Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine | August/September 2020

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ES&E’s Annual Guide to Environmental Government Offices, Associations, Academic Institutions and Training Providers Designing resilient water systems for extreme weather events Working towards energy-neutral wastewater treatment Managing water systems during the COVID-19 pandemic


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August/September 2020 • Vol. 33 No. 4 • ISSN-0835-605X

Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY steve@esemag.com Managing Editor PETER DAVEY peter@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY penny@esemag.com ales Representative DENISE SIMPSON S denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY sandra@esemag.com Design & Production MIGUEL AGAWIN production@esemag.com



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TECHNICAL ADVISORY BOARD Archis Ambulkar, OCT Water Quality Academy Gary Burrows, City of London Patrick Coleman, Stantec Bill De Angelis, Metrolinx Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems William Fernandes, City of Toronto Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Tony Petrucci, Civica Infrastructure Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi‑monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Subscription Changes? Please email reader subscription changes to ese@mysubscription.ca, or call 705-502-0024. Environmental Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30 Aurora, Ontario  L4G 3V6 Tel: (905)727-4666 Website: www.esemag.com

A Supporting Publication of

6 8 10 12 14 16 20 22 23 26 28 29 30 32 33 34 35 39 40 43 44

Looking for a “New Deal” to foster post pandemic economic recovery Water resilience: the missing piece in dealing with climate change – Cover Story A look at the history of freeze protected water systems in the Canadian Arctic SCADA communications network enables remote operations in Wood Buffalo, AB Validating real-time monitoring platform to detect pulp and paper black liquor discharge events eDNA will enhance environmental surveys for 500 Canadian lakes Calgary WWTP hopes to achieve energy-neutral status Stormwater system installed at B.C. First Nations new mega mall Cutting the risk of Legionnaires’ Disease from shuttered water systems Alberta loses access to Milk River irrigation water following U.S. canal failure Changes to Ontario’s water taking policy being considered Biofilm technology improves wastewater treatment in cold weather lagoons Hydro excavation waste slurries should no longer be a worry New report shows Ontario remains largest issuer of environmental fines in Canada Finding the right dosing pump for water and wastewater treatment processes Alberta grants $150M for 55 water and wastewater projects in small municipalities Environmental forensic tools help answer legal and groundwater contamination problems Understanding wastewater treatment's impact on nutrient imbalance in lakes Removing a large water intake and concrete pier poses environmental challenges Creating a closed-loop process to recycle 99% of lead batteries Great Lakes and St. Lawrence cities say stimulus water restoration projects can kick-start the economy



56 59 59 62

47 Associations 51 Government 53 Education, Research & Training

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Looking for a “New Deal” to foster post pandemic economic recovery


n 1992, ES&E co-launched what would become CANECT – The Canadian Environmental Conference and Tradeshow, which is now one of the largest privately organized events of its kind in the country. While “show business” is fraught with uncertainty due to so many stakeholders and external factors, we have always had a successful event. Even with the SARS outbreak in 2003, which was a significant public health issue, we still managed to proceed with CANECT. However, the scale and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic is like nothing we’ve seen in our lifetime and the situation continues to evolve. Even now, with all of Ontario in Phase 3 of the government’s re-opening plan, indoor events larger than 50 people are not permitted. As a result, we made the difficult decision to postpone CANECT until November 2021, to protect the health and safety of our delegates, exhibitors and speakers. Like many other events and conferences, we are exploring how to deliver CANECT training through online webinars and workshops. While it is challenging to replicate the inperson experience, there are exciting options available in virtual training and the reach of events can be much broader. Furthermore, we are looking at launching webinars under the ES&E Magazine brand that will offer interactive discussions on water, wastewater and environmental protection topics with leading experts and professionals. Stay tuned! ES&E and the CANECT team truly appreciates the understanding and ongoing support we have received during this difficult situation. We’ll provide more information on the 2020 virtual workshops and CANECT 2021 as details become available. We look forward to having our finger on the pulse of the industry for many years to come and providing top notch articles to our readers across Canada. While it is natural to despair about what has been lost financially during this pandemic, as history has taught us we must look to the future. The now famous “New Deal” was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939 in response to the Great Depression of the 1930s. To “prime the pump” and cut unemployment, the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 created the Public Works Administration. In two years, the government spent $3.3 billion (worth over $60 billon today) with private companies to build 34,599 projects, many of them quite large. All told, some 8.5 million workers were employed on a wide range of government-financed public works projects, building bridges, airports, dams, post offices, hospitals and hundreds of thousands of miles of road. 6  |  August/September 2020

The environment benefitted too. Through reforestation and flood control, projects also helped reclaim millions of hectares of soil from erosion and devastation. Since that time, funnelling funds into infrastructure projects has also been done by Canadian governments during times of economic downturns. In early August, Canada’s Infrastructure Minister Catherine McKenna announced a new temporary COVID-19 resilience stream of $3.3 billion for “quick-start, short-term” pandemic-related projects that might not be covered under existing funding streams. In the July 2020 issue article entitled “The future is now: infrastructure’s role in economic recovery", Michael Burke, AECOM’s Chairman and CEO said that, “while immediate payouts are needed to keep households and businesses afloat, infrastructure spending provides one of the greatest returns on investments in the longer term.” He believes that incorporating a full asset life cycle approach that balances shovel ready projects with more strategic priorities, means we can help make our urban centers more resilient to global shocks such as climate change and urbanization. In this issue’s article entitled “Great Lakes and St. Lawrence cities say stimulus water restoration projects can kick-start our economy” (p 44) the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative says that nearly 20 jobs could be created per million dollars spent on infrastructure. They are asking the Canadian and U.S. governments for billions in stimulus funding to protect shorelines, reduce flooding and safeguard drinking water. We are now six months into the COVID-19 pandemic and I am sure that Canada’s consulting engineers, equipment manufacturers, and contractors are hopeful any forthcoming infrastructure spending gets appropriately allocated to the water and wastewater sectors. Municipalities that are facing a near-term financial gap of $10 – $15 billion according to the Federation of Canadian Municipalities will also be watching closely for support. Steve Davey is the editor and publisher of ES&E Magazine. Please email any comments you may have to steve@esemag.com

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Water resilience: the missing piece in dealing with climate change By Christopher Davidson


uch of the discussion around climate change involves the expectation that there will be bigger and more frequent storms. This has led to designing water management systems in a way that can accommodate more water, such as bigger culverts, longer and higher bridges, and hardening streams against erosion. What has been missing from the discussion is the idea of resilience, defined as how easily and quickly a system can recover from extreme weather events, whether these events involve too much water or too little. Resilience matters because, despite all the effort put into understanding climate change, there remains a great deal of uncertainty as to what the world will be like in 50 or 100 years. This uncertainty means we must be flexible in preparing to handle what comes next. WHY IT’S NO LONGER BUSINESS AS USUAL The uncertainty surrounding climate change is different from the concept of risk that engineers are familiar with. An understanding of risk underlies how engineers create cost-effective solutions. We design solutions knowing that, based on historical records, there is the potential (e.g., once in five years, once in 25 years, etc.) for an event to occur that may exceed the design capacity. We work with clients and regulators to make sure the risk associated with the event is proportional to the impact of failure and cost of replacement. What’s challenging about factoring in uncertainty in climate change is that the goalposts we have been using (such as the 1:5-year flood or the 1:25-year flood) have shifted and will continue to shift in the coming decades. Because of the future uncertainty of both what effect climate change will have and how humanity will address it, we cannot determine where the goalposts will be or what size or type of weather events we should plan for. While there are climate change models that try to predict what will happen, each of the available models runs a range of different emissions scenarios, including factors like the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere between now and 2100. Projected temperatures and precipitation vary widely across models and scenarios. Each model and scenario produces a different projection for temperature and precipitation, and there is no way to say for sure which projection will be the closest match to the future conditions. That’s the uncertainty in future climate. In response to that uncertainty, we could take the most conservative approach and design for the maximum of all projections and install huge culverts over what are usually small streams. Or, we could place large armoring on a slope to protect the roadway from being eroded by floodwater. However, 8  |  August/September 2020

The Toronto Islands were flooded in 2017 and again in 2019, when water levels in Lake Ontario reached record highs due to wet weather.

this sort of over-engineering would be cost-prohibitive if applied in every case. Furthermore, broad-brush mitigation steps will never satisfy all possible futures. We need a better way to meet the challenges of protecting people and the environment from the uncertain impacts of climate change. WHY RESILIENCE MATTERS IN A WORLD OF CLIMATE CHANGE While we cannot address all possible futures resulting from climate change, we can supplement our design process with another approach. This new approach involves accepting that more extreme events may happen and focusing on building Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ways to support recovery after an event has occurred. Engineers call this “resiliency” the ability for a system to recover after a damaging event. As an example, repair crews that go out to a roadway that has been washed out by a flood are concerned about not just the roadway surface and emergency access it provides, but also any sewer pipes, water-supply pipes, underground cabling and other infrastructure that may have been impacted by the floodwater. These elements take time to repair, which has larger societal and environmental impacts. Resiliency, in this case, is about increasing the speed at which the functions provided by the washed-out road can be restored. This might involve taking steps to have material on hand to repair the road, as well as having trained personnel to make the repairs. Resiliency can also be by design, such as by burying services deeper so they are less likely to be damaged, or using modular, replaceable sections over the crossing to speed repair. Going further, resiliency requires that money be set aside in maintenance budgets for emergency repairs. It also requires the willingness to replace existing culverts with larger culverts or more resilient systems if it is deemed appropriate. Resiliency is evaluated through four aspects: • Societal: How quickly can services be restored, and homes made livable again? • Environmental: Did the event dam-

age the environment through erosion, habitat loss or spills, and how easily can it be cleaned up? • Financial: Is there enough money set aside to quickly invest in new or repaired infrastructure and cleanup? • Economic: How quickly can economic vitality be restored so that services are available, and productivity retained?

natural infiltration processes that were present pre-development, to remove contaminants and funnel precipitation into the groundwater. LID installations are resistant to high-flow events, so they can continue their task of restoring groundwater after extreme events. They can also be added retroactively to existing developments to mitigate uncertainty with respect to the capacity of downstream infrastructure. Most importantly, the augmented infiltration helps ensure that water wells, wetlands and watercourses have enough water even in dry periods. Public policy and regulations can be used to encourage the use of LID measures in future property developments and retrofitting at existing properties. Legal structures can also make it possible for cities to survive dry periods through steps such as prohibiting lawn watering and managing water use during and after dry periods, so that a city’s water supply can recover more quickly. Resilience is becoming an increasingly important part of preparing for climate change uncertainty. Incorporating resilience into planning acknowledges that, while the future is a mystery, there are steps we can and should take to be ready for the impacts of change.

RESILIENCY APPLIED TO THE SUPPLY OF WATER As well as dealing with the problem of too much water, resiliency principles help deal with the likelihood that climate change will bring increasing instances of water scarcity. Golder helps communities institute low impact development (LID) measures that can help mitigate uncertainty about groundwater availability. LID measures address the concern that when an area gets built up, the precipitation that formerly percolated into the groundwater now flows quickly off hard surfaces like roofs and roads. From there, this runoff may be funneled directly into a watercourse, potentially causing erosion. Fast diversion of runoff also reduces groundwater replenishment, which may in turn reduce the flow of water to private and public wells as well as streams and wetlands. Best practice includes creating many Christopher Davidson is with Golder. small, local projects such as rainwater www.golder.com infiltration trenches that augment the

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August/September 2020  |  9


A look at the history of freeze protected water systems in the Canadian Arctic By Ken Johnson


he use of piped water distribution systems in the Canadian Arctic is a century old practice that began with an installation in Dawson City, Yukon, in 1905. This system was very rudimentary, but the fundamental practices of freeze protection by heating the water and bleeding the system were applied. Heating was accomplished by running a parallel steam pipe system beside the wood stave pipe water system, which continuously provided a heat source. Bleeding was done with a constant discharge of the water system into the adjacent Yukon River. The next significant piped water distribution system in the Arctic was constructed for the mining community of Yellowknife in 1950. In the 45 years since the Dawson City system was built, considerable improvements were made in the freeze protection practices. The Yellowknife water system applied a circulating water system, with provision for heating. A 200 mm iron header fed the system from an intake pumphouse, and the flow was divided into 150 mm laterals, with a 100 mm return pipe to provide recirculation flow. Each house had a 12 mm service connection that looped from the 150 mm lateral, returning to a 100 mm return lateral. The return line connection had a small orifice to induce continuous circulation. All of the pipelines were buried with a minimum cover of 1.5 m as a freeze protection measure, and were also insulated using local moss. The establishment of the new town of Inuvik in 1960, to replace the flood prone community of Aklavik, saw a similar configuration to the freeze protected system in Yellowknife. However, because of the thaw-sensitive permafrost, a decision was made to install the system in an aboveground linear box system, which became known as an “utilidor”. The piping was asbestos cement and the system was recirculating. Heating was provided by the high-pressure district heating system, located in the same utilidor box as the water and sewer piping. Iqaluit’s original water system copied the system in Inuvik, with an aboveground utilidor using asbestos cement piping. This system also used water tempering, recirculation, and bleeding to protect it from freezing. The construction of the Astro Complex in Iqaluit was the first major development needing a water supply. It was connected to the water distribution system from an aboveground utilidor that originated from the water treatment plant at Lake Geraldine. Substantial residential growth occurred in Iqaluit in the 1970s and the Territorial Government decided to extend the piped water system. This growth initiated the introduction of buried servicing, which avoided exposure to the extreme cold at the ground surface. The growth also introduced improve10  |  August/September 2020

Metal access vaults, which replaced concrete manholes, provided better separation between servicing systems, easier installation, and could be tested in the south before being shipped north.

ments in pipe and manhole materials. All of the “modern” provisions incorporated into the design of water systems in the Canadian Arctic were in place at the end of the 1970s. These provisions included buried high-density, urethane insulated, polyethylene piping, which was installed as a looped system with water reheating and recirculation. In the mid-1980s, another substantial expansion of the piped water system in Iqaluit was initiated. This involved the introduction of metal “access vaults” as a replacement for concrete manholes. These structures provided better separation between servicing systems and installation efficiency was substantially improved. Commissioning was also less challenging, because the access vaults could be tested before shipment from the factory in the south. In the 1990s, the system layouts for recirculation, even for pipe sections that could not easily be looped, were standardized with water pipes looping back on themselves in some Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

cases. A modest increase in cost for the “double piping” of the recirculation loop was offset by a number of benefits. These included reversing the flow in the return line in a fire flow situation, and improving the redundancy of the water supply by using the return line as a supply line in case of a supply line failure. The watermains were also deep enough that seasonal temperature variations that the system was subjected to were small. Since 1990, remediation and replacement work of earlier systems has been underway. Reliable and accurate flow measurement and monitoring equipment has become far more affordable. While good quality flow measurement/monitoring equipment was available pre-1990, it was extremely expensive and as a result was not commonly used in northern water systems. In water systems that rely on flow or recirculating flow to provide freeze protection, flow monitoring is critical. The ability to generate alarms or to start standby pumping in the event of a loss of flow has both improved system reliability and simplified the lives of operations staff. The second major technological advancement has come with improvements in communications technology. Earlier systems may have relied on something as simple as a passerby noticing that the red beacon on the outside of a panel or building was on. Now, telephone, cell phone, satellite, and/or internet-based communications systems provide both continuous equipment monitoring and alarms triggering in the event of abnormal conditions in heating or circulating freeze protection systems. Modern electronics have also allowed optimization in the control systems. For example, operating systems at closer to 0°C saves on energy for reheating. The increase in community piped water systems has not expanded a great deal. However, a few communities have received “core” community water systems that service just the larger water users in the centre of the community, such as schools. These systems were developed without any plans for expansion, because of the high capital cost of buried systems in comparison to trucked systems. Another factor is ground movement, as a result of permafrost, that is very hard on buried pipelines and shortens their design life. As the impacts of climate change unfold, ground movement will become worse. Ken Johnson is with EXP. Email: ken.johnson@exp.com

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August/September 2020  |  11


SCADA communications network enables remote operations in Wood Buffalo By Jason Vanderzwaag and Kristen Andersen


he Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo in northern Alberta has grown significantly over the past 15 years. It has continued to expand its water and wastewater infrastructure since the 1980s, in order to meet the demands of a growing population. The system includes more than 50 facilities in a 200 kilometre radius, many in remote areas. Operating, maintaining, and monitoring them has become a challenge. To assist day-to-day operations, the municipality needed to be able to operate and monitor the facilities remotely. It retained Associated Engineering to plan, design and implement a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) communication system. This system needed to be secure, robust, flexible and scalable. Wood Buffalo’s remote water and wastewater facilities are normally unattended, with operations staff monitoring the sites using a mix of older radio and leased telephone line technologies. Communications outages were starting to become a problem. Thus, standardizing and modernizing the network was a necessity. The project was developed in three stages. Stage one was to develop a SCADA master plan for the municipality, including developing a network plan for every water and wastewater facility. According to project manager Steve Justus, “the SCADA Master Plan laid the groundwork for the architecture of a new high-speed radio network composed of a ‘backhaul’, a highspeed network of six radio access points, and ‘edge’ sites that connect to the backhaul.” Stage two involved the design and implementation of the backhaul. Six radio towers were erected, extending from Fort McMurray, north of the Athabasca River, to 25 kilometres south of the city. These were equipped with high-bandwidth, point-to-point radios linking them together. Point-to-multipoint radios were also installed on these towers to provide radio coverage throughout the urban service area. Network routers at each backhaul site were configured to separate the water, wastewater and radio management traffic into three mutually exclusive networks, all sharing the same physical infrastructure. This phase was completed as a design-build, with Associated Engineering acting as the owner’s engineer. Stage three connected the edge sites to the backhaul network and integrated process data from these edge sites to the central operations teams at the Fort McMurray water and wastewater treatment plants. Staff conducted site inspections on the remote sites, identifying control requirements to make existing facilities compatible with the new technologies. Radio path studies were conducted for all edge sites to provide height requirements for radio connectivity to the backhaul. During stage three, the water treatment plant’s control com12  |  August/September 2020

Radio path studies were conducted for all edge sites to provide height requirements for radio connectivity to the backhaul.

puter software and hardware was upgraded. The hardware was replaced with high-quality, rack-mounted servers, running in a virtualized environment. So, new servers can be added with minimal additional hardware expense. It also allows the relocation between physical hardware, for ease of maintenance. Then, the existing SCADA graphics were migrated to the new servers, and new graphics were developed for the remote stations as they were linked to the backhaul network. This involved creating high-performance graphics for the water distribution network, and traditional graphics using an existing template for the wastewater network. Justus says: “Performing this work as a design-build meant that it could be fast-tracked and easily adapted to issues with legacy systems, as they came to light. This allowed for maximum flexibility, collaboration and ease of integration to meet the project goals.” The project was completed in August 2019 and the new communications networks will help reduce transportation costs and associated greenhouse gas emissions for operator travel to remote sites. In addition, the new system is much more responsive and allows for more detailed supervision and reporting from each site. This improves system resiliency in the event of environmental crises and extreme weather events. Jason Vanderzwaag and Kristen Andersen are with Associated Engineering Group Ltd. For more information, email: vanderzwaagj@ae.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

REINVENTING THE CHEMICAL DOSING SYSTEM The DICE Dosing Module, by Meunier Technologies, integrates all the necessary discharge components required for a typical chemical dosing system. The block type design allows for a rigid, compact and reliable product, and the significantly reduced number of connections greatly decreases leakage potential. The module allows for better precision and protection in the dosing system, and also features great quality due to its machined fabrication. The Dosing Module overcomes the many fundamental problems of the current piping system design: • Poor quality of the piping connections; • Many potential leakage points; and • Excessive vibration caused by the pump pulsation – which leads to mechanical fatigue on connections and components. Other features include: • Integrated: ° Ball valves for outlet, calibration column, and drainage; ° Auxiliary ports: pulsation dampener, washing port, transport/dilution water and secondary pumps; ° Adjustable back pressure valve; ° Adjustable pressure relief valve; ° Pressure gauge with isolator; and ° Standard design that fits all your essential needs. • Extensive reliability and durability; • No threaded or glued connections; • Extremely compact design resulting in minimal footprint; • With only 3 supporting bolts and 4 connections, the module can easily be installed on new and existing systems (retrofit); • Possibility of having only 1 Dosing module for 3 pumps (1 injection point, 3 pumps); and • Capability of calibrating the pump with the correct suction head and discharge pressure.



