Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine November-December 2012

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Contents ISSN-0835-605X • Nov/Dec 2012 Vol. 25 No. 6 • Issued Dec 2012 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com Founding Editor


Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com


Canadians continue to contribute to international water and wastewater associations - Comment by Steve Davey


Climate change will challenge groundwater sustainability

Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: peter@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar Brinjac Engineering, Pennsylvania Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario Peter Laughton P.Eng. Consulting Engineer, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com.

DEPARTMENTS Product Showcase . . . . . . . . 70-74 Environmental News . . . . . 75-82 Professional Cards . . . . . . . . 75-80 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

10 Self contained effluent sewer system allows development of an Alberta green community 16 Pilot-scale comparison of slow sand water filtration, conventional and DAF treatment 22 A proactive approach is vital to achieving acceptable indoor air quality 24 Town of Bow Island improves its water reservoir quality 26 BC floating fishing lodges told to change their wastewater treatment systems 30 Measuring methane-based digester gas flow in wastewater treatment plants 32 Are you properly maintaining your Environmental Compliance Approvals? 36 ATP testing for microbiological monitoring in water and wastewater applications 39 Designing drill rigs for environmental and geotechnical activities 40 Manitoulin Island community replaces key bridge without disturbing creek 42 Accuracy of major water meter study called into question 44 Building remediation systems for noise sensitive locations 47 Working in Canada’s green economy now and into the future

PAGES 49-58 49 You CAN judge a storage tank by its standards 50 Fredericton’s proactive water storage plans 53 Spill control – why it pays to be proactive 54 Protecting the environment with breakaway couplings

Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750

58 Innovative fuel nozzle drip retainer featured on CBC’s Dragon’s Den

Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

PAGES 60-68

56 Visual communications for spill containment

60 ACEC sends recommendations to the federal governments finance committee 62 Opportunities and challenges abound for overseas consultants 64 The real and the expectations markets - closing the gap 66 Opening the design process to other professionals is a shift in engineering spirituality 68 Consultants face a growing need for an effective content marketing strategy

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Comment by Steve Davey

Canadians continue to contribute to international water and wastewater associations


uring a ceremony on Tuesday, October 2nd at the WEFTEC conference in New Orleans, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) “gavel of leadership” was passed to incoming President Cordell Samuels, plant superintendent for the Duffin Creek Water Pollution Control Plant in the Regional Municipality of Durham in Ontario. Founded in 1928, WEF is a notfor-profit technical and educational organization of 36,000 individual members and 75 affiliated member associations representing water quality professionals around the world. President Samuels will work over the coming months to implement the organization’s new strategic initiatives, emphasizing leadership and innovative water management. “I challenge us all to focus on smarter approaches to managing water and to look to drive innovation in our priority areas, including nutrient removal and recovery, energy recovery, and stormwater management,” said Cordell. “This will require us not just to communicate more and to think bigger but to show how we are ready to adopt new approaches that can provide even better and more sustainable services.” Cordell is only the third Canadian and Ontario citizen to be president of WEF, following in the footsteps of Dr Albert Edward Berry in 1944 and Geoff Scott in 1980. Born in Jamaica, he is also the first Jamaican president of WEF. To commemorate Cordell’s WEF presidency, the Water Environment Association of Ontario organized a gala reception during WEFTEC 2012 at The Sugar Mill in New Orleans. This venue, with its historic brick façade, has successfully hosted concerts, Mardi Gras balls, sporting events, etc. It was a perfect evening setting for the 200+ attendees who enjoyed live jazz, while mingling and congratulating Cordell and several 6 | November 2012

Cordell Samuels addresses guests at his WEFTEC incoming president’s reception in New Orleans.

WEF Past president Geoff Scott with Dr. Albert E. Berry (seated) in Las Vegas during WEFTEC 1980. ( Photo Tom Davey)

members of his family who also attended. Cordell has been a WEF member since 1994 and served on the Federation’s House of Delegates and several WEF committees. He has been an active member of both the Water Environment Association of Ontario (WEAO) and the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA), serving as WEAO President in 2005. A member of the Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers, Cordell has received a number of WEF awards including the Hatfield Award in 1996, and the Arthur Sidney Bedell Award in 2008. He holds Class IV Wastewater Treatment and Collection Systems Licenses in the Province of Ontario. Founded in 1881, the American Water Works Association has a membership of 50,000 in North America and beyond. It brings together people from the water community with a variety of backgrounds, skills, perspectives, and experience. Several Canadians have held the AWWA presidency. These include: Alexander Milne, Ontario (1911), Ross L. Dob-

bin, Ontario (1931), Norman J. Howard, Ontario (1940), Dr. Albert E. Berry, Ontario (1951), William D. Hurst, Western Canada Section (1962), Steven Bonk, Ontario (1988), Rod Holme, Ontario (1998). In 1995, I had the pleasure of serving as President of the Water Environment Association of Ontario. As such, I can appreciate the dedication of individuals such as Cordell Samuels, Rod Holme, Steve Bonk and Geoff Scott, all of whom I have had the pleasure of working with over the years. They devoted countless volunteer hours to the betterment of the water and wastewater associations everywhere and, in turn, to society as a whole. Such individuals deserve our thanks and hopefully will inspire new professionals to follow in their footsteps. Steve Davey is Editor of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine and is Vice-President of the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply

Dear Steve: I always have held Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine in high regard. I was, however, very surprised and disappointed when I read the article entitled “What are the long-term effects of fluoridation?” in your September edition. The author, Mr. Sheldon Thomas, may be an expert on water distribution which appears to be his profession but he certainly is not an expert on public health nor is he a medical doctor. Yet in his article, he goes on a long diatribe respecting supposed health ailments due to water fluoridation. He uses no references and cites no medical articles. Water fluoridation has been practiced in North America since around 1950 and has been added to the drinking water in Winnipeg since 1956. Over 90 health-related organizations, such as Health Canada, Manitoba Health, the Canadian Dental Association, the Canadian Medical Association and the World Health Organization, recommend adding fluoride to drinking water. Health Canada convened a Fluoride Expert Panel which produced a report in January 2007 that found that the benefits of water fluoridation far outweighed any risks. As your magazine is largely circulated throughout the water and wastewater industry in Canada, I am very concerned that readers may get the wrong impression respecting water fluoridation from reading the article in the magazine. Regards, Kelly Kjartanson, M.Sc., P.Eng. Manager of Environmental Standards Water and Waste Department City of Winnipeg

Editor’s note: Due to space limitations, ES&E was not able to publish the references supplied with “What are the long-term effects of fluoridation”. However, they are available upon request.

8 | November 2012

Climate change will challenge groundwater sustainability


recent study from the Water Research Foundation characterizes the current understanding of the impacts of climate change on groundwater quantity and quality. It summarizes tools and methods currently being used by researchers to understand these issues, and identifies areas of future research essential to increasing the ability of water suppliers to understand and anticipate the impacts on groundwater resources. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has noted in their second, third, and fourth assessment reports that limited research has been performed on the impacts of climate change on groundwater relative to surface water.

delta techniques or stochastic weather generators, to develop climate input for a land-surface hydrologic model to simulate changes in groundwater recharge. A variety of downscaling techniques were used to improve the coarse spatial resolution of the general circulation models (GCMs) by providing climate information on a smaller watershed scale. Many of these studies used numerical models to simulate flow in the vadose zone, groundwater, or watershed, and to project groundwater responses to changes in recharge or groundwater interactions with surface water. Models that consider the density effects of saltwater have been used to model the potential impacts of sea level rise on coastal aquifers.

Several approaches have been used to incorporate a range of future climate projections into groundwater studies However, the research team found an increasing body of literature related to assessment of the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. At present, most of this research is contained in published academic papers and books. The research team found that several approaches have been used to incorporate a range of future climate projections into groundwater studies. Some researchers used empirical or statistical approaches to understand the groundwater response to natural climatic variability, and then used this in conjunction with projected climate change to qualitatively project changes in groundwater from climate drivers. Several investigators evaluated the complex interaction that exists between changing climate and evapotranspiration, runoff, and groundwater recharge. Changes in groundwater recharge are central to groundwater analysis because they influence groundwater sustainability and quality, baseflow in streams, and groundwater/surface water interactions, as well as the balance between freshwater and saltwater in coastal aquifers as the seas rise. Many investigators used the output from climate models using either simple

Fewer studies have been conducted to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater quality. However, some studies have assessed changes in recharge and flushing of salts or contaminants from the vadose zone. Others have looked at the influence of change in flow on concentrations of nonpoint and point sources of pollution. In general, the research team found it difficult to compare results across studies, because they made different assumptions about key factors, such as climate input (including which climate models were used and how the climate model output was incorporated into the hydrologic evaluation), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, timeframes for evaluation, and methods to incorporate the projected climate changes into hydrologic models to assess changes to groundwater systems. In addition, the site-specific hydrogeologic setting is important, including the nature of recharge; the presence of snow, soil, and aquifer properties; and the relationship between groundwater and surface water features. For more information, visit: www.waterrf.org

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

Self contained effluent sewer system allows development of an Alberta green community


farmer and landholder wanted to create a planned residential community on his family’s property near Sherwood Park, Alberta, while preserving its existing wetlands and green areas. For years, Sten Berg envisioned a planned community of single-family homes coexisting with a nature reserve and large open spaces. However, wastewater treatment issues and regulations regarding lot size threatened to nullify his plans. Berg continuously petitioned Alberta regulators to allow him to install an effluent sewer system to collect wastewater from his master-planned community and treat it with a cost-effective packed-bed treatment system. After eight years of petitioning, he was granted permission to install the system. In 2006, Habitat Acres became the first self-contained effluent sewer community in this fast-growing province. Habitat Acres is a 27.5-hectare planned community in Ardrossan, Strathcona County, which includes an 18.2-hectare nature reserve, two waterfowl nesting areas and 29 residential lots. “Building an evergreen community for people who appreciate the importance of long-term environmental preservation is my way of giving something back to the land I have farmed for over 40 years,”

says Berg. “Environmental stewardship of the land is becoming more important all the time.” Protecting groundwater and maximizing green space With over half of Habitat Acres set aside as a nature reserve, it was crucial that wastewater from the residences did not contaminate the groundwater. The community was located too far away to tie into the regional wastewater treatment plant. This meant that wastewater from each residence would need to be disposed of on-site. At the time, county guidelines called for the installation of a mound system for any home that could not connect to the local treatment plant. A mound system is essentially a septic tank with a pump to an above-ground mound of sand and dirt. The septic tank provides primary treatment of solid waste, while the effluent is pumped to the mound, where it passes through the sand seepage bed and underlying soil for treatment before being dispersed into the ground. For Habitat Acres, mound systems presented several problems in addition to their visual impact on the natural look of the site. First, their ability to treat wastewater for contaminants was inadequate for discharge to the surrounding natural habitat. Next, they often have a lifespan

of only 15 years before they clog. Both of these factors have since led Strathcona County to stop recommending them. Finally, Alberta regulations required a minimum lot size of 0.8 hectares for each house to support a mound system. In order to preserve as much green space as possible while still developing enough residential lots to create a viable community, Berg sought to reduce lot sizes from the prescribed 0.8 hectares to 0.2 hectares or less. Fortunately, local permits allowed for smaller lots as long as they were tied into a community wastewater treatment system. This led Berg to explore another option: an effluent sewer system from Orenco Systems Inc. Effluent sewer systems for wastewater collection With an effluent sewer, every lot in a community or subdivision has an on-lot tank for collecting household wastewater. Solids remain in the tank for passive, natural treatment. Then, filtered effluent is discharged either by pump or by gravity through small-diameter collection lines that follow the contour of the land. It then flows to a nearby AdvanTex® system for secondary treatment. The Orenco effluent sewer system works as follows: 1. Each lot has a 4,500 L processing continued overleaf...

Landholder and developer Sten Berg wanted to protect the marshland and waterfowl nesting areas within Habitat Acres. (Photo Gerry Boudrias)

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Wastewater Treatment tank to settle and reduce biosolids. With proper use, tanks can go eight to 12 years between pump-outs. 2. Orenco’s ProStep® pumping system filters effluent from the tank’s “clear zone”. These pumps are lightweight, noncorroding and last more than 25 years. 3. Twenty-five-mm-diameter service lines connect to the mainline. These lines can be installed with a trencher or buried deeply for colder climates. 4. Small-diameter main lines follow the contour of the ground, saving excavation costs. No manholes are required. 5. Filtered effluent is conveyed using the Orenco STEP (Septic Tank Effluent Pumping) collection package to the community treatment system. Homes at higher elevations use STEG (Septic Tank Effluent Gravity) systems. Each on-lot system is monitored remotely using Orenco’s VeriComm® remote telemetry control panel and monitoring system. Packed bed media filters for wastewater treatment Once the primary treated wastewater reaches the community treatment system,

The community treatment system utilizes three AdvanTex AX100 filter units buried at grade, a recirculation tank buried beneath them and a TCOM™ Remote Telemetry Control Panel. (Photo Bruce Silvester)

it receives secondary treatment by three AdvanTex AX100 filter units. These use recirculating media filters to produce clear, odourless effluent with good nutrient reduction. At Habitat Acres, the units were installed in-ground for a very low profile.

Wastewater is pumped from the recirculation tank to AdvanTex pods, where spin nozzles distribute it across hanging textile filters. As wastewater percolates through the textile, microorganisms recontinued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment

The community treatment system can be seen in the foreground. Developer Sten Berg designed Habitat Acres with smaller lot sizes to maximize the green space. (Photo Onsite Specialties)

move nutrients and impurities. After the wastewater travels down through the media, some of it is sent to the filtrate chamber, from which it will either be dispersed subsurface into the ground or recirculated to the AdvanTex pods to be treated again. Effluent typically remains in the system for up to 2½ days before dispersal, depending on flow rates. The system is designed to treat 54,000 L/day. It works as follows: 1. The recirculation tank includes a flow inducer with high-head effluent pumps (controlled by a panel). The liquid is pumped to the AdvanTex units in small, even doses. 2. AdvanTex units include hanging sheets of textile media on which microorganisms grow and digest waste naturally. 3. A vent fan assembly pulls air through the AdvanTex unit to maintain an aerobic environment, while using very little energy. 4. A recirculating splitter valve sends the liquid back through the treatment process again when tank levels are low, and discharges it when tank levels are high. 5. AdvanTex systems use a TCOM™ remote telemetry control panel, which allows operators to check on the system from their office or home without travelling to the site. The panel’s dedicated phone line permits real-time remote adjustment and control. Breaking new ground When Berg received permit approval for Habitat Acres in 2006, its wastewater system became the first effluent sewer in Alberta to treat and discharge the effluent 14 | November 2012

on-site. The system was supplied by Onsite Specialties. After installation according to the terms of provincial approval, Bruce Silvester, of Onsite Specialties, tested the effluent every week for two years to ensure that it continued to meet the conditions of the permit. Since then, he has continued to test the effluent every month. In all that time, BOD and TSS have averaged 9 and 8 mg/L respectively. The approval limits, on a monthly arithmetic mean of samples, are less than or equal to 25 mg/L for both biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids. When spikes in the monitored levels did occur, they were traced to some equipment issues and rectified quickly. In 2008, Silvester installed three test wells in compliance with regulatory requirements to make sure that no contaminants were entering groundwater near the wetlands, which are downstream from the treatment system. Two of the test wells are between the wetlands and the wastewater treatment facility, while the third is upgrade (away from the treatment facility) in order to establish a baseline. After an initial broad testing of groundwater constituents, Silvester tests the groundwater wells twice a year for nitrogen, phosphorus, cBOD and total suspended solids. Test results are submitted to Alberta Environment on a regular basis and show no deviation from the baseline. Another concern was the cold winter weather. The AdvanTex treatment system operates comfortably in temperatures ranging from –40°C to +35°C, but freezing in the wastewater lines is an ongoing possibility. To prevent this, lines between

the homes and the community treatment system are buried eight feet belowground. The lines that discharge effluent from the treatment systems, however, are much shallower. Snow serves as an insulator, but sufficient snow cover does not always accompany the frigid temperatures. A small heater in the treatment facility helps keep the discharge equipment from freezing. System maintenance and costs Onsite Specialties still maintains the wastewater system on behalf of the Habitat Acres Residents Association. Silvester monitors the system remotely using a TCOM panel provided by Orenco, which has some of the functionality of a SCADA system. He inspects the system every six months. Inspections involve cleaning the filters and nozzles, then checking the valve operation, power to the pumps and float function. Once a year he also checks the discharge and dispersal system. Homeowners in Habitat Acres pay approximately $30 per month to cover the costs associated with the community system. This includes ongoing maintenance and electricity to power the discharge pumps and heater. Part of that fee also goes into a reserve in case a system component fails. Fees for on-lot systems are separate. So far only minor repairs to the system have been needed. The community system cost $638,000 to install, which equates to $22,000 per lot at current occupancy, less at full build-out. Cooperation of the residents was important in understanding the impact their wastewater discharge could have on the community system. The monitoring system was an important factor in being able to provide peace of mind to the residents. Effluent-only sewers with treatment and dispersal within the community are ideal for fringe developments like Habitat Acres. They can be scaled to fit the size and flow rates of any business or community. With little maintenance, they produce high-quality effluent at low cost, which translates into low monthly sewer rates. They use little power and do not waste energy transporting sewage over long distances. Finally, they have a low profile, thus preserving the aesthetics of places such as Habitat Acres. For more information, visit www.orenco.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Treatment

Pilot-scale comparison of slow sand filtration, conventional and dissolved air flotation treatment By Xiaohui Jin, Souleymane Ndiongue, Larry Moore, Devendra Borikar, Tory Hewlett, Lindsay Ariss and Laura Zettler


onventional treatment processes employ flocculation, settling/clarification, dual-media filtration and disinfection as multi-barriers, to produce physico-chemically and biologically safe water. Sedimentation and dissolved air flotation processes are widely used as water clarifiers. Compared to sedimentation, dissolved air flotation is considered more efficient in treating reservoir water, waters with algae and low mineral turbidity. It is relatively insensitive to cold water. In addition, dissolved air flotation shows good performance for the removal of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and taste and odour compounds. Slow sand filtration is widely used in small water systems, due to the effective control of microbiological contaminants (e.g., Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts), the simplicity of operation and design, and lower operating costs. Multiphase slow sand filtration has been developed, using pretreatment processes such as pre-ozonation and roughing filter. More than 30 multi-stage slow sand filtration plants have been installed throughout the United States and Canada. A comprehensive comparative study on the performance of these treatment options was needed to provide an in-depth evaluation of each process. The objective of this research was to compare the performance of three treatment trains, under different source water conditions.

The method Raw water was collected from two surface water sources in Ontario ( The Saugeen River and Lake Huron). The water was transported via a tanker truck, from the source to the Walkerton Clean Water Centre in Ontario, and stored in a ground level tank with a 40,000 L capacity. The tank is located outside the building and can maintain the temperature above 5°C. Raw water quality used for testing is shown in Table 1. Lake Huron water showed lower turbidity and alkalinity, and less natural organic matter (NOM), measured as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet light ab16 | November 2012

Figure 1. Online turbidity data for three pilot plants (peaks in turbidity of DAF clarifier was due to the sludge extraction).

sorbance at 254 nm (UV254), compared to the Saugeen River. In addition, microorganisms in Lake Huron were much lower. Experiments were conducted in March and June 2012, using the pilot-scale treatment facility at the Centre.

The pilot plants 1. Conventional treatment pilot plant (CT). This pilot plant is a completely automatic gravity flow system, which consists of two process trains. Both treatment trains include identical rapid mixing chambers (with coagulant injector), flocculation chamber, plate settler clarifier, followed by three dual-media filters. Filters 1 and 3 contain sand (30 cm) and anthracite (45 cm). Filter 2 contains sand (30 cm) and granular activated carbon (GAC) (45 cm). The plant was operated at a total flow of 12.4 L/min. An overhead flow splitter divided the total flow of raw water into halves and directed each half towards the treatment trains. Aluminum sulfate was used as coagulant and the optimum dosage was determined using a programmable jar tester (Philipps & Bird 900) prior to each experiment. The optimum

dosage of alum coagulant was 40 – 50 mg/L, depending on raw water quality. During the experimental run, the optimum dosage was applied in Train 2. Dosage was reduced to half for Train 1, to assess the system performance below optimum coagulant dosage. All three filters were operated at the same filtration rate (1.8 L/min), and filtered water samples were collected from Filter 1 and Filter 3. Filter 2 was not involved in the experiments. All filters were backwashed prior to each run. 2. Dissolved air flotation pilot plant (DAF). The DAF plant consists of a rapid mixing chamber, a flocculation chamber, a dissolved air flotation unit and three dual-media filters (two sand/anthracite filters and one sand/granular activated carbon filter). The maximum treatment capacity is 16.7 L/min. The plant was operated at a total flow rate of 11.0 L/min. A coagulant dosage of 20 – 25 mg/L polyaluminum chloride was used, depending on the raw water quality. In the DAF process, a light pin point floc is all that is required. Therefore, coagulant dosage was reduced to approximately half

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Water Treatment

Figure 2. Disinfection by-products (THMs and HAAs) formation in raw water and filtered water. (a) Saugeen River, and (b) Lake Huron.

when compared to the optimum dosage used in the conventional treatment pilot plant. Filtration rates for the three filters were the same at 2.4 L/min, and filtered water samples were collected from Filter 1 and Filter 3 (filled with sand and anthracite). All filters were backwashed, prior to each run.


