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Where passionate people active in reducing disaster risk meet, share and learn.

Supporting — Advocating — Building — Representing Empowering — Protecting — Giving Voice The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA) is a professional association for Disaster Management and associated disciplines.


Official Journal: Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa DMISA President's message 2

Dr Maliga (Mal) Reddy

Volume 1 No 2


DMISA Councillor: Journal 3

Schalk W Carstens

Becoming professional 4

A shared opportunity and a shared

responsibility - by Dr Johan Minnie DMISA council 5

Councillors: 2012 to 2014

Gold commendation 6

Gold Commendation awarded to AndrĂŠ Janse

van Rensburg - by Patrick Adams


DMISA 2013 conference 8

The DMISA 2013 conference

Engineering simulation 13

Aurecon’s HUB-id: New tools to translate

new ideas Disaster management in Kenya 16

Case study on disaster management in Kenya

- by Francis Omollo Liech Western Cape Disaster Management Centre 20

Disaster management centre achieves


24/7 operating capacity Risk mapping 24

Why risk mapping is important

- by Malcolm Procter International Day for Disaster Reduction 2013 28

Disability and disaster the focus of UN's

IDDR 2013 Upcoming events 31

Disaster and risk reduction events across

the globe DMISA office 32

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Contact details

Disaster Management | 1

DMISA President’s message

DMISA President Dr Maliga (Mal) Reddy Deputy President Dr Johan A Minnie Councillor: Portfolio - Journal Schalk W Carstens Disaster Management Journal Editor Lee Raath-Brownie Cell 082 371 0190 Journalist Sylvester Haskins Cell 071 641 3884 Advertising Cell 079 107 3967 Design and layout Marc Raath Finance Noddie Knibbs Circulation Vicki Jacob Secretary Vicki Jacob Administration Mirriam Moroane Contributions Dr Johan Minnie Malcolm Procter Patrick Adama Francis Omollo Liech Publisher Lee Raath-Brownie FIRE AND RESCUE INTERNATIONAL Tel 011 452 3135/6 Fax 086 671 6920 Box 8299 Greenstone 1616 Subscriptions 6 editions per annum South Africa R136-80 per annum incl VAT Non-subscribers: R22-80 incl VAT per issue Southern Africa (airmail) R360 per annum International (airmail) R480 per annum Copyright All rights reserved 2


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s we draw closer to 2015, the spotlight is on the critical assessment of the implementation and progress attained through: ‘The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (HFA) Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters’. It becomes imperative to take cognisance of current and evolving trends, improvements and challenges encountered in the disaster risk reduction realm. The underpinning notion is to embrace challenges by channelling them into opportunities for advancement. More importantly, the calamities Dr Mal Reddy endured over the years should serve as priceless lessons to enrich our knowledge base and inform improved disaster risk management, across the national and global arena. This brings to the fore the golden principle of ‘building back better’. Hence, the ultimate goal is for the development of safe and resilient societies. Therefore, the need to continue the debate on the critical role players in disaster risk reduction, with particular reference to local government and the vulnerable sectors is paramount in influencing ‘The Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction’. Moreover, the responsibility for disaster risk management does not lie with disaster managers alone. It is rather a concern for everyone; from communities who must be empowered to make decisions that reduce risk, to political leaders, government institutions, the private sector, civil society organisations, professional bodies and scientific and technical institutions. The focus should thus be on articulating an integrated and multidimensional perspective to disaster risk reduction across all sectors and levels. Disaster risk management needs to be driven by creativity, innovation and technological efficiency. This does not necessarily allude to the implementation of highly sophisticated techniques and instruments; instead attention to a more pragmatic approach is sought. Perhaps one needs to draw solace from the profound words of Kofi Annan, former United Nations (UN) secretary-general, “More effective prevention strategies would not only save tens of billions of Dollars but also spare tens of thousands of lives. Funds currently spent on intervention and relief could be devoted to enhancing equitable and sustainable development instead, which would further reduce the risk for war and disaster. Building a culture of prevention is not easy. While the costs of prevention have to be paid in the present (without damages), its benefits lie in the distant future. Moreover, the benefits are not tangible; they are the disasters that did NOT happen” (UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Background Document for the WSSD, 2002). In the spirit of being proactive and encouraging inclusivity, the focus of the International Day for Disaster Reduction 2014 (IDDR) is on older people, including their needs and contributions towards better planning and understanding of disaster risk in their communities. DMISA COMMITS to inspiring and sustaining disaster risk reduction initiatives and welcomes strategic partnerships in advocating effective risk reduction programmes and developing more resilient and safer communities.

Dr Mal Reddy President, DMISA Volume 1


No 2

DMISA Councilor: Journal


ince our previous publication in September 2013, a lot has happened in the field of Disaster Management. Southern Africa has again suffered severe disasters recently such as floods in areas such as Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West and Western Cape and even an earthquake in North West. For some, it was good news as the severe drought in the Northern Provinces in South Africa came to an end and some of the dams, previously empty, are now reported to be full. The National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) has completed the legislative process of amending the Disaster Management Act on national departmental level and the Disaster Amendment Act has now been forwarded to the National Parliament for the final national parliamentary processes to be followed. At this stage, all seems well and on track with the legislative process. The only legislative aspect that the National Council of the Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA) is concerned about is the funding of disaster management functions and especially the ownership of disaster hazards by their relevant/applicable state entities. Without political ownership of line function departments of all the applicable identified hazards, which could cause disasters on national, provincial and or municipal spheres of Government and the provision of adequate funding mechanisms that will enable these relevant departments and or state entities to deal effectively with its ‘own’ hazards, the newly amended legislation might not solve one of the most inhibiting factors currently experienced with the implementation of disaster management namely, funding. This omission might then still result that problems that are currently experienced, specifically with regard to funding of the disaster risk reduction, preparedness and recovery phases of each known hazard, will still continue to exist. We, as disaster management practitioners have to insist that ‘hazard’ ownership and its funding principles are adequately registered in the new Disaster Management Act. Each hazard should be, through the mentioned legislation, be allocated to a specific national department and or entity which then will be regarded as the hazard owner. This is mainly to ensure, that in future, the relevant departments would be mandated to take full ownership of

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their specific hazard/s, for example: The Department of Health for human epidemics; Department of Water Affairs for flooding; Department of Agriculture for drought and animal diseases, etc. Without adhering in solving the ownership and funding mandates in the current amendment legislation, we will definitely in future still experience severe problems relating to the funding of disaster risk reduction as well as disaster recovery activities. It is confirmed that the National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) had relocated to new premises. Relocation has been awaited for a long time and it is very good news that the NDMC has relocated to its new office in Centurion. There is still a rumour that the National Disaster Management Centre could in future also become a Governmental entity that will directly report to the director general of the National Department of Cooperative Governance. Well done Ken Terry, the head of the NDMC and your staff, which are herewith congratulated for their diligent and committed work in updating the disaster management legislation and also the big strides that have taken with the establishment of the new upgraded national disaster management facility. Professional body More good news is that DMISA has also decided to apply for the Institute to become a ‘professional body’. DMISA’s Council has now initiated a registration process as to become the mentioned professional body. There is, however, still a long way to go, before we, as officials who are employed in the field of disaster management, will have to register as disaster management practitioners. One of the main objectives for this professionalisation process is to ensure that only registered practitioners will be permitted to be employed and or to perform work in the field of disaster management. To register as a practitioner is a standard practice for nurses, medical doctors, security practitioners and engineers, why not also disaster managers? The required registration is high time and long overdue. During the DMISA 2013 conference, delegates proposed several conference resolutions. Some of these resolutions have been identified to be very critical for DMISA and are therefore now listed. This is to enable members, as well as our readers, to

Schalk Carstens take the necessary cognisance of and also to request members to assist and support DMISA in solving the concerns as registered. Resolutions Resolution 4: “That DMISA encourage municipalities to improve the resilience of communities, especially those living in remote rural areas, by implementing more efficient early warnings systems which effectively links national, provincial and municipal early warning dissemination.” Resolution 10: “That DMISA encourage national, provincial and municipal disaster management practitioners to redouble efforts to implement hazard-specific contingency planning and risk reduction initiatives in close partnership with lead agencies for such hazards (egg. Learn not to burn preschool fire prevention programme; food security programme; firebreaks; first-aid training; cholera prevention and response).” Resolution 15: “That DMISA supports the development of a national standardised incident management system with uniform methods and guidelines for responding to all incident types.” By reading through the above conference resolutions it is easy to identify the complexity of disaster management as a line function as well as profession and the importance of the implementation of disaster management principles within the communities we serve. We might not find quick fixes for the above mentioned resolutions but one of the most impeding factors is the nonDisaster Management | 3

The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa

Becoming professional:

A shared opportunity and a shared responsibility By Dr Johan Minnie, deputy president, DMISA

Dr Johan Minnie


he ladies and men working in disaster management in southern Africa are faced with many challenges. While the nature of their work is to confront the challenges posed by the progression of vulnerability and natural as well as human-induced hazards that can cause disasters, they also face challenges in terms of their professional status. This article provides an overview of the challenges facing Disaster Management as a profession in Southern Africa. The disaster management discipline is a young profession in South Africa. Although disasters have been impacting humanity from its earliest existence and people have been responding to these hazards in many ways, it is only in the last three decades that a discipline has developed that is charged with looking holistically at the identification and management of disaster risk. In South Africa, this discipline grew out of responseoriented emergency services, community health services and a variety of physical and human sciences fields, spurred by legislative development that culminated in the Disaster Management Act, Act 57 of 2002. As the profession develops and matures, challenges will be experienced. These

requirement of local municipalities to have disaster management capacity as well as the lack of certain municipalities to have a dedicated ‘chapter’ in its integrated development plan (IDP). In the current legislation, it is only compulsory for a local municipality to have a disaster management plan and the Municipal Systems Act requires them for this plan to be included into their municipal IDP. 4


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challenges may relate to the discipline itself and its scope of practice, the people in the profession and the relationship of the profession with other disciplines. The professional status challenges experienced by disaster management practitioners include recognition, confidence, experience, training and skill.

mandated by the Disaster Management Act in South Africa, cannot exceed 12 years in 2014. The experience that is being picked up may also be the wrong type of experience, over-emphasising response and reactive activities and neglecting risk reduction and the strategic influencing of land-use and development decisions.

