Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine March-April 2015

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Mar/Apr 2015 www.esemag.com

Removing disinfection byproducts Iqaluit to have largest WWTP in the north


Using reclaimed wastewater has risks

Investigating groundwater contamination

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Contents ISSN-0835-605X • Mar/Apr 2015 Vol. 28 No. 2 • Issued April 2015 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY Email: steve@esemag.com Assistant Editor PETER DAVEY Email: peter@esemag.com


Sales Director PENNY DAVEY Email: penny@esemag.com


UN predicts massive global water shortfall by 2030

Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Email: denise@esemag.com


Site contamination is a hidden danger of property ownership

Accounting SANDRA DAVEY Email: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Email: darlann@esemag.com Design and Production EINAR RICE

Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar, Jones and Henry Engineers Ltd. Gary Burrows, City of London Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill DeAngelis, Associated Engineering Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems William Fernandes, Region of Peel Eric MacDonald, Cole Engineering Group Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine, Environment Canada Tony Petrucci, Stantec, Markham Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be emailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

12 Wastewater reused for Bermuda island resort toilet flushing 14 Testing for genotoxicity in recycled drinking water sources 16 Durham removes H2S from its Courtice WPCP

DEPARTMENTS Environmental News . . . 85-89 Product Showcase. . . . . 71-75 Professional Cards. . . . . 85-88 Ad Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Page 12

18 Site investigation vital for groundwater protection – Cover Story 24 Corrosion control of iron pipe with polyethylene encasement 28 Understanding the health risks with reclaimed wastewater 32 Yogurt plant benefits from upgraded wastewater and EFW systems

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34 New WWTP prevents contamination of a prime vacation spot 36 AWWA updates its cold water meter standards 38 Niagara completes eight month combined sewer overflow study 42 Nfld town chooses nanofiltration to remove disinfection byproducts 46 How Canada’s climate has changed during the last 140 years

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50 Many hurdles faced to create the largest WWTP in Canada’s North 54 PEI town converts drainage ditch into multi user trail system 56 Toluene is a natural occurrence in water 60 Five things you need to know about WHMIS 2015 64 Protecting lone workers in remote areas is vital 67 In situ site remediation requires the right mixing 77 How to boost the performance of pressure reducing valves 81 Understanding the differences between Doppler and transit time ultrasonic flow meters 82 How to choose between grit washing or grit classification 84 New commercial development meets Moncton’s strict stormwater runoff regulations



List of Exhibitors. . . . . . . . . 76

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Editorial Comment by Steve Davey

UN predicts massive global water shortfall by 2030


recent report by UNESCO’s World Water Assessment Program says we are facing a 40% global water deficit by 2030, unless current practices change. This is dependent on population growth, urbanization, food and energy security policies, changing diets and increasing consumption. The report says that by 2050, agriculture will need to produce 60% more food globally. Water demand by industry is expected to increase by 400%. If politicians are unable or unwilling to control global population growth, it will be up to water and wastewater engineers and scientists to come up with technologies and strategies to provide adequate and safe water supplies. With shrinking water resources, wastewater recycling and reuse are becoming mainstream options. Water reuse is not a new concept. In fact it has been going on since time began with the hydrological cycle. With the introduction of water and wastewater treatment in the 19th century, surface water reuse became safer. Until then, dilution was the only physical barrier between one community’s wastewater discharge and another’s drinking water intake. In recent years, water reuse and recycling have evolved and many systems are in place, or planned. This has created new opportunities and issues for water and wastewater professionals as several articles in this issue describe. Testing for genotoxicity in alternative drinking water sources explains that an increasing need to recycle drinking water has changed the nature of the source water that enters treatment facilities. “It has forced us to reassess how we ascertain cleanliness in these supplies. Furthermore, initial public responses to recycling processes have been largely negative. The “toilet to tap” concept is a hard sell. Demonstrating the safety and potability of recycled water has become a priority to increase support for new drinking water initiatives,” says author Aaron Witham. Understanding the health risks with re-

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claimed wastewater details a unique residential/commercial development project, which was recently approved by Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development in Rocky View County, west of Calgary. This master planned community will include a self-contained system, which will treat residential wastewater and collect it for irrigation within the development. Concerns were expressed by regulatory stakeholders regarding the protection of public health. Cyanobacteria, indicator organisms, turbidity and chlorine residuals were also raised as issues of interest, given the design of the wastewater system and the novelty of the project. Wastewater reuse – a beautiful solution for Bermuda resort is an example of innovative thinking and engineering. The Fairmont Southampton Bermuda Resort uses a large amount of water and electricity in order to maintain such a vast property and meet the needs of its guests. Water is a very expensive commodity on the island. Reusing effluent for toilet flushing saves the resort 30,200 m3 of fresh water per year.

Reflecting the need for more water recycling and reuse, the WateReuse Research Foundation and WateReuse Association recently announced they plan to merge their leadership. The Research Foundation will continue to conduct cutting-edge research to improve the treatment, distribution, and acceptance of water reuse. The Association will continue to strategically advocate for laws, policies, and funding that promote and increase water reuse. The world’s population is growing by 80 million people per year and is expected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. Water and wastewater professionals have their work cut out for them, if we are to sustain everyone.

Steve Davey is Editor of ES&E Magazine. E-mail: steve@esemag.com

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Guest Comment

Ever-changing allowable contaminant levels threaten property values By George Duncan


nyone wanting to sell or refinance their property will probably need a Phase Two Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) to prove their site is compliant with all the environmental rules and regulations, and that soil and groundwater do not contain toxic chemicals. If a site doesn’t meet these criteria, the purchase deal will likely be held up, until it is cleaned up, or risk assessed. Both will be costly and time consuming. Cleanup costs can range from several thousand to several million dollars, depending on the extent of the problem. These costs usually get deducted from the selling price. They can mount up to well over 100% of the selling price. The higher they are, the less likely it is that the site will actually be cleaned up. Sinking significant funds into site cleanups, if there is no reasonable return on the investment, doesn’t make good business sense, despite any environmental benefits. Where the cost of the cleanup is more than their value, sites usually end up being mothballed or, worse still, abandoned and become brownfields. Much of the current environmental legislation has been aimed at ensuring they are cleaned up and that no more brownfields are created. Unfortunately, the new rules may be having the opposite effect. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, allowable limits of contaminants in soil and groundwater were dramatically lowered and the number of contaminants greatly expanded. This was great news for the politicians and an envirophobic public. However, it created some very tragic consequences and very real injustices for property owners. Every time an allowable limit is lowered or a new contaminant is added, somebody’s property becomes “dirty” and needs to be cleaned up. The day before, the property may have been “clean”, but now it is “dirty.” Its value drops significantly, in some cases to less than zero. Tragically, this situation may not be known until the property is put up for sale and the environmental consultant reports

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An underground fuel tank led to soil contamination at this building. Remediation was completed during the property’s acquisition. Photo by KG Services

that the property is contaminated. This scenario is becoming common and too many property owners are facing a pretty bleak financial future. It is not by any willful or careless action on their part but by the simple stroke of a legislative pen! I cannot recall ever reading an article or seeing any public announcement or discussion telling property owners that some proposed new lowering of an allowable limit will mean they are now bankrupt. But, that is precisely what is happening. As a property owner, I sure would want to be part of the discussion of any new legislation which has the potential to bankrupt me. Also, I would expect my government to offer some kind of relief or compensation when it can clearly be shown that I had no way of knowing any of this when I bought the property, hoping to develop it. Examples abound of lives financially ruined by these new rules. From small businesses to larger commercial operations expecting a healthy return on their investment, the news that their property value is far less than they thought is shocking. The general reaction is one of hurt and anger that they have been blindsided by government actions of which

they had no knowledge or part. Now they own a property which cannot be sold unless they commit to clean it up. Or, they cannot get a bank loan to refinance unless it is cleaned up. This cost is on top of what has been spent for the ESA. Worse still, the source of the contaminants may be off-site, not known, or from more than one source. So, the unfortunate property owner is now faced with a worthless property and doesn’t even know who to sue for compensation. Even if they could, the current success rate in such cases is near zero. Hence, a single contaminated property has the potential to destroy many surrounding property values. No one may know about it until an environmental assessment is triggered on any of the affected sites. The whole issue of who is responsible for the environmental condition of private property can be grossly unfair and unjust to property owners whose only fault was to be the site owner when the government changed the rules. These new rules are very much stacked against them and are based more on “envirophobia” than science or fact. There may indeed be a benefit to encontinued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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Guest Comment

Where the cost of the cleanup is more than their value, sites usually end up being mothballed or, worse still, abandoned.

suring a site meets the extremely low allowable limits for various contaminants. These are often calculated to eliminate cancer risk in one in a million of the general population. But, surely that needs to be weighed against the heartbreak and bankruptcies of property owners. When do a million people eat dirt? I asked one provincial environmen-

tal officer what to advise a client selling a small downtown apartment building, found to be impacted with trichloroethylene from some off-site, unknown source. What was the purpose of cleaning it up, if more contaminant was simply going to migrate back on to the property? The officer’s response was that “some property owners are installing

reactive barriers around the site boundaries to prevent re-contamination.” It is certainly an option, but this may be too expensive for small properties. Marie Antoinette’s famous quote “Let them eat cake” springs to mind! As baby boomer generation entrepreneurs reach their retirement years, many are in for the shock of their lives when consultants find their sites exceed one or more of the hundreds of contaminants now listed in a government table. This is often at some unbelievably low allowable limit, which even a laboratory has a hard time quantifying with any certainty. It is past the time for the business community to wake up and challenge the idea that the only people who know what constitutes an acceptable environmental risk are government bureaucrats and totally risk-averse environmentalists. Otherwise, I predict ever-increasing tightening of allowable limits and more and more property owners being bankrupted. George Duncan is with A&A Environmental Consultants Inc. Email: gduncan@aaenvironmental.ca

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Wastewater Reuse

Wastewater reuse – a beautiful solution for Bermuda resort cal wastewater treatment plant due to high salinity. Additionally, a lot of power was required to pump it to the resort, which is situated 180 feet above sea level. On the other hand, using desalinated water was a very expensive option that reduced their water supply during peak season and greatly increased operational costs. The resort wanted to look at options for reusing effluent from the wastewater treatment plant to save on water. They needed to make sure the solution performed consistently as well as effectively.

As part of their Green Partnership Program, Fairmont Hotels & Resorts wanted to further reduce the cost and environmental impact of water use at the facility.


he Fairmont Southampton Bermuda Resort is a spectacular 596-room hotel surrounded by nearly 100 acres, ranging from sparkling pink sand beaches, to towering coconut trees and an exceptional golf course. The resort uses a large amount of water and electricity in order to maintain such a vast property and meet the needs of their guests. It is a very expensive commodity on the island, and the resort has installed a desalination plant to augment its infrastructure. The on-site wastewater treatment

plant treats the hotel’s wastewater and the effluent is reused by the golf course for irrigation. As part of their Green Partnership Program, Fairmont Hotels & Resorts wanted to further reduce the cost and environmental impact of water use at the facility. They sought out H2Flow’s expertise to strategize a better solution. The challenge Seawater and desalinated water were the two water sources for toilet flushing at the facility. Seawater use caused infrastructure problems and upset the biologi-

H2Flow provided all equipment and training for the effluent reuse system. 12 | March/April 2015

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The solution Reusing effluent for non-potable water use was reviewed and considered because of its cost-effectiveness and environmental benefit. This involved filtering effluent from the wastewater treatment plant using a Dynasand filter, a pre-filter alum dosing system and a post-filter chlorination system. Filtered water is stored in a covered tank and from there it is pumped for distribution. A blue dye is injected to distinguish this non-potable water from potable water. H2Flow provided all equipment for the effluent reuse system and provided training to the treatment plant operators on operating and maintaining the system. The result is a robust, environmentally sound system, saving the resort 30,200 m3 of fresh water per year. For more information, visit www.h2flow.com

A blue dye is injected to distinguish this non-potable water from potable water. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply

Testing for genotoxicity in alternative drinking water sources By Dr. Aaron Witham


ur drinking water is changing! Even relatively water-rich areas like North America are approaching a tipping point of not being able to separate drinking water sources from wastewater effluents because there just aren’t enough available. Areas of the world which experience more severe dry weather or frequent drought conditions have been dealing with drinking water supply problems for many years. Liberal water use combined with climate change and population growth is diminishing world water stores. According to the United Nations, half the world’s population will face inadequate water supply by 2030. As shortages become more extreme, and water supplies are cut, we are increasingly aware that alternative resources need to be found and that water conservation must become an international priority. What can we do about global water shortages? The answer seems to lie in the three Rs - Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Although the first R is an individual responsibility, the latter two are currently being accomplished by wastewater recycling facilities. These take tens of millions of litres of wastewater every day and reuse it for public consumption. Pilot plants in California, Africa and Australia are succeeding in providing clean drinking water for significant percentages of the population, entirely from wastewater sources. An increasing need to recycle water has changed the nature of the source water that enters treatment facilities. It has forced us to reassess how we ascertain cleanliness in these supplies. Furthermore, initial public responses to recycling processes have been largely negative. The “toilet to tap” concept is a hard sell. Demonstrating the safety and potability of recycled water has become a priority to increase support for new drinking water initiatives. Micro-contaminants from disinfection processes, small molecules that pass through traditional wastewater

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treatment and enzymatic metabolites are combining in complex ways to produce largely unknown and changing mixtures of toxicants present in effluent. Unfortunately, traditional assessment strategies do not adequately address new human exposure situations that can arise from recycled water use. Furthermore, sub-chronic human health endpoints like genotoxicity, which can cause both subtle and not so subtle cellular damage that can have

Initial public responses to recycling processes have been largely negative. The ‘toilet to tap’ concept is a hard sell. long-term effects on a population, are currently not considered, except in a few European countries. Current testing practices employ contaminant markers and other indicators of pollution such as chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total

residual chlorine, metal ions and specific disinfection byproducts to assess chemical water quality. These methods, while providing some effective data, ignore chemically complex toxicological endpoints which would help produce a more complete assessment. One problem with the way we currently test our water has to do with mixture effects like synergism and antagonism. These are not taken into account due to the large amount of component variation from different sources and the impossibility of screening for all of them. Also, if a compound is not a monitored biomarker, it is not observed in screening assays. Finally, effects from compounds that cause various sub-chronic endpoints, like mutagenicity or genotoxicity, are rarely addressed, as they are for the most part not regulated. Although testing deficiencies are apparent, prominent regulatory organizations in Europe are pushing to adopt new strategies that include genotoxicity testing and mixture analysis for wastewater based on a number of reasons. Some of these include: • Hundreds of thousands of chemicals are used commercially and new substances are introduced daily. • There are numerous unintended by-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply products and transformation products of these chemicals in our water supplies arising from human metabolism and excretion, as well as environmental breakdown products, disinfection byproducts and microbial metabolites. • Some compounds are persistent, can bioaccumulate and are potentially toxic. • Mixtures of chemicals can have adverse additive or cumulative effects on organisms, although individual components of the mixture are below effective levels. • Total composition of wastewater effluent is not known, since only a few substances have been analytically identified from it. OSPAR is the current legal instrument guiding international cooperation on the protection of North-East Atlantic marine environments. In a 2002 report, OSPAR stated, “although the potential hazard of genotoxins to the environment needs further clarification, the need to consider genotoxicity and mutagenicity testing in Whole Effluent Assessment is widely acknowledged.” The Control of Hazardous Substances in the Baltic Sea Region Project also acknowledged in 2010 that, “it is not rare these identified substances are responsible for only a small fraction of the harmful effects caused by the effluent. Unknown substances and combined effects of chemicals account for the rest of the adverse effects.” Despite recommendations for improvements to current methods and the incorporation of regulated genotoxicity testing for effluent samples, these assays have yet to be implemented for most wastewater applications. To date, most of the research into understanding and monitoring genotoxic effects for drinking water has been academically driven. However, large water suppliers are beginning to recognize the legal and ethical responsibility of knowing the contents of the water they deliver to customers. Current technological advancements in water testing are addressing increased public pressure to test for sub-chronic endpoints like genotoxicity and analyze water samples for complex mixture effects. There is also a general paradigm shift in toxicology testing procedures www.esemag.com

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Testing for genotoxic responses from environmental contaminants in water.

to focus more on in vitro assays, which screen large volumes of substances. This is a shift from costly, time-consuming animal testing practices. Biotechnology companies, such as Environmental Bio-Detection Products Inc. (EBPI), are developing new systems to improve water assessment by using

The knowledge and tools are currently available for the water industry to be proactive and demonstrate that health and safety is a top priority. modified Ames assays and SOS response tests. Newly developed lines of engineered bacteria express specific human enzymes to screen for individual metabolite contaminants. This allows for better correlations to human health. These new types of assays are responsive to mixture effects, can detect genotoxicity at small concentrations, do not require sample pre-concentration, produce easy-to-read endpoints with minimal equipment, and are in vitro methods. Technical advancements such as these, permit water suppliers to perform tests on their effluent in a rapid and fi-

nancially responsible manner. They can not only assess genotoxic effects directly from specific toxicants, but can also observe effects from mutagenic and genotoxic precursors that require enzymatic bioactivation. With the increasing amount of chemicals dispensed into the environment, as well as changes in water usage, these types of assays are becoming more important for initial screening and assessment of effluent prior to discharge. The knowledge and tools are currently available for the water industry to be proactive and demonstrate to their customers that health and safety is a top priority. By not waiting for regulators to force these testing practices upon them, consumer confidence in water reuse is increased, while protecting the public from chronic exposure to potential mutagens. Proper testing, combined with intelligent regulation and implementation of novel drinking water treatment technologies, will help ensure that the value of water is maximized. Also, consumer confidence in alternative drinking water sources is increased, and water conservation progresses intelligently. This will provide clean water access for generations to come. References available upon request. Dr. Aaron Witham is with Environmental Bio-Detection Products Inc. Email: awitham@biotoxicity.com March/April 2015 | 15

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Odour Control

Addressing high H2S contamination with hydroxyl technology By Martin Slepkov


he Regional Municipality of Durham began operations at its Courtice Water Pollution Control Plant in December 2007. Located directly east of the Greater Toronto Area, the $163-million plant handles 68,200 m3/day via a 1050 mm force main travelling 6.5 km from the Harmony Creek pumping station. At the time, it was the largest project Durham had undertaken. The Courtice WWTP is one of 11 the Region operates. Biological and chemical processes are used to reduce levels of organics, ammonia, phosphorus and chlorine discharged into Lake Ontario. When the odour of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) found its way into the headworks building, where the screens and grit classifier are located, as well as the headworks basement where the blowers and grit slurry pumps are found, plant staff investigated odour abatement solutions. They measured H2S contamination in order to establish the location, source and loading of the odour. Using an OdaLogÂŽ Type RTx logger they discovered the greatest odour source originated from the upper vault, where the force main from the Harmony site entered the headworks building. Within the upper vault,

Hydroxyl generators were used in the HVAC system for chemical dosing rooms.

