fruit China grants Kenyan avocado exporters access to domestic market dotted with strict requirements Strauss Group faces biggest recall in Israel’s history over Salmonella contamination TradeMark East Africa boosts Uganda National Bureau of Standards’ laboratory testing capacity Center for Produce Safety receives US$ 500,000 funding to facilitate food safety research ISO launches updated versions of ISO 22003 on Food Safety Management Systems FSSC Foundation partners with UNIDO to bolster food safety in middle-income countries FAO commences biological pest control programme to contain Mango Mealybug in Burundi

Supplier News & Innovations:

• • • • • • •

Neogen’s upgraded version of Veratox platform to detect traces of peanut allergens Bureau Veritas flags off 3rd US microbiology laboratory Corteva launches new generation fungicide for potatoes Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano introduces digital labels for cheese traceability Minerva Scientific establishes matrine, oxymatrine residue testing in Chinese honey PerkinElmer launches MicrofastTM ready-to-use microbial count plates globally Syngenta unveils novel technology for fighting crop diseases

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JULY 2022 | Year 2 Issue 2. No. 4

22 EXECUTIVE INTERVIEW: PURITY WAMBUI HRISCA Dreaming of becoming a newscaster growing up in Kenya to managing food safety for UK’s leading supermarket chain TOPICAL FOCUS: FOOD DEFENCE, BIOVIGILANCE & BIOTERRORISM; 34 An overlooked food safety topic in Africa BASICS OF FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY : PEST CONTROL 40 A vital step in quality assurance process TECHNOLOGY HIGHLIGHT:BEER 44 Growing “premiumization” drives innovation in analytical procedures KNOW YOUR REGULATOR: NAFDAC 50 Ensuring sanity in Nigeria’s agri-food value chain PRODUCT FOCUS: YOGHURT 56 Food safety and quality issues in yoghurt processing REGULATORY: WORLD FOOD SAFETY DAY 2022 62 Remarks by FDA Deputy Commissioner Frank Yiannas on World Food Safety Day 2022

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JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

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EDITORIAL

FOOD SAFETY

AFRICA

OUR PUBLICATIONS WE PUBLISH AFRICA'S LEADING MAGAZINES, INCLUDING:

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Year 2 | Issue 2 | No.4 FOUNDER & PUBLISHER Francis Juma EDITORIAL Catherine Odhiambo ADVERTISING & SUBSCRIPTION Jonah Sambai | Virginia Nyoro DESIGN & LAYOUT Clare Ngode PUBLISHED BY: FW Africa P.O. Box 1874-00621, Nairobi Kenya Tel: +254 20 8155022, +254725 343932 Email: info@fwafrica.net Company Website: www.fwafrica.net

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BUSINESS AFRICA WWW.FOODBUSINESSAFRICA.COM

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HealthCare AFRICA

WWW.HEALTHCAREAFRICA.INFO Food Safety Africa is published 6 times a year by FW Africa. Reproduction of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission from the editor is prohibited. All information is published in good faith. While care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of any action taken on the basis of information published.

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INFOGRAPHIC OF THE MONTH

Natural Hazards UNINTENDED CONTAMINATION

FOOD DEFENCE

Accidential Behaviour

TERRORISM Intimidation for ideological gain

DELIBERATE ADULTERATION FRAUD Deception for financial gain

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JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

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NEWS UPDATE

Rwanda invests US$ 1,372,575 for modernization of pig abattoirs RWANDA – The government of Rwanda has injected Rwf1.4 billion (US$ 1,372,575.40) into the construction of at least 10 pig slaughter houses across the country to ensure safety of pork consumers. Solange Uwituze, the Deputy Director General in charge of Animal Resources Research and Technology Transfer at Rwanda Agricultural and Animal Resources Development Board (RAB), said the investment will drive value addition through processed pork meat. “The abattoirs will help solve the issue of poor quality of pork that is caused by lack of standard slaughterhouses across the country. Pigs were usually being slaughtered in the bushes and other substandard places,” she noted.

FAO trains environmental health personnel in Zimbabwe on food safety risk analysis

ZIMBABWE – The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has trained environmental health personnel in Zimbabwe on food safety risk analysis, focusing on risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Based on the FAO/WHO Food Safety Risk Analysis Guide for National Food Safety Authorities, FAO and the government of Zimbabwe have trained 311 food inspectors since November 2021. The training which is part of Zimbabwe Agricultural Growth Program (ZAGP) is funded by the European Union under a project known as Transforming Zimbabwe’s Animal Health and Food Safety Systems for the Future (SAFE).

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SCIENCE & RESEARCH

Researchers develop nano-sensor to detect pesticides on fruit in minutes

SWEDEN – Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed a tiny sensor for detecting pesticides on fruits in just a few minutes. The technique, described as a proofof-concept in a paper in the journal Advanced Science, uses flame-sprayed

nanoparticles made from silver to increase the signal of chemicals. According to Georgios Sotiriou, Principal Researcher at the Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, and the study’s corresponding Author, reports show that up to half of all fruits sold in the EU contain pesticide residues that in larger quantities have been linked to human health problems. “However, current techniques for detecting pesticides on single products before consumption are restricted in practice by the high cost and cumbersome manufacturing of its sensors. To overcome this, we developed inexpensive and reproducible nanosensors that could be used to monitor traces of fruit pesticides at, for example, the store,” said Sotiriou.

REGULATORY & POLICY

East African Standards Committee root for harmonization of standards to facilitate regional trade EAST AFRICA – The East African Standards Committee (EASC) has during their 24th three-day meeting rooted for the harmonization of standards and elimination of barriers to allow goods and services to freely move within the region. The meeting was attended by the region’s National Standards Bodies Chief Executives aiming in facilitating trade within the East African Community (EAC) member states. Representing United Republic

JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

EACH COUNTRY MIGHT BE HAVING ITS OWN INTERESTS AS FAR AS THEIR ECONOMY AND WELFARE OF ITS PEOPLE IS CONCERNED, BUT AT ONE POINT YOU NEED TO FOCUS ON THE REGION AS A WHOLE Dr. Ngenya, Director General (TBS).

of Tanzania on the issues related to Standards, Quality Assurance, Metrology and Testing (SQMT) for cross border facilitation in the EAC region, was the Tanzania Bureau of Standards (TBS), Zanzibar Bureau of Standards (ZBS) and Weight and Measure Agency (WMA). ”Each country might be having its own interests as far as their economy and welfare of its people is concerned, but at one point you need to focus on the region as a whole,” said Dr. Ngenya, Director General (TBS). The Director underscored the importance of having harmonized standards in fostering trade across the region and promised to ensure Tanzania through TBS is adopting harmonized standards on time. FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET


REGULATORY & POLICY

Codex Member States underpin need for adoption of internationally recognized Codex standards AFRICA – The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Codex Member States from the Eastern and Southern Africa region have during a workshop underpinned the need for adoption and implementation of internationally recognized Codex standards, which are key in supporting fair food trade and protecting the health and safety of consumers. The 18 Member States met in Kigali, Rwanda as part of the initiatives to enhance Codex work management within the Member States on the continent. They include Botswana, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda and Zambia. The major objective of the regional workshop was to undertake an assessment of the status of operation and performance of Codex Contact Points (CCPs) and National Codex Committees (NCC) of the Eastern and Southern

African Regions. It also purposed to examine the level of participation of Member States including key actors in Codex activities, as well as provide a platform to share experiences and best practices of management of Codex activities from the different countries.

THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THE REGIONAL WORKSHOP WAS TO UNDERTAKE AN ASSESSMENT OF THE STATUS OF OPERATION AND PERFORMANCE OF CODEX CONTACT POINTS (CCPS)

LABORATORY

New phytosanitary facility to improve market access for South Africa’s deciduous fruit

SOUTH AFRICA – Hortgro, a deciduous fruit producers organization, has funded a new phytosanitary facility dedicated to deciduous fruit to help improve access to new markets and maintain current ones for the industry. Deciduous fruit refers to fruit that falls off the tree or vine when it is ripe. The category includes apples, Asian pears,

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figs, grapes and pomegranates. The new phytosanitary research laboratory will be based in Stellenbosch at the Welgevallen experimental farm of Stellenbosch University. The facility will be managed by Dr Renate Smit, an entomologist. Smit joined the Hortgro team in October 2021 as the Phytosanitary Facility Manager and Researcher. Phytosanitary facilities allow researchers to test different technologies on fruits, insects and pathogens to see which works the best and what measures are needed to ensure local produce can be exported. “With this facility, we can open new markets and make old ones sustainable,” said Smit. This facility will be unique in that it will allow integrated research on deciduous fruit, meaning it will run tests on the fruit and on insects at the same time.

International Atomic Energy Agency, FAO strive to ensure safety in animal products

ZAMBIA – The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are working with Zambian experts to address drug resistant microbes as well as food contamination in meat and other animal products. The presence of animal and zoonotic diseases such as colibacillosis and coccidiosis burdens animal production and requires veterinary drugs for treatment and control. However, remnants or drug residues which remain in animal products increase health risks, lead to drug resistance, and impede exports. To help prevent these risks, the Joint FAO/IAEA Centre of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has trained scientists and supported analytical testing for a Zambian residue monitoring programme – to make sure meat and other products are only sold once they no longer contain residues. These efforts, supported by the IAEA technical cooperation programme, are helping to prevent potentially harmful chemicals entering the food supply and guide the country’s use of antimicrobials in animal production. “Food safety is a priority for Zambia, and we are glad for the IAEA’s support in building our laboratory capabilities and encouraging collaboration among our institutions,” said Gerald Monga, Principal Veterinary Research Officer at the Central Veterinary Research Institute (CVRI).

JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

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NEWS UPDATE

REGULATORY & POLICY

China grants Kenyan avocado exporters access to domestic market dotted with strict requirements

KENYA – Kenyan avocado exporters will now have opportunity to sell their fresh produce to the populous Far East nation, China, which had initially in 2019 only allowed in the fruit in its frozen form. The opening comes after a successful completion of the rigorous Pest Risk Analysis carried out by Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS) and the National Plant Protection Organization of China which identified quarantine pests

of concern to China which should be controlled before export opening was granted. According to KEPHIS, all the fresh avocado fruits must comply with all applicable Chinese phytosanitary (plant health) laws and regulations, health and safety standards and be free from any quarantine pests of concern to China. In a statement to newsrooms, KEPHIS Managing Director, Prof Theophilus Mutui, said that specifically, all producers and exporters intending to export fresh avocado to China must have all their production farms, pack houses and fumigation treatment facilities registered by KEPHIS. They also need to apply Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and keep good sanitary conditions as well as implement Integrated Pest Management programs, including pest monitoring, chemical and biological control and any other pest control operations. “KEPHIS shall carry out periodic field

inspection, keep monitoring records of quarantine pests as well as pest management measures implemented as well as carry out phytosanitary treatment of the fresh avocado fruits by fumigation before export,” Mutui said in the statement.

KEPHIS SHALL CARRY OUT PERIODIC FIELD INSPECTION, AS WELL AS PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENT OF THE FRESH AVOCADO FRUITS BY FUMIGATION BEFORE EXPORT Prof Theophilus Mutui, Managing Director

GMOS

Nigeria to commence national performance trials for genetically modified maize NIGERIA – Nigeria is set to commence the national performance trials for drought tolerant and insect resistant maize known as TELA, a huge step for farmers towards better pest resistance and productivity. TELA maize, which exhibits resistance to fall armyworm, stem borers, and tolerates moderate drought, was developed by researchers at the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University. The name was derived

TELA MAIZE RECEIVED ENVIRONMENTAL APPROVAL FOR EVALUATION AND OPEN CULTIVATION FROM THE GOVERNMENT OF NIGERIA ON OCTOBER 8, 2021 10

from the Latin word tutela, which means protection. Subsequent to successful field trials, TELA maize received environmental approval for evaluation and open cultivation from the government of Nigeria on October 8, 2021. The national performance trials which aim to confirm the efficacy of the technology and show the adaptability

JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

of the variety, will involve 180 randomly chosen farmers from 10 states with varied agro-ecological conditions. It is anticipated that TELA maize will help smallholders in Africa spend less money on insecticides and minimize their exposure to the chemicals, while benefiting from higher yields and better grain quality. The seeds are available royalty-free to farmers.

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Pharma


NEWS UPDATE

Center for Produce Safety receives US$ 500,000 funding to facilitate food safety research U.S – The Center for Produce Safety (CPS), a non-profit that provides the produce industry with information on enhancing the safety of fresh fruits and vegetables, has received funding to facilitate science-based food safety research for the fresh produce industry. Value-added salad leader Fresh Express announced it has contributed US$ 500,000 to the project. The donation was motivated by the company’s foundational commitment to superior food safety and the development of advanced strategies and technologies, to ensure a consistently safe food supply and to protect public health.

Uganda embarks on fight against Aflatoxins

PARTNERSHIP

FSSC Foundation partners with UNIDO to bolster food safety in middle-income countries

GLOBAL – The Food Safety System Certification (FSSC) Foundation and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) have signed a trust fund agreement to promote food safety from farm to fork in low- and middle-income countries. The project, which runs for an initial period of three years, aims to develop robust food safety systems in selected low- and middle-income countries. This is through capacity-building activities

to reduce the socio-economic impact of food-borne diseases. “Giving back is a key element to achieving FSSC’s vision for creating a better world. The partnership with UNIDO forms an integral part of our giving-back strategy,” said Aldin Hilbrands, Director General of the Foundation FSSC. Each year, two selected low- and middle-income countries will receive support in creating a food safety culture at different levels. From food safety practitioners and small and medium enterprises to national food associations and food safety authorities, the aim is to ensure that the food they make or control is safe for local consumption. FSSC is a global, non-profit and independent scheme owner that implements ISO-based management systems for global food safety in the consumer goods industry.

REGULATORY & POLICY

FDA issues draft guidance on accredited third-party certification program

UGANDA – The Government of Uganda, through the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) and Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS), have embarked on a campaign to fight against the high Aflatoxin levels in food stuffs, to promote consumption of safe food in the country. The efforts, supported by Oxfam, aims to create awareness about aflatoxin and train all stakeholders in the value chains, right from the farm to the final consumer, on how to handle food to avoid Aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxins result from moulding on grain caused by poor storage of foodstuffs in warm and humid conditions, and to a lesser extent, planting of affected seeds. Besides health, high Aflatoxin levels are a major barrier to the exportation of Uganda’s agricultural produce to the East African Region and internationally. 12

U.S – The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a draft guidance for industry entitled “The Accredited ThirdParty Certification Program: Questions and Answers: Guidance for Industry”. The draft guidance, when finalized, will provide answers to frequently asked questions relating to the requirements of the Accredited Third-Party Certification Program. It is intended to assist accreditation bodies’, third-party certification bodies’ and eligible entities’ understanding of the regulation and program requirements. The final rule for Accredited ThirdParty Certification was issued in 2015 under the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). The rule establishes a voluntary program, known as the Accredited ThirdParty Certification Program, also referred to as the Third-Party Program or TPP, in which the FDA recognizes accreditation bodies that have the responsibility of accrediting third-party certification

JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

bodies. The accredited third-party certification bodies conduct food safety audits and certify that eligible foreign food entities and food produced by such entities, meet the applicable food safety requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) and FDA regulations.

THE DRAFT GUIDANCE, WHEN FINALIZED, WILL PROVIDE ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE ACCREDITED THIRDPARTY CERTIFICATION PROGRAM

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DISEASES, OUTBREAKS & RECALLS

Barry Callebaut shuts down plant due to Salmonella contamination

BELGIUM – Production has come to a standstill at the premises of Belgian-

Swiss cocoa processor and chocolate manufacturer Barry Callebaut, after detecting Salmonella in samples of its chocolate products. Analysis at the company’s Wieze site identified Lecithin, an ingredient used in chocolate production to reduce thickness, as the source of contamination hence seized production in all the processing lines. “Not only do we have a food safety charter and procedure in place, we also have over 20 people working on food safety and quality in Europe. In our

local site in Wieze, we train our people to recognize food safety risks. This allowed us to quickly identify the risk and successfully start the root cause analysis,” the company said in a statement. Barry Callebaut revealed that it had alerted the Belgian food authority Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC), about the incident. According to the company, a root cause analysis and risk assessment is ongoing and when this is complete, the lines will be cleaned and disinfected before resuming the production process.

