AUGUST 2019 WWW.ESEMAG.COM @ESEMAG
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August 2019 • Vol. 32 No. 4 • ISSN-0835-605X
Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY firstname.lastname@example.org Managing Editor PETER DAVEY email@example.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY firstname.lastname@example.org ales Representative DENISE SIMPSON S email@example.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY firstname.lastname@example.org Design & Production MIGUEL AGAWIN email@example.com
TECHNICAL ADVISORY BOARD Archis Ambulkar, OCT Water Quality Academy Gary Burrows, City of London Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill De Angelis, Metrolinx Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems William Fernandes, City of Toronto Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Tony Petrucci, Civica Infrastructure
Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi‑monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30 Aurora, Ontario L4G 3V6 Tel: (905)727-4666 Website: www.esemag.com A Supporting Publication of
12 FEATURES 6
There is still a need for strong equipment supplier associations – Editor’s Comment
In defense of flushable wipes – Letter to the Editor
Water system optimization helps Blueberry River First Nation
Design and construction of an innovative effluent outfall in the challenging Muskwa River
Ontario company invents new machine to clean produce and kill pathogens
Air stripping can remove VOCs, THMs and C02 to improve drinking water quality
Engineers surveyed about the impact of digital twin technology
Waste handling trends that save time, money and environmental impacts
Understanding plastic pollution in the Great Lakes
Providing healthy drinking water could be the innovation opportunity of this century
Quebec facility evaluates anaerobic digestor performance sensor
The economics of cleaning and removing grit and screenings from WWTPs
Switching to continuous water quality analyzers offers numerous opportunities
Water and wastewater infrastructure challenges in a changing climate - Cover story.
Improvements in stormwater management spurred by low impact development techniques
Ground breaking technology converts waste C02 into high value fuels and chemicals
A ‘mosaic’ perspective of climate due to natural and societal influences
ES&E’S ANNUAL GUIDE TO:
Letter to the Editor
Education, Research & Training
www.esemag.com @ESEMAG 4 | August 2019
Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine
EDITORIAL COMMENT BY STEVE DAVEY
There is still a need for strong equipment supplier associations
s the directory of associations in this issue demonstrates, Canadians are well served by a multitude of water, wastewater, engineering and environment related organizations, which represent the common interests of their members. It is my pleasure to serve as the 2019 – 2020 president of the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association (OPCEA). Having first been elected to the board in 1990, this is the third time I have had the honour of holding this position. Founded in 1971, OPCEA strives to advocate, inform, and connect members with key policy- and decisionmakers and help them increase their competitiveness and profitability. The association presently has 150 member companies who are engaged in the manufacturing and/or distribution of environment related equipment and services in Ontario. As OPCEA enters its 50th year, I contacted our first president, John Reid, co-founder of Napier-Reid Ltd., to find out why equipment suppliers felt the need to first band together. “OPCEA was founded mainly for the purpose of forming a representative body of ‘suppliers’ to the Ontario wastewater construction industry. At the time, the Ontario Mechanics Lien Act required that a purchaser of goods and services on an Ontario construction contract must pay at least 85% of the invoiced value of these items within a certain number of days from the date of an invoice. Failure to pay this amount within the required time period rendered the purchaser delinquent and subject to certain actions to the benefit of the supplier under the terms of the Act. And, the payment terms for the remaining 15% of the contract value were also dictated by the Lien Act. Unfortunately, the terms of payment dictated by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) preselection documents paid no attention to the terms dictated by the 6 | August 2019
Mechanics Lien Act, with the result that the MOE terms resulted in equipment suppliers losing the protection offered by the Act. This situation alone was reason to form OPCEA for the purpose of convincing the MOE to change their payment terms for preselected equipment to terms that would provide suppliers the payment protection provided by the Act. I still feel 50 years later that it is essential that equipment suppliers stick together as an ongoing working body and that OPCEA is important to the smooth operation of the Ontario water environment industry.” As with many industry associations, the OPCEA executive is made up of dedicated volunteers who work extremely hard to serve member companies. This year, we entered into an agreement with ConstructConnect, which allows users to track project information from the bidding to completion stages (www.ConstructConnect.com). We are also keeping abreast of new changes to the Ontario Construction Lien Act, which became the Construction Act last year. Payment terms and hold backs are a key issue for equipment suppliers. OPCEA’s mandate is similar to the Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association (www.WWEMA.org), a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit trade association founded in 1908. WWEMA advances the unique interests of the equipment manufacturers and their representatives in the areas of policy advocacy, regulatory education, and training, to support member-company operations and growth. According to Board Chairman, John Dyson of Aqua-Aerobic Systems, “WWEMA, with its 110-year-plus history, continues to support improving the stateof-the-art of water treatment. Because of WWEMA, barriers to treatment innovation are being addressed to ultimately improve water quality, public health, and positively
impact municipal budgets.” There are other equipment associations across Canada, including the Ontario Water Works Equipment Association and the Atlantic Branch Equipment Association. New on the scene is the Ontario Clean Technology Industry Association (www.OCTIA.ca), which aims to promote, foster, and grow the broader clean technology sector in Ontario, including but not limited to renewable energy, energy storage, and water solutions. “OCTIA joins other provincial organizations, such as ACTia in Alberta and Ecotech in Quebec, that are supporting their homegrown clean tech companies. OCTIA also represents Ontario in the CanadaCleantech Alliance, a national consortium with a mandate to advocate for clean tech companies, help brand Canada’s clean tech sector, and open doors to business opportunities for our members,” says Executive Director Kerry Freek. Having had the opportunity to serve on numerous association boards, I would encourage all young professionals and the firms that employ them, to get involved with associations serving your fields. In addition to building personal networks at a face-to-face level, this is a chance to make a lasting impact on current and future generations.
Steve Davey is editor and publisher of ES&E Magazine. Email: email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
The next evolution in decanter
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR
In defense of flushable wipes In response to the article “Regulations and testing are needed to fight ‘flushable’ wipes” that appeared in the April 2019 edition of ES&E Magazine.
astewater operators in North America are facing an increased amount of solid waste being inappropriately flushed down toilets, causing pipe and pump clogs in wastewater systems. In concert, they have provided talking points to local media everywhere that the major culprit is the toileting wipe marketed as a “flushable wipe”. I’d like to correct the record and help communities understand the real causes of wastewater system clogs. There are many kinds of wipes sold, but only a few (7%) are toileting wipes marketed as “flushable” and passing industry tests to render them so. The larger volume of wipes, such as baby wipes, disinfecting wipes, anti-bacterial wipes, hard surface cleaning wipes, make-up removal wipes, and others, are the real contributors to wastewater system clogs. None of these are marketed as being “flushable”. Other contributors are paper towels, femcare items, etc. But, only flushable wipes are being charged with causing clogs in pumps and pipes, and are often cited as the primary contributor to the dreaded “fatberg”. Nothing could be further from the truth. Flushable wipes are actually the solution to the aforementioned clogs, not the cause. It is actually these “other” wipes, led by the soft but oh-so-strong baby wipe, that are the real cause of unwanted accumulations in wastewater systems. Study after study of what exactly is in the accumulations of material on screens in wastewater collection systems reveals a consistent result. Nearly half of the debris are paper towels, followed in volume by baby wipes, other non-flushable wipes and feminine hygiene products. Wipes marketed as “flushable”, or at least pieces of these wipes, are less than 2% of pieces of wipes that could be identified as coming from flushable wipes, while the baby 8 | August 2019
wipes are fully intact, usually stretched into ropes, and often wrapped around screens or pump impellers. How is it that flushable wipes appear so infrequently in such studies but appear so frequently in news stories about sewer system overflows, fatbergs or pump clogs? Could it be that wastewater operators see the “flushable” feature marketed on flushable wipe packages in stores, see unidentifiable wipes being flushed and causing problems in their system, so conveniently attribute the cause of their problems to be the flushable wipes? This attribution could not be more wrong. Flushable wipes are not made of plastics but from cellulosic fibres derived from wood or cotton and engineered to lose strength quickly once flushed and to disintegrate as they move through properly maintained plumbing and sewage systems. These fibres also sink, not float, so they reach the bottom of septic tanks and they stay at the bottom of aeration tanks, not rising and clogging the aerators. Other wipes, when inappropriately flushed, stay intact, float, and stretch into “ropes” that can impair pumps. Those are the culprits, and they should not be flushed. Flushable wipes are actually the solution to wastewater operator concerns, not the cause. If all wipes flushed were flushable wipes there would be no problems in pipes caused by them. In fact, no flushable wipe has ever been established to be the causal factor for
any problem in any wastewater system. Furthermore, if consumer access to flushable wipes were to be compromised by misdirected legislative or regulatory efforts or the imposition of “toilet paper only” test criteria, consumers would use and flush more baby wipes, as their need for the cleanliness they seek cannot be legislated away. We should be encouraging consumers to ONLY flush wipes marketed as “flushable”. But how, you may ask, can we be assured the flushable wipes behave the way I have described? Through science, facts and statistical analysis, our industry has developed a stringent Flushability Assessment Process consisting of seven must-pass tests to validate that every flushable wipe contains the material property characteristics and composition to pass through toilets and drain lines, sink and not float, lose strength so as not to harm pumps, and ultimately biodegrade and disintegrate. All wipes marketed as flushable pass these tests. The key to resolving the problem is to correctly define it in the first place. Then, educate consumers to follow proper disposal instructions. The wipes industry now has a Code of Practice for labeling wipes that requires a prominent “Do Not Flush” symbol on the packages and containers of non-flushable wipes that could be used in a bathroom setting. This symbol, easily recognized and requiring no reading of English, is a visual reminder to NOT flush wipes not designed to be flushed. Let’s give consumers the right information, not lash out at what is convenient. Flushable wipes are the solution, not the problem. Dave Rousse is president of INDA, the Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry. www.inda.org
Letters and comments are welcome. Send them to: email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Left: Filtration system at the Blueberry River First Nation water treatment plant. Right: Booster pump and controls at water treatment plant.
Water system optimization helps Blueberry River First Nation
he Blueberry River First Nation is a community of about 500, located approximately 90 kilometres north of Fort St. John in northeastern British Columbia, which has struggled with its water system for a number of years. Drinking water from the existing treatment plant, which was constructed in 1984, does not meet current Health Canada Guidelines. In addition, the community regularly faced water shortages, and had to spend significant time and money hauling in water to meet demand. The Blueberry River First Nation retained Associated Engineering to help determine measures to increase the quality and quantity of drinking water produced by the water treatment plant until a new one could be designed and constructed. Associated Engineering’s project team worked closely with the community and Indigenous Services Canada to develop solutions, identify measures to increase treatment plant capacity, improve the quality of the treated drinking water, and help the community conserve drinking water. To increase the capacity of the treatment plant, Associated Engineering and its wholly owned subsidiary company, ATAP Infrastructure Management, provided a short-term solution by modifying the existing treatment process to reduce 10 | August 2019
the amount of treated water used for backwashing the filters. ATAP staff also provided on-site support to the community’s operator, which has helped to optimize treatment operations. The treatment process encompasses media filtration followed by ion exchange softeners, cartridge filters, and reverse osmosis filters to remove solids and chemicals from the raw water supply. Initially, both the existing media filters and ion exchange softeners were bypassed, eliminating the need for backwashing these systems, and thus saving water. Project manager, Freda Leong said: “Taking the media filters and softeners off-line resulted in significant fouling of the cartridge filters ahead of the reverse osmosis filters, so we retrofitted the media filters with manganese greensand filters to decrease the solids loading on the cartridge filters.” A bypass was also installed to allow a portion of the water from the aeration tank to be blended with water from the reverse osmosis filters. A previously drilled groundwater well was completed and connected to the water system. These changes increased treatment plant output by approximately 30%. At the same time, the team worked with the community to implement a water ser-
vice and water metering program. Water engineer, Robyn Sherstobitoff, said: “It had been noted that some straps on water service connections had corroded. This issue indicated the corrosive nature of soils in the area and suggested that there could be significant leakage at water service connections.” As part of the project, all of the water service connections in the community were replaced, and corrosion protection and water meters were added at each service connection. These will be used to monitor water usage. Water usage metrics will be utilized to help inform the community about water conservation. The team is now working on upgrading the reverse osmosis filters, which are old and no longer adequately remove constituents such as sodium, chloride, ammonia, total dissolved solids, and hardness. Freda explained: “Work is underway to provide water quality and control upgrades. The next step will be the design and construction of a new water treatment plant and dedicated transmission main to the reservoir.” For more information, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Design and construction of an innovative effluent outfall in the challenging Muskwa River By Jurek Janota-Bzowski
t is not often in one’s career that a project so obviously demands a high level of creative freedom in designing a large river outfall for disinfected effluent from a municipal treatment plant. Such was the case with the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality (NRRM) who contracted Kerr Wood Leidal Associates to design a 25 ML/d river outfall in the Muskwa River for the Town of Fort Nelson, British Columbia. Initially, this seemed like a dream opportunity to build something special, design some unique features, and incorporate some innovative ideas that had never been 12 | August 2019
designed before. However, once the initial euphoria had passed, the magnitude of the task ahead became readily apparent. Challenges and constraints for operation, maintenance and construction started to seem overwhelming. These included: • Designing, operating, and monitoring an outfall in a very active river that ranges in depth from 0.75 m (half of which is ice) in winter, to 8 m in summer. • Mitigating the risk for an outfall in a fast-flowing river, where the key objectives are to: protect the manifold and diffusers from extensive river scour; withstand impact forces from debris, logs, and ice breakup; and ensure diffus-
ers are flexible, self-cleaning, and operating within a 0.3 m water zone beneath the ice in winter. • Making provisions for an outfall to survive the loss of any diffuser without blocking the manifold through ingress of sands and gravel. • Building an outfall with its manifold 3 m below the existing riverbed level. • Incorporating operation and maintenance features that allow operators to: inspect and monitor performance of each diffuser and replace as necessary; clean out the entire length of the manifold using suction, air, or water pressure; and re-excavate the manifold in case of catastrophic failure at minimum cost.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
chamber, and determine the exact coordinates for the 12 diffusers required to satisfy dilution ratios. The next hurdle was to develop a plan for construction. It became abundantly clear that the in-river works would be a winter construction project with a definite construction window. Ice breakup was a great unknown variable, occurring at the earliest in mid-April and at the latest in early May. Delay was not an option. Construction would require a cofferdam no less than 35 m in length, 6 m wide, and a working depth of 5 m. The design philosophy for the cofferdam was for it to become part of the post-construction structural protection for the outfall, with sheet piles driven down to riverbed level on completion. This approach would provide the required flexibility to re-raise the cofferdam should future major repairs be required. The next decision was to install a carrier pipe to house the outfall pipe. This would provide protection against riverbank failure and river scour. It would also provide an opportunity to extract and replace the entire outfall if it was ever required. After a review of several horizontal drilling options, we settled on horizontal augering as the least disruptive technique to install a 1,067 mm diameter steel casing pipe through the cofferdam wall seal, underneath the riverbank, and through to the outfall chamber. Aerial view of the Muskwa River outfall construction site.
DIFFUSER CHALLENGES AND INNOVATION The first issue to be resolved was how to prevent manifold clogging with river The challenge was further compli- expensive failures, where the sight of a sands and gravels in the event of a difcated by the fact that the manifold had clogged outfall pipe was a clear indicator fuser(s) loss. We visualized some innoto extend landward under a relatively of what went wrong. It seemed that no one vative options but opted for a specially high, unstable and erodible riverbank. had dealt with the issues we were facing modified stainless-steel Tideflex backIt also required sufficient cover to avoid and that we would need to draw on all our check wafer valve that opened normally damage from any resulting slip circle previous experiences with outfalls and get under 50 mm of differential water presin case of bank failure. Once past this innovative. sure between the river level and the obstacle, it was necessary to connect to a For a year, we studied river cross-sec- driving head of effluent in the outfall deep outfall chamber set back some 50 m tions, ice thicknesses, timing of river chamber. The valve was located in the from top of bank, and from there, just 3 ice breakup, effluent dispersion models, upper part of the vertical riser, and its km of outfall back to the treatment plant. environmental impacts, scour mechan- closing action would prevent migration ics, and undertook geotechnical inves- of materials downward into the maniRESEARCH AND PLANNING tigations along the outfall route, and fold in the event of diffuser breakaway. A literature search failed to uncover any completed stability analyses of adjacent The second issue was to provide indidesign guidelines for outfalls, any compa- river banks. This information allowed us vidual sensors for each of the 12 diffusers rable designs, or any similar challenges. to identify the optimum stable reach of to determine which (if any) had broken off. References only pointed to extraordinarily the river, select the best site for an outfall continued overleaf… www.esemag.com @ESEMAG
August 2019 | 13
WASTEWATER We examined several electronic sensors, in-line flow meters and pressure gauges; none could provide the flexibility, reliability or accuracy we required. In the end, we resorted to basic physics by installing 50 mm diameter HDPE sensing lines on each riser between the backcheck valve and the diffuser. Our reasoning was that, under normal operating conditions, all water levels in the sensor pipes would be equal, based on the 50 mm water head pressure required to open the diffusers. With breakaway of any diffuser, the water level in that sensor pipe would drop by the same 50 mm and would be readily measured in the sensing array at the outfall chamber. Great care was required to make sure that each sensor line was meticulously labelled, and correctly installed. This simple innovation would not only inform operational staff that one or several diffusers had been dislodged, but also identify which one(s). With these issues solved, it would be a straightforward installation of the 600 mm diameter HDPE outfall pipe, complete with pipe spacers on which all 12 sensing lines could be strapped to the spacer fins. This arrangement resulted in an annular space between the casing pipe and the outfall. We determined that it would provide an opportune pathway for emergency overflow and operational bypass. Accordingly, we built a slotted screen diffuser into the cofferdam piping and an emergency overflow in the outfall chamber. A shut-off valve in the outfall chamber could divert flows through the overflow, and allow for operational staff to clean the outfall pipe and manifold through a separate access point. A key focus for construction was that all design elements would need to be prefabricated and brought to site for storage, and be designed for simple installation like Lego blocks. This would provide the optimum opportunity for the contractor to complete the work on time. The design of the manifold and 12 diffusers provided opportunities to address several of the key project issues.
Two of 12 diffuser riser pipes complete with flange connections, custom TideFlex wafer-style backcheck valves and breakaway nylon bolts. Note the sensing line connection at the top of the riser. Inset diagram: Mechanism for manifold clogging and outfall failure. Courtesy Red Valve Company Inc.
in three sections and bolted together with slip-on flanges terminating in an upward sweep to the river bed elevation. The terminus was fitted with a camlock coupling for access to clean out debris at the end of the line. Each tee fitting had a bolted vertical riser that included the specially designed Tideflex backcheck valve, the sensing line, and the Tideflex effluent diffuser. The entire assembly was designed to protrude no more than 300 mm above the riverbed level. Each diffuser was 1,500 mm long to MANIFOLD DESIGN To simplify installation, the mani- ensure flexibility of horizontal movefold design comprised 12 x 2.25-m-long ment. Diffusers were bolted to the ver600 mm diameter HDPE tees, butt-welded tical riser with specially designed nylon 14 | August 2019
breakaway bolts, and included a stainless-steel chain tether bolted to the adjacent Lock Blocks. DESIGN RESILIENCY A significant aspect of the structural integrity of the design was the attention paid to details required to mitigate potential damage from impact forces, and to avoid long-term erosion damage from river scour. Scour protection and horizontal impact forces were readily addressed through use of Lock Blocks wedged between the cofferdam walls. The geometric layout of the continued overleaf…
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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1. The 600 mm diameter high density polyethylene carrier pipe and sensing lines being lowered into the coffer dam and pulled through the steel casing pipe to the outfall chamber. 2. Low profile TideFlex backcheck diffusers installed at the river bed elevation. Each diffuser was tethered with a stainless steel chain to allow for diffusers to be recovered if broken off from their riser pipes. 3. A view of the Lock Block structure installed around diffuser risers for protection against horizontal impact forces and scour. 4. The outfall diffusers and Lock Block arrangement prior to driving sheet piles down to the river bed elevation.
