Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May-June 2015

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May/June 2015 www.esemag.com

Choosing grit removal systems Dead ends in water mains Control valves help fishery Optimizing WWTP aeration


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Contents ISSN-0835-605X • May/June 2015 Vol. 28 No. 3 • Issued May 2015 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY Email: steve@esemag.com Assistant Editor PETER DAVEY Email: peter@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY Email: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Email: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY Email: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Email: darlann@esemag.com




Environmental News . . . 70-74 Product Showcase. . . . . 64-69 Professional Cards. . . . . 70-73 Ad Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

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Design and Production EINAR RICE

Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar, Jones and Henry Engineers Ltd.

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Gary Burrows, City of London Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill DeAngelis, City of Toronto Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems

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William Fernandes, Region of Peel Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine, Environment Canada Tony Petrucci, Stantec, Markham

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Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be emailed to steve@esemag.com.

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Increasing litigation and new regulations make professional development even more important Controlling nitrosamine formation during water treatment Understanding the ongoing climate change debate Decentralized sewage system allows P.E.I. long-term care facility to proceed Proper sizing of oil-grit separators ensures adequate settling time Bypass system eliminates dead ends in water distribution networks Selecting WW grit removal technologies can be a challenge Benefits and challenges of SCADA monitoring in winter Designing effective wastewater odour control covers Waterless pipeline cleaning saves time and money WWTFs increasingly using anaerobic digestion for energy uses SAGR system helps First Nation communities meet effluent regulations Thermal mass flow meters help optimize WWTP aeration London hosts ISO workshop on flushable wipes Watershed fish rehabilitation project aided by custom valves - Cover story Grand Bend’s new WWTF ensures a more sustainable future

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Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

52 Duplex stainless steel tanks chosen for Maui water supply 54 Gabon commissions its first full-scale centralized WWTP 56 Preventing contamination from railway car transfer spills 58 Increasing litigation means companies must properly prepare for spills 61 Quick connect technology makes high-pressure liquid-transfer safer 62 Twin membrane bioreactors help treat radioactive water in Port Granby

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Editorial Comment by Steve Davey

Increasing litigation and new regulations make professional development even more important


S&E readers are facing many regulatory challenges this year. In February, the Canadian government announced a deadline schedule for the transition from WHMIS to the Global Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. In April, the Ontario government announced its plans to implement a new cap-­and­-trade system to curb industry greenhouse gas emissions. An announcement on a new Waste Management and Diversion Act is expected soon. In his article As environmental litigation increases, companies must be properly prepared for spills, (Pg 58), author Charles Ross points out that, “while executives, directors and management have been legally responsible for the environmental performance of their companies as long as environmental protection legislation has been in place, the federal and provincial governments are toughening up the penalties.” Ross feels that this tougher stance appears to be benefitting the environment, because the emphasis is on the “polluter pays” principle. For instance, of the $7.5 million fine levied against a mining company in Quebec last December, Environment Canada said $6.83 million will be directed to the Environmental Damages Fund. This fine, reportedly the highest environmental one ever levied in Canada, results from several incidents which resulted in 45 charges under the federal Fisheries Act. “When fines like this become the norm, the pressure on officers and directors of a corporation to protect their company from environmental litigation will grow even stronger,” says Ross. “Company officials who have only been paying lip service to such things as emergency response planning, response training or having adequate spill response supplies, could soon find themselves in serious and very costly trouble.” To provide practical, professional development courses for those with environmental responsibilities and a

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need to demonstrate due diligence, the Canadian Environmental Conference and Tradeshow (CANECT) was colaunched by ES&E Magazine and Templegate Information Services in 1992. CANECT 2015, held this past April, featured over sixty speakers, presenting at six full day workshops. Participants also had the chance to listen to three inspiring keynote speakers organized by Partners in Prevention. Colonel Chris Hadfield, who is the first Canadian Commander of the International Space Station, mesmerized delegates with his 20-year odyssey in preparing for the mission he recently concluded. He explained that his preparations included everything from learning emergency medical response/ surgery, how to speak fluent Russian, and understanding every system on the space station. All of this was on top of experiments his team had to conduct. Dr. Joe MacInnis, who had earlier explored the Titanic, provided a detailed and moving account of his involvement with movie director James Cameron’s personal seven year project to explore the Mariana Trench. Cameron funded and oversaw development of a new deep water submersible, which he personally piloted to the bottom of the Trench. This set a new manned dive depth record. Michael Landsberg, host of TSN’s Off the Record, gave a deeply moving and personal account of his ongoing battle with clinical depression, entitled Darkness and hope: Depression, sports, and me. He gave a unique perspective on how important it is for those suffer-

ing from this terrible condition to seek medical help. Landsberg very candidly pointed out that, while medication and support cannot cure clinical depression, it can make it manageable, both for sufferers, as well as their families. Organizing conferences and tradeshows is a long-standing tradition for municipal water and wastewater sector associations. In recent years, however, many associations are lamenting that participation from their municipal members is down. This is due to many factors, like budget constraints, difficulty to get time-off approved, distance to events, etc. However, non-participation is false economy given the tremendous learning opportunities conferences and tradeshows provide. Never mind proving due diligence, given an unforeseen incident, having staff attend industry events helps improve facility efficiency with new knowledge and improved morale from peer networking. There is another key benefit to conference attendance. According to William Fernandes, Manager, Wastewater Treatment Capital and Operations with Peel Region, “for those who have licenses and need CEUs for their certificate renewal, participating in industry conferences can provide them.” Surely, having municipal managers encourage their staff to exceed their current qualifications by supporting professional development events, would be money well spent. The industrial sector, seems to put a higher value on conference and tradeshow participation, as it improves performance and demonstrates due diligence. Ensuring regulatory compliance through proper training in all sectors is sound operating practice.

Steve Davey is Editor of ES&E Magazine. Email: steve@esemag.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water Treatment

Controlling nitrosamine formation during water treatment


he Water Research Foundation recently released a report on improved strategies for minimizing nitrosamine formation during drinking water treatment. It also provides treatment guidance for utilities. Their research included: • Conducting preliminary case studies on nitrosamine formation and control at full-scale drinking water treatment plants. • Optimizing oxidation strategies for nitrosamine and regulated disinfection by-product (DBP) control. • Optimizing polymer usage for nitrosamine and turbidity control. • Removing nitrosamine precursors from water. • Evaluating and controlling other sources of nitrosamines and their precursors. • Developing a decision document and preliminary cost/benefit analysis of control alternatives. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a DBP preferentially formed by chloramines. Sources of NDMA precursors include treated wastewater and certain polymers used in drinking water treatment. Previous research showed that NDMA precursors can be destroyed or transformed during pre-oxidation with chlorine or ozone. Preliminary studies have also shown that medium pressure ultraviolet (MPUV) irradiation can be effective against NDMA precursors. Activated carbon and riverbank filtration can potentially remove NDMA precursors. Other sources of precursors and other control options, such as biofiltration, had been studied previously to some extent. This project was funded to address the following research gaps: gain a better understanding of the precursor loadings from treated wastewater and polymers used in drinking water treatment; investigate polymer management strategies; further investigate pre-oxidation to better understand the impact of pH, temperature, and the role of hywww.esemag.com

Sources of NDMA precursors include treated wastewater and certain polymers used in drinking water treatment. Photo: Wikimedia.

droxyl radicals; explore the efficacy of powdered and granular activated carbon

In addition to determining the occurrence of nitrosamines in the finished water, formation potential (FP) tests were conducted to determine precursor levels. (PAC, GAC), as well as riverbank filtration to remove NDMA precursors; and, determine additional sources of precursors and control strategies. Approach To understand the sources of precursors and the efficacy of existing treat-

ment and disinfection processes, case studies were conducted at full-scale plants. In addition to determining the occurrence of nitrosamines in the finished water, formation potential (FP) tests were conducted to determine precursor levels. FP tests of plant influents provided information on precursor loadings in the watershed. The presence of the artificial sweetener sucralose was also determined, as it is a wastewater indicator. FP tests were conducted on water before and after polymer usage, to determine precursor loadings from this source, and they were conducted before and after unit processes that might remove or destroy precursors. Simulated distribution system (SDS) tests were also conducted to evaluate the impact of pre-chlorination and to determine if changes in this process could improve precursor destruction. Bench-scale tests were conducted continued overleaf... May/June 2015 | 7

Water Treatment to evaluate pre-oxidation, PAC, and GAC. Pre-oxidants that were evaluated included chlorine, ozone, MPUV, low pressure ultraviolet (LPUV) and permanganate. Each was evaluated at the relevant low and high exposure for control of Giardia. In addition, MPUV and LPUV were evaluated at low fluence for microbial control and high fluence suitable for oxidation. Other factors that were studied included the impact of pH and temperature, and the

role of hydroxyl radicals. As part of the pre-oxidation studies, other regulated (i.e., trihalomethanes, bromate) and emerging DBPs, such as chloropicrin, that could be formed by the pre-oxidant or could have their formation promoted during post-chloramination, were studied. PAC and GAC studies were conducted on different blends of surface water and treated wastewater to see how well wastewater-derived precursors could be removed. In addition, the ability of PAC to remove polymer-derived precursors was evaluated. Some limited tests were conducted on the ability of magnetic ion exchange resin to remove precursors. Finally, some pilot-plant tests were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of ozone, PAC, and GAC, as well as the impact of polymer dosage. Conclusions Site-specific relationships between sucralose and NDMA formation potential were found in some watersheds. As river flow went down, the source water was often found to be more impacted by wastewater. PolyDADMAC and polyamine were found to be important sources of NDMA precursors. However, the level of polyDADMAC-derived precursors in settled water was less than that present when neat polymer was simply diluted in water. This suggests that some of the precursors settled out during treatment. Pre-oxidation effectively destroyed watershed-derived precursors in the following order: ozone, chlorine, MPUV, LPUV, permanganate. Ozone was often effective at low exposure (CT). At higher exposure, chlorine was more effective than at low exposure. Chlorine was more effective in the pH range of 8 to 9 and in warmer water. Ozone and MPUV were more effective at higher pH levels. Polyamine-derived precursors were also destroyed by various pre-oxidants. In pre-oxidation testing of water with a very high dose (6.0 mg/l as the active ingredient) of polyDADMAC, the formation potential of NDMA increased. However, in waters with low polyDADMAC doses (≤0.8 mg/l as the active ingredient), as used at full-scale plants, NDMA formation did not appear to be exacerbated, as was observed in

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the bench-scale testing of the very high polyDADMAC dose. PAC and GAC removed watershed-derived precursors. Low doses of PAC (e.g., ~5 - 10 mg/l) were often effective. GAC was able to remove NDMA FP better than that of the bulk total organic carbon. In limited tests, PAC removed polyamine-derived precursors, but did not remove polyDADMAC-derived precursors. GAC did not appear to be effective at removing polyDADMAC-derived precursors. Thus, polymer management and the use of alternative polymers must also be considered. Biofiltration sometimes removed NDMA precursors. But more often, it raised the NDMA FP. This suggests that bacteria sloughed off the biofilter and/or their soluble microbial products may be a source of precursors. Magnetic ion exchange removed some wastewater-derived precursors, but was also a source of precursors. Recommendations The bench-, pilot- and full-scale studies provided important information on the control of nitrosamine formation. This information was used to develop a decision tree to guide utilities through nitrosamine control strategies. Moreover, the information in this project should help regulators in developing standards for nitrosamines. Utilities should conduct initial studies on the occurrence of nitrosamines in their finished water. If significant levels are present, formation potential and simulated distribution tests should be conducted to determine the source(s) of precursors, the efficacy of existing treatment and disinfection processes, and the ability of modifications in treatment and/ or pre-oxidation on nitrosamine control. However, strategies to control nitrosamines must be balanced with the formation of other DBPs. This project, along with other Water Research Foundation studies, will help determine cost-effective methods for utilities to control nitrosamine formation. For more information on this and other Water Research Foundation reports, visit www.waterrf.org

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Guest Comment

Understanding the ongoing climate change debate By Dr. Bernard Fleet


ccording to Lord Nicholas Stern, former World Bank finance director and advisor to the UK government on climate change: “Climate change is the greatest market failure the world has ever seen.” This assessment is supported by well over 90% of the scientific community, many of whom also believe that we only have a moderate chance of restraining global warming below a further 2°C by 2050. The scale of the risk involved can be measured by the fact that the most recent spate of climate disasters, including Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy in the U.S. and Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines, reflect a less than 1°C rise in temperature since 1975. The magic 2°C target that has been discussed is based on what most experts believe is achievable in the best case and not on any serious risk assessment of what impact this might have on our climate. In 1988, the United Nations set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This body was charged with assessing all available information on climate change and preparing a review of the social and economic impacts. These reports, compiled by hundreds of climate scientists across the world, are massive documents, with the Fifth Assessment Report published in 2014, running to well over 2,000 pages. In addition, the UN has held yearly conferences since 1995 under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), where the parties to the Kyoto Protocol are charged with assessing progress in dealing with climate change. Yet, in spite of these annual meetings with thousands of manhours of discussions, the UNFCCC has yet to come up with a global policy on how to address the issue. The first Conference of the Parties, or COP-1, was held in Berlin and we are now looking forward some 16 years later to COP-21 that will be held in Paris in late 2015. The scientific community

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is waiting in anticipation as this meeting is seen as a make-or-break event. How is it possible that, after more than 20 major international conferences, supported by dozens of specialist sub-meetings, the world has failed to reach a binding global consensus on how to solve this problem? A major barrier is that there are two groups in the debate, who are as yet unable to bridge their differences. On the one side are the industrialized nations, referred to as the Global North. On the other side are the developing and less-developed nations of the Global South. This latter group is made up of both rapidly industrializing nations such as China and India, as well as many of the poorer nations and small-island states, which are already experiencing the most severe impacts from climate change. The Global South group have made the compelling claim that, “since climate change has been caused by the rampant industrial development in the West, plus their energy intensive lifestyle, then they should pick up the bill

for cleaning up.” This barrier is being addressed to some extent by the creation of a Green Climate Fund. However, originally projected to raise $100 billion per year, it is woefully undersubscribed. But, the wider problem can be traced to the general apathy of the public for whom climate change is still not a critical issue. Politicians recognise this fact; hence climate change is not high on the national political agenda. I teach a graduate course on climate change and the low-carbon economy, and have had a chance to meet with many climate scientists and economists and explore their views. While underlining issues such as the depressed economy, job security and the fact that climate change is “in the future,” it would seem that there are at least three main barriers that are thwarting the path to a positive resolution. Climate science disinformation In a recent 2015 public opinion poll conducted by the Pew Research Centre, 87% of scientists affirm that human accontinued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Guest Comment tivity is driving global warming whereas barely half of the American public support this view. This whole saga of denial is a continuation of a well-known strategy and involves many of the same players who successfully delayed action on acid rain, smoking and health, and the ozone layer. Climate change gets “repositioned” as global warming theory, not fact. These groups are able to employ their massive resources to oppose any climate change initiatives. There are two critical issues here. The U.S. is a major GHG emitter. Its failure to meet its obligations is a major disincentive to other countries from becoming more proactive. It potentially has great leverage to exert pressure on other countries to reduce emissions which it could do via various embargoes or trade sanctions. The second concern is more fundamental. Since democracy depends on an electorate that is accurately informed on critical issues like climate change, groups that promote climate change denial while being fully aware of the facts, not only endanger the environment but also undermine democracy Scientific uncertainty and public perception One problem arises from the way in which scientists present their results on climate change. Not generally given to hyperbole, they do not say, “these results indicate that we are all going to die!” Rather, they present their forecasts for global warming as a range of predictable upper and lower limits. There are presently around 30 major research groups around the world that carry out climate change modeling. Naturally, outputs depend on the assumptions made in creating the model, so results will vary between each institute. However, all do show a clear trend to increasing temperatures. Differences among the various forecasts for both the limits and the high/low range are seized on by climate sceptics as evidence that the science is uncertain. Also, the general public is confused by the high and low forecasts. Given a choice between bad news and less-bad news, the public invariably chooses the lesser evil. 12 | May/June 2015

In April, Ontario Premier Kathleen Wynne announced a cap-and-trade system to limit greenhouse gas pollution in the province. Photo: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.

Simply put, the general public, facing the prospect of giving up their cars and turning their air conditioners down or off to avoid an uncertain event that might happen 40 years in the future, shows little enthusiasm. Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman, whose research involves a study of the psychological biases that distort rational thinking, describes this behaviour as “loss aversion.” In this theory, people are far more sensitive to losses than to gains. Climate change thinking is a perfect example. Here, the public perceives this as a distant problem that would require major sacrifices now in order to avoid uncertain losses far in the future. The demise of scientific journalism The third major roadblock, which also has a big impact on public perception, is the demise of science journalism. As the news media, especially newspapers, shed large numbers of jobs, there is a dearth of serious coverage of science in general and climate change issues in particular. Media coverage of climate change, although increasing recently, is generally of poor quality. In the U.S. in particular, the media often portrays both sides of the climate change issue as an equal debate between the pros and

cons. It tends to give equal weight to the pros, which consist of over 90% of serious reputable scientists, with the 10% fringe, who block climate action. In developing countries, despite experiencing the most severe effects of climate change, media coverage is even worse. Many journalists and officials in charge of natural resources are woefully ignorant of both the basics of climate change and the efforts being made to address the problem. Conclusions The most recent IPCC Fifth Assessment Report tells us that the news is not good. The rate of global warming is increasing and, furthermore, on our current “business-as-usual path,” the chances of stabilizing the warming to below 2°C by 2050 are looking much less likely. The UN meeting in Paris is proposing to put in place a roadmap to stabilizing global warming. This legally-binding agreement will come into force by 2020. We can only hope that these plans will materialize. Dr. Bernard Fleet is Adjunct Professor, Ryerson University, Division of Environmental Applied Science & Management. Email: fleetec@gmail.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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On-site Sewage Treatment

Decentralized sewage system allows rural P.E.I. long-term care facility to proceed By Kelly Galloway and Dennis Hallahan


he Burnside Community Care Home in Clyde River, Prince Edward Island, is a new, three-level, 40 bed assisted living facility. It has wheelchair accessible showers, a dining room, community room, a chapel, beauty salon, activity room and two lounges. Located in a rural area, connection to a city sewer system was not an option. Facility owner Alan MacPhee, of Hartshire Holdings, needed to find a long-term, on-site sewage treatment system solution. However, the initial engineering opinion was not encouraging. “We were told that the soil conditions were not suitable,” said MacPhee. He then contacted Engineering Technologies Canada Ltd. (ETC), who assessed the subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions at the site. Several test pits were excavated to log changes in the soil profile, such as texture, structure, relative density and consistence. The native glacial till generally consisted of compact, weakly structured, fine sandy loam. During test pitting, the presence of shallow bedrock and evidence of a seasonal high groundwater table were also noted. Test pit investigation was supplemented with in situ permeability testing to determine the field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) of the upper soil horizons. Pask constant head permeameters, designed by ETC for on-site sewage disposal assessments, were used for this testing. The sandy loam soil had a relatively slow hydraulic conductivity in the range of Kfs = 4x10-6 m/s, which is typical of many areas of P.E.I. and the Maritime provinces. Design approach The sewage system was to be designed for a projected peak daily flow of 14,245 l/day. This is relatively high, given the limited land area available for an effluent dispersal system. Both conventional septic and advanced waste-

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The system was designed to have the longest cross-slope dimension possible, while fitting within the property boundaries.

water treatment options were explored in a preliminary engineering feasibility study. A solution was needed that could overcome the subsurface and site limitations, and be cost-effective to install and operate. Upon completion of the feasibility study, ETC recommended an Advantex™ synthetic packed bed filter treatment system, and a pressurized Infiltrator™ leaching chamber dispersal field to receive final effluent. Although vertical permeability was limiting, the land had a gentle slope of approximately 3%, which would allow lateral flow away from the leaching chamber distribution trenches. The dispersal field was designed as a raised bed, using engineered sand fill. A less permeable “common fill” was specified for the ends and backslope of the raised bed, to contain and help direct the effluent flow. Engineered sand fill specifications Specifications for the engineered sand fill were chosen to maximize its

hydraulic capacity, while also providing a final polishing step for the secondary effluent. Significant attention was paid to the permeability of the sand, with an acceptable Kfs range set at 1x10-4 to 5x10-4 m/s. Strict grain size criteria were also established, including a maximum “fines” content of 4% passing the 75μm (#200) sieve, a minimum effective size (D10>0.15mm) and a maximum uniformity coefficient (Cu<5). The contractor had to search to find the right sand to meet the specs, but this was important to achieve the longterm performance required. Other types of sand proposed by the contractor included CSA A23.1 (ASTM C-33) fine aggregate, a material commonly available from ready-mixed concrete plants. However, the specifications for concrete fine aggregate have been designed to optimize the flowability, strength and other properties of concrete mixes. Many concrete sands have a relatively high fines content and are well graded.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

On-site Sewage Treatment

Left to right: Kelly Galloway, Alan MacPhee, and installer/ operator, Philip Clark holding bottle of clear effluent.