LABORATORY

TradeMark East Africa boosts Uganda National Bureau of Standards’ laboratory testing capacity UGANDA – The Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS) has received a boost in laboratory testing equipment donated by Trade Mark East Africa (TMEA) with support from the Danish Government. The equipment worth USD 1,885,280 will enable UNBS to decentralize its laboratory testing services to its Regional Offices in Mbarara, Gulu and Mbale, hence take the testing services closer to the people. “Denmark is passionate about promoting private sector development in Uganda and the decentralization of testing services will promote a conducive business environment, ensure improved quality of products and contribute to

efficiency in UNBS’ service delivery,” H. E Nicolaj A. Hejberg Petersen said during

DENMARK IS PASSIONATE ABOUT PROMOTING PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN UGANDA AND THE DECENTRALIZATION OF TESTING SERVICES WILL ENSURE IMPROVED QUALITY OF PRODUCTS H. E Nicolaj A. Hejberg Petersen, Danish Ambassador to Uganda

the launch of the equipment. Laboratory testing is instrumental in securing export markets for Ugandan products by carrying out tests required by the International markets. It enables testing of locally manufactured products especially from SMEs to check their conformity with the quality standards, thus helping the manufacturers improve product quality and access the market. The UNBS Executive Director, Mr. David Livingstone Ebiru said that the decentralization of UNBS laboratory testing services will support agroindustrialization, the parish development model and reduce the cost of doing business.

FAO commences biological pest control programme to contain Mango Mealybug in Burundi BURUNDI – The Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) Sub-regional Office for Eastern Africa and the Ministry of the Environment, Agriculture and Livestock have efficaciously released biological control agents of the Mango Mealybug in Burundi. The biological control agent release was done in two provinces of Burundi, in the months of April and May in two rounds, aiming to effectively control the mealybug and reduce crop damage by the invasive plant pest.

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Biological pest control involves the use of living organisms to suppress pest populations. FAO used natural enemies of the mango mealybug; Gyranusoidea tebygi and Anagyrus mangicola. Measuring less than 1 mm long, the tiny wasps feed exclusively on mango mealybugs and pose no human, animal or environmental risk. The sap-sucking insect feeds on the leaves, flowers, fruits and young parts of the mango stem. In heavy infestations, blackish layers called sooty mould cover

the leaves.

JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

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NEWS UPDATE

NEW TECHNOLOGY

Australia’s melon industry strives to achieve farm to fork traceability AUSTRALIA – The New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI) has developed a traceability adoption framework for the melon industry to ensure the industry leads in

CONSUMERS’ FAMILIARITY WITH QR CODES DURING COVID-TRACING PROVIDES INDUSTRY WITH A GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO PRESENT QR CODES FOR CONSUMERS TO SCAN AND APPRECIATE THE FRUIT’S JOURNEY Johnathon Davey, Executive Officer, Melons Australia

traceability based on globally accepted Global Standards 1 (GS1). This was part of a project with peak industry body Melons Australia, on enhancing seamless data flow in the traceability of seedless watermelons. The project is aimed to maximize consumer engagement with the farmer while boosting confidence in the freshness and food safety of cut watermelons. As part of this pilot, each whole watermelon was labelled on-farm with serialized and unique QR code with a GS1 digital link URI carrying vital information for partners in the supply chain. Melons Australia Executive Officer, Johnathon Davey says the melon industry is taking the lead in the digitization of product identity and production data sharing and is heavily focused on seeking consumer feedback on the fruit quality.

“Consumers’ familiarity with QR codes during COVID-tracing provides industry with a great opportunity to present QR codes for consumers to scan and appreciate the fruit’s journey and the story of the grower. We also encourage consumers to provide us with feedback on the fruit quality,” he said.

NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Researchers come up with fingerprinting technique to detect geographical origin of virgin olive oil SPAIN – A team of researchers from the Torribera Food and Nutrition Campus and the University of Barcelona, have come up with a new authentication tool to check the geographical origin of virgin olive oil as a control on the quality, tradition and product linked to the territory. Olive oil is one of the most prestigious agri-foods in Spain and it is the base of the Mediterranean diet. As such, it is prone to adulteration and commercial fraud in terms of origin. In the authentication process of foods, it is decisive to have analytical strategies that verify the origin of the products and help in establishing the official method.

The new tool provides a response to this need regarding food safety

and traceability and it presents an authentication strategy that can be applied to different geographical scales. “The new methodology enables us to discriminate between virgin olive oils produced in the European Union and those that are not,” note researchers Stefania Vichi and Alba Tres, Coordinators of the research line in Authentication of Foods and members of the Torribera Food and Nutrition Campus and INSA. The new protocol can authenticate virgin olive oils through a fingerprint, which works similarly to the unequivocal recognition of people using fingerprints.

Global food certification market to reach US$ 6.90 billion by 2027

GLOBAL – Emergen Research, a market research and consulting company, has 14

revealed that the global food certification market is projected to reach a value of USD 6.90 billion by 2027. Some of the vital factors driving the market include change in consumers’ consumption habits, preference for organic foods, rise in the living standards, and consumer’s requirement for quality

JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

products. Formulation of strict regulations regarding food safety has also acted as a river of the market. During the forecast period, increasing demand for technological advancements and high diversification in offered products are likely to offer high growth potential to new market players.

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REGULATORY & POLICY

ISO launches updated versions of ISO 22003 on Food Safety Management Systems

GLOBAL – The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published the updated version of ISO 22003 on Food Safety Management Systems (part 1 and part 2). “ISO launches a new era today for the accreditation of certification bodies active in the field of food safety with the publication of two standards; ISO 22003-1:2022 and ISO 220032:2022,” announced ISO. ISO 22003-1 supplements ISO 17021-1:2015, the standard for the accreditation of bodies providing audit and certification of all types of management systems. On the other hand, ISO 22003-2 supplements ISO 17065:2012, the standard for the accreditation of bodies certifying all types of products, processes and services. The new requirements, Parts 1 and 2, have the potential to harmonize the requirements for hundreds of thousands of impartial and independent audits of food safety management systems (FSMS – Part 1) or food safety systems (FSS – Part 2), implemented by food businesses and service providers all along the feed and food supply chain.

ISO 22003-1:2022 AND ISO 22003-2:2022 ARE THE RESULT OF A VERY SUCCESSFUL COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE ISO SUBCOMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ISO 22000 FAMILY OF STANDARDS (ISO/TC 34/SC 17) AND THE ISO COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE FOR CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT STANDARDS (ISO/CASCO) Torben Lyster-Clausen, Chair of Subcommittee (SC) 17

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“These two standards are the result of a very successful collaboration between the ISO subcommittee responsible for the ISO 22000 family of standards (ISO/TC 34/SC 17) and the ISO committee responsible for conformity assessment standards (ISO/CASCO),” said Torben Lyster-Clausen, Chair of Subcommittee (SC) 17. FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET

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NEWS UPDATE

Uganda takes charge as new Coordinator of FAO/WHO Coordinating Committee for Africa UGANDA – Uganda has taken over from Kenya as the new Coordinator for the Food and Agriculture Organization / World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Coordinating Committee for Africa (CCAFRICA). CCAFRICA was established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) in 1972 with a mandate to exercise general coordination in the preparation of

standards relating to the region of Africa. The CAC during its 43rd meeting held virtually in November 2020, appointed Uganda to take the Coordinator mantle through its Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS). During the CCAFRICA strategic Meeting at Protea Hotel in EntebbeUganda, the UNBS Executive Director, Mr. David Livingstone Ebiru said that UNBS services and activities contribute significantly to fostering food safety in Uganda. Uganda has been a member of Codex since 1964 and this marks the second time CAC is appointing Uganda to coordinate its activities in Africa, following its first appointment 20 years ago; from 1999 to 2003. The appointment will raise awareness of food safety issues through Codex, such as strengthening the food control system in the country and improving quality and safety of locally traded food commodities,

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NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Solidaridad launches traceability feature for dairy sector in Maharashtra India INDIA – Solidaridad, an international civil society organization, has launched a traceability feature for the dairy sector under the Trust Dairy project, in Maharashtra, in partnership with Nutreco, Govind Milk and Milk Products Pvt. Ltd. and Agricultural Development Trust Baramati. According to the organization, bringing traceability to the dairy sector could be a herculean task, yet it seems increasingly imperative to introduce innovation in this sector, especially with growing concerns around quality and sustainability. “Post Covid, consumers have become more concerned about the quality and source of the food they consume. The traceability initiative will provide a level of transparency and assurance on quality among the consumers and connection with the farmers and the factories. We look forward to explore how we can collaborate to work on this together with Solidaridad,” said Mr. Michiel van Erkel, Agriculture Counsellor for India and Sri Lanka. The feature will bring increased

visibility and transparency in the dairy supply chain by capturing quality and

THE TRACEABILITY INITIATIVE WILL PROVIDE A LEVEL OF TRANSPARENCY AND ASSURANCE ON QUALITY AMONG THE CONSUMERS AND CONNECTION WITH THE FARMERS AND THE FACTORIES Mr. Michiel van Erkel, Agriculture Counsellor for India and Sri Lanka

sustainability practices adopted by the processor and the producer. The information will be available to consumers who will access it by scanning a QR code.

DISEASES, OUTBREAKS & RECALLS

Strauss Group faces biggest recall in Israel’s history over Salmonella contamination

ISRAEL – Strauss Group, the largest food company in Israel, has recalled several Elite branded confectionery products as they may be contaminated with Salmonella. The company has recalled Elite

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branded items such as cakes, wafers, energy grain snacks, energy chocolate rice cakes, chewing gum and toffee candies of all dates. They were distributed in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom. The Israeli Ministry of Health reported that 21 patients of various ages have so far fallen ill after consuming the products, six of whom have been hospitalized. According to test results received so far, there is no link between the Israeli chocolate incident and the Ferrero monophasic Salmonella typhimurium outbreak that has affected 200 people in 12 countries from Kinder chocolate products made in Belgium.

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SUPPLIER NEWS & INNOVATIONS

Bureau Veritas flags off 3rd US microbiology laboratory U.S – Bureau Veritas, a world leader in testing, inspection and certification (TIC) services, has announced the opening of its third US microbiology laboratory located in Reno, Nevada. The new laboratory offers rapid pathogen testing as well as microbiology indicator analyses to ensure the safety of food and agriculture commodities. The facility is an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory, ensuring the laboratory is technically proficient and that the data it produces is both accurate and precise. Bureau Veritas’ Reno laboratory is a part of its broader network of agri-food accredited microbiology and chemistry laboratories in North America. These laboratory activities support the agri-food market in combination with other services such as agriculture commodities inspection, grading and testing, as well as its suite of Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) certification and training services. “Our newest food laboratory in Reno, Nevada continues our expansion in the US and supports our commitment to

servicing our customers consistently across North America. “We remain committed to expanding our geographic scope and offering unique services to the agri-food market to support their demand for reliable food product verification,” said Waylon Sharp, Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, Food and Agri North America, Bureau Veritas.

Corteva launches new generation fungicide for potatoes SOUTH AFRICA – World’s leading technology company Corteva Agriscience, has launched Zorvec Encantia, a new fungicide that specifically targets late blight, a detrimental pathogen currently compromising local potato growth. The solution, based on Zorvec active, is the first member of a novel class of fungicides, which effectively utilizes a unique biochemical mode of action, and

AFTER MORE THAN A DECADE OF RESEARCH, WE HAVE CREATED A NOVEL CHEMICAL WITH AN UNRIVALLED LEVEL OF CONSISTENCY AND CONTROL Stephan Marais, Product Manager at Corteva Agriscience

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has no cross-resistance with existing fungicides. “Zorvec Encantia is here to change everything in terms of effectiveness, protection and productivity, and will be a great ally for South Africa’s potato producers during all stages of cultivation and in challenging climatic conditions. “After more than a decade of research, we have created a novel chemical with an unrivalled level of consistency and control, especially when it comes to management, allowing for lower operational costs and overall improved efficiency,” said Stephan Marais, Product Manager at Corteva Agriscience. Zorvec Encantia produces multiple effects on a pathogen’s life cycle for better efficacy and duration of control and protects leaves as they grow and expand, enhancing the protection of new foliage even if they have not been treated. The product also offers fast absorption, which allows for a high tolerance to wash off by rain or irrigation water and reduces the need for re-sprays and unscheduled applications.

Neogen’s upgraded version of Veratox platform to detect traces of peanut allergens U.S – Neogen Corporation has released an enhanced version of its Veratox platform for Peanut allergen test, which optimizes sensitivity and flexibility across sample types while maintaining the rapid time-to-result and simple testing procedure standards set by the Veratox product line. Neogen’s new Veratox Improvement Platform (Veratox VIP) for Peanut assay rapidly quantifies low levels of peanut protein residues in food products, ingredients, and clean-in-place rinses. “As the demand for plant-based foods continues to increase, we have seen peanut proteins being processed in more new and creative ways than ever before. However, peanut remains one of the highest-priority allergens in the food industry. “It was very important that we offer a solution that gives producers confidence as they navigate this changing landscape. The new Veratox VIP for Peanut assay is very sensitive and able to detect low levels of peanut protein while remaining fast and easy to use,” said John Adent, Neogen’s President and CEO.

This innovative quantitative test utilizes the pairing of a unique antibody combination and a modified extraction process to robustly detect levels of peanut protein down to 0.25 parts per million (ppm).

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SUPPLIER NEWS & INNOVATIONS

European packaging company Schur Flexibles develops antibacterial coating for films

Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano introduces digital labels for cheese traceability

AUSTRIA – European packaging company Schur Flexibles has developed an antibacterial varnish that can be applied to a range of its films, including those used for food packaging applications, to enhance point of sale hygiene. Schur Flexibles explains that at the point of sale, packets are often touched, picked up, and put back. The antibacterial coating is aimed at preventing the transfer of bacteria and helping to ease consumer concerns about hygiene, which have become particularly prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic. The antibacterial coating can be used for a range of packaging types, ITALY – The Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano (CFPR) has tied up with Kaasmerk Matec (Kaasmerk), a leading producer of casein cheesemarks and p-Chip Corporation (p-Chip), a digital tracing technology inventor, to launch a

such as topfilms and flowpacks. The company claims that the Antibacterial Activity Analysis Result suggests that the coating reduces the bacteria present on packaging by 95%. The product has been tested and reportedly confirmed safe for food packaging, including meat, dairy, and fish, as well as other applications. This development comes hot on the tail of an innovation by researchers from Australia and Japan who unveiled an antibacterial nanotexture for rigid plastic packaging. The nanotexture is based on the nanopillar wing structures of dragonflies and cicadas that are able to kill bacteria by pulling, stretching, or slicing them apart.

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BY BEING THE FIRST TO INCORPORATE THESE SECURE DIGITAL LABELS ONTO OUR CHEESE WHEELS, WE CAN CONTINUE TO ENSURE CONSUMER SAFETY, BRINGING THE TRACEABILITY AND THE AUTHENTICATION OF OUR PRODUCTS TO MEET INDUSTRY 4.0 TECHNOLOGICAL TARGETS Nicola Bertinelli, President of the Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano

line of food-safe and secure traceability digital labels for its Parmigiano Reggiano cheese wheels. The new technology will deliver previously unseen levels of traceability,

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inventory tracking and control, product authentication, quality-assurance testing, product serialization, and consumer safety. Founded in 1934, the Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano is a consortium for all producers of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese. Parmigiano Reggiano is one of the world’s oldest and most famous cheeses, and it is a product that symbolizes Italian produce. “By being the first to incorporate these secure digital labels onto our cheese wheels, we can continue to ensure consumer safety, bringing the traceability and the authentication of our products to meet industry 4.0 technological targets,” said Nicola Bertinelli, President of the Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano. Previously, a casein label with a unique and sequential alphanumeric code has been applied to each Parmigiano Reggiano cheese wheel way from 2002. However, things are set to change with the launch of p-Chip’s new line of secure, digital tracking labels for the industry. CFPR is breaking new ground by embedding these p-Chip micro transponders into 2D codes, QR codes, and/or data-matrix codes. The result is an innovative, foodsafe digital tag that takes CFPR’s food safety and security a step beyond the government requirement.

