ANNUAL FUEL RETAIL REPORT
Masthead and Affiliated Unions
FECOMBUSTÍVEIS Federação Nacional do Comércio de Combustíveis e de Lubrificantes (National Federation of Fuel and Lubricant Commerce) www.fecombustiveis.org.br Av. Rio Branco 103/13° andar. Centro-RJ. Postal code.: 20.040-004 Phone:(21) 2221-6695
Delano Lima e Silva Rua Pernambuco nº 599 - Sala 4 Bairro: Bosque Rio Branco-AC Phone: (68) 3226-1500 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sindepac.com.br
Fecombustíveis nationally represents 34 unions and Abragás while de-
José Carlos Ulhôa Fonseca SHCGN-CR 704/705, Bloco E entrada 41, 3º andar, sala 301 Brasília-DF Phone: (61) 3274-2849 Fax: (61) 3274-4390 sindicato@sindicombustiveis-df. com.br www.sindicombustiveis-df.com.br
fending the legitimate interests of nearly 38,000 service stations, 370 TRRs, and almost 40,000 resellers of LPG in addition to the resale of lubricants. The federation is affiliated with the National Confederation of Commerce of Goods, Services and Tourism (CNC) and is part of the Latin American Committee of Fuel Entrepreneurs (Claec). Circulation: 4,500 copies President: Paulo Miranda Soares Honorary President: Gil Siuffo
1st Vice-President: Mario Luiz Pinheiro Melo 2nd Vice-President: José Carlos Ulhôa Fonseca 3rd Vice-President: Adão Oliveira da Silva 4th Vice-President: Walter Tannus Freitas 5th Vice-President: Maria Aparecida Siuffo Schneider 6th Vice President: José Camargo Hernandes 1st Secretary: Roberto Fregonese 2nd Secretary: Emilio Roberto C. Martins 3rd Secretary: José Augusto Melo Costa 1st Treasurer: Ricardo Lisboa Vianna 2nd Treasurer: Manuel Fonseca da Costa 3rd Treasurer: Armando Matheussi Fiscal Council Member: Luiz Felipe Moura Pinto Fiscal Council Member: Julio Cezar Zimmermman Fiscal Council Member: João Victor C. R. Renault
James Thorp Neto Av. Jucá Sampaio, 2247, Barro Duro Salas 93/94 Shopping Miramar Maceió-AL Phone: (82) 3320-2902/1761 Fax: (82) 3320-2738/2902 email@example.com www.sindicombustiveis-al.com.br
Nebelto Carlos dos Santos Garcia Rua Vasco Coutinho, 94 Vitória-ES Phone: (27) 3322-0104 Fax: (27) 3322-0104 firstname.lastname@example.org. br www.sindipostos-es.com.br
Luiz Felipe Moura Pinto Rua Rio Içá, 26 - quadra 35 Conj. Vieiralves Manaus-AM Phone: (92) 3584-3707 Fax: (92) 3584-3728 email@example.com
José Batista Neto 12ª Avenida, 302 Setor Leste Universitário Goiânia-GO Phone: (62) 3218-1100 Fax: (62) 3218-1100 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sindiposto.com.br
TRR Director: Álvaro Rodrigues Antunes de Faria Director of Service Stations: Ricardo Hashimoto Environmental Director: João Batista Porto Cursino de Moura Director of CNG: Gustavo Sobral Director of Convenience Stores: Paulo Tonolli Editorial Board: Emilio Martins, José Antônio Rocha, José Camargo Hernandes, Mario
José Augusto Melo Costa Av. Otávio Mangabeira, 3.127 Costa Azul Salvador-BA Phone: (71) 3342-9557 Fax: (71) 3342-9557/9725 email@example.com www.sindicombustiveis.com.br
Melo, Paulo Miranda Soares, Ricardo Hashimoto, Ricardo Lisboa Vianna and Roberto Fregonese. Editor: Mônica Serrano Assistant Editor: Gisele de Oliveira Reporters: Adriana Cardoso and Rosemeire Guidoni Chief Economist: Isalice Galvão Graphic Design: Girasoli Soluções Images: Shutterstock, Stock, Somafoto and Rogério Capela Printing: Edigráfica
2 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Orlando Pereira dos Santos Av. Colares Moreira, 444, salas 612 e 614 Edif. Monumental São Luís-MA Phone: (98) 3235-6315 Fax: (98) 3235-4023 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sindcomb-ma.com.br
Vilanildo Fernandes Av. Engenheiro Santana Junior, 3000/6º andar - Parque Cocó Fortaleza-CE Phone: (85) 3244-1147 email@example.com. br www.sindipostos-ce.com.br
Aldo Locatelli R. Manoel Leopoldino, 414, Araés Cuiabá-MT Phone/Fax: (65) 3621-6623 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sindipetroleo.com.br
MATO GROSSO DO SUL
Mário Seiti Shiraishi Rua Bariri, 133 Campo Grande-MS Phone: (67) 3325-9988 / 9989 Fax: (67) 3321-2251 email@example.com www.sinpetro.com.br
Jardim Chapadão - Campinas-SP Phone: (19) 3284-2450 firstname.lastname@example.org www.recap.com.br PIAUÍ
Robert Athayde de Moraes Mendes Av. Jockey Club, 299, Edificio Eurobusines 12º, sala 1212 Teresina-PI Phone: (86) 3233-1271 Fax: (86) 3233-1271 email@example.com www.sindipetropi.org.br
Carlos Eduardo Mendes Guimarães Rua Amoroso Costa, 144 Bairro Santa Lúcia Belo Horizonte-MG Phone/Fax: (31) 2108- 6500/ 21086530 firstname.lastname@example.org www.minaspetro.com.br
RIO DE JANEIRO
Ricardo Lisboa Vianna Av. Presidente Franklin Roosevelt, 296 São Francisco Niterói–RJ Phone/Fax: (21) 2704-9400 email@example.com www.sindestado.com.br
Ovidio da Silveira Gasparetto Av. Duque de Caxias, 1.337 Bairro Marco Perímetro: Trav. Mariz e Barros/ Trav. Timbó - Belém-PA Phone: (91) 3224-5742/ 32414473 secretaria@sindicombustiveis-pa. com.br www.sindicombustiveis-pa.com. br
RIO DE JANEIRO - MUNICÍPIO
Maria Aparecida Siuffo Pereira Schneider Rua Alfredo Pinto, 76 - Tijuca Rio de Janeiro-RJ Phone: (21) 3544-6444 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sindcomb.org.br
RIO GRANDE DO NORTE PARAÍBA
Omar Aristides Hamad Filho Av. Minas Gerais, 104 Bairro dos Estados João Pessoa-PB Phone: (83) 3324-1600 Fax: (83) 3221-0762 email@example.com www.sindipetropb.com.br
Antônio Cardoso Sales Rua Monte Sinai - Galeria Brito salas 101/102 - Natal-RN Phone: (84) 3217-6076 Fax (84) 3217-6577 firstname.lastname@example.org. br www.sindipostosrn.com.br
RIO GRANDE DO SUL PARANÁ
Rui Cichella Rua Vinte e Quatro de Maio, 2.522 Curitiba-PR Phone/Fax: (41) 3021-7600 diretoria.sindi@sindicombustiveis-pr. com.br www.sindicombustiveis-pr.com.br
Alfredo Pinheiro Ramos Rua Desembargador Adolfo Ciríaco,15 - Recife-PE Phone: (81) 3227-1035 Fax: (81) 3445-2328 email@example.com
Adão Oliveira Rua Cel. Genuíno, 210 - Centro Porto Alegre-RS Phone: (51) 3930-3800 Fax: (51) 3228-3261 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sulpetro.org.br
RIO GRANDE DO SUL – SERRA GAÚCHA
Luis Henrique Martiningui Rua Ítalo Victor Berssani, 1.134 Caxias do Sul-RS Phone/Fax: (54) 3222-0888 email@example.com. br www.sindipetroserra.com.br
RONDÔNIA Rafael Alexandre Figueiredo Gomes Travessa Guaporé, Ed. Rio Madeira, 3º andar, salas 307/308 Porto Velho-RO Phone: (69) 3229-6987 Fax: (69) 3229-2795 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sindipetro-ro.com.br RORAIMA Abel Salvador Mesquita Junior Av. Surumu, 494 São Vicente - Boa Vista - RR Phone: (95) 3623-8880 email@example.com
Robson de Souza Rua Porto União, 606 Bairro Anita Garibaldi Joinville-SC Phone: (47) 3433-0932 / 0875 Fax: (47) 3433-0932 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sindipetro.com.br
SÃO PAULO - SANTOS
José Camargo Hernandes Rua Dr. Manoel Tourinho, 269 Bairro Macuco - Santos-SP Phone: (13) 3229-3535 Fax: (13) 3229-3535 email@example.com www.resan.com.br
Mozart Augusto Oliveira RuaRaimundoFonseca,57-BairroTrezede Julho Aracaju-SE Fone: (79) 3214-4708 Fax: (79) 3214-4708 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sindpese.com.br
Laércio dos Santos Kalauskas Rua Trípoli, 92, conj. 82 Vila Leopoldina São Paulo-SP Phone (11) 3644-3440/ 3645-2640 email@example.com www.sindilub.org.br
SANTA CATARINA - BLUMENAU
Julio César Zimmermann Rua Quinze de Novembro, 550/4º andar Blumenau-SC Phone: (47) 3326-4249 Fax: (47) 3326-6526 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sinpeb.com.br
SANTA CATARINA FLORIANÓPOLIS
Paulo Roberto Ávila Av. Presidente Kennedy, 222 - 2º andar Campinas São José Florianópolis-SC Phone: (48) 3241-3908 email@example.com
Eduardo Augusto Rodrigues Pereira 103 Sul, Av. LO 01 - Lote 34 - Sala 07 Palmas-TO Fone: (63) 3215-5737 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sindiposto-to.com.br
Álvaro Rodrigues Antunes de Faria Rua Lord Cockrane, 616 8º andar, salas 801/804 e 810 Ipiranga-SP Fone: (11) 2914-2441 Fax: (11) 2914-4924 email@example.com www.sindtrr.com.br Entidade associada
SANTA CATARINA - LITORAL CATARINENSE E REGIÃO
Giovani Alberto Testoni Rua José Ferreira da Silva, 43 Itajaí-SC Phone: (47) 3241-0321 Fax: (47) 3241-0322 sincombustiveis@sincombustiveis. com.br www.sincombustiveis.com.br
José Luiz Rocha Fone: (41) 8897-9797 firstname.lastname@example.org www.abragas.com.br
SÃO PAULO - CAMPINAS
Flávio Martini de Souza Campos Rua José Augusto César, 233
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 3
Table of Contents
The United States
4 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
On the road to recovery
Impact of the drought
A year of relief
Emissions and climate impacts
Bakeries and food stores, the path of convenience stores
The fight for a fairer market
Letter from the President Supply Chain
91 92 94 96
Acronyms List of Tables Glossary Research Sources and Acknowledgments
Letter from the President
In Rhythm of Growth Despite all Brazil’s economic and political problems which got more serious last year, the fuel market weathered the year untouched by the country’s problems and maintained its growth trajectory. Fuel sales had an excellent year, with a 5,3% growth over 2013, as our 2015 Annual Report on Fuel Reselling shows. In a year marked by the World Cup and general elections, this result is something to cheer about. Last year, the long-awaited World Cup represented a landmark for Brazil and dispelled pessimistic predictions of chaos when foreign visitors arrived for the event. Fortunately, everything went smoothly, except for Brazil’s loss to Germany, which left a taste of frustration among Brazilians. From an economic standpoint, the World Cup slowed retail sales, with all the additional holidays decreed and, as a result, our industry also had lower volume. For this reason, we had a weak first half of the year; however, volume grew stronger in the second half of the year and recovered sales on consumption of the country’s rolling fleet. After the World Cup, the election climate took hold of the country and we had the closest race for president in recent years, with incumbent president Dilma Rousseff finally winning. In 2014, we also saw the progression of the “Lava-Jato” Operation and the repercussions of the Petrobras corruption scandal, with the involvement of politicians and private companies, which increased the government’s unpopularity with the general public. At the same time, official statistics indicated a weakened economy, with a need for urgent changes. With this, President Dilma Rousseff’s reelection began with the challenge to implement fiscal adjustments to bring government finances back into line and restructure our economy. In our industry, 2014 will be marked as the year that a new regular gasoline with low Sulphur content (50ppm) was launched. The initiative is one of the measures designed to reduce polluting emissions to meet the stages of the Proconve program. The process of improving the quality of regular gasoline will be complete with the addition of dispersing detergents, which was scheduled to take place on July 1st, but postponed to 2017. Together with the new gasoline, also last year, service stations began selling only two types of lower-polluting diesel, S10 and S500, and diesel-type S1800 was taken off the market.
Another highlight for the year, appearing in the Report, was the increase in the mixture of biofuel in diesel to 6% on July 1st and 7% starting on November 1st. The government’s decision to increase the percentage mixture was aimed at satisfying the demands from the productive sector which has been experiencing difficulties. Ethanol had another difficult year and the sugar and energy sector remained confident that the government would meet its demands, with the return of the Cide tax and increase in the percentage of anhydrous ethanol in gasoline, which only happened in the first few months of 2015. The sugar and energy sector already underwent a difficult period due to the heavy drought which affected the sugar fields in the Central South of Brazil, which reduced production in the 2014/2015 harvest. Fit was a year in which the water and energy crises were quite evident, especially in Brazil’s Southeast region. Many different kinds of establishments had to control their energy costs and reduce water consumption. The retail fuel market had to adapt to the drought, by adopting measures to make up for the water shortage with many stations suspending car wash operations. The Annual Report also presents the scenario of the international fuel market, with a special chapter on the United States. Check out the peculiarities of the U.S. Market and the difficulty fuel retailers are also having there. We have made available material which is full of information. Our industry is portrayed in detail in this Annual Report: our sales performance, victories, difficulties, changes in government resolutions and new obligations we will have to comply with. We operate in a dynamic industry and we constantly have to adapt ourselves to the market, meet consumer need and, principally, fulfill our role to move the country’s economy, in addition to offering to supply high quality fuel to society. We hope that this Report will be useful, increasing our knowledge so that we may better discuss the great challenges in retail.
Good reading! Paulo Miranda Soares President of Fecombustíveis Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 5
On the road to recovery The U.S. economy gained more strength and now is on more solid ground on its way to recovery. Economic indicators point to a stronger country. Last year, the countryâ€™s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew 2,4% and, for this year, is expected to rise 3,6%, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Also in 2014, 2,95 million jobs were created, 252.000 of which in December, which helped the unemployment rate close out at 5,6% in 2014. The result shows that it is the fifth straight year that the United States hired more workers than it fired. The country was also marked by a strong energy production, led by increase natural gas and shale oil exploration. The world has an excess supply of oil and the barrel price has plummeted since the end of 2014. For American consumers, the scenario could not be better with the drop in fossil fuel prices, reflecting in lower costs at the gas pump. Just like Brazilian consumers, one of the decisive points for Americans in choosing where to fill up is price. And for a good reason: gasoline consumption represents close to 5% of total consumer spending. Last year, diesel sales grew 6% over 2013, to 209 million cubic meters. Gasoline, on the other hand, went from 483 1.1 SALES OF GASOLINE AND DIESEL (In millions of m3) 2013
million cubic meters in 2013 to 479 million cubic meters in 2014, a 1% reduction in comparison with prior year. For this year, the, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that the average American family will spend close to $2.000 on fuels during 2015.
Biofuels With regard to biofuels, the U.S. government has stimulated consumption of renewable fuels through incentive programs to increase their share among fuels offered in the market. Last year, ethanol sales grew 2% over 2013, totaling 51 million cubic meters. Biodiesel consumption increased 1% over the same period.
1.2 ETHANOL (In millions of m3) 2013
Source: EIA Note: 2013 data has been revised.
1.3 BIODIESEL (In millions of m3) 2013
Source: EIA Note: 2013 data has been revised.
Source: EIA Note: 2013 data has been revised. Diesel data refer to Ultra Low Sulphur, as no data is available for Low Sulphur and High Sulphur.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 7
Crude oil affects prices Retail fuel prices are affected by four components: crude oil, taxes, refining and post-refining costs (the later including all costs after the fuel leaves the refinery). Oil prices, by far, represent the greatest weight in retail prices. Last year, crude oil costs were responsible for 65% of gasoline selling prices and they represent roughly two-third of a gallon of gas. For diesel, the percentage related to
1.4 COMPOSITION OF RETAIL GASOLINE PRICES Crude Oil Refining
2013 68% 11%
2014 65% 10%
Margins Taxes Price (In US$ per liter) Source: EIA
1.5 COMPOSITION OF RETAIL DIESEL PRICES
crude oil represents 57% of the productâ€™s retail selling price. It is worth noting that oil prices may fluctuate through the half of the fuel price composition tied to the price of oil, the im-
Crude Oil Refining
2013 61% 12%
2014 57% 12%
pact of the sharp drop in barrel prices last year was passed on to
the consumer, who saw prices at the pump fall. Gas prices went
Taxes Price (In US$ per liter)
course of a year, and that is what occurred last year. With over
from US$ 0,926/liter in 2013 to US$0,888/liter in 2014. Diesel prices were reduced from US$ 1,036/liter in 2013 to US$ 1,011/
liter in 2014. Taxes have a lower weight in fuel costs in the U.S. as compared to Brazil. Last year, the corresponding percentage weight in both gasoilne and diesel prices was 13% of the total. The remaining components in gasoline prices are 10% for refining and 12% in margins; while, for diesel, these costs represent 12% (refining) and 18% (margins).
Union: fuel and convenience retailing According to NACS, an organization which represents service stations and convenience stores, Americans refuel their cars around 4 to 5 times a month and, currently there are approximately 150.000 service stations spread out all over the United States. Of this total, 127.588 are convenience stores which operate together with fuel retailing. These re-
1.6 OWNERSHIP OF CONVENIENCE STORES
tailers sell close to 80% of all fuel purchased in the U.S. Most of the establishments, 58% of the total, are small dealers with a single service station (close to 70.000). Many of these outlets do not have the resources to create brand strategies disassociated from the brand of fuel they sell in their service stations, and this could lead to false perceptions on the part of consumers, who may associate the establishment as belonging to a large oil company.