Hydroxyl generators installed on the upper vault.

the logger measured a 24-hour hydrogen sulphide average of 58 mg/l, with a maximum of approximately 130 mg/l. Odour abatement technologies used in WWTP operations traditionally employ highly engineered, custom designed and constructed systems. Such systems can be very expensive and re-

quire a lot of maintenance, chemicals, electricity and other resources. Many times, these engineered solutions involve building additional infrastructure in order to house hardware, store chemicals, and capture and redirect contaminated air through a series of complex air handling and exhaust hard-


System Responsibility

Get it right at the headworks. Mission-critical processes downstream perform better. Downtime is greatly reduced. See the system running at:


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Odour Control ware, into a wide spectrum of media filtration devices. These include wet/ dry/chemical scrubbers, or large scale bio-digestive systems. Using chemicals or “solution through dilution” exhaust stack discharge are often considered to be the answer. In April 2014, while attending the WEAO Technical Symposium and OPCEA Exhibition in London, Ontario, members of the Courtice WWTP came across Odorox® atmospheric hydroxyl generating technology. Empirical research conducted by third party, accredited and highly recognized laboratories, has proven that Odorox atmospheric hydroxyl generators produce the same steady state levels of hydroxyl radicals and other oxidants as produced by the sun’s rays in our atmosphere. These oxidants react with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), water vapor and other volatilized chemicals such as H2S, free ammonia and chloramines, to generate the same mixture of organic byproducts produced in nature. These byproducts continue to be oxidized until they yield O2, CO2, H2O, etc. Laboratory studies further proved that the oxidants and byproducts were safe. Independent toxicology studies showed treated animals were no different than untreated animals. Hydroxyl radicals can totally decompose VOCs, both within the irradiation chamber of the Odorox machine and throughout the treatment space. It is a process that is very well understood and documented in over 25 years of chemical literature. Decomposition of volatile organic and inorganic compounds by hydroxyl radicals involves a complex series of free radical oxidation steps, that gradually result in the loss of individual carbon atoms, to eventually form CO2. After a few discussions and site visits, in partnership with the Courtice team, Hydroxyl Environmental proposed a “demo-to-sale” arrangement. Automated Odorox MVP14™ atmospheric hydroxyl generators were installed on top of the upper vault. These generators, with a very small footprint, sat on a grate outside the treatment space, exposed to outdoor elements. Once installed, average daily H2S levels were reduced to less than 10 mg/l, www.esemag.com

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Top graph shows H­2S levels (in ppm) in the upper vault without the Odorox system running. Bottom graph shows greatly reduced H­2S levels with the system running.

with a maximum of 51 mg/l. These results met the buying criteria set by the Region. Additional units to totally eliminate contamination loading are under consideration. Atmospheric hydroxyl generating technology does not consume any chemicals, sprays or masking agents, has no filtration media devices and uses very little energy. Since installing the hydroxyl generators, Courtice WWTP staff have experienced a reduction of odour contamination in the headworks building. Additionally, the Region began to identify that the level of corrosion activity has been reduced in the basement where the blowers and grit slurry pumps are located. Smaller hydroxyl generator units in other spaces that have indoor air quality issues or potential high corrosion concerns have been added. These include control and instrumentation

rooms and pumping stations. The Region installed two Odorox IDU™ units onto HVAC air handlers that supply fresh air into the sodium bisulfite and ferrous chloride chemical storage area and pump rooms. WWTP staff have noticed a drastic reduction in odour and corrosive contamination within these treatment spaces. Durham Region was pleased with the results of this initial pilot study. Hydroxyl generation technology successfully mitigated several different types of odorous substances in a cost-effective manner. With the small footprint, low consumable costs and almost maintenance free equipment, the Region will keep this technology in mind when planning for future developments. Martin Slepkov is with Hydroxyl Environmental. Email: mslepkov@sympatico.ca March/April 2015 | 17

3/28/15 4:31 AM

Cover Story

Contaminated site investigation vital for groundwater protection By Thomas D. Dalzell

An AMS PowerProbe conducting a site characterization investigation.


t is not enough just to know that there is contamination in the subsurface. The type of contamination and concentration must be specifically identified, as well as the exact vertical and lateral extent of the soil and/or groundwater that has been affected. The type of soil and the characteristics of the groundwater must be also determined. These site characterization investiga-

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tions are done using a variety of sample collection techniques with direct push drilling technology, or conventional drilling technologies. The main goals are to: • Protect and restore groundwater resources. • Restore or rehabilitate the site for future use. • Represent actual subsurface con-

ditions in order to provide data to develop a strategy to protect human health and the environment. Although some properties cannot be totally returned to pristine/untainted condition, they can be improved, so that any negative effect at the surface will either be minimized to acceptable levels or totally eliminated. • Improve subsurface soil so that groundwater quality will not get worse, spread /migrate deeper, or move laterally off the property. Prior to conducting a site characterization investigation, the project manager must develop a full scope of work based on a full understanding of the project. Then, they must apply all applicable regulatory requirements, customer job specifications, applicable standard operating procedures, and applicable health and safety preparation and procedures. This must be done before all field work is scheduled and the appropriate field personnel are selected. The project manager and all field personnel need to understand the scope of work/job specifications and determine the applicable health and safety requirements for the sampling activities. Other preparations include: • Appropriate personal protective equipment must be selected and used by all people involved with drilling, sample collection, and handling. • Appropriate sampling and quality assurance/quality control procedures must be determined and specified. • Field documentation procedures must be determined and specified. • Consistent field procedures must be established and maintained. • Proper laboratory analysis and preservation procedures must be determined. Once the analytical laboratory’s reports and all field notes are received by the project manager, a final report must be written. It is best to complete a report continued overleaf...

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Cover Story after each major phase of investigation and remediation. Soil sampling In soil sampling, it is very important to collect samples, from a specific depth, that represent the contamination that may have impacted the soil. Different soils require different techniques and sampler combinations/configurations. It is important to select a configuration and technique which captures and retrieves the soil sample with minimal disturbance. Once a sample is brought to the surface, it is best to perform field extraction, extrusion and preservation. This ensures that when it arrives at the analytical laboratory, it will not be diminished due to improper preparation, preservation or transport duration. The scope of work must specify sample locations and depths, as well as the standard operating procedures for sampling, quality control and proper decontamination. Field work which involves soil sampling must be conducted with precise sampling procedures, with a range of acceptable

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variances that can be applied in actual sampling conditions and safety procedures. Any variance in field activities from the specified scope of work must not contradict the applicable regulatory requirements, customer job specifications, standard operating procedures,

The scope of work must specify sample locations and depths, as well as the standard operating procedures for sampling, quality control and proper decontamination. or health and safety preparation and procedures. When the scope of work is developed, it must also determine the adequate time to conduct all sampling activities in full compliance with all the

items mentioned earlier. If sufficient time is not allowed, then field personnel may take time-saving shortcuts just to get the sampling finished. Quality can suffer during hurried attempts to meet unreasonable time constraints. As well, sampling may be rushed, proper decontamination and use of the proper personal protective equipment can be omitted and field documentation may not be thorough. If the exact sampling procedure is not specified, field personnel may not have the correct or right amount of supplies. By not having enough supplies, single-use items can get used repeatedly. This can lead to cross contamination between samples. Proper decontamination should never be ignored as it prevents cross contamination between sampling events and between soil borings. Also, it increases drilling and sampling efficiency and the life of the equipment used. Besides proper sampling, field work must be accurately documented and samples properly labeled, prepared, preserved and transported to the analytical laboratory in time.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/15 4:32 AM

Cover Story Groundwater sampling Prior to installation of groundwater monitoring wells, groundwater samples can be collected through a variety of direct push tooling. There are several types of retractable samplers available for use in the upper level of the groundwater table. There are also groundwater samplers for determining the condition of the groundwater, when a contaminant is possibly sinking within it. Temporary groundwater monitoring wells can be installed if it is not possible or practical to sample through direct push tooling. If it is known or anticipated that groundwater has been impacted by contaminants or if the groundwater has the potential to be impacted in the future by contaminants in the soil, it is important to implement a long-term monitoring program. To do this, small diameter pre-packed screen groundwater monitoring (direct push), or conventional wells can be installed. Direct push wells Direct push wells are approved and accepted by many regulatory agencies. ASTM International has several methods and procedures directly related to their use and installation. Sizes range from 12 mm to 50 mm inside diameter. The practical achievable depth is based on lithology and the desired well inside diameter size. Less than 27 metres is the average depth, although it is possible to install them to depths of over 35 metres. Direct push wells can be secured exactly like conventional wells and development of the pre-packed section can be a simple surging. They can be used to calculate gradient magnitude and direction and there is a variety of small diameter instruments that can accurately take depth measurements, measure useful parameters and collect samples. Sometimes, for certain lithologies and depths, it is necessary to sample soil in order to achieve the target depth when installing direct push wells. It is very important that all sampling and installation techniques are conducted in a way that does not negatively affect/impact the soil and groundwater. Remedial investigations and remediation Once a site has been properly characterized, a precise and strategic remedial www.esemag.com

190 MA.15_Subsurface Enviro Drilling.indd 21

investigation can be conducted. For a complex lithology, above or below the groundwater table, it may be necessary to conduct a detailed and precise investigation to collect data that an engineer can use to develop the remedial action plan. Depending on the contaminant type, subsurface lithology and applicable regulatory requirements, the plan can sometimes be developed based on the data collected during an initial site

characterization investigation. As part of a detailed remedial investigation, a pilot study is conducted to determine the radius of influence and the time that it will take to remediate a certain area. A remedial action plan will include the appropriate course of action for the successful remediation of the site, compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements, the timeline for complecontinued overleaf...

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Cover Story tion, verification and confirmation requirements for completion and cost-effective design and implementation. Pilot studies and remedial injections can be conducted with direct push.Manufacturers, Howdistributors, suppliers and companies from the following areas: ever, not every site or subsurface contamAir pollution control • Filters • Oil & water separation • Software systems ination can be properly remediated with Analytical laboratory • Groundwater treatment • Pumps, pipes, valves, fittings • Spill control & containment them. It is the experience of the remedial Confined space entry • Hazardous waste treatment • Protection/safety equipment • Stormwater control engineer, the characteristics of the subConsulting engineering • Health & safety • Recycling • Tanks & storage surface lithology, the requirements of the Containment • Instrumentation & control • Residuals dewatering, • Transportation services property owner, and all applicable regDecontamination systems • Legal services disposal & handling • Water treatment ulations, that should be taken into conEmergency response • Liners/geotextiles equipment • Wastewater treatment sideration to determine if remedial injecEnvironmental auditing • Noise & vibration control • Site & soil remediation • Waste disposal tions are appropriate for the site.

CANECT Exhibits ... • • • • • • • •

Confirmation of successful remediation and site closure After remedial activities have been completed, borings are conducted in the most contaminated locations, to verify that subsurface contaminants have been eliminated or reduced to the acceptable level specified in the remedial action plan. Soil and/or groundwater samples are collected from the borings and submitted to a certified analytical laboratory. Laboratory results can confirm that reme-

Hours April 30

Successful remediation is confirmed by analyzing soil and groundwater samples.

diation was successfully completed, or if remedial activities need to be continued. Confirmation borings may be conducted quarterly or semi-annually if the time for cleanup is more than one year. Once it has been adequately remedi-

- 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

ated, the property can be safely used for Mayof1 future activities. a wide variety

- 8:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

Thomas D. Dalzell, CWD, is with AMS Samplers. Email: tom@ams-samplers.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Spill Man

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3/28/15 4:32 AM

Watermain Corrosion Control


Corrosion control of ductile iron pipe with polyethylene encasement By Normand De Agostinis


n the United States prior to the 1950s, and in Canada prior to the 1970s, corrosion and corrosion control in the water works industry was not fully appreciated. As a result, infrastructure tended to be installed without any corrosion protection, even though it may have been warranted. Today, utilities have grown accustomed to protecting their infrastructure when necessary. Research and education have helped engineers and utilities to understand, evaluate and protect iron pipe and appurtenances from corrosive environments. Research One of the mandates of the Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association (DIPRA) has been to conduct research on the corrosion of ductile iron pipe. In Canada, DIPRA has assisted SaskWater at their test site in Riverhurst, Saskatchewan. It was commissioned in 2002 to evaluate ductile iron pipe in soils with high sulfate content. Research is typically carried out at DIPRA test sites. Specimens in these test sites are four-to-five-foot sections of production pipe purchased from ductile iron pipe manufacturers. Pipe samples are capped on each end to ensure that the effects of corrosion are strictly external. Specimens are exhumed over time and shipped back to the DIPRA research laboratory in Birmingham, Alabama, for examination and data collection. During this evaluation, the pipe is cleaned, weighed and pit depths are measured. Soil corrosivity Most soils are not corrosive to cast or ductile iron pipe and appurtenances. Some cast iron pipes have lasted for over 300 years. One example is a pipeline commissioned by France’s King Louis XIV to bring water to the Versailles fountains. In North America, DIPRA awards commemorative plaques to utilities that have had at least 100 continuous years of service from their cast iron water pipes. There are presently at least 630 members of the “Cast Iron Pipe Century Club.”

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Figure1: Ductile iron pipe test site in Watsonville, California.

Figure 2: An 18-year bolt-test on the effectiveness of polyethylene encased ductile iron pipe. Conducted at the Everglades City, Florida test site.

Figure 3: Installing polyethylene encased ductile iron pipe at Lévis, Quebec.

There is also a Cast Iron Pipe Sesquicentury Club plaque that honours those utilities that have attained at least 150 years of continuous service. There are presently over 24 members of this club, including Montreal, Quebec City, Halifax, Nova Scotia and Port Hope, Ontario. Soil testing In order to help identify corrosive soils, the 10-point soil evaluation system was developed in the mid 1960s. It analyzes resistivity, redox-potential, pH, sulfides and moisture. This system

assigns points to each parameter, based on a sliding scale, which are then totaled. It was developed exclusively for cast and ductile iron pipe and was not intended for other materials. A soil with a point total of 10 or more is considered aggressive to cast or ductile iron pipe. There are a number of soil environments known to be corrosive to iron pipe and appurtenances. Some of these include coal, cinders, mine wastes and landfills. When these environments are encountered, soil evaluations are not continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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2015-03-09 8:57 AM 3/28/15 4:34 AM

Watermain Corrosion Control

Figure 4: Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. This pipe was installed in 1958 and inspected in 2013. Resistivity was 480 0hm-cm, pH was 6.9, redox was -30mV.

necessary and infrastructure must automatically be protected. Polyethylene encasement research Since its original use in a research study in 1951, polyethylene encasement protection has been the iron pipe industry’s first line of defense against corrosion. It prevents pipe from being in direct contact with the corrosive environment. Although polyethylene encasement is not a watertight system, this does not diminish its protective properties. Even though the moisture between the pipe and the polyethylene encasement contains oxy-

gen, research has shown it is eventually depleted, causing oxidation to stop. This process leaves a uniform stagnant environment around the pipe, which results in a protective environment. The weight of the soil surrounding the polyethylene encased pipe typically helps to prevent any significant replenishment of groundwater between the polyethylene encasement and the pipe. During installation, care should be taken to ensure that the opportunity for groundwater to flow under the wrap is reduced. In 1952, a bolt study on polyethylene encasement was started at the Everglades

City, Florida test site. It involved burying a section of a six-inch cast iron mechanical joint pipe. Polyethylene was used to protect the bolts of the mechanical joint, as well as a portion of the pipe. After 18 years of exposure, the pipe was exhumed and brought back to the laboratory for analysis. The bolts were corrosion free, as was the pipe under the polyethylene encasement (See Figure 2). Published results have confirmed the effectiveness of polyethylene encasement as a corrosion control measure. Statistical data, obtained from DIPRA’s research on corrosion, indicates that, in soils consid-

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Watermain Corrosion Control

Sustainable Ecosystems

ered “non-corrosive” (less than 10 points), tube can be easily repaired with tape. polyethylene encasement in an operatSoil retaining urban trees reach unprotected iron pipe would have asystem mean If larger helps tears occur, they should be reing system is in Lafourche Parish, Loutime-to-penetration of a 0.25-inch wall paired by cutting a piece of polyethylene isiana. In 2013, this installation attained of over 370 years. In By those soils, and securing it over the tear. It is also a 55 years of service and is still performmaturity Ericsame Keshavarzi the analysis indicates that properly in- good practice to use a sling to move the ing very well (See Figure 4).


stalled polyethylene encased pipe would reen infrastructure and sushave an infinite mean time-to-penetratainability goals are of intion. With soils considered “corrosive” to creasing and iron pipe (more than 10importance, points), the mean achievingofthem requires time-to-penetration ductile iron techpipe nical knowledge and trainingencasement in varied protected with polyethylene fields. Integration soil and trees into would be some 550of years. urban areas substantially improves sustainability and Installation helps alleviate some of our most pressing ecological challenges. Polyethylene encasement is easiThese includeinairthe andfield water quality, rising ly installed during pipeline temperatures, and erosion construction. flooding Most utilities and from condaily rainfall events. tractors prefer Method A of installation West in Don in Toronto,C105/ Onas The outlined theLands, ANSI/AWWA tario, a community is people foA21.5isStandard. Thisthat involves cutting cused, friendly, environmentally a piecefamily of polyethylene tube approxisustainable mately one and footbeautifully longer thandesigned the pipefor on living. It has Stage 1 LEED GOLD each end andaoverlapping theND joints. The certification the pilottube program espolyethyleneunder encasement diameter tablished the than U.S. the Green is slightlyby larger pipe Building diameter Council. to allow for joints and appurtenances. One notable sustainable In order to minimize the component, initial moisutilized theaccumulate design of the area’s streets, ture thatincan between the enis a soil retaining system calledis Silva casement and the pipe, the excess taken Cells™. urban thefolded city up along Typical the barrel of thetrees pipein and core over die the after top. approximately The fold can beseven heldyears. down However, extend using tape,Silva stringCells or tiehelp wraps, whichtheir will life spans, thusfit.promoting the growthisofa leave a snug Proper installation mature street trees. of any corrosion conkey to the success the City ofalso Toronto had with pretrolAlthough measure and this is the case viously used encasement. Silva Cells as part of a polyethylene stormwater management pilotpolyethylene program in Small rips or tears in the The Queensway, their use as part of site

pipe instead of a chain, to avoid damage to the polyethylene encasement. Corrosive soils also affect valves, fittings, hydrant barrels and other appurtenances. It is important to protect these infrastructure components as well. When direct tapping is necessary, the preferred method is to wrap two or three layers of polyethylene tape around the pipe and to tap directly through the tape and polyethylene encasement. The copper service should also be encased with polyethylene for a minimum of three feet perpendicular from the pipe. Polyethylene encasement investigations Installation of Silva Cells in Mill Street. In addition to research at its test sites, development is new.investigating In fact, the West Don DIPRA has been polyethLands encased streets are firstinstallations in a Toronto ylene ironthepipe in subdivision be years. designed with this syssitu for overto50 This is typically tem installed under parking lay-bys done at the invitation of a utility thatand sesidewalks. lects the area where the inspection will be Mill Street the first exposed subdivision conducted. Pipewas is carefully and in Toronto to be designedencasement to include astreet portion of the polyethylene this soil retaining system. the lead is removed and taken to the As DIPRA labengineering consultant, R.V.Anderson oratory for material properties analysis. Associates all plans specThe pipe iscoordinated cleaned and then and inspected ifications with thepitting landscape architect. for any corrosion and/or graphitiAbout Silva Cells zation. A soil sample is also procured and Silva are a properties. plastic/fiberglass tested for Cells its corrosive structure of columns and beams that supThe oldest known installation of port paving above un-compacted planting

Moving forward with V-Bio Polyethylene encasement has been helping utilities protect their iron pipe for over 55 years. This form of protection is inexpensive and easily installed in the field. It yields to soil stresses, does not deteriorate underground and most importantly it is a passive corrosion control measure. Once it is installed there is no need for further monitoring. In 2013, DIPRA introduced V-Bio polyethylene encasement. This consists of three layers of co-extruded film that are fused into one. It features an inside surface infused with a biocide and a volatile corrosion inhibitor (VCI). The biocide will mitigate the potential influence of soil. The structure has 92% void space anaerobic bacteria through microbiologiand isinfluenced a stable surface for the installation cally corrosion. The VCI will of vehicle loaded-pavements. control galvanic corrosion. It meets all reWhen properly installed,C105/A21.5 they can quirements of ANSI/AWWA achieve an H-20 load rating. Standard forAASHTO polyethylene encasement. Canadian Code V-Bio isHighway the nextBridge step in Design a proven and loading canmethod also be achieved through apsuccessful of corrosion control, propriate design. Thiscorrosion is the required load protecting against without rating for structures such as underground consumption or degradation of either vaults, covers grates in areas of trafthe biocide or and the corrosion inhibitor. fic including sidewalks and parking lots. The cell structure transfers the force to a Normand De Agostinis, P.Eng., is with base layer below the structure. the Ductile Iron Pipe Research AssociaSoilEmail: withinndeagostinis@dipra.org the cells remains at low tion. compaction rates, thereby creating ideal



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Environmental Science & Engineering March/April Magazine 2015 | 27

3/28/15 4:34 AM

Water Reuse

Understanding the health risks with reclaimed wastewater By Karen A. Phillipps, Nino Devdariani and Claire McAuley


here is increasing concern regarding the sustainability of public water supplies for drinking, industry and agriculture. Options for water reuse are available, including reclaimed wastewater for the irrigation of green spaces and agricultural crops, and for household use. Harmony is a unique residential and commercial development project that was recently approved by Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development (ESRD) in Rocky View County, west of the City of Calgary. This master planned community will include a self-contained system that will treat residential wastewater and collect it for irrigation within the development. Concerns were expressed by regulatory stakeholders regarding the protection of public health. Cyanobacteria, indicator organisms, turbidity and chlorine residuals were also raised as issues of interest, given the design of the wastewater system and the novelty of the project. The existing Guidelines for Municipal Wastewater Irrigation in Alberta (2000) outline several requirements regarding water quality, buffer zones and setbacks. These guidelines indicate that a 15 metre setback is required from all adjacent properties, unless permission is obtained from landowners. Also, a buffer zone of 60 – 100 metres is recommended between occupied dwellings and irrigated land. The guidelines also stipulate that wastewater irrigation may only take place on suitable agricultural land from May 1 to September 30, and only when wind speeds are less than 30 km/hr. Health Canada has developed Canadian Guidelines for Domestic Reclaimed Water for Use in Toilet and Urinal Flushing (2010) that are applicable to some domestic applications. However, some of the concerns raised by the regulatory stakeholders were not completely addressed by Health Canada’s guidelines, due to the potential differences in the exposures that people might receive. Neither set of guidelines provided

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the basis to adequately inform regulators, or the project team, regarding adverse health risks from the proposed reclaimed water irrigation. As a result, ESRD requested that a risk assessment be completed for this project. Risk assessment is a tool that can be used to organize and analyze information to enlighten regulatory decision making and the development of risk management and monitoring programs.