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Syngenta unveils novel technology for fighting crop diseases SWITZERLAND – Syngenta Crop Protection’s Seedcare business, has unveiled a novel technology with a combination of nematode and disease control for growers looking to increase the quality and yield of their crops and support the long-term health of their soil. The new technology known as VICTRATO contains TYMIRIUM technology, which provides long-lasting protection against all plant-parasitic nematodes and key fungal diseases across major crops, including soybeans, corn, cereals, cotton, and rice. Nematodes – a parasitic species that feed on the root or the plant, to deplete it of nutrients – are present in almost all agricultural soils, attacking crops and opening a path to further fungal infection. The company reports that the parasite can have a devastating impact, with yield losses of up to 12% globally per year, equating to an estimated loss of US$150bn every year. “We are excited to be adding

PerkinElmer launches MicrofastTM ready-to-use microbial count plates globally

VICTRATO to our broad portfolio. Syngenta Seedcare was the first to develop a modern nematode seed treatment, with AVICTA, and now with this new product, we are taking our efforts to combat nematodes to the next level,” said Jonathan Brown, Global Head of Syngenta Seedcare. Syngenta is one of the world’s leading agriculture companies, comprised of Syngenta Crop Protection and Syngenta Seeds.

U.S – PerkinElmer, a global provider of innovative solutions, has launched its MicrofastTM ready-to-use microbial count plates for food safety testing on a global scale. The quick, convenient and accurate MicrofastTM microfilm plates can spot contaminants across multiple sample types. Markedly, the microbial count plates are part of the PerkinElmer’s wideranging food safety and quality solutions, including instruments, software, testing kits, reagents, and more. With the latest launch, the company aims to solidify its global foothold in the food safety testing space.

Minerva Scientific establishes matrine, oxymatrine residue testing in Chinese honey Within the past 12 months, there have been four EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) alerts concerning detectable levels of the pesticides oxymatrine and matrine in Chinese honey. Most of these alerts related specifically to Chinese Acacia honey. Triggered by the rapid alerts, the EU set the 0.01 mg/kg limit for oxymatrine last year July. UK – Minerva, a specialist analytical laboratory, has come up with a Liquid Chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) procedure for trace-level detection of the pesticides oxymatrine and matrine in Chinese honey. Matrines and oxymatrines are herbal alkaloids, which can be found in plants from the family Sophora flavescens, a shrub-like tree growing extensively in some regions of China. They are also used as pharmaceutical agents and pesticides, among others, due to their insecticidal activity.

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WITHIN THE PAST 12 MONTHS, THERE HAVE BEEN FOUR EU RAPID ALERT SYSTEM FOR FOOD AND FEED (RASFF) ALERTS CONCERNING DETECTABLE LEVELS OF THE PESTICIDES OXYMATRINE AND MATRINE IN CHINESE HONEY

The new microfilm plates are developed to offer efficient, effective, and user-friendly quantification of aerobic, E. coli, coliform, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast and mold, and staphylococcus aureus contamination in dairy, meat/poultry, fruit, vegetable, baked goods and environmental surface samples. All six plate types have received the AOAC Performance Tested Methods certification. Intended for food companies and contract labs, the highly sensitive and accurate kits feature a simple, three-step workflow that has 66% lesser steps than traditional approaches. Users can put the liquid sample on the leak-free culture area, featuring automatic diffusion, and lower the film without pressing, incubate the plate and wait for the new-generation microbial coloration to reflect the rapid proliferation of microbial contaminants.

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APPOINTMENTS UPDATE Paloma Orejas appointed new Quantitative Research Director of Sagaci Research

AFRICA – Sagaci Research, the leading Africa-focused data and analytics firm, has appointed industry expert Paloma Orejas as new Quantitative Research Director to lead its Quantitative Consumer Research department and reinforce its service offering in technical consumer insights and Product testing in Africa. Paloma brings 13 years of experience in consumer research with a unique focus on sensory assessment services, specializing in food and beverage consumer products. In her previous role as Sensory Research Director, Paloma provided outsourced services to one of the world leading groups in the alcoholic beverages sector overseeing a wide range of beverages sensory research projects in Africa. She brings to Sagaci Research extensive experience in methodologies related to Sensory Research and Product Testing. In a context of a dynamic African market with constant product innovation, the appointment of Orejas will be instrumental for Sagaci Research. Indeed it will help the company meet strong demand for high quality locally sourced insights. “I am excited to welcome Paloma to the Sagaci Research senior team. While we have heavily invested in the last couple of years in developing large online research capabilities, the need for product testing is still there and will always remain complementary. “As such, Paloma will be instrumental in growing further this area of our business,” said Julien Garcier, Managing Director, Sagaci Research. 20

Marsha Bro named President of Kemin Food Technologies in Europe, Middle East, Africa regions ITALY – Kemin Industries, a global ingredient manufacturer, has named Marsha Bro as the President of Kemin Food Technologies in Europe, Middle East and Africa regions (EMEA). Bro takes over from Valter Dompè, who has shifted to serve as President of Kemin Textile Auxiliaries – Garmon Chemicals, located in San Marino, Italy. She has held various executive positions within Kemin with the most recent being the General manager for Kemin Crop Technologies. The Crop Technologies business unit is dedicated to bringing environmentally friendly pest control and plant health technologies to the agricultural industry to ensure that future generations have access to a healthy, sustainable food supply. During that time, she successfully led the team and business from its initial concept stage into a fast-growing and sustainable business for the multinational ingredient company. “The EMEA market represents one of the top business growth opportunities for Kemin, and we’re thrilled to have Marsha

leading our Food Technologies – EMEA business unit. I’m confident that Marsha’s experience in business development, strategic marketing and general management will elevate our business and help grow our presence in the EMEA market,” said Giuseppe Abrate, Global Group President – Food.

JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

Food Standards Scotland appoints Heather Kelman as new Chair

SCOTLAND – Heather Kelman has succeeded Ross Finnie as the new Chair of the Food Standards Scotland (FSS), bringing along her over 40 years of experience in the public sector, including 10 years as a dietitian, and most recently as a Strategic Planner and Senior Manager within the NHS. NHS Scotland, is the publicly funded healthcare system in Scotland, and one of the four systems which make up the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. Kelman has been a member of the FSS board since its creation in 2015. Her previous role, where health protection, promoting positive health and wellbeing, and addressing health inequalities, dominated her agenda ensures she is fully equipped to meet the demands of her new position. She comes on board as FSS focuses on improving the country’s eating habits while safely navigating the EU exit, Covid recovery, climate change and now the supply chain disruptions as a consequence of the conflict in Ukraine, which are creating turbulence within the food system. “I’m honored to steer Food Standards Scotland through the next five years, and I will work hard to create a healthier national diet and meet the organization’s targets,” Kelman said.

FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET


Fresh Express brings two key managers aboard its food safety team

U.S – Fresh Express Inc., the brand leader in value added salads has announced the addition of two key managers to its corporate food safety and quality team. According to John Gurrisi, Vice President of Food Safety and Quality, the new additions accentuate the company’s continuing commitment to food-safety

excellence and to ensuring the highest levels of product integrity. Zhe (Harry) Hou has been named Director of Food Safety and will be based at the company’s Streamwood, Illinois facility serving in a companywide capacity. Hou has over 15 years of experience working in academia on research projects funded through the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and holding various leadership roles in industry and food safety professional associations. Jacob Aguirre joins Fresh Express as Corporate Senior Manager of Sanitation, based in the Salinas, California, facility. He will provide sanitation leadership and support to all Fresh Express facilities throughout the United States. Aguirre has more than 14 years of plant sanitation and food-safety experience, including many years fulfilling wide-ranging sanitation responsibilities supporting Commercial Food Sanitation LLC and produce industry groups for Hygiene Design Team, Produce Sanitation Best Practices and Hygienic Zoning Team.

FSSC welcomes new Board of Stakeholders Chair GLOBAL – The Food Safety System Certification Foundation (FSSC) has welcomed Bert Debets as the new Independent Chair of its Board of Stakeholders. Bert served on the Board of Stakeholders from 2018 until 2021, representing Unilever. During that time, he got to know the Foundation well and contributed significantly to achieving its objectives, says FSSC. Hence the Foundation reached out to him again while searching for a new Chair. With over thirty years of experience in the food and beverage industry, Bert has held several senior positions in quality management within Unilever and served as the Quality Director Foods & Refreshment Division. He now makes his long-time experience and knowledge in quality and food safety management available to

FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET

the food industry through supporting the Foundation. “In my role of independent Chair of the Board of Stakeholders, I will support the Foundation in its ambition to grow and become the most recognized Food Safety and Quality certification scheme in the world,” said Bert.

QualiTru Sampling Systems appoints new Vice Presidents to bolster food quality impact

U.S – QualiTru Sampling Systems, leaders in the science of aseptic and representative sampling equipment for the food industry, has promoted Anne Bigalke to Vice President of Strategic Development and Barbara Grayes as Vice President of Sales, as the company continues strengthening its impact in food quality and safety. According to Ian Davis, the company’s CEO, Anne has played a pivotal role in QualiTru’s systems becoming the most trusted method for gathering aseptic and representative milk testing samples for thousands of large dairy farms, haulers and food processing plants across the world. “In her new position, she will help QualiTru continue transforming toward even greater growth and market expansion,” he said. Prior to working at QualiTru, Anne worked in Malaysia managing six development centers. She returned to her roots in Minnesota and a job at QualiTru that kindled her passion for the dairy industry. QualiTru’s innovative sampling technologies are used to help the dairy and liquid food industries produce safe, high-quality products in over 30 countries worldwide.

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PURITY WAMBUI HRISCA Dreaming of becoming a newscaster growing up in Kenya to managing food safety for UK’s leading supermarket chain 22

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EXECUTIVE INTERVIEW INTERVIEWS WITH SOME OF THE FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY CHAMPIONS IN AFRICA AND BEYOND

D

escribe your current role, key responsibilities and the most critical deliverables.

I am currently working as Technical Manager for the second largest supermarket chain in the UK, Sainsbury’s. I am in charge of food safety for a category of products. My most critical deliverables are working with stakeholders to ensure that products launched are safe, of expected quality and meet both legal requirements and brand standards.

What are some of the most important skill sets in achieving success in your role?

The most important skills set is food safety knowledge, good grasp of soft skills such as collaborative working, and critical analysis. Keeping my skills and knowledge up to date is also important as the food industry is always evolving, whether it is emerging risks, novel products, emerging technologies, etc.

How would you describe the journey to your current role? How did your childhood and growing up guide your choice for this career option?

I was previously working in administration, among other activities, but nothing closely related to my current career. I started working in the food industry back in 2009 when I got a job in a food factory as a QA technician. I liked what the job entailed and decided to pursue a career in the field. I later enrolled for an undergraduate degree in Food Science, then a Masters in Food Safety and Quality Management and have never looked back since. As a matter of fact, when I was growing up, my dream job was to be a newscaster having been influenced by Kenyan TV presenter Sophie Ikenye. I had also thought of becoming an air hostess/stewardess.

What are some of the quality, food safety and compliance certifications your company has achieved? How would you say these certifications have shaped up your company to achieve its goals?

My company is not a manufacturer so we don’t get certifications such as BRC, Global Gap, ISO, etc. but we do expect companies supplying

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us to have the relevant certifications, whether they are food safety certifications such as BRC, ethical standards or animal welfare standards.

How does your company ensure that food safety culture is inculcated within its sphere of influence? What are some of the challenges your team and company face in ensuring compliance throughout the business and the value chain?

We ensure that food safety culture is instilled throughout our business by communicating clearly our business strategy, priorities and objectives. Food safety is a significant pillar supporting our business to achieve its priorities. Because everyone understands the importance of food safety to the business strategy, we are all rowing in the same direction. Of course, there will be occasions when compliance will not be 100%. We then take actions to understand what are the drivers for noncompliance and then solve those issues. In order to create a food safety culture, food safety must be part of the business priorities.

What are some of the quality, food safety and compliance challenges your company faces on a regular basis? What are some of the processes you have put in place to ensure that raw materials, in-process and end products meet your requirements?

Though we strive for 100% compliance, sometimes things do go wrong. This tends to happen at the supply base, where there may be food safety issues leading to product recall. This can result from a contamination issue, allergen risk from mislabeling, among others. When this happens, we expect the supplier to conduct a root cause analysis and understand what went wrong and to communicate what will prevent the same thing from happening again. We work with suppliers who demonstrate that they have the systems in place to ensure food safety.

WHEN I WAS GROWING UP, MY DREAM JOB WAS TO BE A NEWSCASTER HAVING BEEN INFLUENCED BY KENYAN TV PRESENTER SOPHIE IKENYE

Tell us about your company and how it fits in with career goals. Briefly, what is the typical day like in your role and at your company? I work for a company with a rich brand heritage of over 150 years! I chose to work for the company

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EXECUTIVE INTERVIEW | Purity Wambui Hrisca because its values and mine are aligned. My day is usually spent either in meetings with stakeholders who are either cross functional teams or suppliers. On some days I may be inspecting samples for product approval, preparing product information, approving product information, visiting suppliers or visiting our stores. My day to day varies depending on what I am working on at that particular time.

What have been some of the previous roles before the current one? How important were those roles in shaping your current role? What have been the key turning points in your career?

PRIOR TO MY JOB IN THE FOOD FACTORY, I HAD DONE DIFFERENT JOBS, MOSTLY IN ADMINISTRATION BUT I HAD NOT WORKED IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

My food industry career started in my 30s. Prior to my job in the food factory, I had done different jobs, mostly in administration but I had not worked in the food industry. It was not easy when I started studying for my undergraduate Food Science degree. I had been out of school for a couple of years and this field was completely new to me. I did overcome those challenges in the end and graduated with a very high grade. The lesson I learnt is we can achieve anything we set our minds to. Having an end goal in mind and committing, is the key to success. I have 13 years food industry experience. Prior to working in the retail sector, I worked in the supply base. My career started off as a junior food safety/quality professional, working on the factory floor. I then progressed to management roles working with different product categories in the food industry. This diversity of knowledge has helped me in my career. Having worked in production environment, I understand the challenges faced my manufacturers. I apply some of the knowledge gained in my previous roles in my decision making and also to support stakeholders.

What makes your role interesting? What do you enjoy most about your role? What has been the role of mentors and family in the achievement of your professional goals?

The diversity of the day-to-day activities, the responsibility of ensuring that the customer gets safe food, the colleagues I work with, the company culture, what we stand for as a company. Plus, the satisfaction of landing a project successfully. All these factors make the role enjoyable and interesting.

What challenges do you face in delivering 24

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on your current role and how do you overcome them?

Challenges include being extremely busy at times. This is dependent on what is happening at a certain period of time. I overcome this with prioritizing and focusing on what adds value.

How do you wind down after a hard day at work? What are your personal hobbies? How do these hobbies contribute to your personal and professional development?

After a hard day at work, I like working on my personal blog where I write about food, sustainable living and wellness (www.albinna. com). Writing blogs contributes to my personal and professional development through acquiring skills such as SEO, knowledge gained when I am researching on my articles, which I also apply. If the weather is nice, I take a walk in the park - I find it relaxing and I am also able to think clearly whilst in an open space.

How can young people who may aspire to a career choice like yours plan their journey? What advice would you give them to succeed in their careers and life?

