Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) October 2016

Page 1

OCTOBER 2016 www.esemag.com

Special Focus

Water and wastewater plant efficiency Fertilizer pellets from wastewater Removing pesticides from drinking water Preventing pipeline leaks

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OCTOBER 2016 • Vol. 29 No. 5 • ISSN-0835-605X


DECEMBER 2016 ISSUE This issue will offer our 47,000 readers across Canada a strong and diverse range of articles, plus special sections on:

EDITORIAL FOCUS Consulting Engineering in Canada: Experts in environmental consulting share their opinions, experiences and values.

FEATURES 6 8 12 16 20 22 26 32 36 54 60 63 74

“Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch’intrate”- Editorial comment

Water and Wastewater Operations Forum: Looking at trends and issues impacting water and wastewater operators.

New technology dramatically cuts WWTP greenhouse gas emissions Upgrading Ile a La Cross SK’s 30 year old water treatment plant Using spectrophotometry for real-time BOD, COD and TOC monitoring Improving water and wastewater plant operator training


New trench dam material helps prevent environmental damage from pipeline leaks

• Wastewater treatment and collection systems • Stormwater management • Drinking water supply, treatment and distribution systems • Disinfection and filtration

Low Impact Development supplements stormwater management infrastructure Fire suppression and rainwater management systems provided for new floating bridge Sustainable funding methods for stormwater management Managing vibration risks on tunneling projects can prevent costly damage claims


Detecting combined sewer overflows with new metering technology

• Manitoba Water and Wastewater Association

Geotextile tubes reduce carbon footprint of harbour remediation project Charlottetown WWTP upgrades to progressive cavity sludge pumps


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WATER AND WASTEWATER PLANT EFFICIENCY Energy retrofits at Hamilton Water Treatment Plant save $400,000 per year Electrical submetering technology provides new ways to improve efficiency Fast-curing coating and lining technologies streamline WWTP maintenance Improving the performance of water system pressure reducing valves

66 69 69 73

Product Showcase Environmental News Professional Cards Ad Index

4 | October 2016





Turning phosphorus and nitrogen from Saskatoon’s wastewater into fertilizer pellets

40 42 45 48 52


Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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TECHNICAL ADVISORY BOARD Archis Ambulkar, Jones and Henry Engineers, Ltd. Gary Burrows, City of London Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill De Angelis, City of Toronto Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems William Fernandes, City of Toronto Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Tony Petrucci, Stantec, Markham

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be emailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

A Supporting Publication of

Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch’intrate (Abandon all hope, ye who enter here)


his summer, I enjoyed reading Inferno by Dan Brown, the latest book in his Robert Langdon series, which includes The Da Vinci Code. A movie version, starring Tom Hanks, will be out shortly in cinemas. The villain in the story is a billionaire geneticist named Bertrand Zobrist. He is a fanatical follower of the famed Italian author Dante, hence the book’s title. Zobrist had tried unsuccessfully to convince the World Health Organization to find ways to stop population growth, before it led to humanity’s extinction, due to disease, lack of food, water, etc. So, unbeknownst to all, he had been working on a means to do this himself, using an engineered plague thought to be fatal. Despite Langdon and the other characters’ heroic efforts to solve elaborate symbolic clues left by Zobrist, his plague gets released into Instanbul’s water supply. From there, its spread worldwide is unstoppable. However, far from being fatal as expected, the plague causes sterility in a significant percentage of the human population. Over time, the world’s population will drop to a more sustainable level, ensuring the survival of mankind. This “the end justifies the means” result asks readers to decide for themselves whether Zobrist is a villain, or a visionary. We live on a planet with finite resources, so it stands to reason that population size cannot grow indefinitely. Dan Brown’s fictional character Zobrist felt he had to take drastic action in the form of a Biblical-style plague to save us. However, there is evidence that we might be on track to achieving this ourselves right now. Globally, the population growth rate has been steadily declining from its peak of 2.19% in 1963. In 2000, the United Nations estimated that the world’s population was growing at an annual rate of 1.14%. Growth remains high in Latin America, the Middle East, and Sub-Saharan Africa, but is negative in Japan and some countries in Europe. In 2006, the United Nations stated that the rate of population growth was visibly diminishing, largely because of the ongoing global demographic transition to greater wealth. Some believe that, if this trend continues, the rate of growth may diminish to zero by 2050, when the world’s population will be between 8 and 10.5 billion. From there, it should slowly but steadily fall, until it reaches a yet to be determined equilibrium of births versus deaths. Regardless of what the world’s population ultimately reaches, climate change and the strain on the world’s resources, particularly water, are happening now. This means that more and more will be asked of the water and wastewater industry, including water reuse, desalination, etc. Also, maximizing the efficiency of our water and wastewater plants is increasingly important as we ask more and more of them too. This important topic is the special editorial focus of this issue. Steve Davey is editor and publisher of ES&E Magazine. Email: steve@esemag.com

6 ||October October2016 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


The XOGEN® advanced electro-oxidation treatment system.

New technology Dramatically cuts WWTP greenhouse gas emissions By Chumeng Wu


ne contributor to climate change that might be overlooked by municipalities is their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). There are three major greenhouse gas emission sources in a conventional WWTP: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides are produced by aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors; carbon dioxide and methane are produced by the sludge digester; and, combusting digester gases on-site also produces carbon dioxide emissions. Global warming potential is different from gas to gas. For example, the global warming potential of methane is 21 times that of carbon dioxide, while the poten-

8 | October 2016

tial of nitrous oxide is 310 times that of carbon dioxide. Generally speaking, in conventional WWTPs, bioreactors release about 0.25 kg of carbon dioxide per m3 sewage treated. Digesters produce around 0.22  kg of carbon dioxide and 0.09 kg of methane per m3 sewage treated. Combusting the digester gas produces an additional 1.87 kg of carbon dioxide per m3 sewage treated. In total, the global warming potential of greenhouse gases from the treatment plant is equal to 2.34 kg of carbon dioxide per m3 sewage treated. This means a The XOGEN advanced electro-oxidation process. 3.8 MLD conventional sewage treatment continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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plant will release 3,175 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. The XOGEN® advanced electro-oxidation treatment process primarily utilizes hydroxyl radicals and chlorine based radicals to oxidize organics, ammonia and bacteria in wastewater. The process applies a pulsed current on a stack of electrodes that have been coated with specific materials for oxidative ion production. The electrodes utilize the existing ions within the wastewater to produce different kinds of oxidative ions. These quickly react with contaminants in the sewage, converting them to gaseous byproducts, including oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. This reaction and treatment occurs within five minutes. The XOGEN electro-oxidation reactor is a modularized unit of the overall treatment system. The reactor is about 93 cm in height, 38 cm in length and 13 cm in width, weighs approximately 25 kg and can be easily handled by one person. The reactor shell is made of engineered plastic to provide sufficient strength to handle up to 104 Kpa pressure inside the reactor. The module is also heat and chemical resistant. The core components of the reactor are the internal electrodes. Their effective surface area is about 1.6 m2. Electrodes used in the reactor are non-sacrificial, with an expected lifetime of 10 to 12 years. Design treatment capacity of each reac-

tor is 3.8 lpm and multiple reactors can be linked together to become a treatment system according to required capacity. The XOGEN advanced electro-oxidation system is a pre-engineered turnkey system that can be easily integrated into most WWTPs. The system will eliminate the primary clarifier and replace the bioreactors. Since it eliminates the bioprocess and disinfects the sewage at the same time, no biosludge will be produced. Therefore, the sludge treatment process can be simplified by eliminating the digesters. Compared with conventional sewage treatment processes that produce a large amount of greenhouse gases, XOGEN’s advanced electro-oxidation is a much cleaner and environmentally friendly process. Gas byproducts of the process contain only 2% carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide emission rate is as low as 0.04 kg per m3 sewage treated, which is 98% less than conventional wastewater treatment processes. At 3.8 MLD, XOGEN’s process only produces 54 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, while a conventional sewage treatment plant of the same size produces 3,175 tonnes per year. Chumeng Wu, B.Eng., M.A.Sc., is with XOGEN Technologies Inc. For more information, visit www.xogen.ca or email: ahughes@xogen.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Upgrading ile-a-la-Crosse SK’s 30 year old water treatment plant By Daniel Willers

Lac Ile-a-la-Crosse.


he northern Village of Ile-a-laCrosse, Saskatchewan, operates a surface water treatment plant for their drinking water supply, which serves 1,600 residential and commercial customers. The previous facility was at design capacity and did not consistently meet Saskatchewan Environment guidelines for treated water turbidity, or CT 10 requirements for log removal of Giardia. UMA Engineering Ltd. examined the system and made water treatment plant upgrade and water supply recommendations. The issue with the outdated water plant was its ability to treat water obtained from a shallow bay in Lac Ile-a-la-Crosse where growth of algae is not uncommon. The algae growth creates issues with blockage of intake screens and also adds an organic load to the water treatment system. The Ile-a-la-Crosse water treatment plant upgrade was a three-phase project. A new water reservoir was built in the first phase. The second phase involved constructing a new building to house the water treatment plant equipment and several upgrades to the system. The 12 | October 2016

tion; an up-flow adsorption clarifier that uses patented scarified buoyant media; a mixed media filter; and UV disinfection. Chlorine is used for disinfection and to maintain a residual in the distribution system. This is a single-tank system with a design flow of 79.5 m3/hr but is de-rated to 56.8 m3/hr due to cold water conditions and a higher organic/turbidity load. Plant under construction.

third phase involved investigations and work related to the raw water supply, water lines and infiltration wells. UMA Engineering studied several options for the water treatment plant that included conventional treatment, dissolved air flotation, slow sand filtration, membrane treatment, and the Trident HS package treatment system. After careful review, UMA recommended the WesTech Trident HS to Ile-a-la-Crosse. The Trident HS system is designed with four barriers: a 60 degree tube clarifier section for bulk solids removal, with external solids recirculation for improved clarity and chemical reduc-

SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA This plant was designed for turbidities up to 400 NTU to preempt increased seasonal conditions and added solids due to increased organics and turbidity load. The Trident HS system was designed to treat raw water with the following criteria: • 400 NTU turbidity max • 100 true colour units max • Iron and manganese < 10 ppm • Total log credit potential of 6.5 • An additional 1.0 log credit may be obtained for filters producing less than 0.1 NTU effluent. Water quality can change, depending on seasonal conditions such as algae continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine







WATER TREATMENT Tube Clarification 12.2 m/hr

Adsorption Clarification 36.7 m/hr

Mixed Media Filtration 12.2 m/hr

Hydraulic loading rates of standard Trident HS treatment system.

growth or wind stirring up turbidity TOC is around 12 mg/L. that can spike above 9 NTU. But, for the Research shows that temperature can most part, influent turbidity at Ile-a-la- have an effect on separation kinetics. Crosse ranges from 1 to 4 NTU and the Suspended solids and soluble organic

carbon removal from very cold surface waters was a difficult challenge to meet. Typically, a 10 degree drop in temperature reduces the coagulation reaction kinetics by about half (Wikramanayake, 2007). For example, when compared to a typical summer time water temperature of about 20°C, the coagulation reaction kinetics can be reduced by about 75% in winter time as water temperature approaches 0°C. In order to compensate for this reduction, the detention time would have U.S.F. S.F Fabrication’s Hatch Safety Grate System is available in a variety S.F. ariety of configurations needed to be increased proportionally, to meet virtually ually anySafety uall application. The System system allows for routine maintenance of pumps S.F Fabrication’s S.F. Hatch Grate is available in a variety ariety of configurations or mixing energies would have needed and equipment when closed and may act as an additional barrier er when open. It allows meet virtually ually uall any a pplication. The system allows for routine maintenance of pumps to be increased as necessary, or a combings without exposing themselves to people to move freely lly around the hatch opening nation nd equipment whenfall-through. closed and may act as an additional barrier er when open. It allows of both. However, implementing dangerous both conditions was not desirable, as without exposing eople to move freely lly around the hatch opening Allngs Hatch Safety ety Grates feature: themselves to this would have increased the footprint • Tamp Tamper-res r istant 316 SS hinges res angerous fall-through. and capital cost for the water plant, as and nd hardw har are • Po Powder-coated aluminum grates to well as the operating cost. As such, in All Hatch Safety ety Grates feature: resist corrosion res •• Hold Tamper-res Tamp r istant res 316 SS hinges cold water conditions, it is critically old open devices to lock the grates important to optimize the water chemin theirhardw full upright and nd har areand open position istry and select the proper equipment for Can be ret r rofitted into existing •• Ca Powder-coated Po aluminum grates to the application. access openings resist corrosion res The use of a two-stage clarification • Hold old open devices to lock the gratesprocess to remove total organic carbon from water approaching 0°C proved favorOur experienced team provides a quick turnaround on quotes, in their full upright and open position drawings and deliveries. Call us today 1.800.668.4533 able as the added detention time was suffi• Ca Can be ret r rofitted into existing or email us at sales@engineeredpump.com cient for efficient removal. The process access openings utilized a high-rate, two-stage, clarification system consisting of a tube clarifier 1635 Industrial Ave. • Port Coquitlam, BC V3C 6M9 followed by an adsorption clarifier. Phone: 604.552.7900 • Fax: 604.552.7901 The tube clarifier stage makes use sales@engineeredpump.com • www.engineeredpump.com ur experienced team provides a quick turnaround on quotes, of external sludge recirculation for

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

improved particle-particle collision efficiency. Typically, the tube clarifier operates at a rise rate of 9.8-12.2 m/ hr of gross clarifier basin area. It is not uncommon to see removal in the range of 50% to 90% of the solids in the raw water, depending on the water quality and chemistry. The adsorption clarifier typically operates at a rise rate of 36.7 m/hr of gross clarifier surface area, with removal in the range of 65% to 85%. Net production can be as high as 95% for the two-stage system. In treating cold river water, a two-stage process is more accommodating to the applied chemistry as well as more economical when compared to a traditional single stage solids contact clarifier. The comparatively “slower” tube stage allows for the reaction kinetics to go into completion, while the comparatively “faster” adsorption clarifier stage allows for optimal adsorption and superior separation efficiency, both in the contact surface area and tumultuous path the liquid travels.

solids from the tube settler at a rate of 5.7 m/hr for four hours to the influent line facilitates the sweeping of the organics and turbidity. Due to gross solids generated, the solids blow down from the tube settler is conducted every four hours at a rate of 11.4 m3/hr. Overall system operational performance showed greater than 96% removal of turbidity (0.08 to 0.15 NTU) from the mix media filter. The previous water treatment plant had a lower net production of Top view of filter. water and required additional operator attention due to the solids load. In addiREPRESENTATIVE RESULTS tion, the filter run time was less than four The Trident HS package plant consis- hours. Now, with the new plant, the filter tently achieved combined filter effluent run time is currently at 12 hours. Accordturbidity of 0.08 to 0.15 NTU, result- ing to Ken Raymond, lead plant operator, ing in removals ranging from 88% to the filter system could easily run for 24 greater than 96%. Removals are based on hours before going into a backwash, but the addition of a coagulant (neat solu- they are comfortable at 12 hours. tion) and polymer (0.5% stock solution concentration) dosages between 5 and Daniel Willers is with WesTech 16 mg/L and 2 to 3 mg/L, respectively. Engineering. For more information, The recirculation of pre-flocculated email: info@westech-inc.com

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October 2016 | 15


Using spectrophotometry for real-time monitoring of BOD, COD and TOC By Drew Evans


pectrophotometry is a well-established analytical method, used for decades in chemistry, physics, biochemistry and chemical engineering for quantitative analyses. A light source and sensor are used to measure the intensity of light passing through a water sample in a known path length cell. Most commonly, ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) light sources are used. The principle is that substances in the water sample absorb or transmit light over a given wavelength range. According to Beer’s Law, the measured absorbance of substances in the water sample is directly proportional to their concentration. Over the past decade, significant advances in spectrophotometry have been made, allowing it to be performed reliably and accurately in a real-time fashion. One of the main benefits to performing spectrophotometric measurements continuously is the ability to relate real-time absorbance measurements to the concentration of the absorbing substances. Various types of natural and synthetic organic substances absorb light in the UV-VIS wavelength spectrum, as well as nitrate and nitrite. Additionally, suspended matter in water scatters and reflects light which can be compensated for in measurement. Many industries have adopted online technology to continuously measure water and wastewater quality parameters such as: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); chemical oxygen demand (COD); total organic carbon (TOC); dissolved organic carbon (DOC); nitrates (NO3-); and nitrites (NO2-). This real-time ability is extremely useful for applications that rely on parameters traditionally tested in a laboratory, such as BOD and COD, or which are costly to perform online, such as TOC. Spectrophotometric sensors allow for continuous monitoring of a process by analyzing a relatively large volume of 16 | October 2016

There are several different types of matter, such as organics and nitrates that naturally absorb light in distinct regions of the UV-VIS wavelength spectrum.

the sample. This way, the data collected becomes more representative of the temporal and spatial changes occurring in the process. Also, the accuracy of sampling and the value of the information obtained are maximized. As more information on the process is obtained, events are revealed that would otherwise go unnoticed with grab sampling. Another major advantage of using realtime spectrophotometers for water and wastewater applications is its simplicity. The measurement process does not require sample preparation nor does it require reagents or changing the sample composition in any way. For this reason, operation is very straightforward and maintaining the instrument is both easy and low cost. Spectrophotometric sensors offer new opportunities for process control applications or cost-sensitive applications.