3. Slow sand filtration plant (SSF). The SSF plant consists of a roughing filter (composed of gravel base, coarse sand intermediate layer, and GAC on the top) and the actual slow sand filter (composed of support gravel and a large bed of fine sand with a depth of 600 mm). The purpose of the roughing filter is to protect the slow sand filter from excessive solids

loading (removes up to 80% of suspended solids) and residual disinfectants such as ozone. The SSF plant was started with a flow rate of 2.1 – 2.3 L/min, four weeks prior to the experiment, to develop a biological layer (schmutzdecke) on the surface of the sand. Samples were taken weekly to moncontinued overleaf...

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Water Treatment

Figure 3. Correlations of DOC and DBPs formation potential: (a) Saugeen River, (b) Lake Huron.

itor the formation and stability of the schmutzdecke. The slow sand filtration plant continued to run during the experiments. The three pilot plants were operated with the goal of achieving filtered water turbidity less than (or close to) 0.1 NTU. Coagulant doses were adjusted for CT and DAF accordingly, to obtain the target effluent turbidity. Operation of CT and DAF pilot plants began in the morning

after raw water had been unloaded into the outdoor tank, and all filters had been backwashed. The plants ran continuously overnight after necessary operating modifications. Water samples were collected the next morning for analysis.

Laboratory analysis Raw, clarified and filtered water samples were collected. Alkalinity, turbidity, pH, DOC and UV254 nm were determined on-site. Escherichia coli (E. coli), total

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coliforms and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) were outsourced to an accredited laboratory. Simulated distribution system method (Standard Methods 5710C) was used for determination of disinfection byproduct formation potential. Samples were then shipped to an accredited laboratory for the analysis of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs).

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Water Treatment Figure 1 shows the turbidity removal by different treatment processes, using water collected from Lake Huron (run #3). The three pilot plants were operated simultaneously in stable condition for approximately 18 hours. The raw water turbidity slightly decreased, due to settling of the suspended particles (6.9 – 6.0 NTU) after initial startup. As a result of the initial filter backwashing (including conventional treatment and DAF), sharp peaks in turbidity can be found. The sedimentation process in conventional treatment and the air flotation clarifier in the DAF plant significantly removed particles from the water (<1 NTU). The treatment target was well achieved, as the filtered water turbidity of all three plants was close to or less than 0.1 NTU (in the case of SSF: 0.13 – 0.14 NTU). The turbidity of SSF filtered water is slightly higher than the other two plants. However, the SSF process is chemical free and requires minimum operation and maintenance. Percentage of DOC removal was also compared between the three plants. About 45 – 61% removal was achieved with


Saugeen River water, and 35 – 45% removal with the Lake Huron water. DOC removal by conventional treatment train 1 was lowest because of the insufficient

The three pilot plants were operated with the goal of achieving filtered water turbidity less than 0.1 NTU.

coagulant dosage. DAF showed the best DOC removal using Saugeen River water and second best results (lower than CT train 2) when using Lake Huron water. SSF showed comparative performance in DOC removal. SSF achieved better DOC removal than CT train 2 in the case of Saugeen River water and performed similarly to DAF for Lake Huron water. Sim-

ilar results were also found for UV254. 2. Microorganisms Reduction. Microorganism parameters, such as E. coli and total coliforms are shown in Table 2. Lake Huron water had better microbial raw water quality. As a result, E. coli was barely found in the filter effluent of the three treatment processes using Lake Huron and Saugeen River water. Total coliforms were much lower than those of Saugeen River water, although no disinfectant was used in the experiments. Log10 reductions in E. coli and total coliforms among the three treatment processes were compared to the Saugeen River water. As a result, SSF showed the highest reduction in E. coli and total coliforms (1.8 and 2.5 log10 reduction, respectively), DAF showed the second highest reduction (1.5 and 1.1 log10 reduction, respectively), and CT train 2 was the lowest (1.3 and 0.45 log10) respectively). 3. Disinfection By-products Formation. Disinfection by-products (DBPs) have become a primary focus in water treatment, where disinfectants such as continued overleaf...

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Water Treatment Date of Experiment Run no. Raw water pH Turbidity (NTU) Alkalinity (mg/L as CaCO3) DOC (mg/L) UV254 (cm-1) Temperature (°C) Escherichia coli (CFU/100mL) Total coliforms (CFU/100mL) Heterotrophic plate count (CFU/1mL)

March 2012 1

2 Saugeen River 8.24 8.28 10.9 12.8 198 205 5.86 5.56 0.215 0.191 12.1 11.9 60 66

June 2012 3

4 Lake Huron 8.18 8.18 5.7 8.1 122 117 2.88 2.72 0.069 0.064 19.4 20.2 1 4







No data

No data

Table 1. Raw water quality for the pilot-scale experiments.

Parameter DOC UV254 E. coli Unit mg/L cm-1 CFU/100mL Raw water 5.56 0.191 66 SSF filter 2.76 0.068 ND* CT T2 filter 3.07 0.080 3 DAF filter 2.18 0.065 1 Raw water 2.72 0.064 4 SSF filter 1.77 0.053 1 CT T2 filter 1.49 0.044 ND DAF filter 1.67 0.047 ND * ND is not detected. Note that no disinfectant was used after the filters.

Total coliforms CFU/100mL

1700 6 600 136 300 8 ND 3

Table 2. Organics and microorganisms removal between three treatment processes.

chlorine and ozone are used. Many DBPs have been reported to have adverse health effects, with THMs and HAAs being the most common. Concentrations of DBPs in the raw water and the effluent of three pilot plants are shown in Figure 2. The Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (2010) recommend a maximum

Pilot-scale slow sand filtration system. 20 | November 2012

acceptable concentration of 100 µg/L for THMs and 80 µg/L for HAAs. THMs and HAAs concentrations in the effluent of the three pilot plants were lower than the guidelines. In the case of Saugeen River water, two THM compounds including CHCl3 and CHCl2Br were detected. About 90% of the total THMs was CHCl3. Two brominated THMs, CHClBr2 and CHBr3, were not detected (the reported detection limits are 0.2 µg/L and 0.3 µg/L, respectively). Two HAAs compounds, CHCl2COOH and CCl3COOH, were detected with similar concentrations, while CH2ClCOOH and none of the three brominated HAAs (CH2BrCOOH, CHBr2COOH, CHClBrCOOH) were detected (the reported detection limits are 0.1 – 0.3 µg/L). Among the three pilot plants, DAF showed the best DBPs formation reduction, with 69% of DBPs concentration reduced compared to the raw water. The CT and SSF reduced DBPs formation by 48% and 60%, respectively. In the case of Lake Huron water, the

DBPs formation in the raw water was less than that of the Saugeen River water, mainly due to the lower NOM content. More brominated DBPs were found in the Lake Huron raw water, probably because of higher concentrations of bromide ions (not determined in this study). The presence of bromide ions leads to increased formation of brominated THMs. The hypobromous acid (HOBr) is formed during chlorination, which reacts more steadily with organic precursors to form brominated DBPs. DBPs formations in the CT and SSF were similar, while the DAF was slightly higher. DOC is a direct measurement of dissolved organic content, and an increase in DOCs generally leads to an increase in THMs formation. As shown in Figure 3, DOC was found to be strongly correlated to both total THMs and total HAAs (R2 = 0.97 and 0.70, respectively in the Saugeen River water; and R2 = 0.76 and 0.79, respectively for the Lake Huron water sampled). For the individual compound, significant positive relationships were found between DOC and chloroform (R2 = 0.98 and 0.95 for Saugeen River water and Lake Huron water, respectively), and between DOC and dichloroacetic acid (R2 = 0.92 and 0.90 for Saugeen River water and Lake Huron water, respectively). In addition, good correlation was found between DOC and trichloroacetic acid for the Lake Huron water (R2 = 0.87), while trichloroacetic acid concentrations were found below the detection limit for the Saugeen River water. No significant correlations were found for the brominated compounds. Xiaohui Jin, Souleymane Ndiongue, Larry Moore, Devendra Borikar, Tory Hewlett, Lindsay Ariss and Laura Zettler are with the Walkerton Clean Water Centre. E-mail: xjin@wcwc.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Nov12_ES&E_D2_ES&E 15/11/12 4:04 PM Page 22

Occupational Health and Safety

A proactive approach is vital to achieving acceptable indoor air quality


f you can see the air we breathe, it is almost certainly bad. From fumes to particulate, mist to gases, there is a host of potential poisons that are found in the factory, the foundry, and the warehouse. Given time, these contaminants take their toll on the human body. Indeed, it is because their effect isn’t immediately noticed, or realized, that indoor air quality (IAQ) can be a low priority in the minds of EH&S professionals. But it is exactly because they are so insidious, that they must be taken more seriously. There is an ever-changing battery of laws surrounding chemical effluents and air emissions, but how many laws are there surrounding indoor air quality? Environment Canada has a National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI), which tracks which companies are releasing what pollutants, but there is no formal regulation of IAQ. In fact, check out the Health Canada and Environment Canada websites, and you’ll find a plethora of residential IAQ articles and recommendations, but surprisingly little on the nature of industrial IAQ. This is especially surprising, considering that the workplace is where the most chemicals are used, where the most combustion occurs, and where the most particulate is produced. Also, it is where employees spend most of their day. Welding fumes can contain hexavalent chromium, a known carcinogen, as well as manganese, which, in sufficient quantities, can cause brain damage. Particulate like sanding and grinding dust ends up in the lungs, stressing their capacity to absorb oxygen and making them work harder to expel the particulate. If the particulate is a volatile organic compound, then it will react with lung tissue, causing even worse ailments like chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), normally considered a “smoker’s disease”. There are several ways to try and improve the IAQ of a workplace; each has its own pros and cons. One of the easiest ways is to simply improve air circulation by opening the doors or windows. It is 22 | November 2012

Caption The EcoAir EA-42 air filtration system moves 12,500 cubic feet of air per minute. A single unit can provide filtration for up to 40,000 sq. ft.

cheap and easy, but fallible as you have to consider the weather. Also, there may be “trouble spots” throughout a shop, which the fresh air doesn’t reach. Another option is personal respirators. They can be both cheap and address problem areas that simple increased ventilation cannot reach. But they need buy-in from employees, which includes training on how to use them properly, as well as enforcement to ensure they are used consistently. Moving up the scale of cost and effectiveness, there is the option of “dilution ventilation”, i.e., installing fans. Fans can be placed wherever you need them, ensuring problem areas are dealt with, and they don’t need buy-in from employees. However, they don’t remove the contaminants; they just help dilute their concentration. This could be “robbing Peter, to pay Paul”

Exploded view of the EcoAir EA-42 ambient capture filtration system.

as the particulate is simply spread uniformly throughout the workplace. They could also be unpopular if employees are forced to endure fans during the winter months, when they are already feeling cold. Another option is ambient capture air cleaning. A step up from simple dilution ventilation, these air-filtration units are set up in centralized locations to circulate and

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Nov12_ES&E_D2_ES&E 12-11-20 5:37 PM Page 23

Occupational Health and Safety clean the air. Depending on their design, ambient capture air filtration systems can be set up to avoid blowing air directly on the employees. However, as larger units, they are expensive, and there is the added cost of maintenance. These units can require filter media, such as bags or cartridges, or they can use electrostatic precipitators to remove particulate from

filtration. Local exhaust ventilation uses an oversized vacuum-hose type system to remove contaminated air at the source and funnel it directly out of the building, ensuring the workspace air is not contaminated. However, this could get a company labeled as a “point-source emitter”, involving additional regulations and considerations.

There are several ways to try and improve the IAQ of a workplace; each has its own pros and cons. One of the easiest ways is to simply improve air circulation by opening the doors or windows. the air. A significant benefit, however, is that the re-circulation of air in the workplace can help optimize the performance of heating and cooling systems, resulting in real energy savings. To specifically target a given area known for producing air contaminants (like a welding cell, or a grinding machine), there are two options: local exhaust ventilation, and source capture air

Source capture air filtration uses a similar large vacuum-hose system, but the air is filtered to remove contaminants before being dispersed either inside or outside the workplace. This system, while very effective, is also very specific and is one of the most expensive options, with an invasive installation process. There is no magic bullet for improving indoor air quality. Each prospective solu-

tion has its strengths and weaknesses, and a combination of methods should be considered to optimize the IAQ of a workplace. A proactive approach should certainly be considered. Just because the government hasn’t mandated minimum or maximum allowances, doesn’t mean that your team isn’t being impacted adversely. There are also unseen costs in loss of production, due to sick days and general discomfort in the contaminated workplace, increases in health premiums for people who develop conditions as a result of prolonged exposure to contaminants, and loss of morale by employees who may think they’re slowly being poisoned. For more information, E-mail:adam.b@ecoair.net

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November 2012 | 23

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Water Treatment

Bow Island improves its water reservoir quality


he Town of Bow Island, located 200 miles southeast of Calgary, Alberta, has struggled for years with significant water quality issues in its reservoir. Built in 1982, the Bow Island reservoir has a clay bottom and holds 682 million litres of waters drawn from the St. Mary's River which originates in Glacier National Park at Waterton, Alberta. It services the town of Bow Island and neighboring hamlets of Grassy Lake and Burdett, with a combined population of about 3000. It also provides bulk water to a portion of the St. Mary Irrigation District which feeds surrounding agricultural lands. Water usage is much higher in the summer time. In 2008, the reservoir was placed under the jurisdiction of the Highway 3 Regional Water Services Commission as part of an overall provincial restructuring designed to ensure cost-effective, consistent compliance across the user base with the more stringent water quality regulations. By 2010, the reservoir was struggling with year-on-year deterioration of water quality. High organic content had created a visible green slime across the surface of the water. Unpleasant taste and odour were significant issues. Even with continuous aeration efforts, supported by two 5 horsepower air compressors installed into the header and feeding fine micro bubbles in 10 air diffuser lines, they were unable to maintain sufficient oxygenation in this large body of water. The Commission was also using large quantities of powdered activated carbon, coagulants, and potassium permanganate, together with prescribed chlorine, in the treatment plant. In 2010, between midMarch and mid-July, approximately 600 kilograms of activated carbon was applied

at a cost exceeding $5,000. It was expensive, labour intensive work involving continued applications of toxic substances. Nevertheless, water quality issues remained. The following autumn of 2011, the Commission decided to use a pre-treatment of Polydex™, EnvirEau's Technology's mineral-based liquid bacteriostatic algaecide. The concentrate was applied to the raw water at the entry point to the reservoir during the autumn season. Operational changes at the reservoir are summarized in Table 1. Polydex is added directly to the raw water reservoir from 1000 L totes, using peristaltic pumps. The product contains nano-sized mineral particles in their most biologically active state. EnvirEau’s proprietary processing technology ensures that these mineral ions remain in solution, providing maximum antimicrobial efficacy. When Polydex's ionic minerals are released into the water, the cationic surface-active ions make a potent biocide. When used as directed, it is safe for consumption by humans and livestock. It seeks dilution in water and, because it is self-dispersing, active mineral ions are distributed uniformly for more complete contact with the microorganisms that caused problems in the reservoir. According to Ed Campbell, Senior Utilities Operator for the Regional Commission, the frequency of cleaning the system strainers has been reduced from two to four times a week, to once every several weeks. This year, Campbell expects to be able to reduce Polydex application by 40%, without any loss of efficacy, now that water quality has been optimized. There are other cost savings. Eliminating carbon treatment has significantly reduced supply costs. There is no

Properties Total Organic Carbon (TOC) pH True Colour (Units) Potassium Permanganate required Chlorine Residual Activated Powdered Carbon

Polydex™ Before (Fall 2011) 8.3 mg/l 9.4 16 Units 0.015 mg/l Shock required 600 kg annually

longer a need for hydrochloric acid and the usage of coagulants has declined by as much as 50%, due to the reduction of suspended solids. Campbell reported that since the Polydex pre-treatment, organics are reduced by 70%. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) has gone to 2.6 milligrams per litre (mg/l) from 8.3, and pH levels stand at 8.3, down from 9.4 pH levels in treated water under the old system. True Colour was 16 units compared to the 8 units with the new system. In 2010, the potassium permanganate requirement was about 0.015 mg/l and now sits at 0.010 mg/l, an improvement of over 30%. Thermal turnover was not detectable in the spring of 2012, due to the low levels of suspended solids in the water. Additionally, because of the lower organic content, the chlorine residual requirement is readily maintained, eliminating the need to shock with chlorine. Also noted was a very acceptable carryover of copper residual from raw to potable water supplies of approximately 0.020 mg/L. The EPA maximum level for copper is 1.3 ppm, and Canadian Water Quality Guidelines are 1.0 mg/L of copper for raw drinking water. The application of Polydex to water has minimal impact on the receiving environment. No longer biologically active, the mineral ions become bound by the target organic matter, and are to a large extent recycled naturally. In terms of human consumption, most multi-vitamins contain trace amounts of copper as an essential nutrient at levels that significantly exceed those received from drinking water treated with Polydex. For more information, visit www.ocion.com

After Polydex™ (Spring 2012) 2.6 mg/l 8.3 8 Units 0.010 mg/l Residual maintained None Required

Table 1. Summary of Operational Changes at Bow Island Reservoir. 24 | November 2011

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

BC’s floating fishing lodges change their water “ways”


ritish Columbia has long been considered Canada’s premier destination for fishing. Its many coastal floating fishing lodges, which operate six to eight weeks a year and employ approximately 500 people for the season, provide the province with an estimated annual economic benefit of $25–35 million. These remote fishing lodges have become popular as they allow fishermen to avoid over-fished areas. These fly-in lodges include land-based buildings, floating hotel barges, or a series of floating buildings (cabins) joined together. In the past, fresh drinking water was collected next to where the lodge was moored and treated for cooking, drinking, bathing and laundry. The sewage or wastewater was either held in a holding tank and pumped into the waterways several times a day, or flushed with seawater directly into the waterways. However, the federal Fisheries Act requires that sewage wastewater entering waterways must meet certain conditions to protect aquatic life and fish. While the daily flow rate at the fishing lodges was low due to the short period they operated in a year, the federal regulators started to enforce the Act. They mandated that the wastewater be treated appropriately, or else the lodges would be closed or fined up to $200,000. Finding

Membranes and processes used in this system act as a physical barrier for common pollutants.

better ways to provide wastewater treatment became a top priority. With no road or rail access to these remote locations, on-site (or decentralized) systems were the most feasible option. These fly-in lodges include land-based buildings, floating hotel barges, or a series of floating buildings (cabins).

British Columbia has long been considered Canada’s premier destination for fishing. 26 | November 2012

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Wastewater Treatment

Sludge and liquid are removed and disposed of in accordance with the Fisheries Act and marine laws.

Identifying the issues Frank Hay, of Pinnacle Environmental Technologies Inc., evaluated the situation to offer alternatives. The first step was to conduct assessments of each different type of lodge by visiting each one, reviewing all current methods of handling liquid wastes and the use of various products for the kitchen, laundry and general cleaning. Pinnacle


created a detailed assessment of kitchen management practices for the source control of oils and greases. Existing sewage collection systems, holding tanks and sewage lift or pumping stations were also reviewed. Options for locating the recommended sewage treatment systems were reviewed with the owner, along with the source and nature of the power supply to operate any addi-

tional electrical equipment. Pinnacle identified the core issues to be addressed: (a) Available power supply. (b) Operating weight of treatment system. (c) Technology to be used to meet federal requirements, for a six-to-eight-week operating period throughout the year. (d) Transporting the treatment system to remote, fly-in locations. (e) On-site service and maintenance skill set. (f) End-of-season sludge and decommissioning system. (g) Effect of the cool temperature of the waterways on the biological treatment process and system performance, (h) While most treatment technologies and processes need approximately four weeks to become biologically set up to meet the treatment levels needed, the lodges needed a system that met the requirements on day one. After a full assessment of these issues, Hay and his team recommended an MBR technology system, the BioBarcontinued overleaf...