8 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Away from retail
Independent retailers While the large oil companies are leaving retail operations, their brands remain as half of the service stations operating in the country sell fuels under the brand name of one of the fifteen largest supplying refineries. Practically all of theses establishments are operated by independent businessmen who have supply contracts with a refiner/distributor to display a specific brand, similar to the Brazilian counterparts who choose the use of a brand flag, but do not share their gains and losses with fuel distributors. The other 50% are unbranded. These service stations often belong to companies who have created their own fuel brand, such as, QuikTrip, Wawa, 7-Eleven and buy fuel either on the open market or through unbranded contracts with a refiner/distributor.
Unlike Brazilian law, which does not allow verticalization in the retail area, in the United States, large oil companies may operate in retail fuel sales and were a major force in the past. However, since 2007, these companies have left the retail business to concentrate more on production and refining. Of the 127.588 establishments, less than 0,4% of them (443) belong to Chevron and Shell, the two oil companies who remained in the small retail segment last year. ConocoPhillips had one unit in operation in 2013, but left the retail business last year.
1.7 MAJOR OIL-OPERATED RETAIL OUTLETS Chevron Shell ExxonMobil BP North America ConocoPhillips Inc. TOTAL
2013 406 23 0 0 1 430
2014 423 20 0 0 0 443
Retail segment growing The service stations which operate together with convenience stores sell more than 80% of the fuel marketed in the United States and their dominance continues to grow. Over the last decade, the number of establishments has grown 15% (from 110.895 to 127.588 stores). The number of service stations operated by hypermarkets has also grown. Starting in May 2014, the country’s 5.236 hypermarkets were responsible
1.8 HYPERMARKETS SELLING FUEL Walmart Kroger Sam’s Club Safeway Costco Others TOTAL
2013 21,0% 22,6% 9,4% 6,6% 7,2% 33,2% 5.093
2014 19,1% 23,3% 9,6% 6,6% 7,3% 34,1% 5.236
for 13,8% of the fuel purchased in the United States, according to analysts in the international energy industry. These establishments sell roughly 278.000 gallons a month, more than twice the volume of a traditional fuel retailer. Kroger continues as leader in fuel sales since 2002 and. Last year, represented 23,3% of the total, followed by Wal-Mart, 19,1% and Sam’s Club, with 9,6%
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 9
Card: a problem
An estimated 40 million Americans fuel their
With over three quarters of consumers paying
vehicles at service stations every day and 30 million
with plastic directly at the pump, most retailers have
of them pay with cards. Credit and debit card ope-
no choice but to accept credit and debit cards. Howe-
rations are classified as a duopoly, exercised by the two largest card issuing companies (Visa and MasterCard), who include fixed charges and impose rules on retailers. The rules retailers must adhere to are complex, which, in some cases, includes hundreds of pages.
ver, credit and debit card transactions result in certain fees charged to retailers (also known as â€œinterbank commissionsâ€?). These charges generally represent an average of around 2% to 3% of purchases, and may be as high as 4%.
Card fees vary from store to store and even among
As retailers have small margins on fuel (average
customers. In addition, these charges are based on
gross margin on fuel has be only 5,7% over the last
the type of card used (retailers tend to be reluctant to accept cards with benefits), the type of business (larger retailers obtain more favorable charges based on
five years), these costs are passed on to the consumer. For more than a decade, American retailers have
volume discounts) and how the card is used (fueling
fought to change the credit card system, considered as
islands tend to have higher charges because they are
a problem as it costs money to consumers and also to
considered as discontinuous terminals).
retailers. The argument is that credit card fees are essen-
10 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
tially a “tax” paid to credit card companies. When consumers are taxed, they have less money to spend, which affects retail sales. NACS and other groups have called for changes in the fees charged
for debit transactions and signed, legally, on July 21, 2010, as part of the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Defense Act. This law was directed to the Federal Reserve (Fed) to ensure that fees are “reasonable and proportional” to the costs incurred by banks on commercial transactions. Originally, the Federal Reserve proposed fees of US$ 0,07 to US$ 0,12 on each debit card transaction, but even so this level was considered significantly high as compared to the US$ 0,04 per transaction banks informed as being their costs to process debit transactions. However, the final amounts ended up being slightly higher: US$ 0,21 and US$ 0,01 to prevent fraud and 0,05% of the transaction amount to cover losses from frauds, limited to US$ 0,24. The NACS and other organs filed an action contesting the Fed’s rules, but, on January 20, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear the appeal. NACS also filed a private antitrust suit against the main credit card companies and banks in 2005. A Council for retailers proposed a US$7,2 billion agreement which did
In Brazil, the ANP (Oil and Gas Industry Regulatory instituted Quality Program
ensure that fuel is sold in
to guarantee that is free or
Consistent follow up of the PMQC Program has contributed to im-
not cover the issue of the payment system, and was rejected by the majority
prove the index of non-
of its authors. NACS led the opposition against the proposed agreement, but,
-compliances for fuels
despite the entity’s objections and those of thousands of other retailers, the
all over the country. In
judge accepted the proposed liquidation. The appeal process is underway.
the United States, on the other hand, there
is no official data on
The increase in credit card expenses led an increasing number of re-
the índices of non-
tailers to look for alternatives, especially discounts for cash payments. The
-compliances, as the
amounts vary, but most retailers offer close to US$0,05 a gallon discount for
quality of fuel sold at
customers paying in cash. Some retailers offer significantly higher discounts
services stations is not
in exchange for cash, especially if the fuel purchase is associated with ano-
ther purchase, like, for example, a car wash.
to NACS, U.S. law is ex-
Definitions for retailers to offer cash discounts are spelled out by the
tremely strict and pe-
State Department of Weights and Measures. Normally, retailers have to
nalties are heavy, the-
affix the price (for credit sales) in a location visible to the consumer. Some
refore, practically the
retailers also may use banners and promotional panels display the cash and
whole chain complies
credit sales prices.
with the rules.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 11
Growing Two major events marked 2014: the World Cup in
fuel demand remained strong, held up by the total fleet
Brazil and the elections. A period considered difficult for
in circulation in Brazil. The lack of government policies in
the country, with signs of a economic slowdown, fewer
the area of urban mobility, to offer better conditions to
working days for the trade, and, due to the election
the population to stimulate the use of public transpor-
period, many decisions were postponed until after the
tation, also contributed to maintain fuel consumption.
election, in 2015, with the beginning of President Dilma
Despite the strong demand, the share of liquid fuels as
Rousseff’s second term.
a percentage of GDP decreased slightly from 5,68% in
Brazil remained stagnant in 2014, with each month
2013 to 5,64% last year.
oficial índices pointing to the economy’s fragility and lit the warning light. Despite the fact that the official inflation index (IPCA or “Broad Consumer Price Index”), the official inflation index, closed the year within the objective (6,41%), the basic
2.2 TAX REVENUES In billions of R$
interest rate in the economy, Selic, reached 11,75%. The country closed the year with a high dollar exchange rate, reduction in industrial activity, low new job generation and a drop in the level of consumer confidence. A large number of economic segments, especially domestic industry, experienced difficult times in 2014 in the midst of a poor economic scenario. Some sectors, however, bucked the pessimism and contributed to ease the country’s situation. The Brazilian fuel market was one which maintained vigorous growth, moving differently than the country’s GDP which was basically stagnant with a more 0,1% growth. Last year, fuel sales grew 5,3% over 2013. The po-
2.3 COMPOSITION OF SALES AT GAS STATIONS
sitive growth can be attributed to the effect of government incentives reducing the federal excise tax (IPI) on new vehicles. Even with the slowdown in vehicle sales, 3,5 million new cars were licensed last year. In addition,
2.4 SHARE OF LIQUID FUELS IN THE GDP
(Gasoline + Ethanol + Diesel)
In billions of R$
2.5 FORECASTS OF GDP GROWTH IN 2015
Brazilian Central Bank
Source: Official publications of the respective institutions
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 13
Fuel sales billings grew 13%, reaching a total of R$ 311,5 billion. In the billings breakdown, diesel sales represented the largest share (49% of the total), followed by gasoline with 42% and ethanol with 9%. Tax revenues continues to growth and collections increased 10% over 2013, to R$78,2 billion vs. R$71,1 billion in 2013. At the service stations, last year, the fuels most sold were gasoline and diesel. Gasoline mantained the same level as 2013, 48%, while diesel reduced its share by two percentage points to 37%. Ethanol, the third most sold fuel, increased one percentage point, to 14%. We still do not know how the fuel market will react this year, whether or not it will maintain the same rhythm of growth as in previous years. Historically, the industryâ€™s sales performance is normally better than that of the country. However, 2015 began with
the prospects of a difficult year. The macroeconomic scenario is not conducive to growth. Recent prospects point to negative forecasts from JP Morgan (March 2015): 0,7%; and the Brazilian Central Bank (April 2015): -1%. The government began the year with the implementation of fiscal adjustments in an effort to balance the government budget, with increased tax collections and reductions in government spending. With this, the population will bear more of the brunt, paying higher taxes, including an increase in the PIS/COFINS percentage on fossil fuels and the return of the CIDE contribution. The first quarter of the year presented signs of a slowdown in fuel consumption, with an increase of 1,3% over the same period of 2014.
Giant in crisis
Even with the high demand for fuel, from the supply
Last year marked one of the most
standpoint, 2014 was a relatively tranquil year as compared
critical periods for Petrobras. The state
with previous years. There were some localized problems, es-
company sunk into an unprecedented
pecially the Madeira River flood, which greatly affected the
crisis, which shocked the country with
supply of liquid fuels and Liquefied Natural Gas in the North
corruption scandals which seemed end-
less. To make things worse, the company
In order to improve logistics and quickly ship fuel, espe-
had to postpone publishing its third
cially to the State of Acre, the ANP authorized an exemption
quarter results, due to the fact that its
from the mandatory mixture of biodiesel for a specific pe-
auditors Pricewaterhouse Coopers refu-
riod, in order to guarantee the supply of diesel in the region
sed to approve the numbers and sign the
due to the lack of operating conditions of the bases to per-
financial statements, which increased
form the mixture.
the confidence crisis and scared away in-
2014 was the first year post-Resolution 45/2013, which
vestors. Among the main consequences,
established more strict rules for production and distribution,
Petrobras lost its investment grade, with
establishing the formation of minimum weekly inventories of
the lowering of its credit rating issued
gasoline and diesel oil. The first balance performed by the ANP
by rating agency Moodyâ€™s, in February
brought positive results for the sector, with only three occur-
rences of non-compliance to the minimum inventories of S500
On the operating side, Petrobras
diesel during 2014. In 2015, the Agency began the implemen-
was able to maintain its principal acti-
tation of audits to analyze data informed by agents in the indus-
vities of production and refining in full
try regarding inventories as a form to guarantee greater predic-
swing, accumulating production recor-
tibility to the Market with regard to supply.
ds with its refineries operating for more than a year at full capacity.
14 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Growing The fuel market continued tofavor
2.6 MARKET PLAYERS
the entry of new entrepreneurs. The number of market agents increased to 114.005, a 5,4% increase over the previous year. Just as in 2013, the 5% increase in sales of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and 21% in the number of outlets helped bring about the increase in number of agents. Fuel reselling increased its share
Refineries Ethanol plants Biodiesel producers Liquid fuel distributors LNG Distributors Retail Reselling Carriers (TRR) Service Stations Fueling Points LNG Resellers Source: ANP
2013 16 381 64 214 22 386 39.294 11.105 55.771
2014 17 384 58 205 22 382 39.993 13.469 58.463
by 2%, with 699 new dealers. The number of liquid fuel distributors decreased by 4% in comparison with 2013 and Retail Reseller Carriers (TRRs)
2.7 REGISTRATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES In millions of units
decreased 1% in the same period. AVehicle sales declined for the second straight year. This time, the drop was greater, 7,1% in 2014 vs. 2013, to 3,5 million units, when, in the previous period (2013/2012), volume fell 0,9%. Licensing of imported cars fell 12,7%, especially due to the appreciation of the dollar. Car production slowed significantly, with a volume 15,3% lower than in 2013, to 3,15 million units in 2014.
In the beginning of 2015, data from the automotive sector reflected a crisis in the industry, which began last year. In the first two months of the year alo-
2.8 LICENSING OF LIGHT AUTOMOBILES BY
ne, vehicle sales were 23,1% lower and production fell 22% in comparison with the same period (January and February) of last year. On the same basis of comparison, exports declines 7,2%, to 47.600 units in the first two months of the year, according to Anfavea, the industry trade association.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 15
Prices In 2014, there was a 180º turnaround
2.10 VARIATION IN THE PRICE OF BRAZILIAN
GASOLINE VERSUS US GASOLINE
in oil prices on the international market, which plummeted, especially at the end of the year. While in 2013 the lowest average monthly oil price was registered in April (US$102,25 per barrel), the average price registered in December/2014 reached US$ 62,34 per barrel. The lowest daily quotation was on December 31st: US$ 55,27 a barrel.
Note: Product price F.O.B. Refinery, net of taxes. Source: Fecombustíveis
The impact generated by the change in panorama in December, represented a 41% price differential for domestic
2.11 VARIATION IN THE PRICE OF BRAZILIAN DIESEL
VERSUS US DIESEL
gasoline prices as compared to prices in the United States. With regard to diesel, 2014 began with higher prices in the international market than domestically, with the percentage difference reaching the level of 16% in February. In December, on the other hand, domestic diesel prices in Brazil were 25% higher than imported Note: Product price F.O.B. Refinery, net of taxes. Source: Fecombustíveis
product. The petroleum trade balance continued to show a surplus (exports greater than imports) of 7,2 cubic meters in 2014.
2.12 PRICE OF THE BRENT OIL IN THE SPOT
Export sales generated revenues of US$ 16,4 billion, a 26% growth over 2013. 2.9 OIL BALANCE
(In millions of m3) 2013 Production 117,4 Imports 23,5 Exports 22,1 Apparent 118,9 consumption
2014 130,8 22,9 30,1 123,7
Source: ANP Source: EIA
16 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Consumption grows Last year, natural gas consumption increased 10% to 49,3 billion cubic meters. To meet the increased demand in the domestic market, imports grew 5,4% in relation to 2013. The imported product supplies the South and Central West Regions and part of the Southeast. During last year, prices of natural gas produced in Brazil varied little, increasing a little more starting in September. On the other hand, prices of imported natural gas were very volatile, with the lowest quotation at R$ 0,86 per cubic meter and highest R$ 0,96 per cubic meter in 2014. 2.13 PRICE OF NATURAL GAS In billions R$/m3
2.14 NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION In billions of m3
Note: The Northeast Region sells domestic gas. The South and Central West sell the imported product. The Southeast Region sells both domestic and imported natural gas. Source: MME (Brazilian Mining and Energy Ministry)
Ethanol increases its share The domestic vehicle matrix continues to show diesel in 2.15 VEHICLE CONSUMPTION MATRIX first place with a 46,3% Market share and Gasoline in second with 33,1%. With regard to Ethanol, 2014 again showed an increase in its share in the vehicle matrix. Total Ethanol growth (anhydrous and hydrous) was 12,3% over 2013. During 2014, 11 million cubic meters of anhydrous etanol and 12,9 million cubic meters of hydrous etanol were consumed. In the case of the anhydrous product, this growth can be attributed to the increase in the mixture from 20% to 25% in May/2013 which continued to impact 2014 sales.
The increase in the hydrous product reflects the growth of the market in addition to the improved quality of information declared by Ethanol distributors to the ANP. The question of declaratory data is a recurring problem in the ethanol sector which runs up against the old problem of fraud. In addition to tax evasion, these companies do not declare all of their sales to the ANP, causing discrepancies between production and distribution.The Agency made an effort to improve the quality of information received to minimize this distortion of data. Last yearâ€™s sales results showed data much closer to reality. In previous years, the difference in data was as much as 1 million cubic meters in hydrous ethanol sales.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 17
Supervision Last year, the ANP was intensely active, performing 18,730 inspections in the country,
2.16 GENERAL INSPECTION NUMBERS IN 2014 (in units)
24% of which resulting in infractions in 4,511 establishments. Liquid fuel and LNP resellers were the agents with the greatest number of inspections. 11,973
Infractions Interdictions Impoundments Re-openings
4.511 724 248 499
inspections were performed in service stations with 24% resulting in infractions; and 4,436 inspections among LNG resellers, 17% of which resulting
2.17 PRODUCTS IMPOUNDED IN 2014
in infractions. Of the principle products impounded, regular gasoline represented the highest percentage (47% of the total) followed by etanol in second place with 33%; and S500 diesel with 11%.
2.18 INFRACTIONS AND INSPECTIONS IN 2014 Infractions
LNG Retail Retail Reseller Carriers (TRR) Fueling Points
Aviation Fuel Distributors/Resellers
Collectors of used or contaminated lubricant oil
Lubricant oil re-refiners
Segment Fuel Retail
2.19 MAIN INFRACTIONS BY TRRâ€™S IN 2014 Infraction
Acquiring or sending product to or from an unauthorized source
Failure to present information to the ANP Building/operating installations and/or equipment in violation of the law and/ or regulations
Failure to comply with notifications
Not having concession/license documentation
Not updating file information with the ANP
Failure to comply with safety standards
Selling/storing products outside specifications
TOTAL Source: ANP
18 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
2.20 INFRACTIONS IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF LIQUID
FUELS IN 2014
Acquiring or sending product to or from an unauthorized source Test samples (not providing/providing improperly) Selling/storing product not conforming to specifications Selling/storing product without ANP registration and/or registration information Seal (failure to use/use improperly) Building/operating – installations and/or equipment improperly
Failure to present or improperly presenting any fuel movement documentation
2.21 MAIN INTERDICTIONS IN 2014 In units
Failure to meet safety standards
Selling with quantity discrepancies
Selling/storing product not conforming to specification
Exercising regulated activities without authorization
Not having concession/ license documentation
Failure to present information to the ANP Failure to comply with notifications Failure to furnish test sample Not having concession/license documentation
27 21 13
4,6% 3,5% 2,2%
Acquiring or sending product to or from an unauthorized source
Failure to present fuel quality documentation
Building/operating – installations and/or equipment improperly
Failure to provide information to consumers Failure to update file information with the ANP Others TOTAL Source: ANP
3 2 7
0,5% 0,3% 1,2%
2.22 INFRACTIONS IN FUEL RETAIL IN 2014
Infraction Building/operating – installations and/or equipment improperly Acquiring or sending product to or from an unauthorized source Failure to provide information to consumers Not having concession/license documentation Selling/storing product not conforming to specification Failure comply with notifications Failure to update file information with the ANP Selling with quantity discrepancies Failure to present fuel quality documentation Failure to present or improperly presenting any fuel movement documentation Acquiring/selling product without legal invoice documents Failure to present information to the ANP Exercising regulated activities without authorization Failure to meet safety standards Breaking/hiding seal/strip Failure to supply diesel with low sulphur content Others TOTAL
In units 577 541 503 497 441 382 254 190 94 53 44 36 31 21 18 3 21 3.706
In % 16% 15% 14% 13% 12% 10% 7% 5% 3% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0% 0% 1%
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 19
Vigorous consumption The year began with novelties, with the launching
In terms of price increases, Petrobras only in-
of the new “C” Gasoline in the market, considered
creased gasoline prices to refineries once during the
to be less-polluting and having lower sulphur content
year: 3% in November, as the government did not in-
(50 ppm), a significant reduction in comparison with
crease fuel prices in 2014, given the potential impact
the previous product which had 800 ppm of sulphur.
on inflation, which threatened to exceed the target.
