Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine September-October 2012

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Contents ISSN-0835-605X • Sept/Oct 2012 Vol. 25 No. 5 • Issued October 2012 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com Consulting Editor




Product Showcase . . . . . . . . 71-75 Environmental News . . . . . 76-82 Professional Cards . . . . . . . . 76-81 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com

New brownfield regulations have far reaching implications - Guest Comment

10 Ingersoll wastewater treatment plant gets new glass-fused-to-steel roof

Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com

12 Examining the long-term health effects of artificial fluoridation

Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com

16 Water main leaks located non-invasively in Resolute Bay

Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: peter@esemag.com

18 Simple and efficient multi-stage stormwater flow control

Technical Advisory Board

20 Should rich countries pay reparations to poorer ones for the climate crisis?

Archis Ambulkar Brinjac Engineering, Pennsylvania

24 Treating oily wastewater from machining and casting operations

Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario

30 Water treatment system removes arsenic, iron and manganese for BC resort village

Peter Laughton P.Eng. Consulting Engineer, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

34 How Ontario’s latest budget is impacting environmental programs 36 Chatham-Kent upgrades five historic road structures 38 Peel regional council says yes to concrete pressure pipe to protect local jobs 40 Proper insurance can ensure equipment failure doesn’t break your business 42 Microtunnelling technology lessens environmental impact at Toronto airport 46 Removing and treating groundwater at a Toronto waterfront project 48 Municipalities proving vital to ensuring climate change mitigation efforts 52 Vancouver’s new approach to sustainable development planning 56 Protecting municipal water supply assets from cyber attack 58 New mobile hardware solutions can increase staff productivity 60 Managing the Kirkland Lake wastewater treatment plant upgrade - Cover Story 62 Strict noise limits require new look at remediation system design 64 Assessing Calgary’s sewers for flow reversal project 66 Protecting ground and surface water at a shuttered explosives facility 69 WRF commissions comprehensive UV disinfection study

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Guest Comment

Watch how you water your lawn By George Duncan uly 1, 2011, marked the implementation of dramatic changes to Ontario’s “brownfields regulation” (153/04) and now that a year has passed there hasn’t been much to celebrate. Even hard-core environmentalists would have to agree that working with the new reg can be summed up in one word: frustrating — extremely so! That’s bad enough, but the new rules are creating scenarios that may best be described as ludicrous. Under the new rules, many of the contaminant limits have been substantially lowered, resulting in previously cleaned sites now being reclassified as “contaminated”. This is because the cleanup left the site with residual contaminant levels above these new limits. In addition, we have the strange situation where groundwater in many downtown city sites must meet contamination limits far below drinking water standards even if the groundwater is not being drunk! That may be encouraging news to the environmentalists, but it is creating some very interesting legal questions for municipalities, land developers, realtors, lawyers and property owners. Question: What happens if a municipal water line leaks drinking water into my site’s groundwater? Under the old rules the answer would be “not much.”


But, under the new rules the groundwater would very likely be classed as contaminated and the site would need an extensive and expensive cleanup or risk assessment. Chlorine-treated drinking

water often carries levels of chloroform far above the allowable limit for industrial groundwater, but far below the current limit for Ontario drinking water. In other words, the groundwater is safe to drink but definitely not safe to leave where it is unless you can prove this by risk assessment. That should be a real worry for property owners and municipalities alike, considering the condition of most municipal water supply lines. However, only a few seem to be aware of this issue. We at A&A Environmental Consultants, are already running into such situations on industrial sites in downtown areas. Informing our clients that their sites’ groundwater is good enough to drink but not nearly good enough to meet the new downtown groundwater standards does not create warm fuzzy feelings about environmental protection. Especially when they are told the site needs to be cleaned up or risk-assessed and neither option is cheap or quick! Of course, the next issue raised is who’s responsible for the contamination, and that’s when things can get legal and nasty. If the only known source of the chloroform is from chlorinated drinking water, the client will very likely sue the municipality for the cleanup costs, the continued overleaf...