November 2012 | 27

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Wastewater Treatment

Floating, double-insulated fibreglass tanks lashed to a log boom.

rier® (NSF/ANSI Std 40, class 1; Std 245 (nitrogen reduction); Std 350 (water reuse) and European Standards EN 12566-3 certified) system from Bio-Microbics. The pre-engineered, modular MBR is designed for 1,500 gallons-per-day flows. It is shipped installation-ready to fit easily into specified tanks for on-deck and inthe-water installations. An integrated

wastewater management system, with biological nutrient removal capabilities (also certified with NSF/ANSI Standard 245 for Nitrogen Removal), the BioBarrier is engineered in a small footprint and immersed directly in the aeration process in the tank. The membranes and processes used in this system act as a physical barrier for nearly all common pollutants found in wastewater. Utilizing flat sheet

membranes, the BioBarrier has a high surface area of membrane material in a double-plate configuration. BioBarrier MBR and HSMBR systems are tested and proven to meet the new NSF/ANSI Standard 350 for water reuse. This certification sets clear, rigid, yet realistic guidelines for residential and commercial treatment systems: • BOD less than 5 mg/L • TSS less than 2 mg/L • Turbidity less than 0.2 NTU • Fecal coliform less than 2.2 CFU/100 mL (without disinfection) • High level of nutrient removal capability NSF (National Sanitation Foundation International, an ANSI-accredited institution) verifies that all design and performance requirements of the standard have been met, and confirms, through testing, that effluent reuse water meets stringent quality criteria for designated uses. The outcome The BioBarrier system performed well for the floating fishing lodges and met the federal requirements for the 2012 season. Placement of the BioBarrier system

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment varied depending on the particular lodge’s circumstances. Due to the system’s light weight and buoyancy, there were two common methods used. Several polyethylene tanks were placed on floating dock(s) to balance the load. In the waterways, floating, double-insulated fibreglass tank(s) were lashed to a log boom. With Pinnacle having installed the BioBarrier into the tank at its factory, the lodge owner needed to make only two connections: one for the raw sewage and the other for the power supply. Power generators available at the lodges were more than adequate to provide the necessary power to operate the BioBarrier. Maintenance of the treatment system was minimal during the six-to-eight-week season, and decommissioning was simple. For the end-of-season liquid content removal, the system was supplied with either a gas-powered sludge pump, or an internal sludge collection pipe with an external “cam lok” to be connected to a vacuum pump. Season-end sludge and liquid contents were removed and disposed of in accordance with the Fisheries Act and marine law. No high operator


The pre-engineered, modular MBR is shipped installation-ready to fit easily into specified tanks.

skill set was required for the startup, operation or shutdown of the system. Pinnacle also provided other site-specific needs and various solutions from custom-built sewage lift stations to fit under the log booms, macerating special-

ized pump systems, and additional aeration systems for high-strength kitchen wastewater. For more information,visit www.biomicrobics.com

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Wastewater Treatment

Measuring methane-based digester gas flow in wastewater treatment plants By Steven Craig


rocess and plant engineers at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) need to measure, monitor and dispose of methane (CH4) and other digester gases that occur naturally in their operations. These digester gases pose plant safety concerns, odour issues for surrounding communities and are greenhouse gas sources, contributing to the global warming phenomenon. While traditionally flared, many facilities are now turning methane produced by their digester processes into a fuel source. Harvested digester gas is used to generate on-site heat, fuel boilers and to generate electricity. At large WWTPs, cleaned gas and electrical energy produced by co-generation technologies is frequently connected into the public power grid, creating an income stream which results in an even better return on investment. The problem Wastewater treatment digester gas systems, as well as other biogas applications such as landfills, are challenged by wide flow variations, and dirty, wet and potentially explosive gases. These dynamic process variables make accurate and repeatable gas flow measurement a challenge for WWTP process and plant engineers. Flow rates can vary from low production in start-up phases, to much higher flows as the process matures and with seasonal and population changes. To overcome this challenge, flow meters capable of measuring both low flow rate sensitivity and being wide ranging (i.e., having a high turndown ratio) are used. Typical wastewater treatment plant digesters produce a mixed gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide, along with a small percentage of other trace gases. Gas composition can vary with the process state and temperature (e.g., seasonally), but a typical average is in the 65% CH4, 35% CO2 range. Digester gas is also a wet and dirty gas, typically containing entrained hydrogen sulfides, which condense and deposit on pipe walls and anything else in the pipe. Flow meters 30 | November 2012

WWTP digester gas system.

must be accurate and calibrated for mixed gases, and not be susceptible to performance degradation or intensive maintenance, due to moisture and deposits. Modern wastewater treatment plant processes incorporate digester gas flow measurement for: data on digester process performance and control; environmental compliance to report, control and reduce emissions; and process control of co-generation systems, using digester gas as fuel source. The solution Fluid Components International (FCI) manufactures four different series of flow meters for measurement of methane and

other digester gases. Thermal dispersion type mass flow meters feature a wideturndown ratio - typically up to 100:1, (some up to 1000:1) and are highly sensitive to low flow gas measurement. They have no moving parts, which makes them resistant to clogging or fouling by dirty residue and condensates. Their insertion probe design is easy and economical to install. In addition, thermal flow meters provide direct mass flow measurement and built-in temperature compensation circuitry to ensure accurate measurement in fluctuating fluid and outdoor temperatures. Furthermore, they are inherently

ST100, ST98, and ST51 flow meters. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

Flow meter installed on digester gas pipeline.

Typical WWTP digester tank and flare gas process loop.

dual function and will provide measurement of both gas flow and temperature. FCI’s flow meters deploy constant power thermal dispersion technology, which is preferred in moist digester gas applications, because its heated sensor provides a drying effect. This results in a stable and repeatable reading. FCI’s flow meters feature an advanced thermal mass sensing element that is comprised of two all-welded 316L stainless steel thermowells, which protect two matched precision platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). With a nomoving parts solid-state design, one RTD

is slightly heated, relative to the reference RTD. The temperature difference between the two is proportional to changes in the gas flow rate. Wastewater treatment digester gas, biogas and landfill gas compositions present a potentially hazardous combustible gas installation environment. Depending on actual installation location, at a minimum the environment will require Class I, Division II (Zone 2) and often more rigorous Class I, Division I (Zone 1) approvals. Conclusion Methane digester gas is a natural

byproduct of WWTP processes and will continue to require the attention of process and plant engineers at wastewater treatment plants. Whether flared or harvested as fuel gas, methane and other digester gases will be measured, monitored and controlled one way or another. Accurate measurement of methane and other digester gases is critical to all of these processes. Steven Craig is with Fluid Components International. E-mail: stevec@fluidcomponents.com



Extend Structure Life, Reduce Maintenance & Repair Costs • for industrial steelwork, pipework & road surfaces • above & below ground pipe, valves, fittings & steel • offshore marine piling protection • road, bridge, airport & asphalt applications A member of Winn & Coales International.


www.densona.com Toronto • Edmonton Denso North America Inc. 90 Ironside Cres. Unit 12 Toronto, ON M1X 1M3 Tel: 416.291.3435 Fax: 416.291.0898

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Environmental Management

Are you properly maintaining your Environmental Compliance Approvals? By Rosanna DiLabio


he goal of good business management with respect to risk is to be in compliance with legal requirements. Ensuring compliance minimizes liabilities, can improve efficiencies and, in some cases, can save money. However, ensuring compliance with often complex environmental regulations such as Environmental Compliance Approvals (ECAs) for air, water or waste emissions can be a daunting undertaking. It demands in-depth knowledge of the regulatory requirements around ECAs and the ECA process. However, from an environmental, moral and legal perspective, being compliant with ECAs is crucial. Fines can be significant and non-compliance can result in damage to both a company’s bottom line and its reputation. As an individual responsible for environmental, health and safety aspects of a workplace, you may find ECAs difficult to manage. 1. What is Environmental Compliance? The word compliance is defined in many ways including: a) The act of conforming, acquiescing, or yielding; b) Conformity; accordance: As in compliance with orders; and c) Cooperation or obedience: Compliance with the law is expected of all. Therefore, environmental compliance is the act of conforming, yielding and obeying environmental requirements. 2. What is an Environmental Compliance Approval? In Ontario, an Environmental Compliance Approval is required from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) for all activities that discharge, or may discharge a contaminant to the natural environment. ECAs can be issued separately for different media such as air and noise, sewage, and waste disposal. Or, they can now encompass more than one media and can include all environmentally related activities at a single site. All ECAs contain terms and conditions, and a common oversight by companies is to assume that their compliance obligations are met by simply obtaining an ECA. It is compliance with the ECA’s 32 | November 2012

All sewage ECAs require effluent discharges to be sampled, analyzed and compared to MOE effluent treatment objectives and limits.

terms and conditions that validate it and allow the company to continue to operate equipment and processes that discharge to the environment. Simply put, an ECA is a legal document that allows a company to discharge to the natural environment, provided it complies with its terms and conditions and all applicable regulations. 3. Typical ECA Terms and Conditions. There are numerous terms and conditions that can be included in an ECA. Factors that affect the types of terms and conditions include those that are media specific, namely, specific to waste disposal sites or industrial sewage treatment systems, those that are common to all types of ECAs and those that are site specific to address a particular concern at a facility. Some of the more common terms and conditions found in ECAs are explained in the following sections: a) Requirement to Demonstrate Compliance with MOE Limits. ECAs with Limited Operational Flexibility, or flexible

ECAs, provide a company with the ability to make changes without having to reapply for a new or amended ECA as long as the operational limit for the company is not exceeded. Flexible Air and Noise ECAs currently only incorporate emissions of chemicals, noise, odour, vibration and dust (hereafter referred to as air and noise emissions). This type of ECA requires a company to: • keep an up to date summary of their air and noise emissions, demonstrating compliance with the MOE applicable limits; • review chemicals not previously included as part of the original ECA application and add these new chemicals to the company’s emissions summary; and, • update any equipment changes that may impact air or noise emissions. These updates and changes are to be recorded in prescriptive facility logs, which are utilized to revise the facility’s “Emission Summary and Dispersion Modelling” (ESDM) report and the

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Environmental Management “Acoustic Assessment ))Report” (AAR). Facility logs, ESDM report and AAR are to be available to the MOE for review at any time. In addition, summary tables of these reports are to be available to any member of the public requesting them, during normal working hours. Unlike the majority of air and noise emissions which are modelled and rarely measured, all sewage ECAs require effluent discharges to be sampled, analyzed and compared to MOE effluent treatment objectives and limits. Treatment objectives are based on the expected performance from the approved sewage system. However, limits outlined in the ECA must be met and are usually based on Provincial Water Quality Objectives (PWQO). Limits for waste disposal sites are usually self-imposed and subject to MOE approval. Limits are usually stated in the form of maximum quantities of materials that can be processed, stored and disposed of by a particular operation in any given day. b) Submission of Annual Reports. Flexible Air and Noise, Industrial Sewage and Waste Disposal Site ECAs all require the submission of an annual report to the MOE. Flexible Air and Noise ECA reports need to include chemical and equipment changes to the company’s operation in the previous calendar year, including an up to date air and noise emissions summary. Also needed is a signed statement that the company’s operations were conducted in accordance with the terms and conditions of the ECA. Industrial Sewage ECAs require an annual performance report on the treatment system’s performance, with full analysis of the sampling results, operating difficulties encountered, maintenance completed on the treatment system, and other information specific to the treatment system’s operation and performance. Similarly, Waste Disposal Site ECAs require an annual report that includes the types, quantities and origins of wastes accepted and disposed of, operational issues at the site that could negatively affect the environment, with actions taken to minimize these effects. Also needed is a signed statement that the company’s operations were conducted in accordance with the terms and conditions of the ECA. c) Operating and Maintenance Procedures. All ECAs will include the requirewww.esemag.com

ment to develop and implement maintenance procedures and programs for all equipment that is a significant source of emissions and to ensure proper maintenance is completed on this equipment. This must be completed, according to best industry practices and/or manufacturer’s recommendations. Procedures for proper operation of this equipment must also be developed to prevent process upsets that can negatively impact the environment.

d) Environmental Complaints. A common term and condition of an ECA is for the proponent to provide a method for managing complaints that may result from their operations. This condition ensures that the proponent takes complaints seriously and manages them appropriately. Typical requirements include a form to log complaints, either electronically, or in a written form, that identify the complainant, time, date and nature of the comcontinued overleaf...

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Environmental Management plaint and any other pertinent information, including the weather at the time the issue occurred. As well, there is a requirement to have a completed report filed at the site that includes results of the complaint investigation, possible cause of the complaint, measures taken to mitigate the cause, and what measures have been implemented to prevent its reoccurrence. In some cases, the MOE must be notified at the time of the complaint or provided with a copy of the written investigation report, or both, depending on the term specified in the ECA. e) Maintenance of Records. Maintaining records is a very important part of demonstrating compliance with the terms and conditions of an ECA. If a record is not available to demonstrate that an ECA term or condition has been complied with, the MOE will classify it as non-compliance. Waste Disposal Site ECAs usually require records be retained for two years, Sewage ECAs five years, and for Flexible Air and Noise ECAs, records must be maintained for up to seven years. f) Additional Terms and Conditions. Additional site-specific conditions may be included in the ECA, if specific operating conditions are required for equipment, such as thermal oxidizers or heat treating ovens. A Dust Management Plan may be required for emissions associated with dust resulting from the facility’s operations. If noise mitigation is required, but not in place when the ECA application

was submitted to the MOE, there will be a requirement to install noise abatement equipment within a specified time once the ECA is issued. An Acoustic Audit will also be required once the mitigation measures are in place. These are just some examples of additional terms and conditions that can be included in an ECA. 4. Maintaining Environmental Compliance Approvals. In order to ensure compliance with the ECA’s terms and conditions, begin by reviewing it in detail as soon as it is received. If it is difficult to understand the requirements, contact the consultant who prepared the ECA application or seek legal advice. Note the ECA issue date and the due dates of the required tasks stated in the ECA’s terms and conditions. Develop an action plan to ensure the tasks will be met within the required time frame and follow up to ensure they are completed. Make sure compliance efforts are documented in the event that the MOE audits the facility. Companies that are ISO 14000 certified, or have an Environmental Management System in place, may be able to incorporate this into their programs. Others may need assistance in establishing a system to manage their ECA terms and conditions. Once a compliance management system has been established, it is important to periodically review its performance through auditing. This requires a review of the requirements of the ECA and then

checking to ensure that these requirements are being met. This can be done internally by company staff or externally through a third party, such as a consultant. Gaps identified as a result of the audit must then be addressed appropriately. Auditing is particularly important to ensure that changes in operations or equipment at the facility are noted, so that the ECA can be amended if required. A common finding during an MOE facility inspection is that a company’s ECA requires amendments because of changes in processes and/or equipment, which were not accounted for. Gaps identified during the auditing process are also an indication that the compliance system needs to be revised. In summary, it is important to read the Environmental Compliance Approval carefully and ensure its requirements are fully understood. Develop the appropriate forms and systems to document compliance with the ECA’s terms and conditions. Ensure that there is supporting documentation of the compliance system and that this documentation is stored in a well-organized filing system, available for inspection by the MOE. Audit the compliance systems regularly. Revise the compliance system and if required, the ECA as needed. Rosanna DiLabio is with Pinchin Environmental Limited. E-mail: rdilabio@pinchin.com

The National and International Confer Conference errence on Groundwater Groundwater Gjorjievskaa


34 | November 2012

WWW 'ROUNDWATER3UMMIT ORG s s W WW 'ROUNDWATER3UMMIT ORG s s Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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ATP testing now being used for microbiological monitoring in water and wastewater applications By Pat Whalen


unicipal and industrial water managers have many test methods at their disposal for quick analysis of physical and chemical parameters (pH, temperature, turbidity, colour, etc.) associated with water samples. Such methods typically require little training and can usually be done at the point of sampling, thereby providing several water quality indicators to facilitate rapid decision-making by operators. However, the options available for biological testing have been significantly more limited. Conventional culturing methods require several days’ worth of incubation in a controlled environment prior to results being known, and, even then, less than 1% of the total microbial population is able to be quantified with a single test. A technology that has shown promise is the measurement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the main energy-carrying molecule found in all living cells, which makes the measurement of ATP a direct indication of total microorganisms in a given sample. This technology has been historically used for general hygiene and surface cleanliness monitoring. However, recent advances now allow ATP monitoring to provide fully quantitative results in essentially any industry where microbiological monitoring and control are required. The science of ATP monitoring ATP is quantified by measuring the amount of light produced through its reaction with the naturally occurring firefly enzyme luciferase, using an instrument called a luminometer. The amount of light produced is directly proportional to the amount of ATP present in the sample. In any given sample there are two basic types of ATP present: intra-cellular ATP, which is contained within living biological cells, and extra-cellular ATP, located outside living biological cells. Second-generation ATP tests are designed to make the distinction between the two types of ATP, which is critical in order to obtain an accurate measurement of total microbial activity and health. 36 | November 2012

Figure 1. The ATP molecule is found in all living cells and also (on some occasions) in the water surrounding the cells.

2nd Generation vs. traditional methods For decades, the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) or indicator organism measurements such as Escherichia coli or total coliforms have been relied on to reveal when gross contamination has occurred. Unfortunately, these methods have proven to be significantly subjective, lacking in portability, requiring long turnaround times, and are not an accurate representation of the total microorganisms present in a given sample. For effective water quality control, it would be most desirable to be aware of problems in their earliest stages in order to minimize the risk of contamination or avoid it altogether. 2nd generation ATP measurement technology can serve as an excellent compliment to compliance tests by acting as a real-time condition monitoring tool. As such, it reveals growth from baseline conditions immediately, thereby prompting operators to troubleshoot the issue. With results relating to the total biological population being available immediately, technicians can typically isolate the source and mitigate the problem onsite without having to make multiple visits.

This usually eliminates the need for subsequent troubleshooting or validation visits, and, more importantly, prevents the problem from escalating any further. Microbiological contamination events are economically solved in their earliest states of evolution. Opportunities in the municipal water industry One of the greatest advantages to operators of using 2nd Generation ATP technology is the ability to conduct same-shift troubleshooting. This allows them to take immediate action to solve any issues, such as microbiological buildups or incursions. Other advantages in the municipal water industry include: • Uncover system vulnerabilities. Due to the speed of obtaining results at the point of sampling, source-to-tap surveys of water distribution systems can be completed in a matter of hours. When problems are identified, users can “trace up the line” to identify pathways of entry or “hotspots” in order to isolate and mitigate the problems. • Reveal and characterize accumulation and regrowth hotspots. The key de-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Figure 2. Biochemical equation used to generate light as a quantitative measurement of ATP activity.

ficiency of culture tests is the number of species that can go undetected. A common example is the emergence of nitrifying bacteria in water systems treated with monochloramine. Since ATP is in all cells, nitrifying bacteria can be detected, thereby revealing nitrification issues at their earliest stages of evolution. • Optimize flushing cycles. The lack of tools available for assessing line flushing can result in significant wastage of water and time since it is difficult to tell how much flushing is enough. When water operators use traditional microbiological methods, equipment can be left in the field for several days until results are known. ATP monitoring not only allows the operator to tell how much flushing is enough, but also permits flushing crews to move on to the next location as soon as the cycle is complete. This has obvious economic benefits in terms of time management. Opportunities in biological wastewater treatment Similarly, wastewater operators have relied heavily on the measurements of TSS (total suspended solids) and VSS (volatile suspended solids) to quantify biomass in their processes. These measurements have been the standard for measuring biomass in wastewater bioreactors since these processes were conceived. However, they can be inaccurate and unresponsive indicators of total living biomass in process systems, as these measurements include not only living biomass but also dead biomass and inert solids. 2nd Generation ATP technology overcomes these limitations by using the cATP (cellular ATP) indicator, which isolates the living biomass and in turn provides accuracy in detecting total living biomass concentration. It can be applied anywhere from collection systems to aerobic or anaerobic bioreactors, return sludge streams, and effluents before and after disinfection. In addition to a more specific measure of living biomass concentration, it also provides a measurement of biomass www.esemag.com

health, which helps to identify sources of stress, such as influent toxicity and nutrient limitations. The role of ATP monitoring ATP monitoring should not be considered a replacement for regulated tests or indicator organisms. However, it can

fill an important need in the form of a rapid non-specific measure of the total population to pair with physical and chemical water quality parameters. Monitoring the total microbial population of a water system enables the user to assess continued overleaf...


Microbial Induced Corrosion and Water Infiltration are two major problems common to sewage collection systems. Whether for new construction or rehabilitation, Xypex Crystalline Technology is a most effective and permanent solution. Worldwide, in both sewage collection and wastewater treatment structures, Xypex has been proven to cost effectively mitigate chemical attack in severe biochemical conditions and prevent water infiltration even under extreme hydrostatic pressure.

www.xypex.com November 2012 | 37

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Figure 3. Microbial contents found in a typical water sample.

overall water cleanliness, and, therefore, assess the threat of biofilm formation. As biofilms develop, they may harbour additional microbial threats. These may include pathogens such as legionella, mycobacteria, pathogenic amoebae, anaerobic microorganisms associated with corrosion and odour issues, and nitrification-related microorganisms. The economic advantages of shortening test response times from days to minutes are many, and provide the oppor-

Figure 4. Comparison of inclusiveness of HPC tests compared to 2nd Generation ATP.

tunity to dramatically improve safety, security and environmental impact. One of the greatest advantages of this advanced technology is the ability to quantify total microorganisms, including those that culture tests are not equipped to measure. This includes nitrifying bacteria, many corrosion-related bacteria, some protozoa and archaea. Along with other molecular biology techniques, the field of microbiological measurement is rapidly expanding.

Also, it is shifting away from the old culture-based techniques, to new techniques that together operate as a “tool box� that will lead to more rapid and effective anti-microbial initiatives in municipal and industrial processes. Pat Whalen is with LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. E-mail: sales@luminultra.com

Together, meeting the challenges of clean water Kemira is committed to being a leading water chemistry company. We are a global leader in process know-how offering an extensive range of high-quality products for environmentally responsible and cost-effective water and wastewater treatment. Our broad product portfolio covers multiple applications for municipal and industrial facilities.

Canada Tel. 800 465 6171 or 450 652 0665 info.canada@kemira.com

38 | November 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Environmental Monitoring

Multi-purpose drill rigs are used for environmental and geotechnical activities


ounded in 1942, AMS, Inc. is a manufacturer and provider of sampling equipment used primarily for collecting soil, soil gas, and groundwater samples. The company also provides equipment for a variety of professional fields, including remediation and the agricultural industry. AMS manufactures PowerProbe™ direct push/hollowstem auger drill rigs. These multi-purpose rigs are used for environmental and geotechnical drilling activities. Direct Push Drilling Technology (direct push) allows for a wide variety of Direct Push Tooling (DP tooling) and for instrumentation to be advanced into a subsurface lithology. This is conducted using a combination of the static weight of a direct push rig, hydraulic down pressure, and rapid hydraulic hammering. For some direct push instrumentation, rapid hydraulic hammering is not used. Track-mounted 9700-VTR or truckmounted 9700-D PowerProbes are powered by a liquid-cooled, 100 hp diesel engine, and a 550 ft-lb hydraulic hammer is included. They come standard with a 5,000 ft-lb., 2-speed auger drive head for hollowstem augering, and an 80 inch probe stroke that accommodates 4or 5-foot direct push tooling. The 9570-VTR PowerProbe is a versatile drill rig that can be used in most environmental and geotechnical applications. The auger motor, direct push hammer, and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) auto-drop hammer, can be positioned over the same borehole without realignment of the drill rig.