HOW BOD IS MEASURED IN REAL-TIME Spectrophotometric sensors measure the UV-VIS absorbance of the sample

continuously flowing through the instrument. By taking absorbance data from a given time and matching it with BOD laboratory data for the same given time, a relationship between these two pieces of information can be established. Further collection of these matching data sets will provide the information needed to build a “calibration”. Calibration is what is used by the spectrophotometric sensor software to continuously convert the measured absorbance data into milligrams per litre (mg/L) value for BOD. The operator can then quickly interpret the current displayed BOD mg/L value for regulatory assurance, or transmit real-time BOD mg/L data to a SCADA system or PLC for process control and improvements. For the calibration process, involvement at the plant level is very simple. A series of approximately 15 grab samples are collected from the desired monitoring location and sent to a laboratory for analysis. The sensor manufacturer, continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Figure 1: Weekly COD sampling.

Real-time data is more representative of changes in the process, and captures events that would otherwise go unnoticed with grab sampling.

Figure 2: Hourly COD sampling.

Figure 3: Real-time COD monitoring.

Real Tech, receives the BOD (and often total suspended solids) laboratory data and begins to build a custom calibration using site-specific data. The custom calibration is then uploaded to the sensor’s controller, via a remote connection, and the controller starts to display a real-time BOD value of the currently measured sample. Custom calibrations account for the unique wastewater characteristics of the specific plant that may influence BOD, COD or TOC composition. The calibration is audited regularly to prove validity of the real-time data. In addition, audit samples can be added to the custom calibration data set to continuously improve the robustness and accuracy of the calibration over time. Implementation of real-time spectrophotometric monitoring for BOD, COD or TOC can result in a variety of beneficial outcomes, including informed decision-making, optimization of system performance, greater process control, and optimization of chemical and nutrient dosing. This can reduce effluent surcharge fines/ fees and product lost to wastewater. Also, due to the wide detection capabilities of UV-VIS analysis monitoring, additional processes such as clean-in-place or dye (colour) concentration monitoring can also bring significant value. Real-time analysis is both a simple and cost-effective way for operators to gain a more complete understanding of their wastewater and processes. Drew Evans is with Real Tech Inc. For more information, email: drew@realtechwater.com

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18 | October 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

THE C-XI DECANTER SERIES – "THESE GO TO ELEVEN" Dryer solids mean savings in disposal costs. eXtra G force = maXImum performance eXtra dry solids = maXImum savings

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Water treatment plant training presents many challenges By Chase Taylor


nder Ontario’s 2002 Safe Drinking Water Act, water operators tasked with testing, treating and distributing water resources are held accountable through more stringent standards and regulations than existed before the Walkerton disaster of 2000. They must now attain a certain number of Continuing Education Units (CEUs) every three years, based on the level of license they hold. This means municipalities must ensure their operators have Ministry of Environment and Climate Change-approved training made available to them. Many companies now exist to provide training services to municipalities. So, it is this three-pronged relationship between them, municipalities and operators that is constantly working to keep communities supplied with safe drinking water. For a municipality to do its part in meeting its operators’ training needs, many challenges and obstacles need to be overcome. The first thing to be considered is that each municipality has its own procurement policies and budgets to work with. This determines in large part where and when their operators can receive training. Not only can cost be an issue, but also the time frame in which a city or town has to both look for and book their training. If a municipality employs a large group of operators, maintaining and tracking each operator’s training records, and then booking the appropriate training to meet their particular needs and license renewal dates, can make the process an even bigger logistical task. In smaller communities, with fewer operators, managers can face the problem of not being able to pull them from their workplaces to train, because there are no replacement operators available. Finally, some operators will have more experience and knowledge than 20 | October 2016

For certain physical processes, a well-designed practical component is very useful.

others and will want or need advanced training and new courses. Meanwhile, more junior operators need to have the basics covered first. For companies that provide operator training, flexibility in how they provide their service is one of the keys to an effective working relationship with municipalities. After all, the question is never if the municipality needs training, but when and where. The Ontario Water Operator Training Centre (OWOTC) has seen a steady rise for the past several years in the amount of on-site training it provides. This is a result of municipalities facing budget constraints and discovering that they can often get more for their money when operators are trained on-site and travel expenses eliminated. A training company must make sure it has enough diversity in its course library to match the needs of both new and experienced operators, looking for

theoretical and hands-on courses. For trainers, the job is an ever-changing and ever-demanding one. They must anticipate students’ questions and have good answers. This requires continuous research and keeping up with the latest trends and changes in the industry. Trainers must not only be well versed in what issues and commonplace practices already exist, but they must also do their best to foresee what is coming. This means course development is an ongoing process. Once trainers meet students in a classroom, the goal is to improve both the operators’ understanding of certain processes, as well as their ability to carry them out. The key to accomplishing this is to provide a combination of both theoretical and hands-on instruction. Regulations, for instance, need to be understood rather than experienced. A trainer would never actually demonstrate what a dangerous level of a certain

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Sustainable Ecosystems

Soil retaining system helps urban trees reach contaminant does to a person. training it demands is entirely necessary Chase Taylor is with The Ontario Water maturity By Eric Keshavarzi However, for certain physical processes, when considering ever-advancing tech- Operator Training Centre. Email:

a well-designed practical component is very useful. To help with this, the OWOTC reen infrastructure and susintroduced tainability Hydromantis’ goalsGPS-X are of softinware into some of its importance, wastewater classes. creasing and This technology allows students to techexpeachieving them requires rience real-time, simulated problems on nical knowledge and training in varied their laptop. The instructor can monitor fields. Integration of soil and trees into and toggle student stationssusand urban areasbetween substantially improves force troubling scenarios onto them. This tainability and helps alleviate some of our tests their knowledge and problem-solvmost pressing ecological challenges. ing skills in real time. These include air and water quality, rising Operators that learn with this program temperatures, flooding and erosion from can see how making a slight change to an daily rainfall events. operation affects all the in other processes The West Don Lands, Toronto, Onconnected to it. This allows them to visutario, is a community that is people foalize scenarios that in the past could only cused, family friendly, environmentally be theorized. The GPS-X software is for the sustainable and beautifully designed closest thing a student will get to realliving. It has a Stage 1 LEED ND GOLD life experience. It the gives them practice certification under pilot program esand insight on areas of operation, they tablished by the U.S. Green Building wouldn’t get until it happened for real at Council. their plant. One notable sustainable component, Ultimately, the Safe Drinking Water utilized in the design of the area’s streets, Act has done what it set out to do. The is a soil retaining system called Silva increased standards and regulations Cells™. Typical urban trees in the city havedie been adopted, and theyseven serveyears. as the core after approximately driving force behind the relationship of However, Silva Cells help extend their public and private agents that continulife spans, thus promoting the growth of ally work to keep mature street trees.Ontario’s communities safeAlthough from waterborne the City ofillness. Toronto had preThough compliance in this regulated viously used Silva Cells as part of a landscape takes a lot of work and is not stormwater management pilot program in without its complications, thepart continual The Queensway, their use as of site


nologies and issues, as well as the inherent turnover of the operator workforce.


Installation of Silva Cells in Mill Street.

development is new. In fact, the West Don Lands streets are the first in a Toronto subdivision to be designed with this system installed under parking lay-bys and sidewalks. Mill Street was the first subdivision street in Toronto to be designed to include this soil retaining system. As the lead engineering consultant, R.V.Anderson Associates coordinated all plans and specifications with the landscape architect. About Silva Cells Silva Cells are a plastic/fiberglass structure of columns and beams that support paving above un-compacted planting

soil. The structure has 92% void space and is a stable surface for the installation of vehicle loaded-pavements. When properly installed, they can achieve an AASHTO H-20 load rating. Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code loading can also be achieved through appropriate design. This is the required load rating for structures such as underground vaults, covers and grates in areas of traffic including sidewalks and parking lots. The cell structure transfers the force to a base layer below the structure. Soil within the cells remains at low compaction rates, thereby creating ideal



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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine October 2016 | 21


subsurface drainage and erosion and minimize these issues. Trench dams function by forming a relatively impermeable Manufacturers, distributors, suppliers and companies from the boundary followingaround areas: a section of pipe, to limit water from flowAir pollution control • Filters • Oil & water separation • the Software ing further along outsidesystems of it. In addiAnalytical laboratory • Groundwater treatment • Pumps, pipes, valves, fittings • Spill containment tion, they increase thecontrol relative&volume of Confined space entry • Hazardous waste treatment • Protection/safety infiltrated equipment water • Stormwater control to flow outward from Consulting engineering • Health & safety • Recycling Tanks & storage the pipe, which• increases the flow path Containment • Instrumentation & control • Residuals dewatering, • Transportation services length of the water and theoretically Decontamination systems • Legal services disposal & handling • Water treatment helps to dissipate the hydraulic head. Emergency response • Liners/geotextiles equipment • Wastewater Trench dams may also providetreatment a valuable Environmental auditing • Noise & vibration control • Site & soil remediation • Waste disposal function at brownfield sites by forming a low impermeability barrier to minimize contaminant migration. Traditionally, trench dams have been constructed with a variety of materials, including compacted clayey soils, concrete April or flowable fill, 30 alone or in combination with plastic HDPE “anti-seep - 8:00ora.m. to 5:00 p.m. collars” and sprayed quick-setting foams. ConcernsMay with 1 these materials relate to the methods of personnel - 8:30installation, a.m. to 3:00 p.m. safety and ultimate performance. During installation of a soil-based trench dam, a cross-trench must be excavated perpendicular to the pipe. With these traditional materials, excluding the sprayed quick-setting foams, it is necessary for step cuts to be made in the cross-trench. This allows personnel to safely access the bottom and hand compact or complete compaction tests of the backfill comprising the trench By John Hull, Jennifer Collier and Kevin VanTuyl dam. As a result, significantly more excavation is required. edding and backfill placed around the pipe, contributing to excessive infilCompaction of the backfill around the pipelines is typically a relatively tration and inflow (I&I) and periodic trench dam is also a difficult process, as permeable media, which can create storm and combined sewer overflows. contractors must compromise between a preferential pathway for water, I&I is a major concern for wastewa- uniform, proper compaction and the sewage and contaminants to flow along ter collection systems. When additional integrity of the trench dam. Pumpthe outside of the pipe. This movement of water from I&I is excessive, it can dilute ing may also be required to remove water can erode the bedding material and sewage flows to the point where treat- standing water from the cross-trench if cause subsidence, which may result in pipe ment plant processes become less effi- personnel are working in them. Dewafailure and, in extreme cases, the forma- cient, as they are dependent upon the tering the cross-trench is also necessary tion of sinkholes and surface failures. concentration of the sewage. Combined when compacted clayey soils, concrete It may also lead to the spread of sewer overflows of untreated sewage or or flowable fill, and sprayed quick-setcontamination, or water may collect in plant bypasses may also occur due to the ting foams are used, to enable them to areas along the pipe that will cause repair volume that treatment plants are forced be compacted or set properly. work issues. In addition, older pipes may to manage. Further issues with these materials crack, leaving entry and exit points along For product pipelines, the Canadian arise from their physical properties. In the pipe. One concern with this is poten- Association of Petroleum Producers, order for trench dams to perform effectial contamination due to the release of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Associa- tively, they must form a watertight seal product, especially with oil and gas pipe- tion, and the Canadian Gas Association around the pipe. Desiccation and longlines. Problems may also arise due to recommend the use of trench dams, also term weather or fatigue load events may water flowing along the outside entering known as trench breakers, to control continued overleaf...

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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damage these traditional materials and reduce their effectiveness as a reliable seal. Concrete, in particular, may shrink and crack, which can provide preferential pathways for the water to flow around the seal. Within the last ten years, new materials and construction methods have been developed and adopted to address these issues. AquaBlok, a bentonite-coated aggregate, has a stone-core structure that helps support the exterior of a pipe, serving as a bedding aggregate. Once hydrated, the bentonite component will swell and seal, but never completely harden like concrete. Instead, it retains its plasticity, conforming tightly to complex shapes, like that of a pipe. This ability to self-compact during hydration and to conform to shapes eliminates the need to hand compact or test the backfill comprising the trench dam. Consequently, construction of the crosstrench will not require the addition of step

cuts as there is no need for personnel to enter the trench. Similarly, it is not necessary for the cross-trench to be dewatered as no personnel will be entering. The material can be installed directly through a water column because water will aid the hydration process of the material. AquaBlok expands, self-heals and remains flexible. This eliminates concerns regarding the formation of preferential pathways due to desiccation or multiple freeze/thaw events or fatigue loading from traffic. Furthermore, while mechanical compaction can further reduce permeability of material, it is not necessary for trench dam applications, as a hydrated, loosely-placed AquaBlok barrier will have a permeability of well below 1x10-7 cm/sec. AquaBlok may be used in conjunction with other standard construction materials. For example, if a manhole or trench dam is to be located under a roadway with significant traffic and loads, materials such as geotextiles may be incorporated into the surface of the trench dam to

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increase stability of the sub-base. AquaBlok has been used to cut off contaminant pathways during the excavation and installation of utilities at brownfield sites with known residual contamination.

CASE STUDIES These composite particle aggregates were used to address a significant, chronic and sustained water loss around two adjacent geothermal lines associated with a loop system installed into a residential pond. The geothermal system had been installed for more than ten years, the pipes were small and relatively shallow, and the surrounding soils were tight and typically-reliable clay. Nonetheless, water loss compounded to the point that a residential sump pump that was part of a footer drain at the site ran all day, every day for over a year until a remedy was identified. Traditional methods of repair would have involved drawdown to reduce head pressure and careful compaction of local clays into a broad trench. Achieving consistent compaction without damaging the utility was important. As a solution, two cubic metres of AquaBlok were used to surround the two 50 mm PVC pipes, and in a trench which extended only two metres along the pipes, without drawdown to the pond. Doing so took less than 30 minutes. Seepage rates reduced within a matter of hours and stopped completely within 48 hours of application. Another use of AquaBlok was for a leaking joint at an industrial wastewater collection system. The gravity system discharges to a lift station which pumps wastewater to a publically owned wastewater treatment system. A high groundwater table resulted in excessive infiltration at a joint in the manhole riser. By excavating around the manhole to a depth of approximately two metres and backfilling the trench with AquaBlok, the joint was effectively sealed. A one-day effort at a cost of less than $3,000 markedly reduced the flows and resulted in significant savings. John Hull, Jennifer Collier and Kevin VanTuyl are with AquaBlok. Email: services@aquablok.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Low Impact Development improves the performance of existing stormwater infrastructure By Darla Campbell and Christine Zimmer

Photo credit: Scherbinator / Adobe Stock.


lmost every year since 1995, there has been a state of emergency in Ontario linked to severe weather. The City of Windsor saw extreme events that caused severe flooding in 2007 and 2010. Additionally, 2011 was its wettest year on record. Over the past 11 years, the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) has experienced seven extreme rainfall events. These incidents highlight the vulnerability of our stormwater, water and sanitary infrastructure and the impacts to emergency services. Canada’s Climate Change Action Plan (2015) confirms the scientific evidence that climate change is one of the greatest threats to our collective health, security and prosperity. In the Ontario Climate Change Discussion Paper 2015 (and later in Ontario’s Climate Change Strategy), the province highlights the need for climate change adaptation and resiliency 26 | October 2016

considerations in infrastructure and asset management planning decisions. Unlike water and sanitary infrastructure, the level of stormwater treatment varies depending on the age of the development. It is estimated that roughly 60% to 75% of the GTA built prior to 1970s lacks today’s flood and water quality control standards. Local monitoring is showing degraded urban streams and near-shore water quality. Cost-effective solutions for stormwater management are needed to mitigate and adapt to the potential impacts of climate change. The July 8, 2013 storm that hit the GTA highlighted the vulnerability of wastewater collection and transmission systems to inflow and infiltration from stormwater into the sanitary sewer system. This can cause sewer backup and bypass of downstream sewage treatment plants into Lake Ontario.