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WASTEWATER PROJECT SYNOPSIS Prior to simulating the black liquor spill, two 95-litre tanks were fed pulp and paper wastewater influent at a flow rate of 46 litres per day each, in order to simulate an aerobic stabilization basin with a retention time under aeration of approximately two days. The two tanks were operated under stable conditions (loading and flow) for one month prior to initiating the simulated black liquor spill. During this time, total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and BOD were analyzed and compared with the MET value to get baseline data and to help understand what “normal” loading is. Once the baseline was established, a simulated black liquor spill was run to determine the response of the SENTRY probes to the additional load that pulp and paper WWTSs are often prone to receiving.

The Kraft process is used to convert wood pulp into paper.

Validating real-time monitoring platform to detect pulp and paper black liquor discharge events By Richard Dolly and Mahnaz Zare


he pulp and paper industry utilizes a procedure known as the Kraft process, where wood is converted into wood pulp and then into paper. In the process, about half of the wood is dissolved, and together with the spent pulping chemicals, forms a liquid called black liquor. Black liquor is separated from the pulp by washing, and is then sent to a recovery boiler, where inorganic pulping chemicals are recovered for reuse and the organics are used as fuel to make steam and power. However, due to certain process controls, there are times when all of the black liquor is not recovered. This can lead to accidental spills of this potentially toxic byproduct to the wastewater treatment system (WWTS). Such spills, whether large or small, can have a profound effect on the biological health and overall ability of the system to treat the incoming BOD load. Black liquor consists of wood lignins, 14  |  August/September 2020

tannins, resin acids, fatty acids, excess sodium, sulfur and other toxic compounds. It is highly caustic, releases hydrogen sulfide when interacting with acids, and is characterized by high inorganic and organic loads. For these reasons, black liquor spills can subject a system to periods of upset conditions and could potentially push the total BOD loading beyond the plant’s aeration capacity, leading to potential permit violations. While these accidental spills by their nature are impossible to predict, being able to immediately identify a change in loading is critical to maintaining optimal treatment plant performance. As such, a study was done to quantify the impact of a black liquor spill on the microbial electron transfer (MET) output from a SENTRY monitoring platform and to validate it as a real-time solution to detect black liquor spill events.

RESULTS For this analysis, weak black liquor from a pulp and paper mill was added directly to Tank A (EBS05) to simulate a black liquor spill entering the WWTS. The control tank (EBS06) maintained normal flow rates and was not altered during the study. Following the introduction of black liquor, the soluble COD and MET immediately increased, triggering a response to the additional load entering the system. The spike in COD and MET remained elevated, before slowly returning to the “normal” baseline data that was observed throughout the duration of the study. The quick response detected from the probes, along with the real-time viewing capabilities from the SENTRY monitoring platform can provide an early warning of system imbalance. This platform can allow operators and personnel to take immediate action to avoid BOD breakthrough to the effluent and limit any potential permit violations. ECONOMIC BENEFITS The economic benefits for the identification and limitation of black liquor spill events are compelling. It is estimated that the costs required for a thorough upgrading of pulp and paper facilities to implement best management practices (BMP) for spent pulping liquor management, spill prevention and control, range from US$2.1 million for single lane mills to over

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

US$4 million for complex mills. For these facilities, it is estimated the use of SENTRY for spent pulping liquor BMP implementation, shows annual net savings in the range of US$500,000 to US$750,000, and payback periods from four to eight years. The savings projections are based on validated bench-scale and industrial work where the ability to identify these spill events the moment they happen has been shown. The impact of a black liquor spill can range dramatically, with smaller events triggering action that results in costs relating to some of the following factors: • Increased organic loading to downstream biological wastewater treatment facilities. This can include discharge loadings of colour, oxygen-demanding substances and non-chlorinated toxic compounds. The immediate impact is to require additional aeration energy for treatment. • Toxic shock. A significant spill event could trigger a biological toxic shock

Pilot units used for bench scale analysis.

event, potentially requiring additional biological seed to be added to the process. • More demand for replacement pulping liquor make-up chemicals. • Operator labour cost and spill control. The SENTRY monitoring platform can be installed at a pulp and paper facility and set to provide an always-on notification system to identify key black liquor spill events the moment they hap-

pen. Real-time notification of discharge events reduces the risk of long-term effluent discharge impacts. Richard Dolly is with Environmental Business Specialists. Email: dolly@ebsbiowizard.com. Mahnaz Zare is with Island Water Technologies. Email: mzare@islandwatertech.com

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August/September 2020  |  15


Environmental DNA (eDNA) can be recovered directly from water samples without disturbing the organisms and their habitat. The use of eDNA in environmental biomonitoring studies can improve accuracy of surveys, reduce cost and provide more time-effective workflows.

EDNA will enhance environmental surveys for 500 Canadian lakes By Tzitziki Loeza-Quintana and Gordon Wichert


ll living organisms release genetic material into the environment as they move and interact in their habitat and as a result of their biological processes (e.g., mucous, gametes, shed skin, feces, etc.). When released in the environment, this genetic material can be retrieved and used to detect the organisms without having to trap or visually count them. Genetic material recovered from the environment is called environmental DNA (eDNA). It can be recovered from different environmental sources such as water, sediments, soil or even air, and has been used successfully to reveal speciesat-risk, invasive species and pathogens.

16  |  August/September 2020

HOW ARE EDNA SAMPLES COLLECTED AND INTERPRETED? From the first study using eDNA to detect an invasive species in 2008 (Ficetola et al., 2008), development of methods and technology to detect and interpret eDNA have increased steadily. Overall, there are three main steps to analyze eDNA: sample collection, extraction and purification of the DNA, and molecular detection and identification of the species. Sample collection includes the collection of an environmental sample, i.e., water, soil, sediment, surface swabs, feces or air. The next step is the extraction and purification of the DNA contained in the environmental sample. Lastly, there are two main molecular approaches for species detection using eDNA: targeted

detection and metabarcoding. DNA from a single target species is detected using a molecular method called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this process, billions of copies of a target sequence are replicated exponentially to increase likelihood of detection. PCR amplification indicates whether a targeted species is present, and the results require relatively little processing. This process can be run in real time using quantitative PCR (qPCR) via fluorescent signal of the target DNA. In recent years, scientists have also used a more precise and sensitive technique called digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) for targeted detection of a single species eDNA. Alternatively, detection could be done via next continued overleaf…

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE generation sequencing, which consists of amplifying and sequencing all the DNA in the sample. This approach is called DNA metabarcoding and involves comparing all the amplified DNA sequences against a database of known sequences to identify which species are present in the environmental sample. There are advantages and disadvantages for each approach and the most suitable would depend on the goal of the survey. If the goal is to focus on a single or a limited number of species, the targeted detection approach is quicker and cheaper than DNA metabarcoding. Targeted detection is also more sensitive, so if a species is present, you might be more likely to detect it. It can be used to estimate relative abundance based on the concentration of DNA in a sample. In comparison, DNA metabarcoding can be quicker and more cost-efficient for detecting many species at once, which is advantageous for assessing biodiversity. However, species at very low abundance might be missed when using DNA metabarcoding. Processing the results can also take longer as metabarcoding sequence datafiles are usually very large and powerful bioinformatic tools are necessary for data analyses. Methods are rapidly evolving and some limitations from both approaches may be overcome with future developments. Conventionally, molecular protocols to analyze eDNA are run in specialized laboratories, but recent technological advances are making it possible to run molecular tests directly in the field, accelerating the process of eDNA surveys. THE UTILITY OF EDNA Using eDNA in environmental biomonitoring studies can improve accuracy of surveys, reduce costs and provide more time-effective workflows. The potential utility of this molecular approach can have great implications in many fields and industries. Being able to rapidly and accurately detect the presence of a target species through eDNA and without direct observation has opened the doors in ecology studies. eDNA detection has been demonstrated as more sensitive than conventional surveys such as electrofishing (e.g., Evans et al., 2017; Wilcox et al., 2016). 18  |  August/September 2020

With current technological advances, the extraction and purification of environmental DNA can be performed in the field in just a few minutes, accelerating the process of eDNA surveys.

eDNA surveys also offer a particularlyvaluable advantage in the early detection of invasive species (e.g., Balasingham et al., 2018; Carim et al., 2019; Mychek‐ Londer et al., 2019; Thomas et al., 2019) and for monitoring of endangered species (e.g., Currier et al., 2018; Mychek‐ Londer et al., 2019). Further research and advances in technology can expand the applications for eDNA surveys. eDNA DETECTION VS. CONVENTIONAL SAMPLING METHODS Conventional biomonitoring surveys involve observation or direct capture and additional extensive documentation. This can be difficult and labour intensive, especially if the species of interest is rare, very small, cryptic or difficult to identify. Additionally, conventional surveys can cause stress and other risks to the organisms and damage sensitive habitats. These challenges tend to restrict the frequency and scale of biomonitoring surveys, limiting the available information to environmental managers. Biomonitoring surveys could be improved by the use of eDNA. For example, a conventional study to identify brook trout using electrofishing methods showed that about 20 person hours were required to detect, or fail to detect, brook trout at 10 sampling locations. This is approximately two person-hours per site (Evans et al., 2017). Alternatively, in the same study, approximately 6.8 person-hours, or approximately 40 minutes per site, were required to detect the species using eDNA (Evans et al., 2017). eDNA surveys appear suitable for

exploratory investigations in advance of more detailed environmental assessments. Rapid screening can identify presence and absence of aquatic communities, while providing evidence of rare species or early stage invasive species. This screening level information can support proponents during project feasibility stages, early indications for permitting and approvals, and also inform appropriate levels of effort for more intensive studies for environmental effects assessment. LIMITS AND CHALLENGES OF EDNA DETECTION There are some important considerations when using eDNA, especially when attempting to advance the level of data interpretation from presence/absence to abundance estimations. Species biology and ecology (preferred habitat), and water movement (flow, depth, water current) are some factors to be considered when planning eDNA surveys to maximize the probability of species detection. Furthermore, different species shed different amounts of genetic material at different rates, as do individuals at different life stages within a given species (e.g., Jo et al., 2020; Klymus et al., 2015). The source of detected eDNA may be ambiguous. For example, did the genetic material come from one or a few individuals nearby, or from a group of organisms further away? The degradation rate of DNA is also highly dependent on environmental variables (temperature, pH), microbial activity and the type of substrate (water, soil, continued on page 46

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Calgary WWTP can achieve energy-neutral status


esource recovery is becoming a focus worldwide, especially within the municipal wastewater industry. With climate change and high energy costs, the industry is taking a closer look at resource recovery opportunities that lie within wastewater, namely carbon. Wastewater’s carbon content represents a valuable and largely untapped source of energy. Carbon converts to “green” energy, which is one of the keys to a sustainable future. Through effective use of wastewater’s carbon, in combination with other established renewable energy technologies, enough energy can be recovered so that wastewater treatment plants could become energy-neutral, eliminating the need to import energy. The City of Calgary’s 2016 Water Energy Management Strategy proposed an energy-neutral target by the late 2030s for its Pine Creek Waste-

energy use. It sought to quantify “available energy” and identify opportunities for greater resource recovery to establish a roadmap to become energy neutral. The plant imports approximately 22 million kilowatt-hours of electricity and 33,600 gigajoules of natural gas per year, and also uses some of the produced biogas for heating. Calgary's Pine Creek Wastewater Treatment Project manager, Shane Thompson said Plant. that “to establish an energy-use baseline, we analyzed the energy inputs and energy water Treatment Plant. This would be outputs, and then reviewed the available achieved by increased energy efficiency energy, primarily biogas. Moving a faciland energy recovery. This target was the ity from the status quo to energy neutral main driver for the Pine Creek Energy involves consideration of energy efficiency, Audit project, which was followed by energy reduction, and energy recovery.” several resource recovery studies. To improve energy efficiency, the team The city engaged Associated Engi- considered operational changes, such as neering to provide energy and resource control adjustments, that could improve recovery expertise to establish an ener- energy efficiency without compromisgy-use baseline and identify capital and/ ing treatment performance. Upgrading or operational modifications to optimize to more energy-efficient equipment was also considered. To reduce energy use, Associated Engineering reviewed the treatment processes and compared them to less energy-intensive options, with the potential for improved biogas production. In one example, the energy reduction potential of switching from a largely biological to a hybrid chemical phosphorus removal system was estimated. For energy recovery, the team conducted an in-depth analysis of cogeneration, the process of converting gas to electricity and heat. Enhanced biogas production, conversion of biosolids to biocrude oil, diesel fuel, or syngas, wastewater heat recovery and solar power were also considered. Subsequently, the team developed two energy-neutral roadmap examples, representing the “book-ends” of what might be possible. These demonstrate that energy-neutral status at the Pine Creek facility can be achieved without “core” technology changes, using simple technology retrofits, some of which are currently being further evaluated by the city. For more information, email: thompsons@ae.ca

20  |  August/September 2020

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine




A six-metre long section of large diameter SaniTite HP pipe is moved into place with minimum equipment due to the pipe's light weight. The polypropylene pipe provides the additional stiffness, plus the long bell and dual gaskets needed to compensate for the area’s soft soils.

Stormwater system installed at B.C. First Nations new mega mall

hydraulic performance and a profile wall (open or closed depending on diameter) for stiffness and beam strength. The high beam strength, in addition to the pipe’s light weight and simple bell-andspigot joints, allowed contractors to outdoor retail space. The project includes more than double expected production By Tori Durliat 6,000 parking spaces. rates, installing more than 60 metres per o control stormwater runoff from For the stormwater drainage system, day in many cases. two new mega malls in Tsawwassen, SaniTite HP from Advanced Drainage The two malls are built on a tidal British Columbia, a large diameter Systems, Inc. (ADS) was selected. More marsh near the Strait of Georgia, with pipeline was designed and installed than 1,500 metres of pipe were used, rang- weak native soils. SaniTite HP provided under the public roads surrounding the ing in diameters from 300 – 1500 mm. In the required structural strength and joint sites. The selection of the pipe needed to addition, 12 risers were fabricated by ADS integrity to perform in this challenging take into consideration corrosion resis- using SaniTite HP pipe, all equipped with site environment. tance due to the salt water environment. ladders to provide access to the system. Despite the large diameter and inteIt also had to offer structural strength Cover over the pipe ranged from 450 gral manholes, the handling and instalbecause of the poor deltaic soil condi- mm to 2.3 m and the backfill used was lation of the SaniTite storm sewers on tions in this seismically active region. Class 1 crushed 20 mm angular stone. this project was straightforward and Built by the Tsawwassen First Nation, Installed on a zero percent grade, the troublefree. the two projects on the peninsula jutting pipeline acts as a holding tank as well as into Boundary Bay are Tsawwassen Mills, a conveyance system. This allows water Tori Durliat is with Advanced Drainage an enclosed shopping mall with approx- to enter nearby ditches used by local Systems Inc. Email: info@ads-pipe.com, www.ads-pipecanada.com imately 111,500 square metres of retail farmers for irrigation. space, and Tsawwassen Commons, a SaniTite HP pipe in 300 – 1500 mm retail outlet with 51,500 square metres of diameters provides a smooth interior for


22  |  August/September 2020


Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Cutting the risk of Legionnaires' Disease from shuttered water systems By Jay Whiteside


egionella, the bacterium that causes Legionnaires’ disease, grows very easily in the standing water of building water systems. Legionnaires’ disease is potentially lethal, and its incidence is increasing. Often, however, it is misdiagnosed as community-acquired pneumonia in up to 50% of cases, and is underdiagnosed by as much as a third of its actual incidence. If a school, church or other type of building has been minimally utilized during the COVID-19 shutdown, a water system or any devices that utilize water are at risk as a breeding ground for Legionella. This includes faucets, soda fountains, water lines to ice makers and

coffee machines, ornamental fountains, HVAC cooling towers, showers, hot tubs/spas, eyewash stations, fire sprinkler systems, and plumbing in general. In the post-COVID lockdown, building water systems can present a greater risk to public health than before. Evidence from China indicates that half of COVID-19 fatalities had experienced a secondary infection and patients are at elevated risk for months after recovery. The continued growth of Legionnaires’ disease is the result of the lack of a water management plan and other factors such as: Environmental: Aging population; aging water infrastructure; extreme

weather fluctuations; heavily populated regional concentrations (i.e., mid-Atlantic and Great Lakes); new energy conservation measures in buildings. Epidemiological: Underreported; misdiagnosed; mistaken. LIABILITY ISSUES There are notable liability issues as a result of the increase in Legionnaires’ disease. While the legal landscape is aligning around the concept of Standard of Care, building safety is still underregulated so building managers tend to ignore their water systems. Before ASHRAE 188 (2015) courts would throw out Legionella continued overleaf…

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WATER claims, because there was no industry benchmark on which to base a standard. With the broad public consultation that preceded ASHRAE, and the increasing incidence of cases, it has become easier for plaintiffs’ lawyers to argue negligence in meeting a Standard of Care. However, litigation is increasing and taking on the character of slip-and-fall accidents. The majority of civil suits end in confidential pre-trial settlements. There are some notable benchmarks, including a 2014 class action precedent in Canada (successfully prosecuted against Seven Oaks Nursing Home, Toronto, Ontario) and criminal charges against 15 state and city officials regarding the Legionella outbreak in Flint, Michigan. INSURANCE UNDERWRITERS WEIGH IN Insurers have a lot to lose and face an increasingly urgent mandate to mitigate the risks in their clients’ buildings and facilities. Frequently, Legionella claims generate discussion as to whether Commercial General Liability coverage is sufficient for claims caused by microorganisms and a broad definition of pollutants. It is suggested that an Environmental Impairment Liability policy be purchased for these emerging contaminants. Recently, some insurance companies have attempted to deny coverage based on policy exclusions and dispute over what constitutes “bodily injury.”