Border Drilling 9700 probes feature a 100 hp diesel engine and a 550 ft-lb hydraulic hammer.

to on- or off-road sampling points, and, with a surface load of only 4.9 psi, it can also be positioned on softer surfaces with relative ease. Because of their small footprint, the 9100-VTR-D (diesel) and 9100-VTRP (propane) are ideal for residential areas, tanks, farms, and gated areas. They are rugged, compact probing units that combine a 50 ft-lb hammer with

AMS, Inc. is a manufacturer and provider of sampling equipment used primarily for collecting soil, soil gas, and groundwater samples. The 9500-VTR PowerProbe combines high-powered direct push and augering capabilities with operatorfriendly engineering. It is powered by a liquid-cooled 52 hp diesel engine and includes a 201 ft-lb hydraulic hammer with an adjustable 2200 blows per minute (BPM). The 9500 can easily gain access www.esemag.com

mobility. 9100-VTR rigs are able to maneuver through rough terrain, and easily gain access to tight, confined, and enclosed spaces. Both machines can navigate through 36-inch doorways, gated openings, and into buildings with low overhead clearance. Utilizing their transport hooks, these

rigs can also be air-lifted into remote job locations. Propane’s clean burning properties help the 9100-VTR-P maintain air quality and increase safety with a minimal flammability range. The 9100 Ag-Probe is the newest model in the PowerProbe line up. It is used for agricultural and environmental sampling. This model can be mounted on most standard utility vehicle (UTV) units that meet the size requirements. It may also be mounted on a small trailer and towed by a UTV or truck. This selfcontained model is ideal for efficient and precise soil and groundwater sampling from shallow depths. Most AMS soil augers are used to collect disturbed soil samples at or near the surface and for boring to depths where samples may be obtained with a soil probe or soil core sampler. For more information, E-mail: jiz@ams-samplers.com November 2012 | 39

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Infrastructure Renewal

Old timber bridge replaced by precast one without disturbing creek By Andrew Grinyer


precast bridge was assembled in less than two days to replace an aging timber bridge on the world's largest freshwater island, Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron, Ontario. The first precast structure of its kind on the island was built using Con/SpanÂŽ, a patented modular precast system for total set-in-place construction of bridges, culverts, underground structures and environmentally acceptable alternatives for underground containment. It spans Grimsthorpe Creek on Grimsthorpe Road between the Sand Road and the Beaver Road, west of Providence Bay. The concrete structure consists of a north cell (10,973 mm x 2,440 mm) and a south cell (8,535 mm x 2,440 mm) with precast headwalls. The structure width is 21.032 m. It took five precast concrete arches for the construction of each cell. Each arch has a lay length of 1.829 m. Grimsthorpe Creek drains wetlands in the Spring Bay area that are significant elements of an ecosystem that supports a variety of aquatic animals and birds, including the migratory Sandhill crane. De-

Footings prepared for CON/SPAN system designed to CAN/CSA-S6-06, CLONT-625 to accommodate stream flow, runoff and local traffic.

Project Team Municipality of Central Manitoulin - Client

10,973 mm x 2,440 mm x 1.829 m CON/SPAN unit being lowered into position.

Tulloch Engineering - Consulting engineer/surveyor G.D. Jewel Engineering Inc. - CON/SPAN design MRW Consulting Engineers - Geotechnical engineer BĂŠlanger Construction - General contractor More Than Concrete - Footings formwork Amherst Crane Rentals Ltd. - Crane 40 | November 2012

Completed structure with gabion basket wing walls, 0.3 m rip rap to armour the footings, and 100 mm and larger cobble for the southerly dry channel and stream bank. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Infrastructure Renewal sign of the double-cell structure accommodates spring runoff, seasonal rainfall and major storms. To minimize impact on the wetlands, work adjacent to the creek had to take place between early July and late October, when the weather is dryer. The north cell of the structure was installed without interrupting the natural

was offloaded with a boom crane and placed in position like a giant Lego assembly. The structure is designed to CAN/ CSA-S6-06, the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC) for CLONT-625 loading, plus 0.7 m earth cover. The CHBDC is the Canadian design stan-

Construction of the bridge began with removal of the timber structure and preparation of the foundation and footings to support the Con/Span system flow of the creek. The south cell is a larger structure designed to accommodate flow while the creek is flowing at high water. Construction of the bridge began with removal of the timber structure and preparation of the foundation and footings to support the Con/Span system. Once the concrete footings had been laid out, poured and set, the site was ready for the arrival of the arches. These were shipped from Con Cast Pipe in Guelph, Ontario, with one unit per flatbed truck. Each arch

dard for bridge structures over 3 m in span. CL-ONT-625 is the live load standard in Ontario for a vehicle wheel loading of CL-625. Live loads change in position or magnitude, whereas dead loads remain constant throughout the design life of the drainage system. The most commonly considered live loads in Con/Span applications are vehicular loads, usually from trucks. Soil load is often the sole dead load consideration. The Grimsthorpe

structure is designed with a shallow overburden. Before the precast units could be set in place, the contractor, Belanger Construction, had to prepare the site for poured-inplace concrete footings. Work included steel pile caps with frost tapers and channel extension. The “H” piles (15-HP310x79) had an approximate length of 4.5 m. Poured-in-place footings were 1.0 m thick by 1.5 m wide by 9.445 m long. Included in the contract was the construction of gabion basket-wing walls, 0.3-m riprap to armour the footings, and 100-mm and larger cobble for the southerly dry channel and stream bank. Andrew Grinyer is with Con Cast Pipe. E-mail: agrinyer@concastpipe.com


DISPOSABLE FILTERS www.waterra.com (CANADA) Waterra Pumps Limited sales@waterra.com • tel: 905.238.5242 (USA) Waterra USA Inc. waterra@openaccess.org • tel: 360.738.3366


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Water Metering

Recent WRF water meter study causes controversy By Walt Vetter


n 2011, the Water Research Foundation (WRF) published a research study “Accuracy of In-Service Water Meters at Low and High Flow Rates”. The objective of the study was “to evaluate the accuracy of in-service flow meters (5/8 x ¾-inch to 2-inch sizes) over a wider range of flow rates, particularly that of extended low flow, than is currently specified within American Water Works Association (AWWA) standards.” The study sought to measure the accuracy of commercial off-the-shelf meters and how age, throughput and degradation impact their accuracy. The study’s research team at Utah State University concluded that “a larger than expected number of new meters do not meet the AWWA flow registry standard applicable to that meter type.” The team determined that “degradation trends for individual meter types were most apparent at low flow rates after testing the meters over full life cycles.” The university professors who headed the team wrote that nutating disc-type meters (ND) produced the most consistent low flow accuracy results. The WRF’s methodology and approach to the actual testing were sound, but the study’s statistical analysis, the products used for testing and its conclusions are open to debate. Findings and issues Those who question the findings of “Accuracy of In-Service Water Meters at Low and High Flow Rates” cite several points of disagreement: notably, the meters selected for study, the tendency to overlook differences in AWWA meter standards vs. international standards, and reliance upon 50 year old studies, that were based on far less sophisticated instrumentation in use at the time. It should be noted that the meter manufacturer affiliated with the author supplied information that was included and quoted in the study. Once the study was reviewed, however, the firm vehemently recommended against its publication. One reason is the study’s use of industrial and sub-metering types of positive displacement meters. In addition, the study down-

42 | November 2012

grades the perceived performance of oscillating piston meter types, while coming out favorably for nutating disc-type meters for low flow accuracy. Consider the meter types evaluated by the research team. The study included meter brands and types not readily found in utilities across North America. In other international water meter markets, the focus is on extremely low flows as being consistent with plumbing practices in much of Europe, industrialized Asia and the Australian continent. In most of these markets, ISO Standard 4064 and OIML Standard R49 apply. The low flow accuracies are from one-quarter to one-half of the corresponding AWWA residential meter standard’s flow ranges. This is understandable, since they relate to flows found in different distribution systems. In these locales, centralized elevated storage tanks and pressuring pump stations are replaced with distributed storage schemes, featuring either roof-top or attic-mounted cisterns. Valve mechanisms control re-filling of the cisterns after any use. These cistern valve mechanisms topoff the tanks at very low flows, in much the same way as in the last stage of refilling a tank-type toilet. Internationally, there are more than 200 water meter manufacturers that have conducted research and development, product development, and meter manu-

facturing for a century. Some focused on extended low flow performance as specified in ISO and OIML standards, yet the only prominent ND water meters on the world market are three models offered by U.S. companies. Active patents no longer protect the basic ND design, so if disc meters truly had such a low flow advantage, one would expect a worldwide proliferation of them. Results from tests on one company’s oscillating piston and multi-jet measurements provide different results from those reported in the WRF study. The laboratory conducted rigorous, accelerated lifetime performance testing, which confirmed the meters’ worthy performance. Ironically, these tests were conducted by the Utah Water Research Laboratory, the same lab that worked on the WRF study. This series of tests was conducted prior to the release of the 2011 report, yet were apparently considered not relevant to the WRF findings that favored ND over OP meters for low-flow accuracy. It should also be noted that two of the three ND meter manufacturers use oscillating piston-type meters for precise measurement of such precious liquids as refined petroleum products, perfume and others with high value. Other findings The study’s conclusion about the potential for increased utilities’ revenue by

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Water Metering selection of specific meter types also misses an important point critical to optimal utility meter operation. The water use cited is from older data that has since been superseded by newer, more real world statistics. In a typical medium to large water utility, from 50 percent to 70 percent of revenues can be obtained from intermediate sized meters (1 ½ inches to 2 inches) and large meters (greater than 2 inches) rather than smaller meters (5/8 inches to ¾ inches) designed for residential users. Yet the study appears to have relied on the smaller meters for its revenue projections and conclusions even though commercial and industrial users and their larger meters generate far more money for the utility. For example, a poll of city users by the Water Meter Standards Committee in 2012 found more than 50 percent of profits emanate from commercial and industrial facilities (and their significantly larger meters) than from residential services. Another example of the inconsistency of the meter comparison can be found in a photo from the published version of the study, which displays brands that sell to the entirely different sub-metering market. The photo also includes at least one foreign brand that has been manufactured to ISO/OIML standards, even though the study’s evaluations and conclusions are based on AWWA standards. There are six major meter manufacturers in North America whose meters are designed to meet or exceed AWWA Standards, not ISO/OIML. Also, a purely industrial oscillating piston meter appears in the photograph, but that particular meter is not actively marketed to water utility customers. A study author responds Professor Steven L. Barfuss of Utah State University, a professional engineer who is one of the study’s authors, disagrees with the arguments against the validity of the conclusions. “All meters were compared directly against each other, so comparative results are very apparent,” said Barfuss in a group of written responses to the issues raised in this article. “The results were clear and accurate,” he wrote. As for the question about the inclusion of meters that do not meet AWWA criteria, Barfuss wrote that, when the study began, the meter manufacturers had claimed to meet AWWA standards. “If some of those www.esemag.com

meter manufacturers changed how they advertised their product after we started our study, then we had no knowledge of that,” Barfuss said. “We did not select the meters based on where they were manufactured, but where they were available for sale in the U.S. marketplace.” Barfuss recommends that WRF members get the “code” from the WRF that pertains to the study so the “individual meter manufacturer’s data can be analyzed.” Despite the differences of opinion,

there is no disagreement with the study’s recommendation to utilities to carefully select products through the use of extensive performance testing in accordance with AWWA standards, whether these meters are from reputable and recognized North American manufacturers, or produced outside North America. Walt Vetter is chief engineer at Master Meter Inc. For more information, visit www.mastermeter.com

November 2012 | 43

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Noise Abatement

Strict noise limits require new look at remediation system design


oise level requirements vary from site to site depending on municipal bylaws. Daytime noise levels can be as low as 50 dBA in some jurisdictions, while evening requirements are often even stricter. Remediation systems, which typically operate at 80 to 100 dBA, do not come close to meeting these stringent requirements, even if the system is built inside a remediation enclosure. The 50 dBA-or-less threshold often set by municipal bylaws is in the same noise range as birds chirping or the average human conversation, and ranks far below the noise heard while standing on a busy street curb. Therefore, meeting strict municipal noise limits requires a new approach to the design of remediation systems. Noise reduction A three-pronged approach should be

44 | November 2012

taken toward noise reduction. First, consider noise levels when selecting equipment. Proper equipment selection reduces the overall noise impact of the system. Even when this results in increased equipment costs, it will reduce the costs associated with mitigating noise. Due to the logarithmic nature of noise,

generated by the equipment package. Additional equipment selections such as silencers and acoustic mufflers will further reduce equipment noise levels, Second, take into account the equipment enclosure and installation so that it reduces the transmission path of the noise that is generated. The enclosure must be

The enclosure must be tuned to the sound frequencies and wavelengths of the equipment involved in order to be most effective. a piece of equipment that operates at a lower dBA will have a significantly lower noise level. Therefore, choosing a rotary screw compressor instead of a reciprocating compressor, or increasing the size of a rotary lobe blower so it runs more quietly, will have a large impact on the noise

tuned to the sound frequencies and wavelengths of the equipment involved in order to be most effective. To achieve this, careful consideration must be given to the structural design of the enclosure. Additionally, the use of properly selected absorptive material inside the enclosure will

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Noise Abatement dissipate sound before it has an opportunity to escape. Vibrating equipment can carry sound through piping and the enclosure itself at points of contact. This noise can be addressed by the way in which the equipment and associated piping is isolated from the floor, walls and ceiling of the enclosure. Finally, consider the receptors and surrounding area where the enclosure will be placed. Provision for hearing protection or noise reduction headphones for receptors could be an option, although this is less practical in the case of remediation systems. With regard to the surrounding area, consideration should be given to things such as distance to sound receptors and the location and types of reflective or absorptive surfaces (buildings, fences, vegetation, etc.). Together, these three items — source noise, transmission paths and site conditions — are critically important considerations for the design of a sound-sensitive remediation system. Application to remediation systems In a new-build situation, the best solu-

The use of properly selected absorptive material inside the enclosure will dissipate sound before it has an opportunity to escape the enclosure.

tion to noise is to realize at the early design stages that the site will be subject to sound requirements. Unfortunately this may not be as obvious as dealing with a site that is adjacent to a quiet residential neighbourhood. In some jurisdictions, stringent noise requirements are in place

even in louder commercial or industrialzoned locations. Noise is only one part of the puzzle when planning the design of a remediation system. Items such as performance, footprint and budget may also need concontinued overleaf...

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November 2012 | 45

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Noise Abatement

sideration. It is more effective to optimize the best solution for each of these items early in the design process. Equipment selection, enclosure design, and installation are all critical to an effective noise reduction solution, which will result in no noise complaints or concerns at site. This upfront approach will save money and time associated with field retrofits to lower equipment noise levels. In retrofit situations, unfortunately, it is not always possible to fully understand the noise requirements for a site at the design phase of a project. Additionally, it may be desirable to re-use a piece of equipment that was not originally designed for noise at a sound-sensitive lo-

cation. In cases where the equipment design and construction have not been completed with sound in mind, a field retrofit can be considered to mitigate noise. The same approach can be used to reevaluate equipment selections, transmission paths and site conditions. It may be necessary to replace some of the equipment with units that are quieter, or install silencers and/or acoustic mufflers to existing equipment. Alterations can be made to the enclosure design and equipment installation to dissipate the noise inside the enclosure or reduce the opportunity for noise to escape. Completing a field retrofit can be a costly endeavour, so in an effort to ensure

success it may be appropriate to consider completion of a sound study to properly measure sound levels and frequencies of the equipment involved. This will ensure that the solution will be tuned for the equipment and its surroundings. Deanna MacLean is with newterra. E-mail: info@newterra.com

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46 | November 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Human Resources

Working in Canada’s green economy now and into the future By Angie Knowles


hat does the term “green economy” actually mean? If you were to ask 10 people, the chances are that you would receive 10 different answers. Governments, businesses and professionals all see the green economy from a different angle, because of its potential to address such a wide range of issues, from economic development to environmental protection and employment growth. With so many critical areas at stake, why should the green economy mean only one thing? Yet, by fixating solely on what the green economy could mean or how it should be defined, any understanding of its impact is relegated to the realm of abstract possibilities. This line of reasoning is problematic because the green economy is not just about what will happen in the future. The green economy is a transition that is already underway. Governments, businesses and professionals need to know about these current changes. Since employment is one of the most crucial and widely relevant areas affected by the growth of the green economy, an Environmental Careers Organization (ECO) Canada’s 2012 study entitled “The Green Jobs Map: Tracking Employment through Canada’s Green Economy” zeroes in on the key topics of industry growth, hot jobs, and new or changing skills requirements. The study features an in-depth analysis of 835 Canadian green job postings. Researchers reviewed the sample job listings to determine the types of skills that employers mentioned most, the experience and educational levels they preferred, and the industry sectors that had the greatest employment demand. What is the scope of the green economy? One of the biggest challenges for any research related to the green economy is determining which sectors and industries to include. This difficulty stems from the fact that the green economy is a cross-sectoral, economy-wide integration of environmental practices, with a multitude of www.esemag.com

different industries that feature activities related to environmental protection, resource management and sustainability. When companies stand to gain major cost savings, increased efficiency and consumer support through the adoption of greener practices, it is easy to see why the green economy has this kind of wideranging influence. To gain a more detailed analysis of jobs in the Canadian green economy, ECO Canada looked closely at key contributing sectors: environmental protection, resource conservation, renewable and green energy, energy efficiency and green building, green services, green manufacturing, carbon and climate change mitigation, green retail, sustainability planning and urban design, and eco-tourism. It is important to note, however, that the green economy is not restricted to just these areas. One of the most remarkable findings from ECO Canada’s 2012 green economy research was the high proportion of jobs linked to more conventional environmental industries. In fact, the top two sectors with the greatest employment demand were in environmental protection and resource conservation. The expansion of the green economy is being driven by both emerging and established environmental industries. Where is the highest employment demand? At the same time that new industries are over-emphasized in popular depictions of the green economy, so too are estimates of job growth in some emerging green sectors. Out of the pool of job postings collected in the study, 38% of the job vacancies were in environmental protection, 21% were linked to resource conservation, and 11% were in the renewable or green energy sector. By contrast, 1% or less of the job listings were for positions in sectors like carbon and climate change mitigation, or green manufacturing. There are two main reasons why some emerging green sectors are experiencing major investment activity and innovation, but do not appear to have large employment demands.

Many of the emerging industries linked to the green economy, such as green manufacturing, are still in an earlyadopter phase. This means there is strong growth, but there are smaller initial employment numbers than in industries that have been around for a while. The second consideration is that the bulk of the jobs in new sectors do not require unique or specialized environmental skills. Since green skills and training requirements were a critical area of interest in the research, the study only examined job listings that expressly mentioned environmental competencies. It may simply be that some newer green areas have a stronger demand for jobs that are not unique to environmental work. For example, construction workers who can apply the same general building skills to work on a green building, that they would use for any other construction project. Which green occupations are in most demand? Much of the existing discussion about green employment has focused on very broad trends and issues, such as the impact of certain policies or investment activities on the overall number of green jobs. For students determining their future career path or transitioning workers looking to make an industry switch, the real information they need is far more detailed and connected to the day-to-day experience of working in a green profession. Thus, the critical question for existing and future workers is this: what does a job in the green economy actually look like? In response this query, the report grouped the sample of 835 green job postings according to specific occupational categories and arrived at 280 unique occupations. The study found that about half of the job vacancies in the green economy were for managers, engineers, technicians and trades workers, scientists, and planners. The other half were in highly specialized occupations, ranging from regulatory specialists, to hospitality and recreation workers. continued overleaf... November 2012 | 47

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Human Resources What are the top competencies green employers look for? What does it take to work in the green economy? In a review of the content in the job listings, three top competencies kept appearing. The first was corporate environmental program planning and implementation. Listed in 32% of the green job vacancies, this competency encompassed such things as developing corporate environmental plans, policies and procedures, conducting environmental risk assessments, and developing environmental management systems. Green employers were also looking for job candidates who were proficient in environmental business, technology and product development — a requirement that turned up in 31% of job postings. This competency featured activities like coordinating energy efficiency programs and identifying ways to commercialize environmental technologies, systems and equipment. Finally, 28% of the green job listings mentioned natural resource planning and management as a preferred competency, with such associated work as conducting

studies related to the management of natural resources or monitoring the effectiveness of programs and practices related to ecosystem and habitat preservation. In contrast to environmental work that may have been highly specialized in the past, there is now a noticeable transition to environmental work that is integrated across diverse business units in a company. As this latest research indicates, employers today clearly need professionals who can facilitate this trend towards “green integration.” How transferable are these competencies? Since the green economy is a shift in business strategy that affects numerous areas, it shouldn’t come as too much of a surprise that many of its top competencies are highly transferable across different sectors. Competencies in corporate environmental program planning and implementation as well as environmental business, technology and product development were strongly linked to almost all the sectors that were reviewed in ECO Canada’s study. Similarly, competencies in environ-

mental communications and public awareness, natural resources planning and management, environmental health and safety, and environmental sampling and analytical work were highly transferable, and tied back to job vacancies in nine different green sectors. Green work into the future With numerous green sectors experiencing strong employment demand and growth, the future of environmental employment looks very promising. Green work also has strong prospects, because environmental competencies are increasingly essential to different business areas, from overall organizational strategic planning to product development and program implementation. These two trends of industry growth and widespread green integration show no signs of stopping and will continue to shape work in the green economy for many years to come. Angie Knowles is with ECO Canada. E-mail: aknowles@eco.ca

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48 | November 2012

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E’s semi-annual look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.