In addition to being less harmful to the environment,
The increase occurred in the midst of the reduction
the amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons, olefins and
in crude oil barrel prices on the international market
benzene (only for premium gasoline) were reduced, re-
and, as a result, gasoline sold in Brazil became more
presenting a better quality fuel, considered to be equi-
expensive than in other countries. Even going against
valent to that sold in developed countries.
international trends, the higher prices in the domestic
Another change planned for the new gasoline is
market helped Petrobras reinforce its cash balances.
the addition of dispersing detergents. Originally plan-
Shortly afterwards, in January, the government an-
ned for July/2015, as established in Resolution 40/2013,
nounced fiscal adjustment measures which increased
the measure was postponed until July 1, 2017 due to
the PIS/Cofins rates to R$ 0,4816 per liter of gasoline
the difficulty in defining the reference gasoline to serve
on February 1st. With the return of the CIDE contribu-
as the basis for the additive inclusion process.
tion on May 1st, the PIS/Cofins amount was reduced,
Despite the fact that 2014 was a difficult year
but the final amount charged for the three taxes re-
for the Brazilian economy, the gasoline industry was
mained at R$ 0,4816 per liter. When the government
not affected by the crisis. While the GDP showed the country’s stagnation, fossil fuel sales grew 7,1% to 44,4 million cubic meters. The industry’s positive performance leveraged sales growth to R$ 132 billion
In billions of R$
from R$ 118 billion in the previous year; in other words: a 12% growth over 2013. Affiliated, or flagship service stations, which sell “C” Gasoline, accounted for 71,7% over total sales in the country; while the so-called “white flag” retailers represented 28,3% of the market. With regard to the previous year, there was a slight increase in gasoline sales in affiliated service stations (0,3% over 2013), and decrease in gasoline sales at “white flag” stations. 2014 reinforced the Brazilian consumers’ preference for gasoline. Gasoline demand continued high,
3.2 RETAIL SALES VOLUME In millions of m3
to fuel the fleet of old and new vehicles, and also was supported by government incentives, with the reduc44,4
tion of federal excise taxes (IPI) on the purchase of new cars. Competing fuels, hydrous ethanol and natu-
ral gas for vehicles, continued unable to compete against gasoline in 2014. Gasoline maintained its second place position in the vehicle matrix with 33,1% of the total.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 21
measures were announced, Petrobras informed the
3.3 SALES BY RETAIL SEGMENT
market that it would not absorb the tax increase and passed the cost on to distributors. Also related to the impact of the increase in gasoline prices, in February/2015, Confaz published Cotepe Act nº 04/2015, which raised the ICMS calculation base in each state, resulting in a new fuel price increase at the refineries.
With this scenario, it is unclear what the performance of gasoline sales will be in 2015. For the sugarcane energy industry, the tax increase and return of the CIDE contribution, promoted by the government, may help to improve the competitiveness of hydrous ethanol. On the other hand,
to the same period of last year and improvement
the industry ensured a higher share in the matrix
in ethanol’s competitiveness with a 27% increase
with anhydrous ethanol due to the increase in the
over the same period.
percentage of mixture to gasoline to 27% (see the detail in the chapter on ethanol). With the virtually consecutive price increases between the end
The vehicular natural gas segment also expects a slight improvement in its competitiveness, as the cost of gasoline has started to weigh more in consu-
of 2014, by Petrobras, and the beginning of 2015, with the fiscal adjustments, there was an impact
on gasoline consumption in the first quarter of the year, with a 1,9% decline in sales in relation
3.4 TAX REVENUES In billions of R$
Gasoline’s good performance helped increase tax revenues in 2014 even without Cide. Tax revenues on ICMS and PIS/Cofins increased 11% over the prior year to R$ 43,9 billion. The positive result in total tax revenues was strongly impacted by the 13% increase in ICMS from 2013 to 2014. Over the same period, revenues from PIS/Cofins increased 4%.
22 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
No changes Just as in 2013, ICMS percentages on gasoline did not change during 2014. The states with the highest percentages in first and second place are Rio de Janeiro and Goiás, 31% and 29%, respectively. Paraná and Pará are in third place with a percentage of 28%. Except for Piauí, the other states in the Northeast, in addition to Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo maintained their percentage at 27%. In the majority of the states, the ICMS percentage remained at 25%. In 2015, ICMS taxation changes in three states. In Paraná, Law 18.371/2014, approved in December, established an increase in ICMS rate on gasoline from 28% to 29% in April. In Minas Gerais, ICMS on gasoline went from a percentage of 27% to 29% in March/2015. In Bahia, the same tax also increased its participation in the make-up of gasoline prices, going from 27% to 30%.
3.5 STATE TAX ICMS
MT DF GO
31% 29% 28% 27% 25% Source: Fecombustíveis
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 23
Prices Average annual gasoline prices to resellers
3.6 COMPOSITION OF PRICE IN 2014
showed little variation over 2014, with an increase of 4.2% over 2013. The increase for distributors, however, was 4.9% over the same period. Between November and December, average gasoline price at refineries increased from R$ 1.696 to R$ 1.707, due to the Petrobras price increase in November. Average reseller margin varied significantly over 2014. However, considering the averages in 2013 and 2014, there was a decrease of 0.6 percentage points, going from 14.1% to 13,5%.
3.7 UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM PRICES In R$/L
Note: Average refinery price does not include state tax. Source: ANP
3.8 RETAIL MARGIN In %
24 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
reached 1.2%, the lowest level registe-
in the octane rating index, which went from 2% in 2013 to 14% in 2014. The
-compliances, the greatest increase was
EWith regard to the identified non-
1,3 1,2 2014
the same level of quality as in develo-
red since 2000; once again, confirming
dex declined again in 2014. The index
The gasoline non-compliance in-
3.9 NON-COM足PLIANCE RATE
anhydrous ethanol percentage increased two percentage points, to 41%. The item contributing most to the decline came from the distillation index, which
3.10 SPECIFICATION OF THE NON-COMPLIANCE
dropped seven percentage points from 2013 to 30%.
Brand fuel In terms of the non-compliances index by brand, the service stations affiliated to national brands remained unchanged. There was a decrease from 3% in 2013 to 1,5% in 2014 among regional brands. The index for the so-called unbranded stations decreased 0,2 percentage points.
3.11 NON-COMPLIANCES BY TYPE OF BRAND (In %)
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 25
in other words, from a pump price standpoint, ethanol’s position remained the same as in 2013, with fueling with
It was a tough year for ethanol, which went through 2014 at a competitive disadvantage to gasoline. Petro-
ethanol advantageous to the consumer in only four states: São Paulo, Paraná, Mato Grosso and Goiás.
bras only increased fossil fuel prices once during the year;
3.12 PARITY OF PRICES BETWEEN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL 2013
January February March April May
August September October November
NORTH REGION AC AP AM PA RO RR TO NORTHEAST
REGION AL BA CE MA PB PE PI RN SE
ES MG RJ SP SOUTH REGION PR RS SC CENTRAL WEST REGION DF GO MT MS Ethanol is more advantageous than Gasoline. Note: Ethanol is more advantageous than gasoline when the Ethanol Price/Gasoline Price ratio is less than or equal to 0.70. Source: Fecombustíveis estimate based on ANP data.
26 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
In addition to the fact that these states are res-
In 2015, Minas Gerais, another ethanol-producing
ponsible for close to 70% of all ethanol produced
state, also implemented tax incentives to encoura-
in Brazil, the state of S達o Paulo, for example, has a
ge biofuel consumption, reducing its ICMS percen-
policy of tax incentives to stimulate ethanol con-
tage from 19% to 14%.
sumption, implemented by the state government.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 27
3.13 MARKET SHARE OF THE DISTRIBUTORS
The distribution market is still concentrated and practically unchanged since 2013. BR continues market leader with a 28,5% share. Next comes Ipiranga at the same level as in 2013 with 20,7%. The only distributor increasing its share was Raízen, by 0.7 percentage points, reaching 19,5% of the total market. Source: ANP
Kind of the gasoline The total amount of “A” gasoline sold by domestic refineries was 32,9 million cubic meters. Petrobras was responsible for 98,8% of the deliveries of “A” Gasoline.
3.14 REFINING MARKET SHARE
Total quantity sold: 32,9 million m3
Copape and Manguinhos registered shares of 0,7% and 0,5% of the total, respectively. Therefore, it was another year in which formulated gasoline lost ground in the fuel market. Even though sales of this product meet ANP quality standards, this type of gasoline has poorer performance than the refined product as it is manufactured from petrochemical and solvent waste.
28 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Imports Despite the increased demand for gasoline in the domestic market last year, “A” gasoline imports dropped 24% vs. 2013. This was the second straight year that “A” gasoline imports declined. In 2013 these imports were 23% lower than in 2012. Petrobras closed 2014 with a record production of derivatives at its domestic refineries, with a production of 2,17 million barrels of oil per day, a 2,1% increase in volume over 2013. Gasoline also registered a record production of 180 million barrels, 1 million more barrels than in 2013. Refining processing was intensified by production at the Landulpho Alves (Rlam– BA), Refap, Regap and Recap refineries, which were responsible for 34,4% of the total gasoline volume. The increase in the percentage of anhydrous ethanol in the mixture to 25% since May 2013 was another factor responsible for minimizing import volumes in 2014.
3.15 GASOLINE IMPORTS In millions of m3
Be Alert: ✓✓
Follow the developments of the regular gasoline additive program, postponed to July 1, 2017,
with the final studies to define the reference gasoline type, the schedule to register the additives and adjust the basis of distribution, which will be responsible for including the additives when using maritime coastal transportation; ✓✓
Impact of the fiscal adjustments on the gasoline market and consumption behavior with regard
to competing fuels; ✓✓
Impact of the increase in anhydrous ethanol to 27% with regard to imports;
Accompany the effects of the increases in state taxes (ICMS) in Minas Gerais, Paraná and Bahia.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 29
Impact of the drought The drier climate last year was the sore spot for the
Climate problems were just one more negative ele-
Brazilian sugarcane energy industry in the 2014/2015
ment in the situation of the already battered sugar indus-
harvest. The severe drought which particularly affected
try, which has been in a severe crisis for several years. High
the Southeast Region, especially the states of São Pau-
indebtedness and the lack of a long-term policy for the in-
lo and Minas Gerais, where most of the country’s sugar
dustry led to closing of 80 mills, hurting the economy and
mills are located, impacted the industry’s production,
labor market where these mills were located.
which had been very positive in 2013. The effects of
In this case, production of ethanol for fuel grew
the drought directly affected sugarcane milling in the
only slightly last year; just 3%. Hydrous ethanol should
Central South Region in the 2014/2015 harvest, when
be highlighted as it grew 4% versus 2% increase of
571,34 million tons were processed, 4,3% less than in
the previous period, 597 million tons. With this, sugar mills in the region lost R$3 billion in revenues. The impact of the shortage of rain was not greater than it was only because there was an increase in plan-
Just as what happened in the previous harvest, the volume of ethanol (56,94%) was higher than sugar (43,06%) in the production mix of the mills in the Central South region.
ted area and productivity in some regions not affected
Among the factors explaining the industry’s fo-
by the drought, such as Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás.
cus on ethanol production as opposed to sugar is the
Even so, lower production in the Center-South made
loss of competitiveness of sugar in the international
a good part of the mills operate with excess capacity,
market, especially due to the surplus production of
increasing costs and making it harder to recover normal
other countries associated to subsidies practiced by
India and Thailand to their producers. In addition, the increase from 20% to 25% in the mixture of anhydrous ethanol in gasoline starting on May 1, 2013 and gre-
4.1 RETAIL SALES VOLUME
ater share of biofuels in the Otto cycle also made do-
In millions of m3
mestic mill owners decide to give priority to ethanol production.For the second straight year, ethanol sales at service stations increased, 20% over 2013, totaling 13 million cubic meters. This growth helped increase
4.3 PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FUEL In millions of m3
In billions of R$
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 31
sales value by 26% over the same period of compari-
4.4 SALES BY RETAIL SEGMENT
son, reaching R$ 26,9 billion. Unlike in 2013, “white flag” (unbranded) service stations increased their share of ethanol sales, representing 40,1% of the total amount sold in Brazil, a 4,6 percentage point increase from 2013 to 2014. Affiliated or brand stations continued with over half of the biofuel’s sales in Brazil, with a 59,9% share.
Policies In 2014, the sugarcane energy industry also awai-
in the Reintegra program, whose objective is to reduce taxation on exports, returning to the exporter a percentage of the amount sold in the foreign market.
ted approval of some of its principal demands by the
However, some of the industry’s demands were
government, such as the return of the CIDE contribu-
only met in 2015. In January, the Federal Govern-
tion and adjustment of PIS/COFINS on fuel sales, and
ment announced the implementation of a package
increase in the amount of anhydrous ethanol mixtu-
of fiscal measures to balance public finances, inclu-
re in gasoline, whose tests were being made by the
ding the increase in the PIS/Cofins rate and the return
auto industry. The main criticism of the sugar industry
of the Cide contribution for fossil fuels. The battle to
was the government’s gasoline price policy which took
increase the anhydrous ethanol content in gasoline
away the competitiveness of hydrous ethanol at the
was won, after a long period of testing and research
by Petrobras in order to ensure that the percentage
On the other hand, no very significant measures
of mixture would not harm car engines. Ordinance
to rescue the industry to stop the financial woes or
(“Portaria”) 75/2015 published the approval of the
long-term policies have been announced to include
increase percentage of mixture from 25% to 27%,
the industry in the Brazilian energy matrix, which are
effective March 16th. Automakers also performed
among the industry’s principal demands. However, it
durability tests on the vehicles to ensure that the mix-
cannot be said that no advances have been made in
ture would not be harmful to vehicles operated using
only gasoline and the initial results did not indicate
In September, the Finance Ministry announced the
any problems with the increased mixture percentage.
inclusion of sugar in the BNDES (Federal Government
In addition, ethanol sales in the first quarter of 2015
Development Bank) financing program to build new
grew 27%, demonstrating the return of competitive-
warehouses for the product and include the industry
ness of the biofuel during this period.
Second generation Among the good news for the industry in 2014 is the beginning of second generation ethanol production (2G). Last year, Granbio opened its Bioflex I plant, in São Miguel dos Campos (Alagoas); and Raízen inaugurated its ethanol fuel plant using sugarcane biomass in Piracicaba, in the interior of São Paulo state. Both plants should begin operating at full capacity in 2015.
32 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
More imports Ethanol exports fell more than 50% between 2013 and 2014, while imports more than doubled during the same period. Even so, volumes, both exports and imports, are considered small. One of the
4.5 INTERNATIONAL TRADE (In millions of m3)
explanations for the market share loss for Brazilian ethanol in the international market was the growth
of domestic demand which, in turn, increased the
need to import the product from the United States,
currently the world’s largest producer. The result of commercial transactions generated a net surplus (ex-
ports less imports) of US$ 657 million.
Tax revenues grow Even with the total exemption of PIS/Cofins for the industry, since May 1, 2013, when
4.6 TAX REVENUES In billions of R$
the government implemented its package of tax relief on production, total tax revenues increased 11% in 2014 over the previous year, to R$ 4,3 billion, due to the increase in revenues on ICMS from the increase in the biofuel’s sales in 2014.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 33
No changes In 2014, there were no changes in
the ICMS percentages applied in the
states. São Paulo continues with the lowest percentage (12%), followed by Paraná (18%), Minas Gerais and Bahia (19%). The highest rate,
27%, continues to be applied
in the states of Alagoas, Espí-
in Minas Gerais was changed with the approval of
4.7 STATE TAX ICMS
and increase the percentage charged on gasoline from 27% to 29% starting in March. With the tax reduction, Minas will have the second lowest ICMS percentage for ethanol in Brazil, behind only the State of São Paulo.
27% 26% 25% 24% 22% 19% 18% 12% Source: Fecombustíveis
4.8 PRICE COMPOSITION IN 2014
34 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Law 21.527/2014, whition from 19% to 14%
In 2015, the percentage
ch established a reduc-
rito Santo and Sergipe.
GO MG ES
MS SP PR
4.9 ANHYDROUS ETHANOL: UPSTREAM PRICES In R$/L
Average hydrous ethanol prices (net of taxes) increased between 7,4% and 8,5%, respectively at the mills in the States of Sรฃo Paulo and Goiรกs, the two largest producers in Brazil. In Alagoas, the increase was 2,6%. Anhydrous ethanol increased 6,5% and 3,9% in the former two states and 3,3% in the latter. In distribution and resales, average prices increased in the same proportion, 5%, in 2014 over the previous year. Average monthly resale margins varied significantly during the year. On the other hand, the average annual resale margin in 2014 was stable, with only a 0,2 percentage point increase over 2013. 4.10 HYDROUS ETHANOL: UPSTREAM PRICES In R$/L
4.11 DOWNSTREAM PRICES In R$/L
2,2 2,1 2,0 1,9 1,8 1,7
4.12 RETAIL MARGIN In %
4.13 PRICE RATIO BETWEEN PRODUCTS OF
THE SUGAR CANE INDUSTRY
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 35
Quality The non-compliance index remained sta-
4.15 SPECIFICATION OF THE NON-COMPLI-
ble at 1,6% in 2014, meaning that the quality
control on products sold in the market continued at a good level. At the stations with large national brands, the non-conformity index remained at the same level as in 2013: 1,2%. At service stations with regional brands, the index was 2,3%, a small 0,3 percentage point increase over the previous year. At unbranded service stations, the trend was the opposite and the index declined to 2%. In the non-compliance specification, there was a 7 percentage point increase in alcohol
content, 2 percentage points in pH, and a 6 percentage point drop in conductivity versus 2013.