While weather extremes are outside human control, we can manage our water resources to reduce impacts to public infrastructure and services, the natural environment and public health. In a study published by the Ontario Coalition for Sustainable Infrastructure, municipalities identified funding for rehabilitation and preventative maintenance (76%) as their number one priority. This was for both short-term and long-term challenges related to sustainable wastewater and stormwater. Adequate funding for capital works (73%) was a close second. Operations staff availability and competency (38%) was identified as a priority, as well as incorporating resiliency into infrastructure projects (30%). The top five challenges ranked the same for smaller and northern communities. continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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Low Impact Development (LID) is gaining wide acceptance as a way to supplement existing stormwater management infrastructure. LID technologies are engineered features that infiltrate, filter and/or store stormwater runoff. They also enhance evaporation and reduce runoff volume and erosion, remove pollutants and thermal loading to streams, and restore groundwater and stream flows to protect natural features and fisheries. Implementing LID practices saves money for developers, property owners and communities, while preserving the environment. LID projects are easy to incorporate into new developments, urban retrofits or redevelopments. They require less land area and are adaptable to different land types and conditions, providing planners and designers with tools to optimize land and protect natural features. Various funding sources are available to municipalities to support investment in stormwater infrastructure, including

the federal Gas Tax Fund. It is a longterm, flexible and predictable source of funding for municipalities to invest in infrastructure and long-term planning projects that improve asset management. These investments can be made in 17 categories of infrastructure, including stormwater. Several municipalities in Ontario are using the fund to invest in stormwater management.

DEMONSTRATION SITE Credit Valley Conservation’s demonstration site at Elm Drive in Mississauga, Ontario, is proving that, in addition to managing average rainfall events, LID can also help reduce urban flooding and stress on existing infrastructure during extreme weather events. Although not designed to control stormwater generated from an extreme weather event, monitoring results show that the Elm Drive LID provided effective stormwater infrastructure relief during the July 2013 storm event.

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The performance of Elm Drive showed that simple, low-cost LID practices provide resilience during extreme events. This has led to the City of Mississauga passing a “first-of-its-kind” Council Resolution 0046-2014 in March 2014 that all future capital roads projects must consider the use of LID. Severe storm performance of LID at Elm Drive included: • Delaying the peak discharge of stormwater by 20 minutes: Slowing the rate at which stormwater entered already overburdened storm sewers. • Reducing volume by 30%: Reducing stress on infrastructure, helping to control erosion and reducing pollutants entering storm sewers and streams. Monitoring results over five years have found this LID retrofit in clay soils has provided quantity, quality, erosion and water balance treatment beyond expectations, including: • From 2011 to 2015, 285 events were monitored with only 12 events producing runoff in a given year, replicating a more natural water cycle in a highly urbanized setting. • Approximately 90% of the storm events were less than 25 mm and had a total runoff volume reduction of 93%. This reduces stress on local infrastructure and streams. • Peak flow reductions surpassed design estimates. For the two-year to five-year storm events (events with 33 mm to 45 mm rainfall in four hours), peak flow was reduced by 66% to 95%. • Total suspended solid removal was 88% compared to 80% removal criteria in conventional stormwater ponds. These results are consistent with, and in some cases out-perform, data reported in the International BMP database and the National Stormwater Quality Database. • Load reduction of 91% for total phosphorus.

LOWER MAINTENANCE AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS One of reasons municipalities aren’t embracing LID is that maintenance and life cycle costs have not been well known. The Credit Valley Conservation’s assesscontinued overleaf...

28 | October 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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ment of the construction and maintenance of LID practices shows that, by selecting the appropriate practice and landscape design for the location and land use, LID does not increase maintenance requirements or cost. It is important to select the right design for the right location. This can be done through site visits and communication with operational staff. For example, municipal parks are maintained by municipal parks staff. Engaging parks staff when designing LID features can provide critical information. Credit Valley Conservation’s monitoring program has found that when park staff is familiar with the plants used in LID gardens, there is no increase in operational costs compared with conventional garden features. In cases where municipalities have implemented stormwater management rate systems, incorporating LID features into parks can be an incentive for parks and recreation staff. Operational costs for maintaining LID landscape features and permeable parking lots are generally paid through the stormwater rate, instead of from the park’s budget. In retrofit applications, designers are encouraged to see how the landscape will be used in order to select the appropriate feature and to design alternative spaces for incompatible uses. In one case, the location was an unofficial smoking area. Had a survey of the landscape been

Operational costs for maintaining LID landscape features and permeable parking lots are generally paid through the stormwater rate, instead of from the park’s budget.

which is detrimental to waterways. For more detailed information on specific sites, see www.BeALeader.ca and the Sustainable Technologies Evaluation Program (STEP) website.

SECURING INFRASTRUCTURE FUNDING Until recently, stormwater infrastructure was overlooked in asset management planning, despite its strong relationship to water and wastewater infrastructure. Credit Valley Conservation has developed a series of “Grey to Green Guides”. completed during the pre-design stage, These provide small, medium and large an alternative practice could have been municipalities and the private sector designed. with guidance on integrating stormwater infrastructure, including LID, into the LID WORKS IN THE WINTER asset management planning process. Monitoring stations are set up to moniIdentifying the economic benefit of tor changes in groundwater levels. Results climate change mitigation and adaptafrom seven sites show that LID features tion is the key to driving municipalities work in the winter. Water is still able to forward with an economic argument as infiltrate, reducing ponding and refreez- well as an environmental one. Municipaling, and keeping catch basins clear. For ities need to incorporate innovation in example, permeable pavement infiltration their procurement practices and to take is able to drain water in the winter at a rate into consideration life cycle costs, not just of approximately 1,500 mm/hr. This is the initial capital requirements. quick enough to drain water into the space between pavers, decreasing the potential Darla Campbell, P.Eng., is with The for water to freeze and form ice on the Ontario Coalition for Sustainable surface. This improves safety, reducing Infrastructure. Email: executivedirector@ slips and falls when compared to asphalt on-csi.ca. Christine Zimmer, P.Eng., MSc surfaces that do not drain and allow ice to (Eng), is with Credit Valley Conservation. form. This then requires application of salt, Email: czimmer@creditvalleyca.ca

Knowledge. Expertise. Resources. Engineering the future.


30 | October 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine





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Fire suppression, rainwater management systems provided for new floating bridge By Herb Schairbaum


onstruction is nearly complete on the new floating bridge spanning Lake Washington, connecting Seattle on the western side of the lake to Medina on the eastern side. The new 2,336 metre long bridge will be the longest floating bridge in the world. Two important components of the bridge were the design and construction of the dry standpipe fire system and the mechanical wastewater removal system, which removes rainwater from the road surface and filters it before discharge to the lake. Contractors for these systems needed grooved pipe couplings, hangers, Hot-dip galvanizing and coating the couplings with epoxy ensured that bridge design requirements and other piping products that would were met and wildlife were protected.

32 | October 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

meet or exceed the needs of this unique bridge style. A floating bridge design was selected due to the depth of Lake Washington (over 60 m at its deepest point) and the soft condition of its lakebed. Traditional bridge support towers would have had to be cost-prohibitively tall in order to support the roadbed of a more conventionally designed bridge. Instead, the bridge’s roadbed, like that of its predecessor, is supported by a series of large, floating concrete pontoons. Because the bridge floats on the surface of Lake Washington, it must expand, contract and roll with the motion of the water, whether that motion comes from wind, storms, thermal changes, or other factors. The new bridge consists of two separate decks: an upper deck for traffic, and a lower deck for maintenance and operations. Approximately 2.5 km in length, the bridge is constructed much like a viaduct, with a superstructure that rests between 4.2 m and 24 m above the 23

Anvil’s 7000 Series couplings are flexible enough to handle the motion of the floating bridge.

pontoons, the largest of which are 110 m in length. The design and construction of the bridge has taken approximately four years.

FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM ENSURES SAFETY Because the bridge is too long to rely exclusively on fire trucks for fire suppression water supply, it requires dry standpipes along its length. Once they arrive, trucks can access one of the hose

Handles unusual solids loading High Capacity speeds offload

stations along the bridge, drawing up lake water for use in fighting fires. The fire standpipe is split into two separate systems. Each system has two vertical turbine fire pumps and motorized valves as primary and secondary sources of water, ensuring backup in the event of a pump failure. The systems are interconnected with a motorized valve, which is a third source of water in the extremely unlikely event that the first two sources should fail. All of these systems are remotely controlled from a state monitoring station. The fire suppression system includes approximately 2,425  m of 200  mm Schedule 40 piping, all of which must be joined with pipe couplings that need to be flexible so that they can withstand the bridge’s motion. Reliance Fire Protection, the contractor that designed and installed the fire standpipe systems, chose Anvil International’s Gruvlok® grooved couplings. In addition to the couplings, Reliance continued overleaf...

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purchased material for hanger assemblies from Anvil. Most of these consist of roller hangers attached to Anvil Strut/ Channel, and serve to suspend the fire system’s dry standpipe from the underside of the bridge’s upper deck. They give it the flexibility to move independently of the bridge, which is critical to the pipe’s ability to withstand the motion of the bridge from the water. The couplings and components of the hanger assemblies were all hot-dipped zinc galvanized.

MECHANICAL WASTEWATER REMOVAL SYSTEM KEEPS ROADWAY CLEAR Anvil was also involved in the sourcing of products for the mechanical wastewater removal system for the bridge. Rainwater flows off the bridge deck into a series of 160 catch basins on the bridge, designed to trap sediment at the bottom. From there, it filters through Schedule 40 pipe and ends up in the 44 sump wells built into the bottom deck of the bridge. The rainwater flows back into the lake, once the oil from the roadway is cleared from the surface of the wells. The motion of the bridge from the water was also of concern with the wastewater pipes. Just as with the fire suppression system, the Anvil Gruvlok 7000 Series lightweight, flexible grooved couplings were selected for their ability

The system’s piping is suspended from the bottom side of the bridge’s upper deck.

to handle this. The couplings were hot-dipped zinc galvanized and then sent for an epoxy coating. This step was deemed to be necessary for ecological reasons by the bridge designers, who feared that the galvanization would flake off and negatively affect lake wildlife. In total, the rainwater removal system contains approximately 4,050 m of pipe,

3,000 pipe couplings, and 1,500 pipe fittings. It is located under the bridge’s traffic deck on both sides, and spans the length of the bridge. It took approximately 14 months to install, and was completed in March 2016. Herb Schairbaum is with Anvil International’s fire protection division. Email: marketing@anvilintl.com

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Does primary treatment have to take up so much space? Traditional primary wastewater treatment has required large, energy-hungry settling tanks, but this need not be the case. Technological advancements now mean that the same capability can be achieved in a much smaller footprint and at a much lower energy requirement – freeing up space and cutting costs.

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Photo credit: City of Vernon.

Sustainable and equitable stormwater funding: a British Columbia case study By Jason Foster


n light of aging infrastructure, lack of preventative maintenance, and more instances of failures, municipalities are reviewing their stormwater systems and looking for ways to match desired levels of service to available funding. Stormwater is historically the most underfunded (see Figure 1). Funding for the City of Vernon, British Columbia’s stormwater management program is generated through property taxes, a dedicated infrastructure levy, and grant funding. Recent work completed identified funding shortfalls and environmental issues with stormwater runoff quality. Vernon had already taken steps to correct insufficient funding for infrastructure renewal. In 2013, a dedicated 1.9% cumulative levy was implemented. Each year until 2022, this levy will add 1.9% of the taxation budget to the capital program budget. It is allocated to infrastructure renewal of the programs funded through general taxation which 36 | October 2016

Figure 1: Annual capital reinvestment normalized by system replacement cost for Canadian municipalities.

Source: National Water & Wastewater Benchmarking Initiative

include: stormwater, roads, municipal facilities, parks, and the airport. The levy is a positive step forward, but does not provide dedicated funding, nor address operations and maintenance budgets.

Maintenance of the stormwater system in Vernon is done to remedy a failure or to prevent an imminent failure. Lack of preventative maintenance and renewal can save money in the

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Figure 2: Example of impervious areas of a single-family detached home.

short term, but will become more costly as the system ages and emergency work becomes more common. This will likely increase incidences of flooding, slope failure, road failure, and potentially lead to beach closures.

COSTS AND SERVICE LEVELS The primary goal of a stormwater management program is to manage stormwater and protect life and property. If this is not accomplished, all other goals are virtually irrelevant. Managing stormwater means implementing and maintaining infrastructure such as pipes, catchbasins, ditches, detention facilities, infiltration facilities, treatment structures, overland flow routes and outlets to receiving waters. Other goals of an effective stormwater management program include: mitigating pollutants; managing destructive peak runoff flow rates; keeping residents informed and satisfied; and providing sustainable funding. A review was done of the existing programs and past engineering reports in Vernon and in other municipalities, to identify levels of service that would provide sustainable renewal rates, a proactive preventative maintenance program, and/or sufficient water quality in order to not negatively impact adjacent creeks and lakes. From this review, three levels of service were developed: status quo; minimum renewal and

maintenance; and, sustainable renewal, maintenance and water quality.

FUNDING METHODOLOGIES Stormwater funding methodologies Waste Water products 4.65 x 4.65.pdf 1 1/26/2016

include: taxation; rates (also known as fees); and other income such as grant funding, or debt financing. Developing the “right” funding methodology 9:25:59 AM

continued overleaf...

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for each community requires analyzing details such as impervious area as well as the values of the community toward rate payer equity, environmental impacts and the cost of program administration. Funding methods that fall under the “other income” category are used universally. While these methods are recommended income sources, they cannot fully cover stormwater program costs. The focus of the study was to review sustainable funding methodologies available through taxation and stormwater rates. Taxation provides two funding methods: general taxation and dedicated tax levies. Alternate stormwater funding methodologies have become more common in recent years but general taxation is still the most significant revenue source to support municipal stormwater programs in Canada. Revenue derived from the municipality’s portion of property tax goes into a general fund which covers the operating and capital expenditures of many services. General taxa-

Figure 3: Impervious area versus tax contributions in Vernon, BC and other Canadian municipalities.

tion provides financial flexibility through a well-established system. Downsides include lack of dedicated funding and typically poor equity.

An alternative to general taxation is a dedicated levy. A levy can be administered specifically to raise revenue for stormwater services and is itemized on the prop-

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38 | October 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

erty owner’s annual tax bill. The advantage of a levy is a dedicated revenue stream for the stormwater program, but the potential for inequity is not solved. A disadvantage for all tax-based systems is that taxes must be raised to increase stormwater funding. A stormwater rate can be a solution to many of the issues with tax-based funding. A rate allocates charges to individual properties and is administered as a user fee. In the same way water rates can be based on volume of water consumption, stormwater rates can be based on the volume of stormwater runoff. It is impossible to directly measure the volume of runoff from each property and so an indicator is used. The area of impervious ground cover (e.g., rooftops, driveways, and parking lots) is a common indicator of stormwater flow and pollution discharge potential. Figure 2 illustrates the impervious area for a non-residential property, highlighting the building footprint in the left panel and the driveway and parking areas in the right panel. The sum total of these areas within the lot boundary represents the total impervious area for this property. Stormwater rates range in complexity from flat rates to variable rates based on direct impervious area measurement. The flat rate offers the least user-pay equity, but is easy to implement and administer. A variable rate is more equitable, but is more costly to set up and administer. Stormwater rates are calculated based on billing units. The basic calculation for a stormwater rate is simply the municipal stormwater program expense divided by the number of billing units within the municipality. For example, a single family unit stormwater rate structure uses the impervious area of the average single-family detached home as the billing unit. One stormwater billing unit is applied to all single-family homes. Multi-family dwelling units are smaller than single-family homes so a factor is used to reduce the billing unit for these property types. The billing units for non-residential properties are determined by measuring the impervious area of each property. There are 20 to 30 municipalities across Canada that have either implemented, or are in the process of implewww.esemag.com

menting, a stormwater rate. All municipalities are different and it is important to complete a thorough review in order to develop an equitable user-pay funding solution. Usually taxation does not provide equitable funding. However, Vernon is a special case. Figure 3 shows that in many Canadian communities, impervious area is not tied to tax contributions. In Vernon, the two are closely related. This means that funding stormwater through taxation presents a fair and equitable solution for Vernon.