You CAN judge a tank by its standards By Wayne B. Geyer


ost professionals are probably familiar with underground storage tanks bearing the Steel Tank Institute (STI) label. However, they may not be aware of the program it administers that permits a manufacturer to label a tank as an STI technology. Tanks bearing the names ACT-100®, sti-P3®, Permatank®, and ACT-100U® are fabricated to written standards. All revisions to the standards are reviewed by tank fabricators and approved by the governing body. STI’s staff engineers administer its standards. STI’s underground tank technologies meet the requirements of codes and regulations mandating that tanks be listed by third-party test laboratories. Staff work closely with Underwriters Laboratories and are involved in the ULC and UL standards development process. They also ensure that STI tank technologies are in compliance with those standards. STI employs a full-time quality control director who oversees an inspection team. Personnel randomly perform industry-supported inspections of tank fabricator construction processes, assuring high-quality workmanship and compliance with STI and ULC and UL requirements. Many of the inspectors are former quality assurance personnel in tank fabrication shops. www.esemag.com

STI mandates that tank fabricators labeling tanks with its name must purchase third-party warranty and environmental impairment insurance. The insurer has a strong claims-handling reputation, and STI and fabricators receive regular feedback to validate steel tank performance and compliance with quality standards and design requirements. Every tank built with the STI label is required to have an associated inspection form on file. STI also expects tank owners to file a warranty validation card. STI maintains a database of over 400,000 tanks, recording capacities and dimensions, year of fabrication and installation, type of fuel stored, installation locations, and other important information. Quality and commitment Many STI tank fabricators are secondor third-generation, family-owned businesses. As such, they are in business for the long term, not just to make a quick profit today, without care for the future integrity of their product. Tanks manufactured by companies with a substantial track record show better performance, regardless of whether the tank is labeled and registered with STI. They have good reputations in the industry for servicing their customers and providing a high quality product. Double-walled steel tanks and jacketed

tanks are functioning the way environmental regulators intended them to function. Releases from secondary-contained steel tanks are usually small and within the interstice, rather than catastrophic discharges into the external environment. Future challenges Over the next decade of tank operations, regulators and owner/operators will continue to face challenges in preventing releases to the environment. A new generation of sumps, overfill protection devices, and similar equipment should address some of these concerns. Compatibility with new fuels will continue to challenge existing elastomeric and nonmetallic materials. Owner/operators will face the persistent challenges of keeping tank bottoms free from water and sludge and filters free from clogging. The importance of tank fabrication standardization, industry support of technology, quality inspections, and cause-ofrelease investigations will only increase. Wayne Geyer is Executive Vice President of the Steel Tank Institute/Steel Plate Fabricators Association. E-mail: wgeyer@steeltank.com

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Fredericton’s proactive water storage plans


reatment and storage of municipal water have undergone many changes over the last decade and a half. Regulations and requirements have become more stringent, forcing the upgrade or replacement of many water infrastructure systems in the Maritime regions. As a result, the City of Fredericton, New Brunswick, has recently begun the refurbishing of a large portion of their water and sewer infrastructure, including water storage tanks, waste treatment plants, and many kilometres of sewer lines. The first, and most extensive, segment of this overhaul was the design and construction of a new $8 million water treatment facility. The John E. Bliss Water Treatment Plant is one of two treatment plants servicing the City. Prior to its construction, the William L. Barrett Water Treatment Plant was serving approximately 90% of the local population, pro-

cessing nearly double the amount of water it was designed to handle. The addition of the second water treatment centre was the first of many moves to prepare the City for future growth, as well as maintain current standards for the existing population. In 2010, the City of Fredericton received $1.4 million, through a joint funding program with the Province of New Brunswick and the federal government. With this new funding, as well as the new capacity of the Bliss Water Treatment Plant, the City began to evaluate its existing water storage solutions. It considered which structures needed replacement, as well as whether new zones of potential development required additional water storage. Three zones were earmarked for immediate replacement or construction. The first project, titled “Rosewood” for its close proximity to Rosewood Ave, was the replacement of an aging gunite reservoir. While this area consists mostly

The City determined a glass-fused-to-steel bolted tank design was the best option for their needs. 50 | November 2012

of established neighbourhoods, it has recently been opened to new residential development. Working closely with exp Services Inc. of Fredericton and the Water and Sewer Division of the City of Fredericton, Greatario Engineered Storage Systems designed and constructed a new potable water storage structure. It provides increased capacity and will not “age-out”, as the old gunite structure had. The City determined a glass-fused-tosteel bolted tank design was best for their needs. This tank design utilizes the latest technology manufacturing and construction methods, and offers low life-cycle costing, customizable design, and turnkey build capabilities. Glass-fused-tosteel tanks also never require repainting, greatly reducing maintenance costs. The summer of 2012 brought with it two more tank erection projects for the City of Fredericton. The first, a new standpipe at the Northbook site, was necessitated by new residential development earmarked for the area. This second glassfused-to-steel bolted tank allowed 380,209 USG to be allocated to the northeastern end of the City. The second project was the replacement of two decaying gunite tanks at the Longwood site. The mechanics of the Longwood water storage facility called for a staggered reconstruction of the reservoirs. Construction of the first replacement tank began in August 2012. Capacity provided by both reservoirs is required to provide sufficient water supply to the area. Thus, a minimum of two tanks must be in commission at all times. Upon the completion of the 70’ x 25’ reservoir, a second, identical tank is scheduled to be engineered and erected. Having already replaced 1,464,881 USG of potable water storage with solutions that not only adhere to, but often exceed the growing regulations, the City of Fredericton has proven itself highly proactive when it comes to providing safe and clean drinking water for its residents. For more information, E-mail: plogan@greatario.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Storage/Containment & Spills Product Showcase

Nov12_ES&E_D2_ES&E 15/11/12 4:10 PM Page 52

Chemical feed stations

Assmann’s feed stations, ranging from 40 to 550 gallons, store small amounts of liquids and other chemicals. Linear polyethylene tanks are certified by NSF to NSF/ANSI Standard 61, with highdensity crosslink resin tanks certified for chemical storage. ISO 9001:2008 Certified. Tel: 888-357-3181, Fax: 888-826-5329 E-mail: info@assmann-usa.com Web: www.assmann-usa.com Assmann Corporation of America

Barr Plastics helps win award

Corrosion protection

A Union of BC Municipalities Award in Leadership and Innovation was presented in October in recognition of a joint Abbotsford/Mission Water and Sewer Commission project, in which Barr Plastics helped install an innovative rainwater harvesting system into the Abbotsford Entertainment and Sports Centre. This system, completed in September 2011, became the first in the world to use harvested rainwater to make ice for a professional-grade ice arena. Tel: 800-665-4499 Web: www.barrplastics.com Barr Plastics

Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to provide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush, roller or spray. Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Cover systems for tanks and lagoons

Geomembrane Technologies Inc. (GTI) designs, fabricates and installs cover systems on tanks and lagoons worldwide. Wastewater and water plants use GTI covers to control odours, block sunlight, collect gas, or reduce heat loss.

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Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

PAX Mixer is a very innovative, simple mixer designed to mix water storage reservoirs and standpipes. It offers superior mixing performance with little energy consumption, easy installation, low capital cost. It eliminates stagnation and stratification, minimizes residual loss, prevents nitrification. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: michael@h2flow.com Web: www.h2flow.com H2Flow Tanks & Systems

Spill containment systems

Containment system

To avoid any major reoccuring expenses like oil/water filtration, shoveling snow and debris, or incurring tainted water disposal costs, Transport Environmental Systems offers open collector pan models and closeable lid models to help avoid collecting snow, rainwater and debris. Also available are roll-under spill collector pans and other products for train/tanker truck loading, unloading and spill containment. Tel: 252-571-0092, Fax: 252-489-2060 E-mail: info@transenvsys.com Web: www.transenvsys.com

Westeel's CRing Containment Systems are ideal for petrochemical, frac water storage, oil and gas, fertilizer, hazardous material, and agricultural applications. All systems are made with high-strength (50-ksi) steel and have heavy-duty G115 galvanizing, meeting the stringent requirements of ISO 9001. Tel: 888-674-8265, 204-233-7133 Fax: 888-463-6012 E-mail: info@westeel.com Web: www.westeel.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Spill control – why it pays to be proactive


lanning ahead, identifying potential areas of risk, stocking spill control products to suit your company’s specific needs, and learning how to use the products correctly, can yield big returns. You will save your company valuable time and money, provide a safer work environment for employees and help to ensure your company complies with increasingly stringent safety and environmental legislation. Product training sessions provide spill response procedures, identify the material of concern and its application, outline proper uses of all products, illustrate how to replenish inventory, and, most importantly, provide a demonstration where participants can witness a spill and the proper response procedures in action. In addition to learning about spill control and containment products, it is also important to understand where cost savings can be achieved through Waste Minimization Programs. The most expensive part of a spill isn’t necessarily the spilled liquid itself or the time it takes to clean it up – it is the disposal of used absorbents. Waste Minimization Programs can show you how to choose the appropriate products for the appropriate application, reduce solid waste, recycle fluids, and reuse and utilize sorbents to their full capacity. 1. Select sorbents that have a high retention ratio. Modern synthetic sorbents are designed to capture many times their weight in spilled product. This keeps the amount of waste to a minimum and your maintenance staff won’t need to change or dispose of the sorbents as often. 2. Separate the liquid from the sorbent. Liquid can have a commercial value and can be reprocessed for substantial savings. Even if the liquid cannot be reused, it is usually less expensive to dispose of the liquid separately than to dispose of the sorbent and the liquid together, as this would need to go to a secure landfill. A fully utilized pad of sorbent matewww.esemag.com

rial could weigh up to 10 times as much as a clean pad. It is less expensive to dispose of a pad with the liquid removed because you pay by weight. 3. Select sorbents that retain liquid. Some sorbents allow captured liquid to leach out in normal use. These sorbents never reach their capacity, as they must be changed when they start to seep. Inexpensive sorbents can be messy and create additional waste.

4. Select sorbents that are non-toxic. Clay based-granular absorbents create health concerns through continued exposure to their content of crystalline silica. These sorbents, even if unused, require hazardous waste disposal in secure landfills. For more information, E-mail: stephanie@canross.com

• Linear polyethylene tanks certified by NSF International to ANSI 61 standards for potable water • Double wall containment in one integral, space-saving unit • Secondary tank has a capacity 120% of inner tank, exceeding EPA standards • Capacities from 20 to 6,550 gallons

Toll-free: 888-357-3181 Why Assmann? See our website: www.assmann-usa.com Assmann Corporation • Garrett, IN 46738 Fax: 888-TANK FAX (826-5329) E-mail: info@assmann-usa.com

Manufacturing facilities in Garrett, IN and Marshall, TX

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Protecting the environment with breakaway couplings By Dave Morrow


ndustries rely on hazardous materials to manufacture goods or supply services that all of us use in our everyday lives. Many of these hazardous materials, such as the gasoline that powers our vehicles, are also in constant motion, moving from the oilfield to the refinery to the bulk plant to the service station to the end-user’s automobile. Keeping these types of substances from damaging the environment is one of the main concerns for those companies that produce, transport, store and handle them. With increased environmental regulations, mandating that the connections for the transfer of hazardous fluids be able to safely prevent dangerous product spills and the release of fugitive emissions and volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere, there is a need for equipment that can prevent spills or leaks from occurring. The challenge Keeping hazardous fluids and materials contained is often easier said than done. Speaking specifically of the handling and transfer of such fuels as LPG or gasoline, there are numerous points in the supply chain where things can go wrong. One constant concern is that a “pull-away” will occur during a loading or unloading operation. A “pull-away” is when a truck, railcar, barge or ship leaves a docking site before the transfer hoses are disconnected from it.

If a transport vessel pulls away from a loading/unloading site, an additional safety device can be installed to protect the vehicle and piping.

When this happens the consequences for the facility itself, plant personnel and the environment can be catastrophic. In fact, the best result that can be expected when a pull-away incident occurs is damage to or destruction of the transport, piping, support structures and access equipment. While that sounds bad, it pales in comparison to the worst that can happen, including a severe environmental release, fire, personal injury or fatality.

NTS-PU Series Safety Breakaway Couplings prevent spill or leak incidents from occurring with railway pull aways. 54 | November 2012

The adverse effects associated with a pull-away incident are not only immediate, but can be far-reaching. In addition to actual litigation or cleanup costs, another consideration is the bad publicity and subsequent harm to the facility’s reputation that can result from a high-profile environmental or personal-injury incident. The solution NTS-PU Series Safety Breakaway Couplings, from OPW Engineered Sys-

With fuels such as LPG or gasoline, there are any number of points in the supply chain where a pull-away can occur during a loading, or unloading operation. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Nov12_ES&E_D2_ES&E 12-11-20 5:37 PM Page 55

tems, have been designed to protect loading facilities by safely and reliably preventing product spills when a pullaway incident occurs. Should the transport vessel pull away from a loading/unloading site while the hose is still attached, separation will occur through a simple straight or angular pulling force on the hose line. This happens because the NTS-PU coupling consists of two halves (male and female), that are each equipped with spring-loaded non-return valves that are held together by spring-loaded cams for rapid hookup. When a pre-determined pulling force is reached, separation will occur. Upon separation, both springloaded valves, which are open during product transfer, will close, which prevents any product spill or leakage. Since the NTS-PU coupling does not have shear pins, no damage will occur to the coupling during separation. This means that, after depressurizing and emptying the hose, the coupling can be easily reassembled without the need for any special tools or spare parts. This simple operation also means that it is very easy

The NTS-PU Series Safety Breakaway Coupling consists of two halves. When a pre-determined pulling force is reached, separation will occur. Upon separation, both spring-loaded valves—which are open during product transfer—will close, which prevents any product spill or leakage.

*5($7$5,2 * 5($7$5,2 Engineered Engineered Storage Storage SSystems ystems

for the operator to test and verify that the system is again operating properly. NTS-SZ Series Safety Breakaway Couplings feature a cable-release operation that is designed to protect against damage caused by an unintended pullaway. When this occurs, the tensile force travels along the cable, leaving the hose or loading arm tension-free at all times. When the pre-determined pull force is reached, the couplings spring-loaded valves shut both ends, enabling separation to occur. Properly containing liquid hazardous substances and taking all measures necessary to prevent their entry into the environment, will help ensure that no unfortunate accidents occur. Dave Morrow is with OPW Engineered Systems. E-mail: dmorrow@opw-es.com

Municipal • Industrial • Water • Wastewater • BioEnergy


Canadian Distributors of World-leading

Rainwater Stormwater & Wastewater Tanks, Filters & Treatment Systems

1-800-665-4499 www.esemag.com

A tank is not a tank .....until it is built. www.greatario.com info@greatario.com

Since 1986

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Visual communication aids in spill containment By Jack Rubinger


ndustry and the public are vitally concerned about spills and their potential economic and environmental impacts. Highly publicized incidents such as Exxon Valdez and the recent BP spill in the Gulf of Mexico incited strong reactions and have dramatically increased efforts by both industry and government to improve protection against them. Safety signs and labels can play an integral role in on-site equipment identification for inventory control at chaotic spill sites. So how do you visually communicate hazardous spill warnings, directions and instructions to workers, emergency responders and the public? With recent advancements in thermal transfer printers as well as tough printing supplies that can withstand chemical spills and extreme temperatures, powerful visual communication can make a difference in hazmat

clean up. Using a thermal transfer printer, it is a straightforward process to create custom signs and labels on-site in several different widths. With software for additional languages, information can be understood by everyone. Barcode asset labels make it much easier to identify and return equipment, such as booms and vacuum trucks used on-site, which is a valuable inventory control application. Clean up workers at major spills, like the chaotic BP spill, use barcode asset labeling on a daily basis. If an incident takes place after dark, phosphorescent tapes are specially designed to help display critical facility information. If spill containment products are designed and packaged for use with specific hazard classes, such as acid-compatible absorbent pads in a spill kit designed for corrosive liquids, it is important to have

labels and signage in these kits. Developments in spill prevention, containment and response systems Training in the latest technologies and products is critical so hazmat workers can quickly contain and control spills. Spills should be contained and isolated first to prevent contamination, then work can be done to remove the contamination. There are two basic types of isolation products – absorbent and non-absorbent. Absorbent isolation products include oilonly booms, sweeps and socks. Non-absorbent isolation products include berms and containment pools. Removal products include pads, rugs and mats, pillows and loose sorbents which are used for oil, hazmat and universal applications. Universal removal products absorb oils, coolants, solvents and water. They’re used for tool and chemical cabinets, parts cleaning and machine repairs. Oil only removal prod-
















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A worker is using a yellow SpillArrest hazmat pillow to soak up a battery acid spill. Nearby, a barrel containing NiCD batteries has a large, easy-to-read hazardous waste label communicating the contents of the container.

ucts are used for oil spills on land and water, machine repair and part cleaning. Hazard removal products absorb acids, bases and unknown liquids. They’re used for chemical spills, battery acid leaks and storage cabinet liners. Diverters and drain guards prevent hazardous chemicals from draining to clean water supplies.

Finally, all-inclusive spill kits have been developed for a wide range of spill volumes – from 5 gallons to 95 gallons. Spill kits consist of items such as pads, socks, pillows, gloves, goggles and tamper proof seals. Most kits are available in a universal, oil-only and hazmat format. Removal products are color coded for

quick identification: • White for oil and petroleum-based fluids. White makes it easy to tell when spill removal products have become saturated. • Blue. They are intended for oil and petroleum-based fluids. They’re ideal for professional settings. • Gray. These are for absorbing oils, coolants, solvents and water. • Camouflage. These can be used universally – from water-based liquids to petroleum-based liquids. The pattern is designed to hide leaks and drips. • Green. Also universal. • Yellow. These absorb acids, bases and unknown liquids. Jack Rubinger is with Graphic Products Inc. E-mail: jarubinger@graphicproducts.com

Eliminate the Risk No matter what, there’s always the risk that a transport or railcar carrying hazardous chemicals can be moved while still connected to the hose loading system or loading arm.

Why take that risk? NTS®-PU (direct-pull) Safety Breakaway Couplings from OPW Engineered Systems have been designed to separate in the event of an unintended pull-away, offering a cost-effective additional level of safety for loading terminals and bulk plant operations. NTS®-PU Safety Breakaway Couplings are engineered to be: ■ Safer. Reliably prevents damage, spills and injury during

pull-away incidents. ■ Cleaner. Spring-energized valves provide maximum

protection with minimum product loss. ■ Faster. If a pull-away occurs, the system can be

reconnected and running in minutes.

NTS®-PU Safety Breakaway Coupling

Safer. Cleaner. Faster. www.esemag.com

Phone: 1.513.696.1500 s www.opw-es.com

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Dragon’s Den - good to the last drop By Marisa Reynen


vid watchers of CBC’s Dragon’s Den will recognize DRAM Innovations’ fuel nozzle drip retainer. Earlier this summer, Dragon’s Den aired a special ‘Future Now Energy Innovations’ episode where three teams, chosen out of thousands of applicants, had the chance to compete for $100,000 in prize money from Shell. Although the fuel nozzle drip retainer did not take home top prize, DRAM Innovations certainly garnered attention from drivers and investors alike. The fuel nozzle drip retainer solves the rather pesky problem of delayed drops of gasoline escaping once one has finished pumping at a gas station. Not only does it save your shoes and pant legs, but the estimated 500 million litres of gasoline wasted worldwide each year. And what no longer lands on the ground can no longer be quickly evaporated into our atmosphere, adversely affecting the

The device uses a small screen, or mesh, to create a vacuum to retain drips.



SHEET PILING • rapid, clean installation • long service life • superior hydraulic performance • minimal chemical diffusion • excellent QA/QC P.O. Box 385, Rockwood, ON Canada N0B 2K0 Tel: (519) 856-1352 Fax: (519) 856-0759 www.waterloo-barrier.com 58 | November 2012

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environment and human health. The device involves the use of a small screen, or mesh, similar to those employed on household faucets to disperse the flow of water, as well as surface tension and pressure differential properties to create a sort of vacuum to retain the drips. Approximately 89% of the fuel that would have been wasted is retained as a result. The device can be simply added to existing nozzles or incorporated into new designs. What does this mean for those of us visiting the pumps from time to time? Well, we would no longer be paying for wasted drops of gasoline. The customer would continue to pay for the liquid retained in the nozzle as is the case currently with gasoline remaining in the hose after pumping, which is recycled to the next customer. With the new device, this ‘recycled’ amount is simply increased slightly by including the gasoline retained in the nozzle, with no loss to the customer or gas station. Relative to the amount of gasoline used each year, is this considered a big problem? Can it make a difference? Maybe not, but for energy companies looking to set themselves apart from the


competition, this fuel nozzle drip retainer is a great first step. It can be difficult for organizations to take on “sustainability” or to “be green”, especially when their business is in oil and gas in a fossil fuel driven world. An important step towards the goal of achieving sustainability involves changes to existing ways of doing business to have a lesser impact on the environment, and a positive impact on employees and the general public. This step is usually referred to as the one in which the organization is ‘going beyond compliance’. No longer is the organization only concerned with adhering to governmental regulations. They are moving from “defense to offense”, actively identifying opportunities for operational eco-efficiencies, better waste diversion and management, and ways to make processes cleaner. Similar devices have been developed in the past. How is this one different? Why is the marketplace more ready now? What sets this device apart from similar devices is that this design does not involve any moving components; it is completely static with less potential for problems or lost functionality. As for market readiness, CEO of DRAM Inno-

vations, Devin Ramphal noted, “green is in, but only if it is convenient.” The fuel nozzle drip retainer could be the deciding factor for a consumer comparing two otherwise identical neighbouring gas stations. And this simple choice can have broader implications. Again, can this fuel nozzle drip retainer make a big difference? 500 million litres of wasted gasoline saved each year is not a small number, but is certainly small compared to the total amount of gasoline used each year. It also brings to mind the “broken window theory”, in which it is postulated that a vandalized urban landscape, such as a broken window or graffiti, would lend itself to increased rates of vandalism. In a similar but opposite fashion, might the presence of an effort to save even a few drops of gasoline at the pumps make consumers more aware of the issue of gasoline conservation? That short trip to the grocery store might not seem worth it any longer. Marisa Reynen is with Tavares Group Consulting Inc. E-mail: marisa@tavaresgroupconsulting.com For more information, visit draminnovations.com

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Each year, ES&E invites experts and leaders in environmental consulting to share their opinions, experiences and values with our readers. We continue to be honored every year with erudite responses from some of our leading consulting engineers. Their opinions are based on many years of collective experience in maintaining high standards, while keeping up with the diversity and complexities of environmental engineering and managerial leadership.