4.16 NON-COMPLIANCE BY BRAND (In %)
4.14 NON-COMPLIANCE RATE
36 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
4.17 MARKET SHARE OF THE DISTRIBUTORS
In the ranking of ethanol distributor market share, BR continues the market leader, followed by Ipiranga and Raízen. Last year, Raízen increased its share by 0,5 percentage points, while Ipiranga raised its share by 0,4 percentage points in comparison with 2013. With this movement, Ipiranga and Raízen are practically tied, with respective shares of 19,1% and 19%. The share of other distributors decreased 0,8 percentage points. Source: ANP Note: 2013 data has been revised.
Be Alert: ✓✓
Accompany the effect of the return of the CIDE contribution and increased PIS/Cofins
percentages on fuels with regard to the competitiveness of ethanol throughout the year; ✓✓
The impact of the increase in the anhydrous ethanol mixture in gasoline from 25% to
27% starting on March 16th; ✓✓
The National Monetary Council (CMN) should regulate the inclusion of sugar in the
BNDES financing program for construction of new product warehouses. Producers are still awaiting President Dilma Rousseff’s signature on the decree which includes the industry in the Reintegra program and publication of the Recite Federal (Brazilian equivalent to the IRS) Normative Instruction which will regulate and effectively implement the measure; ✓✓
The industry is also awaiting publication of the ordinance (“portaria”) from the Finance
Ministry altering the standards of the ProRenova Rural and ProRenova Industrial programs; ✓✓
Changes in the Inovar-Auto program are also expected, authorizing lower IPI percenta-
ges for vehicle with flex engines whose consumption ratio between hydrous ethanol and gasoline is greater than 75%, without affecting the energy efficiency of the gasoline. This measure was converted into Law 12.996, in June 2014; ✓✓
Accompany discussions between the industry and the government to insert biomass,
such as bagasse and sugarcane straw, in the Brazilian energy matrix; ✓✓
The impact of the ICMS rate reduction for the product in the State of Minas Gerais, from
19% to 14%, starting in March; ✓✓
The impact of second generation (2G) ethanol production at the plants which began
operations in 2014.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 37
Less growth The Brazilian diesel market in 2014, maintained its growth at a rate higher than the GDP, with a sales growth of 2,5% over 2013, however, lower than in previous years. The more modest growth in diesel sales was affected by the decline in truck sales, classified between semi-light, light, medium, semi-heavy and heavy vehicles. Last year 137.100 new vehicles were licensed, 10,3% fewer than in 2013. Diesel consumption remained heavily affected by the agricultural sector, which uses the fuel in virtually all
In billions of R$
stages of the production chain, especially in the production of commodities. In 2014, roughly 60 million cubic meters of diesel were sold, representing an increase in sales value of 12,4% to R$ 152,6 billion. Affiliated or flagship service stations, which sell diesel represent 41,5% of the total. “White flag” service stations accounted for 15,9% of the product’s sales in Brazil. Diesel sales increased only in the TRR (Retail Reseller Carrier) segment, which represented 12,9% of
5.2 TAX REVENUES In billions of R$
total sales. Despite the more modest growth in diesel sales, tax revenues increased in 2014. Even without charging the Cide contribution, whose percentage was reduced to zero in 2012, the government collected R$ 30 billion, 8,3% more than in 2013. The largest growth in tax revenues came from ICMS, whose volume reached R$ 21,7 billion, an increase of 11,2%. For PIS/Cofins, revenues increase 1,9% over 2013, closing 2014 at R$ 8,4 billion. Tax revenues will be reinforced due to the package of fiscal measures an-
5.3 COMPOSITION OF SALES BY SEGMENT
nounced by the federal government at the beginning of 2015, with the implementation of the PIS/Cofins rate increase and return of the Cide contribution. Starting on February 1st, the PIS/Cofins rate increased to R$ 0,298 per liter of diesel. 90 days after implementing the PIS/Cofins rate increase, the Cide contribution was reinstated, effective May 1st, with a new tax collection format: R$ 0,248 per liter for PIS/Cofins and R$ 0,05 per liter for Cide. Source: ANP
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 39
No changes The state tax rates of diesel were maintained by the states last year. The lowest ICMS rates are in the states of Espirito Santo, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and São Paulo, as well as in Federal District, with 12%; as well as in Rio de Janeiro, with 13%, and Tocantins, with 13,5%. A rate of 17% prevailed in the Brazilian states.
5.4 STATE TAX ICMS RR
MT DF GO
17% 15% 13,5% 13% 12% Source: Fecombustíveis
40 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
MS SP PR
More gas stations The entry of S10 into the domestic market was the result of extensive planning involving different players of the chain. One concern was the availability of the product to the final consumer, and it was demonstrated that, after some time, the dealers spontaneously started selling the product, thereby increasing the number of points of sale. Last year, 21.580 gas stations sold S10, that is, an increase of 63% compared to 2013. There was an increase of 90% in the number of gas stations that began marketing S10 voluntarily. As for the stations required to sell the product, there was an increase of 9%. The number of cities that sold S10 increased from 55.1% in 2013 to 77,2% in 2014.
5.5 SALES OF S10 BY THE RETAILERS (In units) Mandatory 3.934 4.362 4.740
2012 2013 2014
Voluntary 4.715 8.854 16.840
Total 8.649 13.216 21.580
New changes In 2014, the diesel segment maintained its busy pace in terms of quality. To prepare itself for the new phases of Proconve for automotive vehicles, early last year, the market underwent changes again to end the sale of S1800 diesel across the country. In its place, the market started selling S500, a product with lower sulfur content (500 mg/kg), on a definite basis. The gradual replacement of S1800 with S500 had been occurring since 2010, in different states. However, on January 1, 2014, the Brazilian market started to offer only two types of diesel, S500 and S10. Both products are considered of better quality and less polluting because they discharge less greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and they have features that help engine performance. Last year, the sales of S500 diesel accounted for 72,9% of the total sales in the country, while the S10 diesel sales reached 25,8% of the diesel market.
5.6 COMPOSITION OF SALES BY DIESEL TYPE S1800 S500 S10 Maritime
2013 38,5% 42,3% 18,1% 1,1%
2014 N/D (*) 72,9% 25,8% 1,3%
Source: ANP Note (*): Replaced with diesel S500, pursuant to ANP Resolution 50/2013.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 41
Still high The demand for diesel in the country, especially by the commodities segment, which widely uses the product for various purposes, influenced the increase in purchases of the product in foreign markets. Imports increased by 9,7%, to 11,3 million cubic meters, even with refineries operating at full capacity. The Abreu e Lima refinery started operating on December 6, but there was no time to cause an impact on the sales volume. The increased amount of biodiesel in the mixture of diesel (to 7%) will also only be reflected in its entirety on the 2015 imports of this fuel.
5.7 IMPORTS In millions of m3
10,3 2013 Source: ANP
42 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
5.8 PRICE COMPOSITION IN 2014
In 2014, the average diesel prices rose in all links in the chain compared to the previous year. The biggest increase was in the refineries, partly due to mark-ups applied by Petrobras in November 2013 and November 2014. The average annual price of S10 in refining rose by 9,6% over the previous year, while the price of S500 increased by 9,2% over the same period. In the resa-
le and distribution, the average prices increased by 9,1% for S10 and 8,3% for S500. In the refineries, the price diffe-
5.9 UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM PRICES (S500) In R$/L
rence between S10 and S500 throughout 2014 maintained a variation of 6% for diesel with 10 mg/kg. Part of this difference can be attributed to higher costs of S10 compared to S500. The resale was the segment that had the smallest gap between the prices of S10 and those of S500 in 2014. The average margin for the resale of both S10 and S500 diesel remained stable in 2014 compared to the previous year. From January to December of last year, the average annual margin of S10 remained at 11,3%, while the
Note: The average refining price does not include ICMS (Tax on the Circulation of Goods and Services). Source: ANP
margin of S500 stayed at 11,9%, the same percentage as 2013.
5.10 RETAIL MARGIN (S500) In %
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 43
Focus on quality The quality of diesel was also included in ANPâ€™s agenda last year. ANP organized a public hearing to discuss the changes in diesel quality specifications, due to the increase of the bio-
5.11 NON-COMPLIANCE RATE
diesel content in diesel to 7%, due to
its hygroscopic characteristics.
On December 23, ANP publi-
shed Resolution number 69/2014,
2,7 2,9 2,6
tion was not met) analyses of the water & sediment and water content
shall be carried for the S500 diesel, or analyses of the water content and total contamination shall be done for the S10 diesel. The product will be rejected if at least one of these two
5.12 NON-COMPLIANCE BY BRAND (In %)
parameters is out of specification.
The quality of diesel in 2014 showed
a slight improvement compared to 2013.
The non-compliance rate reached 2,6%,
down 0,3 percentage points from a year earlier. Again, the main problem detected was related to the appearance, with a rate of 33%, down 3 percentage points from 2013. The flash point of diesel was ano-
5.13 NON-COMPLIANCE SPECIFICATION
ther parameter that was out of the quality specifications of the Agency, which increased from 19% in 2013 to 27% in 2014. It should be noted that, due to the increase of biodiesel content to 7%, the maintenance and cleaning of tanks and filters in the stations must be redoubled to prevent the formation of sludge and sediment, since they have an impact on the quality of diesel. It will only be possible to measure the impact of the increased mix on diesel quality specifications over the course of this year.
44 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
because the appearance specifica-
purposes, if penalties are imposed
which establishes that (for inspection
No changes With respect to the market share of the distributors, the division remained the same, with BR Distribuidora leading the ranking, with a 38,5% share. Raizen increased its market share by one percentage point, from 17,4% in 2013 to 18,4% in 2014; while Ipiranga kept the second place in the market, with little variation in its market share percentage.
5.14 MARKET SHARE OF THE DISTRIBUTORS
Note: 2013 figures have been revised Source: ANP
Be Alert: ✓✓
To the effects of the increased PIS/Cofins tax rates and the return of the CIDE tax to the country’s
fuel segment; ✓✓
With the increase in the biodiesel content mixture with diesel to 7%, the gas stations will need to
be two times more careful when handling and storing the fuel, especially S10, which is more sensitive to contamination; ✓✓
Even though the oil barrel price is falling in the international market, the dollar price fluctuations
directly affect the cost of diesel imports. If the dollar remains high, there will be impact on the trade balance.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 45
A year of relief After four years since B5 came into force and
mixing percentage, thereby raising the producers’
a lot of pressure, biodiesel producers finally ob-
expectations. However, due to problems in the qua-
tained the government’s approval to increase the
lity of the biofuel, such as the formation of sludge
biofuel mixture content in diesel in 2014. This time,
and plugging in the tanks of gas stations and vehicle
the increase in the mixture was divided into two
engines, it was decided that the increase in the con-
stages: first, the percentage was increased to 6%, a
tent would be postponed. The fact that the price of
measure that was effect from July to October and, on November 1, it was changed to 7%, which was the percentage that had been initially claimed by the industry. Law 13.033/2014, which changed the content of the mixture, also established that the government is allowed to reduce, at any time, the percentage of biodiesel to 6% if the market’s conditions motivated such reduction.
biodiesel at the time was higher than that of diesel also contributed to this situation, because this could have a direct impact on the final cost to consumers. However, the impacts with B7, both from the standpoint of diesel imports and from the standpoint of distribution and resale, are expected to be felt only over the course of 2015. For biodiesel
One reason that contributed to the decision was
producers, however, there is no doubt that they
the reduction in the imported volume of diesel, the
will continue to have a lot of spare capacity, becau-
price of which at the time was still high, in line with
se the government does not intend to authorize
the international prices of oil. Thus, it was expected
further increases in the percentage going forward,
that there would be a reduction in the financial bur-
despite requests made by the segment immediate-
den borne by Petrobras, which had been forced to sell
ly after the announcement of B6/B7, such as the
the fossil fuel at a lower price in the domestic ma-
authorization of B8 in 2016, B9 in 2017 and B10
rket due to the government’s inflation control policy.
In addition, the measure would help biodiesel producers, who had some unused capacity due to the investments made in recent years.
The Industry’s difficulties In fact, the increase in the amount of biodiesel in diesel brought relief to the production sector, which had been experiencing difficulties that lasted from mid-2012 and until the first half of 2014 and,
Doubts More over, the issue of vehicle engine efficiency is another matter that weighs against the proposal to increase to more than 7%. There are no adequate tests to ensure the efficiency of the engines above that percentage. Furthermore, the increase of the mixture to higher levels would mean new investments and adjustments
by the way, there are reports of plants that had to
to minimize problems in the handling and storage of
close. The main factor for the declining scenario was
the product. There would also be the need to invest in
precisely the lack of clarity from the government
logistics infrastructure, since biodiesel is basically trans-
with respect to the future of biodiesel in the Bra-
ported by road, which increases the number of trucks to
zilian fuel market. Since it was established in 2004,
transport the product, as well as the amount of dispen-
PNPB accelerated the goals of an increase in the
sers and tanks in the distribution. Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 47
Increase in the blend The biodiesel auctions organized by ANP were impacted by the greater amount of biofuel content in diesel in the second half of the year. In 2014, almost 3,5 million cubic meters were sold, an amount 13% higher than in 2013. Before the entry of B6, the auctioned volume was 463,8 thousand cubic meters (May and June) and, then, it jumped to 638,400 cubic meters (July and August) when the increase of the biodiesel content to 6% came officially into force. With the entry of B7, the volume reached 701,4 thousand cubic meters (November and December).
6.1 RESULTS OF THE B100 AUCTIONS Period Jan - Fev/13 Mar - Abr/13 May - Jun/13 Jul - Ago/13 Sept - Out/13 Nov - Dez/13 Jan - Fev/14 Mar - Abr/14 Mai - Jun/14 Jul - Ago/14 Set - Out/14 Nov - Dez/14
Mixture percentage 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 6% 6% 7%
Average price (R$/m3) 2.603,46 2.263,56 2.031,22 1.987,95 1.896,68 1.941,40 2.090,45 1.965,37 1.880,25 1.884,15 1.913,71 2.100,38
Auctioned volume (m3) 496.308 517.357 488.532 515.443 524.836 521.000 485.636 549.666 463.870 638.455 625.732 701.414
Source: ANP Note: The average price of each period consists in the weighted average of prices and volumes involved in each lot of the auction.
Idleness maintained A total amount of 3.414 billion cubic meters of biodiesel was produced in 2014, an increase of 16,5% compared to the previous year. The unused capacity, however, remains high at 54%, despite an increase in the content of biodiesel mixed with diesel. 6.2 PRODUCTION X INSTALLED CAPACITY In thousand m3
48 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Guaranteed space Soybean oil regained ground among the raw ma-
The number of biodiesel plants in the country
terials used for the production of biodiesel. In 2014, the
dropped from 58 in 2013 to 54 in 2014. By region,
share of the crop increased by 1,4 percentage points,
the Midwest kept the concentration of the instal-
from 73,3% to 74,7%, maintaining its leadership in the
led capacity, with 44%, although the number of
ranking. Beef tallow continued to be the second raw
plants has decreased. The Southeast also recor-
material most commonly used to produce biofuel, accounting for 20,4% of the total. The share of cottonseed oil has remained unchanged since 2013, with 2,3% of the total. Soybean oil is the main raw material used in the North, Northeast, Midwest and South regions. And
ded a drop in the number of plants, falling from 11 to 10 last year. However, this reduction did not affect the share of the regionâ€™s installed capacity, which remained at 12%. In the North, Northeast and South regions, there were no changes in the
the Southeast region uses beef tallow in 48% of the
number of plants nor in their share of installed
total biodiesel production.
6.3 RAW MATERIALS USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF B100
6.4 REGIONAL INFORMATION ON B100 Region
Number of Plants
Distribution of the installed capacity (thousand m3)
North Northeast Midwest Southeast South BRAZIL
3 3 25 10 13 54
3% 6% 44% 12% 35% 7.502
Volume bought in auctions (thousands m 3) 95 235 1.476 268 1.390 3.465
Average price in auctions (R$/m3)
Most used raw material
2.104,21 2.236,20 1.955,19 2.059,06 1.923,31 1.973,58
Soybean oil (87%) Soybean oil (51%) Soybean oil (84%) Beef tallow (48%) Soybean oil (71%)
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 49
Focus on quality In 2014, quality was the center of attention. Early last year, the acceptable biodiesel water content both in production and in distribution increased to 200 ppm. The change, determined by ANP still in 2013, was to make the biofuel compatible with the S10 diesel, a product with an ultra-low sulfur content and more susceptible to proliferation of micro-organisms and the formation of sludge in the fuel tanks due to smaller amounts of aromatic and phenolic compounds. The challenge, however, was to maintain this limit throughout the chain, because biodiesel is more hygroscopic than diesel, that is, it absorbs more water from the atmosphere, there is an increased risk of water absorption during transport or storage. In fact, that was what happened. Upon arrival at the distributorsâ€™ bases, where biodiesel is mixed with diesel, the water content of the biofuel was already at least 100 ppm higher, reinforcing the thesis of absorption along the way between the producer and the distributorâ€™s base. As a result, ANP raised the tolerance limit of water in biodiesel by 100 ppm for the distributors (total of 300 ppm) and by 50 ppm for the plants (total of 250 ppm), for inspection purposes.
Quality in check The inspection actions found 18 irregularities due to non-compliance with the criteria stipulated by ANP. Last year, 17 production units did not meet the specifications related to the sale or storage of the product, a number that represented 94,4% of the audited units. Another infraction that was detected was the construction or operation of facilities or equipment in a way that violates the regulations, which accounted for 5,6% of the total.
6.5 INFRACTIONS IN THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL IN 2014 Infraction
To sell or store a product in a way that is not in accordance with the specification
To build/operate facilities and/or equipment in a way that is not in accordance with the specifications
TOTAL Source: ANP
50 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
In 2014, the biodiesel market maintained its characteristic of a decentralized
segment, unlike the market of liquid fuels, which is dominated by large companies. The smaller producers increased their share last year, from 51,7% in 2013 to 53,7% in 2014. Among the large companies that operate in this market, Petrobras Biocombustíveis continued to rank fifth, but its market share was decreased by 3,4 percentage points. Granol maintained its leadership with 13,7%, an increase of 1,2 % compared to 2013. BSBios, on the other hand, increased its market share to 8,7%, keeping the second position in the ranking of major biodiesel producers.
