Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November-December 2015

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Nov/Dec 2015 www.esemag.com

Controlling micro-pollutants in drinking water New grit removal system installed in Calgary

Eliminating odour from force mains Low impact stormwater management

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Contents Page 8

November/December 2015 Vol. 28 No. 6 • Issued Dec. 2015 • ISSN-0835-605X

Page 22



20th Anniversary of ES&E’s Consultants’ Forum


Wastewater treatment plants may not spread antimicrobial resistance

10 Heavyweight grit removal system installed in Calgary’s Bonnybrook WWTP

Product Showcase. . . . . . . . 59-62 Environmental News. . . . . . 63-66 Professional Cards. . . . . . . . 63-66 Ad Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

12 Finding alternative water treatment chemicals to avoid shortage risks 14 Subdivision benefits from low impact stormwater management 18 New stormwater management approaches examined by Toronto 22 New system eliminates odour from wastewater force main 25 Controlling micro-pollutants in drinking water 30 Automatic water main flushing reduces costs and improves water quality

Page 53

32 Polymer coatings can significantly improve water pump efficiency 47 Vortex Flow Insert aeration system reduces sewer odours



20th annual review: Canada’s consulting engineering sector

Ad Booking Deadline: January 22, 2016 Editorial Focus Water and Wastewater Treatment in Cold Climates Special Sections Annual Directory & Equipment Specifiers’ Guide - Consultants, Suppliers, Products & Services

34 The role of consultants from the municipality’s viewpoint 37 Developing the next-generation workforce 39 Manufacturers get support from environmental consultants 41 Alternative project delivery will offer significant opportunities in 2016 43 Importance of time management in the age of distraction 45 The continuing evolution of consultant-client relationships

48 New reactive barrier helps address transformer leaks 50 Considerations for freeze protection in water tanks




Innovative water tower design chosen for resort community Fabric-covered steel building hosts genomic research Preventing hazardous material spills from entering storm sewers How to get permitted for collapsible fuel storage bladders Disciplined approach vital to safety and spills response effectiveness

52 53 54 56 58


Bonus Convention Circulation at: • Central Ontario Water Works Association • GLOBE Contact us to reserve your ad space. Tel: 905-727-4666 Toll Free: 1-888-254-8769 Penny Davey, ext. 26 penny@esemag.com Denise Simpson, ext. 21 denise@esemag.com


Smith & Loveless Inc. Above All Others.


Editorial Comment by Peter Davey

20th anniversary of ES&E’s Consultants’ Forum How Canada’s consulting engineering industry has changed – and stayed the same


n 1995, ES&E Magazine ran a special report on the future of consulting engineering in Canada. Executives from several of Canada’s largest consulting firms gave their views on what was in store for consulting engineers. In his contribution to the special report, Stuart Angus, president and CEO of Proctor & Redfern Ltd., said the future of consulting engineering was “at the crossroads”. The industry had shrunk by 30% in the previous five years and was expected to decline a further 25% by the year 2000. As the new millennium approached, consulting engineers faced a number of challenges that seemed to threaten the identity of their profession: technological changes ushered in by the information revolution; privatization of infrastructure development that favored price over quality; and increasing competition from foreign firms. The names of authors and companies featured in our special focus have changed over the years (except of course for Bill De Angelis, who has lent his business expertise to the section every year since 2001). Yet the challenges discussed in this section have remained largely the same. The two most common and ongoing are dealing with a shortage of labour and the evolving consultant-client relationship. In 2000, Don Ingram, president of Consulting Engineers of Ontario, wrote about a looming shortage of engineers, fearing that demand for staff had outstripped supply and would continue to do so. In many subsequent issues of the Forum, various authors offered reasons for the shortage and solutions to cope with it. This year, Archis Ambulkar has written about the obligation senior professionals have to building up the water industry’s next generation workforce (pg. 37). He talks about the need to make young people aware of the industry while they are still in school. In 1995, Ken Morrison and Peter Laughton of R.V. Anderson Ltd., wrote: “Consulting engineers who traditionally worked for the public sector, will now be serving more private organizations.” Rui DeCarvalho’s article, “The continuing evolution of consultant/client relationships,” (pg. 45) continues this discussion. Also writing about client relationships,

6 | November/December 2015

Bill De Angelis dives into this topic from the perspective of an owner. After a year working for the City of Toronto and with nearly twenty years of consulting experience, De Angelis shares his observations on what owners expect from consultants and how projects are awarded in “The view from the other side” (pg. 34). In closing, I would like to leave you with an excerpt from Tom Davey’s opening to ES&E’s first Consultants’ Forum 20 years ago. As well, a thank-you to all of our contributing authors over the years. “If engineering really is the invisible profession, then consultants are the most invisible sector of this learned calling. Not long ago a Metro Toronto politician cried out during a debate that ‘we are spending millions on consultants for God’s sake.’ He was palpably unaware that most of the water and wastewater treatment plants, the trunk sewers and water mains had been designed by consulting engineers. In a point of fact, many of the roads, bridges and the skyscrapers that grace the Toronto skyline have also been designed by consultants. But environmental engineering has been a specialty of consultants since Willis Chipman formed what was almost certainly Canada’s first private consulting practice over a century ago. Since then consulting engineers have served Canada well. Before governments began diverting vast sums of monies to social engineering projects, our infrastructure was amongst the best in the world. Today, while our environmental challenges remain formidable, consultants are facing problems as never before. Hundreds of millions have been wasted on government ‘initiatives’ which squandered funds, while urgently needed projects languished and consulting staff was laid off. ES&E invited prominent figures in the consulting profession to offer their views on the new challenges facing their profession.”

Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY Email: steve@esemag.com Assistant Editor PETER DAVEY Email: peter@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY Email: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Email: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY Email: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Email: darlann@esemag.com Production EINAR RICE Email: production@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar, Jones and Henry Engineers, Ltd. Gary Burrows, City of London Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill De Angelis, City of Toronto Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems William Fernandes, Region of Peel Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine, Environment Canada Tony Petrucci, Stantec, Markham Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be emailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

Peter Davey is the assistant editor of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. Email: peter@esemag.com Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Research shows wastewater treatment plants may not spread antimicrobial resistance


n collaboration with colleagues from Aalborg University, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) researchers have studied genes from wastewater treatment plants that may help bacteria to develop antimicrobial resistance. Their findings demonstrate that the treatment plants contain a great many genes that may generate resistance to a wide variety of antimicrobial agents. Every day, biological wastewater treatment plants receive millions of litres of water for processing from hospitals, private households and other sources. This wastewater contains remnants of antimicrobial agents and a variety of pathogenic bacteria. It has therefore been generally assumed that wastewater treatment plants are the ideal location for pathogenic bacteria to develop new resistance genes. The new Danish research has now revealed that the most common resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants are not to be found among bacteria outside these facilities, in people or animals,

8 | November/December 2015

for example. According to researchers, these findings challenge the generally held perception that wastewater treatment plants are hotbeds for the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes. “Wastewater contains a great many intestinal bacteria that have been described in detail, so we were surprised to find that the vast majority of the resistance genes we identified in the wastewater treatment plants were unknown,” said Christian Munck from DTU. Munck is participating in a project led by Professor Morten Sommer in collaboration with Professor Per Halkjær Nielsen’s team from the Center for Microbial Communities at Aalborg University. “We’ve studied five large wastewater treatment plants, collecting samples over a period of two years. In all the samples, we found genes that provided resistance to the antimicrobial agents we tested. However, when we looked into whether these genes had been described previously, we found that the vast majority were unknown,” explained Munck.

“This indicates that the majority of the resistance genes we identify in wastewater treatment plants are to be found in the special micro-organisms that are able to survive in the extraordinary conditions of these treatment plants,” said Professor Per Halkær Nielsen. Professor Morten Sommer added: “The findings from our research demonstrate that wastewater treatment plants contain a huge pool of genes with the capacity to provide bacteria with antimicrobial resistance, but that these genes do not appear in pathogenic bacteria. “It is difficult to say if, and to what extent, these genes may one day appear in pathogenic bacteria, but we are working to unravel the mechanisms that allow resistance genes to migrate from non-pathogenic to pathogenic bacteria.” The findings were published in the article “Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome” in Nature Communications. For more information visit www.dtu.dk/english

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

Heavyweight grit removal system installed in Calgary’s Bonnybrook WWTP


dequate grit removal is particularly important to Calgary’s wastewater treatment, given the City’s location and topography. In the severe northern prairie winters, heavy ice and snow are frequently interrupted by warm Chinook winds that sweep up from the south as the Arctic fronts temporarily retreat. The resultant rapid thaws can leave the streets awash with runoff and sand used for winter road safety. The City of Calgary, has installed the world’s largest HeadCell® grit removal, classifying and dewatering system from Hydro International. It will protect downstream processes at the Bonnybrook wastewater treatment plant from abrasion and grit deposition. “High performance grit removal is important to achieve lower operation and maintenance costs and retain the specified capacity of downstream process units, such as bioreactors, fermenters and digesters,” said Senior Project Engineer Zorica Knezevic, City of Calgary Water Resources. “For example, we had noted that, with the previous technology, up to 20% of the digesters’ tank volume was taken by settled grit. Wear and tear on equipment was also a factor, and removing grit was part of periodic maintenance. We estimated it at approximately 6,000 man hours annually.”

Climate-driven grit headaches While much of Calgary’s sewer system is sanitary, significant portions in older areas are combined with stormwater. Collected wastewater leads to high concentrations of grit in raw sewage, as well as additional grit carried in highway runoff. Equipment selection The project scope included screening and grit removal; screening, washing and compacting; grit classification and dewatering; solids conveyance and storage; and flow distribution and measurement. 10 | November/December 2015

Finishing the grit removal process at Bonnybrook WWTP, Calgary, 10 Hydro SlurryCup Grit classifiers and five GritSnail dewatering units treat an average flow of 418 Megalitres/day and clean up the grit before disposal.

As the removal efficiency of the existing aerated grit tanks was low, and grit was accumulating in downstream processes, grit characterization had already been assessed by the City in a separate exercise. This was necessary to develop an accurate design basis for a cost-benefit evaluation of the various treatment alternatives considered. The grit characterization study determined plant influent grit gradation and settling velocity, as well as evaluating the performance of the existing aerated grit chamber system. It found that the existing system was removing only 26% - 29% of the influent grit. This was because virtually all of the influent grit had a settling velocity lower than a 212 micron sphere of silica sand. This is a conventional design point, for which the original plant was designed. The request for proposals package included native grit characterization data and project performance requirements, as well as performance testing and penalty requirements. Hydro Inter-

national was pre-selected based on its ability to remove grit particles as fine as 75 micron and other performance and operational features. As a part of pre-selection requirements, Hydro had to provide equipment shop drawings. Stantec Engineering developed the tender package for the general contractors based on these. During the design phase, computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to determine optimum influent channel design for the ten HeadCell units. Big protection, small footprint The complete headworks process includes new 6 mm bar screens, screenings washer/compactors, and new screenings conveyors. Each of the ten HeadCell units then removes and concentrates fine grit, which is pumped to a SlurryCup™ classifier unit that cleans the grit to minimize the associated organic material. Washed out organic material is returned to the treatment plant. The washed grit slurry flows by gravity to a Grit Snail® dewatering unit to

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Treatment passes the standard “paint filter” test, which is an assessment of free-draining liquid from waste solids through standard filters.

At Bonnybrook, Calgary, WWTP, in the world’s largest of its kind, 10 of Hydro International’s Eutek HeadCell grit removal units are here installed under protective covers during headworks construction.

produce a dewatered grit, with an average of no more than 20% volatile solids by weight and greater than 60% total solids. There are five Grit Snail units,

each with two SlurryCup units mounted on top. This configuration saves space and capital cost. Washed grit is sent to landfill if it

Guaranteed grit removal rate Each of the ten HeadCell units supplied to the upgraded Bonnybrook WWTP meets the peak flow specification of removing 95% of all grit at 150 micron and larger, at specific gravity (SG) 2.65, at a flow of 1390 Megalitres/ day from screened sewage. At the normal flow design maximum of 418 ML/d the units will remove 95% of all grit of 75 microns (SG 2.65) and larger from screened sewage. Sewage first began to flow through the system in late August 2014. Commissioning included successful performance testing of the Hydro International grit removal system by an independent third party. For further information, email: wastewaterinquiry@hydro-int.com, or visit www.hydro-int.com

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Drinking Water velopment of lead pipe replacement/ relining. • Reduction or elimination of usage of conventional coagulants through the use of recovered coagulants or through the development of relevant technologies, such as non-ageing/ non-fouling membranes. • Reduction or elimination of the usage of chlorine through the development of non-chlorine-based chemical disinfectants or non-chemical methods of disinfection. This could include utilization of naturally occurring micro-organisms in water to kill pathogens, electrolytic disinfection, and LED-UV.

Finding alternative water treatment chemicals to avoid shortages


any water treatment chemicals are commodity chemicals, with availability and price affected by global conditions. During short-term shortages these chemicals would generally be available, but at increased prices such as phosphoric acid in places during 2008. Of greater concern are commodity chemicals at risk of longer-term shortages, where geographically concentrated supplies of raw materials could be interrupted, or where the quantities of chemicals used for water treatment are a small percentage of production. Water treatment chemical usage can be reduced or eliminated as a result of treatment upstream of the treatment works (e.g., reservoir management and riverbank filtration) or changes at the treatment works, including changes that affect chemical species and/or concentrations in distribution. The water treatment processes with the most potential for reduction in chemical use include coagulation/flocculation, granular active carbon adsorption, and disinfection. The water treatment process with the least potential

12 | November/December 2015

for chemical replacement is plumbosolvency control, as phosphoric acid, or its derivative MSP/SDHO, has no effective chemical alternative. An assessment of key water treatment chemicals used in a recent study by U.K. Water Industry Research Ltd. identified phosphoric acid as the chemical with the highest risk to supply, followed by polyelectrolytes (used as coagulants/flocculants) and chlorine gas. The risk ranking will vary for individual chemicals based on use at different treatment works and for different treatment processes. A review of chemical costs for coagulation/flocculation, disinfection and plumbosolvency control showed that switching to a conventional alternative will usually result in moderate changes in cost. But, this is likely to be secondary to operational issues including possible reduced throughput. The costs of the chemical-free alternatives considered for these processes were significantly or substantially greater than conventional treatment. Options for further research include: • Development of effective chemical alternatives to phosphoric acid, e.g., chloropyromorphite, and further de-

Recommendations A watching brief should be kept on current research and technology developments to identify any feasible options to reduce the usage of chemicals in water treatment. Water companies could take a number of actions to reduce the risk of chemical shortages and price volatility, including: • Contingency planning for short- and long-term chemical shortages. • Increasing chemical storage capacity and/or sourcing chemicals from more than one manufacturer/supplier. • Designing new treatment works or upgrades that enable storage and dosing of alternative chemicals, or use processes that reduce the requirement for chemicals. • Tracking appropriate market indicators and negotiating long-term purchasing contracts with price guarantees. A methodology has been developed to identify key water treatment chemicals most at risk from supply shortages. A review of literature, research and technologies has indicated approaches to reduce the usage of “at risk” chemicals as a result of changes to water treatment or the use of alternative chemicals, as well as identifying relevant research and emerging technologies. Recommendations are made regarding future research and technology developments, and planning for water companies to reduce the risk of chemical shortages and price volatility. For more information, visit www.waterrf.org or www.ukwir.org

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ES&E NEWS Federal government plans to ban microbeads In the wake of new evidence that finds microbeads pose a risk to the environment, the federal government has announced that it is poised to classify them as a toxic substance and ban their use in personal care products In March, Ecojustice staff lawyer Tanya Nayler, acting on behalf of Environmental Defence, Lake Ontario Waterkeeper, and Ottawa Riverkeeper, submitted a formal request asking the government to place microbeads on the Priority Substances List to begin the process of regulating them as a toxic substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. When cleansers, lotions and toothpastes containing microbeads are used and rinsed

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down the drain, these bits of plastic, often 1.0 millimetre or smaller in diameter, are too small to be caught by wastewater treatment facilities. Instead, they are flushed directly into lakes, rivers and streams. Scientists have also found millions of microbeads in parts of the Great Lakes, with the highest concentrations occurring near urban areas. Studies estimate that microbeads make up 20 per cent of plastic pollution in the Great Lakes, which provide drinking water to 8.5 million Canadians. Once they are unleashed into waterways, microbeads can make their way up the food chain. They absorb dangerous pollutants such as PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are already present in the marine environment. www.ecojustice.ca

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CH2M Names Peter Nicol New Water President

Global engineering and project delivery company CH2M has named Peter G. Nicol, P.Eng., president of its water business.

As president of the firm’s water group, Nicol has full profit and loss responsibility for CH2M’s $1.4 billion global water business, including leading more than 5,000 water professionals, in 175 offices, in more than 50 countries worldwide. He is responsible for all water activities within CH2M, including overseeing consulting, program management,

design, design-build and operations solutions for government, civil, industrial and energy clients. Nicol has dedicated his career to CH2M, joining the company in 1980 after receiving his bachelor of applied science degree in Geological Engineering and Applied Earth Sciences from the University of Toronto.