A successful defence against litigation or denial of insurance coverage includes a clear strategy to protect the building from being colonized by Legionella (i.e., a water management plan, with identified "‘potential exposure points” based on a risk assessment). The ”best insurance” is to implement control measures that minimize the growth of Legionella bacteria. A regular maintenance program that quantitatively monitors the building’s water systems should include checks of water disinfection residuals and temperatures, scheduled water system flushes, and comprehensive reporting and documentation. RISK ASSESSMENT Current risk assessment methods look for Legionella specifically but often find false negatives since the Legionella bacteria can be hidden in biofilm. SanEcoTec has developed SMART (Self Monitoring Analysis Reporting Technology), which analyzes water quality in real time and to check biofilm and other parameters in plumbing systems where Legionella bacteria are harboured and then released at infectious concentrations. Occasional checking of disinfectant residuals or water temperatures alone is no guarantee Legionella bacteria won’t release from the existing biofilm that harbours them. An integrated approach that includes a comprehensive risk management plan with ongoing monitoring

Illustration of Legionella pneumophila, the bacterium that causes the majority of Legionnaires’ disease cases and outbreaks. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention

can help manage and prevent potential problems. Jay Whiteside is with SanEcoTec Ltd. Email: jay.whiteside@sanecotec.com (References are available upon request.)

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Alberta loses access to Milk River irrigation water following U.S. canal failure


ollowing a U.S. infrastructure failure in northern Montana, water levels in Alberta’s Milk River will likely be too low this summer for activities like canoeing or kayaking. Water license holders in Alberta should be prepared for only natural flows on the Milk River throughout the summer. The failure occurred when a 22 metre tall crumbling concrete portion of a ditch system known as the St. Mary Canal collapsed. This failed concrete drop structure was the last of five drop structures relying on gravity and siphons to convey water through the 46-kilometre long, century-old St. Mary Canal, to the North Fork of the Milk River. Water is diverted into the canal from the St. Mary River, near Glacier National Park and supplies irrigation and municipal water to irrigators and communities, During the irrigation season, from April 1 to Oct. 31, Canada is entitled to 25 per cent of the natural flow of the Milk River, up to a natural flow of 18.9 cubic metres per second, and 50 per cent of natural flows above this threshold. Water shortages are not uncommon in the Milk River watershed. However, as a result of the recent incident, no more water is expected to be transferred from the St. Mary Basin to the Milk River Basin in 2020, affecting some 40 water license holders who rely on the water for irrigation. There should, however, be enough water already stored to carry them through the dry season, officials estimated. While no impacts to drinking water or household use are expected, the province has provided the Town of Milk River with funding to increase water storage. The town’s current stored water supply would support four months of water use in the event the town was unable to draw any more water from the river. Permanent repairs to the canal have already begun, with completion scheduled for September. According to a report in The New York Times, repairs to the St. Mary Canal may 26  |  August/September 2020

Water shortages are not uncommon in the Milk River watershed. However, as a result of the recent incident, no more water is expected to be transferred from the St. Mary Basin to the Milk River Basin this year, affecting some 40 water license holders who rely on the water for irrigation.  Milk River Watershed Council Canada

St. Mary and Milk River Watersheds Map.  Alberta Environment and Parks

approach $200 million. “We recognize the severity of the situation and the importance of the Milk River basin to surrounding communities and the local economy,” Jason Nixon, Alberta Minister of Environment and Parks, announced in a statement. “Environment and Parks is supporting Alberta water users and working with our federal and U.S. counterparts to keep water users informed as work to repair the canal progresses,” added Nixon. Following an engineering site inspection by the State of Montana’s Depart-

ment of Natural Resources and Conservation, officials concluded that the “complexities and costs associated with providing an interim solution to run water this irrigation season could not be justified, considering the anticipated costs and minimal gains in water supply,” according to a statement issued through the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The Milk River previously ran dry in 2001.

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Changes to Ontario's water taking policy being considered


ntario’s government recently posted proposals in need of public input pertaining to changes around the ways water is taken and managed in the province. The proposals loaded to the Environmental Registry of Ontario followed the extension of a lengthy moratorium on new permits and permits that authorize increases to extract groundwater to produce bottled water. “Ontarians can be confident our water resources are protected by good policy based on solid science and evidence, but we must always be prepared to adapt,” announced Jeff Yurek, Ontario Minister of the Environment, Conservation and Parks, in a statement. “Based on initial input from our stakeholders and Indigenous communities, we have put forward proposed enhancements to our water taking rules that will create a more flexible and robust program,” he added. The new water proposals cover four key areas. Perhaps most notably, the province is considering the idea that water bottling companies should be required to have the support of

28  |  August/September 2020

Ontario is considering the idea that water bottling companies should be required to have the support of their host municipalities for new and increasing bottled water takings.  Adobe Stock

their host municipalities for new and increasing bottled water takings, with an exemption for small businesses. The issue has been highlighted in a lengthy battle between the Township of Centre Wellington and water bottling giant Nestlé over access to a local well. A number of organizations had been critical of the water bottler’s business strategy. Centre Wellington Mayor Kelly Linton has recently come out in favour of the Ontario government’s proposed changes to water taking, particularly the need for municipal support. The Centre Wellington water taking issue has become highly controversial, even resulting in two-thirds of people across Ontario wanting the province to phase out all bottled-water takings, according to a 2016 poll by Oraclepoll Research. The Council of Canadians, Wellington Water Watchers, Six Nations, and local nonprofit Save Our Water are continuing campaigns virtually over the summer to have the government end water bottling. In August 2017, the Liberal government hiked the fee that water bottlers must pay for every million litres of groundwater they extract from $3.71 to $503.71. Two other new proposals are also in the mix for Ontario’s water taking efforts. The first is the need to establish priorities of water use that can guide water taking decisions. The second is to assess and manage multiple water takings together in areas “where water sustainability is a concern,” the proposal states. The latter could also come into play for the Township of Centre Wellington controversy, as a Tier-3 Water Study conducted in the area showed the town has enough water capacity to service the community until 2036. However, there is some risk if its current system isn’t expanded before 2041. Lastly, Ontario has a new proposal to make water taking data available to the public to increase the transparency of how the province manages its water resources. Ontario officials had invited the public to provide feedback on the water quantity management proposal. These comments will help inform the updates to further protect water resources in Ontario.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


biofilm technology improves wastewater treatment in cold weather lagoons


agoons are widely used in small communities for wastewater treatment, due to their comparatively low life cycle costs and their treatment efficacy for small systems. They can effectively remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids in wastewater. Historically, nitrification for ammonia removal was not typically considered for lagoon design. In recent years, the federal government’s Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations (WSER) have mandated more stringent effluent requirements, particularly for un-ionized ammonia to a concentration below 1.25 milligrams per litre. In addition, the discharge must not be acutely toxic. These new requirements have posed significant challenges for existing lagoon-based systems, especially during cold weather. One of the approaches to achieve ammonia removal is to increase and retain the nitrifier bacteria population that oxidize ammonia by growing the bacteria on and inside biofilm carriers or media to compensate for the low nitrification rates in winter. This can be done on existing lagoons by retrofitting the systems with a post-

of Camrose wastewater treatment plant in Alberta and the Town of Neepawa wastewater treatment plant in Manitoba. Membrane aerated biofilm reactors use hollow gas permeable membranes as a biofilm growth medium to the bacteria growing attached to the membrane and in the bulk liquid. Oxygen is transferred directly to the microorganisms growing on the membrane and can result in up to seven times higher aeration efficiency An MBBR system is versatile and can be used than traditional fine bubble diffusers. to provide consistent ammonia removal In Ontario, MABRs have been piloted throughout the year. in the cities of Guelph and London, as well as the Region of Waterloo. They BOD removal moving bed biofilm reac- have been operating successfully at tor (MBBR), a membrane aerated bio- treatment plants outside of Canada film reactor (MABR), or a submerged MBBRs and MABRs can considerably attached growth reactor (SAGR). improve the nitrification rates of lagoon A moving bed biofilm reactor adopts systems in cold weather. They are promisfeatures of two wastewater treatment ing technologies to help small communiprocesses, namely activated sludge and ties meet the new WSER requirements. attached growth nitrification. An MBBR system is versatile and can be used to For more information, email yuk@ae.ca provide consistent ammonia removal throughout the year, as demonstrated by many pilot studies and full-scale applications. Associated Engineering is currently retrofitting two lagoon systems using MBBR technology, at the Town


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August/September 2020  |  29


Hydro excavation waste slurries should no longer be a worry By Ryan O’Loan


cross North America and the rest of the world, we are seeing rapid redevelopment and rebuilding in urbanized areas. This often makes sense economically and environmentally, but the process also brings specific challenges. One of these is how to excavate sites safely and cost-effectively. Hydro excavation, also known as daylighting, trenchless digging, and non-destructive digging, removes or moves soil and heavy debris with pressurized water, and is popular because of its reliability and accuracy. However, the process results in slurry, made up of 60% water and 40% solids. This type of byproduct is difficult and expensive to deal with, especially if the intention is to dump it at a landfill site, due to its solid/liquid state and weight. The alternative is for hydro excavation slurry to be treated as liquid waste and be disposed of at liquid waste facilities. This is also a high-cost exercise. Increasingly, strict legislation adds another layer of complexity, and potential cost. An additional concern is that these wastes are highly unpredictable, so the contractor never knows quite what material they’ll be dealing with, which makes preparations difficult.

WASTING TIME DRIVING TO RURAL DUMPING LOCATIONS Whether treated as dry or wet waste, hydrovac trucks usually have to drive some distance to find legal disposal sites. This is time-consuming and costly to any business. Using expensive commodities like sawdust to solidify the hydrovac waste adds to the cost, as does the increased weight of the material being disposed of. This approach is inefficient and unsustainable. Instead of these long drives, systems can now be set up much closer to where the excavation is taking place, even in urban locations. These systems can receive the slurry directly from trucks and can cope with the varied nature of the material, producing clean, compliant, recycled outputs such as sand, stone and clay. They can even treat the water to a reusable state. This removes a lot of risk that waste handlers are exposed to. It also means operators can offload trucks quickly and return promptly to the dig site, maximizing the efficiency of the company’s most valuable asset, the hydrovac truck. Recovered water can also be reused to fill outgoing trucks with industry-compliant recycled water. Beyond this, if heavily contaminated, the hydrovac waste can be further processed to remove heavy metals and hydrocarbons from the wastewater stream. This enables a wider range of more difficult (and there30  |  August/September 2020

Hydro excavation slurry is typically made up of 60% water and 40% solids and can be difficult and expensive to deal with and dispose of.

fore potentially more lucrative) waste streams to be processed. Processing the waste on site is viable, practical, and cost-effective. It removes the risk of having to transport possibly toxic substances to waste disposal companies. This prevents possible leaks or accidents during transport, which are always a danger. DUMPING IN RURAL LOCATIONS IS TOO COSTLY In addition to the time wasted and travel costs associated with driving to rural sites, landfill costs are an unnecessary and increasing burden on businesses looking to dispose of the byproducts of excavation. Not only can operators reduce the costs of dumping, extracting and recycling material in the slurry, but they can also resell some material, such as recycled sand. It may even be possible to sell the sand back to the site being excavated. Using the right treatment system means operators can create new revenue streams from something that previously cost money to dispose of. Such systems can require a large capital outlay, but many companies offer finance options to make them affordable. With the best systems proven to divert 85% of material from landfill, there is significant potential for return on investment. MEETING STRICTER LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS With changing legislation, such as the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment’s Canada-wide Approach for the Management of Wastewater Biosolids, contractors continue to face challenges and hurdles when it comes to disposing of waste from their projects. There is also increasing political will to close landfill sites due to their potential environmental costs. Taking control of disposal options by reducing or eliminating dumping and recycling in-house instead, means rural dumpsites being shut down will not be a threat to running a successful enterprise. It also means the elimination of legal and environmental risks associated with current disposal methods. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Everyone involved in hydrovac excavation can identify the need to reduce waste slurry previously sent to landfill and the importance of recovering aggregates and water where possible. Processing slurry should not be seen as a distraction from excavation, but a crucial part of the process. CASE STUDY Ontario-based Da-Lee Environmental Services offers a range of waste classification services, including treatment, disposal, transportation and handling of hazardous and non-hazardous waste around southern Ontario from Toronto to the U.S. border. Prior to investing in new equipment, the company handled a range of solid liquid wastes by adding sawdust to solidify the materials sufficiently to allow them to be taken by truck to landfill. While this remains a responsible way to process these wastes, there were a number of efficiency issues that it wanted to improve upon. Sawdust was an expensive commodity and represented a considerable annual overhead, not just in its purchase, but the logistics of purchasing and handling on-site. By adding sawdust, the material was solidified but not dewatered. This meant that the weight of the water was still going to landfill (an unnecessary extra expense) instead of being removed and processed through their on-site liquid waste treatment centre. The cost of taking these materials to landfill was considerable, both in terms of the cost per ton gate fee and the carbon footprint impact of the entire operation. This led to the search for a more sustainable approach, one that decreased the weight of the waste going to landfill, the logistical burden on the team, and the impact on the environment. With an increasing demand for their services, Da-Lee needed a highly-efficient process that reduced both disposal and transport costs in order to maintain the level of service their customers were used to. Da-Lee invested in CDEnviro equipment to reduce disposal and transport costs. The CDEnviro G:MAX was installed at the Stoney Creek site in 2018 to treat storm drain material, wastes from gullies, culverts and gross pollutant traps, hydro excavation waste and a range of other materials. The system employs wet processing techniques, specifically designed to treat and dewater the waste streams, extracting sand and oversize components in the process, and leaving the residual water easier to treat. Recovered sand output products can be diverted from landfill and can be reused in a number of low-grade construction applications, such as pipe bedding, road fill and landscaping. The remaining dewatered material is easy to both dispose of and handle. With increased efficiency, Da-Lee is able to accept more contracts than before. David Rogers, CEO at Da-Lee Group, said: “The G:MAX has helped us dewater many of our solid/liquid waste streams in a more efficient way than we were previously. From cost savings to a more streamlined process on-site, this has made a big impact across the business.”

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August/September 2020  |  31


Ontario remains largest issuer of environmental fines in Canada, report finds


ntario has been the largest issuer of fines over the last five years, a new insurance report on environmental fines across Canada has found. The province issued environmental fines totaling $22 million over 2015 – 2019, largely focusing on air quality and emissions contraventions, according to insurance company Berkley Canada’s Environmental Fines and Penalties: 2019 Update Report. The dollar amount of Ontario’s fines had been growing consistently. Fines issued between 1991 to 2009 averaged $816,667 per year. But as of 2017, fine levels began to start dropping, with 2019 yielding the lowest level of fine activity in six years. From 2012 until 2015, 45 projects in Ontario received nearly $850,000 from the Ontario Community Environment Fund, which uses money collected from environmental penalties to support environmental improvement projects in watersheds. Additionally, in 2019 the Ontario government gave environmental officers wider scope to issue fines for violations such as emitting excess sulfur dioxide, a toxic compound typically released by oil refineries. The maximum fine doubled to $200,000. Second to Ontario in issued fine totals over the last five

years is British Columbia, which issued $15 million in fines over this period, largely focusing on water pollution. “Historically, fines and penalties were used sparingly in Canada when compared to Europe or the USA” states the Berkley Canada report. Between 1991 and 2009, the aggregate average value of fines issued across Canada each year was $1.4 million. Between 2015 and 2019, the majority of environmental fines levied across Canada focused on air and water pollution violations. The largest fine in Canadian history for an environmental offence remains the $196.5-million fine levied against Volkswagen in early 2020 for equipping vehicles with the ability to cheat emissions tests. The penalty is 26 times larger than the previous record $7.5-million fine for environmental infractions at the Bloom Lake iron ore mine in Quebec in 2014. The Berkley Canada report is framed around a perspective that environmental insurance could be a way to protect against vulnerability to fines and penalties. “While it may not be surprising that an insurance company would exclude loss arising out of a deliberately caused pollution event, cover for fines and penalties that result from accidental (fortuitous) events can be insured,” states the report.

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Between 2015 and 2019, the majority of environmental fines levied across Canada focused on air and water pollution violations.  Berkley Canada

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Finding the right dosing pump for water and wastewater treatment processes By Amparo Burke


ften, diaphragm or peristaltic chemical metering/dosing pumps are considered for water or wastewater treatment processes. In these critical applications, the chemical feed unit must be able to measure the precise amounts of chemical to meet, but not exceed, demand. Both are positive displacement pumps, but they work in very different ways. A question often asked is which of these pump types will be the most effective and reliable? Diaphragm pumps can appear more cost-effective than peristaltic pumps, but they can have challenges. The diaphragm has a pumping cycle that consists of a suction and discharge phase. This intermittent pumping of chemicals, specifically during the suction phase of the cycle, can cause gas buildup. This buildup of gases can lead to vapour lock and the pump may lose prime. Diaphragm pumps have check valves in the suction and discharge ends of the pump head. If either set of check valves becomes fouled, the pump will not meter chemical accurately, if at all. Loss of prime may also occur. Diaphragm pumps can also create shear stress on fluids, particularly if the pump employs a high velocity stroke action. Fluids containing particulates and gas forming chemicals can foul heads and valves. Routine maintenance procedures must be performed, in particular the cleaning of check valves and inspection of diaphragms. With peristaltic pumps, fluid is pumped through a flexible tube. Rollers are attached to a rotor, which is controlled by a motor. As the rotor turns, the rollers pinch the tubing to force the fluid through. When the tube is not compressed, the fluid flow is brought into the tube. The gentle squeezing action of the valve-less www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

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A peristaltic pump. As the rotor turns, rollers pinch the tubing to force the fluid through. When the tube is not compressed, the fluid flow is brought into the tube.

peristaltic pump head design results in near continuous injection of chemical. As a result, pump tubes are subject to wear and routine maintenance is required. This consists of changing pump tubes at regular intervals throughout the pump’s lifespan. Peristaltic metering pumps excel at pumping fluids that contain particulate matter into lower pressure systems, because there are no valves to clog. In addition, the gentle forces created during the peristaltic pumping action will not damage delicate fluids within the tube. Peristaltic pumps are also extremely effective when pumping gas forming fluids, such as sodium hypochlorite. Whereas diaphragm pumps tend to lose their prime and fail when gasses build up in the pump head, peristaltic pumps are capable of pumping both fluid and gas and will not lose prime. However, peristaltic pumps typically do not do well pumping against high pressure.

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Amparo Burke is with Blue-White Industries. Email: info@blue-white.com

August/September 2020  |  33


Alberta grants $150M for 55 water, wastewater projects in small municipalities


lberta is handing out $150 million in water infrastructure grants to support 55 water and wastewater improvement projects. According to the province, $137 million is allocated to the Alberta Municipal/Wastewater Partnership for 54 projects that support improvements to water supply and treatment facilities, as well as upgrades to wastewater services such as lagoons, berms and sewage treatment. The water work grants, which launched in 1991 under Alberta Transportation, go to municipalities with populations under 45,000. Each project will be awarded based on initiatives identified by local governments. However, most have been selected primarily from the program intakes that closed in fall 2019. Eligible projects can receive up to 75% of project costs. Approved in 2019 were more than $11 million worth of local water projects addressing needs such as new water reservoirs, lagoon rehabilitation, and complete wastewater treatment plant upgrades such as the one in the Town of St. Paul, which remains under construction. “Albertans in every corner of the province are facing real challenges as our economy recovers from COVID-19 and our

municipalities rely on strong local infrastructure to attract investment and grow their economies,” announced Premier Jason Kenney, in a statement. “As we move ahead with Alberta’s relaunch, this additional investment will go a long way to helping rural municipalities get back on their feet and back to work,” he added. Additionally, First Nations funding of $13 million under the First Nations Water Tie-in Program will support a tie-in for the Ermineskin Cree Nation to the Ponoka regional water pipeline. Approximately 1,300 jobs will be supported under the new infrastructure funding. INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING FEEDBACK Interested parties were invited to share feedback on the development of the Alberta Infrastructure Act, which will outline the province’s plan for capital spending and create a breakdown of priorities. Input collected will also help inform the development of a 20-Year Strategic Capital Plan, which will guide the government’s approach to long-term planning for infrastructure. “We want to hear and learn from industry, tradespeople and everyday Albertans on how we can best address the infrastructure needs of the province,” announced Minister of Infrastructure, Prasad Panda, in a statement. The Alberta Infrastructure Act is expected to be introduced in the fall 2020 legislative session. The 20-Year Strategic Capital Plan is expected to be released by early 2021.