Recognition Due to its relatively recent development, the profession suffers from a lack of recognition because professionals in other disciplines are unsure of this ‘new’ kid on the block or may even feel threatened or outright negative about the role of the ‘new’ discipline.

Training Preparations for training in disaster management as opposed to civil protection or civil defence only began in earnest 20 years ago in 1992. In the first ten years up to the proclamation of the Act, only a limited group of people were able to participate and the demand for disaster management personnel created in 2002 could not be satisfied with fully equipped disaster management professionals. Instead, disaster management posts were filled by recruiting from other related disciplines. Even today, 12 years later, a shortage of properly trained personnel still exists. Although significant strides have been made and many training opportunities are now available from a wide variety of institutions, with many more on the horizon, shortages and gaps still exists especially at an undergraduate and practical level.

Confidence There is also a lack of confidence among disaster management professionals who have to deal with other disciplines with established practice and long histories of learning, performed by individuals who have experience in their own fields that exceeds the existence of the disaster management profession two- or even three-fold. This leads to a situation where disaster management practitioners may be hesitant to speak up and step up. Experience The lack of confidence is worsened by a lack of experience. After 2002, disaster management organisations had to be developed and disaster management responsibilities had to be assigned to staff in at least one national, nine provincial and 278 municipal settings. Enough staff with real disaster management qualifications and real experience simply did not exist despite the valiant efforts in capacity building by role-players such as DMISA. It takes exactly one year to gather one year’s worth of experience, which means that practical disaster management experience, practicing disaster management to fullest extent as

Skill Skill is the result of training, experience and attitude. Without a positive attitude intent on learning and improving, skill will never develop, irrespective of how much experience and training a person absorbs. If training and experience are lacking already, it would be hard to become skilled in a specific area. The disaster management profession requires a wide range of skills and building the right skills mix will remain a challenge.

Over and above the funding limitations previously mentioned, the powers and functions of local municipalities and the specific responsibilities that have been assigned to them in legislation will always result in huge disaster management capacity constraints (human and resources), which has to be resolved as soon as possible.

to all whom have contributed towards this edition of the Disaster Management Journal. Without the contribution of authors whom have provided us with their very interesting, informative and well researched articles and last but not the least, the excellent contributions, assistance and support of our editor and publisher Lee-Raath-Brownie, this publication would not have been possible.

Enough of the ‘shop talk’. I herewith wish to convey my hearty and sincere thanks

While these challenges are clear, there is also a realisation that society deserves the best possible disaster management personnel. The best people possible

Please continue with your support in future! Volume 1


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DMISA Council

Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA) Council

Councillors: 2012 to 2014 The DMISA Council at the 2013 DMISA conference in Bloemfontein DMISA executive committee (EXCO) President: Maliga (Mal) Reddy Deputy-president: Johan A Minnie Immediate past president: Schalk W Carstens DMISA EXCO - Chairperson: Anthony R Kesten Institute administrator: Karin Muller EXCO members Andre J van Rensburg - Portfolio: protocol, legislation and policy writing

should be responsible for implementing the essentials of resilient communities and these people should be recognised as professionals with a mandate for real action. There should be recognition of and respect for the discipline and the self-confidence and esteem of practitioners need to be strengthened to create an environment in which they can excel. The extent, reach and nature of the profession should also be clarified and clearly delineated so that petty professional jealousy does not limit the possible positive effect of the discipline. The challenges faced by disaster management practitioners in terms of their profession needs to be addressed Volume 1


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Patrick (Pat) Adams - Portfolio: regional matters, equity and recruitment Owen H Becker - Portfolio: training, skills development and tours, standardisation DMISA councillors include Anè Bruwer, Nareema Solomons, SL Robbertze, Vonroy de Beer, SJ (Jan) Kgalake, Andries (Dries) Myburgh, Hannes Steyn, Frans J Heystek, Thobela H Memani, Vincent Ngubane, ES (Shadi) Tsebe, BF (Erica) Swart, Elretha Louw, Sakhele Sohe, Howard Luphino, Mduduzi Nxumalo and Jonty Ndlazi.

through professionalisation. A process of professionalisation will ensure that the profession has the best possible people and that the discipline is properly recognised and accepted as a peer among other professional disciplines. As the professional association for disaster management in southern Africa, DMISA will be a pivotal role-player in such a process. DMISA represents the practitioners in the field and provides them with a united voice as well as protection of their professional interests. DMISA is independent and can therefore truly focus on what is best for its members, their careers and ultimately their ability to make a contribution to reducing disaster risk and building resilience. But while

a professional association can represent and promote disaster management practitioners, every practitioner also has an important contribution to make. This contribution starts with a professional ethos and professional and impeccable behaviour by every practitioner. The code of ethics for members of DMISA provides a good guide for the professional conduct required by each disaster management practitioner. Furthermore, disaster management practitioners should seek to support the efforts of DMISA through active participation in its activities and by joining the Institute in its push towards professionalisation. Professionalisation is a shared opportunity but also a shared responsibility. Disaster Management | 5

Gold commendation

Gold Commendation

awarded to André Janse van Rensburg By Patrick Adams: portfolio holder for regional matters, equity and recruitment, EXCO and national councillor

Mal Reddy, André Janse van Rensburg and Patrick Adams at DMISA’s AGM in Bloemfontein in 2013


n 1985, during a Civil Defence conference held in Kroonstad, André Janse van Rensburg was elected one of a four member task team to investigate the viability of establishing an association for the then Civil Defence profession. André was involved with the drawing up of the first constitution for the association and served on the steering committee. When the association was established during 1986, he became a councillor and deputy president and has since been a member of the council and member of the executive committee except for a two-year period from 1990 to 1991. André was elected the third president for the 1989/90 term. On behalf of the Germiston City Council, he successfully presented the first national conference of the Disaster Management Association of South Africa during 1986. He was one of the co-authors of the management course 6


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in Civil Defence in 1986 and also participated in a study tour to England and Europe during September 1990, which was ground-breaking. This tour led ultimately to a paradigm shift from Civil Defence to Civil Protection and the introduction of the United Nations training modules. André was able to play a leading role in the transformation of the association to an institute during 1990. He was elected chairperson of the executive committee during 1998, a position which he held admirably for a successive total of 14 years up to September 2012 when he voluntarily stood down. It was with great pleasure and without hesitation that I nominated André Janse van Rensburg for a Gold Commendation Award with the full support of the executive committee and national council for his outstanding services rendered.

Therefore, the institute describes the Gold Commendation Award to André Janse van Rensburg as follows: “In commendation of the impeccable contribution and unselfish service in execution of his responsibilities for the Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa. In recognition of his diligent and unwavering contribution to the success of the conferences; For his undivided upholding and promoting the objectives of the institute; His ability and passion to ensure at all times the best interest of the members and colleagues; For the distinguished mode in which he has served seven successive terms (14 years) as chairperson of the executive committee.” Volume 1


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DMISA 2013 conference

DMISA 2013 conference


angaung Municipality in the Free State Province, South Africa, hosted the 2013 Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa’s (DMISA) annual conference at the President Hotel in Bloemfontein. The internationally recognised conference was held in partnership with the Free State Provincial Government, South African Local Government Association (SALGA), the National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC), the South Africa Weather Service (SAWS) and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) and the theme was based on phase two of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Campaign theme for 2010-2015: ‘Building resilience: communities getting ready’. The opening ceremony incorporated the customary DMISA candle lighting ritual, presented by Mal Reddy, president of DMISA. The ritual commemorated those people who have passed away in the line of duty. Reddy welcomed Minister Lechesa Tsenoli, who said that it was important to reflect on disaster management and that disaster prevention is never seen in the media but the people working hard behind the scenes to improve prevention, was the very same people at the conference. Minister Tsenoli furthermore discussed the National Development Plan and reiterated the importance of building resilient cities. 8


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Conference A number of papers were presented at the DMISA conference – too numerous to be able to do justice to it all in this brief overview. Mnikeli Ndabambi of SAWS presented “Watching the weather to protect life and property, which included background information the Global Framework Climate Services (GFCS) amongst others. Andries Jordaan of DimTec at the University of the Freestate discussed disaster challenges for small scale farmers and alluded to the drought risk assessment done in the Northern Cape. Desmond Pyle of Stenden University in Port Alfred described severe convective storms and said that early warning systems are imperative as it is a challenge to get warning messages to rural communities. Aurecon’s Johan Minnie warned that the implementation of level three disaster management plans have gone off the rails and said that a plan should not be seen as a proxy. Minnie is also vice president of DMISA. Head of the NDMC, Ken Terry, shared a national disaster management perspective on progress in South Africa and said, “I am here today because of common sense, our business is about common sense. We speak about resilience, mitigation etc but it is still common sense.” Terry added “Disaster

management is not about a small number of people sitting in Hamilton Street but about all of us. Disaster management is everybody’s business.” Pios Ncube of Disaster Resilient Solutions in Zimbabwe gave an insightful presentation on the use and cataloguing of indigenous knowledge in disaster management. Anthony Kesten discussed the development of a disaster management organisational framework for occupations and made reference to the implications of the skills development system on the disaster management fraternity. A group discussion followed. Colin Deiner of the Western Cape Disaster Management Centre presented the proposed national incident management system and discussed the history of incident command, duties of the incident commander, types of command and principles. The conclusion of the DMISA annual conference encompassed the closing ceremony, special awards and adoption of conference resolutions. President of DMISA, Mal Reddy, thanked all participants, sponsors and delegates with special reference to the sponsorships of the Freestate Provincial Government, SAWS and the National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC). Volume 1