ACEC sends recommendations to the Standing Committee on Finance


he Association of Consulting Engineering Companies – Canada (ACEC) recommends that the government follow through on its current commitment to a long-term infrastructure plan for Canada. According to the Conference Board of Canada: “… of all forms of government investment, infrastructure spending has the largest impact on economic growth. In fact, the Conference Board estimates that, in an economy performing below potential, every dollar spent on infrastructure serves to increase Canada’s real GDP by as much $1.20.” (Lessons from the Recession and Financial Crisis, Conference Board of Canada, 2010) Recognizing the current need to balance much needed investment with current fiscal realities, a coordinated, well-planned, long-term approach is critical. To strengthen the economy and enhance Canada’s competitiveness over the long term, the infrastructure plan should include: • A commitment to close and stabilize the infrastructure deficit over the long term; • Realistic timetables that balance the long-term urgency of infrastructure investment with current fiscal pressures; • Adoption of sound asset management practices to quantify the condition and remaining service life of existing infrastructure; • Ongoing assessment of transportation, 60 | November 2012

environmental, health and education infrastructure needs to accommodate the condition of current infrastructure, changing needs, adaptation to climate change, and population growth; • A robust assessment and prioritization of projects and programs; • Clearly defined roles and responsibilities for each level of government (needs assessment, planning, investment, operations and maintenance); • A predictable infrastructure investment plan that will allow all levels of government, public agencies and private firms to appropriately develop and allocate resources to plan, finance, design, construct and operate infrastructure projects; • An annual evaluation of progress and return on investment. ACEC applauds the government for its commitment to a long-term infrastructure plan for Canada. ACEC has called for the establishment of just such a plan for many years. The nature of infrastructure investments is very long term and requires planning that reaches into decades and not just years. Job creation Infrastructure investments enable economic growth and job creation in periods of recession and in periods of expansion. In an increasingly competitive global economy and in the context of modest growth for advanced economies, infrastructure renewal represents the very best

combination of job creation and competitiveness enhancement. Further, prudent infrastructure investments can also make Canada more resistant to future economic downturns. The Conference Board of Canada’s conclusion that, of all fiscal stimulus measures, infrastructure investment has had the largest impact on economic growth, not only validates the government’s stimulus spending on infrastruc-

The nature of infrastructure investments is very long term and requires planning that reaches into decades and not just years. ture, but also demonstrates the ongoing value of infrastructure investment to Canada’s economic health and prosperity. A national, long-term infrastructure investment plan can create quality sustainable jobs in multiple sectors, including Canada’s design, technology and construction industries. However, sporadic, time-limited infrastructure programs create uncertainty and will make it difficult to retain skilled jobs or develop Canadian industries. A long-term investment plan

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will also allow for capacity building to meet the long-term needs of Canadians and to participate in international markets. Demographic change Any policy that increases the competitiveness of the Canadian economy will help the country deal with the demographic challenges we are facing. Demographic trends are one of the few economic variables that can be predicted with precision far into the future. As such, we have a very accurate picture of what our demographics will look like in 10, 20, 30 years and beyond. The only way to meet these challenges is to ensure that our economy can generate sufficient wealth over the coming decades to support future generations. Infrastructure investments represent the most effective way in which governments can increase the competitiveness of the economy and its long-term growth potential. One significant challenge that will need to be addressed through the longterm infrastructure plan is the trend of our population shifting from rural to urban centres. In many parts of rural Canada, municipalities with shrinking/aging populations will find it challenging to ade-

quately invest in infrastructure as their tax bases erode. With respect to capacity building, reciprocity and/or comity with other jurisdictions may be beneficial to the consulting engineering sector in terms of recruiting engineers and other specialists. We support mobility in principle and welcome improvements to the assessment and recognition of credentials. We do not object to local licensing requirements that are reasonable and applied fairly to all applicants. However, based on our experience with the New West Partnership Trade Agreement, we cannot support any agreements that encourage the procurement of professional services in the same manner as commodities as this would compromise quality of service and result in greater risk and cost to taxpayers. Productivity There have been a number of reports in recent years attempting to assess the magnitude of Canada’s infrastructure needs based on a variety of criteria. However, the recent 2010 study Public Infrastructure Underinvestment: The Risk to Canada’s Economic Growth, commissioned by the

Residential and Civil Construction Alliance of Ontario (RCCAO), directly deals with the issue of productivity. The RCCAO study is noteworthy because it directly addresses the consequences of infrastructure under-investment and the significant costs to the Canadian economy. The RCCAO study predicts that public infrastructure underinvestment will cost the Canadian economy 1.1% of real GDP growth annually over the next fifty years and reduce the long-term profitability of Canadian businesses by an average of 20%. A national, long-term infrastructure investment strategy can eliminate the economic costs of infrastructure underinvestment and promote a sustained economic recovery in Canada. www.acec.ca

Toronto Toronto • K Kitchener itchener • K Kingston ingston EEdmonton dmonton •

Halifax • C Cincinnati incinnati

The B The Board oard of of Directors Directors is is pleased pleased to to aannounce nnounce that that TTom om W Williams illiams h has as b been een appointed appointed aass P President resident o off X XCG CG C Consultants onsultants of operating operating LLtd. td. ((XCG). XCG). H He eh has as a wealth wealth of experience, experience, valuable valuable industry industry insight, insight, aand nd significant kknowledge nowledge o he cchanging hanging significant off tthe w world orld of of environmental environmental consulting. consulting. TTom om will will be be responsible responsible for for the the strategic strategic direction direction of of XCG XCG through through its its next next p phase hase off growth o growth and and will will be be supported supported by by a dynamic dynamic team team of of senior senior consultants consultants aand nd ttechnical echnical and and corporate corporate staff. staff ff..

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XCG, X CG, an an employee-owned employee-owned environmental environmental cconsulting onsulting firm, firm, was was founded founded in in 1990 1990 aand nd built built on on a solid solid foundation foundation o off ssenior enior engineering e ngineering professionals. professionals. XCG XCG offers off ffe ers a off environmental ccomprehensive omprehensive range range o environmental with offices Canada cconsulting onsulting sservices ervices w ith o ffices iin nC anada aand nd tthe he U U.S. .S.


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Opportunities and challenges beyond our front door By Jordan Phillips, P.Eng. , R.J. Burnside & Associates Limited


eyond the more traditional prospects for consulting engineering within Canada, there are very rewarding opportunities for Canadian firms in many parts of the world. Our engineers and environmental scientists are well respected on the world stage, and thus Canada is very well positioned to be an exporter of its services. Many Canadian consulting engineers and independent consultants are already engaged on projects in many sectors and in all corners of the world. Certainly global opportunities abound. There are many advantages for Canadian firms to engage in work overseas. These obviously begin with the direct financial benefits. Broader advantages come from improved market diversification, that can allow a company to better weather domestic economic downturns, and from the incredible opportunities for staff development. In addition, there are the opportunities to use skills and experience to make real contributions toward solving problems and thereby improving lives in less developed parts of the world. This is a strong personal motivator for many professionals. With opportunity comes challenges. From our corporate experience, this could not be more obvious than in the world of international consulting. As much as the opportunities do abound, so do the unique and complex challenges in delivering projects in these different environments. Our firm is currently engaged in a number of significant infrastructure projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past few years, we have been making the transition from the theoretical knowledge of the expected challenges, to the realworld experiences of delivering such large-scale undertakings in parts of the world that are so foreign to the typical Canadian experience.

62 | November 2012

Developing and securing international work There is quite a lot of groundwork (this means ‘investment’ to a finance group) that must be put in place before an international project can even get moving. As is the case when entering any new market, effort must be put toward identifying opportunities and then developing them. One must understand the market, and also develop a profile that brings a competitive advantage, as the field of contenders extends to all continents. Understanding specific procurement rules of a particular country, project executing agency and financing entity (i.e., World Bank or other international financial institution) adds degrees of complexity to the process.

Wait periods of six months to a year, following the submission of proposals, are not uncommon. The experiences referred to here are those with international public infrastructure projects. Clients are typically projectspecific implementing entities, staffed by public servants from a number of government departments. This adds a complicating element to the project right from the start that actually carries through the various phases of implementation, up until payment of the final invoice. Understanding, mitigating and ultimately becoming comfortable with this complexity can result in a competitive advantage. Identifying local or other international partners to reinforce and supplement the capacity and expertise available within our own ranks is a common, and sound, strategy. However, the overwhelming key

is to identify compatible and reliable partners. This applies equally to collaboration with other Canadian firms and independent professionals. When it comes time to pursue a particular project opportunity, there is the familiar process of submitting expressions of interest and proposals. Often, these require some significant additional formalities that are not common on domestic projects. As well, these documents normally must be delivered in paper copy and sufficient time must be allowed for preparation and delivery by international courier, or in some cases, directly in person. Depending on the geographic location, actual delivery can take several days to over a week. Last minute proposals will definitely not cut it. Wait periods of six months to a year, following the submission of proposals, are not uncommon. This presents significant resource planning challenges, because a lot can change in terms of corporate workloads and availability of key staff while proposals are in limbo. Delivering the project Once a project is awarded, and after the details and formalities of the contract negotiation have been sorted (and the celebrations of a successful proposal have subsided), there is the actual implementation. It is tempting to think that the difficult part has passed, but it is our experience that the story has only just begun. Beyond issues that are often presented in developing the international market and then securing projects through international competitive bidding, there are the challenges that come with the execution. These include melding of international staff, engagement of Canadian professionals for overseas assignments, and cultural differences within the clients, approval agencies, and funding organizations, and also within the consulting team itself. Technical aspects of the projects,

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being the actual problems that clients retain our services to solve, often turn out not to be the most challenging ones. Our professionals are well trained and very capable at developing appropriate solutions. In general this can be the ‘easy part’ for us. In international work, everything tends to be more spread out and diverse, and the main challenge is to ‘bring it all together’. Project sites are much farther from the home office. Consulting teams tend to be multidisciplinary, with individuals coming from various offices, subconsultant companies, and independent consultants. Teams can span several time zones and countries. There are cultural differences that impact client expectations, leadership styles within the team, and in some situations even values. These differences need to be understood and managed with wisdom and appropriate tact. Language barriers and the associated communication challenges add significant complexity to these dynamics. Communication is often cited as a critical success factor. Geographic and cultural factors that come into play in in-

ternational work definitely intensify the challenge and raise the already heightened importance of effective communication. Teams need to strike an appropriate balance with enough face-to-face time to establish relationships and trust. This way, mediated communication, whether by Email, text message, phone, or Skype can be successful. Availability and reliability of Internet connections in many parts of the developing world leave much to be desired, and this definitely increases communication and collaboration challenges. Delivering the feasibility study, design and construction inspection services for multimillion dollar water supply projects in Mozambique certainly has provided a unique set of challenges for our firm. This work is being done by resident engineers from Bolivia and Canada, design teams in Canada, various specialist sub-consultants in Canada, the U.S., England, Portugal, India, South Africa and Mozambique, and general contractors from Italy, India and Mozambique. All are working for a complex multi-entity client. This can actually be done successfully, where success is defined as having

a satisfied client that looks forward to receiving our next proposal. While these challenges can be overcome and need not dissuade us from pursuing opportunities overseas, they certainly must not be underestimated. A quote from Tolkien comes to mind: “It’s a dangerous business … going out your door. You step onto the road, and if you don’t keep your feet, there’s no knowing where you might be swept off to.” Knowing a bit about the road, and a bit about the challenges that can be expected, can help you ‘keep your feet’. Having a foundation of solid values will help you make the right decisions to stay on a good ‘road’. The right people and the confidence that your team can adapt, communicate and collaborate to meet the challenges will enable you to keep walking, to persevere and, in due time, to meet with success on the international stage. E-mail: jordan.phillips@rjburnside.com


AECOM’s integrated services provide cost effective solutions for the planning, design, construction and management of water and wastewater facilities and system infrastructure.



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The real and the expectations markets – closing the gap Bill De Angelis, P.Eng., MBA, Vice President and General Manager, Associated Engineering


he direction of many companies and associations is governed by a Strategic Plan that looks at market conditions, business environment, areas of activity and opportunity, and profitability. Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO) recently updated its Strategic plan. CEO’s Board of Directors is made up of senior practitioners in the engineering sector, and, whenever we get together, the conversation invariably turns for a time to a discussion about the current political and economic situation, availability of stimulus dollars, the competition landscape in terms of the number of firms vying for each project, and procurement models used by our clients. We always touch on fees for service and quality of deliverables, and how we seem to be doing more for less these days. The Board also receives useful client feedback on these issues and firms’ performance, all of which we discuss and relay to our members. ‘Best Practices’ and ‘Qualifications Based Selection’ are terms that have been around for a long time, and I think many of our clients have become desensitized to them. For years, CEO and ACEC (Association of Consulting Engineering Companies, Canada) have supported these protocols and have expended significant effort to instil them into the fabric of the engineering service delivery model. But, this has met with limited success in the current economic and political climate. If you examine the principles behind the titles, they are nothing more than common sense approaches to the delivery of engineering services, using a work plan process we all know and understand, i.e., review supplied information; gain client perspective/confirm scope; develop project plans with timelines, tasks, deliverables and cost; conduct predesign and

64 | November 2012

detailed design activities; tender, build, verify performance and hand it over with the appropriate signoffs. Communicate regularly and often with client project managers; conduct regular project reviews; and ensure that what is eventually delivered is what the client expects in terms of the facility, and adherence to schedule and budgetary framework. On both sides of the equation, there has sometimes been a disconnect between what the client expects and what the engineer delivers in terms of real work. Roger Martin, in his book “Fixing the Game” (HBR Press, Boston, 2011), says that the decline of American capitalism is due in part to the actions of a stock market that runs on investor expectations. The book compares the operation of the market to that of the National Football

lic to the Expectations Market. Let’s look at the Real Market for engineering services first. I take this to mean infrastructure related projects that are well and clearly defined by the client and fairly priced by the consultant, with delivery of a quality product that meets client requirements. Then let’s look at the Expectations Market. The client sets high standards for technical competence and excellence but sometimes the evaluation process favours lower pricing. The client expects an excellent product, but there is a disconnect in that the effort to deliver an excellent project is generally higher than that required to deliver a good product. The expectation is there, but it is often not realized, leading to a resulting level of dissatisfaction from the client. This doesn’t necessarily mean we can’t deliver

....there has sometimes been a disconnect between what the client expects and what the engineer delivers in terms of real work. League (NFL), relating what Martin calls the ‘Real Market’ (designing, making, selling products) to the ‘Expectations Market’ (trading stocks, options and derivatives). The book promotes the NFL business model as an effective approach to ensuring the overall focus of the game is more on the real market (playing football) than the expectations market (betting on football). We can use Martin’s frame of reference and terminology to describe and understand the gap between the terms “real” and “expectations” in our own business, as it relates to procurement, selection and project delivery models for the provision of engineering services in the public sector. To do so, I propose that we link engineering to the Real Market and the client organisations and the pub-

good quality work at competitive prices, but we need to better understand client expectations before we begin. As engineers, we live and work in the real world. We design and build things. We create tangible assets with long service lives. We know how much they cost to design, construct, procure, operate and maintain, and can predict with a great degree of certainty how long they will last and what their residual values will be. We just typically don’t do as well in the world of expectations. Clients and firms (and the public) each have expectations. A client may expect a facility to be designed and built in three months, but in the real world, with design timelines, review, approvals, tendering, construction and commissioning, that job may take significantly longer.

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Similarly, that client may expect a fee in the 5% of the capital cost range, but the reality is that it may be 8% instead. Where we sometimes struggle as engineering service providers is in trying to fit real work to an expected budget. I feel we aren’t always doing a good job at it. Our parent companies have expectations as well, whether we are privately held or publically traded, or of a certain level of revenue generation or margin. These expectations come from examination of overall market trends in a particular sector, regional trends, potential availability of funding from government or the private sector, past performance and, of course, our own corporate leaders. The reality is that, at the end of the day, the market will be the ultimate determiner of margin and profit – in spite of what the company may want, or the client may dictate. The key for us as firms is to align our expectations with reality in terms of market understanding and available funding. What the public expects out of all of this is first and foremost to be safe. They don’t want to worry about whether what we design and build will fall down, jeopardize public health from its operation, or fail to have an adequate service life. They don’t focus as much on cost as on safety and reliability. I believe they are generally agreeable to spending money on projects if justified; they don’t want to see it wasted. From my perspective, client and company expectations are beginning to align, and the gap between expectations and real needs is beginning to narrow. Positive signs are being seen on all fronts. Clients are working more closely with their consultant base and industry associations, inviting more input into planning processes, technology directions, procurement process setup and requisitioning of funding from various sources. More thought is going into the setup of RFQ/REOI documentation and RFP evaluation models, to elaborate more clearly on proposed project scope and pricing. Clients are starting to see that better project definition brings more clarity in consultant responses to RFPs. We are seeing allowances for escalation in rates for inflation in pricing models to better align with costs over longer term project timelines. Discussions are occurring with CEO and selected clients around contract terms and conditions that limit competition. Procurement processes are being improved by balancing risk and liability concerns with pricing. Firms are better understanding the current market and competitive pressures in Ontario, and are adjusting and improving their delivery models to enable them to provide quality projects more efficiently (as a percentage of capital cost estimates) than in past years. More and earlier consultation and client collaboration are positively impacting project outcomes, by better predicting and controlling schedule, scope creep and fees. On the consultant side, our project management capabilities have improved markedly over the last decade, making us more efficient at project delivery in the face of reduced availability of funding for engineering and capital works. Better overall planning is required to meet client and consultant delivery and financial targets. Public concern around cost has always been there, more so when attached to highly visible large projects (like airports, www.esemag.com

subways, toll roads, etc.) that become the subject of political debate and public consultation. However, while a certain fraction of the public will always be polarized around an issue, either for or against, the majority of the public just want to know their lives can continue without disruption. When taxes, water and sewer rates, tolls and user fees are adjusted upward (or are proposed to be) they often raise public ire. When the dust settles, they usually meet with acceptance. In some circles, catastrophe has been seen as the driver for change. This is certainly the case when the public and the public sector are directly impacted, such as when a bridge collapses or a water system fails. In the consulting sector, change is driven by the availability of work, competition for work, compensation for work, and the availability of quality staff to deliver that work. Working with our clients, we are beginning to alter our programs and protocols to more directly satisfy our real needs and the expectations of our clients. Contact: deangelisb@ae.ca

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Opening the design process to other professionals is a shift in engineering spirituality By Patrick Coleman, PhD., PEng., AECOM


ince it emerged in the 19th century, the engineering profession has been challenged by, first, a redefinition of “society” and, second, a societal shift in world view. Engineers, committed to working within their competencies, have had to invite other professionals into the design process in order to properly assess impacts on society and the environment. Opening the design process to non-engineers requires a change in the fabric that knits together the personal and professional ethics of engineers. Engineering is a profession charged by society with modifying the natural environment, through the design and manufacture of products (e.g., roads, sewers). Engineers are professionals in that they are trained and accredited for their work. They must be able to predict how their work will impact society and they are held accountable if they are wrong. The engineer must envision at the design stage the conditions under which the work will be done, the outcome of the work once it is done, and how what was created will ultimately be decommissioned and disposed of. The key point in the profession’s evolution was when engineers recognized that their ethics were not purely a personal choice. Public trust could only be earned if the profession shared a common morality expressed by an ethical code that was policed through an accreditation and licensing process. The various codes in use today share a common morality: protect the public, work within your competencies, treat colleagues with respect, and act in an honest and fair manner. The term “spiritual” invites misunderstanding in a secular world. However, for me personally, it is a term that defines the cement that binds our lives to our personal and professional moral codes. For the monks that harnessed technology to create labour saving devices in the Mid66 | November 2012

Strong communities ... embrace change. New discoveries require us to think differently and approach things differently, to think anew. (Tom Vilsack, 2006) dle Ages, their spirituality was based on a belief in a compassionate God who created a world governed by consistent physical laws (Ton Meijknecht and Hans van Drongelen 2004). Although, today, spiritual views within Canada are much more diverse than this, each philosophy or religion impresses upon its adherents the importance of honesty, respect and trust. Society expects, no matter what an engineer’s personal beliefs are, that they subscribe to the profession’s values. These are defined in either codes or legislative acts. For example, section 77 of the Professional Engineers Act (Ontario) R.R.O. 1990, Regulation 941 defines what society expects of a professional engineer in Ontario: 1. It is the duty of a practitioner to the public, to the practitioner’s employer, to the practitioner’s clients, to other members of the practitioner’s profession, and to the practitioner to act at all times with; i. Fairness and loyalty to the practitioner’s associates, employers, clients, subordinates and employees; ii. Fidelity to public needs; iii. Devotion to high ideals of personal honour and professional integrity; iv. Knowledge of developments in the area of professional engineering relevant to any services that are undertaken; and, v. Competence in the performance of any professional engineering services that are

undertaken. The most damaging threat to a commonly held morality is when a code becomes a rule to some (What can I get away with?), rather than a common expression of an aspiration (How to do better than this). If the financial crisis of today has taught us anything, it is that our economy will collapse under the burden of mistrust faster than that of national debt. When engineering emerged as a profession in the early 19th century, the world view held by most of society was that the natural world was to be subdued and fashioned for its benefit. However, not all of society benefited equally. Engineers often served the masters of industry who built their empires on the backs of the working class. What enlarged society’s world view was literature, politics, odour and disease. It was the latter two that sparked the “sanitary revolution”. It was not until 1858, when the British Parliament could not sit because of the stench from the Thames River, that politicians found the will to fund the construction of 132 km of underground main sewers to intercept sewage outflows, and 1,800 km of street sewers, to intercept raw sewage. Until then, this flowed freely through the streets of London. In 1962, Rachel Carson published her book “Silent Spring”. This book is widely credited with helping launch the environmental movement. The book argues that irresponsible pesticide use harmed and even killed not only animals and birds, but also humans. This was the start of non-engineers placing engineering decisions under increased scrutiny, arguing that engineers were not fulfilling their mandate to protect the public. Although the ethic of protecting “society” did not change, the definition of “society” did. With concepts of sustainability and ethical investment gaining popularity, engineers had to change the