This causes them to pack tightly, an undesirable characteristic for septic fill. Land-based effluent dispersal The combination of advanced secondary treatment with a strict sand fill specification allowed the land-based effluent dispersal (LBED) system to be designed using a hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 50 l/day/m2 of bottom infiltrative surface area. This resulted in a raised bed having a footprint approximately half the size of what would have been recommended for a conventional drain field that receives septic tank effluent. A Darcy’s Law analysis was performed to check that effluent mounding within the sand bed would not be excessive. This approach to determining the maximum system linear loading rate is endorsed by the new CSA B65-12 installation code for decentralized wastewater systems. At the Burnside site, this meant the LBED system was designed to have the longest cross-slope dimension possible to reasonably fit within the property boundaries. This also left room to expand the system in future, if necessary.

Infiltrator leaching chamber dispersal field was installed in a raised-bed of special sand fill.

chambers has been detected. The dispersal field is designed with multiple zones, each fed via a mechanical distribution (indexing) valve. This allowed the use of small, lightweight, and inexpensive pumps and will simplify future expansion. For enhanced reliability, the mechanical distributing valves are fitted with IVM6000-LP electronic valve

monitors. The entire sewage system can be remotely monitored and controlled. Kelly A. Galloway, P.Eng., is with Engineering Technologies Canada Ltd. Email: kelly@engtech.ca. Dennis F. Hallahan, PE, is with Infiltrator Systems. Email: dhallahan@infiltratorsystems.net

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Remote monitoring and reliability The pressure distribution laterals are fitted with maintenance ports at the ends of each line. These will be used to periodically check the residual pressure head and to perform flushing of the laterals when necessary. Inspection ports have also been provided in each trench to monitor effluent levels. So far, no effluent ponding within the leaching www.esemag.com

May/June 2015 | 15


Proper sizing and scaling of oil-grit separators By Joel Garbon


il-grit separators (OGS) have long been used to treat stormwater run-off and snow melt from roadways, ports, industrial and commercial sites, fueling stations, parking structures and residential developments. OGS devices are now also being applied as pretreatment in a treatment train approach, including low impact development (LID) applications. The primary treatment mechanisms of these devices are gravity separation and spill capture. During storm events high specific gravity particulates suspended in the influent, such as sand and degraded asphalt, settle to the sump of the OGS treatment chamber. Low specific gravity pollutants, such as oil and buoyant trash, are separated and trapped within the device. Dry weather spills of oil and fuel are likewise captured within the device. Some OGS devices, when applied directly in-line with the drainage network, have design features that prevent re-suspension and washout of previously captured pollutants during high intensity run-off events. Others are prone to scour and should be placed off-line. OGS devices typically are vertically oriented cylinders (manholes) or multi-chambered rectangular vaults, and contain a permanent pool of water in the treatment chamber(s). Often a device will contain components that direct the influent flow path, attenuate water velocity, and enhance the sediment and floatables removal. Such components might include various pipe geometries and arrangements, weirs, baffles and screens. While components vary, all OGS devices depend on gravity and detention time to separate pollutants. The settling velocity of sand and silt particles and the rise rate of light liquids (oil and fuel) are highly dependent on particle or droplet size and specific gravity. For sediments, the larger the particle size and the higher the specific gravity, the faster the particle will settle. Coarse road sand settles much more rapidly than silt-sized particles of tire

16 | May/June 2015

Site installation of an oil-grit separator.

crumb or vegetation. For light liquids, the larger the droplet size and the lower the specific gravity, the faster the liquid will rise. In order to effectively separate particulate and light liquid pollutants, the OGS device must be appropriately sized to provide adequate detention time for targeted pollutants to be captured. Regulatory treatment requirements typically specify a target annual average removal percentage of suspended solids in the run-off, and ideally specify both the targeted particle size distribution (PSD)

and specific gravity. For example, a municipality may require 80% annual average removal of a PSD comprised of sand and silt fractions, and assume a specific gravity (s.g.) typical of road sand (s.g. = 2.65). Provincial and municipal regulatory agencies have increasingly recognized that disparities exist in the methods used by various OGS manufacturers for sizing and scaling their devices. In many instances, these disparities have resulted in the installation of an OGS device continued overleaf...

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Stormwater Tested model

Surface area scaled models

Volumetric scaled models


1200 mm

1800 mm

2400 mm

1800 mm

2400 mm


1200 mm

1800 mm

2400 mm

1800 mm

2400 mm

Design flow rate (l/min)






Design surface loading rate (lpm/m2)






Table 1. Illustrating the design OGS flow rates and surface loading rates that result from surface area scaling and volumetric scaling. Compared to the tested model, larger scaled models have identical surface loading rates when surface area scaling is used. However, surface loading rates progressively increase with larger scaled models when volumetric scaling is used, resulting in decreased treatment performance compared to the tested unit.

that is undersized for a particular site. It cannot provide adequate wet volume and detention time for separation of the targeted PSD, or adequate sediment and oil storage volume for the pollutant loads transported in site run-off during the specified maintenance interval. Additionally, undersized units are

much more vulnerable to re-suspension and washout of previously captured pollutants. Far too often, an engineer designs an OGS device that is properly sized for the site of interest, and then the device is swapped out for an undersized device at the contractor level. This practice defeats the regulatory stormwater

quality objectives that are designed to protect water resources. A properly sized OGS device takes into account a PSD that is realistically representative of the actual suspended solids fractions present in typical urban run-off. Ideally it includes a provision for specific gravity. The unit’s design

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Stormwater provides adequate detention time for separation of both the coarse and fine particulate fractions, as well as adequate storage volume for at least two years of accumulated sediment and oil, without compromising scour prevention measures. An OGS device is improperly sized when it is based on sizing with a PSD that is coarser than the particulate fractions found in real run-off. Or if it has insufficient sediment and oil storage capacity to accommodate the planned maintenance interval. A properly scaled OGS device uses sedimentation surface area as the basis for the flow ratings of various model sizes within the particular device portfolio, with a minimum provision for the depth dimension. This scaling methodology is known as “surface area scaling.” OGS laboratory testing at various flow rates using specified test sediment of known PSD and specific gravity, results in a data set that allows determination of the particulate removal efficiency at various discrete surface loading rates. Surface loading rate is defined as the influent flow rate divided by the sedimentation surface area within the device (typically the cross-sectional area of the treatment chamber). It is typically expressed in units of litres per minute per square metre (lpm/m2). Surface area scaling generally provides consistent attenuation of stream velocity from the inlet to the outlet. It is scientifically defensible and has long been standard practice in the design of clarifiers in water and wastewater treatment plants. For example, suppose a cylindrical OGS device with inside diameter of 1200 mm and depth of 1200 mm (depth is distance from outlet pipe invert to the floor of the treatment chamber) is tested in the laboratory and demonstrates 60% removal of the specified test sediment at a surface loading rate of 1000 lpm/m2. Proper scaling would require that other model sizes are assigned design flow rates consistent with a surface loading rate of 1000 lpm/m2 to achieve 60% sediment removal. Additionally, depth would be either identical to the depth of the tested unit (this provides identical design flow detention time, calculated as treatment chamber wet volume divided by influent volumetric flow rate) or alternatively, www.esemag.com

the ratio of diameter to depth would be consistent with the tested device (in this case 1:1), so a model with inside diameter of 1800 mm would have depth of 1800 mm. For models that are larger diameter than the tested device, the latter depth provision conservatively provides more resistance to scour. Improperly scaled OGS devices assign progressively higher surface loading rates to model sizes larger than the

tested unit, based on increased depth of the larger unit. With the scaling methodology known as “volumetric scaling”, the ratio of design flow rate to treatment chamber wet volume is consistent between the test unit and larger model sizes. This is also the case with surface area scaling, when depth is identical between the test unit and other model sizes. However, volumetric scaling permits continued overleaf...


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Stormwater an increase in design flow rate, simply by holding diameter constant and increasing depth. This is flawed, since the typical flow paths from inlet to outlet in OGS devices do not provide the same degree of attenuation of stream velocity when depth is increased as when diameter is increased. Finer particle fractions with lower settling velocities are therefore more likely to remain entrained in the stream, from inlet to outlet at the higher surface loading rate and not be captured. The implication is that sediment removal efficiency progressively declines for larger model sizes compared to the smaller test unit when volumetric scaling is applied. As a result, regulatory agencies have increasingly disallowed volumetric scaling. They have specified surface area scaling, with a minimum provision for the depth dimension as the proper scaling methodology. Table 1 shows the differences in surface loading rates for larger scaled models compared to the smaller tested model when surface area scaling and volumet-

Internal view of an oil-grit separator during laboratory testing.

ric scaling are used. It is apparent that volumetric scaling is too aggressive, resulting in a doubling of the surface loading rate for the 2400 mm scaled model compared to the 1200 mm tested model. The Canadian Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has published a new protocol document, titled Procedure for Laboratory Testing

of Oil-Grit Separators. Methodologies are prescribed for determining sediment removal efficiency, resistance to resuspension and washout of previously captured sediment, and resistance to washout of previously captured light liquid. Each of these tests are performed over a wide range of surface loading rates to simulate storm events ranging from very low intensity to very high intensity. Notably, the document also prescribes surface area scaling with a minimum provision for the depth dimension, as the proper scaling methodology for OGS devices sold and installed in Canada. It is expected that municipalities across Canada will begin requiring ETV testing, and that regulators will understand and enforce the proper design and sizing of OGS units based on the verified performance results. Improvement and consistency in OGS sizing and scaling practices will result in more effective stormwater treatment applications. Joel Garbon is with Imbrium Systems. Email: jgarbon@imbriumsystems.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Drinking Water Quality

Bypass system eliminates dead ends in water distribution networks By Jahangir Chowdhury


here are large numbers of dead ends in the branching pattern of water supply systems where water does not circulate but remains static. These lead to poor water quality due to stagnation in the grid pattern system. More than two pressure zones can also create a dead end condition due to pressure separation valves (see Figure 1). Sediment accumulates due to stagnation and bacterial growth may occur. To overcome this problem, drain valves are provided at dead ends. Stagnant water is drained out by periodically opening these valves but a large amount of water is wasted. Eliminating or improving dead end conditions will reduce water loss from flushing, minimize operating costs, and continued overleaf...



Low Pressure Zone

High Pressure Zone

Valve Normally Closed Downstream Length

Upstream Length


Figure 1. Dead end configuration in water distribution grid system.

May/June 2015 | 21

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improve water quality. Manually or automatically operated bypass arrangements to displace the column of stagnated water from high-pressure zone to low pressure zone can resolve dead end conditions in grid pattern systems. Stagnant water Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing. Due to installation of a pressure separation valve between two pressure zones, a part of the pipe upstream and downstream of it remain stagnant for an indefinite period of time. This water can be a major environmental hazard. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), there are two ways that water age contributes to quality deterioration: • If an interaction takes place between the pipe wall and the water. • If a reaction between organic material and chlorine creates disinfection byproducts. The EPA says: “Some studies suggest a shelf life of three, five, or seven days, depending on water quality parameters.” Stagnant water needs to be displaced during the shelf life to avoid interaction between the pipe wall and the water. The objective is to determine the potential total stagnant volume, then design the bypass piping configuration and controls to displace the volume from high-pressure zone to low-pressure zone on a daily basis.

Tap Tap Water Meter

Solenoid Valve

Globe Valve

Globe Valve



Valve Normally Closed

Low Pressure Zone

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Figure 2. Bypass pipe assembly.

15 – 50 mm diameter bypass line controlled by a solenoid valve and timer, a water meter with remote readout for flow measurements, taps for air release from the bypass pipe, and two globe valves (see Figure 2). The programmable solenoid timer will regulate opening and closing of the solenoid valve to allow passage through

The EPA says: “Some studies suggest a shelf life of three, five, or seven days, depending on water quality parameters.” Stagnant water needs to be displaced during the shelf life to avoid interaction between the pipe wall and the water.

Up and downstream pressure Maximum, minimum and average day pressures in the upstream zone must be relatively higher than the same pressures in the downstream zone. Average day pressure difference between two operating zones can be considered for the design of a bypass system. The smallest pressure difference whenever it does occur in the system will yield the most conservative bypass flow between pressure zones. A higher-pressure difference will increase flow and velocity through the bypass pipe but will reduce the total flushing time of stagnant water.

the bypass line at the pre-set time and duration. The remote reader of the water meter can be positioned close to the fence line, or mounted to an existing signpost or street lighting pole.

Bypass assembly The bypass assembly consists of a

Hydraulic design The size of the bypass pipe is based

22 | May/June 2015

on the difference in pressure on either side of the pressure separation valve. The flow and the velocity can be determined using the hydraulic model. Head losses are calculated using Hazen-Williams equation, assuming a material roughness of C=100. Total head loss due to friction, valves, water meter, fittings, entrance and exit, is equal to the pressure difference between two pressure zones. The recommended maximum velocity through the bypass pipe is up to 4.5 m/s. Several trial runs of a hydraulic model will be required for different sizes of bypass to keep velocities to less than 4.5 m/s, and to keep the flushing time to a minimum. With the increase of the size of bypass, flushing time will reduce but flow and velocity through the bypass pipe will increase. Flushing time Once the size of the bypass line and the flow rate are determined from the results of hydraulic analysis, the duration of flushing of the column of stagnated water from high-pressure zone to low pressure zone can be calculated. The recommended flushing time is a maximum four hours on a daily basis. Jahangir Chowdhury, M.Sc., P. Eng., is with Aecom. Email: jahangir.chowdhury@aecom.com

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Grit Removal

Selecting grit removal technologies can be a challenge By Marcia Sherony

Typical aerated grit basin.

24 | May/June 2015


emoval of grit from incoming raw water flow is increasingly seen as a key stage in modern wastewater treatment. Effective removal technology offers essential protection to downstream processes and mechanical equipment. The benefits in improved treatment process efficiency and reducing costs of maintenance and plant replacement, can quickly pay back the investment. Despite significant advances in understanding grit behaviour, selecting grit removal technologies can be a challenge for owners and engineers. This is due to the lack of comparative data available and often conflicting performance claims. There has also been no accepted, peer-reviewed test standard for grit sampling and analysis.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Grit Removal Grit comparison sampling methodologies Settling velocity is important, as most grit separation and removal technologies, such as sedimentation basins and forced vortex technologies, rely on gravity as the predominant force. Particle settling velocity influences sedimentation basin sizing and is influenced by particle size, shape and density. A comparative study of the efficiency of wastewater grit removal technologies was conducted using identical and consistent sampling analysis methodology. To ensure accurate, consistent, repeatable and reproducible results, a sampling technique widely used by engineers and sewage plant operators was used. This is the vertical slot sampler (VSS) which is designed to draw off a known vertical slice of the influent and/ or effluent water column to provide an accurate sample of solids. VSS results corroborate the operating performance at those plants with respect to grit removal. The methodology can be used to compare grit removal efficiency

of various technologies. VSS data has been widely used in other published papers and articles. Removal technology comparisons To compare the effectiveness of different technologies, the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD) in Virginia, performed comprehensive testing at five of its wastewater treatment plants using the VSS sampling method. Tested equipment included three different mechanically-induced vortex systems, a detritus sedimentation tank system and an aerated grit system. During the same period, HRSD conducted a side-by-side pilot test comparing stacked tray Eutek HeadCell® and a structured flow vortex Grit King® from Hydro International. As the period under study coincided with extended dry weather, aerated grit system (AGB) data collected at the HRSD plant was inconclusive. Flows were insufficient to re-suspend grit and sediment in the collection system and transport it to the treatment plant. As this was unrepresentative of performance un-

der normal operation, the HRSD AGB data was excluded and replaced by AGB data from Columbus, Georgia. This provided a meaningful performance comparison.

Schematic of mechanically-induced vortex unit.

Mechanically-Induced Vortex The Chesapeake-Elizabeth Treatment Plant is a 91 million litres/day (ML/d) capacity plant operating with an average flow of approximately 72 ML/d. Grit removal equipment consists of two 7.3 metre diameter mechanically-induced continued overleaf...

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Grit Removal vortex (MIV) units. One unit was in operation during the study. The design removal parameter for each unit is 95% removal of 150µm particles, 2.65 specific gravity (s.g.), at 114 ML/d, and 95% removal of 270µm particles, 2.65 s.g., at 265 ML/d. Average flow during testing was 71.1 ML/d, which is well below the rated capacity of the grit unit. The observed removal efficiency was 48% - 52% of all grit 150µm and larger and 45% - 50% of all grit 106µm and larger. Removal efficiency of particles >297µm, a slightly larger particle than the performance claim, was 72% - 78% or roughly 20% less than the claimed removal. The Virginia Initiative Plant is a 151 ML/d capacity plant with an average flow of approximately 110 ML/d. The plant employs three 6.1 metre diameter MIV units. One unit was in operation during the study. The manufacturer states each unit will remove 65% of 150μm grit, 2.0 s.g., at 101 ML/d. Average flow during three

days of testing was 99.2 ML/d, very near the rated capacity of the grit units. The observed removal efficiency was 43% - 45% of all grit 150µm and larger, 20% below the claimed efficiency, and 43% - 44% of all grit 106µm and larger. Testing results for the mechanically-induced vortex technology were considerably below the manufacturer’s claimed removal efficiency, even when running well below design flows. The highest observed removal efficiency was for large grit particles. This was approximately 60%+ removal of particles larger than 297µm. There was very low performance removing smaller particles, with less than 30% removal of particles 210µm and smaller. At the Chesapeake-Elizabeth Treatment Plant, the observed removal efficiency of grit particles 150µm and larger was more than 40% less than the stated claim. Based on the surface loading rate (SLR), the MIV technology would, in theory, be expected to retain a large percentage of particles approximately

165µm and larger. Observed removal efficiency for much larger particles, 297µm and larger, was only 72% - 78%. The low removal efficiency suggests the importance of considering the likely effects of grit settling velocity and other criteria.

Typical detritus sedimentation tank.