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DMISA 2013 conference

The customary DMISA candle lighting ceremony

Anthony Keston and Schalk Carstens

Minister Lechesa Tsenoli and Mal Reddy

Andries Jordaan

Johan Minnie

Mnikeli Ndabambi

Pios Ncube

Ken Terry

Patrick Adams

Colin Deiner

Ken Terry receiving research documents from Andries Jordaan and UFS-DimTec students

Ane Bruwer

Erika Swart

Karin Muller

The 2013 DMISA Gala funtion

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DMISA 2013 conference

The 2013 DMISA Gala funtion



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DMISA 2013 conference



Disaster Management

The Rural Metro team

The SRK Consulting team

The SAWS team

The Aurecon team


The UNISA team

The Sysman team

The Free State PDMC exhibition Volume 1


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Engineering simulation

Aurecon’s HUB-id:

New tools to translate new ideas how cities flow and finding sustainable pathways between city centres and suburban developments requires an integrated approach to achieve sustainable transport and land use outcomes.


esilience relies on good development decisions and a positive interface between people and infrastructure. In response to demand for highly integrated places for people and business, Aurecon’s HUB-id is bringing real-life behaviours into agents to create accurate simulations for smarter thinking around people, places and public transport. Aurecon’s HUB-id integrates human behaviours to drive successful outcomes in land use form and transport function. Achieving sustainable transport networks Cities and urban transport systems are growing in complexity. Understanding

It requires an integrated and collaborative approach to transport and land use planning that appreciates the complex human interactions that take place around a hub; whether that’s an intermodal transport facility, a town centre, a suburb or a sporting facility. In creating places for people that also make economic and environmental sense, HUB-id breaks apart old silos and establishes a new consolidated approach that links integrated transport planning, transit orientated development and place-making to cater for individual destinations (id) and not only the transport mode. This holistic approach to public transport and land use creates solutions that take account of people’s actual destinations and behaviours in environmental, economic and social

contexts and can provide significant benefits for city and regional authorities as well as commercial and retail operators and developers. Aurecon’s HUB-id approach starts from the point of integration instead of the conventional approach of gathering a project-specific team with experts from different disciplines where, for example, a road designer’s primary role might be designing roads to specification, or a public transport planner’s objective might be to get buses or trams from point A to point B, whereas a land use or retail planner might prefer the bus or tram went via point C. A hub can be a place where people and vehicles gather or where a transport facility that enables passengers and goods to interchange, for Aurecon the concept of the hub is also a mechanism for drawing together and inspiring the work of planners, engineers, architects and urban designers, transport and traffic modellers toward a common focus on movement and people.

Light rail simulation including pedestrian interaction, together with full integration of BIM driven models and environmental simulation

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Disaster Management | 13

Engineering simulation Film animation brings life to engineering simulation Through a partnership with Massive Insight, who first amazed audiences with unprecedented battle scenes in the Lord of the Rings trilogy, Aurecon can apply evidence-based engineering to help design precincts and urban spaces that focus on people, not only vehicles. Massive Insight has a flexible artificial life (Al) authoring environment for modelling the idiosyncrasies of complex, real-life behaviours into agents who use visual and auditory cues, as we do in real life. When it comes to simulation, engineers are experiencing a new level of expectation from their clients and other stakeholders in the design and build process. It used to be enough to have a two-dimensional model of robot-like agents moving through a space but today, engineers need to model a wide range of complex human behaviours in increasingly sophisticated environments and produce high quality 3D results. And of course, all stakeholders need to know that simulations are accurate, so that they can rely on them to prove that a given space will perform as intended. Massive Insight meets these goals by bringing movie quality animation within easy reach of every architect, while satisfying the demands of engineers for a very high degree of behaviour and motion fidelity. It is being achieved through the combination of unique artificial intelligence based agent technology and the Massive team’s unrivalled pedigree in the world of entertainment and media. One key differentiating characteristic of Massive Insight is that it employs an artificial life approach. The AI technology draws from the processes of nature rather than traditional simulation methodologies and Massive Insight agents act on their own behalf using the simulated natural senses of sight, hearing and touch. This provides for more inherently natural behaviour than those seen in existing engineering solutions. Massive Insight’s software experts, Stephen Regelous and Kevin Mannion explain how movie making is shaping a new level of visualisation in the infrastructure design and build process. From the very beginning it was clear that Aurecon and Massive shared a vision, where simulation of complex human behaviours is used to drive the design of public spaces and transport. The HUBid initiative demanded new capabilities, not available from traditional simulation solutions; therefore it was the perfect opportunity for us to work together. 14


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How does the world of entertainment relate to engineering demands? Not surprisingly, the makers of multimillion dollar movies expect the very best and accept nothing less than superb results and over the years Massive Insight worked hard to meet their demands. As a consequence, their products are now well-known and widely respected and considered by many to be the best for accurately simulating complex, real-life movement and behaviour. Engineers share the same demands for realism and accuracy in simulations but they also have many additional needs, such as the ability to analyse data outputs, so they created Massive Insight using the same field-proven technology but with an engineering-specific set of features and user interface. This means that engineers can take advantage of the many years of investment in our simulation technology but in a package that is more suited to their needs. The platform and how it works Using Massive Insight, an engineer designs agents (people, for example) with a set of actions and reactions to what is going on around them. Massive agents act on their own behalf using the simulated natural senses of sight, hearing and touch. The reactions of the agents determine what they do and how they do it. Their reactions can even simulate emotive qualities such as happiness or weariness. Massive Insight is a system for designing and running such agents. When scaled up into the hundreds, or hundreds of thousands, the interaction id within the crowd that emerges from these individuals is highly realistic.

engineer to produce highly accurate simulations of complex behaviours. How does it help facilitate design decisions in real-life situations? With Massive Insight, designers of public spaces and transport can now accurately simulate a huge range of motion and behaviour. This means that designs can be tested to a considerably greater degree of accuracy than ever before, which greatly helps in getting the design right at the ‘drawing board’ stage. Designing, for example, an airport terminal becomes a much more informed process when there is a model simulating every nuance of human behaviour. The most exciting aspect of Massive Insight is its virtually limitless scope. With its capacity for simulating any and all types of human behaviour, it is expected to be used in an ever increasing number of innovative ways. Massive Insight has a flexible artificial life (Al) authoring environment for modelling the idiosyncrasies of complex, real-life behaviours into agents who use visual and auditory cues, as we do in real life. When it comes to simulation, engineers are experiencing a new level of expectation from their clients and other stakeholders in the design and build process. It used to be enough to have a two-dimensional model of robot-like agents moving through a space but today, engineers need to model a wide range of complex human behaviours in increasingly sophisticated environments and produce high quality 3D results. And of course, all stakeholders need to know that simulations are accurate, so that they can rely on them to prove that a given space will perform as intended.

How does this differ from traditional methods? Traditional crowd simulation tools often provided robot-like simulation, where all the agents had the same basic behaviours with very little deviation. This used to be acceptable in simple models, such as a straightforward simulation of commuters walking together to board a train but anything more sophisticated was difficult, if not impossible, to achieve.

Massive Insight meets these goals by bringing movie quality animation within easy reach of every architect, while satisfying the demands of engineers for a very high degree of behaviour and motion fidelity. It is being achieved through the combination of unique artificial intelligence based agent technology and the Massive team’s unrivalled pedigree in the world of entertainment and media.

Massive Insight enables the engineer to model a much wider range of agents, actions and reactions than previously possible. For example, people moving together in family groups, people with luggage or some other mobility impairment, people who have previous knowledge of their environment and those who are more dependent on signage and/or audio announcements. By pushing the boundaries of what can be simulated, Massive Insight helps the

One key differentiating characteristic of Massive Insight is that it employs an artificial life approach. The AI technology draws from the processes of nature rather than traditional simulation methodologies and Massive Insight agents act on their own behalf using the simulated natural senses of sight, hearing and touch. This provides for more inherently natural behaviour than those seen in existing engineering solutions. Volume 1


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Your partner in disaster risk management

Aurecon provides engineering, management and specialist technical services for public and private sector clients globally. With an office network extending across 26 countries, Aurecon has been involved in projects in over 80 countries across Africa, Asia Pacific, the Middle East and the Americas and employs around 7 500 people throughout 11 industry groups.

Services: Resilience Recovery Rehabilitation

Aurecon prides itself on an in-depth understanding of the multifaceted disaster risks our clients face. Whether natural or man-made, disasters require a coordinated effort by government and non-government agencies to provide relief from the impact of these events. Aurecon’s disaster risk management services encompass: - Disaster management information systems and/or disaster and emergency management centres - Performing disaster risk assessments - Compilation, review and updates of disaster management plans - Disaster risk management capacity building and training - Rapid disaster impact assessments - Compilation, review and updates of disaster risk management frameworks - Event safety training - Disaster risk related municipal programmes and projects Contact us for proven expertise in disaster risk management. For more information contact Elretha Louw Service Leader, Risk Assessment and Management T +27 21 526 6021 E 09/2013

Disaster management in Kenya

Case study on disaster management in Kenya

By Francis Omollo Liech, secretary general, Kenya National Fire Brigades Association (KENFIBA) risk management. Kenya already has a national platform for disaster risk reduction since 2006; but the uniformed forces are not represented in that platform.

Role of uniformed forces in disaster management n a globalised world, for effective communication and management of challenges and problems, it is essential to have clear and universally agreed definitions of terminology and of practical agreed implementation of strategies.