6.6 MARKET SHARE OF PRODUCERS
Be Alert: ✓✓
Producers must continue to push for further increases in the amount of biodiesel that is
blended with diesel, although the federal government, so far, showed no signs in favor of the industry’s expectations; ✓✓
With B7, it is necessary to be more careful when handling and storing diesel oil and
when transporting the product, in order to avoid problems in the engines and fuel tanks of vehicles, such as sludge formation and clogging.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 51
Still decreasing In 2014, despite the economic slowdown, the total consumption of fuel in Brazil remained high, follo-
7.1 SALES OF NATURAL GAS BY THE SEGMENT (In 1000 m3/ day)
wing the expansion of the fleet, according to data from ANP (the Brazilian Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas
and Biofuels). However, the exception was with sales
of compressed natural gas (CNG), which decreased by
3,2%, from 5,12 million cubic meters/day in 2013 to 4,96
million cubic meters/day in 2014.
tion in the year, it should be noted that there was a
slight increase of 6% in CNG sales in December com-
pared to November 2014, reflecting the rise of gasoli-
ne prices in refineries, announced in November by Pe-
Even though there was reduction in the consump-
trobras, and also reflecting the difference in the price
almost the entire year, and that resulted in higher con-
of hydrous ethanol.
In fact, the total consumption of natural gas in the country grew by 16,3% in 2014 compared to the previous year, but the electricity generation segment was the one that was largely responsible for the increase in
sumption of natural gas. So while the volume of gas was 4,961 million cubic meters/day for automotive use and 965 000 m³ / day for residential use in 2014, electricity
demand, with a 27% growth compared to 2013. With
generation accounted for 33,410 million cubic meters/
the water crisis, the thermal power plants remained on
day, according to Abegás.
Strong reduction The conversions of vehicle engines into CNG-po-
-generation kits, for example, led to the early replace-
wered engines decreased by 20%, from 29.896 units in
ment of spark plugs and cables, thus causing an increa-
2013 to 23.849 units in 2014. This percentage is two ti-
se in maintenance costs. The newer kits, of the so-called
mes the quantity of the previous period, if we compare 2013 to 2012, when there was a decline of 10%. Currently, the Brazilian gas-powe-
fifth generation, with their sensors 7.2 CONVERSIONS In units
and electronic control unit, offer a more efficient operation, with the
same maintenance intervals as those
red fleet is estimated at about 1,8 million
of a vehicle powered by ethanol or 23.849
vehicles, almost half (48% of the total) of which is in the state of Rio de Janeiro.
gasoline. Furthermore, the product has the advantage of releasing less
The need to install conversion kits
waste during the combustion, which
in vehicles is one of the reasons why the-
can influence the useful life of the en-
re are few consumers using this type of
gine and the length of time between
gas. In addition to the investment, the
kits take up space in the vehicle’s trunk
There is already a sixth gene-
and, in some cases, they may affect the
ration system designed for vehicles
operation of other parts. The old third-
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 53
equipped with direct injection. This model is expected
licensed shop or the consumer did not have his vehicle
to be available already in 2015.
inspected within the proper time limits to ensure the safety
Another factor that can affect the consumption of
of such vehicle.
the product is the lack of safety-related information. Last
Dealers must note that the due precautions must be
year, an accident with fatalities, which occurred during the
taken in order for risks to be avoided. It is important to
supply of a CNG-powered vehicle in Rio de Janeiro, sho-
check whether the vehicle has a valid CNG Seal, or the
cked the country and sparked off once again the debate
Vehicle Safety Certificate, which is valid for one year and
over the issue of safety in the use of the fuel. However, it
it is renewed every time the vehicle is inspected. And it is
should be noted that the conversion kit is safe when it is
also necessary to check the grounding of the vehicle, to
properly installed. Inmetro warns that, in all the accidents
prohibit people from smoking in the area and to ask the
that were reported, the kit had been installed by an un-
car’s occupants to leave the vehicle.
Fewer gas stations The fact that federal, sta-
7.3 CNG STATIONS BY STATE
te or local governments have failed to encourage the automotive use of CNG has caused an impact on the chain,
tions from selling the pro-
2013 = 68 2014 = 69
duct. Some utilities also reported
AM 2013 = 2 2014 = 3
stations have given up working with the pro-
disagreements. The fact is
2013 = 6 2014 = 1
that marketed CNG has gone from
2013 = 70 2014 = 61
segment, the government has not taken any action to support the increase in CNG consumption. Some initiatives could encourage the use of the product, such as a discount on the tax on motor vehicles (IPVA) in all states, as it already happens in Rio de Janeiro
(where the reduction is of 25%), the creation of credit lines for converting vehicles into CNG-powered cars, tax exemption for equipment that makes up the gas kit and incentives for automakers to
2013 = 350 2014 = 335
2013 = 76 2014 = 71 2013 = 33 2014 = 31
2013 = 33 2014 = 33
2013 = 39 2014 = 38
2013 = 38 2014 = 38
MG 2013 = 76 2014 = 71
2013 = 10 2014 = 10
2013 = 62 2014 = 61
2013 = 32 2014 = 33
in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Amazonas, Ceará
sell factory-made CNG-powered vehicles.
2013 = 2 2014 = 2
of 2% in the period. There was growth only
For the entities that represent the autogas
1.668 in 2013 to 1.631 in 2014, a decrease
2013 = 2 2014 = 2
that the number of stations
duct due to contractual
54 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
2013 = 136 2014 = 136
2013 = 81 2014 = 80
2013 = 552 2014 = 556
TOTAL: 2013 = 1.668 2014 = 1.631 Note: The 2013 figures have been revised Source: Abegás
Prices The average prices of CNG at gas stations rose by
7.4 DOWNSTREAM PRICES In R$/m3
5,8% in 2014 compared to a year earlier. In the same period, the average distribution prices increased by 4,8%. According to ANPâ€™s survey, for downstream, the lowest average price was recorded in January, when dealers sold the product for R$ 1,82 per cubic meter and distributors sold it for R$ 1,40 per cubic meter. At the end of the year, the price increased in the two ends
of the chain and reached its peak in December, at R$ 1,91
7.5 RETAIL MARGIN
per cubic meter for the resale
and R$ 1,46 for the distribution. Even with the growth of almost 6% in the average prices of CNG at the stations, the average margin of the dealers did not evolve over the past year and remained stable. With respect to the margin/ price ratio, the stations went from 23,4% in 2013 to 23,7% in 2014. Source: ANP
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 55
7.6 STATE TAX ICMS RR
MT DF GO
0% 25% 18% 17% 12%
MS SP PR
56 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Some gas utilities have invested in campaigns to raise
A major advantage of the autogas
people’s awareness of the benefits of using CNG in order to
is the environmental aspect. As its bur-
stimulate consumption, but the results are still restricted.
ning is much more complete than that of
As a fuel, CNG has proven to be the most economical one. In a recent action in São Paulo, Comgás, the largest distributor of piped natural gas in Brazil, which accounts for 22% of the total sales in the country, in a partnership with the Association of Cabs in São Paulo, proved that CNG is more economically advantageous than its liquid competitors. The company has already organized two editions of this initiative, which was called “Rally of Economy”. In the 2014 version, three vehicles of si-
gasoline, ethanol or diesel, vehicles powered by natural gas emit less pollutants such as nitrous oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and, especially, carbon monoxide (CO). Therefore, proponents of CNG consider that consumers that adopt the fuel should receive incentives, since natural gas powered cars are the only ones that currently comply with the pollution
milar models driven by taxi drivers traveled 102 km in the city
control legislation, because they are re-
of São Paulo, with the air conditioning on 100% of the time. At
quired to undergo tests at workshops ac-
the end of the day, the evaluation showed that CNG had the
credited by Inmetro.
best performance and best cost per kilometer driven. The car
In addition, the cylinder technology
running on gasoline averaged R$ 0,565 per kilometer; ethanol
is the same as the one used by vehicles
made R$ 0,537 per kilometer; and CNG had a cost of R$ 0,22
powered by hydrogen, a fuel that is also
per kilometer. Comparatively, CNG had a saving of 61,1% com-
non-polluting and one of the world’s fu-
pared to gasoline and 59% compared to ethanol.
Be alert: ✓✓
Monitor the impact of the increase in prices of competing fuels, caused by higher taxes
(PIS/Cofins and the return of Cide for fuels) in relation to the increased competitiveness of CNG; ✓✓
Stay tuned in to the launch of the sixth-generation vehicle conversion kit, which is more
efficient, causes fewer maintenance problems and will have a lower price.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 57
Small growth The market of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) for 13-kg cylinders grew very little in 2014, by 1% over the previous year. In the volume of total sales of the product, the sector also grew by 1%, to 7,4 million tons.
of Law 8176/91, which prohibits people from using LPG for activities other than cooking. Another option would be to expand the participation in housing complexes in large cities such
Last year, the sales of LPG generated a total
as São Paulo, where LPG has lost market share in
amount of R$ 27,9 billion in revenues, an increase of
recent years to natural gas. However, the problem
6% compared to 2013, when R$ 26,3 billion in reve-
also has to do with the need for more investment
nues had been generated.
in infrastructure and cultural changes, since most
The 13-kg cylinder (P13) continues to be the flagship of this segment, with 5,3 million tons sold, accounting for 62% of the total sales of R$ 17,5 billion.
architectural projects favor the use of piped gas. And in big cities, there is another sensitive issue when it comes to the use of LPG: logistics. The ban
The slow growth of the popular cooking gas
on the transportation of containers on motorcycles
is justified by segment specialists as a result of the
affects the sale of the product in large urban centers,
market’s consolidation, since this type of product is
because the chaotic traffic prevents the quickly deli-
already present in 98% of the Brazilian municipa-
very of such product to consumers.
lities. On the other hand, industry representatives believe they can combat the stagnation, by adding other uses to the product in the Brazilian energy matrix, especially at a time when the country is going through a severe industry crisis. However, in order for that to happen, they depend on political will, such as the revocation of the articles
Standards With regard to laws, 2014 was a year with decisions - or the lack thereof - that greatly displeased representatives. LPG dealers were quite dissatisfied with the publication of ANP’s resolution number 40/2014, which transfers to dealers the responsibility for separating and returning the cylinders that
are subject to re-testing - a responsibility that lies
(In Thousand Tons)
with the distributors. In 2014, the industry waited for the discussion, initiated in 2013, regarding ANP 297/03, which regulates the LPG resale activity, and ANP resolution 15/05, which regulates the distribution. The years went by and ANP did not put the issues for public consultation. This year, the regulatory framework of LPG will be the focus of a
In billions of R$
discussion in a public hearing, in which ANP will discuss 26,3
and update the resale and distribution rules. There were also two public hearings held by ANP to discuss the tolerance levels and the formation of stock, issues that generated much controversy among distributors and retailers.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 59
Retesting One of the positive highlights of the LPG segment was the retesting program, which surpassed the mark of 15,5 million units of 13 kg cylinders retested in 2014, a growth of 28% compared to 2013. Behind the advancement, however, there was the delay in the goals that ANP had established for the distributors, which should have ended in 2011. As a result, the companies had quicken the pace. Since the program began in 1996, about 165 million units were retested, with an investment of R$ 7,5 billion, R$ 2,7 billion of which was spent in the re-testing and R$ 4,8 billion in the replacement of cylinders.
No changes There was no news on tax revenues for the segment.
8.3 TAX REVENUES In billions of R$
Like in previous years, the total collected volume rose by 6,1%, to R$4,6 billion, driven by the payment of ICMS tax (an increase of 7,8%, to R$3,4 billion). The amount of PIS/ Cofins tax collected remained at R$ 1,2 billion. EIn 2014, the state of Minas Gerais charged an ICMS tax rate of 18%, the highest one in the country; the Northeast region (except for the state of Bahia), North region (except for the state of Amapá) and the state of Espírito Santo charged 17% and the other states charged 12%. In 2015, the LPG ICMS rate in the state of Paraná
increased on April 1, rising from 12% to 18%. RR
8.4 STATE TAX ICMS
MT DF GO
18% 17% 12%
MS SP PR
60 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Prices The average prices did
8.6 UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM PRICES In R$/13-kg cylinder
not vary a lot in 2014, rising by 1,7% in the production sector, by 2,1% in distribution and by 5% in resale. With respect to the average margin, the lowest percentage was recorded in May, 38%, for the distribution and the highest one, of 39,9%, in December. In the resale, the lowest rate occurred in January (28,1%), with a peak of 29,9%
in October. The National Consumer Price Index (INPC), which rose from 5,6% to 6,2% from one
8.7 DOWNSTREAM MARGIN In R$/13-kg cylinder
year to another, was what caused the biggest impact on prices, offsetting the fall of the consumer price index (IGP-M), from 5,5% to 3,7%, and the drop of the minimum wage, from 9,0% to 6,8%.
8.5 PRICE COMPOSITION IN 2014
8.8 VARIATION OF ITEMS THAT HAVE AN IMPACT ON PRICE 2013
INPC (National Consumer Price Index)
Source: Ipeadata Source: ANP
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 61
Confiscated products Like in the previous years, the LPG dealers segment was the second segment most
8.10 INFRACTIONS IN THE RETAIL SEGMENT IN
tions carried out. Of this amount, 725 notices
Non-compliance with safety standards
of infraction were issued, i.e. 17% of the total
Performance of a regulated activity without a permit
Failure to comply with notice
inspected by ANP in 2014, with 4.346 inspec-
inspected in the segment. The three main reasons for the issuance of infraction notices in the segment were the violation of safety standards, the performance of a regulated activity without a permit and the failure to comply with infraction notices. LPG distributors committed infractions
To build/operate facilities and/or equipment in a way that is not in accordance with the specifications Failure to provide information to consumers Acquisition or transportation of product to/from a source that is different from the one that was authorized
due to the failure to the meet the deadline for
Lack of approval/license documentation
retesting, first; followed by the purchasing of
Failure to update registration information at ANP
Failure to submit documentation or incorrect submission of documentation regarding the handling of products
Purchase/selling without proof of tax payment
tion in the number of P13s seized. Conside-
ring the filled cylinders, 2.064 units were sei-
products from a source that is different from the one that was authorized and, then, the failure to comply with safety standards. Last year, there was a significant reduc-
zed in 2014 compared to 6.788 in the previous
year, which represented a decrease of 70% in the seizures.
8.11 INFRACTIONS IN THE DISTRIBUTION IN 2014 Infraction
8.9 IMPOUNDED PRODUCT
Failure to meet deadline for retesting
Acquisition or transportation of product to/from a source that is different from the one that was authorized
Non-compliance with safety standards
Failure to comply with notice
Failure to provide information to consumers Failure to update registration information at ANP
62 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
No changes The concentration of the Market in the hands of large distributors continued to prevail last year. Together, the four main companies of the segment account for 85,7% of the total market. There was a slight reduction in Liquigás share, with a decrease of 0,2 percentage point. The shares of the Ultra Group and Supergasbrás increased by 0,1 percentage point each, while Nacional›s share remained unchanged from one year to another. The small distributors increased their market share by 0,1 percentage point. In 2014, the country’s southeast region - which has the majority of companies, a situation that facilitates the logistics of the product - remained in the lead as the largest LPG market, with a 44,6% market share; followed by the Northeast (23,7%), South (17,2%) and Midwest (8,1%) regions. The northern region, farther from the large distribution centers, has the lowest concentration: 6,2%.
8.12 MARKET SHARE OF THE DISTRIBUTORS
Be Alert: ✓✓
Update of ANP’s Ordinance number 297/03 and Resolution 15/05. There is a heated debate
among distributors and dealers about the end of the vertical integration of bottled gas and the adoption of the white flag mode; ✓✓
Follow the publication of new resolutions that will establish new rules for tolerance levels and
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 63
Fewer companies Last year, the number of market players was reduced
The situation of the lubricants industry was aty-
by 1% compared to 2013. Of the agents formalized by ANP,
pical last year, that is, it remained stable, breaking the
there was an increase only in the number of importers,
cycle of growth of previous years. An amount of 1,51
with 11 new companies that were granted permits, which
million cubic meters of finished lubricating oil was
shows that this market is attractive to new companies due
sold, compared to 1,52 million cubic meters in 2013.
to the demand for imports of the product. On the other
This moment of stagnation surprised the industry, be-
hand, there was a reduction in the number of producers,
cause in the historical average of the last ten years, the
collectors and re-refiners from one year to the next. This
sector had grown steadily above 2% of the GDP.
decrease is attributed to the work carried out by ANP with
Since ANP compiles the declaratory sales data submitted by the companies, the reported volume may not accurately reflect the marketâ€™s reality. It should be noted that, recently, more specifically in the last three years, ANP became the industryâ€™s official source of information with the purpose of
industry players to keep in the market only companies authorized by the entity.
Concentrated sector Like in the market of liquid fuels, the lube oil distri-
constantly improving information on this segment.
9.2 INDUSTRY PLAYERS
The lubricants industry continues to invest in research, in line with the new technologies of the automotive industry, to develop products that result in higher energy efficiency of the vehicle and, mainly, to act in line with good environmental practices,
2013 134 33 19 173
Producers Collectors Re-refiners Importers
2014 125 30 15 184
such as the reduction in the emission of pollutants, as well as the use of cleaner fuels and the increase in the life of vehicle components. Some examples include the new synthetic and semisynthetic lubricants, which have a longer life and which have to be changed at intervals that are longer than those of other market products. These types of lubricants still have a small share in the volume of lubricating oils sold in the Brazilian market.
bution market is controlled by four large firms. In the market share ranking, the leadership remains with BR, with 22,1%; Cosan comes in second place, with 17,1%. Both increased their market share compared to 2013: BR by 1,7 percentage point and Cosan by 3,7 percentage points. Ipiranga remains in third place with a share of 12,9% and Shell is in fourth place with 10,1%. Their shares decreased by 0,4 percentage point and 1,3 percentage point, respectively.