Lock Block assembly was based on their dimensions of 1,500 mm x 750 mm x 750 mm. The layout necessitated a great deal of precision, as it determined the horizontal spacing of the manifold tees, and created 1,500 mm wide pockets to house the vertical risers. For added protection, the vertical risers were installed within a 1,200 mm diameter HDPE pipe sleeve that ran down to the manifold and was filled with gravel. This arrangement ensured that any horizontal forces on the diffuser would not be 16 | August 2019
transferred along the vertical riser to the manifold, but rather to the nylon breakaway flange located at riverbed level. This design feature would also make it a relatively straightforward operation to replace the diffuser assembly if and when required.
in order to support the weight of construction equipment. This was accomplished by cordoning off a section of the river, and regularly flooding the area with 50 mm layers of river water. This process took over a month before load spreader mats could be laid down and heavy equipment brought on to the ice. Cofferdam construction went as planned, ice was removed from within its footprint, and marine biologists rescued all fish trapped within. Excavation to more than 5 m below the river level went as planned and horizontal augering started off well. However, as with all construction projects, the best laid plans come with hiccups. A third of the way into casing installation, the auger jammed, and no amount of manipulation would get it out. This was a critical moment, and put the whole project in jeopardy. After much deliberation, all agreed on a rescue mission to extend the cofferdam almost to the river bank, and remove the entire casing. The casing pipe was re-installed using pipe ramming techniques to drive it to the outfall chamber. This cost the project precious weeks and it was a race against time to get it finished before the spring thaw. The contractor worked around the clock in -40°C weather and completed the outfall construction phase by April 9, 2018. All that was left was to drive down the sheet piles to riverbed level, flood the construction, and get all equipment and materials off site. During this final phase, the temperature started to warm up, and had it not been for a brief freezing spell, the outfall would have likely been flooded out. As it turned out, ice breakup started in late April, and the job was done with less than two weeks to spare. This project allowed us to incorporate many unique and innovative design features into an area of engineering that has little information to draw on. We hope that our efforts will help engineers to use our ideas as a reference and a resource for their own designs.
CONSTRUCTION Construction preparations commenced in late December 2017 through Jurek Janota-Bzowski, P.Eng., is with to January 2018. Prior to cofferdam con- Kerr Wood Leidal Associates. Email: struction, river ice had to be thickened email@example.com from 450 mm to approximately 1,200 mm
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
A Clēan Verification unit.
Ontario company invents new machine to clean produce and kill pathogens
lēan Works, based in Beamsville, Ontario, has invented a revolutionary process to clean fresh produce and kill harmful pathogens and mould. The company says that unlike cleaning with water, which is only 50% effective, this new process is almost 100% effective. The potential impact on the food industry is huge. In Ontario alone, the agri-food sector supports more than 800,000 jobs and contributes over $37 billion to the province’s GDP. Clēan Works is a joint venture between Paul Moyer, a fruit farmer from the Niagara Region who runs Moyers Apple Products, and Court Holdings Ltd., a long-time family business involved in manufacturing, technology and steel service. Moyer’s family has been farming in the area since 1799. His company won recognition as an innovator when it was awarded the 2017 Premier’s Award for Agri-Food Innovation Excellence from the Government of Ontario. The company also won an Ontario Centre of Excellence award. The process, called Clēan Verification, was validated by the Food Science Department at the University of Guelph. The method is chemical-free and waterless, and can take less than 30 seconds. Using ultraviolet light and vaporized hydrogen peroxide to kill 99% of pathogens, it allows for verification of results and compliance with regulations. It kills pathogens that create health risks, and increases the shelf life of produce by up to 25%. A food scientist at the University of Guelph said this takes cleaning to the “microbiological level”. The innovation has moved from lab to market as farmers, processors and retailers learned of it. There are installations in Ontario, as well as at Sunkist Growers and grape producers in California. The new process has already helped Moyers Apple Products increase sales to more than 4,000 grocery stores across North America. For more information, visit www.cleanworkscorp.com, or email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.esemag.com @ESEMAG
August 2019 | 17
Air stripping can remove VOCs, THMs and CO2 to improve drinking water quality By Dave Fischer
roundwater tends to require less treatment than surface water. However, contaminants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from nearby sources like landfills, or chemicals from manufacturing sites, may leach through the ground into groundwater, thereby requiring increased treatment before use. Some groundwater may contain high levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO₂), which causes increased acidity. This acidity can cause water to erode protective coatings on pipes and increase copper and lead levels. Surface water and reused water, on the other hand, are often more susceptible to precursor contamination like algae and other biosolids. Like all drinking water, surface water and reused water require disinfection. Chlorine is the most common disinfection product because it is inexpensive. However, it can create potentially harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that then require further treatment. Air stripping, a water treatment tech-
Air stripping is gaining traction within the drinking water treatment industry to address issues of VOCs, acidity due to dissolved CO₂, and DBPs.
nology proven to be effective for groundwater remediation in highly contaminated sites, is gaining traction within the drinking water treatment industry to address issues of VOCs, acidity due to dissolved CO₂, and DBPs.
Fundamentally, air stripping removes or “strips” contaminants by contacting clean air with the contaminated water, causing VOCs and other contaminants to move into the air. There are three continued overleaf…
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WATER different major types of air strippers: towers, stacked trays, and sliding trays. Each of these have benefits and drawbacks, but all utilize the same basic mass transfer process of exposing contaminated water to clean air across high surface areas. This process is governed by Henry’s Law. The Henry’s Law constant (H) of any dissolved contaminant can be used to predict how effectively that contaminant will be driven from the water into the air. Some contaminants are of course easier to strip than others. Dissolved gases such as methane and CO₂ strip easily, light hydrocarbons less so. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ammonia are relatively difficult to strip out. Of the three different types of air strippers, sliding tray design strippers tend to have the greatest advantages and lowest costs. They are less prone to fouling, less intrusive at the site, provide a wider flow turn-down than tower strippers, and provide easier maintenance access and a smaller footprint than
either towers or stacking tray designs. The main drawback is that they require a higher pressure blower than tower designs. However, this does not significantly add to the overall cost of operation when factors such as maintenance and materials are also considered. All types of air strippers can be used for drinking water decontamination. The most clear-cut application in drinking water is in the removal of VOCs, including the trihalomethanes (THMs) that are byproducts of chlorine disinfection. Regulations and/or guidelines both limit THMs at the point of end use and require a “residual disinfection level”, or enough disinfectant to last through the entire system to the end point of use. The “catch22” of this scenario is that residual disinfection can lead to the generation of additional DBPs even after final water treatment if precursor organics are still present. As a result, water treatment facilities must reduce the level of THMs enough so that any generated by residual disinfection do not push the final total over
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the regulatory limit. Air strippers can efficiently and effectively remove THMs to far below regulatory limits, thereby leaving enough “breathing room” for the generation of more THMs caused by disinfection during the water’s path through pipes to its end use point. Another pressing issue in drinking water treatment currently, given widespread news about lead and copper levels exceeding standards, is ensuring that the pH of water is within reasonable limits. Water, usually groundwater, with too much dissolved CO₂ can be aggressive and therefore dissolve protective coatings on pipes and also dissolve the pipes themselves, leading to excess levels of lead and copper. By stripping excess CO₂ out of the water, plants can effectively increase pH and decrease levels of lead and copper at the point of end use. QED’s sliding tray air stripper, the E-Z Tray, was the first self-contained air stripper to achieve certification from NSF International to NSF/ANSI Standard 61: Drinking Water System Components – Health Effects. This particular design of air stripper has been employed in a variety of drinking water treatment facilities to address the issues described above at a low cost and with minimal impact to the facilities. SUMMARY Air stripping technology has proven to be an effective process not just for groundwater remediation, as it has been used in the past, but also for the treatment of both groundwater and surface water sources of drinking water. Air stripping effectively removes VOCs, including DBPs such as THMs from chlorine disinfection, and dissolved gases like CO₂ in the case of overly acidic water sources. In doing so, it reduces treatment costs over competing treatment options and ensures adherence to regulations. It is therefore a treatment option for these sources of contamination in small and medium-sized drinking water treatment plants. Dave Fischer is with QED Environmental Systems, Inc.
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firstname.lastname@example.org Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Engineers surveyed about the impact of digital twin technology
ne of the biggest developments in the world of technology over the last few years has been that of digital twins. A digital twin is a virtual replica of a physical system, process or product. This essentially provides a real-time look at how a physical asset is performing. It can be used to evaluate the performance of given physical assets and then identify where improvements can be made to reach more favourable outcomes for the future. Interested in emerging technologies, digital marketing specialists Reboot Online (www.rebootonline.com) analysed the latest findings from research facilities provider Catapult, who surveyed 150 engineers (from a range of disciplines and positions) to better understand the components they believe are the most necessary for digital twin technology to
function effectively. Reboot Online found that a “physical asset” (71%) is the component engineers think is the most necessary for a digital twin. Thereafter, 52% of the experts view a “live data set” as an essential feature for the functionality of digital twins, and 45% also believe an “offline data set” is a very important component for the technology. Interestingly, with a digital twin being a pairing of the virtual and physical worlds, just 45% of engineers rate “3D representation” as a must have variable for the technology. On a similar note, 31% state “2D graphic representation” is needed for a digital twin to work properly. Only 39% place “trend analysis of historical data” as a vital attribute for a digital twin. Even less feel “prediction of future events” (32%) is a critical aspect that can push the technology to achieve desired objectives.
Reboot Online also wanted to identify the stages in the product life cycle that can gain the greatest value from the integration and use of digital twins. “Maintenance, repair and operations” (77%) is the stage in the product life cycle where the majority of engineers believe digital twin technology adds the greatest value. 62% of engineers think digital twin technology can be harnessed during the “simulation” of a model that predicts the current and future behaviour of a given physical asset. Slightly below, 60% feel digital twin technology can be highly practical for “quality control” testing. Interestingly, 59% consider a digital twin to be impactful in the “design” phase of a product/system. In contrast, “finance and procurement” (13%) is the step in the product life cycle which engineers think will be able to capitalize the least from the capabilities of digital twin technology. Just above, only 19% of engineers place “sales and marketing” as a key operation which can experience significant gains from deploying digital twins.
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August 2019 | 21
BIOSOLIDS there are occasions when new technology emerges that requires rethinking. Some technology innovations have such a quick return on investment (ROI) that the investment becomes an easy choice. These could be chemistry, process, or mechanical innovations.” IMPROVED AUTOMATION Many plants are continuing to automate their processes. “Machines communicating with other machines is a trend that will continue to grow,” Scriver said. “Computers are making adjustments based on process sensors, which ensure optimal operations. This requires manufacturers of varying equipment to work together to find solutions that will optimize a plant’s efficiency. For example, centrifuges have been regarded as costly to operate. A misconception is that the high-speed spinning wears the equipment quickly. However, when looking to separate a liquid from a solid there is no better technology that compares to the containments, efficiency and consistency of this machine.”
At London’s Greenway WWTP two centrifuges operate continually, while one is in standby mode.
Waste handling trends that save time, money and environmental impacts By Daniel Lakovic
oth industrial and municipal plants have a responsibility to the environment to properly process waste. Often, they need to work together to ensure that this happens. “If an industrial plant feeds into a municipal plant, it needs to ensure that toxicity levels are manageable by the municipality,” said Frank Scriver, of Flottweg Separation Technology Canada, ULC. “Municipal plants then have the highest responsibility, since the effluent from them must be ‘clean’ enough to prevent harm to the environment.” There are several trends in waste handling that can create viable solutions for savings in production time, operational costs and environmental strain. SOLIDS TRANSPORT There are several operational costs that can impact a wastewater plant, including the transport of solids. “After solids are separated from the liquid, the liquid 22 | August 2019
is further treated, then disinfected to a level that ensures safe reintroduction into the environment,” Scriver said. “In some cases, this effluent is safe enough for human consumption, although many still cringe at this thought.” The solids, however, will either be transferred to a landfill, or, if treated further, can be used as fertilizer. There are even opportunities to use biosolids as a source of energy when used as fuel for generators. “Since these solids need to be transferred, the overall mass and weight plays a huge role in the cost of the transfer,” Scriver added. “Essentially, water becomes the enemy. The drier the biosolids, the lower the transfer costs.” NEW TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS Savings calculations require data, and most plants effectively keep these records. “Often, these are facts that are used to judge how well the plants are being managed,” Scriver explained. “However,
CASE STUDY: FOOD PROCESSING COMPANY For JTM Food Group, a family-managed food processing company, producing low-fat, low-calorie products in an environmentally responsible, sustainable and energy-saving manner is the top priority. Thanks to an upgrade to a threephase centrifuge from Flottweg, JTM can separate its wastewater into grease, water and solids in one step during production. This allows the company to achieve a cleaner fat content, less wastewater and drier solids than ever before. For JTM, that means cost savings due to reduced wastewater volume and added profits, since they can reuse solids as animal feed. “We needed to reduce the amount of water that we send to the city,” said Jerry Cramer, process consultant for waste treatment at JTM. “And, we needed to make that water quality as good as we possibly could.” Dewatering removes materials that are contaminating the water, so JTM can either reuse them or recover them for some other purpose. In three-phase separation, it is possible to separate two liquid phases from
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one solid phase at the same time. The different densities of the (immiscible) liquids and the solid mean that all three phases can be discharged simultaneously using Flottweg’s Tricanter .
CAST STUDY: WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Solvay has a wastewater treatment facility and two chemical plants at one of its locations. Three other chemical plants feed into the activated sludge wastewater treatment facility, making it difficult to create a consistent sludge. The five sites produce around 11 million litres of wastewater per day. “We have a lot of different batches here which change day-to-day, and month-tomonth,” said Brian Smith, Solvay’s maintenance and wastewater treatment superintendent. “This makes it difficult to keep a healthy biomass. The biomass is constantly changing. We see many different food groups. The food can swing quickly, which makes it very difficult to develop a consistent sludge.”
This is a common challenge for treatment plants when there are batches from multiple sources and very little, if any, equalization. To make a consistent sludge requires a consistent waste. “If everyone sends a consistent waste, then the bacteria would acclimate to it,” Smith said. “You could grow healthy bacteria that would settle. But when you constantly change the pH and the chemical feed, you have some bacteria that are dying and others that are increasing in population. This type of sludge is extremely difficult to dewater.” When the solids level rises in a wastewater treatment plant, costs also rise. In the winter of 2017, Smith connected with Flottweg Separation Technology and was able to work within its pilot program on a rental agreement for centrifuge equipment. “The pilot unit originally came with a solid scroll; it was then exchanged for an open bodied (Xelletor) scroll,” Smith said. “We saw a huge improvement. The pilot unit was giving us solids at 19% –
André Poirier has joined R.V. Anderson in the position of Senior Engineer in our Municipal Infrastructure Group. Based out of our Toronto office, André brings over 20 years’ engineering and project leadership to RVA’s team. André’s expertise is in linear infrastructure, water distribution, wastewater and stormwater collection and management. He has successfully managed numerous infrastructure planning, design and construction projects in Ontario including Master Planning, Class EAs and infrastructure designs.
20%. It was easy to run. We hit the start button and it began producing product right away. We began to run the open bodied (Xelletor) scroll from April to August and it was a step change. The product was flaky, and it was much easier to keep the centrate clean. It was at least 21% solids. That one or two percent makes a physical change in the way the sludge looks and the way it behaves.” The Flottweg Separation Technology centrifuge system allowed the Solvay wastewater treatment plant to reduce man hours used with the dewatering equipment, reduce operation time and tons of landfilled material, increase sludge consistency, and reduce energy. This system allowed Solvay to decrease operation time from 24/7 with full-time dedicated operators, to just one 12-hour shift per day. The centrifuge system decreased the need for additional manpower and also reduced the risk of injury for the operators. The plant no longer needs to add fly
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August 2019 | 23
BIOSOLIDS ash to the centrifuge, which saves the cost of fly ash, hauling cost and tipping The changeover from belt presses to fees because the end product is lighter. centrifuges was not entirely seamless. In total, the plant was able to see a ROI within a few months. After the Polymer consumption increased, but the first year in operation, the Flottweg sysadded cost was more than offset by gas tem proved its worth by providing Solvay a net annual savings of more than savings. $214,000. This number includes costs for ash, ash transport, landfill transport, disposal, polymer, rental, rental labour, rolloff boxes, rolloff truck, plastic liner, In 2012, Greenway installed three to a solids content of about 26%. Addimaintenance and electrical. tionally, ancillary fuel is not needed any- Flottweg C7E units. The process is more, which results in a savings of nearly operating 95% of the time, and two of CASE STUDY: MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER PLANT the units will be running at all times. $900,000 per year. “Depending on the level of water con- These three machines are individually The Greenway Wastewater Treatment Plant is the largest plant in the City of tent in the sludge, more energy is required designed to accommodate 1,200 litres London, Ontario. It has a designed for more water content, and less energy per minute of liquid flow, or 1,700 kg per capacity of 170 million litres per day and is required for less water content,” said hour of mass flow. “With the centrifuges we can bring a peak capacity of 255 million litres per Randy Bartholomew, Greenway’s superday. It takes approximately two-thirds of visor of operations. “Because the level of the solids content up to a level where we solids was much lower with the belt fil- don’t have to use auxiliary fuel to mainthe city’s wastewater flows. Greenway’s disposal process is incin- ter presses, it required us to use auxiliary tain the temperature,” Bartholomew eration. The treatment plant now utilizes fuel to maintain that energy level and the explained. “It runs without that fuel. In addition, polymer consumption actually Flottweg centrifuges to dewater biosolids temperature in our fluidized bed.”
Newly Appointed to Associate Partner Troy Briggs, Partner & Senior Director of our Water/Wastewater Group is pleased to announce the appointments of the following new Associate Partners to our leadership team in Ontario.
Jaime Boutilier, P.Eng., PMP Jaime has over 10 years’ experience and is the Manager of Field Services for vertical works within CIMA’s Water Group. Due to natural leadership skills and an entrepreneurial spirit, Jaime brings innovation to her team. Her project focus is water & wastewater treatment and pumping stations and some involve large, interdisciplinary teams. Jaime sits on the City of Guelph’s Water Conservation & Efficiency Public Advisory Committee and the OWWA Water For People Committee, and she is currently the Secretary-Treasurer of OWWA.
Matthew Bennett Matthew is the Manager of the Linear Infrastructure Project Delivery Team within CIMA’s Water Group, with over 18 years of experience. Matthew’s ability to motivate those around him, and the creative vision he provides will be beneficial to our continued growth. His primary experience is with all types of Linear Infrastructure including watermains, feedermains and sewers. His technical experience includes work on open cut projects, tunnel and rehabilitation projects.
24 | August 2019
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
is probably about 75% of what we originally anticipated.” The biggest cost savings for the wastewater treatment plant came with the reduction in auxiliary fuel (natural gas). “Biosolid dryness can greatly affect overhead,” said Geordie Gauld, division manager at the Greenway plant. By reducing dryness from 24% to 25%, the plant was able to burn the biosolids in incinerators without the aid of natural gas. They are currently treating approximately 17,000 dry tons of biosolids per year. The Greenway plant hauls leftover ash to a nearby landfill. Not every plant utilizes incineration processes, however. Some skip burning and haul dewatered sludge cake directly to a landfill. In these instances, the transportation cost is heavily weighed against the dryness of the cake. The changeover from belt presses to centrifuges was not entirely seamless. Polymer consumption increased, but the added cost was more than offset by gas savings. Also, centrifuge parts tend to be more expensive than belt press parts.
The Greenway WWTP is the largest plant in the City of London.
This, however, is offset by the fact that there are fewer wear parts and therefore repair is much easier. With the transition to Flottweg’s centrifuges, the Greenway plant was able to meet the demands of its operational management, as well as the low down-
time desired by maintenance personnel. The system has helped them reduce costs and simplify operations. Daniel Lakovic is with Flottweg Separation Technology Inc. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Due to decades of unsustainable materials management practices and recycling programs that fall far short of 100% recovery, plastic has become prevalent in our environment. Photo credit: Christoph Burgstedt, Adobe Stock
Understanding plastic pollution in the Great Lakes By Dr. Chelsea Rochman
he world saw the first plastic polymer invented in 1869 and its development was hailed as an environmental success. This polymer could replace material such as ivory, commonly used in household items, saving elephants and other animals from poaching. In 1907, the first fully synthetic plastic was developed, marking a new milestone for the environment – a society free from reliance on natural resources such as wood and metal. Since then, plastic production has become cheaper and easier, with a variety of applications leading to the ubiquity of plastics we see today. One of the key benefits of plastics in commercial use is that the material doesn’t degrade as quickly as paper or wood. Although degradation may be slow, plastic will fragment into smaller and smaller pieces via sunlight or mechanical stress. 26 | August 2019
Over the past half-century, we have slowly begun to understand that despite the initial optimism, there is increasing environmental contamination across the globe. Due to decades of unsustainable materials management practices and recycling programs that fall far short of 100% recovery, plastic has become prevalent in our environment. Due to slow degradation, we find plastic waste products in their original form in the environment, but also in the form of many small pieces of plastic debris – often referred to as microplastics. This is particularly problematic when these enter our water. PLASTIC POLLUTION IN THE GREAT LAKES The Great Lakes represent 20% of the world’s freshwater reserves and provide drinking water to more than 30 million people in Canada and the United States.
