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July 2007

Guide to government, associations and academic institutions Septage innovations protect water resources On-site disinfection helps ensure safety at BC water plant Largest cured-in-place pipe liner installed in Canada Sault Ste. Marie home to Ontario’s largest biological phosphorus removal facility Slow sand filtration for arsenic removal

ISSN-0835-605X July 2007 Vol. 20 No. 3 Issued July 2007

Page 42

ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.

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A stand in for a stand up comedian, eh?


Korean researchers visit Canada – again

Editorial comment by Tom Davey

10 Nova Scotia septage innovations protect water resources 12 Centralized backup and online configuration tie four wastewater plants together 16 On-site disinfection helps ensure safety at BC water plant 18 Cover Story - Understanding the legal perspectives of Ontario’s Clean Water Act 21 Denso helps protect Canada’s banks and stock markets

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22 Using household UV systems for municipal applications 24 Unlocking energy from municipal waste with plasma gasification 28 The tensions between patents, trade secrets, and the flow of information 32 Largest cured-in-place pipe liner installed in Canada 34 High-tech reinforced concrete pipe structure installed deep in Alberta’s Badlands 36 Ontario’s largest biological phosphorus removal facility commissioned in Sault Ste. Marie 40 New Muskoka wastewater treatment plant is sensitive to endangered wildlife 42 Bangladesh village uses slow sand filtration for arsenic removal 44 Using versatile geosynthetics for oil containment 46 Understanding international environmental rules essential to successful project management 50 Hose pump usage is not limited to abrasive applications 53 Operators impress at 2007 WEAO conference 54 Water for People Canada co-founder honoured at ACE 07 dinner 56 OWWA/OMWA Conference Report 58 Ontario Environment Minister Broten opens CANECT 2007


Product Showcase . . . . . 74-80 Environmental News . . . 81-87 Classifieds . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 82 Professional Cards . . . . . 83-86 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

60 Making the case for satellite CSO wastewater treatment systems 63 Racing the rain on Lake Okeechobee cleanup 64 ES&E’s third annual guide to government, associations and academic institutions 88 Guest Comment - Getting the lead out of drinking water




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Comment by Tom Davey

A stand in for a stand up comedian, eh? ex Murphy takes no prisoners in both his Globe & Mail satires and CBC broadcasts, precipitating a demand as a keynote speaker at diverse conventions. When the Water Environment Association of Ontario retained Rex to speak at one of its annual conventions, it learned that the CBC’s rules of engagement required a stand in for its broadcasting staff who could be called away for international assignments. And so I was honoured to be invited to be on stand by mode at the WEAO Convention should Rex be seconded for some far away CBC assignment. Readers can only imagine what an honour it was to be a stand in for a stand up comedian from Newfoundland. We were introduced before lunch and talked shop prior to his address. I mentioned I had worked for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation in Melbourne and Hobart, Tasmania, which, I joked with Rex, was the Newfoundland of South East Asia. Rex seemed amused but impressing Rex is far from easy. This is a journalist who had been a Rhodes Scholar at the same time and at the same university as Bill Clinton. In a recent Globe & Mail column, Rex explored the vicissitudes of environmentalism and, in particular, the greening of another comedian, Jay Leno. Rex focused on Jay Leno’s astonishingly large automobile and truck collection plus diverse mechanical engineering equipment. He wittily alluded to the environmental impact of Leno’s hobbies. Indeed, perhaps many countries in the world would be hard pressed to match the hi-tech engineering equipment he uses simply for his hobbies. Principally the guy just loves cars – so much so, in fact, his cars, trucks and even buses, plus space for auto repair equipment, require a 17,000 square foot garage to house them. He owns, among others, an Oldsmobile Toronado, a Dodge Hemi Coronet, a Jaguar XK120 and a 1935 Fiat Topolino, and even an historic Stanley Steamer. There is also a large fleet of motor cycles. If this seems like automotive gluttony,


The environmental impact of ATVs is much more than their fuel usage.

some of the global warming types may have been wondering what to say about this automotive Taj Mahal. One might admire his range of sophisticated tools and equipment to maintain his fleet. These include a CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled) device, a regular mill and a water jet cutter - not exactly the sort of hi-end machine tools that Joe’s auto shop at the corner will have. But Jay, somehow during an eco conversion, learned that ‘greasy tools and other mechanical equipment’ were not environmentally friendly so he is now using special solvents to cleanse his hands and tools without being unfriendly to his mother (Earth). On doing some eco math on the number and size of Jay’s motorized fleet of cars, motor bikes, buses, etc., one would have to include the reality that this impressive fleet is mainly stationary and stationary cars are not massive contributors to global warming. So there are other automotive culprits to seek out. Take the growing use of off-road vehicles and dirt bikes which tear up soil which took centuries to evolve yet can be ripped apart by dirt bikes, especially on undulating landscapes. These noisy bikes and off road cars with no mufflers have particularly raucous exhaust notes which can disturb people some distance away. But not everyone sees or hears the

raucous off-road vehicles regularly and, alarmingly, they seem to be a growth industry as evidenced by lavish displays of off-road vehicles and dirt bikes, many of which are clearly targeted at a market too young to drive on the highways. The rutted tire tracks from dirt bikes are not at all like the metaphorical footprints used to calculate the effects of global warming. Both poetically and mathematically, C02 emissions don’t have the same visceral impact as when we see farmland or parks hideously scarred by multiple tire tracks from offroad dirt bikes and other all terrain vehicles which carve deep ruts in the earth, not metaphorical Footprints on Earth. The Global Footprint is a poetic metaphor to describe and estimate the impact of global warming. While the phrase became ‘in vogue’ only recently, it is already wearing thin from overuse by people cloaking environmental ignorance with this poetic erudition. As much environmental degradation comes from overlarge cars and excessive use of off-road vehicles, fuel consumption and tire tracks – not estimated ‘footprints’ - would be more adjectivally accurate measures of our impact on the planet than a collection of impeccably maintained vehicles hibernating in a compound. Contact:

Environmental Science & Engineering Editor TOM DAVEY E-mail: (No attachments please) Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail:

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario

Stanley Mason, P.Eng. British Columbia

Korean National Institute for Environmental Research visits Canada – again….

Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec

Report by Ned Gravel

Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $4.50 GST).

8 | July 2007

he Korean National Institute for Environmental Research (NIER) recently visited the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories (CAEAL) for the third time. The purpose of their visit was to acquire CAEAL knowledge on the design and implementation of laboratory quality systems that conform to ISO/IEC 17025. NIER is based in Incheon, Korea, and is known for the development of advanced air- and water- monitoring systems that can automatically invoice plants and factories based on the automated measurements of discharged effluent parameters into groundwater and air. A separate public company, the Environmental Management Corporation (EMC), is responsible for these automated systems. This year’s contingent included all levels of environmental lab staff from director level to analysts and business planners. After the three-day course on laboratory quality system design and development, they visited the Robert O Pickard Environmental Centre, the wastewater treatment facility and environmental testing laboratory of the City of Ottawa. This is the third time this course has been delivered to NIER staff. NIER is


continuing its efforts to have their various laboratories formally recognized as competent in the production of environmental test results. They like our consensusbased approach in developing laboratory accreditation solutions. They wish to do something similar for environmental laboratories in Korea, all of which must meet Korean government guidelines for their operations. The laboratory visits are a highlight that started in 2006 and will continue to be a feature of their annual tour in Canada. They wish to examine how Canadian laboratories can implement ISO/IEC 17025 to support environmental testing. Do Canadian practices stand up to the theory? NIER staff already know that accreditation has a significant impact on the demonstrated competence of a laboratory. One laboratory at a time, they are learning to implement systems to meet their own needs – and they are taking pages from the Canadian playbook. J.E.J. (Ned) Gravel, CD, PEng, CA-LS, CAE, is the Quality and Training Manager at CAEAL. Email:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

all? c a n n o g u o y o h W ? Sludge problems

FLYGT N-PUMPS AND PC PUMPS THE MOST RELIABLE AND COST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION FOR PUMPING SLUDGE. Now, ITT Flygt, offers wastewater treatment plants an unparalleled combination of sludge-busting technologies, service and support. Flygt’s arsenal of sludge busters features our extraordinary N-Pump, with its patented N-impeller and a clog-eliminating, high-efficiency, open backswept design that makes it best for overall sludge handling. Flygt offers a new Progressing Cavity (PC) pump and macerator for heavier sludge. And to ensure maximum process efficiency in the most challenging situations, Flygt mixers and aerators lead the way. Most important of all, you can count on your local, fully staffed Flygt office for the equipment, engineering and support that are suited best to your particular needs. Call the Flygt sludge busters. We’re always here for you. Contact Tony Altavilla at 514-428-4823, or your local Flygt representative.


Septage innovations protect NS water resources ova Scotia's is working on many initiatives to predict and minimize the effects of human development and climate change on coastal water resources, particularly in those rural coastal communities that are so often serviced by on-site septic systems. Over 150,000 septic tanks service 45 per cent of the province. As more people want spacious building lots for new homes, the Nova Scotia Department of Environment & Labour reviews more than 5,000 applications for new septic systems each year. Industry leaders and government regulators in Nova Scotia work together to improve on-site systems and protect the environment. Partnerships and innovation are leading to a number of exciting new options for better management of wastewater. One initiative is a municipal pumping program that co-ordinates the pumping of the septic tanks in an entire neighbourhood at once on a regular rotating schedule, much like curbside solid waste collection. Several municipalities in Nova Scotia, including the District of Chester on the South Shore, have shown interest in this idea. In the Municipality of Chelsea, QuĂŠbec, the program is already a success. Homeowners pay their municipal council for a portion of the value of the service each year, along with their property tax. In return, the septic systems in


their neighbourhood are pumped every three years. The cost to the homeowner is the same as, or less, than arranging for pumping as needed, and less of a financial burden. The regular schedule ensures groundwater protection for an entire area and, because all the septic systems operate more efficiently, problems are identified before a critical failure occurs. As a significant environmental benefit that extends far beyond the immediate neighbourhood, greenhouse gases and fossil fuel use are substantially reduced overall because the pumper truck follows a route that minimizes backtracking and total distance travelled from pump site to pump site. The septic tanks of participating homes could be pumped using Norwegian septage dewatering technology. The dewatering truck vacuums sludge out of the septic tank into an on-board holding tank. Solids are treated to separate sludge from the liquid portion. Then, the biologically active water (85-90 per cent of the total material) is pumped back into the septic tank where natural breakdown of new material can continue uninterrupted. By retaining only the dewatered sludge, this technology allows the truck to service as many as 30 to 40 septic systems per round trip before dumping the solid material, instead of the typical one to three systems per truckload using conventional technology.

Over 150,000 septic tanks service 45% of Nova Scotia’s population.

Based on the success of a pilot project in Victoria County, several other districts are seriously considering implementing full-scale prepaid septic tank pumping programs and/or dewatering technology. To keep Nova Scotia on the cutting edge of wastewater management, a research facility in Truro will design and test septic system construction alternatives using full-scale physical models of on-site disposal systems. This facility, which will also act as a training tool for septic system installers, is a partnership project between the Department of Environment and Labour, Dalhousie University, the Nova Scotia Agricultural College, and Wastewater Nova Scotia, an industry association. Thinking beyond wastewater, the department is partnering with the faculty of engineering at Dalhousie University to found the Environmental Engineering Research Centre. The centre will use local assets and expertise to carry out applied and policy-relevant research into environmental science and engineering including air - land - and water-related pollution and remediation. The centre will also evaluate new technologies and develop new and innovative environmental products through partnerships between private industry and government. The focus on septage and wastewater management are important parts of Environment and Labour's mandate to protect ground and surface water resources. For more information, contact E-mail:

10 | July 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Plant Operations

Centralized backup and online configuration tie By Christopher Little four remote WWTP plants together s wastewater manager for four sewage treatment plants spread across Colchester County, Nova Scotia, Nicole MacDonald faced the daunting task of ensuring all systems continued to function seamlessly on a 24/7 basis. Each plant had its own separate monitoring and control system that allowed it to function autonomously. What Ms. MacDonald really wanted was to be able to monitor all four plants and make configuration changes from her office. After reviewing her existing infrastructure, she saw the potential to transform these four systems into one unified solution that would also address long-standing issues such as remote data backup and automatic system failover. History Colchester County’s four treatment plants serviced approximately 45,000 residents. The Colchester plant (the largest in Atlantic Canada) was also home to Nicole MacDonald’s office and was the only plant with full-time staff. Monitoring at the Colchester plant was handled by RS View Human Machine Interface (HMI) software running on four PCs connected to four Allen Bradley PLCs via a Data Highway Plus (DH+) network (Diagram 1). An alarm dialer notified staff in the event of increased or decreased flow, gas or fire. The Tatamagouche, Great Village, and Brookfield plants all used identical systems consisting of a SCADAPack PLC from Control Microsystems and a Visual Tag System (VTS) Alarm Dialer con-


Diagram 1

12 | July 2007

nected to a PC running VTScada HMI software from Trihedral. (Diagram 2) Despite the sophistication of these systems, several issues remained: 1. Two different kinds of HMI software meant more training and a steeper learning curve for new employees. 2. Plants could not be monitored from one central location. 3. Configuration changes had to be done on-site at each plant. 4. There was no remote backup of each plant’s historical data. 5. All of the servers at the Colchester plant communicated with their local PLCs simultaneously, resulting in unnecessary network traffic. Design To address the first issue, it was decided that all four plants would use the same HMI software. Since VTScada was already being used in three of the plants, the Colchester plant would be switched over to use VTScada as well. During initial discussions with Trihedral, Ms. MacDonald proposed that they use the opportunity to go even further. She wanted to create a single unified system that addressed all her long-standing concerns about historical data backup and automatic system failover. Trihedral developer Doug Spurrell worked closely with Ms. MacDonald to create a design that made the best use of the infrastructure they already had. “Since so much of what we were doing was about remote monitoring and control, it was also very important to us to increase the security for the whole system,” said Mr. Spurrell.

A Unified Design Each of the four plants now runs a primary HMI server which communicates with local I/O via its own Local Area Network (LAN) and maintains a database of local historical data. (Diagram 3) Additionally, each plant’s HMI can be viewed remotely via Internet client and has a VTS Alarm Dialer that communicates alarm information to operations personnel. Moreover, alarms for all of the plants can be viewed and acknowledged from a single computer in the Colchester office. Benefits 1. Centralized monitoring & control: To meet Ms. MacDonald’s central computer requirements, a workstation, located in the Colchester plant, is connected to each of the other three plants via high speed Internet. 2. Security: Each of these connections is secured using an inexpensive VPN firewall device. 3. Remote configuration: Over these remote connections Ms.MacDonald can simultaneously monitor and make remote, online configuration changes without leaving her office or restarting the on-site primary servers. “The old system was just something visual that I could only look at. Now if there are conditions that make it dangerous or impossible to reach the plants, we can make configuration changes from almost anywhere,” she said. 4. Remote back up: All four historical databases are replicated on the central workstation in Colchester, providing concontinued overleaf...

Diagram 2

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Wastewater Plant Operations venient, offsite database backups. (Diagram 4) 5. Remote failover: By connecting the PLCs at each plant to their own Local Area Networks, Ms. MacDonald’s workstation can now take over all server functionality, including I/O communications, for any or all of the plants in the event their (on-site) primary servers fail. 6. Reduced learning curve: Adopting a single, unified SCADA software methodology was not the only way to simplify things for Colchester personnel. Mr. Spurrell recalls, “I started with the HMI application that they had been using at Colchester and I made sure that the screens for the VTScada application had the same look and feel.” At the same time, he improved workflow by drastically reducing the number of screens and grouping together related data. 7. Overlapping trend data: The integrated VTS Historical Data Viewer allows users to discover patterns and problems in their process. For example, if a pump stops because of a power blip it can result in mysterious readings across the system. By overlaying pump rates over a flow curve in the VTS Historical Data Viewer, users can trace anomalous readings back to their original source. In this case, the stopped pump. “Then, once I’ve found the problem, I can write a note on the trend itself for future reference,” says Ms MacDonald. 8. Integrated logbook: Previously, Colchester staff hand-wrote comments like these into log books. VTS improves on this process by providing an electronic operator's notes display. User notes are automatically time-stamped and labeled with the operator's name. Once created, notes cannot be edited and the entire log is saved to an encrypted file that is unreadable outside VTS. 9. More historical data: The new system is able to handle much more data. Before

14 | July 2007

Diagram 3

Diagram 4

they could only record twenty-four hours worth of trend information. Now they can go back several years. The Future “There is some I/O for pumps and things that we haven’t chosen to monitor in the past that we want to incorporate in the current system.” says Ms. MacDonald. Since the Colchester plant has its own Full Development License, she can make many of these changes herself without having to go to the remote plants. The municipality is currently building a new treatment plant and Ms. MacDonald is very clear about what SCADA software they are going to use. “We definitely want VTScada running in all of our plants,” she said. Christopher Little is with Trihedral Engineering Ltd. Email:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Drinking Water

On-site disinfection helps ensure safety at BC water treatment facility onstructed in 1997, the District of Chetwynd Water Treatment Plant in British Columbia treats nearly 2,500 cubic metres of water per day using gas chlorination as its primary form of drinking water disinfection. With recent concerns about the safety of chlorine gas, the District elected to switch to hypochlorite generation as its primary means of disinfection. Al Tricker, chief operator at the facility, recognizing that the 12-15% concentration solution strength of potable grade bulk sodium hypochlorite is considered a hazardous material, recommended the use of an on-site generating system, which produces a hypochlorite solution concentration of 0.8%. The disinfectant is produced and stored in liquid form, so the danger of gas leaks from high pressure chlorine cylinders is not present. As a result, it is not necessary for on-site sodium hypochlorite generating system users to develop and maintain a Risk Management Plan. Utilities using on-site systems do not need to provide HAZMAT training or provide for the availability of self-contained breathing apparatuses. Generating sodium hypochlorite onsite is a simple process that uses three common consumables: salt, water and electricity. The system operates by feeding softened water into a brine dissolver. The salt dissolves to form a brine solution, which is further diluted to the desired salt solution. The salt solution is then passed through the electrolytic


The ChlorTec system is preceded by two sand filtration beds and an ultraviolet disinfection system.

erage flow rate of 1.5 million litres per day, with seasonal fluctuations ranging to more than 3.5 million litres per day during the local sawmills' busy season. With a town population of just over 3,000, the plant required a 12 lb./day on-site generating system. In July 2005, a skidmounted ClorTec™12 lb./day on-site generation system was installed. The ClorTec system in Chetwynd is preceded by two sand filtration beds and an ultraviolet disinfection system. When raw water enters the plant, chemicals are added before the water moves into an upflow filter, through which flocculated particles are transported into the granular media filter bed. The filter bed consists of anthracite on top of silica sand supported by a layer of gravel. Upon media

Generating sodium hypochlorite on-site is a simple process that uses three common consumables: salt, water and electricity. The system operates by feeding softened water into a brine dissolver cell(s), which apply a low voltage DC current to the brine to produce the sodium hypochlorite. The sodium hypochlorite is then safely stored in a 3,700 litre, fiveday tank. When it reaches the low-level set point, the system automatically restarts to replenish its supply. The Chetwynd plant operates at an av16 | July 2007

saturation, a backwash cycle per square inch is activated. To ensure more thorough cleaning of the media during the backwash cycle, raw water is used to flush the media with the assistance of an air scour. The wastewater generated from this backwash cycle is then directed over a backwash trough and

run to waste. This backwash process continues until the filter bed is cleaned, at which point water then flows to the top of the filter section and is drawn through the filter media into an underdrain system. An ultraviolet disinfection process is used to inactivate waterborne pathogens and viruses. UV does not affect the chemistry of the water and does not remove any beneficial minerals from the water. However, UV lacks a residual disinfection effect and the sodium hypochlorite generation system is then depended upon to provide residual protection. The ClorTec system produces a weeklong supply of equivalent chlorine disinfection, which is held in the storage tank, ready for distribution to the community. The District maintains a full stock of all spare parts associated with the on-site generating system in the event the duty system is not operational. Labour and maintenance for the onsite system has been routine. Typical annual manufacturer recommendations for on-site system maintenance include acid washing of the electrolytic cells, cleaning the salt tanks, cleaning/changing filters, and cleaning the chlorine product tanks. The District of Chetwynd has extremely hard water which leads to an increase of deposit build-up on the interior of the electrolytic cell and requires a more frequent cell cleaning schedule. In order to cut down on the amount of chemical used at the plant, Mr. Tricker opted to use vinegar to clean the electrolytic cells instead of acid washing. Cells are cleaned approximately every three months. After more than one year of operation, Mr. Tricker proclaimed the on-site sodium hypochlorite generating system to have met and surpassed the District’s expectations. “Generating hypochlorite on-site has provided the disinfection level we needed at a much lower cost. After system startup, the most significant cost has been the purchase of three 20-kg. bags of salt per week.” The District also gets fewer customer complaints about the taste or smell of chlorine. For more information, email

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Cover Story

Legal perspectives - Ontario’s Clean Water Act By James Ayres lthough the Clean Water Act, 2006, (formerly Bill 43 – an Act to Protect Existing and Future Sources of Drinking Water), will be administered by the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE), it is also very much a land use planning statute which will also have broad implications for the laws, policies and guidelines of the Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Ministry of Natural Resources, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and others. The Clean Water Act (CWA) will also significantly impact industry, conservation authorities, municipalities, farming operations and users of recreational lands, to name a few. The CWA implements the drinking water source protection recommendations of Part II of the Walkerton Inquiry Report. The report emphasizes the importance of a “multi-barrier” approach in ensuring the safety of drinking water. It is obviously advisable, preferable and more cost-effective if steps are taken to protect and ensure the safety of our drinking water sources rather than having to decontaminate or remediate a drinking water source, once that source has become impaired, contaminated or is unfit for human consumption. Above all else, Walkerton taught us that the human costs associated with drinking water contamination are unacceptable. Drinking water source protection aims to keep surface and groundwater sources as clean as possible so as to reduce the risk of contamination. Source water protection is a vital component of the preferred multi-barrier approach to drinking water protection. One of the goals of the CWA is to eliminate “drinking water threats” defined as “an activity or condition that adversely affects or has the potential to adversely affect, the quality or quantity of any water that is or may be used as a source of drinking water”. Locally-derived, science-based source protection and risk assessment plans are key aspects of the CWA, although the Minister of the Environment retains key decision-making powers under the CWA while off-loading the responsibilities and duties onto the local authorities.


18 | July 2007

Protecting water sources is a key component of the Act.

The following is a overview of some of the key features of the CWA. This overview is not intended to be exhaustive nor does it cover all of the comprehensive detail that is set out in the Act. In order to bring about drinking water source protection, the CWA: • establishes each conservation authority and other bodies, as a “drinking water source protection authority”. These authorities

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Cover Story are required to exercise and perform the powers and duties under the CWA; • defines the area of jurisdiction of each conservation authority as a “drinking water source protection area”; • requires each source protection authority to establish a drinking water source protection committee comprised of members as prescribed by the regulations. The chair of each source protection committee, however, is appointed by the Minister rather than the authority or local bodies. Some municipalities, particularly those with multiple watersheds within their jurisdiction, have complained about the composition of the source protection committee as set out in the draft regulation since municipalities may not have adequate representation on the lead source protection committee; and • each authority has a duty to provide scientific, technical and administrative support and resources to the source protection committee and to otherwise assist the source protection committee in performing the source protection committee’s powers and duties under the CWA. Terms of Reference The CWA requires that the committee propose Terms of Reference (TOR), the criteria and details of which are set out in the regulations, for the preparation of an “assessment report” and “source protection plan” for the source protection area. These reports and plans are aimed at minimizing risk assessment and provide for prevention planning. In preparing the proposed TOR, the committee is obligated to consult with municipalities within the committee’s jurisdiction. The committee is obligated to submit the proposed TOR to the authority and to the affected municipalities and to publish the TOR and to invite public comment. Finally, the proposed TOR are submitted to the Minister for approval or for approval as modified. Assessment Reports The authorities are to prepare a proposed Assessment Report which: (i) identifies watersheds within the source protection authority; (ii) characterizes the quality and quantity of water in each watershed; (iii) identifies the different ways water enters and leaves the watershed including quantifying the amount of the water entering and leaving the watershed; The Assessment Reports are also required to identify: (i) all of the significant groundwater

recharge areas and highly vulnerable aquifers that are within the source protection authority; (ii) all wetlands protection areas; (iii) drinking water issues relating to the quality and quantity of water in each of the vulnerable aquifers identified; and (iv) areas where an activity is or would be a drinking water threat or areas where a condition would be a significant drinking water threat, as well as preparing a list of activities or conditions arising from past activities that are or would be drinking water threats.

As with the proposed TOR, the committee is required to submit the proposed Assessment Report to the affected municipalities, the Minister and to also publish the proposed report. The Minister, however, has final approval over the Assessment Report. Source Protection Plan The source protection committee is required to prepare a source protection plan which includes: (i) the approved Assessment Report; (ii) policies which ensure that an accontinued overleaf...

July 2007 | 19

Cover Story tivity never becomes a drinking water threat or where such a threat exists, policies aimed at eliminating such threats or risks to the drinking water supply; and (iii) measures for monitoring activities that are or would be a threat to drinking water. The source protection plan may designate, prohibit or regulate activities and land uses within the source protection area. Once completed, the proposed source protection plan is to be submitted to the authority and to each of the affected municipalities and to the Minister who may appoint a hearing officer to hold hearings into the proposed plan, or the Minister may approve or modify the plan. Once approved and in effect, a municipality, local board or authority shall comply with any obligations that are imposed on it by a significant threat policy, among others. Subject to a Provincial Policy Statement or certain Minister’s Orders under the Planning Act, a decision under the Planning Act or the Condominium Act, including any decision of the Ontario Municipal Board, Minister or Ministry, (among others) that relates to the authority shall conform with the significant threat policies. These policies also “shall

20 | July 2007

have regard to” other policies set out in the source protection plan. The source protection plan prevails in the case of a conflict between the significant threat policy and an Official Plan, Zoning By-law and a Provincial Policy Statement (with exceptions) and generally, in the case of a conflict, the provision that provides “the greatest protection to the quality and quantity of any water that is or may be used as a source of drinking water prevails”. Municipal Official Plans are required to conform with the significant threat policies set out in the source protection plan and municipalities are required to appoint officers for the purpose of enforcing the Clean Water Act and for regulating and prohibiting activities in accordance with the CWA and source protection plans. Activities which are threats to drinking water sources may be prohibited within the source protection area and land uses may be restricted if they are inconsistent with the source protection plan. The CWA generally removes the right to sue for anything done under the Act. Immunity is generally provided to those persons who exercise their powers and duties under the Act.

Conclusion The objectives of the CWA are desirable and necessary if Ontario is to protect its valuable drinking water sources. There is a great deal of work still to be done, particularly by the source water protection committees, conservation authorities and municipal officials charged with implementing the comprehensive objectives of the CWA. The roles will not be easy and a great deal of assistance, guidance and funding will be required if the onerous tasks enshrined in the CWA are to become reality. Municipalities, conservation authorities and other affected parties should review the Act in detail. The Clean Water Act received Royal Assent on October 19, 2006, and came into force in its entirety, on July 3, 2007, following stakeholder and public comments received following the posting of the draft regulations by the MOE on the Environmental Registry. This comment period expired on May 12, 2007. James Ayres is a partner at Cassels Brock & Blackwell LLP, practising municipal, land use planning and environmental law. E-mail:

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Denso helps protect Canada’s banks and stock markets anada’s major banking and stock market data information is processed at IBM’s central processing terminal, located just outside Toronto. The electronic information dealt with at this location on a daily basis is paramount to the success of the country’s financial markets, and to its day to day banking operations. Having a continuous supply of electricity to this area is extremely vital. Having a gas pipeline running underneath this electrical source makes the prospect of protecting both energy sources somewhat of a challenge. Denso North America was asked by Enbridge Gas and Hydro One to provide optimum protection for several hundred feet of a 30 inch diameter gas line located directly underneath the main electricity transmission lines. Enbridge Gas, who operates the pipeline, has one of the largest natural gas distribution networks in Canada. Hydro One is the largest electricity supplier and distributor of power within Ontario. Both parties agreed that the coatings selected would be used as a safeguard against possible lightning strikes that could potentially arc from the transmission line to the gas pipe and cause a huge explosion. After extensive independent testing of several manufacturers’ epoxies and tape wrapping systems, it was agreed by both energy supply companies that Denso Protal 7250 and Densopol 60 be used to protect this crucial area. Engineered Coatings Ltd., who are a local approved applicator of Protal 7250 epoxy were contracted to do the work. This involved spraying


Top: Work in progress below the main electricity lines. Left: 30" gas line protected with Protal 7250 overwrapped with Densopol Tape.