PUBLIC AWARENESS The general public is unaware of the devastating effect rainwater can have on our infrastructure and there is a lack of knowledge regarding stormwater. It must be communicated to residents that stormwater management is critical and that this is more than a “rain tax”. CONCLUSION Vernon’s funding for stormwater was

not sufficient to meet either the minimum or the sustainable level of service. The community’s desire is to receive a functional drainage system and improve environmental health. As a result of the funding study and previous initiatives, the City is taking steps to ensure sustainable funding for stormwater management. The correlation of impervious area to land use type concluded that taxation is an equitable solution. While a stormwater rate offers many benefits, in this instance it made more sense to continue with the well-established taxed based funding system. The 1.9% cumulative levy will eventually provide sustainable funding for infrastructure renewal. There is potential to extend the levy and repurpose it to stormwater operations and maintenance funding. Jason Foster, P.Eng., is with AECOM Canada. For more information, email: jason.foster@aecom.com

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retrofits at Hamilton Water Treatment Plant save $400,000 per year


he pumps, motors and switchgear at Hamilton, Ontario’s Woodward Avenue High Lift Pumping Station were reaching the end of their life and needed to be replaced. Built in 1951, this is the City’s largest pumping station. It pumps more than 340 million litres of Lake Ontario water to over 500,000 people daily. The load required to move the water is more than 10,000 horsepower, with various sized pumps fed from two separate electrical feeds – 2.4 kV to 13.8 kV. The variation in pump sizes resulted in more costly maintenance and higher energy costs. The City replaced the station’s old equipment with state-of-the-art technologies and took advantage of the financial incentives available through the Electricity Retrofit Incentive Program. “We were able to install energy-efficient equipment that would reduce the station’s energy cost,” says Geoff Lupton, Hamilton’s Director of Energy, Fleet, Facilities and Traffic. “Controlling 40 | October 2016

One of six high lift pumps at the Woodward Water Treatment Plant in Hamilton.

energy costs is critical to operating an efficient and reliable water treatment plant.” The new system reduces the pumping station’s energy costs by 20% annually. This represents $400,000 of the station’s

current $2 million annual electrical cost. “This project sets a benchmark for the energy-efficiency opportunities available at the municipal level to react to pricing and peak demand,” says Brian Smith, Chief Conservation Officer for

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Horizon Utilities. Horizon is the local electric utility that assessed and evaluated the eligibility of the project for financial incentives available from the Electricity Retrofit Incentive Program. Hamilton received over $2 million in incentive funding for installing energy-efficient pumps and variable frequency drives. Under the Save On Energy retrofit program and Save On Energy Process & Systems, significant financial incentives are available to municipalities, businesses, industries and other sectors when they install new energy-efficient technologies in their buildings and facilities. Local electric utilities across Ontario deliver these incentive programs. To meet its energy-efficiency and water safety targets, the City’s engineering staff worked with Insyght Systems of Burlington, whose analysis showed that the optimum solution was to replace the various-sized pumps

Hamilton received over $2 million in incentive funding for installing energy-efficient pumps and variable frequency drives. with six identical pumps. Four were connected to variable-frequency drives and the two remaining operate as single-speed pumps. The pumps would be constructed in a single-voltage, split electrical bus that allows half the station to be shut down for maintenance, while the other half continues to operate. Since the new pumps are designed to operate at higher efficiencies across a wider range of flow rates and use variable-frequency drives, the new design will considerably reduce power

consumption. The change in operational approach will allow the high lift pumps to run at a lower capacity during higher-cost, on-peak periods and at a higher capacity during lower-cost, off-peak periods. In addition, the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system now shows plant operators, in real time, how much electricity is being used at each pump. The system displays the cost of running each pump and the entire station. Plant operators can now make decisions related to time-of-day use, based on real-time data, which includes electricity rates and other key information needed to monitor and control energy costs. The Woodward Avenue Water Treatment Plant pumping station project was the winner of “The 2011 Success Story of the Year” for Pumps & Systems magazine. For more information, visit www.horizonutilities.com

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Electrical submetering technology provides new ways to improve efficiency By Paul Mertes


overnment energy conservation and carbon reduction programs across Canada provide new incentives for all levels of industry to develop innovative technology and services. In the past, the traditional strategy was to focus on new, more efficient types of equipment and technology. This approach ignores an entire area of opportunity, namely the reduction of energy operating costs. This is where advanced, low-cost metering, combined with energy information analytics, can play a major role. They allow municipalities to scrutinize energy use in detail, identify waste and reduce costs.

42 | October 2016

Service providers such as CircuitMeter Inc., a Canadian company, can provide detailed energy use data that gives organizations an entirely new level of information. With highly granular, detailed energy usage information to guide operating practices and capital expenditure decisions, there is a new expectation regarding the potential for energy efficient practices. Real time energy management (RTEM) systems use comprehensive data monitoring and analytics to identify where, when, and how energy is being used in a building. Municipal goals for a RTEM information system parallel those of any commercial or

industrial enterprise and include: • Tracking and reporting energy usage load profiling; • Benchmarking and monitoring performance; • Supporting the measurement and verification process; • Reporting greenhouse gas emissions; • Allocating costs; • Forecasting consumption and costs for budgeting. Typical smart meters monitor electricity usage for an entire facility every 15 minutes. This usage information can be sent to energy management software for analysis. Using the analytic capability

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

of various software packages and proprietary energy use models, external consultants, vendors, and on-staff personnel, have developed methods that define current energy management practices and the current levels of energy efficiency in facility and building operations. New submetering technology that allows for granular measurement of energy use, right down to the individual circuit level, is now available at dramatically lower costs than previous generations of “hardware-centric” technology. Savings can be achieved through simple no-cost behaviour changes, such as turning off unneeded equipment and correcting improperly set or programmed control systems. Equipment that is operating when not necessary, with a low power factor, or with a higher energy consumption than benchmarked, can be identified and flagged for maintenance or replacement. With this level of energy analytics, significant cost savings can be achieved. This overall analytical capability is


New submetering technology that allows for granular measurement of energy use, right down to the individual circuit level.

sometimes referred to as “continuous nology can identify energy “drift” in real energy audit”. The term captures the time. It can then minimize the degree to concept that advanced submetering techcontinued overleaf...

October 2016 | 43


which building efficiency declines with time after commissioning. These losses in efficiency can be as much as 20% over the first two years. Some of the causes of this degradation include: • Temperature and time overrides by occupants or operators; • Improper control system programming; • Seasonal changes that disrupt mechanical equipment operation; • Failures of temperature sensors, relays, filters or controls; • Malfunctioning of complex electrical, mechanical and HVAC components. Modern IP-based submetering systems can help turn municipal properties into “intelligent buildings”. The information gap is bridged by connecting building automation systems and IT-based financial and energy management systems, and making consumption data visible to all stakeholders. Individual employees are empowered to monitor and reduce their energy consumption and facility managers have the information they need to make smart


operational decisions. Employees are more likely to support sustainability initiatives if there is a mechanism that allows them to see realtime energy consumption. Anecdotes about employees leaving lights on or equipment running are commonplace. However, it has been demonstrated that energy conservation enters into people’s consciousness once they realize that their energy footprint is being measured. Powerful real-time circuit level monitoring software provides facility managers with a detailed understanding of their electrical usage and trends, as well as notifications of anomalies that can signal energy waste. With historical and realtime detailed analyses provided through visual dashboards and reports, facility managers can review energy information for an entire portfolio of building assets from their computer’s browser. Tools that can provide this level of information promise to give municipalities the ability to reduce energy costs,

meet greenhouse gas reduction targets and increase the long-term value of building assets. Estimates place electrical energy waste at 30% or more. With leading-edge technology now available to identify this waste, an entire new sector of carbon use becomes feasible as a target for reduction. Energy savings can be expected if facility managers and the occupants are held accountable for managing and controlling energy costs. Metering data allows for better transparency in the shared savings process. This encourages partnerships between facility managers and top management, as data can be used to support decision-making and accelerate the further adoption of successful programs. An IP-based submetering system can improve visibility for the municipality of its overall energy footprint. Paul Mertes, MBA, P.Eng., is CEO of CircuitMeter Inc. For more information, visit www.circuitmeter.com

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Fast-curing coating and lining technologies streamline WWTP maintenance By Murray Heywood


he ideal method for managing wastewater facility assets is to implement a preventive maintenance plan. This includes scheduled downtime for repairs, such as rehabilitating coating and lining systems that protect concrete and steel surfaces from corrosion. In a perfect world, this approach should lessen the likelihood of a facility needing an emergency repair and experiencing unscheduled downtime. Unfortunately, many operating budgets have not kept pace with system demands, forcing operators to exceed the capacities of their facilities. This increases the likelihood of an emergency repair. Facilities operating at maximum capacity have little tolerance for shutdowns of any kind. They need to be back in service as soon as possible, to meet service demands and www.esemag.com

minimize costs. Both standard maintenance and emergency repairs are costly. Shutting down a system often requires a facility to implement expensive bypass operations to divert the waste stream to other tanks or temporary holding areas until the primary system is up and running again. Bypass operations can cost more than $30,000 per day for a larger plant. Thus, every minute saved in getting the system returned to service means significant cost savings. Fortunately, wastewater facility managers can save time when performing maintenance on coating and lining systems. Newer “quick-return-to-service” coating technology options can enable a facility to rehabilitate and repair concrete and steel surfaces and return them to service in less than 24 hours.

A GROWING NEED FOR REPAIRS Over the past 50 years, many areas have experienced “urban sprawl” without adding new treatment facilities to manage the increased wastewater volume. They have addressed sprawl simply by adding new sewers to their existing systems, to carry wastewater from new subdivisions and commercial and industrial sites to existing treatment plants. As wastewater must now travel greater distances to reach the treatment facility, this slows waste stream flows and increases dwell times in the lines. Additionally, industrial byproducts entering the waste stream have increased, creating a more diverse mix of organics and subsequently a more septic waste stream. All of these factors contribute to increased corrosion rates on wastewater continued overleaf...

October 2016 | 45


infrastructure. Concrete accounts for approximately 85% of the surface areas that will require maintenance or repair in wastewater facilities. These assets include manholes (brick, pre-cast, or poured), wet wells, lift stations, grit chambers, influent channels, primary and secondary clarifiers, and digesters. The largest contributor to the corrosion and degradation of concrete is the increased level of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), organic wastes such as fats and grease, and industrial waste. Microbiologically induced corrosion is also a major contributor to the deterioration of concrete. Microbes, such as acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, essential in the breakdown of the waste, ingest the H2S and excrete sulfuric acid (H2SO). This reaction lowers the pH of the concrete and causes the cement paste to deteriorate, leaving the aggregate exposed. Abrasion from debris and grit in the waste stream also contribute to the degradation of concrete by eroding the surface and


exposing the larger aggregate within the cement matrix. Steel surfaces throughout a wastewater treatment facility face similar threats, as toxic waste streams and gases react with unprotected steel and accelerate corrosion.

FAST-CURING COATINGS Newer, fast-curing technologies have reduced return-to-service times. Facilities can perform surface preparation, apply repair mortar, apply a fast-curing coating material, and place a system back in service, all within a 24-hour period. Of course, this may not include the time to empty, clean and rinse a tank or vessel, as well as remove any existing coating or lining. However, a single-day return-toservice capability could reduce a facility’s bypass operation costs by $180,000 to $270,000. PERFORMING THE MAINTENANCE To perform coating and lining main-

tenance on concrete and steel surfaces, a plant must first shut down or bypass the systems to be repaired or rehabilitated. A typical rehabilitation or repair of an existing concrete substrate will start with stopping any active leaks and all inflow and infiltration (I&I) issues. Contractors must properly address these, or the success of any coating system or repair will be questionable. There are many methodologies for stopping leaks and I&I, but contractors often use chemical grouting because it is both fast and permanent. Also, personnel can generally apply coatings to chemical grout products soon after application. The next process is surface preparation, which typically involves a combination of methods. First, contractors must remove any existing coating and/or clean the surface to remove any existing contamination. High-pressure hot water cleaning is the preferred method. Once the surface is clean, contractors can use newer methods for preparing the substrate, including

Build. Maintain. Remove. Our solutions hold water.

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46 | October 2016


Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

wet abrasive or vapour blasting. Standard dry abrasive blasting is not preferred because it creates a larger amount of dust and spent abrasive that must be contained and removed by hand or vacuum truck. Vapour blasting combines small quantities of water along with an abrasive media, creating approximately 90% less dust and often requiring no containment. It can be used for both concrete and steel substrates. Following surface preparation, contractors can complete a concrete repair using some of today’s quick-return-to-service systems. They may use an epoxy-reinforced cementitious repair mortar that can be top coated in as little as eight hours. They may choose calcium aluminate repair mortars that can be top coated in as little as 12 hours, or microsilica mortars that require 18 to 24 hours to cure prior to top coating. All three options are much better than using Portland cement alone, which takes 28 days to cure fully before allowing top coating. Contractors also have options for straight


The three primary technologies are epoxies (typically amine-cured), highbuild aromatic polyurethanes, or polyurea linings. The fast-curing capabilities of these materials depend on being able to control environmental conditions using heat and/or dehumidification equipment. All three technologies provide a highbuild capability, which is critical in wastewater applications. To decide which quick-return-to-service system is the most suitable for a given project, the facility will need to consider the substrate and the chemical-resistance Epoxies typically provide the most across-theand film-build characteristics of the techboard versatility of the three technologies. nology. Epoxies typically provide the most across-the-board versatility of the three 100% solids epoxy fillers that have a six to technologies, as they allow for application 10 hour minimum recoat requirement. to surface saturated dry substrates. PolyRegardless of the coating system used, urethanes and polyureas are more adverse contractors must resurface the concrete to moisture during application. as close as possible to its original plane, with all defects filled and protrusions Murray Heywood is with Sherwinremoved. Once repairs have been made, Williams Protective & Marine Coatings. the lining material can be applied. Email: murray.c.heywood@sherwin.com

October 2016 | 47



side. A butterfly valve should ideally never be mounted right up against the valve as this will direct flow in an uneven path into or out of the valve. This is not as critical with gate valves. The outlet side of the valve is a different matter. Ideally, you should always have a few pipe diameters of straight runs downstream of the valve to assist in getting flow settled down again after the turbulence of the control valve.