To evaluate potential risks, various criteria relating to agricultural uses or recreational water were identified from other jurisdictions Intrinsik Environmental Sciences Inc. was contracted to complete a screening-level human health risk assessment of the proposed reclaimed water and its use for irrigation. For the purposes of the risk assessment, it was assumed that people within the development could be exposed to the reclaimed water following irrigation through: 1. Direct skin contact: People in the vicinity of the golf course may come into contact with the reclaimed water through contact with aerosols or touching surfaces impacted by the water or aerosol (e.g., golf turf, landscaping). 2. Inhalation: People in the vicinity of the golf course (e.g., on adjacent public or private property) may inhale aerosols in the event of spray drift from the irrigation sites. 3. Incidental ingestion: Consideration was given to the possibility that people may either consume home-grown

garden produce that could be impacted by spray drift from the irrigation, or have hand-to-mouth behaviour following skin contact with impacted surfaces (e.g., small children). These assumptions may have resulted in over-estimates of potential exposure, as some of these routes of exposure assume that there is no setback or buffer between the irrigated land and adjacent properties. Also, it is assumed that no restrictions regarding irrigation times and conditions were in place (although several restrictions are required by the ESRD guidelines). The consideration of a zero metre setback for a wastewater irrigation project was unique to this project. As Harmony’s wastewater treatment plant had not yet been constructed, information available regarding the water quality at the plant, in the reclaimed water storage pond and what would be withdrawn from the storage pond and used for irrigation, was based primarily on performance estimates. To evaluate potential risks associated with direct contact, inhalation and ingestion, various criteria relating to agricultural uses or recreational water were identified from other jurisdictions and compared with the proposed reclaimed water quality. Water quality criteria that were of relevance to the use of reclaimed wastewater or surface water to irrigate agricultural crops were considered for the purposes of evaluating the potential risks. To evaluate potential risk associated with direct skin contact and inhalation of aerosols, and exposures to cyanobacteria and related toxins, the proposed water quality was screened against “recreational” water criteria and water quality criteria of relevance to parklands and landscapes, as defined in the guidelines. In general, the quality of the proposed Harmony reclaimed water met, or was superior to, the requirements of the regulatory agencies for various uses including: • Direct ingestion via food crops.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/15 4:36 AM

Water Reuse

Spray drift


Inhalation of spray drift Dermal contact spray drift Ingestion of garden produce

Dermal contact

Figure 1: Conceptual model for screening level human health risk assessment.

• Indirect ingestion or skin contact with recreational water (e.g., swimming, bathing in surface waters or impoundments). • Indirect ingestion or skin contact that may arise as a result of wastewater irrigation on parklands, playgrounds, golf courses, landscaping, etc. • Incidental inhalation associated with recreational or agricultural uses. A few parameters in the proposed Harmony wastewater were found to slightly exceed relevant guidelines: • Proposed maximum E. coli levels after the treatment plant and post-storage disinfection were higher than the interim ESRD and Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) agricultural water quality guidelines. However, based on the information available, it is not clear if the ESRD/CCME value was intended for fecal coliform or E. coli, or both. Proposed E. coli levels met several other agricultural, landscapwww.esemag.com

185 MA.15_Reclaimed wastewater irrigation.indd 29

ing and recreational criteria. • Proposed turbidity of the reclaimed water (at the treatment plant) was found to be greater than what is required in the California Title 22 Requirements for tertiary water reuse. A recent critical review of the California regulations for recycled water completed by the National Water Research Institute (NWRI 2012) found that the turbidity requirements were in need of additional clarification. The proposed turbidity at the treatment plant for the reclaimed water met the U.S. EPA water reuse guideline for the irrigation of raw edible produce. Regular monitoring of the turbidity of the water in the storage pond prior to irrigation use was recommended as a mitigation measure. • Proposed residual chlorine after the second disinfection point, post-storage, was estimated to be lower than what is required by the U.S. EPA Guidelines for Water ReUse (2012)

for agricultural irrigation and landscaping uses. These are >1.0 mg/l compared to the proposed limit of >0.5 mg/l. However, chlorine is of concern for aquatic organisms, and the CCME has devised a water quality guideline for the protection of aquatic life of 0.5 mg/l for reactive chlorine species. There is potential for surface run-off from irrigation to impact surface water quality in the area. Therefore, consideration of the potential impacts on aquatic life from a chlorine residual greater than 0.5 mg/l should be balanced with the interpretation of the U.S. EPA water reuse criterion of 1.0 mg/l or greater chlorine residual for protection of human health. Intrinsik also recommended that the chlorine residual at the post-storage disinfection point be adjusted, as needed, to maintain an adequate disinfection capacity (e.g., adjusted in relation to turbidity of storage pond water or other factors). continued overleaf... March/April 2015 | 29

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Water Reuse The potential presence of cyanobacteria and their toxins (e.g., microcystin) was raised as a concern by the regulatory stakeholders in relation to the wastewater storage pond. The only regulatory guidance for cyanobacterial toxins in water is for recreational waters such as swimming or bathing, or drinking water. No values were available for reclaimed water, wastewater, or agricultural irrigation water. The presence of cyanobacteria or related toxins in the system is not related to the performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Their potential formation is related to a number of factors, including temperature, nutrient content of the storage water and dissolved oxygen concentration. A limited literature review was completed to identify the most relevant indicator organisms and trigger concentrations of relevance to the project. For the Harmony project, potential formation of cyanobacteria is related to the proposed pre-irrigation storage pond rather than the treatment plant. A cyanobacterial management program had

already been developed by Urban Systems. Intrinsik also recommended that the growth of cyanobacteria in the pond be evaluated, once the wastewater plant and storage pond are in operation. Also, an understanding of the characteristics of the storage pond water should be gained through data analysis and review. As no guidelines for the management of cyanobacteria appear to exist for irrigation water or reclaimed water, the existing Alberta and federal recreational water quality criteria were suggested as alternative values for comparison. With respect to microbial indicator organisms, the literature review concluded that the micro-organisms proposed to be monitored at the treatment plant (fecal coliform, E. coli, and thermotolerant coliforms) were generally consistent with other jurisdictions. Evaluation of water in the post-treatment, outdoor storage pond was challenging with respect to turbidity and residual chlorine. The available reclaimed water guidelines did not appear to involve pre-irrigation storage, only reclaimed water used immediately for



irrigation. Further, the water quality in the storage pond could be additionally impacted by factors such as precipitation, run-off, organic matter from aquatic birds or aerial deposition. To help mitigate these variables, regular monitoring will be incorporated into the project design. Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development issued a Wastewater Treatment Plant Approval for the Harmony development in October 2014. It contains some provisions for reducing potential human exposure through the use of access restrictions and irrigation times. The findings and related recommendations of the Intrinsik risk assessment contributed to the development of a monitoring plan and to the regulatory approval of the wastewater treatment plant. Karen A. Phillipps, M.Sc, DABT, Nino Devdariani, M.Env.Sc., and Claire McAuley, M.Sc, M.Eng,, P.Eng., are with Intrinsik Environmental Sciences Inc. Email: kphillipps@intrinsik.com or cmcauley@intrinsik.com

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Elvio Zaghi Senior Project Manager

Design with community in mind


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Industrial Wastewater

Yogurt plant benefits from upgraded wastewater and EFW systems this mission in mind, the engineers reviewed a number of different wastewater treatment technologies, vendors and full-scale treatment systems. They were in the market for a wastewater solution that didn’t compromise their commitment to environmental practices. The solution Stonyfield contracted ADI Systems Inc. to design and build a wastewater treatment facility to meet newly mandated effluent discharge limits. This system is designed to pre-treat equalized raw process wastewater with chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and fat, oil, and grease (FOG) levels up to 5,000 mg/l, 550 mg/l, and 500 mg/l, respectively. It consists of two stages: a proprietary Type S low-rate anaerobic ADI-BVF® reactor, followed by an ADISBR aerobic polishing system. ADI Systems also installed a simple, natural, and robust odour control system to purify offgas from the equalization tanks. This combination of unit processes readily treats the high-strength, high-solids, high-FOG wastewater found at Stonyfield’s Londonderry, New Hampshire plant. The wastewater treatment facility produces minimal waste sludge for disposal, as well as a substantial quantity of biogas which is recovered and used to heat the anaerobic reactor, thereby improving anaerobic treatment performance. It also minimizes the overall electrical energy needs for waste treatment. The wastewater treatment system at Stonyfield’s yogurt plant. A tank cover is used to control odours.


tonyfield is a thriving yogurt business with a modern, sprawling plant. What began in 1983, as a two-person operation on a small farm, has grown over the last three decades to introduce many new products, including yogurt drinks, frozen yogurt and Greek yogurt. To handle the increased demand for more products, Stonyfield upgraded its operation to include sophisticated dairy-pro-

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cessing equipment. This allowed the company to expand from selling just litres of plain yogurt to offering single-serve containers in many flavors. Now, Stonyfield yogurt, made from all natural and certified organic ingredients, is sold in supermarkets and natural food stores. Plant engineers at Stonyfield work hard to reduce the water and energy used to make yogurt and reduce and recycle waste as much as possible. With

A a

The results The wastewater treatment and waste-to-energy system that was created for Stonyfield allows the company to meet, or exceed mandated effluent limits so that it can continue to produce without regulatory penalties. Stonyfield keeps hundreds of organic farmers in business and supports over 100,000 acres of organic production. For more information, visit www.adisystemsinc.com or Email: systems@adi.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

Preventing contamination of a vacation spot and water source By Geoff Salthouse and William Hensley


lthough Wanaka, New Zealand might rightly be called a winter vacation destination, it also boasts many year-round activities, such as skydiving, hiking, fishing and camping. Among the convenient camping facilities nearby is Glendhu Bay Holiday Park, which offers more than 400 individual campsites, in addition to cabins and accommodation at the lodge. Lake Wanaka is a source of drinking water for the surrounding areas and there was a risk of contamination from the park’s old and failing wastewater systems. Even though each of the park’s bathroom and shower facilities had its own septic tank, the tanks were quite old, and many of them were too small to meet current levels of usage. During the peak summer season, several tanks would routinely fail and effluent would overflow the trenches. Bad odours were common, as was the need for pump-outs. By its very nature, the park experienced dramatic fluctuations in wastewater flow, based on the number of seasonal campers. A further challenge was that campgrounds, as a general rule, tend to generate higher-strength waste, because people who are camping use much less water for cooking, washing dishes, bathing and laundry than at home. The Queenstown Lakes District Council sought an effective wastewater solution that could not only handle these unique design considerations, but also offer low whole-life costs. Innoflow Technologies of Auckland, New Zealand, was ultimately awarded the $1,051,000 contract. This project involved replacing all but one of the campground’s existing septic tanks, as well as linking the new interceptor tanks to an Orenco effluent sewer. It transports the liquid to a central wastewater treatment plant. These watertight interceptor tanks provide passive primary wastewater treatment by retaining solids, which are naturally digested. This reduces the effluent’s organic strength prior to it being pumped

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Glendhu Bay Holiday Park is situated on the shores of beautiful Lake Wanaka, New Zealand’s fourth-largest lake. Although the lake offers many recreational activities – such as boating, fishing, and swimming – it is also a source of drinking water.

to the secondary treatment facility. There are now 15 new interceptor tanks located throughout the park. Effluent leaving these tanks is first pumped to one of two 55 m3 anoxic tanks, followed by a pre-treatment tank and a clarifier tank of the same size. It is then routed for secondary treatment, comprised of four, compact Orenco AdvanTex AXMax units. For tertiary treatment, a fifth unit is used for polishing, followed by ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and land dispersal with subsurface pressurized distribution lines. The AdvanTex AX-Max is a recirculating filter unit using an efficient, lightweight textile that is readily serviceable. It allows loading rates as high as 2000 l/ day/m2. The textile has a large surface area, lots of void space, and a sizable water-holding capacity. Consequently, the unit can treat high-volume and highly variable commercial flows in a very compact space. The system was installed in November, 2011, and was started up the following month, which is the beginning of summer “down under.” The project

was commissioned on time and has performed fully to expectations, despite being brought near to full peak load very soon after the performance verification testing. Peak season at the Holiday Park runs from December through February, with average daily flows during that time of 64.5 m3. Maximum daily flow is 152.83 m3. Treatment requirements dictate an annual mean of no more than 20 mg/l carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5), 20 mg/l total suspended solids (TSS), 25 mg/l total nitrogen (TN), and 100 CFU/100ml E. coli. Performance data (as of December, 2014) lists actual mean treatment levels that are well below those limits, including cBOD5 at 8 mg/l, TSS at 6 mg/l, TN at 14 mg/l, and only 2 CFU/100ml E. coli. Because the attached-growth technology of AdvanTex provides a stable secondary treatment process, a full-time wastewater operator is not needed. Instead, operations and maintenance are contracted to Innoflow, which conducts quarterly visits lasting about one day.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

AX-Max units produce high-quality effluent with substantial reduction of nutrients, making them well-suited for any project with strict discharge limits. Whether installed above or below ground, they emit no odour or sound.

If a problem should arise between maintenance visits, Innoflow would be alerted by the Orenco TCOMTM panel that was also installed. The panel has SCADA functionality that initiates an automatic call-out or email during alarms. In addition, it allows for remote access and control using a standard web

browser, as well as data logging with time- and date-stamping. While enjoying the natural beauty of the area, Glendhu Bay’s many visitors appreciate the conveniences of the campground facilities without ever being aware of the sophisticated wastewater system that makes it all possible.

UV disinfection is used as part of tertiary treatment.

Geoff Salthouse, EIT, MS, and William Hensley are with Orenco. Email: gsalthouse@orenco.com, bhensley@orenco.com

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Water Supply

AWWA updates its cold water meter standards

Photo courtesy of Master Meter Canada

• The definition of “manufacturer” has been changed to be more inclusive. • The section on registers has been updated.


WWA C700-15 covers the various types and classes of cold-water displacement meters with metal alloy main cases, in sizes 13-51 mm, and the materials and workmanship employed in their fabrication. These meters are known as nutating-disc or oscillating-piston meters. They are positive in action, because the pistons and discs displace a fixed quantity of water for each nutation, or oscillation, when operated under positive pressure. The purpose of this standard is to pro-

vide purchasers, manufacturers, and suppliers with the minimum requirements for cold-water meters–displacement type, metal alloy main case, including materials and design. Major revisions include: • The scope has changed from meters with bronze main cases to those with metal alloy main cases. • The foreword provides lead content criteria as stipulated by NSF and the Safe Drinking Water Act. • New information about meters used for residential fire sprinkler applications is included in the foreword.

AWWA C701-15 provides the minimum requirements for cold-water, turbine-type meters, including materials and design. This standard can be referenced in specifications for purchasing and receiving and can be used for manufacturing this type of meter. Major revisions include: • Information is included on lead content criteria and recent legislation revising the definition of “lead free,” and subsequently the materials have been updated as well. • New information about meters used for residential fire sprinkler applications. • The definition of “manufacturer” has been changed. AWWA C702-15 covers various types and classes of cold water compound type meters in sizes 50-200 mm and the materials and workmanship used in their fabrication. Compound meters consist of a main line meter of the turbine type, for measuring high rates of flow, and a bypass meter for measuring low rates of flow. The compound meter must have an

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Water Supply automatic valve mechanism for diverting low rates of flow through the bypass meter. Major revisions include: • Class I compound meters have been removed from the standard. • Information is included on lead content criteria and the new NSF/ASI Standard on drinking water system components. • The definition of “manufacturer” has been changed. • Stainless steel has been added as a material for several meter components. • More details are included on electronic display registers. AWWA C703-15 covers the various types and classes of cold water fire service type meters in sizes 80-250 mm and the materials and workmanship used in their fabrication. A fire-service meter must consist of one of the following: • A mainline meter of the turbine type (Class II), either Underwriters Laboratories listed or Factory Mutual Research approved; either a UL-list-

ed or an FM-approved fire-service strainer; a bypass meter of the appropriate size for measuring low flow rates; and an automatic valve for diverting flow rates other than fire demand through the bypass meter.

Information is provided on lead content criteria and recent federal legislation revising the definition of “lead free” • A combination of a mainline meter of the turbine type (Class II), either UL listed or FM approved; and either a UL-listed or an FM-approved fire-service strainer. Major revisions to this edition include: • Type I devices, proportional fire-service meters with check valve, are no

longer addressed in this standard. • Information is provided on lead content criteria and recent federal legislation revising the definition of “lead free” in the Safe Drinking Water Act. • The definition of manufacturer has been changed. • Materials have been updated in response to legislation revising the definition of “lead free” in the Safe Drinking Water Act. • The section on registers has been updated to include requirements for electronic display registers. AWWA C704-15 covers the various types and classes of propeller meters in sizes 50-1,800 mm for waterworks applications. These meters register by recording the revolutions of a propeller set in motion by the force of flowing water striking the blades. This standard can be referenced for manufacturing, purchasing, and receiving propeller-type meters for waterworks applications. For more information, visit www.awwa.org

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CSO Management

Niagara completes eight month combined sewer overflow study By John Spencer

Due to the flap gate and CSO outlet sewer proximity, the sensor was placed downstream to avoid turbulence.


he Regional Municipality of Niagara (RMN), in conjunction with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited (RVA), completed an eight-month, 23-site, combined sewer overflow (CSO) event monitoring study at CSO regulators along the regional interceptor sewer in Welland, Ontario. The purpose was to provide an estimated volume of CSO being discharged to the interceptor sewer. These results would then assist with pollution control planning, capital planning activities and to assist with the assessment of upgrades being considered for the Welland wastewater treatment plant. Additionally, it was envisioned that the CSO event study information could be used to help calibrate a hydraulic model of the Welland trunk sanitary sewer, which the RMN was in the process of developing. In preparing to commission the study, public works staff collected and compiled information for the trunk and local sanitary sewer systems. RMN was able to locate and provide a complete set of drawing records, that not only included engineering drawings, but also site-specific CSO regulator structure drawings. A “regulator” is defined as an engineered structure which provides relief or outlet for the local sanitary sewer collection system and trunk sewer once capacity is exceeded.

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Fluctuating river levels caused this CSO flap gate to remain closed during a surcharge condition.

The Terms of Reference (TOR) for the study included a scope that was clearly defined upfront. Thus, firms answering the request for proposals all knew what could be anticipated in terms of the field program requirements and the criteria for data quality and final study reporting. Additionally, the TOR provided fair warning to proponents as to the challenges that would need to be overcome. It “leveled” the playing field so that all of the firms submitting had equal access to information and opportunities to ask and receive answers to questions about the assignment. Project scope Work included: • Field reconnaissance to verify the monitoring sites. • Development of site documents for each monitoring location. • Supply, installation and maintenance of all flow and rainfall monitoring equipment. • Create and maintain an accessible data site that could provide 24/7 data access and reporting of CSO events, 36-hours after an event was over. Conditions in the Terms of Reference included: • Use of a wireless telecommunications platform to manage raw data.