It is estimated that roughly 10,000 tonnes of plastics enter the Great Lakes every year, with higher concentrations in more populated and industrialized areas. The average concentration of plastic in the Great Lakes ranges from 43,000 particles/km2 to 6.7 million particles/km2. These are concentrations greater than the oceans’ garbage patches. These plastics can range from macro plastics (>5mm) to microplastics (<5mm), each of which may start as pellets used in manufacturing, shopping bags or water bottles. Microplastics can also start out very small, including microbeads in beauty products (the manufacture and importation of which was prohibited by the Government of Canada in July 2018). What risks does this prevalence of plastics in freshwater pose to the health of ecosystems and humans? Some are obvious, such as the risk of choking or entanglement of marine animals and fish. Other risks are less visible. Plastics contain many chemical ingredients such as phthalates, which can leach from the plastic over time and have been shown to interfere with normal hormone production in wildlife. At the same time, the composition of plastics allows for
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persistent organic pollutants, such as DDT pesticides or PBDE flame retardants, to attach themselves to pieces of plastic that are then consumed by wildlife. Also troubling is that we humans are consuming plastic through the fish and seafood that we eat and even through tap water. The long-term effects of plastic consumption in wildlife and humans are not yet known. Laboratory experiments indicate that exposure to microplastics has hampered growth and reproductive output of the common waterflea, which is abundant across the Great Lakes and important prey to a variety of species. Research has also shown that plastic recovered from nature has higher toxicity due to accumulated persistent organic pollutants versus virgin plastic which has not accumulated them.
the entire product will likely end up in landfill. Secondly, we can improve our recycling systems. The Government of Canada estimated that only 11% of plastics are being recycled. To increase this, we need high recovery from the user, both consumer and industrial, back into the system. Finally, there are low-cost ways individuals and businesses can reduce plastic going directly into waterways. Filters can be added to washing machines by the individual or the manufacturer to drastically reduce the plastic fibres (literally laundry lint) from entering the wastewater stream. Filters can be applied to drains at factories to capture plastic particles. Also, programs such as Operation Clean Sweep help manufacturers improve their processes and systems to prevent the potential introduction of plastic into the marine environment. Other trash capturing technologies can be deployed throughout our cities, such as in storm drains or at river mouths, to IDENTIFYING THE SOURCES OF PLASTIC POLLUTION reduce plastic entering waterways through urban runoff. We know that plastic is prevalent in our ecosystems and After decades of exponential growth of plastic use in North there is mounting evidence that it can to some degree affect America, we are just now beginning to understand the scope the growth and reproductive health of some species. As the of the long-term problems that linear management of plastic ones who have created the problem, how do we fix it? To do so, pollution creates. Fortunately, we already know what many of we must understand the source of these plastics. the solutions are and new ideas and processes for building a We think that three main paths exist for plastic to enter the circular economy are being developed locally and globally. If Great Lakes. These are wastewater treatment plant effluent, we have the will, we can implement the solutions. agricultural runoff, and urban runoff after rain or melting events. The highest concentrations of plastics are thought to be Chelsea Rochman is an Assistant Professor in Ecology at within our wastewater and urban runoff. Wastewater contains the University of Toronto. For more information, visit fibres found in fleece, or other textile products made from plas- www.rochmanlab.com tics, while urban runoff includes foam, films, plastic fragments from litter such as water bottles, food wrappers, cigarette butts, and rubber which comes from the wear and tear of vehicle tires on our roads. ADDRESSING THE ISSUE As we continue to develop our understanding of where the plastic is coming from, we must also look at how we stem the tide. Plastic pollution in our watersheds is a complex problem and there is no silver bullet to fix it. However, there are many solutions that do exist throughout the life cycle of our plastic goods that can significantly reduce the amount that ends up in our water. First and foremost, we as individuals and as businesses can reduce the overall use of plastic where appropriate, particularly in cases where the plastic is used only once before being discarded, such as shopping bags, water bottles, straws, etc. There are some important applications of single-use plastics in healthcare, but much of our single-use plastic items are created for convenience, not necessity. The less plastic used in this highly disposable manner, the less that is likely to end up in our waterways. We can also redesign the plastic we do use and its application to improve its recyclability. For example, many material recovery facilities cannot accept black plastic for recycling. So, why not make black plastic products, such as coffee cup lids or take-out containers, white to ensure they are recycled? Similarly, many products are designed where the plastic cannot easily be separated from other non-recyclable materials. This means that www.esemag.com @ESEMAG
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August 2019 | 27
Providing healthy drinking water could be the innovation opportunity of this century By Yamuna Vadasarukkai
he rate of change is staggering. It is unyielding, ubiquitous and demanding. It forces global industries to push the limits and revolutionize the way we live. Aerospace. Medicine. Transportation. Communications. Only those that keep up are competitive. Why then is the water industry behind? It is no exaggeration to say that our future depends on water; yet, the dominant attitude in the water industry is what was good enough 100 years ago is good enough today. It is more than a matter of innovation for innovation’s sake. The water industry, especially potable water, desperately needs a revolution. INFRASTRUCTURE Based on survey results of 106 municipalities, the 2016 Canadian Infrastructure Report Card says that 29% of potable water assets are considered to be in fair, poor or very poor physical condition. The estimated replacement value of this 29% is $60 billion. Total replacement of 28 | August 2019
all potable water assets is projected to be $207 billion. At the current rate of reinvestment, the net condition of all potable water assets will continue to decline. DISINFECTION A 2012 article by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention called chlorine water treatment “one of the ten greatest public health achievements of the 20th century.” Disinfection in drinking water hasn’t had an overhaul since 1908, when chlorine was first introduced. While new methods, such as reverse osmosis, UV, ozone and hydrogen peroxide, have been incorporated in disinfection systems within the past 100 years, none have had the singular impact and level of adoption as chlorine. Yet, for almost 50 years it has been known that chlorine creates disinfection byproducts (DBPs) which have been linked to the risk of cancer and miscarriages. Also, it is ineffective against Legionella, is pH dependent, loses effectiveness in high temperatures and it is corrosive. It may take decades for the conse-
quences of chlorine disinfection to be manifested, but the same urgent responsibility to public health that sparked action a century ago remains today. We must no longer focus on “water that won’t make you sick”. We need to ensure that “water will make you healthy”. The responsibility to public health motivates the industry to innovate, yet cautions it from doing so too fast. There must be room for innovation approached in a sober, scientific, single-minded fashion. THE SOLUTION The widespread implications of “bad” water are well documented on mainstream media and within scientific communities. Canada presents a prime testing ground for innovation. It has the water resources, the geographic and temperature diversity, an overreliance on chlorine disinfection, and the means to do something about it. It also has diverse socio-economic representation as seen in the First Nations communities, where some homes do not have electricity or indoor plumbing. What better country is there to be a leader in drinking water innovation? It stands to reason that if it can be done in Canada, it can be replicated elsewhere. However, this important and monumental task requires a measured, longterm, forward-thinking approach. The innovation necessary to meet the challenge of Canada’s drinking water must address the following five considerations: Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
1. Sustainable, effective and safe disinfection. The next innovation in public drinking water must include sustainable, effective and safe disinfection that accounts for acute and chronic risks to public health, while also considering the needs of infrastructure. Alternative methods of disinfection have been introduced, but have not had the same widespread adoption in water treatment as chlorine. On their own, many do not provide sufficient assurance of the quality of water and the standard of safety required for drinking water. However, coaction of two or more together, or coaction with chlorine, could provide a safer and satisfactory alternative to chlorine alone. Ottawa-based SanEcoTec Ltd. has had success in three municipalities using a water treatment process of secondary disinfection which incorporates a new generation of stabilized hydrogen peroxide. The process includes controlling a peroxide residual that removes excess chlorine, and carefully managing other water quality parameters, like pH. In the case of the three municipalities, this process reduced DBPs by up to 80%. This system has potential to be paired with other alternative disinfection systems currently in operation to provide a safer and reliable water treatment process. 2. Diagnose and reduce non-revenue water. According to the International Energy Agency, just over a third of
globally processed and treated water is non-revenue water (NRW) which, quite literally, represents money lost. Effectively diagnosing loss, whether physical or apparent, and rectifying the situation improves return-on-investment and services to the end-customer. The 2013 white paper by the Rethink Water Network & Danish Water Forum provides Denmark as an example of NRW reduction. It states that the country’s average NRW sits at 7%, with some cities as low as 5%. Utilities could realistically reduce NRW by 50% in two years. Some of the benefits of reducing NRW include: optimizing disinfection and water quality; reduced stress on water sources; and reduced energy consumption and related costs. 3. Achieve full cost recovery models. Most parts of Canada currently operate under an unsustainable model of distribution. The price people pay for their treated water does not cover initial capital, annual operating, or the reinvestment costs of upgrading the system. Wouldn’t the money Canadians spend on bottled water be better spent on tap water and ensuring consistent, safe distribution? In many cases, tap water is comparable if not superior in quality to bottled water and hundreds if not thousands of times more affordable. Why then do people not drink it? More important, why do people not value it? The disconnect between the public’s
perception of tap water’s value and its actual value is a matter of communication breakdown. And, until this disconnect is addressed, people won’t be willing to pay as much for an essential resource and service as they do for their hydro, Internet or cell phone. A 2016 briefing from EurEau stated that “…artificially low level of water prices would not only lead to the depletion of water resources, but fail to secure investments in infrastructure maintenance, leaving a heavy burden of investment for future generations.” Once the communication gap has been appropriately addressed, several different tactics for implementing payper-use can be considered. The easiest would be to put meters on homes, not all that different than what was done in Cape Town, South Africa, recently, before Day Zero came. In research published by the University of Southhampton in the U.K., residents reduced their water consumption by 16.5% after being connected to meters. Three months in, they had reduced their daily water use by 50 litres. In Australia, Sydney Water conducted a smart metering trial in 630 households and found that, compared to the control group, households with in-home displays for their meters consumed 6.8% less water. When metering is introduced, consumption goes down as an invisible continued overleaf…
Building Better Communities At Associated Engineering, our vision is to shape a better world for future generations. That is why we have been a carbon-neutral company since 2009. Sustainability is part of our business as well as every project we undertake. Our holistic approach considers climate change impacts to create sustainable and resilient solutions. Associated Engineering provides consulting services in planning, engineering, landscape architecture, environmental science, project management, and asset management. We specialize in the water, infrastructure, environmental, transportation, energy, and building sectors. Calgary Zoo Flood Mitigation project - Winner of 2019 Consulting Engineers of Alberta Award of Excellence
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August 2019 | 29
WATER and undervalued commodity becomes visible and valued. 4. Bring forward alternative capital funding models. As previously mentioned, lack of reinvestment capital in potable water assets means that they will continue to decline and the proportion of fair to very poor infrastructure will increase. Eventually we’ll face an infrastructure deficit of potable water assets of hundreds of billions of dollars. Traditionally, municipalities have relied on investment from the government for maintaining and repairing their potable water assets. However, the government never has and never will be able to foot the entire bill. So, where does the money come from? Eventually, it will have to come to pay-per-use. The challenge is to offer something worth paying for. Consumers must understand and value the impact that water has on their health. There are certain acute risks that water treatment needs to address, such as E. coli and plague-like viruses, and the chronic risks from disinfection byproducts, Waste Water products plus NMac 4.65 x endo4.65.pdf 1
crine disruptors and the risk of heavy metals leaching from old infrastructure. The Netherlands practices cost-recovery. The average person there uses approximately 43,500 litres of treated water per year and pays $107. The cost per litre of treated water, roughly $0.0025/ litre, covers the cost of producing it. No government subsidy is provided. The Canadian average for water consumption is just over 120,000 litres per year. Using Ottawa water rates, as of March 1, 2019, potable water costs approximately $0.0016/litre. Canadians have some of the lowest water rates in the world. These rates do not reflect the real cost of running potable water services or the rising cost of maintenance as infrastructure ages. We pay full cost recovery for hydro because it provides a service we can’t do without. However, we can’t do without water either. 5. Advanced instrumentation, monitoring and analytics. For any of the above possibilities to become reality, the right technology must be in place to ensure7:37:09 quality 1/24/2018 AM and safety through real-
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30 | August 2019
time online monitoring and analytics. An advanced online colorimetric solution for monitoring water quality and controlling disinfectant residuals and water quality parameters, like pH, flow and temperature, is key to managing water quality. The new generation of colorimetric/photometric systems ensure that external factors, like pH, water impurities and flow, do not affect disinfectant and other key measurements and that a process can be remotely monitored and controlled. This is just one example of the type of technology that can be easily incorporated into existing systems to ensure that customers are receiving high quality water, efficient distribution and well-informed water management. MEASURING SUCCESS The final requirement is to evaluate the success of the system or technology, and the following questions can be used as guidelines for measurement: • Does the innovation reduce the life cycle cost of infrastructure – short- and long-term? • Does the innovation reduce the amount and cost of non-revenue water? • Are the acute needs of public health taken care of – microbial safety, no risk of sickness? • Are the chronic risks of public health taken care of – disinfection byproducts? • Are the pleasing qualities of tap water appealing enough to promote a consumer “switch” in buying patterns? • Does the new treatment and management ensure the well-being and rejuvenation of the water source? • Does the innovation provide value capture opportunities that can help finance capital costs? • Does the innovation reflect Sustainable Development Goals in terms of environmental impact and social dividend? This kind of approach will show that the water industry can be the next great source of global innovation. Yamuna Vadasarukkai, PhD, P.Eng., is with SanEcoTec Ltd. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Quebec facility evaluates anaerobic digester performance sensor By Patrick Kiely
SENTRY sensor system developed by Island Water Technologies (IWT) was installed in July 2017 at the CNETE (Centre National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales) testing facility in Quebec on two duplicate anaerobic digesters processing waste activated sludge. These sensors measure microbial electron transfer (MET), which is an instantaneous measurement of microbial activity in the wastewater. As the exo-electrogenic microbes digest wastewater they respire electrons onto the SENTRY electrode. In higher strength wastewater streams, this MET measurement correlates well with volatile fatty acid, and information can be used to predict fluctuating concentrations over time. A pretreatment step was added to one of the reactors, and the differences between the systems were analyzed, using a SENTRY system installed in each. The sensor is a key tool in understanding the conditions in test and control anaerobic digestion systems. For continuing anaerobic digestion activities, the sensor could be applied to characterizing the impact of pretreatment on influent wastewater streams, providing correlations to real-time biogas production, or optimizing feed cycle times to ensure removal of bio-available carbon. Pretreatment accounted for a 22.9% increase in biogas production between the test and control system. Further analysis of fractionation of the remaining organic material could be beneficial for understanding the full effect of the pretreatment. Pretreated wastewater showed more consistent activity throughout the week, suggesting the pretreatment was having the beneficial effect of maximizing the www.esemag.com @ESEMAG
Experimental setup of SENTRY system at CNETE testing facility.
biological activity in the reactor. This also suggested that a potentially longer hydraulic retention time (HRT) could produce even higher biogas production and removal rates. Biogas production (and therefore reactor activity) trended well with SENTRY output. This shows great promise as a way to fill in the gaps in data that exist in daily sampling. This biogas trend was especially helpful for understanding Reactor A (no pretreatment) as the batch mode beginning and end was clearly noticed (typically between noon and 7 pm). The pretreatment step increased the potential for biogas production of the microbes based on the current HRTs of the reactor. SENTRY sensors were able to pick up distinct batch run cycles for each system. Three times higher average biological activity (MET) and longer cycles were noted in the reactor receiving the pretreated influent (Reactor B), suggesting a more biologically active feed material. The sensor displayed the weekly pat-
terns of the feed cycle and response to the feed cycle in real time, with sensors placed inside the reactors. Feed dates/ times could be observed, as well as when reactions inside the system had slowed down. SENTRY data provides operators the option to optimize feeding cycles more closely to MET output. Waiting for data to return to baseline would be a suitable strategy for optimized cycle times. Output from the sensors was demonstrated to be strongly correlated to biogas production from the test and control reactors. The sensors helped in understanding both the impact of pretreatment on the suitability of the waste organics for anaerobic digestion processing and understanding/optimizing feeding cycles to maximize utilization of bio-available organics. Patrick Kiely is with Island Water Technologies. For more information, email: email@example.com
August 2019 | 31
The economics of cleaning and removing grit and screenings from WWTPs By Crista Renouard
rom the earliest days, water has been a convenient and efficient way of conveying collected wastes to a centralized location so they could be processed. Since then, great strides have been made transitioning the role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from simply capturing and treating collected sewage into becoming a valuable resource generator. As populations increased and climate conditions stressed the availability of water, it became practical to develop techniques to harvest the transport water for reuse back into the community. When looking at the operational costs of a wastewater treatment plant, the top two categories of expenditures are energy and disposal costs. By taking a closer look at existing techniques being employed in a WWTP it is possible to continue lowering operational costs. In many cases, it is possible to actually pay for newer technologies with the savings realized through that process of optimization. The makeup of material for disposal in a WWTP is typically comprised of screenings captured at the headworks, grit collected in the settling chambers, and sludge separated in the clarifiers and digesters. The trend in WWTP design is to move to finer levels of both screenings and grit capture. This is largely driven by the need to protect equipment and technology being employed further into the process to achieve increasing treatment objectives and performance goals.
The HUBER Coanda Grit Washing Plant RoSF4. It can handle grit separation, washing and dewatering in one system.
As the screening elements get smaller and the screenings capture efficiency increases, higher levels of organics are captured along with the inert screenings debris. Not only does this affect the volume of the screenings, it also removes valuable energy-laden organics that could be used in digestion and nutrient removal processes. By looking at the captured screenings and how they are processed for disposal it is possible to greatly reduce the volume to be disposed. Additionally, the organics can be separated and returned WHAT IS ENTERING THE HEADWORKS? to process. Wash presses play an integral The screen type selected for the pri- role in processing the captured screenmary screening in the headworks can ings prior to disposal. have a radical effect on the actual quantity of screenings captured and isolated WEIGHT REDUCTION IS KEY The financial offset on disposal fees out of the waste stream flow. For instance, going from a 12 mm bar screen to a 6 can be significant through effective use mm bar screen can double the volume of wash presses. For instance, as a theoretical example, an average tipping fee of screenings captured.
32 | August 2019
for municipal waste for landfill is $49 per wet ton. For the purposes of this exercise we will use a weight unit of 40 lbs per ft3 raw wet screenings collected. Assuming 20 ft3/Mgal screenings capture, the screenings produced for a 10 MGD plant with ¼” (6mm) bar spacing should be as follows: 10 MGD x 20 ft3 = 200 ft3/ day (4 tons/day). Theoretically the raw untreated screenings would cost $71,540 annually to send to landfill. However, there are very few WWTPs that would send raw screenings to landfill. A wash press has the ability to reduce volume and weight through washing and compaction. A basic wash press can produce a weight reduction of raw screenings approaching 70%, resulting in an estimated tipping fee of $21,462 per year (an annual savings of $50,078 compared to simply landfilling without treatment). From the perspective of process optimization, by going to an additional level of
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
processing using a laundering component to remove higher levels of organics, in addition to the compaction of a conventional wash press, this machine can possibly increase performance as high as 85% reduction of weight. This extra 15% of weight reduction performance improvement would result in additional savings compared to a basic wash press, resulting in a tipping fee of $10,731 per year. Grit is another area where optimization can provide operational savings. Quantifying the actual volume of grit entering the plant is much more elusive. Grit is less predictable because its presence has more to do with the location of the facility and the condition of the related collection network. The actual potential of grit concentrations in the incoming stream to a wastewater plant can range from 0.53 – 5.0 ft3/Mgal. Much of the current debate is about the size range of the grit particle a given technology can actually remove. Some technologies currently have the ability to capture down to >75 micron. CHANGING CLASSIFICATION In an immediate sense, the issues caused by grit are the effects present if it is not captured. Left free to enter the plant, grit ends up filling space in the bottom of clarifiers, aeration basins and digesters. The abrasive quality of grit also prematurely wears down pumps and valves, adding to operations and maintenance overhead. The actual makeup of typical grit extracted out of a grit basin can have over 50% water and organics. That volume can be reduced, and the capture of actual grit optimized, with the use of a grit classifier washer. By classifying and washing the grit, water and organics are returned to the process without losing the grit, making it possible to cut the grit disposal volume in half. In certain cases, this technique allows the cleaned and classified grit to be used as landfill capping material. One installation was able to optimize volume of the grit for disposal as well as the classification of the material, resulting in a 79% tipping fee decrease. The leftover material could be used as a landfill cap.