Since the Hyoto Framework of Action (HFA) in 2005, the world has a new approach to disaster management, which includes the following: • Disaster risk reduction (DRR), which is the core of disaster management operations that are intended to implement disaster risk management (DRM) • That disaster risk management must be holistic and subdivided as follows: A proactive approach stressing preventive measures, which include effective preparedness and prevention of disaster occurrence and an effective responsive approach, with planned successive phases that only differ in details ie response, relief, translocation, rehabilitation and unit recovery. This approach, recommended worldwide, ensures that if preventive measures and preparedness fail, the disaster occurrence is systematically managed with appropriate services, equipment, transportation, communication, food etc. Role of national platforms in disaster management Along with the dual responsibilities of a proactive and responsive approach, the HFA (2005) asks for establishment of national platforms for disaster risk reduction through which stakeholders collaborate to assess and review strategies and implementation of disaster risk reduction and disaster 16


Disaster Management

Contribution of various segments of the society and communities The national strategy for disaster risk management (DRM) is intended to ensure that the dual approach to DRR, ie proactive and responsive, ensures participatory partnership of all segments of society, vertically and horizontally, all the way from national level to grass root communities. However, the uniformed forces are not specially integrated and systematically incorporated. They are called upon occasionally when an emergency has befallen a locality. Special role of the uniformed forces (UF) in disaster risk reduction and disaster risk management Globally, the various sectors and segments of the uniformed forces have clear and specific roles in management of national productivity and security and each segment is specifically trained and provisioned to perform its specific tasks (as a unit and in collaboration and coordination with other uniformed forces). Nonetheless, each of the uniformed forces has a special role, closely related to the overall national security (military security, food security, health security etc). It should be emphasised that the uniformed forces’ enhanced role must be defined, facilitated and provisioned as a new force in management through disaster risk reduction and disaster risk management. Global evolution of the disaster status quo, 1750 to 2100 The disaster picture of the world has become increasingly complicated in the last 250 years, ie since 1750 many worldwide and regional revolutions, factors and processes have complicated the disaster picture. Following is a summary of the global changes and where Kenya fits in picture. The scientific and industrial revolution These are two major revolutions that have contributed greatly to changes in evolution of the disaster picture, extent and complexity, globally, and in specific nations.

Since the onset of these two revolutions, the capability of humankind to change the character of the total environment, especially, the natural environment, has multiplied, often beyond recognition. Similarly, the character of the socioeconomic and the cultural components of the environment have changed greatly, in practically all societies and communities. The central point to note is that these major changes: Deeply affect productivity of the natural environment and resource base (V/RB); Deeply depreciate the natural, adjusted capability of the various, respective environmental niches to withstand and overcome new levels of disaster occurrence and, especially, Deeply disable most changing traditional ethnic groups and communities to apply traditional technologies and coping strategies in successful management of disasters, disaster risk reduction and management. Successive revolutions after 1750 Throughout the world, many revolutions have taken (and still take) place. They include the colonial/imperial revolution (1884-2000), revolutions in transportation including the internal combustion engine, motor cars, the aeroplane, railway and maritime transport. Others include commercial globalisation and clearance of equatorial and tropical forests. Added to this is the pollution of the soil, water and air result from all these. All these and other revolutions have changed the character of the world and individual nations. They have contributed to the initiation of synergy and complexity of the disaster picture. Each country like Kenya, must be analysed and managed separately and individually; with a consequent structured policy, legislation, institutional structure and a periodically reviewed strategy of planned management of DM through DRR and DRM. Kenya has already drafted a disaster management policy and is awaiting a Bill for legislation. It has the foundation of institutional structure Volume 1


No 2

Disaster management in Kenya (the Ministry of State for Special Programmes), but these do not specify and integrate role the role of the uniformed forces. With the complexity, frequency, severity and impact of future disasters, the role of uniformed forces in disaster management through risk reduction and management (proactive and responsive operations) must be enhanced and provided for, including budgeted funding. The socio-economic development and complexity of disasters have grown exponentially due to the impact of the globalisation of technology. There are innumerable factors that fuelled and refuelled the globalisation of disaster growth and its complexity. Growing complexity and severity of impact of the disasters on quality of (human) life (QoL) and on sustainable development (SD) As the complexity and synergy of the disasters keep growing, they enhance the capability of one another to produce alarming scenarios. The outlook is unsettling for future events around the world and especially in Kenya, by 2025 to 2030. Fear of disaster has increased and will continue to do so, in the world and in Kenya. Management systems should be developed and new services incorporated. Evolution of disasters in Kenya, 1900 to 2100 The main disasters in Kenya today are climate-related (droughts, famines, floods and land-slides/mud-slides); biological-based (epidemics of malaria, cholera and other diseases of humans, livestock and wildlife); geological (earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, landslides); ethno-political conflicts (resource-based and political struggles fueled by land and electoral positions). Others are transport accidents, (air, road, rail and maritime). Kenya's disaster picture has grown in complexity from 1900 to 2000 and due to climate change, will continue to grow. Growth in the period 1900 to 1950 In the early years of 1900 to 1950, complexity of technological applications in Kenya was limited (both rural and urban). The main disasters were natural, including droughts, floods and geological disasters and in particular small volcanic eruptions. Growth in the period 1950 to 2000 New technologies in Kenya led to an Volume 1


No 2

increase in the complexity of disasters, eg transport disasters with break-up of traditional ethnic nations, creating a unified Kenya has increased tribal conflicts and sensitivity over internal borders especially during resourcebased conflicts through droughts. From 1952, the war for independence and successive Mau-Mau based and consecutive political confrontations in 1969, 1971, 1982, 1992 and 2002 have left its own imprints of politicallybased disasters. Growth in the period 2000 to 2050 The increase in disasters during this period is tragic, especially, droughts, famine and politically-fired conflicts (2007-2008). Transport accidents, especially plane disasters, shocked the world. Danger of terrorism grew in Nairobi and at the coast (since 1998). The progression of climate change, Kenya will receive its unfair share of historic disasters. Kenya must wake up. Old management styles will not succeed. The severity and complexity of disasters (even by 2015 to 2025) will need new knowledge, new strategy and new manpower forces to be incorporated and effectively utilised. From 2005 onwards, Kenya needed new levels and capabilities of manpower for disaster management through disaster risk reduction and management and these new abilities are in the form of uniformed forces. Growth in the period 2050 to 2100 Using new research capabilities, networks and information exchange, predictions on global, regional, subregional and national probabilities give Kenya a gloomy disaster outlook. Kenya must have new capabilities and management strategies for disasters. It has to be stressed that the uniformed forces are urgently and significantly needed in disaster management, through integrated disaster risk reduction and disaster risk management, as part and parcel of National Security management. Potential effect of climate change, environmental revolution and historic disasters in Kenya Climate change is a reality. It will bring environmental revolution and historic disasters everywhere. To Kenya, historic disasters (even by 2015 to 2025) will bring untold misery, loss of life, loss of land and total change in ‘what used to be Kenya by 2015’.

Effect of climate change The climate of each region, sub-region and nation will change; Kenya will change beyond recognition. We will not be able to manage disasters such as we have experienced in the past for example at the coast, around Lake Victoria, in Central Rift, in the Mt Kenya region and in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASAL) unless the uniformed forces are incorporated, trained (or re-trained) provisioned, funded and integrated into disaster management via disaster risk reduction and risk management. This is a must for our survival, let alone prosperity. Historic emergencies in Kenya These emergencies are coming. Climate change is fast growing and while Africa is the worst-disposed continent in the world for climate change, Kenya is the worst disposed nation in Africa. Let us be best prepared. Incorporation of the uniformed forces is one major step in disaster management and preparedness for effective risk reduction and risk management for the historic emergencies. HFA and effective DRM in Kenya Kenya, through its Ministry of State for Special Programmes (MOSSP) and the National Platform for DRR is already implementing the globally accepted Hyoto Framework for Action (HFA, 2005) but there are significant shortcomings: Disaster management policy, legislation and institutional collaboration A lot of this is in place. An available information system will enable better preparedness. There is need to urgently improve Kenya's capability to manage disaster risk reduction and risk management: Where is the research agency for disaster management? Where is the information and data base system? Where is the networking and collaboration with international, regional and sub-regional networks on disaster management and on information exchange and sharing? Where is the all-important incorporation of the uniformed forces and integrated collaboration of national institutions? Where is the clear definition of sectoral role of government ministries and parastatal agencies? Disaster Management | 17

Disaster management in Kenya News here is the coordination of W national environmental and humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) etc? Disaster management, policy, legislation and institutional collaboration These form the core for strategic planning to manage disaster risk reduction and risk management. So far, the management is fair but urgent measures need to be taken to improve disaster management by disaster risk reduction, risk management and overall resource system, including new human resources (the uniformed forces). Comprehensive strategies through HFA These already exist in early or middle stages. Areas of great weakness include: Research; Information network and data base and Human resources especially for practical, professional field management. We need the uniformed forces in the national network for disaster management. Role of uniformed forces in security against disasters - DM, DRR and DRM The uniformed forces are potentially the most in numbers, most effective and most reliable institutional sources of human resources with the capacity to upgrade disaster management sustainably in Kenya. Among the most important measures to get them ready for disaster management are:

• Institutional establishment,

cooperation and/or collaboration. The UFs as an institution already exist. What is needed is organised and legislated collaboration and effective operations. Professional education/training management of disaster management discipline and organisation. Mainstreaming of DM, DRR and DRM for overall DM through inservice training; Effective operational preparedness for proactive prevention and effective response. Additions to the curriculum at appropriate stages; Strategic additions to assessed effective performance. Changes be effected with least delay and confusion State of remuneration be reviewed

• • • • • • •

New forces for effective disaster management through risk reduction and risk management 18


Disaster Management

• Traditional global role of uniformed • •

forces in disaster management was secondary. Traditional role of uniformed forces in Kenya has also been supplementary up to now. The new role of uniformed forces in Kenya's disaster management must urgently change

The adverse changes in the future disaster arena necessitate effective disaster risk reduction and disaster risk management. • Natural evolution and climate change will make fire a natural terror - in the national parks and resources, in the country side, in the informal settlements (slums), in the industries. • Urban revolution will make most Kenyans urban dwellers by 2030, and informal sectors will house 25 million people where housing, access roads, water etc will be a major problem. Fire will make life here in the slums a permanent disaster. • Droughts and famine, floods and landslides will increase many fold and majority of Kenyans will be affected by 2015 to 2025. • Earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis and landslides are a permanent threat. We should not sleep like the people of Haiti; be alert and practical like the Japanese and Koreans. Urgent manpower training and availability make uniformed forces a special resource base for effective, reliable and sustainable disaster management; yes, the uniformed forces are a special resource base! Disaster management must be budgeted for to incorporate the uniformed forces and to include the budget in the operations and remuneration. Part of the urgent need for disaster risk management in Kenya is a comprehensive assessment of needs is urgent and essential. Manpower needs Manpower needs to be assessed but uniformed forces should take preference. • DRR, DRM and DM be mainstreamed into training and retraining courses; • DM be part of official public education and community development workshops and disaster preparedness and management; • DRR, DRM and DM be mainstreamed like all formal education and training even for doctors and paramedics, all administrators and political leaders (including councillors); and • Disaster management be incorporated into development planning and management.