AIR IN PIPELINES Water contains air, which is dissolved in amounts dependent on pressure and temperature. At atmospheric pressure, the volume of air varies from 30% at 0oC to 15% at 30oC. This dissolved air can come out of solution in a number of ways: • Changes in water temperature, velocity and pressure. • Turbulence caused by rough pipe A typical valve chamber. walls in older mains, bends, valves and other fittings. • Vortex actions of pumps. Air, being compressible, will cause erratic pressure swings and valve modulations that will play havoc with a pressure management system. It is therefore imperative that air be removed totally from the pilot system during commissioning of the valve or after any kind of valve maintenance. Pilot systems and bonnets of control By Mark Gimson valves form natural high points where any air in a line will collect. There is little ressure management has become VALVE LOCATION research that addresses air problems in a very useful tool for controlling Pilot valves require maintenance pressure reducing valves, so technical leakage in piping networks. This and possibly adjustments and electrical data is limited. However, based on 25 has primarily been achieved by connections, so access to them is import- years of practical experience, Singer utilities forming district metered areas ant. They are typically mounted in valve Valve found that having an air release and pressure zones in their systems. boxes or underground valve stations in valve upstream of the control valve will Typically, pressure is managed by colder climates, and aboveground where ensure a good, air free and stable valve utilizing a pressure reducing valve that freezing is not a concern. operation. Any air in the pipeline is then can either have a single fixed pressure The valves should be mounted with released before it reaches the control reducing pilot set point or pressure flow the stems in the vertical position. They valve. As for sizing, this will be depenmodulating devices to give a range of will work in any position, but for practi- dent upon flow rates, but typically 25 set points based on flow. Whatever the cal purposes, install them in a horizontal mm will suffice with flows up to 315 L/s. set point of the pressure, every one of line, with the stems vertical where possiOn the downstream side of the valve, these valves relies on the basic principle ble. This will make future maintenance a combination air valve, which is an air of opening and closing a main valve by easier. Secondly, ensure there is plenty of vacuum valve that allows air to vent upon employing some type of pilot system. space around the valve for maintenance filling the pipeline, is used. It also allows As these are hydro-mechanical devices, and access. air to enter when the downstream pipethere is always room for increasing effiIt is best to maintain straight runs line is being drained. It has the added ciency through custom configuration. before and after the valve. The inlet side advantage of including an air release of the valve is not as critical as the outlet valve to eliminate any air that may have

How to boost the performance of pressure reducing valves


48 | October 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

been formed by the reducing valve as it reduces pressure, allowing even more air to be released. These valves are sized, based upon flow rate, and can get much larger due to the vacuum breaking function of the valve. If a single valve is installed in a valve chamber, or there is no requirement downstream for vacuum protection, then a simple inlet release valve is all that is required.

Aside from regular maintenance where parts can be cleaned using a weak acid, it is much easier to prevent scale before it occurs. Ideally, this would involve water softening but, as this is costly and often impractical, there are some other methods that can be employed. Historically, manufacturers have supplied valves stems with a Delrin® sleeve to combat the effects of build-up. Unfortunately, this does have some pressure limitations and over time can crack COMBATING THE EFFECTS OF or swell. SCALING Another recent option is the Dura Hard water can lead to scale build-up Kleen® stem that relies on the bottom that over time will do several things: portion of the stem being “rifled” to • Plug the tappings of the main valve drive any build-up off the stem, much sensing ports. like a car tire’s grooves displace water • Coat calcium on surfaces that are when it is raining. situated around the elastomers in the Another alternative is to treat the stem valve that over time can start to punc- with an oxy-nitride treatment. This is a ture the rubber, causing failure. hot chemical dip that essentially turns • Allow build-up on valve stems that the stainless material jet black. It does eventually can impede stem movement, not affect the dimensions or strength Speed control/low flow stabilizer (left). causing the valve to sit in one position. continued overleaf... Reducing pilot (right).

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October 2016 | 49



properties but increases hardness and greatly improves lubricity and fatigue and corrosion resistance. This ensures that nothing can grow on the stem and eliminates the binding problems of mineral growth.

STRAINERS To fully understand the need for clean water in the pilot system it is important to understand that all control valves utilize the simple principle of allowing more water to leave the cover chamber when the pilot opens than can be fed into the bonnet from the valve inlet supply. This is typically achieved by utilizing a small orifice in the pilot system that varies in size from 1.6 mm to 6 mm, dependent upon valve size. This is not a very large opening and is prone to plugging. A plugged orifice means the control valve is very sluggish to close or will not close at all. It is therefore imperative that the pilot system is protected with an effective and reliable strainer. Most valve manufacturers utilize either an internal flow strainer on the valve inlet, or an external type strainer. Both can be very effective, but require monitoring and maintenance. In areas where the feed water is not clean, this can become a maintenance challenge involving countless hours spent on strainer cleaning. A simple, effective way to prolong

A duplex pilot strainer assembly.

the cleaning cycle is to utilize a duplex strainer assembly. This can be as simple as installing the valve with two strainers that can be manually switched over to ensure uninterrupted valve operation while one of the strainers is being cleaned. A better method is to install a dedicated, wall mounted strainer system. This is particularly useful if there are valve chambers with more than one valve. The concept is to oversize the strainers used from a simple 9.5 mm inlet to that of a 40 mm. This greatly increases the surface area of the screen and allows for much longer run times and a lot less maintenance. Typically, strainers are supplied at 40 mesh, but can be 60 or 80 mesh, depending upon the requirements.

PILOT SENSING It is important to understand how the

pressure reducing pilot valve senses the pressure downstream in order to accurately detect what it needs to do in order to control the pressure. The internal downstream chamber of the pilot valve is exposed to downstream pressure and this area interacts with a spring by way of a diaphragm in the pilot. If the pressure in the downstream zone is greater than the spring setting, it forces the diaphragm upwards. This in turn carries the inner valve yolk assembly, thus closing off the flow from the inlet to the outlet of the pilot. As the pressure in the downstream zone falls, the spring force is now greater than the pressure so the spring forces the inner valve stem downward. This opens flow from the inlet to out of the pilot, which in turn opens the main valve. This effective diaphragm area and the accurate sensing are the key to getting a good stable pressure downstream. It is not ideal to have this pilot directly connected to the body tapping on the downstream side of the main valve.

PILOT SENSING LOCATION IN RELATION TO MAIN VALVE Outlet body tappings of control valves typically fall into a distance range of 0.5 to 0.75 pipe diameters downstream of the valve seat. This means that the typical pilot is sensing turbulent water as it leaves the valve seat, and is by no means

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considered laminar flow. In a differential pressure orifice flow meter, it is recommended that pipe taps be located 2.5 diameters downstream of the primary element. Singer Valve research showed that the best results are achieved when the pilot was mounted five pipe diameters downstream of the valve. This is a very simple change in the system that gives greater stability to pressure management.

Consequently most valve manufacturers recommend an opening speed control to limit how fast the main valve can open.

rolling diaphragm concept removes this issue. It installs into the valve in the same manner as a flat diaphragm but has a constant effective area throughADVANCEMENTS IN VALVE DESIGN out the entire stroke of the valve. This Typically, diaphragm control valves means that even at very low flows the utilize an elastomer diaphragm to sepa- valve does not hunt and produces steady rate the bonnet control pressure from downstream pressures. the pressure in the main valve body. This technology allows for minimum This type of diaphragm design is flow rates right down to 0 L/s even in a not without its issues, namely unsta- 150 mm valve. This means that low flow ble control at lower flow rates. This is bypass valves are not required and, for a SPEED CONTROLS directly attributable to the fact that with pressure management valve where presPressure reducing valves are typi- a flat diaphragm valve the effective area sure surges are not acceptable, this is an cally supplied with an opening speed actually changes throughout the stroke ideal solution. control. The rationale for this is that of the valve. This means that at times the bonnet volume of an 80 mm valve when the valve is only partially open CONCLUSION is approximately 0.3 litres. This means (less than 20%), it is very difficult to With just a few simple changes, even that when the reducing pilot opens, it maintain a steady flow rate. The valve the most problematic valve installation can easily exhaust the bonnet volume will frequently “hunt” as it struggles to can be “tweaked” to improve operation quickly. This allows the main valve to maintain control. so that it runs smoothly, accurately and open quickly, allowing rapid flow downThe pilot system wants the valve to requiring as little attention as possible. stream. Unfortunately, this can cause a remain open. The valve wants to close, high-pressure spike as the pilot cannot so a sine wave action is formed as the Mark Gimson is with Singer Valve. react fast enough to this sudden increase. valve cycles to control reduced flow. The Email: mgimson@singervalve.com

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2016-09-05 11:13 AM October 2016 | 51



The motion of the rings sliding across and atop of the perforated steel plate shears and scrapes clumping particles, so they can pass through the screen.

ronmentally responsible, enhanced efficiency fertilizer called Crystal Green®.

Wastewater converted to ecofriendly fertilizer with the help of dewatering, classifying screeners By Henry Alamzad


he City of Saskatoon’s wastewater treatment plant, built in 1971, has expanded several times to serve the city’s growing population of over 300,000, and to comply with environmental regulations. In 1991, an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process was installed to reduce phosphorus and to meet discharge permit limits for the South Saskatchewan River. In the EBPR process, microbes known as phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) remove phosphorus from the incoming wastewater stream of 84 million litres per day. The resulting biomass is piped 12 km to settling lagoons, where it is aerobically digested and dewatered. The resulting biosolids from the lagoons are applied to farmland, and the supernatant liquid is pumped back through a second 12 km pipeline to the wastewater plant inflow. Although EBPR has many advantages over chemical phosphorus removal, the accumulating sludge was releasing phos52 | October 2016

phorus back into solution. This resulted in greater loads of phosphorus and other nutrients (i.e., ammonia and magnesium) circling back to the main treatment process. The nutrient overload promoted formation of a precipitate called struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate, MgNH4PO4·6H2O) that was coating pipes, valves and other equipment, reducing plant flow capacities, and increasing maintenance requirements. “Struvite formation was challenging operational reliability and reducing process efficiency in the sludge treatment stream, impacting digesters, dewatering and associated biosolids infrastructure,” says Derek Lycke, Ostara’s director of engineering. To eliminate these problems, the City of Saskatoon commissioned Ostara Nutrient Recovery Technologies Inc. to install Canada’s first commercial facility to recover phosphorus and nitrogen, and transform them into more than 72.5 tonnes per year of a slow-release, envi-

LIKE AN OYSTER FORMS A PEARL The heart of the nutrient recovery process is Ostara’s Pearl® 2000 fluidized bed reactor into which the nitrogen (i.e., ammonia) and phosphorus-rich sludge water is fed. Magnesium chloride is added separately. Additional phosphorus and magnesium are fed into the reactor by Ostara’s waste activated sludge stripping (WASSTRIP®) process, which strips both nutrients from the sludge. This makes as much as 40% more phosphorus available for recovery, and further controls struvite scale formation throughout the sludge treatment stream. The Pearl reactor removes 90% of phosphorus and 40% of nitrogen from its feed water, and converts them into high-value fertilizer. Microscopic crystals of struvite (each crystal containing both nitrogen and phosphorus) begin to form in the reactor, like a pearl. They grow until they reach the desired particle size of 1.0 mm to 3.5 mm diameter for the fertilizer product. The result is struvite in the form of extremely pure, crystalline pellets (prills). They are batch harvested from the reactor in a slurry consisting of approximately 10% solids by weight at a rate of 1.0 to 1.5 kg/min. CIRCULAR SCREENER DEWATERS PELLETS Following harvest, fertilizer finishing occurs automatically in batch mode.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

First, the Kason Vibroscreen® 762 mm diameter single deck screener dewaters the prills to a moisture content of 18% to 20%. The screener also helps spread out and equalize flow to the horizontal fluid bed dryer. In operation, an imbalanced-weight gyratory motor imparts multi-plane inertial vibration to the screen deck, causing solid particles to migrate across the 35 mesh (445 mm) screen and exit through the upper discharge spout. The liquid flows through the screen apertures, exiting through the lower discharge spout, and returning to the head end of the treatment process. Particles smaller than 35 mesh are captured. Because the solids tend to agglomerate, a Kleen Screen ring anti-blinding device is fitted on top of the screen. It consists of plastic rings that move continuously, by the screener’s vibration, across a perforated stainless steel plate having apertures slightly larger than those of the screen beneath. The motion of the rings across the steel plate shears and scrapes the clumping particles so they can pass through the screen. Because the rings are hollow, they promote product flow over the entire screen surface, maximizing screening efficiency. Screened and dewatered particles pass to the horizontal fluid bed dryer, which further reduces their moisture content to 0.5%. Using heat, airflow and vibration, the unit separates and fluidizes individual particles to maximize drying.

FERTILIZER PELLETS SEPARATED INTO COMMERCIAL SIZES Following the fluid bed dryer, the fourdeck, 813 mm diameter classifier separates the prills into five fractions ranging from 1.0 mm to 3.5 mm. The top deck has a 6 mesh (3.5 mm aperture) screen. Each deck below has a screen with smaller apertures than the one above it: 8 mesh (2.4 mm), 14 mesh (1.5 mm) and 18 mesh (1.0 mm). Particles smaller than 18 mesh exit the bottom deck’s discharge spout. Each screening deck is fitted with the same Kleen Screen anti-blinding rings as the dewatering screener. The classifier separates the pellets based on the same multi-plane inertial vibration principle as the single-deck screener. www.esemag.com

ENHANCED EFFICIENCY FERTILIZER According to Ostara, Crystal Green fertilizer is the first to provide slow-release of plant-available phosphorus, nitrogen and magnesium in one citrate-soluble product. Releasing these nutrients slowly over 160 to 200 days promotes plant health, while reducing the risk of leaching and runoff.

The process helps the City of Saskatoon dispose of an otherwise troublesome byproduct. Furthermore, the City receives a share of the revenue generated from fertilizer sales, which helps offset the costs of the system. Henry Alamzad is with Kason Corporation. For more information, email: info@kason.com


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October 2016 | 53


Managing vibration risk on tunneling projects can prevent costly damage claims By Scott Macintosh and Alfredo Rodrigues


ith the construction of Edmonton Alberta’s South LRT line, vibration risk management was thrust into the public spotlight. The activities used to construct this project resulted in perceptible vibrations to residents in the area. When people feel vibrations, they tend to start looking at their properties through a different lens. Decadesold cracks and cosmetic damages are noticed for the first time and seem to grow with each blow of the pile driver. These findings become a topic of conversation between neighbours, who also begin scrupulously inspecting their homes. Then, the claims begin to pile up. On the South LRT project, the City of Edmonton’s project team had already accounted for this risk and planned appropriately. Pre-construction building condition assessments, along with vibration monitoring data taken during construction, allowed the City to demonstrate conclusively that the damages in nearly all cases existed prior to construction. They also demonstrated that the vibration levels recorded had only a low potential to create new or exacerbate existing damages. This proactive work resulted in the vast majority of claims being dismissed. The project team had to allocate budget for conducting these risk mitigation measures. However, the savings on unsubstantiated claims outweighed mitigation investment. Although the highly disruptive surface construction activities required for the construction of an LRT project are typically more impactful than those required for deep trenchless sewer installation, the same risks apply. When presenting information for major tunneling projects at public open houses, the question is invariably asked: “How close is this tunnel to my home 54 | October 2016

and will it cause damage?” The public concerns around vibration damages are very real and must be managed appropriately. Historical data from these tunneling projects demonstrates that the vibrations generated from tunnel boring machines are relatively minor, dissipate quickly

with distance and create a small zone of influence (ZOI). However, without the appropriate analysis, plan and execution, it may be difficult to defend these cases in litigation. As a result, the onus is on the tunneling project manager to assess any risk and

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

develop a mitigation plan that is rooted in Best Practices and executed in order to be able to provide sufficient defense against potential claims and minimize the risk exposure for their organization.

DATA COLLECTION AND MODEL CALIBRATION The first step in preparing the vibration risk mitigation plan is accurately identifying construction activities, methodology and equipment that will be used. For example, if a deep trenchless sewer pipe installation is required, it is helpful to know which trenchless methodology will be used (e.g., tunnel boring machine, horizontal directional drilling, etc.), the proposed piece(s) of equipment required, and the working area. Hopefully, historical and representative vibration measurements, taken during the operation of the equipment and measured at varying distances, are available. This information can be used to derive vibration propagation curves and models. These site-specific models can then be used to predict vibration levels on other projects. They can be adjusted to compensate for different soil conditions and for the variability in the attenuation factor of different soil types, e.g., using a simplified Wiss model of propagation of vibrations. Based on data available in the literature (i.e., CALTRANS), vibrations are less attenuated when propagation

Actual vibration level measurements from common City of Edmonton construction equipment.

occurs in coherent soils like clay than in sandy soils. If no data has been collected on the proposed piece of equipment, then industry-acceptable models can be referenced. Theoretical models for different types of equipment and appropriate soil attenuation factors exist and can be used on the project to estimate vibration levels. The City of Edmonton has initiated a study on vibration propagation curves

and models for pieces of equipment that are commonly used in its projects.

