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CONTENTS

  October 2019 • Vol. 32 No. 5 • ISSN-0835-605X

Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY steve@esemag.com Managing Editor PETER DAVEY peter@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY penny@esemag.com ales Representative DENISE SIMPSON S denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY sandra@esemag.com Design & Production MIGUEL AGAWIN production@esemag.com Circulation BRIAN GILLETT ese@mysubscription.ca

10

43 FEATURES

TECHNICAL ADVISORY BOARD

6

Living with plastics in the “Anthropocene epoch” – Editorial Comment

Archis Ambulkar, OCT Water Quality Academy Gary Burrows, City of London Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill De Angelis, Metrolinx Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems William Fernandes, City of Toronto Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Tony Petrucci, Civica Infrastructure

8

Toronto hosts the future leaders of water

10

Complex upgrades needed within an existing WWTP digester facility

16

Many facilities handling biosolid dewatering using geotextiles and polymer

18

Anti-stagnation valves can cut energy costs and reduce demands on water systems

22

Region chooses acoustic velocity testing for its watermain condition assessment

24

Gas vapour mitigation system supports $400 million site redevelopment project

26

Providing potable water storage for a northern Quebec village

28

Managing sewer blockages helps prevent costly overflows

32

Eco-groups fight to wipe out wipe clogs with study that disproves flushability

34

Continuous and automated I&I analysis for collection systems

36

Efficiency measures allow a craft brewery to cut water consumption

38

New WWTP constructed to treat variable strength landfill leachate

41

Wastewater reuse can help Canada's dairy industry

43

Drinking water treatment for compounds of emerging concern

48

Comparing spiral and corrugated tube heat exchangers for wastewater plants

50

Surveys reveal factors leading to algal blooms and changing DO levels in lakes – Cover Story

52

Continuous insulation resistance testing can prevent WWTP pump motor failures

54

New risk model helps create probability of failure reports for critical pipeline assets

56

Strategies needed to help companies face increased water supply costs and shortages

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi‑monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Subscription Changes? Please email reader subscription changes to ese@mysubscription.ca, or call 705-502-0024. Environmental Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30 Aurora, Ontario  L4G 3V6 Tel: (905)727-4666 Website: www.esemag.com A Supporting Publication of

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4  | October 2019

Cover photo by Matt Stone

Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine


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EDITORIAL COMMENT BY STEVE DAVEY

Living with plastics in the “Anthropocene epoch”

s

ome believe that humanity’s impact on the Earth is now so profound, that we have created the “Anthropocene epoch”, which is a new geological milestone. They say it began in 1950, and can be defined by the radioactive elements dispersed across the planet by nuclear bomb tests and other man-made creations, such as plastic pollution. According to a report published in Science Advances, a publication of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, some 8,300 million metric tonnes (Mt) of virgin plastics have been produced to date. As of 2015, approximately 6,300 Mt of plastic waste had been generated. Around 9% percent has been recycled and 12% was incinerated. Seventynine percent has been accumulating in landfills, or the natural environment. If current production and waste management trends continue, roughly 12,000 Mt of plastic waste will be in landfills, or in the natural environment by 2050. The report goes on to say that plastic debris has been found in all major ocean basins, with an estimated 4 to 12 million tonnes of it entering the marine environment in 2010 alone. As Dr Chelsea Rochman of the University of Toronto wrote in ES&E Magazine’s August 2019 issue, contamination of freshwater systems is also increasingly being reported, with roughly 10,000 tonnes of plastics entering the Great Lakes annually. Like many, I am a frequent watcher of The Agenda, TV Ontario’s daily current affairs program. Recently it also highlighted the issue of managing plastic wastes. Said host Steve Paikin, “it (plastic) is cheap and it's everywhere. And that's what makes plastics such a tricky issue. The federal government has now decided a ban on single use plastics is part of the solution. But what about the rest of it? Even after decades of recycling programs, plastic is still piling up here and around the globe.” He went on to quote a report showing that in Canada, almost four million tonnes of plastic is generated every year. Only 11% – 12% of that is collected for recycling, and even less is actually recycled. Much ultimately ends up in our waterways. According to guest panelist Sarah King, with Greenpeace Canada's Oceans and Plastics Campaign “about a dump truck’s volume of plastics enters Canada’s oceans alone every day.” The issue of plastic wastes in the oceans struck me poignantly when I recently re-watched “Cast Away”, a 2000 survival drama starring Tom Hanks and Helen Hunt. The film depicts Chuck Noland, a FedEx employee marooned on an uninhabited island after his plane crashes in the South Pacific. Chuck is unable to leave the island in the plane’s emergency rubber raft, as he is not able to paddle through the constant surf, which pounds the island’s reef. After being stranded for four years, a large section of a plastic portable toilet washes up on the island. Chuck uses it as 6  | October 2019

a sail in the construction of a raft, and it’s the extra propulsion power provided by this “toilet sail” which allows him to overcome the powerful surf and ultimately get rescued by a passing cargo ship. I could not help but wonder that if “Cast Away” was made now, how different things would be for Chuck. Rather than just finding a single piece of plastic toilet washed up on his shore, our unlucky islander would likely find a plethora of useful items on a regular basis, including plastic water bottles, bags, toothbrushes, razors, combs, lighters, flashlights, rope, coolers, clothing, shoes, netting, tarps etc. Living in the Anthropocene epoch means that the detritus of civilization gets washed everywhere and anyone “Cast Away” would be inundated with it. Like other environmental issues, there is no single “magic bullet” solution to plastic wastes. But public education and other efforts are underway by government and industry to control it, and make sure the amount of plastics entering marine environments declines. As reported by ES&E Magazine earlier this year there is even an ambitious $360-million venture to remove plastic from the notorious garbage patch in the Pacific Ocean. Launched by The Ocean Cleanup, a 600-metre-long floating device has a threemetre skirt that hangs below the water to stop debris from getting underneath. It essentially works by forming a U-shaped coastline that traps ocean debris within its boundaries. Plastic waste is another long-term manmade situation that we need to manage. Stay tuned.

Steve Davey is editor and publisher of ES&E Magazine. Email comments to: steve@esemag.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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INDUSTRY EVENT

Toronto hosts the future leaders of water By Peter Davey

I

n late June, future water leaders from across the world gathered at Ryerson University in Toronto for the 9th annual International Young Water Professionals Conference. This prestigious event brought 260 attendees from 48 countries together for a multi-disciplinary conference that examined and discussed global water challenges, technological developments and designing the cities of the future. Organized by the International Water Association (IWA), the aim of the conference was to: “Empower young talent… to contribute to delivering the solutions for sustainable water management.” A theme that coloured keynote presentations and drew participant questions was the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially Goal Number Six: “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. Despite progress, especially between 2000 – 2015, 785 million people lacked a basic drinking water service, and 701 million people practiced open defecation in 2017, according to the UN. In one of the conference’s opening presentations, panelist Kerry Black, an associate professor at the Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, pointed out that access to drinking water and sanitation is an everyday challenge for many First Nation communities across Canada, and not just something that developing countries must address. Following the opening remarks, eager young professionals of all backgrounds packed into session rooms to listen intently to their peers and asked well-rounded and discussion provoking questions. The host city Toronto was well represented in a number of presentations. In the “Resilient Cities and Infrastructure” session, members of Toronto Water’s Process, Innovation and Energy group, 8  | October 2019

A discussion on partnerships and community mobilization featuring Stephanie Gora, Centre for Water Resources Studies at Dalhousie University, Jacob Amengor, Ghana Water, and Kerry Black, Schulich School of Engineering at University of Calgary.

outlined the utility’s infrastructure and treatment capacities and discussed the optimization and efficiency-finding work the group does. In the “Water and Society” technical session, Anum Khan presented findings on “flushability” and the problems with determining what makes something flushable in municipal sewers and household toilets. The findings were from a recent report by Ryerson University that Khan co-authored. “The theme of the conference, ‘Connect, Learn and Lead’, could have not been better reflected during these days in Toronto,” said IWA Leadership Engagement Officer Caterina Marinetti. “I was impressed to see such huge and enthusiastic attendance by young professionals

from so many countries, as far away as South Africa, Uganda, India, Philippines and Australia, to name a few. Yet, they blended as one big global family, building together a ‘water-wise culture’ made up of countless skills and disciplines, as well as diverse and colourful local traditions.” If you missed this event, the International Water Association will be returning to Toronto in 2022 for its World Water Congress & Exhibition. This large event is expected to draw thousands of global water professionals for a combined tradeshow and conference. For more information on the International Young Water Professionals Conference visit: www.iwa-youngwaterprofessionals.org

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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BIOSOLIDS

Primary digester #1 was designed as a mesophilic anaerobic digester and as such has its own sludge heating and mixing systems.

Complex upgrades needed within an existing WWTP digester facility By Meghal Patel and James Des Cotes

A

naerobic digestion is used at many large-scale wastewater treatment facilities in Ontario to treat and stabilize primary sludge being produced in the plant’s liquid treatment trains. This is often completed through the use of mesophilic anaerobic digestion to break down biodegradable sludge and to remove water and thicken the sludge. The Corbett Creek Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) in Whitby, Ontario, is one such facility utilizing anaerobic digestion. The plant has a rated capacity of 84,350 m3/day and is owned and operated by the Regional Municipality of Durham (Durham). As sewage inflows increased, Durham realized that the plant was approaching the sludge handling capacity of its existing digester complex. R. V. Anderson Associates Limited (RVA) was 10  |  October 2019

Digester

Dia. (m)

Vol. (m³)

Primary Digester No. 2

23

3,600

Secondary Digester No. 1

20

2,370

Secondary Digester No. 2

20

2,370

Table 1. Existing digester tanks and sizes.

then retained to carry out detailed design and construction administration for an upgrade and expansion. The existing digester complex consists of one primary digester and two secondary digesters with sizes and volumes as detailed in Table 1. Also included is a digester control building that houses ancillary processes such as sludge mixing, heating, transferring and gas handling. At the time of the digestion complex

expansion design, the plant was producing approximately 400 m3/day of co-thickened primary and waste activated sludge. Per Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks (MECP) design guidelines, 15 days of hydraulic retention time is recommended for primary digestion. Based on this sludge production rate, 6,000 m3 of primary digester capacity was required, which exceeded the volume of continued overleaf…

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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BIOSOLIDS primary digester No. 2 (PD2) by 66%. This situation could not be tolerated anymore and a project to expand the digester complex was initiated. It was determined that sludge production at the plant’s maximum rated capacity could be as high as 710 m3/day. Using the recommended 15-day hydraulic retention time results in a total primary digester capacity of 10,650 m3. To accommodate this capacity, it was decided that secondary digester No. 2 (SD2) would be converted into a primary digester and a new primary digester No. 1 (PD1) would be constructed. The sizes and volumes of the upgraded digester complex are summarized in Table 2. PD1 was designed as a mesophilic anaerobic digester to match the existing PD2; therefore, it was provided with its own sludge heating and mixing systems. A hydraulic mixing system was designed for PD1 with duty/standby mixing pumps and a scum breaking system within the tank. A dedicated heat exchanger was also provided, complete with hot water and sludge recirculation system, to keep digester temperature at 35°C to maintain the mesophilic condition. Due to limited space within the digester control building, the new mixing and heating equipment had to be installed in a new room, constructed south of the existing basement, adjacent to PD1. To convert SD2 into a primary digester, it was provided with its own heating and mixing systems. The existing digester gas mixing system was removed and replaced with a hydraulic system similar to PD1, complete with mixing pump. Another heat exchanger was provided for this digester to maintain its temperature. Significantly increasing primary digestion capacity resulted in two further design considerations: increased heating load and increased digester gas production. These two considerations were resolved together through the provision of two new dual fuel boilers which could utilize digester gas to heat the digesters. These boilers were installed in the main floor of the digester control building in areas previously dedicated to an old one and the obsolete digester gas mixing compressors. To handle the increased digester gas generated in the primary digesters a new 12  |  October 2019

Digester

Dia. (m)

Vol. (m³)

Primary Digester No. 1 (New)

26

4,680

Primary Digester No. 2

23

3,600

Primary Digester No. 3 (Former SD2)

20

2,370

Secondary Digester No. 1

20

2,370

Table 2. Upgraded digester tanks and sizes.

The upgraded digester complex layout.

gas room was constructed on the north side of the digester control building. It was designed to fit digester gas handling equipment to remove accumulated moisture and to boost the gas pressure. Due to the difficulty in incorporating complex piping systems into an already complicated digester facility, all design work was completed using a 3D model. This allowed the design team to check for interferences and to walk Durham through the facility to obtain feedback and comments. No model existed for this facility so RVA undertook several techniques to prepare a base model. Existing as-built drawings in conjunction with numerous site visits to verify field conditions were used to prepare an accurate base model showing the size and orientation of existing equipment and piping. In some of the more complex areas, such as

the boiler room, 3D laser scanning was employed which was then integrated into the model. Construction for the digestion facility upgrade commenced in July 2016 and was substantially completed in April 2018. Construction and modification work in the existing digester complex required considerable coordination between the design and construction teams and plant operations as the facility had to remain in operation at all times. PD2 was in operation, receiving and transferring out sludge, throughout the entire project. For this purpose, limitations were put on the construction sequencing and temporary systems were required to be installed. As digester gas was continuously being produced by PD2, its pipeline had to be re-routed through a temporary gas handling facility. A temporary gas hut was continued overleaf…

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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BIOSOLIDS constructed to house gas handling equipment and to direct digester gas from PD2 to a waste biogas burner. After this temporary facility was commissioned, the general contractor was allowed to proceed with the other modifications to the gas collection system. The next major construction limitation was on the sludge feed to the digester facility. A twinned feed line to the digester complex was installed which allowed the general contractor to take down and modify part of the existing system. During design, RVA conducted an extensive review of the pipe systems which required modification. Piping, fittings and valves were tagged and catalogued before construction so that the upgrades could be completed with minimal impact Digester control building ground floor layout. on sludge feed to PD2. Finally, commissioning activities were completed in phases. The commissioning of PD1 was done first followed by primary digester No. 3. The boilers were started up on natural gas in order to provide heating for the primary digesters. Since the digestion process takes time to stabilize and produce gas, the commissioning of new boilers on digester gas was done later, once sufficient gas supply was available. The final stage of commissioning was reached when all the digester systems were run automatically on SCADA. Before expansion and upgrades were completed the plant was experiencing deficient primary digestion capacity. Since the new primary digesters have come online the plant has been able to ensure an adequate hydraulic sludge retention time in the primary digesters and thereby Interior digester complex 3D model. maximize volatile solids reduction. The digesters are now producing enough gas to fuel the new boilers, which has reduced natural gas costs for the plant. With the digestion facility upgrades completed for the Corbett Creek WPCP, the plant now meets MECP design guidelines and can handle sludge for current and future flow rates. Meghal Patel and James Des Cotes are with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited. Email: mpatel@rvanderson.com, jdescotes@rvanderson.com The upgraded pump room, with existing and new piping.

14  |  October 2019

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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BIOSOLIDS

Geotube containers are made from a high-strength, tightly woven polypropylene fabric that provides both containment and filtration.

Many Canadian WWTPs use geotextile containers, polymers for biosolids management By Kevin Bossy and Tony Kobilnyk

S

pinning, squeezing, solar drying, there are many ways to dewater sludge from treatment plants and produce stabilized biosolids that are ready for land application or disposal. Selecting the best approach often considers several factors, including the speed at which dewatering must be completed, the space that’s available at the treatment plant to accommodate the process, and capital and operating costs. Simple solutions such as solar drying may seem less costly initially, but the process is laborious and time-consuming and may drive up staff costs. Mechanical processes may work more quickly, but often incorporate sophisticated, energy-intensive mechanical equipment that is costly to buy, maintain and operate. Geotextile dewatering of wastewater sludge provides simple, low-energy operation, efficient dewatering with little operator attention, and a customizable footprint to fit the plant configuration.