The key is to know what you want and then set goals to achieve these goals. The going may get tough at times, but stay focused and with your eyes on the end goal. Be ready to work hard in order to achieve your goals. Develop soft skills such as communication, critical thinking, resilience and persistence, collaboration, etc.

What would you want to accomplish in your career before you step away from the industry? What else would you want to do in the future?

To be honest, I haven’t thought of stepping away from the industry. I think I will always be a foodie at heart whether I am in employment or not. I would like to see more people understanding the role of food on our health and the health of the planet. Food plays an important role on how our health fares: what you eat plays a key role in chronic disease. Food may also impact how well you age as well as your mental health. This is just scratching the surface and many people do not know this. There is the food safety element of it and all the other challenges related to food that the world is facing today. This is one of reasons why I blog - to share knowledge. FSA

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INTRODUCTION

The Africa Food Safety Summit is Africa’s premier and largest international food safety, quality management and compliance conference and exhibition. The Summit brings together regional and global experts and stakeholders to share the latest trends in science and technology; regulations, standards and compliance; operations and sustainable adoption of food safety practices and technologies in the entire agriculture and food value chain in Africa. The 2022 Summit, which will comprise of THREE DAYS will be hosted in Nairobi, Kenya, in collocation with the AFMASS Youth Summit. Held in physical and virtual format, this Summit aims at providing the platform to boost quality, food safety and conformity in Africa’s fast rising food and agriculture sector to enhance trade in local, regional and global markets. The Summit will utilise the latest digital technologies to ensure that attendees have access to high quality presentations, virtual Expo Hall, as well as face-toface meetings, learnings and business linkages for those who will visit the Summit in person. It will bring together investors, managers and professionals in the private, public, academia and NGO/development organisations from across Africa and the World. Held annually since 2021, the Africa Food Safety & 26

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Quality Summit is shaping up to be the best platform to learn new ways to tackle the unique food safety, quality, compliance and regulatory challenges in Africa from leading experts, consultants, researchers and thought leaders. Participants at the Summit also get the platform to discover the latest technologies that the food and agro value chain players in Africa should adopt to improve compliance to food safety and quality protocols, reduce risks and improve business performance from some of the leading providers of equipment, laboratory solutions, packaging, consultancy and related services. The 2022 Africa Food Safety Summit is backed by the African Development Bank (AfDB) and Irish multinational taste and nutrition company, Kerry. Established in the 1960s, AfDB supports economic development and social progress of countries in Africa by promoting investment of public and private capital, in projects and programmes that aim to reduce poverty and improve living conditions. Kerry Group is the world’s leading taste and nutrition company, bringing technology, leadership and sustainable growth to the food and beverage industries. Companies like Bureau Veritas, AOAC Sub-Saharan Africa, World Animal Protection, Estec Limited Nesvax Innovations, Caselab, F&S Scientific, and IFC will also be showcasing their cutting-edge solutions at the Summit. FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET


SPONSORS & EXHIBITORS The Summit continues to attract leading local, regional suppliers, industry associations and government agencies as the leading showcase event in Africa.

Ingredients

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Laboratory Solutions

Specialty Chemicals

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SPEAKERS PROFILE

DAMIAN ONYEMA IHEDIOHA

Chief Agro Industry Officer, African Development Bank Group.

CAMPBELL MITCHELL Regional Quality & Food Safety Director – Middle East, Indian Subcontinent & Africa, Kerry

MARGARET KIBOGY Managing Director, Kenya Dairy Board

COLLINS MARANGU Director Plant Protection and Food Safety in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Cooperatives in Kenya

DR. HERMOGENE NSENGIMANA

DR. BLAISE OUATTARA, DMV, Ph.D.

DR. AMARE AYALEW Program Manager, Partnership for Aflatoxin Control in Africa

DR. JOHN K. MUORIA Lecturer JKUAT & Chairman, KIFST

OWEN PAUL FRASER, Ph.D President Africa & Board Member AOAC International

DR. ANDREW EDEWA Director, Standards and SPS Measures, TradeMark East Africa

STEPHEN CARLYON MD, Simplifine Foods

ALIYU ANGARA Registrar/CEO, Institute of Public Analysts of Nigeria (IPAN)

LABAN KABIRU Manufacturing and Logistics Director, Bio Food Products

LINDA CAPWELL Innovations Marketing Manager, Eastern & Southern Africa, Upfield

Secretary General, African Organisation for Standardisation, ARSO

Regional Food Safety and Quality Officer for Africa, FAO

DR. VICTOR YAMO Humane & Sustainable Agriculture Campaign Manager, World Animal Protection

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AGNES IRUNGU

ISAAC MUGENYA Manager, Testing Services, KEBS, Lake Region, Kenya

JEMI BOYE-OKIT

Global Supplier Quality Project Manager barry callebaut UK

MATLOU SETATI

Managing Director, Giant Millers Ltd

Executive: Food Safety, CGCSA

CYPRIAN KABBIS District Chief Executive, Eastern Africa, Bureau Veritas

LUCKY NTIMANE Convenor, National Liquor Traders

AUGUSTINE OKORUWA, PH.D, FNIFST Head of EatSafe Country Program, GAIN

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SPEAKERS PROFILE

WALTER RONO

Agri, Food & Trade Manager, Bureau Veritas

DR. GEORGE OOKO ABONG’

Senior Lecturer, University of Nairobi

CHARITY MAGWENZI R&D Manager, Capwell Industries

DOREEN LUGALIA Managing Consultant, Mantra Consulting

GERVASI NGATI

MALIKA AMAN East Africa Quality Manager, Unilever

Supply Chain Strategic Sourcing Unit Planner, Unilever East Africa & Ethiopia

RUSHABH SHAH Business Development Director, F&S Scientific

DR KELVIN OSORE Assistant Company Vet

MOLLY ABENDE Production Manager, Burton & Bamber Co. Ltd

VIVIAN OCHIENG

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Kenchic Limited

Production Manager, Simplifine Foods

LAWRENCE ALOO

TOM OUMA Business Development Manager, ESTEC

Head, Governance & Technical, Kenya Breweries Ltd

Milling Executive, CCB – National Milling Zimbabwe

CHRIS WAINAINA Commercial Director, Bruker East Africa

Founder & CEO, Kwanza Tukule

BENARD OTUNDO Energy Manager, Brookside Dairy

WALTER BRUCE OPIYO Quality Control Manager, Golden Africa

JACQUE NJONJO Africa Lead, Food Safety Advisory, IFC

MARTHA BYANYIMA Chief of Party, Land O’Lakes Venture 37

BHAVIKA CHOTALIYA

Chief BioChemist, National Public Health Laboratory, Kenya

WILLIAM KAPFUPI

CAREEN BIWOTT Quality Assurance Lead, KwikBasket

KATAKALA MUYOBA SIAKAVUBA

Brewing Area Manager, Zambian Breweries

AKANDE OLUKEMI

Head of Quality & Food Safety/ Research & Innovation, Fanmilk (Danone)

WILLIS MITULA

KHADIJA MOHAMED

Head of Supply Chain, Moko

JOHNES NZIOKI Management Consultant, Business Edge Consulting

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PROGRAM DAY 1 - JULY 20, 2022 07.00-09.50

REGISTRATION, REFRESHMENTS, EXPO HALL VISITS & NETWORKING

09.30–09:40

WELCOME ADDRESS BY THE ORGANISERS Francis Juma – Founder & CEO, FW Africa

09.40–10.00

OPENING CEREMONY • •

10.00–11.00

Keynote Speaker - Margaret Kibogy – Managing Director, Kenya Dairy Board Keynote Speaker - Dr. Damian Ihedioha, Manager of the Agribusiness Division, Agriculture and Agro-industry Department, African Development Bank (AfDB)

PANEL DISCUSSION TOPIC: COUNTRY FOCUS: STATUS OF FOOD SAFETY REGULATION & PRACTICE IN KENYA MODERATOR: Virginia Nyoro, Director, FW Africa • Dr. Andrew Edewa – Director, Standards & SPS Measures, Trademark East Africa • Cyprian Kabbis – District Chief Executive - Eastern Africa, Bureau Veritas Group • Collins Marangu – Director, Crop Protection & Food Safety, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock & Fisheries • Isaac Mugenya – Manager, Testing Services, Lake Region, Kenya Bureau of Standards • Teresia Waithaka – Senior Scientific & Regulatory Affairs Manager, Coca-Cola • Walter Bruce Opiyo – Quality Control Manager, Golden Africa Kenya

11:00–11:30

COFFEE/TEA BREAK, EXPO HALL VISITS & NETWORKING

11:30–13.00

PANEL DISCUSSION TOPIC: FOOD SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE & STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE TRADE IN AFRICA MODERATOR: Aminata Sow – Chief Agro-Industry Officer, African Development Bank • Owen Paul Fraser, PhD – President Africa & Board Member, AOAC International • Dr. Hermogene Nsengimana – Secretary General, African Organisation for Standardisation (ARSO) • Willis Mitula – Head, Governance & Technical, KBL • Blaise Ouattara - Regional Food Safety and Quality Officer for Africa, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) • Malika Aman – Quality Manager, Unilever East Africa • Martha Byanyima – Chief of Party, Land O’Lakes Venture 37

13.00–14:00

LUNCH BREAK, EXPO HALL VISITS & NETWORKING

14.00–16:00

PRESENTATIONS & INTERVIEWS/FIRESIDE CHATS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN FOOD BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS & MAINSTREAMING FOOD SAFETY IN AFRICA’S FOOD INDUSTRY This session is sponsored by Kerry MODERATOR: Jacque Njonjo – Africa Lead, Food Safety Advisory, IFC • Campbell Mitchell – Regional Quality & Food Safety Director, Middle East, Indian sub-continent & Africa, Kerry • Lucky Ntimane – Convenor, National Liquor Traders, South Africa • Steven Carlyon – Managing Director, Simplifine Foods • Agnes Irungu – Managing Director, Giant Millers

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PROGRAM 16.00–18.00

PRESENTATIONS TOPIC: DIGITALISATION & SUPPLY CHAIN TRANSFORMATION TO DELIVER ON FOOD SAFETY, QUALITY & CONFORMITY IN AFRICA’S FOOD & AGRO INDUSTRY MODERATOR: Walter Bruce Opiyo – Quality Control Manager, Golden Africa Kenya • Careen Biwott – Quality Assurance Lead, KwikBasket • Laban Kabiru – Manufacturing & Logistics Director, Bio Food Products • Dr. Augustine Okoruwa, FNIFST – Head of EatSafe Country Program, GAIN • Doreen Lugalia – Managing Consultant, Mantra Consulting

18.00-18.30

EXPO HALL VISITS & NETWORKING

18:30–20:00

OFFICIAL COCKTAIL

DAY 2 - JULY 21, 2022 - AFMASS YOUTH SUMMIT 07.00-09.00

REFRESHMENTS, EXPO HALL VISITS & NETWORKING

09.00–09:30

OPENING CEREMONY

09:30–10.30

PANEL DISCUSSION TOPIC: OPENING SESSION TOWN HALL: TAPPING INTO THE YOUTH POTENTIAL IN AFRICA’S FOOD & AGRICULTURE SECTOR • • • •

Charity Magwenzi – R&D Manager, Capwell Industries Viviane Ochieng’ – Production Manager, Simplifine Foods William Kapfupi – Milling Executive CCB, National Foods, Zimbabwe Gervasi Ngati - Supply Chain Strategic Sourcing Unit Planner, Unilever East Africa & Ethiopia

10:30–11:00

COFFEE/TEA BREAK, EXPO HALL VISITS & NETWORKING

11:00–13.00

PANEL DISCUSSION TOPIC: FOCUS ON YOUTH: CAREER GROWTH & OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA • • • • • • • •

Benard Otundo – Energy Manager, Brookside Dairy Akande Olukemi - Head of Quality & Food Safety/Research & Innovation, Fanmilk Nigeria PLC, (Danone) Jacque Njonjo – Africa Lead, Food Safety Advisory, IFC Katakala Muyoba Siakavuba – Brewing Area Manager, Zambian Breweries Linda Capwell – Regional Innovations Manager, Eastern & Southern Africa, Upfield Bhavika Chotaliya – Head of Supply Chain, Moko Johnes Nzioki – Management Consultant, Business Edge Consulting Molly Abende – Production & QA Manager, Burton & Bamber

13.00–14:30

LUNCH BREAK, EXPO HALL VISITS & NETWORKING

14.30–15:30

PRESENTATIONS/INTERVIEWS TOPIC: FOCUS ON YOUTH: ENTREPRENEURSHIP OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUTH IN AFRICA’S FOOD & AGRO INDUSTRY • •

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Khadija Mohamed – Founder & CEO, Kwanza Tukule Martin Ssali – Director, Smart Foods Ltd JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE

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PROGRAM 15.30–17.00

TOWN HALL DISCUSSION TOPIC: FOOD SAFETY IN THE NEWS: A REVIEW

DAY 3 - JULY 22, 2022 REFRESHMENTS, EXPO HALL VISITS & NETWORKING

07.00-09.00 09:00–10:30

PRESENTATIONS TOPIC: ADVANCES IN MICROBIAL & PHYSICO-CHEMICAL TESTING OF FOOD PRODUCTS • • •

COFFEE/TEA BREAK, EXPO HALL VISITS & NETWORKING

10:30–11:00 11:00–13.00

Lawrence Aloo – Chief BioChemist, National Public Health Laboratory, Kenya Evanson Mwangi – Laboratory Manager, Kenya Dairy Board Chris Wainaina – Commercial Director, Bruker East Africa

PRESENTATIONS TOPIC: ADVANCES IN MICROBIAL & PHYSICO-CHEMICAL TESTING OF FOOD PRODUCTS • • • •

Tom Ouma – Business Development Manager, ESTEC Walter Rono – Agri, Food & Trade Manager, Bureau Veritas Rushabh Shah – Business Development Director, F&S Scientific Sylvester Gule – Managing Director, Nesvax Innovations

13.00–14:00

LUNCH BREAK, EXPO HALL VISITS & NETWORKING

14.00–16.30

EMERGING FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY CONCERNS IN THE FOOD, BEVERAGE & ANIMAL FEED INDUSTRY IN AFRICA & THEIR SOLUTIONS • • •

16:30–17:30

Dr. Victor Yamo – Humane & Sustainable Agriculture Campaign Manager, World Animal Protection Dr. Kelvin Osore – Assistant Company Veterinarian, Kenchic Ltd Matlou Setati – Executive, Food Safety, Consumer Goods Council of South Africa (CGCSA)

PANEL DISCUSSION TOPIC: CAPACITY BUILDING & TRAINING OF AFRICA’S NEXT FOOD SAFETY CHAMPIONS • • • • •

17.30-18.00

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Dr. Augustine Okoruwa, FNIFST – Head of EatSafe Country Programs, GAIN Nigeria Jemi Boye-Okit - Global Supplier Quality Project Manager, Barry Callebaut UK Dr. George Abong’ – Senior Lecturer, University of Nairobi Aliyu Angara - Registrar/CEO, Institute of Public Analysts of Nigeria (IPAN) Dr. John Muoria - Lecturer, JKUAT and Chairman, Kenya Institute of Food Science & Technology