Using equipment such as a Screenings Wash Press WAP® SL can reduce volume, weight and disposal cost up to 85%.
SMALL CHANGES ADD UP The handling and disposal of sludge is second in line regarding major overhead considerations for a wastewater treatment plant. But, sometimes by giving a closer look at related processes, small changes can add up to big savings through process optimization. For more information, email firstname.lastname@example.org, or visit www.hhusa.net
August 2019 | 33
Switching to continuous water quality analyzers offers numerous opportunities By Redir Obaji
oday, the task of managing the quantity of water resources and the quality of drinking water is unimaginable without online instrumentation to assist water utilities in managing, treating, and delivering clean and safe drinking water to consumers. With developments in technology, operators can increasingly make informed decisions based on real- or near realtime data, opening new possibilities not previously available through traditional water quality sampling methods. This is becoming increasingly desirable as the management of water supplies comes under mounting pressure from rapid population growth, rising urbanization, and steadily growing demand from industrial processes. These consume large amounts of water and generate effluent waste that needs to be treated and safely returned to the environment. When it comes to potable water treatment, a variety of parameters need to be accurately and reliably measured, with each having their own potential impact on water quality if left unchecked.
WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS Aluminum in water can be attributed either to its natural presence in soil or as a result of its usage as a flocculant to remove impurities during treatment processes. Where used in water treatment processes, aluminum serves to reduce the turbidity and bacterial content of water prior to the final stages of treatment and disinfection. There is dispute over its potential effects on health, with excessive levels thought to be linked to Alzheimer’s disease, although aluminum in drinking water represents only a very small percentage of the average person’s total daily intake. If left unchecked, excessive levels can lead to kidney dialysis problems. The Canadian guideline for aluminum in drinking water stipulates a maximum 34 | August 2019
The Aztec 600 series of online colorimetric analyzers can measure up to six samples an hour and provide sample and reagent fluid handling for measurement, mixing and disposal.
concentration of 0.2 mg/l. Iron in potable water does not present a health hazard. However, if not closely controlled, its presence can cause problems. It can clog pipelines, pressure tanks, water heaters and water softeners. It also can cause staining of laundry and items such as crockery, cutlery, water fittings, sinks and bathtubs. Sources of iron vary. In most cases, it will either be naturally present due to local geological conditions or will have been introduced as a result of water treatment or the corrosion of iron water mains. This last source is one of the key factors responsible for elevated iron levels in the majority of cases where water exceeds the permitted maximum level. Water that travels through distribution networks comprised of extensive runs of cast iron pipes is particularly prone to high levels of iron. Operational problems such as burst mains can disturb iron deposits in the pipes, discolouring the
water and causing an unpleasant taste. To control levels and minimize the problems associated with excessive iron levels, the maximum permitted concentration for iron in potable water is ≤0.3 mg/l. Manganese occurs naturally in many sources of water. Like iron, it has not been proven to pose a risk to human health but can have a negative impact on the appearance of drinking water if not properly treated. Failure to properly control manganese levels will result in black deposits collecting in pipe networks, which may turn potable water black if disturbed. Most complaints about manganese in potable water relate to staining of laundry or vegetables becoming discoloured during washing or cooking. The maximum permitted level for manganese in potable water is 0.1 mg/l. Many water companies introduce phosphates to their water supplies to help prevent lead from old pipes dissolving into the water. The main concern relating to
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
phosphate concentrations stems from the issue of eutrophication, where high levels of phosphate cause excessive growth of plants and algae that form on the surface of lakes, rivers and streams. By preventing light from penetrating through the water, these growths stop plants beneath the surface from photosynthesizing, causing them to die. Together, these dead plants, and the dead algal blooms that sink down, use up oxygen in the water as they decompose. This reduces the amount of oxygen available for other aquatic life, causing it to suffocate. Over time, this process can render a water body lifeless. Sources of phosphate are numerous. As well as being added during the treatment process, phosphate levels in water can also be attributed to agricultural activities, animal wastes, human sewage, food wastes, urban run-off, vegetable matter, industry and detergents. The amount of phosphate in water is not universally regulated. However, the World Health Organization sets a recommended maximum “safe” level of around 5mg/l and states that a person’s recommended daily allowance should not exceed 800 mg. Different countries may also have their own specific rules for permitted levels of phosphate. USING COLORIMETRIC MEASUREMENT TO MONITOR POTABLE WATER QUALITY Colorimetric measurement is used extensively throughout water, power and process industries. Simply described, the technique involves the colour-based measurement of a chemical in a solution. It is used to determine either the absorption or concentration of that chemical, based on the degree of colour and the ability of light to pass through it. The colour comes from the absorption of certain wavelengths from the visible light spectrum within the range 400 to 700 nanometres. Where water is concerned, many of the substances that need to be measured are colourless and do not absorb light in the visible spectrum. To overcome this, and enable the substances to be measured, chemical reagents are used to create a reaction that forms a coloured compound. The reagents vary according to the parameter being measured. (See Table 1) www.esemag.com @ESEMAG
Colourless substances do not absorb light in the visible spectrum. Where water is concerned, many of the substances that need to be measured are colourless and do not absorb light in the visible spectrum. To overcome this, and enable the substances to be measured, chemical reagents are used to create reaction that forms Instrument a coloured compound. The Chemical Maxa sample Parameter measurement range reagents vary according tomethod the parameter being measured. (See Table 1) frequency
Chemical method Pyrocatechol violet
TPTZ Pyrocatechol violet
Formaldoxine TPTZ Molybdate
Max sample 6/hr frequency
0.005 –Instrument 0.3mg/l Al 0.3 – measurement 1.5mg/l Al range (including
0.005dilution) – 1mg/l Fe 1 – 5mg/l Fe
0.005 - 0.3mg/l Al
0.020 – 2mg/l Mn 2 – 10mg/l Mn Al 0.3 – 1.5mg/l
0.0500.005 – 8.5mg/l - 1mg/lPO4 Fe 8.5 – 50mg/l PO4
Table 1. Reagents vary according to the parameter being measured. Manganese Formaldoxine 6/hr
1 - 5mg/l Fe
0.020 - 2mg/l Mn
varietyMn of condiAdding the reagent creates a dilute of water quality under2 -a 10mg/l solution of molecules that absorb light. tions. Furthermore, as samples are meaPhosphate Molybdate 0.050 – 8.5mg/l sured in situ within the analyser itself,PO any4 By measuring the absorption/passage of 4/hr light through the coloured sample, the uncertainties that could affect the accu8.5 –are 50mg/l PO4 removed. concentration of the parameter being racy of the measurement ABB’s Aztec 600 series of large case measured can be ascertained. Table 1. Reagents vary according to the parameter being measured. analyzers use the principle of colorimeto measure concentrations of alumi-the THE BENEFITS OFcreates CONTINUOUS Adding the reagent a dilute solution of try molecules that absorb light. By measuring ONLINE MEASUREMENT num, iron, manganese and phosphates. absorption/passage of light through the coloured sample, the concentration of the parameter being Traditionally, many companies have Able to measure up to six samples an measured can be ascertained. operated measurement routines based hour, the analyzers use an LED and on testing, with samples being sent detector to measure the passage of light Thespot benefits of continuous on-line measurement to a laboratory for testing to produce a through a sample. A single precisely conTraditionally, companies have based on spot testing, trolled pistonroutines pump provides all the sam- with water qualitymany measurement. Thisoperated tech- measurement sampleshas being sent todrawbacks, a laboratorynot for testing produce a water fluid qualityhandling measurement. This and reagent for meanique inherent least tople technique inherent not least which is the mixing fact that aand sample will only ever be disposal. Meaof which has is the fact drawbacks, that a sample will of surement, indicative of aindicative particular of setaof conditions particular moment in before time. Added to this are taken and after theis the risk only ever be particular setfor asurements of conditions for a particular moment in addition of reagents to compensate for time. Added to this is the risk of uncer- background colour and turbidity. These tainties being introduced into the mea- measurements are compared against the surement as the sample is transported calibrated values to calculate the value of between locations, potentially compro- the sample being measured. The inherent benefits of these analyzmising the accuracy of the resulting data. Continuous measurement using online ers enable them to be used in a variety of analyzers overcomes these problems. By applications. increasing the frequency of sampling, online analyzers provide a true indication continued overleaf… August 2019 | 35
WATER REMOVING IRON, MANGANESE AND PHOSPHATE As naturally occurring minerals, manganese and iron can easily find their way into raw water supplies, with levels tending to fluctuate according to conditions such as climate, ground erosion, thermal changes and disturbances of water sources. Removal plants are installed to reduce the levels of these substances and to help control taste, odour and fouling caused by their presence. Close control of the treatment processes is required to help reduce energy consumption, optimize chemical usage and maximize treatment efficiency. The control of iron and manganese levels varies according to whether they are in insoluble/particulate or soluble form. Insoluble/particulate iron or manganese is a characteristic of well oxygenated water sources and can be easily removed through filtration. The soluble forms tend to be encountered at the deeper sedimentary levels in wells, rivers and other water sources, most often during periods of hotter weather
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to monitor water quality at several key stages, namely: Pre-treatment – This stage sees the quality of the incoming water being measured to assess initial levels of iron, manganese or phosphate present before the application of treatment processes, including aeration and chemical dosing. Treatment stages – After any pre-treatment process, the water will again be monitored to check iron, manganese and phosphate concentrations. Where a clarification process is used, water may also be monitored to assess whether coagulants used in the treatment process are Aztec 600 Iron Analyzer. being under- or overdosed, which can involve using other analyzers to detect when water is less abundant. Removing colour or turbidity levels. Post filtration – A final measuresoluble iron and manganese is more difficult and requires using different pro- ment will be carried out after the filtracesses, first to convert them to particulates tion process to ensure that any residual and then to remove them through filtra- levels of iron, manganese and phosphate tion. Phosphate removal is done through meet the required treatment standards. Where iron-based/ferric chloride coageither a chemical or biological process. In all these processes, manganese, iron ulants are used, this measurement will and phosphate analyzers should be used also be used to assess the efficiency of
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the coagulation process, by identifying any potential overdosing. Overdosing of water with ferric chloride can lead to sludge formation and discoloration, which can cause problems for customers, as outlined earlier in this article. Waste discharge – In addition to the above, one or more online analyzers such as the Aztec 600 can also be used to monitor the effluent discharge from the sludge holding tanks, again to assess the efficiency of the treatment process. This helps to identify whether the correct levels of treatment chemicals are being used, which can help operators to find potential areas for cost savings through greater efficiency.
"Liquid water conducts electricity Minsley, geophysicist better than ice," explained USGS direc- Crustal Geophysics an tor Marcia McNutt. "We can detect from Science Center in Denve the air the weak magnetic fields gener- of the study in Geophysi • Reduced failures and maintenance Improvements in any of these areas ters, andofhis team survey ated caused by those electric currents, thus issues by underdosing, such as can offerdispotential savings thousands miles, centered 14 plant shutdowns quickly or increasedand cleaning either square directly through opertinguishing easilyof dollars, melted of sand filters. ational savings, of or Fairbanks. indirectly through Their data from frozen ground. This new technol• Reduced delays and failures caused by avoidance of fines and penalties aristhenon-compliance distribution or of perma ogy, andsuch theas discoloration, maps of changing peroverdosing, plus ing from regulatory the associated costs chemical dosing incorrect measurement. tion to surface and groun mafrost, will beofvaluable for both climate for pH correction. It Measurement also captures the research and engineering theis with ABB • change Reduced operator intervention through Redirin Obaji River lateral mig more information, the ability to carry out automatic moni- and Analytics. ForYukon challenging Alaskan environment." visit www.abb.com/measurement or toring. 1,000 Because the Yukon Flats is near the riod of roughly • Decreased levels of sludge, leading email: email@example.com fested as a thawed regio boundary to a reductionbetween in the cost continuous and resources permafrost connected with sludge disposal. Knowledge of the cu to the north and discontinuous permafrost
RESIDUAL COAGULANT MONITORING Coagulation is a safe and effective method of treating surface water. It is used to improve water quality by reducing levels of organic compounds such as manganese, dissolved phosphorus, colour, iron and suspended particles. Coagulation techniques have been developed to bind together very small particles in water that will not settle or float and which cannot be removed by filtering. A chemical salt is added to electrically charge small waterborne particles (known as “colloidal matter”) so that they attract and bind to form larger particles, or “floc”, which can then float or settle. These salts are either ferric (iron) or aluminum based. Using an online analyzer can help to regulate the dosing of these salts to ensure the treated water meets the required standards. Monitoring coagulation efficiency also provides an added safeguard against the risk of waterborne diseases such as cryptosporidiosis. Failure to correctly coagulate and filter water can increase the risk of a cryptosporidium outbreak, which can have serious repercussions on water companies if they are found not to have exercised every care in treating their water supplies. COST SAVING BENEFITS As a means of continually monitoring water quality throughout the water treatment process, continuous online analyzers offer a range of cost saving benefits, including: www.esemag.com @ESEMAG
August 2019 | 37
Water and Wastewater infrastructure Challenges in a Changing climate By Chris Howorth
changing climate is evident to many Canadians through frequent reports of records being broken, and their own direct experience of extreme weather events over the last few years. Alberta’s severe flooding in June 2013 was the costliest disaster in Canadian history at that time, with total losses estimated at over $5 billion. This was eclipsed just three years later, however, when the May 2016 wildfire in Fort McMurray caused estimated damages exceeding $8.9 billion. Such impacts are not just financial, and include loss of life, and displacement of many thousands of people. That our climate is experiencing unprecedented change is also the almost unanimous conclusion of scientists engaged in studying the subject. In February 2019, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reported that, of their 139 years of climate records, the four hottest years globally were the last four. The Canadian government recently reported that our climate is warming approximately twice as fast as the global average. Arguably the most authoritative organization on the subject is the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Formed in 1988, the IPCC reports the best available research to provide an objective, scientific view of climate change and its impacts. Their work underpins agreements such as the “Accord de Paris” signed in 2016, which aims to keep the global temperature rise to below 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. Their special report released in October 2018 concluded even this limit would cause significant impacts to society and the environment. It also stated that our current trajectory is towards 3°C, with 1.5°C likely to be exceeded by 2030. With the facts being this clear, and this serious, the term “climate change” is increasingly being replaced by “climate crisis”.
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The compactness of the disc filters allowed them to fit in the Banff WWTP’s existing sand filter basins and allowed for future expansion if needed.
THE LINE MUST HOLD The water industry is on the front line of the climate crisis as water is humanity’s single most consumed resource. It underpins agriculture, industry and domestic living standards. Water is both essential for our continued prosperity and for our daily survival. Many Canadians take it for granted, but when (thankfully rare) failures occur, the critical importance of the water industry quickly becomes obvious. As the climate crisis intensifies, the challenges for providers of water and wastewater infrastructure and services to avoid such failures are increasing. Challenges are found throughout the water cycle, and are characterized by unpredictable, unprecedented conditions. Severe flooding from spring thaws can be immediately followed by prolonged summer drought. With no historical basis to inform engineering design, decisions around costs and risks are increasingly uncertain. Prudence calls for investments that limit the burden on ratepayers, while providing infrastructure that safeguards society (and minimizes our impacts) as far as possible into the future. In this context, key attributes for the selection of
water and wastewater treatment technology are its resiliency and adaptability. The concept of resiliency, as envisaged by 100 Resilient Cities (of which four Canadian cities are members), is the ability to maintain living standards in the face of both acute shocks and chronic stresses. Adaptability encompasses responding to both changing conditions, and changing objectives. Therefore, a resilient, adaptable treatment technology: • Maintains treatment standards in spite of unpredictable and challenging influent conditions. • Has a low environmental footprint (land area, energy consumption, etc.). • Minimizes the “burden” on service providers (capital and operating costs, operator skill level and time demands, etc.). • Provides flexibility to both tackle shortterm variations (e.g., weather events), and delivers long-term value as the context evolves (e.g., new/tightened regulations). CRISIS-TESTED TECHNOLOGIES To paraphrase Dwight Eisenhower: “In preparing for battle, plans are useless but planning is indispensable.” Extreme events are almost impossible to plan for by definition, meaning the response has to be
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
somewhat ad hoc. This does not mean prior experience is irrelevant, however. On the contrary, a successful response relies heavily on established knowledge, relationships and instincts. While no two events are the same, sharing lessons learned from previous events is invaluable. With over 172,000 employees around the world, and activities that include both treatment plant operation and the supply of treatment technology, Veolia works to reflect its global experience in improved process design, application, and O&M. Various projects delivered by Veolia in Canada have recently been tested under extreme conditions, providing valuable Graph showing water quality at the Red Deer WTP before and during the 2005 flood. experience in this regard. ALBERTA FLOODS, 2005 AND 2013 The City of Red Deer was the first city in Alberta to install Veolia’s Actiflo high rate clarification (HRC) technology. Their system, which has a design capacity of 120 MLD, was commissioned in 2003 at the city’s drinking water treatment plant (WTP). Within just two years it was crisis-tested when heavy rains in June 2005 caused major flooding, and resulted in 14 Albertan municipalities declaring official states of emergency. Water quality in the city’s drinking water source (the Red Deer River) deteriorated very rapidly, spiking to a turbidity of over 2000 NTU in just two days. Using the newly installed Actiflo process, operators were able to successfully clarify this water down to just 2 NTU, meaning downstream filter run times remained unchanged, and high quality filtered water quality was maintained. Many other cities were forced to implement boil-water advisories during the event, and some subsequently choose to add Actiflo technology to their WTPs in light of Red Deer’s positive experience. The City of Calgary is one example, where two WTPs were upgraded in 2007 and 2011, for a total HRC design capacity of over 1 billion litres per day. During the 2013 Alberta floods, raw water quality was even worse at both Red Deer’s and Calgary’s water treatment plants, but both cities were able to maintain fully compliant drinking water quality for their citizens.