85% connectivity ratio/24 hours. 80% of raw data must be usable. Field issues resolved within 24 hours. 12 hour event data verification posting. Based on the scope of work defined by the TOR and the project objectives, proponents submitting proposals had the opportunity to quickly identify the necessary elements required for a field program and model their respective work plans around the deliverables. • • • •

Project deliverables In addition to typical project management reporting throughout the assignment and individual CSO event reports for each site, RMN requested the following as part of the complete deliverables package: • Pre- and post-equipment installation photos at each selected monitoring location. • Sensor layout and installation schematics. • Regulator photos. • Confirmation of regulator geometry. • A brief description of each regulator/ monitoring location, including hydraulic conditions. • Documented field work. All of the information was compiled and included in site documents that were prepared for each monitoring location. The purpose of the site document was to

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CSO Management


• Keeping data analysis and reporting andinstalled for the required deliverables. water pretreatment system at This is simple (i.e., managing the budget). where RMN exceeded expectations with To overcome these challenges RVA respect to the information that was made Dr Pepper bottling plant utilized sensors that were capable of dishow bacteriathe worked in different tinguishing direction of flowaeration and inenvironments. then designed apstalled them in He the regulator outlet an sewers. proach to wastewater treatment and that graphrepliTo manage data, spreadsheets cated the used efficient and effective processes ics were to compile and process data. that occur in a natural environment. Baswood's chairman of work the board, Implementing the right plan actor Edward is the United RVA’s workNorton, plan was based on theNaintions Ambassador Biodiversity, a formation that RMNfor provided in the TOR

available. Without accurate and complete trustee of Conservation International, a information provided in the TOR, specifmember of theand TEEB Economics of ically video still(The imagery, developEcosystems andplan Biodiversity) Advisorya ment of a work without conducting Council a long-time advocate for susdetailedand field survey and reconnaissance tainable technologies. would have been difficult. As it was, the work plan that was implemented, needed more information, very littleFor modification once monitoring visit www.baswood.com sites were confirmed.

he board,

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To develop and provide the deliverables, the work plan included these basic elements: • Development of a project health and safety plan. • Preparation of a communications plan to ensure that all stakeholders had access to key project staff. • Field reconnaissance to confirm that the CSO outlet pipe at each preselected monitoring location would be suitable for the installation of a velocity/area sensor. • Site assessments at each proposed sensor location to document conditions, including pipe diameter and condition, accessibility, structure geometry and photographic records, pre- and post-sensor installations and illustrations of the key site features. These documents would form the basis of a site document prepared for each CSO monitoring location and posted to the project website. • Data collection and uploading of raw data, utilizing a data transfer telecommunications platform tied into a user friendly, 24/7 accessible project website. • Use of hydro/hyetographs (graphic to illustrate event rainfall characteristics) to plot CSO event data in raw format to assess event duration, data quality and the calculation of event flows. • Development and issuing of CSO event booklets to qualify and quantify events as they occurred. Delivering and managing the project Once the work plan was fully implemented and the collection of data commenced, reporting of CSO events began. Flow and rainfall monitoring equipment was programmed to collect raw data at five-minute intervals and to send it to the project website at 12-hour periods. To ensure that data quality met the project requirements, RVA reviewed equipment performance and data quality on a daily basis from a remote desktop work station. Daily reviews included accessing each site via the telecommunications link and project website, to assess raw data in either tabular or graphic formats. This provided a fast and accurate interpretation of the raw data and quickly identified where any equipment or sensor maintenance was required.

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CSO Management Battery voltage in equipment was also monitored so that battery power consumption could be optimized to limit changeouts. The capability to access data and battery voltage played a significant role in optimizing and managing field maintenance man-hours and battery replacement costs. In some cases, especially where CSO monitoring sites were in close proximity to the Welland River, negative velocity measurements, along with positive level measurements, were sometimes recorded. A period of negative velocity recordings indicated that the river level may have risen as a result of a rainfall event. Or, Ontario Power Generation (OPG), who take Welland River water to replenish storage reservoirs for use during hydro generation, did not require as much storage and river levels rose naturally. The change in river levels would cause backflow conditions in low lying CSO outlet sewers. When this occurred, RVA was able to utilize precipitation data that was being collected in conjunction with CSO flow data, or the Niagara Peninsula Conservation Authority’s stream flow monitoring


188 MA.15_CSO Monitoring-Niagara.indd 41

program database. RVA could then interpret and define the potential causes of negative velocity measurements as poor data, natural events, equal sewer and river levels, or low OPG storage requirements. These types of data sources proved very useful when interpreting data during CSO events, especially for defining when the hydraulic grade line in the sewer overcame the river hydraulic grade line (or vice versa) and flow changed in either a positive or negative direction. For CSO monitoring sites where this anomaly could occur, it was important to understand how the sewer and river hydraulics impacted each other and CSO discharge volumes became important. Using negative data points in flow monitoring is often unheard of and would be considered as poor data and useless. However, for the Niagara CSO study, negative data, which indicated a potential reverse flow condition, proved its worth and was considered important. CSO events at each site were analyzed, interpreted and reported in tabular and graphic formats. Data during rainfall events from each site was as-

sessed to determine rainfall storm return, along with the beginning and end of the rainfall event. Raw flow data from the rainfall event period was assessed to determine when a CSO event occurred, the event time period and total duration. To manage CSO reporting, event booklets were developed for each one and included the same summarized information from each site. Information such as the site name, reporting event date, rainfall event summary, data quality assessment, percentage of useful data recovered for analysis, a totalized CSO volume, the CSO duration and start/stop times was reported. Event booklets were posted to the project website, with a link to the worksheets that were used for developing summarized information. This provided a quick reference to project stakeholders to review only the data used for reporting, rather than all five-minute raw data sets leading up to an event occurrence. John Spencer, CET, is with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited. Email: jspencer@rvanderson.com

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Water Treatment

Newfoundland town chooses nanofiltration membranes to remove disinfection byproducts By Dr. Lyle Henson and Brenda Beck


mall remote communities, utilizing surface water, face many regulatory issues as a result of high natural organic matter (NOM) and other contaminants. NOM is a broad term used to describe organic compounds found in all surface waters and includes organic matter generated by domestic, industrial or agricultural sources. NOM can contain a wide range of materials and be highly variable depending upon the season. It primarily consists of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and other components forming a vast array of compounds. Typically, NOM is characterized as the decay and leaching of organic materials from plants, animals and micro-organisms and the subsequent transport of these compounds into the water source. Compounds contributing to NOM may include micro-organisms, polysaccharides and amino acids from structural components of cell walls as well as lignin, tannins and fulvic acids. Tannins and fulvic acids contribute to the water’s colour whereas polysaccharides do not. Additionally, surface waters high in NOM also tend to be high in colour and pathogens such as E. coli, Coliform, Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

Each nanofiltration membrane module contains 72 individual membrane tubes.

Organic carbon can represent up to 50% of NOM and can be in either particulate or dissolved form. Total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can be used as an indicator of NOM in source water. NOM is problematic, as it is the primary precursor in the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBP) in surface water systems. DBP of particular regulatory concern include trihalomethanes

(THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and the possible formation of chloral hydrate (CH). THMs are formed during the disinfection process when a chlorine containing disinfectant, combines with organic matter in the water. The four most common THMs are trichloromethane (chloroform), dibromochloromethane, dichlorobromomethane and tribromomethane. Communities with drinking water high in these compounds, face

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Water Treatment heightened cancer risk and miscarriage rates. Additionally, long-term exposure has been found to cause liver, kidney and central nervous system problems. Small communities must meet the challenges of treating surface waters with high levels of NOM and pathogens, while taking into consideration the special circumstances they face such as remoteness, operator capabilities and limited budgets. The Town of Come by Chance, Newfoundland and Labrador, is a small remote community of 267 inhabitants located on the Avalon Peninsula. Its surface water source is Butcher’s Brook, which is high in NOM and other contaminants. Historically, treatment involved hypochlorite chlorination which resulted in unusually high levels of DBP and subsequent “boil water” orders. In an effort to modernize and improve water quality, the Town began to investigate a number of treatment options.

quirements/certification must be carefully evaluated. In order to fairly evaluate each system, many engineers are looking at a 20-year net present value life-cycle analysis. This avoids decisions being solely based on system capital cost.

Nanofiltration membranes (Fyne Process) One option was the Fyne system, which has been used at small water treatment plants throughout Scotland for over 20 years. It is designed to produce high quality filtered water from a raw water source with high colour levels due to the presence of NOM. Fyne uses a tubular semi-permeable membrane, which clean filtered water passes through, while holding back most of the colour-producing dissolved organic material. The nanofiltration (NF) membrane will also hold back pathogens (bacteria, protozoa and viruses). Each membrane module fitted to the Comparison of available technologies unit contains 72 individual membrane When making the decision on which tubes. The membrane tubes are like 12 treatment type to consider, factors such mm diameter pipes connected in a series as equipment cost, operating costs, sys- flow path within each module, with the PCP and Classic, T2 Ad 4.625 x 4.625 rev.pdf 1 2/3/2015 9:43:05 AM continued overleaf... tem ease of operation and operator re-

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Water Treatment semi-permeable membrane coated on DESIGN SUMMARY the inside of the membrane tube. There is therefore only one inlet and one outlet 257 Filtered Water Design Flow (m3/day) connection on each module for raw water. Each module also has a filtrate outlet Number of C10 Modules 56 from the top of the module shroud and shroud drain connection at the bottom Feed Temperature ˚C 0.5 of the shroud. A nominal 12 mm diameter foam ball Power Supply 575V, 3Ph, 60Hz is fitted in one of the raw water connecInstalled Power HP Approx 12.5 HP tions (foam ball catchers) on each module. During operation, flow reversal causPower Demand under normal operating conditions Approx 7.7 kW es the foam ball to pass through all the tubes in the module before being caught in the foam ball catcher at the other end Table 1 – Design specifications for Come by Chance. of the module, thus providing cleaning of the inside wall of the membrane tube. lant layer and contaminants in the raw A foam ball clean can also be conWhen the unit is filtering, raw water water build up inside the membrane ducted each time the unit starts, prior to is circulated at pressure by the recircu- tubes and recirculation loop. To clean filtered water being produced, and each lation pump, through the inside of the the membrane surface and discharge time the unit stops. If the unit is stopped membrane tubes. A secondary feed concentrated raw water contained in for a long period of time, a foam ball pump is used to add raw water into the the recirculation loop, the unit will pe- flush will be automatically done to recirculation loop. Clean water passes riodically and automatically undergo a avoid buildup of foulant on the memthrough the membrane tube wall and “foam ball” clean. The system control- brane during idle time. is collected in the module shroud, from ler can automatically start and stop the Occasional washing of the memwhere it discharges to a collection tank. unit based on a demand signal, usually brane with suitable cleaning agents is The inside walls of the membrane from low and high level switches on a required. This membrane washing is Canadian Ad 7 x 4.875_Layout 1 12/2/14 10:15 AM Page 1 tube slowly become coated with a fou- treated water storage tank. normally a manual operation and will

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44 | March/April 2015

183 MA.15_Nfld. Nano Disinfect.indd 44

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/15 4:42 AM

Water Treatment need to be done once every three to four months, or as otherwise needed to maintain system capacity. The system can also be provided with a sodium hypochlorite injection pump and limestone contactor. Sodium hypochlorite is injected into the filtrate prior to the limestone contactor, which assists in the precipitation of manganese within it. Filtrate then passes up through a bed of limestone before overflowing to the permeate storage tank. System design and specifications The Town of Come by Chance opted to install a tubular nanofiltration system at their facility. The Fyne system was designed with a maximum peak flow of 257 m3/day at an incoming water temperature of 0.5°C (see Table 1). There are three different types of tubular membranes typically used in drinking water applications with the Fyne system. Reviewing the raw water characteristics of Butcher’s Brook and weighing the economic and performance factors associated with each membrane led to the selection of the CA202 membrane. Reject water from the membrane

Come By Chance draws it water from Butcher’s Brook which is high in natural organic material.

plant can usually be discharged into the original water source. Levels of suspended solids and biological oxygen demand are normally within surface water discharge limits. Foam ball reject water from the tubular configuration will represent only a small and very brief surge in suspended solids. The operating cost of the tubular membrane system is extremely low due to the fact that no chemicals are required during normal operation and it requires very little operator attention. So while the upfront capital cost for the system is

higher, if evaluated on a 20-year life cycle cost, the tubular membrane system becomes economically attractive. The Fyne system installed at Come by Chance has been a success in regards to meeting or exceeding the Canadian Drinking Water Standards (CDWS). The unit has been successful in lowering raw water NOM levels. Subsequently, both THM and HAA levels have been lowered to the point that boil orders have been lifted and the facility is exceeding CDWS for all contaminants. The nanofilter has provided an excellent barrier to pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses. Recent results show none have been detected. Additionally, with the limestone contactor installed, the facility has been able to reduce manganese levels below the current established maximum concentration level. References available upon request. Dr. Lyle Henson is with Membrane Specialists, Brenda Beck is with the Town of Come by Chance. Email: lyle.henson@membranespecialists.com, brendabeck@EastLink.ca


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Climate Change

A data analysis of Canada’s changing climate By Kurt Hansen

Two-thirds of weather stations across Canada have experienced increasing total precipitation.


arious investigators have presented analysis summaries of past Canadian climate change trends based on the weather station records available from Environment Canada. Their analyses have, by and large, been based on annual, or at best, calendar quarter mean temperature and precipitation data for various Canadian weather stations with long-term records. Some of these have been based on Environment Canada’s original weather station data, adjusted for data biases associated with temporal changes in station instrumentation and data recording protocols, and local station relocations. This article summarizes Canadian climate change trends based on the same basic Environment Canada raw data, but at daily record data resolution, using data analysis approaches and climate change indicators. These address trends of several within-year weather variables such as, extremely cold and hot temperatures, non-calendar based and cumulative seasonal temperature budgets, and rain-precipitation to temperature ratios during the growing season. The periods of the analyzed station data records vary. The longest is Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, which is from 1873 to 2013. The shortest is Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, which is from 1958 to 2009.

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Data analysis approach All annual files of daily data were reviewed for missing data. Annual temperature files were excluded from further analysis if associated with more than a month of consecutive missing daily data. Otherwise, annual temperature files with missing daily data were processed with estimates for missing daily data. Annual precipitation files were, by and large, excluded from further analysis if associated with a single day of missing data. Annual files of daily data were further processed and used for various analyses of the temporal trends for the following climate change indicators: • Annual mean temperature – the typical climate change indicator reported by most investigators.

Early record warming

• Annual extreme temperatures, that is deep freezes and heat waves. • Annual spring-and-summer, and autumn-and-winter, temperature budget averages, regardless of the typical meteorologically defined equinox or calendar quarter periods for these seasons. • Durations of the spring-and-summer, and autumn-and-winter, seasonal periods. • Annual mean total precipitation and snow – another typical climate change indicator reported by most investigators. • Ratio of rain-precipitation to mean temperature during the growing season, the widest period being April through September at southern Canadian locations – and shorter for

Middle record cooling

Recent record warming

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/15 4:44 AM


0 1873




ER warming



MR cooling



RR warming

Climate Change Figure 4

stations located in the boreal forest region. Years for 1C Increase, ER & RR

Temperature trends Data analyses show two consistent trend patterns for all stations regarding mean annual temperatures: • Increasing temperatures from the start to the end of the record. • An early record (ER) warming period, followed by a moderate middle record (MR) cooling period, thereafter followed by another recent record (RR) warming period. Data analyses show a consistent pattern regarding winter extreme temperatures at all of the stations. All extreme (below minus threshold temperatures) are on the decrease at rates from as low as 30 years for 1˚C increase in Alert, Nunavut, where extremes are less than -40˚C. The higher is about 130 years for 1˚C increase, such as in Swift Current, Saskatchewan, where extremes are less than -20˚C. Summer extreme temperatures trend at relatively lower rate changes, on the

Warming Trends during ER & RR Periods 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Red lines: Spring & Summer (SS) period Green lines: Annual period ER

Blue lines: Autumn & Winter (AW) period ER: Early Record RR: Recent Record RR

order of mostly more than 100 years for

Figure 6 1˚C change. Only two-thirds of the sta-

tions show increasing trends for extreme max threshold temperatures above 20˚C to 25˚C. This finding led to further detailed trend analyses of mean annual seasonal temperature trends for the seasonal periods temperature budget averages. These annual climate change indicators are derived from cumulative daily mean temperatures, the spring-summer


cumulative value starting each year on the day when consecutive plus temperatures occur and ending on the day when the cumulative value reaches maximum. The autumn-winter cumulative (negative) value is thereafter determined in the same manner and ends the next year when it reaches minimum. The trends of the seasonal periods durations are also analyzed. Analysis of the ratios of the RR to continued overleaf...

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0 1873




ER warming


MR cooling



-­‐19 -­‐24


RR warming

Ft. Smith Alert Autumn & Winter trend

Climate Change

Figure 4

Annual trend

Figure 5

Warming Trends during ER & RR Periods Select StaQon Annual Temperature Trends

of AW & SS Period ER trend values (for annualTrends mean temperatures based on homogenized data) shows that 30 RR warming rates are larger than ER warm20 ing rates at seven of the10 10 stations with sufER 0 ficiently long records to determine a valid ER ER -­‐10 warming rate. The ratios for the seven stations -­‐20 the RR Red lines: Spring & Summer correspond to up to twice warming rate (SS) -­‐30 Blue lines: Autumn & Winter (AW) relative to the ER warming rate. Years for 1 day Increase

300 Red lines: Spring & Summer (SS) period 250 1873 1903 1933 1963 Green lines: Annual period 200 11 ER Blue lines: Autumn & Winter (AW) period 150 6 ER: Early Record 100 RR: Recent Record 1 RR 50 Agassiz -­‐4 RR 0 -­‐9 Calgary RR -­‐14 -­‐19 Ft. Smith -­‐24 Alert


Temperature (C)

Years for 1C Increase, ER & RR

Figure 3

Figure 3

Autumn & Winter trend

Annual trend

Spring & Summer trend

Figure 3 Figure 6

Select StaQon Annual Temperature Trends Select 1903 StaQon Annual Temperature T1993 rends 1933 1963

1903 1933 11 1873 6 11 1 6 30 Agassiz -­‐4 1 20 Agassiz -­‐9 -­‐4 10 Calgary ER -­‐14 -­‐9 0 Calgary ER -­‐19 -­‐14 -­‐10 Ft. Smith -­‐24 -­‐19 -­‐20 Alert Red lines: Spring Summer (SS) Ft. &Smith -­‐30 Blue lines: Autumn & Winter (AW) -­‐24 Alert Temperature (C) Years for 1 day Increase

Temperature (C)

Figure 5 1873



Trends of AW & SS Period DuraQons

Autumn & Winter trend


Annual trend

Autumn & Winter trend

Annual trend


Spring & Summer trend -­‐73 Spring & Summer trend

Figure 5 Figure 5

Trends of AW & SS Period DuraQons Trends of AW & SS Period DuraQons

Years for 1 day Increase

Years for 1 day Increase

Figure 7 30 20 30 10 20 ER 0 10 ER -­‐10 0 ER ER -­‐20 -­‐10 Red lines: Spring & Summer (SS) -­‐30 -­‐20 Blue lRed ines: Autumn & W (AW) lines: Spring & inter Summer (SS) -­‐30

Blue lines: Autumn & Winter (AW)



-­‐73 -­‐73

Figure 7 Figure 7


Precipitation trends Total precipitation has increased at 10 of the 15 stations at rates ranging from seven to 26 years for a 10 mm increase. Trend analyses by means of third polynomial emFigurepower 7 ulations show the same type of patterns as for temperature trends for eight of the 15 stations. That is, an ER period of decreasing precipitation followed by an MR period of increasing precipitation, and a final RR period of decreasing precipitation. Basically, there is no common climate change pattern regarding annual total precipitation and snow. Trends in rain precipitation relative to trends in temperature during the growing season were also analyzed for some of the stations, using coinciding monthly rain and temperature data for each month of each year (homogenized data). The unit trend measure of 0.025 mm per degree day (Cday relative to 0˚C) represents 10% of the annual summer average pan/lake evaporation rate at the southern stations. Eight of the 13 stations show ER and RR period decreases, that is, less rain relative to the coinciding temperature regime. Of interest is that the two prairie stations, Calgary and Swift Current, show increasing RR trends. Swift Current went from an ER decreasing trend to an RR increasing trend. Conclusions Increasing temperature trends have occurred at all of the 15 Canadian stations analyzed. Furthermore, these trends have been towards longer and warmer spring and summer periods and towards shorter and warmer autumn and winter periods, the latter period being the main contributor to increasing annual mean temperatures. Two-thirds of the stations have experienced increasing total precipitation. Yet, only onethird of the stations have experienced increasing rain to temperature ratios during the growing season. Kurt Hansen, M.Sc., P. Eng. is an environmental consultant assisting industry, government and institutional clients. Email: greeninc@telus.net

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3/28/15 4:44 AM



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Wastewater Treatment

Designers facing many challenges with creating the largest WWTP in Canada’s North By Ken Johnson


n spite of being a modest community of only 7,000 people, the City of Iqaluit has considerable stature as the capital city of Nunavut. It regularly hosts prime ministers and the occasional world leader. The City is embarking on its latest notable endeavour with the development of the largest wastewater treatment plant in Canada’s North. Larger northern cities, like Yellowknife and Whitehorse, can boast larger wastewater facilities, but these are lagoon systems, which demand considerably less technology and attention for their design, construction, and operation and maintenance. The feasibility study associated with this project was awarded to Stantec in January 2015. Wastewater management in Iqaluit dates back to 1964, when a sanitary sewer outfall, consisting of five pipes, discharged raw sewage directly onto the

beaches of the community of Frobisher Bay, as it was called back then. Shoreline discharge of raw sewage was maintained for 12 years until the construction of several lift stations provided the

means to pump sewage to a macerator system at the head of Koojesse Inlet. Concurrent with the construction of the macerator station in Frobisher Bay, a holding pond was built on the tidal

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(CANADA) Waterra Pumps Limited sales@waterra.com • tel: 905.238.5242 (USA) Waterra USA Inc. waterra@openaccess.org • tel: 360.738.3366

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Wastewater Treatment plain at the head of Koojesse Inlet. This facility operated successfully for several decades. However, several overflow and breaching events necessitated improvements to the earth structures and the perimeter drainage to the facility. The lagoon performed well as a primary treatment facility, with a continuous discharge. Effluent quality from the lagoon system varied significantly over the course of the year because the only process at work in the winter months was sedimentation. Biodegradation enhanced the process performance during the summer months. In the early 1990s, the town completed an engineering feasibility study on improving the primary treatment system. This included a rotating biological contactor, an extended aeration system and a sequencing batch reactor. These were evaluated against nine lagoon options, which included relocating the lagoon facility to other areas on the perimeter of the community. The highest rated scenario, after analysis and evaluation, was the construction of a new facility. This consist-

Iqaluit WWTP with the ocean in the background.

ed of a detention lagoon (primary treatment) and the construction of an outfall into the deeper water of Koojesse Inlet. Capital cost of this option was estimated to be $5.7 million (1994 dollars). However, none of the options advanced beyond the feasibility stage. Regulatory pressure was placed on Iqaluit in the mid-1990s to have a system capable of producing secondary treatment effluent quality. One of the primary reasons for this was that sewage discharge into Koojesse Inlet was subject to limited dispersion. This was

due to the action of 11 metre tides in the four kilometre long inlet. Several studies have concluded that primary sewage discharge was having a considerable impact on organisms in the tidal flats, because of the limited dispersion. The first attempt at secondary treatment for Iqaluit was a design-build contract that was awarded in 1998 to a contractor that selected a membrane bioreactor (MBR) process. Unfortunately, the inexperience of the design builder in northern wastewater treatment became continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment evident by mid-1990. Significant problems began to arise, due to the placement of concrete within the aeration basins. Upon filling the basins, major leakage was observed, along with deflections in the walls due to insufficient structural strength. Remedial work was completed, and the basins were determined to be waterproof and structurally sound. At this juncture, the design builder effectively abandoned the project. Iqaluit subsequently became aware of additional design and construction problems with the facility. An evaluation of the uncommissioned sewage treatment plant was completed in 2002. This included an accounting of all the electrical, instrumentation, mechanical, structural and architectural equipment or features found within the plant. These were compared to the equipment and features presented in the design documents. This accounting identified significant deficiencies in both the design and construction. Further remedial work was designed to abandon MBR technology and change to conventional wastewater treatment.