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54 projects support improvements to water supply and treatment facilities, upgrades to wastewater services such as lagoons, berms and sewage treatment.  Alberta Capital Region Wastewater Commission

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34  |  August/September 2020

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Environmental forensic tools help answer legal, groundwater contamination problems By Michael Sklash, Matt Schroeder, Alexandria Pike and Fatemeh Vakili


ecent court decisions have interpreted regulatory liability for contaminated lands in ways that expand the liability of polluters and, in some instances, innocent owners of contaminated sites. Facing such risk in enforcement proceedings (and civil cases as well), polluters and contaminated site owners should consider developing their technical positions early in a case. By demonstrating the strength of technical evidence, defendants can state a clear intention to advance their case and encourage discussions that may lead to

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a cost-effective resolution of the matter. As such, an investment in forensic analysis early in litigation can bring significant momentum to a defendant’s position. In one case, site assessment reports had not uncovered a separate source of the “hot spot” on the downgradient site. Such circumstances are challenging, but not unusual, in historical industrial areas and anecdotal reports will not be sufficient to influence a regulator or a plaintiff. As the differentiation of source was central to the scoping of the remediation order and the defense against enforcement, forensic analysis was considered a worthwhile endeavour. Unfortunately, a traditional assessment of the chemical fingerprints of groundwater impacts was not enough to distinguish source. Time

and budget allowed for the additional step of conducting two advanced forensic techniques, a passive soil-gas survey and a compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA). This resulted in evidence that could differentiate the impacts, and thus the sources. In highly technical cases, clear narratives and visual interpretations are necessary to relay the strength of evidence and weight of conclusions underlying scientific analysis. Passive soil-gas surveys and CSIA can be described so as to clearly differentiate areas of impacts and source, even to laypersons. As well, the visual tools used to demonstrate such distinctions can bridge difficult discussions among parties and their continued overleaf…

August/September 2020  |  35

REMEDIATION consultants, or allow a judge or tribunal member to understand otherwise opaque information. Whether in “without prejudice” settlement discussions, or in litigation proceedings, such forensic evidence can be a critical support to a defendant’s case, establishing clarity on an issue that may underlie significant aspects of the dispute. PASSIVE SOIL-GAS INVESTIGATIONS Passive soil-gas investigations are high-resolution surveys of the distribution of chlorinated and petroleum hydrocarbon vapours (such as trichloroethylene [C2HCl3] and benzene [C6H6]) in the subsurface, released by volatile chemicals in the soil and/or groundwater. Since deployment of these samplers does not require a drill rig, survey costs for intensive networks of sample locations are reasonable. Soil-gas sampling devices are small probes that are inserted into small-diameter, shallow drill holes. These probes remain in place for a period of time (commonly two to three weeks). During

Concentrations of the selected volatile compounds are reported in nanograms and can be mapped, using the sampling locations to identify “hot spots.”

this time, volatile gases are released from impacted soil and/or groundwater in the subsurface and adsorb onto a hydrophobic cartridge within the sampling device. On retrieval, sampling devices are sealed and then shipped to a specialized lab where volatile chemicals are desorbed from the cartridges and tested. Concentrations of the selected volatile compounds are reported in nanograms and can be mapped, using the sampling locations to identify “hot spots.” These maps can be used to focus subsequent subsurface investigation to determine soil and groundwater quality in the

hotspots. It is important to note that these maps indicate areal distributions of the underlying chemicals. However, they do not identify the depth of the impacts nor differentiate between soil impact from groundwater impact. In addition, the type of surface cover, such as pavement versus grass, can affect the outcome. COMPOUND SPECIFIC ISOTOPE ANALYSIS (CSIA) Isotopes are versions of atoms that differ in their behaviour in the environment because of differences in the mass of the nucleus. For example, the element car-

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bon has two stable isotopes: carbon-12 (12C), and carbon-13 (13C). 12C is a carbon atom with six protons and six neutrons in the nucleus, while 13C has six protons and seven neutrons in the nucleus. Simply put, molecules that have relatively more 12C are lighter and more active during physical and biological processes, whereas molecules that have relatively more 13C are heavier and less active during physical and biological processes. The same applies to the heavier and lighter isotopes of chlorine and hydrogen that occur in chlorinated and non-chlorinated hydrocarbon molecules. With CSIA, specialized laboratories can first remove individual chemicals dissolved in a groundwater sample, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), and then determine the ratios of 13C/12C, 37Cl/35Cl, and 2 H/1H in the sample. These can be used in two ways. First, dual isotope plots of 13 C/12C versus 37Cl/35Cl for groundwater samples may be used to distinguish between the TCE from two different manufacturers. Second, during biodegradation, TCE molecules with lighter isotopes are preferentially involved. As a result, the remaining TCE molecules become relatively enriched in the heavier isotopes. If biodegradation is occurring, the trend Figure 1. Passive soil-gas TCE concentrations for TCE case study. The blue arrow indicates the of isotopic values will be toward progres- general groundwater flow direction. sively heavier isotopic versions of TCE molecules along a groundwater flow path enough data to prove that the TCE was from hydraulically upgradient to down- downgradient direction. gradient locations. The geology underlying the site (includ- not being transported from the west side ing both properties and the road) is a thin to the east side. CASE STUDY overburden layer over fractured bedrock, Counsel for the west side property This case study involves a legal dispute where the groundwater resides. There are owner asked Dragun Corporation for other about whether there were one or two utility trenches under the roadway that techniques to shed light on the issue. We sources of TCE in a groundwater plume. could act as preferential pathways for suggested two technologies that are indeThe site includes a known release of TCE transport of the TCE impacts. The Phase pendent of the groundwater flow pathways, on the west side of a road, a groundwa- I and II reports for the eastern property a passive soil-gas survey and CSIA invester plume with progressively declining indicated no historical TCE use and no tigation, be completed across both propTCE concentrations moving essentially TCE in the soil. erties to overcome the “unknown fracture eastward beneath that road, and a TCE The regulator disagreed that there was pathways” hurdle. hotspot on the east side of that road. Figure 1 shows the passive soil-gas a second source and essentially stated that The hotspot on the east side of the there were unknown fracture pathways survey sampling grid used. The sampling road aligned with the trajectory of the that could provide a preferential pathway network was designed with (1) sample plume originating from the west side of for TCE under the road, despite having spacing that was smallest near the hot the road. The hotspot had a similar (but data from many monitoring wells along areas on either side of the road, and (2) not exact) groundwater chemistry fin- the road that did not support this the- two curbside lines to determine whether gerprint as the source on the west side ory. In other words, no matter how many the TCE plume crossed from the west and appeared to be a separate source as borings and wells were placed between side of the road to the east side. Figure 1 also shows the TCE distributhe TCE concentrations from the west the two TCE groundwater hot spots, the continued overleaf… side source were diminishing in the regulator indicated there would not be www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

August/September 2020  |  37


δ13C (‰)

East side tion in soil-gas that clearly indicates that the hotspot on the east side is a separate source both by the bullseye pattern and West side by the lower concentration swath along the eastside curb. Roadway -20 Figure 2 summarizes the CSIA data for the various groundTCE Product from Different Manufacturers water samples collected from the east and west sides of the road 13 12 and from beneath the road. The dual isotope data ( C/ C ver-25 sus 37Cl/35Cl) trend indicates TCE biodegradation is occurring. Although there were no site specific samples of TCE product available, Figure 2 includes the known isotopic signatures of -30 the various manufactured TCEs from the scientific literature. Since all the site data fall on a biodegradation trajectory originating from the lighter manufactured TCE (more nega-35 tive isotope values on the left side of the graph), we could not -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 δ37Cl (‰) solve our problem of whether the east and west side hotspots Figure 2. Dual isotope plot for TCE case study (carbon and chloride isotope concentrations are are the result of separate releases based on different TCE expressed man- Figure Dual isotope plot formil TCE case study (carbon and chlorideThe gray arrow in delta2.notation as parts per differences relative to standards). ufacturers. The differences in the isotopic data on the westindicates and the expected TCE biodegradation trend in in delta the groundwater isotope concentrations are expressed notation asflow partsdirection per mil assuming a on the west side of the road. east side could be explained by degradation of the same single TCE source differences relative to standards). The gray arrow indicates the expected product over time. TCE biodegradation trend in the groundwater flow direction assuming a However, where the isotopic data for the various monitor- single source on the west side of the road. ing wells sit on the biodegradation trajectory arrow indicates two separate releases. If the TCE hotspot on the east side of the road originated from the west side of the road, that TCE tope values on the right side of the graph. However, our data would have been released earlier than the TCE on the west indicate the opposite. The CSIA data, therefore, are consistent side of the road. with the passive soil gas survey results that indicate two sepaTherefore, we would expect more of a biodegradation effect rate releases. in the east side hotspot groundwater, that is, more positive isoWe were still left with the Phase I and II data from the eastern property that indicated TCE was not used. In deeper research into the site history on the east side of the road, we found that the soil had been scraped away to bedrock and replaced by clean soil during development and that there was an anecdotal report of TCE use on the site. Therefore, the Phase I and II reports missed the potential source of TCE on the eastern property.

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CONCLUSION Sometimes the typical approaches to groundwater flow and contaminant transport are not enough to build a convincing legal case, especially in complex hydrogeological environments, such as fractured rock and meandering stream deposits. Adding investigative tools that are independent of the typical approaches to groundwater flow and contaminant transport can help to build a more robust case when trying to determine sources and pathways. We used a passive soil-gas survey combined with compound specific isotope analyses to help with this legal issue. In addition to clearly defining who is responsible, these techniques can also be used to optimize remediation by clearly delineating the contaminated media. Michael Sklash, Matthew Schroeder and Fatemeh Vakili are with Dragun Corporation. Email: msklash@dragun.com, mschroeder@dragun.com, fvakili@dragun.com. Alexandria Pike is with Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg. Email: apike@dwpv.com

www.anuewater.com 38  |  August/September 2020

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


How wastewater affects lake nutrient balances


new study is warning that, while wastewater treatment has become an increasingly common practice in developing countries to remove excess nutrients and make the water cleaner, the surge in treatment may be harming ecosystem biodiversity by creating an imbalance between phosphorus and nitrogen. The PNAS study (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America), authored by a consortium of scientists, including experts from the Norwegian Institute of Water Research, found that in 2005, the percentage of municipal wastewater being treated on a national scale in China was only about 40%. In 2017, it reached more than 90%. Researchers monitored the influence of this wastewater treatment surge on nutrient regimes in 46 major receiving lakes in China and found a stark difference in nitrogen and phosphorus levels, with phosphorus levels decreasing. In other words, there is an imbalance in removal efficiency, with phosphorus much more easily removed during wastewater treatment. “This growing imbalance has important implications for aquatic ecology that remain poorly considered and understood,” the study states. It argues that it may be time for wastewater treatment plants to develop more efficient nitrogen removal technologies, or for current regulations to be updated. One of the potential risks of an imbalance in nitrogen and phosphorus ratios is phytoplankton blooms and toxin production in downstream waterbodies. In 2015, the United Nations Development Program set a target to halve the proportion of untreated wastewater in the world by 2030. The study’s authors point out that “the challenge of imbalanced lake ratios caused by improved sanitation is not confined to China, but also likely occurs in other countries.” The study’s authors recommend that short-term strategies for addressing

nutrient imbalance could include refining the operations of existing facilities, developing more efficient nitrogen-removal technologies, and introducing new standards that set nutrient ratio targets for effluent discharge. In the longer term, the study’s authors suggest that increasing nutrient recovery from municipal wastewater along with source separation of human excrement may also be promising. “More effort should be placed on (nitrogen) removal from municipal wastewater in the future to achieve desired water quality outcomes as human society seeks to achieve (sustainable development goals) for sanitation, water, and aquatic ecosystem health,” the study states.

The study suggests that it may be time for wastewater treatment plants to develop more efficient nitrogen removal technologies, or for current regulations to be updated.  University of Waterloo

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August/September 2020  |  39


Removing a large water intake and concrete pier poses environmental challenges By Arielle Windham


ocated more than 700 km north of Winnipeg, the Keeyask Generation Project is being constructed on the lower Nelson River. This 695-megawatt hydroelectric generating station, scheduled for completion in 2021, will be a source of renewable energy, producing an average of 4,400 gigawatt hours of electricity each year. The energy produced will be integrated into Manitoba Hydro’s electric system for use in the province and to export to other jurisdictions. Now in its seventh year, the project has managed a number of location-specific challenges. One such challenge occurred in 2017 when water in a 60 cm pipe in the intake froze, damaging a 2.5 metre thick concrete pier. To minimize impact to the overall project, Keeyask managers opted to use hydrodemolition to remove the damaged section. The job required a specialized contractor able to overcome environmental and logistical challenges, while delivering quality results. Water Blasting & Vacuum Services Inc. (WB&VS), a Canadian industrial cleaning specialist, secured the contract based on a plan that provided not only the efficiency to complete the 140 m3 removal work on time, but recycled nearly 80% of the water. “This was a very intriguing project and the first of its kind,” said Maurice Lavoie, general manager at WB&VS and site manager for the project. “The pier was solid concrete, 2.5 metres feet thick, 12.2 metres wide and 9.1 metres tall at the highest point. A portion of the structure needed to be removed and re-poured. No one in Canada had used hydrodemolition to vertically remove 2.5 metre thick concrete.” Location was another key challenge. The construction site was approximately 4,000 km from the contractor’s headquarters in Edmundston, New Brunswick, and over 700 km north of Winnipeg. Limited access needed to be carefully fac-

40  |  August/September 2020

A spreader bar and additional tower sections maximized the hydrodemolition robot’s reach.

tored into any proposed solution. While project managers could provide access to water, power or other general construction supplies, getting specialty equipment or replacement parts presented a time-consuming challenge. Contractors needed dependable equipment and a fully stocked toolbox to limit any unnecessary downtime. “The project had a lot of challenges

to overcome,” Lavoie said. “The remote location left us with no access to technicians or spare parts if something were to go wrong. On top of that, we would be dealing with subzero temperatures.” Strict environmental controls also limited contractors’ application choices. The project partners, known as the Keeyask Hydropower Limited Partnership, which includes four Manitoba First

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Nations and Manitoba Hydro, had made environmental protection a cornerstone of the overall project. Therefore, while the original brief specified hydrodemolition as an acceptable process, the contractors would need to ensure all wastewater was properly collected and treated. “Whatever technique we used, we had to ensure there would be no negative impact on the surrounding environment,” Lavoie said. “Limiting environmental impact is always an important part of any project for our company, but, when combined with this project’s remote location, we knew there would be additional challenges. From previous experience on a job site at the Muskrat Falls Generating Project in Labrador, we knew hauling water in and out was an option, but it was costly and inefficient. Treating the water on site and reusing it was the most economical and environmentally friendly solution. With the Aquajet EcoClear we already had the right machine to make it work.” CLEAR SOLUTION The EcoClear water filtration system allowed the contractor to present a solution to project managers that promised maximum productivity, while minimizing resource consumption and protecting the environment. WB&VS purchased the EcoClear system in 2017 as a more efficient and cost-effective alternative to hauling wastewater with vacuum trucks for off-site treatment. The system neutralizes water pH and reduces turbidity to allow safe release back into the environment. It has the capacity to move up to 20 m3 per hour. However, for the hydroelectric power project, rather than treating and releasing the water, WB&VS proposed using the EcoClear system as part of a closed loop system that would recycle the water back to its Aqua Cutter 710V. It would be the company’s first time using the EcoClear to recycle water on such a large scale, but Lavoie and his team were confident the EcoClear and 710V would make the perfect pair to tackle the challenging application.

-40°C at times, a hoarding system and heaters had to be set up around the demolition site to provide shelter and keep the pumps operating. In addition to the EcoClear system and 710V, the contractor used a spreader bar and additional tower sections to maximize the hydrodemolition robot’s reach. An extension kit allowed the contractor to make a 4 m wide cut, as well.

These enhancements greatly reduced the downtime frequent repositioning would have required. Additionally, WB&VS employed additional lance sections to increase efficiency and allow the depth the project required. Steve Ouellette, lead supervisor at WB&VS, was put in charge of the closed loop system with two 80 m3 tanks procontinued overleaf…


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CLEARING A PATH The WB&VS team arrived at the jobsite in March 2018. With temperatures averaging -29°C and dipping as low as www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

August/September 2020  |  41

INFRASTRUCTURE viding water to the Aqua Cutter 710V. Wastewater was directed to a low point, then pumped to the EcoClear. Once the water was treated, it was pumped back to the holding tanks for reuse. An average of 4 m3 of concrete was removed and an estimated 151 m3 of water was used in a 12 hour shift. Of this, roughly 20% of the water was lost during the hydrodemolition process due to evaporation and absorption into the concrete. However, the EcoClear system was able to collect and recycle the remaining 80%. Over the course of the project, the EcoClear processed almost 5,000 m3 of water. WB&VS worked with project managers to integrate demolition into the complex timeline of the overall project, completing the work in two multi-week phases. Lavoie and his team operated the Aqua Cutter daily for almost an entire 12-hour shift, working in 4 m wide sections to completely demolish the wall. A separate crew would come on at night to remove rebar and debris.

An average of 4 m3 of concrete was removed and an estimated 151 m3 of water was used in a 12 hour shift.

The process repeated for approxi- For more information visit mately 41 days of blasting and a total of www.waterblastinginc.ca. 53 days on site. Demolition was finished by May 2018.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Left: Terrapure's Ville Ste-Catherine battery recycling facility. Right: Recycled lead is reconstituted to exacting specifications.