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November/December 2015 | 13

Stormwater Management

Residential subdivision benefits from low impact development stormwater management By Harold Reinthaler


tormwater has traditionally been collected by storm sewer networks and conveyed to downstream centralized permanent pool stormwater management (SWM) ponds. There it is treated for water quantity and quality to minimize the impact on receiving watercourses. In light of the current trend to design for sustainability, the concept of low impact development (LID) evolved to more closely replicate the natural hydrologic functions of a site. LID techniques are localized, small-scale, decentralized approaches to stormwater management, rather than large centralized facilities. LID methods include groundwater infiltration, storage with subsequent re-use for irrigation, and uptake of stormwater by swales containing appropriate vegetation to utilize evapotranspiration. These,

Construction of an underground stormwater storage system. This allows the surface to be used as a park.

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Stormwater Management with other natural processes, reduce surface water runoff while helping to stabilize the flow rate of nearby streams. The Vales of Glenway residential subdivision development in Newmarket, Ontario is a true test case for the application of LID techniques for stormwater management. The initial plan called for a SWM pond at the lowest point of the site, near the intersection of two major roads. Municipal staff and others, wanted alternatives to a SWM pond. The challenge was to substitute other stormwater management measures for this 11.7 ha residential subdivision, where 185 homes are being constructed. In 2008, the Ontario provincial government passed the Lake Simcoe Protection Act. The impetus behind this legislation was the reduction of phosphorus entering into Lake Simcoe. As a result, the Lake Simcoe Protection Plan was created. The Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority uses this plan to promote the use of modern stormwater management techniques to reduce phosphorus loads. The two objectives of the Town of Newmarket and the Lake Simcoe Region

Conservation Authority steered Schaeffers Consulting Engineers to LID stormwater management techniques. The “tool box” of LID techniques to handle water quantity and water quality issues is large and varied. In some cases, there are both quantity and quality benefits. With regard to water quantity treatment, an underground chamber with infiltration capabilities was considered at the location of the previously proposed SWM pond. It was realized that if underground storage could be utilized at that location, there would be potential for a park above it. This would be a classic “win/win” situation. It would provide for effective and efficient land use where a parcel of land could fulfill two functions; stormwater management and recreation. This would simultaneously provide both environmental and social benefits. The site had both desirable features and challenges. There is good topographic relief that allows underground stormwater quality treatment, such as oil/grit separators. Outflows come to the surface of a biofiltration swale that drains by gravity further downstream.

Unfortunately, the site has silty-clays to sandy-silt soils, which are not the most conducive to infiltration. A further challenge was to use modern LID techniques, yet still achieve traditional SWM objectives. These include erosion control, pre- to post-water quantity control for many design storms, 80% removal of suspended solids, and water balance. Also, maintenance staff and the Town’s peer review consultants had to be confident that no undue maintenance burden or liability exposure was being incurred as a result of the proposed works. It should be noted that this unconventional solution was given a design objective of 25 mm of rainfall for site retention, five times the conventional standard. Biofiltration swales contributed a lot to water quality, but in different ways. In some cases, topography and land use allowed small areas to have direct stormwater flow into biofiltration swales. Also, roads with continuous cross-fall were utilized to convey stormcontinued overleaf...

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Stormwater Management water to these types of biofiltration facilities adjacent to perimeter roads. In another case, a much larger area utilized a treatment train approach. This resulted in water being treated first by oil/grit separators to remove heavier suspended solids, then polished by a downstream biofiltration facility and finally released to a watercourse that traverses the site. Rain gardens, a variation of biofiltration swales, were also situated throughout the site at many of the intersections to promote unconventional SWM systems. Lots adjacent to the rain gardens were found to be very desirable and were among the first to be sold. In addition to the biofiltration swales, the LID design also featured a stormwater exfiltration system, or a groundwater infiltration system, under roughly half of the roads throughout the development. The exfiltration trench is fed road runoff (prefiltered by a goss trap) in order to retain the most frequent storm events. Exfiltration provides a major contribution towards the 25 mm retention objective, especially in the sandier soil areas. Planned future monitoring of

this system will eventually measure the true amount of exfiltration or groundwater infiltration.

Rain gardens, a variation of biofiltration swales, were also situated throughout the site at many of the intersections to promote unconventional SWM systems. Lots adjacent to the rain gardens were found to be very desirable and were among the first to be sold. Given the unconventional nature of the proposed LIDs, the design engineer was present at bi-weekly construction meetings to ensure contractors understood the drawings, the objectives and limitations of the design. This is important because some LID techniques, such

as biofiltration swales, can be very sensitive to construction activity. For example, heavy construction equipment can easily crush a biofiltration swale and render it useless. Therefore, methodology, control of materials and timing of installation can be crucial to successful implementation of LID facilities. An important aspect to the evolution and outcome of LID in this project was the cooperative involvement of Bazil Developments Inc. and Mosaik Homes, the General Manager of the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, and the Chief Administrative Officer of the Town of Newmarket. The Vales of Glenway residential subdivision is a pioneer in the application of low impact development stormwater management techniques. By monitoring these techniques, it is hoped they will evolve for future application in the design of more hydrologically sustainable developments. Harold Reinthaler, P.Eng., is with Schaeffers Consulting Engineers. Email: hreinthaler@schaeffers.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine




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Stormwater Management

Toronto examines new approaches to stormwater management By Eric Meliton and Alyssa Cerbu

The series of stormwater retention and infiltration ponds at Calstone’s LID installation. Photo Credit: Partners in Project Green


ith degraded watersheds and a changing climate creating heightened flood risks, and population growth placing pressure on aging infrastructure, urban areas find themselves facing greater stormwater management

and water treatment challenges. Traditionally, municipalities have addressed such concerns through large infrastructure projects. But these massive undertakings have their downsides, notably high capital costs and long lead times.

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Stormwater Management burden on municipal stormwater management and water treatment infrastructure. The lessons of July 2013 The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) has felt a particular strain on its water system as its population has expanded. An extreme storm event in July 2013 unleashed 126 mm of rain on Toronto within a twohour period, resulting in widespread power outages, hundreds of commuters stranded and an estimated $1 billion in damages. The Insurance Bureau of Canada has ranked it as the most costly natural disaster in Ontario’s history. While the now-legendary storm has not yet repeated itself, climate change experts agree that the GTA is likely to see both more frequent and more intense storm events, with potentially damaging impacts on local safety, infrastructure and the economy. Most of the water infrastructure in the GTA is not built to handle storm events of such magnitude. Continued population growth promises to place further strain on an already overburdened water system. The federal Ministry of Finance projects that the

population of the GTA will reach 17.8 million by 2041. While some municipalities within the GTA, notably the Region of Peel, are investing heavily in projects to meet growing water demands, there are others, such as the City of Toronto, that struggle even to find the resources for routine retrofitting of their water and wastewater infrastructure. It is increasingly clear that the GTA needs to rethink its approach to managing stormwater and water treatment. Rather than relying on costly, largescale infrastructure projects, the municipalities that make up the GTA need to consider a more flexible, diversified approach to tackle their water concerns. This should incorporate both large-scale and smaller, facility-based projects. Diversified solutions One solution to the problem of aging stormwater management infrastructure is lot-level stormwater management technologies, otherwise known as low-impact development (LID). These technologies, which include filter swales, permeable pavement, rainwater harvesting systems,

rain gardens and green roofs, focus on retaining, infiltrating and treating and/or controlling stormwater where it lands. This re-introduces traditional hydrologic and environmental functions, maintains water balance and can help restore watershed functions. Recognizing the potential, Partners in Project Green is encouraging industrial, commercial and institutional properties, with large areas of impermeable surfaces, to undertake retrofits that incorporate lot-level stormwater management technologies. The degree to which LID solutions can impact local water infrastructure depends on the size and number of properties that adopt them. A property that successfully retains 100% of the rainfall on its site will nevertheless make little impact if none of its neighbours with sizable impermeable surfaces are engaged in water stewardship initiatives. The key to maximizing the potential for infiltration, detention and watershed restoration, is to pull together local networks of properties implementing LID projects. continued overleaf...

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Stormwater Management On the wastewater and process water management side, Partners in Project Green is focused on providing support to existing municipal programs, operated by Toronto Water and the Region of Peel’s Public Works department. These are designed to help businesses reduce their water footprints. Since the industrial, commercial and institutional (ICI) sector extracts large amounts of water and sends significant volumes of process and wastewater through the municipal sewer systems, these kinds of efficiency programs can have a dramatic impact. Above all, municipalities and businesses need to view stormwater, treated water and wastewater as interconnected systems facing similar challenges, rather than as separate, mutually-exclusive entities. A successful pilot Supported by project funding from regional municipal partners, Partners in Project Green pursues collaborative sustainable initiatives with hundreds of

A view of the ponds and recycled materials walkway at Calstone. This was the first of Partners in Project Green’s Collective Stormwater Infrastructure projects. Photo Credit: Partners in Project Green

private companies and public organizations. In 2014, its Water Stewardship team focused on projects aimed at developing innovative low-impact stormwater management technologies on ICI sector properties, using a network of service and technology vendors. The first installation was completed in 2015 at Calstone Inc., a mid-sized steel furniture manufacturer in Scarborough, Ontario. Calstone initially approached Partners in Project Green after receiving the City of Toronto’s $5,000 Hometown Heroes award, with the goal of completing a small rainwater harvesting and garden project. Using funds from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change’s Showcasing Water Innovation program and water stewardship capital grants, as well as leveraging exclusive discounts from its vendor network, Partners in Project Green was able to scale-up the value of the project to more than $125,000. The Calstone project involved disconnecting three of six downspouts from the company’s 42,000 m2 roof to

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

2015-12-03 12:06 PM

Stormwater Management feed into a series of LID features. One downspout connects to a 9,300-litre rainwater harvesting tank. When full, it irrigates Calstone’s on-site garden and vegetation, and overflows to a retention pond that serves as an attractive water feature. The other two downspouts are connected to an infiltration trench at the back of the property. During larger storms, these will overflow into a pair of connected infiltration ponds, allowing the water to slowly return to the water table and, eventually, flow to Highland Creek. This collective infrastructure project expanded upon an existing Calstone water stewardship initiative. More than a decade ago, the company’s President and CEO Jim Ecclestone happened upon an old milk pasteurization tank while walking through a farm field, and decided to find a use for it. The Calstone team disconnected one of their downspouts to flow into the salvaged tank, and, since then, has used the greywater both for their toilet fixtures and to cool spot welders in their manufacturing operations. In addition to relieving the strain on the local storm sewer system, this creative retrofit reduces potable water use. Calstone’s ultimate goal, however, is to remove itself completely from the municipal grid. Performance evaluation of the system is now underway, and will continue for two years. Partners in Project Green will use the results to evaluate the effectiveness and cost viability of these kinds of stormwater technologies, and to promote the installation of future ICI retrofits across southern Ontario. Building a network of projects One-off projects cannot, on their own, generate significant results on a watershed-level or municipal scale. It takes networks and clusters of projects to create measurable impacts on local water and stormwater footprints. Individual projects must be informed by a holistic outlook that takes into account not just an organization’s own water usage, but also the water falling beyond its property line. Projects such as Calstone’s demonstrate the advantages of such an approach. Partners in Project Green looks forward to continuing its efforts to develop a network of unique, ICI sector water stewardship initiatives. Through such www.esemag.com

projects, the group hopes to promote best practices and efficiency in stormwater and process and wastewater management, and to connect organizations within and across watersheds to form

the “Watershed of the Future.” Eric Meliton (emeliton@trca.on.ca) and Alyssa Cerbu (acerbu@trca.on.ca) are with Partners in Project Green.

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Odour Control

New system eliminates odour from South Red Deer’s wastewater force main By James Coates


he South Red Deer Regional Wastewater System (SRDRWS) is a transmission system that extends from the Town of Olds to the City of Red Deer Wastewater Treatment Plant (CRD WWTP). It includes the transmission of wastewater from the communities of Olds, Bowden, Innisfail, Penhold, Mountain View County, and Red Deer County to the CRD WWTP through 90 km of force main. Wastewater is treated at the plant to meet Alberta Environment’s standards. Major upgrades to the WWTP were undertaken to accommodate the increased flows. Due to the length of the transmission system, extended sewage retention times were anticipated, with the potential for odour release, particularly where the SRDRWS force main joins the City of Red Deer gravity system at the east entrance chamber, and when wastewater reaches the CRD WWTP. The South Red Deer Regional Wastewater Commission (SRDRWC) had made requests to provide odour treatment in order to reduce its impact. It was determined at the conceptual design stage that the east entrance chamber was the best location to implement an odour treatment system. Objectives included: • Preventing fugitive odour emissions from the proposed east entrance chamber. • Effectively accommodating sulphide generation in the SRDRWS flow component. • The SRDRWS should have little or no negative impact on the operation of the WWTP. The impact of hydrogen sulphide One of the most odourous substances produced in domestic wastewater is hydrogen sulphide. It can exist as a gas and as a dissolved ion. Hydrogen sulphide is found in almost all wastewater systems to some extent, and even in low concentrations can be detrimental to human health. Sulphide generation is a biological process occurring in the submerged por-

22 | November/December 2015

Aerial view of Red Deer’s two stage odour management facility. The organicbiofilter is to the left of the building.

tion of sanitary sewers. Fresh domestic sewage entering a wastewater collection system is usually free of sulphide. However, a dissolved form of sulphide soon appears as a result of low dissolved oxygen content, long detention time, elevated temperatures, high BOD and high sulphate. The first step in this biological process is the growth of a slime layer below the water level in a sewer pipe or force main. This slime layer is composed of bacteria and inert solids held together by a biologically secreted polysaccharide “glue”. When this biofilm becomes thick enough to prevent the penetration of dissolved oxygen, an anoxic zone develops within it. Approximately two weeks is required to establish a fully productive slime layer in new pipes and, once established, it never goes away. Within this slime layer, sulphate reducing bacteria use the sulphate ion (SO4=), a common component of wastewater, as an oxygen source for the assimilation of organic matter, in the same way dissolved oxygen is used by aerobic bacteria. When sulphate is utilized by these bacteria, sulphide (S=) is the

byproduct. The rate at which sulphide is produced by the slime layer depends on a variety of conditions. These include the concentration of organic food source (BOD), dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, wastewater velocity, and the area of the normally wetted surface of the pipe. Because sulphide generation in sewers is a biological process, elevation of temperature also causes an increase in metabolic activity and an increase in sulphide production. Regardless of the rate of sulphide generation, when sulphide is released back into the wastewater stream it immediately establishes a dynamic chemical equilibrium between four forms of sulphide. These are the sulphide ion (S=), the bisulphide or hydrosulphide ion (HS-), aqueous hydrogen sulphide (H2S (aq)), and hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S(g)). The range of dissolved sulphide produced in the SRDRWS force main was high. It resulted in high atmospheric hydrogen sulphide (average H2S concentration of 200 - 400 ppm at the 25-year condition) at the odour management facility stripping chamber.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Odour Control

The organic biofilter serves to polish remaining hydrogen sulphide and accommodate VOCs and other components.

The solution: A two stage odour management facility The solution to eliminating odour from the SRDRWS force main was to design and construct a sulphide stripping chamber with vapour phase odour control treatment. It accepts foul air from both the east entrance chamber and the sulphide stripping chamber. A stripping chamber is essentially a concrete structure with a serpentine flow arrangement (similar to a typical chlorine contact chamber) that is fitted with coarse bubble diffusers. Diffused air from turbocompressor blowers is used to strip the dissolved sulphide (and other odourous compounds) from the solution. This also adds dissolved oxygen into the wastewater, prior to discharge into the east entrance chamber, where it is mixed with City of Red Deer wastewater. It is estimated that up to 90% of the dissolved sulphide could be stripped and released in the chamber. The stripping chamber was designed for the 25-year (2035) peak pump cycle volume and to maximize contact time, which increases stripping process efficiency. While this provides an oversized chamber for current projected flows, it will accommodate future growth without the need for expansion. The odour and corrosion potential within the stripping chamber is extremely high because of the nature of its inwww.esemag.com

tended function, that is, to strip dissolved sulphide through turbulent aeration. Also, other organic odour compounds are present because of the severe anaerobic environment in the force main. To protect against hydrogen sulphide related corrosion, an integral high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner was installed on all exposed concrete surfaces. Sizing for the stripping chamber included a cast-in-place concrete chamber 21 m long x 6 m wide. Two turbocompressor blowers (one duty, one standby) and the accompanying aeration equipment were sized for approximately 3,250 m3/h, to provide the air necessary to strip sulphide from solution. Air is withdrawn from the stripping chamber via two fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) exhaust fans (one duty, one standby) at a rate greater than the input aeration rate. This keeps a negative pressure inside the chamber while pulling air from the stripping chamber, attached east entrance chamber and 1050 mm CRD gravity trunk. This air is then sent to a vapour phase odour control system for treatment. The total airflow pulled from the stripping chamber is 4,600 m3/h. Given the high hydrogen sulphide concentrations from the sulphide stripping chamber, a single biofilter was not adequate to accommodate expected odour concentrations. Therefore, a two-stage system was required. The continued overleaf... November/December 2015 | 23

Odour Control first stage is an inorganic media biofilter sized for approximately 30 seconds of media contact time (empty bed resident time), requiring an overall footprint of 100 m2. This stage is used as a hydrogen sulphide roughing filter to drastically reduce the inlet hydrogen sulphide concentration. Inorganic media was required here to prolong the media life and maximize hydrogen sulphide removal. An organic media biofilter was not a good application for these high hydrogen sulphide concentrations as the media would quickly degrade and would require frequent changes. While a bioscrubber (bio-tower) could have been used in place of the inorganic media biofilter to accomplish this, on-site chemical (nutrient) storage and more complex operation precluded this from consideration. This inorganic biofilter consists of two concrete chambers with a HDPE flooring system to accommodate air distribution. The inorganic expanded clay media depth is 1.2 m and each cell has both in-bed drip irrigation and ceiling

mounted top spray irrigation. The units were fitted with low-profile insulated and removable FRP covers. Air leaving the first stage biofilters is captured in a pipe and sent directly to the second stage for further treatment.