National security needs To improve overall national security, the following are essential: • Collaboration and coordination to manage the disaster challenges; • Overall reorganisation including: Prevention and preparedness; Proactive capacity building; Effective response system; Improve remuneration to disaster management participants, including extra budgeted remuneration to uniformed forces; Systematic national education encouraging a culture of volunteerism. Another requirement is a culture of proactive approach to safety and recovery (resilience). Due to the added responsibility assigned to uniformed forces due to the inclusion of disaster management in their portfolio additional needs and skill will be required:• New enhanced role in security; • Reorganisation of operations in various institutions of uniformed forces; • Rapid joint studies to harmonise approaches to disaster management; • Systematic assessment and reviews of performances in disaster management; • Regular and essential workshops on disaster management; • Effective applied research on disaster management; • A disaster risk management college and • Stages of qualification to facilitate realistic and fair rewards etc. International collaboration and cooperation in training for disaster risk reduction would also need to be implemented. The funding system also needs to be reviewed and agreed, especially the national budget component of disaster management at all levels, national, sectoral (each ministry) constituency and community level. Conclusions on uniformed forces in disaster management • The uniformed forces are a new resource base for disaster management; • Effective and urgent measures be taken to incorporate them into disaster management; • Institutional collaboration is essential; • Re-training and disaster management mainstreaming be assessed and implemented; • Research and information networking is mandatory; • International cooperation, exchange system, and funding resources are essential; climate change be watched for the forthcoming significant disasters in Kenya. • Let us act URGENTLY! Volume 1


No 2

InternatIonal IncIdent command SyStem traInIng

FFA Training in collaboration with: SA ICS & USA Instructors (Experts in their field) is presenting:

Incident Command System - Position Specific training in the Western Cape during October 2014. See course details below: * Prerequisite work to be submitted before or on 30 September 2014 for course attendance confirmation. Course Title

Course Detail Describe the responsibility for managing and supervising Task Force/Strike Team resources, reporting, record keeping and after action requirements * Task Force Leader & Objectives: Strike Team Leader Ability to apply risk management processes and appropriate tactics in various incidents with resources organized in teams or task forces Describe the duties and responsibilities required for a Division/Group * Division Supervisor & Supervisor Group Supervisor Objectives: Division/Group management, organizational interaction, division/group operations Describe the related responsibilities to resource status systems, planning process and implementing a demobilization plan. Objectives: * Resources Unit Leader Effective management of personnel, equipment and supplies for the resources unit and demobilization unit, role as unit leader in the operational planning process, produce and disseminate products and information Describe the duties and responsibilities of a Situation Unit Leader with an overview of how to activate, set-up, organize and manage the unit Objectives: * Situation Unit Leader Skills to produce and disseminate timely and accurate products on incident status using technology to produce Maps, ICS forms, situation processes Describe the elements of planning critical to the Operations Section Chief as a member of an Incident Management Team * Operations Section Objectives: Chief Information gathering, meetings & briefings, risk assessment, safety and adjusting tactics, managing the operations section and the role in demobilization Describe the role and responsibilities of a Planning Section Chief as a member of an Incident Management Team * Planning Section Chief Objectives: Information gathering, Strategies, Meeting & Briefings, Incident Action Plans, Interactions, managing the planning section

Course Information Contacts: Michelle Kleinhans 013 741 1119 or 078 272 9089 (A/H)

Date and Tariff 13 – 15 October 2014 (2½ Days) Cape Town Lodge R3541.00 (excl VAT) 15 – 17 October 2014 (2½ Days) Cape Town Lodge R3541.00 (excl VAT) 13 – 15 October 2014 (2½ Days) Cape Town Lodge R4261.00 (excl VAT)

15 – 17 October 2014 (2½ Days) Cape Town Lodge R4261.00 (excl VAT)

20 – 24 October 2014 Cape Town Lodge R5140.00 (excl VAT)

20 – 24 October 2014 Cape Town Lodge R6800.00 (excl VAT)

Course Registration Contacts:

FFA Training (PTY) LTD

Pradhantha Devnarain 013 741 1119 or 079 495 5023 (A/H)

Western Cape Disaster Management Centre

Disaster management centre achieves 24/7 operating capacity

The Western Cape DMC is situated at Tygerberg Hospital in Parow, Cape Town


isaster operations and disaster risk reduction are two directorates that make up the operations of the Western Cape Disaster Management Centre, which is a chief directorate under the Department of Local Government.

chief directorate. The other functions include preparing for and responding to disasters and coordinating disaster recovery, as well as coordinating a provincial fire brigade function and to capacitate municipalities.

Establishing and maintaining institutional disaster management capacity and implementing effective disaster risk reduction activities count among the functions of the office of the

Chief director of the disaster management and fire brigade services, Western Cape Government, Colin Deiner, says, “We are now a provincial centre with a 24/7 capacity. Our job is to assist district

municipalities, assist the Metro and assist Government departments.” The 24-hour capacity of the PDMC is enabled in cooperation with the Department of Health- Emergency Medical Services (EMS), which ensures that a 24-hour standby process is in place for managing disasters. The disaster operations directorate within the Western Cape Disaster Management Centre is responsible for and responds to disasters and coordinates disaster recovery efforts that relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction. The disaster risk reduction directorate’s responsibilities are to facilitate and coordinate the reduction of potential risks posed by hazards. “We have taken the disaster management framework and developed a structure around that”, mentions Deiner.

Helen Zille and Colin Deiner during her visit to the PDMC 20


Disaster Management

Western Cape Disaster Management Chief directorate consists of: • Chief director • Deputy director • Assistant Director • Administrative coordinator • Registry clerk • Personal assistant Volume 1


No 2

Western Cape Disaster Management Centre

The centre was upgraded with interactive

The video wall provides for real time information

media equipment in March 2011

during major events or disasters

Fire brigade services subdirectorate: • Deputy director • Two assistant directors • Administrative clerk

support. We also liaise with our national counterparts regularly and sit at the National Disaster Management Advisory Forum,” states Deiner.

Disaster operations directorate:

The City of Cape Town’s Disaster Management Centre (DMC) is based at the Goodwood Fire Station. Deiner says that the PDMC has assisted the city on disaster management operations on several occasions during the year. One of these incidents was the major fire that broke out at an informal settlement in January 2013.

• Director • Two deputy directors • Four assistant directors • Administrative clerk • Personal assistant

Disaster risk reduction directorate:

• Director • Two deputy directors • Two assistant directors • Administrative clerk • Personal assistant

Cross-sectoral centre In order to provide an integrated emergency cross-sectoral communication centre, it was decided in February 2005 that the Department of Local Government and Housing along with the Department of Health and Community Safety collocate in a single provincial emergency management centre. A suitable site for the establishment of the PDMC was identified at the Tygerberg Hospital in Parow, Cape Town and the Centre was officially opened on 15 December 2005. Deiner says that all three levels of government have a disaster management function and are required to develop mitigation plans in the event of a major emergency incident. The PDMC works in tandem with the Metro emergency medical services call centre, as well as Working on Fire (WoF) and nature conservation representatives. These groups occupy space at the Centre and provide vital information before and during activation of the PDMC. “We have a provincial advisory forum that meets quarterly with all municipal, district and various stakeholders to discuss risk reduction projects, emergency plans and Volume 1


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Operations The PDMC is utilised as an incident command post, which has early warning systems in place in the event of a major incident. None of the services provided by the Western Cape PDMC are outsourced. The centre has a specialist urban search and rescue team made up of 100 technicians, who work under the guidance of the PDMC’s fire brigade service. The PDMC responds to all major fires and floods that occur in the province. The centre responds to an average of six incidents a year.

Department of Public Works Transport for any maintenance.


Fire service support The Western Cape is the only province that deploys aircraft during the regions fire season and this is done through the disaster management and fire brigade services unit. The province provides support to municipalities in the event of major fires, through aerial fire fighting resources and ICS responsibilities. Deiner mentions that the PDMC decided to have a Working on Fire (WoF) dispatch division in its fire brigade services department. The PDMC’s fire brigade services are responsible for the dispatch of the centre’s aerial resources. The PDMC is focused on strategic activities as opposed to tactical and fires are the only incidents where the centre takes a hands-on approach, says Deiner. He adds, “We had a major drought happen recently and we have many informal settlement fires. We do major work in terms of fire prevention.” Major incidents/events:

Other exceptional incidents that the centre has responded to in the past include the farm worker protests that took place in 2012 and which required a multi-agency response. Deiner says that the PDMC has a ‘hands-on approach’ that may not be the case with other districts. “If there is a river about to break, we get involved,” he says. A very high volume of incidents in the province and the provision of an effective service for each incident is not always easy. Another challenges of the PDMC, is the non-availability of a dedicated person responsible for information technology. This means that the PDMC is dependent on the normal helpdesk information technology (IT) processes. Furthermore, the disaster management centre is also dependent on the

• Xenophobia attacks in 2008 • Droughts in 2010 • 2010 FIFA World Cup strategic planning • New Year’s Day shack fires in 2013 PDMC budgets The capital cost of renovating and refurbishing the already existing Tygerberg building amounted to R12 million for the PDMC and offices for staff. The annual budget for aerial fire fighting operations has increased from R1,6 million to six million Rand over three years. The current operational costs of the centre amount to an average of R6 000 per month and this is utilised for the availability and rental of ADSL lines and video conferencing. However, this cost will increase substantially in the new financial year to Disaster Management | 21

Western Cape Disaster Management Centre

The PDMC is utilised as an incident command post make provision for the communication costs ie telephone lines and calls. The building belongs to the Department of Health and therefore the current telephone costs, electricity, water etc is covered by the owner of the building. Annual strategic planning sessions and a review of operations is conducted by the PDMC in order to address the unique challenges of the province. Budgets and capacity is increased during this process. Personnel The preparedness and response unit of the PDMC is made up of five staff overseeing the maintenance of the centre. However, the entire chief directorate personnel are involved and trained for when the centre is activated. Various training initiatives and exercises are undertaken by the centre. All staff along with district disaster management and fire personnel were recently trained in incident command system (ICS). Deiner says, “We are very big on scenario planning.” Regular training and preparedness exercises are conducted with various stakeholders, such as the City of Cape Town, Eskom (Koeberg), Airports Company of South Africa (ACSA), Transnet and the district disaster management centres.