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way they assessed projects. The key change was the adoption of processes based on some form of triple bottom line accounting. In doing so, engineers and others face the challenge of reconciling environmental, social equity and economic demands. In order to conduct this analysis, engineers must work with professionals from other disciplines such as sociologists, biologists, and architects. They need to open the design process so that their decisions can be “informedâ€? by other professionals. For example, in 2009, the San Francisco Public Utility Commission (SFPUC) adopted an Environmental Justice Policy which states â€œâ€Śno group of people should bear a disproportionate share of negative environmental consequences resulting from the operations, programs, and/or policies of the SFPUC.â€? One of the outcomes of this policy, outlined in San Francisco’s Sewer System Master Plan, was that stormwater management projects should be designed to provide community amenities. To accomplish this objective, the engineering team had to learn from other professionals (a) What is a community amenity? (b) What amenities are wanted or needed by the community? and (c) How do we mesh treating stormwater with creating such an amenity? A second example is deciding how to process solids. Beneficial use is typically defined as a disposal process that takes advantage of at least one of the nutrient, soil conditioning, or fuel properties of

sludge. Within this statement is an ongoing industry debate: Either return the carbon and nutrients to the land, or harvest the energy inherent in the biosolids to avoid using fossil fuels. Until recently, I would say I had a good understanding of the issue. That is, until I started to read David Montgomery’s book “Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizationsâ€?. He states: “Many factors may contribute to ending a civilization, but an adequate supply of fertile soil is necessary to sustain one. ‌ As odd as it may sound, civilization’s survival depends on treating soil as an investment, as a valuable inheritance rather than a commodity – as something other than dirt.â€? I asked myself: “How do I as an engineer weigh the use of biosolids as a renewable fuel (e.g., avoiding the use of fossil fuels) against using it as a solid amendment (e.g., regenerating new top soil)?â€? In this case, I need a climate scientist and an agronomist to “informâ€? the decision. Design development to design implementation stages sometimes move too fast to be properly influenced by other professionals who have a deeper appreciation for the systems the project interfaces with. In fact, engineers on the team often do not communicate across disciplines. The tendency of engineers to value “deliveryâ€? and “risk avoidanceâ€? biases the project to a solution that is based on what worked before. Sadly, this reduces engineering services to a commodity. Society expects more us of than this. The emergence of alternative ap-


proaches such as “Integrative Design� is a call to the engineering profession to add to their core values a commitment to embrace other professionals in the design process. Bill Reed and 7 Group in their book “The Integrative Design Guide to Green Building� state: “We should not expect project team members to know everything; rather, we should expect them to question everything they know.� Their process is currently being used by Metro Vancouver on the North Shore Project. At first glance, the method slows down the design process at the start when the key decisions are being made to ensure that the design is properly “informed� by other professionals. I would suggest this is the profession’s form of the mantra “measure twice, cut once�. The spiritual fabric that weaves ethics into the daily activities of engineers changed as our understanding of the natural world changed and our definition of society grew to include all inhabitants on our finite planet. Once we embrace this change, then we can be certain that “the difference between what we do and what we are capable of doing would suffice to solve most of the world’s problems� (Mohandas Gandhi). . E-mail: pat.f.coleman@aecom.com (This article reflects the personal views of the author only)

Sustainable Solutions

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The growing need for an effective content marketing strategy By Carl Friesen, CMC, MBA


ew trends in how prospects search for expertise and evaluate firms, point to the growing importance of online content that demonstrates expertise - and no selling allowed. Put yourself in the position of a prospective client who is looking for expertise that happens to be exactly in the sweet spot your firm wants most to build; this is your ideal client. Would this person be able to find your firm? In the past, their search would have involved paper, perhaps a trade or professional directory. Now, they’ll use Google – or increasingly, YouTube. Accordingly, it’s vital for engineering firms that want to get noticed and stand out, to get involved in the growing trend of content marketing. This means developing useful, nonsales-oriented information or “content” about your firm’s area of expertise, and making it available online. If a prospective client comes to see your firm as a trustworthy source of information, it’s a short step to starting a business relationship. Being discovered in a search for expertise To see how this works, consider a recent lunch conversation I had with a colleague I’ll call “Janet” who works with one of Canada’s biggest banks. She leads a team that sources external expertise. They get called in whenever the bank needs to solve a particular problem and doesn’t have the expertise in-house, or want to hire someone permanently. Because of this role, I figured she’d be a good person to shed some light on the question of how the bank determines whether a self-proclaimed “expert” is right for the assignment. Her team includes a researcher whose job includes online searches to find experts. This starts with keyword searches under relevant topics. The researcher develops a long list of people and firms that seem to have expertise on the subject at hand. Then, they’ll get to work qualifying 68 | November 2012

the names on the list. They look for articles that the purported “expert” has published, speaking engagements, the number of times quoted in the news media, courses they’ve taught, books published, white papers written and other indications of expertise. Depending on the level of recognition of the potential consultant’s expertise, Janet’s team develops a short list and then, after interviews with the people involved, makes a recommendation. The purpose of content marketing is to impress searchers such as Janet’s team that your firm has the expertise, bench strength, experience and other attributes to be the go-to firm in its areas of operation. Getting noticed in three kinds of searches Let’s say that you’ve recently made a key hire we’ll call Aisha, who’s worldclass on mitigating the potential environmental impacts of geothermal energy systems. You’re relying on Aisha to be the core of a new geo-energy practice area. According to Grant Goodwin of online agency AllRoads Inc., a prospective client looking online for that kind of expertise might use any of three ways to search,

if someone met Aisha at a networking event and wants to find out more about her professional credentials. They’ll simply enter Aisha’s name into a browser’s search box and see what shows up. The searcher will want to know what articles Aisha has authored, papers she’s published, books she’s written, speeches she’s given, awards she’s received, projects she’s worked on, and other evidence that she’s the go-to person to solve their issue. Probably, Aisha’s LinkedIn profile will be near the top of the search. If your firm wants to make Aisha look good to someone who is investigating her credentials and expertise, it’s important to support her in developing evidence of thought leadership. This might include arranging speaking engagements, helping her write articles and papers, and allowing her time to participate in industry functions. This information needs to be on Aisha’s LinkedIn profile, and if she doesn’t know the finer points of maintaining her profile, you should provide that support. 2. They know what they want – but don’t know who can help. If the potential client doesn’t have a name of a potential service provider, and is conducting a search to find those names, they might

They look for articles that the purported “expert” has published, speaking engagements, the number of times quoted in the news media, courses they’ve taught, books published, white papers written and other indications of expertise. 1. They’ve heard of you – but just how good are you? Many potential clients would start by looking for the name of a firm or individual, asking a colleague, friend, or other person in their network: “Who do you know who’s good at this topic?” or “Can you recommend a firm that knows its way around that issue?” This “name search” could also happen

conduct a “topic search.” For example, if the prospect has heard that surface and groundwater contamination are potential issues for geo-energy, that search might include “groundwater contamination geothermal” or “geo-energy precipitated salts.” If Aisha has published information on those topics, and it includes the right

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search engine optimization (SEO) measures such as keywords, she should show up as someone with expertise in those fields. To support Aisha, try thinking like a potential searcher. What search terms would you use? Then, make sure that those terms are prominent in headlines, meta-tags, descriptions and the content itself. 3. They’re new to a topic, and need to find a friend. It could be that Aisha’s prospective client wants to build green and has heard that for every technology, there are downsides. He doesn’t know much more, at present. So, he types in a “question search” such as: “What environmental problems are there with geothermal energy?” This is perhaps the hardest kind of search for your firm to show up in, because there are so many search words and terms that could be used. It’s also the most rewarding, because someone new to a topic will treasure any online resources that answer their questions, and be more likely to prefer your firm when it comes time to make a choice. Paying attention to all three types of searches can pay big dividends when it comes to demonstrating your firm’s expertise to potential clients. Why your firm needs a resource-rich website Getting noticed, favorably, means going beyond a “brochureware” site, still used by many engineering firms. This is an online brochure, with information about the firm, its practice areas and its principals. While a brochureware site provides essential information to anyone wanting to learn about your firm, it does little to convince a prospect that your firm has a superior grasp of its areas of practice. However, if your site has a good supply of white papers, published articles, case studies, videos, slide shows, audio files and other content, it has a better chance of being seen as the best firm in its field. Building and maintaining this kind of site can be a major investment in time from your client-service professionals, including those whose time is most valuable. It involves hiring appropriate marketing team members, possibly supported by external suppliers. And it demands management time. But the advantage is that prospective www.esemag.com

clients are already convinced that the firm is the go-to source in its industry. This means that your team spends less time preparing proposals and selling, and more time generating billable hours. Go further: third-party credibility Part of the solution to being visible to potential clients comes in just having persuasive, informative content available on your firm’s site. But for selling high-end professional services, you need to go the extra step of having your firm’s content available through sources already known to and trusted by the people you want to reach. This can include industry and trade magazines and their websites, professional journals, websites of professional organizations, and aggregated online web sources. Why is third-party hosting important? Imagine a competitive-bid situation. One firm’s representative says: “We’ve written six posts in our blog on this topic.” The other says: “We’ve published six articles on this topic in major international magazines.” The added credibility makes the effort involved worthwhile.

It also boosts its visibility. Many people have bookmarked websites that are part of their daily routine, including their professional and industry sites. Prospects are more likely to encounter your firm’s content, if it’s posted where they’re already looking. And, back to Google – search engines rank content higher if it’s found on sites that already have substantial credibility, shown in their traffic in and out. Content marketing doesn’t replace advertising in trade media, speeches and workshops, newsletters and other marketing tools. But it’s a growing trend, and firms that master it early have an edge in the marketplace. This article is adapted from Carl Friesen’s upcoming book, “Your firm’s expertise edge”. For more information, visit www.showyourexpertise.com

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Online education

American Public University is a leading provider of quality online education. APU offers more than 170 undergraduate and graduate degree and certificate programs for environmental science, policy, and management professionals. When you’re ready to learn more, visit StudyatAPU.com/ESE. Tel: 877-777-9081 E-mail: info@apus.edu Web: StudyatAPU.com/ESE American Public University

American Water provides beneficial reuse of biosolids; advanced technologies - Class A biosolids; mobile dewatering; digester, reactor, tank and lagoon cleaning; confined space entry; treatment plant by-pass; vacuum and haulage services; custom, mobile screening; and free assessments and quotations. Tel: 800-846-2097 E-mail: terratecsales@amwater.com Web: www.terratec.amwater.com American Water

Versatile filter The WWETCO FlexFilter™ from WesTech Engineering provides an innovative solution for CSO, primary treatment, and tertiary treatment. The combination of tapered media compression, porosity gradient within the media bed, and a low flow backwash system make it one of the most versatile and efficient filters on the market. Tel: 705-725-9377, Fax: 705-725-8279 E-mail: info@cmeti.com Web: www.cmeti.com C & M Environmental Technologies

Foam plug for leaks

Pump and controller

Brentwood Industries’ AccuFAS system, based on PVC structured-sheet media, provides biological secondary or tertiary treatment. Combined distribution and vertical flow media provide high performance at low cost. Contact Brentwood Industries’ local representative in Ontario, C & M Environmental Technologies Inc., for more information. Tel: 705-725-9377, Fax: 705-725-8279 E-mail: info@cmeti.com Web: www.cmeti.com

Syntho-Plug is a football-shaped, polyurethane impregnated, water activated foam plug used to temporarily stop the flow from a leak in anything from a pipe to a tanker, to a railcar and even a boat hull. It is initially pliable to insert into a void and quickly expands and hardens to fill the void; it can even be applied below the water line. Tel: 800-265-0182, 905-949-2741 Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com

The SS Geosub, available through Concept Controls, is the most versatile single stage 12 Volt DC pump available. Designed with all stainless steel components, the SS Geosub allows you to sample with confidence even in the harshest well conditions. Tel: 888-207-2212 E-mail: sales@conceptcontrols.com Web: www.conceptcontrols.com

C & M Environmental Technologies

Canadian Safety Equipment

Concept Controls

Distribution & vertical flow media

Product & Service Showcase

Biosolids management

Denso Petrolatum Tapes Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso 70 | November 2012

Innovative bar sceen

Multiparameter controller

The Duperon® FlexRake® FPFS model features ThruBar™ technology, which ensures scrapers fully penetrate bars and eliminates the issues of wrapping and clinging debris. Energy-efficient operating speed of .5 rpm; discharges once per minute to reduce head loss and slot velocity. Tel: 800-383-8479, Fax: 989-754-2175 E-mail: chegler@duperon.com Web: www.duperon.com

Memosens sensor technology and the new digital Liquiline CM442 platform make "plug & play" online analyzers and samplers a true reality. Modular design allows for any combination of inputs (DO, TSS, pH, conductivity, chlorine, nitrate, Ion Selective and blanket level). All are easily customized to your specific process. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/analysis


Endress+Hauser Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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The new CSF48 from Endress+Hauser sets the benchmark in water quality monitoring. Choose between vacuum or peristaltic pumping, and multiple sampling routines. Opt for the two industrial digital sensors (expanding to eight in the future) and connect to the SCADA with the latest communications protocols. A complete monitoring and collection solution responding to today’s industrial requirements. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com

Process mixing system The HYDRAULIX mixing systems feature a unique double nozzle design which allows for even energy distribution. This process optimizes solids suspension and contact to promote efficiency in a wide range of wastewater and bio-fuels applications. E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com

Redundant level sensing

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

The new PSL 5.0 Pump Station Level Controller from Greyline Instruments features redundant level sensing. It includes a non-contacting ultrasonic sensor and you can also connect a loop-powered pressure sensor for redundant sensing in applications with foam or grease. Tel: 888-473-9546 E-mail: info@greyline.com Web: www.greyline.com Greyline Instruments

Self cleaning strainers

Dynamic inline mixer

Ozone systems

Hayward Gordon’s self cleaning strainers are designed for continuous removal of entrained solids in demanding applications that require uninterrupted flow. Typical applications include straining fresh, brackish or salt intake water for plant services, protecting heat exchangers, pumps or valves and straining secondary effluent prior to discharge or providing clean plant service water. They are available for pipeline sizes from 2” to 60”, fabricated in carbon steel as well as stainless steel. Web: www.haywardgordon.com

The Hayward Gordon dynamic inline mixing system ensures any chemicals added to the process pipeline are completely and uniformly dispersed throughout the flow stream. This device achieves uniformity not normally attainable with static inline mixers. Numerous drive styles and seal configurations are available with sizes ranging from 6” diameter to mixing systems suitable for 54” pipelines. Ideal for applications which require additives to be “flashed” into a process stream. Web: www.haywardgordon.com

H2Flow offers Pinnacle’s revolutionary Zenith ozone systems, producing up to 600 lbs/day (5% wt.) per unit. With their highly efficient design, they can be turned up/down for 100% dosage variability. They are built with solid components, are rugged, proven, extremely compact, and water cooled, with no yearly maintenance. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: info@h2flow.com Web: www.h2flow.com

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Multi-parameter monitoring

YSI EXO, an advanced Water Quality Multi-Parameter Monitoring Platform features: Wireless Bluetooth communication; smart sensors; wet-mateable sensor/cable connectors; built in GPS; extended battery life of 90 days. New parameters include fDOM and Total Algae. Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: salesv@hoskin.ca Web: www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientific


Flow and volume data collection Ideal for monitoring flows in canals, culverts, open channels and pipes, the SonTekIQ Series Standard, Plus and Pipe, can collect data in as little as 8 cm of water. Four beams provide velocity measurement. Installation and integration are easy, and total volume data is obtained. Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: salesv@hoskin.ca Web: www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientific

Screw press

Huber Technology’s RoS3Q Inclined Screw Press provides high performance sludge dewatering in a compact, entirely enclosed machine. The RoS3Q provides efficient and reliable operation with minimal operator attendance. The slow rotational design is simple and energy-efficient. E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.huberforum.net/ESE

Huber Technology

November 2012 | 71

Product & Service Showcase

Water sampler

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Sludge screen

The Strainpress® Inline Sludge Screen from Huber Technology is designed to effectively screen sludge in pressurized lines. Reduces maintenance costs and increases the operating reliability of downstream sludge treatment systems. The Strainpress is precision manufactured of stainless steel. There are more than 700 installations. E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.huberforum.net/ESE

The GritCup™ free vortex grit washing and SpiraSnail™ dewatering system provide cost-effective automated washing and dewatering with no water requirements. 90% capture of all grit 106µ and larger and > 60% total solids is guaranteed. Tel: 866-615-8130, Fax: 503-615-8130 E-mail: wastewater@hydro-int.com Web: www.hydro-int.com

Huber Technology

Hydro International

Screening system

Product & Service Showcase

Advanced grit washing/dewatering

Wastewater pump stations are facing an influx of sewer clogging rags and debris, so JWC Environmental engineers developed a breakthrough vertical Auger Monster® screening system to fit inside cramped pump stations and provide complete pump protection. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-833-8858 E-mail: jwce@jwce.com Web: www.jwce.com JWC Environmental

Interpreter register Master Meter's Interpreter Register System, based on proven Dialog® 3G technology, is a universal AMR upgrade that replaces the existing register on almost any brand of meter in minutes, without service interruption. It delivers AMR technology without wires or connections. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: mastermeter.com Master Meter 72 | November 2012

Septage receiving system

The Honey Monster® SRS-XE is an improvement to JWC Environmental’s award-winning Honey Monster. This automated septage receiving system uses a combination of grinding, solids removal, washing and dewatering to remove unwanted trash before septage is allowed to enter a wastewater treatment plant. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-833-8858 E-mail: jwce@jwce.com Web: www.jwce.com JWC Environmental

Ultrasonic meter

Octave® offers the latest in ultrasonic metering technology and is anexcellent alternative to mechanical compound, single-jet, and turbine meters with no moving parts. Octave excels at maintaining sustained accuracy for the life of the meter while providing smart AMR capabilities. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: mastermeter.com Master Meter

New technical reference blog

IPEX has launched ABetterSewer.com, a new blog for wastewater engineers, designers and operators. It will cover technical issues related to drop structures, sewer hydraulics and odor control, and will inform on technology and opinions of industry experts with a specific focus upon the Vortex Flow Solution. Tel: 905-403-0264 E-mail: jennifer.tuck@ipexna.com Web: www.abettersewer.com IPEX Management

Pumps for sterile processes With its Vita line of five different pump series for sterile processes – KSB caters to the strict hygienic requirements of the beverage and food processing industry. It consists of four centrifugal pumps (Vitachrom, Vitacast, Vitastage and Vitaprime) and a rotary lobe pump (Vitalobe). These highly versatile and maintenancefriendly pumps can be employed for almost any task related to the transport of liquid or viscous food. Tel: 905-568-9200 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca KSB Pumps

Safety hatches MSU MG Safety Hatches - the open and shut case for hatch standards. With single, double and multi-door configurations in aluminum and stainless steel, they are made right here in Canada. Check us out on the web www.msumississauga.com Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com

MSU Mississauga Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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MSU MG Safety Hatches set the standard in Canada for fall-through protection. They withstand pedestrian and occasional traffic loads. With single, double and multi-door configurations in aluminum and stainless steel, they are made in Canada. Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com Web: www.msumississauga.com MSU Mississauga

Water reuse systems ORIVAL, Inc. now provides complete water filtration systems designed for specific municipal and industrial applications. These systems include filters, manifold, valves and control. ORIVAL ORG and OR Series of Automatic SelfCleaning Filters are designed to withstand the day-in and day-out rigours of POTWs. A wide range of filters is available from ¾” to 24”, and filtration degrees from 5 to 3000 microns. Tel: 201-568-3311, 800-567-9767 E-mail: filters@orival.com Web: www.orival.com ORIVAL, Inc.

Metering pump The awardwinning delta® with optoDrive® provides diverse control and operating capabilities in a capacity range of 7.5 - 75 l/h, 362 psi - 29 psi. The delta from ProMinent has many advanced features: pulsed or continuous dosing; automatic detection of airlock, low pressure and high pressure; and an automatic degassing option. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca/delta ProMinent Fluid Controls


NGWA conference

Join fellow groundwater professionals at the 9th annual NGWA Summit! In addition to platform presentations, panels, lectures, and more, you'll hear keynote speaker Charles Fishman, the New York Times best-selling author of The Big Thirst. Tel: 800-551-7379, 614-898-7791, Fax: 614-898-7786 E-mail: customerservice@ngwa.org Web: www.NGWA.org, www.GroundwaterSummit.org National Ground Water Association

Portable test for TPH

The PetroFLAG system is a field portable test for determining total petroleum hydrocarbon in soil by quantifying all fuels, oils, and greases as total hydrocarbons. The test is ideal for site assessments, tank removal procedures, oil spill clean-up and remediation activities. Tel: 800-560-4402, Fax: 877-820-9667 E-mail: tmcgowan@ospreyscientific.com Web: www.ospreyscientific.com Osprey Scientific

Solution architecture

Schneider Electric is the only global specialist providing EcoStruxure, an integrated systems architecture unifying process management, energy management and security management for water and wastewater. Our solutions can save up to 30% in operating and design costs. Tel: 800-565-6699 E-mail: canadian.pss@ca.schneiderelectric.com Web: www.schneider-electric.com Schneider Electric

Rotary lobe pump The NETZSCH TORNADO® positive displacement, self priming, valveless pumps, offer high performance and are selected and configured for the requirements of each application. They are designed for intermittent or continuous operation, provide gentle pumping of the pumped product and are ideally suited for transfer, process and dosing applications. There are highly abrasion resistant and replaceable protection plates on both faces of the housing. Tel: 705-797-8426, Fax: 705-797-8427 E-mail: info@netzsch.ca Web: www.netzsch.ca NETZSCH Canada Inc.