Given the high hydrogen sulphide concentrations from the sulphide stripping chamber, a single biofilter was not adequate to accommodate expected odour concentrations. The second stage is a larger footprint organic media biofilter sized for a media contact time of approximately 60 seconds, requiring an overall footprint of 180 m2. The longer contact time serves to polish the remaining hydrogen sulphide. It also accommodates any volatile organic compounds and additional odour compounds in the foul air stream. An organic media unit is sufficient here as the hydrogen


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24 | November/December 2015


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sulphide concentrations are significantly less, at approximately 5 – 50 ppm. These lower concentrations will not impact the normal operating lifespan of the biofilter media. This biofilter consists of an HDPE liner with perforated incoming air pipe embedded in a drain rock media layer for air distribution. The organic wood chip media depth is 1.08 m and has both in-bed drip irrigation and top spray irrigation. Results The South Red Deer Regional Wastewater System went into operation in August 2015 and the resulting outflows from the Penhold lift station (the last lift station upstream of the odour management facility) have averaged approximately 7,500 m3/day. The removal rate of hydrogen sulphide has been approximately 99% since the installation of the organic media, with an average discharge hydrogen sulphide concentration below 2 ppm. James Coates, M.Sc., EIT is with Stantec Consulting Ltd. Email: james.coates@stantec.com


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Water Treatment

Sustainable Ecosystems

Soil retaining system helps urban trees reach Controlling micro-pollutants in drinking water maturity By Eric Keshavarzi


reen and susrecentinfrastructure project organized by tainability goals areFoundaof inthe Water Research creasing importance, tion focused on a groupand of achieving them requireswhich tech“target compounds” nical knowledge training disrupting in varied includes selectedand endocrine fields. Integration soil and trees into compounds, and of pharmaceutical and urban areas improves personal caresubstantially products. The specificsusobtainability and helps alleviate some of our jectives were: most pressingtheecological challenges. • Investigate effectiveness of wideThese include air and water quality,on rising ly-used treatment processes the temperatures, and erosion from removal offlooding the target compounds, daily rainfall events. their daughter products and residual The West Don Lands,from in Toronto, Onendocrine activity municipal tario, is asupplies. community that is people fowater cused, family environmentally • Explore thefriendly, variability of removal of sustainable and beautifully for these target compoundsdesigned across waliving. has adifferent Stage 1 LEED ND GOLD tersItfrom sources. certification under the pilot program es• Investigate the effectiveness of ozone tablished by the U.S. Green Building and biological filtration at removing Council. target compounds. One notable sustainable component, Pharmaceuticals and personal care utilized designand of theendocrine area’s streets, productsin the (PPCPs) disis a soilcompounds retaining system rupting (EDCs)called are aSilva very Cells™. Typical trees in that the city large group of urban compounds are core die after in approximately seven years. widespread the environment. Their However, Silva Cells much help extend presence has spurred public their conlife thus promoting the growth of cernspans, and debate. mature street In the pasttrees. 10 years, there has been a Although of Toronto prerapid growththe in City the number of had research viously SilvaPPCP Cells and as part a groups used studying EDCofrestormwater management pilot program in moval in both wastewater and drinking The Queensway, their use as part of site

Installation of Silva Cells in Mill Street.

development is new. In fact, the West Don Lands streets are the first in a Toronto subdivision to be designed with this system under parking lay-bys and waterinstalled systems. sidewalks. While a great deal of progress has Mill Street wasremains the firstmuch subdivision been made, there to learn street Toronto to be designed to importinclude aboutinthis problem. First, it is this retainingthe system. Asaged the filter lead ant tosoil understand role that engineering R.V.Anderson media and itsconsultant, associated biomass might Associates coordinatedeffectiveness. all plans and spechave on treatment Secifications the landscape ond, the with combined effects architect. of multiple About Silva treatment processes, andCells not just single Silva Cells are a plastic/fiberglass processes in isolation, must be constructure columns beams that supsidered. of Finally, theand role of oxidation port paving above un-compacted planting

soil. The structure has 92% void space and is a stable surface for the installation of vehicle loaded-pavements. When products properly and installed, they can daughter their biological achieve must an AASHTO load rating. activity be betterH-20 understood. Canadian Highwayinvolved Bridge Design Code This research one major loading can also be achieved apset of investigations along through with three propriate is theutilities required were load areas of design. study. This Fifteen rating for in structures as underground engaged a set ofsuch bench-scale studies vaults, covers and gratesthe in effectiveness areas of trafaimed at determining ficeach including sidewalks and parking lots. of system at controlling the selectThePPCPs cell structure transfers thethe force to a ed and EDCs (called “target base layer below structure. compounds”). Inthe each case, the research overleaf... Soil within the continued cells remains at low compaction rates, thereby creating ideal



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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine November/December 2015 | 25

Water Treatment team worked with the utilities to design a set of bench-scale treatments that accurately reflected the full-scale process. At a pre-arranged time, each utility’s raw water was sampled in bulk and transported to the University of Massachusetts laboratory for testing. Once there, it was split into two aliquots and each was spiked with a cocktail of the target compounds at two different concentration levels. Then, each was subject to the bench-scale simulation testing. At each major point along the way, samples were collected to monitor performance. The focus was on target compound removal, but also on more conventional parameters. At the end of each set of tests, the samples were analyzed and the treatment scenarios evaluated. The supporting experiments included ambient analysis, daughter product analysis and ozone-biofiltration testing. The first was intended to build a small database on target compound concentrations in the raw waters of the 15 participating utilities. These ambient concentrations were compared to those measured in other studies. Daughter product tests were intended to shed light on the nature of the oxidant-target compound reactions. They were also to provide some foundation for further studies, with the purpose of elucidating the structure of the longlived daughters produced, the pathways leading to those products, and the likely toxicity or biological activity of the

compounds. Finally, the ozone-biofiltration tests were intended to contribute to the understanding of this process. The eventual goal is to develop design guidance on the use of pre-ozonation, followed by biologically active filters for the removal of the target compounds.

The supporting experiments included ambient analysis, daughter product analysis and ozone-biofiltration testing. The first was intended to build a small database on target compound concentrations in the raw waters of the 15 participating utilities. Results and conclusions Individual compound assessments revealed some new insights into removal by conventional treatment processes and oxidation. Some of this included postulated daughter product structures. For example, atenolol was poorly-to-moderately removed by coagulation and settling. However, filtration


on aged filter media seemed to be quite effective at removing it. Furthermore, ozonation and chlorination were also very effective. Atorvastatin showed similar removal results by coagulation as compared to atenolol. Filtration provided some additional removal. However, near complete removal could be achieved by either ozonation or chlorination. Ciprofloxacin appeared to be well removed by coagulation and filtration. As expected from the literature, ozonation and chlorination were also effective at destroying the parent compound. N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was one of the two most problematic target compounds in this study. It showed almost no susceptibility to removal by coagulation. Some removal during filtration was observed, but chlorine had very little impact. There was also evidence for removal during ozonation, but this was only partial at best. Dichlofenac was almost unaffected by coagulation, and it is likely to be poorly degraded in biological filters. However, diclofenac reacts quite quickly with both ozone and chlorine. As a result, the parent would not be expected to persist in systems using free chlorine, and especially systems using ozonation. Estrone is thought to behave much like the other major steroidal estrogens in water treatment systems. While not well removed by coagulation in many instances, there may be systems where

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26 | November/December 2015

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water Treatment it is associated with particles or natural organic matter and at least partially removed. Chlorination and chloramination are also effective at near complete removal, unless the doses are low and the estrone is protected by particulate matter. Ozonation is expected to be quite effective with this compound too, although some of the bench-scale results were not unequivocal. Estrone and the related estrogens are clearly reactive and there remains much to learn about their abiotic transformations and their oxidation daughter products. Like most of the PPCPs, naproxen is little removed by coagulation. The most effective treatment for this compound is ozonation and chlorination when the pH is near neutral or below. There were indications that naproxen can be degraded biologically on a granular media filter. Chlorination will probably produce some 3-chloro-naproxen, which may persist. Sulfamethoxazole is probably not well removed by coagulation and bio-


degradation on granular media filters might be slow. However, reactions with chlorine and ozone are certainly quite fast. There is some concern over the daughter products produced by both oxidants. In the case of chlorine there may be stable N-chloro-quinoneimines, and for ozone there appear to be some unknown products with acute toxicity. A good control strategy for ranitidine appears to be ozonation. But again, it will be important to know if partial degradation by ozone destroys the dimethylamine precursor structure that is such a strong producer of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) is extremely resistant to all conventional treatment methods. In fact, there is very little evidence that any removal occurs, unless advanced oxidation processes are employed. Trimethoprim is quite easily removed by oxidation treatment. Coagulation is ineffective; however, there are indications that granular media filtration may be capable of substantial removal

on its own. Chlorination may lead to formation of aromatic imines and possibly long-lived N-chloroimines, but their concentrations may be too low to be of importance. Recommendations Most of the PPCPs tested are readily removed by oxidants, chlorine and ozone. Most compounds are not well removed by conventional coagulation and gravity settling. Filtration with aged filter media (collected from the plants) is more effective in almost every case than filtration with media that has not been allowed to develop biological activity. Some pharmaceuticals and personal care products, such as DEET and TCEP, are poorly removed by commonly used processes. If a utility needs to remove these compounds, it is recommended that advanced oxidation processes or other processes, such as alternative oxidants or adsorbents be explored. For more information, visit www.waterrf.org

November/December 2015 | 27

The new gamma/ X is extremely well built. And intelligent right down to the last detail. Controlled solenoid drive for extremely high precision and reliability The new gamma/ X employs a high-precision controlled solenoid drive for metering liquid media at a rate of between 1 ml/h and 45 l/h and back-pressure of 363 to 29 psi. The solenoid drive allows a slow discharge stroke, which in turn facilitates virtually continuous metering of even the smallest flow volume.

Easy-to-use click wheel Makes operating manuals and sub-menus a thing of the past. In combination with the LCD and four buttons, the newly developed click wheel provides for intuitive operation and programming of the new gamma/ X.

Quick Click Mounting Easy to remove and install base, simply push tab and slide pump. Narrow footprint for minimal use of space.


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Easy-to-see status LEDs The new gamma/ X has a three-stage LED status display on the curved upper section of its front panel that allows operators to see the current operating status from all sides and at a distance.

Flexible capacity control Turndown is up to 36,000 : 1

High-resolution LCD display with back-pressure display The large, high-resolution LCD display on the gamma/ X provides a clear overview of important parameters such as flow rate. Display can be in gallons or litres. The backpressure is measured without the use of a sensor and is also shown on the display in increments of 0.5 bar or 7 psi.

Predictive intelligence for maximum efficiency The clever electronics in the new gamma/ X guarantee more precise control – without additional failure-prone components such as pressure sensors. Airlocks, overpressure and negative pressure are all automatically detected and immediately corrected.

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Easily accessible front connections With its unusually slimline design and the fact that all of its connections are on the front panel, the new gamma/ X is virtually predestined for use in series and all applications where space is a premium.



Water Distribution

Automatic water main flushing reduces costs and improves water quality By Deron N. Austin


ost water distribution systems have areas where there are pipelines that may not have sufficient demands to keep the detention time short enough to maintain minimum disinfectant residuals. Long-term low disinfectant residual conditions within a water pipeline not only encourage biofilm growth, they also increase demand for disinfectant. This makes it more difficult for operators to maintain desired minimum disinfectant residual levels in the distribution system. A recognized solution to this water quality problem within distribution systems is periodic flushing of the pipelines. This process allows for the turnover of water in the line, flushing the water that has a low disinfectant residual and the biofilm from the inside surface of the pipe.

After installing the Hydro-Guard units, water losses dropped from 30% to between 3% and 8%.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water Distribution In an effort to spend less time manually flushing hydrants and focus more time on repairing leaks to reduce non-revenue water loss, one small rural town started investigating automatic flushing systems. Its 150 km of un-looped distribution pipe had historical water losses of up to 30%. A small operations team was responsible for monitoring two water plants, reading 700 meters, repairing leaks and maintaining water quality. Automatic flushing systems Unidirectional flushing is a traditional method used to manually flush water lines for biofilm removal and water quality maintenance. Since its introduction almost 20 years ago, automatic flushing has developed into a widely accepted and preferred alternative. Automatic flushing minimizes disinfectant residuals in water distribution systems by flushing at predetermined and programmed events. With this approach, smaller volumes of water can be used on a more frequent basis to maintain minimum disinfectant residual levels and reduce biofilm


growth. This, in turn, results in a reduced disinfectant demand within the pipeline which allows for extended detention times prior to the loss of disinfectant residual. Implementation of automatic flushing also results in lower water use per flush event. Therefore, water utilities use less resources, thus lowering operational costs associated with the maintenance of a flushing program. The solution After careful investigation and analysis, the town purchased and installed two Hydro-GuardÂŽ HG-1 Basic/S flushing systems from Mueller Company. This model provides economical, programmable and automatic flushing capabilities with either a 25 or 50 mm controlled flow diaphragm valve. It can be used for virtually any line size application in warm climates. A cold climate model is also available. The Hydro-Guard has a removable multi-event handheld programmer that can be programmed to flush a water line multiple times a day, up to seven days a week, with flush durations from one

minute to four hours. All key system management components are located above ground for ease of access. The HG-1 model also features oversized vents for energy dissipation, to minimize erosion during discharge. Rather than spending valuable manhours manually flushing the system during the day, operations staff has programmed the units to flush between 2:00 and 3:00 a.m. while residents are sleeping. After installing the Hydro-Guard units, water losses dropped from 30% to between 3% and 8%. Since the units allow precise control of the amount of flushed water, chlorine usage has dropped. Previously, three chlorine cylinders were used every month, at $400 per cylinder; now, three cylinders last seven to eight months. This is a $8,000 per year saving. Also, the town has seen a dramatic improvement in water quality, evidenced by fewer customer complaints. Deron N. Austin, PE is with Mueller Company. Email: daustin@muellercompany.com

November/December 2015 | 31


Polymer coatings can significantly improve water pump efficiency


luid handling equipment may suffer from multiple problems, including physical and mechanical damage, as well as general or localized erosion and corrosion. These problems are linked to decreased efficiency and poor performance, leading to increased operational costs. Minimizing performance deterioration is, therefore, an important factor for pump manufacturers and end users. Indeed, hydraulic losses account for most of the efficiency decrease (from 9% for a mixed flow pump to 20% for radial flow). Coating technology can help in decreasing these losses, increasing pump performance and reducing operational costs. In pumping equipment, it is possible to reduce power consumption and improve the hydraulic properties by changing the pump surface finish. In fact, the loss of efficiency is caused by frictional forces created between the fluid and the walls, acceleration and slowing down of the fluid, and change in fluid flow direction. In order to get the best performance, pump manufacturers seek to create the smoothest possible surface. This can be achieved by polishing the selected metal. However, this method is time-consuming and expensive. A smooth surface finish can also be obtained by applying an erosion and corrosion resistant efficiency coating on the pump’s volute and impeller. These polymeric coatings are specifically designed to improve efficiency on fluid handling systems and protect metals against erosion and corrosion. Properties, such as self-leveling application, hydrophobicity and hydraulic smoothness, make these coatings candidates for lining pumps. These coatings possess a low electronic affinity towards water molecules and result in a smooth glossy finish once applied onto a metallic surface. This allows water, or other aqueous solutions, to easily slide on the surface of the coating. The smoothness of these hydropho-

32 | November/December 2015

Pump impeller before application.

Pump impeller repaired and coated.

bic epoxy coatings has been measured as fifteen times smoother than polished stainless steel. As a result of the smoother surface and reduction in flow resistance and friction, the hydraulic performance of the pump can be increased. Testing of a Belzona 1341 coated pump gave a maximum of 6% increase

in peak efficiency and a reduction in power consumption of 5.1 kWh at duty point. Assuming a 5,000 hours operating cycle/year, the power savings over this period would amount to 25,500 kWh. In 2013, a water elevation plant was looking for a solution to improve its hy-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Performance curve of a new pump before and after coating with Belzona 1341.

draulic efficiency. This plant had high energy consumption and costs, with an annual consumption of 1.7 GWh/year and a volume of water propelled of 1.2 Mm3/year recorded in 2012. The client was looking for a reliable and long-term solution

to restore a damaged pump, while reducing internal friction in the impeller and volute to enhance hydraulic efficiency. An internal pump coating was chosen to maximize water flow and reduce energy consumption. The pump was disassembled and all internal surfaces were grit blasted to remove the previous coating, creating a substrate cleanliness of at least SA2,5 and a surface profile of at least 75μ. The surface was then cleaned and examined to ensure that it was free of dust and other particles. After grit blasting, areas were masked for the application of Belzona 1111 (Super Metal), an epoxy paste grade composite for metal repair. Simply applied using an applicator provided with the product, this material was used to reconstruct areas damaged by corrosion, rebuilding the original surface profile. Within the two-hour over-coating window, the first coat of Belzona 1341 (Supermetalglide) was applied by brush, followed by a second coat to obtain a total dry film thickness of 500μ. This coating was specified because it provides protection against erosion and long-term corrosion. After coating the pump and making changes to the programming of the water elevation plan, energy consumption was reduced during non-peak hours from 44.9% to 39.3%, a savings of 12.5%. Four months of savings covered the pump refurbishment cost. For more information, visit www.belzonagreatlakes.com

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20 Years! Since 1995, ES&E has invited experts and leaders in environmental consulting to weigh in on the state of the industry and share their opinions and predictions. While the authors and companies featured in this section have changed in the last 20 years, the issues discussed in the following articles continue to impact how environmental infrastructure is tendered, designed and built; how relationships between clients and consultants form and flourish; and how consulting companies can overcome challenges to their business.