The centre boasts the most comprehensive GIS system in the country

“We have gone through a lot of trouble to employ the best people. There is not a lot of experience we can bring when responding to incidents, but we want to provide quality,” says Deiner. Equipment The Western Cape Disaster Management equipped and upgraded the centre with interactive media equipment in March 2011. This included new data projectors, interactive boards, video conferencing and a video wall. The video wall provides for real time information during major events or disasters, which includes streaming satellites and video feeds. The video wall provides a visual of exactly what is happening at any one time during activation. The PDMC has also developed a geographical information system (GIS)based decision support tool that can be used to provide decision makers with critical information during planning sessions or emergency situations. “We have the most comprehensive GIS system in the country,” says Deiner. “The use of GIS in disaster management is recognised worldwide as a best practice as it works effectively in all four phases of disaster management that is preparation, mitigation, response and recovery.”

Deiner added that GIS is an essential tool at the PDMC as it is used on daily basis to inform operational decisions. GIS is used for the following purposes:

• Risk assessments • Planning for the fire and flood seasons • During response operations eg snow in Beaufort West

• Recovery operations • Spatial Analysis Furthermore, the PDMC uses the Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) technology, which is the first near real-time operational-satellite fire monitoring system of its kind in Africa. AFIS provides information on the frequency and distribution of fires to enable research, but also serves as a near real time tool that provides early detection and response to fires. Fire information is fed at intervals of 15 minute and provides continuous fire detection, day and night, reports Deiner. The centre is utilised on an annual basis as the joint operational centre (JOC) for the coordination of the Argus Cycle Tour and the Two Oceans Marathon. Centre wish-list An advanced and adequate early warning system would be one of the key elements in an ‘ultimate’ PDMC facility, according to Deiner. He says that such a prototypical PDMC would have clear communications with the district DMC and it would be able to provide assistance with all levels of stakeholders. The centre would also consist of capable and effective ICS that can deal with any incident, while communicating effectively with the public.

Various training initiatives and exercises are understaken by the centre



Disaster Management

At this point in time, the PDMC has sufficient personnel to deal with the service mandate of the organisation. “We are working to improve our operations and capacity. We are a work in progress in order to establish ourselves and move forward,” states Deiner. Volume 1


No 2

Risk mapping

Why risk mapping is important By Malcolm Proctor, deputy director, Department of Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF), Free State, South Africa


R82 R28 R500 R53 R502



R59 R504




Eskom Stations

R549 R54 R716














National Roads


Frankfort R34



R543 R34



R506 R708






Senekal N5





R64 R64


Quaggavlei Brandfort








Moderate High

Warden R714

Extremely High



Clarens Fouriesburg R711

Kestell R712

Excessively High N5 Harrismith

Roads National







R704 R709





Ladybrand Thaba Nchu Tweespruit R26 Botshabelo





Paul Roux












R707 Odendaalsrus R34 R70 Steynsrus Welkom Hennenman Arlington R73 Harmony Ventersburg Virginia R73



Petrus Steyn


Wesselsbron Allanridge









Fire Risk








Vierfontein R502

R500 R53



Fire Risk Free State







Fauresmith R704




N6 N6

Springfontein R715



Van Stadensrus

R717 R717

Coordinate System: WGS_84 Projection: Lambert Conformal Conic Standard Parallels 1: 27°15’ S Standard Parallels 2: 30° S




Date: 8/22/2014

Zastron Rouxville





0 10 20




100 Kilometers


R58 R701 R405



The latest fire risk map for the Free State


he definition of a risk assessment states that it is the process of estimating the likelihood and magnitude of the occurrence of an unwanted, adverse effect. It has its roots in the insurance industry, and initially was applied to engineering and nuclear science. The risk assessment approach also often is applied to areas where multiple stressors may be interacting or where comparative risks need to be assessed. It is used to delineate stressorinduced ecological responses can be used to make predictions about the potential for future recovery. Furthermore, predicting the efficacy and associated risks of alternative management scenarios is a natural application of the risk assessment paradigm. As wildfires cause harm and damage to people, property, infrastructure, economies and the environment, the goals of sustainable development are put to jeopardy. Disaster recovery and rehabilitation efforts require



Disaster Management

enormous funds that, amidst insufficient contingency funds, are taken out from other development programme that are planned or underway, thereby impeding development efforts. Therefore, it is important that wildfire mitigation programmes are made an integral part of developmental programme. At the same time, efforts to enhance the capacities of communities and coping systems at various levels and sectors towards self-reliance and self-sufficiency in managing disasters effectively must be sustained. “Understanding and identifying various types of vulnerabilities such as human, social, economic, and environmental as well as the nature of natural hazards, are essential components of such efforts”. Adapted from de Guzman EM towards Total Disaster Risk Management Approach. The basic question is: if there are only limited resources available for doing mitigation

work, where would resources best be utilised? Technological advancements in fire fighting should have had a decisive positive effect by now, if the problem was only a matter of fire suppression, especially given the serious general increase in fire fighting budgets in this time period. However, the reality is quite different. It can easily be shown that the problem is much more complex than just improving fire fighting effectiveness alone. It has to do with factors affecting the occurrence of fires, its characteristics and destruction potential. It also has to do with environmental factors, social evolution, economic development and even politics as well as institutional arrangements. In the face of tight budget constraints and many competing demands for public resources, there is widespread pressure to demonstrate that aid resources are well spent. As the extent and expectations of fire management continue to rise, so too will the need and Volume 1


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Risk mapping demand for clarity and transparency in balancing fire costs and losses and in optimising the minimisation of both. “Common sense dictates we invest more in preparing for fires and preventing them before they start, which will pay for itself in the long run,”(De Bonis M, Southwest Region Director of the Forest Guild in New Mexico.) Because of the significant economic and human impacts of wildfires, it's important to address how to mitigate their effects. Risk assessment helps fire managers and planners identify the locations of likely impacts and analyse mitigation measures before a catastrophe. Wildfire risk assessments also serve as a baseline for monitoring change in fire susceptibility and effects. When people become aware of a hazard and its potential to affect them, they make decisions about how they will respond to the risk. For some, this is a considered process of information gathering, decision-making and deliberate action. For others it may be an ‘unconscious’, relatively spontaneous response to the realisation that the threat exists, in which case ‘preparedness’ might consist of the intention to flee at the first sign of fire. In other words, it is suggested that everyone makes choices about how to use or not use their skills and resources in relation to the risk. The choices people make reflect the influence of an array of factors such as their perception of the risk, personal attributes, experiences, situational factors, social influences and so on. The following quotations are of relevance: 1. “We need to take a common-sense, practical approach to reducing risks we face and protecting our citizens and our communities. We need to identify our risks, educate and communicate to our people about those risks, prepare as best we can for the risks, and then, together, form partnerships to take

action to reduce those risks.” (James Lee Witt, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) ’s famous and successful director, provided valuable guidance for emergency managers worldwide) 2. “While we cannot do away with natural hazards, we can eliminate those we cause, minimize those we exacerbate, and reduce our vulnerability to most. Doing this requires healthy and resilient communities and ecosystems. Viewed in this light, disaster mitigation is clearly part of a broader strategy of sustainable development-making communities and nations socially, economically and ecologically sustainable.” J Abramowitz 3. “One essential requirement of the disaster management act is for the development of disaster management plans this includes conducting of risk assessments, mapping of vulnerable areas, measures to adapt to climate change and the development of early warning mechanisms by organs of state within their functional sphere”. (Ken Terry, head of NDMC) 4. The following is extracted from Disaster risk assessment in South Africa: some current challenges; Gideon van Riet African Centre for Disaster Studies North-West University in Potchefstroom: “The South African Disaster Management Act 57 of 2002 and the subsequent National Disaster Management Forum (NDMF), envision the incremental phasing in of disaster risk reduction and risk management in South African. The NDMF has three levels of disaster management plans that municipalities need to comply with and includes deadlines for coming into such compliance are defined. The requirements regarding disaster risk assessments (DRA) follow the same logic, with each ‘stage’ of risk assessment, being linked to a specific level of plan. For a level one plan a so-called ‘indicative’ risk profile is required. This entails an initial indication of the frequency, magnitude

Wildfire simulation map and general characteristics of prevalent hazards. It also requires the ‘description and quantification’ of vulnerability and capacity, an estimation of likely losses induced by a specific threat as well as an identification of existing relevant capacities, methods and resources available to manage risks. Finally; • A level one plan requires an estimation of the level of risk posed by a threat in relation to others, so that priority setting can take place (South Africa, 2005:30). • A level two plan requires a process of ‘risk evaluation’ to have taken place whereby a ‘multidisciplinary, comprehensive’ DRA is conducted. According to the NDMF (2005:30) this action requires the utilisation of specific risk science expertise that is relevant to the prevalent risks. At this level further prioritisation of risk and ‘at risk groups, areas and developments’ is required (South Africa, 2005:30). It seems the NDMF implies the use of ‘hard science’ or natural sciences expertise to feature much more strongly from this level of plan onwards. • A level three plan requires measures to be in place for monitoring and updating of risk management plans. Though municipalities are currently only required to be in possession of a level one plan, some DRAs in South Africa are said to have complied with the requirements of level two and three DRMPs, often only in relation to specific prevalent threats.