9.1 SALES OF FINISHED LUBRICANT
In thousand m3
9.3 MARKET SHARE OF THE DISTRIBUTORS
BR Cosan Ipiranga Shell Chevron Other
2013 20,4% 13,4% 13,3% 11,4% 9,7% 31,8%
2014 22,1% 17,1% 12,9% 10,1% 9,2% 28,6%
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 65
Changes in the ranking An amount equivalent to 276,8 thousand cubic meters of used lubricating oil was re-refined, which represented a growth of 3% in 2014 compared to 2013. This market is even more concentrated than the distribution market. Lwart alone has almost half of the market, with 42,3% of the total, a wide margin of advantage over Lubrasil, in second place with 13,7%. Petrolub gained ma-
9.4 MARKET SHARE OF THE RE-REFINING SEGMENT Lwart Lubrasil Petrolub Proluminas Other
2013 40,1% 13,1% 10,3% 11,2% 25,3%
2014 42,3% 13,7% 10,7% 9,0% 24,3%
rket share and climbed to the third place with 10,7% and Proluminas fell to fourth place with 9%.
ANPâ€™s Quality Monitoring Program, together with
Last year, ANPâ€™s look at the quality of products in the market encompassed the lubricants industry. ANP published Resolution number 22/2014, which established minimum performance requirements that had to be met by lubricants in order for them to be registered, produced, sold or imported. The same resolution also set out the time limits for distribution and sale of lubricants of the API SF, API CF, API SJ, API CG4 and ACEA categories. Lubricants that fit into these categories are considered obsolete and may be marketed until June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2017 respectively.
reduce the rates of non-compliance and minimize the number of penalties imposed on irregular agents. The non-compliance of lubricating oils in the quality category decreased from 14,2% in 2013 to 12,6% in 2014. The main problem that was identified was related to the viscosity, followed by the absence of additives and insufficient additives. JThere was an increase of 3,7 percentage points in the non-compliance with label requirements. The most common problems were identified in the lot, and nonconformities were detected with respect to the date of manufacture
9.5 NON-COMPLIANCES Registration Quality Label
the Office of Inspection, has helped the segment to
2013 11,2% 14,2% 14,9%
and the origin of the product. 2014 10,8% 12,6% 18,6%
The number of products that had not been registered with ANP declined last year, from 11,2% in 2013 to 10,8% in 2014.
Source: ANP Note: 2014 corresponds to the period from January to August
9.6 NON-COMPLIANCE BY QUALITY
Source: ANP Note: 2014 corresponds to the period from January to August
66 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
9.7 NON-COMPLIANCE BY LABEL
Source: ANP Note: It corresponds to the period from January to August
Target not met Last year, the oil collection system did
9.8 COLLECTION IN 2014
not meet the national target. An amount of 451,900 cubic meters was collected, which corresponded to 37,5% of the total, slightly
Amount collected (m3)
below the target set at 38,1%. The result was
affected by the Midwest and Northeast re-
gions, which collected less than what it was
expected. This was the first time that the country’s goal was not reached. In previous years, the
poor result of one region was offset by a higher rate of collection in another region, without compromising the national total. According to ANP, when Brazil’s goals and the regional goals not met, the Agency officially notifies the Ministry of Mines and Energy and the Ministry of the Environment, indicating the companies that have not reached the volume that was stipulated, in order for the appropriate measures to be taken. With respect to the Jogue Limpo program, which is responsible for the reverse logistics of plastic containers used in lubricants, offering the proper disposal of containers, in accordance with Law 12.305/2010, which implemented the National Policy on Solid Waste, there was an increase in the number of states that joined the system. Last year, the program advanced to seven Northeastern states, increasing its total coverage to 14 states plus the Federal District, totaling 2.979 municipalities. The goal is to reach 100% of the municipalities in the regions where the program operates in 2016. Since 2005, the Jogue Limpo program has collected 350 million plastic packages of lubricants. Last year, the program started a new independent management model, and the Jogue Limpo Institute was established to seek new partnerships and promote environmental education, among other actions provided for by the National Policy on Solid Waste.
Be Alert: ✓✓
Even with the reduced consumption of lubricants by the industrial sector, the market tends to
compensate for losses with the growth in the fleet of new vehicles, even if it is in a restricted manner, and with the consumption by the circulating fleet and farming machinery and equipment; ✓✓
Monitor the progress of the research and launch of new products in the industry, aimed at redu-
cing emissions of pollutants and increasing energy efficiency; ✓✓
The industry is waiting for a discussion on the regulatory framework for the wholesalers of lubri-
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 67
Emissions and climate impacts iStock
Despite all the country’s efforts to minimize emissions of greenhouse gases, the climate impacts are increasingly evident in Brazil and worldwide. Several phenomena have been identified as consequences of climate change, such as increased temperatures, sea level rise and the melting of glaciers, directly affecting ecosystems and the natural biodiversity. Emissions resulting from the burning of fuels, along with activities related to land use, such as deforestation and burning of forests, are among the main reasons for the worsening of global warming. The greenhouse effect - a natural phenomenon that essential to keep the planet’s tem-
perature at a level that is ideal for survival - has been enhanced by the concentration of insulating gases, the burning of fossil fuels, industrial activity and deforestation actions. This excess gas prevents the sun’s rays from going back to space, causing a rise in the temperature of the entire planet. According to IPCC, in the south of Latin America, the temperature of large cities is expected to be above 20°C for more than 100 days a year and Brazil’s temperatures can increase between 3°C and 5°C until 2100, above the historical averages. In addition, the rate of rainfall can be reduced by 30%..
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 69
Effects in Brazil
states. With less water for use in hydroelectric power plants, the energy crisis tends to get worse and the
Brazil voluntarily undertook to reduce carbon emis-
prices for consumers are getting higher and higher,
sions between 36,1% and 38,9% by 2020, through the
because the country has to resort to the power gene-
implementation of National Plan on Climate Change, but
rated by thermal power plants that use natural gas.
there is still a long way to go.
In addition, with the end of the federal
In the country, climate change is already being felt,
government’s financial subsidy to the electricity sec-
with an increase in temperatures well above the histo-
tor, further price increases were announced, incre-
rical averages and changes in rainfall patterns, causing
asing even more the costs to consumers. For the
floods in some areas and droughts in others.
dealers, the increase in tariffs has meant a higher
The deforestation of the Amazon region, for example, causes the reduction of the area’s humidity. In
cost to the business, since their operation depends on electricity.
the summer, when the rate of rainfall in the region in-
The drought, which is affecting mainly the Sou-
creases, the water flows directly into the trough of the
theast region of the country, has had a huge impact
rivers, causing floods like those that have affected the
on the dealers. Many establishments stopped offering
entire population in the surroundings of the Madeira River, and causing also the isolation of some cities. At the same time, the low humidity in the region prevents the Amazon water from being transported by the wind to the Southeast during the rainy season - which explains the drought in the region last year. 2014 was marked by a prolonged drought and had, as a result, the water and energy crises in some
automotive cleaning services and had to invest in water consumption reduction systems, such as pressure reducers on taps and flushes, or systems for rainwater collection and reuse. In the city of Franca, in the interior of São Paulo, for example, the use of water from the gas station’s artesian wells also served to minimize shortages in the city.
Irregularities in the use of Arla lian diesel has undergone changes. To meet the program’s targets in 2012, the low-sulfur (that is, 50 ppm of sulfur) diesel was gradually made available in the domestic market. In 2013, S50 was replaced with the S10 version (with 10 ppm sulfur). The new diesel must be used by all new vehicles with an Euro 5 engine, which are suitable for Proconve’s P7 stage. Together with the low sulfur diesel, vehicles of this phase shall also use Arla 32 (an automotive liquid reducing agent), a product that acts in the SCR system to chemically reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) present in exhaust gases from diesel vehicles. Without the reducing agent, the vehicles may emit a lot of gree-
In March 2015, the estimated sales of Arla 32 were 45% lower than what the real market demand would be compared to the consumption of S10.
70 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Since 2009, when Proconve was created, the Brazi-
nhouse gases, thereby compromising the emission re-
In the long run, frauds or the failure to use Arla
duction results expected in the P7 stage of Proconve.
may jeopardize the operation of the vehicle, and lead
However, in an attempt to save money, many dri-
to loss of the warranty offered by the automaker. And
vers refrained from adding the product and started
more than that, the attitude is considered an environ-
using water, homemade water solutions and agricul-
mental crime by Ibama and can result in fines of up
tural urea instead, or they made illegal changes to the
to R$ 50 million. However, although the subject was
vehicle by installing equipment to disable the self-
intensely discussed throughout 2014, so far it is not
-diagnostic system (OBD).
clear who will carry out the inspections to check for
The fraud gained ground among drivers due to
the price difference between Arla 32 (the cost varies
Up until now, the inspections are carried out by
depending on whether it is marketed in bulk or pa-
Inmetro at places that sell the product and also at the
ckaged, and depending on the region) and diesel. It
manufacturers, which must be certified by institutes
is worth noting that, to date, only 30 gas stations, of
accredited by Inmetro. In 2014, Inmetro started to
the approximate total of 5000 road stations, have de-
detect a new form of irregularity in the sector, with
ployed the system for supplying the product in bulk.
the reuse of storage containers. As it is a solid resi-
In March 2015, the estimated consumption of Arla
due that is often stored in the gas station, irregular
32 was 45% lower than what the real market demand
suppliers offer more attractive prices for Arla in ex-
would be compared to the consumption of S10. An
change for empty containers. At first glance, it looks
amount of around 20 thousand cubic meters of the
like a good deal for the gas station, but it is actually a
product was sold in the country. However, considering
mistake, because the containers return to the market,
that the proportion of Arla should be 4% of all S10 die-
with a real Inmetro seal, but containing an unautho-
sel marketed by Petrobras, the volume should reach 35
rized product from another vendor. So it is important
billion cubic meters.
that to run a check on the vendor at Inmetro before buying Arla 32 for sale.
Less sulfur a content of 50 ppm sulfur, replacing the previous version with 800 ppm, according to ANP Resolution 40/2013. The initiative is part of Proconveâ€™s steps and the purpose of the replacement is to reduce the emissions of pollutants in the atmosphere by an estimated 94%.
In 2014, there was a change in the market of gasoline, which now has
Sulfur oxides (SOx) can react with other compounds present in the atmosphere, forming small particles that penetrate deep into the sensitive parts of the lungs and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases. Resolution 40/2013 also provides for the use of additives in the new gasoline. This is necessary because sulfur has detergent characteristics and, with its reduction, it becomes necessary to add detergent and dispersing substances to the product. At first, the use of additives would start on July 1, 2015, but later it was postponed to July 1, 2017. The extension of time is due to the difficulties encountered by Petrobras with respect to the definition of the reference fuel to The new gasoline with lower sulfur content is less polluting and entered the Brazilian market on January 1, 2014.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 71
be used for approval and registration of additives. Cenpes
The versions with additives, offered by fuel distri-
spent the whole year of 2014 developing tests in search
butors, are still available in the market, with characte-
of the reference gas, since the deadline for registration
ristics that are different from those of gasoline C.
of additives would be December 31, 2014, however, as
In January 2014, the S500 diesel with 500 ppm
there was no success, it was necessary to postpone the
of sulfur began to be distributed across the country,
rule that required the use of additives.
while the S1800 diesel was taken out of circulation.
The new fuel fully replaced the C gasoline sold in
The initiative aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
Brazil and, even after the addition of additives, the pro-
in the atmosphere, allowing only versions with lower
duct will continue to be identified as “regular gasoline.”
sulfur content (S10 and S500) to stay in the market.
Biofuels The use of biofuels is also a way to minimize pollu-
By the end of 2014, the mixture was analyzed at
tant emissions. In addition to the hydrated ethanol,
Cenpes, but it was viewed with reservations by the
both anhydrous etanol added to gasoline and biodie-
automotive industry, which feared unwanted effects
sel blended with fossil diesel contribute to the reduc-
on vehicles powered exclusively by gasoline - which
tion in emissions. Law number 13033, of September 24, 2014, authorized the increase in the mandatory content of biodiesel in diesel to 7% since November 1st of last year. The content had been increased from 5% to 6% on July 1, 2014, to fulfill the requirements contained in the Provisional Measure 647/14, presented in May by the government.
was the case of the old vehicles and imported ones. However, in early February 2015, Casa Civil (Office of the President’s Chief of Staff ) agreed to facilitate the increase in the percentage of mixture of anhydrous alcohol in gasoline to 27% and not 27,5%, a percentage initially claimed by the production sector, given
The same document also determined that the
the impossibility of identifying, in test beakers at the
mandatory percentage of anhydrous ethanol added
stations, fractional blending percentages. The new
to gasoline could reach the ceiling of 27,5%, becau-
mixture came into effect on March 16. (See more in
se it was proven that this was technically feasible.
Another new source of energy under test is biomethane, a gas that comes from organic products
Besides ethanol, sugarcane diesel and second-
and waste that can be intended for vehicle use (NGV)
generation ethanol (Granbio started, in September
and residential and commercial facilities. In late 2014,
2014, the first second-generation ethanol plant in the country, in São Miguel dos Campos, Alagoas), several new raw materials are being researched into and tested for power generation. For biodiesel, the research is seeking sources that would be an alternative to soybean oil to reduce fuel production costs. One of them, tested by EMBRAPA
Itaipu Binacional announced a partnership with Scania automaker to develop the use of biomethane as a vehicle fuel in the country. But the product was already being tested in vehicles since 2013 in Rio Grande do Sul, with the GNVerde brand and the support of Sulgás. In February 2015, ANP issued Resolution 8, a
Agroenergia, is the frying oil. Although the production of
new benchmark for the natural gas market in Brazil,
biodiesel from this source is not as significant (0.83% of the
because it establishes the biomethane specification.
total), it is important from an economic and environmental
Now, with the new resolution, Sulgás is expected to
point of view, since the proper disposal is being given to a
start marketing GNVerde, which can be mixed with
product that is considered to be waste.
natural gas in the distribution network.
72 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Electric and hybrid vehicles Shutterstock
There is lack of stimulus policies to encourage the sales of electric vehicles in the domestic market
Undoubtedly, the adoption of the technology
approved in April 2014 by the Committee on Consti-
for electric and hybrid vehicles would be an impor-
tution and Justice of the House of Representatives,
tant alternative for pollution control. However, this segment is still developing at a very slow pace. The industry believes that there are no public policies that encourage the entry of these vehicles into the
establishes that charging stations shall be set up in public areas, and the utilities are responsible for performing the service.
Brazilian market. While there are some proposals to
According to projections from the 2050 National
reduce the tax burden, the high tax burden is one
Energy Plan, released by EPE in 2014, hybrid electric
of the biggest barriers. As the car models available
vehicles are expected to enter into the domestic market
are imported, they are required to pay Import Duty (35%), IPI tax (25%, higher than the rate applied to any combustion motor vehicle), ICMS tax (12%) and
in 2025, when they will account for 0,5% of the licensed light vehicles. In 2050, the document estimates that this
PIS/Cofins tax (11,6%). Also, there is still no defini-
share will reach 15% of all light vehicles that are licen-
tion on how to recharge the vehicles, although a bill,
sed. Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 73
New definitions Stock
2014 was an atypical year in Brazil due main-
Therefore, the deadline for retailers to provide
ly to the World Cup and the fierce political debate
the documents is October 19, 2015, when ANP will
in the presidential elections. Yet, ANP continued
start the inspections.
the process to review the regulations of the li-
Another important amendment to this Resolution
quid fuel industry for improving the segment’s
determined that the sale of fuel out of the tank would
rules, many of which had already been discus-
have to be done in certified containers, which may be
sed and debated in 2013. As a result of that, last year, some very important rules came into force, the main one was the publication of ANP’s Resolution number 57/2014, which makes changes to ANP Resolution number 41/2013, which regulates the fuel retail activity. The resolution was improved due to the need to make new adjustments and the difficulty in enforcing some rules. Among the changes, Article 13, Item I of
reused only after the publication of a specific regulation that deals with the standardization of certified containers for storage of automotive fuels and their re-use by end consumers. Since there is no specific rule for the fuel segment that fits that profile, the regulation of the sale of fuel out of the tank in certified containers will be pending until a new rule is published. Since the beginning of 2015, there had been no plan or definition for the creation of this new standard. Resolution 57/2014 also establishes the obli-
Resolution 57/2014, stipulates that the stations
gation to affix a new sticker in the gas station’s
authorized to operate in the resale activity un-
area as of April 21, 2015, which shall contain the
der Ordinance 116/2000 shall have one year to
gas station’s CNPJ (corporate taxpayer id) and full
submit the environmental operating license and
address, and it determines the appropriate places
the Fire Department’s Certificate of Inspection.
where the sticker must be posted. Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 75
With respect to the stickers affixed to the pumps, Resolution number 44 of August 21, 2014 made changes to the visual identification of stickers that must be affixed to ethanol and diesel pumps, by establishing new models and measures. See, to the side, the models defined by ANP for retailers.
Disregard of recidivism Another important standard published last year was ANPâ€™s Resolution number 64 of December 08, 2014, which altered the criteria for the disregard of recidivism, by setting a rule and time for its effects, besides clarifying the rule for imposing the penalty for violation of safety standards. The changes were discussed at a public hearing held by the agency with major players in the segment, who were able to suggest changes. ANP itself saw the need to change the volume of administrative proceedings that were piling up. In 2010 and 2011, there was a backlog of
and maintained the date of February 27 for the institu-
more than 12,000 administrative proceedings, due to the
tion of a payment plan to pay the fines in installments.
enforcement of Law 9847/99, known as the Penalty Law.
Under the current rule, penalties that are not paid
The quantity of penalties comprising the revocation
shall be considered for recidivism purposes, unlike the
of licenses and suspension of agents that commit repeat offences served as a warning for a possible small vulnerability of the fuel supply. This situation prompted ANP to review Resolution 8/2012, by changing the criteria for disregard of recidivism with the publication of the current ANP Resolution number 64/2014 in order to reduce the number of proceedings. Punder the new rule, the penalties would be disregarded for the purposes of recidivism if outstanding fines were paid in full or in installments until February
previous regulation which provided that two years after the conviction, the fines were no longer considered for characterization of recidivism, even when unsettled. For companies that pay their fines within the period determined by the Agency, without filing an appeal, the conviction can be used for recidivism purposes only for up to six months. After this period, if the company has not committed any other offense, the previous conviction will lose its recidivism effect. If the company files an
27, 2015. However, ANP reassessed the need to extend
appeal or does not pay within the time limit for filing an
this period due to the request made by some market
appeal, but this company pays off the debt or even sets
players, including FecombustĂveis. On February 27,
up a payment plan at a later time, the time limit for cha-
2015, the DOU (Official Federal Daily) published Reso-
racterization of recidivism of that conviction shall be of
lution 12/2015, granting the extension of the term until
two years from the date of the settlement or instituion of
April 13, 2015 only for the cases of full payment upfront
the payment plant for the fine.