The view from the other side

By Bill De Angelis, City of Toronto


public disruption. We also meet the owner’s strategic objectives of timely delivery of state-of-good-repair and growth-related infrastructure programs within available funding envelopes.

Use of consultants Public sector clients hire consulting engineers to deliver projects because they lack the specialized expertise and/or staff resources to effectively deliver them internally. This wasn’t always the case, and even now some municipal design, survey and inspection work is conducted using professional engineers and technicians in the owner’s employ. For the most part, however, the level of complexity of large projects has required the retention of specialist firms, working in concert with municipal staff. Internal staff acts mainly in project management capacities, ensuring that those firms retained to conduct analysis, design and delivery assignments do so according to owner-dictated specifications, regulations and timelines. We coordinate the efforts of numerous consultants delivering multiple projects at various locations, in order to minimize overlap and

Consultant selection We have seen an evolution in the procurement of consultant services over the years. Some time ago, the City of Toronto employed firms as consultants of record, retained to carry out all works at particular locations in the City. Around 1992, this practice was discontinued, and in the intervening years the selection process evolved into one of intense competition for work, coupled with low bid selection. This resulted in a steady decrease in fees as a percentage of project capital cost, a reduction in product quality, budget and cost overruns, and scheduling problems that delayed project completion. The current approach to consultant selection is seeing the City placing a greater emphasis on technical detail and project team selection, and on the allocation of staff resources, commensurate with project/task needs. The goal is to ensure we receive the appropriate level of expertise and experience for each project. While there is a greater emphasis on technical merit, cost is considered in proposal reviews. As guardians of the

s a consultant, I sometimes wondered what owners thought of the performance of their engineering consultants in the delivery of capital works projects. After a year in public service, following nearly two decades in the consulting sector, I am now able to observe the various elements of project delivery from the viewpoint of an owner.

34 | November/December 2015

public purse, there is an obligation upon staff to ensure the City receives value for money on each project. A variety of instruments are employed to secure consultants for assignments, including sole source, roster, expression of interest (EOI) and requests for proposal (RFP). The procurement method selected is dependent on a number of factors that can include complexity, urgency, time constraints and consultant availability. The City employs alternative approaches to deliver consulting assignments today, including design bid build, design build and in some cases a program management model. Many municipalities are facing financial pressures now and will in the future. So, one can expect to see more public sector clients investigating alternative financing and procurement (AFP) models, including design-build-operate (DBO) and design-build-finance-operate-maintain (DBOFM). Consultant expertise in the delivery of AFP models will become a necessity in future as these approaches begin to be applied. Expectations We expect quality service and products from our consultants, guaranteed assignment of key individuals per timetask breakdowns on proposals, and proj-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ect delivery to meet committed timelines. In the linear world within which some of our projects are completed, the consultant is often the interface with the public. This means they need to be able to communicate and respond promptly to issues that may arise with the variety of stakeholders in the public realm. Our expectations are high; we select consultants through a rigorous evaluation process. As stated earlier, in the RFP process, selection is based on the evaluation of a combination of mandatory criteria, experience, technical team competence, technical submissions and cost. While cost is important, heavy weighting is given to technical solutions and proposed methodology for project delivery, backed up by satisfactory evidence of successfully delivered previous projects. Specifically, we look for: • A clear understanding of scope, scale and timelines. • Appropriate and realistic allocation of necessary staff resources by task, with

specific experience and expertise. • Assurances that designated staff are and will be assigned as stated and not overcommitted to other projects. • Assurances that the work can be completed at a high level and delivered on budget and time. • Confirmation that consultants delivering both linear and vertical works projects understand they are an extension of City staff, and that there may be direct interaction with the public. For large complex projects related to major infrastructure, proposal evaluation teams are generally comprised of up to six staff from the operating division and the engineering group. A member of the purchasing department is present, and we are now incorporating the use of fairness monitors during the preparation of documentation and to attend during proposal reviews. Fairness monitors are not City employees, and as such are contracted separately. Fairness and integrity are built into

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the evaluation process, and the process itself is continuously reviewed and updated. Each person on an evaluation team contributes to the overall scoring and to the ultimate selection of a preferred firm. The goal of the process is to ensure that the best proposal wins. Feedback received during post-award debriefings is used to adjust the process for future proposals. Consultant evaluation Consultant evaluations are conducted to help ensure they adhere to commitments made in their proposals. This ensures the City receives the expected high quality of services contracted. There are varying degrees of satisfaction with consultant performance in the public sector today. So, a consultant evaluation process should be implemented that could lead to or justify procontinued overleaf...


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November/December 2015 | 35

hibitions from submitting on future RFP calls. Some owners conduct evaluations of consultant performance following project completion. This process has been used sporadically to date. However, all major clients in the Greater Toronto Area have either implemented such a process or would like to, in response to both good and bad experiences. A price-based selection process has resulted in consulting firm submissions that are sometimes skewed towards less experienced staff in order to be “competitively priced”. This has impacted the quality of deliverables and contributed to client angst. As with contractors, consultant evaluations will become more important in the prequalification process for future projects. More activity will be seen in this area in coming years, as consultants continue to come under scrutiny during project execution. Owner performance and obligations In my experience, the most successful projects have been those in which a partnership developed between the owner, engineer and contractor. All shared the common goal of completing the project on time and on budget. The key was for each party to bring to the table competent, communicative members, sharing that common goal and working in an atmosphere of trust. As we expect our consultants to de-

36 | November/December 2015

liver projects on time and on budget, so do we have an obligation to them to assist in project initiation and delivery. Establishing clear project timelines, scope and budgets are critical requirements to ensuring project success. Problems can arise during preparation of project scoping documents for large complex projects due to a lack of clarity. That uncertainty results in proposal submissions that can vary widely in understanding, hours proposed and fees. This phenomenon should be a signal to owners that we are not sending a clear message to our consultants of what we want to accomplish with a particular project. Greater rigour must be applied to scoping at project inception, in consultation with operating groups, in order to capture all project elements and requirements prior to posting each assignment. Owners must work in sync with consultants to meet project objectives by: providing clear direction in a timely fashion; processing invoices and change orders in an expeditious manner; and by taking decisions around disputes quickly. When we don’t, we are complicit in the introduction of project delays and slippage. Looking ahead The keys to securing work with the City of Toronto (or any other public sector entity) are: submission of high quality proposals that accurately capture the

scope and level of effort required; provision of seasoned key staff with guaranteed availability; project references that meet required criteria in terms of size and complexity; and relevant staff references. Consortia, partnerships and other teaming arrangements for proposals may be employed. As with a single entity submission, owners will look for a clear chain of command in the team and a reporting structure that clearly reflects the relationships between companies, team members and the owner. We encourage consultants to seek debriefings following unsuccessful selection. They can help identify areas where improvement might make a difference in future submissions. Cities, towns and regions need consultants, and consultants need the public sector. We have a great opportunity before us to forge new alliances. As we move forward, it’s my expectation that owners can, and will, work more closely with their consulting industry counterparts to collectively enhance capital project and program execution. Bill De Angelis, P.Eng., is Director of Engineering & Construction Services Design & Construction, Major Infrastructure, City of Toronto. He worked as a consulting engineer for nearly two decades. Email: bdeange@toronto.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Developing the next-generation workforce of the water industry By Archis Ambulkar, Jones and Henry Engineers


afe drinking water and effective sewage treatment systems are becoming priorities in many parts of the world. To achieve this, governments, private entities and international organizations are undertaking various water and wastewater related infrastructure projects. The need is growing steadily for specialized researchers, engineers and consultants to implement these ventures. Our industry is going through a crucial phase. We are experiencing the need for skilled water professionals to handle the growing number of projects. We also need to prepare for future water industry challenges such as rising populations, water scarcity, impacts of climate change, varying global precipitation patterns, deforestation and desertification. To handle such complex issues, future water leaders and experts must be nurtured, groomed and developed within communities. Academic institutions across the globe are doing a great job of educating students. Also, many water-related organizations and federations have estab-


lished programs that specifically focus on students and young professionals. Such platforms engage and encourage newcomers to get involved. However, considering future demands and water-related problems, more attention is needed towards developing a stronger workforce of smart water professionals. Historically, governments and private institutes have invested significant amounts of money, effort and expertise towards research and development, innovation, newer technologies and infrastructure. This has resulted in successful implementation of complex water and wastewater projects. However, significant efforts are required to attract younger talent, so that our field will be ready for upcoming challenges. For this to happen, schools, colleges, universities, governments and private institutions also need to be involved. Rather than waiting for students and young professionals to approach us, we should reach out to them to teach them the importance of the water sector, provide an overview of the field and discuss what the industry will offer them. Be-

ing water community members, it is our responsibility to inspire the next generation and help to attract the brightest minds into our field. The water and wastewater sector should not experience “brain-drain� due to a lack of knowledge about it when students are making important career decisions in their lives. Obviously, not everyone will end up in this profession, but basic water education can also be helpful in generating respect and awareness. The first step is increasing interest amongst students of school age. This can be done by engaging them in various activities such as science fairs, community events, workshops, field visits, student competitions, expert lectures and so on. With proper knowledge, interested candidates will surely give serious thought to higher education in the water field, while they are still attending their schools. Scholarships and awards will further encourage candidates to get actively involved in the water community. The next step is increasing awareness of the profession at the college and university level. Although higher education develops technically strong graduates, knowledge gaps exist between academic education and actual professional life. Students are not always aware of the different job avenues or profiles available to them after graduating. Also, they do not have a proper understanding of exact roles and responsibilities involved with these positions. Providing more clarity will help them select appropriate job profiles and career avenues. Getting this knowledge beforecontinued overleaf... November/December 2015 | 37

hand will not only help candidates adjust to the profession, but will also help them minimize career-path mistakes. Companies should encourage internships as they provide a great opportunity for soon-to-be-graduates to learn the work environment while still pursuing their education. Internships or entry-level jobs can be full of surprises. Getting adjusted to a professional atmosphere, different types of interactions with seniors, vendors and clients, can sometimes be difficult for candidates. Proper training and guidance programs should be developed.

Additionally, young professionals should be introduced to important terminologies, tools, equipment, techniques, and other aspects of the job profile. Training in industry standards, procedures, manuals, operations and management systems will add to their knowledge and understanding of the field. Encouraging them to get involved with technical committees, conferences and seminars will expand their horizons and provide an opportunity to interact with, and learn from, peers and professionals in the field. Mid-level professionals should get a clear idea about leadership roles, financial aspects, legal requirements, and so

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on, that govern the industry and an organization’s economics. And, finally, as established practitioners, experts should give back to the industry through technical publications, textbooks, lectures, etc. Overall, as a professional community, our aim should be to strive for the betterment of society. Although there are many other professional streams that are engaged in developing newer equipment and ideas for improving the quality of life, such comforts require consumption of natural resources and to some extent exploitation of the environment. Sectors like ours are responsible for the conservation and preservation of natural resources and for ensuring that society’s basic water and sanitation needs are met. The water industry is already making the efforts necessary to move forward. However, the forthcoming water challenges are wider, global and more complicated. Well-defined professional development programs and frameworks for young water professionals can catalyze the growth of leaders and experts in this esteemed sector. On the other hand, any negligence can create a scarcity of high quality staff to achieve technological advancements and effectively execute the water and wastewater infrastructure projects. An intelligent, smart and visionary workforce is required to successfully handle water problems and make correct choices. We should sow the seeds of values, ethics and principles amongst the next generation to create a capable 10:29 AM water professional community. North America has a great potential to implement such programs and to develop world leaders and laureates who can steer the water and wastewater industry in the right direction. Archis Ambulkar is a Project Engineer with Jones and Henry Engineers, Ltd. Email: aambulkar@jheng.com -----He is also the author of “Guidance for Professional Development in Drinking Water and Wastewater Industry” This 173 page book was published by International Water Association Publishing, UK

38 | November/December 2015

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Canadian manufacturers get the support they need from the environmental consulting industry By Linda Drisdelle, Pinchin


anufacturing is a $620 billion industry in Canada and represents at least 12% of GDP, according to the trade association Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters. This sector is faced with a number of economic challenges, all of which impose risk and uncertainty. The United States economy is quickly recovering; however, some Canadian manufacturers are not only finding it difficult to maintain export volume, but face the problem of competing against U.S. imports on their home turf. The price of oil is less than $60 per barrel and, although this provides relief for Canadian manufacturers looking to be competitive in foreign markets, the same is true for U.S. companies exporting to Canada. Electricity rates in Ontario are nearly double those facing manufacturers in Ohio or Michigan. The ripple effect of the lower Canadian dollar has not yet offset these higher operating costs, making Ontario fair game for U.S. exports. www.esemag.com

To remain competitive in many markets, Canadian manufacturers are looking to cut costs and streamline their operations. Environment Canada and the provincial Ministries of the Environment take care of the environment through regulations and guidelines, all of which require compliance by Canadian manufacturing. The requirements to balance the needs of the environment against the need for a healthy manufacturing industry demand a delicate dance by government. The result is generally a myriad of exceptions and updates to various regulations, all requiring expertise and navigation in order to discern whether any one plant is compliant. For instance, in Ontario, there are many approval pathways, but because the approval process can take months to years, it is in the best interest of all parties to make the best compliance decisions at the start of a project. Making the wrong choice can have considerable cost implications,

particularly if abatement projects such as noise control are triggered. The rate at which regulations change makes it difficult and expensive for industry to maintain sufficient expertise to cover all requirements in-house. This is where Canada’s consulting industry can help. A good environmental consultant can offer relief to Canada’s manufacturing sector and provide guidance and solutions to permitting, reporting and abatement problems on multiple issues. Engineers, technologists and scientists working in the consulting industry spend considerable time and expense to remain current, both in their fields of expertise and in the regulations that apply. Using an environmental consultant offers manufacturers the ability to focus on running their business while their consultant helps them with the best recommendations to remain compliant. In order to provide effective service to manufacturing clients, a consultant needs to offer guidance in many more fields of environmental concern than in the past. For instance, a client could approach a consultant because they want advice on how the addition of a new machine would affect their operating permit. On inspection of the site, the consultant could provide guidance on the types of machine the client should purchase, in order to avoid future permitting problems relating to noise. Excellent value could then be provided by the consultant if, while at site, they notice a land development sign being posted in the lot next door, a grinding operation nearby causing a potentially hazardous environment, or a sheen on a water body. All these warning signs continued overleaf... November/December 2015 | 39

These employees provide the technical horsepower to consulting organizations. Over time, their technically sound solutions and advice provide credibility to the organization. The end result is a reputation in the industry as being a great consultant. However, the modern consulting firm looking to service the needs of today’s manufacturing industry, needs even more from their staff. It needs staff interested and capable of looking beyond their fields of expertise to gain awareness of many more environmental issues that they may encounter while

dealing with their clients. It needs staff who can communicate complex technicould trigger discussions with the client cal information and other facts required about the land-use planning strategy, for clients to make informed and good the hazards of explosive dusts and the business decisions when encountering obligations around stormwater runoff. environmental or permitting difficulties. Although the consultant may not be an It needs staff who can form enduring reexpert in all these fields, being able to lationships with clients, built on mutual recognize them and then direct the clirespect and trust. ent to those that are, provides the value Young engineers, technologists and manufacturers need. scientists graduating from universities So what does this mean for Canadian and colleges today, are experts in social consultants? Highly technical and smart media and can connect quickly and effigraduates are generally drawn to conciently to a wide network of knowledgesulting as a means to hone their skills able colleagues. These young professionin various areas of technical expertise. als will excel in a consulting career if they apply the same procedures at their places of work. I encourage my young staff to connect and network with colleagues in all our varied departments every week. They are to both talk about what our department does, and learn what other departments have to offer. As a result, my young staff are becoming proficient service-oriented agents of our company. They are able to identify problems and ways to solve them for their clients, simply by recognizing an issue and knowing who can help them. My advice for young professionals becoming consultants would be for them to become ceaselessly empathetic to the Engineers and Environmental Consultants cost pressures and needs of their clients. Focus on learning as much about all the services within your consulting company 1-800-265-9662 www.rjburnside.com as possible. Develop alliances with colleagues you know you can count on to deliver excellent service to your clients when RJBurnside-JulyAug2014.indd 1 2014-06-20 12:10 PM they are needed. Remain current and dedicated to your chosen field of expertise and learn how to become an expert in all regulations associated with it. Consider your client’s business when making your technical recommendations to solve their problem. If your client needs to make a choice between one of your solutions, help them Environmental Science Engineering Ad - 2015 gain the knowledge they need to make RV ANDERSON-ProCard_MJ.15_TP.indd 1 5/7/15 8:14 4.75” x 1.5” theAMright decision. Bring your manager if they need to hear the information from a slightly different perspective. Linda Drisdelle, P.Eng., M.Eng., MBA, FEC, is General Manager Emissions Reduction and Compliance, Pinchin LTD. Email: ldrisdelle@pinchin.com

40 | November/December 2015

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Alternative project delivery will offer significant opportunities in 2016


s we look to 2016, Canadian consultants can expect to see increased funding available for the delivery of key infrastructure projects. There are several key reasons for this: • A significant backlog of deferred maintenance. • The need to build capacity for future generations. • A new federal government that has committed to significantly increasing infrastructure spending. Therefore, the consulting community and their clients should anticipate the announcement of numerous new infrastructure projects. Provinces like Alberta have also experienced a shift in the political land-


scape that has reinforced the prioritization of infrastructure investment. Increasingly, we are seeing alternative project delivery (APD) models such as design-build or public-private-partnerships (P3) selected by the client and funding agencies as the preferred option to procure these large infrastructure projects. Our clients, specifically municipalities, should be ready to move forward with infrastructure projects based on the newly announced funding sources. Projects that have never made it to the planning stage or have been postponed due to budget constraints will begin to resurface. We will be asked to help get these off the ground. As consultants, we will have the op-

By Gord Johnston, Stantec portunity to leverage our expertise and collaborate with our APD partners to produce cost-effective solutions to complex infrastructure issues. From initial planning to design, the consulting industry and our clients will benefit from these innovative approaches to project delivery. Examples of recent APD projects that Stantec is involved with include the Regina Wastewater Treatment Plant continued overleaf...