Phase 1 of the remedial work involved building the primary treatment system which was completed in 2006. This work consisted of an auger screen, and a primary screen (Salsnes Filter) housed in an addition to the original building envelope. Phase 2 of the project was to include design and construction of a secondary clarifier to match the hydraulic capacity of the aeration basins to be converted from the MBR process. Unfortunately, funding for the project was only sufficient for Phase 1. Nine years after completion of Phase 1 in 2006, the project is once again proceeding. Stantec is in a good position to assist the City of Iqaluit with the current feasibility study, and possibly the detailed design, with a project team that has been associated with Iqaluit’s wastewater treatment challenges for over 20 years. In 1994, the author was involved with the first engineering study to provide secondary treatment in Iqaluit. In 2004, team member Glenn Prosko completed the assessment of the uncommissioned facility, as well as the engineering associated with

Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the remedial work. An important consideration for facility performance is the influence of septage, or trucked sewage, which still accounts for about 25% of the flow into the facility. The coarse and concentrated nature of septage has the tendency to reduce the efficiency of preliminary and primary treatment (Salsnes Filter) processes, and increase the maintenance requirements of these systems. The addition of a septage receiving process train, which removes sand, grit and grease, benefits the front end, as well as the overall facility performance. As a capital city, Iqaluit is moving forward with the water and sanitation infrastructure that is appropriate to this status. The path to achieving secondary treatment in Iqaluit has encountered considerable “hiccups” over the past 20 years, but the “time is right” and the “team is right” for the work to proceed to a successful conclusion. Ken Johnson is with Stantec Consulting in Edmonton. Email: kenneth.johnson@stantec.com

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Converting a ditch to an active living trail


n Brackley, Prince Edward Island, most of its Active Living Trail, used for walking, running and biking, was easily constructed by installing corrugated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe in an existing drainage ditch, followed by backfilling and covering. The land previously devoted to the ditch now conveys stormwater in an enclosed structure, increases the scenic appeal of the area and provides a new attraction that can be used by tourists and residents. The rural farming community of Brackley is located just north of Charlottetown and near a green belt area, which is to remain mostly undeveloped. The current goal is to finish the trail, which is still under construction. The larger vision, however, is to someday have the Brackley trail connect downtown Charlottetown in the south to the established Prince Edward Island National Park trail system along the north coast of the island. Large diameter corrugated HDPE pipe up to 600 mm will be used for all the sections that require in-filling of the ditch systems. For the trail, corrugated HDPE pipe in 300, 375, 450 and 600 mm diameters was buried in depths ranging from 1.5 to 1.8 metres. According to the Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI), corrugated HDPE pipe used

in a ditch enclosure is usually shallow and can experience traffic loadings if installed at road crossings. Properly installed HDPE corrugated pipe can with-

stand AASHTO HS-25 loads with a minimum of 30 cm (one foot) of cover for 1200 mm pipe (48-inch) and smaller, or 60 cm (two feet) of cover for larger pipe

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Stormwater diameters. If installed under pavement in colder climates, PPI recommends 60 cm of cover, or half the diameter of the pipe, whichever is greater. The project was designed by Adam Clark, P.Eng., of the local Charlottetown office of CBCL Consulting Engineers Ltd. “This was a pretty typical job for us,” said Clark. “The motivation was to rid the community of the ditch and turn it into something usable and environmentally sound. It’s a gravity fed system with catch basins along the way and discharges into a downstream wa-

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tercourse. We sized it to be able to accommodate a 25-year storm event. “To date there have been three phases to the work. The first phase didn’t require a lot of pipe as the trail was constructed outside the ditch limits. At the end of 2012, there was 3.7 km of pipe in the ground and the community of Brackley is looking at another 1.2 km, but the actual trail itself passes through other communities or will eventually, and that will be about another 10 km.” Enclosing the ditch improves the safety and aesthetic value of the area, and the hydraulic performance is a lot better than can be provided by an open ditch. Additionally, enclosure also helps to mitigate mosquito breeding that occurs in an open ditch. For more information, visit: www.plasticpipe.org www.esemag.com

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Water Quality

Toluene is a natural occurrence in water By Jim Bishop

Industrial loadings of toluene and the other benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene compounds (BTEX), which are the principal components of gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and other refined fuels, have been documented for decades.


he word “toluene” comes from the town of Tolu, Colombia, where certain trees (“balsam of Tolu”) produce a fragrant resin. In the 1840s, a chemist named Deville isolated a compound from the resin and named it toluol; it is now called toluene. About the same time, other chemists found the same natural chemical in pine resin and in various palm trees. Today, toluene is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world. It is mainly produced from petroleum and from coal via coke ovens. World estimates for toluene production range from 10 to 12 million tonnes (KEMI, Sweden, 2006) with China, India and others expected to increase their output. The U.S. produces 3 million tonnes annually, Canada 400,000 tonnes. It is a principal component of gasoline, at 5 - 15% by volume, and is important for chemical synthesis, coatings, paint, explosives, pharmaceuticals, sol-

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vents and hundreds of other source materials. Natural toluene sources have existed for millions of years, and are present near natural crude oil and coal deposits on land and in surface water, groundwater and seawater. Ongoing natural sources of toluene include volcanoes, forest fires, grassland and bush fires, vegetation and bacteria. These contributions to the atmosphere are well documented, but little known. Industrial sources Industrial loadings of toluene and the other benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene compounds (BTEX), which are the principal components of gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and other refined fuels, have been documented for decades. BTEXs are introduced into water via industrial effluents and spills, and enter the atmosphere by evaporation. As they are produced in refineries around the globe in large volumes as

components of gasoline and other fuels, loadings are substantial. Until the 1970s, virtually all environmental papers dealing with BTEX only considered the industrial pollutant contributions. In the 1970s, scientists began to understand that, just as oil sands, tar sands and underwater seeps were potential sources of petroleum hydrocarbons, they were also adding tonnes of BTEX and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to water, soil and the atmosphere. The volumes of petrochemicals in these ancient sources are vast. The amount of raw petroleum used to make gasoline and other products is estimated at 90 million barrels each day. It is not surprising that some of this material shows up in water, soil and the atmosphere. Other sources of toluene Many published papers discuss the impact of deliberate, accidental or natural burning. The European Centre continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Quality Joint Research Commission (ECJRC, Denmark, 2003) concluded that, “the chemical substance toluene is formed naturally and emitted when some organic material is exposed to pyrolysis or combustion temperatures (e.g., forest fires, volcanoes, and smoke).” Other papers provide data that indicates toluene from plant life, and the burning of plant life comprises a significant portion of toluene emissions to the atmosphere. There are two mechanisms by which toluene from plants can enter the atmosphere: direct evaporation of naturally-formed toluene and release of toluene during burning. A report funded by U.S. EPA and the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration demonstrated that isotope-labelled 13CO2, taken up by plants through photosynthesis, was emitted as 13C toluene. It concluded that, “initial toluene flux measurements from pine and alfalfa to the forested and cultivated areas of northern New England could be as much as 13% of total anthropogenic daily emission rates.” The total anthropogenic emission in northern New England is 39 Mg/day

“Burning trees and grasses throw up six million tons of black soot.”

(Mg: megagrams or tonnes); the daily toluene emission load from plants for this relatively small study area is five tonnes/ day. This indicates that plant growth can produce significant quantities of natural toluene and has been doing so for eons. Burning Forests, grassland, savannahs, farm


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stubble, wood, yard waste, construction waste and land debris are burned around the globe. Burn products are known to include toluene and other organic carbons. A 2013 report showed emissions of toluene and other organic compounds as a result of biomass burning in Eastern Canada. The report stated, “an extensive set of airborne measurements have been

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

4/1/15 8:54 PM

Water Quality made in boreal forest fire plumes over Canada,” and these data are in “very good agreement between emission estimates derived from different aircraft studies by different groups …” The authors compared the emission rates of toluene based on values from previously published reports. They concluded that the total toluene emission rate for biomass burning is 1.11 million tonnes per year. Plants, dust, soot, vapour Large volumes of dust, soot and vapour rise into the atmosphere around the planet. Each of these has been shown to contain some toluene all the time or at least sometimes. The book “The Secret Life of Dust”, H. Holmes (2001), provides data from highly regarded journals and institutions such as the Journal of Geophysical Research, Science, Nature, NASA, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Scientific American, regarding the input of toluene and other substances to our atmosphere. • “Between 1-3 billion tons of dust fly up into the sky annually.” Toluene has been measured in dust. • “Trees and other plants exhale a billion tons of organic chemicals into the wind, perhaps one-third of which condenses into tiny sailing beads.” Toluene is a natural, major component of these organic chemicals. • “Burning trees and grasses throw up six million tons of black soot.” As seen earlier, toluene is found in burn gases and soot. • “Eight million tons of black soot are attributable … to the conflagration of fossil fuels - especially coal.” Toluene is present in coal. Given the very large amounts of soot, dust, and vegetative vapour, it is not surprising that toluene, one of the most frequently detected volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere and the biosphere, is considered “ubiquitous.”

Environmental significance of atmospheric toluene Once toluene is in the atmosphere, some of it is degraded by various atmospheric processes. However, numerous studies show that toluene is regularly detected and measured in rain, snow, surface water, groundwater, drinking water and seawater.

Large volumes of dust, soot and vapour rise into the atmosphere around the planet. Each of these has been shown to contain some toluene. Toluene in water Toluene is found in water as a result of its natural production by geological processes over millions of years. These processes result from bacteria in water and sediments, plants on land and in water and atmospheric processes such as precipitation.

Toluene from ocean/sea water seeps A publication from the US Geological Survey “Natural Seepage of Crude Oil into the Marine Environment” sums up the role of natural oil seeps. The amount of natural crude oil seepage is currently estimated to be 600,000 tonnes/year, with a range of uncertainty of 200,000 to 2,000,000 tonnes/year. Thus, natural oil seeps may be the single most important source of oil that enters the ocean, exceeding each of the various sources of crude oil that enters the ocean through its exploitation by humankind.” Toluene in groundwater Toluene is found in water near geologic formations below the Earth’s surface and is persistent in groundwater because it is resists anaerobic biodegradation. Groundwater sources of toluene are often found in limestone or shalebased rock formations and it is present in naturally occurring coal seams. Toluene in drinking water Numerous government agencies have analyzed toluene and other organic chemicals in drinking water: • “In a study of more than 800 water samples taken across Canada from 1985 to 1988, concentrations of toluene in only six samples were greater than 0.5 µg/l.” Actual values ranged continued overleaf...

Burning tires Globally, hundreds of millions of tires are discarded each year. They are generally stored in large numbers in landfills, which occasionally ignite. One of the largest tire fires in Ontario was in 1990; with 1,300 people evacuated from the black oily smoke as 14 million tires burned for 17 days. www.esemag.com

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Water Quality from 0.6 µg/l to 3.9 µg/l. • “Concentrations of toluene in Canadian drinking water supplies averaged 2.0 µg/l and ranged up to 27 µg/l at 30 water treatment plants across Canada in a survey conducted in 1979 (Otson et al., 1982).” • “In another survey of water supplies at nine municipalities along the Great Lakes between 1982 and 1983 (Otson, 1987) the mean concentrations of toluene (detection limit of 0.1 µg/l) in raw water were 0.3 µg/l in the summer, 0.1 µg/l in the winter and 0.5 µg/l in the spring. Mean concentrations in treated water were <0.1, 0.3 and 0.7 µg/l in the summer, winter and spring, respectively.” Ontario Ministry of Environment: Drinking Water Surveillance Program Ontario’s Drinking Water Surveillance Program (DWSP) started in 1986. It monitors the raw water, treated water and water in distribution systems and from taps in homes and businesses, for

more than 100 drinking water systems across Ontario. This represents 80% of the population served by municipal drinking water systems.

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ity, including both surface water and groundwater. DWSP samples are tested for about 100 parameters comprising inorganic anions, metals and organic compounds including toluene. The DWSP data confirms that toluene is detected in groundwater and surface water. The MOE laboratory has a detection limit of 0.05 µg/l for toluene. Most of the toluene results in DWSP are below 0.05 µg/l, which is 50 parts per billion, a very low number. While there are some municipalities that have no or few “hits” for toluene above 0.05 µg/l, most have some toluene hits. The DWSP database shows several hundred toluene hits above 0.05 µg/l; most are toluene concentrations from 0.1 to 0.95 µg/l. While these levels are of little human health concern, they indicate that toluene is somewhat common in water. MOE’s DWSP data shows over 60 samples with toluene values above 1.0 µg/l and as high as 13.1 µg/l, with a typical range from 1.0 to 10 µg/l. The results for a number of municipalities show that toluene is not only present, but is present frequently and on an ongoing basis. Toluene was detected in more than 30% of the DWSP samples taken at some municipalities, and numerous municipalities showed toluene “hits” in more than 10% of their samples. Given the ubiquity of toluene and the fact that it is one of the most abundant materials produced by humankind, as well as by natural sources, it is not unexpected that toluene is detected and measured in Ontario’s waters. When toluene is detected in groundwater or surface water, it makes sense to go back to the conclusion of Slaine and Barker (1990) that the presence of toluene in a water sample “cannot be taken as definitive evidence of anthropogenic contamination.” Jim Bishop has been involved with environmental and analytical chemistry since 1966. He has worked at the Ontario Ministry of Environment, Environmental Protection Laboratories, Beak Consulting and Stantec. Mr. Bishop now has his own environmental consulting company . Email: jbishopenvcon@rogers.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

4/1/15 8:54 PM

Workplace Safety

What are the main things you need to know about WHMIS 2015? By John Stephens Transition Phases Suppliers Phases


Phase 1

From cominginto-force to May 31, 2017

Phase 2

From June 1, 2017 Comply with HPR to May 31, 2018 requirements

Manufacturers and Importers Comply with CPR and/ or HPR requirements

From June 1, 2018 Comply with HPR to November 30, Phase 3 requirements 2018 Comply with HPR Completion December 1, 2018 requirements

Distributors Comply with CPR and/or HPR requirements Comply with CPR and/or HPR requirements Comply with HPR requirements Comply with HPR requirements


Consult FPT OSH regulator Comply with CPR and/or HPR requirements Comply with CPR and/or HPR requirements Comply with HPR requirements

Table 1. Canada’s WHMIS 2015 dates and Controlled Products Regulations (CPR) and Hazardous Products Regulations (HPR) requirements.


anada recently adopted the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), which has been integrated with WHMIS 2015 (Workplace Hazardous Material Information System). The GHS is an internationally agreed upon system, developed by the United Nations in 1992, that provides universal hazard definition and classification of chemical products worldwide. It was developed to provide a clear and standardized communication about chemicals. This information is all listed on Safety Data Sheets and includes: • Manufacturer • Composition • Hazard identification • First aid, fire fighting and accidental release measures • Handling and storage information • Exposure controls • Stability and reactivity • Toxicological and ecological information • Safe disposal • Transportation www.esemag.com

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• Regulatory information Why did things change? The risk of accidental exposure to hazardous chemicals due to varying, and often confusing, labeling and classification requirements, which differ from region to region, has proven problematic and costly for governments to regulate and enforce, and difficult for companies involved in international trade and attempting to comply with many different systems. The GHS benefits regulatory efficiency, facilitates trade, eases compliance, reduces costs, promotes consistent hazard information, encourages safe transport and handling, and enables emergency response best practices. It also reduces the need for animal testing and facilitates the improvement of overall safety for employees working around hazardous chemicals. Has WHMIS been replaced with GHS? WHMIS has not been replaced. Quite simply WHMIS has absorbed and integrated the GHS and is now

called WHMIS 2015. Although it now includes the GHS, all the roles and responsibilities of the existing WHMIS remain unchanged. Under current WHMIS regulations, suppliers (manufacturers and distributors) of hazardous products are still required to identify if they are hazardous, prepare the appropriate labels and safety data sheets. These must be supplied to the purchasers of these products if they are intended for workplace use. Employers will maintain their efforts to provide employees with the appropriate personal protection equipment, education and training they need to use these hazardous products safely. It is the employee’s responsibility to: • Actively participate in WHMIS 2015 and related safety training programs. • Learn how to work safely around hazardous products. • Learn how to understand workplace labels and safety data sheets. • Protect themselves and others by using recommended personal protective equipment. continued overleaf... March/April 2015 | 61

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Workplace Safety • Identifying and controlling the hazards. So what do I need to know? Whether you are a supplier, employer or employee, you need to familiarize yourself with recent changes made to incorporate GHS into WHMIS 2015. The most important elements of the recent changes to WHMIS 2015 are Hazard Classes, Labels/Pictograms and Safety Data Sheets. • Hazard Classes: WHMIS 2015 has adopted two types of hazard classes from the GHS: a) The Physical Hazard Class, which represents hazards relating to physical and chemical properties, such as flammability or compressed gases. b) The Health Hazard Class which represents hazards to health arising from exposure to a substance or mixture, such as acute toxicity or skin sensitization. • GHS Labels and Pictograms: WHMIS 2015 has adopted the labels and pictograms from GHS. The main reason for this is that it is much easier for an employee to recognize a universal label and pictogram, and understand the chemical and its related hazards if they are to properly handle, ship and use it. • Safety Data Sheets: In Canada we are familiar with Material Safety Data Sheets in the workplace. Under the GHS amendments, these are called Safety Data Sheets and convey the same information as their predecessor. They are used to communicate the hazards of a product through pictures and statements that convey pertinent information about the product. How does this affect me? When the government initiates largescale amendments to workplace safety regulations, like integrating GHS into WHMIS 2015, the process is both difficult and time-consuming. This is due primarily to the complexity of amalgamating two sets of standards. However, the most ambitious and challenging aspect of this change will be the “transition period.” Suppliers, employers and employees all have varying timelines of when they will be required to become GHS, rather WHMIS 2015, compliant. Table 1 outlines Canada’s transition 62 | March/April 2015

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I C w p phases of WHMIS 2015, which will give suppliers, employers and employees time to adjust to the new system. Implementation of the WHMIS 2015 will take place over a three-stage transition period that is synchronized nationally across federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions.