16  | October 2019

SINGLE-STEP PROCESS FOR SOLIDS COLLECTION, CONSOLIDATION AND DEWATERING The Bishop Solids Management Solution is used by municipal and industrial treatment plants throughout Canada to capture, dewater and consolidate solids in a single step. The system incorporates Geotube geotextile containers and a unique Venturi Emulsion Polymer Activation System (VEPAS) to do the bulk of the work. Dewatering is achieved largely by gravity, which helps reduce capital cost, simplifies operation and makes the system very energy efficient. Electricity is required only for the sludge feed pump and the VEPAS. Geotube containers are made from a high-strength, tightly woven polypropylene fabric that provides both containment and filtration. Solids can be pumped directly from sludge storage tanks, lagoons or digesters to the Geotube. Along the way, the VEPAS activates and adds polymer on

®

the fly, directly into the sludge feed line. This innovative system can operate automatically and eliminates many of the components in mechanical polymer systems, such as mixers and tanks, which take so much time to maintain and clean. The specially selected polymer performs several functions in the process. It accelerates the dewatering process, enabling filtrate to flow almost immediately through the pores of the Geotube container and preventing clogging. The polymer also helps retain BOD, TSS and many other organic and inorganic contaminants in the dewatered solids. Depending on the application and discharge regulations, the filtrate could also meet permit limits for release into a receiving body or non-potable reuse. At a municipal treatment plant, the filtrate would typically be sent back to the headworks for treatment prior to discharge. Filling a Geotube container usually occurs in batches, so it may take several

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


for about a month, operators would rake it by hand into wheelbarrows and load it into trucks for disposal. It was a lengthy, time-consuming process that dramatically reduced the amount of time that operators could spend on much-needed infrastructure projects, such as plant process optimization and reducing inflow and infiltration in the collection system. In November 2016, the Meteghan STP began using a Bishop Solids Management Solution, enabling the plant to collect and dewater the same volume of sludge in about five hours, rather than several weeks. Since commissioning, the plant has dewatered over 1 million litres of sludge and has saved hundreds of hours in labour. Sludge from the plant is pumped directly from the sludge storage tank to a Geotube geotextile container, which provides storage, consolidation and passive REPLACING SOLAR DRYING BEDS TO REDUCE LABOUR COSTS dewatering of the sludge. As the sludge The Meteghan Sewage Treatment Plant is pumped, a specially selected polymer (STP) in the Municipality of Clare, Nova is added to accelerate and enhance the Scotia, used to spread sludge onto dry- dewatering process. The dewatering cell, which occupies ing beds. Then, after drying the sludge

pumping sessions over a period of weeks or months before the container is full. After each session, the container is allowed to dewater, which reduces the volume and creates space for additional sludge to be added. This process can occur year round, even in cold climates. Where temperatures fall below freezing, a greenhouse can be cost-effectively built to maintain temperatures above freezing and ensure filling and dewatering is possible. Once the container is full, it will undergo a period of consolidation where dewatering continues and a composting effect reduces pathogens. Solids content can go as high as 40% and the process emits no significant odour, simplifying the handling and reuse of the solids as a soil amendment.

www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

about 232 m2 was constructed in the same location as the drying beds and is capable of accommodating two Geotube containers. Each container is about 13.7 m in circumference and 17.4 m long. A COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD TO ACCEPT SEPTAGE AT A MUNICIPAL PLANT The Eganville Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Ontario, has operated a sludge and septage dewatering facility since 2008, using the Bishop Solids Management Solution. This innovative facility has a dual purpose, providing a simple, low-energy process for dewatering and stabilizing aerobically digested sludge from the municipal treatment plant, as well as septage brought in by local haulers. The process not only simplifies sludge management from the treatment plant, it also provides a local facility where haulers can empty septage. Many treatment facilities are unable to accept septage and haulers often travel great distances continued overleaf…

October 2019  |  17


BIOSOLIDS to empty their trucks. This is a time-consuming process that results in added costs for property owners and increased greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles. Sludge from the treatment plant and septage from haulers are both sent to a 37.8 m3 underground holding tank, which is recirculated once full to ensure the solids are well blended. Pumps then move the sludge to a Geotube container. As the sludge is pumped, polymer is added directly into the feed line to enhance the dewatering process and help retain contaminants in the container. The laydown area can accommodate up to six 15.25 m long Geotube containers, two of which are set up inside a green- The compact VEPAS automatically activates and injects polymer in a single step to enhance house. The greenhouse maintains an dewatering and retain contaminants. indoor temperature above freezing and enables the facility to receive and dewater sludge and septage year round. After a period of dewatering and stabilisation, the biosolids are typically sent to the municipal landfill where they are not buried, but instead used as a soil amendment to the final cover. Eganville WWTP continues to accept septage from local haulers on a fee-forservice model, which helps support the operation and potentially opens new revenue opportunities by extending the service to a wider area of haulers. Kevin Bossy and Tony Kobilnyk are with Bishop Water Technologies. For more information, visit www.bishopwater.ca, or email: info@bishopwater.ca

The Eganville WWTP has used the Bishop Solids Management Solution for over 10 years to dewater sludge and accept septage from local haulers.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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WATER

While providing a picturesque setting, the Niagara Escarpment poses a significant challenge for Hamilton Water. Photo credit: NelzTabcharani316, Shutterstock.com

Anti-stagnation valves can cut energy costs and reduce demands on water systems By Dave Alberton and Peter Sucharda

T

he City of Hamilton, Ontario’s water distribution system is one of Canada’s oldest and most complex. It includes six separate water treatment facilities, 2,031 km of water mains, 144,691 water service connections, 16 pressure-reducing zones, and 145 district-level pressure valves. Situated at the west end of Lake Ontario, the city has an elevation of 91 m above sea level and is defined by unique geographical features, including the Niagara Escarpment and Hamilton Harbour. A recent pilot project demonstrated that the city could achieve significant energy savings and reduce water demand using anti-stagnation valve technology in its pumping district zones. The city’s distribution system must maintain a minimum operating pressure of 20 psi (1.38 bar) at ground level at all points under maximum day demand, plus fire flow conditions. The network’s nor20  |  October 2019

mal operating pressure is 40 – 100 psi (2.76 – 6.89 bar). This is a difficult undertaking because of the Niagara Escarpment, a steep rock face that runs through the middle of Hamilton across its entire breadth, bisecting the city into “upper” and “lower” sections. The Niagara Escarpment’s vertical wall ascends an average of 100 m and presents a unique challenge in conveying water at acceptable flows and pressures. Given the elevation change and the city’s sprawling geography, the water distribution system is divided into 25 distinct pressure districts, both open and closed. In an open district, continuous pumping is not required to maintain pressure, thanks to floating storage such as an elevated tank or reservoir. In a closed district, continuous pumping is required to meet the required flows and pressures in that portion of the distribution network. In areas where a facility such as a reser-

voir or elevated tank is not present, pumping station discharge head must be enough to overcome system losses and maintain the appropriate hydraulic gradient. The placement of floating storage within the distribution system provides sufficient amounts of water to equalize demand and translates into energy savings when supplying the network via gravity. Pressure district zones are interconnected via level valves and an open 20-mm bypass line. Typically, bypass lines allow a continuous flow of water from high to low pressure zones to mix water and maintain an acceptable residual chlorine level, but bypass flows consume significant pumping energy. ENERGY-SAVING MEASURES Hamilton Water is one of the largest energy users in the city and has started to implement measures to decrease electricity expenditures. In 2017, the utility

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


spent more than $13 million on power costs (6.2% of its total operating budget). In late 2017, a pilot project was implemented to investigate a significant flow increase from two reservoirs. It was determined that it was acceptable and feasible to significantly reduce water flow through the bypass lines from 24/7 continuous flow to approximately 15 min/day and still maintain water quality, using timer-controlled, anti-stagnation valves. The valves significantly reduced the required water flow from pumping stations. Each valve is a 20-mm Cla-Val Model 139-10A on/off control valve that can be programmed to operate on a time schedule. The pilot project focused on 37 water distribution level valves and open bypass lines that separate two pressure districts. The valves were installed and operational by the end of June 2018. The previous one-year historical pumping station electrical demand (kW) and energy consumption (kWh) were used as a baseline for the pilot project. The post-retrofit period (after June 2018) is being continuously monitored using the City of Hamilton Office of Energy Initiatives Energy Management System to gather electrical demand and energy consumption data to verify actual project energy savings and electrical demand reduction. The pilot study results showed that total demand reduction in power for the pumping stations in the two pressure zones was 497 kW. If a continuous, 24 hr/ day, 7 days/week operation is taken into consideration, that equates to 4,353,720 kWh per year of energy use reduction. RETROFIT PAYS OFF Based on the product calculations, it was estimated that each valve saves 44,000 kWh of energy, or 1,628,000 kWh per year in total for the 37 valves. This calculation is based on a 185 kW reduction in electrical demand and 24/7 process operation. Preliminary pilot study results have indicated an actual (average peak) electrical demand reduction of 497 kW. In addition, the valve timers were set for 15 minutes, which is shorter than the original time used to estimate savings, providing even greater energy savings. Also, because electrical demand varies significantly in pumping station processes, the actual power consumption will www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

be compared between the baseline period and post-retrofit data collected for the stations. Savings in the order of $200,000/ year are expected for the pilot study’s first phase. With a total installed project cost of under $90,000, the technology’s payback period is less than six months. Two more phases are now in the process of being developed based on these preliminary findings. The second phase will involve installing an additional 37

valves, providing an energy savings estimated at 400,000 kWh/year, or a cost savings of $56,000. A third phase also will be initiated in which 36 additional valves will be installed. Dave Alberton is with Hamilton Water, City of Hamilton Public Works Department. Peter Sucharda is with Devine & Associates. For more information, email: psucharda@devineassoc.com

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October 2019  |  21


WATER DISTRIBUTION

Region of Peel’s watermain condition assessment uses acoustic velocity testing By Alain Lalonde

O

ntario’s Regional Municipality of Peel is the third largest water utility in Canada, servicing a population of approximately 1.38 million people in the cities of Mississauga, Brampton and Caledon. Its water system is comprised of 4,500 km of water mains, ranging in size from 100 – 2,500 mm. The majority of these water mains are PVC and relatively new, but there are over 510 km of older metallic piping (from 150 – 300 mm) remaining. The majority of issues with leaks and watermain failures are found within these older metallic mains. Peel Region currently uses the State of Good Repair program to plan its watermain renewal. Based on industry standard life cycle assessment, the existing metallic mains have approximately 10 – 15 years of expected service life remaining; the Region has been replacing 15 – 20 km of them per year over the last five years. “The current program plan is to replace all remaining metallic watermains within the next 20 years, so identifying and prioritizing replacement of the pipes in the worst condition is very important in order to minimize leakage and pipe bursts during this time frame,” said Nimarta Gill, project manager, State of Good Repair for Peel Region. According to Jay Shah of Echologics/ Mueller Canada: “Savings can be gained by replacing the right pipe at the right time. This ensures that limited capital budgets for pipe replacement are utilized as efficiently as possible.” The current decision matrix for the selection of watermains to replace is “desktop based”, meaning that decisions are based on subjective components such as performance, age and hydraulic information. Specifically, Peel Region uses pipe age, a watermain break frequency (=>7 breaks/ km), hydraulic limitations, pipe criticality and adjacent utility renewals such as sewers in their current desktop approach. However, no actual measure of pipe22  | October 2019

Field measurements can be quickly taken at each location with no disruption to water service.

line condition is taken into consideration, so Peel Region began looking for ways to enhance the decision matrix using evidence-based condition assessment. Thorough market research led to selecting acoustic velocity testing for an initial pilot study. Using Echologics ePulse acoustic velocity testing, utilities can identify sections of pipeline with reduced structural stiffness and estimate the average remaining structural strength or wall thickness of a pipeline. Non-invasive and non-intrusive, this technology enables rapid inspection of large areas of a water distribution network without removing the pipelines from service, avoiding service interruptions, pipeline dewatering/cleaning, or costly excavations. The ePulse technology involves inducing acoustic waves inside pipelines by either lightly flowing a hydrant or “tapping” on a pipe appurtenance such as a hydrant or valve. These acoustic waves

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are measured using sophisticated acoustic sensors connected externally to the pipe appurtenances. Then, the acoustic data is analyzed to determine pipe condition by measuring the velocity of the acoustic wave. Acoustic waves cause the pipe wall to “flex” on a microscopic level, affecting the speed of the wave being detected by the acoustic sensors. Thicker pipe walls are resistant to this pipe flexing, causing the acoustic wave to travel faster within pipes in good condition. In contrast, slower waves indicate pipe wall degradation and internal/ external corrosion. Using the captured data, Echologics field engineers apply advanced algorithms to calculate the average minimum remaining wall thickness of the measured pipe segment without ever entering the pipe itself. The pilot study involved six neighborhoods in Mississauga and Brampton, totaling 16.2 km of watermains. Those selected included pipes that were already

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


earmarked for replacement in 2019, those with varying break frequency in the area, any with no or little break occurrences, pipes in the size range of 150 – 200 mm, and a mixture of cast iron and ductile iron pipes. The 16 km of testing was segregated into condition ratings for 133 segments of pipe, 125 m in average length. “Because of the nature of the ePulse technology, we were able to get this work done in the winter. This is typically a down time for road work, so it’s a good time to allocate resources,” said Gill. Testing was completed within three weeks, averaging 1 km per day of field testing. It only required minimal Peel Region operations staff support to locate and provide access to valves and hydrants. Using ePulse meant no excavating and no disruptions to service as it is performed during normal system operating conditions. Testing is all done externally using existing access points (valves and hydrants), so no tools are ever inserted into the pipe or in the water column. Once analyzed through proprietary algorithms, results are easy to interpret and support proper decision making for prioritizing watermain renewal programs. Interestingly, the findings showed there was no correlation between pipe age and pipe condition in the pilot area. Some of the pipe sections earmarked for replacement in 2019 were actually in moderate condition and could be deferred, while some of the pipe that

time and cost it takes to conduct the desktop study itself. With ePulse technology, pipe replacement accuracy can be improved to at least 90%, bringing the cost of error down 10% or $100,000 per km. It costs $20,000 per km to conduct the acoustic testing, bringing the total pipe replacement cost to $120,000 per km. Ultimately, the municipality saves $80,000 per km. “With 15 – 20 km of pipe included in the annual replacement program, these savings add up real fast,” said Shah. An additional benefit of acoustic leak detection is the simultaneous detection of existing leaks. “We found three confirmed leaks, including two full circumferential ring breaks that we did not know about. With this information we were able to send out crews to the exact location for repair, avoiding a costly emergency situation as the leak escalated,” said Gill. Ultimately the cost of acoustic inspecA field technician prepares to measure the tion was less than 1.9% of current pipe structural integrity of a water distribution main. replacement costs. Peel Region is now incorporating pipe condition ratings into had no or very few breaks were actu- a Decision Support System. This process ally in poor condition and needed to be can help to ensure that future capital spending is maximized and help to lower replaced ahead of schedule. Pipe replacement in Peel Region the occurrence of watermain failures and costs on average $1 million per km. The emergency repairs. desktop break model to determine pipe replacement can be around 80% accu- Alain Lalonde, P.Eng., is with rate, which amounts to a cost error of Echologics/Mueller Canada. Email: 20% or $200,000 per km, if good pipe alalonde@echologics.com gets replaced. This does not include the

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October 2019  |  23


REMEDIATION

Gas vapour mitigation system supports $400 million redevelopment project By Peter Ceribelli

A

s brownfield sites proliferate, redeveloping these properties is important environmentally and economically. The USEPA states that there are more than 450,000 brownfield sites in the U.S. To date, more than $8 billion in public and private funds have targeted 694 brownfield site cleanups and attracted 42,000 jobs. The investment is well spent. Cleaning these sites and redeveloping them has an economic benefit, boosting residential property values by up to 15.2% within 2 km of the sites, according to a 2017 report. But the economic boost is felt beyond property owners, with local municipalities generating additional tax revenue in the year following cleanup, according to another report. Moreover, according to the EPA, “through fiscal year 2018, on average, $16.86 was leveraged for each EPA brownfields Applying the Liquid Boot vapour intrusion barrier system. dollar and 8.6 jobs leveraged per $100,000 of EPA brownfields funds expended on assessment, cleanup, and revolving loan attracted little interest from developers in THE SOLUTION fund cooperative agreements.” For Hollywood Casino, the client the interim, owing to site contamination. As a result, before construction could chose the CETCO Liquid Boot 500 gas CASINO PROJECT commence, Penn needed to remediate vapour mitigation system, coupled with a Penn National Gaming, one of the the heavily contaminated soil. Chemicals, Geovent gas venting system. Formulated largest regional gaming operators in the including cyanide and vinyl chloride, for horizontal applications, the gas vapour U.S., decided to expand its Hollywood were found in 81 different areas of the mitigation system is a spray-applied, elasCasino concept to Columbus, Ohio, in site. Gas vapours from these compounds tic, monolithic membrane. It was used to 2012. Originally, the company planned on posed potential human health risks. seal multiple penetrations in the casino’s footings, grade beams, pile caps and other developing and building the casino near irregular surfaces, delivering a fully-adthe city’s downtown. However, it selected THE CHALLENGE One major challenge was the size of the hered gas vapour barrier system. a site in Columbus’ west side neighborGeovent is a low-profile trenchless hood in an effort to help spur much- brownfield site. The 123-acre site made soil needed growth in that region, as well as removal, the traditional method of soil collection and venting system designed allow Penn to create a more expansive remediation, extremely costly. Addition- to improve efficiency while reducing ally, the site design, which included a sig- installation costs. It can be used as an entertainment complex. The project was massive, not just for nificant amount of penetrations through active or passive under-slab venting systhe size of the casino itself, which would the gaming floor of the casino, would tem depending on the specific project be more than 354,000 ft2 when completed, be costly and time-consuming. Finally, and consists of a three-dimensional vent but the project involved redeveloping a developers had committed to a tight time core that is wrapped in a non-woven, nee123-acre brownfield site, previously home frame, which required a fast-acting and dle-punched filter fabric. Installed directly on the subgrade, costly trenching and to an automotive factory, the former Del- effective solution. potential interference to existing underphi auto parts plant. ground utilities can be eliminated. Delphi closed the plant in 2007 and

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


THE RESULTS Utilizing CETCO’s gas vapour mitigation system and Geovent allowed the client to develop this larger brownfield site after initially considering a much smaller site and building layout. Installation was completed successfully and on schedule, helping the client open the casino on time under a tight time frame. Today, Hollywood Casino Columbus employs more than 900 people and is one of the most successful casinos in Ohio, attracting roughly 3 million visitors annually. Since its opening in 2012, 41 small and large businesses have opened or expanded in the neighborhood near the casino, including a $3.5 million supermarket and a $1.5 million bowling alley. And, none of this would have been possible without the redevelopment of a brownfield site. Peter Ceribelli is with CETCO, a subsidiary of Minerals Technologies Inc. Email: peter.ceribelli@mineralstech.com

Utilizing CETCO’s gas vapour mitigation system and Geovent allowed the client to develop this larger brownfield site.