60 mils of Protal 7250 on the pipe and then triple wrapping Densopol 60 over the epoxy after it had cured. The project and scope of this work went extremely well over a period of several weeks of hot summer weather. Upon the completion of the entire project, all involved were confident that even if significant lightning was experienced, electronic information would continue to flow without incidence. For more information, contact

July 2007 | 21


Thinking out of the box and using household UV system in a municipal application By Pritish Roy and Ryan Polito underland is a small community, located 49 kilometres north of Lake Ontario, in the Township of Brock in the Regional Municipality of Durham. The Sunderland Water Supply System, one of the oldest in the Region, has been serving drinking water to the community for more than five decades. To comply with the latest provincial drinking water regulation, O. Reg. 170/03, the Region is currently undertaking upgrades to the facility. The current facility consists of two groundwater wells: Well No. 1 and Well No. 2. Both the wells are located on the south side of River Street and on the east side of the Beaver River. Well No. 1 is housed in the main pump house and Well No. 2 is housed in a second smaller pump house. The main pump house consists of a pump room and a chemical storage room. Prior to the upgrade work, the well water was only disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and then discharged through a 200 mm diameter water main towards the town, which is located to the west of the facility. The required upgrades were initially identified through the First Engineers Report and a subsequent Preliminary Investigation Report and included: • Sodium hypochlorite system improvement. • Provision of chlorine contact time in accordance with MOE regulation, by means of an in-ground contact tank. However, the Hydrogeological Report, prepared to confirm that the wells’ groundwater was not under the direct influence of surface water, identified a shallow and thin aquifer protective layer. It was determined that subsurface construction in the area would risk compromising this thin protective layer. Therefore, the chlorine contact tank construction had to be abandoned. The use of a UV system as the primary disinfectant was considered instead, in combination with chlorine to provide residual in the distribution system. However, this introduced other technical difficulties. The UV transmittance of the well water ranged from 85% (Well No. 2) to 91% (Well No. 1) under the worst condition. Another limitation was the fact that all new equipment had to be


22 | July 2007

Hallett 30 UV units at Sunderland Water Supply System.

housed in the existing building to avoid excavation at the site. At the time of the design, the one UV unit that could handle and was validated for such low transmittance levels was UV Pure’s Hallett System. To get the project under way, R.V. Anderson Associates Limited had to solve two problems: • Obtain an MOE approval for the proposed upgrades. • Solve the problem of how to fit the new equipment into the limited existing facilities. To solve the first problem, in communication with MOE, a pilot-testing program was set up and executed for the Hallett 30 UV Pure unit. Based on the results, a consent was obtained from the MOE to proceed with the design. The second problem was resolved by designing a system where the Hallett units would be connected in parallel, in two banks (six per bank), one for each well pump. The piping and the equipment were laid out for an “L” shape, wrapped

along two walls of the former chemical room. Then a prefabricated building on a concrete pad was specified for the new chemical storage. The construction work for Sunderland Water Supply System upgrades was commenced in March, 2007 and was successfully completed in June, 2007 by Peak Engineering & Construction Ltd. The work included replacement of Well No. 1 Pump, new stainless steel piping and valves, disinfection using Hallett 30 UV units, new sodium hypochlorite feed system, MCC, and prefabricated building to store chemicals. The construction work was carried out as planned without any interruption in water supply using the existing system. The plant is now operational and supplying water to the Sunderland community with the upgraded equipment. Pritish Roy is with R.V. Anderson Associates and Ryan Polito is with the Regional Municipality of Durham. E-mail:

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Sustainable Energy

Unlocking energy from waste By Mark Montemurro, P.Eng. f the 33 million tonnes of waste Canadians generate each year, less than three percent is thermally treated. By comparison, Japan thermally treats over 75% of its waste while the European Union collectively treats 25% of waste thermally, with some members thermally treating over 40% of their waste. In Canada, the entire amount of thermally treated waste is processed through incineration. Alternatively, plasma gasification is a more efficient and environmentally responsible form of thermal treatment which is gaining momentum in Canada. Plasma gasification has the power to convert waste streams, such as municipal solid wastes (MSW), tires, hazardous waste and sewage sludge, into a sustainable energy source. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently endorsed plasma gasification for waste-to-energy (WTE) production, stating: “One technology which can potentially use various types


24 | July 2007

of waste, produce electricity and hydrogen without emitting dioxins, furans and mercury, is plasma arc technology. Municipalities can install a plasma arc facility, which will eliminate landfilling.” Plasma gasification is a process in which heat, nearly as hot as the sun’s surface, is used to break down the molecular structure of any carbon-containing materials and convert them into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to generate power or other sources of energy. Gasification occurs in an oxygen starved environment so the waste is vaporized, not incinerated or burned. Environmentally responsible Compared to landfills and incineration, plasma gasification has a smaller environmental footprint and given the high temperatures that gasification facilities operate at, harmful air emissions are virtually eliminated. The decomposition of waste in landfills emits methane gas, a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change.

According to Environment Canada, methane is estimated to have a global warming effect 23 times greater than carbon dioxide. Gasification, which produces carbon dioxide instead of methane, has a smaller impact on the greenhouse effect than landfill emissions. Operation of a plasma gasification WTE facility avoids (1) the release of methane that otherwise would be emitted when trash decomposes in landfills, as well as (2) the displacement of CO2 that would have been emitted had the electricity been generated from fossil fuels such as coal. Incineration of waste produces fly and bottom ash requiring special disposal. The high temperature of the plasma gasification converts all inorganic material to a molten slag. Fly ash is combined with the molten slag and the resulting vitreous matter is inert and suitable for aggregate use. Overall, plasma gasification is more environmentally friendly than landfills and incineration. Energy from waste A further advantage of the plasma gasification process is its ability to unlock energy from waste. When using landfill gas capture, (where facilities capture landfill methane emissions and combust the gas for energy) the power output is approximately 200 kilowatt hours (kWh) per tonne of waste processed. Incineration’s power output is typically in the range of 550-600 kWh/tonne of waste processed. Plasma gasification has the ability to generate approximately 750 kWh/tonne of processed waste. In addition, gasification allows for combined-cycle power generation resulting in up to 40% efficiency. Comparatively, incineration is limited to steam-cycle generation, which reaches 25% efficiency. For every plasma gasification WTE facility built to process 1,000 tonnes per day of typical MSW, the energy output would be 31 megawatts of electricity capacity, enough power for 31,000 homes. A case study – sewage sludge Commercial applications of plasma gasification have been in operation since 2002. Japan’s Hitachi Metals, Ltd. uses Westinghouse Plasma Corporation’s technology in two Japanese facilities that transform municipal solid waste, auto shredder residue (ASR) and sewage sludge into steam and electricity. Hitachi Metals commissioned a facility between two small adjacent towns

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Sustainable Energy

WPC plasma torch.

Utashinai Plant 2 plasma gasification facility.

in Japan, Mihama and Mikata. The facility processes 24 tonnes per day of waste including close to four tonnes of sewage sludge. The sewage sludge is delivered from the local wastewater treatment plant and, in preparation for gasification, is partially dewatered. Since sewage sludge has less organic material than MSW, the sewage sludge is mixed with the MSW to maintain sufficient energy density in the feed material for stable and consistent thermal energy production. The heart of the plant is what Hitachi Metals refers to as the Plasma Direct Melting Reactor (PDMR). The PDMR technology, which incorporates the Westinghouse Plasma Gasification/Vitrification Reactor technology, directly melts the inert components of the waste feedstock into an environmentally benign vitreous slag while gasifying the organic components into a syngas, which is used to produce steam and electricity. Hitachi Metals also operates a much larger plasma gasification facility with WPC technology in Utashinai, Japan. The facility processes approximately 280 tonnes per day of MSW or a combination of MSW and ASR at a rate of approximately 190 tonnes per day. The Utashinai facility uses four megawatts (MW) internally and provides 3.9 MW of net electricity to the grid. Maximizing power output isn’t the primary objective of the Utashinai facility, and if the plant was optimized, it could produce close to seven MW of net

ity. If the facility was configured in combined cycle mode, it could produce as much as 12 MW net. Both Japanese facilities meet all environmental regulatory requirements including extremely low levels of dioxins and furans (less than 0.01 ng/nm3 which is 10 times lower than Japanese regulations). The evolution of the WPC technology The WPC plasma torch technology was first developed for NASA’s Apollo space program to simulate space vehicle re-entry conditions of over 5,500 degrees Celsius. Today, WPC plasma torch systems are being used by large companies such as Alcan and General Motors. More than US$100 million has been invested into WPC’s plasma technology and research facility in Madison, Pennsylvania – where approximately 100 pilot tests have been completed on a multitude of feedstocks. In April 2007, Calgary-based Alter Nrg purchased WPC, with the vision to become the North American leader in the development of innovative gasification projects for the commercial production of energy. WPC plasma gasification technology was recently selected by Atlanta-based Geoplasma LLC for its planned WTE facility in St. Lucie County, Florida. The development agreement for the St. Lucie facility was approved by the county in April 2007, and is expected to be operational by the second quarter of 2010.

Initially the facility will gasify 900 tonnes of garbage per day and eventually gasify 2,700 tonnes of garbage per day. Upon opening, energy generated from the facility will provide enough electricity to power more than 25,000 homes. Geoplasma’s Florida facility will become the world’s largest waste-toenergy plasma gasification facility. In India, SMS Infrastructures Limited has begun constructing two 68 tonne-per-day hazardous waste disposal plants with the WPC technology. The plants, located in Pune and Nagpur, will each produce up to five megawatts of electricity and are expected to open in the fall of 2007. Understanding the plasma gasification reactor The Plasma Gasification Reactor (PGR) is the combination of a moving bed gasifier with proven industrial plasma torch technology. Plasma gasification technology has an inherent level of flexibility over other gasification processes because it allows control over temperature, independent of fuel or oxygen throughput in the process. With plasma, it is possible to achieve remarkably high temperatures while maintaining control over all of the other process conditions. It is, therefore, possible to process a highly variable feedstock while maintaining sufficient temperature to melt down all inorganic material into an inert, glass-like slag product. The two Hitachi Metals facilities in Japan have high onstream performance which is important, considering the typical challenges in handling MSW. WPC’s PGR eliminates the need for feed preparation, a process step that accounts for a significant portion of the capital and operating cost of other commercial gasification technologies. As continued overleaf... July 2007 | 25

Sustainable Energy well, it has the ability to handle virtually any type of feedstock, including: • Feedstocks of variable particle size, containing coarse lumps and fine powders. • High and low density feedstocks – paper, plastics, metals. • High and low energy feedstocks – MSW, coal, petroleum coke. • Solid and liquid feedstocks – sewage sludge, oil, coal/water slurry, emulsions, run-of-mine coal and parting refuse. • Hazardous waste. The PGR is also designed to run at atmospheric pressure which is ideal for feedstocks like MSW, plastics, metals and hazardous waste. Plasma gasification WTE applications in Canada Plasma gasification is a potential solution to municipal waste problems facing populated centres, but before waste is gasified (or currently landfilled) recycling or waste diversion is always the initial step in waste management. Plasma gasification complements a well-developed waste diversion program by converting the remaining waste into useable energy and also capturing renewable resources such as water, ferrous and non-ferrous metals and sulphur. According to the Integrated Waste

26 | July 2007

Services Association, the United States’ national trade association for the WTE industry, “communities with WTE facilities are likely to have higher recycling rates than the national average. Far from competing with recycling, WTE is part of an integrated approach to solid waste management that includes recycling as a core component. The average recy-

Plasma gasification technology has an inherent level of flexibility over other gasification processes because it allows control over temperature cling rate for WTE communities across the US is 33%, while the national average is 28%.” In Ontario, four million tonnes of garbage per year – approximately one third of Ontario’s waste – is being sent to the U.S. for disposal and U.S. based legislation may close the border to Canadian waste by 2010 or increase the cost of disposal. Plasma gasification represents a made-in-Canada solution which would allow Ontarians to cost-effectively dispose of their waste in an environmentally sound manner. Plasma gasification also offers a means of achieving the high tempera-

tures required for the safe destruction of many hazardous and toxic wastes. Materials, such as PCBs, dioxins, DDT, furans, halogenated hydrocarbons, as well as military chemical agents, pose serious problems to the environment and to the public. Tests employing a plasma process for the destruction of such materials have resulted in safe disposals with emissions below regulatory requirements. Plasma gasification of typical hazardous waste generates almost three times as much energy per unit of waste than the energy required to destroy the waste. Conclusion Plasma gasification provides a solution to two major challenges – how to responsibly dispose of waste and at the same time meet the growing need for clean sources of alternative energy. The technology is commercially proven and viable, while also meeting all current regulatory requirements. Plasma gasification is positioned to take hold as a practical, economical and environmentally responsible alternative to conventional forms of waste processing and power generation. Mark Montemurro is President and CEO of Alter Nrg. Contact:

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DARAMEND® Bioremediation Technology: The G The Guaranteed uaranteed A Approach pproach t to oT Treatment reatment o of fS Soil, oil S Sediment, ediment a and nd Solid Wastes Contaminated with Hard-to-Degrade Organics DARAMEND® is a technically superior In Situ Chemical Reduction ISCR Treatment Efficiencies (ISCR) option—both in cost efficiency and effectiveness—over Observed in Internal Tests conventional enhanced bioremediation. Use of DARAMEND can result in substantial cost savings and shorter soil remediation Compound Removal Efficiency (%) schedules compared to traditional bioprocesses, such as composting. DDT 80 - 95 % DARAMEND is ideal for soil, sediment, and solid wastes impacted with recalcitrant organic compounds. It has been successfully applied Toxaphene 90 - 98 % to over 2,000,000 metric tons of materials contaminated with PAHs, TCE 95 - 99 % PCP, phthalates, chlorinated herbicides and pesticides, organic PCE 95 - 99 % explosive compounds, and wood preservatives—at a variety of industrial and military sites around the world. CT 95 - 99 % Independent audits conducted by the EPA SITE program, Total PAHs 70 - 95 % and Environment Canada, have validated DARAMEND’s technical Heavy Oils 80 - 95 % properties. This patented technology is uniquely advantageous because ISCR will NOT mobilize Arsenic—a common problem in the use of Carbonit can often be applied without excavation, generates no odors or leachate, and does not result in bulking. Performance guaranteed! only Hydrogen Release Compounds (oils, lactates, hydrogen sources).

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Intellectual Property

The tensions between patents, trade secrets, and the flow of information By Mark Sajewycz, B.A.Sc., LL.B., P.Eng. ew technology is being developed faster than ever today, spurred by competitive pressures and the promise of ever-increasing economic rewards. In this advanced economy, strategic business decisions can be more complex than ever, and it is important to understand how new technologies fit into the marketplace and in law. Paying attention to legal issues can be critical to the commercial success of a new technology. Patent law and the law relating to trade secrets are two particularly important considerations. In the rush to commercialize a new technology and take it to the marketplace, it can be easy to overlook these important legal issues. Rushing blindly may erase competitive advantages associated with trade secrets, as well as those under patent legislation. As well, there is a legal tension between patents and trade secrets, and it is important to recognize the basis for this tension in order to preserve the rights engendered under either regime. Patenting results in loss of trade secret protection Filing a patent application eventually leads to the public disclosure of the invention. As a necessary incident, this extinguishes trade secret protection relating to the invention. In most countries, a patent application is published the earlier of 18 months after it is filed or 18 months after its priority date (the filing date of an earlier application to which priority is claimed). At the very least, the invention becomes publicly disclosed once the patent application matures into a granted patent. Accordingly, deciding to file a patent application necessarily leads to the eventual extinction of trade secret protection relating to the invention. Dealing with improvements to patented technologies One thing to keep in mind when engaging patent legislation mechanisms is the fact that filing a patent application


only protects developed technology described in the patent application. Accordingly, any technology improvements developed after filing the application for the basic invention may not be protected by the patent application. In this respect, patenting versus trade secrecy considerations should be revisited with respect to the technology improvements, prior to commercialization of the technology improvements, so as not to compromise patent protection for the improvements. Patent protection for the improvements may be compromised in some cases by commercialization alone, without incidental public disclosure, or is compromised where commercialization of the technology leads to public disclosure of the improvements as such public disclosure attracts prior art significance.(1) Moreover, this analysis should, at the very least, be undertaken before the 18month mark of the initially filed application, as publication of the initial patent application will affect patentability of the technology improvements (due to the public disclosure aspect, and resultant prior art significance, of such publication). Not giving away the best examples of your technology Another thing to keep in mind when engaging patent legislation mechanisms is the fact that trying to maintain secrecy about some aspects of developed technology, while attempting to patent other aspects, may compromise patent protection for those aspects for which patenting has been attempted. This would be the case where the aspect of the technology for which trade secrecy is being considered relates to the best mode of practising the technology. In the patent legislation of some countries, there is a requirement to describe the best mode for practising or carrying out the invention for which patent protection is sought. This is the case in the United States, and to some extent in Canada. In these regimes, fail-

Mark Sajewycz

ure to describe the best mode in a patent application, at the time of filing, exposes any granted patent to the possibility of invalidation by a third party. For example: ACo has developed a new chemical composition “Xa” which could be characterized within the genus “X”. The genus “X” includes the species “Xa”, but also includes the species “Xb”, “Xc”. “Xd”, and “Xe”. However, the most commercially promising species is “Xa”. ACo may then decide to file a U.S. patent application with a view to protecting the genus “X” (by “claiming” the genus “X”). By covering the genus “X”, ACo necessarily also covers the species “Xa” (as well as the species “Xb”, “Xc”, “Xd”, and “Xe”). In the filed application, ACo provides examples of the genus “X”, including “Xb”, “Xc”, “Xd”, and “Xe”, but does not disclose “Xa” as an example. ACo’s failure to disclose “Xa” may be a best mode violation under United States patent law, and may compromise the validity of any patent which matures from the filed application. Differences of opinion on how to handle these issues, when they occur, most often occur in the context of joint development relationships between independent, collaborating business entities. Decision-making processes relating to patent strategies, including how to address the best mode issue, should be outlined and agreed to by collaborating business entities prior to conducting any joint research and development activities. Ideally, such decision-making processes should be reduced to writing and form part of a written joint development agreement at the outset of the relationship. Because of the inherent time sensitive nature of the United States patent prosecution

(1) The term "PRIOR ART" generally refers to any information (eg. publications, public uses) which affects patentability of the invention, or validity of any patent which has already been issued. The patent law in most (if not all) jurisdictions requires that, before a patent is granted, and/or in order for a granted patent to be valid, the subject invention must be novel and non-obvious over "prior art'. This rule is provided for the purpose of ensuring that patents are granted, or acknowledged as being valid, only for meritorious inventions. The exact definition of "prior art", however, varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and depends on the wording of the country's patent legislation.

28 | July 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Intellectual Property process, any disagreements could derail the United States patent application and potentially compromise incidental patent rights. Duty to disclose obligations under U.S. patent law and confidential information Another interesting dilemma sometimes arises in the context of joint development between collaborating parties where one of the collaborators possesses confidential technology developed prior to the relationship. Under United States patent law, there is a duty imposed on the patent applicant (and various parties associated with the patent application) to disclose all information which is material to patentability of the invention of the filed application. Failure to make such disclosure could compromise the validity of any U.S. patent which is granted. If an invention is developed out of a collaboration and builds on the confidential technology, and a patent application is filed in the United States, details about the confidential technology may need to be disclosed to the United States Patent and Trademark Office in order to satisfy this duty to disclose obligation and preserve the

validity of associated patent rights. In effecting this disclosure, the confidential nature of this technology is necessarily lost. Of course, there may be a reluctance to comply with the duty to disclose obligation, especially if there is an agreement not to disclose the confidential technology and the owner of the confidential technology wishes to preserve secrecy surrounding the confidential technology. Generally, trade secret technology is not considered potential prior art. As such, trade secret technology is generally not considered to be material to patentability of an invention and, therefore, subject to submission to the United States Patent and Trademark Office under the duty to disclose rules. This is because trade secret technology is usually disqualified from treatment as prior art under United States patent law rules for the reason that such technology is considered to have been “abandoned, suppressed or concealed”. Technology being maintained confidential is not, however, automatically disqualified as potential prior art, in all instances, and may still be subject to the duty to disclose. This may be the case

where confidentiality is being maintained while the technology is being refined, improved or perfected, or where experiments are being conducted as a necessary part of pre-commercialization activities. In these instances, it may be argued that the technology has not been “abandoned, suppressed or concealed”. Additionally, where the confidential technology becomes the subject of a secret communication between unrelated parties, such as could be the case during joint development, such trade secret technology becomes potential prior art, even if the technology would be considered to have been “abandoned, suppressed, or concealed”. This is because of another prior art rule under United States patent law which disqualifies an inventor from patent protection where the inventor did not invent the subject matter sought to be patented. This prior art rule has been interpreted by the courts to extend beyond blocking patentability of the exact subject matter of the secret communications, such that the prior art rule blocks patentability of non-obvious improvements to the subject matter derived from the secret communications. continued overleaf...

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July 2007 | 29

Intellectual Property In summary, in these instances where confidential technology is potential prior art, the confidential technology may need to be disclosed in order to satisfy the duty to disclose obligation imposed under United States patent law. To mitigate against the possibility of future disagreements between collaborators regarding satisfying the duty to disclose obligation, this specific issue, like the best mode issue, should be squarely addressed in a written agreement between the collaborating business entities at the outset of the relationship. The effects of competitor patents on freedom to practise your trade secrets In the event that trade secrecy is chosen over patenting for developed technology, it is extremely important to recognize that the business space is dynamic and competitors may independently invent and attempt to secure patent protection for the same developed technology. A situation may develop where a business organization is first to invent and use a technology (senior inventor) and decides to maintain secrecy about the developed technology. A competitor (junior inventor) may then independently invent the same technology at a future time, and file for and secure patent

In the 1870s, two inventors, Elisha Gray, and Alexander Graham Bell, both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically (the telephone). Both men rushed their respective designs to the patent office within hours of each other, Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone first. Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell won.

protection. In such circumstances, and depending on the patent legislation of a given country, the senior inventor could be potentially blocked by the junior inventor from practising the invention if the senior inventor’s activities were ever leaked to the junior inventor. Under the prior art rules dictated by Canadian patent legislation, the senior inventor, who maintained trade secrecy, is subject to being blocked by the junior inventor’s prior art patent. This is because the senior inventor’s invention, when concealed as a trade secret, cannot function as prior art versus the patentability of the junior inventor’s invention. The United States patent legislation prior art rules, by comparison, are more complicated, and the prior art effect of the senior inventor’s trade secret invention depends on the circumstances. Potentially, there is no prior effect. At the very least, there is a risk that the senior inventor may be blocked from the United States marketplace by the junior inventor’s United States patent. Where the senior inventor’s trade secret invention can be characterized as having been commercialized in the United States more than one year before the filing date of the junior inventor’s patent application, such commercialization may qualify as prior art versus the patentability in the United States of the junior inventor’s invention. Having said that, there is a line of United States jurisprudence which suggests that there would be no prior art effect under these circumstances. Presumably, this is because of a general reluctance to afford prior art effect to a senior inventor’s trade secret when such trade secret is used for attacking the validity of a junior inventor’s patent rights. Conclusions The cause and effect relationship between patents, trade secrets, and information flow is multidimensional, requiring thoughtful consideration of potential consequences before deciding how to manage developed technology. Drawing analogies or extrapolating from common knowledge is dangerous, as the legal regime dictates consequences which are, generally, unforeseeable. Mark Sajewycz is a partner with the law firm of Gowling Lafleur Henderson LLP, and practises exclusively in the area of patent law. Email:

30 | July 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water For People wins award from World Bank Water For People was awarded the maximum grant of $200,000 for an innovative sanitation project in Malawi, designed to reduce the incidence of diarrhea through hygiene education, the use of children’s latrines, and the production of compost for sale. Financed by The World Bank and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the global Development Marketplace grants range from $50,000 to $200,000. The event is held by The World Bank every 12 to 18 months and brings proposal finalists to Washington, D.C., for final review by a jury of World Bank officials and development professionals. This year’s focus was health, nutrition, and population. The overall goal of the proposal is to reduce diarrhea by 40% in two rural Malawian traditional authorities, including 31 schools and more than 100 villages, by improving sanitation practices and facilities. The multifaceted approach targets toddlers and young children by promoting the use of ecological latrines while eliminating open defecation common in the region. The program includes the distribution of child-size “arbor-loos” that allow children to defecate safely and then, when the pit latrine is full, they can plant a tree and move the toilet to another location. The program also includes a component targeted at adults, where latrines are constructed that can transform fecal waste from a health threat to valuable compost which is then sold. The program uses children as agents of change at school and in the household, a model that has proven effective for promoting long-term changes in health and hygiene practices.

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July 2007 | 31

Largest cured-in-place pipe liner installed in Canada

t is hard to make history when youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re standing inside a tent at midnight with a winter storm raging, and a wind chill factor of thirty degrees below Celsius. But this is all in a dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work for the lining crews at Veolia ES Sewer Services (Ottawa) Inc. The tent in question was one hundred feet long, and heated to protect the equipment that would install a cured-in-place pipe liner, 84 inches (2100 mm) in diameter and 635 feet (194 M) in length into a storm sewer on King Edward Avenue, one of the busiest thoroughfares connecting Ottawa to Gatineau, QuĂŠbec. While


Table 1 32 | July 2007

television crews recorded the event, the largest CIPP liner ever installed was successfully launched into the infrastructure. For the uninitiated, cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) lining is a method of rehabilitating sewers without digging up the street. It involves the use of a felt liner with an impermeable outer layer that is designed specifically for the host pipe. The liner is impregnated with resin using a system of calibrated rollers to achieve the desired thickness, then inverted into the sewer pipe at specified hydrostatic head levels so that the resin ends up against the pipe wall and the impermeable layer forms the

new inside layer of the pipe. Huge boiler units, operating at 13,000 BTU are then used to heat the water within the liner and to hold it for a predetermined time in order to thermo set the resin. The resulting liner forms a hard structural repair that will survive over 50 years even if the host pipe continues to fail. Once curing has been completed, closed circuit television units mounted on robotic crawlers open any existing service connections using pneumatic cutters to restore the flow. The 26 million dollar King Edward Renewal Project was awarded to R.W. Tomlinson, and managed by Phil Kerridge of the City of Ottawa, and Delcan Corporation. Kyle Peori, of Veolia ES Ottawa, led the CIPP project team. There were six large diameter CIPP liner installations to be completed, four of them in storm sewers. In order to limit the amount of flow to be bypassed during rehabilitation, the liners were installed during the coldest part of the winter. The sheer magnitude of the project cannot be appreciated without providing a few statistics. (Table 1) Resin for the liner installations was brought in by 40,000 lb tanker trucks

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Infrastructure from St Louis, Missouri. The felt liner was shipped to site on flat bed trucks from Paoli, Indiana. Nearly 6000 lbs of catalyst were used to mix the resin. The diameter and size of the liners made it impossible to “wet” them out in Veolia’s warehouse facility and transport them to site. Specialized equipment had to be purchased in order to mix the resin, fill the liner and invert it directly into the man-

in Canada, this project was a logistical challenge. Three 60-inch diameter, temporary manhole structures were installed by others to facilitate the tubes. Fifteen additional installations of smaller diameter pipe were installed concurrently using Veolia’s warehouse facility for wet out, as well as nine 36-inch diameter manhole structures over 15 ft deep. Over 62 services had to be reinstated on one sanitary

In order to limit the amount of flow to be bypassed during rehabilitation, the liners were installed during the coldest part of the winter. hole, using 20,000 lbs of resin at a time. It takes up to 36 hours to complete the wet out, insertion and cure cycle of a large diameter liner. This required two crews working 12-hour shifts to monitor each lining procedure and to ensure that bypass pumps were handling the flow. Because of the need to shut down services to residences for extended periods of time, pumper trucks and combination units were on standby 24-7 to be ready to pump down the flow. Aside from the size and length of the liners installed, which have been confirmed as the largest ever to be installed

line alone. Fuel trucks, tankers and supplies had to be scheduled carefully to ensure that critical components were there when needed. It required over a month of pre-planning and sourcing to gather together the equipment and materials needed to undertake this project in the dead of winter. The project was completed on time, in just under three months. For more information, contact Nancy Morris.