Creating a closed-loop process to recycle 99% of lead batteries


ead batteries are a key element of our economy and our society. They power everything from cars to industrial equipment to golf carts, bikes and more. Worldwide, lead batteries are used in a billion vehicles to start their engines and power on-board electronics. While lead itself is hazardous, lead batteries are the most recycled product in North America, with a 99% recovery and recycling rate, according to Battery Council International. As such, lead batteries are a poster child for the circular economy and an environmental success story. That success recently led Canadian companies Terrapure Environmental and East Penn Canada to being named winners of a prestigious industry Project of the Year Award by Environment + Energy Leader, a publication dedicated to energy, environment and sustainability news. East Penn and Terrapure have developed a closed-loop solution to recycle East Penn’s batteries. The two companies decided a “tolling” agreement was the best way to ensure a circular life cycle. Instead of leaving retailers or individuals to determine a recycling option for their spent lead-acid batteries, East Penn Canada uses a core charge to incent customers to return their batteries. East Penn Canada collects spent batteries from its customers and ships them to Terrapure to break them down to their base components for recycling. www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

Terrapure processes and refines the lead to East Penn’s specifications, and it is then returned to East Penn’s battery manufacturing facility in Pennsylvania for use in new batteries. “This approach is a real win-win,” said Ross Atkinson, senior vice president of battery recycling at Terrapure. “It provides East Penn with a closed-loop recycling process for their batteries, ensuring a beneficial reuse of a valuable commodity, while also helping preserve a finite natural resource.” The first step in the recycling process, after the used batteries are received at one of Terrapure’s two Canadian battery-recycling plants, involves crushing and breaking down the batteries into their constituent parts. These are plastic from the battery casings, acid and lead. Plastics are separated, cleaned, broken down into small pellets and sold to be injection molded into new battery casings. The acid is drained, collected, chemically treated and sold for recycling, often to become sodium sulfate. Lead is the most significant and valuable element in the battery. It is purified to 99.97% purity and reconstituted to exacting specifications into recycled lead for reuse in new batteries. East Penn is Terrapure’s largest customer for recycled lead. At Terrapure’s Ville Ste-Catherine facility in Quebec, the lead-recycling process takes place by heating the recovered

lead in two long-body rotary kilns, after which it goes into a refinery to refine the lead bullion and, finally, is cast into 30-kilogram ingots or one-tonne blocks. Terrapure uses various industrial wastes found in the lead smelting process as substitutes for natural gas, oil, metallurgical coke or soda ash. Many of the materials received or generated in the recycling process, such as drums, pallets and other packing materials, are also reused on site or recycled. “Not only does Terrapure’s recycling process provide a circular economy solution for a portion of East Penn’s lead batteries, it also takes 60% less energy to produce recycled lead, helping to reduce our carbon footprint,” said Mike Bouchard, president, East Penn Canada. From collection to recycling to manufacturing, a recycled lead-acid battery is back on the market in 50 to 60 days. This partnership between Terrapure and East Penn generates significant closedloop, circular economic value, as lead can be recycled infinitely. Terrapure receives approximately 10 million batteries annually and produces 125,000 metric tonnes of recycled lead per year, recovering 99% of batteries in Canada and diverting them from the landfill. For more information, visit www.eastpenncanada.com, or www.terrapureenv.com August/September 2020  |  43


Federal funding has allowed reconstruction work on the Port Dalhousie Piers. Credit: Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities say stimulus water restoration projects can kick-start our economy By David Nesseth


ith plenty of water infrastructure and erosion protection work still to be done around the eight-state, two-province Great Lakes and St. Lawrence region, there’s no better time for that work to help kickstart the economy than in the midst of a pandemic, says a group of municipal leaders calling on the U.S. and Canadian governments for new stimulus funding. On the heels of record-high unemployment levels due to COVID-19, The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative says that nearly 20 jobs could be created per million dollars spent on infrastructure. Their new ask of the Canadian government is $6.3 billion for Canadian water infrastructure, which could equate to the creation of some 124,110 jobs. In terms of erosion mitigation, they estimate that an injection of $700 mil44  |  August/September 2020

lion could stimulate the creation of 27,790 jobs, at a rate of nearly 40 jobs created per million spent. Of particular focus for the more than 100 mayors in the Great Lakes region is funding for projects that safeguard drinking water and modernize clean water infrastructure, as well as projects that respond to coastal erosion and impacts from extreme weather events. About 70 projects have already been identified in Canada alone, and a project map and breakdown are in the works. “What we're faced with is an inability for municipalities to be able to finance and afford these projects,” said Walter Sendzik, vice chair of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative, and mayor of St. Catharines, Ontario. He told Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, “it will be a net impact loss on our property tax owners, but also to a greater

extent, an impact on the resiliency of our community to fight climate change.” One element of the new stimulus proposal to the Canadian government is to waive matching fund requirements for projects in order to streamline progress. If a project is already on the books, it currently would be ineligible for the federal government to match those dollars. The initiative’s efforts want to see those barriers removed, particularly because nearly one-third of Canadian and U.S. economic activity is centered in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence region. Accelerating recovery of the areas will fuel the larger Canadian economic recovery. While the new Moving America Forward Act intends to address some water infrastructure issues in the U.S., Infrastructure Canada has stated that its Disaster Mitigation Adaptation Fund includes some new shoreline protection

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projects and it plans to review the latest proposal from the bi-national mayors initiative as soon as possible for new rounds of project funding. Most countries are seeing a 10% drop in GDP, and experts estimate it could take more than two years for them to return to pre-pandemic economic levels. In St. Catharines, Sendzik said the city has seen the devastating impacts of climate change, as well as the positive ripple effects in the economy when the city has tackled projects along its waters. In 2019, the city had a significant flash flood that brought more rain in 45 minutes than the city has ever had on record. It flooded some 500 basements and is exactly the sort of “new normal” that municipalities want to build protection against in the call for new stimulus funding. “One of the factors that created the backup of our water system was that water levels were so high in Lake Ontario. Our outtake systems were actually in the water, so when stormwater was discharging from our system at high velocity, it pretty much ran into lake water,” explained Sendzik. Reinvesting in existing infrastruc-

ture above and below ground, creating new infrastructure, as well as investing in shoreline protections has been beneficial for the city of 136,000 that sits on Lake Ontario. High water levels have been stripping St. Catharines’ beaches of their natural ecology. With the work that’s been done in recent years, there has been a steady mix of short-term and long-term employment. For example, the Port Dalhousie Piers had fallen into disrepair. A major investment from the federal government has created pier reconstruction work that’s been ongoing for more than twoand-a-half years. A marina and yacht club at the piers are benefiting from the rehabilitation, which has also contributed to the development of a new condominium project. “The economic spinoff will last for generations,” said Sendzik. But the progress comes at a cost and like most municipalities in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence region, there is much more resilience to embed as 100-year-flood risks become closer to a five-year occurrence.

Over the last two years alone, St. Catharines has spent some $7 million addressing high water levels. Already in 2020, the city has earmarked $2 million for shoreline protection work. As much as $20 million in shoreline erosion work still looms on the horizon. On the water infrastructure side, the regional government recently approved a $20-million retrofit of a water treatment plant. “Everyone wants things like new arenas and community centres, which are beneficial, but the reality is that the core of our needs are clean drinking water, sanitary waste and water management, and sewer systems,” said Sendzik. “The essence of any thriving community is going to be clean water, both at the tap and what we manage. If we’re not paying attention to those as communities, then our ability to be sustainable and resilient moving forward is going to be very much compromised.” David Nesseth is a writer with Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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EDNA will enhance environmental surveys for 500 Canadian lakes continued from page 18

ice) (Strickler et al., 2015). An organism may occur in a locality but go undetected because of the high degradation rate of its genetic material. These and other factors can make it difficult to accurately estimate species density or how long ago an organism was present in the environment. However, further investigation of shedding rates, environment-specific factors influencing degradation rate, and robust molecular testing can overcome these challenges in the future. Currently, there is some information that eDNA cannot provide. For example, it cannot necessarily tell us the size, sex, developmental stage, or the health of individuals. Conventional biomonitoring techniques are still necessary to obtain that level of detail about the individuals within populations. Therefore, environmental managers need to carefully consider their questions before deciding whether or not to employ eDNA. Increased diversity in methodological approaches for the analysis of eDNA have led to the lack of standards among eDNA practitioners. Regulatory agencies must fully accept the results obtained from eDNA surveys in decision making, before the environmental private sector can fully use the approach as part of their regular operations.

There are three main steps to analyzing eDNA.

in monitoring results and more effective environmental management may be possible if more accurate spawning and recruitment data were available. eDNA approaches may represent an opportunity to increase confidence in assessment of spawning and recruitment of sensitive species. The collaboration between the University of Guelph and SLR Consulting is also part of the overarching project Genomic Network for Fish Identification, Stress and Health (GEN-FISH) funded by Genome Canada and the Ontario Genomic Institute. GEN-FISH is a nation-wide project that aims to improve sampling techniques to determine the distribution and abundance of all Canadian freshwater fish species and how they respond to anthropological stressors. One of the GEN-FISH goals is to POTENTIAL PROJECT APPLICATIONS develop, test and validate a rapid and reliAND FUTURE WORK able eDNA field-based sampling methThe University of Guelph and SLR odology that will be used on 500 lakes Consulting are collaborating on applied across Canada to answer questions such research opportunities to explore practi- as: Which fish species are present in this cal application of eDNA to augment, or waterbody? How many of each species in some cases be a substitute for, pres- are there? What are they eating? How staent practice. For instance, recruitment ble is the population within the food web? of groundwater sensitive species such as This will be the largest aquatic eDNA surbrook trout is essential to maintain sus- vey ever performed in Canada. tainable populations but can be affected ADVANCEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE negatively by groundwater extraction. Continuous collaboration among acaVisual spawning surveys can produce variable results. Increased confidence demia, regulatory agencies and industry 46  |  August/September 2020

is necessary to advance the use of eDNA and promote standardization of methods. With that in mind, the upcoming international conference Pathway to Increase Standards and Competency of eDNA Surveys (PISCeS) aims to bring together academics, regulators and industry to engage in discussions and further advance the standards of environmental DNA for biomonitoring. Tzitziki Loeza-Quintana is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Guelph. Email: tloezaqu@uoguelph.ca Gordon Wichert is with SLR Consulting (Canada) Ltd. Email: gwichert@slrconsulting.com For more information on GEN-FISH visit www.gen-fish.ca (References are available upon request.)

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ASSOCIATIONS ABORIGINAL WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO PO Box 20001, Riverview Postal Outlet, Dryden ON  P8N 0A1 Sara Campbell info@awwao.org T: 807-216-8085  F: 807-223-1222 www.awwao.org The Aboriginal Water and Wastewater Association of Ontario’s (AWWAO) goal is to attain assurance that First Nations water and wastewater treatment plant operators are confident, efficient and effective in managing the purification of the water and the treatment of wastewater in their community. AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION Koppers Building, 2100-436 Seventh Ave, Pittsburgh PA 15219 Stephanie Glyptis sglyptis@awma.org T: 412-232-3444  F: 412-232-3450 www.awma.org ALBERTA ONSITE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 21115 – 108 Ave NW, Edmonton AB  T5S 1X3 Lesley Desjardins lesley@aowma.com T: 877-689-8118  F: 780-486-7414 www.aowma.com ALBERTA WATER & WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION 10806 – 119 St NW, Edmonton AB  T5H 3P2 Dan Rites T: 780-454-7745 Ext. 226 F: 780-454-7748 www.awwoa.ca


AMERICAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 350 – 8445 Freeport Parkway, Irving TX 75063 Doug Dayton ddayton@concrete-pipe.org T: 972-506-7216  F: 972-506-7682 www.concretepipe.org AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS Fl23 – 120 Wall St, New York NY 10005-4020 T: 203-702-7660  F: 203-775-5177 www.aiche.org

scientific and educational society dedicated to providing total water solutions assuring the effective management of water. Founded in 1881, the Association is the largest organization of water supply professionals in the world.

ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSORS OF CANADA INC. PO Box 490, Fenelon Falls ON  K0M 1N0 info@aesac.ca T: 877-512-3722 www.aesac.ca

AMERICAN PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION 1400 – 1200 Main St, Kansas City MO 64105-2100 Scott Grayson sgrayson@apwa.net T: 816-472-6100  F: 816-472-1610 www.apwa.net The American Public Works Association serves professionals in all aspects of public works. With a worldwide membership of 30,000, APWA includes personnel from local, county, state/province, and federal agencies, as well as the private sector that supply products and services to those professionals.

ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERING COMPANIES CANADA 420 – 130 Albert St, Ottawa ON  K1P 5G4 John Gamble jgamble@acec.ca T: 613-236-0569 www.acec.ca

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 1801 Alexander Bell Dr, Reston VA 20191 Thomas W. Smith board@asce.org T: 703-295-6300 www.asce.org

ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO LAND SURVEYORS 1043 McNicoll Ave, Toronto ON  M1W 3W6 Brian Maloney brian@aols.org T: 416-491-9020 F: 416-491-2576 www.aols.org

AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION 6666 W Quincy Ave, Denver CO 80235-3098 David LaFrance T: 303-794-7711  F: 303-347-0804 www.awwa.org The American Water Works Association is an international, nonprofit,

ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPALITIES OF ONTARIO 801 – 200 University Ave, Toronto ON  M5H 3C6 Brian Rosborough brosborough@amo.on.ca T: 416-971-9856 Ext. 316 F: 416-971-6191 www.amo.on.ca

ASSOCIATION OF POWER PRODUCERS OF ONTARIO 1040 – 67 Yonge St, Toronto ON  M5C 1J8 David Butters david.butters@appro.org T: 416-322-6549  F: 416-481-5785 www.appro.org ATLANTIC CANADA WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 28141, Dartmouth NS  B2W 6E2 Clara Shea contact@acwwa.ca T: 902-434-6002  F: 902-435-7796 www.acwwa.ca The Atlantic Canada Water & Wastewater Association (ACWWA) is a section of the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and a Member Association of Water Environment Federation (WEF). With more than 500 water and wastewater professionals from Atlantic Canada, the ACWWA provides training and information that keeps members current in the rapidly advancing water and wastewater profession. AUDITING ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 9 Forest Rd, Whitby ON  L1N 3N7 Todd Hall admin@auditingcanada.com T: 866-582-9595 www.auditingcanada.com BRITISH COLUMBIA ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION info@bceia.com www.bceia.com

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BRITISH COLUMBIA GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 1334 Riverside Rd, Abbotsford BC  V2S 8J2 David Mercer general-manager@bcgwa.org T: 604-530-8934  F: 604-630-8846 www.bcgwa.org BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION 247 – 4299 Canada Way, Burnaby BC  V5G 4Y2 Marian Hands mhands@bcwwa.org T: 604-433-4389  F: 604-433-9859 www.bcwwa.org CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABORATORY ACCREDITATION INC. 102 – 2934 Baseline Rd, Ottawa ON  K2H 1B2 Andrew Adams aadams@cala.ca T: 613-233-5300  F: 613-233-5501 www.cala.ca CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCERS 2100-350 – 7 Ave SW, Calgary AB  T2P 3N9 membership@capp.ca T: 403-267-1100  F: 403-261-4622 www.capp.ca CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF RECYCLING INDUSTRIES PO Box 67094 Westbro, Ottawa ON  K2A 4E4 Tracy Shaw info@cari-acir.org T: 613-728-6946 www.cari-acir.org CANADIAN ASSOCIATION ON WATER QUALITY PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington ON  L7R 4A6 Mike Lywood mike.lywood@amecfw.com T: 289-780-0378 www.cawq.ca CANADIAN BROWNFIELDS NETWORK 820 Trillium Dr, Kitchener ON  N2R 1K4 Richard Giles admin@ canadianbrownfieldsnetwork.ca T: 519-741-5774 Ext. 4240  www.canadianbrownfieldsnetwork. ca CANADIAN CENTRE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY 35 Hunter St E, Hamilton ON L8N 1M5 T: 905-572-2981 www.ccohs.ca

48  |  August/September 2020

CANADIAN CONCRETE PIPE & PRECAST ASSOCIATION 447 Frederick St 2nd Floor, Kitchener ON  N2H 2P4 admin@ccppa.ca T: 519-489-4488  F: 519-578-6060 www.ccppa.ca CANADIAN COPPER & BRASS DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION 210 – 65 Overlea Blvd, Toronto ON  M4H 1P1 Stephen Knapp library@copperalliance.ca T: 416-391-5599  F: 416-391-3823 www.coppercanada.ca CANADIAN COUNCIL OF INDEPENDENT LABORATORIES (CCIL) PO Box 41027, Ottawa ON  K1G 5K9 Francine Fortier-ThéBerge ccil@ccil.com T: 613-746-3919 www.ccil.com CANADIAN GENERAL STANDARDS BOARD 6B1 – 11 Laurier St, Place Du Portage III, Gatineau QC  K1A 1G6 ncr.cgsb-ongc@tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca T: 819-956-0383  F: 819-956-5740 www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca CANADIAN NETWORK OF ASSET MANAGERS 705-1 Eglinton Ave E, Toronto ON M4P 3A1 Doug Cutts execdir@cnam.ca T: 416-335-0171 F: 416-981-8759 www.cnam.ca CANADIAN PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION 700 – 123 Slater St, Ottawa ON  K1P 5H2 Scott Grayson sgrayson@apwa.net T: 800-848-2792  F: 202-408-9542 www.cpwa.net CANADIAN SOCIETY FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING 521 – 300 rue St-Sacrement, Montreal QC  H2Y 1X4 Lois Arkwright lois.arkwright@csce.ca T: 514-933-2634 Ext. 2  F: 514-933-3504 www.csce.ca CANADIAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION 11 – 1010 Polytek St., Ottawa ON  K1J 9H9 Robert Haller rhaller@cwwa.ca T: 613-747-0524  F: 613-747-0523 www.cwwa.ca CWWA is a non-profit national body representing the common interests of Canada’s public sector municipal water and wastewater services and their private sector

suppliers and partners. CWWA is recognized by the federal government and national bodies as the national voice of this public service sector.