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October 2019  |  25


WATER

New water system for northern Quebec village By Darrin Hopper

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uujjuaq, formerly known as Fort Chimo and by other names, is a former Hudson’s Bay Company outpost at the mouth of the Koksoak River on Ungava Bay. It has become the largest northern village in the Nunavik region of Quebec. To supply the village with safe water, a $3 million project involving CIMA+ was implemented to upgrade an existing pumping station and construct a new drinking water treatment plant capable of providing a 1,123 m3/d flow rate. The selected treatment train is comprised of granular and membrane filtration (nanofiltration), followed by UV disinfection and a dosage of sodium hypochlorite.

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tion of the project. The great benefit of the bolted tank is that it comes in a kit form, well packed for transportation to remote areas and it is factory coated with high quality control. Factory quality control of the coating process ensures that environmental conditions do not affect the

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


finished product and there are minimal site delays due to atmospheric conditions. Availability of concrete, forming arrangements and local labour play a major factor in making bolted steel tanks attractive in remote areas. Compared to concrete tanks and other tank styles, field erected bolted steel tanks are the more environmentally friendly option as they do not require large excavation nor use of construction aggregate or material that may be difficult to find locally. Field erected tanks are one of the fastest types of tanks to erect, short of being able to install a pre-fabricated tank. Kuujjuaq’s tank, which is 11.9 m in diameter by 9.14 m tall, took less than 15 days to erect. In areas where the window for construction is short, this can be a major determining factor. The planning process from the client and consultant is of utmost importance as the main issue with these types of projects is getting the materials shipped to site in a timely fashion. Typical lead time from the issuance of a tender to an actual order being written to a supplier is three months or more. Then, there is the submittal, review and approval process before materials even enter manufacturing and can be shipped to site. This submittal and works delivery process can easily take two to three months. This can often be delayed by the levels of review and approval within the client/consultant/contractor dynamic and geographic separation of all entities involved. Having a primary contractor that has done work in the area and is very familiar with the shipping routes and timelines of boats, barges, shipping lines, etc., make things much smoother. Typically, they understand the timelines involved and can talk intelligently with the client/ consultant regarding these issues. In the case of the Kuujjuaq project, the primary contractor was FCNQ Construction. They have extensive knowledge and experience in northern communities and the pressure they applied and the efforts they put forward to get shipments to boats on time was short of miraculous. All this work was to get the tank kit and tools to site, before the shipping lanes closed for the season. Otherwise, it would have had to wait to the next spring for the shipping lanes to www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

open again and delay the project beyond its expected completion deadline. Originally, the project was tendered in December with plans to meet the summer shipping lane season, so the tank could be erected late summer. But with all the delays through the whole process, the tank and the tools required only just made the last available boat of the season. When bidding these projects, it is

almost impossible to eliminate all risks. Working with a strong contractor that knows the obstacles and understands that these projects are a partnership will go a long way to dealing with delays and the fact that tools/specialty jacks are out of commission for almost a year. Darrin Hopper is with H2Flow Tanks & Systems Inc. Email: darrin@h2flow.com

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INFRASTRUCTURE

A data-driven approach to managing sewer blockages and preventing overflows By Kevin Enfinger

S

ewer blockages are a leading cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) and often result from grease, roots and debris. That means they are a major concern to wastewater collection system managers, supervisors and operators. Fortunately, there have been recent technological advances that transform the way we think about blockages, make them easier to manage, and ultimately help prevent SSOs in a more efficient manner. Blockages are managed and mitigated in various stages of development along a blockage continuum, as illustrated in Figure 1. The preferred condition is the one shown on the left. This sewer has no blockage and operates as designed with the flow depth less than the sewer diameter. Now consider what happens as a blockage develops. A blockage in its earliest stage has minimal impact, but it nonetheless imparts a small increase in the flow depth upstream from the blockage. As the blockage get worse, surcharge conditions appear and, if left unabated, the flow depth continues to rise until an SSO occurs. Where a blockage is on the blockage continuum determines how best to manage it. Most sewer utilities use “preventive” approaches in the form of sewer cleaning to prevent blockages before they occur. This approach operates on the left side of the blockage continuum. It is to simply clean every gravity sewer over a pre-determined period, often once every three to ten years. While this approach is straightforward and makes a positive impact, some gravity sewers are often cleaned when it is not necessary and some that need to be cleaned more often are not. As a result, some blockages continue to go undetected and result in SSOs. Therefore, sewer utilities will often implement higher frequency preventive cleaning for specific gravity sewers, where the probability or consequence of SSOs is greater. While incremental improve28  | October 2019

Figure 1. Blockage continuum.

Figure 2. Predicting blockages with data-driven technologies.

ments are observed, the same uncertainty as to what really needs to be cleaned and when still remains. Most sewer utilities also use “reactive” approaches, often in response to high depth alarms or problems reported by the public. In these situations, response time is critical. If identified early enough, the response operates in a “rescue” mode where the blockage is removed, flow conditions are restored to normal, and an SSO is averted. If identified too late, an SSO has already occurred, and the response

operates in a “recovery” mode where the blockage is removed, flow conditions are restored to normal, and cleanup and reporting activities are performed. However, both “rescue” and “recovery” imply an emergency response that is disruptive to routine operations with little time to spare. It is important to note that there is a portion of the blockage continuum not served by traditional “preventive” or “reactive” approaches. If a blockage can be detected in its earliest stage of development, sewer cleaning resources can be deployed at the

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Figure 3. ADS PRISM web app with blockage PREDICT.

right place at the right time to prevent use format as shown in Figure 3. SSOs well before they occur. The blockage status of each location is Proactive sewer cleaning is data- conveyed by one of three simple icons: driven and based on current conditions, Green indicates that a blockage is while preventive sewer cleaning is schedule-driven and based on past conditions. Proactive cleaning is more effective and more efficient than preventive cleaning, especially at “hot spot” locations that have traditionally been cleaned on a more frequent basis. A “proactive” approach also reduces the need for “reactive” measures by detecting problems and resolving them earlier, before they become more serious problems. ADS has recently released blockage PREDICT to provide actionable insight on when and where to clean. “Hot spots” where more frequent preventive cleaning is performed are natural integration points for this new approach.

not probable based on the ML algorithm. There is no urgency, and no action is needed. continued overleaf…

HOW DOES BLOCKAGE PREDICT WORK? An ADS ECHO level monitor is installed upstream from a location of interest, measuring flow depth at regular time intervals. This data is transmitted periodically to the Cloud, where a machine learning (ML) algorithm evaluates the data each day, looking for tell-tale signs of developing blockages. Figure 2 illustrates this process. The results are available in the ADS PRISM web app in an intuitive, easy-to-

www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

October 2019  |  29


INFRASTRUCTURE Yellow indicates that a blockage is probable based on the ML algorithm and that it is in an early stage of development. The sewer is not surcharged. As a result, the urgency level is proactive, and there may be a few days to several weeks to respond to intervene and prevent an SSO. Red indicates that a blockage is probable based on the ML algorithm and that it is in an advanced stage of development. The sewer is surcharged. As a result, the urgency level is reactive, and there may be only a few days or less to respond to intervene and prevent an SSO.

CASE STUDIES Figures 4 – 6 illustrate developing blockages identified using this approach. A hydrograph is shown for each example and displays flow depth conditions observed over a 30-day period before, during, and after a blockage, along with the corresponding blockage status determined by blockage PREDICT. The first example shown in Figure 4 is from a sewer with a diameter of 300 mm. Sewer cleaning crews used a hydraulic jetter to clean several sewers upstream from this location on July 17. However, rather than removing the

debris, it was simply accumulated and “pushed” further downstream, inadvertently creating a blockage further downstream. Blockage PREDICT correctly identified the blockage and tracked it over a 21-day period, until a sewer cleaning crew returned and removed the accumulated rocks and gravel. The second example shown in Figure 5 is from a sewer with a diameter of 200 mm. Grease accumulated in a manhole channel and resulted in a blockage. Blockage PREDICT correctly identified the blockage and tracked it over a 3-day period until the grease was removed.

Figure 4. Detecting a blockage caused by rocks and gravel.

Figure 5. Detecting a blockage caused by grease. 30  | October 2019

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Figure 6. Detecting a blockage caused by debris.

The third example shown in Figure 6 is from a sewer with a diameter of 375 mm. A subtle increase in flow depth was observed by a level monitor and was identified by blockage PREDICT as a blockage. It was tracked over a 12-day period, at which time a crew was dispatched to investigate. The culprit was soon located

and identified as a small stick that was lodged in a manhole channel across the outgoing sewer. Once lodged, floating tissue and other debris began accumulating on the stick. Blockage PREDICT enables collection system managers, supervisors, and operators to take a data-driven approach

to detecting blockages early and deploy cleaning resources at the right place at the right time to prevent SSOs. Kevin Enfinger is with ADS Environmental Services. Email: kenfinger@idexcorp.com

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October 2019  |  31


WASTEWATER

Eco-groups fight to wipe out wipe clogs with study that disproves flushability By David Nesseth

I

n a new effort to end the ongoing wipes clogging challenge experienced by municipalities worldwide, two Canadian eco-groups called for the Competition Bureau to launch an inquiry (which is now underway) and levy false advertising fines to cover the millions in repairs that so-called “flushable” wipes cause each year for municipal sewer systems in Canada. When combined with cooking grease and other elements, they can form into “fatbergs” that block pipes and cause flooding. But, Friends of the Earth Canada, represented in the venture by Ecojustice, are not just demanding the end of false flushable claims, they’re also bringing forth new evidence in the form of a fresh flushable wipes study undertaken by Ryerson University. In the study, researchers primarily tested baby wipes, but also cleansing wipes and items such as diaper liners, for a total of more than 100 different products, 23 of which were labelled as flushable. Their conclusions? Two of the "flushable" products partially disintegrated in drains, yet 21 of them didn’t disintegrate at all. The only product to not fail the test? Standard toilet paper. “If you want to label something as flushable then you must abide by criteria,” study co-author Barry Orr told ES&E Magazine. “Our government needs to come up with something and the International Water Services Flushability Group has already done the work for them. I can sit here at my desk and tie a knot with a wipe. You can’t do that with toilet paper.” The International Water Services Flush­ability Group led

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Study co-author Barry Orr holding a rag rope of non-flushable material, mostly containing wipes, removed from a screen in London, Ontario.

to the creation of an initial statement in 2016 on determining flushability. The group advised that flushed items should break into small pieces quickly, not be buoyant, and not contain plastic or regenerated cellulose, but only materials that would readily degrade in a range of natural environments. More than 250 water organizations worldwide signed onto the specification. The primary difference between wipes and toilet paper is the wipes’ composition of durable man-made material such as poly-

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ester, lyocell and rayon that won’t easily break down post-flush. Toilet paper loses on average 90% of its strength when wet, allowing it to disperse in toilets, plumbing systems and sewers. In contrast, flushable wipes only lose an average of 29% of their strength in wet conditions, explains Orr. The new study, co-authored by Anum Khanand and Darko Joksimovic, states that “since synthetics may be used as binders in consumer products like wet wipes, the presence of synthetics in evolving consumer products may be on the rise.” “Some companies have decided to move to regenerated cellulose for wipes, which may be able to be handled by a composting facility, but not a toilet,” said Orr. The eco-groups contend that marketing these products as ‘flushable’ is false and misleading and there are environmental and cost consequences associated with consumers believing and acting on those claims. Ecojustice lawyer Bronwyn Roe notes that “although Canadians are the ones flushing these wipes down their toilets, it’s the makers of these products who should bear the bulk of the blame because of their misleading labelling practices.” The general logic around manufacturers’ reluctance to alter the composition of wipes appears to rest with what’s called a finger “poke-through” test, suggesting that there is fear that consumers would lose interest in wipes if they were somehow less durable. Additionally, manufacturers typically argue that it is items not labelled as “flushable” that are causing clogs and that they can’t control what people put into toilets. Investigating and analyzing wipe blockages can be both dangerous and expensive, and it is difficult to link them to a particular company. “When they get into a blockage, they’re very hard to take apart,” said Orr, who in addition to his role as city sewer outreach and control inspector for London, Ontario, is a spokesperson for the Municipal Enforcement Sewer Use Group (MESUG), which launched the Ryerson study. “The wipes get roped together and twist. There could be needles or sharps or hairs in it,” he added. If failing the Ryerson study’s disintegration tests wasn’t enough, most of the www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

products tested for basic drainline clearance did not clear the drainline in a single flush, sometimes requiring up to six 6-litre flushes. And, flushable wipes that don’t end up clogging sewer infrastructure can end up as intact waste amongst aquatic life in waterways. This new move is not the first time MESUG has been involved with the Competition Bureau. Since 2012, it has been lobbying for change on the wipes issue and has engaged manufacturers and all levels of government to find a solution, or even just make alterations to basic guidance documents. There was a time when it seemed possible that a CSA product certification standard might be possible for wipes, but the venture had funding limitations and fell through. Next, the wipes issue went to the ISO level. “But, after two years of working with manufacturers on a standard, the manufacturers killed the ISO,” said Orr, noting that they did not want to have a standard with “pass-fail” criteria. There has, however, been some very

recent progress in the wipe fight. In December 2018, Proctor & Gamble settled a San Francisco-based class-action lawsuit over wipe clogging that let members get back about 60 cents per pack (up to $4.20 household maximum) for products purchased between 2011 and 2018. Additionally, in the California State Legislature, a 2019 bill on flushables is currently winding its way through the amendment process. If passed, the law would prohibit manufacturers from mislabeling items as “flushable” unless they meet certain performance standards. The bill would require non-flushable products to be labeled clearly, and even recommends fines for violators. Consumer awareness messaging in Canada, meanwhile, has ramped up significantly in recent years, but little progress has been made to curtail consumers flushing wipes. David Nesseth is an Ontario-based freelance writer for ES&E Magazine.