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July 2007 | 33

High-tech reinforced concrete pipe structure installed deep in the Badlands of Drumheller By Jason Finner, P.Eng. he Badlands of Alberta extend along the Red Deer River Valley, easterly and southerly from the City of Red Deer, through the City of Drumheller to the Saskatchewan border. The heartland of the Badlands, however, is the Drumheller Valley about 130 km northeast of Calgary. The valley is a beautiful, diverse and moonscape-like topography with eroded formations such as buttes and deep, twisted and winding canyons, coulees, and gullies cut through multi-coloured layers of sandstone, coal and shale that take us back 70 million years. The valley is rich in coal and fossils of the late Cretaceous Period. First Nation peoples who settled in the area thought the exposed dinosaur remains were gigantic ancestors of the bison. Approximately 25 species of dinosaurs have been discovered in these badlands since 1884. Coulees are ancient, dry riverbeds formed some 10,000 to 15,000 years ago by melt water as the glaciers retreated. Highways throughout the Badlands that cross these formations require culverts


34 | July 2007

and bridges. Located 41 kilometres west of Drumheller and 120 kilometres northeast of Calgary is the village of Carbon, population around 530. When an undersized 1524 mm diameter steel plate culvert under Highway 575, 16 kilometres east of Carbon began to fail, officials of Alberta Infrastructure and Transportation planned for its replacement in a coulee with a specially designed reinforced concrete pipe culvert. Concrete pipe was determined to be the only structure able to withstand the fill heights and the aggressive characteristics of native material that had contributed to the deterioration of the metal culvert. The new culvert would connect the ancient river channel on both sides of the road to carry seasonal stormwater and snow melt. Highway 575 is the main access from the east to Carbon, so it was important to replace the culvert as quickly as possible so that access to the village would not be interrupted. Because of the geology of the area, it was no easy task to excavate to the fail-

ing system, remove it and then prepare the site for installation of a concrete culvert. The contractor had to excavate to a depth of more than 19.6 metres to prepare the bedding for 190 metres of 2100 mm diameter reinforced concrete pipe. Bedding and backfill material had to be trucked to the site to compensate for the poor quality of the native material for bedding and backfill in the pipe zone. Alberta Infrastructure and Transportation specified a Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code Type C1 installation, which corresponds to a Type 1 Standard Installation. Special design of the structure to withstand a maximum depth of 19.6 metres of fill required 61 metres of Class III, 64 metres of Class V and 66 metres of pipe designed using the Direct Design methodology in accordance with ASCE 15-98 (Standard Practice for Direct Design of Buried Precast Concrete Pipe Using Standard Installations). The completed structure was finished with a cast in place headwall at the outlet. There are two options for designers of concrete pipe drainage systems to ensure

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Infrastructure that the pipe functions as both a conduit and a structure. The Indirect Design method determines the required strength of the pipe and then a class of pipe is selected that meets that load requirement based on a given bedding design. Using this method, the pipe manufacturer selects the reinforcing steel required in the pipe. Direct

Approximately 25 species of dinosaurs have been discovered in these badlands since 1884. Design is the design of the pipe in the installed condition. The magnitude and distribution of the loads are determined and the physical properties necessary to support those loads are calculated. In some extreme cases, the particular class of pipe determined by the Indirect 4-20 mA TRANSMITTERS DISPLAYS & CONTROLLERS

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Design method may not be suitable. For example, the pipe may be required to meet strengths above the highest standard (i.e. 140D) classification listed in tables, or a more exacting design may be appropriate. In such situations, designers can use the Direct Design method to consider flexure, shear, radial tension and crack control, thereby directly determining the reinforcement required to meet the specific project criteria. The geomorphology and geology of the Drumheller Badlands are unique in all of North America. Matching the right

materials and products for infrastructure projects is a critical engineering decision. Concrete pipe supplied by Lafarge Canada – Greater Calgary Pipe to Alberta Infrastructure and Transportation for construction of a deep bury structure was the appropriate choice due to the nature of the soils and structure surrounding the culvert, and the alignment along the course of an ancient riverbed. Jason Finner is with Alberta Chapter, Canadian Concrete Pipe Association E-mail:

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July 2007 | 35

Wastewater Management

Ontario’s largest biological phosphorus removal facility in the City of Sault Ste. Marie By Rajiv Kothari and John Myatt, P Eng. Bioreactors with blower and UV buildings in the background.

egulations are becoming more stringent on concentrations of phosphorus discharged into surface water. Conventional biological wastewater plants achieve less than 20% total phosphorus removal while wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic digester supernatant recycled to the head of the works achieve even less removal. Due to such low levels of total phosphorus (TP) removal in conventional plants, additional or alternative methods are employed to achieve the 1 mg/L phosphorus in the effluent. Many treatment plants have been designed or upgraded to remove phosphorus by the addition of chemicals such as alum or ferric chloride. Chemical precipitation increases the volume of sludge produced and can result in a sludge that has poor settling and dewatering characteristics. Also chemical precipitation with metal salts can depress the pH of the effluent. If nitrification is required, additional alkalinity will be consumed and the pH will drop further. Background The Sault Ste. Marie East End Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) is located at 2221 Queen Street East. Prior to the recent plant upgrade, it was a primary treatment facility discharging


36 | July 2007

treated effluent to the St. Mary’s River. The WPCP had two treatment trains that have the same treatment processes. Plant A, built in 1959, had a rated capacity of 36.3 ML/day and was located on the east side of the property. Plant B, built in 1972, had a rated capacity of 18.2 ML/day and was located on the west side of the property. The total design average capacity was 54.5 ML/day. Both Plant A and B consisted of mechanical screens, grit removal tanks, primary clarifiers and chlorine contact

Great Lakes Water Quality Board identified the St. Mary’s River as an Area of Concern and a Remedial Action Plan (RAP) is in place. The major objectives of the project were to improve effluent quality by providing secondary treatment and to reduce the effects of the high peak storm flows to the plant. The East End WPCP has undergone a major upgrade including new inlet screens, grit removal tanks, primary clarifiers, activated sludge using the biological phosphorus removal (BPR) process

Table 1. Sault Ste Marie East End WPCP Effluent Requirements.

tanks. There was a pair of influent channels and Parshall flumes upstream of the two existing inlet buildings. Alum was added to the primary clarifiers for phosphorus removal. A sludge dewatering facility was constructed in 1987. The dewatering system consisted of primary sludge storage tanks, polymer addition system and two plate and frame dewatering presses. The International Joint Commission’s

with nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal, secondary clarifiers, UV disinfection and sludge thickening and dewatering. The existing average day flows are much lower than the previous rated capacity of 54.5 ML/day. Therefore, it was recommended that the new primary and secondary treatment facilities be constructed in two phases: Phase 1 – 36 ML/day and Phase 2 – 54.5 ML/day. The plant will operate

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Management under a new Certificate of Approval (C of A) issued by the Ontario Ministry of Environment. The new effluent quality requirements for the plant are presented in Table 1. Biological phosphorus removal Biological phosphorus removal can be considered basically a two step process. First the biomass is forced to store excess soluble phosphorus under controlled conditions. Then the biomass is removed via a sludge wasting system within the plant. The BPR process in treatment plants can reduce or eliminate the need for chemical addition by offering the following benefits: • Improved sludge settleability and dewatering characteristics. • Reduced oxygen requirements. • Reduced process alkalinity requirements. • Lower operating cost due to little or no chemical addition and better blower efficiency. • Lower sludge production. Earth Tech’s experience at several Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) plants in Western Canada indicates that the bioreactor configuration that best satisfies these criteria, commonly referred to in the literature as the Westbank Process is comprised of the following reaction zones in series: • Preanoxic Zone: Return activated sludge (RAS) is fed to this zone together with a small fraction of the primary effluent. Rapid denitrification of RAS is ensured by the introduction of primary effluent before the anaerobic zone. • Anaerobic Zone: Denitrified RAS from the preanoxic zone is mechanically mixed with short chain volatile fatty acid (SCVFA) rich primary sludge fermenter supernatant in this zone. The truly anaerobic environment that is created favours the proliferation of bio-P bacteria that can use energy, stored in the form of polyphosphate, to absorb simple carbon sources (principally SCVFAs). Supernatant from the fermenter, which provides a reliable source of SCVFA to the process, is introduced into this zone. The absorbed carbon source is metabolized in the subsequent anoxic and aerobic zones. Because bio-P bacteria remain viable in this zone, they enjoy a competitive advantage over other heterotrophic bacteria and proliferate in the system. • Anoxic Zone: Mechanically mixed cells are provided where anaerobic zone effluent mixed liquor, the remaining pricontinued overleaf...

Figure 1 showing the TSS concentrations in the plant effluent from January 2006 to January 2007.

Figure 2 showing the BOD concentrations in the plant effluent from January 2006 to January 2007.

Figure 3 showing the phosphorus concentrations in the plant effluent from January 2006 to January 2007.

July 2007 | 37

Wastewater Management mary effluent, and recycled nitrified mixed liquor from the end of the aerobic zone are mixed and allowed to react. Oxygen is not supplied, but oxygen is available from nitrates in the mixed liquor recycle. Metabolism proceeds with the nitrates becoming the oxygen source, or terminal electron acceptor. Through this biochemical reaction, the nitrates are converted to water and elemental nitrogen. Most of this nitrogen evolves from solution as nitrogen gas and is released to the atmosphere. • Aerobic Zone: In this zone, carbon metabolism is completed, and nitrification and P uptake occur. Accurate dissolved oxygen concentration control is imperative to ensure that minimal oxygen is recycled to the anoxic zone where it would interfere with denitrification, to reduce energy costs, and to allow some control of sludge settleability. Earth Tech’s design of the BPR process configuration focused on the following three basic elements: 1. Protection of the anaerobic zone from nitrates and dissolved oxygen to ensure that reliable biological phosphorus removal is maintained in the process. 2. Feed of readily biodegradable organic material (present in the incoming waste-

38 | July 2007

water) to anoxic zones. This feature reduces the potential for Microthrix parvicella growth and enhances denitrification rates in the anoxic zones. 3. Optimization of the bioreactor size without adding to bioreactor complexity, first by distributing primary effluent to the anoxic zones, and second, by concentrating the anoxic and anaerobic zones at the head of the bioreactor. In addition, a primary effluent bypass to an anoxic swing zone towards the end of the aerobic zone provides a degree of step feed that minimizes the flux loading to the secondary clarifiers during high flow periods. Current operational experience from the plants in Western Canada has shown that phosphorus levels below 0.5 mg/L in the final effluent are achievable via the BPR process and lower levels below 0.1 mg/l can be achieved with chemical addition. Description of key process units To some extent the existing layout of the plant determined the selection of the process units and their locations on the site and provided cost-saving opportunities for the client. Some of the infrastructure was modified and used in the construction of the new BPR plant.

Primary clarifiers and primary sludge fermenter There were six existing primary clarifiers on the plant site. It was believed that all six of the existing primary clarifiers were beyond their economic service life. Consequently, these were replaced with three modern deeper rectangular clarifiers. Two of the old clarifiers were converted into a primary fermenter and an open-top biofilter as a cost-saving exercise. Analysis of the wastewater entering the plant indicated that there are insufficient short chain volatile fatty acids naturally present to maintain reliable biological phosphorus removal in the process. Consequently, the primary sludge fermenter was built to generate SCVFAs at the plant, and the SCVFArich fermenter supernatant is discharged into the BPR bioreactor. Primary sludge is pumped in a dilute form from the primary clarifiers to the primary sludge fermenter. Bioreactors There are two identical multi-cell bioreactors, each with a volume of 6,000 m3. A third similar 6,000 m3 bioreactor will be required to handle the Phase 2 flow of 54,000 m3/d. Each bioreactor has the following zones, in order – preanoxic, anaerobic, anoxic 1 & 2 and aerobic 1 & 2, swing and aerobic 3. Disinfection The secondary effluent is disinfected to reduce the coliform concentrations to the levels specified in the Certificate of Approval. Historically chlorine has been used for disinfection. However, the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) is now requiring municipal effluents to be nontoxic and, according to the C of A, chlorine is to be less than 0.02 mg/L. The UV disinfection system was designed for the initial peak flow of 170 ML/day. The UV system consists of two banks of lamps in one channel. An additional module of lamps can be added to each bank in the future to handle the ultimate peak flow of 215 ML/day. Waste activated sludge thickening and sludge dewatering The use of dissolved air flotation (DAF) was preferred due to lower capital and operation/maintenance costs, lower odour levels and its relative insensitivity to WAS feed concentrations which facilitates selective sludge wastage and hydraulic SRT control. Previously, the WPCP used two plate and frame presses to dewater primary sludge. The addition of secondary treatment will

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Management increase the sludge quantities significantly and will require that higher polymer dosages and lower loading rates be used. New centrifuges were installed to replace the existing presses as centrifuge dewatering has been incorporated at numerous BPR plants due to its improved compatibility with the process. Primary sludge and thickened WAS are stored separately and fed to a blending point just upstream of the centrifuges. Commissioning of the plant The initial stage of commissioning began in August 2006 when the sewage flow was switched over from the old to the new plant. Seed sludge from the Sault Ste. Marie West End WPCP Plant was added to the bioreactors. Construction work was still ongoing when the plant was brought online. During the initial phase of commissioning, the plant was operated similar to a conventional activated sludge plant and subsequently, the plant was scheduled to be commissioned and optimized as a BPR plant once the fermenter is ready to come online. The results discussed are from the initial stages of commissioning and do not show the full potential of the BPR treatment process at this stage. Early stages of commissioning started

to show positive results in effluent quality. The effluent TSS concentration started to drop as soon as flow was switched over to the new plant. The introduction of secondary treatment improved the TSS removal in the plant. The results in Figure 1 show the TSS concentration being constantly below 10 mg/L since mid-Oct 2006. The reduction in BOD effluent concentrations also improved significantly as the new plant started to generate mixed liquor in the bioreactor for biological treatment. Once the mixed liquor concentration increased in the bioreactor, the BOD removal rates increased simultaneously to produce lower BOD concentrations in the effluent, as shown in Figure 2. The phosphorus concentrations in the effluent discharge have shown a significant reduction as the phosphorus was being removed in the primary and secondary waste sludge. Figure 3 shows the phosphorus concentration in the discharge dropped to below 0.5 mg/L level since Oct 2006. After the initial stage of commissioning, usage of alum in the system, required for chemically assisted phosphorus removal, also began to drop. The longer sludge age in the bioreactor was begin-

ning to provide partial Bio-P removal in the system. The plant at the moment is probably over-dosing alum in the bioreactor as the effluent phosphorus concentration is well below the compliance limit set by the MOE. Even though the commissioning of a majority of the process units has been completed, the biological phosphorus removal was not running at the time of writing this article due to cold weather problems during startup. The fermenter was expected to come online towards the end of June, 2007 and the BPR process can be optimized as the SCVFAs from the fermenter will provide the catalyst to jump-start the process. Summary One of Ontarioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest biological phosphorus removal plants in Sault Ste. Marie is undergoing the final stages of commissioning. The effluent quality being discharged into St. Maryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s River is already meeting the MOE discharge compliance limits. Rajiv Kothari is a Project Engineer with Earth Tech Canada, Kitchener. John Myatt is a Senior Project Engineer in their London Office. Contact

July 2007 | 39

Wastewater Treatment

Muskoka wastewater treatment plant is sensitive to wildlife o eliminate failing septic systems within the Community of MacTier, the District Municipality of Muskoka constructed the MacTier Sewerage Works. This project included a sewage collection system within the Community, several sewage pumping stations and the new Conger Marsh Wastewater Treatment Plant. Muskoka, renowned for its lakes and “cottage” country has a philosophy of protecting and, where possible, enhancing the natural environment and the design and construction of the Conger Marsh Wastewater Treatment Plant reflects that philosophy. The Plant is a model of environmental sustainability, compatible with a provincially significant area which includes habitat for endangered species and a sensitive natural environment. Through innovative treatment and energy management, this facility discharges high quality effluent into an environmentally sensitive wetland fen, protecting nearby Stewart Lake from


failing septic systems and allowing for future economic growth. The site for the wastewater treatment plant is located on Crown Land which includes a provincially significant wetland as well as habitat for Eastern Massasauga and Hognose rattlesnakes. The Massasauga Rattler is the only venomous snake still found in Ontario but, due to its small size, it is a minor risk to humans. To mitigate the effects of the treatment plant on the natural environment and to ensure protection of sensitive snake habitats, a detailed environmental survey was conducted during the pre-design phase. As part of this survey, existing snake habitats were identified and mapped. In addition, several Eastern Massasauga and Hognose rattlesnakes were captured and tagged with radio transmitters. Over the course of two years, the movements of snakes were tracked to determine where on the property the most sensitive habitat is located so that impacts on nesting and hibernat-

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Simpler Approaches & Better Understanding Producing solutions from within the laboratory team. 40 | July 2007

ing areas could be minimized. The results of the survey led to the selection of a plant site that minimizes interaction between the snakes and municipal operations. The 800 metre long access road to the Plant has also been located and configured to avoid known snake habitats. In addition, to prevent accidental injury to the snakes without restricting their movements, the access road was constructed with a series of culverts to allow the snakes to cross the road safely. The outfall for the new Plant discharges into a Provincially Significant Wetland fen area. During the pre-design phase, detailed water quality surveys were undertaken at six locations on the site and for several potential discharge points. During these investigations, bird and aquatic life was extensively assessed and investigated. These investigations identified the preferred outfall location which had the least impact to the existing aquatic environment. The treatment plant process consists of raw sewage screening followed by a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR), tertiary filtration, disinfection using ultraviolet (UV) light and an outfall. Waste activated sludge produced from the process is stabilized using aerobic digestion and facilities are provided for the storage and management of biosolids. The SBR chosen for this project utilizes the Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System (ICEAS). The SBR process design was carefully chosen to optimize the main effluent quality parameters (biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total phosphorus and ammonia), while providing a high degree of flexibility to produce a very high quality effluent. The treatment of raw sewage was reviewed with respect to the normal parameters, as well as other raw sewage constituents including metals and other compounds to produce as high quality effluent as was possible without incurring excessive capital costs. The ICEAS process is a continuous flow type SBR which incorporates an anoxic/anaerobic pre-reaction zone followed by an aeration/settling/decanting basin. The pre-reaction zone acts as a biological section to improve sludge settleability. The process design was

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Treatment

Concrete foundation under construction for SBR process tanks.

selected to provide nitrification in the main reaction zone. Using the pre-reaction zone along with on/off aeration provides a benefit for denitrification. The denitrification feature of the SBR will reduce nitrates in the effluent to protect amphibians which are sensitive to nitrates. A high degree of redundancy has been incorporated into the Plant to ensure that the effluent quality is not compromised by equipment failures or process upsets. The tertiary filtration area was chosen conservatively using relatively low filtration rates to provide improved effluent quality and system security. As well, the Plant includes four UV disinfection banks to accommodate 100% redundancy at peak flow. Energy efficiency has been incorporated into the Plant through the use of dissolved oxygen blower control, as well as the design of a sophisticated heating, ventilation and air conditioning system to regulate building temperatures during attended and unattended operation. LEED (Leadership In Energy and Environmental Design) building principles were used to mitigate the environmental effects of the Plant construction and to improve energy efficiency. Even though the Plant is located approximately one kilometre from the nearest residential properties, there are several recreational trails in the area around the site. Noise and odour controls were built into the facility to minimize the effect of the Plant on the neighbouring residents as well as to

serve existing recreational uses within the area. The architectural elements of the Plant building are sensitive to the history of the local community. The building’s facade reflects traditional Muskoka architecture and the colour scheme was chosen to represent the cranberry harvesting heritage of the area. To protect the endangered species during construction and operation of the Plant, all staff working on the site have received snake awareness training. An expert from the Ministry of Natural Resources’ Reptile Awareness Program provided training sessions for the construction personnel and operations staff. Also, whenever blasting adjacent to critical habitat areas was necessary, pre and post-blast inspections were made by a biologist. To ensure the effectiveness of these measures, an extensive monitoring program will continue for one year past the Plant’s completion date. The Conger Marsh Wastewater Treatment Plant reflects Muskoka’s heritage while minimizing odour, light and noise pollution. Most importantly, the facility was designed to minimize impacts to sensitive, endangered Eastern Massasauga and Hognose rattlesnake populations, while protecting the surrounding aquatic, terrestrial and recreational environments. For more information contact Mike Gundry, P.Eng., M.A.Sc., at TSH E-mail:

July 2007 | 41

Drinking Water

Bangladesh village has its own solution for arsenic with slow sand filtration By Nadim Reza Khandaker , Ph.D., P.Eng. hile working in Bangladesh, I came across a small village that had an indigenous solution towards obtaining arsenic-free drinking water for their own consumption. I conducted a field evaluation program that confirmed that, along with removing the iron from the groundwater, the iron removal filters developed by the villagers were also removing the associated arsenic and producing arsenicsafe water to meet their cooking and drinking needs. Shibaloy, a village in the Manikgonj district of Bangladesh, found its own solution to arsenic-contaminated drinking water – in its fish hatchery. Like much of Bangladesh, Shibaloy relies on groundwater for its drinking water. Unfortunately, and again like much of Bangladesh, the groundwater beneath Shibaloy contains high levels of arsenic as well as iron.


FOR SALE Two year old, used, high-energy exhaust gas scrubber system System is presently used to remove VOCs from oven exhaust in textile industry. It consists of six major sections.

1. Variable throat venture section (stainless steel) 2. Tray reactor & storage section (stainless steel) – c/w 10hp. Circ. Pump 3. Water filtration system (s.s.) 4. Exhaust fan (1400 acfm) 5. High efficiency demisting section (s.s.) 6. PLC micrologic 1500 LRP series C For inquiries for the equipment, please contact: Mr. J. Barr Tel – 905-688-6372 (business hours) Fax – 905-688-0152 Canada Hair Cloth Co. 198 St. Paul St. St. Catharines, ON L2R 3M2

42 | July 2007

Table 1. Arsenic and iron removal data for some selected filters in Shibaloy.

Shibaloy has a fish hatchery, which uses groundwater and provides the fish farmers in the Manikgonj district with fish hatchlings. Dissolved iron must be removed ahead of time otherwise it will oxidize upon contact with air to insoluble precipitates, which coagulate fish spawns, preventing germination. A simple iron removal slow sand filtration system was constructed to filter the groundwater used by the hatchery (See Figure 1 and Figure 2)). It uses coarse sand as the filter media. Inside a cement-lined brick walled tank lies the filter bed consisting of layers of sand, gravel and a layer of 2-inch diameter stones. The filter bed lies on criss-crossed wooden beams spaced to allow for the passage of filtered water, which is then collected in a holding tank. The filter reduces iron concentrations in the groundwater from around 9.0 mg/L to non-detect levels (detection limit of 0.01 mg/L). When the filter becomes clogged the sand in the filter bed is changed. Coating of the waste sand with iron oxyhydroxide makes it red. When people in the adjacent villages started to build small household sand

Figure 3. Home made iron and arsenic removal filter in Shibaloy. Notice the red color of the sand indicating the sand is coated over time with iron oxyhydroxide.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Drinking Water Figure 1. Sketch of the iron removal filter.

Figure 2. Iron removal filter sand bed from the hatchery in Shibaloy village.

filters – earthen Kolschi pitchers - to remove the iron from their own well water they chose to use the discarded iron-coated sand from the fish hatchery. The pitchers are packed with the sand and have holes plugged with cotton at their bottoms to allow for the seepage of filtered water in drops (See Figure 3). These home-made filters have the capacity to process roughly two liters of water per hour and cost about two dollars in materials to build. A test of selective households in Shibaloy showed that, to the delight of the villagers, the homemade filters were not

only successful in removing iron but also effective at removing arsenic from well water containing both arsenic and iron. The groundwaters where the filters were successful at removing arsenic to below 50 ppb, had a relatively high concentration of iron (>5.0 mg/L), near neutral pH (6.87.2), and total arsenic concentration less than or equal to 100 ppb (Table 1). The arsenic is removed from solution by co-precipitation with the rapidly forming insoluble iron hydroxides. The sand filter then removes the insoluble arsenic-rich iron hydroxides. The red iron oxyhydrox-

ide coatings on the sand particles also serve as sites where soluble arsenic species can adsorb. Clearly, arsenic can be removed from iron-rich waters by aeration followed by slow sand filtration. Roughly sixty percent of the tubewells in Bangladesh contain more than 2.0 mg/L iron. The Shibaloy experience thus points to the possibility of a safe, cheap, and socially acceptable means for cleaning the drinking water in Bangladesh. For more information, contact

BIOLAC® Wastewater Treatment System The Biolac System is an innovative activated sludge process using a long sludge age process to create an extremely stable, easily operated system. The capabilities of this unique technology far exceed ordinary extended aeration treatment. The Biolac System offers high BOD removal, complete nitrification and the formation of a very stable waste sludge. The Biolac System’s design ensures the lowest-cost construction and guarantees operational simplicity. With in-ground basin construction, the Biolac System’s various components combine to produce excellent quality effluent at the lowest total plant cost possible. • Tel 514-636-8712 • Fax 514-636-9718 205-1000 St-Jean • Pointe-Claire, QC H9R 5P1 An Axel Johnson Company

July 2007 | 43


Using versatile geosynthetics for oil containment il is oil, whether consumed or used as fuel. All oils affect the environment when allowed to enter the sub-soil or, worse still, water. No site wants to have an oil spill into a waterway or groundwater, especially if in a residential area. Publicity following a spill will hurt the company’s image, not to mention the fines and remediation costs associated with spills. Geosynthetics are made up of the following polymeric materials used in environmental, geotechnical, transportation and hydraulic engineering applications: • Geotextiles – porous textiles • Geomembranes – impermeable liners • Geogrids – reinforcement grids • Geonets – drainage nets • Geosynthetic clay liners – rolls of bentonite in/on geosynthetics • Geocomposites – various assemblages of geosynthetic and sometimes soil materials. Geosynthetics being man-made synthetic materials can be modified and combined with various other geosynthetic materials, to give the final results required.There is a broad range of geosynthetic materials available, with more coming on stream each year to solve problems in civil engineering. Geotextiles are quite common and have been in use for many years.They can either be a woven product for lateral flow of liquids or they can be a fibrous product


Laying out of a geosynthetic oil mat. 44 | July 2007

(nonwovens) for filtering and separation of soils. Geotextiles can weigh from as little as 100 g/m² to 1000 g/m² depending on the application. Geotextiles were first developed commercially about 35 years ago for use on railroad beds for stabilization. They are now used in areas as common as residential gardens, acting as a weed control around plants. A geomembrane is used in containment applications. It is an impervious sheet, typically made of plastic. The plastic will be polypropylene: HDPE, LLPE, and PVC amongst other types of resins. These sheets of plastic will range in thickness from 0.25 mm to 3.5 mm. Geomembranes are manufactured on machinery very similar to that which manufactures a garbage bag; however, the widths can be up to 15 metres. Geomembranes will block the migration of fluids. Another product is the geosynthetic clay liner. This product encapsulates sodium bentonite between two porous sheets of geotextiles. The sheet on the top, the bentonite and the sheet on the bottom are bonded together using a special machine which will take fibres from one sheet of geotextiles and interlock it with the other sheet. Geosynthetic clay liners, when saturated with water and under a confining stress, will, like the geomembrane, become impervious. This 6-mm thick composite will have the same permeability characteristics as one metre of

compacted clay. All of these geosynthetics working in conjunction with each other have been used for many years in containment applications such as municipal solid waste landfills to prevent the leachates from the waste entering into the groundwater. The geosynthetics will also be used to cap the waste once the cell is full, preventing precipitation from entering the waste. These geosynthetics are also used for remediation sites to prevent precipitation entering contaminated soils and further contaminating an area downstream. As these geosynthetics are buried where there is little oxygen and are not subjected to ultraviolet rays, their half-life has been estimated to be up to 400 years. Geomembranes and geosynthetic clay liners contain liquids whether water or hydrocarbons. The task is to design a system using geosynthetics which will allow precipitation, whether in the form of rain or snow melt, to pass through and, at the same time, contain the hydrocarbons. A product known as Rubberizer, also known as a co-polymer, has been on the market for a considerable period of time. The co-polymer is basically a type of hydrocarbon, which will absorb other hydrocarbons. These co-polymers can be designed to absorb hydrocarbons and still be porous. Co-polymers such as these are typically spread over the surface of water to absorb oil which may be floating on the surface, or the co-polymer can be designed to absorb the hydrocarbons and congeal, becoming impermeable. Trials with various co-polymers showed that a product that absorbed and congealed would be desirable. With a product that totally sealed on full saturation of hydrocarbons this prevented any migration of hydrocarbons from the containment area. Using the principle developed to manufacture geosynthetic clay liners, the sodium bentonite was removed from the equation. A co-polymer was then substituted between the two porous geotextiles. Trials and laboratory testing were conducted to ensure the correct amount of co-polymer was installed in the centre of the two geotextiles. By spreading the copolymer mechanically in a production situation it ensures that the correct amount of co-polymer is applied to the composite as with the bentonite for the geosynthetic clay liner. Hence another geosynthetic is born -

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Containment The geosynthetic oil mat. In the Sorbwebâ&#x201E;˘ Plus system to contain hydrocarbons, various geosynthetics are also used. On the bottom of the system the geosynthetic oil mat is placed over porous soil to allow for the drainage of the precipitation, water from outside sources and snow melt. It is only active once hydrocarbons come into contact with it. The sidewalls around the perimeter of the system are lined with a geomembrane, which is impervious, directing the flow of any liquids to the bottom of the system, preventing any liquid from leaving the containment area through lateral movement. A number of drainage layers with woven geotextiles between them are placed above the geosynthetic oil mat. Woven geotextiles give a lateral flow so, in the event of an oil spill, the oil will not flow immediately down to the geosynthetic oil mat, allowing for dispersion of the oil and other liquids. This dispersion also gives dwell time for the co-polymer to fully absorb any hydrocarbon that comes in contact with it. The system is topped with fire quenching stone, which will be the reservoir for both the oil and water in case of

a catastrophe. There are also additional hydrocarbon absorption layers within the containment system. If the system becomes damaged due to in situ digging or other unknown reasons, the system is repairable. A case study of the Sorbwebâ&#x201E;˘ System was a successful containment of a 4,000 litre spill following an accident at a site located along the Don River in Toronto, Ontario. In another instance a site in 2005 had a fire and catastrophic failure of a main output transformer (MOT) at a nuclear generating station which resulted in an oil spill. Some oil was ultimately discharged into a large local lake. In response, the client commissioned installation of a secondary oil containment system to protect against damage by any potential future incidents. Sorbweb Plus oil containment system was selected for this project. One of the major reasons was that there would be no disruption of service from the installation of the containment system. This turnkey project was divided into phases. Each phase involved three main tasks: 1. Sorbweb Plus system design and material procurement.