CANADIAN WATER NETWORK 200 University Ave W, Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1 Bernadette Conant bconant@cwn-rce.ca T: 519-888-4567 Ext. 36171 www.cwn-rce.ca CANADIAN WATER QUALITY ASSOCIATION 4–180 Northfield Drive W Waterloo, ON N2L 0C7 info@cwqa.com T: 416-695-3068 www.cwqa.com CANADIAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 120 Glenora St, Ottawa ON  K1S 1J3 Sean Douglas executivedirector@cwra.org T: 613-237-9363 www.cwra.org CANADIAN WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION 400 – 240 Bank St, Ottawa ON  K2P 1X4 Tracy Walden info@canwea.ca T: 613-234-8716  F: 613-234-5642 www.canwea.ca CANADIAN WOOD WASTE RECYCLING BUSINESS GROUP 5003 - 54A Avenue, Stony Plain AB  T7Z 1B7 Jim Donaldson jdonaldson@ cdnwoodwasterecycling.ca T: 780-963-7117 www.cdnwoodwasterecycling.ca CEMENT ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 1105 – 350 Sparks St, Ottawa ON  K1R 7S8 Michael McSweeney mmcsweeney@cement.ca T: 613-236-9471 Ext.206 www.cement.ca CENTRE FOR ADVANCEMENT OF TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1 Dr. Mark Knight mark.knight@uwaterloo.ca T: 519-888-4567 Ext. 6919 www.catt.ca CHEMISTRY INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 805 – 350 Sparks St, Ottawa ON  K1R 7S8 Bob Masterson membership@canadianchemistry.ca T: 613-237-6215  F: 613-237-4061 www.canadianchemistry.ca

COMPOST COUNCIL OF CANADA 16 Northumberland St, Toronto ON  M6H 1P7 info@compost.org T: 416-535-0240  F: 416-536-9892 www.compost.org CONSERVATION COUNCIL OF ONTARIO C/O Cariporter Inc. PO Box 73021, 465 Yonge St, Toronto ON  M4Y 2W5 www.conserveontario.ca CONSULTING ENGINEERS OF ONTARIO 405 – 10 Four Seasons Pl, Toronto ON  M9B 6H7 Bruce Matthews bgmatthews@ceo.on.ca T: 416-620-1400 Ext. 224 F: 416-620-5803 www.ceo.on.ca CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE INSTITUTE 2A – 652 Bishop St N, Cambridge ON  N3H 4V6 Ray Wilcock rjwilcock@cspi.ca T: 519-650-8080  F: 519-650-8081 www.cspi.ca CSA GROUP 178 Rexdale Blvd, Toronto ON  M9W 1R3 T: 416-747-4000 www.csagroup.org DUCTILE IRON PIPE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION PO Box 19306, Birmingham AL 35219 Patrick J. Hogan info@dipra.org T: 205-402-8700 www.dipra.org ECO CANADA 200-308 – 11th Ave SE, Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 Kevin Nilsen info@eco.ca T: 403-233-0748 www.eco.ca ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES ASSOCIATION OF ALBERTA 102 – 2528 Ellwood Dr SW, Edmonton AB  T6X 0A9 Joe Chowaniec info@essa.org T: 780-429-6363 www.esaa.org ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES ASSOCIATION MARITIMES 502 – 5657 Spring Garden Rd, PO Box 142, Halifax NS  B3J 3R4 Tara Oak contact@esamaritimes.ca www.esamaritimes.ca T: 902-463-3538  F: 902-425-2441

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GEORGIAN BAY ASSOCIATION 138 Hopedale Ave Toronto ON, M4K 3M7 Rupert Kindersley rkindersley@georgianbay.ca T: 416-985-7378 www.georgianbay.ca INTERNATIONAL OZONE ASSOCIATION PO Box 97075, Las Vegas NV 89193 info3zone@ioa-pag.org T: 480-529-3787  F: 480-533-3080 www.ioa-pag.org INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SCIENCES 413 – 4246 Albert St, Regina SK  S4S 3R9 office@iseis.org T: 306-337-2306  F: 306-337-2305 www.iseis.org INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET ASSOCIATION 302 – 7758 Wisconsin Ave, Bethesda MD 20815 Oliver Lawal info@iuva.org T: 240-437-4615  F: 240-209-2340 www.iuva.org MANITOBA ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION 310-112 Market Ave, Winnipeg MB R3B 0P4 T: 204-783-7090 www.meia.mb.ca MANITOBA WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION Iva Last mwwaoffice@shaw.ca T: 866-396-2549. www.mwwa.net MARITIME PROVINCES WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 28142, Dartmouth NS  B2W 6E2 Clara Shea contact@mpwwa.ca T: 902-434-8874  F: 902-434-8859 www.mpwwa.ca MUNICIPAL ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION 22 – 1525 Cornwall Rd, Oakville ON  L6J 0B2 Dan Cozzi dan.cozzi@municipalengineers.on.ca T: 289-291-6472  F: 289-291-6477 www.municipalengineers.on.ca MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION PO Box 1894 Station Main, Guelph ON  N1H 7A1 Dr. Trevor Barton trevor@municipalwaste.ca T: 519-823-1990  F: 519-823-0084 www.municipalwaste.ca


NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CLEAN WATER AGENCIES 1050–1130 Connecticut Ave NW, Washington DC 20036 Adam Krantz akrantz@nacwa.org T: 202-833-2672  F: 888-267-9505 www.nacwa.org NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL BALANCING BUREAU 8575 Grovemont Circle, Gaithersburg MD 20877 Tiffany Suite tiffany@nebb.org T: 301-977-3698 www.nebb.org NATIONAL GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 601 Dempsey Rd, Westerville OH 43081 Terry Morse tmorse@ngwa.org T: 614-898-7791  F: 614-898-7786 www.ngwa.org NEWFOUNDLAND & LABRADOR ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 207 – 90 O’Leary Ave, St John’s NL  A1B 2C7 Kieran Hanley kieran@neia.org T: 709-237-8190 www.neia.org NORTH AMERICAN HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 220 – 12110 N. Pecos St, Westminster CO 80234 Victoria L. Hodge victoria@nahmma.org T: 303-451-5945  F: 303-458-0002 www.nahmma.org NORTHERN TERRITORIES WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION 201 – 4817 49th St, Yellowknife NT  X1A 3S7 info@ntwwa.com T: 867-873-4325  F: 867-669-2167 www.ntwwa.com NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION PO Box 10308, Thunder Bay ON  P7B 6T8 Kristen Oliver admin@noma.on.ca T: 807-683-6662 www.noma.on.ca ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF CERTIFIED ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS & TECHNOLOGISTS 404 – 10 Four Seasons Place, Etobicoke ON  M9B 6H7 info@oacett.org T: 416-621-9621 Ext. 251 F: 416-621-8694 www.oacett.org

ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF SEWAGE INDUSTRY SERVICES PO Box 184, Bethany ON  L0A 1A0 Numair Uppal numair.uppal@oasisontario.on.ca T: 877-202-0082 www.oasisontario.on.ca ONTARIO CLEAN TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION www.octia.ca ONTARIO COALITION FOR SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE Alan Korell alan.korell@municipalengineers. on.ca T: 705-498-2258 www.on-csi.ca ONTARIO CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION Fl2 – 447 Frederick St, Kitchener ON  N2H 2P4 Gerrard Mulhern gerry.mulhern@ocpa.com T: 519-489-4488  F: 519-578-6060 www.ocpa.com ONTARIO ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 306 – 192 Spadina Ave, Toronto ON  M5T 2C7 Alex Gill info@oneia.ca T: 416-531-7884 www.oneia.ca ONTARIO ENVIRONMENT NETWORK Ste 11 - 2675 Bloor St W, Toronto ON M8X 1A4 oen@oen.ca www.oen.ca ONTARIO GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 125-750 Talbot Street E St. Thomas ON N5P 1E2 K.C. Craig Stainton T: 519-245-7194  F: 519-245-7196 www.ogwa.ca ONTARIO MUNICIPAL WATER ASSOCIATION 2593 Tenth Concession, Collingwood ON  L9Y 3Y9 Ed Houghton ehoughton@omwa.org T: 705-443-8472  F: 705-443-4263 www.omwa.org ONTARIO ONSITE WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 2336 Peterborough ON  K9J 7Y8 info@oowa.org T: 855-905-6692 www.oowa.org ONTARIO POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION (OPCEA) opcea@opcea.com www.opcea.com Our association is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting

member companies in the promotion of their equipment and services to the pollution control market sector of Ontario. Originally founded in 1970, the OPCEA has since grown to over 150 member companies whose fields encompass a broad spectrum of equipment and services for the air and water pollution control marketplace.

ONTARIO PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION 22 – 1525 Cornwall Rd, Oakville ON  L6J 0B2 Brian Barber info@opwa.ca T: 647-726-0167  F: 289-291-6477 www.opwa.ca ONTARIO RURAL WASTEWATER CENTRE University Of Guelph, School Of Engineering, Guelph ON  N1G 2W1 Bassim Abbassi babbassi@uoguelph.ca T: 519-824-4120  F: 519-836-0227 www.ontarioruralwastewatercentre. ca ONTARIO SEWER & WATERMAIN CONSTRUCTION ASSOCIATION 300 – 5045 Orbitor Dr, Unit 12, Mississauga ON  L4W 4Y4 info@oswca.org T: 905-629-7766  F: 905-629-0587 www.oswca.org ONTARIO SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 502 – 4950 Yonge St, Toronto ON  M2N 6K1 info@ospe.on.ca T: 416-223-9961 www.ospe.on.ca ONTARIO WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3 – 2005 Clark Blvd, Brampton ON  L6T 5P8 info@owma.org T: 905-791-9500 www.owma.org ONTARIO WATERPOWER ASSOCIATION 264 – 380 Armour Rd, Peterborough ON  K9H 7L7 Paul Norris info@owa.ca T: 866-743-1500 www.owa.ca ONTARIO WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION 215 – 507 Lakeshore Road E, Mississauga ON  L5G 1H9 Michele Grenier mgrenier@owwa.ca T: 416-231-1555 www.owwa.ca

continued overleaf… August/September 2020  |  49


ONTARIO WATER WORKS EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION www.owwea.ca The Ontario Water Works Equipment Association (OWWEA) is an organization that represents its membership within the waterworks industry of Ontario. Membership consists of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, agents and contractors, dedicated to serving the Ontario municipal market. PLASTICS PIPE INSTITUTE 825 – 105 Decker Court, Irving TX 75062 T: 469-499-1046  F: 469-499-1063 www.plasticpipe.org PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS ONTARIO 101 – 40 Sheppard Ave W, Toronto ON  M2N 6K9 T: 416-224-1100 www.peo.on.ca PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 215 – 5385 216 Street Langley, BC, V2Y 2N3 executivedirector@pwabc.ca T: 604-880-8585 www.pwabc.ca PULP & PAPER TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 440 – 6300 Ave Auteuil, Brossard QC  J4Z 3P2 Greg Hay ghay@paptac.ca T: 514-392-0265 www.paptac.ca RÉSEAU ENVIRONNEMENT 750 – 255 Boul Cremazie Est, Montreal QC  H2M 1L5 T: 514-270-7110 www.reseau-environnement.com SASKATCHEWAN ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY & MANAGERS ASSOCIATION PO Box 22009 RPO Wildwood, Saskatoon SK  S7H 5P1 Patrick Legg info@seima.sk.ca T: 844-801-6233 www.seima.sk.ca SASKATCHEWAN ONSITE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 449 Haviland Cr, Saskatoon SK  S7L 5B3 Lesley Desjardins ldesjardins@wcowma.com T: 306-988-2102  F: 855-420-6336 www.sowma.ca SASKATCHEWAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 7831 Stn Main, Saskatoon SK  S7K 4R5 T: 306-668-1278 www.swwa.ca

50  |  August/September 2020

SOLID WASTE ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA 650 – 1100 Wayne Ave, Silver Spring MD 20910 David Biderman membership@swana.org T: 800-467-9262  F: 301-589-7068 www.swana.org

people-canada Water For People – Canada is a charitable nonprofit international humanitarian organization, dedicated to the development and delivery of clean, safe water and sanitation solutions in developing nations.

STEEL TANK INSTITUTE/STEEL PLATE FABRICATORS ASSOCIATION 944 Donata Ct, Lake Zurich IL 60047 T: 847-438-8265  F: 847-438-8766 www.steeltank.com

WATER SUPPLY ASSOCIATION OF B.C. Box 21013 Orchard Park, Kelowna BC  V1Y 8N9 watersupply@wsabc.ca T: 250-868-3803 www.wsabc.ca

THE GREEN BUILDING INITIATIVE 7805 SW 40th Ave, PO Box 80010, Portland OR 97219 Vicki Worden info@thegbi.org T: 503-274-0448 www.thegbi.org WATER RESEARCH FOUNDATION 6666 West Quincy Ave, Denver CO 80235-3098 Peter Grevatt pgrevatt@waterrf.org T: 303-347-6100  F: 303-730-0851 www.waterrf.org WATER & WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION, INC. 304 – 540 Fort Evans Rd, Leesburg VA 20176-3379 Vanessa Leiby vanessa@wwema.org T: 703-444-1777 www.wwema.org WATER ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO 6559A Mississauga Rd, Mississauga ON  L5N 1A6 Heather Tyrrell heather@weao.org T: 416-410-6933 www.weao.org

WESTERN CANADA ONSITE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 21115 – 108 Ave NW, Edmonton AB  T5S 1X3 Lesley Desjardins ldesjardins@wcowma.com T: 780-489-7471  F: 780-486-7414 www.wcowma.com WESTERN CANADA WATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 1708, Cochrane AB  T4C 1B6 Audrey Arisman aarisman@wcwwa.ca T: 403-709-0064  F: 403-709-0068 www.wcwwa.ca WCW was founded in 1948 to promote the exchange of knowledge of water treatment, sewage treatment, distribution of water and collection of sewage for towns and cities in Western Canada. Today, WCW is a collaboration of seven Constituent Organizations representing over 5,500 diverse and skilled members who work in water across Western Canada.

WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION 601 Wythe St, Alexandria VA 223141994 csc@wef.org T: 800-666-0206 www.wef.org The Water Environment Federation is a not-for-profit association that provides technical education and training for thousands of water quality professionals who clean water and return it safely to the environment. WEF members have proudly protected public health, served their local communities, and supported clean water worldwide since 1928. WATER FOR PEOPLE – CANADA 400 – 245 Consumers Rd, Toronto ON  M2J 1R3 T: 416-499-4042  F: 416-499-4687 www.waterforpeople.org/water-for-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


PROVINCIAL & FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ENVIRONMENTAL AGENCIES KEY GOVERNMENT WEBSITES: Government of Canada www.canada.ca Environment & Climate Change Canada www.canada.ca/en/ environment-climate-change Health Canada www.canada.ca/en/healthcanada Natural Resources Canada www.nrcan.gc.ca National Research Council of Canada www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca



Information Centre Ministry of Environment and Parks 9th Floor, South Petroleum Plaza 9920 108 St, Edmonton, AB  T5K 2G8 aep.info-centre@gov.ab.ca T: 877-310-3773 Environment and Water Peace Region 3rd Floor, Provincial Building, 9621 96 Ave Peace River, AB  T8S 1T4 T: 780-624-7133

Ministry of Environment & Climate Change Strategy – Communications & Public Engagement PO Box 9360, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9M2 T: 800-663-7867

Manitoba Conservation and Climate Environmental Approvals 1007 Century St Winnipeg, MB  R3H 0W4 T: 204-945-8321 www.gov.mb.ca/sd/permits_licenses_ approvals/eal/

Environmental Emergencies (Toll Free) T: 800-663-3456

Office of Drinking Water Branch 1007 Century St, Winnipeg, MB  R3H 0W4 T: 204-945-5762

Report Pollution T: 877-952-7277 Environmental Appeal Board PO Box 9425, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9V1 T: 250-387-3464 www.eab.gov.bc.ca Environmental Assessment Office PO Box 9426, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V9W 9V1 T: 250-356-7479 www.projects.eao.gov.bc.ca Climate Change Division PO Box 9339, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9M1 T: 250-387-6121 Monitoring, Assessment & Stewardship T: 250-354-6333 Environmental Sustainability & Strategic Policy PO Box 9339, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9M1 T: 250-387-9997

Lower Athabasca Region 2nd Floor Provincial Building 9503 Beaverhill Rd, Lac La Biche, AB T0A 2C0 T: 780-623-5240

Environmental Emergencies & Land Remediation Branch PO Box 9342, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9M1 T: 250-387-9971

Upper Athabasca Region 1st Floor, Provincial Building 5020 52 Ave, Whitecourt, AB  T7S 1N2 T: 780-778-7153

Environmental Standards Branch PO Box 9341, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria BC  V8W 9M1 T: 778-698-1973

Red Deer/North Saskatchewan Region Twin Atria Building #111, 4999 98 Ave Edmonton, AB T6B 2X3 T: 780-427-7617

Water Strategies & Conservation PO Box 9362, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9M2 T: 778-698-4061

South Saskatchewan Region #303 Deerfoot Square Building 2938 11 St NE, Calgary, AB  T2E 7L7 T: 403-297-7602


24-Hour Environmental Emergencies Hotline T: 800-222-6514

BRITISH COLUMBIA www2.gov.bc.ca

Ministry of Environment & Climate Change Strategy Headquarters 525 Superior St, Victoria, BC  V8V 1T7 T: 263 478-0896



Ministry of Sustainable Development Client Information Unit 200 Saulteaux Cres, PO Box 22, Winnipeg, MB  R3J 3W3 T: 204-945-6784, 800-214-6497 www.gov.mb.ca/sd Clean Environment Commission 305-155 Carlton St, Winnipeg, MB  R3C 3H8 T: 204-945-0594 www.cecmanitoba.ca

Water Services Board 2010 Currie Blvd Unit 1A, Brandon, MB  R7B 4E7 T: 204-726-6076 www.mbwaterservicesboard.ca Environmental Emergency 24-Hour Service T: 204-944-4888

NEW BRUNSWICK www2.gnb.ca

Ministry of Environment and Local Government Head Office Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-2690 egl-info@gnb.ca www.gnb.ca/environment Environmental Emergency 24-Hour Service T: 800-565-1633 Environmental Science & Protection (Division) T: 506-444-5382 Air & Water Sciences Branch Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-457-4844 Assessment & Planning Appeal Board City Centre, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-2126 Climate Change Secretariat Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-3700 Source and Surface Water Management Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-457-4850 Policy, Climate Change, First Nations & Public Engagement (Division) Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-3700 Waste Diversion Unit Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-7945


Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Environment – Environment & Conservation Head Office West Block, Confederation Bldg. PO Box 8700, St. John’s, NL  A1B 4J6 T: 709-729-3046 www.mae.gov.nl.ca Environmental Assessment Div. Floor 4 – Confederation Bldg West, PO Box 8700, St. John’s, NL  A1B 4J6 T: 709-729-0673 Water Resources Management Div. Floor 4 – Confederation Bldg West, PO Box 8700, St. John’s, NL  A1B 4J6 T: 709-729-2563 Pollution Prevention Division Floor 4 – Confederation Bldg West, PO Box 8700, St. John’s, NL  A1B 4J6 T: 709-729-2556 Environmental Spill Emergencies 24-Hour Service T: 709-772-2083


Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 600-5102 – 50th Ave, PO Box 1320, Yellowknife, NT  X1A 2L9 T: 867-767-9055 www.enr.gov.nt.ca 24-Hour Spill Report Line T: 867-920-8130

NUNAVUT www.gov.nu.ca

Department of Environment 1104A-Inuksugait Plaza, PO Box 1000, Stn 1320, Iqaluit, NU  X0A 0H0 T: 867-975-7700 www.gov.nu.ca/environment 24-Hour Spill Response Line T: 867-920-8130

NOVA SCOTIA www.novascotia.ca

Ministry of the Environment 1800-1894 Barrington St, PO Box 442, Halifax, NS  B3J 2P8 T: 902-424-3600 Emergency After Hours T: 800-565-1633 Environmental Compliance T: 902-424-2547, 877-936-8476

August/September 2020  |  51


Water and Wastewater Branch T: 902-424-2553



Ministry of the Environment, Conservation & Parks c/o Macdonald Block Mailing Facility 77 Wellesley St W, PO Box 200 Toronto, ON  M7A 2T5 T: 416-325-4000 4905 Dufferin St, North York, ON  M3H 5T4 T: 416-739-4826 Spill Reporting 416-325-3000, 800-268-6060 Corporate Management Division Floor 14-135 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1P5 T: 416-3146426 Advisory Council on Drinking Water Quality & Testing Standards Floor 9 – 40 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1M2 T: 416-212-7779 Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) 2085 Hurontario St, Suite 500, Mississauga, ON L5A 4G1 T: 905-491-4000 www.ocwa.com Pesticides Advisory Committee Floor 7 – 40 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1M2 T: 416-314-8001 www.opac.gov.on.ca Walkerton Clean Water Centre 20 Ontario Rd, PO Box 160, Walkerton, ON  N0G 2V0 T: 519-881-2003, 866-515-0550 www.wcwc.ca Environmental Policy Division Floor 15 – 438 University Ave, Toronto, ON  M7A 2A5 T: 416-314-6352 Environmental Assessment & Permissions Branch Floor 14 – 135 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1P5 environmentalpermissions@ontario.ca T: 416-314-8001 Environmental Sciences & Standards Division Floor 14 – 135 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1P5 T: 416-314-4463 Laboratory Services Branch 125 Resources Rd, Toronto, ON  M9P 3V6 T: 416-235-5743 Standards Development Branch Floor 7 – 40 St. Clair Ave W, Foster Bldg Toronto, ON  M4V 1M2 T: 416-327-5519 Climate Change & Resiliency Division 14th Flr, 438 University Ave, Toronto, ON  M7A 1N3 416-326-8026

52  |  August/September 2020

Environmental Review Tribunal 1500 – 655 Bay St, Toronto, ON  M5G 1E5 T: 416-212-6349 www.elto.gov.on.ca

Estrie et Montérégie 770, rue Goretti Sherbrooke QC  J1E 3H4 T: 819-820-3882


201, Place Charles-Le Moyne, 2e étage, Longueuil QC  J4K 2T5 T: 450-928-7607


Environmental Emergency 24 hour Service T: 800-667-7525 Environmental Assessment & Stewardship Floor 4 – 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK  S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-6132 Environmental Protection Floor 5-3211 Albert St, Regina, SK  S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-2947

Ministry of the Environment, Water and Climate Change Floor 4 – Jones Bldg, 11 Kent St, PO Box 2000, Charlottetown, PEI  C1A 7N8 DeptEWCC@gov.pe.ca T: 902-368-5044, 866-368-5044

Points de services 101, rue du Ciel, Bureau 1.08, Bromont QC  J2L 2X4 T: 450-534-5424

Environmental Emergency Response T: 800-565-1633

Montréal, Laval, Lanaudière et Laurentides 5199, rue Sherbrooke Est Bureau 3860 Montréal QC  H1T 3X9 T: 514-873-3636 850, boulevard Vanier Laval QC  H7C 2M7 T: 450-661-2008 100, boulevard Industriel Repentigny QC  J6A 4X6 T: 450-654-4355

Climate Change and Adaptation Division Floor 2 – 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK  S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-9016

Sainte-Thérèse 260, rue Sicard, suite 200 Sainte-Thérèse QC J7E 3X4 T: 450-433-2220

SaskWater – Prince Albert 800 Central Ave (McIntosh Mall), Prince Albert, SK  S6V 6G1 T: 306-953-2250



En Quebec, le Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques avez 17 régions administratives sont desservies par 9 directions régionales. Pour tout renseignement, veuillez communiquer avec l’une de nos directions régionales.