FORT MCMURRAY WILDFIRE, 2016 The Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (RMWB) also installed Actiflo technology at the Fort McMurray WTP, with commissioning of the 52 MLD system completed in 2014. The wildfire two years later tested the system in ways that were never envisaged when it was chosen. Even though Fort McMurray was fully evacuated during the fire, the RMWB had to produce water at unprecedented volumes. In fact, at times the RMWB operated the WTP at over 150% of its design capacity. This was partly because firefighters relied on the drinking water distribution system for their supply, and also because fire damage caused system pressure loss. As buildings were burning down, their water supply lines were failing, creating numerous “open ends”. The RMWB was acutely aware of the need to prevent the system losing too much pressure. Not only would this have impacted firefighting operations, but it could have compromised the network’s integrity, meaning extensive cleaning/ disinfection would be needed before residents could return. Impacts on the WTP are still not over. The fire burned 589,552 hectares, including large areas of the Athabasca River’s watershed. This affects the WTP’s raw water quality in various ways including: • The loss of tree cover/vegetation (which attenuate stormwater runoff and stabilize the soil) means raw water is more turbid. • Burned material releases dissolved organic carbon and nutrients such as
phosphorus into the river, making it harder and less predictable to treat. Veolia is working on forest fire related water treatment approaches with leading Canadian researchers in the field, who have identified Actiflo as a particularly helpful “tool to have in the toolbox”. Key reasons for this include its very short hydraulic retention time (making it more responsive to rapid raw water quality variations), and its robustness (meaning a wide range of contaminants, and high contaminant concentrations, can be treated effectively). CHRONIC CHALLENGES LEAD TO INNOVATION Addressing the climate crisis will stretch our resources. Continuing with business as usual, however, has unconscionable costs. Smarter treatment technology, and efficient ways of applying it, can ease the burden. Two recent Canadian examples demonstrate this. PEAK FLOW TREATMENT – NORTH VANCOUVER It rains a lot on Vancouver’s North Shore and it is expected to become even more intense as the climate changes. Consequently, the design of Metro Vancouver’s new wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which will replace the old Lions Gate plant, had to accommodate relatively high wet weather peak flows. Simply building the plant big enough for the peaks was one option, but it was continued overleaf…
August 2019 | 39
CLIMATE CHANGE decided a high rate “peak flow treatment” approach was significantly more efficient. This allowed the main plant to be sized to treat flows up to 204 MLD, with flows above this being treated by Actiflo. The reasons the system was chosen included: • The project site is constrained by neighbouring properties, a road, and a rail line, meaning Actilfo’s very high treatment rates (and hence small area requirement) were valuable. • Actiflo starts up in less than 15 minutes, giving operators time to react to rainfall events. • The first time Actiflo was applied for peak flow treatment in North America was in 2002 (in Bremerton, WA). Performance at that plant, and the many that have followed since, shows 90% suspended solids removal is typical in this application. This means WWTP effluent quality can be maintained at high levels even under extreme hydraulic loads. The flexibility of Actiflo means the peak flow treatment system can be used for other applications during normal flow conditions, giving owners a “twofer” solution. Examples include use for tertiary treatment during dry weather to improve final effluent quality, and use as a chemically enhanced primary clarifier to improve suspended solids and phosphorus removal. Actiflo has also been applied at “pinch points” in the wastewater collection
system, to avoid untreated raw sewage discharges by treating overflows. These combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) are expected to become more common across Canada as rainfall events intensify and can release significant pollution loads into the environment. TERTIARY FILTRATION – BANFF The Town of Banff ’s recreation/tourism based economy, together with very strict provincial and federal regulations, means the town’s WWTP strives to achieve exceptional treated effluent quality. The WWTP’s tertiary filtration process is critical to meeting this goal, but the sand filter technology installed in 2002 was presenting increasing challenges in this regard. The town therefore issued a Request for Proposals in 2017 to retrofit to the latest textile media filtration technology (also known as disc filters). It sought to minimize costs by reusing as much existing infrastructure as possible, and used a Design-Build procurement model to promote innovation and minimize project schedule. Banff ’s project requirements were uncompromising. Not only did the retrofit have to be completed in the minimum possible shutdown period, but filtered effluent objectives were at the limit of the technology’s guaranteed performance capability. The solution chosen by the town employed two of Veolia’s Hydrotech Dis-
cfilters. Their compactness allowed them to fit across the width of one of the existing sand filter basins, and occupy less than half of its length (allowing for easy expansion in future). They also fitted within the existing hydraulic profile, meaning basin modifications were minimal. Process performance testing significantly outperformed stipulated requirements. Even though the influent suspended solid load was above the design basis, filtered effluent suspended solids were significantly below the guaranteed limit, and were actually below the accredited laboratory’s detection limit. The disc filters will therefore help the town minimize effluent loads on the environment, and can also enable wastewater reuse if required. WE CAN DO THIS! The climate crisis can be daunting. Now that we are aware of the need for action, it is time for a concerted effort from everyone at every level, personally and professionally. The tools and expertise we need to succeed already exist. By rising to the challenge we can put society on a truly sustainable path, ensuring prosperity for future generations. Chris Howorth, P.Eng., is with Veolia Water Technologies Canada Inc. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Simply put . . . all life depends on it. 40 | August 2019
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Improvements in stormwater management spurred by Low Impact Development techniques By Barry Walker
vidence of Low Impact Development (LID), a concept first advanced in 1990, can now be seen across North America. Like many infrastructure transformations, this growth in LID design has benefitted from regulatory changes, as compliance versus cost remains an important motivator in any commercial venture. Through their efforts, LID pioneers have demonstrated a range of social and aesthetic benefits that have complemented the economics of this approach. Municipalities across Canada are leading the charge, following such initiatives as the 1985 Canada Water Act, the follow-up Canadian Clean Drinking Water Act, and the 2006 B.C. Clean Water Act. From these, creative visions like Vancouver’s Greenest City Action Plan have grown. Developers are being asked to manage stormwater in new ways on-site to help minimize the effect old practices were having on our waterways and the sustainability of the surrounding environment. As well, local infrastructure is rarely designed to tackle the larger volumes encountered with modern developments. Guidelines have become mandates and design standards, trying to achieve an end result of better environmental management. With these regulations and guidelines in place, developers are mandated to control stormwater as close as possible to its source. This helps mimic the natural movement of water and improve the management of local and global ecosystems, with a goal of better sustainability. Keeping water on site long enough to allow for evapotranspiration is crucial to protecting the receiving waterbodies. Results include a reduction in runoff volume, increased time of concentration, reduced peak flow and peak flow duration, as well as improved water quality. Population growth leads to development and development creates hard www.esemag.com @ESEMAG
Underground stormwater detention systems can eliminate the need for on-site stormwater ponds.
surfaces where porous soil once existed. LID techniques, such as the use of permeable surfaces that allow stormwater to infiltrate the ground, green roofs and infiltration bioswales/rain gardens help address these issues. GREEN ROOFS Green roofs mimic preconstruction tree canopies, grasslands and natural vegetation. Slowing stormwater runoff at the roof surface allows for evaporation and transpiration, mimicking the hydrologic characteristics that more closely match open space than impervious surfaces. Toronto’s Green Roof Bylaw emphasizes the value in this approach. Many other municipalities, such as Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, are following with similar bylaws and policies and changes to their integrated stormwater management plans to include green roofs. Direct runoff from traditional roofs is a key contributor to pollutant release. By contrast, vegetated roof covers can significantly reduce this source of pollution, while improving energy efficiency
(reducing heating and cooling costs), reducing urban heat island effects, generating oxygen and clean air, as well as creating greenspace for passive recreation or aesthetic enjoyment. Nilex has worked with multiple landscape architects and designers, most frequently in Vancouver, to find solutions unique to each site and each property developer. INFILTRATION DETENTION AND RAIN GARDEN BIOSWALES Rain garden bioswales allow stormwater to infiltrate back into the ground as it would through natural processes. This recharges groundwater tables and aquifers, keeps base flows to adjacent waterways consistent, and provides filtration to remove metals and pollutants. Large retailers (with large parking lots) have worked with Nilex to install these systems, and the trend looks to continue as they strive to do their part to manage stormwater. Large retailers Costco and Lowe’s have pursued on-site detention systems on both sides of the continued overleaf…
August 2019 | 41
STORMWATER border, eliminating the need for an on-site stormwater retention pond. This technique aligns with guidelines developed within the Alberta Low Impact Development Partnership in both Calgary and Edmonton. Nilex incorporated this LID technique during the construction of its head office in Edmonton, while lifestyle retailer Mountain Equipment Co-Op took it one step further by installing a system for its North Vancouver location. This eliminated the need for connection to the municipal stormwater system and qualified them for LEED Gold status.
trate naturally. From a practical perspective, these surfaces must achieve this while still being capable of traffic loading without unnecessary ponding. Nilex has enjoyed success in Ontario with recent installations of these permeable surfaces, using PaveDrain, for the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority parking lot and an extensive stretch of pavement along Townsend Avenue in Burlington.
CONCLUSION The most important outcome of Low Impact Development techniques is the huge reduction in negative impacts on PERMEABLE SURFACES the environment, returning stormwater Another practical technique is to effec- runoff and effective baseflow to positively tively allow stormwater to permeate into manage not only the quantity of natural the ground where it falls on hard sur- water, but the quality as well. This will faces. A permeable surface reduces the help sustain the natural habitats attached volume collected by municipal storm- to aquifers, streams, creeks, rivers, lakes water infrastructure by allowing water and oceans the way nature intended. to infiltrate back into the ground. This also recharges groundwater and protects Barry Walker is with Nilex Inc. For more information email: adjacent waterways. From an environmental perspective, email@example.com or visit the key to successful permeable surfaces www.nilex.com is to remove stormwater from the surface quickly, at its source, and let it infil-
Water, Wastewater & Sludge Treatment With more than 2000 references in North America and a local presence in Canada for more than 70 years, our mission is "Resourcing the world". Alberta | British Columbia | Manitoba | Ontario | Quebec firstname.lastname@example.org www.veoliawatertech.com
42 | August 2019
MAPLETON WATER AND WASTEWATER PROJECT
The Township of Mapleton, Ontario is set to receive up to $20 million from the Canada Infrastructure Bank (CIB) for water and wastewater infrastructure. Located approximately 150 km west of Toronto, Mapleton is an agricultural and rural township with approximately 11,000 residents. According to the CIB, Mapleton is seeking a consortium to “design, build, finance, operate and maintain the municipality’s new and existing water and wastewater infrastructure for up to 20 years.” Mapleton will continue to be the owner of all new and existing infrastructure and will lead the procurement process. The water and wastewater project will include: building a new water tower; reducing non-revenue water (leakage); upgrades to existing water pumping station; expanding capacity of the wastewater treatment plant; and a gravity sewer collection system.
EDMONTON SEWER ODOUR CONTROL PLAN
A City of Edmonton utility committee has approved a $217.3-million odour and corrosion control project for its sewer system that could start this year and end by 2026. The proposed strategy zeroes in on preventing the formation of hydrogen sulfide with chemical treatment, controlling the release of air, and adapting the use of real-time monitoring to reduce community odour impacts and lengthen the life of the sewer network, according to a presentation to the City of Edmonton by EPCOR Water Services Inc. (EWSI). “The feedback we received indicated a significant impact on residents affected by sewer odour, but it was more concentrated than previously anticipated,” Richard Brown, director of draining, planning and engineering at EPCOR, told the city’s utility committee. EWSI surveyed 1,600 local residents about odour impact. Half of the residents in odour hot spot communities noted that sewer odour negatively impacts their quality of life compared to 21% of respondents in the rest of Edmonton. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Groundbreaking technology converts waste CO2 into high value fuels and chemicals
Calgary entrepreneur is working to reverse rising carbon dioxide (CO₂) levels, with the launch of a first-of-its-kind solution that converts greenhouse gas emissions into high value fuels and chemicals before they are released into the environment. The groundbreaking product has earned Dr. Beatriz Molero a prestigious award from Mitacs, a national, not-forprofit organization that partners companies, government and academia to promote Canadian research and training. In recognition of the ongoing success of her clean tech startup and its work to develop a viable solution for CO₂ emitters, Molero, a former Mitacs postdoctoral fellow at the University of Calgary, and co-founder of Calgary-based SeeO2 Energy, was presented with the Mitacs Environmental Entrepreneur Award on May 28 at a ceremony in Halifax. Molero’s product is a high temperature electrolyzer that uses CO₂ from an industrial company’s waste stream and converts it into carbon monoxide, hydrogen, oxygen or syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture), all of which can be used downstream or sold for profit. The unit requires electricity to run and is being designed to be able to use excess renewable energy from wind and solar energy sources. For every ton of CO₂ removed and reused, three tons of CO₂ emissions are eliminated, Molero explained. “If our commercial scale units were to be used by our end users, such as green plastics or petrochemicals producers, we would significantly decrease CO₂ emissions-equivalent to removing 100 million cars off the roads or 700,000 jet planes out of the skies,” she said. “We’re trying to stop the increase of greenhouse gas emissions and eventually reduce them. At the same time we’re monetizing the process by giving businesses a valuable asset at the end,” said Molero, noting that businesses need incentive to make environmental changes. “We need to have economically viable technologies so that www.esemag.com @ESEMAG
Top: The high temperature electrolyzer converts CO₂ into carbon monoxide, hydrogen, oxygen or syngas. Right: Dr. Beatriz Molero, co‑founder and CTO of Calgary-based SeeO2 Energy.
industry will be willing to adopt them.” SeeO2 Energy was launched in April 2018. In just one year, the company has grown to three full-time employees, 10 industry advisors and five board members. A successful benchtop prototype has been completed, and the company is now securing $1.5 million in seed funding to develop a larger-scale field test unit, with testing scheduled to start in the first quarter of 2020. The first companies to test the technology include a U.S.-based green plastic producer and ATCO Energy, a natural gas and electricity retailer. Commercial shipments are expected to start in 2021. “This technology has the potential to be used worldwide,” said Molero, adding that companies from the EU and Asia are already expressing interest.
Molero is one of five winners of the Entrepreneur Award, presented by Mitacs (www.mitacs.ca), who are being recognized for their efforts to turn their research into an innovative business that impacts the lives of Canadians. “Canada has exceptional talent and Mitacs is extremely proud to support young entrepreneurs in spring-boarding to market the next generation of innovations,” said Alejandro Adem, Mitacs CEO and scientific director, noting that one out of every 10 Mitacs interns chooses to pursue their own business. “Their contributions are strengthening the Canadian economy, spurring productivity and creating jobs.” For more information, visit www.seeo2energy.com August 2019 | 43
A ‘mosaic’ perspective of climate due to natural and societal influences By E. Craig Jowett
arlier this year, UN General Assembly President María Fernanda Espinosa Garcés stated that only 11 years remain to avert global climate change catastrophe. (www.un.org/press/en/2019/ ga12131.doc.htm) This statement got me interested in learning about the effects of human population on climate and the ability to sustain ourselves. As such, I undertook an extensive analysis of the available government information in these areas. In doing so, I now believe that some of the ongoing finger pointing is misdirected, and that we will be just fine, even after 11 years.
R² = 0.999
Billions of People
association, ‘time order’ with population increasing before CO2, and a valid mechanism for humans producing CO2 in their daily lives. But with poor correlation, or correlation with no mechanism or time ordering present, a causal connection cannot be inferred between any two variables, even CO2 and temperature.
6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0
CO2 ppm Figure 1. Growth of world population closely mimics growth of NOAA World CO2 in the atmosphere. Figure 1. Growth of world population closely mimics growth of NOAA World CO₂ in the atmosphere. Should we worry about this increase of CO2 (and of population), and what other variables are connected, such as air temperature? What emergencies are there? Do we really have only 12 years left? But with poor correlation, or correlaSETTING THE GLOBAL SCENE Agricultural Food Crops World population correlates very tightly tion with no mechanism or time orderFor sustainability, one essential consideration would certainly be world food supply. United Nations Food with the National Oceanic and Atmo- ing present, a causal connection cannot & Agriculture publishes annual data for food products around the world. For 20 of the top agricultural spheric Administration (NOAA) World be inferred between any two variables, food products, including corn, wheat, rice, potatoes, beans, cassava, sorghum and yams, plus sugar cane, fresh vegetables and fruits, production has increased an average of 54% from 2000 to 2017. Only sweet CO₂ levels (Figure 1), and a case for even CO₂ and temperature. potato production has decreased. Should we worry about this increase of causal connection is inferred because of
the close association, “time order” with population increasing before CO₂, and a valid mechanism for humans producing CO₂ in their daily lives.
CO₂ (and of population), and what other variables are connected, such as air temperature? What emergencies are there? Do we really have only 11 years left?
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
AGRICULTURAL FOOD CROPS For sustainability, one essential consideration would certainly be world food supply. United Nations Food & Agriculture publishes annual data for food products around the world. For 20 of the top agricultural food products, including corn, wheat, rice, potatoes, beans, cassava, sorghum and yams, plus sugar cane, fresh vegetables and fruits, production has increased an average of 54% from 2000 – 2017. Only sweet potato production has decreased. The top 10 staple crops listed by National Geographic have increased by 45% in the same time period, and animal production for meat has increased by 29%, (statistics in www.fao.org). From 2000 – 2017, World population has increased by 23%, indicating that production of food crops and meat has more than kept pace with population. This all means that UN data indicates no agricultural emergency from the climate or from population growth. FOREST FIRES Many things are attributed to atmospheric warming, including forest fires. Ontario has a great website for residences near forests. “Each year, in Ontario, homes are damaged or destroyed by wildfire, yet nearly all of these homes could have been saved if owners had followed a few simple rules.” (www.ontario.ca/page/ firesmart-landscaping) Natural Resources Canada (NRC) points out that, “lightning causes about 50% of all fires but accounts for about 85% of the annual area burned”. The total number of wild fires in Canada has dropped 40 – 50% since 1990 (www.nfdp.ccfm.org/ en/data/fires.php). The area burned varies widely but is “stable” over that time period, with larger fires being in remote areas further from firefighters (www.nrcan.gc.ca). From 1980 – 2017 there is no correlation between area burned and NASA’s North America Land-Ocean temperature index (R2 = 0.01). For interest, CO₂ doesn’t correlate with fires either (R2 = 0.02). REGIONAL GEOTECTONIC FLOODING When sea level rise and flooding are considered in the climate discussion, isostasy effects on the Earth’s crust are understated. As a field geologist in the Arctic Islands, traversing old beach strands with www.esemag.com @ESEMAG
whalebones high above the sea ingrained in me how mobile the Earth is. Expanded seawater volumes will raise levels, but land subsidence adds to the problem of coastline flooding and it has happened already. Subsidence can be human related and permanent, as in New Jersey where groundwater withdrawal is lowering land level, or natural and temporary as in Texas where massive rainfall depressed the land by a couple of centi-
metres (www.nasa.gov). Or, it can be natural, permanent, and continent-wide, due to melting of the Ice Age glaciers. The Hudson Bay area continues to rise 10 – 12 mm/year even though the 2 – 3 km thick glacier that had once depressed the land is long gone. However, the surrounding envelope of land is subsiding due to the same isostasy, in effect tilting the land away from continued overleaf…
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August 2019 | 45
4 2 1870
Figure 2. Rolling averages (12 months) of Owen Sound and downtown Toronto mean monthly temperatures. After WWI, temperatures diverge to ~2°C, also for Collingwood, and to ~3°C for Wiarton and Chatsworth since WWII (not shown).
Hudson Bay. Southwestern Georgian Bay The frequency of floods may or may is affected with relative water levels ris- not be affected by changes in climate, but ing as it is being tilted slowly southward. more inhabitants and urban paving do (www.ontariobeneathourfeet.com) certainly facilitate them. RAINSTORMS AND URBAN FLOODING In the Yukon’s Mackenzie Mountains, I once witnessed intense flash flooding that almost took out our camp. Rains hadn’t caused flooding until the mountain scree slope opposite us was sun-dried and hardened into an impervious layer, allowing sheet runoff and flooding with very powerful force. Certainly, with urbanization and population increase, impervious surface areas from roofs, sidewalks, driveways, roads, and parking lots have also increased very much since the 1950s. Stormwater cannot penetrate the soil as it used to. Instead it courses quickly along the impervious surfaces, causing flooding, erosion, and contamination from animal fecal matter and general garbage. The US Geological Survey publishes research on this topic, and their Fact Sheet 076-03 is a good start for the causal connection between urbanization and flooding. Floods need impervious surfaces, or they don’t happen as much. However, we need impervious surfaces, or our cars would get stuck in the mud and our roofs would leak. 46 | August 2019
URBAN CLIMATE ISLANDS Gardeners know that “micro-climates” can be made with walls, wind breaks, etc., to trap heat and enable warmer-climate plants to thrive. By their design, cities similarly trap heat, but they also produce heat to make their own “heat islands”. An extensive study in China (Zhou et al., 2015, Sci. Rep. 11160) showed measurable urban heat effects continued outwards 3 – 5 km from city perimeters. This heat effect can be visualized as a permanent dome of heat energy over the city, pushing outward and upward to dissipate heat and warm the countryside and atmosphere. City air temperatures can be more than 5 – 10°C higher than the surrounding countryside (www.epa.gov), and paved surfaces up to 50°C hotter than shaded surfaces. One thing that surprised me is the tremendous heat picked up by rain as it tracks over hot asphalt, heating up by 10 – 15°C or so. Heated stormwater negatively impacts surrounding streams (and oceans presumably) by warming them. LOOKING AT SOUTHERN ONTARIO Toronto’s downtown Bloor and St.