2. Construction, including excavation, soil disposal and installation of the system. 3. Environmental engineering, including soil sampling and testing. Kinectrics acted as the general contractor for the entire project. The containment system is designed to contain 3,600,000 litres of transformer oil. Stones and soil were removed from around and behind the MOT units. Rebar with concrete sloping towards the containment system areas was installed in some areas where placing Sorbweb Plus would have been impractical. Additional excavation was performed using Gradall scraping, carried out 15 cm at a time. Pre-cast cement blocks formed the exterior and sides of the below grade dike of the system. Sand, the initial layer of the Sorbweb Plus was spread, followed by oil resistant plastic around the entire cement perimeter and interior obstructions to direct any oil or water down through the SorbwebPlus. Proprietary layers of the Sorbweb Plus were then installed. Finally additional materials and fire-quenching stones completed the system installation. For more information, E-mail

July 2007 | 45

Water & Wastewater

International environmental assessments – By Louise Hollingsworth and Charles Kretch an Indian example o matter where you work in the world today, there are different sets of rules. In some places you have to remove your shoes before entering a dwelling and in others you dare not eat with your left hand. Each country also has its own set of environmental regulations and, if funding for a project comes from another country, then that country’s laws will also apply. To explore the implications of doing work overseas we have referred to the environmental regulatory context of a recent feasibility study in India in which R.V. Anderson Associates participated. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a large water and wastewater-servicing scheme for Sangli Miraj Kupwad Municipal Corporation (SMKMC) in the state of Maharashtra. SMKMC was formed through an amalgamation in 1998 of three towns that were almost contiguous, which lie in the southern part of the state. The combined municipality has a population of 450,000 with a wide variety of social and cultural aspects to be taken into consideration. One of the key objectives was to improve the living conditions of the poor, especially the lives of those living in the 91 slums within the community. The Krishna River flows adjacent to the Sangli and Miraj settlements in the eastern and southern part of SMKMC and forms the most significant surface water body in the area. This river is the source of water supply for SMKMC. Warna is the largest tributary of the River Krishna in the District and also flows through the project area. In many of the built-up areas the hours of water supply average two hours each in the morning and evening. Many of the slum areas are provided with stand pipes (public taps or hand pumps). As a result hand pumps are in use too much and fetching water remains a daily activity of women in the project area. In the absence of a sustained piped water supply, the use of groundwater is increasing day by day. This has resulted in lowering of the groundwater table as well as degradation of water quality. The major concern is bacteriological contamination from domestic wastewater and the presence of Escherichia coli.


46 | July 2007

Bore wells, often from polluted sources, are the sole source of water in many areas of the municipality.

A major source of pollution to the Krishna River at SMKMC is the Sheri Nallah (a nallah is a natural small drainage waterway like a creek or stream) discharging into it. Although this is a natural nallah, it carries pollutants from unauthorized sewerage discharges and industrial wastes. Another source of pollution is the Haripur Nallah, which receives the partially treated effluent from one of the oxidation ponds. The oxidation pond is barely functional and its improvement is included as a project component. The State government is planning construction of a new bulk raw water supply from the nearby Warna River to serve the Sangli and Kupwad development areas. Extension of water services within all three communities, rehabilitation of aging facilities and the upgrading of the wastewater treatment systems in Sangli and Miraj, including the construction of new oxidation ponds, are all elements of this project meant to improve the life of the marginalized within SMKMC. Canada and Japan, as well as India, had taken a role in the project through their development initiatives. Because of this involvement the environmental assessment within the feasibility study had to meet the requirements of the Govern-

ment of India, the Canadian Government, the Japan Bank for International Cooperation, as well as the local community. Thankfully, even if the regulations differ, the result is to complete what we know in Canada as an environmental assessment. The objectives of an environmental assessment are to: • Minimize or avoid adverse environmental effects before they occur. • Incorporate environmental factors into decision-making. Within India, Japan and Canada, guidelines have been developed to assist in implementing a thorough environmental assessment. In approaching the project we worked to assure we were addressing the concerns of stakeholders by completing a broad survey of processes. Included as a member of the project team, was a local environmental specialist consultant currently practicing throughout India. In Canada, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act guides environmental regulations. In India, various Acts and Policies along with Environmental Tribunals, Green Benches and a National Environmental Appellate Authority have been created to guide Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water & Wastewater regulation. Public consultation is also an important element of the EIA regulation. Because of the involvement of Japan we were also obligated to adhere to the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) Guidelines for Confirmation of Environmental and Social Considerations. Environmental Impact Assessments and Environmental Audits were important developments impacting the study. India In 1974, the 42nd amendment to the Indian Constitution brought about two new Articles. The first, under the Directive Principles of State Policy (Article 47), makes it the responsibility of the State Government to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. The second, under Fundamental Duties (Article 51(g)), makes it the fundamental duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures. In addition to these Constitutional provisions, the Indian Environmental Assessment process is guided through a series of Acts, Notifications, Rules, Standards, Amendments, and Policy

Statements. There are principally five Acts in India, which define the overall Indian Environmental Legislative Framework. They are: • The Environment (Protection) Act and Rules, 1986. • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. • The Public Liability (Insurance) Act, 1991. • The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. Besides these Acts, there are five different additional national policies which govern the environmental management in the country and have recognized the need for sustainable development in their specific contexts and formulated necessary strategies to give effect to such recognition. Until January 1994, obtaining environmental clearance from the Central Environment Ministry was only an administrative requirement intended for mega projects undertaken by the government or public sector undertakings. A more comprehensive and formal process started by enacting the Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 1994 and subsequent amendments.

About 32 categories of projects/activities were included which required environmental clearance prior to the start of any activities. Building upon the experience gained over the years, a new EIA Regulation has come into effect since September 14, 2006, suppressing all previous EIA notifications and amendments. This is a completely re-engineered process and has included a wide range of projects and activities with different threshold limits under the purview of prior environmental clearance. The physical infrastructure projects/activities in the schedule of the EIA Regulation have, however, excluded municipal water supply and treatment systems, and municipal wastewater treatment systems from the screening process of environmental clearance prior to project implementation, anticipating minimal impact on the environment. Therefore, no formal screening process was followed, as required under the new EIA Regulation. There exists a sound institutional framework in the country to deal with various environmental issues. Notable among them are - the Central Ground continued overleaf...

July 2007 | 47

Water & Wastewater Water Board (CGWB) to carry out regional hydrogeological studies, to provide information on groundwater in different terrains and for future planning of groundwater development and management. CGWB provides assistance to various urban, defense and public sector establishments to solve their immediate water supply problems by selecting suitable sites for construction of wells. The State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) oversee environmental compliance and environmental monitoring under the provisions of the Water and Air Act. The operational stages of the project have to comply with the water, wastewater and air quality standards as stipulated by the Maharashtra SPCB and CGWB, and will have to seek periodical permits and approvals. Canada Because Canada is a project supporter at the feasibility study stage only, adherence to the Canadian Federal EA process is required. Established in 1994, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) came into being to prepare for the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act coming into force in early 1995. The Canadian Envi-

Announcement McIntosh Perry Consulting Engineers are pleased to announce that Mark Priddle, P.Geo. is joining their team as Manager, Environmental Science and Engineering. Mark brings more than 20 years of experience in environmental site assessment and remediation, contaminant hydrogeology, water supply, risk assessment and landfill management to the firm. His experience includes fifteen years as an environmental consultant in Ontario and more than five years as a researcher in the Federal Government and academia in the fields of contaminant assessment and remediation. He joined the 100+ staff of McIntosh Perry on July 3, 2007.

Mark can be reached at the McIntosh Perry Head Office at 613 836-2184 (Ext. 36) or at (Cell 613 913-7995). 48 | July 2007

The Warna River is the location for the water intake station for the community.

ronmental Assessment Act is the legal basis for the federal environmental assessment process. CEAA is an independent federal body, accountable to Parliament through the Minister of the Environment. The Agency works to better integrate Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s environmental goals with its economic, social and cultural values in support of sustainable development. This can mean anything from a Screening to a Review Panel. A screening is a systematic approach to documenting the environmental effects of a proposed project and determining the need to eliminate or minimize (mitigate) the adverse effects, to modify the project plan or to recommend further assessment through mediation or an assessment by a review panel. Some screenings may require only a brief analysis of the available information and a brief report; others may need new background studies and will be more thorough and rigorous. A review panel is appointed to review and assess, in an impartial and objective manner, a project with likely adverse environmental effects. A review panel may also be appointed in cases where public concerns warrant it. Such projects may be referred by the responsible authority to the Minister of the Environment for assessment by a review panel. Only the Minister of the Environment may order an assessment by a review panel. Since the Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad water and wastewater servicing study and project is in a partial implementation stage, and has yet to exhibit any adverse environmental impacts, the Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Environmental Assessment proceeded as a screening

under the Canadian Federal EA process. Japan The Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) Guidelines have been formulated on the basis of Japanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s approach to international co-operation in environmental conservation. The objective of the Guidelines is to encourage project proponents to implement appropriate environmental and social considerations in accordance with the Guidelines, by making clear its procedures, criteria for decision-making and requirements. Within the JBIC Guidelines the process outlined is similar to the aforementioned under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Categories have been created to assist in the decisionmaking process. Each project is screened to define the appropriate category, lettered from A to F, for each project. Category A projects are likely to have significant adverse impact on the environment. A project with complicated impact or unprecedented impact which are difficult to assess is also classified as Category A. A proposed project is classified as Category FI if JBIC has little direct involvement with the project and those projects are expected to have potential impact on the environment. The JBIC Guidelines require monitoring of the project to assure implementation of mitigating measures to limit or remedy the impact on the environment. The Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Project is being implemented within a heavily disturbed region, and is a project designed to improve the health and well-being of the population of the community, therefore the Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Environmental Assessment will proceed as a category B under the JBIC Guidelines.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water & Wastewater Gender Equity The study had to also cover any gender equity issues that contribute to reducing inequality between men and women. Although many other nations experience social stratification, rarely is it so elaborately constructed as in the Indian institution of the caste system. Caste has undergone significant change since independence, but it still involves hundreds of millions of people. In its preamble, India's constitution forbids negative public discrimination on the basis of caste. Addressing gender equity within a society that challenges western understanding of culture was a chore. Understanding how the project would improve gender equity meant looking past an ingrained structure to the real individuals being impacted by the lack of water and sanitary servicing.

nomic development of the area and there is considerable support for the initiative. Communicating this support as well as addressing the various requirements presented by the participating countries, state and regional governments was the challenge of drafting the final report. Beginning with our experience with Canadian environmental assessments, our team leader built an approach to assure a broad survey of processes. With full input, including our local specialists who brought incredibly valuable contri-

butions, we were able to integrate the environmental laws of Canada, India and Japan successfully and help improve SMKMC infrastructure to benefit the health and well-being of the community. Louise Hollingsworth is an Environmental Planner with R.V. Anderson Associates, Email: Charles J. Kretch, M.A.Sc., P. Eng., is a Senior Environmental Engineer, Email:

Although many other nations experience social stratification, rarely is it so elaborately constructed as in the Indian institution of the caste system. Conclusion The adoption of an alternative longterm surface water supply source on the Warna river and the reduction in pollution in the drainage ditches, nallahs and the Krishna river will better balance the surface water use and improve its quality, and ultimately reduce the corporationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reliance on bore well groundwater resources which extract drinking water in a polluted environment. The construction and extension of the sanitary collection system and the creation of new wastewater treatment lagoons will improve the health situation within SMKMC and the Krishna River by treating wastewater before being discharged. In addition the lagoons will provide treated effluent to the nearby village, Dhulgaon Dubel, to irrigate crops and reduce reliance on infrequent precipitation. Overall the improvement in water and wastewater infrastructure will contribute significantly to the

July 2007 | 49


Hose pump usage is not limited to abrasive applications By Chuck Treutel, P.Eng. n the environmental market, there is a myriad of abrasive fluid applications such as gritty sludge for which hose pumps are ideal. Because hose pumps have a non-slip positive displacement design, they give repeatable flow per revolution along their entire speed range regardless of discharge pressure. This makes for excellent metering pumps, though they are commonly applied in fixed speed transfer applications as well. In slurry applications hose pumps are fully reversible, self priming, and can run dry without damage. These pumps also add the benefit of being able to blow out blockages or drain process lines of high settling solids. Perhaps the most common application is moving hard-to-handle lime slurry, used for acid neutralization and biosolids stabilization in wastewater treatment plants. To reduce maintenance costs while


Thickener underflow installation.

moving thickened solid laden sludge as in thickener underflow, market sectors like wastewater treatment often select hose pumps. At municipalities of all sizes around North America, these pumps are regularly feeding mechanical solid-liquid separation and filtration equipment like belt filter presses, plate and frame filter presses and centrifuges. Beverage and potable water treatment plants use hose pumps to meter sand-like, powder-activated carbon (PAC) which is used to purify water. Other uses for hose pumps The low operating speeds of hose pumps make them a regular selection for liquid polymers, reducing plant polymer costs. The ability to pump mixed phase fluids efficiently and run dry make hose pumps ideal for draining tanks or pumping “off-gassing” fluids such as sodium hypochlorite or for pumping air-entrained DAF float and scum.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Lime slurry installation.

Corrosive and caustic treatment chemicals like ferric chloride, alum, sodium hydroxide, potassium permanganate, sodium bisulfite, hydrofluosilicic acid, and sulfuric acid are also easy to handle, because there is no metallic contact-the fluid is contained within the hose element. History In 1971, engineers at Holland-based Bredel (now Watson-Marlow Bredel Pumps) were busy developing a machine to spray a cement mixture. The decision was made to internally create a brand new pump that could effectively pump the concrete through the machine and also tolerate the materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s abrasive properties. This new cement pump worked so well, it spawned new research and development at Bredel that ultimately yielded longer hose life, broader flow ranges, and greater chemical compatibility. It was not long before the hose pump was transformed from a purpose-built cement pump into a worldwide solution for pump users looking to increase productivity and minimize their life cycle costs when moving abrasive fluids. Hose pumps are a classification of peristaltic pumps, rotary style PD pumps that take their name from the biological process of peristalsis: muscular contractions that move mixed phase fluids (solids, liquids, gases) throughout the digestive system. The hose pump difference Hose pumps are unique in that there are no seals, valves, or moving parts in the product stream, making the pumps ideal for abrasive slurries. The pumpâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operation is simple: a hose element positioned along stationary pump housing is compressed from the outside by shoes that are mounted to a rotor. Fluid is pushed towards the discharge as the rotor slides the shoes along the hose element while the restitution of the hose element behind the shoe allows more fluid to be continued overleaf...

July 2007 | 51


Abrasive sludge installation.

drawn into the pump. This design means the abrasive fluid is contained within the hose element; the rotor remains outside the pumpage zone and never actually touches the product being moved. The complete closure of the hose element gives the pump its positive displacement action, preventing flow drop or erosion from backflow and also eliminating the need for check-valves.

A hose element has a serviceable life before fatigue requires replacement—it is predominantly dependent on the pump speed and compression forces on the hose element, but not influenced by the abrasiveness of the fluid that is pumped. With pumps that can deliver a range of 0.005 – 400 gpm and 0-240 psi discharge pressure, hose pump manufacturers will typically size pumps to run at speeds to

deliver thousands of hours of hose life. Hose element replacement on the largest hose pump models takes about one hour and is performed at the installation site. To replace a hose element, simply remove the flanges from the pump and jog the motor to expel the old hose and feed in a new one. Replacement hose elements costs are approximately 5% of initial pump price. Peristaltic pumps also do not require the ancillary equipment commonly used with a progressive cavity pump in abrasive applications, such as double mechanical seals, seal water flush systems, run dry protection systems (hose pumps can run dry without damage) and in-line check valves. For ancillary equipment, a hose pump may require a pulsation dampener in installations with long pipe runs and very high fluid velocities; however, normally, pulsation is eliminated without a dampener through minor pipe changes or use of flexible lines. Chuck Treutel is with Watson-Marlow Bredel Pumps. For more information, call (800) 282-8823, email:, or visit:



Package Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants Worldwide For over 60 years Sanitherm, a division of Wellco Energy Services, has developed a worldwide reputation for quality equipment and service. Our package plants are found in South Korea, Indonesia, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, the United Arab Emirates, Nigeria, Peru and throughout North America. We build, install and/or operate plants, and represent over 20 premier manufacturers in Canada, the USA, Japan and Europe. We supply SaniBrane® Membrane Bioreactors (MBR’s), RBC and SBR package plants, static tube aeration, odour control, disinfection, air stripping towers and much more.

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52 | July 2007

Free CAD layout upon request Phone 1-800-466-7979

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Operators impress at By Tom Davey

defining moment for operators emerged during the 2007 Water Environment Association of Ontario Conference in London, Ontario, when teams competed in the several components of the Operations Challenge with an impressive combination of speed and the aura of military precision. It was also an exciting competition covering several sectors of operations and was a physically demanding yet eloquent demonstration of engineering awareness and implementation of complex operations requirements. The fatalities and serious illnesses of the Walkerton drinking water tragedy dramatically and regrettably demonstrated the consequences of inadequate operations training in drinking water treatment plus the serious threats to drinking water sources from inadequate wastewater treatment operations. But, reassuringly, and entertainingly, the impressive demonstration in London highlighted the fact that the training and upgrading of operators in the wastewater treatment field is well underway. The WEAO conference showed training and upgrading of operators is extremely complex. Catherine Jefferson was introduced as WEAO’s new Executive Director. It was her first occasion to meet-and-greet many Association members; the first for


manning the WEAO booth; and the first introduction to a number of committee members. Incoming president, Peter Takaoka, of R.V. Anderson Associates, took over from Vincent Nazareth, noting the countless hours that Vince put in during 200607 in moving the Association forward toward meeting its goals and objectives. “Vincent was the guiding force behind many of our recent initiatives such as: the Scholarship Program, the hiring of the Executive Director, and the establishment of the Student Chapter Network,” Peter said. “Given the demographics of our industry and the workforce in general, with numbers of retirees exceeding numbers of new entries into our business sometime within the next decade, we need to make ourselves a relevant organization otherwise we risk withering and dying,” he warned. Peter gave special thanks to Ian McIlwham of the Region of Durham who was leaving the Board, and welcomed the new Board members: John Duong, of the Region of Halton and Michael Albanese, of H2Flow Equipment. ES&E thanks Ian Smith, City of Toronto, for his cooperation and photos of the Operations Challenge.

Results of Operations Challenge First Place - Sludge Hammers Region of Durham Second Place - OCWA Jets Third Place - Highlanders City of Toronto Other participating teams in no particular order of finishing: Royal Flush - City of London Crapshoot - City of Windsor Dung Beetles - City of Toronto Flush Waters – Midland

July 2007 | 53

ACE 2007 Report

Water For People-Canada co-founder honoured during ACE 2007 illiam M. Butler, who was with the City of Saint John, New Brunswick, for twenty-five years, received an award named in his honour for Outstanding Canadian Service at a dinner held during the American Water Works Association (AWWA) annual convention held in Toronto. Water For People is an international, non-profit organization based in Denver, Colorado. Its mission is to assist people in developing nations gain access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation. Water For People was formed in 1991 by the American Water Works Association and it is the charity of choice for the North American water industry. In 1995, Bill Butler and other Canadian volunteers formed Water For People - Canada, (WFPC) which was originally created so that Canadian WFP donors, primarily through AWWA, had a Canadian non-profit organization to which they could send their donations. An agency agreement between Water For People and Water For People - Canada outlined that the Canadian organization would have the same mission, vision, and goals of WFP, but that some WFP activities would be adapted for our Canadian culture and legal system. Mr. Butler served as the first president of WFPC until 2003, when he retired from the City of Saint John. He still sits on the Board and is chair of the International Programs Committee. Master of Ceremonies, Tony Petrucci, of CH2M HILL Ltd. and President of Water For People Canada, said “thanks to Bill Butler’s vision, countless thousands around the world now enjoy the benefits of safe water and improved sanitation.”


WFPC would like to thank the following award dinner sponsors Gold Sponsor • The Ontario Clean Water Agency Silver Sponsor • Summa Engineering Limited Bronze Sponsors • ACG Technology Limited • American Water Canada • CH2M HILL • EPCOR, Neptune Technology Group • City of Saint John 54 | July 2007

(Front row, left to right) Water For People Canada Board members; Guy Le Patourel, Stantec Consulting Ltd: Penny Davey, ES&E Magazine, William M. Butler, Mark Blumberg, Blumberg Segal LLP Barristers & Solicitors, Phil Sidhwa, American Water Canada Corp.(Back row, left to right) Douglas J. Seargeant, EPCOR Water Services Inc, Tony Petrucci, CH2M HILL, Harold MacNeil, Halifax Regional Water Commission, Annie Carrière, École Polytechnique Montreal.

He told the audience that WFPC’s vision is a world where all people have access to safe drinking water and sanitation; a world where no one suffers or dies from a water or sanitation related disease. Mr. Petrucci went on to cite these most startling statistics; • 1.8 million people die every year from diarrhoeal diseases (including cholera); 90% are children under 5, mostly in developing countries. • 88% of diarrhoeal disease is attributed to unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitation and hygiene. • Improved water supply reduces. diarrhoea morbidity as much as 25% • Improved sanitation reduces diarrhoea morbidity by 32%. • Hygiene interventions including hygiene education and promotion of hand washing can reduce diarrhoeal cases by as much as 45%. • Improvements in drinking-water quality though household treatment can lead to a reduction in diarrhoea episodes by between 35% and 39%. • 1.3 million people die from malaria each year, 90% of whom are children under 5. • There are 1.5 million cases of hepatitis A every year. • 146 million are threatened by blindness related to a lack of face washing due to absence of nearby sources of safe water. Mr. Petrucci quoted Dr. Lee Jongwook of the World Health Organization, who said: “Once we secure access to

clean water and to adequate sanitation facilities for all people, irrespective of their living conditions, a huge battle against all kinds of diseases will be won.” Each WFP project addresses the three areas of water supply, adequate sanitation and hygiene education, to help win this battle. The UN has included water supply, sanitation and hygiene in its Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The world community has acknowledged the importance of their promotion as development interventions and has set a series of goals and targets, some of which are: • Cut in half by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. • By 2020 achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. • Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. • Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. The UN has declared 2005-2015 “Water For Life” as the International Decade for Action and set’s the world agenda on a greater focus on water-related issues. Companies or individuals wanting to get involved with Water for PeopleCanada can contact Penny Davey with Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine. Email

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

(Left) Roy Budd, Budd and Beaver Corp, with Greg Jackson from ACG Technology.

(Left to right) Tom Kincaid, Halogen Valve Systems, Darrin Hopper, H2Flow Tanks, Tom Davey, ES&E Magazine.

(Left to right) Julie Pecaut, Water for People, Bill Butler and Vernon Lucy, Degremont Technologies.

(Left) Water for People founder, Ken Miller presents Bill Butler with his award for outstanding service.

July 2007 | 55

OWWA/OMWA Conference Report – Blue Mountain Resort ver 800 delegates attended the 2007 Ontario Water Works Association/Ontario Municipal Water Association Conference which was held in May in Collingwood. Laurel Broten, Minister of the Environment, addressed the plenary session and said “we learned some valuable lessons from Walkerton. We have also learned some lessons from the problem


of lead contamination in London’s drinking water. It was alarming for all of us but it was also a reminder of the safeguards we now have in place. Steps were taken to address the issue and guidelines have been established.” “The conference theme of Building Our Sustainable Future was well chosen,” she said. “Water planning is not just about water. It’s also about climate change. How big is our environmental footprint and how much does it affect our water, air and land?” She noted that the Ontario government is working on implementing all of the recommendations that resulted from the Walkerton Inquiry. “More than 80 per cent of the recommendations have already been implemented and we are well on the way with the rest,” she reported. “We could not have done this without your support and guidance.” The Minister spoke about the Great Lakes Basin being under

The Great Lakes Basin is under pressure to provide drinking water for three out of every four people in Ontario. pressure to provide drinking water for three out of every four people in Ontario and expanding a ban on the transfer of water out of the basin. She also spoke about a possible water taking charge for large users and indicated that the government will be working with the associations to look at how best to make water conservation charges work in protecting and conserving water services. AWWA Vice President Joe Mantua spoke to delegates about the new program Only Tap Water Delivers that focuses on educating people on the value of water. The program involves a public education campaign that highlights the impact of water on public health, fire protection, support for the economy and quality of life. The trade show - with more than 100 suppliers of equipment and services to the drinking water industry - was a sell-out. The pipe tapping demonstration, with teams from Ottawa and Toronto, provided conference attendees with an opportunity to see the skill, training and endurance required in competition. 56 | July 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

CANECT 2007 Report

Minister Broten opens CANECT 2007

ntario Environment Minister Laurel Broten was keynote speaker at The Canadian Environmental Conference and Tradeshow (CANECT) held on April 1617, 2007 at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre in downtown Toronto. The minister updated delegates on several Ontario government environmental initiatives that will have an impact on Ontario’s industrial sector. Attendees also had the opportunity to attend a keynote address given by Craig Kielberger - recognized for his work in support of the rights of children by Pope John Paul II and Queen Elizabeth II. They also had the chance to hear a presentation by Chris Gardner whose book ‘Pursuit of Happiness’ was made into a hit Hollywood movie starring Will Smith.