The most ambitious and challenging aspect of this change will be the “transition period.” The compliance deadlines are broken down by phase: • Phase 1: Suppliers (manufacturers, importers and distributors) of hazardous products will be required to comply with the Controlled Products Regulations and Hazardous Products Regulations and be WHMIS 2015 compliant by May 31, 2017. However, proactive suppliers are encouraged to phase in WHMIS 2015 earlier, as our partner nations like the United States will already be shipping chemicals using the GHS labels and pictograms by June 1, 2015. During Phase 1 employers are encouraged to enter a consulting phase with Occupational Health and

Safety and other governing bodies to better understand their obligations and prepare an action plan for phasein of WHMIS 2015 training for their employees. • Phase 2: Between June 1, 2017 and May 31, 2018, all suppliers must be in full compliance with WHMIS 2015, the Controlled Products Regulations and Hazardous Products Regulations. Most importantly, it is during Phase 2 that all employers will also have to be in full compliance of WHMIS 2015, the Controlled Products Regulations and Hazardous Products Regulations by no later than May 31, 2018. They must also have initiated their action plan to ensure all new employees without an existing WHMIS certificate be trained on WHMIS 2015. Existing employees who currently have a valid WHMIS certificate are not required to receive WHMIS 2015 training until Phase 3 or no later than December 1, 2018. • Phase 3: By no later than December 1, 2018, all suppliers, employers and employees must be in full compliance with WHMIS 2015, Controlled Products Regulations and Hazardous Products Regulations. John Stephens is with Danatec Educational Services Ltd. Email: jstephens@danatecinc.com




Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

4/1/15 8:24 PM


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Occupational Health & Safety

Protecting lone workers is vital for employers

By Kim Layne


anadian Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) laws exist at both the provincial and federal level. While most of Canada’s workforce falls under the jurisdiction of the province or territory in which they work, a small percentage falls under federal jurisdiction (CLC Part II). Each jurisdiction has a distinct OHS Act, and all but two have specific lone worker laws. At the federal level, Bill C-45 amendments to the Canadian Criminal Code established new rules for attributing criminal liability to organizations for the acts of their representatives and to individuals that direct the work of others. Wanton or reckless disregard that results in injury or death could result in the organization, individual or both being charged with criminal negligence. The first conviction of an organization for criminal negligence under Bill C-45 occurred in 2008. This decision and recent convictions serve as a strong reminder that failure to address OHS duties and section 217.1 of the Criminal Code can lead to “unlimited” fines for an organization, and fines and jail time for individuals. Do employees work alone or at isolated sites? Can they obtain assistance if injured or ill? Most jurisdictions obligate employers to ensure that they can. The

Alberta Environment employee mauled by a cougar, and the conviction of Garda Canada Security Corporation for failing to protect the safety of a female guard, raped in an attack at a remote worksite, are stark reminders of the inherent added risk lone workers face, and why these provisions are necessary. Although OHS regulations vary, most jurisdictions include specific provisions for employees who “work alone” or “in isolation.” While Nova Scotia and Ontario do not include specific lone worker legislation, they do obligate employers

to take “every reasonable precaution” for the protection of workers. A lone worker is generally described as an individual working without close or direct supervision that does not have visual or audible contact with another who can provide or call for assistance in the event of an emergency, injury or illness. The definition of an employer often includes the organization, its agents and representatives, and also may include individuals not paid by the organization. In certain situations, prime contractors, contractors and suppliers also assume some

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Occupational Health & Safety workplace health and safety responsibilities at a worksite. The applicable legislation should always be consulted. OHS laws, lone worker legislation and Bill C-45 amendments to the Canadian Criminal Code have important implications for all employers. Not your job? Think again. This isn’t just the purview of safety managers. Everyone who directs how another individual does work or performs a task has a legal duty to take all reasonable steps to prevent bodily harm to that person. If you supervise the work of others, you need to understand your obligations under the law. Also, you should be aware of new tools that can help mitigate risk for employees at very remote worksites. It was just such a worksite that prompted Dillon Consulting, in the spring of 2014, to adopt new technology to enhance an already well-defined health and safety system. Safety transformation Dillon had been awarded a contract to conduct environmental impact stud-

ies for a Northern Ontario power line, and management knew it was time to improve their safety culture. Survey teams would be dispersed across 400 linear kilometres of Northern Ontario wilderness, raising new safety concerns. Terrestrial lead and Project Health and Safety Coordinator, Dan Bourassa explained, “once off the highway it was all green-field. The worksite could only be accessed by helicopter, logging road or trail.” For much of the day, field biologists would be deep in the bush without any access to radio, cellular or landline communications. “If their UTV got stuck or broke down, or they were injured or ill, it could take hours to reach them. Or they might have to walk out several kilometres,” explained Bourassa. Furthermore, the worksite was in a region subject to rapid weather changes. Hazards, like lightning, could require that employees seek shelter or leave the area immediately. Having used satellite phones and a client’s radio network in the past,

Bourassa knew the limitations of these technologies. In addition to frequent dropped calls, Bourassa found satellite phones costly and impractical for dispatching change or pullout orders to many individuals at once. While client-controlled radio networks provided limited coverage, the devices were not location-aware and offered no insight into the individual’s actual whereabouts. After an extensive review of alternatives and a thorough trial, Dillon determined that the DeLorme® inReach™ SE would best address their employee safety and duty of care concerns. Because it provides complete global coverage, employees could send and receive text messages or use the SOS button to send an emergency alert from anywhere. Unlike one-way devices, they would receive confirmation that help was being dispatched and could exchange updates on the situation. Dillon supervisors could easily monitor their well-being via any web browser using the associated Enterprise web-app. continued overleaf...

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Occupational Health & Safety “We chose the inReach solution because it enabled us to address check-in and SOS monitoring concerns for the project, along with industry best practices for safety,” explained Bourassa. It will also help Dillon comply with the most rigorous lone worker laws in other jurisdictions. Dillon equipped field biologists with inReach devices and in-vehicle powered RAM mounts to charge them while traveling to the worksite. Because of the assessed risks, they implemented an “always on” safety protocol for the project. Personnel were instructed to leave the device on continuously when away from camp, and to use pre-set messages to check in three times daily. The inReach device ensures that employees can call for help in an emergency. These alerts are continuously monitored by GEOS, a SOS monitoring and dispatch service. “It’s like having eyes on the ground,” explained Bourassa. “With sat phones and radios I felt like we were working blind. Now, if someone forgets to check in, the Enterprise web app can see where they are, verify that they are going about their expected activities, and that there’s likely no cause for concern.” In addition to safety, these tools are having positive operational impacts too. “Because inReach provides us with real-time information on the location of our teams, we can instantly dispatch resources to where they are required. We can be

more responsive to the changing needs of our clients,” explained Bourassa. Personnel use inReach to update man-

“We’re able to make more informed decisions, and operate more safely and efficiently than ever.” agement on weather related delays and coordinate their activities. “It isn’t uncommon for UTVs to get stuck or break down deep in the bush. Now they can message the nearest field crew for assistance, minimizing delays to the project,” explained Bourassa. “We’re able to make more informed decisions, and operate more safely and efficiently than ever.” Tech to the rescue As Dillon’s experience indicates, a reliable system of two-way communication is often the best protection for both employers and employees. While this has been made easier by the spread of cellular networks, much of Canada’s geography remains off the grid. Fortunately, there are new affordable satellite devices that work anywhere and can

help safeguard employees and ensure compliance with lone worker laws. Two-way satellite communicators like the DeLorme inReach can be used anywhere to send and receive text messages, or send an SOS alert. The devices interoperate with several web-based monitoring portals, and can be used on their own or paired with a user’s smartphone for added messaging convenience. Satellite phones like the Iridium Extreme® are a good option where voice communication is required. Offering ubiquitous coverage and a programmable SOS button, they also interoperate with several web-based monitoring portals. The Iridium GO!™ provides a global satellite connection for voice and data on smartphones and tablets and includes an SOS button. The instant Wi-Fi hotspot can be used to make calls or check email from a smartphone over the satellite network. Back at the office, subscription-based web portals like GeoPro™ or inReach Enterprise, enable employers to more effectively monitor the well-being of field workers using those apps and devices, and to demonstrate compliance with applicable OHS law. Some also work in conjunction with the employer’s preferred monitoring alternative, whether an internal dispatch center or a specialized third party call center. Kim Layne is with Roadpost Inc. Email: klayne@roadpost.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/15 5:01 AM

Site Remediation

In situ mixing comparison: Power mixer or excavator bucket mixing

By Charles Wilk


n situ mixing involves mixing a binder (e.g., cement) into soil, sludge or sediment while the material remains in-place. This is done for geotechnical and/or environmental applications. One geotechnical application is the use of in situ mixing or “mass stabilization” on soft soil to increase its bearing capacity to support construction or infrastructure. An environmental application is the use of in situ mixing or “solidification/stabilization” (S/S) treatment. S/S treatment mixes binders or other reagents into contaminated soil, sediment or sludge to immobilize hazardous constituents. There are a number of mixing methods that can be used, depending on project site conditions, the properties of the soil, sediment, or sludge being treated, and equipment capabilities. In applications where the soil, sedi-

Solidification/stabilization treatment immobilizes hazardous constituents in contaminated soil.

ment, or sludge for S/S mixing will be less than 25 feet in depth, there are two primary methods, both of which utilize a tracked excavator base-machine. One technique uses a traditional excavator

bucket. Another technique mixes material using an excavator-mounted horizontal power mixer head. Using a conventional excavator with continued overleaf...

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Site Remediation

The bucket mixing method for S/S treatment.

a bucket requires a skilled operator but no specialty mixing equipment. It involves significant project time to complete mixing. Its applications are almost exclusively limited to mixing soft soil up to 20 feet deep. The area subject to treatment is usually gridded off into cells. For each cell, clean overburden is stripped away to create a shallow containment excavation. The operator will

then typically apply binder pneumatically, or mechanically, on top of the area to be treated, and then use the excavator bucket to blend it with the material. Advantages of this method include low cost and the ability to handle and manage removal of any significant debris or obstructions that may be encountered. The excavator bucket mixing method may be used to blend sized-re-

duced demolition debris with treated soil. This often reduces the need for offsite demolition debris removal. However, it generally does not provide thorough mixing at all depths, and it should be limited to applications where the treatment criterion is primarily to provide increased strength characteristics. The second method used in these applications is the excavator-mounted horizontal power mixer. A power mixer, such as the ALLU PMX model, resembles a rototiller on a stem that is attached to an excavator boom. The attachment’s pair of rotating mixing drums is powered by the excavator’s onboard hydraulic system. These units can attach to any brand excavator that meets the attachment’s weight and hydraulic-supply requirements. The power mixer will typically include a nozzle discharge between the pair of rotating mixing drums for injection of slurried/grouted additives/binders, or dry powder additives/binders, at the point of mixing. Controls are usually installed in the excavator’s cab to provide the operator with rotational speed/

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

2015-04-08 12:14 PM

Site Remediation torque and rotational direction control, operating temperature and other instrumentation of the tool. There are five key areas where the power mixer method provides a distinct advantage over the traditional excavator bucket mixing method. Mixing energy and dosing Efficient use of additives and binders relies on accurate dosing and thorough and consistent mixing. Compared to mixing with an excavator’s bucket alone, a power mixer develops much higher mixing energy and shear. A power mixer mixes materials through the rotation of its two horizontal mixing drums. The hydraulic motors in each of the two mixing drums can usually develop up to 9,000 lb-ft of torque to provide maximum mixing capabilities. The operator can control the rotational speed of the mixing drums on most attachments between 25 and 100 rpm. With a drum diameter of about 34 inches, the drum edge tip speed will vary from 2.5 to 10 mph. Within these parameters, the power mixer will create shearing force 360 degrees around the circumference of the drum and along the width of the mixing head. This shearing force breaks up consolidated material, which ensures intimate contact and consistent distribution of the additives and binders in the mixture. Mixing with an excavator bucket alone relies on the operator’s ability to induce adequate “stroke” rate of the excavator bucket. This creates a folding action, with limited shearing force and shearing area. With a power mixer, additives and binders are introduced directly to the mixing point by a nozzle located between the power mixer’s mixing drums. By controlling the amount or time and rate of injection in a given mixing area, the operator can tightly control the dosing. This results in the most efficient use of additives and binders. By contrast, excavator bucket mixing is generally performed by placing a charge of additive/ binder on grade and attempting to drive the material down to the desired depths. Significant excavator bucket mixing time is required to avoid over-dosed, additive-rich ribbons and under-dosed portions of soil within the mixing area. www.esemag.com

Closer approximation to laboratory treatability and mix design In situ soil mixing, or S/S treatment, is usually performed first at laboratory scale to develop a mix design. Laboratory mix design typically utilizes an electric KitchenAid®- or Hobart®-type mixer. These laboratory-scale mixers provide mixing energy and shear to quickly and thoroughly mix various trial recipes. High mixing energy and shear provide more consistent results, with

more intimate contact between subject material and additive/binder, compared to mixing by hand with a spoon and bowl. This is why laboratory work often provides optimum mix designs for efficient use of additives and binders. Fullscale mixing by a power mixer more closely approximates the mixing energy and shear used at laboratory scale to reproduce results at full-scale. continued overleaf...

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Site Remediation Contained disturbance of surface For many in situ projects, disturbance of the surface area is a concern. For example, the contractor will want to limit the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) when treating VOC-contaminated sludge ponds. The contractor will also want to limit the release of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons when treating coal tar-contaminated soil at former manufactured gas plant sites, and to prevent the disturbance of areas larger than necessary for geotechnical projects. Power mixers are designed to be operated in a vertical orientation with an up-and-down stroke. Disturbance of the surface can be limited to the actual “face” area of the mixing head when first inserting the tool. The injection of additives and binders begins only after the mixing head arrives at the deepest desired depth, and injection and mixing continue as the mixing head is drawn to the surface. The operator can stop drum rotation and injection before “day-lighting” the mixing head. The use of a power mixer allows for discrete depths or strata treated with optimal additives and binders. With the excavator bucket mixing method, the surface area disturbed will be greater than the horizontal area that is being treated at depth. This is due to the need for sloping or “flaring” of excavations to drive the additives and binders from the surface to the treatment depth and to develop the “stroke” necessary for mixing.

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Power mixers are designed to be operated in a vertical orientation with an up-and-down stroke.

More efficient use of additives and binders In general, up to 50% of the cost of a mass stabilization or S/S project may be from the additives and binders. Production of the actual additives and binders and transport to the project site also have associated environmental impacts. The use of a power mixer will lead to lower overall project costs and better blending. Many power mixer manufacturers offer pressure feeders that contain and pressurize dry powdered additives for delivery at depth and data acquisition systems that control the rate of additive/ binder delivery and report on the feeding operation. Some even offer GPS-based systems that locate and track the posi-

tion of the mixing head in 3D. This provides notice to the operator when mixing and additive delivery has reached the programmed time and amount. There will always be a place for the excavator bucket method to mix and treat soil, sediment, or sludge for in situ mass stabilization, due to its easy availability and lower cost. The power mixer method leads to higher mixing energy and shear, more accurate dosing by controlled injection at depth, full-scale mixing energies closer to those used at bench-scale, the ability to treat discrete depths or strata and the limiting of surface disturbances. Charles Wilk is with ALLU Group. Email: charlesw@allu.net

05/02/15 1:14 PM

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/15 5:02 AM

The legendary Muffin Monster sewage grinder has the power to tear through the toughest solids, including wipes, rags, plastics, leaves, branches, clothing and debris, to protect pumps from clogging. The Muffin Monster easily installs in gravity fed sewer channels or inline sewer lines. Tel: 905-856-1414 Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

Phoenix Panel System

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Installs directly over existing underdrain system • Eliminates the need for base gravel layers • Improves backwash flow distribution • Provides longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Now available at Hoskin Scientific

Septage receiving automation The Honey Monster Septage Receiving system, Model SRS-XE, is an all-in-one unit that allows the cleaner handling of septage truck waste by reducing and separating unwanted trash such as rocks, wipes, rags, clothing, plastics and other debris. Tel: 905-856-1414 Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

Phoenix Underdrain System

• Optimizes all types of filters • Extremely low profile; lowest available • Manufactured from corrosion-resistant stainless steel • Variable custom orifice sizing • Custom hydraulic design • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution • Rapid, low-cost installation Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Stop water infiltration Water infiltration problems? Many municipalities are now enjoying the benefits, ease and cost savings in using Denso 12” petrolatum tape to wrap chamber exteriors to arrest the problem of water ingress. Contact Denso to help solve your chamber issues.

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Telescopic rescue pole The lightweight extendable rescue pole from Reach and Rescue is used to rescue workers from ponds, lagoons, tanks, clarifiers, etc. Interchangeable heads with hooks, grapplers and rescue rings help effect a quick and safe rescue. Tel: 800-265-0182, 905-949-2741 Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Safety Equipment

The re-usable Vapor Pin™ provides a means of collecting high-quality, lowcost soil gas samples within minutes. Applications include but not limited to: sub-slab soil gas sampling, de-pressurization studies/testing, stray gas evaluations, source area characterization and mitigation progress monitoring. Tel: 905-333-5510 (Cdn) Tel: 614-526-2040 (US) E-mail: clunman@hoskin.ca (Cdn), vaporpin@coxcolvin.com (US) Web: www.hoskin.ca (Cdn), www.vaporpin.coxcolvin.com (US)


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Multi-channel, multi-parameter software Calibrate, measure and document with Memobase Plus CYZ71D software. Save time and money with one simple tool. Eliminate human error with electronic record keeping and create true sensor life cycle management with complete calibration records, standards management and service history. Tel: 800-668-3199, 905-681-9292 Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/CYZ71D Endress+Hauser Canada

March/April 2015 | 71

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Magnetic flow meters

Flow monitor

The Proline 400 magnetic flow meter family introduces innovative technologies to the municipal market. The built-in web server, “fast installation” flange design (2”-14” L sensor) and Heartbeat Technology, make the Proline 400 series flow meters the easiest to use and verify on the market.

Eliminate false alarms and monitor with Vision® using the Flow Siren battery powered, 3G wireless area-velocity flow monitor equipped with an infrared vision sensor. Rugged, submersible, low power and affordable, this product will last for years in the field.

The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensure that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover.

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Open channel flow meter

Dissolved air flotation

Dissolved air flotation is used for water clarification in industrial plants, food, oil & gas, mining, pulp & paper, and municipal water and wastewater plants. DAF can remove most TSS, FOG, insoluble BOD. H2FLOW has units in stock, pilot units, complete treatment systems.

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H2FLOW Equipment

To calculate water flow, the Sommer RQ-30 Sensor is unique in that it uses dual radar sensors to measure water level and surface water velocity simultaneously. Ideal for measurement of rivers, open channels and canals, with minimal infrastructure required. Web: www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientific

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Monitor flow through open channels, partially full sewer pipes and surcharged pipes without a flume or weir, with the new MantaRay Portable Area-Velocity flow meter. It uses a submerged ultrasonic sensor which is hydrodynamically shaped and designed to shed deposits and stringers for reliable operation in sewage, stormwater and stream flow applications.

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Digital sampling system The YSI ProDSS, with its titanium bodied Smart sensors, is revolutionizing spot sampling and profiling instrumentation. It measures: dissolved oxygen (optical); turbidity; total suspended solids; depth; GPS; pH; ORP/Redox; conductivity; specific conductance; salinity; total dissolved solids; seawater density; temperature.