George weather station operated by Environment & Natural Resources (ENR) from 1840 – 2006, and rural Owen Sound’s ENR and MOE stations from 1878 – 2007. Omitting the 1883 – 1886 eruption of the Krakatau volcano in the Dutch East Indies, Toronto’s average temperature was 6.7°C for 1840 – 1877, 7.7°C for 1878 – 1916, and 8.9°C for 1917 – 2002. Owen Sound averages were 6.9°C for 1878 – 1916 and 6.9°C for 1917 – 2002, more than a 1.9°C difference since WWI. (The boundary of 1916 – 1917 was chosen because of the sudden and sustained jump in overall temperature difference of 0.9°C in 1916 – 1.9°C in 1917.) Figure 2 demonstrates the divergence in temperatures between the two cities after WWI and includes the cold years caused by the Krakatau volcano eruption. Compared to the 40 years prior to WWI, Toronto has warmed by 1.19°C since WWI, and Owen Sound by 0.05°C. The change in Toronto is more from warmer winters than hotter summers, and in Owen Sound, winters got warmer but summers actually cooled. Note that temperature fluctuations are coincident in Owen Sound and Toronto records (also for other Georgian Bay weather stations) and reflect regional and global incidents. Toronto has been 1.9°C warmer than Owen Sound for a century, and since 1940 continued overleaf…
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would be an artificial starting point, for instance. All data used herein are sourced from websites of government agencies, or have been requested and obtained from the same. Years with one or more CLIMATE CHANGE months missing are omitted, and any omission or separation of data is explained. Normalized to 1980 Annual Values
SW Georgian Bay
NOAA World CO2 0.75 1940
3. Annual temperatures of combined Owen Sound + Wiarton + Chatsworth stations (blue dots) in comparison with downtown Toronto (red dots). Figure NOAA World CO₂ estimates are in black dots. All data are normalized to their value at 1980, similar to a percentage change for better visualization. Figure 3. Annual temperatures of combined Owen Sound + Wiarton + Chatsworth stations (blue dots) in Although CO₂ climbs predictably and regularly within a very narrow range, temperatures vary unpredictably and widely, in both directions from 1980. comparison with downtown Toronto (red dots). NOAA World CO 2 estimates are in black dots. All data are There is no reasonable method to infer a causal effect between CO₂ and Ontario temperatures, even over this 75-year period. normalized to their value at 1980, similar to a percentage change for better visualization. Although CO2 it averages 3.0°C warmer than Wiarton own “CO₂ domes” (e.g., Phoenix, AZ; and Chatsworth. It is a sustained, year- Idso et al. 2001, Atmos. Env. 35: 995), round, 2 – 3°C heat anomaly, as Toronto attributed mainly to vehicular traffic. continuously produces its own heat. Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) monitors CO₂ across the TORONTO AS A CO₂ DOME country, and although each site has its While cities appear to be their own own specific source and sink characterfurnaces, they also appear to form their istics, it is intriguing to contrast ToronDistance from Downsview km
Year reached 400 ppm CO₂
Rate of CO₂ rise ppm/decade
Projected CO₂ in early 2018 ppm
2011 – 12
Sable Island, NS
Table 1. Summary from various ECCC CO₂ monitoring stations in Canada in “total unfiltered hourly CO₂ per 24-hour day”. 48 | August 2019
to’s CO₂ with surrounding areas. (Since CO₂ behaviour is complex, a proper quantitative comparison requires meteorological modelling, so this is simply a first look at isolated sites for qualitative comparison.) Using the linear trend of total hourly unfiltered data, the ECCC Downsview site in central Metropolitan Toronto reached the 400 ppm CO₂ mark back in 2005, and rises steadily at 20 ppm/ decade (Table 1). Egbert, southwest of Barrie, lags 5 years behind and is rising at 18 ppm/decade, with Fraserdale, north of Timmins, lagging 8 years and rising at 20 ppm. Hanlan’s Point on Toronto Islands is anomalous as it lagged 6 – 7 years behind Downsview, but is now rising very rapidly at 41 ppm/decade. Turkey Point on Lake Erie passed 400 in late 2012, a lag of 7 years, and is rising at 24 ppm/decade, a little higher than the norm. Compared to Downsview and Hanlan’s Point, surrounding stations have lower overall values of CO₂ and are less “noisy”. Toronto’s CO₂ fluctuations have transitory peaks of >100 ppm above average, similar to Hanlan’s Point. Alert, Nunavut, continued overleaf…
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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TEMPERATURE HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST GEORGIAN BAY Owen Sound: Annual temperatures increase in a seesaw pattern from 1898 to 1997, followed by a decrease from 1998 – 2018 (Figure 2), and show the same warming and cooling trends with respect to atmospheric CO₂ concentration (in Figure 3 combined with Chatsworth and Wiarton data). It is always a challenge to select start and end points for trends to avoid artificial trends. Both upward and downward trends can be artificially induced, or correctly uncovered, depending on how end points are chosen. A separation in the data is made at 1997 – 1998, when temperatures jumped due to El Nino (www. ec.gc.ca/meteo-weather), and which is also evident in the Toronto, Chatsworth and Wiarton data. The anomalously hot year 1921 is recorded in Toronto, Owen Sound and Collingwood. The volcanic winter years of 1883 – 1885, due to the Krakatau eruption, are visible for Toronto and Owen Sound, but would be an artificial starting point, for instance. All data used herein are sourced from websites of government agencies, or have been requested and obtained from the same. Years with one or more months missing are omitted, and any omission or separation of data is explained. 50 | August 2019
1947-1980 y = -0.05x + 21.9 R² = 0.363
1981-1997 y = -0.03x + 16.5 R² = 0.090
1998-2018 y = -0.01x + 11.8 R² = 0.035
and Sable Island, Nova Scotia, especially are very quiet with regular fluctuations of 15 – 20 ppm. This difference indicates that Toronto has substantial nearby influences, and that it is also an urban CO₂ dome. Toronto has been a “heat dome” since WWI and also appears to be a “CO₂ dome”, consistently 2 – 3°C and ~10 ppm CO₂ above rural Georgian Bay which is only 150 km northwest. When both heat and CO₂ (and water) are generated in situ by combustion of various carbon-based compounds (natural gas, gasoline, propane, wood, coal, oil), the greenhouse effect of CO₂ cannot, in itself, explain these higher city temperatures. Toronto’s environment is akin to a potbelly stove effect rather than a greenhouse effect, a key distinction. But has atmospheric CO₂ influenced air temperatures outside of the urban heat zones; i.e., is there evidence for a substantial greenhouse effect?
NOAA World CO2 ppm
Figure 4. Wiarton data, here separated at the 1980 hinge point and at 1997-1998 El Nino jump, show that a Figure 4. Wiarton data, here separated at the 1980 hinge point and at the 1997-1998 El Nino jump, causal connection between atmospheric temperatures and CO 2 cannot be inferred with such a poor show that a causal connection between atmospheric temperatures and CO₂ cannot be inferred association of the two variables. with such a poor association of the two variables. There is no systematic, straightforward relationship between atmospheric warming and CO2 change in the SW Georgian Bay area. A good correlation can imply a causal relationship, as is very reasonable with world population and world CO Chatsworth: Historical2 in Figure 1. However, where there is no correlation, a causal relationship Chatsworth has provided an uninterrupted record cannot exist, with the variables being independent of each other. For cause, there must be a time order temperatures rise in a fairly distinct see- since 1947. Temperatures fall noticeably and a mechanism, as well as association. But without association in the first place, there is no case for saw manner from 1958 – 2006, when the from 1947 – 1980, followed by overall rise CO 2 causing temperature variation. station closed. A single linear trend to the from 1981 – 2018. Wiarton is embedded The very tight relationship between world population and world atmospheric CO 2 values can be inferred whole population of data is not always in the Georgian Bay trends in Figure 3. to be causal, i.e., more people beget more CO2 in their day-to-day lives. However, in the SW Georgian Bay the best representation of the data. When Looking at only the last four decades, area (which also records world climate events) and in general, the effects of this increasing CO 2 appear to be less than worrisome. separated at the El Nino jump of 1997 – one would conclude that rising tempera 1998, temperatures increase slightly with ture corresponds to increasing world There is no issue with world food crop and meat production not meeting population growth, and forest increasing World CO₂ until 1997 – 1998, population, rising world CO₂, and risfires are not increasing in Canada. Forest area burned varies considerably year to year, has an unclear relationship to El Nino years, and no relationship to NASA’s North America Land-Ocean temperature and then decrease, similar to the Owen ing Ontario CO₂ values. For the whole index. Land subsidence, natural or human-induced, adds to regional sea level rise. Impervious surfaces in Sound data. If the single anomalously low time period of 1947-2018, a linear trend the urban built-environment and paving over increase flooding and warm and degrade surface waters. data point of 1962 is removed, the 1958 – line would steadily increase with respect 1997 trends are flat, with no increase or to world CO₂ at a +0.01 slope. Urban centres like Toronto are by design permanent heat traps, permanent heat sources, and permanent CO 2 sources that impact surrounding rural areas. This permanent city-rural difference suggests that a decrease with CO₂ at all. Temperatures However, for the three decades before more ‘mosaic approach’ of cities and rural entities may be more appropriate than a global homogeneity are seen to rise and to fall with increase 1980, it is quite the opposite with a – 0.05 approach. slope followed by a +0.01 slope after 1980, in CO₂, in an independent manner. Owen Sound and Toronto both recorded the Krakatau volcano eruption; Owen Sound, Collingwood and Collingwood: The ENR station in demonstrating that CO₂ content correToronto recorded the very hot year of 1921; Owen Sound, Toronto, Chatsworth and Wiarton all record Collingwood operated from 1891 – 1974, sponds with both warming and cooling the very hot year of 1998. This connectivity suggests that local records are also regional records, and but there are three large gaps in the record. trends, and not just warming. likely global records. The gap from 1920 – 1935 seems to be a For 1947 – 1980, annual temperatures Random Walk Behaviour? reasonable separation in the record, and decrease 0.50°C for every 10 ppm increase Historically, temperatures in SW Georgian Bay have been rising and falling substantially every year, and is used here. Warming occurred for 1891 – in2 are variables that increase steadily without CO₂ over the first 34 years, and show no ‘hockey stick’ shape. Population, time, and CO
1921 and very slight cooling to no change for 1935 – 1974. As in Owen Sound, 1921 stands out as a warm year in Collingwood, and 1904 a cool year. As mentioned, trend lines are sensitive to subjective start and end points in data. As an example, when the single 1921 data point is omitted from the 1891 – 1921 period, the relation of temperature to time changes from a positive +0.03 slope to a negative – 0.001 slope, and the same for temperature versus world CO₂. This demonstrates how trends can easily be changed and even misrepresented, meaning results are not always as they may appear. In either case, however, there is no clear relationship between warming temperatures and increasing CO₂ in the air. Wiarton: This rural weather station
decrease 0.63°C for every billion more people in the world. During the period of 1981 – 2018, temperatures increase 0.13°C for every 10 ppm rise in CO₂, and increase 0.28°C per billion rise in population. At the High Arctic military base of Alert, Nunavut, this same pattern of cooling and warming is seen with a – 0.04 slope from 1951 – 1979 and +0.07 from 1980 to 2018. Figure 4 depicts the importance of carefully choosing the start and end points for correlation, as the results can be fundamentally different, and all from the same database. In this case, there is no positive correlation between temperature and CO₂ if the 1980 hinge and 1998 El Nino years are taken as data separators. continued on page 60
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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ASSOCIATIONS ABORIGINAL WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO PO Box 20001, Riverview Postal Outlet, Dryden ON P8N 0A1 Sara Campbell email@example.com T: 807‑216‑8085 F: 807‑223‑1222 www.awwao.org The Aboriginal Water and Wastewater Association of Ontario’s (AWWAO) goal is to attain assurance that First Nations water and wastewater treatment plant operators are confident, efficient and effective in managing the purification of the water and the treatment of wastewater in their community. AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION Koppers Building, 2100-436 Seventh Ave, Pittsburgh PA 15219 Stephanie Glyptis firstname.lastname@example.org T: 412‑232‑3444 F: 412‑232‑3450 www.awma.org ALBERTA ONSITE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 21115 – 108 Ave NW, Edmonton AB T5S 1X3 Lesley Desjardins email@example.com T: 877‑689‑8118 F: 780‑486‑7414 www.aowma.com ALBERTA WATER & WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION 10806 – 119 St NW, Edmonton AB T5H 3P2 Dan Rites T: 780‑454‑7745 Ext. 226 F: 780‑454‑7748 www.awwoa.ca
AMERICAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 350 – 8445 Freeport Parkway, Irving TX 75063 Russell Tripp firstname.lastname@example.org T: 972‑506‑7216 F: 972‑506‑7682 www.concretepipe.org
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AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS Fl23 – 120 Wall St, New York NY 10005-4020 T: 203‑702‑7660 F: 203‑775‑5177 www.aiche.org
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AMERICAN PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION 1400 – 1200 Main St, Kansas City MO 64105‑2100 Scott Grayson firstname.lastname@example.org T: 816‑472‑6100 F: 816‑472‑1610 www.apwa.net The American Public Works Association serves professionals in all aspects of public works. With a worldwide membership of 30,000, APWA includes personnel from local, county, state/province, and federal agencies, as well as the private sector that supply products and services to those professionals. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 1801 Alexander Bell Dr, Reston VA 20191 Thomas W. Smith email@example.com T: 703‑295‑6300 www.asce.org AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION 6666 W Quincy Ave, Denver CO 80235-3098 David LaFrance T: 303‑794‑7711 F: 303‑347‑0804 www.awwa.org The American Water Works Associ-
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AUDITING ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 9 Forest Rd, Whitby ON L1N 3N7 Todd Hall email@example.com T: 866‑582‑9595 www.auditingcanada.com BRITISH COLUMBIA ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION firstname.lastname@example.org www.bceia.com BRITISH COLUMBIA GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 1334 Riverside Rd, Abbotsford BC V2S 8J2 David Mercer email@example.com T: 604‑530‑8934 F: 604‑630‑8846 www.bcgwa.org
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BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION 247 – 4299 Canada Way, Burnaby BC V5G 4Y2 Marian Hands firstname.lastname@example.org T: 604‑433‑4389 F: 604‑433‑9859 www.bcwwa.org
CANADIAN COUNCIL OF INDEPENDENT LABORATORIES (CCIL) PO Box 41027, Ottawa ON K1G 5K9 Francine Fortier-ThéBerge email@example.com T: 613‑746‑3919 F: 613‑746‑4324 www.ccil.com
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CANADIAN WATER QUALITY ASSOCIATION 4–180 Northfield Drive W Waterloo, ON N2L 0C7 email@example.com T: 416‑695‑3068 www.cwqa.com CANADIAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 120 Glenora St, Ottawa ON K1S 1J3 Sean Douglas firstname.lastname@example.org T: 613‑237‑9363 www.cwra.org CANADIAN WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION 400 – 240 Bank St, Ottawa ON K2P 1X4 Tracy Walden email@example.com T: 613‑234‑8716 F: 613‑234‑5642 www.canwea.ca CANADIAN WOOD WASTE RECYCLING BUSINESS GROUP 5003 - 54A Avenue, Stony Plain AB T7Z 1B7 Jim Donaldson jdonaldson@ cdnwoodwasterecycling.ca T: 780‑963‑7117 www.cdnwoodwasterecycling.ca CEMENT ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 1105 – 350 Sparks St,Ottawa ON K1R 7S8 Michael McSweeney firstname.lastname@example.org T: 613‑236‑9471 Ext.206 www.cement.ca CENTRE FOR ADVANCEMENT OF TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo ON N2L 3G1 Dr. Mark Knight email@example.com T: 519‑888‑4567 Ext. 6919 www.cattevents.ca CHEMISTRY INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 805 – 350 Sparks St, Ottawa ON K1R 7S8 Bob Masterson firstname.lastname@example.org T: 613‑237‑6215 F: 613‑237‑4061 www.canadianchemistry.ca COMPOST COUNCIL OF CANADA 16 Northumberland St, Toronto ON M6H 1P7 email@example.com T: 416‑535‑0240 F: 416‑536‑9892 www.compost.org CONSERVATION COUNCIL OF ONTARIO C/O Cariporter Inc. PO Box 73021, 465 Yonge St, Toronto ON M4Y 2W5 www.conserveontario.ca
CONSULTING ENGINEERS OF ONTARIO 405 – 10 Four Seasons Pl, Toronto ON M9B 6H7 Bruce Matthews firstname.lastname@example.org T: 416‑620‑1400 Ext. 224 F: 416‑620‑5803 www.ceo.on.ca CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE INSTITUTE 2A – 652 Bishop St N, Cambridge ON N3H 4V6 Ray Wilcock email@example.com T: 519‑650‑8080 F: 519‑650‑8081 www.cspi.ca CSA GROUP 178 Rexdale Blvd, Toronto ON M9W 1R3 T: 416‑747‑4000 www.csagroup.org DUCTILE IRON PIPE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION PO Box 19306, Birmingham AL 35219 Patrick J. Hogan firstname.lastname@example.org T: 205‑402‑8700 www.dipra.org ECO CANADA 200-308 – 11th Ave SE, Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 Kevin Nilsen email@example.com T: 403‑233‑0748 F: 403‑269‑9544 www.eco.ca ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES ASSOCIATION OF ALBERTA 102 – 2528 Ellwood Dr SW, Edmonton AB T6X 0A9 Joe Chowaniec firstname.lastname@example.org T: 780‑429‑6363 www.esaa.org ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES ASSOCIATION MARITIMES 502 – 5657 Spring Garden Rd, PO Box 142, Halifax NS B3J 3R4 Tara Oak email@example.com www.esamaritimes.ca T: 902‑463‑3538 F: 902‑425‑2441 GEORGIAN BAY ASSOCIATION 138 Hopedale Ave Toronto ON, M4K 3M7 Rupert Kindersley firstname.lastname@example.org T: 416‑985-7378 www.georgianbay.ca INTERNATIONAL OZONE ASSOCIATION PO Box 97075, Las Vegas NV 89193 email@example.com T: 480‑529‑3787 F: 480‑533‑3080 www.ioa-pag.org
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ONTARIO PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION 22 – 1525 Cornwall Rd, Oakville ON L6J 0B2 Brian Barber firstname.lastname@example.org T: 647‑726‑0167 F: 289‑291‑6477 www.opwa.ca ONTARIO RURAL WASTEWATER CENTRE University Of Guelph, School Of Engineering, Guelph ON N1G 2W1 Bassim Abbassi email@example.com T: 519‑824‑4120 F: 519‑836‑0227 www.ontarioruralwastewatercentre.ca ONTARIO SEWER & WATERMAIN CONSTRUCTION ASSOCIATION 300 – 5045 Orbitor Dr, Unit 12, Mississauga ON L4W 4Y4 Giovanni Cautillo firstname.lastname@example.org T: 905‑629‑7766 F: 905‑629‑0587 www.oswca.org ONTARIO SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 502 – 4950 Yonge St, Toronto ON M2N 6K1 Sandro Perruzza email@example.com T: 416‑223‑9961 F: 416‑223‑9963 www.ospe.on.ca ONTARIO WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3 – 2005 Clark Blvd, Brampton ON L6T 5P8 Rob Cook firstname.lastname@example.org T: 905‑791‑9500 F: 905‑791‑9514 www.owma.org ONTARIO WATERPOWER ASSOCIATION 264 – 380 Armour Rd, Peterborough ON K9H 7L7 Paul Norris email@example.com T: 866‑743‑1500 www.owa.ca ONTARIO WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION 215 – 507 Lakeshore Road E, Mississauga ON L5G 1H9 Michele Grenier firstname.lastname@example.org T: 416‑231‑1555 F: 416‑231‑1556 www.owwa.ca ONTARIO WATER WORKS EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION www.owwea.ca The Ontario Water Works Equipment Association (OWWEA) is an organization that represents its membership within the waterworks industry of Ontario. Membership consists of manufacturers,
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PLASTICS PIPE INSTITUTE 825 – 105 Decker Court, Irving TX 75062 Tony Radoszewski email@example.com T: 469‑499‑1046 F: 469‑499‑1063 www.plasticpipe.org PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS ONTARIO 101 – 40 Sheppard Ave W, Toronto ON M2N 6K9 T: 416‑224‑1100 www.peo.on.ca PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 20430 Fraser Highway, Vancouver BC V3A 4G2 firstname.lastname@example.org T: 604‑880‑8585 www.pwabc.ca PULP & PAPER TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 440 – 6300 Ave Auteuil, Brossard QC J4Z 3P2 Greg Hay email@example.com T: 514‑392‑0265 F: 514‑392‑0369 www.paptac.ca RÉSEAU ENVIRONNEMENT 750 – 255 Boul Cremazie Est, Montreal QC H2M 1L5 T: 514‑270‑7110 F: 514‑874‑1272 www.reseau-environnement.com SASKATCHEWAN ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY & MANAGERS ASSOCIATION PO Box 22009 RPO Wildwood, Saskatoon SK S7H 5P1 Patrick Legg firstname.lastname@example.org T: 844‑801‑6233 www.seima.sk.ca SASKATCHEWAN ONSITE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 449 Haviland Cr, Saskatoon SK S7L 5B3 Lesley Desjardins email@example.com T: 306‑988‑2102 F: 855‑420‑6336 www.sowma.ca SASKATCHEWAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 7831 Stn Main, Saskatoon SK S7K 4R5 Tim Cox T: 306‑668‑1278 www.swwa.ca
54 | August 2019
SOLID WASTE ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA 650 – 1100 Wayne Ave, Silver Spring MD 20910 David Biderman firstname.lastname@example.org T: 800‑467‑9262 F: 301‑589‑7068 www.swana.org STEEL TANK INSTITUTE/STEEL PLATE FABRICATORS ASSOCIATION 944 Donata Ct, Lake Zurich IL 60047 Katie Bruce email@example.com T: 847‑438‑8265 F: 847‑438‑8766 www.steeltank.com THE GREEN BUILDING INITIATIVE 7805 SW 40th Ave, PO Box 80010, Portland OR 97219 Vicki Worden firstname.lastname@example.org T: 503‑274‑0448 www.thegbi.org WATER RESEARCH FOUNDATION 6666 West Quincy Ave, Denver CO 80235‑3098 Peter Grevatt email@example.com T: 303‑347‑6100 F: 303‑730‑0851 www.waterrf.org WATER & WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION, INC. 304 – 540 Fort Evans Rd, Leesburg VA 20176‑3379 Vanessa Leiby firstname.lastname@example.org T: 703‑444‑1777 www.wwema.org WATER ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO 6517 Mississauga Rd Unit C, Mississauga ON L5N 1A6 Heather Tyrrell email@example.com T: 416‑410‑6933 www.weao.org
WATER FOR PEOPLE – CANADA 400 – 245 Consumers Rd, Toronto ON M2J 1R3 Joan Conyers firstname.lastname@example.org T: 416‑499‑4042 F: 416‑499‑4687 www.waterforpeople.org Water For People – Canada is a charitable nonprofit international humanitarian organization, dedicated to the development and delivery of clean, safe water and sanitation solutions in developing nations. WATER SUPPLY ASSOCIATION OF B.C. Box 21013 Orchard Park, Kelowna BC V1Y 8N9 email@example.com T: 250-868-3803 www.wsabc.ca WESTERN CANADA ONSITE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 21115 – 108 Ave NW, Edmonton AB T5S 1X3 Lesley Desjardins firstname.lastname@example.org T: 780‑489‑7471 F: 780‑486‑7414 www.wcowma.com WESTERN CANADA WATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 1708, Cochrane AB T4C 1B6 Audrey Arisman email@example.com T: 403-709-0064 F: 403-709-0068 www.wcwwa.ca WCW was founded in 1948 to promote the exchange of knowledge of water treatment, sewage treatment, distribution of water and collection of sewage for towns and cities in Western Canada. Today, WCW is a collaboration of seven Constituent Organizations representing over 5,500 diverse and skilled members who work in water across Western Canada.
WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION 601 Wythe St, Alexandria VA 22314‑1994 Eileen O’Neill firstname.lastname@example.org T: 800‑666‑0206 www.wef.org The Water Environment Federation is a not-for-profit association that provides technical education and training for thousands of water quality professionals who clean water and return it safely to the environment. WEF members have proudly protected public health, served their local communities, and supported clean water worldwide since 1928.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
PROVINCIAL & FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ENVIRONMENTAL AGENCIES KEY GOVERNMENT WEBSITES: Government of Canada www.canada.ca
Environment & Climate Change Canada www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change Health Canada www.canada.ca/en/health-canada Natural Resources Canada www.nrcan.gc.ca National Research Council of Canada www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca
Monitoring, Assessment & Stewardship T: 250-354-6333
Ministry of Environment & Parks 208 Legislature Bldg, 10800-97 Ave, Edmonton, AB T5K 2B6 T: 780-427-2391
Environmental Sustainability & Strategic Policy PO Box 9339, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M1 T: 250-387-9997
Information Centre Main Floor-9820-106 St, Oxbridge Pl, Edmonton, AB T5K 2J6 T: 877-310-3773 24-Hour Environmental Emergencies Hotline T: 800-222-6514
BRITISH COLUMBIA www2.gov.bc.ca
Ministry of Environment & Climate Change Strategy – Communications & Public Engagement PO Box 9360, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 T: 800-663-7867 Environmental Emergencies (Toll Free) T: 800-663-3456 Report Pollution T: 877-952-7277 Environmental Appeal Board PO Box 9425, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9V1 T: 250-387-3464 www.eab.gov.bc.ca Environmental Assessment Office PO Box 9426, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V9W 9V1 T: 250-356-7479 www.projects.eao.gov.bc.ca Climate Change Division PO Box 9339, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M1 T: 250-356-250-356-7479
Environmental Emergency 24-Hour Service T: 204-944-4888
Environmental Emergencies & Land Remediation Branch PO Box 9342, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M1 T: 250-387-9971 Environmental Standards Branch PO Box 9341, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M1 T: 778-698-4891 Water Strategies & Conservation PO Box 9362, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 T: 778-698-4061
Ministry of Sustainable Development Client Information Unit 200 Saulteaux Cres, PO Box 22, Winnipeg, MB R3J 3W3 T: 204-945-6784, 800-214-6497 www.gov.mb.ca/sd Clean Environment Commission 305-155 Carlton St, Winnipeg, MB R3C 3H8 T: 204-945-0594 www.cecmanitoba.ca Office of Drinking Water Branch 1007 Century St, Winnipeg, MB R3H 0W4 T: 204-945-5762 Water Services Board 2010 Currie Blvd Unit 1A, Brandon, MB R7B 4E7 T: 204-726-6076 www.mbwaterservicesboard.ca
Ministry of Environment and Local Government Head Office Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-2690 Environmental Emergency 24-Hour Service T: 800-565-1633 Air & Water Sciences Branch Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB E3B 5H1 T: 506-457-4844 Assessment & Planning Appeal Board City Centre, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-2126 Climate Change Secretariat Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB E3B 5H1 T: 506-457-4844 Source and Surface Water Management Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB E3B 5H1 T: 506-457-4850 Policy & Planning Division Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-3700 Waste Diversion Unit Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-7945
NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR www.gov.nl.ca
Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Environment – Environment & Conservation Head Office West Block, Confederation Bldg, PO Box 8700, St.John’s, NL A1B 4J6 T: 709-729-3046 www.mae.gov.nl.ca Environmental Assessment Div. Floor 4 – Confederation Bldg West, PO Box 8700, St. John’s, NL A1B 4J6 T: 709-729-0673 Water Resources Management Div. Floor 4 – Confederation Bldg West, PO Box 8700, St. John’s,
NL A1B 4J6 T: 709-729-2563
Pollution Prevention Division Floor 4 – Confederation Bldg West, PO Box 8700, St. John’s, NL A1B 4J6 T: 709-729-2556 Environmental Spill Emergencies 24-Hour Service T: 709-772-2083
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES www.gov.nt.ca
Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 600-5102 – 50th Ave, PO Box 1320, Yellowknife, NT X1A 2L9 T: 867-767-9055 www.enr.gov.nt.ca 24-Hour Spill Report Line T: 867-920-8130
Department of Environment 1104A-Inuksugait Plaza, PO Box 1000, Stn 1320, Iqaluit, NU X0A 0H0 T: 867-975-7700 www.gov.nu.ca/environment 24-Hour Spill Response Line T: 867-920-8130
NOVA SCOTIA www.novascotia.ca
Ministry of the Environment 1800-1894 Barrington St, PO Box 442, Halifax, NS B3J 2P8 T: 902-424-3600 Emergency After Hours T: 800-565-1633 Environmental Compliance T: 902-424-2547, 877-936-8476 Water and Wastewater Branch T: 902-424-2553
Ministry of the Environment, Conservation & Parks c/o Macdonald Block Mailing Facility 77 Wellesley St W, PO Box 200 Toronto, ON M7A 2T5 T: 416-325-4000 4905 Dufferin St, North York, ON M3H 5T4 T: 416-739-4826
August 2019 | 55
Spill Reporting 416-325-3000, 800-268-6060 Corporate Management Division Floor 14-135 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON M4V 1P5 T: 416-314-6426 Advisory Council on Drinking Water Quality & Testing Standards Floor 9-40 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON M4V 1M2 T: 416-212-7779 Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) Floor 17-1 Yonge St, Toronto, ON M5E 1E5 T: 416-775-0500, 800-667-6292 www.ocwa.com Pesticides Advisory Committee Floor 7-40 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON M4V 1M2 T: 416-314-9230 www.opac.gov.on.ca
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND www.princeedwardisland.ca
Ministry of the Environment, Water and Climate Change Floor 4 – Jones Bldg, 11 Kent St, PO Box 2000, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 7N8 T: 902-368-5044, 866-368-5044 Environmental Emergency Response T: 800-565-1633
En Quebec, le Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques avez 17 régions administratives sont desservies par 9 directions régionales. Pour tout renseignement, veuillez communiquer avec l'une de nos directions régionales.
Walkerton Clean Water Centre 20 Ontario Rd, PO Box 160, Walkerton, ON N0G 2V0 T: 519-881-2003, 866-515-0550 www.wcwc.ca
Bas-Saint-Laurent et Gaspésie – Îles-de-la-Madeleine 212, avenue Belzile Rimouski QC G5L 3C3 T : 418-727-3511
Environmental Policy Division Floor 15 - 438 University Ave, Toronto, ON M7A 2A5 T: 416-314-6352
124, 1re Avenue Ouest Sainte-Annedes-Monts QC G4V 1C5 T : 418-763-3301
Environmental Assessment & Permissions Branch Floor 14 - 135 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON M4V 1P5 T: 416-314-9530 Environmental Sciences & Standards Division Floor 14-135 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON M4V 1P5 T: 416-314-4463 Laboratory Services Branch 125 Resources Rd, Toronto, ON M9P 3V6 T: 416-235-5743 Standards Development Branch Floor 7-40 St. Clair Ave W, Foster Bldg Toronto, ON M4V 1M2 T: 416-327-5519 Climate Change & Resiliency Division Floor 15-438 University Ave, Toronto, ON M7A 2A5 T: 416-325-8569 Environmental Review Tribunal 1500-655 Bay St, Toronto, ON M5G 1E5 T: 416-212-6349 www.elto.gov.on.ca
125, chemin du Parc, bureau 104 Cap-aux-Meules QC G4T 1B3 T : 418-986-6116
Saguenay – Lac-Saint-Jean 3950, boulevard Harvey, 4e étage Saguenay QC G7X 8L6 T : 418-695-7883 Capitale-Nationale et Chaudière-Appalaches 1175, boulevard Lebourgneuf, bureau 100 Québec QC G2K 0B7 T : 418-644-8844 675, route Cameron Bureau 200 Sainte-Marie QC G6E 3V7 T: 418-386-8000
Environmental Protection Floor 5-3211 Albert St, Regina, SK S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-2947
900, rue Léger Salaberry-deValleyfield QC J6S 5A3 T: 450-370-3085
Resource Management & Compliance Division Floor 5 – 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-2947
Montréal, Laval, Lanaudière et Laurentides 5199, rue Sherbrooke Est Bureau 3860 Montréal QC H1T 3X9 T: 514-873-3636 850, boulevard Vanier Laval QC H7C 2M7 T: 450-661-2008 100, boulevard Industriel Repentigny QC J6A 4X6 T: 450-654-4355
Sainte-Thérèse 260, rue Sicard, suite 200 SainteThérèse QC J7E 3X4 T: 450-433-2220 Point de services 1160, rue Notre-Dame Joliette QC J6E 3K4 T: 450-752-6860 (Pour les questions relatives à l’eau potable seulement)
Outaouais 170, rue de l'Hôtel-de-Ville, bureau 7.340 Gatineau QC J8X 4C2 T: 819-772-3434 Abitibi-Témiscamingue et Nord-du-Québec 180, boulevard Rideau, 1er étage Rouyn-Noranda QC J9X 1N9 T: 819-763-3333
SaskWater – Saskatoon 5-1925 1st Avenue N, Saskatoon, SK S7K 6W1 T: 306-933-1118 SaskWater – Prince Albert 800 Central Ave (McIntosh Mall), Prince Albert, SK S6V 6G1 T: 306-953-2250
Environment Yukon Government of Yukon Box 2703 (V-3A) Whitehorse, YT Y1A 2C6 T: 867-667-5652 www.env.gov.yk.ca
Côte-Nord 818, boulevard Laure Sept-Îles QC G4R 1Y8 T: 418-964-8888
Environmental Programs Branch T: 867-667-5683
1579, boulevard Louis‑Fréchette Nicolet QC J3T 2A5 T: 819-293-4122
Estrie et Montérégie 770, rue Goretti Sherbrooke QC J1E 3H4 T: 819-820-3882
SaskWater – Head Office 200-111 Fairford St E, Moose Jaw, SK S6H 1C8 T: 888-230-1111 www.saskwater.com
24-Hour Yukon Spill Line T: 867-667-7244
20, boulevard Comeau Baie-Comeau QC G4Z 3A8 T: 418-294-8888
Point de services 62, rue St-Jean-Baptiste S-02 Victoriaville QC G6P 4E3 T: 819-752-4530
Climate Change and Adaptation Division Floor 2 – 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-9016
Point de services Case Postale 160 101, rue Springer Chapais QC G0W 1H0 T: 418-745-2642
Mauricie et Centre-du-Québec 100, rue Laviolette, bureau 102 Trois-Rivières QC G9A 5S9 F: 819-371-6987
201, Place Charles-Le Moyne, 2e étage Longueuil QC J4K 2T5 T : 450-928-7607
56 | August 2019
Points de services 101, rue du Ciel Bureau 1.08 Bromont QC J2L 2X4 T: 450-534-5424
Ministry of the Environment 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK S4S 5W6 T: 800-567-4224 www.saskatchewan.ca/environment Environmental Emergency 24 hour Service T: 800-667-7525 Environmental Assessment & Stewardship Floor 4 – 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-6132
Climate Change Secretariat T: 867-456-5544
Yukon Fish & Wildlife 409 Black Street, PO Box 31104, Whitehorse, YT Y1A 5P7 T: 867-667-5715, 800-661-0408 Ext. 5715 www.yfwmb.ca Yukon Environmental & Socio-Economic Assessment Board (YESAB) 200-309 Strickland St, Whitehorse, YT Y1A 2J9 T: 867-668-6420 www.yesab.ca Yukon Water Box 2703 (V-310) Whitehorse, YT Y1A 2C6 T: 867-667-3171 www.yukonwater.ca
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
EDUCATION, RESEARCH & TRAINING
COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES, RESEARCH CENTRES & TRAINING The following institutions offer post-secondary education in fields relating to water, wastewater, environmental protection and environmental remediation. Also included in this guide are research centres affiliated with Canadian universities and training companies.
COLLEGES ɗɗALBERTA Keyano College Fort McMurray www.keyano.ca Lakeland College Vermillion, Lloydminster www.lakelandcollege.ca Lethbridge College Lethbridge www.lethbridgecollege.ca
ɗɗNEW BRUNSWICK New Brunswick Community College Miramichi www.nbcc.ca
ɗɗNEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR College of the North Atlantic Corner Brook www.cna.nl.ca
Medicine Hat College Medicine Hat www.mhc.ab.ca
Nova Scotia Community College Various www.nscc.ca
Northern Alberta Institute of Technology Edmonton www.nait.ca
Northern Lakes College Slave Lake www.northernlakescollege.ca
Nunavut Arctic College Various www.arcticcollege.ca
Portage College Lac la Biche www.portagecollege.ca
Algonquin College Ottawa www.algonquincollege.com
Southern Alberta Institute of Technology Calgary www.sait.ca
Cambrian College Sudbury www.cambriancollege.ca
ɗɗBRITISH COLUMBIA British Columbia Institute of Technology Burnaby www.bcit.ca Camosun College Victoria www.camosun.ca College of New Caledonia Prince George www.cnc.bc.ca Douglas College New Westminster www.douglascollege.ca Okanagan College Kelowna www.okanagan.bc.ca
ɗɗMANITOBA Assiniboine College Brandon www.assiniboine.net Red River College Winnipeg www.rrc.ca
Canadore College North Bay www.canadorecollege.ca Centennial College Toronto www.centennialcollege.ca Collège Boréal Sudbury www.collegeboreal.ca Conestoga College Kitchener www.conestogac.on.ca Confederation College Thunder Bay www.confederationcollege.ca Durham College Oshawa www.durhamcollege.ca Fleming College Lindsay www.flemingcollege.ca Georgian College Barrie www.georgiancollege.ca
Loyalist College Belleville www.loyalistcollege.com Mohawk College Hamilton www.mohawkcollege.ca
ɗɗYUKON Yukon College Whitehorse www.yukoncollege.yk.ca
Niagara College Canada Niagara-on-the-Lake www.niagaracollege.ca
Northern College Various www.northernc.on.ca
Athabasca University Various www.athabascau.ca
Sault College Sault Ste. Marie www.saultcollege.ca
Concordia University of Edmonton Edmonton www.concordia.ab.ca
Seneca College Toronto www.senecacollege.ca
Mount Royal University Calgary www.mtroyal.ca
Sheridan College Oakville www.sheridancollege.ca
The King’s University Edmonton www.kingsu.ca
St. Lawrence College Cornwall www.stlawrencecollege.ca
University of Alberta Edmonton www.ualberta.ca
ɗɗPRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
University of Calgary Calgary www.ucalgary.ca
Holland College Charlottetown www.hollandcollege.com
ɗɗQUEBEC Collège Shawinigan Shawinigan www.collegeshawinigan.ca Cégep de Saint-Félicien Saint-Félicien www.cegepstfe.ca John Abbott College Montreal www.johnabbott.qc.ca Vanier College Montreal www.vaniercollege.qc.ca
ɗɗSASKATCHEWAN Lakeland College Lloydminster www.lakelandcollege.ca Luther College Regina www.luthercollege.edu Saskatchewan Polytechnic Various www.saskpolytech.ca
University of Lethbridge Lethbridge www.uleth.ca
ɗɗBRITISH COLUMBIA Kwantlen Polytechnic University Langley www.kpu.ca Royal Roads University Victoria www.royalroads.ca Simon Fraser University Vancouver www.sfu.ca Thompson Rivers University Kamloops www.tru.ca Trinity Western University Langley www.twu.ca University of British Columbia Vancouver, Okanagan www.ubc.ca University of Northern British Columbia Prince George www.unbc.ca
August 2019 | 57
EDUCATION, RESEARCH & TRAINING
University of Victoria Victoria www.uvic.ca
York University Toronto www.yorku.ca
Annacis Research Centre Metro Vancouver www.metrovancouver.org
Brock University St. Catharines www.brocku.ca
Brandon University Brandon www.brandonu.ca
Carleton University Ottawa www.carleton.ca
University of Prince Edward Island Charlottetown www.upei.ca
Canadian Mennonite University Winnipeg www.cmu.ca
Lakehead University Thunder Bay www.lakeheadu.ca
University of Manitoba Winnipeg www.umanitoba.ca
Laurentian University Sudbury www.laurentian.ca
University of Winnipeg Winnipeg www.uwinnipeg.ca
McMaster University Hamilton www.mcmaster.ca
Nipissing University North Bay www.nipissingu.ca
Mount Allison University Sackville www.mta.ca St. Thomas University Fredericton www.stu.ca Université de Moncton Moncton www.umoncton.ca University of New Brunswick Fredericton www.unb.ca
ɗɗNEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John’s www.mun.ca
ɗɗNOVA SCOTIA Acadia University Wolfville www.acadiau.ca Cape Breton University Sydney www.cbu.ca Dalhousie University Halifax www.dal.ca Saint Mary’s University Halifax www.smu.ca St. Francis Xavier University Antigonish www.stfx.ca University of King’s College Halifax www.ukings.ca
58 | August 2019
Queen’s University Kingston www.queensu.ca Redeemer University College Ancaster www.redeemer.ca Royal Military College of Canada Kingston www.rmc-cmr.ca Ryerson University Toronto www.ryerson.ca Trent University Peterborough www.trentu.ca
ɗɗPRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
Brace Centre for Water Resources Management McGill University www.mcgill.ca/brace Canadian Rivers Institute University of New Brunswick www.canadianriversinstitute.com Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies University of Waterloo www.cattevents.ca
Bishop’s University Sherbrooke www.ubishops.ca Concordia University Montréal www.concordia.ca Polytechnique Montréal Montréal www.polymtl.ca McGill University Montréal www.mcgill.ca
Centre for Environmental Engineering Research and Education University of Calgary www.schulich.ucalgary.ca/ceere Centre for Water Resources Studies Dalhousie University www.centreforwaterresourcesstudies. dal.ca Environmental Careers Organization Canada www.eco.ca
Université de Montréal Montréal www.umontreal.ca Université de Sherbrooke Sherbrooke www.usherbrooke.ca Université du Québec Various www.uquebec.ca
Global Institute for Water Security University of Saskatchewan www.usask.ca/water Global Water Institute Carleton University www.carleton.ca/gwi Ontario Rural Wastewater Centre University of Guelph www.uoguelph.ca/orwc
Université Laval Québec City www.ulaval.ca
Pacific Water Research Centre Simon Fraser University www.sfu.ca/pwrc
First Nations University of Canada Regina www.fnuniv.ca
Pulp and Paper Centre University of British Columbia www.ppc.ubc.ca
University of Regina Regina www.uregina.ca
University of Ottawa Ottawa www.uottawa.ca
Research and Technology Institute Walkerton Clean Water Centre www.wcwc.ca
University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon www.usask.ca
University of Toronto Toronto www.utoronto.ca
Ryerson Urban Water Ryerson University www.ryerson.ca/water
Southern Ontario Water Consortium www.sowc.ca
University of Guelph Guelph www.uoguelph.ca University of Ontario Institute of Technology Oshawa www.uoit.ca
University of Waterloo Waterloo www.uwaterloo.ca University of Windsor Windsor www.uwindsor.ca Western University London www.uwo.ca Wilfrid Laurier University Waterloo www.wlu.ca
American Public University System Online www.apus.edu University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin www.wisc.edu
R&D CENTRES Advancing Canadian Wastewater Assets University of Calgary www.ucalgary.ca/acwa
The Beaty Water Research Centre Queens University, Royal Military College of Canada www.waterresearchcentre.ca The Centre for Advancement of Water and Wastewater Technologies Fleming College www.cawt.ca Water & Climate Impacts Research Centre University of Victoria www.uvic.ca/research/centres/wcirc Water Institute University of Waterloo www.uwaterloo.ca/water-institute
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
EDUCATION, RESEARCH & TRAINING
TRAINING PROVIDERS Alberta Water & Wastewater Operators Association Alberta www.awwoa.ca Associated Environmental Site Assessors of Canada Canada www.aesac.ca ATAP Infrastructure Management Saskatchewan www.atap.ca Atlantic Canada Water and Wastewater Association Atlantic Provinces www.acwwa.ca
Walkerton Clean Water Centre Walkerton, ON Tel: 519-881-2003 or 866-515-0550 Fax: 519-881-4947 email@example.com www.wcwc.ca The Walkerton Clean Water Centre (WCWC) is an agency of the Government of Ontario, established in 2004, to ensure clean and safe drinking water for the entire province. WCWC coordinates and provides education, training and information to drinking water system owners, operators and operating authorities, and the public, in order to safeguard Ontario’s drinking water. Through partnerships, WCWC also provides training for the 133 First Nations communities in Ontario.