IDENTIFYING THE CORRECT LIMITS Several studies exist to assess damage from vibration in structures, and various sets of limits have been created. The City of Edmonton typically uses the limits defined in the Report of Investigations RI 8507 from the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM RI 8507). continued overleaf...

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October 2016 | 55


In addition to the limit for potential damages, a secondary limit is included that represents the perceived vibration ZOI. This boundary represents the area where the vibrations may be perceptible to humans, but do not pose a risk of damage. These values are significantly different. For example, while the lowest value of the USBM RI 8507 is 5 mm/s (PPV at 1 Hz), an acceptable value for perception presented by Wiss and Parmelee (1974) is 0.9 mm/s (PPV).

DESKTOP STUDY AND PLANNING Once the construction methodology has been defined and the limits clearly identified, it is possible to develop a ZOI study. The main objective is to identify the boundaries where predicted vibration levels may exceed recommended limits for the project. An important component of the ZOI study is a site survey. First, “outliers” need to be defined. These may be either structures that are in poor condition, and thus

56 | October 2016

Sample zone of influence map.

more susceptible to damage, or properties that contain specialized equipment that may be sensitive to vibrations. These outliers may have to be monitored differently than conventional properties. For example, on a recent tunneling

project in downtown Edmonton, crews tunneled past Grant McEwan University, which contains sensitive research equipment. The University was concerned that even low vibration levels might be enough to affect research work and wanted to ensure that the City’s project would not detrimentally impact any ongoing research. As a result, the City worked with Amec Foster Wheeler and the University to: • Identify the requirements for both limits and appropriate monitoring techniques; • Install vibration monitoring equipment, using highly sensitive flexural ceramic accelerometers; and, • Continuously monitor the strategic areas of concern within the buildings. Vibration baseline levels were established prior to construction. Then, they were compared to levels experienced while the tunneling machine was working in the vicinity, in order to conclusively show there was no impact on the University’s sensitive equipment. Using the study setback maps, properties within the ZOI can be identified and a proper mitigation plan developed. It will identify the structures that may be susceptible to construction vibrations and will classify the risk for each property. Recommendations for further action are based on the risk classification for that structure and typically take the form of pre- and post-construction building condition assessments, vibration moni-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

toring and settlement monitoring. For example, the plan may recommend conducting pre-construction building condition assessments on all medium or high risk buildings. The plan also identifies strategic locations along the tunnel alignment for installing vibration monitoring sensors. These locations are chosen as a function of proximity to nearby structures, risk exposure of the structure, and the activity that is occurring in that area. With City of Edmonton tunneling projects, the highest vibrations are generated while breaking through the road surface to drill the top portion of the working shaft. As a result, extra attention is paid to drill shaft locations. Sensors are often placed near the shaft for the first week of drilling. Those preparing the plan also need to consider the project schedule. For both building assessments and vibration monitoring, accurate baselines need to be determined prior to construction for comparative purposes. These baselines

should be established close to the time when the proposed construction activities are to take place. This mitigates the risk of damages to a structure occurring between the time the baseline was established and when construction starts. As a result, recommendations for vibration monitoring and building assessments should be integrated with project timelines and form an ongoing part of the project management monitoring and controls processes throughout construction.

MANAGING BUDGET VS. RISK ACCEPTANCE Once the plan has been prepared, a list of at-risk properties is compiled and recommended vibration monitoring locations are identified. These plans often adopt a conservative approach where executing all the recommended measures may impact the project’s overall budget. If the construction activities take place in a highly built-up residen- High vibrations are generated while breaking continued overleaf...

through the road surface.

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October 2016 | 57


tial or business area, then the cost of completing the risk mitigation may be up to 1% to 2% of the total project value. Before committing this money, the project manager should carefully review the risk and determine whether to accept or mitigate the risk. This determination should be done in consultation with the corporate risk management team. This type of risk mitigation is encouraged at the City of Edmonton, as it has proven invaluable in responding to unsubstantiated claims. As a result, project managers should account for these mitigation costs in their initial budget request. Alternatively, a budget for vibration risk can be carried in the project’s risk register and mitigation measures funded through the risk allowance.

EXECUTING THE PLAN DURING CONSTRUCTION A vibration closeout report should be prepared at project completion. Once the plan has been developed, it is time to execute the risk mitigation recommendations. At the City of Edmonton, the first step is to determine their home is optional, but is in their whether to hire a third party or conduct best interests. The results will show monitoring in-house. On previous City whether construction caused damages projects, the objectivity of internal risk and will substantiate claims with merit. mitigation has been questioned in the Homeowners are generally satisfied with litigation process. As a result, it may be this explanation, once they understand Value Through preferable to procure a third party to that the process will work to their benethe Water Cycle conduct the monitoring, especially for fit if construction damages their homes. in-house construction where the risk At the City of Edmonton, project C3 Water is pleased to announce that Rajan Sawhney, M.E., P.Eng. has joined the has not been transferred to a contractor. managers generally include access coorcompany as Wastewater Business Leader. One major benefit of preparing a dination as part of the building assessA water industry professional with 25 comprehensive plan, as previously ment consultant’s services. However, the years’ experience, Rajan has played lead roles in significant wastewater projects discussed, is that it removes subjectivity project manager will still work closely within Southwestern Ontario. Rajan brings from the monitoring/controls processes. with the consultant and residents to experience in all phases of a project lifecycle including master planning, Class EAs, and It also provides a stable framework for ensure citizens’ expectations are met design and construction services. Rajan monitoring. Instead of focusing on and to avoid any public relations issues. will bring leadership to the wastewater discipline at C3 Water with responsibilities interpreting results, data is objectively As part of the building assessment, for business development, staff mentoring collected and measured against prede- the consultant is asked to classify each and successful project completion. Dennis Mutti, President of C3 Water, states, termined levels. This mitigates the risk property based on its structural risk. “The addition of Rajan to the C3 Water team of a perceived internal bias in the results. For example, an old building with large enhances our ability to deliver wastewater infrastructure for our valued existing clients pre-existing cracks may be at a higher and creates an exciting BUILDING ASSESSMENTS risk than a structurally sound one. Based opportunity for growth with new clientele.” One of the major challenges faced on the level of risk, site-specific vibrain conducting building assessments is tion monitoring may be recommended. coordinating access to people’s homes. The pre-construction building surveys CONTACT RAJAN: Municipalities do not have the right help to establish the baseline. It is also Office: 519-772-9620 to enter a resident’s home for these good practice to conduct post-construcext. 203 purposes without consent. The City of tion building surveys to compare the Mobile: 905-464-5554 Email: Rajan.Sawhney@C3Water.com Edmonton issues letters to homeowners initial condition with the final one. The that describe the project and its poten- building assessment consultant can then www.C3Water.com tial impacts. The letter clearly states that provide their interpretation on whether granting the building assessor access to construction activities detrimentally 58 | October 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

impacted the condition of a property.

mental impact on local properties, as evidenced in building assessments. VIBRATION MONITORING If the project manager has properly In addition to building assessments, developed and executed this plan, then vibration monitoring is conducted the owner will be protected against throughout the construction process. Due unsubstantiated claims. If there are claims to the cost of sensors, data loggers and with merit, the results will help streamresources to report the data, strategic loca- line the process for the affected proptions are chosen for monitoring. This is erty owner to be fairly compensated for typically done in areas where construction damages. This helps maintain a positive activities are expected to have the greatest impact and pose the largest risk. The results, in conjunction with the building assessments, build a logical and defensible case on whether construction has detrimentally impacted a nearby structure.

MANAGING PUBLIC PERCEPTION The levels for vibration perception by humans are much lower than those for assessing damage in structures. An important element of the risk management process is properly communicating this concept to stakeholders. They need to be made aware that, just because they can feel vibrations, this does not mean that it will result in impacts to their property. This information can be communicated to residents in the access request letter that is sent out prior to conducting the building assessments. Project managers may also want to speak to this topic during their public open house presentations. Once residents are aware of the facts and see the efforts that the project team is taking to monitor and mitigate these impacts, their levels of worry often decrease. This simple communication can help make the project go more smoothly, and hopefully reduce the number of contentious complaints. CLOSING THE LOOP Once the project is complete, all the vibration monitoring results are collected, and the pre- and post-construction building assessments are available, the project manager should oversee completion of a closeout report that compares actual results to the initial plan. If high vibration readings were recorded during the project, the report should comment on whether these readings had any detriwww.esemag.com

relationship with stakeholders. This data will also help the owner more accurately assess and plan for vibration risk and take preventative action to mitigate the potential for claims on future projects. Scott Macintosh, P.Eng., AVS, is with the City of Edmonton. Alfredo Rodrigues, EngSci, is with Amec Foster Wheeler. Email: scott.macintosh@edmonton.ca

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October 2016 | 59


Detecting Combined sewer overflows with a mix of old and new technologies By Paul Keohan, Michael Armes and Patrick Stevens

In 2013, the Boston Water and Sewer Commission initiated a pilot study to determine if combined sewer overflow monitoring technology is accurate and reliable enough for public notifications. Photo Credit: Peter Davey.


n 2013, the Boston Water and Sewer Commission initiated a pilot study of 10 combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures to determine if current technology is reliable enough to measure overflow activation, duration and volume with a high degree of confidence for public notification on the Commission’s website. A hydraulic model is currently being used for regulatory reporting for volume, but a more immediate system is needed for public notification. The strategy was to instrument all incoming and overflow pipes in nine of the 10 regulators, which are all tidally-influenced. The Commission’s goal for the pilot project was to determine whether or not an overflow occurred, the start and end times of a CSO, and if these events and information can reliably be reported in real or near-real time in a practical manner to notify the public. 60 | October 2016

The selected flow service provider measures depth, velocity and flow at the locations, utilizing 15 monitoring devices with 25 sensors, to measure all incoming combined sewer flow and overflow to receiving water bodies. The selected structures are all different, but they contain typical components of overflow weirs, baffle walls to control floatables and tide gates. In addition to the flow monitoring equipment, a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tide gauge installed in Boston Harbor is used for tide level verification. All depths in the monitoring system are converted to elevation data on a common Boston datum. The use of elevation data, in conjunction with traditional depth and velocity data in the outfall pipes, has helped determine if motion in the overflow pipe is an actual overflow, or flood and ebb of tides. The use of traditional methods,

combined with elevation data and conditional algorithms for overflow confirmation, has helped improve real-time data quality and confidence for eventual public notification. This project was designed to measure all flow entering each regulator and exiting the regulator through the single overflow pipe. The purpose for measuring both flows was to achieve complete understanding of how the regulators function and to have sufficient data to calibrate hydraulic models. Going into the project, it was assumed that the primary source of CSO information would be data from the overflow pipe and that the other data collected would support or verify what was observed during the overflow. Great effort was taken to convert all depth data to a common elevation, so that elevation comparisons between tides and regulator could be used as a test for

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

an overflow. Ultimately, downstream tide gates and standing water in the overflow pipes interfered with the ability to test for overflows by comparing tidal elevations to regulator elevations. After examining data collected from flows entering and leaving the regulator, it became apparent that incoming data was much more reliable and should be the primary source of information. The data from the outfall pipe should be used for support or verification of events. This is clearly the reverse of traditional views of how to track CSO activity. The Commission has been involved in flow measurement for over 20 years and has watched technology improve steadily over that time. Improvements have occurred in the ability of the instruments to accurately and repeatedly measure depth and velocity. Wireless communication can create an almost near-time access to the data. This advanced technology in the incoming sewers can now reveal both the subtle and dramatic hydraulic changes

Simple schematic of Regulator RE070/8–3.

in the regulator. mination of three separate flows (incomThe advent of scattergraphs and knowl- ing flow, continuation flow and overflow) edge that the subcontractor has brought with a single meter. to scattergraph analysis now allows detercontinued overleaf...

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Regulators used in this study have a single line in and a single line out and represent the simplest use of this new method. This technique is straightforward when the regulator has just a single incoming line, a fixed weir and a single overflow line. If the regulator has multiple incoming lines, this technique can predict the onset and duration of an overflow if the largest pipe is measured. But, the determination of the total overflow volume will require the summation of flows from all incoming lines. Also this method works well for only those regulators in which the continuation line is full prior to the onset of the overflow. With the reliability of current metering technology and wireless communication, it is conceivable that both public notification of an overflow and quantification of overflow volume can be determined on a provisional basis by a meter or meters in the incoming lines. However human review of the data is still needed to convert provisional data to final data.

62 | October 2016

Scattergraph of RE070/8–3 (9 Dec 2014 storm event).

Paul Keohan, P.E., is with the Boston Water and Sewer Commission. Email: keohanp@bwsc.org. Michael Armes, PMP,

and Patrick Stevens, P.E., are with ADS Environmental Services. For more information, visit www.adsenv.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Geotextile tubes used for the core of a breakwater application (left). Geotextile tubes used for dewatering application (right).

Geotextile tubes reduce carbon footprint of harbour remediation project By M. ter Harmsel, T.W. Yee and C.I. Jones


he city of Zutphen in the Netherlands is located on the IJssel River, a tributary of the Rhine and the fastest flowing river in the Netherlands. De Mars, its neglected harbour, is being refurbished as part of a restoration plan for the entire industrial area. Fully loaded ships could only enter at high tide without grounding on the bottom of the harbour. To meet future requirements calling for access of ships with a draught of 2.8 metres, the port and the harbour entrance had to be dredged to the original depth. Also, the riverbanks had to be restored, or the harbour would again be filled with sand and sludge within a few years. In recent years, there has been a shift in strategy for the maintenance of waterways and harbours in the Netherlands. In the past, the main question had been: “How to get rid of dredged materials?” The question now is: “Where and how materials can be re-used in the most cost-effective way?” For the Zutphen project, a total of 6,000 m³ of Class 2 sediment and 12,000 m³ of Class 3 sediment had to be dredged. Class 2 sediment can be spread in surface water or on land, under certain conditions. Class 3 contaminated sediment requires placement in confined disposal facilities, www.esemag.com

which would have been a costly operation. Using geotextile tubes allows both sediment classes to be dealt with in an economical and green manner. Geotextile tube units, filled with dredged sediments from the harbour, were dewatered and used as replacement of imported fill material to raise the embankments to the required level. The final structure

had to fulfil the geotechnical stability requirement as well as withstand the forces of the IJssel River. Riverbank restoration is adjacent to the harbour entrance, where dredging works were carried out to increase the draught for improved navigation. Four work compartments were created with continued overleaf...

October 2016 | 63


Geotextile tube dewatering system (left), compared with a mechanical belt press dewatering option (right).

sheet piles as a boundary. The compartments, each 100 m by 100 m, were aligned along the 400 m length of riverbank to be restored. The sheet piles formed a barrier, in which the compartments could be

64 | October 2016

prepared for work, and protect against the river, creating a safety margin for rising water levels. They also contributed to the geotechnical factor of safety of the restored riverbank.