November/December 2015 | 41

where Stantec is the lead designer of the EPCOR Saskatchewan Water Partners team to provide enhanced capacity and treatment for the community. Another recently announced project is the Saint John Safe Clean Drinking Water Project in New Brunswick. It is a P3 project for the Port City Water Partners Consortium to design, build, finance, operate, and maintain a new water treatment plant on the City’s east side under a 33-year agreement. It also involves the design, build and finance of 26 km of pipeline to renew the City’s water transmission and distribution system.


As consultants, we will have the opportunity to leverage our expertise and collaborate with our APD partners to produce cost-effective solutions to complex infrastructure issues.

Another project is the Surrey Organics Biofuel Processing Facility, which is the first solid waste management P3 in North America and the first facility of its kind in Western Canada. Located in Surrey’s Port Kells industrial area, this facility will receive 115,000 tonnes of U.S.F. S.F Fabrication’s Hatch Safety Grate System is available in a variety S.F. ariety of configurations organic waste from across the region evto meet virtually ually anySafety uall application. The System system allows for routine maintenance of pumps S.F Fabrication’s S.F. Hatch Grate is available in a variety ariety of configurations ery year and will turn it into renewable and equipment when closed and may act as an additional barrier er when open. It allows natural gas. The fuel produced will be meet virtually ually uall any a pplication. The system allows for routine maintenance of pumps ngs without exposing themselves to people to move freely lly around the hatch opening used to power Surrey’s natural gas waste d equipment whenfall-through. closed and may act as an additional barrier er when open. It allows dangerous collection trucks, natural gas service without exposing ople to move freely lly around the hatch opening Allngs Hatch Safety ety Grates feature: themselves to fleet and new district energy system. It • Tamp Tamper-res r istant 316 SS hinges res ngerous fall-through. would have been a challenge to get this and nd hardw har are significant infrastructure project off the • Po Powder-coated aluminum grates to All Hatch Safety ety Grates feature: resist corrosion res ground without the P3 model. •• Hold Tamper-res Tamp r istant res 316 SS hinges old open devices to lock the grates With the combination of increased in theirhardw full upright and nd har areand open position infrastructure funding and a backlog of Can be ret r rofitted into existing •• Ca Powder-coated Po aluminum grates to required projects waiting to move foraccess openings ward, the next several years look very resist corrosion res • Hold old open devices to lock the gratespositive. The increased interest in alternative project delivery models will Our experienced team provides a quick turnaround on quotes, in their full upright and open position drawings and deliveries. Call us today 1.800.668.4533 continue to promote innovation and • Ca Can be ret r rofitted into existing or email us at sales@engineeredpump.com collaboration within the consulting enaccess openings gineering industry.

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r experienced team provides a quick turnaround on quotes, awings and deliveries. Call us today 1.800.668.4533 42 at | November/December 2015 email us sales@engineeredpump.com

Gord Johnston is Executive Vice President, Infrastructure, Stantec www.stantec.com Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

The importance of time management in the age of distraction By Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch


hen I started using the Harvard® Planner in the early 1990s, I bought A. P. Martin’s book on time management (Martin, 1993). Recently, I purchased his updated edition (Martin, 2012) and noticed that not only had the subtitle changed but also new chapters had been added. Flawless Time Management changed from Practical Timesaving Tools & Techniques in 1993 to Managing Priorities, Deadlines, Meetings, Interruptions and Saying No in 2012. The new chapters discuss time bandits, such as meetings, email, interruptions and drop-in visitors. It also expands on key skills such as learning to say “no,” working with and delegating to colleagues, and using the Internet effectively. These revisions are in response to four changes in the workplace that have made managing time much more difficult: • Distractions – There are more of them. • Inboxes – They will propagate if not curtailed. • Task breakdown – Frequently we are asked to produce a product rather than to complete a task. • Etiquette – We need to be politely proactive when managing time.


How then can we respond to these changes? How do we retain our humanity and invest our time wisely in this “Age of Distraction”? Managing distractions We need time to think, or we cannot do our job, let alone live our lives. If we are rested and energized and we focus our minds on one thing, we produce our best work. We can do more than one thing concurrently. However, it is a myth that when we “multitask,” we are as productive as if we did one task at a time. We would be more efficient if we worked in focused bursts (e.g., 25 minutes) with a short break in between (the Pomodoro Technique). When we know that a text message may come in or we are listening to a conference call while working on a report, pieces of our mind are allocated away from our main task. We work slower and less efficiently. We become like a computer with too many windows open that slowly grinds to a standstill. A distraction is a thing that prevents us from giving full attention to something else. It may be something external like a noise, or internal like a memory or feeling. As more offices become open plan

and space per employee reduces, we need to respect each other’s space even more because the buffer between us has shrunk. We need to be aware that our actions can sabotage our colleagues’ efforts to focus. We need to spend our colleagues’ time as wisely as we spend our own. For this reason, we need to minimize hallway conversations, avoid eavesdropping, reduce unplanned visits, keep quiet, do not use a speakerphone, do not have fragrances or spicy food in the cubicle, and use our inside voice. Distractions also come from within us, such as self-doubt, negative feelings, etc. We need to be able to calm or at least compartmentalize these thoughts that can eat away at our ability to focus. Otherwise, we may find ourselves physically in the office but mentally somewhere else. Conserving capacity to think There is a limit to how long we can concentrate. We have two “brains” – one is linear and logical and the other is nonlinear and pattern-oriented. If we only used the linear one, we would either have been eaten or died of exhaustion. Most of the time, we rely on our quick nonlinear, pattern-oriented brain. It is fast and requires less energy. It is correct enough times so that we stay alive, but it is not the brain we use for serious thinking. If we are distracted or tired when working, the nonlinear brain kicks in and we start to make mistakes. We need to give our linear brain a rest. In this age it means we need to “disconnect”, whether for a minute or a few weeks. We need to stop and breathe/ stretch, take a walk, take a power nap, take an evening off, or take a vacation without our phones. continued overleaf...

November/December 2015 | 43

There are four actions we can take that will make our quest to conserve our energy and manage our time easier: 1. Reduce the number of inboxes Time management specialists advise us to reduce our inboxes to less than six (Allen, 2015). Each day we need to act on input from various sources. This has not changed. What has changed is the nature of this input and the number of input sources. Thirty years ago, it was two sources: our boss and our family. Now, most people have more than one email address, a smartphone and instant messaging. We need to corral this input into less than six inboxes. We do not have the organic bandwidth to handle more than this effectively. 2. Learn to manage inputs - In the transition from an industrial to a knowledge-based economy, more of the inputs changed from a request to do a specific task, to a request to provide a solution or create a product. This means we need to teach individuals how to break the request down into manageable steps, with an eye on what resources are required and which team members to engage. Laura Stack (Stack, 2012) teaches a system based on six decisions: Discard, Delegate, Do, Date (Defer Until), Drawer (File because you need it later) and Deter (Stop a source from sending you junk). 3. Master the art of saying “no” We need to master how to manage time without damaging relationships with colleagues. As always, we need to avoid the tyranny of the immediate and recognize that not all tasks have the same urgency or deliver the same value. Learning to say “no” with empathy, learning to delegate and learning to ask for help are key skills we all must hone, if we are to survive in the workplace. One challenge for young engineers is how to manage their managers. The first step is to build a relationship that allows you to make a deposit in their “emotional bank account.” When we have to make a “withdrawal,” that is, to disappoint our manager because we are too busy to do what they ask of us, there will be good will from which to draw. We need to learn to say “no” pos-

44 | November/December 2015

itively – “I would love to but…”. We should not make empty promises because not delivering on a promise is worse than saying no in the first place (Stack, 2012). Also, we should not let fear of disappointing someone overwhelm common sense. Stephen Covey (Covey, 2004) states correctly that “you have to decide what your highest priorities are and have the courage – pleasantly, smilingly, non apologetically – to say ‘no’ to other things. And the way to do this is to have a bigger ‘yes’ burning inside of you.” That “yes” is a clear vision as to what you want to invest your time in.

• 4. Neutralize time bandits - We need to be polite but honest when dealing with time bandits. Time bandits include poorly run meetings, unnecessary email, inappropriate Internet surfing and streaming, updating social media, socializing, negativity, handling personal issues on company time, smoking, arriving late/leaving early, and grinding out boring/unnecessary tasks (Stack, 2012). If asked, most people agree that unnecessary and poorly run meetings are outright time pirates. All meetings should have an agenda, a time limit, a timekeeper and a chairman. When in a meeting, that is the only place you should be – phones off, laptops closed, etc. The same rules apply to conference calls and video conferences. Time management in the age of distraction The six key elements of any time management cycle are capture, process, populate, schedule, execute and review: • Capture - The first step in time management is to capture requests. These

• •

may be captured in a notebook or an email inbox. We need to be aware that just because we can talk or write, does not mean we can communicate. Effective communication is a skill we need to work on daily. Once a request is captured, write your understanding down somewhere. Capture tasks in no more than six places (inboxes). This may be in a notebook, an email or an app (e.g., TeuxDeux, EverNote). Then seek confirmation that you understood what was asked of you. Process - Once captured, the requests need to be broken down into tasks. In other words, a project execution plan should be created to deliver a requested solution or product. David Allen calls this collection of tasks “projects” (Allen, 2015). When breaking down a request, ask: “What do I know, who can help me, where can I find an example and what resources do I need?” Once broken down and assessed, ask: “Can I complete this task on time? If not, can I modify my approach, or do I have to ask for an extension?” Populate - At the core of any time management system are a to-do list and a calendar. The next steps are to populate these, execute the work and then reflect back on how things worked out. The to-do list is populated with tasks that you need to do over the next four weeks. Longer term tasks remain parked in your “project” files. Once the list is created, a priority needs to be assigned to each task. Then tasks that can be delegated to others are also identified. Schedule - The next step is to block out meetings and appointments in your schedule. For important tasks only, plan what day you will do what task. Execute - Use your to-do list and schedule to remain focused. Review - At the end of each day, week, month and year, review what happened, extract any lessons learned and then modify priorities and your schedule to suit.

Patrick Coleman is a Principal Process Engineer with Black & Veatch. Email: colemanpf@bv.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

The continuing evolution of consultant/client relationships


hose of us employed in consulting that recall the use of the slide ruler and have seen the transition to the age of social media cannot but reflect on the transformation that has also taken place in the consulting environment. Over the years, the supply side of consulting services has been transformed dramatically. Those small single owner shops first evolved into mid-size employee owned firms and, more recently, into units of very large international, multi-discipline firms with thousands of employees worldwide. This consolidation is driven by the need to directly access and control the essential technical resources needed to position, secure and successfully carry out larger and more complex projects in the competitive environment that comes with globalization.

On the client side, especially in the public sector, the manner in which professional services are retained has changed. The long-standing “relationship and trust model” has now given way to formal arms-length procurement processes. Perhaps this is not a direct consequence and response to the new reality on the supply side, but it is, none the less, a much more compatible process with the more impersonal nature of consulting. If we consider some of the prominent and negative goings-on that are reported to have occurred in some regions of the country, we may well conclude that these procurement processes are more than appropriate. In fact, they may need to become even more at arms-length. The contract language now becomes the default framework for the relationship and, should it deteriorate and become adversarial, dispute resolution mecha-

By Rui DeCarvalho, R.J. Burnside nisms become the default. Clearly, the pure and informal relationship model that appeared to work well in the past can now seem almost as appropriate as the slide ruler. The interests of stakeholders on the client side are, to a large extent, more vocal and appropriately founded on the premise of value for money, transparency and accountability. These interests dictate the trend to an ever-increasing purely transactional environment. On the consultant side, stock market prices, trends and street values have now replaced the patience, flexibility continued overleaf...

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46 | November/December 2015

and relationships that were the prerogative of the principal engineer and of the small group of partners. From the client’s perspective, political positions and commitments in diverse amalgamated jurisdictions dictate the agenda and objectives of the public works director and project managers. These are now processed through the filters of procurement by-laws and legal-driven-mandates. It is unfortunate that the resulting overall environment now promotes divergent goals for the client and for the consultant. Transparency, competition, cost-effectiveness, value for money, accountability are all very noble objectives. However, they come at the expense of the value derived from shared goals, collaborative problem solving, innovation, and long-term vision. This is in contrast to the quick and short term that is symptomatic of political immediacy. The challenge is to adopt an improved mechanism that promotes the return to some of the elements of collaborative problem-solving between the consultant and the client, amidst the complexities of today’s business environment. The challenge is to establish a cooperative procurement process that will ensure transparency, accountability, integrity and the value objectives for all stakeholders. Procurement of professional engineering services through an appropriately designed and executed quality based selection (QBS - Quality Based Consultant Selection Guide, Sep. 2011, FIDIC) process is internationally recognized as the basis for establishing the positive and synergetic relationship between the client and the consultant. An appropriately implemented QBS procurement process would ensure that there is the opportunity for both parties to appraise and assess potential incompatibilities. An appropriately designed and executed QBS process provides the platform and the opportunity for both the client and the consultant to work together to investigate, define and address the complexities of the project. They can then define the services that are necessary and the information that both parties will require in order to equitably negotiate costs, and risks. Many current procurement processes advertise that QBS is being followed. But, in reality, elements of QBS are being applied only as a mechanism for

the prequalification to respond to often poorly developed and ambiguous terms of reference. This is followed by a skewed evaluation points system which, when applied, results in a selection that is really only based on price. Selection based on price may follow with an opportunity for “negotiation”, which does little more than reinforce and initiate the start of an adversarial relationship. Unfortunately, the wide misapplication of QBS in the procurement process does not rest only with the client. Consultants also feel the need to play the game according to the rules that are dictated. So, just as professional athletes continually attempt to maximize the rules to their advantage, consultants make similar attempts - to their disadvantage. Unfortunately, any advantage that is perceived is only in the short term and ultimately to both the consultant and the client’s detriment. In the more extreme cases, a poorly developed procurement document that is followed by an ill-advised consultant response are the first and second steps to what often becomes a failed project or a lawsuit. Enormous amounts of non-recoverable time are spent by engineers and consultants trying to resolve it; and there are financial losses for both parties. One would speculate and hope that with experience and lessons learned, this dynamic would be improving. More clients appear to be adopting procurement processes that are in keeping with the true spirit of QBS as the mechanism for the selection of the consultant. This should result in a collaborative relationship on their projects. Also, more consultants are making informed and sound “no go decisions” on “opportunities” and intentionally passing up on prospective clients and assignments that it is best to avoid. Discussion could extend in future to a more thorough review of successful and other innovative procurement methodologies beyond QBS. For now, however, I remain optimistic that in time, and with the active collaboration of client and consulting industry associations, the dynamic will continue to improve. But, we do indeed still have a long way to go! Rui DeCarvalho, M. Eng., P. Eng., BCEE is Senior Vice President of R.J. Burnside & Associates Limited. Email: rui.decarvalho@rjburnside.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Odour Control

Vortex Flow Insert reduces odours and increases dissolved oxygen By David Hynes


n 2010, the Town of Newburgh, Indiana began an investigation to study alternatives to their chemical injection system. They were continuing to get odour complaints about their new force main line, even while using the chemical injection system which was supposed to eliminate these. They retained a consultant that specialized in odour control to address the problems. After test trials using chemicals recommended by the consultant were completed, the conclusion was that the Town was using the best chemical treatment and delivery method available at the time. However, during extended periods of low-flows, levels of hydrogen sulphide gases emitted from the system were unacceptable, reaching lethal limits at times. The next study focused on eliminating water column separation occurring at the end of each pump cycle originating at the master lift station. At the startup of the pump cycle, air is expelled as the water columns rejoin. Water column separation occurs when the flow inside the pipe loses potential energy as it approaches equilibrium. This causes inefficiencies to occur at the pump station for each start-up cycle. Air release valves were installed along the route at high points in the system for the primary purpose of expelling large volumes of air at the beginning of each pump cycle. Air must be forced out as the wastewater is transported or an air lock will occur, severely reducing pumping capacity. Each time air is expelled during the start-up cycle, pungent odours are released. This is the result of the decaying waste creating hydrogen sulphide gases. Proposed ideas to correct this problem focused on the use of a pressurized force main system. In order to meet this objective, the idea of a standpipe static pressure system was investigated. This system would need to be located at or near the headworks of the treatment plant. The highest point in the force main system was located at an air release valve approximately 1.5 km away www.esemag.com

Cut-away view of the Vortex Flow Insert.