Digital Interactive Catalog The Series X Retro-Grate is a hinged and lockable aluminum grating panel that is easily installed beneath existing access covers regardless of the original cover manufacture. The Retro-Grate provides additional protection against fall-through accidents when the cover is left in the open position Tel: 407-298-4470, 800-298-1027 Fax: 407-298-4534 E-mail: armond@hallidayproducts.com Web: www.hallidayproducts.com Halliday Products

Vertical screen technology

Web: www.hoskin.ca

Huber Technology invented the RoK4 vertical confined space screen technology to physically screen out debris in confined spaces such as pump stations, wet wells, etc. Three diameters are available with machine lengths as high as ~40’. Over 700 units have been installed worldwide. Tel: 704-990-2055 E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.Huberforum.net

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/15 5:03 AM

Odorox® atmospheric hydroxyl generators are industry and field proven to safely neutralize the harshest indoor air pollutants and contamination in the air, on surfaces and through any porous material, including hydrogen sulfide, free ammonia, and chloramines. Odorox is a registered trademark of HGI Industries Inc., Boynton Beach, Florida. Tel: 416-580-1244 Web: www.hydroxylenvironmental.com Hydroxyl Environmental

Drum screen

Interpreter register

The WasteTech ProTechtor ® internally fed drum screen is available in North America exclusively through Kusters Water, a division of Kusters Zima Corporation. It is a reliable and effective way to screen influent headworks, and it is particularly effective preceding MBR systems. The slow rotational speed, low maintenance, low noise level and low energy consumption are significant advantages. Tel: 864-576-0660 Web: www.kusterswater.com

Master Meter’s Interpreter Register System, based on proven Dialog® 3G technology, is a universal AMR upgrade that replaces the existing register on almost any brand of meter in minutes, without service interruption. It delivers AMR technology without wires or connections. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: www.mastermeter.com

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Ultrasonic meter

Primary element flumes

Octave® offers the latest in ultrasonic metering technology and is an excellent alternative to mechanical compound, single-jet, and turbine meters with no moving parts. Octave excels at maintaining sustained accuracy for the life of the meter while providing smart AMR capabilities. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: www.mastermeter.com

MONITARIO builds flumes. It designs, fabricates, installs and certifies accuracy and has for over 25 years. The CAD/ CAM process has simplified the task. Installations are easier and faster with crucial dimensions maintained. Accuracy is guaranteed. Tel: 519-748-8024 E-mail: randy@monitario.com Web: www.monitario.com

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New website and e-catalogue

MSU Mississauga Ltd. is excited to announce the launch of its new website and e-catalogue. Check out this useful and informative site at www.msumississauga.com Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com Web: www.msumississauga.com MSU Mississauga


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Safety hatches

MSU MG Safety Hatches set the standard in Canada for fall-through protection. They withstand pedestrian and occasional traffic loads. With single, double and multi-door configurations in aluminum and stainless steel, they are made in Canada. Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com Web: www.msumississauga.com

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With a 350psi working pressure, the Mueller A-2361 resilient wedge gate valve is ready for the increasing demands of tomorrow’s water systems. It features dual purpose lifting lugs, a T-head bolt retention design and unique ‘pressure assist’ wedge geometry.

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March/April 2015 | 73

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Compact meter The Horiba LAQUAtwin compact meters for pH, conductivity, sodium, potassium, nitrate, calcium and salt, test reliably and accurately with only a single drop to the sensor. Effective testing of these seven parameters brings a new dimension to your water quality testing. Tel: 800-560-4402, Fax: 877-820-9667 E-mail: sales@ospreyscientific.com Web: www.ospreyscientific.com

Product & Service Showcase

Osprey Scientific

Mixing and aeration systems

Optimizing dry polymer performance

The Invent Hyperclassic® mixer uses a high efficiency hyperboloid-shaped mixer body near the bottom of the tank, with a dry location, top mounted drive. Low energy, highly effective mixing of floc tanks, anoxic zones, storage tanks, etc. Thousands of these highly efficient mixers have been installed worldwide.

Dry polymer performance starts with effectively wetting each particle. However, metering polymer directly from a feeder into a “wetting bowl” fails to disperse it. The HydraMax pneumatic conveyance system by Velocity Dynamics Inc. thoroughly disperses polymers, prior to wetting, which minimizes hydration time. It does so more effectively than any other blender on the market.

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ProMinent’s DulcoBlend liquid polymer prep system is a three-chamber design that comes in with unique features for startup, auto, manual and shut down flush settings to provide safety and ease of use. Its combination of power and friendliness is something only ProMinent can provide. Tel: 888-709-9933 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca

ProMinent is excited to unveil its first online offerings for Canadian customers at www.prominent.menu. The new landing page offers a quick selection of products and services. Visit it today to learn more about making your chemical feed risk-free.

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Grit removal system

PISTA®Works™ is a packaged all in one headworks and grit removal scheme, offering a compact footprint and speedy/ efficient installation. The system features a fully automated control system, an integrated screening system for solids retention, a PISTA® Grit Concentrator, a PISTA® TURBO™ Grit Washer and a PISTA® 360™ Grit Chamber. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

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Measuring temperature, level and conductivity The Solinst TLC Meter is excellent for profiling temperature and conductivity in wells. Water level and depth of readings are read off Solinst PVDF flat tape, which is precisely laser-marked each millimetre or every 1/100 ft, up to 300 m (1000 ft). Tel: 905-873-2255, 800-661-2023 Fax: 905-873-1992, 800-561-9081 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com Solinst


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

3/28/15 5:04 AM

TEAM-1 Academy Inc. is North America’s leader in HazMat, Confined Space and Working at Heights Training which can be facilitated at your location or one of our centers. We conduct training for many enforcement agencies, and for industry and construction. Tel: 905-827-0007 Fax: 905-827-0049 E-mail: brian@team1academy.com Web: www.team1academy.com TEAM-1 Academy

Engineered metal doors USF Fabrication, Inc. manufacture a complete line of engineered metal doors for underground utility access. They have been ‘fabricating solutions since 1916’ with over 160,000 sq ft of manufacturing space. This allows them to offer the best lead times in the industry. Their friendly and knowledgeable staff is committed to providing customers with the right product for their application and shipping it when they need it. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: epsl@telus.net USF Fabrication

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Consisting of TE-BXPP bi-axial geogrid, heat bonded to a non-woven needle punched geotextile, TEBXC30 reinforces and maintains the drainage capability of soil sub-base. With separation and filtration properties, TE-BXC30 is ideal for combined stabilization/reinforcement of saturated soils susceptible to piping. Tel: 866-327-1957, Fax:204-878-3980 E-mail: info@titanenviro.ca Web: www.titanenviro.ca

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TEAM-1 Academy is the North American gold standard for safely working at heights. Instruction can be at one of our training centers or at your site.

Trickling filters

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: wbs@waterloo-biofilter.com Web: www.waterloo-biofilter.com Waterloo Biofilter

Multi parameter probe

PVC or polyethylene bailers The Waterra Clear PVC EcoBailer and Weighted Polyethylene EcoBailer are both ecofriendly products. A better weight distribution allows these bailers to sink straighter and the efficient valve design makes them the fastest sinking bailers available. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

Water level and temperature logger

The portable, electrically operated Hydrolift has been one of the most popular mechanical actuators for the Waterra Inertial Pump, and we’ve been working to make it better. Today, the improved Hydrolift is more durable and easier to use and, most importantly, more affordable than ever.

The AP-2000 portable multi parameter probe is now available as a package. Equipped with the five standard parameters (Optical DO, EC, pH, ORP & temperature), the AP-2000 also has an ion selective electrode socket and an optical sensors electrode socket for a wide range of additional electrodes. The AP-2000 package includes the GPS Aquameter, 3m cable, rugged case and accessories.

The LeveLine-ECO from AQUAREADT is a water level and temperature recording device that has been specifically designed for longterm water level logging. Designed to be deployed and left unattended in the field for long periods of time, the stainless steel LeveLine-ECO is the cost-effective way to get into water level logging.

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APRIL 27-29, 2015 International Centre, 6900 Airport Road, Mississauga, ON List of Exhibitors as of March 20, 2015 ACG / Envirocan.......................................................#1238 Acute Environmental & Safety Services Inc.....#1434 ADI Systems Inc.......................................................#1313 AGAT Laboratories Ltd...........................................#1428 Bio-Microbics, Inc....................................................#1525 ClearTech...................................................................#1318 Cox-Colvin & Associates, Inc. / Hoskin Scientific, LTD.............................................#1523 Dragun Corporation.................................................#1328 Drain-All Ltd..............................................................#1218 Dynamic Industrial Services Inc..........................#1528 EMSL Canada Inc.....................................................#1212 Environment Canada...............................................#1322 Environmental Risk Information Services (ERIS)...........................................................................#1529 Exova Canada Inc.....................................................#1224 Galuku Group North America, LLC......................#1435 Global Risk Innovations..........................................#1418 H2Flow Equipment Inc...........................................#1229 Healthy Environmental...........................................#1341 Heron Instruments Inc............................................#1223 HGC Engineering......................................................#1234 Itech Environmental Services...............................#1236 John Brooks Company............................................#1333 KG Services...............................................................#1432 Lakes Environmental Software............................#1440 LimeGREEN Equipment..........................................#1336 Mettler Toledo Process Analytics........................#1317 MOS Productions Inc..............................................#1312

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MSU Mississauga Ltd..............................................#1337 Northstar Recycling.................................................#1226 Oak Ridges Moraine Land Trust...........................#1531 QCEC – Quality Control Equipment Co..............#1532 Quantum Murray.......................................................#1533 Roadpost Inc.............................................................#1424 Royal Roads University...........................................#1213 RWDI............................................................................#1422 SAI Global Assurance Services............................#1329 Solinst Canada Ltd..................................................#1232 Spill Management Inc.............................................#1241 SPL Consultants Limited........................................#1334 St. Lawrence County Industrial Development Agency.........................................................................#1437 Sudbury Lime Limited.............................................#1522 TEAM-1 Academy Inc.............................................#1233 TESTMARK Laboratories Ltd................................#1429 Mindspace Inc. .............................................#1228/1230 University of Waterloo – Co-operative Education...................................................................#1222 Vector Process Equipment Inc.............................#1217 Veolia North America..............................................#1433 Walker Environmental Group Inc.........................#1225 Warren’s Waterless Printing Inc...........................#1335 Wessuc Inc.................................................................#1332 Westech Industrial...................................................#1417 WISE Environmental Solutions Inc......................#1536 Xypex Chemical Corporation................................#1324

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water & Wastewater Plant Efficiency

How to boost the performance of pressure reducing valves By Mark Gimson


ressure management has become a very useful tool for controlling leakage in piping networks. This has primarily been achieved by utilities forming district metered areas and pressure zones in their systems. Typically, pressure is managed by utilizing a pressure reducing valve that can either have a single fixed pressure reducing pilot set point or pressure flow modulating devices to give a range of set points based on flow. Whatever the set point of the pressure, every one of these valves relies on the basic principle of opening and closing a main valve by employing some type of pilot system. As these are hydro-mechanical devices, there is always room for increasing efficiency through custom configuration. Valve location Pilot valves require maintenance and possibly adjustments and electrical connections, so access to them is important. They are typically mounted in valve boxes or underground valve stations in colder climates, and aboveground where freezing is not a concern. The valves should be mounted with the stems in the vertical position. They will work in any position, but for practical purposes, install them in a horizontal line, with the stems vertical where possible. This will make future maintenance easier. Secondly, ensure there is plenty of space around the valve for maintenance and access. It is best to maintain straight runs before and after the valve. The inlet side of the valve is not as critical as the outlet side. A butterfly valve should ideally never be mounted right up against the valve as this will direct flow in an uneven path into or out of the valve. This is not as critical with gate valves. The outlet side of the valve is a different matter. Ideally, you should always have a few pipe diameters of straight runs downstream of the valve to assist in getting flow settled down again after the turbulence of the control valve. www.esemag.com

A typical valve chamber.

Air in pipelines Water contains air, which is dissolved in amounts dependent on pressure and temperature. At atmospheric pressure, the volume of air varies from 30% at 0oC to 15% at 30oC. This dissolved air can come out of solution in a number of ways: • Changes in water temperature, velocity and pressure. • Turbulence caused by rough pipe walls in older mains, bends, valves and other fittings. • Vortex actions of pumps. Air, being compressible, will cause erratic pressure swings and valve modulations that will play havoc with a pressure management system. It is therefore imperative that air be removed totally from the pilot system during commissioning of the valve or after any kind of valve maintenance. Pilot systems and bonnets of control valves form natural high points where any air in a line will collect. There is little research that addresses air problems in pressure reducing valves, so technical data is limited. However, based on 25 years of practical experience, Singer

Valve found that having an air release valve upstream of the control valve will ensure a good, air free and stable valve operation. Any air in the pipeline is then released before it reaches the control valve. As for sizing, this will be dependent upon flow rates, but typically 25 mm will suffice with flows up to 315 L/s. On the downstream side of the valve, a combination air valve, which is an air vacuum valve that allows air to vent upon filling the pipeline, is used. It also allows air to enter when the downstream pipeline is being drained. It has the added advantage of including an air release valve to eliminate any air that may have been formed by the reducing valve as it reduces pressure, allowing even more air to be released. These valves are sized, based upon flow rate, and can get much larger due to the vacuum breaking function of the valve. If a single valve is installed in a valve chamber, or there is no requirement downstream for vacuum protection, then a simple inlet release valve is all that is required. continued overleaf... March/April 2015 | 77

Water & Wastewater Plant Efficiency Combating the effects of scaling Hard water can lead to scale build-up that over time will do several things: • Plug the tappings of the main valve sensing ports. • Coat calcium on surfaces that are situated around the elastomers in the valve that over time can start to puncture the rubber, causing failure. • Allow build-up on valve stems that eventually can impede stem movement, causing the valve to sit in one position. Aside from regular maintenance where parts can be cleaned using a weak acid, it is much easier to prevent scale before it occurs. Ideally, this would involve water softening but, as this is costly and often impractical, there are some other methods that can be employed. Historically, manufacturers have supplied valves stems with a Delrin® sleeve to combat the effects of build-up. Unfortunately, this does have some pressure limitations and over time can crack or swell. Another recent option is the Dura Kleen® stem that relies on the bottom portion of the stem being “rifled” to drive any build-up off the stem, much like a car tire’s grooves displace water when it is raining. Another alternative is to treat the stem with an oxy-nitride treatment. This is a hot chemical dip that essentially turns the stainless material jet black. It does not affect the dimensions or strength properties but increases hardness and greatly improves lubricity and fatigue and corrosion resistance. This ensures that nothing can grow on the stem and eliminates the binding problems of mineral growth. Strainers To fully understand the need for clean water in the pilot system it is important to understand that all control valves utilize the simple principle of allowing more water to leave the cover chamber when the pilot opens than can be fed into the bonnet from the valve inlet supply. This is typically achieved by utilizing a small orifice in the pilot system that varies in size from 1.6 mm to 6 mm, dependent upon valve size. This is not a very large opening and is prone to plugging. A plugged orifice means the 78 | March/April 2015

nance. Typically, strainers are supplied at 40 mesh, but can be 60 or 80 mesh, depending upon the requirements.

Speed control/low flow stabilizer (left). Reducing pilot (right).

control valve is very sluggish to close or will not close at all. It is therefore imperative that the pilot system is protected with an effective and reliable strainer. Most valve manufacturers utilize either an internal flow strainer on the valve inlet, or an external type strainer. Both can be very effective, but require monitoring and maintenance. In areas where the feed water is not clean, this can become a maintenance challenge involving countless hours spent on strainer cleaning. A simple, effective way to prolong the cleaning cycle is to utilize a duplex strainer assembly. This can be as simple as installing the valve with two strainers that can be manually switched over to ensure uninterrupted valve operation while one of the strainers is being cleaned. A better method is to install a dedicated, wall mounted strainer system. This is particularly useful if there are valve chambers with more than one valve. The concept is to oversize the strainers used from a simple 9.5 mm inlet to that of a 40 mm. This greatly increases the surface area of the screen and allows for much longer run times and a lot less mainte-

Pilot sensing It is important to understand how the pressure reducing pilot valve senses the pressure downstream in order to accurately detect what it needs to do in order to control the pressure. The internal downstream chamber of the pilot valve is exposed to downstream pressure and this area interacts with a spring by way of a diaphragm in the pilot. If the pressure in the downstream zone is greater than the spring setting, it forces the diaphragm upwards. This in turn carries the inner valve yolk assembly, thus closing off the flow from the inlet to the outlet of the pilot. As the pressure in the downstream zone falls, the spring force is now greater than the pressure so the spring forces the inner valve stem downward. This opens flow from the inlet to out of the pilot, which in turn opens the main valve. This effective diaphragm area and the accurate sensing are the key to getting a good stable pressure downstream. It is not ideal to have this pilot directly connected to the body tapping on the downstream side of the main valve. Pilot sensing location in relation to main valve Outlet body tappings of control valves typically fall into a distance range of 0.5 to 0.75 pipe diameters downstream of the valve seat. This means that the typical pilot is sensing turbulent water as it leaves the valve seat, and is by no means considered laminar flow. In a differential pressure orifice flow meter, it is recommended that pipe taps be located 2.5 diameters downstream of the primary element. Singer Valve research showed that the best results are achieved when the pilot was mounted five pipe diameters downstream of the valve. This is a very simple change in the system that gives greater stability to pressure management. Speed controls Pressure reducing valves are typically supplied with an opening speed continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

June 7–10, 2015 Anaheim, CA www.awwa.org/ace15 Co-hosted by

Register Today! ACE15 provides an environment for all water professionals to discuss solutions for the most pressing water utility challenges.

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The program will address the changing needs of the global water community with 19 professional tracks and 111 unique sessions, six Sunday workshops, and more than 450 leading-edge exhibitors with expanded networking opportunities on the show floor.

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Optimizing Pipe System Operations Through Advanced Technologies


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Water & Wastewater Plant Efficiency control. The rationale for this is that the bonnet volume of an 80 mm valve is approximately 0.3 litres. This means that when the reducing pilot opens, it can easily exhaust the bonnet volume quickly. This allows the main valve to open quickly, allowing rapid flow downstream. Unfortunately, this can cause a high-pressure spike as the pilot cannot react fast enough to this sudden increase. Consequently most valve manufacturers recommend an opening speed control to limit how fast the main valve can open. Advancements in valve design Typically, diaphragm control valves utilize an elastomer diaphragm to separate the bonnet control pressure from the pressure in the main valve body. This type of diaphragm design is not without its issues, namely unstable control at lower flow rates. This is directly attributable to the fact that with a flat diaphragm valve the effective area actually changes throughout the stroke of the valve. This means that at times when the valve is only partially open (less than 20%), it is very difficult to maintain a steady flow rate. The valve will frequently “hunt” as it struggles to maintain control. The pilot system wants the valve to remain open. The valve wants to close, so a sine wave action is formed as the valve cycles to control reduced flow. The rolling diaphragm concept removes

A duplex pilot strainer assembly.

this issue. It installs into the valve in the same manner as a flat diaphragm but has a constant effective area throughout the entire stroke of the valve. This means that even at very low flows the valve does not hunt and produces steady downstream pressures. This technology allows for minimum flow rates right down to 0 L/s even in a 150 mm valve. This means that low flow bypass valves are not required and, for a pressure management valve where pres-

sure surges are not acceptable, this is an ideal solution. Conclusion With just a few simple changes, even the most problematic valve installation can be “tweaked” to improve operation so that it runs smoothly, accurately and requiring as little attention as possible. Mark Gimson is with Singer Valve. Email: mgimson@singervalve.com

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Understanding the differences between Doppler and transit time ultrasonic flow meters


ltrasonic flow meters are non-intrusive devices that use acoustic vibrations to measure the flow rate of liquid. There are two types: Doppler and transit time. Both are designed to clamp onto the outside of the pipe without breaking the line or interrupting flow. This also eliminates pressure losses and prevents leaking. In addition, the flow meter does not come in contact with the liquid, thereby preventing corrosion or deterioration of the sensors. Although Doppler and transit time flow meters operate on a similar principle, the technology varies significantly. To obtain accurate measurements, it is important to know which flow meter to use for your application. Doppler ultrasonic flow meters Doppler ultrasonic flow meters operate on the principle of the Doppler Effect, which was documented by Austrian physicist and mathematician Christian Johann Doppler in 1842. He stated that the frequencies of the sound waves received by an observer are dependent upon the motion of the source or observer in relation to the source of the sound. A Doppler ultrasonic flow meter uses a transducer to emit an ultrasonic beam into the stream flowing through the pipe. For it to operate, there must be solid particles or air bubbles in the stream to reflect the ultrasonic beam. The motion of particles shifts the frequency of the beam, which is received by a second transducer. The flow meter measures the frequency shift, which is linearly proportional to the flow rate. This value is multiplied by the internal diameter of the pipe to derive volumetric flow. As the Doppler ultrasonic flow meter relies on particles flowing in the liquid to operate, consideration must be given to the lower limits for concentrations and sizes of solids or bubbles. In addition, the liquid must flow at a rate high enough to keep the solids suspended. www.esemag.com

Transit time ultrasonic flow meters Transit time ultrasonic flow meters measure the difference in time from when an ultrasonic signal is transmitted from the first transducer until it crosses the pipe and is received by the second transducer. A comparison is made of upstream and downstream measurements. If there is no flow, the travel time will be the same in both directions. When flow is present, sound moves faster if traveling in the same direction and slower if moving against it. Since the ultrasonic signal must traverse the pipe to be received by the sensor, the liquid cannot be comprised of a significant amount of solids or bubbles. This is because the high frequency sound will be abated and too weak to travel across the pipe. The difference in the upstream and downstream measurements taken over the same path is used to calculate the flow through the pipe. The transit time ultrasonic flow me-

ter has three possible transducer configurations: Z, V and W. All are recognized as a single measuring path, whereas the ultrasonic beam follows a single path. In all three configurations, the output produced by the transducers is converted to a current, frequency or voltage signal. The preferred configuration is determined by factors such as: pipe size; space available for mounting the transducers; condition of the internal walls of the pipe; type of lining; and, the characteristics of the flowing liquid. In the “Z� configuration, the transducers are positioned on opposite sides of continued overleaf... March/April 2015 | 81

Instrumentation the pipe with one downstream from the other. Usually, the distance downstream is approximately D/2, where D equals the diameter of the pipe. The optimum distance is calculated by a converter. This arrangement is only advisable under conditions where there is limited space, high turbidity, a mortar lining or a thick buildup of scale on the interior walls of the pipe. It should be avoided for installations on small pipes, where the accuracy of its measurements tends to degrade. The “V” configuration is recommended for most installations. This arrangement places the two transducers on the same side of the pipe within approximately a diameter of the pipe from each other. A rail attachment clamps on the pipe and allows the transducers to be moved horizontally to position them the calculated distance apart. A “W” configuration is most often used for installations on pipes with diameters of 12 mm – 40 mm. In this arrangement, the ultrasonic signal rebounds from the wall three times; therefore, it must travel a greater distance. High turbidity liquids and built-up scale or deposits on the interior of the pipe wall can diminish accuracy. Factors influencing accuracy The accuracy of ultrasonic flow meter measurements relies on proper mounting. Large temperature changes in the pipe or a significant amount of vibration may affect the alignment of the transducers and acoustic coupling to the pipe. These factors must be accounted for during installation. In addition, to provide an accurate volumetric flow rate, all ultrasonic flow meters require that the pipe be full. A Doppler ultrasonic flow meter on a partially filled pipe will continue to generate flow velocity measurements if both transducers are mounted below the fluid level in the pipe. The two types of ultrasonic flow meters, Doppler and transit time, each function by way of two different technologies. An understanding of how each operates enables the selection of the appropriate flow meter. For more information, email Kathleen Kwiatkowski,Omega Engineering, Inc., kkwiat@omega.com 82 | March/April 2015

Wastewater Treatment

Typical wet grit classifier.