The compartments formed enclosures to serve as dewatering platforms. This meant effluent water from the tubes could be collected in the adjacent compartments and tested before being

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

EVENTS Water innovation in Action 2.0 October 18, 2016 Toronto, ON

Dewatering works along the banks of the IJssel River in the Netherlands.

discharged to the river. The geotextile tubes were laid out and filled within the confines of the work compartments. In each of the compartments, four tubes were filled on a flat surface. They were sized to fit the confines of the compartments, while being able to achieve maximum dewatering capacity. The tubes were filled in pairs of two with dredged material with a solids concentration of about 10%. Chemical accelerant was injected into the incoming slurry stream. The in-tube material consolidated to 65% solids concentration within four days. A comparison of the carbon footprints was made between the geotextile tube solution and that of a conventional one. The conventional solution would have involved two processes, namely: • Transportation of 12,000 m3 of Class 3 dredged contaminated sediment to a storage depot for disposal. • The importation of 12,000 m3 of suitable backfill, spreading and compaction as part of the riverbank restoration. This is the extra quantity of fill that would equal the space occupied by the dewatered sludge in the geotextile tubes used in the Zutphen project. These comparisons were conducted based on published carbon footprint rates (DEFRA 2010) and it was estimated that a savings of 83 tonnes of eCO2 (equivalent carbon dioxide) was achieved with the geotextile tube solution. M. ter Harmsel and T.W. Yee are with TenCate Geosynthetics. Email: m.terharmsel@tencate.com, tw.yee@tencate.com. C.I. Jones is with Sustain Ltd. Email: craig.jones@sustain.co.uk www.esemag.com

Water Innovation in Action 2.0 brings together Ontario’s water sector players, including industry, government, municipalities, and academia, to discuss progress, plans, and goals for our thriving sector. Hosted by WaterTAP, this one-day conference is part of Ontario Water Innovation Week. www.waterinnovationaction.com

World Water-Tech North America October 18-20, 2016 Toronto, ON

2016 marks the 4th year for the World Water-Tech North America summit, hosted by WaterTAP Ontario and Rethink Events. This year we focus on accelerating innovation in energy optimized and climate resilient infrastructure. This is a great opportunity to hear best practice case studies of energy optimization and network management from the world’s leading water companies. www.worldwatertechnorthamerica.com

Indigenous Water Forum October 27-28, 2016 Saskatoon, SK

This forum will bridge people’s knowledge of water through sharing of indigenous ways of knowing, research presentations and demonstrations of practical applications. The purpose is to make recommendations for action-oriented strategies to achieve safe drinking water in First Nations communities. Attendance is limited. www.indigenouswaterforum.com

Saskatchewan Water & Wastewater Association Conference November 2-4, 2016 Saskatoon, SK

The SWWA is an organization made up of persons involved in the operation, maintenance and trouble shooting of water and wastewater systems and their components. The operator training, specialty

seminars, and the annual conference and tradeshow key in on water and wastewater related topics and problems experienced by everyone at some time. www.swwa.ca

Canada Waste & Recycling Expo November 9-10, 2016 Toronto, ON

Waste & Recycling Expo Canada and the Municipal Equipment Expo Canada are the only trade shows serving the waste, recycling and public works markets in Canada. Attend for two days of sourcing, education and networking. www.messefrankfurt.ca

Atlantic Reclamation Conference November 8-9, 2016 Halifax, NS

The Atlantic Chapter of the Canadian Land Reclamation Association (CLRA) is pleased to announce the 9th Annual Atlantic Reclamation Conference. The CLRA represents mining, emergent oil and gas interests, transportation, development and construction interests, ecological restoration organizations, First Nations, regulators, academia and students as well as a wide variety of consulting firms and contractors. www.atlanticclra.ca

National Water & Wastewater Conference November 13-16, 2016 Toronto, ON

The national conference of the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association in conjunction with the Canadian Association for Water Quality (CAWQ) National Symposium. www.nwwc2016.ca

Canadian Environmental Conference and Tradeshow (CANECT) May 1-3, 2017 Toronto, ON

CANECT is a three-day event, combining one of Canada’s largest tradeshows with a unique compliance-oriented conference. www.canect.net

October 2016 | 65


The new AquaPrime™ filtration system utilizes OptiFiber® pile cloth media in a disk configuration with three zones of solids removal to effectively filter high solids waste streams without the use of chemicals. This system is designed to handle a wide range of flows in a fraction of space compared to conventional clarifiers. AquaPrime is ideal for primary wastewater treatment and wet weather applications. T: 815-654-2501 W: www.aqua-aerobic.com

Aqua-Aerobic Systems

Variable Area Flow Meter

There are no metals in the fluid path of F-462N Series inline variable area flow meters, making these units well suited for use in many ultrapure applications. Constructed of tough, chemical resistant polysulfone, F-462N flow meters offer good resistance to high temperatures, pressures and a broad base of harsh chemicals. Calibration range is 2.0 - 80 GPM/8.0 - 300 LPM and permanent direct reading scales are easy to read. T: 714-893-8529 F: 714-894-9492 E: sales@blue-white.com W: www.blue-white.com

Blue-White Industries

Butterfly valves

Chemline’s Type 57 all-plastic elastomer seated butterfly valve is now NSF-61 certified for potable water services. It offers perfect corrosion resistance at low cost. Standard materials used are: PVC body, PP disc, EPDM seat. Others are available. Sizes range from 1-1/2” to 24”. Use with handlever, gear operators, pneumatic or electric actuators. T: 905-889-7890, F: 905-889-8553 E: request@chemline.com W: www.chemline.com

Chemline Plastics 66 | August 2016

Protecting New Asphalt

Summer is paving season and time to consider where new asphalt installations are most vulnerable. Denso’s modified polymer bitumen DensoBand and Reinstatement Tape protect roads by keeping water and ice out. Applied to the vertical face of the cold joint prior to the top lift, Denso roads tapes provide a flexible, water-tight seal, extending road life and protecting your investment. T: 416-559-7459 E: stuart@densona-ca.com W: www.densona.com


Intake equipment inspection

To continue providing convenience to the customers who use large water intake systems, Evoqua Water Technologies now provides a free checklist for intake equipment inspection. When is the last time you checked your chain, water screens, or other equipment? Would you know what to look for? Find it and subscribe to our blog at www.evoqua.com/checklist. T: 877-477-2787 E: screening@evoqua.com

Evoqua Water Technologies

Disinfection Safety

Maximize the safety of your chlorine disinfection system. The Chlor-Scale® ton container scale from Force Flow safely cradles a chlorine ton container while providing critical feed and chemi-

cal inventory information. The Halogen Eclipse® emergency valve shutoff system instantly closes the container valve when a signal is received from a leak detector, panic button or from SCADA. Visit Force Flow at WEFTEC 2016 - Booth # 2218. Visit Halogen Valve Systems at Booth # 2216. T: 925-893-6723 F: 925-686-6713 W: www.forceflow.com W: www.halogenvalve.com

Force Flow/Halogen

Construction Dewatering Permits

Save project time and costs. You may not require a full Permit to Take Water (PTTW) under the regulatory changes for water taking permits. An EASR (Environmental Activity and Sector Registry) can replace the need for the PTTW for construction dewatering when criteria is met. GEMS is the qualified specialist in obtaining construction dewatering permits and can determine if your project meets the EASR criteria. T: 905-907-3077 F: 905-907-6617 E: info@GemServicesInc.com W: www.GemServicesInc.com


Accurate Flow Measurement in Full Pipes

The ISM 5.0 Insertion Magmeter accurately measures flow of conductive liquids in full pipes. It can be easily installed in new pipe systems or by hot tap in pressurized pipes with flowing liquids. The dual-electrode sensor and continuous auto-zero function provides NIST traceable high accuracy – even at low flow rates. The NSF rated ISM 5.0 is a low cost alternative to full bore magnetic flow meters. E: info@greyline.com W: www.greyline.com

Greyline Instruments Inc. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Dissolved Air Flotation

Dissolved air flotation is used for water clarification in industrial plants, food, oil & gas, mining, pulp & paper, and municipal water and wastewater plants. DAF can remove most TSS, FOG, and insoluble BOD. H2Flow has units in stock, pilot units, and complete treatment systems. T: 888-575-8642 W: www.h2flowDAF.com

H2Flow Equipment

Remote Monitoring Station Data Logger

The HOBO RX3000 is Onset’s next-generation remote data logging station that provides instant access to site-specific environmental data anywhere, anytime via the Internet. Onset’s web-based data logging systems enable real-time, remote access to your data via cellular, Wi-Fi, or Ethernet communications. They can be configured with a wide range of external sensors for measuring weather conditions outdoors, and energy, power and environmental conditions indoors. E: salesb@hoskin.ca, Burlington, ON E: salesv@hoskin.ca, Burnaby, BC E: salesm@hoskin.ca, Montreal, QC W: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

Wading Discharge Measurement

FlowTracker2 Wading Discharge Measurement Instrument is a modern approach for tried-andtrue ADV technology. It is intuitive, graphical and easy to use, and provides proven SonTek ADV accuracy, and new features requested by water professionals like you! E: salesb@hoskin.ca, Burlington, ON E:salesv@hoskin.ca, Burnaby, BC E: salesm@hoskin.ca, Montreal, QC W: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific www.esemag.com

Rotating Screen

Air-Powered Mixers

T: 866-615-8130 F: 503-615-2906 E: questions@hydro-int.com W: www.hydro-int.com

T: 866-437-8076 E: info@medoraco.com W: www.medoraco.com/gridbee-ap

The Hydro MicroScreen™ is the ideal replacement for primary clarification at half the price, a 90% smaller footprint, and uses 50% less power. This rotating screen separates fine solids, removing up to 80% TSS, 60% BOD and 40% FOG from flows, reducing loading on downstream treatment processes, improving treatment capacity and efficiency, lowering operating costs, and increasing energy recovery.

Hydro International

Your system is already a marvel of technology and biology; now you can make it even better with GridBee® AP Series Air-Powered Mixers. Eliminate floating sludge blankets. Decrease odour. Increase nitrate removal. Experience great bottom-to-top mixing and improved solids suspension. From aeration basins to the anoxic zone to everywhere front, back, and between, the GridBee AP Series Mixers can help enhance processing throughout your system.

Medora Corporation

Oil and Grit Separator

Maintenance-Free Mixing

T: 800-565-4801 F: 416-960-5637 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com

T: 866-437-8076 E: solutions@medoraco.com W: www.medoraco.com

Stormceptor MAX oil and grit separator (OGS) was designed by Lafarge North America to provide treatment to 45 hectares of pre-existing residential land to help protect a local river. Modular and expandable, the award winning Stormceptor MAX can easily be designed and sized to achieve the water quality objective and fit within the site constraints.

Imbrium Systems

Bioretention Treatment System Filterra is a high volume/ flow compact bioretention treatment system, with verified field tested pollutant removals (TSS, nutrients and metals). The Filterra systems are shallow systems that are ideal in LID design, and are easily applied in landscaped areas, parking lots and streetscapes. T: 800-565-4801 F: 416-960-5637 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com

Imbrium Systems

The GridBee® AP500 air-powered mixer helps keep solids such as wipes in suspension as sheets instead of clumps and prevents lift station pumps from clogging. The mixer reduces H2S odours, corrosion and grease build-up. It is designed to fit through a 12-inch hatch and mix depths from 2 to 100 feet. Find out how to reduce maintenance costs for wet wells, lift stations and wastewater basins at your facility.

Medora Corporation

Custom Hatches

In collaboration with Corix Water Products, MSU developed this custom hatch for Deltaport, Canada’s flagship container terminal in Delta, British Columbia. To simplify the process of casting the hatches into concrete, the hatches were factory installed on 350 mm high frames, sparing the pre-caster many hours of carpentry time normally incurred when building wood forms. T: 800-268-5336 F: 888-220-2213 W: www.msumississauga.com

MSU Mississauga

August 2016 | 67


MSU manufactures bar screens for permanent installation in front of inlet sewers. Bar screens can be attached to a concrete wall, trough, even under a safety platform. Available in aluminum and stainless steels type 304 and 316 for virtually any size of inlet pipe. For more info, call Paul at 1-800-268-5336 x 28. T: 800-268-5336 F: 888-220-2213 W: www.msumississauga.com

MSU Mississauga

Training you Remember… Experience you can use

T: 905-578-9666 F: 905-578-6644 E: contact@ spillmanaagement.ca W: www.spillmanagement.ca

Spill Management

Engineered metal doors

USF Fabrication, Inc. manufacture a complete line of engineered metal doors for underground utility access. They have been fabricating solutions since 1916 with over 160,000 sq ft of manufacturing space. This allows them to offer the best lead times in the industry. Their friendly and knowledgeable staff is committed to providing customers with the right product for their application and shipping it when they need it. T: 604-552-7900 F: 604-552-7901 E: epsl@telus.net

USF Fabrication 68 | August 2016

Eliminate Fusing HDPE

Introducing a smarter and better way to connect high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe in industrial water and wastewater systems, Victaulic’s Refuse-to-Fuse™ System is up to 10 times faster than traditional fusing and can be installed quickly in any weather conditions with minimal tools. The system is designed to meet or exceed HDPE pipe pressure ratings and is designed for buried services. W: www.victaulic.com


Trickling filters

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. T: 519-856-0757 F: 519-856-0759 E: wbs@waterloo-biofilter.com W: www.waterloo-biofilter.com

Waterloo Biofilter

Power & Portability

The Waterra PowerPack PP1 inertial pump actuator is powerful enough to lift water from over 60 m depth, using the Standard Flow System. Fully portable and weighing only 13 kg, the PowerPack is so compact that it fits onto a backpack frame, yet also provides outstanding pumping performance. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Inertial Pumps

The Waterra inertial pump is an efficient, reliable and inexpensive pump suitable for purging and sampling groundwater monitoring wells. Its simplicity has allowed it to be adapted to a wide variety of sizes, making it suitable for numerous applications. It performs well in harsh environments that would ruin other more expensive pumps. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Disposable groundwater filter

The unique, open pleat geometry and 600 cm2 surface area of Waterra’s High Turbidity FHT-45 offers the most surface area available in a capsule-type filter today. High quality polyethersulphone 0.45 micron filter media provides maximum exposure and excellent particle retention above the target micron size range, while ensuring that you will not lose filtration media to blinding. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

High Performance Automation

Waterra’s portable, electrically operated Hydrolift-2 inertial pump actuator will eliminate the fatigue that can be experienced on large monitoring programs and will result in a big boost to your field sampling program. The Hydrolift-2 gives you the power and endurance you need — without breaking a sweat. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Barrie • Belleville • Brampton • Collingwood • Kingston • Ottawa WWW.AINLEYGROUP.COM

The Wellington Water Watchers (WWW), Delivering proven infrastructure planning & engineering solutions in partnership with Saveourwater.ca, have submitted a detailed proposal for how Ontario’s Permit-To-TakeWater (PTTW) review process could to satisfied clients for over 50 years be strengthened. This is in response to an ongoing issue of consumptive water taking in Wellington County, Ontario, Markham, ON by the Nestlé Corporation. 905-747-8506 Recently, Ontario Premier Kathleen Vancouver, BC Wynne pointed out that the packaging 604-251-5722 and wholesale removal of water from Edmonton, AB Ontario’s aquifers was not a reality that 780-455-4300 was anticipated when the PTTW process WeKnowWater@BV.com Consulting • Engineering • Construction • Operation www.bv.com was originally developed. “Thirty years ago, we wouldn’t have envisioned an industry that took water and put it in plastic bottles so that people could carry Black&Veatch_ND.14_ProCard_TP.indd 1 2014-11-12 it around,” Wynne said. “We didn’t drink water from plastic bottles 30 years ago. We turned on the tap.” “Awarding any new permits to Nestlé, or other similar water extractors, under the current permitting rules, would not only be inappropriate but also irresponsible,” stated Mike Nagy, Board Chair of WWW. “We have been calling for changes to close this loophole since 2007.” The cost of administering PTTWs has far exceeded costs recuperated by the levies from permits. “It is true that at $3.71/million litres, the permitting system does not charge enough to cover administrative costs.” said Dr. Robert Case, of the WWW board. “But this debate will not be resolved by simply increasing these levies. We cannot simply attach a cost to this. No amount of money will replenish the water that is being extracted for profit. No amount of money will keep water in the ground for our future needs, especially in the context of climate change.” Recommendations include prioritizing water usage, based on the MOECC’s Statement of Environmental Values. This does not allow for 100% consumptive water taking permits, or heavily waste-producing activities such as water bottling. Engineers and Environmental Consultants They are also calling for greater accountability around policy and regulation changes related to water-taking 1-800-265-9662 www.rjburnside.com

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2014-06-20 12:10 PM

ES&E NEWS permits. For example, a recent policy change the organizations would like revoked, is one that allows for continued water extraction by companies after their permit has expired, or when renewal decisions have been delayed, without any public consultation, consideration of drought or other environmental changes.