from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The area surrounding the air release valve received the greatest amount of logged complaints. Meters measuring the level of SO2 in the system showed spike concentrations in the neighbourhood of 1,000 parts per million. Concentrations this high are highly corrosive and potentially lethal in confined spaces. To maintain positive pressure in the force main, it was necessary that a tower for the standpipe be constructed higher than the highest point in the system. At the time these concepts were being developed, the WWTP was undergoing a $22-million expansion project. Commonwealth Engineers, Inc. (CEI) was retained to complete the studies, the design and construction engineering. Quick action was necessary to take full advantage of the mobilized construction operation. Due to the septic nature of the wastewater, the design needed to address odour at the WWTP. In addition, low dissolved oxygen levels in the raw wastewater entering the headworks of the plant needed to be addressed. After the study phase was completed, CEI designed the standpipe system at the WWTP headworks. It consisted of a 300 mm flanged ductile iron pipe,

vertically mounted on the inside of the tower, suitable for freeze protection during winter. At the top of the tower, a rectangular trough was cast in place to guide influent into a Vortex Flow Insert from IPEX. This technology eliminates odorous emissions and minimizes corrosion in vertical sewer drops. Its patented spiral flow design eliminates odourous and corrosive gases in a unique way. It uses the wastewater’s own flow energy to suppress the turbulence which releases noxious gases. The spiral flow creates a downdraft which traps airborne gases and forces air into the sewage flow to oxidize odourous gases. By installing a Vortex drop structure, municipalities can save chemical feed, air-phase treatment and maintenance costs. Also, developers can cut excavation costs in areas where conventional drop structures are not allowed. Reinforced fibreglass grating was installed over the top of the tower. Existing pumps at the lift station 11 km away did not need to be modified to deliver adequate flows to the standpipe tower containing the Vortex. Utilization of this design option solved the odour issue completely. Levels of hydrogen sulphide gases in the air release valve manhole soon went from several thousand parts per million to almost zero. With the use of an OdaLogger, levels of H2S measured at the inlet to the Vortex were an average of 138 ppm, and 4 ppm at the bottom. Dissolved oxygen levels went from 0.20 ppm at the entrance, to 4 ppm at the bottom of the Vortex. These readings indicated a 20-fold increase in the dissolved oxygen level and were the real indicator that pre-treatment had taken place. In addition to the odours being completely eliminated, the Town is saving $250,000 annually in operation and maintenance costs. David Hynes is with Commonwealth Engineers. For more information, email: richard.st.aubin@ipexna.com November/December 2015 | 47

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48 | November/December 2015

environmental contamination. A dripping leak at a rate of one drop per second will add up to three drums of oil per year. The transformer servicing industry has developed efficient and effective methods to repair these leaks. However, they are frequently unnoticed or ignored and a considerable quantity of contamination can be released if a standard concrete type containment system overflows with an oil/rainwater mix Albarrie’s SorbWeb™Plus secondary

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Considerations for freeze protection in water tanks By Darrin Hopper


hen evaluating freeze protection in liquid storage tanks, there are basic considerations to factor in from a cost-effectiveness and operational perspective. With good turnover, and an outdoor temperature that is not too extreme, there is potentially little to no requirement for any freeze pro-

tection. Installation of an active mixing system will keep the heat energy in the tank distributed evenly, and the constant movement of the water will help to keep ice from forming. If there is minimal new heat energy entering the tank and external temperatures are extreme, then an outer layer of insulation and an active mixing sys-

tem are necessary. If there is little to no new heat energy entering the tank (extremely low turnover), then an immersion heater is required as well as an active mixing system and insulation blanket to minimize heat loss. Heat loss Heat loss in liquid storage tanks oc-

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Spills curs through contact of the liquid with the sidewalls of the tank. This type of heat loss is referred to as conduction. The air gap in the tank roof area provides balance and ventilation. Heat loss from a liquid to vapour phase is referred to as convection. It is generally assumed that 90% of the heat loss is via conduction through contact of the liquid with the tank wall. This means that insulating a tank’s roof is not a key consideration for freeze protection. Insulation A 50 mm thick mineral fibre insulation, which is the typical industry standard, provides 92.5% efficiency and after that, the gains are minimal. The cost increase for an additional 25 - 50 mm is very low, so that a 75 - 100 mm layer is often considered, but there is no real benefit. Case study Good turnover in a tank means there


is new heat energy coming in constantly, removing any need for insulation, or an immersion heater. There is, however, a potential requirement for an active mixing system in order to keep heat energy distributed throughout the tank. A good example of this occurred with the City of Winkler, Manitoba’s Permastore glass-fused-to-steel bolted tank and its PAX active mixing system mixer. “Our old elevated steel water tower was not insulated and history had proven there was no danger of freezing as long as water continued to move in and out of it,” said Travis Duff, who is with the City’s water department. “We were confident this would be the same with the new Permastore tank as well.” Calculations showed that no insulation was needed on the new tank. “The winter of 2011/2012 proved to be unseasonably warm and was not a true test for the tank and PAX mixer. Someone was sent up on top of the tank and they found no ice buildup on the sides or surface. The winter of 2012/2013 was

more typical, but there was only a slight buildup of ice (1-2 mm) on the walls,” Duff said. The winter of 2013/2014 was brutally cold at times, dropping below -30oC for weeks, with wind-chills reaching -50oC. Special precautions were taken and, again, someone climbed the tank when the temperature was -37oC. “We did expect to see ice and slush this time since it had been so bitterly cold for so long but to our amazement there was only a small buildup of ice on the wall, and none on the surface,” said Duff. “He did encounter a lot of “fog” in the tank, caused by the difference in the cold outside temperature and the water temperature.” These observations showed that the active mixer worked as anticipated and that insulation was not needed in this case. Darrin Hopper is with H2Flow Tanks & Systems Inc. Email:darrin@h2flow.com

November/December 2014 | 51


Innovative water tower design chosen for Barrie’s Friday Harbour Resort


estled into Lake Simcoe’s Big Bay Point, 45 minutes from the Greater Toronto Area, Friday Harbour is poised to become Ontario’s premier year-round waterfront community. Friday Harbour encompasses 600 acres along the shores of Lake Simcoe. The final resort design is a result of a decade of planning, two years of waterfront development and the vision of four of Canada’s leading developers and businessmen. This vision is to create a year-round waterfront destination which will provide natural aesthetics, and the amenities vacationers are looking for. The design of the resort has been very carefully studied to ensure the natural habitat remains untouched, while providing the luxuries of an exclusive resort property. Some of these amenities include: • All season hiking trails which wind through the 200 acres of nature preserve. • A vibrant waterfront village offering boutiques, restaurants and galleries. • A performing arts centre providing world-class entertainment and festivals. • A protected inland marina with up to 1,000 boat slips. • An 18 hole championship golf course. This has been designed by world-renowned golf course architects Carrick Design Inc.

The concrete base of the tower will be patterned to resemble the base of a lighthouse. The concrete pattern is Spring Creek, dry stack. Individual glass-fused-to-steel sheets will be colour sequenced so that the circular rings are similar to a lighthouse. The colours, blue and white will alternate to create a lighthouse look. Its blue/grey colour is

Overall capacity of the water storage facility is 3,698 m3, measuring 17.07 m in diameter and 21.95 m in height. The overall height of the tower will be 45.72 m. The complexity and detail of the resort community is reflected in all of the building structures, whether it is the boutiques, the marina or the homes. Details are so carefully considered that the required water storage facility for the project has also been modified and re-designed to look like a lighthouse. 52 | November/December 2015

custom and reflects the Friday Harbour corporate colours. The glass-fused-to-steel panels will be manufactured with the Pantone colour fused into the glass. Additional “freeboard” will be constructed at the top of the tank to provide the aesthetics of a typical lighthouse. A specially de-

signed lantern house with windows, as well as a circular platform, will provide 360˚ viewing and enhance the lighthouse aesthetics. Circular stairs will surround the tank. Overall capacity of the water storage facility is 3,698 m3, measuring 17.07 m in diameter and 21.95 m in height. The overall height of the tower will be 45.72 m. This capacity will ensure water supply for the Friday Harbour development, as well as the surrounding community of Innisfil. This project, which has been customized to provide both practicality and the look of a lighthouse, means that Greatario, the tank’s supplier, will have to work closely with developers and engineers to ensure every detail is finalized as the project progresses. Phase one of the project began in the spring of 2015. For more information, visit www.greatario.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Fabric-covered steel building hosts genomic detoxifying technology research


looding of the Fording River interrupted work at the Teck Coal Mine in Sparwood, British Columbia, but did not deter BuildWorks from completing construction of a 11,000 square foot MegaDome structure in just 21 days - 14 less than the originally planned project duration. Teck’s Fording River Operation (located in the Elk Valley in the Rocky Mountains of Eastern B.C.), is part of Canada’s largest diversified resource company, with major business units focused on copper, steelmaking, coal, zinc and energy. A new contaminated wastewater treatment solution required a temporary facility suitable for the extreme climate conditions encountered at the mine site. The MegaDome building is part of an overall system design by CH2M HILL. The building footprint is 21.33 m x 49.38 m, with an overall building height of about 11 m and is installed on two courses of concrete Lock-Blocks. The location and high altitude (1600 m above sea level) of the site required that the building to be engineered for a relatively high 3.7 kPa snow load. This was met with MegaDome’s extra heavy HHD arch-truss frames spaced at 1.83 m on centers. Teck Resources and others, partnered with Susan Baldwin, a noted University of British Columbia professor of chemical and biological engineering, who is working on how to detoxify polluted water often found at mine sites by using micro-organisms that grow and live there. “People usually think of micro-organisms as agents of disease, but they are very useful,” said Baldwin. “Many useful products are made from them such as beer, wine and yogurt. And they exist in all types of extreme environments, including the environment of mines. We need to have better ways of detecting them, find out who they are and get a little bit of information on how they do what they do.” Baldwin and those working in her www.esemag.com

lab at UBC aren’t trained scientists. As engineers, their expertise is in building processes for mining companies to make toxic water, such as that found in tailings ponds, non-toxic. But, because micro-organisms can be found living in contaminated environments, understanding how they are surviving, and in some cases flourishing, has become part of the equation. If researchers can understand why microbes flourish in certain environments, they can potentially manipulate that environment to reflect the microbes’ ability. For instance, if a company knows it will have a pond with a lot of sulphur in it, then microbes that can digest sulphur are preferable to those that cannot. The detailed examination of micro-organisms is known as genomics – the study of the code of the genome or DNA that dictates all of the physical characteristics of a living organism. Gabe Kalmar, vice-president of sec-

tor development at Genome BC, a Vancouver-based research organization that invests in genomics projects, said Baldwin’s research has the potential to “significantly affect” certain aspects of the mining industry. Such information can be applied not only to existing tailings ponds, but to the plans and designs for future mines. “The findings from the genome project are incorporated into our long-term water treatment strategies for metal leaching and acid-rock drainage risks,” said Luke Moger, a project engineer at Imperial Metals’ Mount Polley mine. “From corporate and government policy perspectives, this type of technology development is key to the long-term success of Imperial Metals.” Once the research project has been completed the building will be re-purposed or relocated to another site. For more information, visit www.megadomebuildings.com November/December 2015 | 53


Preventing hazardous material spills from entering storm sewers


afe Drain provides storm drain protection and support services to cities, government facilities and companies that, by law, are required to prevent chemicals, sediments and other potentially hazardous materials from polluting storm drains. Recently, the company took part in a three-year study to determine the environmental impact of day-to-day operations at three different Applied Materials Inc. facilities in the greater San Francisco Bay area. It supplies semiconductors, flat panel displays and solar photovoltaic products. The Bay area is home to many moderately and highly urbanized creeks and streams that support the diversity of riparian plants and wildlife. These streams ultimately flow into the San Francisco Bay, one of the United States’ most biologically productive estuaries. Applied Materials’ stormwater pollution prevention program seeks to protect the sensitive receiving waters of this area. This program exceeds what is generally considered to be best management practices (BMP) under the local Regional Water Quality Control Boards General Permit. The company installed more than

Safe Drain units are easily installed in storm drains of virtually any size or shape.

470 Safe Drain units in its Santa Clara and Sunnyvale campuses and began to closely monitor approaching storms. The objective was to provide a means of

ensuring normal day-to-day operations without risk to the environment from its activities. When the program began, testing


designs innovative water tower for Friday Harbour resort Custom designed to provide practicality and lighthouse aesthetics, GREATARIO is currently constructing an elevated water tower for Friday Harbour Resort, Innisfil, Ontario. As this project is so unique in its design, we invite you to ‘Watch the Build’ as we will continually feature project highlights on our website www.greatario.com.


Engineered Storage Systems


54 | November/December 2015

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Spills revealed the units were capturing a significant amount of clays and silt. These not only choke off salmon and steelhead spawning grounds, they also have a high affinity for capturing heavy metals. Thus, preventing them from entering storm sewers also helps prevent heavy metal contamination. Over the three year test program it is estimated that 20,400 kg of sediment and debris and almost 5.5 kg total of zinc, copper, chromium, nickel, cadmium and other trace metals were prevented from entering waterways through stormwater runoff. Safe Drain units are easily installed in storm drains of virtually any size or shape. These inserts allow rainwater to flow without obstruction when the valve is open, and filter out sediment, trash, hydrocarbons and heavy metals. They provide total containment when the valve is closed. In high risk circumstances, the valve can remain closed and opened only when rain is anticipated. In low risk circumstances, the valve is kept open, and the units filter pollut-

Once a Safe Drain is installed, overall maintenance is minimal.

ants as needed. The valve can be opened or closed manually or automatically in a matter of seconds to either allow rainwater to flow through, or to prevent hazardous mate-

rial spills from entering the storm drain. Once a Safe Drain is installed, overall maintenance is minimal throughout its 25+ year lifespan. The valves in the spill containment equipment are lubricated, to prevent freezing in cold weather locations. The filters are easily replaced as needed, depending on location and what containment is on site. It is easy to perform a visual inspection to determine if the filter needs cleaning or replacing without removing the grate. Because the system is custom built to fit each storm drain, it can also be installed in as little as 30 minutes. It normally does not require any modifications to the existing storm drain and no construction downtime or permits are required. Being proactive and installing a permanent spill control solution can prevent heavy fines and negative publicity in the future. For more information, visit www.safedrainusa.com

ArCtiC KiNg

Designed for fuel storage in sub-zero climates, the Arctic King is the only collapsible tank certified to CAN/CSA-B837-14. Built tough to withstand the most extreme conditions, it’s deployable to -50° F (-46° C) and easy to fold, transport and relocate!

Call 1-604-946-3131 or visit www.sei-ind.com for more info. w/n 17145

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November/December 2015 | 55


How to get permitted for collapsible fuel storage bladders By Nancy Argyle


or decades, diesel, gas and jet fuel have been delivered and stored in fuel drums at remote locations. However, drums are expensive to buy, inefficient to transport and are often abandoned and left behind, littering a remote and sensitive landscape. Because of the vast number in use, abandoned drums create a significant spill risk from the small amounts of fuel left inside. Spillage can also occur from fuel transfers. Injuries are also common for workers who have to move the heavy drums on a daily basis. A regulator’s perspective Numerous military forces have used collapsible fuel storage bladders for decades, so why haven’t companies? Trudy Gilbertson is a petroleum storage program specialist with the conservation and water stewardship department of the Manitoba provincial government. It is her job to work with stakeholders, process applications and issue approvals for projects that require fuel storage. Typically, fuel storage permits are needed for obvious uses such as gas stations, airport fueling depots and refinery tanks. However, in the case of Mega Precious Metals’ Monument Bay camp, fuel was going to be stored beside a lake in the picturesque Manitoba Twin Lakes area. The firm wanted to use SEI Industries’ Arctic King collapsible fuel bladders. “The Monument Bay project introduced us to fuel bladders for the first time, but we had no provincial standard to use to create a variance for them,” Gilbertson said. “So, we did our homework, talked to others that had used bladders before and Mega Precious Metals provided all sorts of documentation,” explained Gilbertson. “Our biggest concern was about how to deal with spills and what safeguards were in place.” Wanting to see a formal plan, Gilbertson asked for a full proposal, which was followed by several back and forth revisions. “Even though we were talk-

56 | November/December 2015

The fuel bladders are deployable to -46°C and are easy to fold, transport and relocate. They require minimal site preparation and save transportation costs, thanks to their lighter weight.