CLOSING CEREMONY & HAND OVER OF CERTIFICATES

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WELCOME TO AFMASS FOOD EXPO 2023 – BIGGER, BOLDER AND BETTER!! The 7th edition of AFMASS Food Expo Eastern Africa edition is promising to be the best ever food industry exhibition in the region. Set to take place at the marvelous Sarit Expo Centre in Nairobi, Kenya, the 2013 edition comes after the 2021 edition that was attended by over 4,500 visitors and delegates from more than 40 countries across Africa and the World – held at a time the region was still reeling from the effects of Covid-19 pandemic. “Coming in the middle of 2023, holding the event in June will enable us to host a bigger, bolder and better AFMASS Food Expo 2023, with a forecast of more than 6,000 trade visitors from across Kenya, Eastern Africa and beyond, as regional travel restrictions have eased and trade volumes are projected to not only stabilize, but strengthen as a result of the resurgence in business post the 2022 General Election in Kenya,” states Francis Juma, the CEO of FW Africa, the organisers of the Expo Nairobi remains the leading capital for enterprise and commerce in Eastern Africa, and the organisers are glad with the response to the Expo from past sponsors, exhibitors and delegates, who are looking at participating again at the 2023 edition, with a focus on reaching out to their customers across Eastern and Africa at large at the regional event. According to Juma, the organisers have since refreshed the event by streamlining the pavilions/

sections that will be available at the event, in addition to a number of Country Pavilions that are currently being negotiated with a number of countries in Africa and globally. The event has been organized into the following sections: • Food Ingredients Expo Africa – the largest showcase event for ingredients and chemicals used in food, beverage and milling industry in Africa • Packaging Africa Expo – the showcase for the latest technologies for the processing, packaging, automation and supply chain solutions for the food and beverage industry in Africa • Milling & Baking Africa Expo – the only showcase event for the latest technologies for the milling, baking, snacks and animal feed industries in Africa • AFMASS Food & Drinks Market – the largest showcase event for processed and packaged food, beverage, milling and other food products “We believe that AFMASS Food Expo has made its mark in the food industry in the region since its first edition in 2015. "As we plan the 2023 edition of the event, we are laser focused on delivering on our promise to continue growing this event as the most influential in the region’s food industry in the region by introducing new concepts around the event that will deliver more business networking and discovery opportunities for sponsors, exhibitors, partners, visitors and delegates.” Juma adds that opportunities to sponsor, exhibit, speak and attend the 2023 edition of the event are open at www.afmass.com

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FOOD DEFENCE, BIOVIGILANCE & BIOTERRORISM: An overlooked food safety topic in Africa 34

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TOPICAL Focus TRENDS IN MANAGEMENT OF FOOD SAFETY, QUALITY & COMPLIANCE IN FOOD & AGRICULTURE

T

By Catherine Odhiambo errorism!!! Does the term ring a bell…maybe or maybe not. Perhaps the first thought that comes to mind is ‘Al-Shabaab’, a Somaliabased terrorist jihadist militant group active in East Africa. However, did you know that even food is subject to terrorist attack? Instead of bullets, grenades, and bombs, viruses, bacteria, yeasts, parasites, or chemical substances of microbial origin are used in food to cause illness or death to civilian populations and/or disrupt social, economic or political stability. This is what is referred to as ‘Bioterrorism’. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers the malicious contamination of food for terrorist purposes as a real and current threat. Africa is particularly vulnerable to bioterrorism due to its fragile health systems that are, in all honesty, not adequately equipped to handle such a public health crisis if it ever occurred. Deterrence therefore becomes our first and maybe only line of defense. In this article, we discuss bioterrorism as an existential threat to food systems and how effective food defence plans can help food manufacturers address food system vulnerabilities (physical, personnel and operational security) to prevent deliberate attacks on food by malicious, criminal or terrorist threats or activities. BIOTOXINS, A CHEAPLY AVAILABLE BUT LETHAL WEAPON Many toxins affect the nervous systems of mammals by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. Others are responsible for blocking the main cellular metabolism, causing cellular death. They are known to cause more than 200 diseases—ranging from diarrhea to cancers. Typical symptoms of food poisoning are abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, upset stomach, diarrhea, fever,

THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) CONSIDERS THE MALICIOUS CONTAMINATION OF FOOD FOR TERRORIST PURPOSES AS A REAL AND CURRENT THREAT

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dehydration, and others. Most isolated bacterial agents responsible for foodborne infections include bacteria from genera such as Salmonella, Shigella, Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria, Campylobacter, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Vibrio, Enterobacter, and Yersinia. These pathogens can sometimes be made more potent by increasing their ability to cause disease, spread, or resist medical treatment. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classifies biological agents used as biological weapons in bioterrorist activities into three categories. Category A contains factors characterized by high pathogenicity and mortality, as well as ease of dissemination. Category B pathogens are moderately easy to spread, with low morbidity and mortality rates, but require specific monitoring and improvement of diagnostic capabilities. Category C includes emerging pathogens that could be easily engineered as bioweapons. Though lethal when effectively deployed, many biological toxins can be easily obtained. Simple bacterial culturing systems and extraction equipment dedicated to plant toxins are cheaply available and can even be constructed at home. This makes their potential for use by terrorists a major cause of worry by many world leaders. Africa, with its fragile health systems, porous borders and frequent migration is the perfect ground zero for the emergence of such public health threats.

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TOPICAL FOCUS | Food Defence, Biovigilance & Bioterrorism

ANY STAGE OF FOOD PRODUCTION IS VULNERABLE TO ACTS OF BIOTERRORISM Terrorists can attack food supply at several stages along the food chain. They can target livestock and crops during production, harvesting, storage or transport, what is christened ‘agricultural bioterrorism or agroterrorism’. Every major state biological warfare (BW) program we know of has included an anti-agricultural component, from the World War I German use of anthrax and glanders against animals to the Iraqi program on wheat cover smut. They can also target processed foods during the processing, manufacturing, storage, transport, distribution or service of such foods. Depending on the type of contaminated food and the biological agent, an outbreak could be slow, diffuse and initially unremarkable, or it could result in an explosive epidemic. In 1984, the USA witnessed the biggest bioterrorist attack with a foodborne pathogen—Salmonella typhimurium— which was used to contaminate salad bars in restaurants in Oregon. Members of the religious commune “Bhagawan Shree Rajneesh” tried to sabotage the local elections and succeeded in infecting 751 persons. In 1996, 12 laboratory staff members in a large laboratory in the USA suffered from gastroenteritis as a result of intentionally contaminated muffins and doughnuts. The investigations revealed Shigella dysenteriae type 2, identical to the laboratory’s stock strain, as the causative agent of the outbreak. Nonetheless, the origin and the purpose of this attack is still a mystery to date. VIGILANCE AGAINST BIOTERRORISM The African continent is situated within a precarious nexus 36

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of conflict, terrorism and disease, yet bioterrorism, as a dangerous combination of the latter two, is a topic that is significantly under-researched in the African context, placing the continent in a vulnerable position for the decade moving forward. As such food processors need to be vigilant against such threats. While food safety management systems, typically based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles, shield a food business

THE AFRICAN CONTINENT IS SITUATED WITHIN A PRECARIOUS NEXUS OF CONFLICT, TERRORISM AND DISEASE, YET BIOTERRORISM, AS A DANGEROUS COMBINATION OF THE LATTER TWO, IS A TOPIC THAT IS SIGNIFICANTLY UNDERRESEARCHED IN THE AFRICAN CONTEXT from inadvertent contamination and allows a food business to identify what could go wrong, the HACCP system is not designed to protect from deliberate attacks from within a FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET


food business. To adequately address bioterrorism risks, food defence plans have been developed and are now a requirement by many third-party food safety management systems. Plans for food defence focus on facility, operational, cyber and personnel security, with the goal of preventing deliberate attacks on the food supply chain by malicious, criminal or terrorist threats and activities. MOTIVATIONS FOR FOOD TERRORISM Perpetrators of intentional food adulteration often have different motivations for doing so. It could be due to the desire to harm, or kill, as many people as possible (terrorism); be economic; be issue orientated, where an individual or group is trying to damage a brand, company or specific industry, or extortion, where criminals attempt to gain money. As earlier discussed, terrorism against the food system occurs to cause fear, public health harm, or social and economic disruption. Sabotage can present itself in the form of resentful employees, consumers, or competitors who are out to harm a company’s reputation through recalls when they carry out intentional adulteration. Employees represent

expensive ingredients with cheaper ones to increase profit, adding unapproved ingredients to increase taste or volume, or mislabeling ingredients to avoid tariffs. Motivation often determines the adulterant and tactics that a perpetrator chooses to use. In addition to the threat itself, a manufacturer must understand these potential drives for adulteration to help address vulnerabilities in their process and keep the food system secure.

KEY NUMBERS

1984 THE YEAR USA WITNESSED THE BIGGEST BIOTERRORIST ATTACK WITH A FOODBORNE PATHOGEN intelligent adversaries with special access to and knowledge of your food production process and food defence program. This familiarity with your facility, procedures, security, and preventive control measures makes them of heightened concern. Consumers and extreme activists often carry out or threaten attacks on the food system to highlight a cause, such as using products thought to cause environmental harm. On the other hand, Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA) most commonly known as food fraud involves the intention to make money fraudulently, evade regulation, or gain an unfair economic advantage. This can be achieved by substituting

FOOD DEFENCE PLAN A food defense plan is a set of written documents that is based upon food defence principles and incorporates a vulnerability assessment, includes mitigation strategies, and delineates food defence monitoring, corrective action, and verification procedures to be followed. It is essential for a manufacturer to significantly minimize or prevent significant vulnerabilities related to intentional adulteration of food. A food defence plan can be created by adapting the USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) four conditions on food defence plans to the unique needs of your business. These are the four steps to creating your own food defense plan: • Planning The planning step involves coming up with a team that will create a food defence plan based on assessments of vulnerable critical control points in food production and handling and this is where terms like TACCP and VACCP come in. Threat Assessment and Critical Control Points (TACCP) and Vulnerability Assessment and Critical Control Points (VACCP) are relatively new programs based on the more familiar HACCP program, but they address threats and vulnerabilities instead of hazards. TACCP focuses on tampering, intentional adulteration of food, and food defence. It generally requires a wider range of employee involvement than HACCP, as it covers issues

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TOPICAL FOCUS | Food Defence, Biovigilance & Bioterrorism

SAMPLE FOOD DEFENSE PLAN (TABLE BY USDA’S FSIS)

Area

Vulnerability

Food Defence Solution

Outside Security

Potential tampering of incoming shipments

Careful examination of incoming raw materials (e.g. incoming inspection)

Inside Security

Suspicious packages and unexpected inventory changes

Establish SOP for reporting to appropriate personnel

Personnel Security Lack of awareness to security measures

Periodic food defence training

Incident Response Security

Upgrade food defence system with preventive alerts (e.g. temperature and humidity sensors by SafetyCulture)

Product spoilage due to equipment failure

such as manufacturing plant and transportation security, IT security, and employee background checks. Some points such as tamper-proof seals and various quality control checks will overlap with HACCP. Meanwhile VACCP focuses on food fraud as well but widens the scope to include systematic prevention of any potential adulteration of food, whether intentional or not, by identifying the vulnerable points in a supply chain. It is especially concerned with economically motivated adulteration (EMA). Examples include product substitutions, unapproved product enhancements, counterfeiting, stolen goods and others. Similar to HACCP, both programs require a control plan that covers mitigation strategies and correction procedures. They may require audits of the entire supply chain, assessments of various suppliers and extensive quality control checks of ingredients. There are also tools available that can help build a customized food defence plan. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has created a user-friendly desktop tool known as ‘The Food Defence Plan Builder (FDPB) version 2.0’. It is designed to help owners and operators of a food facility in the development of a food defence plan that is specific to their facility, and may assist them with meeting the requirements of the Mitigation Strategies to Prevent Food Against Intentional Adulteration regulation. This tool harnesses existing FDA tools, guidance, and resources for food defence into one single application. • Implementation Once done with the planning stage, it is critical to engage the employees and get their buy-in when implementing a food defence plan. Conducting employee training and meeting 38

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with stakeholders is key in getting everyone proactively involved in promoting the safety of food products. • Internal monitoring and analyzation Thereafter, internal audits need to be carried out to catch gaps or non-conformance with the implementation of a food defence plan. The USDA and the FDA have both developed food defence self-assessment tools. The documents are excellent resources that any processor, large or small, may use to evaluate its commitment to food defence. Ideally, the assessment should be done by the in-house person assigned to manage the food defence program. The person conducting the assessment should have received prior training on food defence. • Continuous improvement Since change is inevitable, FSIS recommends a yearly review of the food defence plan while other organizations like the FDA recommend every three years or sooner if there are changes in operations. Based on audit reports, industry best practices, the latest regulations on food safety, and new hazards, determine if the food defence plan needs to be updated or improved to keep up with new and changing threats to food defence.

CATEGORIES OF FOODBORNE BACTERIA (AND THEIR CORRESPONDING DISEASES) AS POSSIBLE BIOTERRORIST AGENTS

Bacterial Species

Disease

CATEGORY A Bacillus anthracis

Anthrax

Clostridium botulinum

Botulism

Yersinia pestis

Plaque

CATEGORY B Brucella spp

Brucellosis

Enterobacteria (Salmonella spp, Shigella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7)

Salmonellosis, dysentery, other gastrointestinal diseases

Staphylococcus aureu

Food intoxication

Clostridium perfringen

Food intoxication, gas gangrene

All food processors should understand that building a well-documented food safety management program will help ensure a good start on building a food defence system. As they say, prevention is better than cure. FSA

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FOOD

A SPECIAL PAVILLION AT:

INGREDIENTS SHOW AFRICA

Afmass FOOD EXPO

The Future of Food in Africa

WWW.AFMASS.COM

Meet & Network with the leading manufacturers and distributors of ingredients technologies from across the World at the Food Ingredients Africa Expo. Discover the latest market trends for your next new products innovation project. Food Colours & Flavours • Enzymes and Flour Improvers • Sugar, Fat & Salt Replacers • Emulsifiers & Antioxidants • Vitamins, Minerals & Supplements • Thickeners, Stabilisers, Humectants & Gums • Specialty Starches, Proteins & Oils • Sweeteners & Acidulants • Herbs & Spices • Antioxidants & Preservatives • Flavour Enhancers • PLUS MANY MORE . . . .

JUNE 15-17, 2023

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SARIT EXPO CENTRE, NAIROBI, KENYA WWW.AFMASS.COM39 JULY 2022 | FOOD SAFETY AFRICA MAGAZINE


PEST CONTROL A vital step in quality assurance process 40

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BASICS OF FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY DETAILED ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS PRPS AND OPERATIONAL PRPS

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By Catherine Odhiambo ruit flies, meal moths, cockroaches, mice, rats, snakes, birds, and numerous other vermin and insects are just some of the pest control challenges facing the food industry. Each creature may pose a serious risk to the safety of the food, either by direct infestation or through indirect contamination. Legislation worldwide requires pests to be excluded from food processing plants. Pest control is also one of the prerequisite programs essential to the development of effective Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) systems. Lack of pest activity in a facility is the key indicator of a successful pest control program, but how is the enviable pest free status achieved? PROFESSIONAL EXPERTISE NECESSARY Professional expertise from a pest control provider must be sought prior to implementing monitoring points if any pest control program is to be successful. These contractors provide an understanding of the biology and ecology of the available pests, as well as methods of exclusion and eradication, and must be licensed and trained. Where part or all of the pest management is conducted in-house, personnel must be appropriately trained, including those responsible for carrying out inspections, determining and applying suitable treatments, and managing the system. Rather than resorting to a series of temporary solutions for the pest issues, the providers are often exhorted to device permanent ones. In an ideal situation, they should apply principles of integrated pest management (IPM) that have the least impact on the environment and nontarget organisms. An IPM is the combining of appropriate pest control tactics including sanitation, mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control into a single plan to reduce pests and their damage to an acceptable level.

using pest-free seeds or transplants and decontaminating equipment, animals, and other possible carriers before allowing them to enter a pest-free area or leave an infested area. It is important to design the plant sanitation program so that all cracks, joints, crevices, and hidden surfaces are cleaned and inspected routinely. If this is not done, then buildup occurs, and pests are attracted. MECHANICAL CONTROL Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as traps (mechanical or non-mechanical), barriers (caulking, strips, seals, foam), and mechanical exclusion (screens, bird wire, strip curtains). It also involves using air currents and manipulation of environmental factors (temperature, humidity). Typical traps are designed to allow the pest to enter and be detained or to feed on a tainted food substance and return to its habitat. The most common mechanical rodent catching traps are the low-profile Tin Cat and Ketchalls. Non-mechanical insect control involves using either Vectors; wall stations that utilize