October 2019  |  33


STORMWATER

Continuous and automated I&I analysis for collection systems By Mike McDonald

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combination of fluctuating and extreme wet weather patterns and aging infrastructure is causing problems with wastewater collection systems across North America like never before. As hundred-, even thousand-year storm events increase in frequency, a holistic understanding of systems and their capacity is needed to plan proactively to protect property and assets. FlowWorks Infinitii I&I uses machine learning, advanced analytics and statistical analysis to provide ongoing, realtime data on the wet weather response of sewer systems. Using automated tools that are built on proven methods of storm

34  | October 2019

Extreme storm events can cause sewer surcharging, local overflows or flooding.

event and infiltration and inflow (I&I) analysis, this web-based software provides time-saving calculations that can help pinpoint areas for immediate investigation after a storm event and provide insight into historical trends that can

indicate areas of aging infrastructure in need of upgrade. It also allows for users to convert their projects and studies into a manual form that allows for the data to be manipulated and exported to a CSV file.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Infiltration happens when groundwater enters a sewer system through holes and cracks in manholes and sewer pipes, and inflow happens when rainfall or snowmelt enters a sewer system from sources like roofs, downspouts and storm drains. Rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into collection systems has long been recognized as a major source of operating problems and poor performance. High levels of I&I reduce pipeline capacity in the collection system that would otherwise be available to transmit sanitary flow. As a result, during extreme storm events, there may be sewer surcharging, local overflows of untreated sewage, increased incidences and volumes of combined sewage overflows, as well as increased operating costs. RDII is also the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSO) into basements, streets or nearby streams, and can cause operating problems at wastewater treatment facilities. SSO control plans are necessary that can align with municipalities’ projected annual capital budgets and provide flexibility in future improvements. Currently, there are seven municipalities across Canada and the U.S. piloting FlowWorks Infinitii I&I. In March, the City of North Vancouver became the latest municipal partner to pilot this software. “I&I management is an important longterm initiative that should be continually supported by reliable and timely monitoring data. Having real-time I&I anal-

A demonstration screen of the Infinitii I&I tool.

ysis updates will be valuable for us as a small municipality. Our current team can evaluate our infrastructure and further characterize storm events that are driving I&I, so we can target potential problems and prioritize new projects,” said Dave Matsubara, the City of North Vancouver’s infrastructure engineer. Infinitii I&I is designed to work as a real-time monitoring platform that provides web-based GIS maps of the locations of sensors and devices. The FlowWorks platform connects to any sensor or data source, and provides tools for historical, real-time and predictive analysis

The idea of clean water is easy to grasp.

of environmental data. This platform has been used by dozens of North American municipalities over the past 12 years to provide immediate and accessible data. A network of sensors that includes flow monitoring devices and rain gauges is needed to provide data for the I&I analysis. Quantification begins with accurate, reliable, and repeatable sewer flow data. “Flow data” is defined as continuously recorded, electronic, time-series sewer flow. continued on page 65

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INDUSTRIAL WATER

Efficiency measures allow craft brewery to cut water consumption by 10% By Eric Meliton and Lloyd Hipel

A

s communities grow in population, there is an associated increase in water consumption and wastewater generation. One approach to meet this increasing demand is to build new (or expand existing) drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities, including the pumps, conveyance, storage facilities, etc., required to treat and deliver potable water to consumers and convey and treat the resulting wastewater. In addition to the high capital costs associated with this approach, it also has significant impacts on greenhouse gas generation. Realizing the high costs associated with increasing water supply to serve their growing populations, some larger municipalities have found more cost-effective and environmentally sustainable alternatives to Benefits include 10% less water consumed per unit produced and 2% less beer lost during trucking incentivize people to conserve water. The per unit of wort produced. conserved water then provides the extra capacity to provide for their populations. Thus, five Ontario municipal govern- ious water conservation programs aimed energy conservation efforts, the Toronto ments in particular – City of Toronto, York at residents and industrial, commercial, and Region Conservation Authority’s Partners in Project Green program estabRegion, Region of Peel, City of Guelph, and institutional (ICI) facilities. To continue the focus on water and lished a Municipal Eco-Cluster working and the Region of Waterloo – operate var-

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group, which convened from February 2017 to December 2018. The Municipal Eco-Cluster (funded by the Independent Electricity System Operator’s Education and Capacity Building Program 4.0) offered collaborative access to industry experts and municipal stakeholders, providing a unique connection driving conservation of resources. The objective of the Municipal EcoCluster was to showcase a set of capital projects derived from the implementation of best practices, along with the development of case studies that could be shared with other target audience municipalities and government stakeholders on the benefits of water conservation through the lens of energy footprint and GHG emissions’ reduction.

ers to implementation. Some barriers are often not technology or regulation-related but involve people and the internal politics of the facility. Nonetheless, there are common barriers that have been identified when trying to facilitate implementation with customers, such as: • Competing, higher-priority projects such as building/process expansion, energy conservation projects, new process equipment, etc. • Staff changeover may mean losing an internal facility champion. • The person responsible for implementation has too many immediate responsibilities. • Limited staff resources to begin and follow through with implementation process. Many facilities increasingly operate with lean staff numbers. WET PROGRAM • Annual capital expenditure budgets The Region of Waterloo’s Water Effi- already allocated to other projects. cient Technology (WET) program has • Water conservation assessment is corboth home and business versions for ICI porate driven, rather than plant driven. facilities and homes. For ICI facilities, the As such, plants will defer implementaWET program provides a cost-share water tion due to the above reasons until told conservation and incentive program, which generally provides the following: • Provides flexibility for determining a scope (and hence cost) appropriate for the size and complexity of a facility. • A facility can choose an appropriate consultant to conduct the water assessment and are entitled to a 50/50 cost share program. • Concurrent energy efficiency assessment can be bundled with the water conservation assessment. • Up to $100,000 in incentives to offset capital costs for installation of water-efficiency measures at a rate of $0.40/L water saved per average day. These financial incentives are applicable to facilities that achieve water savings if payback of capital costs takes two years or more. This approach encourages direct and indirect benefits such as reduced utility costs (water, electricity, and natural gas costs), the potential implementation of green initiatives, and the reduction of targets as directed by corporate requirements or government regulations.

to implement. • Interest and motivation fades due to a combination of the above reasons. • Electrical and natural gas have traditionally overshadowed water use due to their higher priority, total cost, and GHG impacts. CASE STUDY – WATERLOO BREWING Waterloo Brewing is Ontario’s first and largest craft brewer. Originating in 1984, it built a new brewing and packaging facility in 2005 and has consistently worked to reduce its environmental footprint. Its efforts date back to 2007 when it retained Enviro-Stewards to complete a water conservation study suitable for participation in the Region of Waterloo’s WET program. In August 2015, the company installed a world-class, state-ofthe-art brewhouse in Kitchener, which significantly reduced its environmental footprint. continued on page 64

BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION Each facility has its own unique decision-making process; therefore, there may be a myriad of other internal barriwww.esemag.com @ESEMAG

October 2019  |  37


WASTEWATER ammonia level in the influent is 1,400 mg/L, Seneca Landfill has reported days where the influent has been as high as 5,000 mg/L. To comply with their permit, the landfill needed to meet an on-site ammonia effluent limit of 4.7 mg/L. Being unable to consistently meet that target using their own system, they had been forced to incur additional costs for offsite treatment. Part of the cause of these high ammonia levels was the desire of the landfill owners to extract methane gas produced by the site. Traditionally, landfills use flares to burn off both excess methane and CO₂. Instead, Seneca Landfill wished to capture the methane and convert it into a clean form of natural gas for powering Seneca Landfill now uses three BioPortz reactor tanks in series to treat wastewater on site. the landfill itself and other customers. However, the methane extraction process produces condensate, which is a wastewater with an even higher concentration of ammonia than the original landfill leachate. This rendered the existing wastewater treatment system insufficient. The original system at Seneca Landfill consisted of three bio-towers filled with outdated trickling filter media. At the time, By Susan Rennie only two were in operation. All of this contributed to the system being unable ith environmental integrity in sate and deliquification water (both pro- to reduce effluent ammonia to required mind, development of the Sen- duced during gas pumping), as well as levels. A decision was made to convert the eca Landfill site in Pennsylvania leachate from sources like rainwater that existing bio-towers to aerobic BioPortz started long before it was built in mixes with the waste from the landfill MBBR reactors from Nexom, a Canadian 1965. A team of professionals conducted and becomes contaminated. Modifica- wastewater company, which would evenseveral comprehensive tests and surveys tions and continued studies on environ- tually run in series. The bio-towers would prior to the start of construction, includ- mental impacts showed the amount of be updated one at a time with new Bioing geographical impact (geological and ammonia in the wastewater from these Portz media. hydrogeological testing, wildlife inven- sources was proving to be too much for tory and monitoring) as well as traffic, the existing system. HOW IT WORKS historical and demographic research to Wastewater from the landfill is first colensure minimal impact on both the com- THE NEED FOR CHANGE lected in two equalization tanks, which Following a study by the U.S. Public allows operators to control the flow rate to munity and the land around it. In areas around landfills, concern Interest Research Group in 2000, all sites the system. From the equalization tanks, regarding water contamination compels that discharge into the creek became sub- water is pumped through the metals older and modern sites alike to be proac- ject to stricter ammonia permits on all removal system. Metals removal is accomtive in their effort to keep groundwater wastewater being released. In its un-ion- plished by the addition of sodium hydroxized form, ammonia is toxic to aquatic ide (caustic) as well as ferric chloride. Next, clean. Seneca Landfill’s wastewater treatment life in receiving waters as it causes the wastewater is sent to a sludge separator plant has the capacity to process up to increases in both temperature and pH for primary sludge removal. 422,000 litres per day. It uses a multi- levels. Additionally, as a nutrient, ammoIn many cases, the concentration of stage treatment system to process the nia can promote excessive algae growth, the various compounds in the leachate landfill’s contaminated water so it can be resulting in the loss of dissolved oxygen changes from day to day, depending on released safely into a nearby creek with- in rivers, lakes and oceans. the amount and composition of waste Landfill leachate is a common waste being collected by the landfill, as well as out any negative impacts to it, or downtype characterized by extreme BOD precipitation, temperature, and a variety stream receiving waterbodies. The sources of this water are conden- and ammonia spikes. While the average of other factors. This provides a challenge

Upgraded WWTP needed to handle variable strength landfill leachate

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for the operators of landfill leachate wastewater treatment plants. There are still occasions when there is too much ammonia coming into the system to be treated. The highest noted flow rate into the reactors during the tested time period was about 106 L/min, but landfill operators found the system consistently treated wastewater to below effluent standards at a flow rate of 76 L/min. To counteract this issue, the system allows landfill operators to redirect effluent back to equalization tanks for further treatment when needed. As well, to help facilitate ammonia removal and maintain consistency for the biomass in the reactors, the wastewater is heated to roughly 27°C. After heating, the water is sent to the BioPortz reactors. Fundamental to MBBR treatment is that biomass is easiest to retain when it is fixed to a surface. When the intent is to remove BOD₅, nitrify ammonia, or even denitrify nitrates, growing bacteria on a surface minimizes the washout that occurs in a suspended-growth environment. BioPortz media is optimized for surface area in order to encourage attached bacteria growth, ensuring that the entire media surface area is available to biomass. Created out of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with carbon black, the dimensions of each piece of media are carefully engineered to balance size and shape to enable both coarse media retention screening and effective media motion. Seneca Landfill uses three BioPortz reactor tanks in series. Each tank holds 72 m3 of water and contains 48 m3 of media. In total, there are some 83,612 m2 of available attached-growth surface area. Wastewater enters the fully aerated tank and encounters the biofilm-coated media. Coarse effluent screens are also installed to prevent the patented BioPortz media from leaving the tank. Depending on the desired result, multiple tanks in series can be used to meet low effluent requirements and/or address several different contaminants and nutrients. UPDATING THE TOWERS The retrofit of the first bio-tower to a BioPortz MBBR reactor was completed within six months. Updating the towers one at a time ensured minimal disruption and downtime for the landfill. It www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

also provided an opportunity to measure effluent characteristics at three different intermediate flow configurations along the way, in addition to the final reactor configuration. The first configuration consisted of wastewater flowing in series through one of the non-retrofitted bio-towers filled with old media, followed by the newly upgraded BioPortz MBBR reactor. At this configuration, average ammonia removal efficiency was measured to be 88.9%, with a standard deviation of 17.0%. The second bio-tower was completed

two months later. This second configuration saw wastewater flow through the BioPortz MBBR reactors in parallel. At this configuration, average ammonia removal efficiency was 95.5%, with a standard deviation of 7.3%. The third configuration consisted of two BioPortz MBBR reactors in series. At this stage, ammonia removal rose slightly to 98.5%. The project was completed when the third BioPortz reactor came online six months after that. The final configuration continued overleaf…

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WASTEWATER consisted of wastewater from the landfill flowing through the three upgraded BioPortz MBBR reactors in series. Initially, there wasn’t a significant improvement once the third reactor was put online, but further testing revealed greater benefits once the biomass was fully established. Loading rates were decreased to the third reactor, which allowed the biomass to adapt appropriately and produce the more expected result. UPGRADED SYSTEM PERFORMANCE The average influent flow rate the Seneca Landfill towers experienced in the first 10 months of operation was 69 L/min. The new system, designed to achieve effluent ammonia concentrations of 4.7 mg/L, has been consistently able to achieve this limit or less, therefore enabling them to safely discharge their wastewater. By April of the year following completion, the creek was no longer listed in the top 10 most polluted waterways in the U.S. In addition, after the updated BioPortz MBBR reactors were put in place,

Gas wells at Seneca Landfill. Extracting methane from landfills produces condensate, a wastewater with an even higher concentration of ammonia than leachate.

the landfill was able to achieve its objective of converting landfill gases, specifically methane, into enough green energy to power not only one third of the landfill’s daily operations, but also to heat over 27,000 homes. It also supplies compressed

natural gas for fueling CNG vehicles, including their own fleet. References available on request. Susan Rennie is with Nexom. Email: srennie@nexom.com

John Himanen, has joined R.V. Anderson as a Principal in the position of Manager of Business Development, Water/Wastewater. Based out of our Toronto office, John brings over 27 years of engineering and project leadership to RVA’s team. John’s expertise is in municipal infrastructure, pumping stations, wastewater treatment, sewage collection, and water distribution. He also has a broad range of experience on infrastructure asset management studies, Class EAs, water master plans and servicing studies. John is looking forward to working with RVA’s clients in providing and delivering infrastructure solutions for today’s challenges.

416 497 8600 40  | October 2019

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INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER ket share with dairy companies from all over the world has created challenges and opportunities for Canadian farmers. Becoming more efficient and productive will allow them to better compete with foreign imports. One area of opportunity for the Canadian dairy industry to increase competitiveness can be found within its environmental practices, most notably wastewater treatment. If Canadian dairies can lower their wastewater treatment costs, savings can go right to the bottom line. As an added potential benefit, there are a growing number of consumers who “green purchase” and prefer to spend money on goods that are produced in a more environmentally friendly way.