ing about a new way of operating in a remote location, as it turned out, the biggest sticking point was that the company didn’t have a spare bladder.” With all other aspects satisfied, Mega Precious Metals opted to purchase a “spare” Arctic King bladder to provide additional capacity for fuel transfer in the case of a leak in one of the bladders in use, although this was unlikely to occur. With the spare bladder purchased, the permit was approved. “Ultimately, our role is not to put people out of business or be in the way of doing business…we just want to keep everyone compliant,” Gilbertson added. Gilbertson said learning about collapsible bladders has given her a “different perspective now” and she wouldn’t think twice about approving them again. “My only regret is that I didn’t get to see them being filled with fuel.” Gilbertson has gone on to participate

as a regulator on a technical committee to create a new Canadian Standards Association (CSA) national standard for fuel bladder tanks. This was completed and released in July 2014. Which bladders are approved? To date, SEI Industries’ Arctic King tank is the only collapsible fuel bladder that meets the new CAN/CSA B837 2014 national standard for Canada. Specifically designed for liquid fuel storage in remote sites and the Canadian environment, the Arctic King is constructed from a proprietary high-durability fabric and uses encapsulated cross seams and 100% radio frequency welding. The tanks are deployable to -46°C and are easy to fold, transport and relocate. They require minimal site preparation and save transportation costs, thanks to their lighter weight.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Spills Getting the permit Depending on the authority having jurisdiction, collapsible fuel bladders and secondary containment systems require variances to construct and operate. Tetra Tech, a provider of consulting, engineering and project management services worldwide, has worked closely with SEI Industries, in the successful permitting of these systems. Tetra Tech says it has permitted fuel bladder systems in less than two months. However, a more typical timeline would be three to six months, especially with jurisdictions where fuel bladders have not been used. By integrating environmental considerations early in the design process, the company says it’s easier to obtain approvals and avoid permitting hurdles that can cause delays. “Initially, due to collapsible fuel bladders not previously being used in some jurisdictions, there were uncertainties with the permitting process,” said Ryan Wizbicki, a project manager in Tetra Tech’s Winnipeg office. “To overcome this, we worked to ensure that sufficient information was provid-

ed so that regulators could adequately review the proposed systems and make informed decisions.” “With bladder tanks already heavily used by the Canadian Armed Forces on federal land, federal technical guidelines were also helpful in evaluating their suitability,” he said. A second challenge for regulators was the inability to use fuel system parts (piping and fittings connecting the collapsible bladders to dispensing equipment) that are typically used with conventional rigid tanks. For example, a typical overfill prevention valve or high level alarm cannot be installed in a bladder tank. To address this, alternative solutions were employed in order to meet overfill protection requirements. This includes a visual signal mechanism that indicates full capacity “In many cases, properly designed, installed and maintained collapsible fuel bladders are a far safer alternative from an environmental perspective,” noted Wizbicki. “The fuel bladders and equipment are easier to transport to the location, require a smaller footprint, and are easier to


decommission following end of use.” Making the switch If you’re ready to use collapsible fuel bladders, it’s important to allow enough time to process the application, especially if needing a variance. Read the regulations that apply to bladder tanks in your area and familiarize yourself with the new national standard (CAN/CSA B837 2014) by the CSA. Hire a licensed petroleum technician for the area your project is located in to prepare your application and involve them early in process. You should also prepare your operating procedures and contingencies planning. “Think through the process. How will you deal with things such as communications, access, on site staffing, roads, fuel handling and inventory procedures?” said Gilbertson. Nancy Argyle is a university lecturer and strategic communications consultant. For more information, visit www.sei-ind.com

DESIGN Our bolted RTP (rolled, tapered panel) tank design is unmatched worldwide. It is the strongest, precision tank design that does not utilize cheap web stiffeners. COATINGS Our LIQ Fusion 7000 FBETM coating system and application technology is unmatched in water storage applications. It is a STRONGER SYSTEM THAN GLASS COATINGS and other epoxy powder systems. It is provided exclusively by one company, Tank Connection. PRODUCT QUALITY Simply unmatched worldwide. Our facilities are ISO 9001 quality system certified. TC operates 5 storage tank manufacturing facilities in the U.S. and supports over 500 employees. Our storage products and services are requested globally because our quality is recognized as “the BEST” in the industry! INDUSTRY EXPERTS IN STORAGE We are the leading experts in storage applications with more years of combined industry experience than any other tank company. FIELD CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES

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November/December 2015 | 57


A disciplined approach is vital to worker safety and spills response effectiveness By Cliff Holland


ince the 1980s, there have been big gains in the knowledge of chemicals and how they impact public health and the environment. But that doesn’t mean that everyone is confident in their level of knowledge or training. I recently spoke at the 2015 International Network of Environmental Forensics conference in Toronto on an approach to site and workplace safety that uses a quick-check system to identify and verify the chemical properties of labeled, unlabeled, unknown or mixed substances. I also outlined how the quick-check test system must be part of a disciplined approach to an incident to protect life, property and the environment. Environmental forensics is used in determining causes and sources of chemical releases to the environment. So it’s very important that forensic investigators know how to approach a spill site, whether in a lab, a factory or in the outdoors, in order to keep themselves, the property and the environment safe. While their scientific knowledge may be totally up to date, there is still a need for the first-hand, practical information we’ve gained and procedures we’ve developed over the years. The quick-check system uses pH paper, starch paper and a source of clear flame, such as a Bunsen burner, or portable ignition source. Detectors for combustible gases and other meters can be included for specialized monitoring. In less than a minute, responders can determine the chemical properties of corrosives, flammables and oxidizers. The sensitive pH paper and starch paper can also be used to detect corrosive atmospheres. But the quick-check system isn’t a complete answer to response safety. If responders are not putting proper site safety measures into place and taking a disciplined approach to entering a site, the results of the quick-check system may come too late to save a life or a structure. The disciplined approach relies on a set of Golden Rules for approaching a scene: • Never assume anything! • Suit up to protect entry routes to the body from toxic substances. • Work clean, to prevent cross contamination and any adverse reactions that can result. The disciplined approach also revolves around ASIA-R: • Approach the scene with knowledge, experience and caution. • Secure the scene to keep out unprotected and unnecessary personnel. • Identify chemical properties by testing, using small to trace amounts of substances. • Assess risks and hazards. • Respond or take appropriate action to modify conditions and test, verify and assess danger factors. Following a disciplined approach from the beginning of an

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Cliff Holland at a Montreal excavation site in 1982.

incident will help ensure representative samples are collected and tested at the scene, or sent for analysis safely. Samples can be pure chemicals or the results of an explosion in a laboratory where 20, 30 or 40 chemicals combine to become a new product that presents unknown challenges. The products may just be waiting for the right condition to create unwanted off-gassing, heat, fire or an explosion. For instance, first responders may be uncertain about putting water on a chemical spill because it may escalate the situation to generate heat, rapid burning or even a detonation. That type of delay while determining an appropriate response can have serious consequences that can cause injury or death, while damaging property and the environment. In the hands of trained responders and investigators, quickcheck chemical tests can provide accurate and objective information on the properties of known and unknown chemicals and chemical compounds. The process removes the danger of speculation or guesswork and helps responders deal with the actual

Environmental Science Science & Engineering & Engineering Magazine Magazine Environmental

Spills properties of what they are facing. Then, they can choose appropriate personal protective equipment for the situation. Emergency guidebooks and Material Safety Data Sheets really only provide enough information to ask the questions about the risks, hazards and surprises responders may have to face. By obtaining a few drops of a liquid solution or a few grains of dry powder as a sample, responders are in a position to identify, verify and assess the physical properties of the materials they are dealing with. Physical testing and evaluation of chemical properties should be carried out at each step, from the initial response through to spill recovery and site remediation. There are instances where the dangerous properties of chemicals may not be obvious at all, because they are found commonly in households, factories, laboratories and even schools. These are household cleaners and drain cleaning products that can contain 50% sodium hydroxide (caustic) with little to no smell, and 93% sulphuric acid with a density almost twice that of water. Both corrosives are more reactive at elevated temperatures and can destroy skin tissue and cause irreparable damage to the body. I’ve been applying hard science to testing chemicals since the 1970s to deal with both known and unknown laboratory chemicals and to accurately determine chemical properties for safe handling and transport of materials for disposal or treatment. It was not uncommon in the 1980s to be involved at digs on the grounds of institutions that had buried waste chemicals on-site because they were too dangerous to dispose of through traditional methods. It was vital to everyone’s safety to determine if the contents of containers were stable, since high-risk and unstable chemicals could be sensitive to heat, friction, shock or sunlight. A 500 ml bottle of some substances could go off with the force of a stick of dynamite. In those days, physical testing of known and unknown chemical properties could involve putting a few drops of a liquid on the end of a paper towel and trying to ignite the substance to determine the risk of combustion, or


rapid burning by observation. When pH paper replaced the paper towel, it allowed chemical substances to be identified as either acids, bases or neutral, and whether they were non-flammable, combustible or highly flammable. Concern about oxidizers, which could react with anything that burns to cause heat, fire and/or explosions, prompted the use of potassium iodide paper. The use of a formal testing process and a disciplined approach to chemical incidents helps avert serious situations and avoids loss of time while waiting for samples to be tested before responding. It also factors in site conditions, weather and chemical packaging into response decisions because it reflects the immediate conditions at the site. In addition to being placed on powder or dipped into liquids to determine chemical properties, test papers can also be used in swab tests. These can pick up trace amounts of contamination to help establish safe conditions to enter and

leave a scene, or to determine the level of contamination or decontamination on clothing, equipment and vehicles. The disciplined approach relies on hard science, or basic science with common terminology and knowledge, so that personnel, including both emergency services and non-technical staff, and the general public will understand the dangers and not rush into situations and become part of the problem, rather than the solution. A disciplined approach for managing spills is vital for personal safety, to determine response countermeasures and manage the event to bring it to a successful conclusion in a timely manner. Cliff Holland is the president of Spill Management Inc. For more information, email: contact@spillmanagement.ca (The author would like to acknowledge the effort of Charles Ross in preparing this article.)

November/December 2015 | 59

Product & Service Showcase Fixed-element technology

Duperon® fixed-element technology eliminates the need for dynamic (rotating) seals. This allows the Duperon® Perforated Plate to provide absolute protection for downstream processes. Proprietary Hydropression™ cleaning makes the use of brushes obsolete. Fixed-element technology also eliminates carryover, stapling, and blinding. The Duperon Perforated Plate Screen brings simplicity, reliability and absolute downsteam protection to fine screening.

T: 800-383-8479, F: 989-754-2175 E: info@duperon.com W: www.duperon.com


Adaptive washer compactor

The Duperon® Washer Compactor adapts to changing volumes in screenings as well as the variability of debris. Its unique dual-auger design is self-cleaning and can handle debris up to four inches (including bricks and 2 x 4s). A wide variety of sizes and models are available. Options are available to elevate debris up to 40 feet at all angles, including vertical.

T: 800-383-8479, F: 989-754-2175 E: info@duperon.com W: www.duperon.com


Auto cleaning system

The Liquiline platform is expanding, with the addition of the CYC25 auto-cleaning system for use with the award-winning CM44x transmitter. This system allows for on-the-fly retraction, cleaning and re-insertion of pH/ORP sensors. Increase your measuring accuracy and drastically reduce manual maintenance; in short, save money! In the downloads, enter CYC25 in the Product Code search box.

W: www.ca.endress.com/en/downloads

Endress+Hauser Canada

Flexible process assembly

The Cleanfit CPA871 retractable assembly is a reliable partner, thanks to its robust modular design and intuitive operation. Either manual or pneumatic operation makes for safe and 60 | November/December 2015

optimum sensor handling during measurement, cleaning and calibration. Wetted parts are available in stainless steel 1.4404, PEEK, PVDF, conductive PVDF, Hastelloy C-22, titanium and more.

manually adjusting for fouling-related sensor drift.

W: www.ca.endress.com/cpa871

Hoskin Scientific

Endress+Hauser Canada

E: salesb@hoskin.ca, Burlington, ON E: salesv@hoskin.ca, Burnaby, BC E: salesm@hoskin.ca, Montreal, QC W: www.hoskin.ca

Handle severe and unusual septage

Chlorine scale

The Chlor-Scale 150® from Force Flow provides a simple and reliable way to monitor the amount of chlorine or ammonia used, and the amount remaining in the cylinder. The solid PVC scale platform, with a 5-year warranty, provides the strongest defense against the corrosive environments associated with gas feed applications. Optional pedestal stand eliminates wall mounting.

The Huber Technology RoFAS Septage Station is designed to handle environments that would cause standard septage stations to fail. Easily processes large debris, protecting headworks from unpredictable septage. Center feed allows for rapid offloading. An automatic hauler station is an option. Revenue opportunities quickly realize return-on-investment.

T: 800-893-6723 W: www.forceflow.com

Huber Technology

Force Flow

Stormwater treatment system

Containerized bioreactors

TILT provides wastewater treatment for communities and industries. Based on liquid shipping containers, TILT is a very low cost, extremely compact, reliable and robust package. Easily transportable anywhere - ships by rail, truck and cargo ship. Can be placed outdoors. New units ready in stock and we have rental and temporary units available for BOD removal and nitrification. Available in MBBR, SBR and aeration tank versions.

W: http://huberforum.net/RoFAS

Providing stormwater quality treatment, the Jellyfish Filter can be easily applied inside the building envelope or below ground to maximize real-estate value and secure LEED credits. With lightweight high surface area membrane filtration, this innovative stormwater technology removes 89% TSS, floatables, oil, debris, nutrients, metals and hydrocarbons.

T: 416-960-9900, F: 416-960-5637 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com

T: 888-575-8642 W: www.h2flowTILT.com

Imbrium Systems

H2Flow Equipment

Solution for odour and corrosion problems

Wiped conductivity & temperature sensor

Biofilms, barnacles, and algal growth are common culprits of poor data quality, clogging up conductivity cells and coating sensors. This is no longer an issue with the new EXO Wiped Conductivity & Temperature sensor from YSI, designed with and engineered for compatibility with EXO2’s anti-fouling Central Wiper. This sensor improves the representativeness of your conductivity data by avoiding stagnant readings and reducing the impact of micro-environments. It reduces the need for post-processing data, and less time is spent

Kemira S-Guard™ is a reliable, efficient, remote-control solution to odour and corrosion problems. It is a total system that includes all the components needed to measure, monitor and control hydrogen sulfide levels. S-Guard gives you an overall picture on what is happening inside your wastewater network. It provides instant information on current H2S levels in the network and gives a trend view of changes to the essential parameters over time.

T: 450-652-0665, F: 450-652-7343 E: candace.chouinard@kemira.com W: www.kemira.com


Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Product & Service Showcase Deep-well water extraction pumps

KSB’s B-Pump family of borehole pumps is ideal for water extraction duties in mines, quarries, water supply facilities and irrigation systems. Rugged and reliable, their highly modular design makes it possible to configure solutions that will closely match application requirements.

continuous percent SS readings, allowing users to program underflow pumps to shut off before sludge density becomes too thin, and to optimize dosing for preferred feed density and enhanced dewatering.

T: 855-873-7791 E: markland@sludgecontrols.com W: www.sludgecontrols.com

T: 905-568-9200 E: sales@ksb.ca W: www.ksb.ca

Markland Specialty Engineering

KSB Pumps

MSU’s corrosion resistant climbing rungs are designed for permanent installation in maintenance holes, underground chambers and vaults. They are manufactured from polyethylene coated aluminum. Their high visibility safety orange assures worker safety. Made right in Canada by MSU Mississauga Ltd.

Headworks equipment

Kusters Water, a division of Kusters Zima Corporation, has a new ProTechtorTM series for headworks equipment. All ProTechtor products are manufactured to the highest quality standards at Kusters Zima’s factory in Spartanburg, South Carolina (ISO 9001:2008 certified). As value added for our customers, all products include a 3-year factory warranty. The ProTechtor brand further strengthens Kusters Water’s reputation as a leading headworks equipment supplier in the municipal and industrial wastewater segments.

Climbing rungs

T: 800-268-5336 E: sales@msumississauga.com W: www.msumississauga.com

MSU Mississauga

Lifting hooks for watermains

MSU Mississauga Ltd., Canada’s premier manufacturer of hardware for T: 800-264-7005 the water and wastewater E: jim.weidler@kusterszima.com industries, offers lifting hooks built to a wide range W: www.kusterswater.com of regional standards. AvailKusters Water able in stainless steel and galvanized. Contact the MSU sales team today at 1-800-268-5336 x 28.

Online real-time analyzer

Mantech’s online real-time COD analyzer offers the following benefits: • Eliminates the use of dichromate. • Is ideal for industrial and municipal applications. • 4-20 mA output. • Online COD and BOD monitoring. Visit 15minuteCOD.com to view MOECC Method E3515 and learn more.

T: 519-763-4245 W: www.mantech-inc.com


SS density meter

Markland’s Suspended Solids Density Meter offers real-time knowledge of primary, secondary and return-activated sludge/silt concentrations in pipes, tanks and clarifiers. Its non-intrusive, ultrasonic sensor provides www.esemag.com

T: 800-268-5336 E: sales@msumississauga.com W: www.msumississauga.com

MSU Mississauga

Screen filters

Rotary lobe pumps

Börger makes an extremely efficient, reliable and unbeatably easy to maintain pump. All spare and wear parts are durable and very cost-effective. The unique MIP (Maintenance in Place) system for Börger pumps makes it easy, since all wear parts can be replaced in situ without dismantling any pipe or drive systems.

T: 905-864-9311 E: craig@proaquasales.com W: www.proaquasales.com

Pro Aqua

Screw blowers

Integrating the proven benefits of screw technology, Atlas Copco’s ZS Blower Range will cut your energy costs by an average of 30% compared to rotary lobe blowers. Delivered ready-for-use, and with the highest level of quality from Atlas Copco, the ZS screw blowers provide the utmost in proven reliability, performance and efficiency.

T: 905-864-9311 E: craig@proaquasales.com W: www.proaquasales.com

Pro Aqua

Flow meter

The DulcoFlow Meter from ProMinent is the only device that provides accurate measurement of pulsating flow from metering pumps using ultrasonic technology. DulcoFlow measures the volume of each pump stroke down to 0.03 ml.

T: 888-709-9933, F: 519-836-5226 E: sales@prominent.ca W: www.prominent.ca

Filtration with water conservation in mind is what sets the ORG-Series of Automatic Self-Cleaning Screen Filters apart from other brands. Sizes range from 1½” to 10” with filtration degrees down to 5 microns. The ORG uses less than 4 gallons per rinse cycle. Orival, Inc. manufactures filters, manifolds, skids and pumped systems. Conservation is part of the design.