Bas-Saint-Laurent et Gaspésie – Îles-de-la-Madeleine 212, avenue Belzile Rimouski QC  G5L 3C3 T: 418-727-3511 124, 1re Avenue Ouest Sainte-Anne-des-Monts QC  G4V 1C5 T: 418-763-3301 125, chemin du Parc, bureau 104 Cap-aux-Meules QC  G4T 1B3 T: 418-986-6116

900, rue Léger, Salaberry-deValleyfield QC  J6S 5A3 T: 450-370-3085

Point de services 1160, rue Notre-Dame Joliette QC J6E 3K4 T: 450-752-6860 (Pour les questions relatives à l’eau potable seulement) Outaouais 170, rue de l'Hôtel-de-Ville, bureau 7.340, Gatineau QC J8X 4C2 T: 819-772-3434

Saguenay – Lac-Saint-Jean 3950, boulevard Harvey, 4e étage Saguenay QC  G7X 8L6 T: 418-695-7883

Abitibi-Témiscamingue et Nord-du-Québec 180, boulevard Rideau, 1er étage Rouyn-Noranda QC J9X 1N9 T: 819-763-3333

Capitale-Nationale et Chaudière-Appalaches 1175, boulevard Lebourgneuf, Bureau 100 Québec QC  G2K 0B7 T: 418-644-8844

Point de services Case Postale 160 101, rue Springer Chapais QC G0W 1H0 T: 418-745-2642

675, route Cameron Bureau 200, Sainte-Marie QC  G6E 3V7 T: 418-386-8000

Mauricie et Centre-du-Québec 100, rue Laviolette, bureau 102 Trois-Rivières QC  G9A 5S9 F: 819-371-6987 1579, boulevard Louis‑Fréchette Nicolet QC  J3T 2A5 T: 819-293-4122

Point de services 62, rue St-Jean-Baptiste S-02 Victoriaville QC  G6P 4E3 T: 819-752-4530

Resource Management & Compliance Division Floor 5 – 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK  S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-2947

SaskWater – Head Office 200-111 Fairford St E, Moose Jaw, SK  S6H 1C8 T: 888-230-1111 www.saskwater.com SaskWater – Saskatoon 5-1925 1st Avenue N, Saskatoon, SK  S7K 6W1 T: 306-933-1118



Environment Yukon Government of Yukon Box 2703 (V-3A), Whitehorse, YT  Y1A 2C6 inquiry.desk@gov.yk.ca T: 867-667-5811, 867-667-5812 www.env.gov.yk.ca 24-Hour Yukon Spill Line T: 867-667-7244 Climate Change Secretariat T: 867-456-5544 Environmental Programs Branch T: 867-667-5683

Côte-Nord 818, boulevard Laure Sept-Îles QC G4R 1Y8 T: 418-964-8888 20, boulevard Comeau Baie-Comeau QC G4Z 3A8 T: 418-294-8888

Yukon Fish & Wildlife 409 Black Street, PO Box 31104, Whitehorse, YT  Y1A 5P7 T: 867-667-3754 www.yfwmb.ca


Yukon Environmental & Socio-Economic Assessment Board (YESAB) 200-309 Strickland St, Whitehorse, YT  Y1A 2J9 T: 867-668-6420 www.yesab.ca

Ministry of the Environment 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK  S4S 5W6 T: 800-567-4224 www.saskatchewan.ca/environment

Yukon Water Box 2703 (V-310) Whitehorse, YT Y1A 2C6 T: 867-667-3171 www.yukonwater.ca


Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES, RESEARCH CENTRES & TRAINING The following institutions offer post-secondary education in fields relating to water, wastewater, environmental protection and environmental remediation. Also included in this guide are research centres affiliated with Canadian universities and training companies.

COLLEGES ɗ ALBERTA Keyano College Fort McMurray www.keyano.ca

ɗ NEW BRUNSWICK New Brunswick Community College Miramichi www.nbcc.ca


Lakeland College Vermillion, Lloydminster www.lakelandcollege.ca

Nova Scotia Community College Various www.nscc.ca

Lethbridge College Lethbridge www.lethbridgecollege.ca


Medicine Hat College Medicine Hat www.mhc.ab.ca Northern Alberta Institute of Technology Edmonton www.nait.ca

Nunavut Arctic College Various www.arcticcollege.ca

ɗ ONTARIO Algonquin College Ottawa www.algonquincollege.com

Northern Lakes College Slave Lake www.northernlakescollege.ca

Cambrian College Sudbury www.cambriancollege.ca

Portage College Lac la Biche www.portagecollege.ca

Canadore College North Bay www.canadorecollege.ca

Southern Alberta Institute of Technology Calgary www.sait.ca

Centennial College Toronto www.centennialcollege.ca

ɗ BRITISH COLUMBIA British Columbia Institute of Technology Burnaby www.bcit.ca

Collège Boréal Sudbury www.collegeboreal.ca Conestoga College Kitchener www.conestogac.on.ca

Camosun College Victoria www.camosun.ca

Confederation College Thunder Bay www.confederationcollege.ca

Douglas College New Westminster www.douglascollege.ca

Durham College Oshawa www.durhamcollege.ca

Okanagan College Kelowna www.okanagan.bc.ca

Fleming College Lindsay www.flemingcollege.ca


Georgian College Barrie www.georgiancollege.ca

Assiniboine College Brandon www.assiniboine.net Red River College Winnipeg www.rrc.ca


Loyalist College Belleville www.loyalistcollege.com Mohawk College Hamilton www.mohawkcollege.ca

Niagara College Canada Niagara-on-the-Lake www.niagaracollege.ca Northern College Various www.northernc.on.ca Sault College Sault Ste. Marie www.saultcollege.ca Seneca College Toronto www.senecacollege.ca Sheridan College Oakville www.sheridancollege.ca St. Lawrence College Cornwall www.stlawrencecollege.ca

ɗ PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND Holland College Charlottetown www.hollandcollege.com

ɗ QUEBEC Cégep Shawinigan Shawinigan www.cegepshawinigan.ca Cégep de Saint-Félicien Saint-Félicien www.cegepstfe.ca John Abbott College Montreal www.johnabbott.qc.ca Vanier College Montreal www.vaniercollege.qc.ca

UNIVERSITIES ɗ ALBERTA Concordia University of Edmonton Edmonton www.concordia.ab.ca Mount Royal University Calgary www.mtroyal.ca The King’s University Edmonton www.kingsu.ca University of Alberta Edmonton www.ualberta.ca University of Calgary Calgary www.ucalgary.ca University of Lethbridge Lethbridge www.uleth.ca

ɗ BRITISH COLUMBIA Kwantlen Polytechnic University Langley www.kpu.ca Royal Roads University Victoria www.royalroads.ca Simon Fraser University Vancouver, Burnaby www.sfu.ca Thompson Rivers University Kamloops www.tru.ca


Trinity Western University Langley www.twu.ca

Luther College Regina www.luthercollege.edu

University of British Columbia Vancouver, Okanagan www.ubc.ca

Saskatchewan Polytechnic Various www.saskpolytech.ca

University of Northern British Columbia Prince George www.unbc.ca


University of Victoria Victoria www.uvic.ca

Yukon University Whitehorse www.yukonu.ca

ɗ MANITOBA Brandon University Brandon www.brandonu.ca

August/September 2020  |  53


Canadian Mennonite University Winnipeg www.cmu.ca University of Manitoba Winnipeg www.umanitoba.ca University of Winnipeg Winnipeg www.uwinnipeg.ca

ɗ NEW BRUNSWICK Mount Allison University Sackville www.mta.ca St. Thomas University Fredericton www.stu.ca Université de Moncton Moncton www.umoncton.ca University of New Brunswick Fredericton www.unb.ca

ɗ NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John’s, Corner Brook www.mun.ca

ɗ NOVA SCOTIA Acadia University Wolfville www.acadiau.ca Cape Breton University Sydney www.cbu.ca Dalhousie University Halifax www.dal.ca Saint Mary’s University Halifax www.smu.ca St. Francis Xavier University Antigonish www.stfx.ca University of King’s College Halifax www.ukings.ca

ɗ ONTARIO Brock University St. Catharines www.brocku.ca Carleton University Ottawa www.carleton.ca Lakehead University Thunder Bay, Orillia www.lakeheadu.ca

54  |  August/September 2020

Laurentian University Sudbury www.laurentian.ca McMaster University Hamilton www.mcmaster.ca Nipissing University North Bay www.nipissingu.ca Ontario Tech University Oshawa www.ontariotechu.ca Queen’s University Kingston www.queensu.ca Redeemer University College Ancaster www.redeemer.ca Ryerson University Toronto www.ryerson.ca Trent University Peterborough www.trentu.ca University of Guelph Guelph www.uoguelph.ca University of Ottawa Ottawa www.uottawa.ca

Polytechnique Montréal Montréal www.polymtl.ca McGill University Montréal www.mcgill.ca

Centre for Environmental Engineering Research and Education University of Calgary www.schulich.ucalgary.ca/ceere Centre for Water Resources Studies Dalhousie University www.centreforwaterresourcesstudies. dal.ca

Université de Montréal Montréal www.umontreal.ca Université de Sherbrooke Sherbrooke www.usherbrooke.ca Université du Québec Various www.uquebec.ca

Environmental Careers Organization Canada www.eco.ca Global Institute for Water Security University of Saskatchewan www.usask.ca/water Global Water Institute Carleton University www.carleton.ca/gwi

Université Laval Québec City www.ulaval.ca

ɗ SASKATCHEWAN First Nations University of Canada Regina www.fnuniv.ca University of Regina Regina www.uregina.ca University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon www.usask.ca

Ontario Rural Wastewater Centre University of Guelph www.ontarioruralwastewatercentre.ca Ontario Water Consortium www.ontariowater.ca Pacific Water Research Centre Simon Fraser University www.sfu.ca/pwrc Pulp and Paper Centre University of British Columbia www.ppc.ubc.ca


Research and Technology Institute Walkerton Clean Water Centre www.wcwc.ca

University of Toronto Toronto www.utoronto.ca

American Public University System Online www.apus.edu

Ryerson Urban Water Ryerson University www.ryerson.ca/water

University of Waterloo Waterloo www.uwaterloo.ca

University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin www.wisc.edu

University of Windsor Windsor www.uwindsor.ca

The Beaty Water Research Centre Queens University, Royal Military College of Canada www.waterresearchcentre.ca


The Centre for Advancement of Water and Wastewater Technologies Fleming College www.cawt.ca

Western University London www.uwo.ca Wilfrid Laurier University Waterloo www.wlu.ca York University Toronto www.yorku.ca

ɗ PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND University of Prince Edward Island Charlottetown www.upei.ca

ɗ QUEBEC Bishop’s University Sherbrooke www.ubishops.ca Concordia University Montréal www.concordia.ca

Yukon University Whitehorse www.yukonu.ca

Water & Climate Impacts Research Centre University of Victoria www.uvic.ca/research/centres/wcirc

R&D CENTRES Advancing Canadian Wastewater Assets University of Calgary www.ucalgary.ca/acwa

Water Institute University of Waterloo www.uwaterloo.ca/water-institute

Annacis Research Centre Metro Vancouver www.metrovancouver.org


Brace Centre for Water Resources Management McGill University www.mcgill.ca/brace

Alberta Water & Wastewater Operators Association Alberta www.awwoa.ca

Canadian Rivers Institute University of New Brunswick www.canadianriversinstitute.com

Associated Environmental Site Assessors of Canada Canada www.aesac.ca

Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies University of Waterloo www.catt.ca

ATAP Infrastructure Management Saskatchewan www.atap.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Atlantic Canada Water & Wastewater Association Atlantic Provinces www.acwwa.ca

Manitoba Water and Wastewater Association Manitoba www.mwwa.net

BC Water & Waste Association British Columbia www.bcwwa.org

Ontario Clean Water Agency Ontario www.ocwa.com

Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation Canada www.cala.ca

Saskatchewan Polytechnic Saskatchewan www.saskpolytech.ca

Canadian Water Quality Association Canada www.cwqa.com Cole Training & Operations Ontario www.coletraining.ca Colleges and Institutes Canada Canada www.collegesinstitutes.ca Environmental Careers Organization Canada Canada www.eco.ca

Team-1 Academy Ontario www.team1academy.com Walkerton Clean Water Centre Ontario www.wcwc.ca Waste Water Nova Scotia Society Nova Scotia www.wwns.ca

Walkerton Clean Water Centre Walkerton, ON Tel: 519-881-2003 or 866-515-0550 Fax: 519-881-4947 inquiry@wcwc.ca www.wcwc.ca The Walkerton Clean Water Centre (WCWC) is an agency of the Government of Ontario, established in 2004, to ensure clean and safe drinking water for the entire province. WCWC coordinates and provides education, training and information to drinking water system owners, operators and operating authorities, and the public, in order to safeguard Ontario’s drinking water. Through partnerships, WCWC also provides training for the 133 First Nations communities in Ontario.

World Water Operator Training Company Ontario www.wwotc.com

Keewaytinook Centre for Excellence Ontario www.watertraining.ca


August/September 2020  |  55



Torpee-Mag is Flow-Tronic’s multipoint averaging insertion flowmeter using Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. The Equal Area electrode spacing is a well known and academically researched methodology, assuring stable, repeatable and accurate flow measurement. Applications include: raw water intake monitoring; water production plant metering; district metering (low flow conditions); and, existing flowmeter retrofit. FLOW-TRONIC S.A. www.linkedin.com/company/flow-tronic Represented in Ontario by ACG – Envirocan T: 905-856-1414 F: 905-856-6401 E: sales@acg-envirocan.ca W: www.acg-envirocan.ca


The Graf Carat S is a unique plastic tank line. Unlike other belowground plastic tank lines, its wall thickness is equal all around and is made from Duralen®, a food-grade polypropylene that can be easily recycled. The tanks also carry a 15 year manufacturer’s warranty against defect. The Carat S tank line can be outfitted with packaged rainwater, potable water and wastewater systems. BARR Plastics T: 1-800-665-4499 E: info@barrplastics.com W: www.barrplastics.com

56  |  August/September 2020


Increase the capacity and performance of wastewater lagoons without expanding the footprint or adding process tanks. Bishop BioCord™ reactors are installed directly into lagoons to provide a low-energy, self-regulating biofilm process for year-round ammonia removal. Growing communities can use BioCord reactors to cost-effectively extend the life of existing wastewater infrastructure and avoid the need to build costly mechanical treatment plants. Bishop Water T: 343-361-0463 E: info@bishopwater.ca W: bishopwater.ca


The high performance F-461 Inline Flowmeter features engineering excellence, functionality and high quality materials. No metals are used for F-461 Series wetted parts, such as the float and float guide. The float is guided by precisely engineered polysulfone ridges, which are molded into the meter body. The result is no metal contaminants in the fluid path. The F-461 is constructed of durable, heat and chemical resistant polysulfone. Blue-White Industries T: 714-893-8529 F: 714-894-9492 E: sales@blue-white.com W: www.blue-white.com


Chem-Pro® MC-2 and MC-3 Diaphragm Style Chemical Dosing Pumps are designed to meet the exacting demands of municipal water and wastewater treatment. Chem-Pro units will handle pressures to 12 bar (175 PSI); feed demands to 153 LPH (40 GPH); turndown ratio is 200:1. These pumps are fitted with BlueWhite’s® exclusive DiaFlex® single layer PVDF diaphragm, which exhibits zero breakdown or delamination. Blue-White Industries T: 714-893-8529 F: 714-894-9492 E: sales@blue-white.com W: www.blue-white.com


Eliminate downtime with the Börger Multicrusher – an effective, widely applicable twin shaft grinder for processing debris, including wood, wet wipes, plastics, textiles, etc. For very confined space conditions, the vertically installed Multicrusher is a great space-saving option! The back pull out design allows for easy maintenance of the blades, gear unit and drive. Boerger, LLC T: 612-435-7300 F: 612-435-7301 E: smu@boerger.com W: www.boerger.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



Large diameter work being done? Time is money and with Denso Mastic Blankets as part of your Denso corrosion prevention system, you can get the job done right, more efficiently. At 10 "x 39 ," the mastic blankets cover a large area, filling voids and profiling in seconds. Protect your assets and save time and money with the Denso Petrolatum System. Denso North America T: 416-291-3435 E: sales@densona-ca.com W: www.densona.com


Endress+Hauser’s Promag W 400 electromagnetic flowmeter with the 0 x DN option is the first-ever full-bore electromagnetic flowmeter that delivers exceptional measurement accuracy wherever the location may be. Its multiple measuring electrodes detect flow abnormalities which traditionally are caused by undesirable flow profiles. Promag W users enjoy extremely reliable, accurately measured values, unrivalled flexible installation and cost-efficient operation. Endress+Hauser Canada T: 800-668-3199 F: 905-681-9444 E: info.ca.sc@endress.com W: www.ca.endress.com

www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

The Turbimax CUS52D is the smart online Memosens turbidity sensor for drinking and clean process water applications. With its hygienic tri-clamp design and CUA252 flowcell, it is the simplest system on the market. No need for routine calibrations due to its stable light source, a simple yearly verification is all that’s needed. Maximum process and data integrity with un-matched reliable performance. Endress+Hauser Canada T: 800-668-3199 F: 905-681-9444 E: info.ca.sc@endress.com W: www.ca.endress.com