Time Frame

Progress required

Within two years of the commencement of the act 2003+ 2 years = 2005

All national, provincial and municipal organs of state will have submitted to the NDMC at a minimum, Level 1 DRM plan, this requires an estimation of the level of risk posed by a threat in relation to others, so that priority setting can take place (South Africa, 2005:30).

Within three years of the commencement of the act 2003+ 3 years = 2006

All national, provincial and municipal organs of state will have submitted to the NDMC at a minimum, Level 2 DRM plan requires a process of ‘risk evaluation’ to have taken place whereby a ‘multidisciplinary, comprehensive’ DRA is conducted. Prioritisation of risk and ‘at risk groups, areas and developments’ is required (South Africa, 2005:30). . NDMF: ‘hard science’ or natural sciences expertise to feature much more strongly from this level of plan onwards.

Within four years of the commencement of the act 2003+ 4 years = 2007

All national, provincial and municipal organs of state will have submitted to the NDMC at a minimum, Level 3 DRM plan this requires measures to be in place for monitoring and updating of risk management plans.

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Risk mapping economic and environmental change”. Resilience is not a fixed quality within communities; rather it is a quality that can be developed and strengthened over time. As resilience is strengthened, the ability to mobilise its people and resources to respond to and influence social, economic and environmental change is enhanced. Indeed, there can be potentially high returns to disaster risk reduction investments in hazard-prone areas, in the form of both specific disaster risk reduction projects and the disaster-proofing of other development projects. Such investments can also have significant additional indirect benefits for the broader economy and sustainable development

Risk assessment helps fire managers and planners identify the locations of likely impacts Current progress towards compliance of the disaster management act: • DAFF contracted the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) to do a level one risk assessment in terms and this was completed in 2010 • A level two type risk assessment was completed for the Southern Cape by SSI consultants in 2009, this assessment only covered a small portion of the Western Cape • A level two type risk assessment was completed for the entire Free State by M Procter (DAFF) in 2009 • A level two type assessment was completed for the entire Northern Cape by Dr A Jordaan of the University of the Free State in 2011 using the methodology developed by M Procter (DAFF) All of the above mentioned assessments are now a few years old and as the risks from wildfires changes, they have become outdated, conducting wildfire risk assessments has not been included in the DAFF strategy for the next five years. Components of a risk assessment An analysis of fire threat should at least: • Be based on a clearly-defined purpose and utilise a method that matches that purpose • Analyse separately the threat of a fire from elsewhere causing damage at a particular place and the threat of a fire starting at that place and causing damage there or elsewhere • Avoid rating factors into arbitrary categories and avoid combining factors on an arbitrary basis • Particular care is needed when rating 26


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fire severity, fuels and weather

• Analyse information at scales of

• •

• •

space and time that provide a balance in perspective and at levels of detail that match the purpose of the analysis Include fire suppression (and other management actions) in the analysis Address explicitly the boundary issues of the threat of losses from fires that cross administrative or land tenure boundaries and of resource movements across those boundaries Recognise that fire threat is about probabilities that characterise what may happen over a range of years and fire events. Actual outcomes may be quite different to probable outcomes Be based on a uniform grid across the entire country Identify and work within constraints such as the available data

Setting priorities for planning The information gathered provides a factual basic to set priorities for planning. • It provides the documentation for supporting hazard planning and response efforts • Three steps used in this processhazard identification, vulnerability analysis and risk analysis have different meanings but sometimes are wrongly used interchangeably • Resilience is the ability to successfully meet and surmount challenges, obstacles and problems A resilient community is one that takes intentional actions to enhance the personal and collective capacity of its citizens and institutions to respond to and influence the course of social,

Knowing where the fires occur allows us to do something about them, without a risk analysis both the fire protection associations (FPAs) and the department are BLIND as fire risk has not been prioritised; Section 15 exemptions are being approved without any scientific risk based data, awareness campaigns conducted on an ‘ad hoc’ basis and nothing can be done to address the causes of fires and in all likelihood it will continue to burn causing damage. Identification of hazards and vulnerability and commitment to risk management is therefore essential for sustainable development, sustainable development can only be achieved by integrating disaster risk reduction into planning and practice. Fire managers seek a balance between costs such as of fire suppression or prevention and losses such as timber resources, conservation values and property. They achieve this by implementing management actions such as fire suppression, prevention, preparation and protection in accordance with the perceived importance and urgency of suppressing fires within a particular time and extent and of protecting values. It is also possible that if the Government’s policy response is developed in advance of the urgency of loss, the policy will be more cost-effective, efficient and consistent with long-term objectives. The history of wildfires can provide a valuable dimension for risk assessment. Wildfire management mitigation interventions, based on landscape risk analysis lead to a more efficient and effective application of available resources. Over time, mitigation measures/achievements will become measurable and in addition to this, awareness interventions can be highlighted and successes monitored. Conclusion As the extent and expectations of fire management continue to rise, so too will the need and demand for clarity Volume 1


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Risk mapping and transparency in balancing fire costs and losses, and in optimising the minimisation of both. Analysis of fire threat is a vital future need and, despite the difficulties, progress is essential. Pre-loss planning helps get mitigation measures on to the policy agenda. Often disaster risk management projects are not undertaken in isolation but rather combined with other considerations bringing about improvements in conditions. After a disaster assistance policy is enacted and a loss has occurred, its cost is largely sunk. Postdisaster assistance at current law levels is largely beyond the control of policy makers. It is also possible than if the government’s policy response is developed in advance of the urgency of loss, the policy will be more cost-effective, efficient, and consistent with long-term objectives. Wellspecified and established policies will also permit those at risk to adopt mitigation measures and make plans for their recovery, consistent with their own preferences and the government’s planned response. Activities that are particularly useful and likely to be sustained are those that bring tangible benefit in their own right such as, for example, the development

Bethlehem integrated fire management

and usage of data sets and strategies on fuel levels and access times. More complex analyses of fire threat can build on such work as resources and insights permit. Whatever method is used, its assumptions and justifications must be evaluated and documented. Any method or exercise to analyse fire threat needs to address many

issues relating to purpose, the inherent mobility of wildfire, rating and combining factors, probabilities, scale, management actions, boundaries, quantifying fire severity and constraints. The method needs to be neither simplistic nor too theoretical. Otherwise the results will lack validity, usefulness, or both; probably to a serious extent.

Pre-loss planning helps get mitigation measures on to the policy agenda

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International Day for Disaster Reduction 2013

Disability and disaster the focus of UN's IDDR 2013

IDDR NEW NDMC's new disaster vehicles


he National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) hosted its International Day for Disaster Reduction (IDDR) at in Limpopo, South Africa in support of the IDDR initiative, introduced by the United Nation’s International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR).

The NDMC hosted its IDDR 2013 programme over two days on 14 and 15 October, focusing on the IDDIR 2013 theme ‘Living with disability and disasters’. The UNISDR initiative forms part of the organisation international programmes and various bi-annual themes that seeks to promote disaster risk-reduction activities, globally. Department of Corporate Governance and Traditional Affairs (CoGTA) deputy minister, Andries Nel, was a special guest at the IDDR 2013. He provided a background of the IDDR initiative, which is a day to celebrate how people and communities are reducing their risk to disasters and raising awareness about the importance of disaster risk reduction.

CoGTA deputy minister, Andries Nel 28


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Nel mentioned that these programmes follow a resolution by the United Nations (UN) to make global cities resilient by 2015. In line with the theme, Nel noted that a study was launched by the World Health Organisation in 2013 showing that people living disability are most affected by disasters. He mentioned that people with disability make up about fifteen percent of population, but the disabled community

is not consulted in planning for building disaster resilient cities. “There is a need to include people with disability. They have a unique perspective to better risk reduction processes,” stated Nel. He said that it was very important to highlight the important of disaster risk reduction over the two-day event hosted by the NDMC. “We need to understand, disasters highlight bigger challenges in our society, such as poverty, inequality, unemployment. It affects those people more than anyone else and disabled more so.” A host of other speakers presented various discussion on policies and issues relating to disaster management within the South African context and is effects on people living with disabilities. Among these were NDMC head of disaster management, Ken Terry, who said that the overall objective of the UNISDR system is to generate and support a global disaster risk reduction movement. He added that building a culture of prevention and risk avoidance in societies in pursuit of sustainable development.” Volume 1


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International Day for Disaster Reduction 2013

Ken Terry

Mmaphaka Tau

Moses Kgangala

South Africa has been actively involved in the rollout of the UNISDR programmes under the various bi-annual themes introduced by the UNISDR. This year, the IDDR focused on the approximately one billion people who live with some form of disability and their vulnerabilities to disasters.

meaningful ways of working with local and national government in assisting communities deal with increasing number of weather disasters.

Disaster Management Centre in George will give the local community and businesses access to emergency alerts in English, Afrikaans and Xhosa,” explained Lomberg.