Wastewater reuse can help Canada’s dairy industry compete on the world stage By John Nicholson and Anastazia Jagdeo

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CHALLENGES The Canadian dairy industry faces many challenges, especially in the form of trade agreements which subject farmers to increased competition both internally and externally. The most recent challenge is the renegotiated and yet-to-be ratified United States – Mexico – Canada Agreement (USMCA), also described as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 2.0. If ratified by all three North American countries, the USMCA will further open up the Canadian market to the import of government-subsidized dairy products from the United States and Mexico. Further pressure on the Canadian dairy industry has been exerted by the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). The CPTPP is a free trade agreement between Canada and 10 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Under the CPTTP, member countries will have more access to the Canadian market.

he Canadian dairy industry is a major contributor to the nation’s fabric, producing high quality milk, cheese, yogurt, butter and other products. According to the Canadian Dairy Information Centre, there are over 10,000 dairy farms in Canada, employing the full-time equivalent of over 221,000 people. These farms are home to almost 1 million dairy cows. The industry annually contributes $19.9 billion to Canada’s gross domestic product, with the federal and provincial governments collecting a total of $3.8 billion in tax revenue. Dairy is either the top or second agricultural sector in seven out of the 10 provinces. In many other jurisdictions around the world, farmers are heavily subsidized by the government. Canadian dairy farmers do not receive direct subsidies, although it can be argued that the industry receives indirect subsidies FINDING ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES under Canada’s supply side management IN ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES The new reality of competing for marregime for dairy products. www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

CURRENT WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS Wastewater generated in the dairy industry comprises 50% – 80% of the total water consumed at a dairy processing facility. Current wastewater management practices vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The wastewater from a dairy processing plant mainly consists of lost raw materials, intermediate and finished products, and wash water from equipment cleaning. The major pollutants are biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids, phosphorus and ammonia. In addition, dairy wastewater also requires pH adjustment prior to discharge. The location of the dairy processing facility, urban versus rural, typically dictates the wastewater treatment methods and the extent of treatment required. In rural areas, where treated wastewater is discharged directly to the environment, stringent requirements of treatment are upheld. For example, it is typical in many jurisdictions that the BOD₅ (five-day biochemical oxygen demand) concentration of wastewater must be below 25 ppm before it is discharged to a river or lake. The BOD₅ of untreated dairy wastewater can be in excess of 500 ppm and requires extensive treatment, especially in rural regions. In an urban location, wastewater from a dairy processing facility is typically discharged to the sanitary sewer and subsequently treated at a municipal wastewater treatment plant. As such, the limits on continued overleaf… October 2019  |  41


INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER treatment include potential odour issues, spatial restrictions, and the need for specialized training of staff to operate the wastewater treatment system. The combination of rising costs of POTENTIAL FOR WATER RECYCLING Most dairy operations are situated in wastewater treatment, and challenges rural areas and are in close proximity to with securing water supply has made the their source material – milk. They are appeal of in-house wastewater treatment increasingly faced with the challenge of and water recycling more economical. CharTech Solutions has developed and sufficient water supply, especially in the case of an increase in production. As such, implemented both packaged and custom water recycling and reuse has grown in water recycling systems for the food induspopularity. Process wastewater is becom- try. The heart of the system is a compact ing too precious a resource to simply flush membrane bioreactor (MBR). Aerobic microorganisms in the MBR remove the down the drain. Rurally located dairy operations are organic components (typically measured also faced with the challenge of either as BOD5) from the wastewater, and the treating wastewater on-site prior to dis- ultra-filtration system removes any susposal, or arranging for off-site treatment. pended solids. The water is polished, using Both options are typically challenging reverse osmosis and/or ultraviolet disinand expensive. fection, and can be reused in the facility. Dairy processors that choose to treat their wastewater on-site realize advan- COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS tages that include reducing and conCharTech Solutions helped one rural, trolling costs internally, and recycling farm-based operation in Canada develop water for reuse. The challenges of on-site and commission the first closed loop the concentration of pollutants are less strict than what is required when there is direct discharge to the environment.

water treatment and reuse system in North America. The innovative system allowed the farm-based fruit processor to reduce their operating costs by $150,000 per year, and provided a payback of less than three years. Analysis has shown that there are potential costs savings with wastewater recycling in the dairy industry. Conducting a cost-benefit analysis needs to take into consideration the yearly operating expenses of water intake and wastewater discharge and compare those costs to the capital expense of a new closed loop water system. With the global competition in the dairy industry, it may be worthwhile for many facilities to consider a closed loop wastewater recycle system. John Nicholson, MSc, P.Eng., and Anastazia Jagdeo, BSc, are with CharTech Solutions. For more information, email: john.nicholson@chartechnologies.com

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WATER water quality. Since the 1980s, the Water Research Foundation has kept pace with these developments, funding over 200 projects to help utilities understand, Coagulation-Ceramic implement, Membrane Filtration for U.S. and benefit fromSurface advanced Water Treatment (4292), sheds light on pretreatment treatment methods and technologies.

The report identifies key design and operational parameters that influence the simultaneous removal of multiple or recalcitrant compounds. It includes a Multi-Contaminant Removal Matrix that provides a snapshot of anticipated multi-contaminant removal ranges given various sets of operating and design conditions. The matrix can be used to assess which compounds might be removed and the degree of removal that could be expected for a given set of conditions.

conditions, fouling mechanisms, and contaminant removal capabilities. The study investigates pretreatment with BIOFILTRATION aluminum sulfate, aluminum chlorohydrate, and Biofiltration, also known as ferric biological chloride, finding aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride to be filtration or biologically active filtration superior at removing (BAF), DBP precursors and reducing themicroorrate is the process of allowing of membrane fouling.ganisms to colonize water plant filters to

remove biodegradable compounds from

water. The microbial growth attached to Ozone Membrane Treatment the filter media (biofilm) consumes In 1986, amendments were made to the Safe Drinking Waterthe The use of membranes for water treatment has risen organic matter that would otherwise Act to more strictly regulate disinfection byproducts. As aflow significantly in recent decades. Membrane processes through the treatment plant treatand ultiresult, many water utilities reexamined their water include low-pressure membranes, such as microfiltration mately into the distribution system. ment processes and became interested in ozone treatment (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF), and high-pressure membranes, Membrane processes include reverse osmosis, which will continue to allow utilities to develop their The role ofcapabilities biofiltration innotably water treatbecause of its strong disinfection and such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). less desirable water supplies. ment has expanded beyond the removal lower levels of regulated disinfection byproducts. Advances in membrane treatment technology will continue to of biodegradable organic matter and turallow utilities to develop their less desirable water supplies. bidity control to include the removal of In 1991, WRF published Ozone in Water Treatment: Application compounds such as pharmaceuticals and and Engineering (421), which includes information on the WRF’s 2005 study, Development of a Microfiltration and Ultrapersonal care products (PPCPs), disinfecdesign, operation, and control of the ozone process within filtration Knowledge Base (2763), consolidates knowledge tion byproducts, inorganic compounds, drinking water plants. The report applies almost 100 years on the use of MF and UF membranes in drinking water and more. Since many utilities already of European ozone design andconventional operations experience to thefiltreatment into a searchable database. The resulting report operate granular media North American regulatory and utility environment. The explains the membrane industry, identifying trends in he changing landscape of com- in wastewater utilities. These processes ters, converting the filters to biological report is Drinking essential to mode all water design engineers, the pounds application of membranes, provides a reference canutilities, extend the bed-life of the filters take treatment to a higher level. of emerging concern and (CECs), regulators, and plant managers and supervisors interested for drinking water providers considering membrane objectives pathogens, and disinfection byprod- water plants may employ advanced treat- while meeting water quality in effectively implementing ozone. treatment. The knowledge allows to easilysuch as carbon without additional capital investments. ment processes adsorption, ucts (DBPs) in drinkingbase water, as utilities extract information pertinentdischarge to their specific application In 2018, the Water Research Founmembrane treatment, ozone, ultraviolet well as increasingly restrictive and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water needs answerwaters questions about MF and UF disinfection, industry (WRF) released Simultaneous (UV) andPPCPs biofiltration, or a dation limits forand receiving and the need and wastewater are largely unregulated, butChemical their ubiquity trends—providing a platform further advance Removal of Multiple Contamcombination of these solutions. todevelopment diversify water supplies through pota- to has necessitated on the efficacy of varioustotreatment inants Using Biofiltration help water Similar advanced treatment strategiesstudies ble reuse, have necessitated a shift beyond the development and application of these technologies. utilitiesincluding achieve maximum simultaneous wastewater conventional treatment. Advances in have also been added toprocesses fortreattheir removal, ozone. Since municremovalaofprimary severalsource chemical compounds mentpolymeric plants to further remove pathogens, treatment technologies expand available ipal wastewater is considered of PPCPs Despite their numerous known benefits over using biofiltration compromising nutrients, organicand compounds, and water supply by there making lessfor pristine water EDCs in the environment, expansionwithout and optimization of membranes, was, a time, a lacksalts, of knowledge existing objectives of the filtration process. other pollutants – often with the goal of sources economically feasible to treat and wastewater treatment processes may be the most efficient and drinking water industry experience with ceramic The report identifies design and producing potable water through indi- the potential offsetting demand on traditional strategy to mitigate effects of thesekey compounds. membranes, particularly in thepotable United States. Applicable operational parameters that rect or direct potable reuse. water supplies. Ozone is a unique option because its efficacy is similarinfluence to research studies that demonstrate whether ceramic the simultaneous removaloxidation of multiple Advanced treatment strategies go that of high-pressure membranes and advanced membranes can meet current U.S. drinking water quality or recalcitrant compounds. It includes THE RESEARCH beyond traditional treatment processes, processes for the reduction in PPCPs and EDCs. standards are limited. Far less is known about optimizing a multi-contaminant removal matrix The past three decades have seen a drasuch as the typical treatment train of coagthe chemical pretreatment scheme for ceramic membrane that provides a snapshot of anticipated development and ulation, flocculation, and filtration used in matic increase in the Results from Use of Ozone in Water Reclamation for Contamisystems or even the primary mechanisms responsible for drinking water utilities or the preliminary, commercialization of advanced treatment multi-contaminant removal ranges given nant Oxidation (Reuse 08-05), released in 2014, characterize fouling of ceramic membranes. Released in 2014, primary, and secondary treatment used strategies and technologies to improve continued overleaf…

drinking water treatment for compounds of emerging concern

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TYPICAL MICROFILTRATION/ULTRAFILTRATION WATER TREATMENT PROCESS Coagulant

Feed Pump

(Pressure Systems)

Rapid Mix

Flocculation/Sedimentation

Filtrate Pump

(Vacuum Systems)

Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration

Storage

Courtesy WRF

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October 2019  |  43


WATER various sets of operating and design conditions. The matrix can be used to assess which compounds might be removed and the degree of removal that could be expected for a given set of conditions. MEMBRANE TREATMENT The use of membranes for water treatment has risen significantly in recent decades. Membrane processes include low-pressure membranes, such as microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF), and high-pressure membranes, such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Advances in membrane treatment technology will continue to allow utilities to develop their less desirable water supplies. WRF’s 2005 study, Development of a Microfiltration and Ultra-filtration Knowledge Base, consolidates knowledge on the use of MF and UF membranes in drinking water treatment into a searchable database. The resulting report explains the membrane industry, identifying trends in the application of membranes, and provides a reference for drinking water providers considering membrane treatment. The knowledge base allows utilities to easily extract information pertinent to their specific application needs and answer questions about MF and UF industry development trends. This provides a platform to further advance the development and application of these technologies.

44  |  October 2019

SUEZ’s ZeeWeed 1000 immersed UF membranes can upgrade sand filter basins that take water from the settling basins at drinking water treatment plants.

Despite their numerous known benefits over polymeric membranes, there was, for a time, a lack of knowledge and drinking water industry experience with ceramic membranes. Applicable research studies that demonstrate whether ceramic membranes can meet current drinking water quality standards are limited. Far less is known about optimizing the chemical pretreatment scheme for ceramic membrane systems or even the primary mechanisms responsible for fouling of ceramic membranes. Released in 2014, Coagulation-Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Surface Water

Treatment, sheds light on pretreatment conditions, fouling mechanisms, and contaminant removal capabilities. The study investigates pretreatment with aluminum sulfate, aluminum chlorohydrate, and ferric chloride, finding aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride to be superior at removing DBP precursors and reducing the rate of membrane fouling. OZONE In 1986, many water utilities began to reexamine their water treatment processes and became interested in ozone treatment because of its strong disinfec-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


tion capabilities and notably lower levels of regulated DBPs. In 1991, WRF published Ozone in Water Treatment: Application and Engineering, which includes information on the design, operation, and control of the ozone process within drinking water plants. The report applies almost 100 years of European ozone design and operations experience to the North American regulatory and utility environment. The report is essential to all water utilities, design engineers, regulators, and plant managers and supervisors interested in effectively implementing ozone. PPCPs and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water and wastewater are largely unregulated, but their ubiquity has necessitated studies on the efficacy of various treatment processes for their removal, including ozone. Since municipal wastewater is considered a primary source of PPCPs and EDCs in the environment, expansion and optimization of wastewater treatment processes may be the most efficient strategy

WE PROVIDE:

An ozone generator creates an effective disinfectant, which translates to public health benefits in recycled water applications where direct contact is possible.

to mitigate the potential effects of these compounds. Ozone is a unique option because its efficacy is similar to that of high-pressure membranes and advanced oxidation processes for the reduction in

PPCPs and EDCs. Results from Use of Ozone in Water Reclamation for Contaminant Oxidation, released in 2014, characterize the use of continued overleaf…

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October 2019  |  45


WATER the environmental buffer, offers potential operational advantages as well as benefits to a utility’s bottom line. However, many utilities had questions about the most effective treatment options. To provide solutions, WRF launched a multiphased research project to explore the benefits and tradeoffs of various treatment process trains. The resulting series of reports, Examining the Criteria for Direct Potable Reuse, released between 2012 and 2016, contains criteria for assessing the effectiveness of different advanced treatment trains, taking some of the top microbial and chemical concerns into consideration and introducing a model POTABLE REUSE In 2011, many utilities that had been to weigh the options. exclusively using indirect potable reuse The research effort includes the pilot (IPR), where treated wastewater passes of an advanced treatment train for DPR through an environmental buffer before under realistic operating conditions, showrejoining the drinking water supply, began casing the potential for DPR use. The exploring direct potable reuse (DPR), water quality criteria developed in this where purified wastewater is introduced project have been used by several jurisinto a drinking water treatment facility dictions that are either developing or are or directly into the water distribution sys- planning to develop water quality criteUV DISINFECTION UV disinfection is considered an tem. Implementing DPR, and eliminating ria for potable reuse. Because the bar for potable reuse treatment practices is often higher than that of other water sources, WRF helps utilities keep up with a stricter set of demands. WRF research drives leading-edge advances in treatment and technology, including membrane- and non-membrane based treatppm ment options, helping to improve treato /o SS mg/L ment and ensure contaminants are propwith Markland’s erly managed. Suspended Solids Density Meter In 2016, WRF took instrumental steps in establishing best practices for DPR by Real-time knowledge demonstrating the reliability of multiple of slurry and sludge concentrations treatment processes to meet the highest water quality standards. Critical Control Helps you Point Assessment to Quantify Robustness Optimize dosing and Reliability of Multiple Treatment BarriImprove feed density ers of DPR Scheme pinpoints the elements Program pumps in a treatment train that are most important to ensuring water safety and uses fullscale operating data to evaluate the ability of those points to remove chemical and Contact Markland today. biological contaminants in potable reuse. Call 905-873-7791 • 1-855-873-7791 in NA Findings suggest that both membranemarkland@sludgecontrols.com and non-membrane-based potable reuse systems are capable of effectively managing microbial and chemical contaminants with proper monitoring and operaReducing the waste in wastewater management since 1967. tional practices. www.sludgecontrols.com Although many treatment strategies for potable reuse rely on reverse osmosis

ozone in wastewater treatment applications with respect to bulk organic matter transformation, contaminant oxidation, microbial inactivation, and the formation of disinfection byproducts and other transformation products. This study demonstrates ozone’s ability to reduce estrogenicity of secondary effluent, which has direct implications for discharge to environmentally sensitive surface waters. Ozone is also an effective disinfectant, which translates to public health benefits in recycled water applications where direct contact is possible. Ozone can be used simply to oxidize a wide range of compounds, microbes, and bulk organic matter to increase the chemical, microbiological, and aesthetic quality of the effluent in a conventional wastewater treatment plant. This research also features cost estimates for the use of ozone in advanced treatment processes and hypothetical treatment trains.

effective component of the multi-barrier approach to controlling pathogens in drinking water. WRF has funded more than 50 UV projects over the past several decades. In 2012, WRF published the UV Disinfection Knowledge Base. At over 500 pages, it incorporates utility experiences with facility design, validation, operations and maintenance issues, costs, lamp breakage, aging, etc. This compilation helps utilities, engineers, and regulators improve their understanding of UV disinfection and thereby reduce the risks and costs of applying UV.

Maintain your

ConCentration!

46  |  October 2019

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


(RO), alternatives to RO can also achieve potable water quality in potable reuse scenarios. Another option, combining ozone with BAF, can yield a viable, alternative water supply, and is already an accepted drinking water treatment process because it is sustainable and can be used to remove pathogens and a variety of organic compounds. In 2018, WRF released findings from a study that looked at the feasibility of DPR using ozone-BAF treatment without RO to achieve potable quality water. The study, Ozone Biofiltration Direct Potable Reuse Testing at Gwinnett County not only showed that ozone-BAF could provide high-quality water, but it could do it at less than half the cost of RO-based treatment where RO concentrate is processed through mechanical evaporation. By comparing IPR to DPR in one area, several potential operational benefits were identified for DPR including reduced ozone demand, lower filter headloss accumulation rates, and mitigation of source water quality excursions.

LIFT For potable water uses, municipal wastewater can also be treated to such standards using a selection of advanced treatment processes through either direct or indirect potable reuse. LIFT’s Water Reuse Focus Group was formed to investigate more efficient membranes and other novel treatment processes to decrease energy usage and treatment costs, real-time monitoring of contaminants using advanced sensors, and other technologies aimed at making water reuse more widespread.

applications. Under these circumstances, opportunities for optimization of system sizing and operation are likely to be greater than for smaller systems. An ongoing WRF project, Design and Validation Protocol for UV Disinfection Systems Used in Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Applications will combine physical measurements with numerical modeling to develop design and validation protocols to optimize UV disinfection systems. Physical experiments include measurements of several water quality characteristics that are known to influence UV process performance, including flow rate, UV transmittance, particle concentration, UV dose-response behaviour, and others. In addition, pilot-scale and full-scale experiments will be conducted on operating UV disinfection systems to provide fundamental data regarding the behavior of these systems.