Flow meter DulcoFlow® flow meter is based on the ultrasonic measurement method. Operation without moving parts guarantees a long service life and wear-free operation. Its measurement range is between 0.1 and 50 litres per hour. A unique feature is that, for the first time, pulsed flow and the amount of liquid which has been dispensed by each pump stroke can be reliably and precisely measured and monitored. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls

Screening and grit removal in one package

PISTA®Works™ provides four headworks processes on one skid package. It combines screening, grit removal and grit washing into one integrated system which is pre-assembled and shipped direct to the job site, significantly reducing field installation costs while allowing for a compact footprint. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless November 2012 | 73

Product & Service Showcase

Safety hatches

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New biofoul screen

The new Biofoul Screen is designed to significantly reduce the amount of biofouling on Solinst Levelogger water level dataloggers when deployed for extended periods. The copper screen naturally resists biofouling, reducing maintenance and affordably improving long-term performance of the Levelogger sensors. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Website: www.solinst.com Solinst

Water quality monitoring

Trickling filters

The YSI IQ SensorNet water quality monitoring and control system is specifically designed for wastewater applications. With a variety of sensors, many of them available with advanced selfcleaning technology, the IQ SensorNet helps optimize your process while lowering energy costs. Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-293-9774 E-mail: info@spdsales.com Web: www.spdsales.com SPD Sales

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: wbs@waterloo-biofilter.com Web: www.waterloo-biofilter.com Waterloo Biofilter

Peristaltic pumps

Oil/water interface sensor

The Pegasus Alexis® Peristaltic Pump from Waterra is a self-contained sampling station that includes all the best features of these devices. Packaged in the rugged Pelican™ 1430 case and incorporating its own power supply and charger, this pump will keep you sampling in the field all day long. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

The new Waterra digital HS-2 Oil/Water Interface Sensor is an improved version of the original HS-1. The HS-2 uses ultrasonic technology to detect liquids and its sensor is not damaged by strong solvents. Available with either imperial or metric tapes and open or closed reel formats. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Waterra Pumps

Product & Service Showcase

Inline disposable filters

Waterra currently has three Inline Disposable Filter options available: the 0.45 Micron high turbidity FHT-45, the 0.45 Micron medium turbidity FMT-45, and the 0.2 Micron CAP300X2. All our filters use high quality polyethersulphone filter media (which offers excellent particle retention above the target micron size range) and are pre-rinsed with 1L of de-ionized water to ensure purity. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

Water level indicator The new Waterra digital WS-2 Water Level Indicator is an improved version of the original WS1. The WS-2 is available with either imperial or metric tapes and open or closed reel formats. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps 74 | November 2012

Chemical-free water treatment

New Amalgam UV lamps

WEDECO Ozone Generators from Xylem eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and micro-organisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca

Xylem’s new WEDECO ECORAY® ultraviolet lamps offer significant savings in operation and life cycle costs. The UV lamps incorporate a new long-life coating and improved overall stability and performance. An innovative gas and amalgam mixture in the lamp utilizes up to 80 percent less mercury. Corresponding electronic ballast cards have been fine-tuned to the specific requirements of ECORAY lamp aging characteristics. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca


Xylem Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Endress+Hauser introduces Operations App Endress+Hauser recently announced an Operations App for iPhone, iPod touch and iPad mobile devices. An Android version will be released soon. The free app lets instrument engineers and maintenance technicians quickly download specific documentation such as operating instructions and technical information for Endress+Hauser instruments and analyzers, and data from the Endress+Hauser Life Cycle Management program. With Operations App and a smart phone, users can access data wherever they are, and whenever they need it.The app provides quick and easy access to up-to-date product information and device details such as order code, configuration information, date of production, product status and availability, manuals, and spare part information, including exploded view drawings, compatibility and mounting advice. With the app, a user simply enters the serial number or scans the data matrix code on the device with the phone, and immediately gains access to the information. From a mobile phone, Operations App allows users to access features of the Endress+Hauser Life Cycle Management web-based tools. These tools apply to different life cycles of an instrument installation, and help manage technical and operational information needed by a plant and its maintenance people. www.us.endress.com/operations-app

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Montreal Protocol celebrates silver jubilee Hailed by some as the most successful treaty in UN history, for achieving universal ratification and meeting its targets ahead of schedule, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer celebrated its 25th anniversary in September. The Protocol, which was ratified by 197 countries, has enabled reductions of over 98 per cent of all global production and consumption of controlled ozonedepleting substances. It also oversaw the global phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by 2010. continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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Global observations have verified that atmospheric levels of key ozone depleting substances are going down and it is believed that, with implementation of the Protocol's provisions, the ozone layer should return to pre-1980 levels by 2050 to 2075. Thanks to controls implemented under the Protocol, the global community will be spared millions of cases of skin cancer and cataract - in addition to trillions of dollars in health care. Globally, the Protocol is estimated to have prevented 19 million more cases of nonmelanoma cancer, 1.5 million more cases of melanoma cancer and 130 million more cases of eye cataracts. Action under the Protocol has also had significant climate benefits. Because ozone depleting substances are also global warming gases, the reduction in the production and use of these substances yielded a net integrated reduction of approximately 25 billion tonnes of CO2 between 1990 and 2000. The Montreal Protocol’s Multilateral Fund has assisted developing countries to meet their compliance commitments by financing industrial conversion, technical assistance, training and capacity building support worth over US $2.8 billion. It is estimated that, without the Protocol, by the year 2050 ozone depletion would have risen to at least 50 per cent in the northern hemisphere's mid-latitudes and 70 per cent in the southern mid-latitudes, about 10 times worse than current levels. www.unep.org/ozonaction

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During WEFTEC 2012, the Water Environment Federation’s (WEF) 85th Annual Technical Exhibition and Conference held in New Orleans in October, Cordell Samuels, plant superintendent for the Duffin Creek Water Pollution Control Plant in the Regional Municipality of Durham, became the third WEF president from Ontario. A total of 17,452 water professionals and 980 exhibiting companies from around the world attended the conference which offered more than 1,000 presentations in 148 technical sessions, 24 workshops, seven local facility tours, as well Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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as several high profile events. Key sessions and workshops featured in-depth topics such as boosting biogas to energy, utility funding and financing strategies, trenchless rehabilitation technology, water reuse planning, wet weather treatment, and green infrastructure. Of particular interest was the highpowered water leaders session “Rethinking Water Services: Navigating Our Water’s Future,” which featured an opening keynote address by U.S. EPA Administrator Lisa P. Jackson. Following Jackson’s address, a panel of leaders in the water community’s academic, technology, and public service sectors shared their perspectives on current and future challenges faced by the water industry and how best to meet them. Another highlight was the Utility Executives Forum, which picked up the subject about a 20-year vision for the future role of water utilities in communities from the “Rethinking Water Services” session. A facilitated discussion considered in practical terms how the water sector can revolutionize thinking and adopt new ideas and innovations more broadly and consistently, resulting in better and sustainable service at lower costs. The 2012 Operations Challenge Competition was won for the third consecutive year by Terminal Velocity from the Virginia Water Environment Association. www.wef.org

Ministries playing games with the EBR Ontario's Environmental Commissioner says officials in the provincial government are defying the will of the Legislature and ignoring the public's right to be involved in the development of environmental policy. In Part I of his 2011/2012 Annual Report, Gord Miller highlighted the government's obligations under Ontario's Environmental Bill of Rights, 1993, also known as the EBR. "The EBR is one of the most significant environmental laws of our time," says Miller. "It gives Ontarians a toolkit they can use to make sure Ontario ministries are listening to their concerns and protecting their right to a healthy environment. But a number

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of ministries are frustrating the public's right to know and be involved in environmental protection." Miller says a key tool in the EBRtoolkit is the Environmental Registry (www.ebr.gov.on.ca). Ministries that are covered by the EBR are required to post any environmentally significant proposals on this searchable on-line database. The posting of a proposal notice guarantees the public at least 30 days to comment on the proposed government initiatives, notification of the decision, and an explanation of how their comments were considered in the final decision. The Environmental Commissioner says a number of ministries are ignoring the requirements of the EBR and proceeding with far-reaching environmental plans, policies and programs without properly notifying and consulting the public. Miller singled out the Ministry of Natural Resources for special criticism. "Over the past few years, it has increasingly evaded its obligations under the EBR. I think the Ministry of Natural Resources should be classified as a 'chronic offender' for its repeated refusal to post important proposals on the Environmental Registry. The Legislature should be offended by the ministry's conduct." Miller says the flouting of the public's rights extends beyond the refusal to use the Environmental Registry. Some important ministries still aren't "prescribed" or covered by the Environmental Bill of Rights. For example, the Ministry of Infrastructure, which is in charge of legislation with clear environmental impacts like the Places to Grow Act, is still not prescribed. Other ministries, already subject to the EBR, systematically deny every application from the public for a policy review or an investigation of suspected illegal activity. The Ministry of Northern Development and Mines and the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing have in fact denied every application they have received since the Legislature gave the public these rights 18 years ago; the Ministry of Natural Resources has not undertaken a single application submitted in the last five years. Moreover, four years after the Ontario Divisional Court ruled that ministries Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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must consider their Statements of Environmental Values (SEVs) when making decisions on all instruments (e.g., permits, approvals, licences) that are prescribed under the EBR, the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Ministry of the Environment still are not fully complying with this important requirement under the EBR. www.eco.on.ca


Water chemistry changes affecting lake organisms Changes in Canadian lake water chemistry have left small water organisms vulnerable to their predators, which may pose a serious environmental threat, according to a new study. “At low calcium levels, the organisms grow more slowly and cannot build their armour,” says study lead author Howard Riessen, professor of biology, SUNY College at Buffalo. Riessen and colleagues, including York University biology professor Norman Yan, studied the effect of changes in water chemistry on plankton prey defenses. Specifically, they examined how lower calcium concentrations affect Daphnia (water flea) exoskeleton development. These low calcium levels are caused by loss of calcium from forest soils, a consequence of decades of acid rain and multiple cycles of logging and forest growth. The results were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “Calcium is a critical element for Daphnia and many other crustaceans,” Riessen says. “Daphnia build their exoskeletons, which include some defensive spines, with calcium to protect themselves from predators. Where calcium levels are low, the Daphnia have softer, smaller, exoskeletons with fewer defensive spines, making them an easy snack.” This phenomenon of reduced calcium is also playing out on a much larger scale in the world’s oceans. Increases in ocean acidity are complicating calcium acquisition by marine life, which is an underreported effect of global carbon dioxide emissions. Thus marine plankton may also find themselves more vulnerable to predators. continued overleaf... www.esemag.com




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Why do plankton matter? Yan, the study’s senior author and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, emphasizes that the tiny creatures are critical to our survival. “Much of the world's photosynthesis, the basis of all of our food, comes from the ocean's plankton. The oxygen in every other breath we take is a product of phytoplankton photosynthesis,” says Yan. The public is used to stories about changes in water chemistry that lead to large-scale fish kills, says Riessen. “These changes are more insidious. Daphnia might not be a household name, but they are food for fish, and they help keep our lakes clean. Changing the balance between Daphnia and their predators marks a major change in lake systems.” www.yorku.ca

New data on WWTP biogas production The North East Biosolids and Residuals Association (NEBRA) has unveiled a new website that provides updated data on anaerobic digestion and biogas production at wastewater treatment facilities across the United States. It provides policymakers, market analysts, project developers, and water quality professionals with key information about the potential for biogas production as a renewable fuel. The data, which build on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data, show that the wastewater solids (sludge) from some one-third of the 3300 major U.S. wastewater treatment facilities undergo anaerobic digestion and produce biogas. Almost all of this wastewater biogas production occurs at facilities that treat from 1 to hundreds of millions of gallons per day (MGD) of wastewater. In addition, of the more than 13,000 minor facilities (less than 1 MGD in size), only a small number operate anaerobic di-

80 | November 2012

gesters. There is clearly potential for considerably more biogas production from wastewater. The use of biogas at wastewater facilities is also under-developed. The data show that one-third of the treatment facilities that produce biogas do not put it to use for energy, and only about 300 use it to generate electricity. The EPA, other policy makers, and renewable energy developers are enthusiastic about the potential for reaping more energy from biogas, thus displacing reliance on fossil fuels. www.biogasdata.org

Veolia executive named Leader of the Year The Human Resources Management Association of Chicago (HRMAC) has named Jim Bell, President & CEO of Veolia ES Technical Solutions, its 2012 Leader of the Year. The annual award program honours one Chicago-based business leader who has demonstrated the ability to execute leading-edge human capital practices while realizing business strategy success. Mr. Bell was selected by the HRMAC Board of Directors for his proven ability to lead by example, prioritize employees ahead of shareholders and implement successful human capital initiatives within the Veolia organization. www.veoliaes.com

KSB Canada appoints new sales manager KSB Canada has appointed Dirk Ruppert as its new National Sales Manager. Ruppert was recruited from KSB’s global headquarters in Frankenthal, Germany, where he held key positions developing offshore markets for the company. Ruppert, who will be responsible for KSB Canada’s sales teams working from

offices in Mississauga, Montreal and Calgary, joined KSB in Germany more than a decade ago from the Mercedes Car Group. For more information, E-mail: mblundell@ksbcanada.com

Bell named greenest company Bell has been named one of the World’s Greenest Companies and is the only Canadian company included in the prestigious Top 15 list compiled by U.S. newsmagazine Newsweek and two leading research firms. The Green Rankings assess the environmental performance of the largest publicly traded companies in North America and around the world. Bell’s strong performance in 2012 was based on the size of its environmental footprint, effective environmental policies and practices, and transparency in disclosing the environmental impact of its business. Bell was the first Canadian communications company to achieve ISO 14001 certification for its environmental management system. Bell placed 13th in the list of the World’s Greenest Companies, which also included major international brands like IBM, BT Group (British Telecom), SAP and Nokia. Newsweek highlighted the positive impact of Bell’s e-billing initiative, which saved an estimated 33,000 trees and 4,100 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions in 2011 alone. The Bell Blue Box program also featured prominently as an example of its environmental leadership. The program has collected more than one million phones since 2003 that would have otherwise ended up in landfills. It has provided support to non-profit environmental organizations such as WWF Canada. Bell’s new campus buildings in Montréal and Mississauga are LEED-certified and a total of 37 Bell buildings have received BOMA’s Building Environmental Standards (BESt) designation in recognition of exemplary energy, water and waste management as well as indoor air quality. Fourteen Bell buildings have also been recognized by Recyc-Québec for waste reduction leadership. www.bce.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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GALA 2013 - “STORIES FROM THE FIELD” Friday, March 22, 2013 Liberty Grand - Toronto DRINKS



Gala-vanting for a good cause: Water For People Canadaʼs Inaugural Gala The best events are the ones where you can have fun and support a great cause at the same time. Water For People Canadaʼs first inaugural Gala event brought these two ideas together smashingly and was a resounding success, raising over $36,000 for international water and sanitation projects. Water For People Canada President, Indra Prashad, notes “corporate support to Water For People has been instrumental in helping us achieve our goal of improving people’s lives through the basic necessities of clean water and sanitation.” Join in on the second annual event, with a theme of “Stories from the field,” by booking March 22, 2013, World Water Day, on your calendar. Take advantage of networking with some of Ontario’s leading water and wastewater industry experts and companies, a live band, and exotic cuisine from some of the countries where Water For People works.

The Galaʼs organizing committee, on behalf of Water For People Canada, would like to thank the following for their valuable support of the 2012 inaugural event:

Gold Sponsor: Ontario Water Works Association (OWWA)

Silver Sponsors: AECOM Canada Ltd., Bennett Contracting Millgrove Ltd., CH2M HILL, Comstock Canada Ltd., EMA Canada Inc., ENV Treatment Systems Inc., King City Group Ltd., Maple Reinders Constructors Ltd.

Bronze Sponsors: Alberici Constructors Ltd., C&M McNally Engineering Corporation, CIMA, Clearway Construction Inc., GENIVAR, GHD Inc., Hatch Mott MacDonald, Ontario Municipal Water Association (OMWA), R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd., SNF Canada Ltd., Stantec Consulting Ltd., Syntec Process Equipment Ltd., and Trojan Technologies.

Water For People works with people and partners to build innovative, and long-lasting solutions to the water, sanitation, and hygiene problems in the developing world. Through their ʻEveryone Foreverʼ campaign, they emphasize their vision that everyone – every family, every school, and every clinic – in every district and region in the countries that Water For People works in, should have access to safe drinking water and sanitation forever. For more information on Water For People, please visit www.waterforpeople.org

If you would like to buy tickets, learn more about the organization, or how to sponsor the Gala, contact Water For People Canada at info@wpfcanadagala.ca or by calling (416) 499-4042. Or visit the main Water For People Canada Gala website at www.wfpcanadagala.ca.

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Advertiser INDEX



ACG Technology ...........................83 AECOM ...........................................63 American Public University ..........23 American Water/Terratec...............48 Assmann.........................................53 Associated Engineering..................5 Barr Plastics...................................55 Canadian Safety.............................28 Can-Am Instruments .....................43 CIMA Canada Inc. ..........................61 Cole Engineering ...........................63 Concept Controls...........................38 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute ....84 Delcan Water ..................................67 Denso .............................................31 Endress + Hauser ..........................13 Envirocan ......................................83 Greatario.........................................55 H2Flow ............................................58 Hayward Gordon............................21 Hoskin Scientific......................17, 44

Lakehead area first with protection plan Protecting drinking water sources and the proposed Great Lakes Protection Act are part of the Ontario government's plan to protect and restore the Great Lakes. When completed, local watershed-based source plans will protect more than 450 municipal drinking water sources. The Lakehead Source Protection Committee is the first of 38 areas to deliver a plan to protect local drinking water sources. Developed collaboratively by local communities, it focuses on protecting the municipal drinking water sources for Thunder Bay and Rosslyn Village. Lake Superior provides drinking water for over 100,000 people in the Thunder Bay area. Two groundwater wells serve 30 homes in Rosslyn Village. www.ontario.ca/news

NB conducts school water fountain testing program

Huber Technology ...........................9 Hydro International........................29 IPEX...........................................11, 25 Kemira.............................................38 Levelton Consultants ....................69 Master Meter.....................................3 MSU Mississauga ..........................35 National Ground Water Assoc. .....34 OCION Water Sciences Group......18 OPW Engineered Systems............57 Osprey Scientific ...........................18 Pinchin Environmental..................59 Pinnacle Environmental Tech.......45 ProMinent .........................................2 Schneider Electric .........................15 SEW-Eurodrive...............................28 Smith & Loveless...........................27 Solinst Canada...............................33 Spill Management .........................51 Stantec............................................65 Titan Env. Containment .................56 Water For People ..........................81 Waterloo Barrier.............................58

New Brunswick has embarked on a school water fountain testing and remediation program. The following steps are being taken following testing of 2,000 fountains across the province: more than 180 fountains are being replaced; 26 water treatment systems are being installed; and more than 250 fountains have been deactivated and removed. It is estimated that capital costs will total more than $320,000 to buy and install new fountains, water treatment systems and other plumbing work. Once remediation is completed in each school, water quality will be retested and will have to meet requirements before fountains are available for use. To date, the cost of providing bottled water to students and staff has totaled more than $50,000. Bottled water will continue to be provided in designated schools until test results are satisfactory. www2.gnb.ca

of mayors and local service district representatives in each region. The updated regional service commission map, outlining the regions, has been posted online, following a public review of the proposed boundaries. In setting up the commissions, interim boards of directors will be tasked with the adoption of their first budgets. The same board composition will continue when the commissions come into effect on Jan. 1, 2013. The creation of the commissions is one of the five objectives contained in the Action Plan for a New Local Governance System in New Brunswick. www2.gnb.ca

WERF research findings WERF has released seven Executive Summaries associated with energy, biosolids, and trace organics. These explain the central issue the research sought to resolve, key findings and conclusions, and the management and policy implications of the research: 1. Barriers to Biogas Use for Renewable Energy (OWSO11C10) 2. WERF’s Combined Heat and Power System Evaluation Tool (U2R08b) 3. GELCAT. CHEApet, and the Life Cycle Assessment Manager for Energy Recovery (LCAMER) (OWSO6R07c) 4. Sustainable Food Waste Evaluation (OWSO5R07e) 5. Attenuation of PPCPs Through Golf Courses Using Recycled Water (WERF1C08) 6. Gathering Unpublished Data for Compounds Detected in Biosolids (TOBI1T11) 7. Pilot Testing: Surveillance and Investigation of the Illness Reported by Neighbors of Biosolids Land Application and Other Soil Amendments (08HHE5PP) PDFs of these reports are available to download by visiting WERF’s product catalog at www.werf.org/search

Regional service commission boards announced

Waterra .........................12, 19, 41, 46 XCG Consultants ...........................61 Xylem Water Solutions ....................7 Xypex ..............................................37

82 | November 2012

The New Brunswick government has created 12 regional service commissions, governed by boards of directors made up Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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