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Workshop topics included : • Environmental regulation and compliance • Dealing with industrial air emissions • The basics of environmental management systems • Industrial waste and waste diversion • Water and wastewater compliance • Dealing with government inspections and investigations • Environmental Auditing and EHS management systems • Contaminated land issues • Understanding Ontario’s new Bill 133 • Spills and other environmental emergencies Co-organized annually by Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine since 1992, CANECT typically attracts senior people responsible for environmental engineering, regulations and

compliance issues. For the first time, CANECT featured an Energy and the Environment Pavilion, in recognition of the growing connection between these two sectors. CANECT 2007 was co-located with Health & Safety Canada. This annual tradeshow of the Industrial Accident Prevention Association (IAPA) attracts over 6,000 delegates. Combined, the two shows attracted some 500 exhibiting companies, and 7,500 tradeshow and conference delegates. For further information on CANECT 2008, which will be held April 21 -22, please contact Denise Simpson, Show Manager, Tel: 905-727-4666 or Toll Free: 1-888-254-8769 (Ext.21) Email: Or visit

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


• Be prepared to lead in meeting your new environmental responsibilities! • Target these dates and register now to receive your $130 early-bird discount! This Fall, Envirogate Inc. is again presenting a series of three “no-nonsense”, practical, relevant and cost-effective environmental management and compliance courses. The courses -- held at Toronto Board of Trade’s Downtown Centre, from November 12 to 14 2007 -- will feature leading environmental lawyers and consultants from firms such as Bennett Jones LLP, RWDI Air, and Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers, LLP, together with senior-level consultants from government and industry. Sponsored by environmental specialists Environmental Science & Engineering magazine and compliance specialists Canadian Environmental Regulation and Compliance News, Envirogate’s Fall Series is a proven cost-effective investment in staying ahead of the compliance curve and keeping up-to-date with environmental management and engineering strategies and solutions.

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Regulation & Compliance 16th Bi-annual Update & Review • what’s new in federal and provincial legislation • environmental management, spills prevention initiatives • enforcement and environmental penalties • GHG emissions reduction & trading: opportunities and challenges • environmental approvals • preparing for inspections and investigations Presented by Bennett Jones LLP, Environment Health & Safety Group Wednesday





• complying with Ontario’s new Local Air Quality regulation 419/05 • mapping your air emissions strategy • challenges in obtaining a certificate of approval • air testing for compliance assessment • air emission control techniques • responding to orders and nuisance complaints • managing odour compliance issues • managing noise and vibration issues • challenging orders and approvals Presented by Willms & Shier, Environmental Lawyers and air emissions specialists from RWDI Air.


Proven strategies and practical steps to comply with new regulatory and social responsibilities to

reduce your company’s carbon footprint! • the corporate responsibility framework - the Carbon Disclosure Project • the regulatory imperative - federal regulations and guidelines - provincial regulations and plans • proven management methods and tools - GHG protocols and ISO 14065-2007 - Greenhouse Gas Management Plan - auditing & verifying GHG reductions - energy efficiency and alternates • Learn practical solutions based on case studies Presented by air emissions specialists from RWDI Air, and Willms & Shier, Environmental Lawyers

Combined Sewer Overflow

Making the case for satellite wastewater treatment systems By Robert Y.G. Andoh he Stormwater Pollution Handbook published by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment for municipal offices outlines two options for cleaning up the flows discharging during heavy rainstorms from the many combined sewer overflow (CSO) points in the region. It recommends: • Partial separation of combined sewers to provide separate storm and sanitary systems. • Storage of combined sewer flows during rainfall events followed by the treatment of the excess volume during dry periods at the sewage treatment plant. These are tried-and-true, conventional approaches that have worked with degrees of success ever since engineers started designing sewers to carry both sewage and stormwater in a single pipe. To ensure the highest level of treatment possible, municipalities have strived to increase the capacities of their systems, either by building new, “separated” sewers or by significantly expanding their end-of-the-pipe treatment plants. These conventional approaches, however, are staggeringly expensive for individual communities already struggling to pay for education, public safety, environmental clean-ups and community pro-


grams. Separating sewers also extracts a cost on the community in the form of closed streets for months on end. There are other options communities are pursuing that not only clean the discharges to government standards, they do so at a significantly lower cost. The implementation of satellite treatment systems within the collection systems – away from the end of the pipe – provides significant benefits from both a process and public health standpoint compared with conventional approaches. Costs are paramount Current estimates of the costs required to address these issues are on the rise. In the United States an EPA report in 2006 said utilities have spent $6 billion the past three years to control CSOs, reducing the annual CSO volume from 1 trillion gallons to about 850 billion gallons. The same report estimates an additional $50 billion (US) will be needed to solve CSO problems. Private estimates put the figure much higher, up to $100 billion. Communities bear the brunt of this cost. Many sewer separation projects that wind miles through busy downtown areas run well into the tens of millions of dollars. Hydrodynamic vortex separators (HDVSs) have been identified as one means of reducing the capital expendi-

tures required to address CSOs. A key advantage is that a single HDVS is capable of both solids separation and disinfection, providing a significant reduction in the capital expenditures required to handle CSOs. Another advantage is that the flow properties of a single HDVS can be optimized to greatly improve the efficiency of both solids separation and contact disinfection compared to conventional technology. This means that HDVSs may be able to handle the same CSO volume as conventional contact tanks that are five times as large. The resulting reduction in tank size and construction costs typically reduces overall project costs by about 50 percent. Why satellite treatment? Within extensive sewerage networks conveying foul or combined sewage, the large organic solids typically discharged at the top end of the system, in water closets (WCs), are degraded into smaller sized particles with age and transportation through the sewerage network. This is especially the case where ancillary components such as pumping stations create hydrodynamic regimes with high turbulence and shear. It stands to reason, therefore, that wastewater discharged at the end of an extensive sewerage network will have a higher proportion of smaller sized (less readily settleable)

Innovative technologies in the upstream parts of highly urbanized catchments provide alternative cost-effective urban water management and control. 60 | July 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

solids compared with wastewater at the top end of the system. The larger solids are, the easier it is to remove them by physical separation processes (such as sedimentation). Fecal solids discharged into water closets (WCs) at the top end of the collection system tend to be larger solids that settle rapidly and are readily removed from wastewater streams using sedimentation as a unit process. These solids also have a propensity to degrade into smaller and smaller sizes as they are transported through collection systems. As fecal solids degrade, they release more and more of their associated pollutants (e.g., fecal coliforms, pathogens and heavy metals) into the surrounding water increasing the public health risks associated with the discharge of untreated portions of the wastewater into the environment. This would suggest that, with regards to separating solids and their associated pollutants from wastewater, the earlier this separation is implemented in the cycle of collection, conveyance and treatment (i.e., upstream within the collection system), the easier it is to achieve water quality benefits. Given that one of the main functions and objectives of collection systems and wastewater treatment is to separate contaminants or pollutants from the wastewater, this also suggests that separation of contaminants or pollutants from wastewater should be undertaken at the earliest opportune time in the cycle of Collection, Transport, Treatment and Disposal (CTTD). These predicate the use of satellite wastewater treatment systems distributed as far upstream as is practicable as this provides the greatest opportunity for achieving high levels of solids and associated pollutant removals without recourse to more complex treatment process stages. It is surmised that the interception and treatment of wastewater at an early stage in the CTTD cycle also enables much more effective utilization of the assimilative capacity of the receiving waters (environment) and provides better scope for community and other stakeholder involvement. With conventional schemes where treatment plants tend to be “out of sight,” there generally is very little scope for stakeholder involvement as an “out-ofsight-out-of-mind”-type mentality may develop with no communal sense of “duty of care.” Localized schemes on the other hand provide scope for local community involvement, an awareness of the continued overleaf...

Hydromantis, Inc., is searching for senior, managerial level individuals who are experienced in water and wastewater engineering to augment our Cambridge, Ontario office. Individuals will have either P.Eng. or C.E.T. registration in Ontario with experience in Municipal Water and Wastewater Treatment consulting engineering design and process knowledge. At Hydromantis you will be a key member of our management team – you will be listened to and respond to multidisciplinary and multiple clients with a wide variety of projects. You will be experienced in the Consulting Engineering Industry in project management, business development, and supervision and contract management. You will liaise with and lead designers, contractors, governmental authorities and other project stakeholders. Proven expertise will be shown in project scheduling, project budget preparation, Building Codes, Standards, Procedures, Specifications, Environmental and Safety Regulations. Positions: 1. Senior engineer in mechanical process design with greater than 10 years of consulting experience. 2. Project managers with P.Eng. or CET with greater than 7 years of experience. Hydromantis provides competitive compensation, benefits and opportunities for those individuals who know the benefits of a dynamic firm with great potential for the future. We thank all applicants; however, only those individuals to be interviewed will be contacted.

Please forward your detailed resume by mail, fax or email to: Monica Brecht, Chem.Eng.Technologist Human Resources Department Hydromantis, Inc. 420 Sheldon Drive, Suite 201Cambridge, ON N1T 2H9 Fax: 519-624-7224 Email:

July 2007 | 61

Combined Sewer Overflow need for schemes to be sustainable, and increased scope for beneficial reuse and recycling. The satellite approach would appear to have other benefits. This could include potential reductions in the extent of the associated collection systems infrastructure as the wastewater does not have to be carted over long distances. This, in turn, translates into major cost savings. The usual concerns regarding satellite wastewater treatment schemes often relate to potential increases in maintenance and operational costs and their associated commitments with the proliferation of treatment sites and the possible lack of adequate control to prevent cross-contamination and direct human contact with contaminated sources. In fact, this may be the case where factors such as poorly constructed systems (e.g. septic tanks) are sited in close proximity to groundwater aquifers that are used as primary sources of potable water. This may also be the case for treatment systems, equipment and devices that require external sources of power, sophisticated control, regular inspection, high levels of maintenance and offer inadequate control pathways. Economical hydraulic diaphragm pumps The Series 500-E “dia-PUMP” from Neptune Chemical Pump Co., Inc. offers all the performance advantages of a true hydraulic diaphragm pump. Economy is achieved by using a simplified liquid end for low- to medium-viscosity fluids such as disinfection chemicals and acids. Nine models offer maximum capacities from 0.8 gph to 30 gph. All models feature micrometer dial which allows manual adjustment over 10:1 turndown range. Maximum pressures to 1100 psi. Automatic control options include pneumatic or electric stroke length adjustment and variable speed drives. Cast Iron, 316SS, PVC and Kynar liquid ends are available.

Neptune Chemical Pump Co., Inc. Lansdale, PA USA Tel: 888-3NEPTUNE or 215-699-8700 E-Mail: Web:

62 | July 2007

Appropriate systems for implementing a satellite treatment approach are ideally those that require no external sources of power, are simple with no sophisticated control, are robust and reliable, require virtually no maintenance, and provide effective control at relatively minimal costs. Passive robust devices with no moving parts such as vortex flow controls, advanced hydrodynamic vortex separators, filter systems and ecological based wastewater treatment systems are examples of appropriate treatment and control systems which provide scope for the implementation of effective distributed flow control systems with satellite treatment. Innovative technologies in the upstream parts of highly urbanized catchments provide alternative cost-effective urban water management and control. These systems have been found to be efficient and compact. They also offer more effective treatment and control compared with many conventional systems providing significant cost savings in addition to improved efficacy. Satellite treatment in action In Saco, Maine, officials have forged ahead with a project to eliminate seven of the city’s eight CSO sites by separating the sewers. For the last of the eight CSO points, the city installed a CSO treatment scheme at the local wastewater treatment plant that uses a hydrodynamic vortex separator to treat the combined flows before they are discharged into the Saco River. Officials opted for this alternative method to solve the CSO issue in a busy downtown area, to avoid having to dig up streets, create traffic congestion and engage in costly land takings. Saco installed Hydro International Storm King, Grit King and Reg-U-Flo units to meet the Maine Department of Environmental Protection’s primary treatment equivalency for wastewater discharge standards. Monitoring results obtained during the spring 2007 wet season of this year showed that the device performed to the state’s standards. Elsewhere, a total CSO treatment scheme including satellite treatment at two sites within the collection system in Columbus, Georgia, was implemented at a cost of $85 million. This saved the community at least $45 million over the previous estimates for the solution based on the conventional approach of a new interceptor sewer that would have necessitated the upgrading of the existing main wastewater treatment facility.

An unconventional approach Communities with CSO issues may lack adequate funds to undertake the required level of capital and operations and maintenance investments without the potential of perhaps doubling of local rates and fees. Under the current regime of tighter environmental regulations, increasing urbanization coupled with an aging urban drainage and wastewater treatment infrastructure, several communities are faced with the tasks and challenges of rehabilitating or upgrading their collection systems and wastewater treatment plants to provide the requisite levels of service and comply with standards. Conventional systems are costly and this, coupled with the funding constraints and issues of affordability, clearly highlights the need for innovative, cost-effective and sustainable “alternative approaches” for current collection systems and wastewater treatment needs and challenges. The use of satellite treatment systems located within collection systems provides the scope for resolving some of the challenges in urban wastewater infrastructure provision in a cost-efficient manner as demonstrated in Saco, Maine, and Columbus, Georgia. Monitoring and operation of these full-scale systems has confirmed that high-rate processes such as a vortex separator, either on its own or followed by compressed media filter, can be used to remove gross solids and the lighter fraction of fine particulates while passively optimizing in-system storage. Passive high-rate sedimentation and filtration systems that harness the inherent energy within collection system flows have been shown to be very effective for controlling CSOs and other wetweather impacted discharges. Their use within collection systems in a satellite treatment context provides scope for maximizing the utilization of existing wastewater infrastructure while eliminating or minimizing the large costs associated with transporting wet-weather flows to central wastewater treatment facilities. Robert Andoh, Hydro International, is a member of the Technical Advisory Board for the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center. Hydro International is represented in Ontario by ACG Technology. For more information E-mail:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Racing the rain on Lake Okeechobee nprecedented drought and record-breaking water lows have added up to an opportunity for environmental restoration of Florida’s Lake Okeechobee. Field crews are working quickly to remove exposed muck from the dry lake bed before summer rains and the hurricane season bring a slew of storms and lake levels start to rebound. Since work began, more than 15,000 truckloads of muck have been hauled away from the lake bed, equating to about 300,000 cubic yards. Removing the muck, laden with legacy nutrients, is preventing 25 tons of phosphorus from flowing south into the Everglades. Muck removal will return the lake bottom to a more sandy base, improving water quality and restoring wildlife habitat after the drought ends and lake levels return to normal. Native plants and desirable sport fish, such as bass and crappie, are expected to thrive when the shoreline habitat improves. Apple snails, the primary food source of the federally endangered snail kite, are also expected to increase in number. Phosphorus is found in Lake Okeechobee muck, and it flows out of the lake when water levels are higher. It also impacts the ecology in Everglades environments, so six large treatment wetlands covering 40,000 acres have been built to remove it. When the muck removal project is complete, about 280 tons of phosphorus will be gone, equating to more than 1½ year’s worth of downstream treatment. Fires currently burning on dry areas of the lake bed are not


hampering muck removal activities. District vegetation managers report that fire has cleared 30,000 acres of unwanted vegetation, which will further aid restoration efforts in the lake. The lake’s water level, measured June 1 at 8.89 feet NGVD, broke the all-time record low, originally set during the 2001 drought at 8.97 feet NGVD. (National Geodetic Vertical Datum). Just 41 inches of rain have fallen across the 16-county region over the last 12 months - more than 10 inches below the annual average.

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ES&E’s Annual Guide To Government Agencies & Associations Associations ...................................................................64 Government Agencies ..................................................68 College and Universities .............................................. 72

ES&E ’s Guide To Associations ABORIGINAL WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO 2547 Eglinton Ave W Toronto ON M6M 1T2 (416) 651-1443 Fax: (416) 651-1673 AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION (AWMA) One Gateway Center, 3rd Floor 420 Fort Duquesne Blvd Pittsburgh PA 15222-1435 USA (412) 232-3444 Fax: (412) 232-3450 ALBERTA WATER AND WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION (AWWOA) 11810 Kingsway Ave Edmonton AB T5G 0X5 (780) 454-7745 Fax: (780) 451-6451

AMERICAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 1303 W Walnut Hill Lane Suite 305 Irving TX 75038 USA (972) 506-7216 Fax: (972) 506-7682 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Matt Childs, President The American Concrete Pipe Association, established in 1907, is a non-profit organization comprised of manufacturers of concrete pipe and box culverts and providers of equipment, products and services related to the concrete pipe industry. AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA) 6666 W Quincy Ave Denver CO 80235 USA (303) 794-7711 Fax: (303) 347-0804 ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSORS OF CANADA INC. P O Box 490 Fenelon Falls ON K0M 1N0 (877) 512-3722 ASSOCIATION FOR PROFESSIONAL

64 | July 2007

ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING (APEA) PO Box 34022 RPO Scotia Square Halifax NS B3J 3S1 (902) 463-0114 Fax: (902) 466-5743 ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS OF CANADA (ACEC) 616-130 Albert St Ottawa ON K1P 5G4 (613) 236-0569 Fax: (613) 236-6193 ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPALITIES OF ONTARIO 801-200 University Ave Toronto ON M5H 3C6 (416) 971-9856 Fax: (416) 971-6191 ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPAL RECYCLING COORDINATORS 100-127 Wyndham St N Guelph ON N1H 4E9 (519) 823-1990 Fax: (519) 823-0084 Contact: Vivian De Giovanni, Executive Director

ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO LAND SURVEYORS (AOLS) 1043 McNicoll Ave Toronto ON M1W 3W6 (416) 491-9020 Fax: (416) 491-2576 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Jim Statham, Executive Director Ontario Land Surveyors provide specialized services related to boundaries, land development and information management. The Association of Ontario Land Surveyors regulates the practice of professional land surveying and governs its members so that public interests may be served and protected. ATLANTIC CANADA WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (ACWWA) PO Box 41002 RPO Penhorn Dartmouth NS B2Y 4P7 (902) 434-6002 Fax: (902) 435-7796

BOMA TORONTO 20 Queen St. W., Suite 2012 Toronto, ON M5H 3R3 (416) 596-8065 Fax: (416) 596-1085 Email: Web site: Contact: Debbie Prince The Building Owners and Managers Association of the Greater Toronto Area (BOMA Toronto) is a diverse network of real estate professionals representing the institutional, commercial and industrial markets. BOMA Toronto serves as a leading voice of advocacy and education for its members. With more than 700 members comprised of building owners, property and facility managers, developers, leasing professionals and service providers, it is the second largest of the North American local associations of BOMA International. Networking – Advocacy - Education BRITISH COLUMBIA GROUNDWATER ASSOCIATION 1708 197A St Langley BC V2Z 1K2 (604) 530-8934 Fax: (604) 530-8934 BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION (BCWWA) 221-8678 Greenall Ave Burnaby BC V5J 3M4 (604) 433-4389 Fax: (604) 433-9859 Contact: Natalie Zigarlick, CE

CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL LABORATORIES (CAEAL) 310-1565 Carling Ave Ottawa ON K1Z 8R1 (613) 233-5300 Fax: (613) 233-5501

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations E-mail: Web site: Contact: Rick Wilson, Chief Executive Officer Laboratory accreditation, proficiency testing, training. CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGIES 7885 Jock Trail Ottawa ON K0A 2Z0 (613) 222-6920 Fax: (613) 822-4987 Contact: Bill Eggertson, Executive Director CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF RECYCLING INDUSTRIES (CARI-ACIR) 1-682 Monarch Ave Ajax, ON L1S 4S2 (905 426-9313 Fax: (905) 426-9314 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION ON WATER QUALITY PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1 Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (905) 336-6291 Fax: (905) 336-4877 CANADIAN BROWNFIELDS NETWORK (CBN) c/o OCETA, 201A-2070 Hadwen Rd Mississauga ON L5K 2C9 (905) 822-4133 Fax: (905) 822-3558 CANADIAN CENTRE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (CCOHS) 135 Hunter St E

Hamilton ON L8N 1M5 (905) 572-2981 Fax: (905) 572-2206 Contact: Eleanor Westwood, Manager, Communications CANADIAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 205 Miller Dr Georgetown ON L7G 6G4 (905) 877-5369 Fax: (905) 877-5369 Contact: A. Grant Lee, Manager CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING ASSOCIATION 262-610 Ford Dr Oakville ON L6J 7W4 (905) 845-9595 Fax: (905) 248-3255 CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL CERTIFICATION APPROVALS BOARD (CECAB) 200-308 11 Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 (403) 233-7484 Fax: (403) 264-6240 CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ASSOCIATION 301-130 Spadina Ave Toronto ON M5V 2L4 (416) 960-2284 Fax: (416) 960-9392 CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETS ASSOCIATION (CEMA) 92-299 Mullen Dr Thornhill ON L4J 3W3 (647) 293-7256

Associations Contact: Shai Spetgang, Executive Director CANADIAN GENERAL STANDARDS BOARD 6B1-11 Laurier St Place du Portage Gatineau QC K1A 1G6 (800) 665-2472 Fax: (819) 956-5740 Contact: James Carleton, Planning and Information Officer CANADIAN GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 1600 Bedford Highway Suite 100 – 409 Bedford NS B4A 1E8 (902) 845-1885 Fax: (902) 845-1886 CANADIAN INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND POLICY (CIELAP) 305-130 Spadina Ave Toronto ON M5V 2L4 (416) 923-3529 Fax: (416) 923-5949 CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION 100-5060 Spectrum Way Mississauga ON L4W 5N6 (416) 747-4044 Fax: (416) 747-2510 CANADIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION 11-1010 Polytek Rd Ottawa ON K1J 9H9 (613) 747-0524 Fax: (613) 747-0523 Contact: T. Duncan Ellison, Executive Director

July 2007 | 65

Associations CANADIAN WATER NETWORK 200 University Ave W Waterloo ON N2L 3G1 (519) 888-4567 Fax: (519) 883-7574 Contact: David Cotter, Director of Communications CANADIAN WATER QUALITY ASSOCIATION 330-295 The West Mall Toronto ON M9C 4Z4 (866) 383-7617 Fax: (416) 695-2945 Contact: Kevin Wong, Executive Director CANADIAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 900-280 Albert St Ottawa ON K1P 5G8 (613) 237-9363 Fax: (613) 594-5190 CANADIAN WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION 810-170 Laurier Ave W Ottawa ON K1P 5v5 (613) 234-8716, (800) 922-6932 Fax: (613) 234-5642 CEMENT ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 703-1500 Don Mills Rd Toronto ON M3B 3K4 (416) 449-3708 Fax: (416) 449-9755 Contact: Rico Fung, Director Engineering COMPOSTING COUNCIL OF CANADA 16 Northumberland St Toronto ON M6H 1P7 (416) 535-0240 Fax: (416) 536-9892

CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE INSTITUTE 2A-652 Bishop St. N. Cambridge ON N3H 4V6 (866) 295-2416 Fax: (519) 650-8081 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Dave Penny, Marketing Manager The Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute is a Canadian Association of manufacturers of corrugated steel pipe and material suppliers. With production facilities and technically trained sales staff in communities throughout Canada, we work with designers, owners and contractors to create flexible and versatile solutions to meet drainage and unique construction requirements. Through CSPI, we share our vast resource of knowledge and experience in order to bring to you the greatest value for today's dollar. CSA INTERNATIONAL 178 Rexdale Blvd Toronto ON M9W 1R3 (416) 747-4000 Fax: (416) 747-4149 DUCTILE IRON PIPE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION 245 Riverchase Parkway E Suite O

66 | July 2007

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Birmingham AL 35244 USA (205) 402-8700 Fax: (205) 402-8730 ECO CANADA 200-308 11 Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 (403) 233-0748 Fax: (403) 269-9544 Contact: Grant Trump, President/CEO ECO HEAT CANADA 7885 Jock Trail Ottawa ON K0A 2Z0 (613) 222-6920 Fax: (613) 822-4987 Contact: Bill Eggertson, Coordinator INTERNATIONAL OZONE ASSOCIATION PO Box 28873 Scottsdale AZ 85255 USA (480) 529-3787 Fax: (480) 473-9068 Contact: Paul Overbeck, Executive Director INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SCIENCES (ISEIS) 413-4246 Albert St Regina SK S4S 3R9 (306) 337-2306 Fax: (306) 337-2305

NEW BRUNSWICK ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (NBEIA) PO Box 637 Stn A Fredericton NB E3B 5B3 (506) 455-0212 Fax: (506) 452-0213 NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (NEIA) 101-90 O’Leary Ave Parsons Building St. John’s NL A1B 2C7 (709) 772-3333 Fax: (709) 772-3213 NORTH AMERICAN HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 11166 Huron St Suite 27 Denver CO 80234 USA (303) 433-4446, (877) 292-1403 Fax: (303) 458-0002 NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION 161 Brock St E Thunder Bay ON P7E 4H1 (807) 626-0155 Fax: (807) 626-8163 Contact: Ken Tamiwa, Executive Director

MANITOBA ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION INC. (MEIA) 301-35 King St Winnipeg MB R3B 1H4 (204) 783-7090 Fax: (204) 783-6501


MANITOBA WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 1600, 202-9 Saskatchewan Ave W Portage La Prairie MB R1N 3P1 (204) 239-6868 Fax: (204) 239-6872 Contact: Iva Last, Executive Director

ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF SEWAGE INDUSTRY SERVICES PO Box 190 Havelock ON K0L 1Z0 (705) 778-1265 Fax: (705) 778-1269 Contact: Don Kelloway, Executive Director

MARITIME PROVINCES WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (MPWWA) 32 Lindy Lane French Lake NB E2V 4M3 (506) 357-3204 Fax: (506) 357-6038

ONTARIO BACKFLOW PREVENTION ASSOCIATION PO Box 265 Campbellville ON L0P 1B0 (416) 249-2837 Fax: (905) 854-9875 Contact: Claire Andrews, Secretary/Treasurer

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION 2-6355 Kennedy Rd Mississauga ON L5T 2L5 NATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION PO Box 3214 Stn Main Winnipeg MB R3C 4E7 (204) 956-5888, (866) 268-6322 Fax: (204) 956-5819 NATIONAL GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 601 Dempsey Rd Westerville OH 43081 USA (614) 898-7791 Fax: (614) 898-7786 Contact: Cliff Treyens, Public Awareness Director NEBB CANADA 8094 Esquesing Line Milton ON L9T 2X9 (905) 693-9090 Fax: (905) 693-8282 Contact: Carrie Clark, Chapter Coordinator

ONTARIO CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 5045 South Service Rd, 1st Floor Burlington, ON L7L 5Y7 (905) 631-9696 Fax: (905) 631-1905 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Sal Iannello, Executive Director Since 1957, the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association (OCPA) has been promoting the high standards of business practice and the product quality of its members. OCPA provides technical information & seminars and tours of manufacturing facilities to specifiers, regulators, contractors and educators. Producers of concrete pipe, maintenance holes, box culverts and box

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations sewers, and precast concrete specialty products joined to form the Association.

ONTARIO ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (ONEIA) 2395 Speakman Dr Mississauga ON L5K 1B3 (416) 531-7884 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Alex Gill, Executive Director ONEIA is the business association representing the interests of Ontario’s environment industry – working together to improve the business of the environment in Ontario by promoting environment business to industry and government. With over 200 product and service companies, members provide market-driven solutions for society’s most pressing environmental problems. ONTARIO GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 48 Front St E Strathroy ON N7G 1Y6 (519) 245-7194 Fax: (519) 245-7196 Contact: Earl Morwood, Executive Director ONTARIO MUNICIPAL WATER ASSOCIATION 43 Chelsea Cres Belleville ON K8N 4Z5 (613) 966-1100, (888) 231-1115 Fax: (613) 966-3024 Contact: Douglas Parker, Executive Director ONTARIO ONSITE WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 831 Stn Main Cobourg ON K9A 4S3 (905) 372-2722


ONTARIO SEWER & WATERMAIN CONSTRUCTION ASSOCIATION 300-5045 Orbitor Dr Building 12 Mississauga ON L4W 4Y4 (905) 629-7766 Fax: (905) 629-0587

SOLAR NOVA SCOTIA (SOCIETY) 83 Old Scotts Rd McGraths Cove NS B3Z 3V2 (902) 852-4758 Fax: (902) 852-3789 Contact: Don Roscoe, Treasurer

ONTARIO SOCIETY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (OSEM) 87 Irondale Dr North York ON M9L 2S6 (416) 746-9076 Fax: (416) 743-3737

SOLID WASTE ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA (SWANA) 1100 Wayne Ave Suite 700 Silver Spring MD 20910 USA (800) 467-9262 Fax: (301) 589-7068

ONTARIO SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 502-4950 Yonge St Toronto ON M2N 6K1 (416) 223-9961 Fax: (416) 223-9963 ONTARIO WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3-2005 Clark Blvd Brampton ON L6T 5P8 (905) 791-9500 Fax: (905) 791-9514

WALKERTON CLEAN WATER CENTRE P.O. Box 160, 220 Trillium Court Walkerton, Ontario N0G 2V0 WATER AND WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (WWEMA) PO Box 17402 Washington DC 20041 USA (703) 444-1777 Fax: (703) 444-1779

ONTARIO WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (OWWA) 630-675 Cochrane Dr, East Tower Markham ON L3R 0B8 (905) 530-2200 Fax: (905) 530-2135

WATER ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO (WEAO) PO Box 176 Stn Main Milton ON L9T 4N9 (416) 410-6933 Fax: (416) 410-1626 Contact: Julie A. Vincent, Executive Administrator

PLASTICS PIPE INSTITUTE 1825 Connecticut Ave NW Suite 680 Washington DC 20009 USA (202) 462-9607 Fax: (202) 462-9779

WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION 601 Wythe St Alexandria VA 22314-1994 USA (703) 684-2400 Fax: (703) 684-2492

PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS ONTARIO 1000-25 Sheppard Ave W Toronto ON M2N 6S9 (416) 224-1100 Fax: (416) 224-8168

WESTERN CANADA WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (WCWWA) 203-301 14 St NW Calgary AB T2N 2A1 (403) 283-2003, (877) 283-2003 Fax: (403) 283-2007

PULP AND PAPER TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 1070-740 Rue Notre-Dame O Montreal QC H3C 3X6 RESEAU ENVIRONNEMENT 220-911 rue Jean-Talon E Montreal QC H2R 1V5 (514) 270-7110 Fax: (514) 270 7154

ONTARIO POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION (OPCEA) PO Box 137 Midhurst ON L0L 1X0 (705) 725-0917 Fax: (705) 725-1068 Web site: Contact: Kelly Madden, Executive Administrator Our association is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting member companies in the promotion of their equipment and services to the pollution control market sector of Ontario. Originally founded in 1970 under the name Ontario Sanitation Equipment Association, the OPCEA has since grown to over 140 member companies whose fields encompass a broad spectrum of equipment and services for the air and water pollution control marketplace.