The motivation for the UNISDR theme ‘Living with disability and disasters’ is that persons with disabilities are among the most vulnerable excluded in society and their plight is magnified when a disaster strikes, stated Terry. “Not only are they less likely to receive the aid they need during a humanitarian crisis, they are also less likely to recover in the longterm,” he said. Three objectives of the NDMC’s IDDR programme: • To highlight a disaster resilient planet and encourage all to be part of the solution • Decision and policies to reduce disaster risks must reflect the needs of persons with disabilities • Investment in disaster risk reduction must provide for the needs of persons with disabilities “It is expected that this IDDR commemoration programme will result in the development and implementation of disaster risk reduction measures that take into account the needs of persons with disabilities,” said Terry. Business-adopt-a-municipality Short-term insurance company, Santam’s head of stakeholder relations, John Lomberg, stated that insurance companies should develop Volume 1


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“Extreme weather conditions are becoming the norm,” said Lomberg. St Francis Bay in the Eastern Cape suffered the most devastating fires in November 2012 with damages amounting to millions of Rand. Lombard said that fires in informal settlements continue to ravage communities, damaging infrastructure and most importantly destroying lives, leaving many destitute. Lomberg added that municipalities are at the face of communities and bear the responsibility of managing the ramifications of a disaster when it strikes. Santam has joined the BusinessAdopt-A-Municipality (BAAM) initiative, which is a strategic partnership with the South Africa Local Government (SALGA) and the Department of Cooperative Governance. The BAAM initiative aims to assist municipalities to improve service delivery and provide support in the event of fires and floods and other catastrophes and its impact on our communities. Lomberg mentioned that Santam sponsored the installation of an early warning disaster system in George, Western Cape province, to help develop climate-resilient communities. The Polycom communications system will assist with the transmission of warnings of severe weather conditions and disaster notifications. “The Polycom system, which is linked to the Eden

Weather related disaster South African Weather Service (SAWS) Gauteng regional manager, Rudzani Malala, echoed the statement of Santam’s Lombard, saying that ‘weather related disasters are becoming the norm’. Malala noted that many of the disasters that occur in developing countries have a notable adverse effect on the already poor infrastructure of the country. It is important to consider people with disability when issuing early warning system and relief response, stated Malala. “More than 50 percent of global community are people with disabilities. This reflects the need to make people living with disability the centre of disaster management activities and planning. It is very important to look at people living with disabilities and to consult with these people,” he advised. SAWS has made available a number of products to assist disaster managers including forecasts of up to seven days, advocated Malala. “We have initiated disaster management forums and we issue severe weather warnings via short messaging service (SMS) and email,” he said. Impact forecasting is one of the new products developed by SAWS that takes risk analysis taken into consideration. The impact forecasting system looks into social, infrastructure and economics to Disaster Management | 29

International Day for Disaster Reduction 2013 develop an Impact forecast on different communities and people. Human rights issue KwaZulu-Natal provincial disaster management centre (PDMC) risk reduction and planning senior manager, Sibongiseni Ngema, spoke on the disaster and disability interfaces within the South African landscape. He said that disaster issues used to dealt with by charity organisations, however it is a crucial human rights issue. Ngema recommended that a group of be identified to address and implement a framework for disasters and people living with disabilities. Disaster policy review NDMC senior manager Mmaphaka Tau, acknowledged that it is becoming important for people with disabilities to be involved in various forums related to disaster management. He said that disaster management officials should begin to review disaster risk and management plans to assess how these policies and decisions affect people living with disabilities. “Disaster coordinators need to reflect on education programmes and study how these systems affect people living with disability. We need to consult and design products for everyone,” stated Tau.

“Food security means getting food at the right time and enough of it. We have to put effort to have nutritious food for all people of South Africa,” instructed Mocke. Synergy Eastern Cape Disaster Management manager of fire and rescue services, Lunga Mnxulwa, noted that there were synergies ‘in all issues raised’ at the NDMC’s IDDR 2013 programme in Limpopo. He supported the idea that a review of disaster risk reduction policies be reviewed adding that early warning systems and the role of provincial departments in this process, should also be reassessed. Other concerns highlighted by Mnxulwa were the perceived limitations in preparedness with people living with disability and education and training. He said that training should be specific for different interest groups. He further stated that infrastructure, information dissemination are among the challenges in effective disaster management practices, adding that a review of the policy framework to include people with disability should be conducted.

Food disaster Disaster management solutions founder, Ferdie Mocke, presented a discussion on food security and the focused on people living with disability and disasters. “Lack of nutritional food is actually a major disaster,” stated Mocke. He said that, relative to disability, lack of nutritious food is responsible for the death of 35 percent of people with disability.

The way forward Disabled communities will be involved in all three levels of Government, following the recommendations made at the NDMC’s IDDR programme, stated NDMC planning, coordination intervention and support executive manager, Modiegi Sethusha. “You will inform and educate us on all challenges and issues with those living with disabilities,” she told members of various disabled forums that gathered

Sibongiseni Ngema

John Lombard



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under the marquee on the Ntoampe Sports Ground in Moroke, Limpopo. “The disabled community has to participate in programmes, such as technology and programmes designed for disaster risk reduction by disaster management agencies,” opined Sethusha. “We have to improve on our communication,” she said. “When we conduct awareness programmes we will ensure that the disabled community is a part of that, because disaster management is everyone’s business.” Sethusha suggested the advent of simulation exercises to mimic disaster scenarios, such as earthquakes and then develop effective evacuation processes or systems. “People living with disabilities, should assisting in making decisions in different Governmental departments,” she said. Concrete suggestions NDMC head, Terry, said that concrete suggestions and resolutions for the inclusion of the needs of persons with disabilities was adopted following the first day of the IDDR 2013 programme in Limpopo. “The NDMC will continue to monitor and support provinces, municipalities and stakeholders to ensure the realisation of those resolutions.” Terry concluded, saying, “Finally, as we commemorate this 2013 IDDR here today, we further request both the province and the district to continue supporting the disaster management function. Disaster management remains critical to the realisation of goals and objectives of South Africa’s National Development Plan.”

Rudzani Malala Volume 1


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Upcoming Events 6 – 8 October 2014 2nd Biannual Conference of the Southern Africa Society for Disaster Reduction The conference aims to provide a platform for the presentation, discussion and debating of different academic and professional approaches to disaster risk reduction. Venue: Safari Hotel and Conference Centre, Windhoek, Namibia For more information visit: 6 – 8 October 2014 DMS Conduct a risk assessment course LG SETA NQF Level 5 accredited skills development in disaster risk management programme course Venue: 263 Jean Ave, Lyttleton, Gauteng, South Africa Contact: Francis Tel: 083 285 0195; 012 664 3192 or email: 13 October 2014 International Day for Disaster Reduction 2014 The Minister for Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs, Pravin Gordhan (MP), in partnership with the North West Department of Cooperative Governance, Human Settlement and Traditional Affairs and the Bojanala District Municipality will be hosting the UNISDR International Day for Disaster Reduction 2014 commemoration. Theme: Elderly people and disasters Venue: Rustenburg Civic Centre, Rustenburg Local Municipality, Bojanala District, North West, South Africa Contact: Mmabatho Ledwaba on Tel: 012 848 4618 or 076 780 9009 Or email: 13 – 15 October 2014 International incident command system training: Task force leader and strike team leader course. Describe the responsibility for managing and supervising task force/strike team resources, reporting, record keeping and after action requirements. Venue: Cape Town Lodge, Cape Town, South Africa Contact: Michelle Kleinhans Tel: 013 741 1119 or 078 272 9089 Or email: 13 – 15 October 2014 International incident command system training: Resources unit leader course. Describe the related responsibilities to resource status systems, planning process and implementing a demobilisation plan. Venue: Cape Town Lodge, Cape Town, South Africa Contact: Michelle Kleinhans Tel: 013 741 1119 Or 078 272 9089 or email: 13 - 17 October 2014 The Climate Symposium 2014 European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT); World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). The symposium will be an important step towards defining requirements, and the further development of an efficient and sustained international space-based Earth observing system. It is intended to bring together the international experts in climate observations, research, analysis and modelling to present and discuss results from their studies, with a particular emphasis on the role of space-based Earth observations in improving our knowledge of the current

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climate at global and regional scales, and in the assessment of models used for climate projections. Venue: Darmstadt, Germany For more information email: 15 – 17 October 2014 International incident command system training: Division supervisor and group supervisor course Describe the duties and responsibilities required for a division/group supervisor. Venue: Cape Town Lodge, Cape Town, South Africa Contact: Michelle Kleinhans Tel: 013 741 1119 Or 078 272 9089 or email: 15 – 17 October 2014 International incident command system training: Situation unit leader course Describe the duties and responsibilities of a situation unit leader with an overview of how to activate, set-up, organise and manage the unit Venue: Cape Town Lodge, Cape Town, South Africa Contact: Michelle Kleinhans Tel: 013 741 1119 Or 078 272 9089 or email: 20 – 24 October 2014 International incident command system training: Operations section chief course Describe the elements of planning critical to the operations section chief as a member of an incident management team Venue: Cape Town Lodge, Cape Town, South Africa Contact: Michelle Kleinhans Tel: 013 741 1119, 078 272 9089 Or email: 20 – 24 October 2014 International incident command system training: Planning section chief course Describe the role and responsibilities of a planning section chief as a member of an incident management team Venue: Cape Town Lodge, Cape Town, South Africa Contact: Michelle Kleinhans Tel: 013 741 1119 or 078 272 9089 Or email: 27 – 28 October 2014 DMS Develop and implement risk reduction plans course LG SETA NQF Level 5 accredited skills development in disaster risk management programme course Venue: 263 Jean Ave, Lyttleton, Gauteng, South Africa Contact: Francis Tel: 083 285 0195; 012 664 3192 Or email: 30 Oct - 1 Nov 2014 5th Conference of the International Society for Integrated Disaster Risk Management (IDRiM 2014) The theme of the conference is ‘Building Disaster Resilient Communities’. The focus of the conference builds on opportunities through science and technology, political will and behaviour change to address current crises and reduce risks for future generations. Whilst knowledge about the nature and context of disasters has proliferated, many potential actions for integrated disaster reduction remain far from realised. Venue: Western University, London, Ontario, Canada For further information visit:

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DMISA office contact details

The Disaster Management Institute of Southern Africa (DMISA)

DMISA office Contact details Tel: 011 822 1634

Fax: 011 822 3563

Email address Postal address PO Box 7130 Primrose Hill 1417 Physical address Suite 5 123 Rietfontein Road Primrose Germiston, Gauteng South Africa Office hours 08h00 to 13h00 Website http: Institute administrator Karin Muller Email:



Disaster Management

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Disaster Management Journal Vol 1 No 2  
Disaster Management Journal Vol 1 No 2