WHAT’S NEXT? Currently available design and validation protocols for UV disinfection systems do not account for many factors that are known to influence process performance, such as dose distribution. This leads to system designs that are inefficient and overly conservative. These attributes are particularly important among large UV disinfection systems with high flow rates or large UV dose requirements, For more information, visit which may be necessary in water reuse www.waterrf.org

ACO Stormbrixx Storm Water Management The ACO StormBrixx system represents the latest technology in geo-cellular storm tank design by utilizing the natural strength to weight of a honeycomb. The 97% void ratio of ACO StormBrixx allows for the lowest possible installation cost as the efficient design minimizes the excavation, stone and labour required. Once installed the savings continue, with low maintenance costs as the modular design allows for easy inspection and access for cleaning. The high vertical and lateral strength of the system allow for deeper inverts and a multitude of applications including parking lots and roadways. When you compliment your next project with a high performance storm water tank from ACO, you will be safe in the knowledge you are specifying the longest lasting, most efficient tank around. That’s true saving.

(877) 226-4255 • info@acocan.ca • www.acostormbrixx.ca

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October 2019  |  47


WASTEWATER

Corrugated tube-in-tube heat exchangers can be ideal for sludge applications.

Spiral or corrugated tube heat exchangers – which is best for wastewater treatment?

ing with thermal transfer. Where the heat exchanger is used for sludge-to-sludge applications, this fouling layer can create a double barrier to efficient heat transfer. While these comparisons hold true for smooth tube heat exchangers, they do not always apply to corrugated tube heat exchangers. For example, like SHEs, the tube-in-tube HRS DTI Series is a true even where the temperature difference counter-current heat exchanger, with the By Matt Hale between the two materials is small. product flowing through the inner tube ince the first spiral heat exchanger • The spiral design and use of a single and the service fluid flowing through (SHE) was introduced back in the channel is claimed to prevent fouling the surrounding shell. The use of HRS corrugation technology increases heat 19th century, they have become and be “self-cleaning”. synonymous with the treatment • Their compact design makes them suit- transfer and operational efficiency, while of slurries and wastewater, materials able for installations where space and/or also minimizing fouling. which have a high fouling risk, are vis- access are restricted. cous, or which contain fibres and solid • The counter-current flow provides an NON-FOULING AND SELF‑CLEANING DESIGNS materials. However, in many situations effective way to recover waste heat. the performance of a corrugated tube The design of SHEs can create turbulent flow inside the exchanger. This is heat exchanger is equal to or better than THERMAL PERFORMANCE that of a spiral design. Not only that, but There is no doubt that in theory SHEs claimed to reduce the likelihood of foulcorrugated tube designs provide a num- offer greater thermal efficiency than con- ing, and that where blockages do start ber of additional advantages in terms of ventional smooth surface tubular designs, to occur, product flow speeds up, creatday-to-day operation and maintenance. due to their large surface area and true ing a “scrubbing” effect that dislodges Proponents of SHEs (sometimes known counter-current flow. However, this the blockage (so-called “self cleaning”). as shell and coil heat exchangers) cite the assumes that the barrier between the prod- This is fine in theory, but it is unlikely in following advantages as making them uct and service fluids is kept clean and many real world situations, particularly suitable for handling challenging fluids: operates efficiently at all times. In prac- where SHEs are used with sludge. The corrugated tubular design of the • They have good thermal performance, tice, fouling frequently occurs, interfer-

S

48  | October 2019

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Spiral heat exchangers can be difficult to clean and service.

HRS DTI Series reduces fouling in a number of ways. The tube-in-tube design offers a much larger channel than spirals, thereby reducing blockages. The corrugated inner tube also encourages turbulence, which increases heat transfer and reduces fouling. Tubes within the DTI Series are easy to clean and maintain. Removable bends make them easy to access, and there are no expensive gaskets to replace. Unlike SHEs, the tubes in a corrugated tube design heat exchanger can be easily removed for inspection, cleaning and maintenance and a variety of flange connections are available. The unit is also made in easy-to-replace sections. Should the heat exchanger suffer internal damage, the failed section can be easily bypassed by moving the interconnecting bends. A replacement can be manufactured and fitted when it is ready. In contrast, if a spiral is damaged, the complete heat exchanger must be sent to a workshop where many layers have to be cut out to access the point of failure. This is then re-welded and all the cut-away sections must be re-welded into place. The cost is significant and downtime can be many weeks. CHOOSING THE BEST SOLUTION In many situations, we believe that a corrugated tube heat exchanger, like the HRS DTI Series, is the best solution for challenging materials such as sludge. However, in the most extreme cases with a very high fouling risk, it will be necessary to use a scraped-surface heat exchanger such as either the HRS rotating R Series or the patented reciprocating Unicus Series. In order to select the best solution it is necessary to accurately assess the physical properties of the product or sludge to be treated, as well as the service fluid, inlet and outlet temperatures and the amount of heat regeneration required (if any). When examining specifications or quotations for SHEs compared to corrugated tubes, it is important to make sure to compare like-for-like and that the performance specifications are identical. Specifiers should also assess whether any gains in efficiency or lower capital cost will be offset by increased fouling or operational costs over the full life of the unit. Matt Hale is with HRS Heat Exchangers. For more information, email: info@us.hrs-he.com

www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

October 2019  |  49


WATER

Robert Bowen at Swan Lake in Victoria, British Columbia, preparing sampling equipment.

Eutrophic monitoring of dissolved oxygen levels and algae to help improve lake water quality By Robert Bowen

U

rban freshwater environments are increasingly experiencing human-induced influences that all too often create imbalances in the natural lake processes. A common example of this is the enrichment of nutrients from groundwater movement and potent fertilizer runoff. The impacts of these enrichments often lead to the onset of harmful algal blooms and widespread fluctuations in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. To better understand the interplay between nutrients, algae growth and DO, Diversified Scientific Solutions has been conducting surveys to measure the seasonal variability of DO, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature, nitrogen and phosphorus at Swan Lake in Victoria, British Columbia. The sampling program began in 2016 and has consisted of 50  | October 2019

weekly water column profiling using YSI handheld probes and water sample collections from several sites on the lake, starting each May and continuing until the end of September. As Swan Lake is a shallow and warm lake, strong DO gradients set up mid-summer where DO levels are super-saturated at the surface, largely due to the photosynthetic production of oxygen through the cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, along with other species. DO levels rapidly decline with depth to anoxic conditions only a few metres below the surface. As summer progresses, this anoxic zone begins to migrate towards the surface. It is in this period that blooms of various algae become extensive, creating significant volumes of biomass. This biomass is supported by the enriched phosphorus levels but these levels soon begin to decline, leading to a mass die-off of algae.

With this die-off, oxygen levels collapse as turbidity increases, photosynthesis decreases and bacterial decomposing consume the remaining depleting DO. In data collected in 2018, it can be seen that the lake experienced three hypoxic events (< 2 mg/l) in the late summer and early fall periods. (Figure 1) A large fish kill was observed in 2017 and a smaller one in 2018. In order to increase the understanding of the oxygen fluctuations just prior to and during the hypoxic events, a RINKO dissolved oxygen logger from ASL Environmental Sciences’ lease pool was installed to expand upon the weekly YSI DO probe. The logger was set to sample every 10 minutes. Fluctuations as high as 16 mg/l over a 17 hour interval were observed just before onset, with a general dampening of the oscillations during hypoxia. (See Figure 2) This captured the diurnal cycling of photosynthesis (daylight oxygen production) and respiration (night respiration). As Swan Lake has exhibited a general pattern of hypoxic events in the late summer, a modest intervention was installed last September to help mitigate this troubling trend. Two 15 m lengths of Aquat-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ech O2B2 linear aeration bubbler lines were placed on the bottom at a depth of about three metres. The aeration tubing consists of a double row of fine bubbles that gently rise through the water column to promote mixing and the reduction of thermal and DO stratification. As Swan Lake is approximately nine hectares in size, these lines would provide refuge areas in times of depleted DO. To examine the impact of these bubblers, two ASL RINKO DO loggers were installed this year. One is adjacent to the bubblers and the other is outside of the influence of the bubblers. These loggers will be recovered in October. Another tool that was used in 2018 to give insight into the abundance and distribution of algae and fish in the water column was ASL’s Acoustic Zooplankton Fish Profiler. This instrument, in this specific configuration, had three acoustic frequency transducers (200, 769 and 1250 kHz) that continuously monitored backscatter in the water column. This was particularly useful as the transducers were able to detect the Aphanizomenon flos-aquae species. Backscatter data showed the diurnal vertical migration of this cyanobacteria and showed the decline of this species coinciding with the collapse of oxygen. Annual reports have been generated from this monitoring program and interannual time series comparisons provide the data to guide discussions for poten-

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Figure 1. Water column dissolved oxygen and phosphorus levels showing these hypoxic events.

Figure 2. Comparison of YSI spot measurements to the RINKO DO logger.

tial mitigation strategies such as the bubbler lines introduced in September of 2018. Swan Lake water quality monitoring and the annual reports generated were for Swan Lake Christmas Hill Nature Sanctuary and were funded by

the Royal Bank of Canada. Robert Bowen is with Diversified Scientific Solutions. For more information, email: rgbowen2@gmail. com or visit, www.dssolutions.bc.ca

October 2019  |  51


WASTEWATER PUMPING

Continuous insulation resistance testing can prevent wastewater pump motor failure

F

or decades, wastewater treatment plant personnel have performed insulation resistance tests with handheld megohmmeters to prevent motor failures that could lead to reduced capacity, costly re-winding repairs and even unplanned shutdowns. However, these tests only provide a “snapshot” of motor health. In a matter of only a few days, motor windings and cables that are exposed to moisture, chemicals, contaminants or vibration can become compromised and fail at startup. Portable megohmmeters also require electrical technicians to manually disconnect the equipment cables and connect the test leads on potentially energized or damaged equipment to perform the manual testing. These tests expose technicians to potential arc flashes when they access the cabinet. With so much at risk, wastewater treatment plant managers are recognizing the value of continuous megohm testing and monitoring of insulation resistance that initiates the moment the motor is off, until it is re-started. With this real-time information, maintenance personnel are able to take corrective action ahead of time to avoid a failure that would interrupt or reduce plant capacity. By doing so, they can improve service and save wastewater treatment plants potentially hundreds of thousands of dollars in repair fees for expensive rewinding over the life of the plant. Furthermore, permanently installed automatic testing devices allow for “handsoff ” monitoring without having to access cabinets, which keeps technicians out of harm’s way.

Wastewater treatment pumps are exposed to a wet, moist environment and pump motors can burn up if they start up wet.

water treatment quality levels if unexpectedly offline. Such motors can range from raw influent pumps and aeration blowers to various process pumps and final pumps. The motors can be 100 HP or more, as is the case with some aeration blowers. Some of the critical motors include raw influent pumps that move incoming water to the highest point at the plant before gravity-fed systems take over, along with dry pit submersible pumps, aeration blowers and other motor-driven equipment. To protect these motors, most wastewater treatment plants conduct time-based preventative maintenance programs that MOTOR PROTECTION AT include insulation resistance tests several WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS times a year. Based on these tests, motors Wastewater treatment plants rely heav- may be scheduled to be sent out to repair ily on motors, though the number and shops for reconditioning. type vary depending on the size of the However, one wastewater treatment facility and type of wastewater treated. facility alternated between two redundant Critical motors are essentially those systems that get roughly equal time, so that could significantly impair the ability the critical motors could be tested while to safely meet service objectives or affect they were offline. Still, testing with hand-

52  |  October 2019

held megohmmeters was infrequent. Given the humid environment, this proved insufficient when a motor that was called on during a slight pressure drop failed on startup. Wastewater treatment pumps are exposed to a wet, moist environment and the motors can burn up if they start up wet, which is costly. As a solution, the wastewater plant implemented heaters in critical motor windings to keep them dry, as well as a continuous testing and monitoring device, called Meg-Alert. It is permanently installed inside the high voltage compartment of the motor control centre or switchgear and directly connects to the motor or generator windings. The unit senses when the motor or generator is offline and then performs a continuous dielectric test on the winding insulation, until the equipment is re-started. Meg-Alert functions by applying a non-destructive, current limited, DC test voltage to the phase windings and then safely measuring any leakage current

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


PREVENTING ARC FLASHES Arc flashes are an undesired electric discharge that travels through the air between conductors or from a conductor to a ground. The flash is immediate and can produce temperatures four times that of the surface of the sun. The intense heat also causes a sudden expansion of air, which results in a blast wave that can throw workers across rooms and knock them off ladders. Potential results of an arc flash include third degree burns, blindness, hearing loss, nerve damage, cardiac arrest and death. Although de-energizing equipment before testing and wearing appropriate HANDS-OFF MONITORING personal protective equipment is recomContinuous monitoring also allows mended, the best solution is to eliminate for a hands-off approach that does not the need to access control cabinets to Meg-Alert applies a non-destructive, current require service technicians to access con- perform insulation resistance tests. limited, DC test voltage to the phase windings trol cabinets to perform a manual insuand then measures any leakage current lation resistance test. Instead, an analog For more information, visit through the insulation back to ground. meter outside on the control cabinet door www.megalert.com shows the insulation resistance megohm readings in real time. The meter also indicates good, fair and poor insulation levWaste Water products plus NMac 4.65 x 4.65.pdf 1 1/24/2018 7:37:09 AM els through a simple “green, yellow, red” colour scheme. When predetermined insulation resistance set point levels are reached, indicaPumps for all your waste water challenges tor lights will turn on to signal an alarm condition and automatic notifications can  Thickened Sludge  Bio-mass  Thin Sludge be sent out to the monitoring network.  Dewatered Sludge  Activated Sludge  Lime Milk Most motors utilize heaters to main Auxiliary Flocculents  Combined Sewage  Flotation Sludge tain the temperature inside the motor so it does not vary drastically from operCLASSIC TORNADO® T1 ating temperature or ambient temperaRotary Lobe tures outside the unit. If it goes below Pumps the dew point, the motor will start picking up condensation while offline. However, if these heaters fail to operNEMO® Progressing ate properly, or if the circuit breaker is N.Mac™ Twin Cavity Pumps tripped, plant personnel may not be Shaft Grinders aware of it until the motor fails on startup. Full Service-in-Place Although these motor heaters are checked (FSIP®) Pumps regularly, this can leave critical motors unprotected for weeks or even months. TORNADO® T2 NEMO® Mini Rotary Lobe Pumps Metering Pump Fortunately, continuous monitoring and real-time information from the Meg-Alert equipment can also show if the heaters are properly working. If not, maintenance personnel can take correcNETZSCH Canada, Inc. tive actions ahead of time to avoid critTel: 705-797-8426 ntc@netzsch.com ical motor failures and interrupted prowww.pumps.netzsch.com duction. Meg-Alert can be hooked up to the motor starter and will prevent it from starting if there is a serious problem. through the insulation back to ground. The system uses DC test voltage levels of 500, 1000, 2,500 or 5,000 volts that meet the IEEE, ABS, ANSI/NETA and ASTM International standards for proper testing voltage based on the operating voltage of the equipment. The test does not cause any deterioration of the insulation and includes current limiting technology that protects personnel. Meg-Alert tests continuously whenever the motor is off, so it will catch a problem like excess moisture or a breakdown of the windings before damage occurs.

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October 2019  |  53


INFRASTRUCTURE

New risk model helps create probability of failure reports for critical pipeline assets By Graham Bell and Peter Martin

U

tilities across North America face rising costs due to pipe failures, as these assets continue to deteriorate and cities continue to grow. More utilities are now using risk models to plan their pipe replacement programs. Recent emphasis is away from highly-subjective factor-based systems and towards solutions that measure risk in a quantitative way to allocate funds to at-risk assets. Xylem’s Decision Intelligence approach to smart water management is helping utilities see a higher return on investment (ROI) for their capital and operational spending through a combination of sound data collection and management, machine learning and loss of service simulations. Since 2013, Xylem’s team of data scientists, engineers and asset management experts have been generating advanced risk pipeline models for utilities around the world. By combining advanced data models like machine learning with a utility’s existing dataset, they can produce a “probability of failure” (POF) for each asset. While most risk models are made up of “likelihood of failure” (LOF) and “consequence of failure” (COF), Xylem’s includes POF and COF. Using POF produces results as a probability-based percentage, rather than a subjective factor. Additionally, each POF value is linked to the utility’s geographic information system, representing the chance a pipeline or section of pipe could fail in the near future. To help a utility understand why an asset might fail, Xylem takes a “glass box” approach to machine learning to help utilities understand their POF results. This transparent approach allows utilities to understand the contributing factors driving POF for their pipelines and to better target mitigation strategies that have the most impact (rather than simply relying on a replace-only approach). A utility that is able to mitigate failures in high POF areas by addressing key contributing factors can significantly increase the 54  | October 2019

The better a utility can predict failures, the better it can avoid them by targeting the pipes most in need of repair or replacement.