SASKATCHEWAN ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY AND MANAGERS ASSOCIATION (SEIMA) 160-10 Research Dr Regina SK S4S 7J7 (306) 543-1567 Fax: (306) 543-1568 SASKATCHEWAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (SWWA) 46 Windfield Rd Regina SK S4V 0E7 (306) 761-1278 Fax: (306) 761-1279 SOLAR ENERGY SOCIETY OF CANADA INC. McLaughlin Hall 406 Queen’s University Kingston ON K7L 3N6 (613) 533-2657 Fax: (613) 533-6550

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations

ES&E â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Guide to Provincial and Federal Government Environmental Agencies Alberta Alberta Environment PO Box 930,1009 2 Ave N,Vulcan,AB, T0L 2B0,Tel: 403-485-2293 Alberta Environment 2223 Hawthorne Ave NE,Medicine Hat,AB,T1C 1W6,Tel: 403-502-1093 Alberta Environment PO Box 900 Stn Main,Peace River, AB, T8S 1T4,Tel: 780-624-6148 Alberta Environment 10320 99 St,Grande Prairie,AB,T8V 6J4, Tel: 780-538-8053 Alberta Environment Env Stewardship,Fl1-9820 106 St NW Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6,Tel: 780-427-4954 Alberta Environmental Protection 1801-10320 99 St,Grande Prairie,AB, T8V 6J4,Tel: 780-538-8052 Government of Alberta Fl2-5226 53 Ave,Water Management, High Prairie,AB,T0G 1E0,Tel: 780-523-6512 Government of Alberta Fl2-10106 100 Ave,Regional Services, High Level,AB,T0H 1Z0,Tel: 780-926-5263

Key Government Websites Alberta

British Columbia

Government of Canada


New Brunswick

Newfoundland and Labrador

Northwest Territories

Nova Scotia



Prince Edward Island



Yukon Territory

68 | July 2007

Government of Alberta Fl2-401 Centre St,Regional Services,Hanna,AB,T0J 1P0, Tel: 403-854-5589 Government of Alberta 769 Main St,Water Mgmt Operations,Pincher Creek,AB,T0K 1W0, Tel: 403-627-5544 Government of Alberta PO Box 1,Water Mgmt Operations, Spring Coulee,AB,T0K 2C0, Tel: 403-758-3382 Government of Alberta 930-1009 2 Ave N,Water Mgmt Operations,Vulcan,AB,T0L 2B0, Tel: 403-485-2293 Government of Alberta PO Box 40,Compliance/Water Monitoring,Fort Chipewyan,AB,T0P 1B0, Tel: 780-697-3733 Government of Alberta Fl3-346 3 St SE,Inspections,Medicine Hat,AB,T1A 0G7,Tel: 403-529-3149 Government of Alberta 200 5 Ave S,Env Integration,Lethbridge,AB, T1J 4L1, Tel: 403-382-4259 Government of Alberta Fl1-2938 11 St NE,Monitoring,Calgary,AB, T2E 7L7,Tel: 403-297-5916 Government of Alberta PO Box 6139 Stn Main,Water Management Operations,Innisfail,AB,T4G 1S8, Tel: 403-227-1106 Government of Alberta Fl2-4867 50 St,Water Mgmt Ops,Calgary,AB, T4V 1P6,Tel: 780-672-2061 Government of Alberta 10155 102 St NW,Municipal Affairs, Edmonton,AB,T5J 4L4, Tel: 780-427-3744 Government of Alberta 408-10800 97 Ave NW,Infrastructure/ Transportation,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2B6, Tel: 780-427-6912 Government of Alberta 9915 108 St NW Edmonton,AB,T5K 2G8, Tel: 780-427-2391 Government of Alberta Fl10-9820 106 St NW,Air,Edmonton,AB, T5K 2J6,Tel: 780-644-1221 Government of Alberta Fl8-9820 106 St NW,Air/Climate Change Systems,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-2303 Government of Alberta Fl8-9820 106 St NW,Capital Planning, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-4003 Government of Alberta Fl8-9820 106 St NW,Dam Safety, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-8527 Government of Alberta Fl10-9820 106 St NW Evaluation/ Reporting,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-0510 Government of Alberta Fl10-9820 106 St NW,Flow Forecasting,

Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-1151 Government of Alberta Fl11-9820 106 St NW,Groundwater Info Centre,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-2612 Government of Alberta Fl10-9820 106 St NW,Land,Edmonton,AB, T5K 2J6,Tel: 780-427-9911 Government of Alberta Fl4-9820 106 St NW,Land/Waste Unit System,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-9888 Government of Alberta Fl4-9820 106 St NW,Municipal/Industrial Sector,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-7620 Government of Alberta Fl4-9820 106 St NW,Oil And Gas Sector, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-422-8119 Government of Alberta 9820 106 St NW,Pollution Prev/ Conservation,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-422-2009 Government of Alberta Fl4-9820 106 St NW,Science Unit, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6,Tel: 780-427-4979 Government of Alberta Fl4-9820 106 St NW,Technology Unit, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6,Tel: 780-427-0907 Government of Alberta Fl4-9820 106 St NW,Transboundary Water Policy Section,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-2621 Government of Alberta Fl10-9820 106 St NW,Water Assessment,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-0520 Government of Alberta Fl8-9820 106 St NW,Water Mgmt Operations,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-4731 Government of Alberta Fl10-9820 106 St NW,Water Quality, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6,Tel: 780-427-2654 Government of Alberta Fl11-9820 106 St NW,Water Supply/ Groundwater,Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6, Tel: 780-427-0123 Government of Alberta Fl1-4999 98 Ave NW,Northern Region, Edmonton,AB,T6B 2X3,Tel: 780-422-7028 Government of Alberta 111-4999 98 Ave NW,River Engineering, Edmonton,AB,T6B 2X3,Tel: 780-644-1192 Government of Alberta Fl1-4999 98 Ave NW,Water Approvals, Edmonton,AB,T6B 2X3,Tel: 780-422-0874 Government of Alberta 4946 89 St NW,Air Monitoring,Edmonton, AB,T6E 5K1,Tel: 780-427-7888 Government of Alberta 4816 89 St NW,Water Monitoring, Edmonton,AB,T6E 5K1,Tel: 780-422-4383 Government of Alberta 10320 99 St,Compliance,Grande

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Prairie,AB,T8V 6J4,Tel: 780-833-4338 Government of Alberta Fl3-9915 Franklin Ave,Compliance and Monitoring,Fort McMurray,AB,T9H 2K4, Tel: 780-743-7281 Government of Alberta 810 14 Ave,Regional Services,Wainwright, AB,T9W 1R2,Tel: 780-842-7538

British Columbia BC Ministry of Environment 3824 Albrecht Rd,Naramata,BC,V0H 1N0, Tel: 250-490-8247 Ministry of Env Lands & Air PO Box 9342 Stn ProvGovt,Victoria,BC, V8W 9M1,Tel: 250-387-9985 Ministry of Environment 1647 Monte Creek Rd,Monte Creek,BC, V0E 2M0,Tel: 250-371-6333 Ministry of Environment 3726 Alfred Ave,Bag 5000,Smithers,BC, V0J 2N0,Tel: 250-847-7547 Ministry of Environment 205 Industrial Rd G,Cranbrook,BC, V1C 7G5,Tel: 250-489-8519 Ministry of Environment 400-10003 110 Ave,Env Mgmt Section, Fort St John,BC,V1J 6M7,Tel: 250-787-3391 Ministry of Environment 4607 23rd St,Env Quality Section,Vernon,BC,V1T 4K7, Tel: 250-371-6308 Ministry of Environment 400-640 Borland St,Env Mgmt Section,Williams Lake,BC,V2G 4T1, Tel: 250-398-4985 Ministry of Environment 325-1011 4th Ave,Enforcement Program,Prince George,BC,V2L 3H9, Tel: 250-565-6135 Ministry of Environment Fl3-1011 4th Ave,Env Quality Section,Prince George,BC,V2L 3H9,Tel: 250-565-4210 Ministry of Environment 325-1011 4th Ave,Water Stewardship,Prince George,BC,V2L 3H9,Tel: 250-565-6441 Ministry of Environment Fl2-10470 152 St,Env Mgmt Section, Surrey,BC,V3R 0Y3,Tel: 604-582-5237 Ministry of Environment Fl2-10470 152 St,Env Quality Section, Surrey,BC,V3R 0Y3,Tel: 604-582-5273 Ministry of Environment 200-10470 152 St,Flood Hazard Mgmt, Surrey,BC,V3R 0Y3,Tel: 604-582-5301 Ministry of Environment 200-10428 153 St,Water Allocation,Surrey, BC,V3R 1E1,Tel: 604-582-5218 Ministry of Environment Fl3-2978 Jutland Rd,Environmental Quality,Victoria,BC,V8T 5J9, Tel: 250-387-6338 Ministry of Environment Fl2-836 Yates St,Env Assessment Office, Victoria,BC,V8W 1L8,Tel: 250-356-7475 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9047 Stn ProvGovt,Victoria,BC, V8W 9E2,Tel: 250-387-1187 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9341 Stn Prov Govt,Air Protection

Section,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel: 250-387-9942 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9338 Stn Prov Govt,Aquatic Ecosystem Science Section,Victoria,BC, V8W 9M1,Tel: 250-387-9583 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9343 Stn Prov Govt,Env Management,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel: 250-387-9950 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9342 Stn Prov Govt,Hazard Mgmt Section,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel: 250-356-8374 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9342 Stn Prov Govt,Industry, Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1,Tel: 250-387-9416 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9342 Stn Prov Govt,Operations Mgmt,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel: 250-387-9740 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9342 Stn Prov Govt,Risk Assess/Remediation,Victoria,BC, V8W 9M1,Tel: 250-387-2218 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9338 Stn Prov Govt,Standards/Monitoring/Reporting, Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1,Tel: 250-354-6353 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9340 Stn Prov Govt,Water Use Planning/Utilities,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel: 250-387-3421 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9341 Stn Prov Govt,Water/Air Monitoring/Reporting,Victoria,BC, V8W 9M1,Tel: 250-387-9454 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9341 Stn Prov Govt,Watershed/Aquifer Science,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel: 250-387-9515 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9358 Stn Prov Govt,Science/ Info Branch,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M2, Tel: 250-387-6722 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt,Watershed Protection/Planning,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M2, Tel: 250-387-9784 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9369 Stn Prov Govt,Regional Operations,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M3, Tel: 250-398-4549 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9334 Stn Prov Govt,Regional Ops Branch,Victoria,BC,V8W 9N3, Tel: 250-356-8174 Ministry of Environment 3373 Joyce Pl, Victoria,BC,V9C 2G6, Tel: 250-387-9513

Manitoba Department of Conservation PO Box 301,Snow Lake,MB,R0B 1M0, Tel: 204-358-2521 Department of Conservation 59 Elizabeth Dr,Thompson,MB,R8N 1X4, Health Canada, 300-391 York Ave,Winnipeg,MB,R3C

Government 4W1,Tel: 204-983-2615 Manitoba Aborginal & Northern Affairs 8-1680 Ellice Ave,Winnipeg,MB,R3H 0Z2, Tel: 204-945-1777 Manitoba Clean Environment Commission 305-155 Carlton St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 3H8, Tel: 204-945-5293 Manitoba Conservation 75 7th Ave,Gimli,MB,R0C 1B0, Tel: 204-642-6096 Manitoba Conservation PO Box 900,Carberry,MB,R0K 0H0, Tel: 204-827-8855 Manitoba Conservation 160-123 Main St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 1A5, Tel: 204-945-7053 Manitoba Conservation 200 Saulteaux Cres,Winnipeg,MB, R3J 3W3,Tel: 204-945-2458 Manitoba Conservation 27 2nd Ave SW,Dauphin,MB,R7N 3E5, Tel: 204-622-2126 Manitoba Conservation Parks 143 Main St,Flin Flon,MB,R8A 1K2, Tel: 204-687-1653 Manitoba Department of Conservation PO Box 231,Riverton,MB,R0C 2R0, Tel: 204-378-5422 Manitoba Department of Conservation PO Box 70,Riverton,MB,R0C 2R0 Manitoba Dept of Environment 160-123 Main St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 1A5, Tel: 204-945-5229 Manitoba Floodway Authority 200-155 Carlton St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 3H8, Tel: 204-945-1282 Manitoba Infrastructure/Transportation 203-450 Broadway,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 0V8, Tel: 204-945-3723 Manitoba Transportation & Govt Services PO Box 460,Beausejour,MB,R0E 0C0, Tel: 204-268-6251 Manitoba Water Services Board PO Box 3,Stephenfield,MB,R0G 2R0, Tel: 204-745-8735 Manitoba Water Services Board PO Box 22080 Rpo Brand. Downtown, Brandon,MB,R7A 6Y9, Tel: 204-726-6090 Manitoba Water Stewardship 25 Tupper St N,Portage La Prairie,MB, R1N 3K1,Tel: 204-239-3186 Manitoba Water Stewardship 1007 Century St,Winnipeg,MB,R3H 0W4, Tel: 204-346-6066 Public Works & Govt Services Canada 89 Bellavista Cres,Winnipeg,MB,R2Y 1B1, Tel: 807-226-1246 Public Works & Govt Services Canada 865 Brock St,Winnipeg,MB,R3N 0Z7, Tel: 204-983-5549

New Brunswick Department of Local Government PO Box 6000 Stn A,Fredericton,NB, E3B 5H1,Tel: 506-453-2807

continued overleaf... July 2007 | 69

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations

Government Department of National Defence PO Box 17000 Stn Forces,Building B-18,Oromocto,NB,E2V 4J5, Tel: 506-422-2000 Department of National Defence 1 Parkinson Crt,Oromocto,NB,E2V 4T6, Tel: 506-422-2000 Department of National Defence 162 Burpee St,Fredericton,NB,E3A 1M5, Tel: 506-357-9468 Department of Natural Resources PO Box 6000 Stn A,Fredericton,NB, E3B 5H1,Tel: 506-453-3826 Department of the Environment PO Box 6000 Stn A,Fredericton,NB, E3B 5H1,Tel: 506-453-2690 Ministry of Natural Resources 80 Pleasant St,Regional Biology,Miramichi,NB,E1V 1X7, Tel: 506-627-4049 Ministry of Natural Resources 2570 Route 180,Regional Biology,South Tetagouche,NB,E2A 7B8,Tel: 506-547-2075 Ministry of Natural Resources 3732 Route 102,Island View,NB,E3E 1G3, Tel: 506-444-4888 Ministry of Natural Resources 25 rue Guy,Edmundston,NB,E3V 3K5, Tel: 506-735-2040 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn LCD 1,Moncton,NB, E1C 8R3,Tel: 506-869-6848 NB Environment and Local Government 316 Dalton Ave,Miramichi,NB,E1V 3N9, Tel: 506-778-6032 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Bathurst,NB, E2A 3Z9,Tel: 506-547-2092 NB Environment and Local Government 12 Mcgloin St,Inorganic Chemistry, Fredericton,NB,E3A 5T8,Tel: 506-453-2477 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 6000 Stn A,Water Planning Section,Fredericton,NB,E3B 5H1, Tel: 506-453-4409 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Grand-Sault/Grand Falls,NB,E3Z 1G1,Tel: 506-473-7744 Research & Productivity Council 921 College Hill Rd,Fredericton,NB, E3B 6Z9,Tel: 506-452-0585

Newfoundland Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities PO Box 21040 RPO Macdonald Drive,St. John's,NL,A1B 5B2,Tel: 709-726-1133 Department of Env & Conservation PO Box 8700 Stn A,Water Resources,St. John's,NL,A1B 4J6,Tel: 709-729-2664 Department of Env and Conservation Human Resources P.O. Box 8700,St. John’s,NL,A1B 4J6, Tel: 709-729-0386 Communications Division P.O. Box 8700,St. John’s,NL,A1B 4J6 , Tel: 709-729-5783 Policy & Planning P.O. Box 8700, St. John’s, NL, A1B 4J6, Tel: 709-729-0027

70 | July 2007

Department of Env and Conservation Corner Brook - Regional Office P.O. Box 2006,89 West Valley Road,Corner Brook,NL,A2H 6J8 Department of Environment and Conservation Grand Falls-Windsor - Regional Office Provincial Building,3 Cromer Avenue,Grand Falls-Windsor,NL,A2A 1W9 Department of Health/ Community Services PO Box 8700 Stn A,West Block,St. John's,NL,A1B 4J6,Tel: 709-729-5021 Department of Municipal Affairs PO Box 8700 Stn A,West Block,St. John's,NL,A1B 4J6,Tel: 709-729-3048 Department of Natural Resources PO Box 8700 Stn A,St. John's,NL,A1B 4J6, Tel: 709-729-2920 Department of Transportation & Works PO Box 8700 Stn A,Works Branch,St. John's,NL,A1B 4J6,Tel: 709-729-5672 Newfoundland & Labrador Hydro PO Box 12400 Stn A,St. John's,NL,A1B 4K7,Tel: 709-737-1400

PO Box 1028 Stn A,Sydney,NS,B1P 6J7, Tel: 902-567-1035


Nova Scotia Cape Breton District Health Authority 1482 George St,Sydney,NS,B1P 1P3, Tel: 902-567-7712 Govt of Nova Scotia Environment 205-219 Main St,Antigonish,NS,B2G 2C1, Tel: 902-863-7389 Govt of Nova Scotia Environment 224-1595 Bedford Hwy,Bedford,NS,B4A 3Y4, Tel: 902 424-2560 Govt of Nova Scotia Environment & Labour 295 Charlotte St,Sydney,NS,B1P 6H7, Tel: 902-563-2100 Nova Scotia Utility & Review Board PO Box 1692 Stn Central,Halifax,NS, B3J 3S3,Tel: 902-424-4448 NS Department of Energy PO Box 2664 Stn Central,Halifax,NS, B3J 3P7,Tel: 902-424-4575 NS Department of Environment & Labour 136 Exhibition St,Kentville,NS,B4N 4E5, Tel: 902-679-6086 NS Department of Health PO Box 488 Stn Central,Halifax,NS, B3J 2R8,Tel: 902-424-5818 NS Department of Natural Resources PO Box 698 Stn Central,Halifax,NS, B3J 2T9,Tel: 902-424-5935 NS Dept of Agriculture PO Box 550 Stn Main,Truro,NS,B2N 5E3, Tel: 902-424-4560 NS Dept of Environment & Labour PO Box 697 Stn Central,Env Monitoring/Compliance,Halifax,NS, B3J 2T8,Tel: 902-424-2645 NS Dept of Transportation & Public Works PO Box 186 Stn Central,Public Works, Halifax,NS,B3J 2N2,Tel: 902-424-5687 NS Environment & Labour 218 Macsween St,Suite 12, Port Hawkesbury,NS,B9A 2J9, Tel: 902-625-0791 Sydney Tar Ponds Agency

Agriculture Canada PFRA-AAFC 174 Stone Rd W,Guelph,ON,N1G 4S9, Tel: 519 837-0804 Analytical Laboratories Council 125 Resources Rd,Etobicoke,ON, M9P 3V6,Tel: 416-235-6075 Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Chalk River Laboratories,Chalk River,ON,K0J 1J0,Tel: 613-584-3311 Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. 2251 Speakman Dr,Mississauga,ON, L5K 1B2,Tel: 905-823-9040 Council of Great Lakes Governors 301-121 Richmond St W,Toronto,ON, M5H 2K1,Tel: 416-368-6956 Environment Canada 335 River Rd,Ottawa,ON,K1A 0H3, Tel: 613-949-8273 Environment Canada 49 Camelot Dr,Ottawa,ON,K1A 0H3 Environment Canada 3-845 Harrington Crt,Burlington,ON, L7N 3P3,Tel: 905-333-0203 Environment Canada 867 Lakeshore Rd,Burlington,ON,L7R 4A6, Tel: 905-336-6428 Environment Canada 867 Lakeshore Rd,Burlington,ON,L7S 1A1 Environment Canada WTC PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1,Burlington,ON, L7R 4A6,Tel: 905-336-6450 Environmental Commissioner of Ontario 605-1075 Bay St,Toronto,ON,M5S 2B1, Tel: 416-325-3377 Environmental Review Tribunal 1700-2300 Yonge St,Toronto,ON,M4P 1E4, Tel: 416-314-4600 Environmental Swat Team 1000-305 Milner Ave,Scarborough,ON, M1B 3V4,Tel: 416-325-1851 Export Development Canada 151 O'Connor St,Ottawa,ON,K1A 1K3, Tel: 613- 598-2962 Fisheries & Oceans Canada 200 Kent St,Stn 4N170 Centennial Towers,Ottawa,ON,K1A 0E6, Tel: 613-998-6285 Fisheries & Oceans Canada 703-201 N Front St,Sarnia,ON,N7T 8B1, Tel: 519- 464-5090 French Economic Commission 2004-20 Queen St W,Toronto,ON,M5H 3R3,Tel: 416-977-1257 Ministry of Environment Fl1-113 Amelia St,Cornwall,ON,K6H 3P1, Tel: 613-933-7402 Ministry of Environment 133 Dalton Ave ,PO Box 820,Kingston,ON,K7L 4X6, Tel: 613-548-6932 Ministry of Environment PO Box 820 Stn Main,Kingston,ON,K7L 4X6,Tel: 613-540-6899 Ministry of Environment 300 Water St,Robiinson Place South Tower,Peterborough,ON,K9J 3C7, Tel: 705-755-4332

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Ministry of Environment 301 St. Paul St,Air/Pesticides/ Env Planning,St Catharines,ON,L2R 7R4, Tel: 905-704-3907 Ministry of Environment Fl12-119 King St W,Air/Pesticides/ Env Planning,Hamilton,ON,L8P 4Y7, Tel: 905-521-7706 Ministry of Environment Fl12-119 King St W,Water Resources Unit,Hamilton,ON,L8P 4Y7, Tel: 905-521-7807 Ministry of Environment Fl9-5775 Yonge St,Air/Pesticides/ Env Planning,North York,ON,M2M 4J1, Tel: 416-326-3525 Ministry of Environment 501-5775 Yonge St,Spills Action Centre,North York,ON,M2M 4J1, Tel: 416-325-3000 Ministry of Environment Fl9-5775 Yonge St,Water Resources Unit,North York,ON,M2M 4J1, Tel: 416-326-3706 Ministry of Environment Fl12-2 St Clair Ave W,Air and Noise,Toronto,ON,M4V 1L5, Tel: 416-314-8302 Ministry of Environment Fl19-2 St Clair Ave W,Approvals and Licensing,Toronto,ON,M4V 1L5, Tel: 416-314-4625 Ministry of Environment Fl12A-2 St Clair Ave W,Env Assessment/ Approvals Branch,Toronto,ON,M4V 1L5, Tel: 416-314-7053 Ministry of Environment Fl14-2 St Clair Ave W,Program Support Unit,Toronto,ON,M4V 1L5,Tel: 416-314-9058 Ministry of Environment Fl8-2 St Clair Ave W,Source Protection Planning,Toronto,ON,M4V 1L5, Tel: 416-314-0909 Ministry of Environment Fl12-2 St Clair AveW,Waste,Toronto,ON, M4V 1L5,Tel: 416-314-8286 Ministry of Environment Fl12-2 St Clair Ave W,Water and Wastewater,Toronto,ON,M4V 1L5, Tel: 416-314-8179 Ministry of Environment Fl2-40 St Clair Ave W,Ecological Standards,Toronto,ON,M4V 1M2, Tel: 416-212-1524 Ministry of Environment Fl14-40 St Clair Ave W,Emerging Sciences,Toronto,ON,M4V 1M2, Tel: 416-327-1453 Ministry of Environment Fl7-40 St Clair Ave W,Human Toxicology/ Air Standards,Toronto,ON,M4V 1M2, Tel: 416-314-3748 Ministry of Environment Fl6-40 St Clair Ave W,Technology Standards Section,Toronto,ON,M4V 1M2, Tel: 416-212-6788 Ministry of Environment Fl14-135 St Clair Ave W,Drinking Water Management Div,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-314-1873 Ministry of Environment Fl5-135 St Clair Ave W,Env Liaison

Office,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-314-8475 Ministry of Environment Fl4-135 St Clair Ave W,Global Air Issues,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-314-4194 Ministry of Environment Fl8-135 St Clair Ave W,Haz Waste Policy Unit,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5,Tel: 416-314-4191 Ministry of Environment Fl8-135 St Clair Ave W,Ind/Bio-Med Waste Unit,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5,Tel: 416-314-7904 Ministry of Environment Fl14-135 St Clair Ave W,Integrated Env Planning Div,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-314-6352 Ministry of Environment Fl6-135 St Clair Ave W,Land/Water Policy Branch,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-314-7201 Ministry of Environment Fl7-135 St Clair Ave W,Landfill/ Decommissioning Unit,Toronto,ON, M4V 1P5,Tel: 416-212-7097 Ministry of Environment Fl7-135 St Clair Ave W,Non-Haz Waste Policy Section,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-325-4420 Ministry of Environment Fl8-135 St Clair Ave W,Operations Division,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-314-6366 Ministry of Environment Fl4-135 St Clair Ave W,Regional Air Issues,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-314-1700 Ministry of Environment Fl7-135 St Clair Ave W,Strategic Waste Mgmt,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-326-1781 Ministry of Environment Fl7-135 St Clair Ave W,Waste Diversion Unit,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5,Tel: 416-314-1964 Ministry of Environment Fl6-135 St Clair Ave W,Water Policy,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-314-7973 Ministry of Environment Fl5-135 St Clair Ave W,Water Policy Branch,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel: 416-314-7020 Ministry of Environment 1222 Ramsey Lake Rd,Air Quality Monitoring,Sudbury,ON,P3E 6J7, Tel: 705-929-1080 Ministry of Environment Fl3-289 Bay St,Sault Ste Marie,ON, P6A 1W7,Tel: 705-942-6392 Ministry of Environment 331-435 James St S,Thunder Bay,ON, P7E 6S7, Tel: 807-475-1226 Ministry of Environment PO Box 5150 Stn Main,Kenora,ON,P9N 3X9, Tel: 807-468-2729 Ontairo Clean Water Agency 32B King St E,Lansdowne,ON,K0E 1L0, Tel: 613-561-6292 Ontario Ministry of the Environment 125 Resources Rd,Air Modelling/ Emissions,Etobicoke,ON,M9P 3V6, Tel: 416-235-6130 Ontario Ministry of the Environment

Government Fl1-125 Resources Rd,Air Monitoring/ Reporting,Etobicoke,ON,M9P 3V6, Tel: 416-235-6157 Ontario Ministry of the Environment 125 Resources Rd,Dioxins/Toxic Organics,Etobicoke,ON,M9P 3V6, Tel: 416-235-5824