Detritus sedimentation tank system The James River Treatment Plant is a 76 ML/d capacity plant with an average flow of approximately 49 ML/d. Four detritus sedimentation tank (DST) units, each 8.5 metres in diameter have a design capacity of 24.6 ML/d.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Grit Removal Each unit is designed to remove grit particles 150µm and larger, with 2.65 s.g. Average flow during three days of testing was 48.75 ML/d with one of the DST units out of service. Therefore, each unit was processing approximately 16.27 ML/d or roughly 33% below their rated capacity. The observed removal efficiency was 66% - 73% of all grit 150µm and larger and 57% - 68% of all grit 106µm and larger. While test data indicates the DST system achieves higher removal efficiency than the MIV technology, it also fell short of design removal efficiency, while operating at 66% of design flow. Test data shows relatively high removal efficiencies of large grit particles, as would be expected, but reduced capability of removing smaller particles. Although an older style technology, sampling and analysis for the detritus tank displayed some of the higher removal efficiencies of the technologies tested. Removal efficiency would be

expected to decline at peak design flow. Aerated grit basins The City of Columbus, Georgia, South Water Reclamation Facility operates four aerated grit basins (AGB) with a combined average flow of 106 ML/d. The plant has two AGBs that are 5.18 x 11.89 metres and two basins 3.96 x 10.97 metres. No design data was available. However, based on the calculated SLR of 0.35 m3/min./m2 the AGBs would be expected to remove a significant percentage of fine particles, 106µm and below. Once the flow reaches 132.5 ML/d, the SLR increases to 0.435 m3/min./m2 and removal efficiency decreases. Based on SLR alone, the basin would still be expected to retain a percentage of fine particles at 132.5 ML/d, with particle size retained increasing and overall capture efficiency decreasing, as flow continues to rise. A rain event occurred on one of the three days of testing. When the flow to the grit chamber increased during wet

weather, removal efficiency decreased, as would be expected. Observed removal efficiency was 35-70% of all grit 150µm and larger and 32-67% of all grit 106µm and larger when wet weather data was included. Removal efficiency improves to 58-70% of all grit 150µm and larger and 53-67% of all grit 106µm and larger during average flow of 106 ML/d. While excluding results during the wet weather event indicates improved performance, removal efficiency is well below what would be expected based solely on SLR. The aerated grit basin results were comparable to those for the detritus sedimentation tank system during the plant average flow. However, during wet weather, removal efficiency was reduced to 32.5%. Even considering the small increase in flow during the rain event, which was 135% - 175% on average, the quantity of grit increased substantially from 3.36 g/m3 to 8.89 g/m3. The fraction of grit smaller than 297µm also increased significantly. continued overleaf...

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Grit Removal A reduction in removal efficiency at higher flows is expected. However, during the elevated flow, influent grit concentration also increased by a factor of more than 2.5 times dry weather influent levels. A removal efficiency of 32% - 35% of the heavier grit load will obviously not be adequate to protect the plant from deposition and abrasive wear. HRSD piloted two new grit removal systems side by side for their Army Base Treatment Plant using the same sampling and testing methodology. Stacked tray system The stacked tray HeadCell unit was fed at 38.6 - 38.8 m3/hr. At that flow rate it was designed to remove 95% of all grit 75µm and larger, with 2.65 s.g. Observed removal efficiency was 92% - 93% of all grit 150µm and larger and 89% - 90% of all grit 106µm and larger. Structured Flow System During side-by-side testing the 1.2 metre diameter structured flow Grit

Grit King structured flow system. Eutek HeadCell stacked tray system.

King pilot unit was fed at a rate of 38.8 m3/hr on the first day and 25.4 m3/hr on the second day. The design removal parameter at the higher flow is 95% of all grit 106µm and larger, 2.65 s.g. At the lower flow of 25.4 m3/hr. the removal would be expected to be 95% of all grit 75µm and larger, 2.65 s.g. The observed removal efficiency was 90% - 95% of all grit 150µm and larger and 87% - 93% of all grit 106µm and larger. Both technologies displayed the

highest removal efficiency. In all cases >87.5% of all influent grit 106µm and larger was captured. While a pilot study, the results are consistent with full scale performance tests using the identical test method at other facilities. Measured removal efficiency for both technologies was slightly below that claimed by the manufacturer, but within +/- 8%. This small deviation is very near the margin of error in testing. Comparatively, these two technologies provide 93%+ removal of particontinued overleaf...

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Grit Removal

Technology Detritus tank

Percent of design flow 66

Aerated grit basins (AGB)

66 - 100

Mechanically-induced vortex (MIV)

27 - 90

Stacked tray Structured flow vortex

100 66 - 100

Design removal efficiency at 100% flow

Total percent removal 150 µm and up

Total percent removal 106 µm and up

66 - 71

57 - 68

35 - 70

32 - 67

43 - 52

43 - 50

91 - 92.5

89 - 90

90 - 95

87 - 93

150 µm and larger, 2.65 s.g. N/A 95% removal of 270 µm, 2.65 s.g. 65% removal of 150 μm, 2.0 s.g. 95% removal of 75 µm, 2.65 s.g. 95% removal of 75 µm, 2.65 s.g.

Relative performance of grit removal devices.

cles larger than 300µm. Observed removal efficiency of particles between 150 - 210µm was only slightly less and ranged from 78-90%+. Overall conclusions Grit sampling using the vertical slot sampler method produces results that are repeatable, accurate and effective. Results corroborate grit system performance and plant operating history, therefore providing insights into what most operators experience. Using this common testing method, the performance of various grit removal technologies can be compared. This data can assist in improving system design and advanced processes. Removal efficiency Based on the reported and referenced testing, the technologies that displayed the lowest removal efficiencies were the AGB and the MIV systems. Observed removal efficiency for both technologies was well below claimed removal at peak flows. The structured flow vortex and stacked tray vortex units had very high removal rates, none lower than 87.5% of incoming grit 106µm and larger. These results are significantly (20% - 55%) higher than any of the other technologies tested. Over the life of the facility, the difference in captured grit is substantial. High removal results were achieved with the equipment running at 30 | May/June 2015

peak design flow. None of the technologies tested met their performance claim exactly. Those that targeted the finest particles displayed the best results and came closest to achieving their performance claim. Systems designed for high removal ef-

Wet weather is an important consideration in grit system design. One would expect the greatest increase would be coarse grit particles, but the overall gradation was finer. Overall, a 60% increase in flow resulted in a 48% decrease in performance. ficiency of small particles, 106µm and finer, should remove 85% or more of grit entering the plant. Flow performance variation The observed decrease in performance with increased flows provides strong evidence that the tested technologies are strongly influenced by loading rate and gravity to capture and retain grit. A better understanding of in situ grit settling velocity will allow for more

efficient design. This would afford the plant increased protection from abrasive wear and deposition. Wet weather is an important consideration in grit system design. One would expect the greatest increase would be coarse grit particles, but the overall gradation was finer. Overall, a 60% increase in flow resulted in a 48% decrease in performance. Significant increase in grit volumes during wet weather events is a common phenomenon and indicates the need to design the grit system for effective removal at peak hydraulic loadings. The AGB and MIV performed poorly at peak design flow and, based on the data, the DST would be expected to perform similarly to the AGB. Observed removal efficiencies were less than what would be expected, based on surface loading rate alone. This indicates process inefficiencies or grit settling velocity implications. Designing the grit removal system for high removal efficiency at peak hydraulic loading will protect the plant from the negative impacts of grit. Advanced, compact, high-efficiency grit removal processes are therefore the more appropriate proven choice to protect from deposition, abrasive wear and associated costs from this nuisance material. Marcia Sherony is with Hydro International. Email: msherony@hydro-int.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine




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The benefits and challenges of water/wastewater monitoring in winter By Christopher Little

Remotely monitoring sites allowed Woodstock to remove snow in critical locations, rather than lift stations.


ike many municipal water and wastewater utilities, the Town of Woodstock, New Brunswick, has seen its share of ice and snow. Over the last 30 years, the town has averaged 272.20 cm of snow a year, with winter temperatures dropping as low as -26°C. Cold climates can play havoc with distribution infrastructure like pumps, tanks and valves, and make it dangerous or impossible to access them. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems unite remote equipment into a single interface that operators can manage without leaving the office. During winter months they can help ensure service, reduce costs, and keep operators safe and warm. In 2012, the town decided to replace the non-functioning SCADA software system that they had once used to monitor and control one of their wells, two booster pumps and three freshwater tanks. It was an old system and there was no longer anyone to support it since their old integrator had left the area. This was one of the reasons that VTScada from Trihedral was chosen

32 | May/June 2015

as the software platform for the new system. “One of the features I used to convince the Town to use this software was that we are not the only ones around who can support it,” said Michael Hickey, senior electrical design technologist with

In 2012, the town decided to replace the non-functioning SCADA software system that they had once used to monitor and control one of their wells, two booster pumps and three freshwater tanks. The Panel Shop, a Fredericton, New Brunswick based integrator, responsible for upgrading the utility’s SCADA system. “If something happened to us they could go to one of the other local inte-

grators who use it or they could get in contact with Trihedral directly. It makes a huge difference to them, knowing that support is going to be there.” VTScada’s built-in library of device drivers allowed the utility to keep their existing network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The new SCADA system has its own radios, so that it didn’t affect the existing system. This significantly reduced the cost and integration time for the conversion project. “One of our biggest concerns is that we often end up installing systems in the winter because of how municipal budgets work,” said Hickey. In addition to the inconvenience of working in the cold, this also can have repercussions for things like radio networks. “Sometimes we have communication problems that pop up in the spring as leaves start to grow. We then have to go back out to make adjustments,” said Hickey. The integration team configured the built-in alarms and trending tools to help operators identify when foliage begins to obstruct radio signals. Interruptions to the MODBUS connection for each location are monitored; a warning alarm is typically set at five minutes. “If it happens once a month, it’s no big deal. Chances are it’s a power outage. If operators are consistently getting warning alarms, they can start to track that trend and ask: ‘Is it happening the same time of day? Is it happening only in the winter? What is happening?’” said Hickey. “Wooden telephone poles are also a problem in extreme temperatures,” continued Hickey. “If you fix a directional antenna on a wooden pole in warmer weather, when it gets cold it shrinks and actually twists, then communications go bad. Once again SCADA trends helped to identify the issue. We actually brought outside temperature readings into the SCADA application to help identify this problem because we knew it only happened in extreme cold. The solution in that case was to put in a steel tower.”

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

SCADA Winter benefits of SCADA “One of the biggest benefits of SCADA in the winter is that utilities don’t have to remove snow after every snow event. If you have a snowfall on Monday and you know you will have a storm on Wednesday and another on Friday, you don’t have to remove snow three times. As long as there are no alarms and the radios are operating well, you can monitor sites remotely. That allows you to focus on critical things like clearing public roads. In Woodstock, they have one lift station that they never clean up unless they have a problem. This is quite a cost saving, especially in winters where we have had a lot of snow,” said Hickey. In addition to the PC workstation at the office, operators can access the system using an Internet (thin) client connection from a laptop that they carry at all times. They can connect from anywhere and see alarms. This has reduced overtime. They get paid for monitoring the system on weekends and evenings but if they have to leave their house they have to be paid more. If only one pump is down they can look at it and make a judgment call to simply acknowledge the alarm and go to the site during normal business hours. Support without winter travel The Panel Shop is located 100 km east of Woodstock. Since installation, it has remotely added new functionality to the system. ChangeSets are used

A custom display created with the VTScada Idea studio.

frequently. VTScada ChangeSets are a single compressed file that includes the entire SCADA application. They can be easily generated, shared, and imported into the SCADA system by end users with limited technical knowledge. “Typically when we go to a site it is not because of the SCADA system. It’s for things like adding hardware to existing sites. We also use desktop sharing software to provide instant electronic support to Woodstock when needed. Eliminating travel saves time and money,” said Hickey. SCADA systems typically include a central historical database populated by


data polled from the PLCs. This can be very helpful when explaining seasonal budgetary needs to town council. Communities are all strapped for cash, so they try to make do with their existing equipment. The benefit of a SCADA system is that the utility has an alarm system and data that they can take to council and say, “we are paying this much on overtime because we are getting these calls on this station.” This is the kind of proof they need to be able to get the funding to improve their system. Christopher Little is with Trihedral. Email: chris.little@trihedral.com

System Responsibility

Get it right at the headworks. Mission-critical processes downstream perform better. Downtime is greatly reduced. See the system running at:



May/June 2015 | 33

Odour Control

Design considerations for effective wastewater odour control covers By Brent Howe


common side effect of wastewater treatment processes is the unpleasant odour that can linger near the plant, annoying neighbours who then complain. Often, the wastewater treatment plant was built in an isolated part of town. Over the years, the town’s population grew until subdivisions were developed next to the plant. The new neighbours, offended by the odours, expect a resolution and know how to have their complaints taken seriously. Odour complaints become a political problem that must be solved. Budgets are allocated to study and solve the odour problem. Professional consultants are retained. Odour sources are identified and levels are quantified. Solutions are explored. Potential solutions include: • Manage the neighbours’ complaints. Explain to the public that the treatment plant is a necessary part of the town and is helping to fuel the local economy. • Stop the foul air production by introducing new treatment technologies, fine-tuning the treatment process, or adding chemicals to the wastewater. • Stop odours from being conveyed to neighbours by intercepting and treating/masking them with fogging/deodorizing systems, dilution by adding buffers, containment or capturing of odours with covers, and then withdrawal and treatment. These potential solutions are evaluated in light of certain basic realities: • The treatment plant cannot be moved. • Utilities do not have unlimited resources; there are many competing demands for budget allocations. • The treatment plant is a complex system that must be maintained so that it can continue to function. Any odour control solution must allow plant workers to continue to do their jobs efficiently, effectively and safely. • Often, periodic access to the tanks for inspection and maintenance is an important consideration.

34 | May/June 2015

A gas-tight cover prevents diffusion of odour vapours.

General design components The basic concept for an odour control cover system is to cover a wastewater tank to capture off-gas, then remove and treat the odours. For the purpose of this article, an odour control cover system is considered to have the following components: a fresh air inlet point, a gas-tight cover, a foul air withdrawal point, a blower with ductwork, and an odour treatment system. 1. Fresh air inlet point: This is an element that is often initially overlooked. The general design concept is that fresh air is drawn under the cover and mixes with foul air, and this mixture flows along under the cover until it is withdrawn. A fresh air inlet is therefore required. This is typically located at one end of a cover system, and the foul air withdrawal point is at the other end. 2. Gas-tight cover: From the designer’s point of view, the desire is to have a cover which is sufficiently gas-tight so that foul air does not escape through leak points. Excessive fresh air must not infiltrate through leak points along the cover, creating relative “dead spots” upstream. Here, off-gas could collect in concentrations that could potentially damage concrete or equipment under the cover.

From the treatment plant staff’s point of view, the desire is to have a functional system that controls odours while allowing them to operate and maintain the plant. This often involves full access below the cover for inspection and maintenance. 3. Foul air withdrawal point: The foul air withdrawal point is the point where ductwork connects to the cover system. The connection detail could be a duct stub, flanged duct or flexible coupler. 4. Blower and ductwork: The gas tightness of a cover is important because less leakage means that foul air can be removed using a smaller blower and ductwork. This reduces capital and operating costs. 5. Odour treatment system: Once foul air is captured and conveyed in a ductwork system, it can be treated by a variety of technologies such as a biofilter, wet scrubber, carbon filter, proprietary media, oxidation, hydroxyls, etc. Design considerations Most covers can be made sufficiently gas-tight through the use of ample caulking, gaskets and anchors. It is important to note that there can be a trade-off between gas tightness and ease of access.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Odour Control Full or partial access below the cover for inspection or maintenance is often desirable. With some covers, achieving full access means that the cover has to be either disassembled and removed in pieces, or lifted off as one unit using a crane. This requires resources and assumes that the cover removal is scheduled in advance as a planned maintenance activity. Full access in an emergency can be difficult. However, some covers are designed to provide both quick and easy full access and gas tightness. Ultimately, the choice of cover style depends on access requirements of the application. Choosing a cover designed to provide both ease of access and gas tightness can be beneficial in terms of both design and operation. Worker safety is always important at treatment plants and this certainly applies when covers are required to be opened for maintenance. If a cover is being manually disassembled and removed, the removal work necessarily creates openings through which workers could fall. This safety issue should be assessed and managed through the


This design controls odour while still providing easy access for inspection and maintenance.

cover system design. The height of the cover profile is an important consideration in choosing a system. Some cover systems have a flat profile, some have a low profile arched shape, and some have a high profile arched shape. A flat or low profile results in less air space below the cover. This allows use of a smaller mechanical system if the foul air withdrawal design is based on number of air changes per hour. A higher profile cover accommodates equipment protruding from the tank and

may allow workers to walk under the cover if the environment under the cover is safe for them to work in. However, it can require a larger mechanical ventilation system, which is more costly to install and operate. Typically, covered tanks will have a variety of penetrations through the cover. This can include pipes (discharge, aeration, water, etc.), valve operators, instrumentation, etc. All penetrations should be identified and coordinated with the cover manufacturer. Site-specific customization Almost every cover includes custom-designed elements. Factors that might influence a site-specific cover design include: a tank opening with an irregular shape; the presence of equipment that protrudes into the area to be covered; varying wall heights around a tank perimeter; and specific locations where inspection access is required. Brent Howe is with Geomembrane Technologies Inc. (GTI). Email: brent.m.howe@gticovers.com

May/June 2015 | 35

Water Supply

Waterless pipeline cleaning process saves time, money and resources By Kyle Verwey


lthough many solutions are needed to cope with drought, new trenchless technologies exist that can help prevent the massive amount of water losses common in aging underground water mains. Old metallic water mains become congested with tuberculation and corrosion that restricts flow and can produce poor water quality. The corrosion process also reduces the pipe’s structural properties, which may lead to leaks or breaks. Many leaks can remain undetected for years, wasting thousands of litres of clean water. To compensate for reduced flows through old congested pipes, utilities are forced to increase network pressures, causing a pipe failure at its weakest section. The result is a significant water release event, common in many cities today. Too few municipalities have annual programs in place to carry out maintenance or renewal of their aging, leaky water infrastructure. The majority of drinking water pipe failures are from piping that was installed pre-1950 and has operated beyond its 50-year design life span. Jim Lary, a NACE certified corrosion engineer, estimates there are over 250,000 water main breaks per year in the U.S. alone. The amount of piping installed post-1950 is dramatically more than that installed before 1950. Now, pipes that were installed in the 1960s and 1970s are reaching the end of their design life. Some estimates predict that rehabilitating North American water distribution networks to an acceptable level will require more than a trillion dollars over the next twenty years. Approximately 70% of buried pipes are in good structural condition, according to PICA, a pipeline assessment company in Edmonton, Alberta. Even at the end of their design life, pipes can continue to function with regular maintenance. It is during this “extra life” that municipalities are faced with the decision to replace or rehabilitate.

36 | May/June 2015

By using abrasives in a high-volume, low-pressure airstream, pipes can be cleaned and dried, in preparation for lining, without using water.