BC Water & Waste Association British Columbia www.bcwwa.org Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation Canada www.cala.ca Canadian Water Quality Association Canada www.cwqa.com Cole Training & Operations Ontario www.coletraining.ca Colleges and Institutes Canada Canada www.collegesinstitutes.ca Environmental Careers Organization of Canada Canada www.eco.ca Keewaytinook Centre for Excellence Ontario www.watertraining.ca Manitoba Water and Wastewater Association Manitoba www.mwwa.net
Changing source water
Ontario Clean Water Agency Ontario www.ocwa.com Saskatchewan Polytechnic Saskatchewan www.saskpolytech.ca Team-1 Academy Ontario www.team1academy.com Walkerton Clean Water Centre Ontario www.wcwc.ca Waste Water Nova Scotia Society Nova Scotia www.wwns.ca World Water Operator Training Company Ontario www.wwotc.com
Spend three days on the beautiful Halifax Waterfront, right here at the Halifax Harbourfront Marriott!
Three days of networking, the ABEA trade show, delicious meals, exquisite entertainment, golf, and a technical program jam-packed with juicy water, wastewater and stormwater topics!
August 2019 | 59
A ‘mosaic’ perspective of climate due to natural and societal influences Sound, Toronto, Chatsworth and Wiar- tem. Local weather stations are the only ton all recorded the very hot year of 1998. historical basis for prediction we have, There is no systematic, straightforward This connectivity suggests that local as there are no “global measurements”. relationship between atmospheric warm- records are also regional records, and Global events like the Krakatau voling and CO₂ change in the SW Georgian likely global records. cano eruption and the hot years of 1921 Bay area. A good correlation can imply a and 1998 are reflected at the local stations, causal relationship, as is very reasonable RANDOM WALK BEHAVIOUR? and so to be accurate, any global predicwith world population and world CO₂ Historically, temperatures in SW Geor- tive model needs to return the favour, and in Figure 1. However, where there is no gian Bay have been rising and falling sub- reflect local historical records during calcorrelation, a causal relationship cannot stantially every year, and show no “hockey ibration. An over-averaged model would exist, with the variables being indepen- stick” shape. Population, time, and CO₂ miss the interplay of urban and rural entident of each other. For cause, there must are variables that increase steadily with- ties, and that would be unhelpful. be a time order and a mechanism, as well out decreasing, whereas temperatures One representation identified here as association. But without association rise and fall widely on an annual or mul- would be depicting large cities as stationin the first place, there is no case for CO₂ tiple-decade basis, more akin to a stock ary source nodes of permanent heat and causing temperature variation. market trend, and sometimes jump up as CO₂, broadcasting outwards into their surrounds. This perspective is not just The very tight relationship between in 1921 and 1998, also like stocks. world population and world atmoThis behaviour has been referred to as looking at local weather, since it includes spheric CO₂ values can be inferred to a “Markov chain” or “random walk” pro- both permanent effects of urban anombe causal, i.e., more people beget more cess (e.g., Gordon 1991, Am. Meteorolog- alies on the regional background cliCO₂ in their day-to-day lives. However, ical Soc. 4; 589), which comprises mov- mate through the seasons, but is akin to in the SW Georgian Bay area (which ing from a first value to a second value, a series of local climate mosaics instead also records world climate events) and with the direction determined by chance. of a global melting pot. It is also potenin general, the effects of this increasing The next move is taken from position tially uncovering the important causes CO₂ appear to be less than worrisome. two and not from the first position so and not just overall symptoms. There is no issue with world food crop that the immediate and ultimate values It appears from my investigation that and meat production not meeting pop- do not depend on past history. the impervious and heat-producing urban ulation growth, and forest fires are not This continuation from the latest posi- environment has more impact than increasing in Canada. Forest area burned tion is important to temperature trends, solely a CO₂ induced greenhouse effect. varies considerably year to year, has an as both the decades-period trends and There appears to be less than a catastrounclear relationship to El Nino years, and the year-to-year changes, as seen for phe looming. Thus, media and political no relationship to NASA’s North Amer- Wiarton, for example, can develop. Gor- alarms can be less fervent and refocus on ica Land-Ocean temperature index. Land don also discusses climate being “sub- appropriate responses for future warming subsidence, natural or human-induced, jected to periodic shocks of random or cooling. adds to regional sea level rise. Impervi- warming and cooling impulses”. Owen ous surfaces in the urban built-environ- Sound impulses are seen at 1904, 1921, E. Craig Jowett, PhD, P.Eng. did his ment and paving over increase flooding 1940, and El Nino 1998, among others. It Masters and PhD at Toronto between and warm and degrade surface waters. does look like the record is periodically working stints as a field geologist from Urban centres like Toronto are by “knocked off balance” but then carries on coast to coast in Canada and the Arctic design permanent heat traps, permanent as usual from the new position. World Islands, Eastern & Western Europe, heat sources, and permanent CO₂ sources CO₂ and Ontario CO₂ behave differently and SW USA, followed by NATO that impact surrounding rural areas. This than that, independent of temperature. Science Fellowships at Michigan and Cornell. After a time with the University permanent city-rural difference suggests of Waterloo as a research professor, that a more “mosaic approach” of cities A NEW PERSPECTIVE? and rural entities may be more appropriGeorgian Bay temperatures do not he founded his own Ontario-based ate than a global homogeneity approach. correspond with CO₂ strongly enough wastewater manufacturing and research Owen Sound and Toronto both to infer a causal connection. There will company. His research contributions recorded the Krakatau volcano eruption; be other factors that impact climate, as can be found at www.researchgate.net/ Owen Sound, Collingwood and Toronto is reasonable with such a complex open profile/Edwin_Craig_Jowett recorded the very hot year of 1921; Owen system like the Earth within its solar sys-
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PRODUCT & SERVICE SHOWCASE JWC Environmental T: 800-331-2277 W: www.jwce.com Represented in Ontario by ACG – Envirocan T: 905-856-1414 F: 905-856-6401 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.acg-envirocan.ca
HIGH FLOW GRINDER
The Channel Monster® FLEX is JWC’s newest grinder product for protecting pumps, pipes and other equipment. The high flow grinder is constructed of a separate FLEX grinder and solids diverter screening drum, brought together with a unique FLEX frame. This modular design allows for the flexibility of servicing the cutting element and screening drum separately for ease of service and best cost of ownership. JWC Environmental T: 800-331-2277 W: https://www.jwce.com/product/ channel-monster-flex/ Represented in Ontario by ACG – Envirocan T: 905-856-1414 F: 905-856-6401 E: email@example.com W: www.acg-envirocan.ca
MONSTER DRUM THICKENER
JWC Environmental’s Monster Drum Thickener utilizes a progressive series of woven mesh screening elements to separate free water from flocculated sludge. It features over 98% capture rate and extremely low polymer usage. Removable screening drum panels, fast flocculation, full enclosure and all stainless construction are standard features. Thicken up to 5% – 12% solids depending on type of sludge.
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT
Avensys brings you LaserFlow EX, a non-contact sensor for open channel flow measurement. Acquire precise readings with the only non-contact low measurement sensor to read below the surface. It is intrinsically safe and can be used in a wide range of flow conditions. Avensys Solutions Inc. W: www.avensys.com
Large diameter work being done? Time is money and with Denso Mastic Blankets as part of your Denso corrosion prevention system, you can get the job done right, more efficiently. At 10 "x 39 ", the mastic blankets cover a large area, filling voids and profiling in seconds. Protect your assets and save time and money with the Denso Petrolatum System. Denso North America T: 416-291-3435 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.densona.com
HIGH PERFORMANCE GRIT CAPTURE
The FLEXFLO® A-100N metering pumps are compatible with a wide range of water treatment chemicals. With no valves to clog, they can be used with many gas forming chemicals. These metering pumps are suited to chemical feed demand up to a maximum feed output of 124GPD/8.45LPH and working pressures reaching 100PSI/6.9Bar. The pump head and tube assemblies’ model numbers are visibly stamped on the PVDF pump tube adapters, for easy re–order. Blue-White Industries T: 714-893-8529 F: 714-894-9492 E: email@example.com W: www.blue-white.com
Circumstances in the field have shown that finer grit bypasses the grit removal process and continues further in the process. New downstream treatment processes employed such as pumps, digesters, MBRs, etc. showed that they were vulnerable to this finer grit particle and were very costly to maintain and repair. Huber Technology T: 704-990-2053 F: 704-949-1020 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.huber-technology.com
August 2019 | 61
PRODUCT & SERVICE SHOWCASE STORM DRAIN CATCH PIT INSERT
The LittaTrap is a low-cost, innovative technology that prevents plastic and trash from reaching our waterways. Designed to be easily retrofitted into new and existing stormwater drains, the LittaTrap is installed inside storm drains and, when it rains, catches plastic and trash before it can reach our streams, rivers and oceans. Imbrium Systems T: 800-565-4801 E: email@example.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com
The new Stormceptor® EF is an oil grit separator (OGS)/ hydrodynamic separator that effectively targets sediment (TSS), free oils, gross pollutants and other pollutants that attach to particles, such as nutrients and metals. The Stormceptor EF has been verified through the ISO 14034 Environmental Management – Environmental Technology Verification (ETV). Imbrium Systems T: 800-565-4801 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.imbriumsystems.com
TWIN SHAFT GRINDER
Capable of fragmenting large and solid particles, the N.Mac® Twin Shaft Grinder is ideal for various applications such as wastewater treatment, biomass substrate handling, and food and fruit scraps. The housing design, channel and inline versions, allow installation into effluent channels
62 | August 2019
or with flanges to prevent pipe clogging and to protect downstream equipment such as pumps. NETZSCH Canada T: 705-797-8426 Fax: (705) 797-8427 E: email@example.com W: www.pumps.netzsch.com
Huber, a proven German manufacturer, now provides watertight doors that allow safe access to tanks for construction and/or maintenance. Doors can be provided as round or rectangular for installation onto existing concrete surfaces or cast-in-place in new concrete. They can handle heads up to 30 m and hold pressure in seating and unseating directions. Huber’s watertight doors can greatly reduce construction and maintenance costs and dramatically improve safety/access. Pro Aqua T: 647-923-8244 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.proaquasales.com
The TITAN MBR™ Membrane BioReactor system delivers the industry’s best operator experience with the greatest ease of O&M of any MBR. Featuring a streamlined pre-packaged design, superior high-performance flat-sheet membranes, intuitive graphical touchscreen PLC controls and smart automation features, the TITAN MBR is tailored to your specific permit requirements and produces high quality effluent, including for water reuse. Smith & Loveless T: 800-898-9122 F: 913-888-2173 E: email@example.com W: www.smithandloveless.com
Invent Environment is the manufacturer of hyperboloid mixers which have revolutionized anoxic and swing zone mixing. Invent provides low-shear, efficient mixers with no submerged motors or gear boxes for easy access for maintenance. They have now released the Hyperclassic Mixer Evo 7 which has increased the number of motion fins and adjusted the geometry of the mixer to maximize mixer efficiency, reducing operation costs even further. Pro Aqua T: 647-923-8244 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.proaquasales.com
WET WELL MOUNTED PUMP STATIONS
EVERLAST™ Wet Well Mounted Pump Stations pave the way for end-users to reap the benefits of robust construction, operator-safe maintenance and singlesource solutions. Featuring the top S&L pump innovations, immediate aboveground access to all pumps and controls, convenient package options and leading warranty protection, the EVERLAST is designed to provide long service life and realized savings—verified by decades of successful installations. Smith & Loveless T: 800-898-9122 F: 913-888-2173 E: email@example.com W: www.smithandloveless.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&E NEWS STATSCAN RELEASES NEW MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SYSTEM DATA
Statistics Canada has released new wastewater data that details sewage flow numbers through municipal wastewater systems, the degree to which it is treated, and the range of populations served by treatment type. According to the data released in late June, some 5,910 million m3 of sewage flowed through Canada’s municipal wastewater systems in 2017. The national sewage flow remained relatively consistent from 2013 to 2017, the time period covered by the new data. The national total does not include discharges from combined sewer overflows. StatsCan notes that an additional 164 million m3 were discharged from combined sewer overflows in 2017. Quebec had the highest amount of sewage flowing through its systems with 2,172 million m3, while the Yukon and Prince Edward Island had the lowest amount, at 4.5 and 14.2 million m3, respectively. In 2017, the total volume of untreated wastewater from combined sewer overflows and systems that provided no treatment reached 270 million m3. Systems that provide no treatment discharged 106 million m3 of wastewater back into the environment. The StatsCan data also reveals that 1,535 million m3 of wastewater were discharged nationally from primary treatment systems, removing material that will either float or readily settle out by gravity. National secondary treatment involving the removal of soluble organic matter that escaped primary treatment and the removal of suspended solids was slightly higher at 1,544 million m3. Tertiary treatment, which can remove remaining inorganic compounds and substances such as nitrogen and phosphorus, served the most Canadians nationwide, totalling 9.8 million residents. Secondary treatment served 7.7 million Canadians, while primary treatment served 4.8 million. In 2017, just over 30 million people were served by municipal wastewater systems that have daily flows that process 100 m3/day or more.
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ES&E NEWS ATLANTIC WASTEWATER DESIGN TO EMBED CLIMATE RESILIENCE
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Canada’s Department of Natural Resources has announced an investment of $318,000 over three years to embed climate change adaptation into design guidelines for municipal water and wastewater infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. Funded through Natural Resources Canada’s Building Regional Adaptation Capacity and Expertise (BRACE) Program, the money will flow into the Atlantic Canada Water and Wastewater Association (ACWWA). BRACE works directly with provinces to deliver projects that include training, internships and knowledge-sharing activities that will build the capacity Canadians need to respond to the effects of a changing climate, according to NRCan. The climate change adaptation project, entitled Incorporating Climate Resilience for Municipal Infrastructure into the Updates of Existing Atlantic Canada Water and Wastewater Design Guidelines, includes awareness training for public works professionals, utility engineers, and consulting engineers, in order to understand their capacity to put new guidelines into practice. The total value of the new project is $645,000, and includes funding from the ACWWA, the governments of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as the City of Charlottetown and Halifax Water. A web portal has been established on the ACWWA website (www.acwwa.ca) to provide a platform for stakeholders to upload and download documents relevant to climate change/climate resilience and the updates of the Water and Wastewater Guidelines.
ONTARIO FIRST NATIONS DECLARE STATES OF EMERGENCY OVER THMS IN WATER
Two Ontario First Nations reserves issued state of emergency declarations in early July over harmful levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in their water. The Attawapiskat First Nation in the Kenora district of northwestern Ontario first raised alarm bells over potentially 64 | August 2019
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ES&E NEWS harmful levels of THMs and haloacetic acids. The reserve lies at the mouth of the Attawapiskat River on James Bay, and has been in the headlines in recent years for other crises, including housing and suicide. Shortly after, the Eabametoong First Nation, an Ojibway community that is about 360 kilometres north of Thunder Bay, issued its own alert following water test results that showed levels of THMs between 122% to 182% above Health Canada safety standards. THMs have been shown to increase risks for certain types of cancer. The community is waiting for a newly-built $12 million water treatment plant to get connected and has been under a boil water advisory According to Indigenous Services Canada, the department paid $139,000 to Eabametoong over 2016 – 2017 for reverse osmosis equipment. The community has initiated an Emergency Response Plan and has been forced to rely on reverse osmosis units for water for drinking and cooking. Water drawn from household taps has had a noticeable foul smell and taste, reserve officials said. Eabametoong officials added that its new wastewater system will flow a greater capacity through the system, but the lift station at one end of the community is “too small to handle the upgraded capacity.” The main community sewage lift station, officials say, is overcapacity and subject to overflow into Eabamet Lake,
which is the source of the community’s drinking water.
a planned course change because he fell asleep. The Nathan E. Stewart was also not equipped with a bridge navigational watch alarm system, the Board found. U.S. MARINE TRANSPORT FIRM The company’s fines will be directed FINED FOR 2016 B.C. DIESEL SPILL to the Government of Canada’s EnvironA British Columbia court has fined mental Damages Fund. Kirby Offshore Marine Operating LLC Kirby Offshore Marine Operating is $2.7 million after the Texas-based com- one of the largest towing operators in pany pled guilty to three charges in rela- the United States. tion to a 2016 oil spill in the Seaforth Channel near Bella Bella, B.C. Kirby Offshore’s deep-sea towing tugboat, Nathan E. Stewart, ran aground on October 13, 2016 at Edge Reef, resulting in the release of some 107,552 litres of COMPANY PAGE diesel fuel and 2,240 litres of lubricants. The tugboat then completely filled with ACG - Envirocan...................................67, 66 water and sank, coming to rest on the Aboriginal Water and Wastewater Association of Ontario............................ 36 seabed. ADS Environmental Technologies....... 24 Cleanup and tug salvage operations continued for the next 40 days, accordAlberta Water and Wastewater Operators Association............................ 44 ing to the Transportation Safety Board. American Public Works Association... 47 The company was found in violation Associated Engineering.......................... 29 of the Fisheries Act for depositing a deleterious substance into water frequented Atlantic Canada Water & Wastewater Association......................... 59 by fish; second, the company was found AWI................................................................ 19 in violation of the Migratory Birds ConBDP Industries..............................................2 vention Act, 1994, for which it was fined an additional $200,000; and lastly, it was Blue-White.................................................. 11 fined $5,000 for the offence of failing Chemline Plastics..................................... 33 to comply with pilotage requirements CIMA+........................................................... 24 under the Pilotage Act. Denso........................................................... 18 During a 2018 investigation, CanaGeneq........................................................... 25 da’s Transportation Safety Board found Harmsco Filtration Products................. 25 that a crew member on the boat missed Hoskin Scientific....................................... 21
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