How to choose between grit washing or grit classification By Jim Weidler


he primary benefit to grit removal in the wastewater treatment process is to eliminate potential damage to downstream mechanical equipment, and reduce the likelihood of adverse effects on the treatment processes due to unwanted grit. There are many different types of grit removal systems currently utilized in the municipal wastewater industry, including mechanical vortex, induced vortex, multi-tray vortex, aerated grit chambers and detritus tanks. Regardless of the methodology used to collect the grit, the need still exists for dewatering. When designing grit systems, there are two options available for dewatering prior to disposal, either grit “washing” or grit “classification”. In simplified terms, you can “wash” the grit to reduce organics (typically <5%), or you can simply “dewater” it and not address the organics (typically <25%). The decision is normally dictated by tolerance for odours directly related to the percentage

of organics and moisture content of the discharged grit. How a grit washer works A vortex grit washer receives direct pumped flow into a tangentially fed vortex style tank from either a grit pump or airlift, without the need for primary separation. It can operate effectively over a wide range of flows, with standard flows up to 640 gpm. Due to the grit washer operating principles, mechanical agitator and internal grit scour wash system, the organics are “washed” and rejected. The cleaned grit is transported up a 40 degree inclined screw conveyor, resulting in an extremely dry, clean and odour-free grit, with very low organics (volatile solids) content of <5%. How a grit classifier works Grit classification is available in two operational styles: “dry” or “wet”. A “dry” classifier includes a cyclone separator to concentrate the grit and dis-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Treatment

Key components of a typical grit washer.

charge the underflow from the cyclone to further dewater as it is being discharged via an inclined screw conveyor. Typically, cyclone classifiers can have a higher percentage of organics in the grit discharge, somewhere in the range of 10% – 15%. The moisture content is in the range of 25% – 30%. Limitations when considering a cyclone classifier include: a limited range of flow based on cyclone size and corresponding operating pressure, and their in-

ability to operate with an airlift design, as they cannot maintain a constant pressure. A “wet” classifier is fed a water/grit slurry directly from the grit basin. It includes a large flared settling zone to allow the grit to settle and dewater as it is being discharged via an inclined screw conveyor. Typical “wet” classifiers can retain an even higher percentage of organics in the grit discharge in the range of 20% – 25%, with a higher moisture content of 35% – 45%.

Conclusion A number of factors should be considered before making a final selection, including: costs, flow rate, moisture content, and tolerance for odours due to organics in the discharged grit. The key design parameters are summarized in Table 1. Jim Weidler is with Kusters Water, a Division of Kusters Zima Corp. Email: jim.weidler@kusterszima.com

TABLE 1. Key design parameters for grit washing or classification selection. Grit Washer

Grit Classifier (with 1 cyclone)

Grit Classifier (without cyclone)

Peak Flow Rate (gpm)




Organic Content (%)


10 – 15%

20 – 25%

Moisture Content (%)


25 – 30%

35 – 45%

Typical Costs




Very Low






March/April 2015 | 83

Stormwater Management

New commercial development meets Moncton’s strict stormwater runoff regulations


he new McLaughlin Place retail centre in Moncton, New Brunswick, is meeting the city’s mandate of eliminating any increase in stormwater runoff while maximizing the number of parking spaces. Instead of using a detention pond or sump, the designers decided to use a system of chambers under the parking lot that would collect and hold stormwater runoff from the lot and rooftops. The one-hectare commercial development with five buildings is located near the Université de Moncton. Plans call for apartment buildings to be added in the future. “Based on the city’s design criteria, there could not be any increase in stormwater runoff into Moncton’s storm sewer system from McLaughlin Place,” stated Denis LeBlanc, P.Eng., of WSP Canada Inc. “This is in an older, fully developed part of the city with roads, storm sewers, etc., already in place. The city has a zero net increase stormwater policy, which means that, when you develop a site, post-development flows have to equal pre-development flows. “In our case, some old houses and an old skating rink on the property had been demolished a few years before, but the downstream storm sewer was still limited by capacity. This meant we had to go above and beyond the zero increase requirements. In our design, we actually had to reduce pre-development flow conditions due to the undersized storm sewer that was downstream of our site.” “Moncton uses a lot of open, dry detention ponds,” LeBlanc explained. “The reason for that is because land value is not that high and developers can usually afford to lose a bit of land to put in a pond. In this case, we didn’t have any available land and our site was fully covered by buildings or parking lots. So, underground storage was our choice for detention.” To satisfy the city’s Zero Net Increase for Stormwater Runoff Law P#215 and meet the site’s storage capacity requirement of 485 cubic metres, the under-

84 | March/April 2015

ground system used 87 StormTech® MC3500 chambers in a 26.8 m x 17.9 m area. Each StormTech MC-3500 chamber is 2.28 m long x 1.95 m wide x 1.14 m high, with minimum installed storage capacity of 5.06 cubic metres. The open graded stone around and under the chambers provides a significant conveyance capacity, ranging from approximately 23 l/s – 368 l/s. Actual conveyance capacity is dependent upon stone size, depth of foundation stone and head of water. The excavation was 3.3  m deep, which allowed for 2.13 m of cover above the chambers. The gravel bed was made up of 18 mm – 50 mm washed rock. A rock slinger was used in order to place the stone faster. A non-woven geotextile separates native soil from the washed rock. To convey the water from the catch basins, ADS N-12® corrugated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe was used to create a 600 mm x 450 mm manifold, connected to the first four chamber rows.

“We’re not calling it retention but detention,” LeBlanc continued. “Water is not infiltrating into the ground. Our soils are all clay here so there’s little to no infiltration. This means you still need to outlet water to a pipe or a sewer. Our chambers are on the bed of gravel with the geotextile under it to prevent the clay from interacting with the gravel. From there, the water flows into a control structure downstream of the chambers. It is basically just a manhole with an orifice in it. From there, it goes into the municipal storm sewer.” To convey water from the underground detention system to the municipal storm sewer, a 250 mm diameter solid wall DR17 HDPE pipe was horizontally directionally drilled nearly 16 m under Morton Avenue, a major road. This was needed because the city could not shut down any lanes. For more information, visit www.ads-pipecanada.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ES&E NEWS Coalition slam release of pro-industry water usage rules for the oil sands industry

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The Alberta government has been critTier 1 Hydro-Pneumatic Surge and icized by SumOfUs.org, Keepers of the Pressure Control Systems in both Athabasca, Environmental Defense CanBladder and Air over Water Solutions ada and the Natural Resources Defense Council for its decision to adopt weak new environmental regulations governing water usage in the oil sands industry. Surface Water Quantity Framework (SWQF) and Tailings Management Framework set AIR RELEASE/VACUUM BREAK guidelines on how much water oil sands VALVES FOR SEWAGE & WATER companies can extract from the Athabas“ANTI-SURGE /ANTI-SHOCK” ca River, and on the management and 10-YEAR WARRANTY • ALL STAINLESS production of toxic tailings waste. RGX RBX The coalition said it feels these new Reliant WQA policies will pose a threat to the health QUALITY AERATOR for Lagoons and Aquaculture quality aerator for lagoons and aquaculture WQA WATERwater of the Athabasca River system and one water quality aerator for lagoons and aquaculture of the world’s largest freshwater del• Course & fine bubble aeration tas. They wanted an “Ecosystem Base Large Air Bubble Mixing Technolog • Tames sludge buildup ✓ Coarse & fine bubble aeration Flow” which would have protected the ✓ Tames sludge buildup • Handles ✓upEliminates to 5 acres perstratification unit • Eliminates thermal stratification thermal Innovative, air burst driven mixing river from damage during rare low-flow ✓ Eliminates seasonal turnover • Efficient✓- Only Up to 15moves lbs O2/hr • Eliminates seasonal turnover Most 4 hp 9 MGDenergy-efficient mixing events. 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Sewage pump station grease T: 905-777-9494 • F: 905-777-8678 • info@hydrologic.ca • www.hydrologic.ca info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca cap busting & odor control “First Nations and Métis people 762 Upper St. James Street, Suite 250, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L9C 3A2 Industrial Applications made clear the need forFood stronger waprocessing applications, liquor blending & a wide range of mixing applications ter withdrawal limits, and we’re disappointed to see that the government has Five decades of excellence HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. to bow downONtoL9Cthe of 762 Upper St.decided James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, 3A2interests • Ph: 905-777-9494 • in Fax: 905-777-8678 infrastructure info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca industry. The Lower Athabasca Regionplanning & engineering al Plan, Joint Oil Sands Monitoring, and Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency all lack indigenous inclusion,” said Jesse Cardinal of Keepers of the Athabasca. www.action.sumofus.org






Works Commissioner recognized for exemplary service Cliff Curtis, Works Department Commissioner for the Regional Municipality of Durham, has been honoured by the Ontario Public Works Association continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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ES&E NEWS (OPWA). The 2014 OPWA Exemplary Service Award is presented annually to a public works professional to recognize outstanding career service achievement, excellence and dedication in public service. Curtis has seen more than 20 years of rapid growth in Durham Region and managed many substantial projects. Most recently, he launched operations at the Durham York Energy Centre (DYEC), one of the largest projects the Region has ever undertaken. The OPWA also honoured the Durham Region Works Department with a Project of the Year award (structures greater than $50 million category) for the DYEC. This award promotes excellence in the management and administration of public works projects by recognizing an alliance among the managing agency, the consultant/engineer and the contractor. The DYEC, located in Courtice, is a state-of-the-art energy-from-waste facility that is Durham and York Region’s primary long-term disposal option for waste. Funded through the federal Gas Tax Fund, the DYEC only processes household waste remaining after aggressive composting, recycling and reuse programs. www.durhamyorkwaste.ca

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Revising ANSI/AWWA C651-14 is the result of many years of review, research and discussion. It also takes into account a recent project from the Water Research Foundation on effective microbial control strategies for main breaks and depressurization. Major revisions include: • Expanded guidance for disinfecting existing water mains after repair. • Differences in the requirements between new and repaired mains. • Added a spray disinfection method for large transmission mains. • Changed the requirement for bacteriological sampling in new mains. • The flushing rate of 2.5 ft/sec has been increased to 3.0 ft/sec for a scour flush based on testing. • References to new standard ANSI/ AWWA C655 are included for dechlorination and disposing of heavily chlorinated water.

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ES&E NEWS These updates provide improved guidance and requirements for disinfecting newly installed and existing repaired water mains. www.awwa.org

WateReuse merges leadership to sharpen focus The WateReuse Association and WateRuse Research Foundation plan to merge the leadership of their organizations. The goal is to more aggressively address challenges that local communities face in meeting growing demands for water supplies, due to drought, climate change, aging infrastructure, environmental degradation, and an increasingly complex web of regulations. The plan calls for a core group of directors to simultaneously serve on each Board, thus facilitating maximum strategic collaboration. WateReuse has sharpened its focus in the three core areas of research, education, and advocacy to advance a shared vision of a world in which “the right water is used for the right purpose, all the time, everywhere.” Known collectively as WateReuse, the two organizations have been international thought-leaders on alternative water supply development and the global go-to source for applied research, education, and advocacy on water reuse for nearly three decades. However, the leadership has identified a need for the two organizations to more deeply integrate activities to leverage resources and maximize strengths. The Research Foundation will continue to conduct cutting-edge research to improve the treatment, distribution, and acceptance of water reuse. The Association will continue to strategically advocate for laws, policies, and funding that promote and increase water reuse. Together, both organizations will work to educate policymakers and the public on the science, economic value, and environmental benefits of treating water to safely use it for designated purposes, such as irrigation, manufacturing, and drinking water.

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ES&E NEWS India this year. In comments made during the Indian Water Works Association’s Annual Convention in Kolkata, AWWA CEO David LaFrance said that the newly created AWWAIndia is an important step in achieving the Association’s vision of a “better world through better water.”

AWWA anticipates introducing AWWAIndia’s first executive manager in the coming months. In addition to opening an office, the executive manager’s initial focus will be on building a community of water professionals who collaborate to support public health, environmental protection and best management prac-

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tices. AWWAIndia will also develop training for operators and managers.

Blue-Zone welcomes Ontario’s climate change discussion Blue-Zone Technologies says it welcomes the release of Ontario’s Climate Change discussion paper on transforming to a low-carbon economy, including sector specific actions to reduce harmful emissions. Blue-Zone is already helping more than 200 Ontario operating rooms eliminate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. When hospitals administer anesthetics during surgery, the patient metabolizes less than 5% of the total vapour. The remaining 95% is released into the environment via the operating room air scavenging system. These emissions are potent GHGs, with 20-year global warming impacts approximately 3,776 12:10 PM times more harmful than carbon dioxide (CO2). Blue-Zone has the proprietary and patented technology to capture these anesthetics before they are released. As part of the government’s announcement, areas and sectors of the economy that can achieve significant emission reduction were outlined. These include productivity improvements in transportation, industry, buildings, electricity, agriculture and waste by building on existing climate-critical provincial initiatives. The Climate Change Discussion Paper will be posted to the Environmental Bill of Rights for a 45 day comment period that will include focused discussions, town hall meetings and stakeholder forums.

Manure treatment system wins Air Miles award Extracting valuable nutrients and water from manure and preventing phosphorus run-off is what Livestock Water Recycling (LWR) Inc. aims to do with its manure treatment technology. The Calgary-based company recently won “Innovation of the Year” from the 2015 Air Miles for Small Business Awards. The three-part system works by separating solids and sludge from barn effluent. The result is a concentrated liquid fertilizer and a phosphorus-rich sludge suitable for composting or fertilizing. Ammonia, which usually evaporates from manure before it can go into the 88 | March/April 2015

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ground, is also extracted by the system. This also significantly reduces odour. Aside from irrigating feed and forage crops, tremendous amounts of water are used to wash and water animals, clean barns and move manure and waste. Nutrient and contaminant-rich wastewater is most commonly pumped to lagoons. LWR’s system is able to process approximately half of the manure’s volume into potable water, which can be reused in the barns or for irrigation. According to Ross Thurston, president of LWR, the system gives farmers more control. Reducing the volume of manure means reducing the size and loading of large lagoons where it is stored. By providing a concentrated and measured fertilizer product, farmers can apply the correct amount where it is needed. This minimizes run-off and the need to purchase commercial fertilizer.

Feds to fund antibiotic resistant bacteria research A research team improving wastewater treatment plant processes to protect the health of Canadians, has received $585,000 support from the Canadian government. Dr. Christopher Yost, Canada Research Chair in Microbes, the Environment and Food Safety at the University of Regina is working with researchers at Dalhousie and Acadia universities and municipal wastewater treatment plant partners in Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Nunavut, to develop new processes that reduce antibiotic-resistant bacteria. According to the Canadian government, one of the side effects of the overuse of antibiotics in humans is an increased amount of antibiotic-resistant bacteria being excreted into wastewater. These bacteria survive after wastewater is treated, thereby increasing the risk of transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to the environment and, potentially, humans. Wastewater treatment plants represent an important control point in the many steps taken to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance. A recent study from the University of Warwick, found antibiotic resistant bacteria were often found near treatment plants along the Thames River in England. www.esemag.com

Dr. Yost has demonstrated highly sensitive specialized equipment that can quantify and characterize antibiotic resistance genes and resistant bacteria in the wastewater treatment environment and in other areas affected by wastewater run-off.

Research facility opens in Calgary wastewater plant For the first time, university researchers are working side-by-side with municipal operators to advance wastewater treatment technologies and knowledge, in a partnership between the University of Calgary and the City of Calgary. The $38.5 million Advancing Canadian Wastewater Assets (ACWA) facility at the Pine Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant is the world’s only fully integrated, fully contained university research facility located within an operating industrial wastewater treatment plant. The site includes 3.8 km of naturalized, experimental streams, that replicate real-life water situations and enable research that cannot be performed anywhere else. Their size, number, and connectivity to the city plant, allow researchers and trainees to study the effects of actual wastewater effluent on living ecosystems in real time. The facility consists of the streams; a dedicated experimental wastewater treatment plant, where methods to remove contaminants are developed and tested; and an analytical laboratory, where the biological and chemical characteristics of wastewater and treated effluents are analyzed. Three additional labs on campus at the University of Calgary also support ACWA research. ACWA brings together City employees and researchers from multiple disciplines to address three main themes related to water: engineering technologies, public health protection, and aquatic ecology and ecotoxicology. City laboratory scientists are working together with the university to develop new methods to test for emerging pathogens and substances of concern. Some of the graduate students involved in ACWA research are also City employees working in the wastewater system. www.ucalgary.ca/acwa



ADI Systems.......................................... 36 Alltork Actuation................................... 59 American Public University.................. 47 American Water Works Association.... 79 Associated Engineering........................ 55 Avensys................................................. 22 AWI........................................................ 19 Boerger Pumps..................................... 60 C&M Environmental.............................. 13 Cancoppas ........................................... 57 Canadian Safety Equipment Inc........... 58 Canadian Water Summit...................... 67 Can-Am Instruments............................ 49 Denso.................................................... 27 Endress + Hauser................................. 11 Envirocan & ACG Technology......... 90, 91 Geneq.................................................... 52 Greatario......................................... 42, 64 H2Flow.................................................. 30 Halliday Products.................................. 44 Hoskin Scientific............................. 20, 41 Hydroxyl................................................ 37 Huber Technology................................. 16 Imbrium Systems.................................. 51 Indachem.............................................. 63 IPEX......................................................... 7 Kemira................................................... 45 KG Services........................................... 33 KSB Pumps........................................... 21 Kusters Water....................................... 39 Mantech................................................ 43 Master Meter.......................................... 3 MONITARIO............................................ 31 MSU Mississauga................................. 25 Mueller.................................................. 26 NETZSCH Canada.................................. 43 Orival Water Filters......................... 54, 80 Osprey Scientific................................... 58 Parsons................................................. 66 Pro Aqua................................................. 9 ProMinent................................................ 2 Roadpost............................................... 70 SEW-Eurodrive...................................... 26 Smith & Loveless.................................... 5 Solinst Canada...................................... 68 Spill Management................................. 23 Stantec.................................................. 30 Team-1 Academy.................................. 92 Titan Environmental Containment....... 68 University of Calgary............................ 53 USF Fabrication & Engineered Pump... 55 Waterra Pumps................... 10, 35, 50, 65 WEFTEC................................................. 69 XCG Consultants................................... 52 Xypex.................................................... 40

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