ProMinent Fluid Controls

T: 201-568-3311, F: 201-568-1916 E: filters@orival.com W: www.orival.com

T: 888-709-9933, F: 519-836-5226 E: sales@prominent.ca W: www.prominent.ca


Metering pump

The gamma/ X Metering Pump introduces new technology for continuous and very low flow dosing situations. See pages 28-29 and/or check out gammax.prominent.ca for videos, 360° viewer, specifications, and dynamic presentation.

ProMinent Fluid Controls November/December 2015 | 61

Product & Service Showcase Storage Tanks, Containment & Spills Product & Service Showcase


The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensures that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover.

T: 519-469-8169, F: 519-469-8157 E: sales@greatario.com W: www.greatario.com

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Bladder tank

Ideally suited for extreme sub-zero conditions, the Arctic King bladder tank is the only tank in the world certified to the CAN/CSA-B837-14 standard. Carrying the ETL mark and constructed from a proprietary, high durability fabric unique to SEI Industries, it has excellent UV and hydrolysis resistance for a longer life expectancy. With its vent system, the Arctic King can easily handle deep snowfalls and it is deployable to -50° F (-46° C).

T: 604-946-3131 E: seisales@sei-ind.com W: www.sei-ind.com/products/arctic-king

SEI Industries

Specialist training

Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats • Test & verify chemical properties • Select ideal response supplies • Modify response conditions • Prepare spills for recovery • Reduce disposal costs • 1 - 5 Day Courses

T: 905-578-9666, F: 905-578-6644 E: contact@spillmanagement.ca W: www.spillmanagement.ca

Spill Management 62 | November/December 2015

Above grade pumping

Smith & Loveless wet well mounted pump stations provide a packaged stormwater and wastewater pumping solution that is simple, safe and economical. All pumps, valves and controls are housed above grade and outside of the wet well, resulting in significant operator safety, ease of operation and life cycle cost advantages.

T: 800-898-9122, F: 913-888-2173 E: answers@smithandloveless.com www.smithandloveless.com

Optical DO, EC, pH, ORP and Temp. It also includes an Ion Selective Electrode socket and an Optical Sensors Electrode socket. A wide range of electrodes are available for this great probe.

T: 905-238-5242, F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

High performance automation

Smith & Loveless

Packaged MBR

The TITAN MBR™ packaged membrane bioreactor system economically delivers high quality effluent for up to 3 MGD (131 lps) per tank, allowing for water reuse. Fully submerged in the aeration zone, Smith & Loveless flat-plate membranes maintain high permeability and flux rates, experience less wear and tear, and can be cleaned in place.

T: 800-898-9122, F: 913-888-2173 E: answers@smithandloveless.com www.smithandloveless.com

The portable, electrically operated Hydrolift-2 actuator is perfect for purging and sampling 2” diameter monitoring wells, up to 150 to 200 feet deep, and is the ideal choice for the frequent user of Waterra’s inertial pumping system with moderate to extreme pumping requirements (standard, high and low flows).

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Waterra Pumps

Power and endurance

Smith & Loveless

Engineered metal doors

USF Fabrication, Inc. manufacture a complete line of engineered metal doors for underground utility access. They have been fabricating solutions since 1916 with over 160,000 sq ft of manufacturing space. This allows them to offer the best lead times in the industry. Their friendly and knowledgeable staff is committed to providing customers with the right product for their application and shipping it when they need it.

T: 604-552-7900, F: 604-552-7901 E: epsl@telus.net

The PowerPump-2 is the most powerful pump actuator manufactured by Waterra. Powered by a Honda GX100, 3 horsepower, 4 stroke, gasoline motor, it generates a 6” stroke and can operate both Waterra’s standard and high flow systems to their maximum effective depths. It is an excellent choice for those with extreme pumping requirements.

T: 905-238-5242, F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Peristaltic pumps

The Spectra Field-Pro is a state-of-the-art peristaltic pump that features a heavy-duty, all-inclusive design. This means no external cables, chargers or batteries to worry about.

USF Fabrication

Multiparameter probe The


portable multiparameter probe gives you a choice! Supplied with five standard parameters, it also allows customization. The standard parameters are

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Waterra Pumps

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ES&E NEWS Alberta boosts funding for municipal clean water systems

The Alberta government has increased funding to Water for Life and Now available in Canada! the Alberta Municipal Water/Wastewater Partnership by $170 million. These proTier 1 Hydro-Pneumatic Surge and grams provide critical funding for muPressure Control Systems in both nicipal water and wastewater infrastrucBladder and Air over Water Solutions ture, to ensure that Albertans in smaller and rural communities have access to safe, efficient, and environmentally responsible water and wastewater systems. Over five years, $545 million will AIR RELEASE/VACUUM BREAK be invested to fund critical water infraVALVES FOR SEWAGE & WATER structure in municipalities across Alberta. Water for Life funding will increase “ANTI-SURGE /ANTI-SHOCK” by $100 million and the Alberta Mu10-YEAR WARRANTY • ALL STAINLESS RGX RBX nicipal Water/Wastewater Partnership WQA funding will increase by $70 million. WATER QUALITYReliant AERATOR for Lagoons and Aquaculture water quality aerator for lagoons and aquaculture WQA Municipalities now have the opportuniwater quality aerator for lagoons and aquaculture ty to re-examine projects that were set • Course & fine bubble aeration aside due to funding reductions by the Large Air Bubble Mixing Te • Tames sludge buildup ✓ Coarse & fine bubble aeration previous government. ✓ Tames sludge buildup • Handles ✓upEliminates to 5 acres per unit • Eliminates thermal stratification thermal stratification Innovative, air burst driven mixing www.gov.ab.ca ✓ Eliminates seasonal turnover



• Eliminates seasonal turnover

• Efficient✓- Only Up to 15moves lbs O2/hr Most 4 hp 9 MGDenergy-efficient mixing

No in-basin moving parts ✓ Coarse & fine bubble • Low maintenance &toSimple! • Onlyaeration 4 hp moves 9 MGD ✓ Efficient: Up 15 lbs O /hr WHO urged to revisit drinking installation ✓ Low maintenanceEasy & Simple! ✓ Tames sludge buildup Dr water guidelines ✓ Eliminates thermal stratification HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 ✓ Eliminates seasonal turnover The World Health Organization’s info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca ✓ Only 4 hp moves 9 MGD Bubble Mixing Technology (WHO) drinking water guidelines for up to 5 acres per unit Large Large Air Bubble Mixing Technology ✓ Handles Food proces nine common toxic chemicals✓ Efficient: are in- Up to 15 lbs O2/hr &aw Ideal mixing for: IDEAL Innovative, air burst driven mixing MIXING FOR: ✓ Low maintenance & Simple! adequate and should be re-evaluated, Anoxic Basins Most energy-efficient mixing • Innovative, air-burst driven mixing • Anoxic, Aeration & Swing Tanks Aeration Basins No in-basin moving parts HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONM accordingLarge to a team of researchers led Mixing • Drinking water storage tanksINC. Sludge Easy installation ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRO-LOGIC •762 Energy-efficient, upSuite to 50% power Air Bubble Mixing Technology Upper St. James St., 250,less Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 9 Drinking water storage tank mixing 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 • Sludge Tanks • Channel Mixing Applications by Dr. Bibudhendra Sarkar at the HosSewage pump station grease info@hydrologic.ca www.hyd • No in-basin moving parts •Ideal Sewage pump grease cap busting & odorcap control busting & odor control www.hydrologic.ca mixing for:station Innovative, air burstfor driven mixing pital Sick Children in Toronto. The info@hydrologic.ca Industrial Applications • Industrial and Food Processing Applications. . . and more! • Easy installation Anoxic Basins Most energy-efficient mixing Food processing applications, liquor blending ✓ Handles up to 5 acres per unit 2



current edition of the WHO’s drinking & a wide range of mixing applications Aeration Basins Sludge Mixing guidelines are less restricHYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. Drinking water storage tank mixing tive for manganese, boron, mercury, 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 Sewage pump station grease T: 905-777-9494 • F: 905-777-8678 • info@hydrologic.ca • www.hydrologic.ca info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca molybdenum, nickel, nitrite, selenium cap busting & odor control 762 Upper St. James Street, Suite 250, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L9C 3A2 and uranium and did not establish a Industrial Applications Food processing applications, liquor blending guideline for aluminium. & a wide range of mixing applications After examining the agency’s backHYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. ground documents explaining the ratio762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 nale for the changes, Sarkar’s research info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca team concluded that some of these modifications failed to account for the occurrence of such chemicals in drinking water, or key health studies from the last decade. For example, the scientists suggest that the removal of manganese from the 2011 guidelines is “especially worrisome” because the decision was not grounded in the best science and could harm public health. Sarkar’s team references the fact that the WHO said it withdrew the 400μg/l drinking water guidelines for manganese because that figure is well above

No in-basin moving parts Easy installation water quality


continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

December/November 2015 | 63

ES&E NEWS concentrations of the element normally found in drinking water However, the researchers note that manganese has been reported in greater concentrations in over 50 countries. Chronic manganese exposure has been linked to various neurological effects such as learning disabilities in children, Parkinson’s disease and cognitive decline in adults. Although WHO guidelines are not regulations, they are often used by governments when setting local standards. “These are the de facto standards ... especially for developing countries that don’t have their own regulations or regulatory agencies,” Sarkar tells Chemistry World. “On the basis of these facts, the WHO should really take this matter very

seriously and re-evaluate the guidelines as soon as possible,” he adds. www.rsc.org/chemistryworld

Aqua-Aerobic Systems and METAWATER to merge Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Inc. and METAWATER Co., Ltd. formally announced a merger agreement in October 2015. The merger will place Aqua-Aerobic Systems, including its subsidiary Mecana Umwelttechnik, under METAWATER USA, INC. Through this merger, METAWATER USA will acquire additional Aqua-Aerobic Systems resources including established relationships with sales agents, consulting firms and contractors to sup-

Continuous Clean Energy Power Plant We retrofit Transfer Stations by providing Baling & Bagging Greey EnWaste™ Equipment to Guarantee unit of Greey CTS Inc. Diversion of all Organic Waste from Landfill. email: greey.enwaste@rogers.com www.greeyenwaste.ca

port its growth strategy and strengthen its business through expansion into the U.S. and other markets. www.aqua-aerobic.com www.metawater.co.jp

World Toilet Day raises awareness about access to sanitation Of the world’s seven billion people, 2.4 billion people do not have improved sanitation. One billion people still defecate in the open. Poor sanitation increases the risk of disease and malnutrition, especially for women and children. According to the World Health Organization, roughly 50% of all malnutrition cases are associated with repeated diarrhea or intestinal worm infections as a direct result of inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene. A vicious cycle exists between diarrhea and under nutrition, especially for children. Stark inequalities in access to toilets threaten the survival, health, dignity and safety of vulnerable populations, despite their human right to water and sanitation. This is why in 2013 the United Nations General Assembly officially designated November 19 as World Toilet Day. This year, World Toilet Day focuses on the link between sanitation and nutrition, drawing the world’s attention to the importance of toilets in supporting better nutrition and improved health. www.worldtoiletday.info

2015 Lake Erie algal bloom most severe this century Initial analysis by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) indicates that the algae bloom, which occurred this year in western Lake Erie, was more severe than the record setting one in 2011. The NOAA ranks the severity of these blooms using an index that measures the amount of biomass over the peak 30days. The 2015 bloom ranked 10.5 on the scale, compared to 10 for 2011. Up to 300 square miles of Lake Erie’s western basin was covered by dense scum in early to mid-August, before cold fronts and high winds broke it up in September. Although the NOAA had forecasted large blooms for 2015 (estimating

64 | November/December 2015

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ES&E NEWS a rank of 8.7), rainfall was so heavy in June this year that nutrient discharge from the Maumee River reached record levels and continued into July. The NOAA said this new information will be used to update future forecast models, taking into account July discharge data.

from burning coal for the sole purpose of generating electricity. It sets maximum fines for anyone who violates the ban and enshrines the health and environmental benefits of making coal-fired electricity illegal in law. In April 2014, Ontario closed its last coal-fired power plant, the Thunder Bay

Volkswagen faces additional Clean Air Act violations The United States Environmental Protection Agency issued a second notice of violation (NOV) of the Clean Air Act to Volkswagen AG, Audi AG and Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. These companies are collectively referred to as Volkswagen (VW). As alleged in the NOV, VW manufactured and installed software in the electronic control module of certain light duty diesel vehicles that senses when the vehicle is being tested for compliance with EPA emissions standards. When the vehicle senses that it is undergoing a federal emissions test procedure, it operates in a low nitrogen oxide (NOx) “temperature conditioning” mode. Under that mode, the vehicle meets emission standards. At exactly one second after the completion of the initial phases of the standard test procedure, the vehicle immediately changes a number of operating parameters that increase NOx emissions and indicates in the software that it is transitioning to “normal mode,” where emissions of NOx increase up to nine times the EPA standard, depending on the vehicle and type of driving conditions. The NOV covers approximately 10,000 diesel passenger cars already sold in the United States since model year 2014. In addition, the NOV covers an unknown volume of 2016 vehicles. www2.epa.gov/newsroom

Ontario bans coal-fired electricity generation

Generating Station. One of the station’s generating units has switched to advanced biomass for a fuel source. According to a 2005 independent study, “Cost Benefit Analysis: Replacing Ontario’s Coal-Fired Electricity Generation,” the estimated cost of coal generation continued overleaf...

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14132 summalogoPMS 467.pdf



1:42 PM

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Ontario has passed legislation to permanently ban coal-fired electricity generation in the province. This law is a first in North America and a significant step in the fight against climate change, according to the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change (MOECC). The Ending Coal for Cleaner Air Act prevents new and existing facilities www.esemag.com

December/November 2015 | 65

Advertiser INDEX




ACG Technology.................................... 67 Alltork Actuation................................... 21 American Public University.................. 15 Associated Engineering........................ 36 CALA...................................................... 42 Denso ................................................... 25 Echelon Environmental........................ 20 EcoInsight Instruments........................ 23 Endress + Hauser................................... 7 Engineered Pump................................. 42 Envirocan ............................................ 67 Force Flow............................................ 59 Greatario .............................................. 54

was approximately $4.4 billion annually when health, environmental, and financial costs were taken into consideration. The MOECC said that closing coalfired power plants represents one of the largest greenhouse gas reduction initiatives in North America. The closure has eliminated more than 30 megatonnes of annual GHG emissions, equivalent to taking seven-million vehicles off our roads. More than 90% of the power generated in Ontario now comes from clean energy sources such as water, nuclear and renewables.

Cabinet Minister speaks at NTWWA conference

Greyline Instruments............................ 13 H2Flow ................................................. 50 Hoskin Scientific............................. 27, 41 Huber Technology................................. 26 Hydro International......................... 14, 31 Hydroxyl................................................ 24 Imbrium Systems.................................. 19 Kusters Water....................................... 33 Mantech ............................................... 46 Markland Specialty Engineering.......... 21 Master Meter ......................................... 3 MegaDome............................................ 51 Minotaur Stormwater Services............ 18 MONITARIO ........................................... 68 Monteco................................................ 23 MSU Mississauga................................. 17

Minister of Fisheries, Oceans and Canadian Coastguard, Hunter Tootoo.

Speaking for the first time as Minister of Fisheries, Oceans and Canadian Coastguard, Hunter Tootoo addressed attendees of the Northern Territories Water & Waste Association conference. The association’s annual conference and general meeting was held at the Cadet Hall in Iqaluit from November 20-22. Minister Tootoo, who was born in Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, spoke about the challenges of securing clean water in Canada’s North.

Osprey Scientific................................... 50 Pro Aqua................................................. 9 ProMinent.........................................28-29 SEI Industries........................................ 55 Sentrimax................................................ 2 Smith & Loveless.................................... 5

Erratum In ES&E’s September/October issue the wrong photo was used for the article entitled “Denso road products tested in Mississauga” (p.58). Below is the correct photo and caption. ES&E regrets the error.

Spill Management................................. 49 Stantec.................................................. 35 Tank Connection................................... 57 USF Fabrication..................................... 42 VL Motion.............................................. 21 Waterra Pumps................... 11, 16, 30, 45 XCG Consulting..................................... 35

66 | November/December 2015

DensoBand maintains the joint, preventing water ingress, expansion and erosion.

“Finding practical ways to protect our health and our environment can be extremely difficult, but it is extremely necessary...Groups such as yours discussing cutting edge technologies and how they can provide these for our unique Northern environment are key to achieving these goals,” said Tootoo. “We all have a role to play to ensure water remains a basic human right.”

Endress+Hauser launches Open Integration program Plant operators will be able to more easily integrate their devices and components into their automation systems. The Open Integration partner program was launched by Endress+Hauser to promote cooperation between providers of industrial automation systems and fieldbus communication. Cooperation starts with what are known as reference topologies, which are worked out jointly by the Open Integration partners. Depending on industrial segment and market, the focus will be on typical requirements such as availability, redundancy or explosion protection, followed by the selection of system components and field instruments of practical relevance. This exact combination will then be tested and documented, giving customers validated suggestions for automating. To date, eight companies have joined the program. www.ca.endress.com

Wastewater resource recovery The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) awarded four new contracts to further expand the capabilities of recovering valuable resources from wastewater in the treatment cycle. The contracts are titled: “Plasmids and Rare Earth Elements from Wastewater,” “High Quality Biosolids from Wastewater,” “Sustainable Struvite Control Using Residual Gas from Digester Gas Cleaning Process,” and “High-Tech Analysis of Low-Tech Methods for Sustainable Class A Biosolids Production.” These studies and projects will help develop guidance tools, identify markets and define standards. www.werf.org

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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