76 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Conduct Fixing Measure It is also worth highlighting the publication of ANP’s Resolution number 60, of October 29, 2014, on the application of Conduct Fixing Measures, which updated ANP’s Resolution number 32/2012, expanding the situations considered for fixing a small irregularity within a preset period of five days, thus avoiding the imposition of fines on dealers. The update of Resolution 60/2014 provides for the adaptation of new applications in line with the rules defined by Resolution 41/2013, which replaced former Ordinance 116/2000.
Increase in the blend Fuels & Convenience
Law number 13033 / 2014, originated from the con-
After long months of waiting and the realization
version of Provisional Measure 647/2014, determined the
that the new mixture would not cause damages to the
increase in the percentage of the mandatory addition of bio-
flex fuel vehicles, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock
diesel to diesel to 7% as of November 1. The government’s
and Supply, through Ordinance 75/2015, published on
objective with the new percentage was to grant the request
March 5 of this year, along with Interministerial Coun-
made by the production section and to reduce the volume
cil for Sugar and Alcohol, through Resolution 1/2015,
of diesel imports.
determined the increase of the mixture of anhydrous
In addition to the increased percentage of diesel in bio-
ethanol with gasoline from 25% to 27% as of March 16,
diesel, the same law allowed the increase in the percentage of
2015, keeping the 25% of the blend only for premium
anhydrous ethanol mixed with gasoline, up to a limit of 27,5%.
gasoline. On April 22, Anfavea delivered a report to the
This change, however, led to many discussions between the
federal government, with 85% of the tests conducted by
sugarcane industry and the automotive industry, as there
automakers, concluding that the mixture of 27,5% etha-
were doubts about the possible effects of the new mixture
nol showed no risk to gasoline-powered vehicles.
on the performance of vehicles and flex fuel engines that run exclusively on gasoline. Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 77
Diesel and biodiesel On December 23 last year, ANP issued Resolution number 69/2014, which changes some parameters of the diesel quality specifications, considering the increase of the mixture to 7% of biodiesel with diesel. Among the changes, for inspection purposes, if penalties are imposed because the appearance specification was not met, analyses of the water & sediment and water content shall be carried for the S500 diesel, or analyses of the water content and total contamination shall be done for the S10 diesel. The product will only be rejected if at least one of these last two parameters is out of specification. Another Resolution published by ANP, the 45/2014, lays down rules on the biodiesel specification and obligations as to the control of quality for the economic agents that sell the product in the country.
NR-20 With a view to the labor law, on July 20 last year, the Ministry of Labor and Employment issued Ordinance number 1079, extending the deadlines for adaptation to Regulatory Standard number
establishing Health and Safety rules for working with inflammable products and fuels. The deadlines were extended for compliance with items 20.10.3 (until September 6, 2014), 20.10.4 (until December 6, 2014) and 20.11.1 (classes I - until September 6, 2014, and II and III - until March 31, 2015).
Distribution The distribution business was also the target of standardization by ANP. The Official Daily published Resolution number 58, on October 20 last year, which established a series of rules necessary for the authorization of the distribution activity, also including acquisition, storage, blending, transport, marketing and control of fuel quality. Among the items addressed, section VI of the resolution Article 6 establishes a minimum capital stock of R$ 4.5 million, which shall be demonstrated by means of an up-to-date simplified certificate issued by the Board of Trade. Prior to this resolution, there was a small change in relation to Resolution number 45/2013, which determines the formation of safety inventories for diesel and gasoline, for distributors and producers. In February last year, ANP issued Resolution 8/2014, an adaptation to Resolution 45/2013, which amended the terms for the formation of minimum fuel inventories in certain states of Brazil.
78 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
LPG For the LPG sector, Resolution number 40/2014, published on July 31 and rectified on September 15, left the dealers quite unhappy. The measure deals with the obligations of dealers and distributors of the product with regard to re-tested cylinders. The Resolution establishes, among other things, that the dealers shall separate and identify the containers that shall be retested and return them to the distributor. In the opinion of the dealers, this change assigns them responsibilities that should lie with the distributors.
Lubricants The theme of the quality of lubricating oils was also assessed by ANP and resulted in ANP’s Resolution number 22/2014, which determines minimum requirements of lubricant performance for registration, production, sale or import of products, and which establishes time limits for the distribution and marketing of lubricants of the API SF, API CF, API SJ, ACEA and API CG4 categories. ANP determined that the lubricants of the categories mentioned are considered obsolete and it established time limits for these lubricants to be produced, distributed and marketed in the country.
Be Alert: Monitor ANP’s actions in relation to the deadline for dealers to submit the compulsory licenses, as established by Resolution 57/2014; ✓✓
Monitor the discussions on the new regulatory framework of the dealers and the distribution of LPG through the revision of Ordinance 297/2003 and Resolution 15/2005; ✓✓
Follow the discussions on the regulation of the new Law of Truckers, Law number 13103, passed in March 2015, with respect to the issuance of the stopping points; ✓✓
Track the online filing system of Resolution 41/2013 regarding the process for authorization of new gas stations, which has not been implemented yet (April 2015). ✓✓
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 79
Bakeries and food stores, the path of convenience stores freeimages
freeimages Paulo Pereira
Bakeries stood out as business areas last year
Despite the high operating costs and difficulties
one of the fastest-growing initiatives in this direction
of the sector - for example, the supply of the stores,
in the segment were the bakeries. BR Distribuidora,
which generally have a small storage area and requi-
for example, currently has 1,100 convenience stores
re almost daily replacement of products by different
throughout Brazil (data from April 2015) and, at the
companies - convenience stores with better results
beginning of the year, it had 151 bakeries operating
have shown that the provision of food services is a
in its BR Mania stores. According to the company, last
trend that is here to stay. A study carried out by the
year, it opened 46 new units, which represents an
CVA Solutions consulting firm, in January 2015, sho-
increase of 47% compared to 2013. Ipiranga, which
wed that convenience stores and restaurants/cafete-
also has been investing in the bakeries segment for ten
rias that have quality products and services and good
years, had 360 bakeries at the end of 2014, ie a 30%
prices are able to build customer loyalty and generate
increase compared to 2013.
more business for the gas station. According to the
Another large network, Raizen, does not invest
survey, these establishments are frequented by 48.2%
specifically in bakeries (at least, it does not work with
of users of the stations, and this means that, in addi-
baked bread or bread made in the store), but the sna-
tion to the business itself, shops and restaurants act
ck service is one of the flagships of the Select conve-
as generators of opportunities for the other services
of the gas station. According to the survey, consumers
In general, the bakeries of the convenience
who buy at the convenience store also use more ser-
stores work with uncooked frozen bread, which is
vices such as lubrication (45% against 30% of cus-
baked in the store, due to the limited space and also
tomers who do not eat in the store) and washing of
for convenience, because this type of food does not
vehicles (51% of stores goers choose the gas station
require skilled labor. But there are exceptions, such
for washing their vehicles).
as bakeries that include production, handling and
The food service integrated into the stores incre-
cooking of pasta on site. In the case of BR Mania,
ased in many different formats, either through their
the bakeries offer different types of bread freshly
own operations, franchises set up in the store accor-
baked, plus snacks prepared with the bread itself.
ding to the â€˜store in storeâ€™ concept or even services
Most units are concentrated in the Southeast, but
introduced by their own flags. Throughout 2014,
there are bakeries across the country. The advantage
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 81
of offering warm bread among the products sold in
Even the independent shops have had good re-
the store is that it increases the flow of consumers
sults with this type of operation. There are many
at different hours of the day, and this can stimulate
reasons for that, but one of the main reasons is the
their loyalty to the gas stations of that flag.
fact that consumers nowadays do not have much
The am/pm chain only works with the model
time for shopping, so they make emergency pur-
of foods produced in a centralized location, which
chases on their way to work or home or to buy their
are then finished in the stores. The bakery offers
evening snack or breakfast. These days, the custo-
bread and other similar products, along with se-
mers of convenience stores need to optimize their
veral options of snacks and a cafeteria. AM/PMâ€™s
time and therefore they often seek alternatives that
products, like the bread for example, are manufac-
offer ease of access and immediate product availabi-
tured in a central location, with the same quality
lity. For this customer profile, convenience is one of
standards and format for all franchises. The loaves
the fundamental requirements when choosing the
are frozen and baked on the spot by the bakeryâ€™s
place to meet their needs, and they are usually open
employees. For Ipiranga, this model is considered
to other solutions that can be located at service sta-
to be more interesting, because it ensures the stan-
tions. Thus, besides filling up the tank and eating
dard, the quality of the products and all aspects
a quick snack or making an emergency purchase,
of food security, while simplifying the operation,
consumers can have their laundry done, buy books,
reducing operating costs and providing greater
buy magazines and newspapers, buy credit for their
profitability. According to the company, stores with
mobile phones, buy medications, and use other au-
bakeries usually have a greater growth than those
tomotive services or even even work out at a gym,
without, and the flow of customers at the station
which are services that are now being offered in se-
also tends to be higher.
veral locations. Although there are no official statistics regarFuels & Convenience
ding these initiatives, the fact is that the number of stations with various services is increasing in the country, especially in big cities. The reason, besides the new consumer profile, is also related to the real estate reality: few places in urban centers have sufficient area for the installation of services with several different shops. ABF considers that gas stations are interesting areas for the installation of franchise stores, because the rent is usally lower than in shopping malls and there is greater security for consumers than at street stores. The entity does not have specific data on chain stores installed in stations, but it reports that food services, laundries and automotive service franchises are the main partners of the stations.
With the lack of time, consumers nowadays usually try make emergency purchases at convenience stores on their way home or to work.
82 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Service centers The idea of installing service centers is neither new nor unique to the stations. Supermarkets, for example, increasingly invest in the convenience format, including, in addition to their traditional services, other businesses like food courts, bakeries, electronics stores and magazine stands, among others. Even the bakeries have invested in more diversified models that combine the provision of bread,
pastries and snack through the installation of new gondolas to sell snacks and supermarket items, besides modernizing their facilities. By the way, the bakeries are currently considered a competitor of the convenience channel. Pharmacies also invested in the convenience format and increased the supply of perfumes, plus some snacks and candy. Many already have refrigerators for selling drinks. However, in the case of drugstores, there are legal discussions regarding whether or not they should be allowed to sell food items, because Resolution 328/1999 of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) prohibits the sale of these items in drugstores and
pharmacies. Anyway, while other retail channels try to serve the customer who wants practicality, traditional convenience stores have also started to offer other services that can help win over these consumers. And in this case, with the advantage of being located at gas stations, with an area for parking, with proper lighting, on the way home or work, often open 24 hours day or during extended business hours and the possibility of allowing consumers to meet their purchasing needs while the vehicle is being fueled.
Convenience stores have gained ground with customers that seek convenience when buying.
Prospects The retail sector as a whole tends to be more restrained in 2015 due to the current economic situation of the country that includes high inflation, high interest rate, high exchange rates and the prospect of unemployment. For the market of convenience stores, the solution to reduce the impact of the economic slowdown is to focus more and more on customer service and quality. It is important to adjust the product mix according to the preference of consumers, to monitor continuously the products and brands that are most sold in the store and also to take initiatives to reduce costs, such as measures to save electricity and water, to make better use of daylight, the use of intelligent ventilation systems and the better organization of staff in order to avoid the need for pay overtime and expenses related to the dismissal and relocation of professionals. One of the major factors in cost containment periods is the price. So, it is important to keep, in the mix, quality products that cost less, because that also makes a difference to the business. The food service continues to be one of the areas of greatest growth within the store among the market trends and, in this respect, the offer of diversified products and ready-to-eat food according to the customerâ€™s preference can also help dealers go through the current fragility of the economy with more tranquility. Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 83
In the fight for a fairer market The dynamic market of the retailers required inten-
-compliance fuels and fraud. With regard to quality de-
se involvement of Fecombustíveis on several fronts with
fects, seldom are the stations capable of detecting any
regulatory agencies and the National Congress in order
impurities that occasionally may occur along the chain,
to defend the legitimate interests of the sector.
especially during the process of transportation, which
The process of revision of some articles of Resolu-
ultimately penalizes the final end of the chain. It should
tion number 41, published by ANP at the end of 2013,
be noted that some differences in the quality specifica-
which amends criteria that govern the retail activity,
tions can only be detected by laboratory analysis.
was one of the highlights of last year. Two issues de-
The subjectivity of the appearance criterion
serve attention, the first one has to do with the requi-
evaluation also leads to differences in opinion
rement of using containers certified by Inmetro when
among ANP’s inspectors, the dealers and the labo-
selling fuel out of the tak, an obligation that is difficult
ratory. This issue advanced at the end of last year,
to fulfill because of the dealers’ difficulty in finding pa-
when the regulator started the process of reviewing
ckaging suppliers that can sell such goods throughout
the diesel quality criteria and proposed new inter-
the country, in accordance with the criteria required
pretation for cases of non-compliance regarding the
by the Resolution. The second subject of Resolution
appearance parameter. Similarly, in February 2015,
41/2013 was the requirement to submit, within one
ANP presented a new draft in which it amends the
year, the environmental Operating License (LO) and
specifications of ethanol quality.
the Certificate of Inspection from the Fire Department,
About two months after the public hearing on
both for new establishments and for gás stations that
April 16, ANP published a new Resolution, number
are already operating (check in the legislation item).
19/2015, establishing that the ethanol would fail
Fecombustíveis asked ANP to give dealers two years
in the appearance aspect, if the residue resulting
to submit such documents, due to the slowness and
from evaporation does not comply with the speci-
bureaucracy to obtain such documents in the agen-
fications. Alternatively, the evaporation residue pa-
cies in charge. However, the Agency kept the period of
rameter can be replaced with non-volatile material
one year. Fecombustíveis also requested the Agency to
content, according to ABNT NBR 15559, with a limit
grant more time for the stations to submit the docu-
of 5 mg/100 mL being accepted.
ments. Thus, ANP has given dealers one year, counting from the date of publication of Resolution 57/2014, a period that expires on October 19, 2015. Also in 2014, Fecombustíveis started the debate on the possibility of establishing a tolerance limit for certain specifications of fuel quality to avoid heavy penalties, such as revocation of the establishment’s license, for dealers that are found to have a non-conforming product. Currently, there is no differentiation between cases of non-compliance and tampering, according to Law 9847 / 99 which deals with both situations uniformly. The penalties include fines that range from R$ 20 thousand to R$ 5 million and in case of recidivism with a second violation of the same type, the station’s registration is revoked and the owner will not be allowed to operate in this market for a period of five years. Fecombustíveis also defended the differentiation of treatments for non-
Prevention on the agenda In 2014, Fecombustíveis signed a technical cooperation agreement with IBGPAT, with the objective of offering Affiliated Unions another source of information and guidance for the prevention of occupational accidents. Among the services available to members, there are legal rules, judicial decisions, guidelines and public policies on health and safety at work, as well as guidelines and business management policies and technologies aimed at preventing accidents.
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 85
Board reelected The year of 2014 was marked by the election of Fecombustíveis. Paulo Miranda Soares was unanimously re-elected president on May 9 for the 2014-2018 term. Heading the Federation since 2007, Paulo Miranda completes in 2015 his eight year as president Ten new members were announced in the board of directors. Most of them, however, maintained the same position that they held before the election. “ We hope that the new board will continue to defend the legitimate interests of the dealers, keeping in touch with traditional partners such as the oil companies, the regulation body and other authorities that supervise us,“ said Paul Miranda during the inauguration ceremony. Paulo Miranda Soares, president of Fecombustíveis, had a busy year in the defense of national dealers and was re-elected for another four-year term.
CARTILHA NR20 – RISCOS EM POSTOS DE SERVIÇO
In an effort to assist and clarify the dealers about the implementation of NR-20, Fecombustíveis launched the “NR-20 Booklet - Risks in Service Centers“ in 2014. The material was distributed throughout Brazil, to fulfill the requirement of item 20.11.2 of NR20, which establishes that it is necessary to provide information on the hazards, risks and procedures for emergency situations for certain classes of workers that do not enter the extraction, production, storage and transfer area. This booklet complemented the initiatives of Fecombustíveis, initiated in 2013, with the dissemination of information materials, to provide support to dealers in view of the complexity of the standard’s process. At the time, a guide and a video were prepared and the Federation organized a technical training program for instructors and prepared a training kit to
CARTILHA NR20 RISCOS EM POSTOS DE SERVIÇO
Affiliated Unions, which was distributed in five regions of the country.
The president of Fecombustíveis, Paulo Miran-
In November, Fecombustíveis presented
da Soares, attended the 29th National TRR Con-
new things to its members with the launch of the
vention, organized by SindTRR, from March 19 to
new site together with the new visual identity of
23, in Bahia. With an extensive program, the event
the entity. The new logo was part of the commer-
brought together 450 participants from across the
ce sector’s change process, led by the National
country, government officials and industry executi-
Confederation of Trade of Goods, Services and
ves, and it is considered the largest ever organized
Tourism (CNC). The new web site is designed to
by the union. During the convention, the new board
make navigation easier, improve access to infor-
of SindTRR was inaugurated for another four-year
mation and offer a modern, pleasing design. In
the new website template an exclusive area for
Opening session of the 29th National TRR Convention
the retailer was created, providing information on taxation, NR-20, obligations on plates and stickers and an information space, called the Retailer Channel. SindTRR
86 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Meeting The state of Rio Grande do Norte hosted the 9th Meeting of Fuel Retails in Northeast-Brazil, between May 29 and 30 in the city of Natal, State of Rio Grande do Norte. The meeting received authorities from the industry and the region, union leaders and entities that represent the segment. “ “The purpose of this event is to integrate dealers and to stimulate talks and discussions to improve our business,“ said the host of the event, Antonio Cardoso Sales, president of Sindipostos-RN. The launch of the 2014 Fuel Retails Annual
The launch of the Fuel Dealers’ Annual Report was one of the highlights of the 9th Meeting of the Northeast Fuel Dealers.
Report was one of the highlights of the 9th Meeting of the Northeast Fuel Dealers. In its sixth year, the annual report brought a complete overview of the fuel market with the release of performance data for each segment: gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, ethanol, lubricants, CNG and LPG. The publication also included the evolution of the North American market and showed the most significant events in the areas of Environment, Legislation and Convenience.