Replacement is most common and comes with a heavy price. However, rehabilitation approaches offer advantages over replacement. Today’s trenchless renewal options are among the least costly, lowest impact, and quickest to restore pipes back to full service. They can extend life by up to 50 years. Trenchless water main rehabilitation can be a significant contributor to reducing the number of leaks, breaks and unnecessary water releases in a water distribution network. Furthermore, areas under drought conditions are more susceptible to fires. Older, tuberculated water mains restrict the flow of water which can make the difference between saving a structure from fire or not. The more the distribution system has been cleaned and rehabilitated, the better assurance of adequate water supply to all areas where, and when, it is needed most. Most trenchless water pipe solutions require a clean and prepared pipe to host one of a variety of renewal or life extension methods. While most trenchless options limit the amount of environmental impact from greenhouse gas emissions and ground displacement, they generally consume a large amount

of clean water. As experts predict the shortage of water is only going to get worse, these wet cleaning methods are not ideal. Every aspect of water usage will be under increasing scrutiny as water conservation efforts take effect. This will be especially true when alternative waterless options are available, as is the case with water main cleaning. Common methods for cleaning buried pipe use power boring and flushing, high pressure water flushing, or scraping and flushing. Each of these options requires a large amount of water to either dislodge internal corrosion and tuberculation, or flush it from the pipe. Then, water is displaced into an access pit where it needs to be taken to a processing plant, or pumped into a nearby sanitary sewer. Tens of thousands of litres of clean water can be wasted in the process of cleaning the pipe. In most situations, trenchless rehabilitation projects will install a structural class 4 liner to fully replace the pipe. Based on the break history, age and condition of the pipe, it may be possible to coat the pipe with a class 1 barrier coating. This option can be significantly less than the cost of a class 4 liner. It can

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water Supply return the host pipe to full flow capacity while protecting it from further internal corrosion. Using a standard vacuum truck, Tomahawk injects dry abrasive materials in a high-volume, low-pressure air stream to clean corrosion and tuberculation from the interior of the pipe. The process also removes old tar or bitumen liners that may be present and which contribute to poor water quality. The pipe is left clean and dry, in compliance with SSPC-SP/ NACE No. 3, commercial blast standard. Using the Tomahawk Scout™, a CCTV camera with integrated abrasive deflector, service connections in the pipe can be “target” cleaned to a SSPCSP/NACE No. 2 standard. This degree of cleaning is crucial for maximum liner bond around any service connection to ensure leak-free liner performance. The dry process also reduces waste generated by up to 98% and virtually eliminates downtime required for disposal. The process is completely enclosed, so there will be nothing for curious residents to see during operation.

Watermain before cleaning. Corrosion and tuberculation restrict the flow of water.

Watermain after dry Tomahawk cleaning. Pipe is restored to full capacity.

The fully cleaned and prepared pipe may be analyzed with a pull through Ferroscope to determine the remaining wall thickness along the entire pipe. The on-site engineer can then determine which class of liner should be installed into the main. With specific liner installation op-

tions available on site at the time of inspection, the cost and time savings to municipalities can be substantial and more infrastructure can be renewed. Kyle Verwey is with Evanco Environmental Technologies Inc. Email: kverwey@evancoenviro.com

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2015-01-19 5:27 PM

Sustainable Energy from Ecosystems Biogas

Soil retaining system helps urban trees to reach Wastewater treatment facilities turning anaerobic maturity Byfor Eric Keshavarzi digestion energy uses By Richard Lowrie


reen infrastructure and susany moregoals wastewater tainability are oftreatinment plants (WWTPs)and are creasing importance, beginning use anaeroachieving themtorequires techbic and digesters nical knowledge trainingtoinproduce varied biogas that can be used in combined heat fields. Integration of soil and trees into and power to generate electricity urban areasplants substantially improves susand heat. In the plants areofselltainability andaddition, helps alleviate some our ing biogas into the gas grid. challenges. most pressing ecological This has led to more attention beThese include air and water quality, rising ing paid to measuring biogas flowfrom and temperatures, flooding and erosion composition. Proper gas engine operadaily rainfall events. tions uponLands, biogasinwith the right Thedepend West Don Toronto, On) content. New ultrasonic methane tario, is a(CH community that is people fo4 technology being developed to procused, familyis friendly, environmentally vide the kind reliable and accurate sustainable andof beautifully designed for flow measurement living. It has a Stage 1needed LEED to NDadvance GOLD this energy source. certification under the pilot program esAnaerobic digestion systems are tablished by the U.S. Green Building used in a variety of settings, including Council. wastewater treatment, food-waste proOne notable sustainable component, cessing,inand proutilized the agricultural design of the(manure) area’s streets, cessing. is a soil retaining system called Silva During anaerobic digestion, bacteria Cells™. Typical urban trees in the city breakdie down food waste, or core afterwastewater, approximately seven years. manure inSilva an oxygen-free However, Cells help environment, extend their producing biogas which typically conlife spans, thus promoting the growth of tains between 60% - 70% methane, mature street trees. 30% - 40% carbon (CO and Although the Citydioxide of Toronto had 2), pretrace amounts of other gases. viously used Silva Cells as The part effluof a ent remaining after controlled anaerobic stormwater management pilot program in The Queensway, their use as part of site

Installation of Silva Cells in Mill Street.

development is new. In fact, the West Don Lands streets are the first in a Toronto subdivision to be designed with this system installed under parking lay-bys and sidewalks. Mill Street was the first subdivision Optisonic 7300 ultrasonic meter. street in Toronto to be designed to include this soil retaining system. As the lead decomposition is low in odour and rich engineering consultant, R.V.Anderson in nutrientscoordinated and can beall recycled. Associates plans and specWWTPs finding ifications withintheparticular landscape are architect. that addingAbout anaerobic Silvadigestion Cells benefits both the plant community. The Silva Cells and are the a plastic/fiberglass plant getsoftocolumns use theand gasbeams produced for structure that support paving above un-compacted planting

power, reducing overall operating costs and ultimately reducing charges to the customer. Biosolids remaining after digestion are recyclable, so, rather than having to pay to incinerate the material, it can be used for deep well injection or as a fertilizer. Currently, less than a third of larger WWTPs use anaerobic digestion. Many continue to incinerate residual material at considerable expense. The key reason why more do not adopt anaerobic digestion is the capital expense of adding digesters. Lower natural gas prices result in a very long return on investment (ROI) on structure these systems. It isvoid typically soil. The has 92% space twice what it was a few years ago before and is a stable surface for the installation the steep decline in gas prices. of vehicle loaded-pavements. Nonetheless, the long-termthey trendcan is When properly installed, definitely in favour of WWTP biogas achieve an AASHTO H-20 load rating. recovery. Market demand is expected Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code to increase, most probably leadingapto loading can also be achieved through increased gas prices. As gas prices stapropriate design. This is the required load bilize, projections a growth in rating for structuresindicate such as underground anaerobic digestion at WWTPs. vaults, covers and grates in areas of trafaddition,sidewalks there is likely to be alots. reficIn including and parking duction in the capital expense of adding The cell structure transfers the force to a anaerobic digesters to WWTPs as debase layer below the structure. mand grows. Soil within the cells remains at low compaction rates, thereby creating ideal



Extend Structure Life, Reduce Maintenance & Repair Costs • for industrial steelwork, pipework & road surfaces • above & below ground pipe, valves, fittings & steel • offshore marine piling protection • road, bridge, airport & asphalt applications A member of Winn & Coales International.

26 | May/June May 20132015 38

www.densona.com Toronto • Edmonton Denso North America Inc. 90 Ironside Cres. Unit 12 Toronto, ON M1X 1M3 Tel: 416.291.3435 Fax: 416.291.0898

Environmental Science Science & Engineering & Engineering Magazine Magazine Environmental

Energy from Biogas Flow measurement technology One of the key aspects of biogas use at WWTPs is gas flow measurement at a facility’s combined heat and power plant. The producer must know the content of the gas, because smooth and efficient gas engine operation can only be guaranteed if the biogas has the right minimum CH4 content. Since the content can vary greatly, plant operators rely on continuous and reliable information. Flow measurement is also used by combined heat plant operators to know how much energy is available. If this is low, they might need to bring some gas in from the grid. If it is high, they might sell the excess back to the grid. Demanding measuring parameters associated with biogas applications have created a measurement challenge. Several technologies are available, including thermal mass, mechanical, vortex and ultrasonic technologies. Thermal mass flow meter technology has historically been used for gas measurements. With this technology, two leads are inserted into the gas flow. One generates heat and the other reads the heat transferred to it. Because of the properties of gas, it is possible to know exactly how heat will transfer from one lead to the other. The problem with using thermal mass flow metering for biogas is that biogas is wet. When water is introduced, it skews the results, creating the possibility of large measurement errors. Mechanical meters are not really suited for the types of measurement needed for biogas. They tend to have turndown issues because the flows are so low. Also, the need to measure gas and water together, tends to throw mechanical metering off. This measurement is very pressure sensitive, and with mechanical instrumentation, there is substantial pressure loss. Vortex metering has been more successful. However, if the vortex device uses a membrane, care must be taken as to how the frequency is picked up. Water soaking the membrane shortens the life of the vortex measurement device. Use of all-metal construction on the crystals that pick up the frequency generated, can improve measurement. There is little pressure drop on the vorwww.esemag.com

tex meter, although one must consider turndown issues. A more significant issue is that CH4 content cannot be measured with a vortex meter. An additional measuring device must be added. Ultrasonic measurement technology uses the time transit differential method to measure flow regardless of gas composition. Ultrasonic measurement is particularly well suited to biogas applications because it provides a full transit without loss of pressure or any other negative effect on the flow. Research and development KROHNE has conducted significant research and development initiatives to advance its biogas metering capabilities. The Optisonic 7300 ultrasonic meter can measure gas content, flow and temperature at the same time. The gas content is obtained from the velocity of sound through the product. Flow is measured with the transit time of the sound. A built-in temperature sensor provides temperature information. The biogas meter operates in pressures less than 5 psi. The mathematical calculations are all done within the device’s electronics unit, providing an all in one measurement. The meter is constructed of titanium, selected because it has the widest chemical resistance and is suitable for sour gas (with a high hydrogen sulfide level). It can handle up to 50% CO2 at low pressure. Wastewater treatment decisions are cost-driven, so using one meter for several measurements is preferable to using a second device. In addition, there is no need for personnel to conduct preventive maintenance on two separate pieces of equipment, nor is there the need to stock spare parts for two different pieces of equipment. There are already more than 10,000 anaerobic digestion plants in Europe producing energy. New flow measurement technology will play a key role in extending the benefits of this clean energy source. Richard Lowrie is with KROHNE. Email: r.lowrie@krohne.com May/June 2015 | 39

Wastewater Treatment

SAGR system allows First Nation communities to meet federal effluent regulations By Merle Kroeker, Martin Hildebrand, Kevin Vieira


he Government of Canada is participating in an ongoing effort to clean up polluted and problem waters from coast to coast. Canada currently dumps over 150 billion litres of untreated and undertreated wastewater directly into waterways annually. In response, the Government of Canada has worked with provinces, territories, municipalities, and Aboriginal communities to create the first set of national standards for wastewater treatment. The Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations (WSER) were established in the summer of 2012. The goal is to transition all new and existing wastewater facilities across Canada to secondary treatment levels. Secondary treatment uses physical or biological processes to treat dissolved contaminants (soluble CBOD, NH3), which are not removed in primary treatment. Effluent discharged into water frequented by fish must now meet specified deposit pollutant limits under the Fisheries Act. Prior to the WSER coming into effect, many provincial discharge licenses did not include ammonia limits. This meant many lagoon facilities were unknowingly exceeding the allowable federal ammonia toxicity requirements while still meeting their carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) / total suspended solids (TSS) discharge permits. Ammonia toxicity Total ammonia in wastewater is comprised of un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and ionized ammonia (NH4+). These two forms of ammonia are collectively referred to as TAN (total ammonia – nitrogen). For lagoon operators in Canada, complying with ammonia limits is a challenge because of low water temperatures and the fact that ammonia toxicity is a misunderstood parameter. Generally, the un-ionized portion (NH3) is a concern, as it is toxic to fish at low levels. (NH4+) is generally not considered toxic except at very high

40 | May/June 2015

Alum dosing equipment at Misipawistik for total phosphorus removal.

levels. The portion of total ammonia that is in the toxic form rises as pH and temperature increases. An effluent TAN concentration that is non-toxic in winter can cause fish kills at higher pH and temperature conditions in summer. To account for this, seasonal ammonia discharge limits are common, with higher

Designed for cold climate treatment, the SAGR removes ammonia through biological nitrification. Ideally it follows secondary lagoons to provide full nitrification and partial disinfection in climates where water temperatures can be near freezing for extended periods of time. TAN concentrations allowed during colder weather. Ammonia toxicity in wastewater is

addressed through nitrification. This is the conversion of ammonia to nitrates by attached growth nitrifying bacteria. In a typical lagoon, however, the lack of available surface area means that populations of nitrifying bacteria are relatively low. Without significant biomass, nitrification levels are low at best, and can be negligible at low temperatures. Effluent water temperatures from lagoons in Canada are typically less than 1°C for about five months of the year. Nitrification only begins once CBOD levels are reduced to approximately 25 mg/l. During cold weather, by the time water in the treatment process reaches a point where CBOD levels are low enough to allow nitrification, the water has typically cooled to a point where nitrifying bacteria are ineffective. Over winter and early spring, many lagoon facilities will discharge toxic effluent due to minimal nitrification. Submerged attached growth reactor Over the last 10 years, Nelson Environmental has conducted significant research and development to provide a solution for cold temperature nitrification within lagoon based treatment facilities. To address this issue without abandoning existing lagoon infrastructure, the firm developed the Submerged Attached Growth Reactor or SAGR®. Designed for cold climate treatment, the SAGR removes ammonia through biological nitrification. Ideally it follows secondary lagoons (facultative/ aerated), to provide full nitrification and partial disinfection in climates where water temperatures can be near freezing for extended periods of time. The SAGR can handle a wide range of influent water qualities without upset. This allows it to be used as a final CBOD and TSS polishing technology in addition to nitrification for lagoons that are exceeding their original design loads and flows. In some cases, utilizing existing facultative lagoons in place of continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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Choosing grit removal systems Dead ends in water mains Control valves help fishery Optimizing WWTP aeration


Storage tanks, containment & spills

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine – Canada’s oldest and most valued source for Canada’s multi-billion dollar water, wastewater and environmental protection industries.

Wastewater Treatment aerated lagoons as secondary treatment can reduce overall energy required to provide tertiary treatment. SAGR process The SAGR system consists of an aerated stone bed, with hydraulic structures to distribute influent wastewater across the width of the bed. The aggregate is submerged, providing the necessary surface area for bacterial growth and attachment within the bed. Aggregate gradation is selected to balance growth area with hydraulic flow through the pore spaces. SAGR sizing is based on influent flow and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) loading rates to provide year-round nitrification and allow for continuous non-toxic discharge. Cold climate performance Ammonia reduction (nitrification) to less than 1 mg/l can be consistently achieved at water temperatures below 0.5°C in climates where primary and secondary lagoons are ice covered for much or all of the winter. Providing treatment at low water temperatures eliminates the need for insulated covers

The Misipawistik Cree Nation SAGR provides low operation and maintenance, while producing excellent nutrient removal.

or any other changes to the lagoons to improve heat retention. The SAGR process can be designed to polish effluent CBOD and TSS levels to less than 10 mg/l. Test data from existing SAGR facilities has shown significant (99%+) reduction of fecal coliform and E. Coli, in many cases eliminating the need for supplementary disinfection. SAGR effluent quality is well suited for UV disinfection, where supplementary disinfection is required.

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42 | May/June 2015

Nelson Environmental has implemented dozens of SAGR systems across Canada and the U.S., including some of the coldest populated areas in North America. Thousands of data points from these sites demonstrate that it provides consistent nitrification and polishing in harsh climates. Misipawistik Cree Nation Effluent toxicity was a key requirement when AECOM and Nelson Environmental Inc. designed the upgraded wastewater treatment lagoon system for Misipawistik Cree Nation. It is located 400 kilometres north of Winnipeg near Grand Rapids, Manitoba. Like many First Nation communities in Canada, Misipawistik was faced with significant challenges to meet new effluent regulations with their existing wastewater treatment infrastructure. Many communities are also faced with limited capital funding to upgrade the facilities, as well as operation and maintenance resources. The remote location of many of these communities increases the difficulty in maintaining adequate levels of operator training and local expertise. High population growth rates mean that many First Nations facilities are at the end of their design life. Misipawistik Cree Nation’s existing facility consisted of a two-cell facultative lagoon providing treatment with a seasonal discharge. The facility required additional seasonal storage capacity and was unable to meet the WSER. Upgrade In the fall of 2013, construction began on the new facility upgrade. The upgraded system utilized the existing facultative

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Treatment Effluent Total Phosphorus




4.5 4 3.5


TP (mg/L)

TAN (mg/L) & Water Temperature (°C)



3 2.5 2


1.5 1

5 0.5 0


SAGR Influent TAN

SAGR Effluent TAN

Water Temperature (°C)

Figure 1. Misipawistik FN SAGR influent and effluent TAN.

lagoons for primary treatment. However, in order to increase capacity without constructing additional lagoons, the process was converted from seasonal to continuous discharge. Lagoon Cell 1 was untouched and remained as a facultative lagoon. A primary alum addition system was installed at the influent lift station for phosphorus removal by settling. The second facultative lagoon was upgraded with OPTAER® fine bubble diffused aeration for enhanced BOD5 and TSS removal. Two SAGR beds were constructed following the lagoon cells for year-round nitrification (ammonia removal), as well as BOD/TSS polishing and disinfection.

Final Effluent TP

Figure 2. Misipawistik FN effluent total phosphorus.

ments are limited to seasonal (twice a year) manipulation of the influent control valves. A simple chemical dosing system adds alum to the system influent for total phosphorus removal. Conclusion The introduction of federal ammonia discharge requirements through the Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations has increased implementation of

the SAGR process for small communities across Canada. Misipawistik Cree Nation now has an operator-friendly, technologically advanced wastewater treatment system that will meet federal effluent regulations. Merle Kroeker and Martin Hildebrand are with Nelson Environmental. For more information, Email: info@nelsonenvironmental.com

System performance Once the SAGR biomass was established, Misipawistik Cree Nation wastewater treatment plant has been consistently meeting WSER for all parameters including ammonia toxicity and the provincial phosphorus requirements (see Figures 1 and 2). SAGR operation Ease of operation was a primary consideration during development of the SAGR. There are no sludge or solids management requirements, making the operation and maintenance of the process similar to that of a conventional aerated lagoon. It is estimated that over the long term, the operator of the Misipawistik facility will spend an average of 30 minutes per day doing a visual inspection systems check. The only moving parts in the SAGR system are blowers supplying oxygen to the process. Process control requirewww.esemag.com

May/June 2015 | 43

Wastewater Aeration

Thermal mass flow meters help optimize WWTP aeration systems By Randy Brown


ne of the largest energy expenses for wastewater treatment facilities can be the cost of supplying compressed air flow to aeration basins. The figures most often cited are that 40% – 50% of total energy usage can be attributed to the aeration process. The cost to produce this compressed air continues to rise in proportion to energy cost increases. By measuring the system’s air flows with accurate, repeatable air flow meters, the aeration process can be better controlled to optimize the process and minimize plant energy costs. Wastewater treatment One of the most common wastewater treatment processes is the activated sludge method in which large aeration basins are deployed early in the process to biologically treat wastewater. This process deploys large blowers and a

44 | May/June 2015

network of piping to transport and distribute air into the aeration basins and ultimately into a diffuser system to oxygenate the wastewater.