There are thousands of culverts and low head dams in Canada that are blocking the migration and spawning of fish. Fishculvert Baffle Systems can help you to overcome these barriers quickly, effectively and economically, with proven environmental award winning solutions. Fishculvert T: 519-212-1252 F: 925-686-6713 E: penny@fishculvert.com W: www.fishculvert.com, www.couloirpoisson.com


The new GritWolf® grit trap uses an innovative two-chamber design and contact settling to reduce footprint and remove the finest grit particles as well as FOG. The GritWolf offers up to 95% of the grit of grain size ≥ 75 µm, with the smallest footprint and shallowest depth. Contact us at 704-990-2053 or marketing@hhusa.net for more information. Huber Technology T: 704-990-2053 F: 704-949-1020 E: huber@hhusa.net W: www.huber-technology.com


The LittaTrap Catch Basin Insert is a low-cost, innovative technology that prevents plastic and trash from reaching our waterways. Designed to be easily retrofitted into new and existing stormwater drains, the LittaTrap is installed inside storm drains and when it rains, catches plastic and trash before it can reach our streams, rivers and oceans. Imbrium Systems T: 800-565-4801 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com

August/September 2020  |  57



The new Stormceptor® EF is an oil grit separator (OGS)/hydrodynamic separator that effectively targets sediment (TSS), free oils, gross pollutants and other pollutants that attach to particles, such as nutrients and metals. The Stormceptor EF has been verified through the ISO 14034 Environmental Management – Environmental Technology Verification (ETV). Imbrium Systems T: 800-565-4801 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com


The N.Mac® Twin Shaft Grinder fragments various materials for wastewater treatment, biogas and biomass plants, food processing, animal processing, and other waste and industrial applications. Channel housing for effluent channels, pump stations or as horizontal units for waste stream processing. Inline housing design allows flanged piping assemblies upstream from a pump. Can be stacked for successive particle size reduction. NETZSCH Canada T: 705-797-8426 F: 705-797-8427 E: ntc@netzsch.com W: www.pumps.netzsch.com

58  |  August/September 2020

ORIVAL, Inc. has spent years of research and development to reduce the complexity of their electric water filter, resulting in the new ORE/A Automatic Self-cleaning Screen Filter line of products. Troublesome limit switches, expensive reversing motors, extra contactor, a second overload protection device and complex controllers have been eliminated. Self-adjusting nozzles (with no springs) maintaining light contact with the screen surface during the automatic rinse cycle for maximum cleaning and minimum water loss come as standard equipment. The ORE/A comes in sizes from 2 "– 24 " and filtration degrees from 5-3000 microns. ORIVAL, Inc. T: 800-568-9767 E: filters@orival.com W: www.orival.com


Invent Environment is the manufacturer of hyperboloid mixers which have revolutionized anoxic and swing zone mixing. Invent provides low-shear, efficient mixers with no submerged motors or gear boxes for easy access for maintenance. They have now released the Hyperclassic Mixer Evo 7 which has increased the number of motion fins and adjusted the geometry of the mixer to maximize mixer efficiency, reducing operation costs even further. Pro Aqua T: 647-923-8244 E: aron@proaquasales.com W: www.proaquasales.com


Huber, a proven German manufacturer, now provides watertight doors that allow safe access to tanks for construction and/ or maintenance. Doors can be provided as round or rectangular for installation onto existing concrete surfaces or cast-inplace in new concrete. They can handle heads up to 30 m and hold pressure in seating and unseating directions. Huber’s watertight doors can greatly reduce construction and maintenance costs and dramatically improve safety/access. Pro Aqua T: 647-923-8244 E: aron@proaquasales.com W: www.proaquasales.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Remediation got underway in Sidney, of sediment, seven times the amount B.C., in the summer of 2019 to remove sed- of last year. The cleanup work involves iments with elevated levels of metals from diverting the creek around a pond area, The City of Hamilton, Ontario has a 200-metre-long pond off the creek, with excavating contaminated sediment in experienced further delays on its mas- Tervita Corporation completing work the pond, transporting the sediment to sive wastewater treatment plant upgrades within the Victoria Airport boundary. an approved facility for treatment or disafter discovering a “significant amount” But, this season’s remediation is posal, then backfilling the pond. of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) in the expected to remove 3,900 cubic metres continued overleaf… soil around a new chlorine contact tank. The staff report by Hamilton Water and Public Works Director, Andrew Barrie • Belleville • Brampton • Collingwood • Kingston • Ottawa Grice states that in an effort to reduce WWW.AINLEYGROUP.COM costs and construction delays on the Delivering proven infrastructure planning & engineering solutions $340-million upgrades to the Woodward Wastewater Treatment Plant, the city is partnering with the province to separate, sample and haul the hazardous soil. to satisfied clients for over 50 years According to inquiries from The Hamilton Spectator to the Ontario Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Parks, the newly discovered 6,000 tonnes of polluted soil came from an old landfill site that closed in the 1970s. While Hamilton’s ongoing wastewater upgrades were WATER AND WASTEWATER SOLUTIONS expected to be completed by December Visit www.bv.com to learn more 2021, city officials say the discovery of PCBs may alter that timeline. The wastewater treatment plant upgrades represent the city’s largest ever infrastructure project and a major step forward towards delisting Hamilton Harbour as an Area of Concern. Upwards of 300 workers are currently on site for the upgrade project, which essentially has three primary components: first, is an $88-million new main wastewater pumping station being constructed by Maple Ball Joint Venture and includes the installation of 12 – 700 Hp pumps for a total firm capacity of 1,700 million litres per day; second, is the $61-million electrical and chlorination upgrades contract being undertaken by Alberici Constructors; third, are the tertiary treatment project upgrades intended to have a major impact on water quality in Hamilton Harbour. www.stantec.com/water

Safe, reliable, sustainable

Innovative, Fit-for-purpose Solutions


The federal government has awarded phase two of British Columbia’s Reay Creek sediment remediation project to QM Environmental for $1.14 million, as officials work to restore the polluted fish habitat. www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

August/September 2020  |  59

ES&E NEWS The pond contains high levels of cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc and is considered a Class 1 contaminated site by Transport Canada, which formerly owned an airport in the vicinity. The agency has stated that the pollution is threatening the creek’s food web.

nologies, and with the support of the Ocean Tracking Network, Dalhousie University, Fisheries Marine Institute of Memorial University, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and others. Ocean Aware represents the first-ofits-kind collaboration across ocean sectors in fisheries, aquaculture, energy, shipping, and ocean technology where CANADA’S OCEAN the project team will develop world SUPERCLUSTER ANNOUNCES leading aquaculture technology to mon$29M PROJECT itor fish health; new approaches to stock The Ocean Aware project will develop assessment modeling and predictive and commercialize world-class solu- fishing in the wild fishery, and; innovations for monitoring fish health, fish tive and increased capability to monitor movement, and the environment, and marine life around fixed subsea strucsupporting both profitable and sustain- tures. This will not only enable ocean able practices in the ocean. growth that is sustainable, but also disWith a total project value of $29 mil- rupt competition on a global scale, posilion, the Ocean Supercluster will provide tion Canada as a leader, and help grow $13.74 million in funding for the project, the economy and create new jobs. with $15.7 million in funding coming www.oceansupercluster.ca from industry partners. Ocean Aware is led by Innovasea, together with Emera, Nova Scotia Power, Ocean Choice Inter- STORMFILTER ACHIEVES ISO national, Irving Shipbuilding, Dart- 14034 mouth Ocean Technologies, Xeos TechContech Engineered Solutions has


announced that its Stormwater Management StormFilter has been verified in accordance with ISO 14034 Environmental Management – Environmental Technology Verification (ETV). Data from both laboratory and third-party field monitoring studies provided the basis for the StormFilter performance claims. ISO 14034 ETV is an international standard developed with Canadian participation that provides a protocol for third-party verification of technology performance claims. The verification means engineers, developers, regulators and others can have confidence that the performance claims of the StormFilter are valid, credible and supported by high quality, independent test data and information. The Stormwater Management StormFilter is a stormwater treatment device that uses rechargeable, media-filled cartridges to absorb and retain the most challenging pollutants from stormwater runoff, including total suspended solids, hydrocarbons, nutrients, metals and other common pollutants.




Insitu Groundwater Contractors • • • • • P: 519-763-0700 F: 519-763-6684 • 48 Dawson Road Guelph, ON N1H 5V1

60  |  August/September 2020

Dewatering systems Mobile groundwater treatment systems Well and pump installation and maintenance Pump, filter, generator rentals Sediment tank rentals Insitu groundwater remediation systems


Ramara Township has voted in support of outsourcing the community’s water and wastewater services to the Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) to save $1.5 million over the life of a new five-year contract. Located northeast of Barrie, Ontario, and situated along the northeastern shores of Lake Simcoe and Lake Couchiching, the township with a population of 10,000 will transition to the provincial Crown agency OCWA in the coming months. Ramara’s Environmental Services department consists of seven water systems and two wastewater treatment systems. The contract to OCWA is for $7.5 million over five years. It is expected that the OCWA will assume operations of the township’s water and wastewater systems by September. The township was approved for funding under the Clean Water and Wastewater Fund in 2017, which provided the municipality with vital infrastructure funding to support the rehabilitation of drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Following the release of a new 10-year positive milestone report on the health of Lake Simcoe, Ontario’s government is investing $581,000 in four new projects to improve the lake even further. The new Lake Simcoe report reveals that more than 15 kilometres of degraded shorelines have been restored, more than 55,000 trees and shrubs have been planted, and 120 hectares of wetlands have been either created or restored, all within the last decade. Now,Ontario has unveiled funding for new Lake Simcoe projects that include the use of satellite imagery to predict Monitoring staff are completing stormwater pond investigations around Lake Simcoe to understand if they are working optimally.  Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority areas with higher amounts of phosphorus in the watershed, as well as the use of aerial photos to identify and track changes to land use in the watershed. INTERPROVINCIAL CORROSION CONTROL The projects will enhance stormwater Leaders in the Cathodic Protection Industry…Since 1957 management planning and reduce phosCORROSION CONTROL PRODUCTS phorus and other contaminants from Burlington, Ontario Canada entering the lake. Regional Offices: Montreal, Calgary Changes to the natural landscape Lewiston, New York, USA and stressors such as nutrient inputs, Tel: 905-634-7751 • Fax: 905-333-4313 invasive species and climate change, www.Rustrol.com caused significant impairment to the lake, resulting in fisheries collapse, poor water quality, and degraded habitats that became visible in the 1970s. Also included in the new provincial funding will be training for the inspection and maintenance of stormwater facilities in the watershed. Finally, it will also pay for the ongoing monitoring of the lake’s water quality by measuring the amount of phosphorus entering it and better understanding the relationship between the lake’s phosphorus loads and dissolved oxygen. The latest Lake Simcoe report shows a number of other positive trends. Notably, the lake has seen a 50% reduction in phosphorus loads from sewage treatment plants entering the watershed, decreased amounts of algae, and successful reproduction of cold water fish. Since 2009, Ontario’s actions to protect and restore Lake Simcoe have been guided by the Lake Simcoe Protection Plan, which focuses on the lake’s water quality, reducing phosphorus levels, caring for natural heritage, and addressing the impacts of invasive species and other emerging threats. www.esemag.com @ESEMAG

August/September 2020  |  61


B.C.’s three-pronged major wastewater project in CRD set to finish


fter nearly four years of construction, a group of 600 workers are busy entering the final stretch of construction for British Columbia’s massive $775-million wastewater treatment project for the Capital Regional District (CRD). With crews still active in Victoria, Esquimalt and Saanich, the majority of the project’s construction will conclude over the summer, before it enters the commissioning phase for the new infrastructure, project officials say. The wastewater treatment project includes three main components, including the McLoughlin Point Wastewater Treatment Plant (pictured below), the residuals treatment facility, and the conveyance system that includes upgrades to the conveyance network and the construction of pump stations and pipes. “While construction is ongoing, the public health emergency is impacting construction progress and may delay some interim project milestones, such as the transition to commissioning,” states a recent quarterly project report from the Core Area Liquid Waste Management Committee. “However, based on current progress, the wastewater treatment project remains on schedule to meet the regulatory deadline for treatment by the end of 2020.” Progress on the project’s pump stations has seen Clover Point Pump Station relocate and install new screens, which means crews can start modifying the existing pump station and allow the upgraded pump station to pump wastewater to the new McLoughlin Point

62  |  August/September 2020

Wastewater Treatment Plant. At Macaulay Point, the building has been erected and siding installed, as mechanical and electrical work continues on site. The tower crane has also been demobilized at Macaulay Point, where the Macaulay forcemain work is complete with all pipes installed and tested. According to an update from project officials, more than 99% of the residual biosolids conveyance line is completed. All major equipment is now installed and all buildings have been built on site with exterior work complete. Work is now focused on finishing the interior of the buildings. After the new residuals treatment facility at the Hartland Landfill is complete, waste will be transformed into an alternative energy source in the form of Class A biosolids. The facility will have the capacity to treat more than 14,000 dry tonnes of residuals per year, and its treatment processing tanks will be covered with odour-control systems. Excavation is currently underway for the 5,000 m3 attenuation tank in Saanich, following installation of reinforced concrete piles that are required to minimize the footprint of the excavation. The Trent forcemain, 1.9 kilometres of pipe being installed in the Fairfield neighbourhood of Victoria, began to be constructed in the spring. Construction has started with relocating an existing water main and chamber. In terms of the McLoughlin Point Wastewater Treatment Plant, the exterior finishing of the building is nearing completion and the inside of the opera-

tions and maintenance building is being painted. The multi-level green roof is being installed and the areas around the plant are being backfilled. Wastewater will begin flowing through the plant later this summer as testing of the system commences. In May 2019, the CRD Board approved an increase in the project’s budget by $10 million to $775 million.

Advertiser INDEX COMPANY PAGE ACG-Envirocan................................. 63 ACO Systems.................................... 42 Albarrie........................................... 35 All-Weld Company........................... 11 Anue Water Technologies................. 38 Associated Engineering................... 24 Avensys........................................... 23 AWI.................................................. 27 Barr Plastics.................................... 45 BDP Industries................................... 2 Bishop Water Technologies.............. 20 Blue-White........................................ 7 Boerger........................................... 29 Cancoppas....................................... 19 CB Shield......................................... 21 Denso................................................ 9 Harmsco Filtration Products............ 28 Huber Technology........................... 31 Imbrium Systems............................ 64 IPEX .................................................. 3 NETZSCH Canada............................. 39 Nexom............................................. 17 Pro Aqua........................................... 5 Service Filtration............................. 36 SEW-Eurodrive................................ 32 SoilFLO............................................ 36 Stantec............................................ 34 Terrapure........................................ 15 Vissers Sales Corp............................ 13 Walkerton Clean Water Centre......... 33 WEFTEC........................................... 41 World Water-Tech North America..... 55

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine





PRIMARY TREATMENT • Complete line of fine screening equipment • Self-cleaning perforated plate screens • FlexRake® front-raked fine screens • FlexRake® front-raked bar screens • FlexRake® Low Flow • Self-Cleaning trashracks • Muffin Monster® grinder (for sludge, scum, septage, screenings & wastewater) • Channel Monster® grinder for pump stations and sewage treatment plant headworks • Honey Monster® septage receiving station • Auger Monster® fine screen system • Monster® fine screen & band screen perforated plate fine screens with 2, 3 & 6mm perforations • Screenings washer/compactors • Rotating drum screens (down to 2mm perfs) • Raptor screenings washer press • Grit removal • Rotary drum screens

ADVANCED LAGOON TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES • MARS™ Wastewater Lagoon Aeration • NitrOx® Cold Weather Lagoon Ammonia Removal • LRAS™ Advanced Lagoon Treatment • PhosBox Lagoon Phosphorus Removals

SECONDARY TREATMENT • AquaNereda® Activated Granular Sludge Technology • Aqua-Jet® direct drive floating aerator • Aqua DDM mechanical floating mixer • Fine bubble aeration systems using membrane or ceramic diffusers with gas cleaning systems • Stainless steel coarse bubble aeration systems • Multi stage activated biological process (MSABP) • Two & three rotary lobe P/D blowers • Centrifugal multistage blowers • Hybrid screw/lobe compressors • Floating diversion curtains (for aerated lagoons, activated sludge systems & clear wells) • Subsurface jet aeration/mixing systems • Spiraflo & Spiravac peripheral feed clarifiers • Closed loop reactor oxidation ditch systems • Rotary brush aerators • High efficiency single stage integrally geared blowers • Direct drive turbo type blowers • Aeration system controls & instrumentation • Chain & flight clarifier systems & components (plastic, cast iron or stainless steel) • Half bridge, centre feed, circular clarifiers • Spiral blade clarifiers

ODOUR CONTROL • Biofilters • Bioscrubbers • Carbon adsorbers • Chemical wet scrubbers • Ionized air

TERTIARY TREATMENT • AquaDisk® - cloth media tertiary filter • AquaDiamond® tertiary cloth media for traveling bridge filters • Filter Underdrain Systems HIGH EFFICIENCY MIXING TECHNOLOGY • High Performance Centrifugal Dispersing Impeller (HPCDI™) mixers


Engineering ®

BULK MATERIAL HANDLING • Shaftless & shafted screw conveyors • Screw pumps (open & closed designs) • Industrial grinders

TANK COVERS & DOMES • Aluminum geodesic domes • Flat aluminum and FRP tank covers • Aluminum channel and launder covers • Aluminum hatch covers DISINFECTION • UV disinfection systems • Package & custom ozone systems BIOSOLIDS PROCESSING/HANDLING • Sludge storage bins & live bottom dischargers • Rotary Drum Thickeners • Gravity Belt Thickeners • Belt filter presses & screw presses • Centrifuges for thickening & dewatering

FLOWMETERS • Open channel flow metering (portable & permanent); wireless data transmission • Non-contact radar & submerged sensor area velocity flow metering (portable & permanent); wireless data transmission • Insertion mag flow meters with wireless data transmission • Data loggers with wireless data transmission INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • PCl Series DAF with corrugated plates • PWl Series DAF low profile, from 20·800 GPM • Pipe flocculators • Industrial wastewater treatment systems • Coalescing oil/water separators • Inclined plate clarifiers PACKAGE TREATMENT PLANTS • Package potable water treatment plants • Package sanitary wastewater treatment plants • Package industrial wastewater treatment plants • Package industrial process water treatment plants WATER TREATMENT • Pressure filtration systems (removal of iron & manganese, arsenic, fluoride, radium, uranium) • Filter Underdrain Systems ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS • Removal of free oil, TSS, metals, nutrients, BOD/COD, bacteria, toxic organics, floatable trash


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p r o v i d e d b y:

ENGINEERED SOLUTIONS WESTERN CANADA Contech Engineered Solutions www.conteches.com 360-202-6120

ONTARIO Echelon Environmental www.echelonenvironmental.ca 905-948-0000

QUEBEC & MARITIMES Soleno www.soleno.com 800-363-1471

Contech Engineered Solutions LLC | www.ContechES.com | 800-338-1122

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