TIN CAT MOUSE TRAP

SANITATION KEY FOR PEST PREVENTION Proper sanitation is not only essential for prevention, but also an effective way to control and eliminate infestations. Your sanitation schedule should factor in type of pests, different areas of your site and other factors that make it unique. The removal of food and water sources stresses populations, making traps and baits more effective. Oil residues and greases also render many insecticides ineffective. Other forms of sanitation that help prevent pest spread include FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET

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BASICS OF FOOD SAFETY & QUALITY | Pest Control

IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE KETCH-ALLS LOCATED IN THE INTERIOR OF THE FACILITY, THE COMPANY MUST ESTABLISH AN 18INCH BARRIER BETWEEN THE WALL AND ANY RACKING OR OTHER MATERIALS

advises in his book that this product should not be used as a permanent maintenance tool or as a temporary tool for filling cracks or holes leading to the outside. Plastic strip curtains is another barrier that can be used to create “compartments” within the facility. They help to prevent the unencumbered

PHEROMONE TRAP

Mark Clute, Food Management Specialist a blue light to attract insects to a glue board or Insectocutors; wall units that utilize a blue light to attract insects and then electrocute them when they come in contact with an electrically charged set of metal rods. Insectocutors should be located in areas where there are no open food products or packaging while Vectors should be located in the more sensitive areas. Barriers, usually of a pliable material, foam, or strip material, fill door–floor, wall–floor, and other joints. Rubber strips fill other oddly shaped holes and cracks. Canned foam is a unique addition to the pest control applicator’s arsenal. Found at most local hardware stores, canned foam can be sprayed into any opening and, when released from the pressure, expands to many times its initial size, thus filling the hole or crack. Mark Clute, a Food Management Specialist and author of Food Industry Quality Control Systems,

BLUE LIGHT INSECTOCUTOR

roaming of pests throughout the facility since they act as semi-permanent doors. In conjunction with the Ketch-alls located in the interior of the facility, Clute adds that the company must establish an 18-inch barrier between the wall and any racking or other materials. This barrier should be painted white to allow the pest control inspector to see rodent droppings easily. At 18 inches, the barrier is wide enough for inspectors to have easy access for traveling between the traps as well as access to the back of pallets for inspection and inventory purposes. All exterior and interior walls should have this barrier. Both the contract pest control provider and the company should be involved in determining the location of the rodent traps, bait stations, and insect-attracting units. CULTURAL CONTROL Cultural controls are generally the cheapest of all control measures because they usually only require modifications to normal production practices. This involves changing the habits or behaviors of employees and visitors. Too often, visitors who come to the plant—whether seasoned food products professionals, first time visitors or, even company employees—have a varying degree of pest control knowledge. This disparity can often lead to routes of pest entry through open doors, dropped food, or poor cleaning practices. One

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way to prevent this contamination is to institute programs and procedures for visitors and employees to follow that assist in the exclusion of pests and change the cleaning schedules to prevent waste buildups. These procedures should be part of the good manufacturing process (GMP) rules that employees and visitors sign. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL These methods utilize living organisms or their byproducts to control pests. This includes the use of parasitic wasps for fly control, bacteria-based products for fruit fly control, and pheromone traps for insect collection and identification. These are complicated strategies for control of pests and generally should be left to licensed professionals. CHEMICAL CONTROL Chemical control is based on substances, i.e., pesticides, that are toxic (poisonous) to the pests involved. The pest control industry’s continued commitment to research and development has spawned a new generation of products that are low dose, highly effective and environmentally safe for use in food processing establishments. However,

JUST LIKE ANY OTHER SERVICE, WHEN SELECTING A PEST CONTROL PROVIDER, ONE SHOULD LOOK FOR QUALITY AND VALUE rarely does any pesticide kill all the target pests. Some pests are even resistant to the pesticides and may pass along these resistance traits to their offspring. This can be caused by repetitive use of the same pesticide in the same place against the same pest. As such, rotating pesticides may help reduce the development of pest

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resistance. It is nevertheless important to note that not every pesticide failure is caused by pest resistance. Applying the wrong pesticide, dosage and application method can all lead to failure. Other applications fail because the pesticide was not applied at an appropriate time - the pest may not have been in the area during the application or it may have been in a life cycle stage or location where it was not susceptible to the pesticide. Also reminisce that the pests that are present may be part of a new infestation that developed after the chemical was applied. EVALUATING A PEST CONTROL PROVIDER Just like any other service, when selecting a pest control provider, one should look for quality and value. Depending on the facility’s size, type of pests, and the knowledge level of the quality control manager, the contract pest control provider should provide any and/or all of the following services: plan development, plan implementation, periodic evaluation, accurate record keeping, and pest elimination. Hiring a contract pest control provider involves requesting proposals from local providers. Before hiring the contract pest control provider, each prospective company should be interviewed and a proposal received that outlines the type of program, its validation procedures and timelines, and initial and ongoing costs associated with the program. In anticipation of the proposal, Clute recommends an initial meeting to discuss the proposed program and evaluate the facility. This involves inspecting the facility and any specific areas of concern, preparing a basic diagram of the facility for use in preparing the proposal, determining the state of the current pest control program, if any. The provider should also interview the quality control manager to determine the level of involvement the company will have during the development and implementation phase. The responsibility for the program’s development, implementation, and

enforcement rests on the back of both parties. After implementation, the company should conduct weekly or bimonthly inspection while the provider should offer a periodic service, most preferably on a monthly basis. PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION In spite of proper documentation of pest management programs being a top priority for many food processing facilities, it can inadvertently be neglected during busy, high-stress situations. Being a tool used by auditors to verify pest control claims, the lack thereof can lead to harsh penalties being meted to the facility. A food processing facility’s documentation PVC FLAPS CURTAIN STRIP

must show that a pest management program is in place, to intervene and eliminate pest threats and describe the pest issue and what the response was to the issue. It should also document the effectiveness of the response and that the risk to the facility has been mitigated. All in all, care must be taken never to sacrifice food safety when choosing the proper pest control measures. FSA

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BEER

Growing “premiumization” drives innovation in analytical procedures

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Technology B

HIGHLIGHT

LATEST TRENDS IN THE TESTING TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD AND BEVERAGE PRODUCTS

By Catherine Odhiambo

eer is by far one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world dating back to the bronze age. With the growing “premiumization” of beers, a shift and advancement in the analytical procedures has been an inevitable move. In the distant past, this was done through taste, smell, flavor, and visual analysis rather than instrumentation. In modern times, however, analytical instrumentation plays an increasingly important role in the brewing process given that numerous factors that are just not that easy to taste, smell, see or feel, contribute to the success or failure. As Henry Ford once said, “You can’t improve what you can’t measure”. LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR MYCOTOXIN SCREENING Any brewery, whether a craft, regional or multi-national, all share the same dream: to have their product hit the shelf in prime condition and is safe for consumption. Mycotoxins are however an existential threat to this. Dry goods such as malt, hops and barley used in the manufacture of beers are often susceptible to mycotoxin producing fungi. Mycotoxins, as we know them, are a food safety risk and should never

LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROSCOPY (LC-MS) SYSTEM

be allowed to enter the food chain. A recent analysis of marketed beers however found that almost half contained mycotoxins. A combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy (LC-MS), is able to screen for multiple mycotoxins in a single analysis, helping in early detection. The technique is also used to monitor the content of alphaand beta-acids that contribute to beer bitterness and flavor stability. PROTON TRANSFER REACTION-MASS SPECTROMETRY The interaction of VOCs in a particular way produce the distinctive flavors and aromas of different beers. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) used in conjunction with gas chromatography allows detection of even low concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs). PTR-MS is a technique developed almost exclusively for the

THE PROTON TRANSFER REACTION MASS SPECTROMETRY (PTRMS) USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY ALLOWS DETECTION OF EVEN LOW CONCENTRATION VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) detection of gaseous organic compounds in air. However, the high-concentration of ethanol in beer titrates the PTRMS instrument, preventing the accurate measurement of lower concentration VOCs that are present in the liquid or headspace. Additionally, PTR-MS cannot distinguish between isomers, such as different monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes (aroma compounds), which have the same elemental composition but different molecular structures. To quantify low concentration VOC isomers, a fast gas chromatogram (GC) – which can separate isomers – is coupled in line with a TOFWERK Vocus 2R PTR-TOF. The Vocus PTR-TOF is a proton transfer reaction mass

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TECHNOLOGY HIGHLIGHT | Beer Testing

KARL FISCHER TITRATOR

Sartorius and Kent have also come up with NIR moisture meters. The Sartorius MA160 Infrared Moisture Analyzer offers reliable, precise and versatile moisture analysis in both research and manufacturing environments. Modern turbidity meters also use an infrared LED light source to swiftly check that their fining or filtration process is yielding a desired end product. Turbidity refers to suspended, insoluble material which can appear in the final product. It can occur due to unwanted microbes, wild yeast or protein particles. These deposits, although not unsafe to consume,

IN THE WORLD OF OBTAINING ACCURATE READINGS OF MOISTURE LEVELS, METHODS LIKE THE KARL FISCHER METHOD, HAVE WEATHERED THE TEST OF TIME spectrometer for sensitive, real-time detection of VOCs in industrial, laboratory, and field applications. As ethanol elutes from the GC well before most aroma compounds, quantitative flavor analysis of alcoholic beverages becomes possible. NIR MOISTURE METERS CUTTING THE WAIT TIME TO NEARLY NOTHING At the beginning of the beer brewing process, testing the moisture content in barley and hops and the microbiological content in water can help safeguard the quality and consistency of beer. Control of malt moisture will help in optimizing extract and breakage and will prevent decline in quality during storage. In the world of obtaining accurate readings of moisture levels, methods like the Karl Fischer method, have weathered the test of time, with decades of use. However, newer and flashier methods like the near infrared (NIR) technology are finding their place in the industry. NIR moisture meters measure the absorbance and reflectance of light to determine the moisture levels; the more light that is absorbed, the higher the moisture content. Unlike the Karl Fischer method, NIR moisture meters are non-destructive and non-contact, so you never lose your initial sample. An example of such is the OMNIR on-line near infrared moisture sensor developed by Finna Sensors, a developer of advanced industrial sensors and hand-held meters. OMNIR is an intelligent all-sensing solution that was created to thrive in a networked world with built-in Internet of Things (IOT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) features. It leverages the latest electronics and software to offer a ground-breaking solution for manufacturers. Companies like 46

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can significantly alter the flavor profile of the beer, adding unpleasant acidity, sourness, or even off-flavors. WATER QUALITY TESTING To achieve the great taste of beer and ascertain the cleanliness of equipment after cleaning process, water quality check

WATER QUALITY TESTING METERS

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detection or a foot switch to minimize risk of secondary contamination. HANDHELD METER

must be carried out in the various stages of brewing process with reliable and accurate instruments. The water quality parameters to be tested are determined by a beer manufacturer’s water source. Water acquired from municipal water systems often can contain chlorine or chloramines, which can give beer a plastic “Band-Aid” taste. As for well water, the hardness and mineral content vary from coast to coast. Based on these facts, anyone involved in the brewing of

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beer should consider which minerals are potentially being introduced to the brews. The most common water quality parameters checked are chlorine, pH, total alkalinity, residual alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, chloride, sodium and sulfate. Having the advantages of less maintenance design, low-volume sample requirement, and hassle-free operation, the HORIBA LAQUAtwin pocket meters and LAQUA dissolved oxygen (DO) handheld meters and electrodes are recommended for home and commercial beer brewers. The LAQUAtwin series are presently available for measuring pH, EC/ TDS,Sodium, Potassium, Nitrate and Calcium ion concentrations as well as Salinity. Regular total colony counts and tests to identify coliform bacteria, specifically E.coli, are recommended for microbiological quality control of water. Sartorius’ e.motion Dispenser Membrane filters optimize water testing workflows and save time. They dispense filters automatically eliminating the need for manual operation. The filters also simplify the colony counting due to clear colony morphology and distinct grid lines. The company also has a Microsart e.motion Dispenser which automatically dispenses membrane filters for water testing in the brewery by touch of a button, hands-free motion

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY Spectrophotometric technology has been used by leading brewing companies around the world to maintain product quality and reputation. It continues to show potential for other applications in beer brewing and product development. Its ability to provide rapid and precise measurements has steered its wide adoption. UV-VIS spectrophotometric technology helps monitor quality control in beer production and development. Key regulatory groups such as the American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC), European Brewery Convention (EBC), and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), all recognize UV-VIS spectroscopy as a reliable analytical method for testing beer. From color to taste, this

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN USED BY LEADING BREWING COMPANIES AROUND THE WORLD TO MAINTAIN PRODUCT QUALITY AND REPUTATION technology assures companies that their products will meet consumer demands. Along with other analyses, color measurements produce valuable information that allows comparisons to be made between the sample and predetermined parameters. There are currently two standard measurements for beer and wort color: Standard Reference Method (SRM1) and the European Convention (EBC). Both of these methods use spectrophotometric technology and light absorption measurements to quantify color and provide information on various aspects of brewing and

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TECHNOLOGY HIGHLIGHT | Beer Testing

ELISA TESTING

beer formulation. Mettler Toledo’s UV/VIS Excellence spectrophotometers are used by brewing companies throughout the world to achieve a consistent level of quality, during their product development and beer production processes. They provide a variety of measurements during and after beer production to determine color, taste, bitterness, total carbohydrates and more. HunterLab is also a leader in spectrophotometric technology and specializes in color measurement and quality control. Plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES) is also a type of spectrophotometry established for the detection of calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, and sodium in finished or packaged beer. The instrument measures the elemental concentrations based on the emission of light for each element as the sample is passed through a plasma DETERMINATION OF GLUTEN USING THE R5 COMPETITIVE ELISA METHOD Food allergies are a major public health concern affecting between 220 and 250 million people worldwide. It is therefore imperative that those who are sensitive to gluten can be confident consuming foods that are labeled gluten-free or that are naturally gluten-free. The only process capable of ensuring that a product is 100% gluten-free is to utilize 100% gluten-free grains. Products denoted as gluten-free must contain no more than 20ppm gluten, as measured by ELISA. ELISA is the major commercially available laboratory procedure currently used to determine the presence of gluten within food products. But a drawback of this method is that it cannot adequately quantify gluten that has been hydrolyzed, such as in beer. As such, mass spectroscopy (MS) is emerging as the most promising alternative to ELISA in allergen analysis. As opposed to ELISA which is dependent on the 3D structure of food, MS when coupled with liquid 48

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chromatography (LC), caters for the structural changes experienced during processing: basing the results on the amino acid sequence of an allergen. The samples are easy to prepare and better yet MS can simultaneously detect more than one allergen, with a shorter results generation time. ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE (EPR) FOR BEER FRESHNESS Also known as the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), EPR is used to directly measure free radical production in the beer during a forced oxidation assay. The assay is based on an EPR-spin trapping experiment in which free radicals form covalently bound adducts with the Phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) spin trapping reagent. The accumulation of these adducts is detected by EPR during the forced oxidation period and directly reflects the resistance or lack thereof of the beer to oxidation. The Beer Freshness Package is the only established way of determining how parameters in operations, materials and process design can positively or negatively impact beer quality and freshness during the beer production process. The package is as a result of an alliance between FlavorActiv,

THE BEER FRESHNESS PACKAGE IS THE ONLY ESTABLISHED WAY OF DETERMINING HOW PARAMETERS IN OPERATIONS, MATERIALS AND PROCESS DESIGN CAN POSITIVELY OR NEGATIVELY IMPACT BEER QUALITY AND FRESHNESS DURING THE BEER PRODUCTION PROCESS a world leader in sensory solutions and Bruker, an American manufacturer of scientific instruments. It has been upgraded to include Bruker’s microESR benchtop instrument, which is fully supported by applications training, customized reagents, GMP Flavor Standards and technical support. The microESR is a small, portable research-grade instrument that weighs only 10 kg and can fit easily on a bench, fume hood, or even be transported into the field. According to Bruker, it requires no special installation or regular maintenance, meaning even the most inexperienced researcher or student can benefit from the analytical power of EPR. It allows users to detect the concentration and composition of free radicals with a simple software interface and easy-to-follow workflows. As beer continues to become a common pleasure for many people, analytical techniques will continue becoming increasingly important in the brewing industry, for both safety screening and monitoring the brewing process. FSA