Bacterial micro-organisms in the aeration basins, which biologically decompose degradable organic solids in the wastewater, are dependent upon the aer-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Aeration ation system to provide the right amount of air (oxygen). Too little air results in added processing time in the basin, while too much air results in excess operation of the blowers. Both result in wasted energy. Accurate and repeatable air flow measurement is the key to controlling the proper amount of air released into the aeration basin. Three flow sensor technologies have typically been used: • Differential pressure (orifice plates) • Vortex shedding technologies • Thermal dispersion (mass flow) Thermal dispersion mass flow meters have the largest installed base for wastewater treatment plant aeration systems. While there are legacy orifice plates and vortex shedding meters installed in aeration systems, they are gradually being replaced during retrofit and plant upgrade projects. Thermal mass flow meters offer several advantages. Accuracy Generally accurate to ±1% of reading, ±0.5% of scale (or better depending on the specific meter), and with recontinued overleaf...

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Wastewater Aeration peatability to ±0.5%, thermal mass flow meters possess the level of accuracy and repeatability needed for wastewater treatment aeration processes. Wider flow range Thermal mass flow meters more than adequately support the requirements of wastewater aeration treatment plants, featuring the capability to measure from extremely low flows to very high flow rates (<1 to 1000 standard feet per sec-

ond). Their wide turndowns (100:1) also support variable operating conditions due to community demand fluctuations or seasonal changes in weather. Direct mass flow measurement Offering a simple, robust design to directly measure mass flow, thermal flow meters feature reduced maintenance requirements and cost of ownership. They do not require the addition of temperature or pressure sensors (requiring extra

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maintenance and cost) like differential pressure or vortex technologies that only infer mass flow. Low cost installation A single tap point can be used to install thermal flow meters, as opposed to full bore (i.e., spool-piece section) meter technologies. There is no need to interrupt the process, shut down the line or cut the pipe and re-weld. With its small, centre-point mounted insertion probe, there is virtually no pressure drop with a thermal mass flow meter. That means aeration blowers outfitted with thermal flow meters can run at lower power levels that reduce energy needed and achieve further cost savings. Overcome limited straight-run Insertion thermal mass flow meters can be supplied with and specifically calibrated for use with flow conditioners. This helps in a crowded wastewater treatment plant retrofit, expansion projects or otherwise limited straightrun installations. Flow conditioners can reduce straight-run requirements from 30 diameters down to as little as 7 diameters. High quality flow conditioners eliminate both swirl and profile distortions and overcome flow profile changes that occur in transitional flow regions and minimize pressure drop. They also eliminate the need for long upstream/ downstream straight pipe runs, which require expensive pipe and installation labour. Low maintenance and long service life Thermal mass flow meters feature a no moving parts design, leaving nothing to break, wear out, clean or repair. They can continue to operate untouched and trouble-free for many years. With advances in techniques even calibration can be checked in situ. This can be done either partially with dry-check techniques or completely with a wet-check technique where the installed thermal flow meter includes a ball valve with an in situ automated calibration verification kit. Randy Brown is with Fluid Components International. For more information, visit www.fluidcomponents.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


London hosts ISO workshop on By Duncan Ellision and Barry Orr flushable wipes


rganized by the Municipal Enforcement Sewer Use Group (MESUG), City of London, Ontario, Canadian Water and Wastewater Association, Standards Council of Canada, and the International Standards Organization/ International Electrotechnical Commission, a May 5 workshop explored foreign objects in wastewater streams. The workshop’s theme was “toilets not garbage cans.” Topics discussed included: the challenges of managing garbage and products labeled “flushable” being disposed of in the toilet; the consequences of flushing products not designed to pass through the collection and treatment systems; and the need to work with industry to develop better flushable products, standards and strategies to influence consumers. The workshop featured Canadian and international wastewater management and collection system experts. Attendees

A pumping station’s plugged pump.

included Canadian municipal staff trying to develop strategies for their own communities that are dealing with increased garbage material in sewers. Following the close of the workshop, two days were spent in the first face-toface meeting of the ISO TC224 WG10. This group is tasked with determining how best to deal with the concerns wastewater representatives have raised with items identified as “flushable.” There was a majority decision to make

the scope cover both woven and non-woven products declared to be flushable. Wastewater participants focused on the need for any product declared flushable by manufacturers, to undergo flushability tests. If successful in those tests, products could then be legitimately identified as flushable. Manufacturing participants wanted to limit the group’s scope to non-woven products only. Both groups said they accept the need for other products likely to be flushed due to their bathroom use, to be assessed for flushability. Where products fail such tests, they would be identified as “not flushable.” Part of the concern raised was that the traditional tests set out by industry associations would not be applicable to products other than non-woven products. The working group’s wastewater participants said they are focused on developing a set of tests that would demonstrate any product’s flushability, i.e., disintegrate rapidly, settle, biodegrade and not clog pumps and grills, etc. For more information, Email: duncan. ellison@videotron.ca, or borr@london.ca

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May/June 2015 | 47

Ecosystem Management

Watershed fish rehabilitation project made possible by custom control valves By Clint Smith and Ryan Spooner


he Bull Run watershed has continuously provided water to the people of the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area since 1895. It also plays an important role in supporting the larger aquatic ecosystem of the Sandy and Lower Columbia rivers, where some fish species have been in significant decline. In response, the Portland Water Bureau has developed the Bull Run Water Supply Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP). This will make changes to the City’s drinking water operations and help the aquatic environment rebound. Part of the HCP is a water temperature management plan to comply with the Clean Water Act. This is a critical component in fish stock rehabilitation. The water temperature of the Sandy River was too warm during the summer months, making it difficult for the fish to spawn. The reason for this was that the source of the river water was pulled from the top of the reservoir, which was warmer. The Portland Water Bureau consulted with an engineering firm to come up with a plan to regulate temperature, by supplying the river with cooler water from the bottom of the reservoir. Using temperature readings at several points down the river, they could control water temperature by controlling the amount of cold feed water. In order to make this happen they needed a distribution system that would control the amount of cold water entering the system. It would have to measure flows upwards of 83,000 gpm. As the reservoir fill height had an inlet pressure of 45 psi and the water going into the river was at atmospheric pressure, the valve control system also needed to withstand a 45 to 0 psi pressure drop. CIMCO, suppliers of waterworks products, brought in Singer Valve to design a control valve system that could handle these stringent requirements. Their solution was to supply a S106-2SC-PCO-MV-C-AC valve and an MCP-TP control panel. This valve has dual solenoids, which allows the

48 | May/June 2015

The Bull Run watershed serves 950,000 residents. Dam 1, constructed from 1925-1929, holds well over 37 million cubic metres of water.

36” 2SC-PCO-MV-C-AC valve in the process of being commissioned.

MCP-TP to control and modulate it. It is equipped with a backflow check to ensure it closes in the event of reverse flow. Due to the maximum flow requirements, a 24” and 36” valve were enough

to manage full flow variance. The pressure drop of 45 to 0 psi would definitely cause a valve to cavitate, creating a lot of noise, vibration and eventual deterioration of its internal

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Ecosystem Management parts. Cavitation is usually avoided by installing multiple pressure reducing valves in series, which knocks down the pressure to controllable levels. Singer’s anti-cavitation technology is contained in the valve itself, so no additional valves are needed. Two heavy stainless steel sliding cages maximize the full flow capacity. The first cage directs and contains the cavitation recovery, allowing it to dissipate harmlessly, while the second cage allows further control to a level as low as atmospheric pressure downstream. The cages are individually engineered by entering data into proprietary software which calculates the size and placement of the orifices on both inlet and outlet cages. Valve bodies are specifically designed to fit a larger cage, allowing higher Cv values (increased flow) while also allowing for reasonable space between the anti-cavitation trim and the body wall. This separation allows for consistent entry around the cage area which ensures that the vapour bubbles collapse symmetrically towards the centre of the anti-cavitation cage. The range between a high flow of 83,000 gpm and low flows would typically require a large valve for the high flows and smaller valves to handle the lower flows. Traditional valves become inefficient at low flows and start to hunt and chatter.


Bull Run operations center with the 96” diameter outfall in the foreground.

To overcome this challenge, the valves were equipped with single rolling diaphragm technology. The molded diaphragm provides a constant surface area, whatever the valve position, and avoids injecting small pressure pulses into the piping. By doing this, the valve eliminates seat chatter at low flows, helping to prevent water loss and leakage, while providing smooth, precisely

controlled flow. The 24” and 36” valves were set to run in parallel and the controls were consolidated into one panel to save on space and costs. A control panel was designed and built to receive information from both valves and have the ability to control the valves individually. Using a differential transmitter and a valve position indicator from each valve, the MCP panel is able to calculate the individual flows through each valve. This allows Portland Water Bureau operators to control the valves to specific flow rates by entering a set point into the panel or remotely via SCADA. The panel then sends signals to the opening or closing solenoid valves to open or close the main valves, until they meet their desired flow rates. The panel also needed to be able to handle a main power loss, so a UPS battery backup was added. To withstand the outdoor environment, the panel has an outdoor rated enclosure with a heater and dehumidifier to keep the panel dry. The customized panel was seamlessly fitted into the existing SCADA system, making it simple for the operators to enter desired flow rates from a remote location. Clint Smith and Ryan Spooner are with Singer Valve. Email: clint@singervalve.com, rspooner@singervalve.com

May/June 2015 | 49


Grand Bend’s new WWTF ensures a more sustainable future By Gary Deonarine and Melissa Peneycad


he town of Grand Bend is located in the municipality of Lambton Shores in Ontario. During the summer months, this growing community experiences an influx of cottagers and tourists, putting significant pressure on existing municipal infrastructure. One such asset is the Grand Bend Area Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF), which is shared with the neighbouring municipality of South Huron. In 2008, to meet projected future demands, the municipalities decided to replace the WWTF’s existing lagoons. Excessive budget overruns ultimately forced the municipalities to halt the project and look for new ideas to reduce the expected construction cost of $25 million. In 2013, they retained Stantec Consulting Ltd. to redesign the treatment facility. The first step was to develop a shared vision for the project. This meant an affordable, flexible and resilient facility that met seasonal variations and current and projected wastewater treatment demands. It was also important to address potential external pressures placed upon the WWTF by climate change, enhance local ecological assets and the quality of life for residents and visitors, and demonstrate leadership in sustainability. From the outset, the Stantec design team saw value in pursuing the facility’s redesign by using the Institute of Sustainable Infrastructure (ISI) Envision® sustainable infrastructure planning and design rating system. This system, collaboratively developed by ISI and the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, establishes a framework for planning, designing, evaluating, and rating infrastructure projects of all types and sizes against the needs and values of the community. It evaluates the economic, social, and environmental costs and benefits of infrastructure projects and is meant to be a consistent, objective and holistic planning and design framework. Using this system and working close-

50 | May/June 2015

Concept drawing of the Grand Bend wastewater treatment facility.

ly with municipal staff, Stantec developed a simple, low-cost solution (biological nutrient removal with advanced tertiary filtration). It included sustainable benefits and reduced the project’s cost to within the original budget of $15 million. Early in the project, the design team realized that the excavation of two large pits to be used as fill to elevate the site provided an opportunity. Treated effluent from the redesigned WWTF could flow into a constructed wetland. So, educational and environmental special interest groups were consulted about their ideas for this new micro-ecosystem. Recommendations included a nature reserve for threatened native species of turtles, fish, birds and plants; walking trails to encourage community visits to the site; and partnerships with local conservation groups and school boards. The municipalities and the Stantec design team incorporated these ideas into the project’s design, to not only enhance the sustainability of the redesigned WWTF, but also to demonstrate that municipal sewage treatment can be a community asset. A 24-page EcoKids Adventure Guide was developed for school groups to help

them learn about the facility’s natural elements and provide information and resources to promote more environmentally conscious behaviour. Additionally, a partnership was established with a local university to provide opportunities for researchers to review specific plant species at the facility and determine their ability to uptake soluble substances that pass through treatment systems. These include pharmaceuticals and personal care products, which are of emerging concern. The Grand Bend Area WWTF redesign incorporates a number of creative and sustainable features, including: • Protecting prime farmland by containing development within the boundaries of the original treatment plant. • Providing opportunities for the reuse of some waste materials. • Preventing sewage overflow, during times of high inflow, by redirecting raw sewage to lagoons. • Being responsive to changes in inflow from winter lows to the summer peaks caused by tourism and cottage owners. • Installing parking and informational signage, and producing educational materials to encourage visits by the

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


The planning and design of this project proves that sustainable solutions can also be highly cost-effective and even less expensive than conventional, or less sustainably designed, alternatives.

public, special interest groups and schools. • Constructing a public trail system along a stream that marks the border of the site. • Collaborating with local conservation and volunteer groups to restore native species and maintain the ecology of the site. The Grand Bend Area WWTF was formally recognized early this year with the ISI Envision sustainable infrastruc-

ture rating system’s Platinum Award, the highest possible level of achievement. This project is the first to receive ISI Envision verification in Canada, and the first wastewater facility to be verified in North America. The municipal infrastructure industry consistently challenges its partners to design and construct technically sound solutions in the most efficient way possible to reduce the financial burdens on their communities. Stantec’s experience

with applying the ISI Envision system in the planning and design of this project proves that sustainable solutions can also be highly cost-effective and even less expensive than conventional, or less sustainably designed, alternatives. Gary Deonarine, P.Eng, PMP, ENV SP, and Melissa Peneycad, MES, ENV SP, are with Stantec Consulting. Email: gary.deonarine@stantec.com, melissa.peneycad@stantec.com

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May/June 2015 | 51

A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E’s semi-annual look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.

Duplex stainless steel tanks chosen for Maui water storage By Erika Henderson


torage tanks are designed in differing sizes, for differing locations, structures and purposes. Safe storage can be achieved by addressing design requirements for the particular product being stored, including ambient and product temperature, the product’s specific gravity and pH, corrosion allowance, tank location and wind loads. Design requirements combined with future maintenance can help determine the most cost-efficient construction method and material to use for safe storage. In the beginning, there were no choices for cost-efficient construction because tanks had to be constructed from available materials such as limestone and gypsum. When new materials like concrete and iron were discovered options became available. The use of these new materials helped the development of more advanced materials like steel. As welding skills advanced, it became possible to construct welded steel storage tanks more easily, faster, and with lighter materials.

Advanced technology Further advances in technology have made possible another method for constructing safe storage tanks from specialized materials. The idea of duplex stainless steels dates back to the 1920s, with the first cast being made at Avesta 52 | May/June 2015

In 2014, a 760,000 litre and a 380,000 litre tank were completed on the cliffs of Maui, Hawaii.

in Sweden in 1930. However, it is only in the last 30 years that duplex steels have begun to take off in a significant way. This is mainly due to advances in steelmaking techniques, particularly with respect to control of nitrogen content. Duplex stainless steel combines the many beneficial properties of ferrite and austenite materials to provide high mechanical strength, toughness and ductility, excellent corrosion and stress corrosion cracking resistance, and good weld

ability. The high mechanical strength and the greater corrosion duplex resistance, allow lighter and thinner material to be used, with less shop fabrication. Cobra tank construction Cobra Tanks are field erected from coiled duplex stainless steel, using a crew of two or three people. The storage tanks are built from the ground up, on-site, and in a timely, cost-efficient manner. At the jobsite, the steel is de-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Spills coiled, formed, spun and welded, using specialized automated equipment. An innovative track system, supported by a series of rollers on adjustable stands, guides the revolving shell upward on a helical path. The adjacent upper and lower bends of the spiral are welded. This technique improves the alignment of adjacent edges, creating stronger welds and hydraulic seals. A formed lip placed every 46 centimetres helps serve as a track during construction and remains attached to the tank to also serve as stiffeners. The process begins with the delivery of the duplex stainless steel coils, which are shipped directly from the steel mill. Once the materials are on-site, individual coils are picked up by the decoiler and fed into a bending machine, which bends the top and bottom longitudinal edges. The bends to the top and bottom edges of the stainless steel reduce bulging and dramatically increase the strength of the steel. The bends form tracks that ride on a series of rollers mounted on vertical posts on the fab-

rication/welding equipment. The steel structure is gradually pushed upward in a helical path while being welded. The double flanged joints facilitate the weld-

The top of the shell is never unsupported. Building tanks with the roof in place allows the fabrication process to continue even in adverse weather. ing, and produce a high degree of joint stiffness and structural rigidity. When the shell is about two metres high, the top is cut level and the roof is installed. The top of the shell is never unsupported. Building tanks with the roof in place allows the fabrication pro-

cess to continue even in adverse weather. Other accessories can be added at ground level, so time spent working at elevated levels is minimized. After the tank shell reaches the desired height, the rollers are reversed until the bottom edge is aligned. The bottom is cut parallel to the ground, lowered to the stainless steel floor and welded. In 2014, a 760,000 litre and a 380,000 litre tank were completed on the cliffs of Maui, Hawaii. Due to the island’s continuous spray of corrosive salt from the ocean, the tanks needed to be constructed with a corrosion resistant material. Both tanks were equipped with dome roofs, vents, caged ladders, drains and manways, in accordance with the customer’s specific requirements. The tanks were constructed on-time, and they were ready to use immediately because no painting was necessary. Erika Henderson is with Pittsburg Tank and Tower. For more information, visit: www.pittsburgtank.com

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May/June 2015 | 53


Gabon commissions its first full-scale centralized WWTP By Michael Albanese and Darrin Hopper


2Flow has just finished building the first full-scale centralized wastewater treatment plant in West Central Africa. Designed exclusively at the request of the Gabonese government, the plant was designed for a population of 20,000 people in the community of Angondje, a suburb of Libreville, Gabon’s bustling capital city. The plant consists of a sequencing batch reactor in four large glass-fusedto steel tanks, including screening, digestion and ultraviolet disinfection, all supplied by H2Flow. Under the present Gabonese government, a large infrastructure renewal program is under way. The country’s oil and mining revenues, along with foreign investment, are financing the build. Economically Gabon’s indicators look great, with an expected economic growth rate of 7% per year. This is similar to the current rate of expansion in China. The government of Gabon recognizes the need for effective water and wastewater treatment as clean water and sanitation have a direct impact on a country’s economy. Some of the risk and trepidation of working in another country were eased

This was a great opportunity for H2Flow to train and utilize local Gabonese workers.

by utilizing resources such as Export Development Canada. They help support and protect companies as they enter new markets internationally. A strategic effort was made to utilize local Gabonese resources and labour for the erection of the treatment plant, and to train local contractors to OHSA

standards and Canadian build methodologies. H2Flow is a multilingual office with a large percentage of the staff fluent in French, which is Gabon’s official language. It provided an opportunity for some employees to be immersed in the language and improve their French communication skills.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Spills Any initial apprehension prior to project launch, in regards to work, workers and working conditions, was alleviated almost immediately upon arriving and starting the first phase. H2Flow flew down two of their own liquid storage tank experts for the plant erection. The local labour was excellent and the Gabonese workers and firms, in general, were really kind, helpful and eager to learn. This was a great opportunity for H2Flow to train and utilize local Gabonese workers, not only for the building of the tanks, but for the local contractor’s workforce to gain first hand knowledge and experience of the wastewater field. This helped everyone in regards to long-term goals of local self-sufficiency for this and other possible future projects. Access to missing tools or materials was not as easy as replacing them at the local hardware store. Something as simple as an extension ladder could take up to a week to procure. Overall nothing was as difficult as imagined, but being


The plant consists of a sequencing batch reactor in four large glass-fused-to steel tanks.

extra prepared definitely assisted in the success of this project. All of the equipment and tools, including construction machinery, was sent in 13 shipping containers. A major item on daily field level assessment was the weather and ensuring that all employees were well hydrated and took proper rest breaks, especial-

ly those who weren’t used to the local weather conditions. H2Flow employees adapted more easily than anticipated to the extreme heat or rain, always drinking at least three litres of water a day. Michael Albanese and Darrin Hopper are with H2Flow. For more information, visit: www.h2flow.com