Prince Edward Island Department of Health PO Box 2000 Stn Central,Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel: 902-368-4930 Dept of Env Energy & Forestry PO Box 2000 Stn Central,Pesticides Regulatory Prog,Charlottetown,PE, C1A 7N8,Tel: 902-368-5053 Govt of Prince Edward Island PO Box 2000 Stn Central,Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel: 902-368-5185 Water Microbiology Lab PO Box 2000 Stn Central,Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel: 902-368-5701

Quebec Environment Canada 105 rue McGill,Montreal,QC,H2Y 2E7, Tel: 514-283-4252 Environment Canada 351 boul Saint-Joseph,Gatineau,QC, K1A 0H3, Environmental Public Hearing Board 210-575 rue Saint-Amable,Quebec,QC, G1R 6A6,Tel: 418-643-7447 Gouvernement du Québec 675 boul Rene-Levesque E,Et 8-Edifice Marie-Guyart,Quebec,QC,G1R 5V7, Tel: 418-521-3885 Hydro-Quebec 10e-75 boul Rene-LevesqueO,Montreal,QC, H2Z 1A4,Tel: 514-289-2211 MAMR-Direction des Infrastructures 2e-10 rue Pierre-Olivier-Chauveau, Quebec,QC,G1R 4J3,Tel: 418-691-2005 MAPAQ – Quebec 100-200 ch Sainte-Foy,8e,Quebec,QC, G1R 4X6,Tel: 418-380-2100 Ministry of Environment 365 rue 55 O,Quebec,QC,G1H 7M7, Tel: 418-644-8844 Ministry of Environment 818 boul Laure,Sept-Iles,QC,G4R 1Y8, Tel: 418-964-8888 Ministry of Environment 212 rue Belzile,Rimouski,QC,G5L 3C3, Tel: 418-727-3511 Ministry of Environment 4e-3950 boul Harvey,Jonquiere,QC, G7X 8L6,Tel: 418-695-7883 Ministry of Environment 100 rue Laviolette,Trois-Rivieres,QC, G9A 5S9,Tel: 819-371-6581 Ministry of Environment 850 boul Vanier,Laval,QC,H7C 2M7, Tel: 450-661-2008

continued overleaf... July 2007 | 71


Guide to Government Agencies & Associations


Ministry of Environment 770 rue Goretti,Sherbrooke,QC,J1E 3H4, Tel: 819-820-3882 Ministry of Environment 100 boul Industriel,Repentigny,QC, J6A 4X6,Tel: 450-654-4355 Ministry of Environment 98 rue Lois,Gatineau,QC,J8Y 3R7, Tel: 819-772-3434 Ministry of Environment 180 boul Rideau,Rouyn-Noranda,QC, J9X 1N9,Tel: 819-763-3333 Ministry of Municipal Affairs 20 rue Pierre-Olivier,Chauveau,Quebec,QC, G1R 4J3,Tel: 418-691-2050 Ministry of Natural Resources A308-5700 4e av O,Quebec,QC,G1H 6R1, Tel: 418-643-7295 PAPRICAN 570 boul Saint-Jean,Pointe-Claire,QC, H9R 3J9,Tel: 514-426-8767 Public Works & Govt Services 6B1-11 rue Laurier,General Standards Board,Gatineau,QC,K1A 1G6, Tel: 819-956-1236 Recyc-Quebec 200-7171 rue Jean-Talon E,Anjou,QC, H1M 3N2,Tel: 514-352-5002

Tel: 306-933-7403 Saskatchewan Environment 108-1146 102nd St,North Battleford,SK, S9A 1E9,Tel: 306-446-7424 Saskatchewan Environment 1-101 Railway Pl,Meadow Lake,SK, S9X 1X6,Tel: 306-236-9819 Saskatchewan Environment & Resource Mgmt 120 Smith St E,Yorkton,SK,S3N 3V3, Tel: 306-786-1425 Saskatchewan Environment & Resource Mgmt 350 Cheadle St W,Swift Current,SK, S9H 4G3,Tel: 306-778-8642 Saskatchewan Research Council 422 Downey Rd,Saskatoon,SK,S7N 4N1, Tel: 306-933-5663 Saskatchewan Water PO Box 310,Wakaw,SK,S0K 4P0, Tel: 306-233-5782 Saskatchewan Water 3401 Clarence Ave S,Saskatoon,SK, S7T 1A8,Tel: 306-946-3200 Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 420-2365 Albert St,Watershed Monitoring/Assessment,Regina,SK, S4P 4K1,Tel: 306-787-8764


Northwest Territories

Health Canada 21 Bradbrooke Ave N,Yorkton,SK,S3N 3R1, Tel: 306 332 3500 Health Canada 1920 Broad St,Regina,SK,S4P 3V2, Tel: 306-780-5434 National Research Council 172 Birchwood Cres,Regina,SK,S4S 5N4, Tel: 306-949-8558 National Research Council Canada 301-6 Research Dr,Regina,SK,S4S 7J7, Tel: 306-780-8660 Sask Environment & Resource Mgmt PO Box 2170,Melville,SK,S0A 2P0, Tel: 306-728-7492 Sask Environment & Resource Mgmt PO Box 1128,Watrous,SK,S0K 4T0, Tel: 306-946-3233 Sask Environment & Resource Mgmt PO Box 1672 Stn Main,North Battleford,SK,S9A 3W2,Tel: 306-446-7683 Sask Water 120-825 Heritage Green,Saskatoon,SK, S7H 5S7,Tel: 306-953-2250 Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food PO Box 609,Outlook,SK,S0L 2N0, Tel: 306-867-5505 Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food 3830 Thatcher Ave,Environmental Programming,Saskatoon,SK,S7R 1A5, Tel: 306-933-8116 Saskatchewan Environment 208-2405 Legislative Dr,Regina,SK, S4S 0B3,Tel: 306-787-0393 Saskatchewan Environment 206-110 Ominica St W,Moose Jaw,SK, S6H 6V2,Tel: 306-694-3586 Saskatchewan Environment 112 Research Dr,Saskatoon,SK,S7N 3R3,

Canadian Forces Northern Area HQ PO Box 6666 Stn Main,Yellowknife,NT, X1A 2R3,Tel: 867-873-0700 Dept Municipal & Community Affairs 600-5201 50 Ave,Yellowknife,NT,X1A 3S9, Tel: 867-669-2377 GNWT Environment & Natural Resources PO Box 1320 Stn Main, Enr FB,Yellowknife,NT,X1A 2L9, Tel: 867-920-3387 GNWT Municipal & Community Affairs PO Box 1320 Stn Main,Enr L-1, Yellowknife,NT,X1A 2L9,Tel: 867-920-8066 GNWT Public Works & Services PO Box 1320 Stn Main,Yellowknife,NT, X1A 2L9,Tel: 867-695-7247 Government of Northwest Territories 124 Jeske Cres,Asset Management Div, Yellowknife,NT,X1A 3V3,Tel: 867-920-6142 Government of Northwest Territories PO Box 1320 Stn Main,Enr NT-5,Yellowknife,NT,X1A 2L9,Tel: 867-920-8038 Government of Northwest Territories PO Box 70,Norman Wells,NT,X0E 0V0 Government of Northwest Territories PO Box 1214,Inuvik,NT,X0E 0T0, Tel: 867-777-7154 Govt of Northwest Territories 5044 Forrest Dr,Yellowknife,NT,X1A 2B2, Tel: 867-920-3489 Northwest Territories Power Corporation 4 Capital Dr SS 98,Hay River,NT,X0E 1G2, Tel: 867-874-5200 Public Utilities Board of Northwest Territories 203-62 Woodland Dr SS 99, Hay River,NT,X0E 1G1,Tel: 867-874-3944

72 | July 2007

Community and Government Services PO Box 200,Cambridge Bay,NU,X0B 0C0, Tel: 867-983-4156 Department of Environment PO Box 1000,Stn 1300,Iqaluit,NU, X0A 0H0,Tel: 867-975-7700 Govt of Nunavut Public Works PO Box 002,Rankin Inlet,NU,X0C 0G0, Tel: 867-645-8176 Nunavut Water Board PO Box 309,Baker Lake,NU,X0C 0A0, Tel: 867-793-2140

Yukon Energy Mines and Resources PO Box 2703 Stn Main,Mayo,YT,Y0B 1M0, Tel: 867-996-2852 Environment Canada 91780 Alaska Hwy,Whitehorse,YT, Y1A 2B5,Tel: 867-667-3946 First Nations Alberta 1800 Dogwood St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5, Tel: 867-667-3809 Government of Canada PWGSC 105-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5, Tel: 867-667-3223 Government of Yukon PO Box 2703 Stn Main,Whitehorse,YT, Y1A 2C6,Tel: 867-667-3209 Government of Yukon PO Box 39,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2C6, Tel: 867-667-3588 Government of Yukon 9010 Quartz Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2C6, Tel: 867-667-3121 Government of Yukon Dept Environment PO Box 2703 Stn Main,Whitehorse,YT, Y1A 2C6,Tel: 867-667-3120 Govt of Yukon Env Health Services 2 Hospital Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2Z5, Tel: 867-667-5187 Indian & Northern Affairs Canada 415C-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT, Y1A 3H8,Tel: 867-667-8391 YTG Water Resources 202-419 Range Rd,Whitehorse,YT, Y1A 3V1,Tel: 867-667-3102 Yukon Government 310-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 5M8, Tel: 867-633-6369 Yukon Government Water Resources PO Box 2703 Stn Main,Whitehorse,YT, Y1A 5X7,Tel: 867-667-8455

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ES&E’S AT A GLANCE GUIDE TO CANADIAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES The following institutions offer diploma and degree programs in these areas.: Environmental biology, Environmental control, Environmental technician, Environmental engineering/technology, Environmental health and science, Environmental studies, Environmental toxicology, Environmental health engineering.

Alberta Concordia University College of Alberta King's University College, The Lethbridge College Mount Royal College Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, The Red Deer College Southern Alberta Institute of Technology University of Alberta University of Calgary University of Lethbridge

Edmonton Edmonton Lethbridge Calgary Edmonton Red Deer Calgary Edmonton Calgary Lethbridge


Burnaby Burnaby Courtenay Castlegar Kamloops Langley Prince George


Britsh Columbia alive Academy of Natural Health British Columbia Institute of Technology North Island College Selkirk College Thompson Rivers University - Kamloops Trinity Western University University of Northern British Columbia

Manitoba University of Manitoba University of Winnipeg, The

Winnipeg Winnipeg

Collège communautaire du Nouveau-Brunswick Campbellton Mount Allison University Sackville New Brunswick Community College Fredericton



Newfoundland St. John's


Wolfville Halifax Truro Halifax


Nova Scotia Acadia University Dalhousie University Nova Scotia Agricultural College Saint Mary's University

Ontario Brock University Cambrian College Collège Boréal Confederation College Durham College Fleming College Humber Institute of Technology Lakehead University - Orillia

Thunder Bay Sarnia Sudbury Belleville Ancaster Toronto Guelph Ottawa Waterloo London Windsor Waterloo Toronto Sault Ste. Marie Oakville Kingston Peterborough Ottawa Mississauga Toronto Toronto Waterloo Ottawa Toronto




Sherbrooke Montréal Montréal Saint-Félicien Mirabel Montréal Sherbrooke Chicoutimi Montréal Rimouski Trois-Rivières Québec City Québec City Québec City


Regina Air Ronge Moose Jaw Prince Albert Saskatoon Saskatoon Regina Regina Saskatoon


Prince Edward Island

New Brunswick

Memorial University of Newfoundland

Lakehead University - Thunder Bay Lambton College Laurentian University/Université Laurentienne Loyalist College Redeemer University College Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology University of Guelph University of Ottawa/Université d'Ottawa University of Waterloo University of Western Ontario, The University of Windsor Wilfrid Laurier University Ryerson University Sault College Sheridan College St. Lawrence College Trent University University of Ottawa/Université d'Ottawa University of Toronto - Mississauga University of Toronto - Scarborough University of Toronto - Toronto University of Waterloo Willis College of Business and Technology York University

St. Catharines Sudbury Sudbury Thunder Bay Oshawa Peterborough Toronto Orillia


Holland College

Quebec Bishop's University Concordia University McGill University Cégep de St-Félicien Centre de formation agricole de Mirabel Université de Montréal Université de Sherbrooke Université du Québec à Chicoutimi Université du Québec à Montréal Université du Québec à Rimouski Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières Université du Québec Université du Québec Télé-université Université Laval

Saskatchewan First Nations University of Canada Northlands College Institute of Applied Science and Technology Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science Institute of Applied Science and Technology St. Thomas More College Luther College University University of Regina University of Saskatchewan

*This list is intended as a quick reference only. Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine makes no claim to the accuracy or completeness of this list.

July 2007 | 73

Videographic recorder The new SM500F from ABB is the world’s first field mount videographic recorder (pipe, panel, wall), rapidly processing and clearly displaying vital data. From furnaces and cold storage facilities to effluent and HVAC monitoring, the SM500F delivers maximum performance with minimum hassle and high return on investment with low cost of ownership. Tel: 800-461-0980, Fax: 905-333-7502 E-mail: Web: ABB

Product & Service Showcase

Fast sure priming The new 4” vac-assist trash pump from ABS can be used for sewer by pass, quarry pumping, flood control and general dewatering of construction sites. Dependable construction combined with heavy duty water cooled diesel power and a compressor that runs only when it’s needed is sure to save you money. Tel: 905-670-4677, Fax: 905-670-3709 E-mail: Web: ABS Canada

Field validation and verification

HST Turbocompressor

CalMaster 2 is the world’s first in situ suite of field validation and verification tools for both MagMaster and AquaMaster flowmeters. It is comprised of CalMaster IRIS (Intelligent Recognition Information System), a standalone battery powered device that provides in situ verification of both ABB mains and battery powered flow meters. Tel: 800-461-0980, Fax: 905-333-7502 E-mail: Web: ABB

ABS introduces the revolutionary HST Integral™ Turbocompressor. It is a rugged, money saving compressor designed for reliable, automatic operation at optimal efficiency and is maintenance-free. Because of the energy and maintenance savings from using the HST it can pay for itself in two years. Tel: 905-670-4677, Fax: 905-670-3709 E-mail: Web:

Coalescing oil/water separators

Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682 E-mail: Web:

American Concrete Pipe Association 74 | July 2007

Package wastewater treatment

ACG Technology’s coalescing oil/water separators are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP and polypropylene construction. Standard systems include air operated diaphragm pump, air filter and floating skimmer. Adjustable weir and skimmer height provides optimal oil removal and minimal disposal volume. Standard range is 1 to 50 GPM. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: Web: ACG Technology

ACG Technology’s package system is designed for plants needing to treat flows from 5-50 gallons per minute. Reduces installation costs and comes as complete system, including chemical feed and transfer pumps, mixers, and control panel. Economical batch wastewater treatment systems are also available for treatment of smaller or intermittent flows. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: Web: ACG Technology

Oxygen Releasing Compound

Stormwater detention software DASH (Detention and Sewer Hydraulics®) Software provides design engineers with a complete set of design tools to prepare, calculate and evaluate comprehensive storm water detention systems using concrete pipe. The program consists of 4 modules.

ABS Canada

Adventus provides remediation technologies for impacted soil, sediment, and groundwater. In-Situ Chemical Reduction allows you to treat a wide range of COIs. Our business model supports site owners, engineers, and consultants by providing unbiased design and selection of the most cost-effective remediation strategies. Since 2003, Adventus has deployed field installations at over 300 sites. Tel: 860-841-9138, Fax: 866-890-0765 E-mail: Web: Atlantic AdventusIndustries Group

EHC-O Oxygen Releasing Compound is field-proven technology stimulating aerobic biodegradation of organic COIs (petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, BTEX). Available as an O-Sox Canister Delivery System, it is available for 2" and 4" wells, and is easily implemented via reusable stainless steel canisters for quick change-out. Tel: 860-841-9138, Fax: 866-890-0765 E-mail: Web: Adventus Group Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

For the most maneuverable track system there isn’t another direct push model like the 9500-VTR. Rugged rubber tracks keep the VTR moving when soil conditions get soft, wet or muddy. Tel: 800-635-7330 Web: AMS, Inc.

Concrete arch bridges

Armtec provides BEBO concrete arch bridges in Quebec, Ontario and Western Canada. Based on technology developed in Switzerland, BEBO arches are an economical alternative to cast-inplace concrete or structural steel bridges. They are available in a range of shapes with spans up to 31m. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: Web: Armtec

Confined space entry The new “Lifeguard” man-rated confined space entry retrieval system from Pelsue is a manhole guard and retrieval system in one. The “Lifeguard” is compliant to OSHA and ANSI and has a 5:1 safety factor. The “Lifeguard” can be used with a man-rated winch or self retracting lifeline with retrieval. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1886 E-mail: Web: Association of Ontario Land Surveyors 1-800-268-0718

New web site

Con Cast Pipe announces its new web site with easy-to-use technical reference and product specification tools; in addition there is a host of other improvements. Please visit Con Cast Pipe

Canadian Safety

Underground storm water detention

Storm water management using large diameter corrugated steel pipe under parking areas is a cost-effective way to meet reduced runoff and environmental restrictions while allowing revenue producing services and commercial development. Comprehensive design software is available, FREE. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: Web: Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Stormwater solutions Armtec provides a wide range of CONTECH stormwater quality management systems throughout Canada. Products include VORTECHS hydrodynamic separation systems and VORTFILTER filtration systems. These systems are among the best for capturing suspended solids, oils, grit and trash from stormwater run off. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: Web: Armtec

Power Prime pumps

POWER PRIME™ pumps are used in mining, construction, industrial, municipal, agricultural and environmental applications. Whatever the need, wastewater or fresh water, solids or abrasives, engine or electric drive, trailer or skid base, POWER PRIME can solve the problem. Tel: 705-431-8585, Fax: 705-431-2772 E-mail: Web: Claessen Pumps

Welterweight contender Weighing in at 25 tonnes this 45 metre length of 3050mm diameter SPCSP completed a challenging northern railway crossing in just 26 hours. “Floating like a butterfly” the long and strong pipe was swung onto the soft foundation. Soil steel design provides engineered strength to carry fill heights to 27 metres. Call for a CD of “The Handbook of Steel Drainage and Highway Construction Products”. Tel: 866-295-2416 Fax:519-650-8081 E-mail: Web: Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute July 2007 | 75

Product & Service Showcase

AMS PowerProbe® 9500-VTR

Product & Service Showcase

General purpose workhorse for water and oils

Ultrasonic level transmitter

Rugged construction and multiple options provide the Gems LS-800 Series with exceptional versatility. It is capable of supporting larger, more buoyant floats, and is physically stronger for better reliability in contaminated or turbulent media. This series offers SPST or SPDT switches, and a choice of mountings, floats and materials that can be configured for a wide range of applications. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: Web:

Flowline’s EchoSpan™ general purpose two-wire ultrasonic transmitter provides non-contact level measurement up to 32.8 ft or 10m, and is ideally suited for challenging ultrapure, corrosive or waste liquids. Push button calibrated, the transmitter is broadly selected for atmospheric bulk storage, day tank and waste sump applications. Media examples include wastewater and sodium. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: Web:

Davis Controls

Davis Controls

Denso Petrolatum Tapes Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: Web: Denso

Odor control systems

Pump controller

Submersible level transmitter

Duall offers a wide selection of cost-effective, corrosionresistant DuallastTM FRP and thermoplastic chemical scrubbers, carbon adsorbers, fans and ventilation products for industrial and municipal wastewater treatment odor control applications. Products include Duall’s AroBIOS™ Bioscrubbers incorporating international award winning biological odor control technology. Ask for Bulletins OCS and ARO. Tel: 989-725-8184, Fax: 989-725-8188 E-mail: Web:

Mercoid Series MPCJR Pump Controller is a one or two pump control with built-in alternation, process input retransmission, and high and low alarm contacts in a standard 1/4 DIN package. For use with almost any style level transmitter such as the Mercoid Series PBLT or SBLT Submersible Level Transmitters, it includes an integral 24 VDC transmitter power supply and weatherproof front face for outdoor mounting. E-mail: Web:

The Mercoid Division of Dwyer Instruments Series PBLT2 Submersible Level Transmitter is manufactured for years of trouble free service in the harshest applications: wastewater, sludge, and slurries. Incorporated in the PLBT2 is a large diameter 316 SS diaphragm which is nonclogging and damage resistant to floating solids. Features a standoff plate, lightning surge protections and 0.25% accuracy. E-mail: Web:

Duall Division, Met-Pro Corporation

Dwyer Instruments

Dwyer Instruments

GPS sensor The SXBlue II GPS uses innovative technology that delivers submeter accuracy in real-time, all the time. There is no need for post-processing or a beacon receiver when WAAS, EGNOS, or MSAS are available. Even in forestry applications and other difficult mapping environments where GPS reception is limited, the SXBlue II is designed to keep working and deliver DGPS accuracy all day long. Tel: 514-354-2511, Fax: 514-354-6948 E-mail: Web: Geneq 76 | July 2007

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in bio-solids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 6090% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: Web: Atlantic Industries Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Oil and grease separators

For cost-efficient wastewater treatment, Green Turtle’s line of Proceptor oil, grease and solids separators ensure local regulatory requirements are met. Designed for commercial, institutional and industrial sites, Proceptor can help you reduce your business’ impact on municipal infrastructure and the environment. Tel: 877-966-9444 E-mail: Web: Green Turtle Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

New pump and flow monitor

Emergency gas shutoff

Tel: 905-829-9533, Fax: 905-829-9512 Web:

Only from Grundfos, the all new DDI Pump with Plus3 and State of the Art Flow Monitor - through unique, state of the art technology you can now protect your pump from air entrapment and overpressure while enjoying virtually continuous dosing. Tel: 905-829-9533, Fax: 905-829-9512 E-mail: Web:

The Terminator emergency shutoff system sequentially closes 150 lb. cylinder valves containing toxic gas in less than three seconds when activated from remote sensors and switches. The Gemini controller has a self-contained battery system that guarantees the operation of the motorized closing mechanism even during a power failure. The latest Fire Codes recognize and approve the “automatic-closing failsafe shutoff valve” system in lieu of scrubber treatment systems. Tel: 877-476-4222, Fax: 949-261-5033 Web:



Halogen Valve Systems

Grundfos has applied innovative technology to expand the Digital Dosing™ pump range, allowing it to handle liquids at much higher flow rates – from 2.5 ml/h to 940 l/h. The new DME375 and DME940 make exact dosing easier than ever.

Stormceptor® System Stormceptor removes more pollutants from stormwater, maintaining continuous positive treatment of total suspended solids (TSS), regardless of flow rate. Patented scour prevention technology ensures pollutants are captured and contained during all rainfall events, even extreme storms. Hanson Pipe & Precast, Ltd. is the exclusive manufacturer of the Stormceptor System in Ontario. Tel: 888-888-3222, Fax: 519-621-8233 E-mail: Web: Hanson Pipe & Precast

Electronic nose system

OdoWatch™ is the world’s first fully-automated electronic nose system that provides a real-time odour plume display for instant impact assessment. A must for the 24/7 monitoring of odours at any wastewater treatment plant. Tel: 905-868-9683, Fax: 905-868-9870 E-mail: Web: John Meunier

Heron water tape

The Heron WATER TAPE is a tough economical water level meter. The low cost and durability of the Kevlar reinforced tape make it an ideal choice for well drillers, pump installers and other severe service users. Call for your LOW COST quote today. Tel: 800-331-2032 Heron Instruments

HOBO water level logger

The HOBO Water Level Logger is a highaccuracy, pressure-based water level recording device that combines researchgrade accuracy and durability with a price tag that is roughly half the cost of most comparable solutions. Available from Hoskin Scientific Ltd.

Hoskin Scientific

Working With Water

Versatile wastewater pumps

Effective Groundwater Model Calibration: With Analysis of Data, Sensitivities, Predictions and Uncertainty, by Mary C. Hill, Claire R. Tiedeman. Software and mathematical models are used to represent complex processes and simulate lab or field conditions.This book presents a set of methods and guidelines for calibrating and analyzing mathematical groundwater models. 978-0-471-77636-9 • Cloth • 455 pp • Available Now • $116.99 Web: John Wiley & Sons Canada

KSB’s SEWATEC line of single-stage centrifugal pumps is designed for a wide range of wastewater applications. For tough-to-pump wastewater/sludge combinations, the pumps can be ordered with special impeller designs. SEWATEC pumps are built for dry installations. Depending on plant conditions, they can be installed horizontally or vertically. Maximum flow rate is 1,400 litres/second. Tel: 905-568-9200, Fax: 905-568-3740 E-mail: Web: KSB Pumps July 2007 | 77

Product & Service Showcase

Digital dosing pumps

Product & Service Showcase

Polymer makedown systems

Bulk water fill stations

The L Series dynaBLEND™ polymer blending and activation system units feature diaphragm metering and a non-mechanical, highenergy polymer mixing chamber. Control options range from simple manual systems to fully instrumented PLC-based units with an unlimited variety of inputs and outputs. Standard units are available to provide activated polymer solution from 30 gph through 21,000 gph. Custom units are also available. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: Web:

The SureFill is a fully automated standalone solution for the filling of bulk water hauling trucks. With SureFill Water Filling Stations the proper management, administration and control of water dispensing is made effortless. Each station encompasses a control panel and data logger, rate of flow control meter, backflow preventer and drain valve. All stations are fully encased in a heated/insulated weather-proof enclosure and are suitable for harsh environments. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: Web:

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Water quality metering

Hydraulic erosion control

Get fast, accurate, reliable, repeatable results in one easyto-use handheld instrument. Ultrameter II precisely measures 6 water quality parameters: conductivity, resistivity, TDS, pH, ORP, and temperature. Store up to 100 date-timestamped readings in memory then instantly transfer stored readings to a computer with the optional uDock™ for easy data entry, analysis, and reporting.

North American Green introduces HydraCX2 Cotton Fiber Reinforced Matrix, the first product in its new HydraMatriCx® line of cotton-fiber, hydraulic erosion control products. It is hydraulically applied for temporary erosion protection and permanent vegetation establishment on sloping areas. In large-scale, slope erosion-control testing (ASTM6459), the product proved to be 99.6% effective at controlling soil loss. Tel: 1-800-772-2040 Web:

Web: Myron L Company

North American Green

Media filters

The Ontario Concrete Pipe Association promotes the high standards of business practice and the product quality of its members, and provides technical information to specifiers, regulators, contractors and educators. Please contact us for a presentation on the following topics: Protecting Yourself as a Gravity Pipe Designer; Best Practices for New Infrastructure; Concrete Pipe Design; PipePac. Call 905-631-9696 for details and be entered to win an iPod. E-mail: Web: Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

78 | July 2007

DynaSand® continuous backwash, upflow, deep bed, granular media filters handle high levels of suspended solids, and may eliminate the need for pre-sedimentation or flotation. They have few moving parts, easily handle plant upsets, and require little operator attention and maintenance. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: Web: Atlantic Parkson Industries

Your search ends here...

The practical sustainable solution for safe drinking water… • Very low O & M • No coagulation chemicals • No expensive replacement components • Pure and simple Visit MS Filter

Pipe Pac version 3

For more information or to obtain a copy of the Pipe Pac version 3, contact the OCPA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905 E-mail: Web: Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

Sigma series metering pumps Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Easy-to-use microprocessor control with a backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: Web: ProMinent Fluid Controls Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Stan-Deck’s interlocking cover system is designed for tanks of all shapes and sizes. Featuring the industry's highest load ratings, the all fiberglass FRP, modular construction provides a lightweight, easy to install, low maintenance cover solution to odor control or freeze up challenges. Tel: 416-444-4484, Fax: 416-444-4485 E-mail: Web: Protectolite Inc.