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NAFDAC Ensuring sanity in Nigeria’s agri-food value chain

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NOW OUR Regulator

A PROFILE OF SOME OF AFRICA’S KEY REGULATORS AND THEIR IMPACT ON FOOD SAFETY By Catherine Odhiambo

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stablished in October 1992, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) is the regulatory body that controls the manufacture, importation, exportation, distribution, advertisement, sale and use of Food, Drugs, Cosmetics, Medical Devices, Packaged Water, Chemicals and Detergents in Nigeria. NAFDAC was inspired by a 1988 World Health Assembly resolution requesting countries to help in combatting the global health threat posed by counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and amidst growing concerns about the growing problem of fake and poorly-regulated drugs in Nigeria. In December 1992, NAFDAC’s first FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET

evolved in structure and quality of services rendered to the public. At inception, the Agency had 9 Departments which became 12 and now there are 18 Directorates with 8 zonal Offices (6 geopolitical zones, Federal Capital Territory; FCT, and Lagos State Office), all headed by Directors. There are also offices in the 36 states of the Federation and 7 quality control laboratories around the country. The governmental organization’s head office is located in Abuja while the operation office sits in Lagos. Leadership of the Agency’s overall functions which include administration and control of regulated products is directly under the Director General, who is currently Prof Moji Christianah Adeyeye. Adeyeye was handed the leadership mantle in November Governing Council was formed, chaired by Ambassador Tanimu Saulawa. In January 1993, supporting legislation was approved as legislative Decree No. 15 of 1993, and January 1, 1994 NAFDAC was officially established, as a “parastatal of the Federal Ministry of Health”. It replaced an earlier Federal Ministry of Health body, the Directorate of Food and Drug Administration and Control, which had been deemed ineffective, largely due to a lack of laws concerning fake drugs. The latest law that grants NAFDAC its legal authority is the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control Act Cap N1 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (LFN) 2004. STRUCTURE AND MANAGEMENT Over the years, NAFDAC has greatly

AT INCEPTION, THE AGENCY HAD 9 DEPARTMENTS WHICH BECAME 12 AND NOW THERE ARE 18 DIRECTORATES WITH 8 ZONAL OFFICES, ALL HEADED BY DIRECTORS 2017 succeeding Mrs. Yetunde Oni, who had attained the 60 years retirement age. A Director General is appointed by the President based on the recommendation of the Health

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REGULATOR HIGHLIGHT | NAFDAC

NAFDAC & GATES FOUNDATION DURING A PARTNERSHIP DISCUSSION

Minister. The appointment is for a 5-year term, with a possible reappointment for strictly one more term. There are six offices in the Director-General’s Office supervised by Director Special Duties and Special Assistant. There is also a Lagos Liaison Office located at NAFDAC

NAFDAC HAS A DIRECTORATE KNOWN AS FOOD SAFETY AND APPLIED NUTRITION (FSAN) DIRECTORATE WHICH ENSURES THAT FOOD MANUFACTURED, SOLD, AND USED IN NIGERIA MEETS THE HIGHEST STANDARD OF FOOD SAFETY THAT IS REASONABLY ACHIEVABLE Administrative Office in Isolo, Lagos State manned by Special Assistant and two Technical Assistants in charge of Food & Stakeholders and Research & Special Projects. The organization has a Governing Council currently chaired by Yusuf A. Suleiman who is appointed by the President on the Minister’s recommendation. Members of the Governing Council hold office for a four-year term and are eligible for reappointment for only one more 4-year tenure.

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REGULATORY ROLE IN THE FOOD SECTOR Majorly known for its oversight in the medical field, NAFDAC also stretches its arms to the food sector making certain that all food present in Nigeria is of the highest quality. This is achieved through vigorous regulatory activities including inspection of production facilities, sampling, laboratory evaluation, post marketing surveillance, enforcement etc. The regulator has a Directorate known as Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (FSAN) Directorate which ensures that food manufactured, imported, exported, distributed, sold, advertised and used in Nigeria meet the highest standard of food safety that is reasonably achievable. FSAN has put in place a framework to align with the Agency’s vision to remain among the top 18 Regulatory Agencies of the world. The Directorate, also headed by a Director, is divided into seven divisions including Food Evaluation, Food Inspection, MSM & Agricultural Products, Food Safety/Codex/ Food Policy & Reg/National Food Safety Mgt Committee, Food Storage & Quick Service Restaurants, Packaged Water, and Bakery & Baked Products Division. In collaboration with the Laboratory Services (LS) Directorate, it carries out safety evaluation of all processed foods, food supplements, water, food additives and related products to ensure they meet the highest standards before pre-market authorization or use. The LS Directorate is the arm of the Agency that investigates and makes pronouncements on the quality, safety, efficacy and wholesomeness of regulated products both imported and locally manufactured. FSAN also conducts Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) inspections of food and water establishments, quick

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service restaurants and bakeries. It ensures that regulations and policies governing the safety of food and food products are current and implemented to guarantee food safety. Besides implementation, it also assures that policies, standards and guidelines for novel foods, functional foods, supplements including genetically modified food and new food additives are developed. Further, FSAN conducts regulatory and research programs to address health risks associated with food borne ailment, physical, chemical, and biological contaminants in food and related products. The regulator conducts industry outreach, consumer education and stakeholders meeting to provide information and for meaningful engagement. In addition, it shields consumers from unfair practices, through a fair and effective food, water and related products regulatory regime for foods made in Nigeria, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and International markets. It is the NAFDAC Directorate that

KEY NUMBERS

1994 THE YEAR NAFDAC WAS OFFICIALLY ESTABLISHED AS A PARASTATAL OF THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF HEALTH promotes and coordinates the activities of International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN). DETECTION AND ELIMINATION OF SUBSTANDARD AND UNWHOLESOME FOOD This is the crux of NAFDAC’s regulatory activities hence the Agency has been highly proactive and vigilant in this regard. It brings together almost all the technical Directorates, namely Investigation and Enforcement, Ports

Inspection, Laboratory Services, Chemical Inspections, and Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. In its determined effort to combat substandard as well as unwholesome foods, the Agency has deployed multifaceted strategies. Some of the strategies include; reduction in number of registered imported products, encouraging local manufacturing and innovation, and overhaul of Pre-Shipment Clean Report of Inspection and Analysis of imported food products and other NAFDAC Regulated Products. Other similar measures include deployment of cutting-edge monitoring technologies, risk-based laboratory testing, public enlightenment on substandard foods, Inter-Agency, Inter-Professional Collaboration and Community Efforts and continuous Post-Marketing monitoring of quality of foods. To act as a reference point to food manufacturers and be regarded as official government documents, in 2021, NAFDAC’s Governing Council gazetted some regulations including Cocoa and Cocoa Products Regulation,

LAUNCHING OF THE INTEGRATED DISEASE SURVEILLANCE & RESPONSE (IDSR)

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REGULATOR HIGHLIGHT | NAFDAC Food Additives Regulations, Food Fortification Regulations, Food Irradiation Regulations, among others. Thanks to Adeyeye’s efforts,

IN ITS DETERMINED EFFORT TO COMBAT SUBSTANDARD AS WELL AS UNWHOLESOME FOODS, NAFDAC HAS DEPLOYED MULTIFACETED STRATEGIES the agency managed to resume its activities at the Nigerian ports in 2018. This coupled with rigorous inspection and enforcement activities, has so far led to the seizure and destruction of substandard and unwholesome foods and other unregulated products worth

US$9.69 million in exercises across the nation. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT AND ENLIGHTENMENT Public awareness campaign is one of the veritable regulatory mechanisms put in place by NAFDAC to promote and protect the health of the Nigerian population. NAFDAC continues to engage and enlighten the public on its activities about their health. In the past four years, the Agency has engaged eighteen media partners which include four television houses and the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN). As per the Director General’s mantra, “A well informed, sensitized and educated citizenry is the bedrock of effective regulation.” The watchdog has incessantly sensitized the public on the dangers of using certain chemicals in food including using potassium bromate to bake bread, use of Azo-dyes in palm oil which causes cancer and using Sniper or formalin to preserve any type of food or to keep flies away from meat. It has also held

NAFDAC AT GS1 WORKSHOP

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workshops to educate on effects of trans fat, wrong use of pesticides and the issue of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) arising from animal meat. Last year in commemoration of the 2021 World Antimicrobial Awareness Week (WAAW), NAFDAC organized a virtual stakeholders’ sensitization workshop to further create awareness about AMR and promote the responsible use of antimicrobials. AMR is a threat to global health, food security and development. To this end, NAFDAC in her regulatory activities has put in place some important regulatory measures to curb the emergence and spread of AMR. The Agency has banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock and fish production and as mold inhibitors in animal food. It has also instituted road show campaigns and public enlightenment on the appropriate, and more importantly inappropriate use of

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NAFDAC & FCCPC SIGNING MOU TO PROTECT CONSUMERS

antimicrobial agents to promote safe and judicious use of antibiotics. STAFF TRAINING AND CERTIFICATIONS To ensure the efficiency of these consumer sensitization workshops and inspections, NAFDAC has prioritized staff training, and capacity development. This has seen no fewer than 3,600 staff being trained and retrained in the last four years. Similarly, staff are being encouraged to undertake academic programmes to improve their expertise on the job provided it does not interfere with their official assignments. With a transparent and quality-driven work environment that is expected of a regulatory agency, the NAFDAC boss affirms that staff are now well motivated, disciplined and more dedicated. The Agency is deeply rooted in ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management

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System (QMS) with all their processes procedure driven. NAFDAC, through partial support from the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and West African Health Organization (UNIDO/WAHO), commenced the implementation of QMS in April 2018. The implementation included training of over 2,241 staff of the Agency for various levels of QMS including but not limited to awareness, system development, internal auditing processes etc. Come 2019, it reaped the fruits of its labor by gaining the ‘ISO 9001:2015 certified’ title and has since worked towards upholding it. Through continual improvement and adherence to their mantra, “Customer focused: Agency minded”, it received recertification in both 2020 and 2021. SMOOTHING THE PATH FOR MSMES In support of Micro, Small and Medium

Enterprises (MSMEs) the Agency in April 2021, instituted several activities which included a further review of guidelines and streamlined registration processes, to handle their peculiar difficulties. The aim was to remove critical bottlenecks and bureaucratic red tapes that hinder the smooth registration and regulatory activities of MSMEs. One of the policies put in place to encourage small businesses is the decentralization of the registration process to make it less cumbersome. The number of regulated products being registered at NAFDAC’s zonal office was also increased from 11 to over 80 different products. To cut the cost of setting up a factory, the regulations permit companies manufacturing similar products to use one facility. The registration timeline of products has also been reduced to between 60 and 90 working days from the previous 120 days. Further, the regulator has digitized its registration processes affording clients continuous registration of their products. This may eliminate or reduce corruption and extortion, either by 3rd parties or the agency’s employees. To top it all, the revised policy has reduced registration

THROUGH CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT NAFDAC RECEIVED ISO 9001:2015 RECERTIFICATION IN BOTH 2020 AND 2021 tariffs for regulated products by 80% for MSMEs. As a government organization tasked with the onerous responsibility of safeguarding the health of the nation, NAFDAC is committed to leave no stone unturned in its drive to rid the country of the menace of unwholesome food, poorly packaged water and other substandard regulated products. FSA

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YOGHURT Food safety and quality issues in yoghurt processing 56

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RODUCT Focus

THE LATEST TRENDS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF FOOD SAFETY IN FOOD & BEVERAGE PRODUCTS

Y

By Catherine Odhiambo oghurt is a centuries old dairy product packed with a whole lot of nutritional benefits that is relished by the young and old alike. As opposed to regular milk, yoghurt is an excellent vehicle for probiotics that aid in lactose digestion hence is well tolerated by people with lactose intolerance. Yoghurt contains 10 essential nutrients including calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and riboflavin. 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines state that yoghurt can help protect us against heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, some cancers, Type 2 diabetes, and help contribute to stronger bones. With its dynamic nature and variable viscosity, yoghurt requires specialist processing knowledge to get a high-quality and safe product through the plant and into the package. The production processes, the type of milk, practices adopted during feeding, milking, and beyond can affect the quality and safety characteristics of yoghurt. Let’s troubleshoot some of these issues encountered by manufacturers. RAW MATERIALS RECEPTION AND STORAGE Total microorganisms count is a good indicator of the general quality, hygiene and safety of milk, since increased microbial growth influences the efficiency of heat treatment. Raw milk may be contaminated by antibiotics, the residues of various livestock therapeutic treatments. Besides their cumulative effects on consumers, antibiotics can also inhibit yoghurt fermentation. In addition, high somatic cells count is a good indicator of mastitis that degrades milk hygiene and should not exceed certain limits.

WITH ITS DYNAMIC NATURE AND VARIABLE VISCOSITY, YOGHURT REQUIRES SPECIALIST PROCESSING KNOWLEDGE TO GET A HIGH-QUALITY AND SAFE PRODUCT THROUGH THE PLANT AND INTO THE PACKAGE

disorder and cardiovascular diseases, while aflatoxin M1 and dioxins are considered by the European Commission as carcinogenic. Cream and milk powder which are used as raw materials may also be contaminated by airborne pathogens during storage and transportation from suppliers. Since these pathogens are virtually identical to those found in raw milk, cream need always be maintained chilled at 0-40 C. However, bacteria like Listeria monocytogenes grow even at low temperatures. While these hazards may also generally appear in milk powder, heat treatment during yoghurt production ensures that they are effectively eliminated.

Raw milk may also contain heavy metals such as lead, mycotoxins such as aflatoxin M1 and dioxins that may impact people's health if consumed. Lead is implicated for mental

QUALITY OF STARTER CULTURE CRUCIAL The presence of a non-vital culture can inhibit milk coagulation. Culture vitality, measured by the coagulation time and the amount of lactic acid produced , is therefore an

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PRODUCT FOCUS | Yoghurt manufacturers on location by assessing the design of the process for phage risks and conducting phage surveys. The data collected can subsequently be used to give individual dairy producers advice on hygiene and a suitable culture rotation scheme to avoid phage issues. Manufacturers are also turning to Direct Vat Inoculation (DVI) as it provides relative immunity to phage attacks. DVI involves inoculating the yoghurt mix directly with a very large number of freezedried starter organisms.

indicator of whether or not the fermentation process will take place as desired. Vitality can be affected by a number of reasons chief among them being bacteriophage-attack. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and destroy the lactic acid bacteria needed in the production of yoghurt. Phages can slow down fermentation, which can negatively impact the flavor, yield

CONTAMINATION FROM ADDED FRUITS Moulds can be introduced through the addition of fruits and other foods to the yoghurt. Commercially most fruit for blending with yoghurt is supplied in pasteurized sealed bags and should be free of pathogenic or spoilage bacteria and molds. Typically, packs should come with a certificate of analysis to confirm the absence of coliform bacteria and molds. Auspiciously, most fruits are acidic with a pH of 4.5 or less so their addition should not affect the safety of the product. Melons and guava however may have a pH above 4.5 and theoretically could increase the pH of the yoghurt/fruit blend or result in low acid “patches” in the yoghurt. This could support the growth of spoilage bacteria, should any find their way into the blended yoghurt. To this end, melon and guava fruits may need to be acidified by the manufacturer before pasteurizing and packing to ensure their safety. In addition, fruits must be free from heavy metals and pesticides that can be extremely harmful above critical limits. Additives should be added in conformance with national and international legislation due to their chemical texture, which can be hazardous above certain limits. ADDING OTHER FOODS TO YOGHURT Confectionery and nuts are very dry foods and do not support the growth of micro-organisms. Nuts are a potential source

SUGAR AND ACIDITY ARE TWO IMPORTANT QUALITY PARAMETERS IN YOGHURT AND MUST BE TESTED, AS THE TARGET CONTENTS OF BOTH VARY IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF YOGHURT and texture of dairy products. As phages are strain-specific, culture rotation is an essential practice in the dairy industry to combat infection by phages. DSM, a Dutch multinational corporation, has developed an industry-leading, proactive phage management approach. The company supports dairy 58

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of moulds and could, particularly if the storage temperature is not maintained, reduce the shelf life of the yoghurt. The presence of each nut variety added to a blend must be clearly declared to assist people who may have a nut allergy. Care must be taken with cleaning and with handling equipment such as ladles to ensure that nut residues do not find their way into blends that are not meant to contain nuts. Flavoring such as chocolate, strawberry or vanilla should not impact on the safety or shelf life of the product. YOGHURT’S ACIDITY KEEPING MICRO-ORGANISMS AT BAY Due to the high acidity of yoghurt attributed to the lactic acid bacteria, most micro-organisms that cause foodborne illnesses do not get an ambient environment to thrive hence die off. In case there is a problem with the acidity, the low temperature at which yoghurt is stored comes in handy to slow down bacterial growth. Moreover, storing at the recommended temperature (50C or less) ensures that the yoghurt remains fresh over the course of its storage life. It also guards against the growth of acid-tolerant micro-organisms that, while they are unlikely to cause illness, can cause the yoghurt to develop off-flavors or go moldy and spoil.

GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES Notwithstanding the acidity in yoghurt contributing to its safety, good manufacturing practices (GMP) must be adhered to, to control the risk of micro-organisms getting into a blend and reducing its shelf life. There is also the risk that if bacteria like Salmonella find their way into the blend, they may cause serious illness. This is because the infectious dose of Salmonella is very low and, even though they can’t grow in yoghurt, if any are present there is a chance that they could cause illness. Existence of yeasts or moulds in industrial yoghurts is an indicator of poor hygienic practices in manufacturing. FINAL PROCESSING AND PACKAGING During incubation and packaging airborne pathogens such as coliforms, moulds and yeasts constitute possible hazards, which cannot be timely controlled at this stage. Packaging materials could be a source of microbial contamination, which is effectively eliminated under aseptic packaging

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conditions. The presence of foreign bodies such as packaging material fragments like metals, and adhesives is a critical subject that can impose a

PHAGES CAN SLOW DOWN FERMENTATION, WHICH CAN NEGATIVELY IMPACT THE FLAVOR, YIELD AND TEXTURE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS physical hazard. Metal detectors and optical control are necessary for the detection of these hazards and their elimination. HYGIENIC QUALITY FOR YIELD AND SPECIFICATIONS Advances in analytical technology for checking the hygiene quality of milk such as the flow cytometry technology

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PRODUCT FOCUS | Yoghurt has made it possible to test milk within minutes so that a result is available before it is unloaded from the delivery truck and mixed with the rest of the supply. The analyzer incubates a sample of milk and then uses a laser to count individual bacteria and somatic cells that determine the hygiene quality and subsequent suitability for processing. EFFECTIVE FINISHED PRODUCT ANALYSIS To limit liabilities and potentially damaging product recalls, analysis at the critical final stage of production is vital. The majority of this testing can be performed using rapid routine analysis with Near-infrared (NIR), but certified chemical analysis methods are also often required for validation of compliance with certain end-product criteria. Degree of pasteurization is measured by an enzyme known as phosphatase and performing this test is required before fermentation may proceed. Sugar and acidity are two

important quality parameters in yoghurt and must be tested, as the target contents of both vary in different types of yoghurt. Both are essential guidelines of taste in the finished product. CONSISTENCY IS KING All processors want their product to have consistent quality. It is vital to treat all the yoghurt in a line in the same way to guarantee the same final-product characteristics within and between batches. Many types of yoghurt require gentle treatment. The process of pumping, cooling and agitating a fermented product can damage its structure. Inadequate process control is another potential source of product inconsistency. The solution is effective automation and accurate temperature and pressure control throughout the process. Inconsistent processing parameters can cause separation, variable viscosity, graininess, and flavor variations in the final product. As such, agitation should be kept to a minimum in the vat, during cooling and before filling. This can be achieved

FLOW CYTOMETER

through intermittent agitation with timers being placed on the yoghurt vat agitators to minimize shear in the vat during cooling. At times separation of whey from the rest of the yogurt occurs, and although not a safety issue, it has serious quality implications and may impact consumer acceptance. Ever been taken aback after opening a yoghurt pack only to be greeted with a thin layer of a watery liquid sitting atop your yoghurt? Well, the substance that forms is called whey and is a product when the milk added to the yoghurt has been strained and curdled. To prevent this as a manufacturer, you can either increase your stabilizer level or use different stabilizers. Stabilizers not only help in preventing syneresis, it also improves the body and texture by increasing firmness in yoghurt. CODEX SPECIFICATIONS FOR SAFE YOGURT PRODUCTION The Codex Alimentarius Commission recommends the use of milk and/or products obtained from milk in making yoghurt and potable water for the use in reconstitution or recombination as raw materials. Cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus must also be included. Ingredients like whole milk powder, skimmed milk powder, unfermented

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buttermilk, concentrated whey, whey powder, whey proteins, whey protein concentrate, water-soluble milk proteins, edible casein, caseinates, manufactured from pasteurized products can also be added only in

INCONSISTENT PROCESSING PARAMETERS CAN CAUSE SEPARATION, VARIABLE VISCOSITY, GRAININESS, AND FLAVOR VARIATIONS IN THE FINAL PRODUCT amounts functionally necessary as governed by Good Manufacturing Practice. These substances may be added either before or after adding the non-dairy ingredients. It is vital to note that the Commission does not permit whey removal after fermentation. The Commission has also stipulated in the General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Foods and Feeds (CXS193-1995), the Maximum FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET

Levels (MLs) for contaminants to be permitted in the yoghurt. The milk used in the manufacture of yoghurt is also expected to comply with the maximum residue limits for veterinary drug residues and pesticides established for milk. Codex recommends that yoghurt be prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the General Principles of Food Hygiene (CXC 1-1969), the Code of Hygienic Practice for Milk and Milk Products (CXC 57-2004) and other relevant Codex texts such as Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice. The products

should comply with any microbiological criteria established, in accordance with the Principles and Guidelines for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria Related to Foods (CXG 21-1997). For flavored yoghurts, Codex stipulates that the manufacturer should include the name of the principal flavoring substance or flavor added on the label. Water added as an ingredient to fermented milk should be declared in the list of ingredients and the percentage of fermented milk used (m/m) shall clearly appear on the label. To avoid misleading consumers, the milk fat content which should not be more than 15%, should also be declared in a manner acceptable in the country of sale to the final consumer. This can be either as a percentage of mass or volume, or in grams per serving as qualified in the label, provided that the number of servings is stated. If necessary, storage instructions, should also be given either on the container or in accompanying documents, except that the name of the product, lot identification, and the name and address of the manufacturer or packer, shall appear on the container. However, lot identification and the name and address of the manufacturer or packager may be replaced by an identification mark, provided that such a mark is clearly identifiable with the accompanying documents. FSA

TABLE BY CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMPOSITION

ALLOWABLE LIMITS

Milk protein

min. 2.7%

Milk fat (% m/m)

less than 15%

Titrable acidity, expressed as % lactic acid (% m/m)

min. 0.6% min.

Ethanol (% vol./w)

min. 0.5%

Sum of microorganisms constituting the starter culture (cfu/g, in total)

min. 107

Labelled microorganisms(cfu/g, total)

min. 106

Yeasts (cfu/g)

min. 104

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OPINION | Frank Yiannas

Remarks by FDA Deputy Commissioner Frank Yiannas on World Food Safety Day 2022

I

am honored to be invited by the World Health Organization (WHO) to address the importance of the digitalization of the food system in our work to protect consumers in all our nations from foodborne illness. This topic is particularly timely because today, June 7, is World Food Safety Day and the theme is “Safer Food, Better Health.” Truer words were never spoken. Food is not food if it’s not safe and food is essential for life. Every year, it becomes clearer that we must stand together as nations to help keep people all over the world safe and healthy. In an interconnected, global food system, when it comes to food safety, we all win or lose together. The world is changing rapidly. I heard a quote recently that resonated with me: “The pace of change has never been this fast, yet it will never be 62

this slow again.” Part of this rapid change is that data and information have become more digitized and can be shared at the speed of thought. And new and emerging technologies are increasingly taking big and realtime data and putting it to good use. For example, advances in artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, sensor technologies, and blockchain are improving business processes. And the food system is reshaping itself, using these technologies, to meet the expanding global supply chain and the changing needs of consumers. At the same time, food safety is evolving to meet the challenges and opportunities of these modern times. New digital technologies offer the potential to help us predict and prevent food safety problems and better detect and respond to problems when they do

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occur. Tomorrow, June 8th, I am participating in WHO’s Health Talks on Food Safety, conversations with experts from all over the world on new and emerging issues. My topic is “Bending the Curve of Foodborne Illness in a Digital World.” I’d like to tell you about the work FDA is doing to bend that curve – once and for all -through our implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act and the goals we’ve set in the New Era of Smarter Food Safety to build on FSMA with a more digital and traceable food system. TRACEABILITY The importance of food traceability to food safety is obvious. While people often think that food traceability is simply a reactive tool, nothing could be further from the truth. In the event FOODSAFETYAFRICA.NET


of a foodborne outbreak, better traceability leads to better safety by enabling rapid traceback to the source of a contaminated food, speeding recalls of potentially contaminated products, and better fueling the root cause analyses that can help prevent such contamination instances from happening again.

IN A GLOBAL FOOD SYSTEM, IF FOODBORNE DISEASE EXISTS SOMEWHERE IN THE WORLD, IT CAN EXIST ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD But the benefits of better food traceability go beyond food safety. During the pandemic, it also became clear that traceability will also create the transparency needed to anticipate and help prevent supply chain disruptions in a public health emergency, such as a pandemic or food supply chain challenges. It can help FDA and industry anticipate and help prevent the kind of market imbalances and food waste we saw when food producers lost customers in restaurants, schools, and other entities impacted by the pandemic. Traceability is a priority under both FSMA and the New Era of Smarter Food Safety. FSMA mandated a rule that lays out additional recordkeeping requirements for enhanced traceability of certain foods. Our work continues on finalizing the Food Traceability Rule that FDA proposed in the fall of 2020 and the proposed list of foods for which records would have to contain key data elements associated with different critical tracking events. We anticipate issuing the final rule in November. One of the goals in the New Era

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blueprint is to help ensure that tracing solutions are cost effective for food operations of all sizes. In June 2021, FDA launched the Low- or No-Cost Tech-Enabled Traceability Challenge to encourage the development of traceability systems that use low- to nocost economic models. We received 90 submissions from around the world and chose 12 winning teams representing the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand. But our work didn’t end with the selection of winners. We are now actively working to disseminate these ideas – from the winners and other teams that entered the challenge - to the stakeholders who need them most. 21 FORWARD DATA ANALYSIS TOOL Unleashing the power of digital data is an overarching goal in FDA’s work to modernize food safety. A good example is FDA’s use of a data analysis tool we developed called 21 Forward, which is playing a key role now in monitoring the infant formula supply chain. 21 Forward is a tool that was developed and used to track the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on FDA-regulated facilities in the food supply chain. The tool helped the FDA identify where risks for interruptions in the continuity of the food supply may be the greatest because of the pandemic. We were also able to supply state public health officials coordinating COVID-19 vaccination efforts with information on the number and location

of FDA-regulated food facilities and the number of food and agriculture sector workers at those facilities. FDA also partnered with other federal agencies to incorporate data on farms and farm workers, as well as meat, poultry, and egg processing facilities. This data helped state and local officials determine how many food and agriculture workers they have in their communities and quickly identify where these essential workers are located. Today, we are using 21 Forward to aggregate and analyze multiple data sets to help monitor the infant formula supply and help us focus on areas of greatest need. Analyzing high volumes of data is enabled by the scalability of this platform. This in turn has helped guide discussions with industry on how to increase production of various types of infant formulas. Once again, our belief that a digital food system will be a smarter food system is being realized as we use FDA’s 21 Forward platform to manage current challenges with infant formula availability. MORE QUALITY AND DIGITIZED DATA, BETTER FOOD SAFETY Better food safety begins and ends with better data. In the 21st century we increasingly have the ability to convert large volumes of data into powerful predictive and preventive information. The New Era of Smarter Food Safety blueprint includes multiple goals that have to do with utilizing additional sources of data, improving data quality,

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OPINION | Frank Yiannas

and exploring platforms that facilitate the sharing of data and information. These include increasing the amount and quality of data FDA has through expanded use of informationsharing agreements with regulatory and public health partners, academic institutions, industry, and others. One of the ways we’re doing that is through the domestic mutual reliance agreements signed with five states – California, Florida, Minnesota, Utah, and Wisconsin. Data exchange and information sharing are important parts of these agreements. We’re also exploring methods to create public-private “data trusts” generated by industry that can be leveraged for analytical work to further strengthen preventive approaches. The Food Safety Data Sharing Project established last year by Western Growers on the safety of fresh leafy greens is a great example of work that will strengthen predictive capabilities and inform risk-management decisions. When we look at how other industries are harnessing the power of data to identify and predict trends, it is clear that the FDA and food producers should also be looking at ways to tap robust, high quality data sources to strengthen our predictive analytics. We are also exploring how to incorporate modern tools and approaches like artificial intelligence and machine learning to prevent or mitigate food safety issues. Specifically, we are continuing to explore the use of artificial intelligence, specifically machine learning, in a pilot designed to strengthen our ability to predict which shipments of imported seafood 64

pose the greatest risk of violation. Initial findings suggested that machine learning could greatly increase the likelihood of identifying a shipment containing potentially contaminated products. Doubling or tripling the ability to predict which shipments potentially are violative through the screening process is expected to result in much more effective utilization of resources to examine, sample, and test products at the port of entry. FOODBORNE OUTBREAK RESPONSE IMPROVEMENT PLAN The goals we’ve set in the blueprint for a New Era of Smarter Food Safety leverage new and evolving technologies, tools, and approaches. This includes our work to respond to foodborne outbreaks faster and revealing the root cause, which is essential for the prevention of future outbreaks. And we have a plan to do just that. In December, FDA released its New Era of Smarter Food Safety Foodborne Outbreak Response Improvement Plan to improve the speed, effectiveness, and coordination of outbreak investigations. Observations by and recommendations from FDA leadership and staff across the foods program played a key role in the plan’s development. It was also informed by an independent review by the University of Minnesota’s School of Public Health that examined FDA’s structural and functional capacity to support, participate in, or lead multistate foodborne illness outbreak investigation activities. The importance of moving towards a

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more digital response is clear. The plan is divided into priority areas that include tech-enabled product traceback, and analysis and dissemination of outbreak data. Following the publication of our plan, we held a webinar on April 13th to answer stakeholder questions and listen to feedback about the plan, and there was a tremendous response. More than 1,700 people in the public and private sectors from 45 countries registered and more than 2,000 have viewed the webinar on YouTube. THE POWER OF DATA I’d like to close with this thought. In a global food system, if foodborne disease exists somewhere in the world, it can exist anywhere in the world. This is a shared responsibility. It’s not just the job of one nation, one industry, or one government agency. But how can we do this, together? Well, it involves continued modernization

WHILE PEOPLE OFTEN THINK THAT FOOD TRACEABILITY IS SIMPLY A REACTIVE TOOL, NOTHING COULD BE FURTHER FROM THE TRUTH and change. Think about this. The 20th Century was known as the industrial age. But the 21st Century is the data and digital age. Working together, we can unleash the power of data and truly bend the curve of foodborne illness in all nations, so that people worldwide can live better lives. This has been the promise of World Food Safety Day since it was launched in 2019 by WHO and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. So, let’s work together to make every day a world food safety day. After all, safer food means better health for all of us. FSA

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