May/June 2015 | 55


Prevention of truck/train spills vital in preventing groundwater contamination By Merrill E. Bishop


ecent railroad tank car derailments and accidents are creating a focus on these “high profile” sources of surface water contamination. However, there is a more widespread liability lurking below at many plant locations. Understanding how this seemingly minor surface contamination migrates, may help risk assessment. This article discusses some economical ways to avoid possible liability. In the mid-1990s, a proposed site for a regional truck-to-rail transloading operation was being evaluated. On the surface, the site had a good condition railroad spur track, plenty of flat land to build tanker truck parking and good access to major feeder highways around the city. A well drilling firm was hired to place sample wells and then conduct a detailed analysis of the findings. Analysis showed excess quantities of tannic acid, which triggered an investigation to find the source of this contamination. It turned out to be from a long closed leather tannery over eight kilometres up gradient from the sample wells. Spills from processing vats and/ or tainted surface water from tanker unloading operations had slowly migrated from the surface into the immediate subsurface aquifer and continued to spread for years. In yet another project, a possible used motor oil truck-to-rail transloading site was being evaluated. Upon sinking sampling wells, high concentrations of insecticides and pesticides were recorded. A large agricultural chemical company had their regional warehouse about a kilometre up gradient from this potential transloading site. They apparently had spills, or just washed inside spills out the door or loading dock ramp. These types of environmental surprises and liabilities may be averted by careful review of tank car and tanker truck loading or unloading facilities. Nearly all leaks, overflows, broken lines/hoses, etc., involve chemicals or oils. The legal ramifications of these

56 | May/June 2015

Side-view diagram showing a tankcar with containment pans.

events will affect a company’s immediate bottom line, but some of the damage may not be evident for many years. One of the most unrecognized contamination routes is under a railroad spur track. Though a bermed railroad

Purchasing proper spill containment pans for under truck-to-rail transloading is a good investment. While “cheap” open track pans are available, rainwater that is collected in these shallow containments adds to disposal costs. spur track may appear to be a useful dike, closer examination shows just the opposite. The crushed rock ballast used in railway line construction is deliber-

ately selected to not contain a lot of fines or small granular clay. This might settle and affect the porosity of the backfill. Railroad ballast serves a number of purposes. Primarily, it absorbs the hammering from the wheels passing over the rails. It allows rainwater to quickly drain away to reduce rotting of the wooden ties, but this also allows any released chemicals or oils to drain away, right down into the floor of any construction cut. Purchasing proper spill containment pans for under truck-to-rail transloading is a good investment. While “cheap” open track pans are available, rainwater that is collected in these shallow containments adds to disposal costs. A single, 18.2 m long x 3.6 m wide open track pan under a tank car can usually collect about 42.5 m3 of rainwater in a region that gets 61 centimetres of annual rainfall. By regulation, this captured water has to be tested before pumping. Gas chromatography testing may cost around $1,000. Then there are treatment costs that can range from $0.14 to $0.27 per litre, depending on the substances in the water. In northern climates, open track con-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Spills tainment pans will require ice and snow to be manually chipped out after each storm, to keep them usable. This “tainted’ snow and ice is often overlooked when the spring thaw comes. Companies can avoid rainwater and ice snow issues by using closeable track pans like those supplied by Trans Environmental Systems (TESI). These are made of heavy duty steel and have a patented rolling cover that keeps rainwater out when they are not in use. Trans Environmental also offers fibreglass and specially coated steel pans that will stand up to acid and other corrosive chemicals. They can also be driven over by heavy trucks or track vehicles. Trans Environmental Systems, Inc. has been supplying the chemical/petroleum industry with railroad track containment pans since 1994. The Norfolk Southern Railroad is using dozens of TESI track pans that have been in service for over 20 years. Merrill E. Bishop is with Trans Environmental Systems Inc. For more information, visit www.transenvsys.com

TESI offers railroad track pans that are designed to be driven over by heavy trucks or track vehicles.

From Tasmania to Toronto, we’ve got you covered CRA and GHD have merged Together, we are a global leader in engineering, environmental consulting and consultation services We continue to be employee-owned and have more than 8500 people across 200+ offices in five continents www.CRAworld.com/ghd


May/June 2015 | 57


As environmental litigation increases, companies must be properly prepared for spills By Charles Ross


hile executives, directors and management have been legally responsible for the environmental performance of their companies as long as environmental protection legislation has been in place, the federal and provincial governments are toughening up the penalties. The tougher stance appears to be benefitting the environment, because the emphasis is on the “polluter pays” principle. For instance, of the $7.5 million fine levied against a mining company in Quebec last December, Environment Canada said $6.83 million will be directed to the Environmental Damages Fund, to pay for beneficial environmental projects. This fine, the highest environmental one ever levied in Canada, results from several incidents, including breach of a tailings pond, which resulted in 45 charges under the federal Fisheries Act. When fines like this become the norm, the pressure on officers and directors of a corporation to protect their company from environmental litigation will grow even stronger. Company officials who have only been paying lip service to such things as emergency response planning, response training or having adequate spill response supplies, could soon find themselves in serious and very costly trouble. “Basically, we are seeing a broadbased awareness of the need for emergency response plans and fast response to environmental emergencies. What we often don’t have is a thorough analysis of potential incidents and emergencies and how to cope with them. We need this to give us a realistic and workable emergency response plan,” said Cliff Holland, environmental director of Spill Management Inc. There are still organizations that have not taken the time to conduct full situation analyses of the potential impacts to people, property and the environment. Or some may take what they think is the easy way out and plan to call the local fire department if things go

58 | May/June 2015

The tougher stance appears to be benefitting the environment, because the emphasis is on the “polluter pays” principle.

bad. But, firefighters who arrive at the scene may be delayed because they are unfamiliar with the site, its layout and the chemicals involved. If the company had an emergency response plan that relied on the experience and training of its own workforce, it would likely avoid a

There are still organizations that have not taken the time to conduct full situation analyses of the potential impacts to people, property and the environment. manageable situation becoming a crisis. The situation in remote areas can be very different from urban ones. Mining and forestry operations and pipelines have to rely on the training of their crews and the equipment and supplies they have on hand. They have to cope with what could be extremely severe en-

vironmental emergencies in remote areas with harsh weather conditions. They can’t call on experienced hazmat crews, or any other immediate support that is available in urban areas. There are industry standards for companies to apply and their own corporate policies that usually obligate them to be environmentally responsible. Environmental Management Systems (EMS) require programs for the prevention of environmental incidents as well as site mitigation. Meeting these standards falls in line with both federal and provincial environmental obligations. An emergency plan that satisfies the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and the Ontario Spill Prevention and Contingency Plans Regulation Requirements, requires being able to respond and deal with environmental incidents. A plan must also deal with remediation and restoration of any harmful environmental impact. There are other standards out there too, such as the risk and safety management requirements of the Technical Standards and Safety Authority and the Emergency Preparedness and Response

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Spills standard of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). The CSA provides advice on planning, administration, training, resource utilization, auditing, and other aspects of emergency preparedness and response. But it’s not enough for company executives to simply decree that an emergency response plan will be prepared and that responders will be trained to meet its requirements. Someone – and it may be the designated go-to-jail person – has to be responsible for ensuring that it happens. Organizations which think it is enough to appoint middle management or an individual to get spill kits and show personnel how to use them, are only fooling themselves. “They don’t understand the regulatory compliance demands of knowing, understanding and dealing with time critical issues, potential scales of impact and worstcase scenarios,” said Holland. This involves identifying an organization’s worst case scenarios and training for them, knowing what supplies and equipment are most effective for the various conditions, and practicing the skills needed to protect people, property and the environment. “Getting out the emergency plan and deciding what procedures to follow does not necessarily deal with the response issues of gaining control of the event,” said Holland. In fact, application of a practical emergency response plan should be

The company must have an emergency response plan that is flexible and allows responders to use alternative strategies to meet the conditions they face.

driven by the incident, not the other way around. When time is critical as an emergency unfolds, quick decisions will be needed without responders having to try to decide on what plan to follow. “They should be able to use their training and experience to decide quickly on what response measures are necessary to slow, divert, contain spills and, therefore, protect land, water and air from unwanted impacts,” continued Holland. “The company must have an emergency response plan that is flexible and allows responders to use alternative strategies to meet the conditions they

face, rather than being tied to rigid policies and procedures. To make it work, responders must have training that is product specific and site specific,” Holland said. This means that, in a crisis, skilled and trained responders have the authority and resources they need to take immediate action without waiting for a command centre and structure to be set up. In effect, the actions of the first responders drive the plan and how it unfolds. The result is reduced costs and impacts to people, property and the envicontinued overleaf...

TWIN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR (MBR) PORT GRANBY Including 2 tank within tanks, aeration and anoxic zones, aluminum dome covers, walkways, insulation and cladding. • Flexible design within a smaller footprint • Pre-engineered • Turn-key installation • Faster construction • Cost effective and excellent life cycle costing • Environmentally friendly ‘GREEN’ solution www.esemag.com

GREATARIO Engineered Storage Systems www.greatario.com info@greatario.com 519-469-8169 May/June 2015 | 59

Spills ronment, because responders are applying effective and immediate response countermeasures when success may be measured in minutes. Ensuring that this flexibility is part of the plan is something that can only be determined through training, testing and the involvement of company officials. This ensures that protection is in place for personnel, buildings, equipment and the environment. Those officials also have to be able to ensure the continuation of the business and remediation of any environmental damage. It is this “due diligence” that will help them and their companies survive the scrutiny that follows. Good environmental response planning also involves good budgeting to ensure that equipment and supplies are in place and that all personnel have the level of training they need. However, companies must also be aware that simply getting spill response training may not meet a company’s needs, no matter how much they budget for it. To train responders to implement their emergency response plans, companies often turn to the standards of the

U.S. Occupational Health and Safety Agency (OSHA) that spell out how business and industry must train and prepare for incidents involving spills and releas-

Good environmental response planning also involves good budgeting to ensure that equipment and supplies are in place and that all personnel have the level of training they need. es of hazardous products. This training will work in situations where there are many chemicals and response support services. However, it may not be much use in many remote situations. Holland also questions whether companies go far enough in exercising their emergency response plans and developing their response capabilities. The exercises can be big and small but must


deal with what will be an organization’s greatest liabilities, the range of impacts for both minor and major events and the time-critical factors involved. Exercises can be tabletop efforts that allow response team members to learn to work together and also test their response readiness. Or, they can be fullscale exercises that let responders test their skills in a simulated incident. Without such exercises, planners and responders may get a false sense of preparedness because they have an emergency response plan in place, even if it has not been updated for a number of years and remains untested. “Twenty-five years ago, we only needed a ‘spill kit’ visible during an inspection to meet the intent of being prepared.” said Holland. “Now, we have to be able to demonstrate response capability which includes prevention and preparedness planning.” Charles Ross is a communications consultant for Spill Management. For more information, Email: contact@spillmanagement.ca

DESIGN Our bolted RTP (rolled, tapered panel) tank design is unmatched worldwide. It is the strongest, precision tank design that does not utilize cheap web stiffeners. COATINGS Our LIQ Fusion 7000 FBETM coating system and application technology is unmatched in water storage applications. It is a STRONGER SYSTEM THAN GLASS COATINGS and other epoxy powder systems. It is provided exclusively by one company, Tank Connection. PRODUCT QUALITY Simply unmatched worldwide. Our facilities are ISO 9001 quality system certified. TC operates 5 storage tank manufacturing facilities in the U.S. and supports over 400 employees. Our storage products and services are requested globally because our quality is recognized as “the BEST” in the industry! INDUSTRY EXPERTS IN STORAGE We are the leading experts in storage applications with more years of combined industry experience than any other tank company. FIELD CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES

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60 | May/June 2015










Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Quick connect technology makes high-pressure liquid-transfer safer By David Gibble


petroleum refinery or chemical processing facility is a beehive of daily activity. Trucks are constantly arriving to be loaded so they can make deliveries to end-user customers. Trains with dozens of railcars filled with raw products arrive to be unloaded. Newly refined products are transferred to storage tanks. Crisscrossing this landscape is a network of pipes through which the product deliveries or transfers are made. Facilitating the transfers are loading arm systems or hoses that must be connected to the delivery vessel. Equipment manufacturers and suppliers over the years have done a good job of identifying where safety is of the utmost importance when handling critical or hazardous fluids. Equipment has been created that can help ensure product-transfer safety. Most commonly, equipment that links the hose or loading arm to the delivery or storage vessel is a quick-and-dry disconnect coupling. Quick-and-dry-disconnect technology has evolved over the years and it provides a reliable level of product containment and safety at thousands of installations worldwide. Hiltap Fittings™, part of OPW, a Dover Corporation company, recognized that the performance of quick-and-dry disconnect had the potential to be improved. The firm has developed a new disconnect coupling that is impossible to disengage, intentionally or by accident, when transferring fluids that are under high-temperature or high-pressure conditions. When the Twister® locking quick connect (LQC) is attached to a loading arm or hose, the locking mechanism cannot be disengaged until the line pressure is below 5 psi. A fail-safe connection is achieved through four simple actions: • Align the hose or loading arm with the Twister LQC. • A one-quarter turn of the Twister engages it with the hose/loading arm. • The pressure or vacuum within the www.esemag.com

The locking mechanism cannot be disengaged until the line pressure is below 5 psi.

hose/loading arm energizes the seal. • The pressure locks the Twister to the hose/loading arm and prevents uncoupling.

Accident or incident reduction helps lower insurance premiums and administrative costs, and easy and quick connection reduces downtime. The Twister LQC can only be uncoupled when all line pressure is removed. The Twister is rotated by a one-quarter turn until the nipple disengages from the adaptor’s hook-shaped design. Disengagement is also achieved without the need of special tools or equipment, which results in time- and cost-savings benefits for operators. The Twister LQC is available in a variety of materials of construction,

including stainless steel and cold-temperature carbon steel and aluminum, that helps enable its use in numerous severe-duty applications. It is available in many sizes and is rated for use at pressure ratings equivalent to ANSI 150/300. LQC technology is designed for use in any number of applications, including tank-truck/railcar loading/unloading, maritime vessel loading/unloading, terminal-storage connections and inplant processing. LQCs are also versatile enough to handle any number of fluids, such as oil, liquified petroleum gas, acids, lubricants, ammonia, paints, oilfield fracking chemicals and metal alkyls, and in steam processes. Accident or incident reduction helps lower insurance premiums and administrative costs, and easy and quick connection reduces downtime. Avoiding the loss of high value materials through accidental discharge is another cost savings. David Gibble is with OPW Engineered Systems. Email:david.gibble@opwglobal.com May/June 2015 | 61


Twin membrane bioreactors help treat low-level radioactive water in Port Granby By Pat Logan


he Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative for the development and implementation of a longterm management solution for historical low-level radioactive waste in the municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington, Ontario. Waste from the former Eldorado operation in Port Hope is currently located on a lakeshore site at the south eastern boundary of the Municipality of Clarington at the Port Granby site. The facility has been closed since 1988 and is maintained under a license from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The Port Granby Project involves relocating approximately 450,000 m3 of historical low-level radioactive waste and marginally contaminated soils, from a waste management facility on the shoreline of Lake Ontario to a new, engineered aboveground mound a kilometre north, for safe long-term management. Other important project components included the construction of a wastewater treatment plant that was required to meet or exceed stringent Canadian Nuclear Laboratories’ requirements for effluent discharge into Lake Ontario. The project has been undertaken by the Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office which includes Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (lead agency/license holder), Public Works and Government Services Canada (major contracts) and Natural Resources Canada (sponsor/founder). Monitoring systems will be installed within the mound and around the perimeter of the longterm waste management facility site. Low-level radioactive waste and contaminated soils will be excavated from the existing site and transported to the new facility. Maple Reinders Construction Ltd. constructed a new wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), to replace the existing one located at the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility on the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The WWTP was the second part of a

62 | May/June 2015

Each tank contains an anoxic zone one, an anoxic zone two and an aerated zone.

three phase contract. Contract A included road upgrades and was completed in 2012. Contract B for the construction of the wastewater treatment plant was awarded in January 2013 and took approximately two years to complete. Contract C will include the construction of a new engineered aboveground mound and relocation of the radioactive waste. In addition to typical construction challenges, the plant had to be operational before excavation of the radioactive waste and its placement in the aboveground mound. Additionally, all construction activities were continuously monitored to identify and take necessary actions to reduce effects on people, the environment and the community’s way of life. Ensuring worker and public safety was the project’s highest priority. AECOM Canada Ltd. was retained by Public Works and Government Services Canada to complete detailed design of the long-term waste management facility, design the associated supporting infrastructure, plan the remediation of the existing waste management

facility and oversee construction. The new plant was designed to treat ground and surface water during placement of the radioactive waste in the new engineered aboveground mound facility. It will also treat contaminated leachate from within the mound once it is closed. Ground and surface water will also be pumped to the new plant from the existing Port Granby Waste Management Facility during excavation. Interception, collection and treatment of contaminated groundwater at the existing site will continue for many years after the project is complete. The principal water treatment processes include equalization, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, reverse osmosis and residuals treatment. As Port Hope is located close to Lake Ontario, it was very important to select the right technological solutions in order to guarantee the highest performance, while having the least environmental impact. Equipment requirements included: • Two bioreactor tanks and domes, supplied by Greatario Engineered

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Spills Storage Systems. • Glass-fused-to-steel double wastewater storage tanks with an interior tank measuring 11.1 x 5.2 metres and an exterior aeration tank measuring 15.4 x 6.46 metres. Bottom portion of the tank to be below grade. • Tank within a tank design with baffles, dividing walls and splitter box to allow for the flow of water to be divided as part of the processing system. • Tanks and domes to be insulated to prevent freezing and allow for proper performance of the biological system. • Each tank to contain an anoxic zone one, anoxic zone two and an aerated zone. • Each bioreactor system to have a combined anoxic volume of 850m3 and 850 m3 of aerobic volume. • Influent flange connection, effluent flange connection and aeration connection flange. • Access ladders, stairs, walkway, platforms and other appurtenances. • Two aluminum geodesic domes – clear spanning and self-supporting – with dormer dome entry and perimeter inner tank walkway. • Two MBR trains, supplied by GE Water & Process Technologies, offer several operational and economic advantages compared to conventional wastewater treatment plants. They eliminate the need for secondary clarifiers and tertiary treatment and provide a superior effluent for the downstream reverse osmosis systems. Increased productivity and design flexibility within a smaller footprint are other advantages the MBR solution offers. This allows for increased performance with a smaller footprint. • Two reverse osmosis units reduce contaminants in the wastewater by about 99%. Water being treated contains low levels of radioactive waste. It is pumped into the bioreactor tanks, which are designed to balance flow surges and allow a constant flow to the subsequent treatment stages, in particular the membrane filtration system. The aerated zone is supplied with process air to provide oxygen to the nitrification process. In the anoxic zone, nitrates are biologically reduced to gaseous nitrogen by adding an www.esemag.com

The bioreactor tanks are designed to balance flow surges and allow constant flow to the subsequent treatment stages.