ROI for their programs and reduce outage and financial impacts to their customers. It has also been proven that the higher accuracy of machine learning to forecast future failures, compared with subjective factor-based systems, results in better choices for pipelines that need replacement. In other words, the better a utility can predict failures, the better they can avoid them by targeting the pipes most in need of repair or replacement. Without an objective and quantitative approach to POF, a utility might not be realizing the highest possible ROI from their decisions.

this approach is a quantitative risk model. The problem with these factor-based methodologies is that results can misrepresent risk, regardless of the scale used for each category. For example, on a standard factor-based LOF and COF matrix, an asset with a LOF of 1 and COF of 5 will have the same risk score as an asset with a POF of 5 and a COF score of 1. A simple matrix fails to identify differences between results because COF doesn’t properly scale with the importance of an asset. To address COF from a quantitative perspective, Xylem utilizes a A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH monetized COF to combat the problems The most common practice for calcu- brought on by factor-based solutions. lating risk is using factors for likelihood Their COF follows the “triple bottom and consequence of failure, then weight- line (TBL) approach and focuses on three ing each factor based on judgement. Risk main categories for estimating the impact (sometimes referred to as “business risk a failure could have on a community: exposure” or BRE) is then calculated as • Economic – costs to the utility includLOF x COF. Another way to describe ing repair costs and revenue losses. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


• Social – the costs to the community and businesses due to loss of service or flooding. • Environmental – remediation costs or fines from failures affecting a protected or sensitive habitat. The combined output of the TBL approach is then ranked into tiers that are, in turn, prioritized by individual asset POF. Using this approach eliminates the possibility that critical assets with high COFs and low POFs will be overshadowed when ranked against assets with high POFs and low COFs. For example, Asset A that has a POF of 0.05% and a COF of $1,000,000 would have a score of $500, which is similar to Asset B with a POF of 50% and a COF of $1,000. Although they have the same risk (or BRE) score, a utility can choose different asset management strategies for A and B. Asset A may be considered too consequential to fail and requires more rigorous O&M policies, while Asset B may be better off running until failure. By properly tiering a quantitative COF, a utility can use the results to manage assets more effectively. (See Figure 1) Grouping sections of pipe into impact tiers helps designate certain assets for different strategies and increase the ROI for each dollar spent mitigating risk. DYNAMIC COF ANALYSIS “Consequence of failure” values vary based on a utility’s ability in respond to, isolate and repair failures. Xylem uses a utility’s existing data, along with extensive proprietary asset databases to estimate response, shutdown and repair time. By simulating best- and worstcase scenarios, a dynamic range of COF values are calculated to help the utility understand which isolation valves need assessment first for their critical assets. When a range of COF values are calculated, an already established quantitative approach to risk takes on an additional dimension that is unique to each asset. A utility can use the range of values to further separate critical assets from each other and prioritize projects with the greatest ROI, and reduce risk at the same time. A side-benefit of quantitative risk models is that, as more data is collected or www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

Figure 1. Tiering a quantitative consequence of failure.

repairs are conducted, updating the risk model does not require tedious re-scoring of subjective factors. This is important to help utility management track the improvement in risk mitigation strategies over time and justify funding for future programs.

Graham Bell and Peter Martin are with Xylem Inc. Email: graham.bell@xyleminc.com, peter.martin@xyleminc.com.

GREAT TANKS • GREAT SERVICE (866) 299-3009 | WWW.GREATARIO.COM October 2019  |  55


WATER

Strategies needed to help companies face increased water supply costs and shortages By Emilio Tenuta

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lobal water scarcity has become the new norm and economic and population growth means demand is increasing. As people become wealthier, their lifestyles change. Rising demand for food, services and goods means more water is needed to fulfill their needs. On the supply side, climate change is making access to water more difficult. Some places will get too much water, some will get too little, some will struggle with water quality and many will experience all of the above. If we stay on the current track, the United Nations projects that we will see a 40% freshwater deficit by 2030. Canada, despite being better off than many other countries, will not be spared. The risks are evidenced by frequent droughts in the southern prairie provinces and British Columbia in recent years and massive wildfires that are becoming a nearly annual concern. Traditionally known as cool and wet, large parts of the country are turning hot and dry. Experts predict the situation will only get more dire in the coming decades. This is bound to have an effect on business. Already, agriculture is suffering, from wilting crops to thirsty cattle. Hydroelectric power generation has been challenged with low water levels. Air pollution from wildfires is threatening human health and productivity. Unless industry builds resilience through smart water management practices, the situation will not get better, but worse. But, at the same time, with the right water management approaches in place, companies can put themselves in a position to keep growing, even in a world of constrained water resources.

THE UNMISTAKABLE BUSINESS CASE FOR SAVING WATER We know water scarcity is not a far-off specter. It is here today and industry is 56  | October 2019

Differing locations mean paper mills may require very different solutions.

not doing enough to change course and get ready. That is not for a lack of good intentions. From a poll conducted earlier this year by GreenBiz and Ecolab, it was learned that 88% of the companies surveyed, each with revenues above a billion dollars, intend to take action on sustainable water in the next three years. But 44% do not have a plan in place to do so. That result didn’t come as a surprise. In 2017, the same survey showed that while 75% of companies have corporate water goals, 82% of them lack the tools and expertise to achieve them. This explains why, in the face of a looming water crisis that is now only just over a decade off, industrial water usage has only fallen by 10% since 2011 and in fact has increased in recent years. From our daily work, we know that there is an “execution gap” between overarching water goals coming down from corporate headquarters and action on the ground at the individual facility level, where the real water savings must be made. One of the challenges is that there is no one-size-fits-all solution for water

scarcity because all water is local. A paper mill in Manitoba may require very different solutions than a seemingly identical facility in Quebec. Is your facility by a river, a lake or a coastline? What are the prevailing weather conditions? What is the soil composition? Are there pollution issues in the area? Who are the other water users in the watershed and what are they withdrawing and discharging? All of these factors determine the best approach for each individual facility. Tackling water scarcity across a nation as sprawling as Canada will take a patchwork of tailored, local solutions. And while that may seem complex and costly at first sight, the advantages are unmistakable: Future-proof facilities – Water scarcity presents multiple risks to business, from rising costs to production interruptions and quality issues. A facility with mature water management practices can minimalize these risks because it is resilient to water scarcity. Cost savings – Water is heavy, and it needs to be pumped, heated, cooled and

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


treated. That takes a lot of energy, and while water today is generally underpriced, energy is not. A facility that reduces, reuses and recycles water, will automatically start saving money. Lower greenhouse gas emissions – With water reductions come energy use reductions, which in most cases will bring along reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and make it easier to reach corporate climate goals. Reputational capital – In an increasingly water-scarce world, wasteful users will invite controversy. Saving water means boosting your reputation and safeguarding your license to operate. Water goals reached – Successful local solutions will add up to large water savings in the aggregate, closing the execution gap and enabling companies to achieve elusive water reduction targets.

ment, the Smart Water Navigator places the user’s facilities on the Water Maturity Curve, an easy way to visualize the quality of their current water management practices. A facility at the beginning of its water journey is “Untapped”; one that has developed fully mature, circular water management is “Water-smart”. The tool generates a tailored guide for each facility, based on its industry, location and water maturity level, that provides a series of practical action steps to get to the next level. These can be as simple as fixing leaks and determining who is in charge of water issues at the facility. Or, they can be as complex as installing smart water meters or building water resource management procedures with all stakeholders in the surrounding basin. Once a facility has completed the recommended steps, it can take the assessment again and learn how it has improved BECOMING WATER-SMART its Water Maturity level. As it repeats the In 2018, Ecolab helped customers glob- process and moves up the curve, it develally manage just under 4.2 trillion litres ops more and more sophisticated pracof water and save 714 billion litres. This tices, adding up efficiency gains and cost is equivalent to the drinking water needs savings, and getting closer to truly circuof more than 650 million people. lar, sustainable water management. Ecolab’s Smart Water Navigator is a The Smart Water Navigator is open to free, publicly available water management any company, in any line of business, anyinstrument that was designed to equip where in the world, whether it is an Ecobusinesses with the tools they need to lab customer or not. We developed it in empower their local facility teams and collaboration with ESG analysis provider start building effective, smart water man- S&P Trucost, an advisory panel of leading agement practices. global companies and experts from The Based on a 13-question online assess- Pacific Institute and the World Resources

Institute, which also provided its Aqueduct water scarcity maps. The tool is built on four measurement criteria: 1. Site management – How does a company manage water issues in its operations? Which practices, processes and accountability structures are in place at the local level? 2. Water use practices – Which specific operational practices are in place within the four walls of a specific site regarding measuring, managing and optimizing water use in production processes and products? 3. Target setting – How are time-based metrics set? How do these metrics take into account water-related risks to business, context-specific local factors and the investments necessary to meet commitments? 4. Water stewardship – Which actions are taken outside a facility’s four walls? Is there a process that involves all stakeholders in the catchment? Is this process designed to generate socially equitable and environmentally and economically sustainable outcomes? Based on these criteria, the Smart Water Navigator helps companies get a clear understanding of the road ahead for their facilities. Emilio Tenuta is with Ecolab. For more information, visit www.ecolab.com

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October 2019  |  57


PRODUCT & SERVICE SHOWCASE

AREA/VELOCITY FLOW METER

Flow-Tronic has introduced the new version of its flagship sensor, the RAVEN-EYE 2®. This complete redesign of the sensor brings non-contact flow measuring technologies to higher level standards. What is new? Lower power consumption; minimum velocity of only 0.08 m/s (0.26 ft/s); new hybrid radar antenna; significant progress on signal processing. Compatibility remains with all existing loggers and monitors. The enclosure remains the same and thus is compatible with existing brackets. ACG – Envirocan T: 905-856-1414 F: 905-856-6401 E: sales@acg-envirocan.ca W: www.acg-envirocan.ca

TURBO BLOWER

Aerzen Turbo G5 Plus is the most compact and efficient turbo in its class. It features AERZEN airfoil bearings with double coating and the new multilevel frequency converter technology, which reduces the heat loss in the motor to a minimum and, consequently, improves total efficiency significantly. Aerzen Canada T: 450-424-3966 E : sales-ca@aerzen.com W: www.aerzen.ca

TECHNICAL SEMINAR PROGRAM

Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Inc. has released a new video highlighting its technical seminars, one of the company’s most successful and longest-running educational programs since the mid-1980s. Each seminar is designed with classroom-style presentations, the use of interactive 3-D animations, scale models, 58  |  October 2019

on-site equipment demonstrations and full-scale tours of the Aqua-Aerobic Research and Technology Center and AquaNereda® aerobic granular sludge demonstration plant. For more information, view the video on the company’s YouTube channel at https://youtu.be/ wGJu-vFkG3A. Aqua-Aerobic Systems T: 815-639-4511 E: mgunderson@aqua-aerobic.com W: www.aqua-aerobic.com

ALL NEW ULTIMATE CHEMICAL FEED FLOW METER

The all new ProSeries-M® MS-6 Chemical Feed Flow Meter accurately measures output from your metering and dosing pumps. The patent pending design has a very wide flow range, from 10 to 10,000 ml/min (0.158 – 158.5 GPH). MS-6 also has a low pressure drop of less than 1 psi. The chemical resistant flow meter has wetted components constructed of PVDF and PEEK, and the included wetted end fittings allow for more than 14 inlet and outlet configurations. It has user configurable flow rate, total set-point triggers, and a built-in status LED light allows for quick visual inspection. Blue-White Industries T: 714-893-8529 F: 714-894-9492 E: sales@blue-white.com W: www.blue-white.com

COMPLETE SKID SYSTEM

The All New ProSeries-M® Complete Skid System is constructed of lightweight, chemical resistant polyethylene. The units feature top quality components and a drop-in-place design. They can be equipped with any ProSeries-M® peristaltic pump. Single and dual pump

skid systems are available. There is a chemical spill containment area at the base of the frame. Skids have a two-year manufacturer’s warranty. Blue-White Industries T: 714-893-8529 F: 714-894-9492 E: sales@blue-white.com W: www.blue-white.com

CALIBRATION COLUMNS

Chemline’s Calibration Columns have been developed for the accurate calibration of metering pumps. They offer clear visual indication with easy installation and maintenance. They are available with PVC ends and clear PVC tube. Four different configurations are offered: bottom threaded, top/bottom threaded, bottom threaded with removable cap, top/bottom threaded with removable top and float ring indicator. Chemline Plastics TF: 800-930-CHEM (2436) F: 905-889-8553 E: request@chemline.com W: www.chemline.com

ROAD MAINTENANCE

Consider a proactive approach to road maintenance this year. Many municipalities and private companies are utilizing Denso’s polymer modified–bitumen asphalt joint tapes to prevent water infiltration at joints. DensoBand and Denso Reinstatement Tape provide a permanent, flexible barrier between hot asphalt and steel, concrete and existing asphalt. Great for bridges, railway crossings and utility cuts. Contact Denso for more information. Denso North America T: 416-291-3435 E: sales@densona-ca.com W: www.densona.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


PRODUCT & SERVICE SHOWCASE

ACCURATELY MONITOR IBC TOTES AND DAY TANKS

The CHEM-SCALE™ and TOTE BIN SCALE™ from Force Flow allow operators to accurately monitor chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite, polymer and fluoride when stored and fed from day tanks and IBC type totes. Systems prevent over- and underfeed conditions, and enable the documentation of amount fed. Available with the Century™ hydraulic dial, the advanced multi-channel Wizard 4000™, and other indicators. Force Flow T: 925-686-6700 or TF: 800-893-6723 F: 925-686-6713 E: info@forceflow.com W: www.forceflowscales.com

HYDROCARBON TEST KIT FOR SOIL

Using PetroFLAG, environmental professionals can determine hydrocarbon contamination levels at a fraction of the cost of laboratory analysis. An additional cost benefit comes from the field portability of the kit; tests can be run on-site and provide real-time results to facilitate cleanup activities and assist on-site project management. Up to 10 tests can be performed concurrently so one user can easily complete 25 samples in an hour. Everything required to run the test fits in the convenient carrying case. The test procedure uses no chlorofluorocarbons and all spent reagents can be easily disposed of. GENEQ Inc. T: 800-463-4363 E: info@geneq.com W : www.geneq.com

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CHLORINE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF

The Eclipse Actuator System adds a new level of safety to your chlorine feed system. Stop a chlorine leak within seconds of detection by automatically closing the ton container or cylinder valve. The valve can be manually opened or closed. Halogen Valve Systems are the only systems that confirm that the valve was torqued closed to the institute recommended standard. Halogen Valve Systems T: 949-261-5030 or TF: 877-476-4222 F: 949-261-5033 E: info@halogenvalve.com W: www.halogenvalve.com

WATER LEVEL STATION

The new cellular, web-enabled HOBO® MicroRX station is partnered with Onset's own water level sensor to deliver water level and flow monitoring data to cloud-based HOBOlink® software. Spend more time focusing on results, and less time on configuration and data access. Hoskin Scientific E: salesb@hoskin.ca, Burlington, ON E: salesv@hoskin.ca, Burnaby, BC E: salesm@hoskin.ca, Montreal, QC W: www.hoskin.ca

HOW TO LOWER EXPENSE WITH A WRENCH

The quality of the machines put into service, as well as the combined units’ performance, will be essential in providing a basis of reliable operation for the entire design life of the technology. A

progressive and established manufacturer can provide practical solutions along the entire life cycle of the technology. Huber Technology T: 704-990-2053 F: 704-949-1020 E: huber@hhusa.net W: www.huber-technology.com

CATCH BASIN INSERT

The LittaTrap Catch Basin Insert is a low-cost, innovative technology that prevents plastic and trash from reaching our waterways. Designed to be easily retrofitted into new and existing stormwater drains, the LittaTrap is installed inside storm drains and when it rains, catches plastic and trash before it can reach our streams, rivers and oceans. Imbrium Systems T: 800-565-4801 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com

OGS/HYDRODYNAMIC SEPARATOR

The new Stormceptor® EF is an oil grit separator (OGS)/hydrodynamic separator that effectively targets sediment (TSS), free oils, gross pollutants and other pollutants that attach to particles, such as nutrients and metals. The Stormceptor EF has been verified through the ISO 14034 Environmental Management – Environmental Technology Verification (ETV). Imbrium Systems T: 800-565-4801 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com