Tap into water’s potential Design with community in mind stantec.com/water

— www.wellingtonwaterwatchers.ca



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In July, a Husky Energy pipeline spilled between 200,000 and 250,000 litres of oil into the North Saskatchewan River, leaving cities along the waterway scrambling to find non-tainted sources of drinking water. “These incidents shake public confidence,” said Russ Girling, CEO of TransCanada, the company behind the proposed Energy East Pipeline, in an interview. “There’s no question that things like that cause people concern, and rightfully so.” He says his company has implemented numerous safety improvements in recent years around waterways, including thicker pipelines at crossings, drilling pipes under 9:42 AMrivers at times, and adding extra valves at crossings so that it can shut off a pipeline faster. The Husky spill happened shortly before public hearings began on Energy East in August in Saint John, New Brunswick. The project has faced significant opposition from environmentalists. The proposed $15.7 billion pipeline would move 1.1 million barrels of oil a day from Alberta and Saskatchewan through Quebec and into New Brunswick to supply Eastern Canada refineries and for overseas shipping. The development would lead to an estimated 281 tankers a year heading to the proposed Energy East terminal near Saint John, an increase of upwards of 300 per cent to the number of tankers now in the Bay of Fundy, according to a Natural Resources Defence Council campaign.


David Ohashi, a former Halton Region official, has been charged with fraud, 70 | October 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


corruption and taking kickbacks, in World’s first rubber membrane Now Available in Canada! connection with the handling of more diffusers since 1975 than $100 million in construction High-efficiency EPDM, Large Air Bubble Mixing Tec One-Stop Aeration Diffuser Expertise polyurethane & silicone projects. Diffusers – Fine-bubble disks, tubes, strips; coarse bubble too! membranes air burst driven mixing Innovative, According to the Halton Ontario Dual-Air 18:1energy-efficient turndown Most mixing police, these charges followed a yearretrievable floating systems No& in-basin moving parts BioCubeEasy FFBR/IFAS and more! installation long investigation after an anonymous Drink tip was received. It is alleged that HYDRO-PULSE Ohashi gained personal benefit between BUBBLETRON Large Bubble Mixing Technology November 2010 and January 2016 by Large Air Bubble Mixing Technology Food processi & a wid providing confidential information and IDEAL MIXING FOR: Ideal mixing for: Innovative, air burst driven mixing Anoxic Basins Most energy-efficient mixing • Anoxic, Aeration & Swing Tanks • Sludge Tanks advantage to contractors that he had • Innovative, air-burst driven mixing Aeration Basins No in-basin moving parts HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONME • Drinking water storage tanks • Channel Mixing Applications • Energy-efficient, up to 50% less power Sludge Mixing Easy installation personal relationships with. Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 90 storage tank mixing • Sewage pump station grease cap busting Drinking & odor water control •762 No in-basin moving parts pump station grease He faces charges of fraud under info@hydrologic.ca www.hydro • Industrial and Food Processing Applications. . Sewage . and more! • Easy cap busting & odor controlinstallation Industrial Applications $5,000, use of a forged document, Food processing applications, liquor blending & a wide range of mixing applications three counts of municipal corruption and three counts of accepting secret HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 commissions. info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca “Ohashi’s position within the region also AIR RELEASE/VACUUM BREAK permitted him to approve maintenance VALVES FOR SEWAGE & WATER and/or construction to the region’s infra“ANTI-SURGE /ANTI-SHOCK” structure that was later deemed not neces10-YEAR WARRANTY • ALL STAINLESS RGX RBX sary or without justification,” the police news release said. Acoustic Wave Management Experts Det. Const. Keith Nakahara, of the Since 1922 Halton police fraud bureau, said in an Tier 1 Hydro-Pneumatic Surge and Pressure Control interview reported in The Hamilton Systems in both Bladder and Air over Water Solutions Spectator that Ohashi’s position gave him Reliant WQA control of construction projects for the WATER QUALITY AERATOR forlagoons Lagoons Aquaculture water quality aerator for and& aquaculture WQA region’s sewer and water treatment facilities. “These were complicated water projects quality aerator foraster lagoons and ™ aquaculture agoon ✓ Coarse & fine bubble aeration that allowed someone to misrepresent • Course & fine bubble aeration • Only 4 hp moves ✓9 Tames MGDsludge buildup ✓ Eliminates thermal stratification details about the contracts,” he said. • Tames sludge buildup • Handles up to 5 acres per seasonal unit turnover ✓ Eliminates ✓ Only moves 9 MGD • Eliminates thermal stratification • Efficient - Up to 15 lbs4Ohp2 /hr Ohashi was scheduled to appear in ✓ Handles up to 5 acres per unit • Low maintenance✓ & Simple! • Eliminates seasonal turnover Efficient: Up to 15 lbs O /hr ✓ Low maintenance & Simple! court in Milton on September 13.







762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678

info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca ✓ Coarse & fine bubble aeration T: 905-777-9494 • F: 905-777-8678 • info@hydrologic.ca • www.hydrologic.ca ✓ Tames sludge buildup KITCHENER CONTRACTOR FINED 762stratification Upper St. James Street, Suite 250, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L9C 3A2 ✓ Eliminates thermal FOR WATERMAIN TAPPING ✓ Eliminates seasonal turnover VIOLATION ✓ Only 4 hp moves 9 MGD Insitu Groundwater Contractors ✓ Handles Robert Leader pleaded guilty to one up to 5 acres per unit • Dewatering systems ✓ Efficient:a Up to 15 lbs O2/hr offence and was fined for operating • Mobile groundwater treatment systems ✓ Low maintenance & Simple! municipal drinking water system. Leader • Well and pump installation and maintenance is the owner of Robo’s Tapping Service, HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. • Pump, filter, generator rentals a contractor that carries tapping ofSt., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 762out Upper St. James • Fax: • Sediment tank905-777-8678 rentals P: 519-763-0700 F: 519-763-6684 • Insitu groundwater remediation systems www.hydrologic.ca water mains. He tapped a commissioned info@hydrologic.ca

water main without a certified drinking water operator present, contrary to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The company was subcontracted to tap a water main to create a new connection. Kitchener Utilities staff arrived at the site and found the main had already been tapped. Leader was convicted of the offence, and fined $2,000, plus a victim fine surcharge of $500.

48 Dawson Road Guelph, ON N1H 5V1


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October 2016 | 71

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1048547 Ontario Inc, located in St. Eugene, pleaded guilty to two offences and was fined $4,000.00 for failing to possess a Land Application Schedule (LAS) while applying non-agricultural source material (NASM) and failing to provide advanced notice to the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs regarding the application of NASM, contrary to the Nutrient Management Act. The company disposes of wash water from its cheese and yogurt production in combination with livestock manure, by spreading the materials on its fields, under a ministry NASM plan. The ministry received a complaint and conducted an inspection, which identified that NASM was being discharged from a tile drain outlet. A further inspection determined that NASM had been spread without a Land Application Schedule by a certified plan developer as required by the company’s plan.


Integrated steel producer, Essar Steel Algoma Inc., pleaded guilty to one offence and was fined $100,000 for failing to report a spill incident to Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. It was also fined a victim surcharge of $25,000. The company uses a ministry approved lime kiln to process raw materials and is required to use a baghouse to prevent it from discharging lime dust. On November 21, 2014, the reverse air fan malfunctioned and the baghouse was taken off line. The company continued to operate its kiln until November 24, 2014. As a result, it discharged lime dust into the air.


Subscribe to ES&E’s e-Newsletter. www.esemag.com/subscribe

72 | October 2016

Recently, the WateReuse Association issued a challenge to Florida home brewers to turn recycled water into beer. The goal was to demonstrate that wastewater has value and can be purified and safely used for any purpose. Water used in the contest was wastewater from homes and small businesses

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

in the Tampa area. TetraTech, Xylem and GE partnered with WateReuse to produce the purified water. They used a multi-step treatment process, which included stringent filtration and disinfection methods. In total, some 4,750 litres of water were purified. Each home brewer received 38 litres, and was required to produce at least 12 bottles of beer. It takes seven to ten litres of water to make 3.8 litres of beer. More than 100 home brewers from the Tampa area entered the contest and, in September, two dozen certified beer tasters determined whose beer tasted the best.


Camp Century, a U.S. military base built within the Greenland ice sheet in 1959, doubled as a top-secret site for testing the feasibility of deploying nuclear missiles from the Arctic during the Cold War. When the camp was decommissioned in 1967, its infrastructure and waste were abandoned under the assumption they would be entombed forever by perpetual snowfall. “Two generations ago, people were interring waste in different areas of the world, and now climate change is modifying those sites,” said William Colgan, a climate and glacier scientist at York University and lead author of a new study. “It’s a new breed of climate change challenge we have to think about.” Climate change has warmed the Arctic more than any other region on Earth and the new research has found that the portion of the ice sheet covering Camp Century could start to melt by the end of the century. If the ice melts, the camp’s infrastructure, as well as any remaining biological, chemical and radioactive waste, could re-enter the environment and potentially disrupt nearby ecosystems, say the study’s authors. The wastes would not remain encased in ice forever, as was assumed by both the U.S. and Denmark when the camp was abandoned. Determining who is responsible for cleaning up the waste could also lead to political disputes not considered before, said Colgan. The study’s team took an inventory of the wastes at Camp Century and ran climate model simulations. The www.esemag.com

researchers also analyzed historical U.S. army engineering documents to determine where and how deep the wastes were buried and how much that part of the ice cap had moved since the 1960s. They found the waste at Camp Century covers 55 hectares, roughly the size of 100 football fields. They estimate the site contains 200,000 litres of diesel fuel, and 240,000 litres of wastewater, including sewage. Based on building materials used in the Arctic at the time, the authors speculate the site contains polychlorinated biphenyls, along with an unknown volume of low-level radioactive coolant from the nuclear generator. — www.yorku.ca

ACG Technology..................................75 ADS Environmental Services.............39 Associated Engineering.....................18 Bishop Water Technologies...............42 Blue-White..........................................11 C&M Environmental.............................7 C3 Water..............................................58 Chemline Plastics...............................42 DECAST...............................................59 Denso .................................................21 Endress + Hauser..................................5 Engineered Pump...............................14 Envirocan ..........................................75 Evoqua................................................13

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Flottweg..............................................19 Force Flow..........................................56 Greatario ............................................34


The American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Water Research Foundation (WRF) have released a guide and additional resources to help water professionals detect and control cyanotoxins. These algae-related contaminants that can negatively impact drinking water quality. “Managing Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water: A Technical Guidance Manual for Drinking Water Professionals” provides information to utility professionals on the preparation, treatment, and response to cyanotoxins concerns. An accompanying manual, “A Water Utility Manager’s Guide to Cyanotoxins” was released in April 2015. Both documents are available for free download. A recently launched WRF video, Understanding Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins, provides a utility perspective on the latest in source water protection, monitoring, detection, and treatment of cyanotoxins. Cyanotoxins typically arise from cyanobacteria, which are often referred to as blue-green algae in lakes and reservoir. While health effects from drinking water contaminated by cyanotoxins are not well understood, potential negative health impacts of prolonged or very high exposures include liver, nervous system, and gastrointestinal problems. These cyanotoxin resources come as governments consider how to address cyanotoxins from both regulatory and legislative perspectives. www.WaterRF.org

GridBee...............................................27 H2Flow ...............................................46 H2O Logics..........................................27 Halogen Valve Systems......................21 Hoskin Scientific........................... 32, 43 Huber Technology..............................33 Hydro International..................... 35, 61 Imbrium Systems...............................29 Kemira.................................................41 KSB Pumps.........................................24 Kusters Water.....................................47 Mantech .............................................10 Markland Specialty Engineering.......28 Master Meter ........................................3 Medora................................................27 MSU Mississauga................................31 Netzsch Canada..................................37 Orival...................................................50 Parsons...............................................30 Pro Aqua...............................................9 ProMinent.............................................2 Seepex................................................51 Sentrimax...........................................76 Smith & Loveless................................17 SolarBee.............................................27 SPD Sales............................................44 Spill Management..............................23 Stantec................................................46 Sulzer..................................................25 Troy-Ontor..........................................64 USF Fabrication..................................14 Victaulic..............................................53 Walkerton Clean Water Centre..........55 Waterra............................. 15, 38, 49, 57 WTP Equipment .................................62

October October2016 2016| 73 | 73


Charlottetown WWTP chooses improved sludge pumps


rogressive cavity pumps were developed in the 1930s, when Rene Moineau, a pioneer of aviation, discovered their pumping principle while inventing a compressor for jet engines. A progressive cavity pump is a highly adaptable type of rotary positive displacement pump. It employs a single helix metal rotor, which turns inside a double helix stator to create compression-fit sealed, uniform cavities of fluid that progress from the pump’s suction to discharge. This simple pumping principle gently conveys media with a wide range of viscosity, temperature, gas and solids content. Progressive cavity pumps are often used for sludge transfer in wastewater treatment applications. While capable of handling such high capacity applications, they can be large and cumbersome to maintain. Traditional ones incorporate stators that have elastomer chemically bonded inside a metal tube. This means that when the stator is removed to inspect the pump, or replace the stator, discharge piping must also be removed. If replacing the stator and rotor, additional manpower or rigging is required. This leads to long downtime and additional cost. The City of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, has a population of approximately 34,000 residents and hosts over one million visitors per year. Its wastewater treatment plant was using traditional progressive cavity pumps to feed anaerobically digested sludge to the centrifuges. In order to improve plant performance, the City decided to upgrade them to better match the centrifuges’ solids throughput capacity. The need for larger capacity handling capabilities, without time consuming maintenance requirements, led plant technician, Roland Ford, to look for another option. He contacted Wayne Caines with Flowstar Industrial Inc. in Truro, Nova Scotia, who suggested German-engineered non-traditional progressive cavity pumps equipped with Smart Convey74 | October 2016

Twin BN 35-6LS SEEPEX non-traditional progressive cavity pumps with Smart Conveying Technology can be serviced without removing suction or discharge piping.

ing Technology (SCT), manufactured by SEEPEX. They have been used in some 17,000 installations globally, since 2008. SCT pumps come in one-stage and two-stage designs. The two-stage design was made available in 2015 to manage applications with even higher conveying capacities and higher pressures. Both pumps offer users easy access to the specially engineered stator and rotor. They do not require special tools to perform maintenance, can be worked on by one person, and do not require removal from discharge piping for service. The pump design starts with a specially engineered stator. It is comprised of two free-molded elastomer halves, covered by four metal adjusting segments that position and axially seal the stator halves. The adjusting segments and stator halves are easily removed to allow for quick internal inspection, rag or blockage removal, parts replacement and flow rate optimization. Flow rates decrease when a stator experiences wear and motor speed must be increased. This equates to higher energy use. However, with this stator design, adjusting segments can be tightened multiple times which re-tensions the elastomer halves to compensate for their

normal wear. This restores the pump’s original flow rate capacity. Also, since the adjusting segments of the stator only have to be tightened enough to withstand the differential pressure of the system, starting and running torques and power consumption are proportionally lower, leading to better energy efficiency. Adjusting segments are not wearing items and will last for the lifetime of the pump. The elastomer halves can be recycled, thereby reducing waste and the cost of disposal. The SCT pump’s rotor is manufactured in two pieces: the rotor head and the rotor geometry. This allows the rotor geometry, the portion of the part that wears, to be replaced much faster and without disrupting the universal joint connecting to the power train. After reviewing the purchase price and cost of replacement parts, Ford decided that the Twin BN 35-6LS SEEPEX progressive cavity pumps with SCT were a more cost-effective option for the wastewater treatment plant in the long run. Installation and start up went smoothly in March 2015. www.seepex.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Costs are kept in check and repair times greatly decreased. Our extensive parts inventory and unique capability to custom manufacture virtually any centrifuge component ensures this.

Sentrimax has built its reputation on a superior level of service and quality control. Rigorous testing, comprehensive inspection reports and unmatched expertise are all part of the Sentrimax Advantage.

OUR EXPERIENCE WITH CENTRIFUGE REPAIR SPANS THE YEARS. OUR EXPERTISE SPANS THE CONTINENT. As Sentrimax continues to expand its services across Canada and the U.S., we bring with us a solid history and vast experience in the service and repair of municipal decanter centrifuges. Our vertically integrated repair facilities in both countries provide a complete, inhouse range of services that is second to none, and every aspect of a decanter centrifuge repair is executed with the utmost regard for quality and reliability. This is what our clients continually expect and this is what Sentrimax consistently delivers.

SENTRIMAX CENTRIFUGES INC. 9440 60 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6E 0C1 Phone: 780.434.1781 Toll Free: 866.247.5141 SENTRIMAX CENTRIFUGES (USA), INC. 108 Sentry Drive, Mansfield, Texas 76063 Phone: 817.453.8112 Toll Free: 844.327.3632