Double wastewater storage tanks designed with dividing walls and splitter box to allow for even flow of water.

external carbon source. The membrane system separates activated sludge from treated wastewater. This filtration is carried out from the outside inwards. The system is capable of generating a virtually solids free effluent and of providing an effective barrier for bacteria and significant removal of viruses. The membrane system is immersed in the mixed liquor of the membrane tank. Treated effluent is then drawn through the membranes and

discharged for further treatment to the reverse osmosis stage. Earlier testing has shown that these advanced treatment technologies will ensure the quality of water being discharged into Lake Ontario meets the stringent Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission requirements. Pat Logan is with Greatario Engineered Storage Ltd. Email:plogan@greatario.com May/June 2015 | 63

Storage/Containment & Spills Product Showcase

Emergency spill response

H2Flow SBR

The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensures that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Specialist training Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats

The H2Flow SBR consists of FLUIDYNE Sequencing Batch Reactor internals integrated into a glass-fusedto-steel tank. It features jet aeration headers that never require replacement, and a solidsexcluding fixed decanter which has been proven in many installations. Tel: 905-660-9775 Web: www.h2flow.com H2Flow Equipment

KG Services specialize in emergency roadside spill response in Ontario. All of their staff is licensed, insured and fully trained. Service is available 24/7, 365 days a year. 24/7 Emergency Tel: 877-850-3120 E-mail: krisgaal@kgservice.ca Web: www.kgservice.ca KG Services

Safety training

Secondary Containment Solutions

Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web: www.spillmanagement.ca

Tank Connection (TC) was selected to design, manufacture and install a turnkey package of Bolted RTP (rolled, tapered panel) liquid storage tanks with secondary containment and aluminum domes. TC’s RTP tanks and aluminum geodesic domes represent innovation in design, unmatched quality and performance. Tel: 620-423-3010 E-mail: sales@tankconnection.com Web: www.tankconnection.com

Spill Management

Tank Connection Affiliate Group

TEAM-1 Academy is North America’s leader in HazMat, Confined Space and Working at Heights Training which can be facilitated at your location or one of our centers. We conduct training for many enforcement agencies, and for industry and construction. Tel: 905-827-0007, Fax: 905-827-0049 E-mail: brian@team1academy.com Web: www.team1academy.com TEAM-1 Academy

Containment system


Tel: 905-827-0007 ext. 22 Fax: 905-827-0049 E-mail: brian@team1academy.com Web: www.team1academy.com

Westeel’s C-Ring Containment Systems are ideal for petrochemical, frac water storage, oil and gas, fertilizer, hazardous material, and agricultural applications. All systems are made with high-strength (50-ksi) steel and have heavy-duty G115 galvanizing, meeting the stringent requirements of ISO 9001. Tel: 888-674-8265, 204-233-7133 Fax: 888-463-6012 E-mail: info@westeel.com Web: www.westeel.com

Wise Environmental Solutions Inc. specializes in: frac, mini mixer, 4 motor mixer, open top, poly and double wall tank rentals, as well as vacuum, dewatering and environmental roll-off boxes. We pride ourselves on safety and offer competitive transportation and disposal rates. Tel: 519-860-5589 or 519-542-6667 E-mail: amanda@wiseenv.com Web: www.wiseenv.com

TEAM-1 Academy


Wise Environmental Solutions

Working at Heights Training TEAM-1 Academy is the North American gold standard for safely working at heights. Instruction can be at one of our training centers or at your site.

64 | May/June 2015

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

The legendary Muffin Monster sewage grinder has the power to tear through the toughest solids, including wipes, rags, plastics, leaves, branches, clothing and debris, to protect pumps from clogging. The Muffin Monster easily installs in gravity fed sewer channels or inline sewer lines. Tel: 905-856-1414 Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

Septage receiving automation The Honey Monster Septage Receiving system, Model SRS-XE, is an all-in-one unit that allows the cleaner handling of septage truck waste by reducing and separating unwanted trash such as rocks, wipes, rags, clothing, plastics and other debris. Tel: 905-856-1414 Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

On-line education

On-line monitor

Take your expertise to the next level with American Public University which offers more than 190 degree and certificate programs, including Environmental Science, Environmental Policy & Management, and more – completely online. For more information, call 877-777-9081 or visit StudyatAPU.com/ESE. Tel: 877-777-9081 E-mail: info@apus.edu Web: StudyatAPU.com/ESE

Multisensor’s MS1200-SYS On-line VOC/Hydrocarbon Concentration Monitor is designed for water and land remediation applications. It utilizes a unique contactless measurement technique, sensing headspace gases, and provides a very low maintenance and reliable measurement system. It provides cost-effective, high sensitivity sensor technology for ppb concentration event monitoring. Tel: 514-738-6766 Web: www.AvensysSolutions.com

American Public University

Avensys Solutions

Phoenix Underdrain System

• Optimizes all types of filters • Extremely low profile; lowest available • Manufactured from corrosion-resistant stainless steel • Variable custom orifice sizing • Custom hydraulic design • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution • Rapid, low-cost installation Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI


On-site wastewater treatment

ADI Systems’ wastewater treatment and waste-to-energy solutions can help you: comply with strict environmental regulations; recover green energy from waste; reuse treated wastewater; and reduce surcharges and disposal costs. Save money and help minimize pollution by investing in on-site wastewater treatment. Tel: 800-561-2831, Fax: 506-452-7308 E-mail: systems@adi.ca Web: www.adisystemsinc.com ADI Systems

Phoenix Panel System

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Installs directly over existing underdrain system • Eliminates the need for base gravel layers • Improves backwash flow distribution • Provides longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Connections for sodium hypochlorite

Now available at Hoskin Scientific

ChemFlare™ connections solve failure problems on PVC threaded/solvent welds on sodium hypochlorite dosing panels. For ball, relief valves and dosing pumps, they are easy to install, disassemble and add no dead volume. Chemline offers entire system including PFA flare fittings and tubing.

The re-usable Vapor Pin™ provides a means of collecting high-quality, lowcost soil gas samples within minutes. Applications include but not limited to: sub-slab soil gas sampling, de-pressurization studies/testing, stray gas evaluations, source area characterization and mitigation progress monitoring. Tel: 905-333-5510 (Cdn) Tel: 614-526-2040 (US) E-mail: clunman@hoskin.ca (Cdn), vaporpin@coxcolvin.com (US) Web: www.hoskin.ca (Cdn), www.vaporpin.coxcolvin.com (US)

Tel: 800-930-2436, Fax: 905-889-8553 E-mail: request@chemline.com Web: www.chemline.com Chemline Plastics

Product & Service Showcase

Prevent pump ragging

Cox-Colvin & Associates

May/June 2015 | 65

Stop water infiltration Water infiltration problems? Many municipalities are now enjoying the benefits, ease and cost savings in using Denso 12” petrolatum tape to wrap chamber exteriors to arrest the problem of water ingress. Contact Denso to help solve your chamber issues. Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: stuart@densona-ca.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Calibrate, measure and document with Memobase Plus CYZ71D software. Save time and money with one simple tool. Eliminate human error with electronic record keeping and create true sensor life cycle management with complete calibration records, standards management and service history. Tel: 800-668-3199, 905-681-9292 Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/CYZ71D Endress+Hauser Canada

Diffused aeration system

Product & Service Showcase

Multi-channel, multi-parameter software

Stamford Scientific International provides fine bubble teflon coated EPDM membranes for municipal water and wastewater treatment plants. These are resistant to fouling and calcium scaling, with reduced cleaning and extended life. They provide outstanding chemical resistance and resistance to hydrocarbons, fuels and solvents. Tel: 416-503-7639, Fax: 416-503-8925 E-mail: envinc@interlog.com Web: www.env-inc.ca env Treatment Systems

Process mixing system The HYDRAULIX mixing systems feature a unique double nozzle design which allows for even energy distribution. This process optimizes solids suspension and contact to promote efficiency in a wide range of wastewater and bio-fuels applications. E: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

66 | May/June 2015

Magnetic flow meters The Proline 400 magnetic flow meter family introduces innovative technologies to the municipal market. The built-in web server, “fast installation” flange design (2”-14” L sensor) and Heartbeat Technology, make the Proline 400 series flow meters the easiest to use and verify on the market. Tel: 800-668-3199, 905-681-9292 Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/5L4C Endress+Hauser Canada

Monitor tank levels

Velocity flow meter

The Echo-Scale™ ultrasonic sensor from Force Flow allows operators to accurately monitor the amount of chemical used and the remaining amount in bulk storage and feed tanks. Use with the Wizard 4000® indicator for easy configuration, or bypass and send the 4-20mA output directly to SCADA.

The lightweight, battery-powered FH950 Velocity Flow Meter was designed to provide accurate velocity measurements while simplifying the entire measurement process in rugged field environments. It reduces man hours by 50% with the lowest maintenance solution on the market. It automatically calculates total discharge based on USGS and ISO methods. Real-time velocity is graphed on a color display.

Tel: 925-686-6700, Fax: 925-686-6713 E-mail: info@forceflow.com Web: www.forceflow.com Force Flow

Dissolved Air Flotation

Dissolved Air Flotation is used for water clarification in industrial plants, food, oil & gas, mining, pulp & paper, and municipal water and wastewater plants. DAF can remove most TSS, FOG, insoluble BOD. H2Flow has units in stock, pilot units, complete treatment systems.

Tel: 514-354-2511, Fax: 514-354-6948 E-mail: info@geneq.com Web: www.geneq.com Geneq

Digital sampling system The YSI ProDSS Digital Sampling System, with its titanium bodied Smart sensors, is revolutionizing spot sampling and profiling instrumentation. It records dissolved oxygen (optical); turbidity; total suspended solids; depth; GPS; pH; ORP/ Redox; conductivity; specific conductance; salinity; total dissolved solids; seawater density; and temperature.

Tel: 888-575-8642 Web: www.h2flowDAF.com

Web: www.hoskin.ca

H2Flow Equipment Inc.

Hoskin Scientific

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

The HOBO U26-001 Dissolved Oxygen Logger features: DO monitoring with 0.2 mg/L accuracy; optical DO sensor technology; software corrects for measurement drift from fouling; optical USB interface; and easy-to-replace DO sensor cap. It measures temperature and dissolved oxygen. Web: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

Vertical screen technology

Stormwater treatment

Huber Technology invented the RoK4 vertical confined space screen technology to physically screen out debris in confined spaces such as pump stations, wet wells, etc. Three diameters are available with machine lengths as high as ~40’. Over 700 units have been installed worldwide. Tel: 704-990-2055 E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.Huberforum.net

The high performing, high flow Stormceptor OSR’s patented design offers increased hydraulic efficiency, and optimized sediment capture from stormwater runoff. Independently tested and performance verified, Stormceptor OSR is confidently designed to meet your site’s needs.

Huber Technology

Imbrium Systems

COD analyzer

Interpreter register

MANTECH’s on-line PeCOD® chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyzer gives process staff an accurate COD reading in 25 minutes, including filtering, cleaning, calibration and analysis. It can be connected directly to high flow water lines and includes a 4-20mA output. Tel: 519-763-4245 E-mail: info@mantech-inc.com Web: www.mantech-inc.com

Master Meter’s Interpreter Register System, based on proven Dialog® 3G technology, is a universal AMR upgrade that replaces the existing register on almost any brand of meter in minutes, without service interruption. It delivers AMR technology without wires or connections. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: www.mastermeter.com


Master Meter

Primary element flumes

MONITARIO builds flumes. It designs, fabricates, installs and certifies accuracy and has for over 25 years. The CAD/ CAM process has simplified the task. Installations are easier and faster with crucial dimensions maintained. Accuracy is guaranteed. Tel: 519-748-8024 E-mail: randy@monitario.com Web: www.monitario.com MONITARIO Technical Services


Hardware manufacturer MSU Mississauga Ltd., Canada’s premier manufacturer of hardware for the water and wastewater industries, is certified to CSA standards W47.1 and W47.2 and is certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau to weld steel, aluminum and stainless steel. Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com Web: www.msumississauga.com MSU Mississauga

Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: info@imbriumsystems.com Web: www.imbriumsystems.com

Ultrasonic meter

Octave® offers the latest in ultrasonic metering technology and is an excellent alternative to mechanical compound, single-jet, and turbine meters with no moving parts. Octave excels at maintaining sustained accuracy for the life of the meter while providing smart AMR capabilities. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: www.mastermeter.com

Product & Service Showcase

DO logger

Master Meter

Climbing rungs

The MSU #360 poly-coated climbing rungs are designed for corrosive environments found in water and wastewater facilities, and leachate collection systems. Compliant with OPSD 405.010, the #360 rung offers the corrosion resistance you need. MSU Mississauga Ltd. is Canada’s premier manufacturer of hardware for the water and wastewater industries. Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com Web: www.msumississauga.com MSU Mississauga

May/June 2015 | 67

Fire hydrant Canada Valve Century fire hydrants feature Mueller’s “E/M” Operating System. Designed to minimize maintenance, the “E/M” system utilizes less lubricant and fewer moving parts to provide years of trouble-free service under stressful conditions and extreme climates. Tel: 705-719-9965 E-mail: more-info@muellercanada.com Web: www.muellercanada.com

Mueller Canada

NETZSCH’s technologically advanced TORNADO® T2 RLP is the most innovative Rotary Lobe Pump market wide! It offers low pulsation, metal-on-rubber clearances, fewer parts, higher pressures, smaller footprint, and full service-in-place with flange-to-flange access. No timing gears, lubrication, O-rings, gaskets, keyways, castle nuts or tools are needed! Tel: 866-683-7867, Fax: 705-797-8427 E-mail: ntc@netzsch.com Web: www.pumps.netzsch.com NETZSCH Canada

With a 350psi working pressure, the Mueller A-2361 resilient wedge gate valve is ready for the increasing demands of tomorrow’s water systems. It features dual purpose lifting lugs, a T-head bolt retention design and unique ‘pressure assist’ wedge geometry. Tel: (705) 719-9965 E-mail: more-info@muellercanada.com Web: www.muellercanada.com Mueller Canada

Filtration systems

Measuring chloride content

OCWA provides a full range of water and wastewater services to municipalities, First Nation communities and institutions across Ontario. Our certified team of experts has the skills and knowledge to support you at every stage of the asset life cycle. If your business is water, you need to know OCWA

Orival, Inc. has supplied thousands of water conserving automatic self-cleaning filtration systems, removing suspended solids, to a wide variety of global customers for nearly 30 years. Sizes range from ¾” to 24”, with filtration degrees down to 5 microns.

Quantab Chloride Titrators provide a quick, specific, on-the-spot test for measuring chloride content during oil and concrete production, and for determining chloride levels in critical industrial waters such as those used in cooling towers or cutting fluids.

Tel: 800-667-6292, Fax: 416-314-8300 E-mail: ocwa@ocwa.com Web: www.ocwa.com

Tel: 201-568-3311, Fax: 201-568-1916 E-mail: filters@orival.com Web: www.orival.com

Ontario Clean Water Agency

Orival Water Filters

Water and wastewater services

Product & Service Showcase

Rotary lobe pump

Resilient wedge gate valve

Tel: 800-560-4402, Fax: 877-820-9667 E-mail: sales@ospreyscientific.com Web: www.ospreyscientific.com Osprey Scientific

Mixing and aeration systems

Optimizing dry polymer performance

Chemical skids

The Invent Hyperclassic® mixer uses a high efficiency hyperboloid-shaped mixer body near the bottom of the tank, with a dry location, top mounted drive. Low energy, highly effective mixing of floc tanks, anoxic zones, storage tanks, etc. Thousands of these highly efficient mixers have been installed worldwide.

Dry polymer performance starts with effectively wetting each particle. However, metering polymer directly from a feeder into a “wetting bowl” fails to disperse it. The HydraMax pneumatic conveyance system by Velocity Dynamics Inc. thoroughly disperses polymers, prior to wetting, which minimizes hydration time. It does so more effectively than any other blender on the market.

Pre-engineered for any chemical feed application, Prominent’s ProSIP Series wallmounted chemical skids are both versatile and economical. They come with our exclusive three-year leak-free guarantee; all you have to do is plug them in. Ask us how ProSIP helps you live your life — ProMinently.

Tel: (905) 864-9311 Web: www.proaquasales.com

Tel: (905) 864-9311 Web: www.proaquasales.com

Tel: 888-709-9933 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca

Pro Aqua

Pro Aqua

ProMinent Fluid Controls

68 | May/June 2015

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Drive system

Coming soon to Canada, ProMinent’s Gamma X is the only pump that can be programmed with your smart phone using Bluetooth technology. Thanks to new technologies, the Gamma X knows what’s happening before it even happens, and it comes with ProMinent’s world-famous reliability and service. Tel: 888-709-9933 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca

Achieve your ultimate production goals and produce more for less with Movigear® mechatronic drive system. Servo motor, gear unit and electronics are combined into one highly reliable, efficient, and hygienically designed unit. Movigear reduces not only total start-up costs but also annual operating costs by as much as 50%! Tel: 905-791-1533 Web: www.sewcan.ca

PISTA®Works™ is a packaged all in one headworks and grit removal scheme, offering a compact footprint and speedy/ efficient installation. The system features a fully automated control system, an integrated screening system for solids retention, a PISTA® Grit Concentrator, a PISTA® TURBO™ Grit Washer and a PISTA® 360™ Grit Chamber. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com

ProMinent Fluid Controls


Smith & Loveless

Grit removal system

Accurate interface meters

Engineered metal doors

Solinst Interface Meters accurately measure product level and thickness in water. They are certified intrinsically safe and ATEX certified. The Model 122 uses a pressure-proof probe and durable, stain-resistant PVDF flat tape, precisely laser-marked every 1/100 ft. or mm to 1000 ft. (300 m).

USF Fabrication, Inc. manufacture a complete line of engineered metal doors for underground utility access. They have been ‘fabricating solutions since 1916 with over 160,000 sq ft of manufacturing space. This allows them to offer the best lead times in the industry. Their friendly and knowledgeable staff is committed to providing customers with the right product for their application and shipping it when they need it. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: epsl@telus.net

The Waterra Clear PVC EcoBailer and Weighted Polyethylene EcoBailer are both ecofriendly products. A better weight distribution allows these bailers to sink straighter and the efficient valve design makes them the fastest sinking bailers available.

USF Fabrication

Waterra Pumps

Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com Solinst

New and improved Hydrolift

Multi parameter probe

PVC or polyethylene bailers

Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Water level and temperature logger

The portable, electrically operated Hydrolift has been one of the most popular mechanical actuators for the Waterra Inertial Pump, and we’ve been working to make it better. Today, the improved Hydrolift is more durable and easier to use and, most importantly, more affordable than ever.

The AP-2000 portable multi parameter probe is now available as a package. Equipped with the five standard parameters (Optical DO, EC, pH, ORP & temperature), the AP-2000 also has an ion selective electrode socket and an optical sensors electrode socket for a wide range of additional electrodes. The AP-2000 package includes the GPS Aquameter, 3m cable, rugged case and accessories.

The LeveLine-ECO from AQUAREADT is a water level and temperature recording device that has been specifically designed for longterm water level logging. Designed to be deployed and left unattended in the field for long periods of time, the stainless steel LeveLine-ECO is the cost-effective way to get into water level logging.

Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Waterra Pumps

Waterra Pumps


Product & Service Showcase

Metering pump

May/June 2015 | 69

ES&E NEWS New study predicts murky future for global water quality

While California’s four-year drought is forcing the most severe mandatory Now available in Canada! water restrictions in the state’s history, Tier 1 Hydro-Pneumatic Surge and another water crisis is brewing that will Pressure Control Systems in both affect far more people. According to a Bladder and Air over Water Solutions global study by the International Food Policy Research Institute and Veolia, the world is on a path toward rapidly deteriorating water quality in many countries. The first-of-its-kind study indicates AIR RELEASE/VACUUM BREAK that up to one in three people will be exVALVES FOR SEWAGE & WATER posed to a high risk of water pollution “ANTI-SURGE /ANTI-SHOCK” in 2050 from increased amounts of ni10-YEAR WARRANTY • ALL STAINLESS trogen and phosphorus. Up to one in five RGX RBX people will be exposed to a high risk of Reliant WQA water pollution caused by increased levQUALITY AERATOR for Lagoons and Aquaculture quality aerator for lagoons and aquaculture WQA WATERwater els of biochemical oxygen demand. water quality aerator for lagoons and aquaculture Even using the most optimistic so• Course & fine bubble aeration cio-economic Large Air Bubble Mixing Technologymodels, water quality is • Tames sludge buildup ✓ Coarse & fine bubble aeration projected to rapidly deteriorate over the ✓ Tames sludge buildup • Handles ✓upEliminates to 5 acres perstratification unit • Eliminates thermal stratification thermal IdealThis mixing for: increase Innovative, air burst driven mixing next several decades. will ✓ Eliminates seasonal turnover • Efficient✓- Only Up to 15moves lbs O2/hr • Eliminates seasonal turnover Anoxic Basins Most 4 hp 9 MGDenergy-efficient mixing risks to human health, economic ✓ Handles up to 5 No acresin-basin per unit Aeration Basins develmoving parts Coarse & fine bubble • Low maintenance &toSimple! • Onlyaeration 4 hp moves 9 MGD ✓ Efficient: Up 15 lbs O /hr Sludge Easy installation ✓ Low maintenance & Simple! opment and thousands ofMixing aquatic ecoames sludge buildup Drinking water storage tank mixing HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. liminates thermal stratification systems in developed and developing Sewage pump station grease 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 liminates seasonal turnover info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca HYDRO-PULSE cap busting & odor control economies alike. Only 4 hp moves 9 MGD BUBBLETRON Applications Large Bubble Mixing Technology A major Industrial consequence of excesHandles up to 5 acres per unit Large Air Bubble Mixing Technology Food processing applications, liquor blending fficient: Up to 15 lbs O2/hr sive phosphorus & a nitrogen wide range and of mixing applications in water Ideal mixing for: IDEAL Innovative, air burst driven mixing MIXING FOR: ow maintenance & Simple! Anoxic Basins Most energy-efficient mixing bodies is eutrophication. When algae • Innovative, air-burst driven mixing • Anoxic, Aeration & Swing Tanks Aeration Basins No in-basin moving parts HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL Sludge Mixing • Drinking water storage tanks Easy installation ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRO-LOGIC INC. grow faster thanINC. normal, it kills other •762 Energy-efficient, upSuite to 50% power Technology Upper St. James St., 250,less Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 Drinking water storage tank mixing t. James St., Suite•250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 Sludge Tanks • Channel Mixing Applications Sewage pump station grease aquatic life by depleting oxygen. In adinfo@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca • No in-basin moving parts •Ideal Sewage pump grease cap busting & odorcap control busting & odor control info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca mixing for:station dition, the presence of nitrogen-based Industrial Applications • Industrial and Food Processing Applications. . . and more! • Easy installation Anoxic Basins Food processing applications, liquor blending compounds in drinking water can be & a wide range of mixing applications Aeration Basins Sludge Mixing harmful to human health. High levels of HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. rinking water storage tank mixing 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 nitrates can have particularly harmful Sewage pump station grease T: 905-777-9494 • F: 905-777-8678 • info@hydrologic.ca • www.hydrologic.ca info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca cap busting & odor control effects on infants through the so-called 762 Applications Upper St. James Street, Suite 250, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L9C 3A2 Industrial “blue-baby” syndrome. Prolonged inssing applications, liquor blending wide range of mixing applications take of high levels of nitrates by adults can also lead to gastric problems. Five decades of excellence MENTAL INC. The new study follows previous sub905-777-9494 • in Fax: 905-777-8678 infrastructure stantial research conducted by the two drologic.ca planning & engineering organizations indicating that half the world’s population (52% of the global population or 4.8 billion people), approximately half of global grain production and 45% of total GDP ($63 trillion) will be at risk due to water stress by 2050, unless more sustainable water resource management practices are adopted.






NB’s River Watch team earns award for innovation The Knowledge Industry, Recognition and Achievement (KIRA) Award was presented to New Brunswick’s River Watch during ceremonies in Fredericton 70 | May/June 2015

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ES&E NEWS recently. A first in Canada, the River Ice Observation and Reporting System was developed by the Hydrology Center of the Department of Environment and Local Government, in co-operation with the Department of Public Safety’s Emergency Measures Organization and NB Power. River Watch uses the observation and reporting system to electronically document and share information on ice freeze-up, ice break-up and ice jam locations in real time with government agencies. Brian Kenny, New Brunswick’s Environment and Local Government Minister, said changes in climate require better preparedness for extreme weather events, beginning with accurate and timely information sharing. NB Power was able to contribute existing dam operation procedures along the St. John River. This helped inform the population on what the river conditions are during the spring thaw.

Green tech solution to stop toxic algae

Markham, ON 905-747-8506 Vancouver, BC 604-251-5722 Edmonton, AB 780-455-4300

A Waterloo, Ontario scientist has WeKnowWater@BV.com partnered with a local company to Consulting • Engineering • Construction • Operation www.bv.com evaluate the geochemical processes involved in their new technology that removes up to 98 per cent of phosphorus from residential wastewater. Black&Veatch_ND.14_ProCard_TP.indd 1 2014-11-12 Lingling Wu, an assistant professor in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Specialists in a comprehensive range of Municipal, Environmental, Structural, Building, Water Resources, Transportation Department at the University of Waterand Municipal Engineering loo, is working with Waterloo BiofilCollingwood Bracebridge Orillia Barrie ter Systems. She is researching ways to Email: info@cctatham.com Web: www.cctatham.com dissolve iron into sewage using low-energy electrochemistry, which then forms an iron-phosphorus mineral in a subsequent filtration system. Cyanobacteria, or blue-green alWe retrofit Transfer Stations gae, release liver and nerve toxins that can cause death to animals. People who by providing Baling & Bagging Greey EnWaste™ inadvertently drink water contaminated Equipment to Guarantee unit of Greey CTS Inc. with algae can suffer everything from Diversion of all Organic fever to headache and vomiting. Wu’s connection to Waterloo BioWaste from Landfill. email: greey.enwaste@rogers.com www.greeyenwaste.ca filter Systems was facilitated through the Southern Ontario Water Consortium. This organization helps researchers and water technology companies connect to tackle issues related to wastewater, drinking water, ecotoxicology, watersheds, sensors and data. www.uwaterloo.ca/earthenvironmental-sciences

Continuous Clean Energy Power Plant

continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

May/June 2015 | 71

10:29 AM

ES&E NEWS $4.2 million in sewer upgrades for Grand Falls, NB

INTERPROVINCIAL CORROSION CONTROL Leaders in the Cathodic Protection Industry…Since 1957 CORROSION CONTROL PRODUCTS Burlington, Ontario Canada Regional Offices: Montreal, Calgary Lewiston, New York, USA

Tel: 905-634-7751 • Fax: 905-333-4313 www.Rustrol.com

The New Brunswick government is joining the federal government and the Town of Grand Falls to support storm sewer upgrades. Collectively, the partners are investing $4.2 million, with each investing up to $1.4 million towards the project. Grand Falls will use the funding to install a new dedicated storm sewer system on Broadway Boulevard. Once completed, the project will make water treatment systems in the area more efficient, improve protection against property damage from flooding, and reduce river bank erosion. Grand Falls is the first New Brunswick community to receive joint funding under the Small Communities Fund. It provides funds for strategic infrastructure projects that contribute to both a cleaner environment and economic growth. Under the fund, the provincial government is partnering with the federal government and municipalities or local service districts to jointly invest more than $118 million in infrastructure over the next 10 years. www.gnb.ca

Winnipeg boil-water advisory likely related to sampling or analytical issues The City of Winnipeg submitted an external report to the Office of Drinking Water, the regulator of drinking water in Manitoba, for the province’s review of the findings and recommendations from the comprehensive, external assessment of the City of Winnipeg’s water system. “The water was, and is, safe to drink,” said Geoffrey Patton, Acting Director of Water and Waste. “The independent assessment provides compelling evidence there was no contamination in Winnipeg’s water distribution system during the event that occurred in January 2015.” The external Comprehensive Assessment of the City of Winnipeg’s Water System as it Relates to Recent Boil Water Advisories report concludes: “It appears most likely that the source of the positive samples originated in either a sample collection or laboratory contamination event.” The assessment also notes that there 72 | May/June 2015

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ES&E NEWS was no connection between historical the United Nations Framework Conven- Leona Aglukkaq also announced the discoloured water events and histori- tion on Climate Change. It says it will Government’s intention to develop new cal bacteriological samples. The report continue to take cooperative action with regulatory measures under its responcontains several recommendations out- its continental trading partners, partic- sible sector-by-sector approach that lining improvements that can be made ularly the United States, in integrated would build on the decisive actions takto reduce the likelihood of false positive sectors of the economy, including ener- en to date. These include: samples in the future. Many of these gy and transportation. • Regulations aligned with recently prohave been implemented or are underOn May 15, Environment Minister continued overleaf... way including improvements to the City’s sampling procedures. On January 27, the provincial Medical Officer of Health issued a precautionary boil water advisory for Winnipeg’s water system. This was done after water samples, taken regularly to Engineers and Environmental Consultants monitor water safety, tested positive for presence of bacteria. The City began retesting water samples from locations 1-800-265-9662 www.rjburnside.com that had positive results and surrounding locations. Results of these retests, received on January 28, showed the water was safe. RJBurnside-JulyAug2014.indd 1 2014-06-20 12:10 PM After a second set of retests was ordered and again confirmed the City’s water was safe, the precautionary boil water advisory was lifted by the provincial Medical Officer of Health on January 29. On February 3, 2015, the Manitoba Office of Drinking Water issued an order Science Engineering Ad - 2015 “A leader Environmental in providing innovative to the City to carry out an investigation RV ANDERSON-ProCard_MJ.15_TP.indd 1 5/7/15 8:14 AM 4.75” x 1.5” of the water system, to be completed in automation solutions to our customers” accordance with the USEPA’s Revised We offer a complete range of products & services in the areas of: System Integration Total Coliform Rule Assessments and • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Chemical Packages • Programmable Logic Controllers Corrective Actions Guidance Manual. Celebrating • HMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services • Service The City retained an external consulSumma Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V 1J2 tant to undertake the investigation and to T: 905-678-3388 • F: 905-678-0444 • E: info@summaeng.com • www.summaeng.com of Customer Service prepare a comprehensive, third-party report, which would also include two independent assessments initiated by the City that were specific to sampling and analysis procedures. The Comprehensive Assessment of the City of Winnipeg’s Water System as it Relates to Recent Boil Water Advisories was completed on April 30, 2015, and forwarded to the provincial Office of Drinking Water. www.winnipeg.ca 14132 summalogoPMS 467.pdf



1:42 PM

years 1980 - 2015

2030 emissions target announced by Government of Canada The Government of Canada has announced its plans to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30% below 2005 levels by 2030. Canada has now formally submitted its target, referred to as an intended Nationally Determined Contribution, to www.esemag.com

May/June 2015 | 73

Advertiser INDEX




ACG Technology.................................... 75 Aerzen .................................................. 19 American Public University.................. 26 Associated Engineering........................ 15 AWI........................................................ 23 BNW Valve Manufacturing................... 44 Chemline Plastics................................. 37 Conestoga-Rovers & Associates.......... 57 Denso ................................................... 38 Endress + Hauser................................. 11 Envirocan ............................................ 75 Force Flow............................................ 43 Geneq.................................................... 44 Geomembrane Technologies................ 54 Greatario .............................................. 59 H2Flow ................................................. 53 Hemmera............................................... 42 Hoskin Scientific............................. 24, 55 Huber Technology................................. 33 Hydro International............................... 35 Hydroxyl................................................ 27 Kusters Water....................................... 21 Mantech ............................................... 39 Master Meter ......................................... 3 MSU Mississauga................................. 31 Mueller.............................................insert Nelson Environmental.......................... 47 Ontario Clean Water Agency................ 76 Osprey Scientific................................... 47 Parsons................................................. 49 Pro Aqua................................................. 9 ProMinent................................................ 2 SEW-Eurodrive...................................... 18 Sherwin-Williams................................. 29 Singer Valve.......................................... 25 Smith & Loveless.................................... 5 Solinst................................................... 18 Stantec.................................................. 25 Tank Connection................................... 60 Titan Environmental Containment....... 57 Trans Environmental Systems............. 53 Vector Process Equipment................... 17 Waterra Pumps................... 20, 28, 45, 51 WEFTEC................................................. 46 XCG Consultants................................... 37

74 | May/June 2015

posed actions in the United States to reduce the potent GHG methane from the oil-and-gas sector. Action in this area would lead to significant reductions in emissions while ensuring Canadian companies remain competitive. • Regulations for natural gas-fired electricity, which would build on Canada’s existing coal-fired electricity regulations and strengthen Canada’s position as a clean-energy leader. • Regulations for the production of chemicals and nitrogen fertilizers, which would reduce the growth of GHGs from two of the largest sources of emissions in Canada’s manufacturing sector. www.news.gc.ca

Endress+Hauser strengthens presence in South America Endress+Hauser is acquiring 100 per cent of the process automation business of Colsein Ltda., its longtime sales and service partner in Bogotà. Colsein has represented Endress+ Hauser in Columbia since 1993, managing both domestic and international customers. Its process automation business will be transferred to a new Endress+Hauser sales subsidiary on January 1, 2016. With a population of almost 50 million, Columbia is one of South America’s most populated countries, second only to Brazil. After Chile, it’s considered the continent’s largest growth market. Although the oil and gas industry is the main driver of economic development, state-of-the-art measurement and automation technology is also helping to make process technologies efficient, safe and environmentally compatible in the food and beverage, water and wastewater, and power and energy industries. www.endress.com

Two CPWA members make top ten leaders list Two members of the Canadian Public Works Association were recently named as Top Ten Public Works Leaders 2015 in North America in recognition of their career excellence and dedication to public works. Darwin K. Durnie, RET, PWLF, director of business development at Stan-

tec Consulting Ltd. and Paul Smeltzer, P.Eng., director of water and wastewater services of Niagara Region, will receive their awards at the upcoming APWA 2015 International Public Works Congress and Exposition in Phoenix, Arizona. The award honours excellence and dedication in public service by recognizing career service achievements of individual public works professionals and officials, from the U.S. and Canada in both the public and private sectors. During his thirty-year career, Durnie has held significant emergency management roles and has often been selected to assist with response and recovery of Alberta communities. Smeltzer has 35 years of industry experience. In his position with Niagara Region, in Ontario, he is accountable for general management and leadership in the engineering, operations and maintenance working groups, and compliance of delivery of water and wastewater services.

Dry-cleaning chemical supplier fined Prairie Distributors (B.C.) Inc. was fined $62,500 under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999). The company pleaded guilty to four offences in contravention of the Tetrachloroethylene (Use in Dry Cleaning and Reporting Requirements) Regulations. In June 2012, Environment Canada enforcement officers conducted inspections of dry-cleaning businesses in British Columbia to verify compliance with the Regulations. A subsequent investigation determined that Prairie Distributors had sold tetrachloroethylene, a toxic substance commonly known as PERC, to dry-cleaning facility owners or operators who did not have the required secondary containment systems in place. This is in contravention of a condition of sale imposed by the Tetrachloroethylene Regulations. PERC is a commonly used dry-cleaning solvent and is designated as a toxic substance under CEPA 1999. If released into the environment, it has the potential to contaminate ground and surface water. www.news.gc.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ACGT 042 ES&E MayJune 2014_FNL 2014-05-20 11:36 AM Page 1

Two Companies • Many Lines One Number To Call PRIMARY TREATMENT • Complete line of fine screening equipment • Self-cleaning perforated plate screens • FlexRake® front-raked fine screens • FlexRake® front-raked bar screens • FlexRake® low flow • Screenings washer/compactor • Auger conveyor • Self-Cleaning trashracks • Muffin Monster® grinder (for sludge, scum, septage, screenings & wastewater) • Channel Monster® grinder for pump stations and sewage treatment plant headworks • Honey Monster® septage receiving station • Auger Monster® fine screen system • Monster® fine screen & band screen perforated plate fine screens with 2, 3 & 6mm perforations • Screenings washer/compactors • Rotating drum screens (down to 2mm perfs) • Raptor screenings washer press

TANK COVERS & DOMES • Aluminum and FRP geodesic domes • Flat aluminum tank covers • Aluminum channel and launder covers • Aluminum hatch covers

SECONDARY TREATMENT • Aqua-Jet® direct drive floating aerator • Aqua DDM mechanical floating mixer • Fine bubble aeration systems using membrane or ceramic diffusers with gas cleaning systems • Stainless steel coarse bubble aeration systems • Multi stage activated biological process (MSABP) • Two & three rotary lobe P/D blowers • Centrifugal multistage blowers • Floating diversion curtains (for aerated lagoons, activated sludge systems & clear wells) • Subsurface jet aeration/mixing systems (for high rate & low rate treatment systems) • Drop in jet aerators/mixers • Spiraflo & Spiravac peripheral feed clarifiers • Closed loop reactor oxidation ditch systems • Rotary brush aerators • High efficiency single stage integrally geared blowers • Direct drive turbo type blowers • Aeration system controls & instrumentation • Chain & flight clarifier systems & components (plastic, cast iron or stainless steel) • Half bridge, centre feed, circular clarifiers • Spiral blade clarifiers

BULK MATERIAL HANDLING • Shaftless & shafted screw conveyors • Screw pumps (open & closed designs)

TERTIARY TREATMENT • AquaDisk® - cloth media tertiary filter • AquaDiamond® tertiary cloth media for traveling bridge filters


DISINFECTION • UV disinfection systems • Package & custom ozone systems BIOSOLIDS PROCESSING/HANDLING • Sludge storage bins & live bottom dischargers • GBT & RDT for sludge thickening • Belt filter presses & screw presses • Centrifuges for thickening & dewatering ODOUR CONTROL • Biofilters • Bioscrubbers • Carbon adsorbers • Chemical wet scrubbers

FLOWMETERS • Open channel flow metering (portable and permanent; wireless data transmission) • Insertion mag flow meters with wireless data transmission • Data loggers with wireless data transmission INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • PCl Series DAF with corrugated plates • PWl Series DAF low profile, from 20·800 GPM • Pipe flocculators • Industrial wastewater treatment systems • Coalescing oil/water separators • Inclined plate clarifiers PACKAGE TREATMENT PLANTS • Package potable water treatment plants • Package sanitary wastewater treatment plants • Package industrial wastewater treatment plants • Package industrial process water treatment plants WATER TREATMENT • Pressure filtration systems (removal of iron and manganese, arsenic, fluoride, radium, uranium)


CALL 905.856.1414 • 131 Whitmore Rd., Unit 13, Woodbridge, ON L4L 6E4


and more…

Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association

5/21/14 7:52 AM

Trust. It flows from experience & commitment. Coming from Ontario, land of freshwater, perhaps our dedication to water quality and innovation shouldn’t be surprising. The Ontario Clean Water Agency has earned a world-class reputation in the operation of clean water and wastewater facilities. Collaboration flows through everything we do. If you’d like to discuss your municipality’s needs, whatever the size, wherever you are, we look forward to talking with you.

For sales enquiries call 1-855-358-1488 or visit www.ocwa.com. Follow us on Twitter. Like us on Facebook.