Membrane bioreactor

Revised catalog CD now available Red Valve has completely revised its free catalog CD. Users can browse by application, industry or product. Red Valve's library of catalog sheets, specifications, applications and more can be printed right from the CD. Complete installation, operation and maintenance manuals can be printed as needed. Control valve sizing is easy with the Kwik Size program included on the CD. Tel: 412-279-0044, Fax: 412-279-7878 E-mail Web: Red Valve Company

Diver* dataloggers

Compact vacuum excavating

Rocky Mountain Soil Sampling now offers vacuum excavating to safely expose underground utilities prior to drilling. Our trailer mounted Vermeer E550 uses its 500 CFM suction to quickly clear locations. Its compact size fits in a standard parking spot, needs only 8’6” clearance and can work up to 100 feet away. Tel: 604-947-7677 Web: Rocky Mountain Soil Sampling

Telescoping conveyors

Sanitherm, a division of Wellco Energy Services, has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, pre-plumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint! Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: Web: Sanitherm, a division of Wellco Energy Services

The all-new series of groundwater dataloggers, MiniDiver, MicroDiver, Cera-Diver and CTD-Diver, represents the latest innovation in groundwater monitoring, offering the high-quality and long-term reliability customers have come to expect - now available in our most compact and robust housing ever! With direct plug-and-play capabilities using the new Pocket-Diver and support using our suite of data analysis and management software tools, groundwater monitoring has never been more easy. E-mail: Web: Schlumberger Water Services

Thermal dryer

Membrane bioreactor

Complete chemical treatment package

The Convective Thermal Dryer from Siemens Water Technologies reduces sludge volume by 5:1 and produces a uniform 1 to 4 mm dried product that can be beneficially re-used. And the CTD can use imported waste-heat to ensure efficiency and low operating costs. Call to learn more. Tel: 229-227-8727 E-mail: Web:

Siemens Water Technologies introduces membrane bioreactor technology that integrates biological processes with membrane filtration. This small footprint, integrated system combines Memcor® membrane operating system units with proven Envirex® biological technologies and Cannibal® solids reduction process. Tel: 262-547-0141 E-mail: Web:

SPD Sales Limited can offer you a complete chemical treatment package for remote sites housed in an insulated/heated fiberglass building, including metering pumps, tanks, analyzers and data storage systems ready for field installation. Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-293-9774 E-mail: Web:

Siemens Water Technologies

Siemens Water Technologies

For transporting sludge and screened material, Serpentix exclusively offers “Puratek” telescoping conveyors that extend and contract to uniformly fill trucks and containers. Add a pivoting base and the conveyor will automatically fill multiple trucks or bins that are positioned in any array. Tel: 800-466-7979, Fax: 303-430-7337 E-mail: Web: Serpentix

SPD Sales July 2007 | 79

Product & Service Showcase

Interlocking cover system

Specialist training

Spill Management offers On-Site SiteSpecific, All-risk and All-hazard Response Training for chemical spills using workshops with hands-on training, classroom instruction, Emergency Response Planning and Incident Command. Other services also include Emergency Response Equipment, and Supplies Assessments using video. Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: Web: Spill Management

Product & Service Showcase

New curved bill check valve

Channel mixers Statiflo Series 900 Channel Mixers rapidly achieve a high degree of mix with extremely low headloss in very short lengths. Complete mixing is possible with a low CoV over a wide range of flow rates. With headlosses of just a few millimetres feasible, gravity flow is an option, eliminating the expense of pumping that, in turn, reduces capital costs as well as ongoing maintenance and energy costs. Tel: 416-756-2406, Fax: 416-490-6937 E-mail: Web: Statiflo

Stormceptor® System Stormceptor removes more pollutants from stormwater, maintaining continuous positive treatment of total suspended solids (TSS), regardless of flow rate. Patented scour prevention technology ensures pollutants are captured and contained during all rainfall events, even extreme storms. Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: info@stormceptor. com Web: Imbrium Systems

Join pipe to 144”

Conveyor systems

The Curved Bill Tideflex® Check Valve is designed to enhance sealing, especially in low-lying areas with little backpressure. The valve is constructed entirely of rubber, making it virtually immune to rust, corrosion and weathering. The curved bill offers increased flexibility to better seal around entrapped debris, and the headloss of the valve remains exceptionally low. Available in sizes to 96”. Tel: 412-279-0044, Fax: 412-279-7878 E-mail: Web: Tideflex Technologies

Spiral Engineering is always focused on total quality, whether making new designs or changes to conveyor systems, offering advice on conveying processes, supplying the right replacement parts, or providing customer service. Tel: 416-527-4396, Fax: 905-567-8590 E-mail: Web: Vector Process Equipment

Depend-OLok: the new standard for joining pipe to 144". Engineered for restrained and unrestrained systems, Depend-O-Lok allows angular deflection and pipeline thermal expansion/contraction while maintaining seal integrity. Specify in systems to 600 PSI for strength, reliability and ease of maintenance. Tel: 905-884-7444 E-mail: Web:

Premium ANSI pumps without the premium price

Trickling filters

Longer water level & interface meters

Griswold’s 811 series ANSI centrifugal pumps for the processing industry offer premium features at standard price including extra heavy casings, INPRO® labyrinth seals, clean room assembly, seal and seal chamber flexibility, epoxy coated interiors, higher CI and DI strength, extra large oil sump with large sight glass and magnetic drain plug, and available with extensive options to meet your specific application. Capacities from 4 to 4000 USGPM with heads to 700 feet. Tel: 1-888-VIK-PUMP E-mail: Web:

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: Web: www.

Viking Pump

Atlantic WaterlooIndustries Biofilter Systems

80 | July 2007


Waterra has added to its line of water level and oil/water interface meters with tapes that are now available in lengths from 100 metres to 500 metres. They include all the standard features of other Waterra metres such as auto shut off, sensitivity adjustment, modular construction and low power consumption. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: Web: Waterra Pumps Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

NEWS Saint John WWTP gets $7.4-million makeover Upgrades at the Saint John-Millidgeville wastewater treatment plant have recently been completed. The expansion will provide additional wastewater treatment capacity from 6,280 cubic metres per day to 10,000 cubic metres per day for Saint John’s North End. This expansion has allowed additional flows to be directed to the treatment facility from areas that were serviced without treatment, areas that were not previously serviced and from future developments, via a new gravity feed sewer. The $7.4-million renovation was funded under the Canada-New Brunswick Infrastructure Program.

(Left to right) Attending the opening ceremony were Veterans Affairs Minister Greg Thompson, Supply and Services Minister Roly MacIntyre, and Saint John Mayor Norm McFarlane.

and state-of-the-art facility-one of the largest wastewater treatment facilities in Canada-that will continue to, meet the needs of the community until 2031.

E-waste plan will divert computers, TVs from landfills An industry-funded program will provide all Ontarians with convenient, accessible options for recycling electronics. Environment Minister Laurel Broten has announced that she has directed Waste Diversion Ontario to develop an industryfunded waste diversion program for electronic waste. The program will recognize the value of these materials and ensure potentially toxic components, like lead

and mercury, are kept out of landfills. The first phase of the program, expected by February 1, 2008, will address products that are among those with the lowest diversion rates. It will deal with: desktop and notebook computers, monitors, desktop printers, and televisions. Phase II will address: telephones, audio players and recorders, radios, speakers, and cameras. According to a Waste Diversion Ontario study, of the over 1.5 million computers and other computer equipment discarded in 2004, only about two per cent were diverted. According to the same study, less than one per cent of televisions and other audio-visual equipment and two per cent of telecom equipment were diverted in 2004. To further support waste management continued overleaf...

• ANTHRACITE • QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL • CARBON • GARNET ILMENITE • REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax: (519) 751-0617 E-mail: • Web:

KMK Consultants and Black & Veatch share Willis Chipman Award Consulting Engineers of Ontario presented the Willis Chipman Award to KMK Consultants Limited and Black & Veatch Corporation for their role in an ambitious upgrade and expansion of the Lakeview Wastewater Treatment Plant. The project, valued at $250 million, represents an increase in treatment capacity of one-third (from 336,000 m3/d to 448,000 m3/d. The team provided its client, the Regional Municipality of Peel, with detailed design, tendering, contract administration, and site inspection services throughout the project. Every facet of the facility was reviewed for opportunities for optimization and subjected to a rigorous Value Engineering analysis. The project was also fast-tracked, requiring KMK to coordinate 10 separate construction contracts over three years while maintaining operations and service. Today, Lakeview WWTP is a modern

July 2007 | 81

NEWS in the province, the Minister also introduced a draft policy statement on provincial expectations for waste that aims to achieve more consistent and timely municipal waste management planning and to increase transparency in decisionmaking. The provincial policy statement is posted to the Environmental Registry for a 45-day comment period at, registry number 010-0420.

City of Timmins fined for violations found in drinking water system The Corporation of the City of Timmins has been fined $84,000, plus a victim fine surcharge, after pleading guilty to eleven offences relating to the operation of the City’s Shaw Township Well Water Supply System, McDonald Lake Water Supply Treatment and Storage Works and the Timmins Water Filtration Plant. The City’s drinking water system is operated under the authority of certificates of approval and permits to take water issued to the City by the Ministry of the Environment. Beginning in February 2004 and ending in March 2005,

ministry staff conducted a series of inspections of the City’s drinking water system that included the McDonald Lake Supply Treatment and Storage Works, the Shaw Township Well Water Supply, and the Timmins Water Filtration Plant. During the inspections, ministry staff found violations that were referred for investigation. Following an investigation by the ministry’s Investigations and Enforcement Branch, the Corporation of the City of Timmins was charged under the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Ontario Water Resources Act. The City pleaded guilty to: Two counts of failing to install chemically assisted filtration or to connect to an alternate water supply. One count of failing to complete work necessary to meet the requirements of the Procedure for Disinfection of Drinking Water in Ontario. Two counts of failing to undertake required monitoring and water sampling. One count of failing to maintain a well at all times. Two counts of failing to comply with a Provincial Officer order. Two counts of failing to install, maintain and operate continuous water quality

analysers with alarms. One count of failing to ensure the provision of water treatment equipment that is designed to be capable of achieving at all times primary disinfection in accordance with the Ministry’s Procedure for Disinfection of Drinking Water in Ontario.

Ontario sets toughest penalties in Canada for industries that pollute water The Ontario government has finalized regulations that set the toughest penalty regime in Canada for those companies that spill. The new regulations: • outline the scope, assessment and implementation of environmental penalties, • outline how funds raised through penalties can be used for community environmental projects, • describe the requirements for spill prevention and spill contingency plans, and formalize the requirements for notifying the ministry of a spill. The regulations also outline how funds raised through penalties can be used. A community environment fund was created by the Environmental Enforcement Statute Law Amendment Act passed in June 2005 to help communities affected by spills with environmental remediation and restoration projects. Projects considered for funding would represent projects over and above those directly related to spill clean-up, as industry is already required by law to pay all such costs. These penalties, similar to those in New Jersey and California, apply to the companies in nine industrial sectors, operating 148 facilities in Ontario, that have been responsible for a significant number of spills to land and water each year. The ministry consulted extensively with industry representatives, environmental, community and health groups on the regulations that make the legislation effective.

New law bans water diversions Ontario’s water resources are now better protected with the passage of the Safeguarding and Sustaining Ontario’s Water Act, Environment Minister Laurel Broten and Natural Resources Minister David Ramsay announced early in June. 82 | July 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

NEWS The new legislation enshrines in law an historic agreement that bans diversions from the Great Lakes Basin. The legislation will also permit commercial and industrial users to be charged for the water they use. The new Act implements the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement, signed by Ontario, Quebec and the eight Great Lake U.S. states in December 2005. The provinceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s existing ban on diversions of water out of the Great LakesSt. Lawrence River, Nelson and Hudson Bay basins is now part of the act rather than just being in regulation. The Act also prohibits new or increased diversions of water from one Great Lake watershed to another, subject to strictly regulated exceptions. The Act goes beyond the agreement by giving the province the ability to pass more restrictive regulations requiring that water transfers smaller than those stipulated in the agreement be returned to the Great Lakes watershed from which they were taken. Other new provisions would let the province require water conservation plans for water transfers and takings, and enhance consideration of climate change and cumulative impacts. The province will, following the development of a regulation, start to charge commercial and industrial users for the water they take and use. Revenue will go toward the provinceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s costs of managing water quantity.

Company fined for discharging ammonia Chinook Global Limited has been fined $760,000, plus a victim fine surcharge, after pleading guilty to discharging ammonia directly into a waterway that impaired water quality, failing to report an exceedence and failing to comply with its Certificate of Approval. Chinook Global Limited operated a chemical manufacturing plant on the shores of the St. Clair River in Lambton County, Ontario. Historically, the plant manufactured methylamines, dimethylformamide and choline chloride. In the fall of 2004, the plant changed its operations, leaving the choline chloride unit as the only remaining production unit. On July 17, 2005, following unusually heavy rainfall, Chinook made the decision to start discharging treated effluent from its holding pond directly into continued overleaf...

July 2007 | 83

NEWS Get a clear view of: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Specialists in non-intrusive ground investigationsâ&#x20AC;? Tel: 905.458.1883 Fax: 905.792.1884 E-mail: Web:

â&#x20AC;˘ UST's, buried metal, debris & fill â&#x20AC;˘ Former excavations & structures â&#x20AC;˘ Leachate plumes â&#x20AC;˘ Voids and fractures â&#x20AC;˘ Stratigraphy â&#x20AC;˘ Pipes and utilities






Water & Wastewater Systems Process Optimization Stormwater Management Environment Planning Value Engineering Project Financing & Procurement Intelligent Water Systems (IWS)

625 Cochrane Drive, Suite 500 Markham, Ontario, L3R 9R9 T: 905.943.0500 F: 905.943.0400

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the St. Clair River. The company continued to dump the effluent into the river for eight days. Chinook was required to monitor its final treated effluent, which was sampled and analyzed daily for several parameters including total ammonia. On July 25, 2005, Chinook was advised by its laboratory that there were elevated levels in the effluent that were indicative of a high ammonia concentration. As a result of this information, the company immediately stopped discharging the effluent into the St. Clair River but failed to notify the Ministry of the Environment of the exceedences until the next day. Following an investigation by the ministryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Investigations and Enforcement Branch, Chinook was charged with violating section 30(1) of the Ontario Water Resources Act for each day it permitted the discharge of ammonia into the river. Chinook was also charged under section 40(3) of Ontario Regulation 63/95 for failing to report the ammonia exceedences to the ministry as soon as reasonably possible. In addition to the charges related to the ammonia discharge, Chinook was also charged under section 186(3) of the Environmental Protection Act with two counts of failing to comply with a condition of its Certificate of Approval issued to the company by the ministry. These charges relate to air emission exceedences from the plant that took place on October 4 and 5, 2004.

Hydro International signs agreement with ACG Technology

Providing environmental science, socio-economics, planning and engineering solutions for over 30 years

British Columbia | Alberta | Yukon | Northwest Territories | Ontario | Quebec | Nova Scotia | Qatar

84 | July 2007

Hydro International, a provider of environmentally sustainable products and innovative solutions that control and treat stormwater, wastewater and combined sewer overflows, has announced an agreement with ACG Technology Ltd. of Woodbridge, to market its full line of products in Ontario. Hydro International has sold products in Ontario through a partnership with another distributor in recent years. It will maintain its sales network throughout central and western Canada, with other resellers handling distribution channels in Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Manitoba and Alberta. ACG Technology has 25 years of proven experience in advanced water quality solutions, providing water, wasteEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine

NEWS water and stormwater treatment systems for industries and municipalities.

CYCLE 2007: Towards a Life Cycle Economy The Interuniversity Research Centre for the Life Cycle of Products, Processes and Services (CIRAIG) is presenting CYCLE 2007, the third edition of the Canadian Forum on the Life Cycle Management of Products and Services. The event will be held at the Holiday Inn Midtown, in Montréal, on October 22 and 23, 2007. The theme of this year’s Forum, Towards a Life Cycle Economy, is an important debate on the current economic system on which the industrialized nations were founded. "It is time for the traditional economic system to become sustainable. Modern societies will only be able to continue their long-term development if they reduce the pressure they exert on resources and the environment. The industry understands this but needs concrete solutions, guidelines, and information in order to engage in a shift towards sustainability. This Forum aims to provide many answers for participants," stated Professor Réjean Samson, General Director of the CIRAIG. Life cycle assessment is one of the solutions that will help industry do its part. Reducing the distances that products travel, using energy efficient production processes, relying on closed loop water systems, designing smaller, recyclable, and even compostable packaging products, and assessing product re-use possibilities are some of the elements that the life cycle approach will take into account and which will lead businesses to develop more sustainable consumption and production patterns. Program information will be updated regularly on the event’s Web site at

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Evaluating barley's potential as biofuel feedstock A project to evaluate barley's potential in Canada's rapidly evolving biofuels industry has received funding of $262,000 from the Biofuels Opportunities for Producers Initiative (BOPI). The funding has been made available through the Agriculture and Food Council that administers Agriculture and Agri-Food continued overleaf...

July 2007 | 85

NEWS Canada's Advancing Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Program. The three-phase Barley and Bioproducts Opportunities Project (BBOP) will invest $380,000 in examining barley's feasibility in a number of emerging applications; specifically, researchers will study the opportunities and challenges growers would face to establish regional, barley-based ethanol production facilities. The project will also look at removing valuable fractions from barley prior to ethanol production and using a byproduct of barley ethanol production distilled grains - in commercial applications, including cattle feed. The project's first task will be to determine the relative competitiveness of barley versus other major crops, by analysing ethanol yield and the amounts of starch and sugar that can and cannot be extracted. The project will report in its initial findings in September 2007 and its final findings in March 2008.

Stantec donates $50,000 to Water for People

Tom Reinders (left) from Water for People - Canada Committee, with Tino DiManno, Sr. Vice President, Stantec Stantec recently announced it is donating $50,000 to Water for People, a US and Canadian charity organization that provides water, sanitation, and hygiene education support to developing countries. Stantec made this donation in commemoration of National Drinking Water Week, being celebrated all over North America. “We are proud to support an organization like Water for People that understands the importance drinking water has to global health,” says Tino DiManno, leader of Stantec’s Canada region. “Much of Stantec’s work involves providing safe public infrastructure and this donation further supports that objective.” In 2003, Stantec supervised the construction of a water supply infrastructure project in Malawi, Africa, one of Water for People’s targeted countries. Since then, several of the Company’s offices have 86 | July 2007

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NEWS been active in the organization, volunteering for fund-raising events, contributing in-kind services, and providing employees as committee and board members. This $50,000 donation allows Stantec to provide direct support to targeted projects, including continued work in Malawi. Experience, Innovation, Diversity, Teamwork & Commitment


Corner Brook area to get $36-million water treatment plant The City of Corner Brook, Newfoundland, is getting a new $36 million water treatment plant. The project involves the construction of a centralized water treatment facility, a water storage reservoir, transmission mains, and a pumping facility. Once operational, the level of water treatment will comply with federal regulations and guidelines for drinking water, providing residents of Corner Brook, Massey Drive and Mount Moriah with reliable and safe drinking water. This year the province will invest an unprecedented $440 million in infrastructure, generating an estimated 5,700 person-years of employment.

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• Hazardous Site Clean-up & Remediation • Decommissioning and Demolition • Asbestos and Mould Abatement • Contaminated Soil Removal • On-site Water Treatment

Adventus Group receives innovation award The Adventus Group, an environmental biotechnology company has received the 2007 North American Environmental Remediation Product Innovation of the Year Award. Sponsored by Frost & Sullivan, a global consulting company, the award recognizes Adventus’s efforts to provide biotechnology–based remedial solutions for treatment of contaminated soil, sediment, and groundwater. Particular emphasis was placed on Adventus’s work with chlorinated solvents, pesticides, herbicides, energetics, heavy metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons using an in-situ chemical reduction (ISCR) mechanism utilizing carbon, plus granular iron (zero valent metal) as the reductant. This award is part of the Frost & Sullivan Annual Best Practices Awards that recognize companies for demonstrating outstanding achievement and superior performance.

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Guest Comment

Getting the lead out of our drinking water By Frank Zechner ince the Walkerton tragedy, Ontario has focused significant efforts to address source water protection and the treatment plants. If the water pipes are not addressed, it may simply mean that cleaner drinking water will be pumped into our aging, leaking and sometimes toxic pipes. One of the key issues that was addressed in the Walkerton Report Part II, as well as other reports, was toxic lead in our drinking water. Where does the lead come from? There are three potential sources of lead that can enter our drinking water after it has been discharged from the water treatment plant: a) The old cast iron mains that were installed through to the early 1960s; b) The service lines connecting the water mains to individual homes, schools and businesses; and c) Internal plumbing. Cast iron mains The use of cast iron mains dates back to the 1800s in Ontario and across North America. Cast iron mains were joined together by a compression type


of joint, similar to a ball and socket joint. One end of the pipe has an enlarged diameter that will allow the smaller diameter end to be inserted about an inch or two. The joints were sealed with a combination of hemp and molten lead. A general rule of thumb was that an 8 inch pipe required about 8 pounds of lead at every joint, which was typically every 10 or 12 feet. While lead at one joint may appear to be a minor exposure, it becomes more significant if the water is traveling through 10 or 15 kilometres of this type of pipe. The writer is not aware of any action plan to date by any regulatory agency in Canada to address this potential source of lead. It may, however, explain why some homes that have had lead service lines removed still show significant concentrations of lead at their taps. Lead metal service lines The second source of lead is the one that has received considerable press coverage in recent months, the solid lead pipe service lines that connect homes to the city’s mains. Recommendation #35 of the Walkerton report states: “As part of an asset management program, lead service lines should be located and replaced over time with safer materials.” Up until May 2007 some municipalities responded with voluntary programs in which residents pay some of the costs. To the best of the writer’s knowledge no Provincial governments had indicated any particular urgency to this issue until several recent reports related to pipes in Montreal, Quebec and Ottawa and London in Ontario. There is no provincial or federal deadline for removal of these lines. London, like many other older urban centres across Canada, has a significant number of lead pipes in its water distribution system, and although structurally sound, these pipes should be replaced promptly. Solid lead pipe was used for service lines up until the early 1950s because of three primary factors: 1) the cost of lead pipe as compared to copper; 2) lead pipes do not corrode; and 3) lead is relatively soft and easier to bend around obstructions such as tree roots and building foundations. Mounting medical evidence and a Province-wide ban in Ontario in 1953 were factors why installation of those pipes was discontinued in the early 1950s. While installation stopped, use of the already installed pipes continued. Internal plumbing The third source of lead is the lead/tin solder commonly used by plumbers and homeowners through to the current day. Ontario’s experience and action plan In May 2007, Ontario’s chief water inspector ordered 36 municipalities to conduct water testing for lead at the tap as compared to its normal testing at the discharge valve at the water treatment plant. Surprisingly, while Ontario required lead concentration reports, it avoided the real life circumstances that were likely to show high lead concentrations in drinking water; it avoided testing water that was in contact with lead service lines for more than a few minutes. This approach is the opposite of the approach mandated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) since 1991. The US EPA expressly requires that the testing for lead must be at least one litre of water that “has remained motionless in the lead service line for at least six hours.” continued overleaf...

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ABS Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 ACG Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Adventus Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Albarrie Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 AMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Anthrafilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Aquablast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Armtec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20,21 Associated Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Association of Ontario Land Surveyors . . . . . . . . .65 Atlantic Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Baycor Fibre Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 BOMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 CAEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Canada Hair Cloth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Canadian Environmental Markets Association . . .81 Canadian Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 CH2M HILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Claessen Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Davis Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Delcan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Delcan Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Denso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Dewind Dewatering and Trenching . . . . . .(insert) 67 Durpro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Envirogate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Geneq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Greatario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Heron Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Hydro International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Hydromantis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Imbrium Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 International Water Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 IPEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ITT Flygt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 John Wiley & Sons Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 KMK Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Master Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 McIntosh Perry Consulting Engineers . . . . . . . . . .48 Napier Reid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Neptune Chemical Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 North American Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Ontario Concrete Pipe Association . . . . . . . . . . . .91 OTEK Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Parkson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Performance Fluid Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 ProMinent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Rocky Mountain Soil Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Sanitherm Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Schlumberger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Serpentix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Smith & Loveless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 SPD Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Stantec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Sustainable Development Technology . . . . . . . . .31 Victaulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Waterra Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 XCG Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50



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Guest Comment The results of Ontario’s testing and its proposed action plan were both announced on June 7, 2007. Given the sampling and testing conditions dictated by the Province, it is hardly surprising that the June 7th results showed no major lead problem in Ontario homes. Most homeowners do not run their taps for at least five minutes every time they take a drink of water from the tap or refill their coffee pot. Even under the unrealistic conditions of running the tap for a full five minutes or longer, the lead concentration in some cities such as Hamilton, St. Catharines, and Guelph increased by anywhere from 20 to 5000%. If the water was allowed to stand in those lead service pipes for at least six hours as required by law across the US, instead of a few minutes under the Ontario Ministry of Environment’s conditions for testing, the number of failures would have been much higher. With respect to the Action Plan, the June 7, 2007 press release stated: “Let there be no misunderstanding: tap water in this province is among the safest in the world, and today’s actions will make it even safer,” said Jim Smith, Ontario’s Chief Drinking Water Inspector. “Adjusting water chemistry in municipal systems so it picks up less lead should effectively resolve this problem.” Adjusting water chemistry The Province correctly identifies that water chemistry, such as the relative acidity of the water, and alkalinity will impact the concentrations of lead in the water. The US EPA reached similar conclusions back in 1991, but there are limits as to what can or should be added to our drinking water. In the US, when water chemistry adjustments do not adequately reduce lead concentrations, the municipality must commence a lead service line replacement program. Ontario has failed to address this most critical element - the replacement of lead service lines. Replacing those lines was recommended in the Walkerton report five years ago, and was recommended by the Province’s own experts in their report of June 4, 2007. But what does Ontario suggest if water chemistry adjustments are inadequate? If municipal adjustments of pH and alkalinity of the water do not bring down lead levels to an acceptable level, it appears that Ontario homeowners are being asked to flush more frequently and purchase water filters. Is increased flushing a solution? In addition to the June test results and 90 | July 2007

action plan announcement, Ontario passed an immediate Regulation that orders daily flushing of all taps and fountains at schools and other institutions instead of the once per week flushing that has been required since 2003. The impression left with many observers is that, if schools and daycares flush their systems daily, the lead concentrations in their drinking water will be comparable to the test results for the 36 municipalities. The problem is that Ontario’s test results were based on five minutes flushing before the test, which means that institutions would have to flush their systems at least twice an hour to ensure that the water was not standing in lead service lines or plumbing for more than 30 minutes. It is perplexing that the published results for lead levels in drinking water for homes were based on different criteria than those advocated for schools and daycares. The test results for homes were based on flushing every 30 minutes; the recommendation for schools is flushing once a day. Based on the new rules for schools, Ontario homeowners are left with the general impression that a five minute flush once a day will reduce lead in water to safe levels. Water chemistry experts point out that lead levels start to increase rapidly in water that is in direct contact with lead pipes and approach maximum saturation levels in as little as six to eight hours. Consequently homeowners would need to run their taps for at least 5 minutes every few hours unless there was some intervening large volume useage such as laundry or watering lawns, etc. In a separate report released on June 4, 2007, Ontario’s Advisory Council on Drinking-Water Quality and Testing Standards stated: “Although flushing would logically seem to reduce lead levels at the tap, results are often unpre-

dictable. Higher levels of lead can be found even after several minutes of flushing.” It seems fairly clear that for most homes with elevated levels of lead in drinking water, flushing may be a good interim measure, but it is not a permanent solution. The Ontario Sewer and Watermain Construction Association and the US EPA agree that if water chemistry adjustments are inadequate, the lead service lines should be replaced. What about in-home water filters? Ontario announced in June that it will provide funding for the cost of in-home filters for low-income families, not for lead service line replacements. The June 4 report of Ontario’s Advisory Council on Drinking-Water Quality and Testing Standards concluded that water filters "may or may not reduce the exposure to lead due to improper use, or the size of particulate matter present. NSF certification provides some confirmation that the device is capable of reducing lead levels, however lead particulate removal is not currently certified. NSF work continues on a new standard that will certify devices for both dissolved lead and particulate lead removal". Not only does the Advisory Council conclude that water filters may not be an effective solution, there is the matter of cartridge replacements. Most if not all water filters require regular cartridge replacement or flushing. The Province’s financial assistance is based on only the purchase of the filter system, not ongoing cartridge replacements. Recommendations If a home is connected to a lead service line, the local municipality must embark on a program of water chemistry adjustments. Balancing water chemistry adjustments is not as simple as turning a switch or knob. Water systems are vast and delicate and one minor adjustment can have significant other adverse effects. For many municipalities, fine tuning the chemistry could take up to a year or more. Flushing and filters may help in the very short term, but only replacement of the pipes can truly restore safe and reliable drinking water systems across Canada. Frank Zechner is Executive Director, Ontario Sewer and Watermain Construction Association. Contact:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) July 2007  
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) July 2007