Convenience on the spotlight On August 7, Sindipetro Serra Gaucha organized the 4th Convenience Expo, in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul. The event highlighted the importance of investing in employee training to attract customers and expand the convenience market in Brazil. Luiz Henrique Martiningui, current president of Sindipetro Serra Gaucha, stressed that the convenience market, whether franchised or own, adds flow when it is well exploited and consequently generates higher profitability to the enterprise. The Convenience Expo has become another traditional event in the calendar of Brazil’s dealers, directed to those who seek to improve the business and learn about the latest industry trends. Ismael Viezzer
The Convenience Expo attracted an audience that was searching for news and market trends
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 87
Again in Rondônia For the third consecutive time, the 11th Meeting of Oil by products Retails and Convenience Stores in Brazil was held in Port Velho on September 4 and 5. The meeting also highlighted the first year of Rafael Figueiredo Gomes as chairman of Sindipetro-RO. “Right now, when we manage to bring together all the members of the segment, we want to show all the commitment and dedication of our union, whose main flag the defense of our legitimate interests,“ he said.
The 11th Meeting of the Oil Products Retails and Convenience Stores of Brazil’s Northern Region was held in Porto Velho.
Tradition on the Mountains Retailers across the country, authorities and union leaders attended the 17th National and Latin American Congress of Fuel Dealers, from September 25 to 28 in Gramado, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The event addressed the progress and the importance of the sector for the development of the Brazilian economy. “Our industry was never as united as it is now. Today, we are recognized in the market not only as dealers, but also as agents and The 17th National and Latin American Congress of Fuel Dealers had the participation of authorities and union leaders
community development centers,” said Adão Oliveira, president of Sulpetro.
Retailers in Mato Grosso The 3rd Meeting of Fuel Retailers in Brazil Midwest Region was held on October 16 and 17, for the second consecutive time in the city of Cuiabá, capital of Mato Grosso. Taking advantage of the electioneering scenario of the period, the event highlighted the weight of the tax burden and red tape in the country and their impact on the productive sector and the Brazilian economy. The president of Sindipetróleo MT, Mr. Aldo Locatelli, emphasized in his speech that Mato Grosso state today has the highest ICMS rate in the country for diesel oil, which is 17%. In Paraná, for example, the rate is 12%. 88 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
Held before the 2nd round of elections for president, the event in Cuiabá focused on the impact of the tax burden and bureaucracy on the retailers.
Southeast receives retailers The cycle of regional meetings of dealers ended with the 3rd Meeting of Fuel Retailers of the Southeast Region and the 16th State Symposium on Fuel Stations, Service Stations and Convenience Stores, held on November 13 and 14 in the city of Vitória. At the meeting, the attendees talked about taxation, strengthening of the category and family succession.
Nebelto Garcia, president of Sindipostos-ES, said the importance of establishing an open and ongoing dialo-
The state capital Vitória received the 3rd Meeting of Fuel Dealers in the Southeast Region
gue with the newly elected lawmakers from the region to equalize the ICMS rate with neighboring states and encourage greater fiscal control, in order to prevent tax evasion and improve state revenue. “By doing that on a daily basis, we will be defending this segment, which creates thousands of jobs, to improve the increase in tax collection”.
Focus on NACS Fecombustíveis once again attended the NACS Show, the world›s leading trade event for convenience stores and fuel dealers, held between October 7 and 10 in Las Vegas, USA. The event attracted 23.624 participants from approximately 60 countries, who discussed the main trends of the convenience market in the world, in two pavilions with 403 thousand square meters. About 70% of the floor space was occupied by products and services of the convenience segment, a major focus of the US dealers business, and the remaining 30% was dedicated to equipment and dealer products such as pumps, air gauges, new systems for car wash, LED lighting systems, among others. The three large distributors (Ipiranga, BR and Ale) took 1.340 Brazilian dealers.
The Fecombustíveis’ gala dinner took place in a festive evening at the Yacht Club of Rio de Janeiro on December 10. The atmosphere of union prevailed among industry officials, lawmakers, partners, employees and friends.
More and more Brazilians attend NACS, the world’s leading trade show for convenience stores and gas stations.
The event was attended by guests who came from across the country. Congressman Simon Sessim, the couple Cassia Funghi and Paulo Miranda Soares, from Fecombustíveis; Gil Siuffo, honorary president of Fecombustíveis; Cida Siuffo, from Sindicomb; and Sergio Cavalieri, from Ale Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 89
90 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
ABEGÁS - Brazilian Association of Piped Gas Distribution Companies ABNT - Brazilian Association for Technical Standards. ABRAGÁS - Brazilian Association of LPG Dealers ANFAVEA - National Association of Automotive Vehicle Manufacturers ANP - National Petroleum, Natural Gás and Biofuels Agency ANTP- National Association of Public Transportation ANTT - National Road Transportation Agency APROBIO - Association of Biodiesel Producers in Brazil BNDES - National Bank for Economic and Social Development CEPEA/ESALQ - Center for Advanced Studies in Applied Economics / Higher Farming School Luiz de Queiroz CENPES - Petrobras Research Center ECLAC - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean CIDE - Contribution for Intervention in the Economic Domain CNC - National Confederation of Trade in Goods, Services and Tourism CNP - National Petroleum Council COMGÁS - Gas Company of Sao Paulo CONAMA - National Council for the Environment CONFAZ - National Council for Financial Policy EIA - EEnergy Information Administration EPE - Empresa de Pesquisa Energética FED - Federal Reserve FGV - Getulio Vargas Foundation IMF - International Monetary Fund LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas CNG - Compressed Natural Gas IBAMA - Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics IBGPAT - Brazilian Institute for Management of Work Accident Prevention IBP - Brazilian Institute of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels ICMS - Tax on Circulation of Goods and Services INMETRO - National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality IPCA - Broad Consumer Price Index IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPEA - Applied Economic Research Institute IPI - Tax on Industrialized Goods IPVA - Tax on Motor Vehicles IR - Income Tax MME - Ministry of Mines and Energy NACS - National Association of Convenience Stores NOx - Nitrogen Oxides NR-20 - Regulatory Standard number 20 PAs - Supply Points GDP - Gross Domestic Product PIS/COFINS - Social Integration Program/Contribution to the Financing of Social Security CQP - Fuel Quality Monitoring Program PNPB - National Program for Production and Use of Biodiese PPM - Parts per million PROCONVE - Program for Control of Air Pollution Caused by Motor Vehicles PROMOT - Program for Control of Air Pollution Caused by Motorcycles and Similar Vehicles RECAP - Capuava Refinery REFAP - Alberto Pasqualini Refinery REGAP - GABRIEL PASSOS REFINERY REINTEGRA - Special Regime for Reintegration of Tax Amounts for Exporting Companies SCR - Selective Catalytic Reduction SINDICOM - National Union of Distributors of Fuels and Lubricants SOx - Sulphur oxides SULGÁS - Company of the State of Rio Grande do Sul TRR - Carrier-Dealer-Retailer UNICA - Sugarcane Industry Union
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 91
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER 1 • UNITED STATES
2.19 Main Infractions by TRR’S in 2014
2.20 Infractions in the distribution of liquid fuels in
Sales of gasoline and diesel
1.2 Ethanol 1.3 Biodiesel 1.4
Composition of retail gasoline prices
Composition of retail diesel prices
Ownership of convenience stores selling fuel
Major Oil-Operated Retail Outlets
Hypermarkets Selling Fuel
CHAPTER 2 • SCENARIOS 2.1 Sales
2.21 Main interdictions in 2014 2.22 Infractions in the fuel retail in 2014
CHAPTER 3 • GASOLINE 3.1 Sales 3.2
Retail sales volume
Sales by dealer segment
Price composition in 2014
Upstream and downstream prices
Composition of sales at gas stations
Share of liquid fuels in the GDP
3.10 Specification of the non-compliance
Forecasts of GDP growth in 2015
3.11 Non-compliance by type of brand
Registration of motor vehicles
Licensing of light automobiles by fuel type
3.12 Parity of prices between gasoline and ethanol 3.13 Market share of the distributors 3.14 Market share of the refineries 3.15 Gasoline imports
2.10 Variation in the price of Brazilian gasoline versus US gasoline 2.11 Variation in the price of Brazilian diesel versus US diesel 2.12 Price of the Brent oil in the spot market 2.13 Price of natural gas 2.14 Natural gas consumption 2.15 Vehicle consumption matrix
CHAPTER 4 • ETHANOL 4.1
Retail sales volume
4.2 Sales 4.3
Production of ethanol fuel
Sales by retail segment
2.16 General inspection numbers in 2014
Price composition in 2014
2.17 Products Impounded in 2014
Anhydrous ethanol: usptream prices
2.18 Infractions and Inspections actions in 2014
4.10 Hydrous ethanol: usptream prices
92 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015
4.11 Downstream prices
CHAPTER 7 • CNG
4.12 Retail margin
4.13 Price ratio between products of sugar cane
CNG Stations by State
4.14 Non-compliance rate
4.15 Specification of the non-compliance
4.16 Non-compliance by brand
Sales of natural gas by the segment
4.17 Market share of the distributors CHAPTER 8 • LPG CHAPTER 5 • DIESEL
Composition of sales by segment
Price composition in 2014
Sales of S10 by the retailers
Upstream and downstream prices
Composition of sales by diesel type
Variation of the items that have an impact on
5.7 Imports 5.8
Price composition in 2014
Upstream and downstream prices (S500)
the price 8.9
5.10 Retail margin
8.10 Infractions in the retail segment in 2014
5.11 Non-compliance Rate
8.11 Infractions in the distribution in 2014
5.12 Non-compliance by brand
8.12 Market Share of the distributors
5.13 Specification of the non-compliance
5.14 Market share of the distributors
CHAPTER 9 • LUBRICANTS
Sales of finished lubricant oil
CAPÍTULO 6 • BIODIESEL
Results of the B100 auctions
Market share of the distributors
Production x installed capacity
Market share of the re-refining segment
Raw materials used in the production of B100
Regional information on B100
Non-compliance by quality requirement
Infractions in the production of biodiesel in 2014
Non-compliance by label requirements (2014)
Market share of producers
Collection in 2014
Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 93
CORE SAMPLE: Representative sample of a product that has the same characteristics of the product from which it was collected. It is usually collected to serve as material evidence in administrative or judicial proceedings and it can be submitted for analysis to dispel doubts as to its nature and origin. The core sample should be collected in the presence of representatives of the interested parties, identified and packaged in accordance with the law or regulation that proposes its collection. ANP: National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels. It was created by Law number 9478/1997. This special agency is responsible for regulating, contracting and supervising the economic activities of the oil, natural gas and biofuel industry. ARLA-32: Automotive liquid reducer agent. It is also known as AdBlue or AUS 32. It is a liquid that is not toxic, not explosive and not hazardous to the environment, produced from a technical urea aqueous solution (the one for farming purposes cannot be used). In heavy vehicles manufactured from 2012 onwards, which use S10, there is an additional tank for the product, necessary to reduce emissions of NOx. BARRIL TIPO BRENT: It refers to the oil produced in the North Sea (Europe) and traded on the Intercontinental Exchange Futures in London. BIODIESEL: Biofuel produced from byproducts of vegetable oils or waste, according to ANP’s specification. Its name often starts with the letter B, followed by a number indicating the percentage used. Example: B2, addition of 2% biodiesel; B100 (pure biodiesel). CIDE: Contribution for Intervention in the Economic Domain. Federal tax provided for in the constitution, instituted by Law 10336, of December 19, 2001. It is a tax on the import and sale of petroleum and its byproducts, natural gas and its byproducts.
DOWNSTREAM: Chain of distribution and dealers (resale) ANHYDROUS ETHANOL: Fuel alcohol (ethanol) blended with gasoline A at the distributors for the production of gasoline C, which is sold at gas stations. HYDRATED ETHANOL: Fuel alcohol (ethanol) sold to consumers at gas stations. FLEX FUEL: Vehicles that use either ethanol or gasoline. GASOLINE A: Gasoline without the addition of ethanol, which leaves the refinery. GASOLINE C: Gasoline after the addition of ethanol at the distributor. ENVIRONMENTAL LICENSING: Every project and activity that uses environmental resources considered to be effectively or potentially polluting and which can, in any form, cause environmental degradation must obtain a license from the competent bodies for installation, expansion and operation. REVERSE LOGISTIC: Set of actions, procedures and means intended to enable the collection and return of solid waste to the business sector, in order for it to reuse it in its cycle or other production cycles, or in order for it to dispose of such waste in an environmentally sound manner (Law 12305/2010). GROSS MARGIN: Amount left after subtracting the purchase price from the sale price. MARKET SHARE: A share in the market.
COMMODITY: A product that is bought and sold. Term used to describe products that are traded on international stock exchanges - usually raw materials such as minerals and agricultural products. Although they originate from different producers, their characteristics are uniform.
CONDUCT FIXING MEASURE: Action in which the economic agent rectifies the non-compliance with the applicable law within a predefined time limit, and starts to comply with such law in its entirety, avoiding the imposition of penalties.
DISTRIBUIDORA: Supply chain agent that works as a middle person between the producer and the retail. Only one allowed to buy directly from refineries and power plants. It is responsible for the blend of anhydrous ethanol with gasoline A and biodiesel with diesel. Distributors are prohibited from operating gas stations directly, except for school gas stations. It can provide fuel directly to large customers.
ENGINE EURO 5: Since January 2012, all vehicles manufactured in Brazil diesel rely on the so-called Euro 5 engine. Light vehicles (pick-ups, vans and some types of trucks and buses) are replaced with engines with an EGR system. Most heavy vehicles such as trucks and buses will use SCR, which requires filling a specific tank with Arla-32.
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NOx: Hydrogen oxide is a gas emitted by vehicles, which causes eye irritation, affects the respiratory system and contributes to the formation of the pollution haze in large cities. NR-20: Standard of the Ministry of Labor that establishes rules for maintaining the safety and health of people that work with flammable and combustible products. P-13: 13-kg LPG - the one most often used in Brazilian homes. PPM: Parts per million. Acronym commonly used to indicate the amount of sulfur present in diesel. SUPPLY POINT: Installation provided with equipment and systems for fuel storage, with an appropriate volume recorder for the filling of mobile equipment, land motor vehicles, aircraft, ships or locomotives. Intended to be used by distributors to supply large consumers. The excess fuel must not be sold to third parties. WHITE FLAG STATION: TIt is also called an independent gas station, because it is not affiliated with any distributor. It can not display the trade mark of the companies, but it is free to buy from any of them. It shall inform the origin of the product at the pump FLAG STATION: The one that is affiliated with a distributor and which has declared such affiliation at ANP. It can purchase fuel only from the distributor that bears the brand. PROCONVE: The Program for the Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles was created in 1986 by the National Environmental Council. Its objective is to reduce emissions of pollutants from new vehicles, thanks to the implementation of more modern engines and fuels. RETESTING: PPeriodic process to assess the state of the LPG containers, to determine whether they may continue to operate, if they can return to the market or if they must be scrapped, in accordance with ABNT. RE-REFINING: Industrial process to which used or contaminated lubricating oil is subject, in order for it to have the same characteristics as the basic lubricating oil so that it can be marketed.
RETAILER DEALER: Legal entity authorized to work as a dealer/retailer of automotive fuel. It may purchase products only from a distributor, it being prohibited from purchasing directly from the plant or refinery. Only agent to sell fuels in the retail segment to consumers. SCR: Selective Catalytic Reduction is a technological post-treatment of the gases emitted by diesel powered vehicles, which together with Arla 32, reduces the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other atmospheric polluting gases. SOx: Sulfur oxide is a gas that results from the burning of sulfur present in fuels. It reduces the visibility and causes acid rain, which causes the corrosion of buildings and destruction of the vegetation. STORE IN STORE: It refers to a franchise that is set up inside convenience stores. S10: Diesel with 50 parts per million of sulfur, which was sold in the country up until December 2012. It is no longer marketed in Brazil. S50: Diesel with 50 parts per million of sulfur, which was sold in the country up until December 2012. It is no longer marketed in Brazil. TRR: Carrier-Dealer-Retailer. Legal entity authorized to transport and resell fuels, except for automotive gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, aviation fuel and fuel alcohol. It may purchase products only from a distributor, and it is prohibited from purchasing directly from the plant or refinery. HYBRID VEHICLE: Vehicle that has two or more energy sources to drive it, for example, an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. The latter contributes to the reduction in fuel consumption and emissions. VERTICAL INTEGRATION: NIn the downstream sector, vertical integration is characterized by the operation of distribution companies (that sell fuel in the wholesale market) and in the commercial retail operation. The current Brazilian legislation determines the separation of the fuel retail and wholesale activities, and the distributors are prohibited from working in the operation of service stations. Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015 95
REFERENCES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ANP (National Agency of Oil, Natural Gas and Biofuels) Antonio de Pádua Rodrigues (Unica) ABEGÁS - Brazilian Association of Piped Gas Distribution Companies Brazilian Franchising Association Brazilian Association of the Electric Vehicle ANFAVEA -(National Association of Automotive Vehicle Manufacturers) Bernardo Souto (Fecombustíveis) CEPEA / ESALQ - Center for Advanced Studies in Applied Economics / School of Farming Luiz de Queiroz Deborah Amaral dos Anjos (Fecombustíveis) Edmilson Moutinho (Institute of Energy and Environment at the University of São Paulo) Francisco Pessoa (LCA Consultores) Frank Chen (ABGNV) Felipe Goidanich (Fecombustíveis) International Monetary Fund Gustavo Sobral (Fecombustíveis) Giancarlo Passalacqua (Sindicom) National Institute for Space Research / Earth System Science Center Ipiranga Itania Pinheiro Soares (Embrapa Agroenergia) José Luiz Rocha (Abragas) Leonardo Zilio (Abiove) Maurício Séllos (Jogue Limpo Program) Marcelo Pereira Bales (Cetesb) Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation National Association of Convenience Stores Paulo Renato Ventura (BR Distribuidora) Paulo Tonolli (Expo Conveniências) Plínio Nastari (Datagro) Pricila de Sá Cantú (Conveniência Postos) Jogue Limpo Program Raízen Combustíveis & Conveniência Magazine Rui Ricci (Sindilub) Sandro Cimatti (CVA Solutions) Sérgio Bandeira de Mello (Sindigás) Sindicom 96 Annual Fuel Retail Report 2015