October 2019  |  59


PRODUCT & SERVICE SHOWCASE

SUSPENDED SOLIDS DENSITY METER

This ultrasonic meter provides continuous %SS readings of sludge/RAS concentrations in pipes, tanks and clarifiers. It automates sludge removal by shutting off de-sludge pumps before feed solids density becomes too thin, and helps optimize polymer dosing and equipment variables for enhanced de-watering. Available as a non-intrusive inline pipe spool-piece sensor or throw-in style probe. Markland Specialty Engineering T: 855-873-7791 (NA), 905-873-7791 E: markland@sludgecontrols.com W: www.sludgecontrols.com

TWIN SHAFT GRINDER

The N.Mac™ Twin Shaft Grinder is capable of fragmenting large and solid particles. Channel and inline housing versions allow installation into effluent channels or with flanges to prevent pipe clogging and downstream equipment, such as pumps. The mechanical seal cartridge design – a leak free combination of mechanical seal and bearing cartridges – enables quick and simple replacement and servicing. NETZSCH Canada T: 705-797-8426 Fax: (705) 797-8427 E: ntc@netzsch.com W: www.pumps.netzsch.com

60  |  October 2019

WATERTIGHT DOORS

WET WELL MOUNTED PUMP STATIONS

Huber, a proven German manufacturer, now provides watertight doors that allow safe access to tanks for construction and/or maintenance. Doors can be provided as round or rectangular for installation onto existing concrete surfaces or cast-in-place in new concrete. They can handle heads up to 30 m and hold pressure in seating and unseating directions. Huber’s watertight doors can greatly reduce construction and maintenance costs and dramatically improve safety/access. Pro Aqua T: 647-923-8244 E: aron@proaquasales.com W: www.proaquasales.com

EVERLAST™ Wet Well Mounted Pump Stations pave the way for end-users to reap the benefits of robust construction, operator-safe maintenance and singlesource solutions. Featuring the top S&L pump innovations, immediate aboveground access to all pumps and controls, convenient package options and leading warranty protection, the EVERLAST is designed to provide long service life and realized savings – verified by decades of successful installations. Smith & Loveless T: 800-898-9122 F: 913-888-2173 E: answers@smithandloveless.com W: www.smithandloveless.com

HYPERBOLOID MIXERS

CONTROLLING CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

Invent Environment is the manufacturer of hyperboloid mixers which have revolutionized anoxic and swing zone mixing. Invent provides low-shear, efficient mixers with no submerged motors or gear boxes for easy access for maintenance. They have now released the Hyperclassic Mixer Evo 7 which has increased the number of motion fins and adjusted the geometry of the mixer to maximize mixer efficiency, reducing operation costs even further. Pro Aqua T: 647-923-8244 E: aron@proaquasales.com W: www.proaquasales.com

Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wall for groundwater containment and control. It is a new design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills assisted in developing the product. Waterloo Barrier T: 519-856-1352  F: 519-856-0759 E: info@waterloo-barrier.com W: www.waterloo-barrier.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


PRODUCT & SERVICE SHOWCASE

ES&E NEWS GLOBAL STUDY WARNS OF DECLINING CALCIUM LEVELS IN FRESHWATER LAKES

OCTAVE® – ULTRASONIC C&I METER

Discover why our Octave Ultrasonic C&I measurement solution was awarded, Best Smart Water Product or Solution by water utilities across North America, during the annual Smart Water Summit. More recorded flow. More revenue. Reduced NRW. Full interoperability. Zero moving parts or mechanical wear. Fast ROI. Visit MasterMeter.com today. Master Meter W: www.mastermeter.com

SONATA® – ULTRASONIC RESIDENTIAL METER

Discover why our Sonata Ultrasonic Residential measurement solution was awarded, Best Smart Water Product or Solution by water utilities across North America, during the annual Smart Water Summit. More recorded flow. More revenue. Reduced NRW. Full interoperability. Zero moving parts or mechanical wear. Visit MasterMeter.com today.

ularly those in Eastern Canada and the Canadian Shield, as well as Fennoscandia, were found to have notably low calCalcium levels integral to the repro- cium levels. duction and survival of many aquatic Researchers discovered a global median organisms in European and eastern North calcium concentration of 4 milligrams per American freshwater lakes are declining litre, but 20.7% of their water samples towards critically low levels. A new global showed calcium concentrations less than study has found this is due in part from 1.5 milligrams per litre, the threshold critirecovery efforts against acid rain. cal for the survival of many organisms. The study, Widespread diminishing anthropogenic effects on calcium in freshwaters, published recently in the Nature BC LEADERSHIP ‘WANED’ ON International Journal of Science, reveals WATER PROTECTION, AUDITOR that low calcium levels affect parts of GENERAL WARNS the food web, such as freshwater musBritish Columbia’s Ministry of Health sels and zooplankton. Governmental and its Provincial Health Officer are not and industry action to reduce sulphate taking the actions needed to protect or deposition associated with acid rain adequately report on drinking water for means lakes are now subject to less cal- all British Columbians, a new report cium leaching from surrounding terres- from B.C.’s auditor general has found. trial areas. The Protection of Drinking Water: An “Paradoxically, therefore, successful Independent Audit notes that oversight of actions taken to address the harm- drinking water is very complex, involving ful impacts of acid rain may have led a 23 pieces of legislation and many minisdecline towards critically low levels of tries and agencies. However, “over time, calcium for many aquatic organisms,” the Ministry of Health’s leadership has said Uppsala University professor Gesa waned” and accountability has dipped Weyhenmeyer, lead researcher on the along with it, as officials fail to show the study, in a statement. tracking and resolution of significant Low calcium concentrations can also impediments to ensure water protection be exacerbated by anthropogenic drivers, is at its highest level, said the report. “As a result, most coordinating bodies such as timber harvesting, the study notes, have disbanded, there is no strategic plan and can often be naturally low because of to guide the direction of drinking water regional geology, highly-weathered soils protection, and efforts to protect small and the effect of a cooler climate. continued overleaf… A variety of freshwater lakes, partic-

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October 2019  |  61


ES&E NEWS water systems have been limited,” Carol Bellringer, B.C.’s Auditor General, stated in the report. “Health has undertaken some action but more needs to be done.” In 2002, in its Action Plan for Safe Drinking Water in British Columbia, health officials aimed to provide safe, reliable and accessible drinking water for all people in British Columbia, from source to tap. But Bellringer wrote that it’s been challenging for the government to achieve its commitments as outlined in the action plan, noting that it has failed to provide an adequate drinking water protection strategy or a strategy for small water systems where risks to drinking water are particularly high. While the Ministry of Health had also created treatment objectives for both groundwater and surface water systems, it had not determined how many systems are out of compliance with these objectives, and therefore had not identified high-risk treatment facilities, the report found. For drinking water distribution, the report found that the ministry had

provided guidance on both the need for residual chlorine to keep the water safe when it arrives at the tap, as well as guidelines for mitigating lead leaching. However, the ministry had not determined if health authorities were following the guidance for chlorine, and their lead leaching guidance “was too new for us to have evaluated whether it was being implemented,” Bellringer wrote.

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT UNVEILS $2.2B NORTHERN MINES REMEDIATION PROGRAM

A new federal program will invest $2.2 billion over 15 years to remediate contamination in eight of the largest high-risk abandoned mine projects in the Yukon and Northwest Territories, the Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations has announced. The Northern Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program will start in 2020 – 2021 in Faro, United Keno Hill, Mount Nansen, Ketza River and Clinton Creek mines in the Yukon. In the Northwest Territories,

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62  | October 2019

the program will address the Giant, Cantung and Great Bear Lake mines, with the latter consisting of multiple smaller sites in close proximity to each other. The contamination at these mines is the result of private sector mining, oil and gas work, as well as military activity, all of which “occurred more than 50 years ago, when environmental impacts were not fully understood,” the government states in a description of the new program. The Clinton Creek Mine is an abandoned asbestos mine located approximately 100 km northwest of Dawson City, Yukon, in the traditional territory of the Tr’ondek Hwech'in First Nation. Remediation at the site is anticipated to start in 2026 and continue for four years. Faro Mine was once the largest open pit lead-zinc mine in the world. Today, it is the site of one of the most complex abandoned mine remediation projects in Canada. It is located in south-central Yukon, near the town of Faro, on the traditional territory of the Kaska Nation, and upstream from Selkirk First Nation. Remediation work is expected to take about 15 years to complete, followed by ongoing care and maintenance, water treatment and long-term monitoring. The Giant Mine, just 5 km from Yellowknife, was one of the longest-operating gold mines in Canada. When its owners went bankrupt, the federal government assumed responsibility for the site. In addition to other issues, the site has some 237,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide stored in mined-out voids. Full site remediation would begin in 2021 and is expected to take approximately 10 years, after which the site will move into long-term monitoring and ongoing care. The Great Bear Lake Remediation Project will consist of projects that will include the capping of tailings at multiple sites, treatment of contaminated soils, proper disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous waste, and the removal of physical hazards. The remediation contract is anticipated for tender in the summer of 2021, and the five-year remediation period is anticipated to start summer 2022. The Ketza River Mine is an abandoned gold and silver mine located in south-central Yukon, with a remediation plan to be completed in 2022.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E NEWS QUEBEC TARGETS HYDRO PLANT’S DISSOLVED GAS FOR FISH DEATH EVENTS

ENDRESS+HAUSER CANADA TO OPEN NEW CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE CENTRE

Endress+Hauser has broken ground for its new $28 million customer experience centre for Central and Eastern Canada. When construction of the approximately 47,000 ft2 facility in Burlington, Ontario is completed late next year, it will provide customers from Manitoba to Atlantic Canada with a generously equipped, state-of-the-art training and support hub for selecting and familiarizing themselves with the company’s latest innovations for process automation.

The Quebec Ministry of the Environment and the Fight against Climate Change (MELCC) has accused a Masson-Angers based hydroelectric plant of being responsible for a series of fish deaths in the Lièvre and Ottawa rivers over what it is calling a “supersaturation” of dissolved gas. Quebec first became aware of the fish kills in early July, after the dead aquatic wildlife turned up downstream of Lièvre Power LP and Energy Services Brookfield Inc. According to the Ottawa Riverkeeper, “it is now clear that thousands of fish have been killed over the course of these incidents, though it is impossible to get an exact figure.” There were several accounts given to the MELCC, describing “whitish and brown foam” present on the Ottawa River near the structure overflow from the wastewater treatment plant. The river

seemed to contain a lot of gas since it produces a noise of degassing, witnesses told the province. Research demonstrated that the phenomenon of the supersaturation of the water in dissolved gas can occur by the suction of air at the water inlet of a hydroelectric plant, which may be caused by debris build-up and cleaning work at the Masson-Angers plant. Provincial researchers explained that supersaturation in dissolved gas can cause the formation of a plume and accumulation of foam on the surface of the water and a degassing noise. Some of the dead fish were found with gas bubbles in their tissues, provincial officials explained. The province has ordered the hydro plant to limit the risk of supersaturation of dissolved gas in the water discharged at the outlet of the plant in the Lièvre River. Plant staff must ensure close monitoring of the situation at all times, and in the short term continuously measure the rate of supersaturation in dissolved gas.

EDC INVESTS $10M INTO MANUFACTURER OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

Export Development Canada (EDC) has announced its support for APG-Neuros, with a $10 million investment. Currently, 75% of a typical wastewater treatment budget goes toward energy use. APG-Neuros says that its technology reduces that energy consumption by up to 40%, making the process more energy efficient. The company's turbo blower technology is currently used in various municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities in Canada and around the world. EDC says this $10 million investment will allow the company to finish the research and development phase on two new turbo blower products that will further reduce their customers’ energy consumption.

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October 2019  |  63


INDUSTRIAL WATER

craft brewery cuts water consumption

spray systems. In 2015, Waterloo Brewing consolidated their King Street production facility in Waterloo into their Kitchener operation. Prior to the consolidation, beer was brewed, fermented and aged at the Waterloo facility and trucked to the Kitchener facility for filtering and packaging. The company partnered with the Continued from page 37 Major processes include brewing, fer- Region of Waterloo’s WET program to menting, filtering and packaging. Signif- incorporate water efficient measures into icant ancillary processes include clean- the new brewhouse installed at the Kitchin-place systems to sanitize the tanks ener facility. and pipes, glycol cooling systems for Prior to the move, the Waterloo brewprocess chilling, and a steam boiler for house required enough heat energy to process heating. Manual cleaning is also boil 8% of every brew. Improvements in performed to wash floors and equipment the boiling process in the new brewhouse using spray nozzles and high-pressure reduced the required evaporation to 4%,

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a reduction of 50% in the required heat energy for boiling. The new brewhouse was installed with an energy recovery system, which captures half of the energy that was used for evaporation, resulting in a combined energy reduction of nearly 75%. Together with other efficiency measures incorporated, water and associated co-benefits include 10% less water consumed per unit produced and 2% less beer lost during trucking per unit of wort produced. A co-benefit of the water conservation measures is the avoidance of 223 tonnes/yr of GHG emissions through associated energy savings broken down as follows: • 1.4 tonnes/yr avoided by the Region of Waterloo to supply water and treat wastewater. • 110 tonnes/yr avoided by Waterloo Brewing for reduced evaporative losses. • 94 tonnes/yr avoided by Waterloo Brewing’s supply chain for hop and grain production. • 18 tonnes/yr avoided by Waterloo Brewing’s beer transfer trucks. These original measures remain in place and are presently contributing about $350,000 dollars each year to Waterloo Brewing’s bottom line. Eric Meliton is with the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority’s Partners in Project Green program. Lloyd Hipel is with Enviro-Stewards. Email: eric.meliton@trca.ca, lhipel@enviro-stewards.com

In 2015, the company installed a world-class, state-of-the-art brewhouse in Kitchener, Ontario, which significantly reduced its environmental footprint. 64  |  August 2019

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


STORMWATER

Continued from page 35

A pilot project can be initiated with three months to a year of monitoring data, but large amounts of historical data can be accommodated and actually enhance the performance of the machine learning enabled features of the software. The dashboard provides a colour-coded map view of the different catchments being monitored. A catchment has at least one flow device and rain gauge associated with it, and the size of the catchment is defined by the municipality’s operations team. Thresholds can be set to indicate when there is an I&I event. The area will be coloured green, yellow, orange or red, with increasing severity. The storm event finder feature uses the amount of rainfall and duration to automate the process of defining the date and time of a significant storm event. Machine learning is built, using linear regression models to help define the 15 most significant storm events. Time parameters can be set to specify periods of time, such as seasons, where significant storm events relative to that time can be found. This enables fast identification of storms for I&I studies, and is useful for engineers, who must study a variety of storms to ensure accuracy in their studies and reports. Regression is a method of modelling a target value based on independent predictors. This method is mostly used for forecasting and finding out cause and effect relationship between variables. Regression techniques mostly differ based on the number of independent variables and the type of relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Linear regression is a type of regression analysis where there is a linear relationship between the independent (x) and dependent (y) variables. The dry weather pattern finder feature predefines an optimized pattern to use when studying a specific storm event. It also allows users to quickly build their own dry weather patterns. Select sevwww.esemag.com @ESEMAG

eral dry days, and the system will average them out to determine the pattern for a single dry day. Infinitii I&I uses the I&I envelope method for analysis in the application since it is relatively easy to apply to collected data and provides a means for normalizing results. It is an economical and practical method of standardizing I&I analysis. This graphical method is based on a summary of rainfall and sewer flow data from flow monitoring. By plotting these results, a relationship between rainfall and rainfall dependent I&I (RDI&I) can be developed. The purpose of the I&I envelope method is to use a collection of recorded storm events to create a correlation between the amount of rain that falls in a catchment and the amount of I&I that shows up at the flow monitoring site. The FlowWorks RDII features automatically generate a correlation graph for a selected catchment site. For each catchment, users chose the flow channel, dry weather pattern, rainfall site or storm event group RDII charts/correlation graphs. They can toggle between correlation graph view and RDII chart view at any time. Alan Tse, from the consulting firm, Kerr Wood Leidal, reviewed the Infinitii I&I tool. “This application is very useful after a significant storm event, especially when flooding occurred. After any flooding event, the question anyone asks is: ‘Why did it happen?’ With Infinitii I&I you get a preliminary idea of when, where and how I&I was a factor. And there are already numbers and data to work with instead of rushing to crunch numbers to understand the significance of the storm event in relation to the sanitary system,” said Tse. Mike McDonald is with FlowWorks Inc. Email: mmcdonald@flowworks.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) | October 2019  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s October 2019 issue. Our October 2018 issue includes 20 articles covering drinking water, wast...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) | October 2019  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s October 2019 issue. Our October 2018 issue includes 20 articles covering drinking water, wast...

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