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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Guest Comment delayed development costs, the loss in property value, etc. And who can blame them? But guess who gets to pay the court costs and the legal settlement costs, all because treated drinking water flowed onto a site? What does all this mean for watering your lawn in the summer? The City of London recently had a major water line break, spilling millions of litres and causing a city-wide emergency, but thankfully the water was untreated and straight out of Lake Huron. I wonder if anyone analyzed the water to see if it met the current provincial standards for groundwater. I predict we haven’t seen the end of this one. Even if the client does clean up an impacted site, who’s going to guarantee it will stay “clean� (i.e., below the infinitesimally low allowable limits) in the future, especially if you can’t identify the off-site source(s)? How many city sites out there fail to meet the limits because of some unknown off-site activity that is none of their doing or responsibility? Proving liability will be much more expensive and time-consuming than the cleanup costs or the risk assessment costs, and will take much longer. Perhaps we could ignore all of this and simply decide to go ahead and develop the site anyway because there’s nothing in the regulation that says you must clean up a site simply because it doesn’t meet the new limits. That might work if you

have the cash to go it alone and a lawyer who is unaware of the liabilities. But, it won’t fly with your bank manager or mortgage lender. It also won’t fly with the Ministry of the Environment if you are trying to redevelop the site from a less to a more environmentally sensitive use, such as commercial to residential. Under these conditions you must meet the requirements of the regulation in order to get a record of site condition (RSC). A building permit cannot be issued without having a RSC in place. Before July 1, 2011, an RSC could be obtained in a few weeks following completion of a phase I or II environmental site assessment (ESA) showing the site met the old limits. The new regulation is extremely detailed and specifies a host of data that must be gathered for phase I and II ESAs, including extending the area to be examined to 250 m from each of your site boundaries. Even then, if there’s a mammoth 100-hectare industrial complex that just touches your 250m investigation area, you have to include that too! The last stage in all of this is to apply to the MOE for an RSC. This can only be done using the Ontario government’s one-window website where you must upload all your data onto the RSC application form, which cannot be filled in off-line. The problem with one-window shopping is that the window gets pretty crowded and uploading the data takes ages. The site is not at all user-friendly


and in the beginning suffered numerous frustrating crashes that lost all your data. That’s bad enough, but because the regulation is so nit-pickingly detailed, any infraction or failure on your part, or anyone else’s, will cause the Ministry to reject the application. The form must be completed by a “qualified person� who is responsible to see that the lawyer’s letter, the legal survey, the client’s business certification and the historical title search are all properly filled in. So far, our success in doing so has been pretty low because the lawyers, surveyors and accountants don’t understand what the regulation requires and we are very hesitant about giving legal advice to lawyers. None of us wants to cause harm to the natural environment, but is all this legislation solving the real environmental issues or simply putting up more and more barriers to real progress? When I have to tell my staff not to pour their bottle of drinking water onto the soil on a site because it may contaminate it, I think we’ve gone too far. Dr. George Duncan is with A & A Environmental Consultants Inc. E-mail: gduncan@ aaenvironmental.ca

Sustainable Solutions

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

Oxford County’s Ingersoll WWTP receives a ‘roof lift’ xford County, Ontario, owns and operates nine wastewater treatment plants, serving over 65,000 residents and various industries and commercial institutions. The Oxford County Ingersoll Wastewater Treatment Plant provides secondary treatment for the Town of Ingersoll. The plant has an approved treatment capacity of 10,230 m3/d and includes two separate facilities fed from a common pumping station and preliminary treatment works. Both the old and new plants are conventional activated sludge plants. The first plant was built in 1947 and has a design capacity of 3,410 m3/d. The second plant was constructed in 1974, retrofitted in 2004, and has a design capacity of 6,820 m3/d. The WWTP treats both domestic and industrial wastewater. In 2009, the average daily flow rate was approximately 7,276 m3/d, or 71% of the approved capacity. Over the years, both the tanks and the roofs have experienced wear and weathering. Through scheduled maintenance, the concrete tanks continued to be operational; however, the roofs had corroded. Operations staff recognized that the existing roofs were in poor condition and needed to be replaced. Public Works considered two options to upgrade the digesters.


Aerial view of the Ingersoll Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Option 1 was to keep the existing concrete tanks and look at purchasing new custom-sized glass-fused-to-steel roofs. Option 2 was to replace both the tanks and roofs. After discussing both options with the County’s engineering consultants, the decision was made to repair the existing concrete tanks and design and install new glass-fused-to-steel roofs. This option would be more economical in the short term. In addition, it would allow time for a complete environmental assessment on the projected requirements of the facility up to 2035.

Because the existing tanks were being kept, the tender required roofs be custom designed to fit tanks 46.19’ in diameter. Oxford County pre-purchased Greatario’s custom-designed glass-fused-tosteel covers in early 2011, to be installed in coordination with a general contractor who would complete the overall digester upgrades. Greatario’s externally supported roof (ESR) is built to accommodate higher static and dynamic loads, such as mixers and for higher pressures and vacuum conditions. VitriumTM glass-fused-tosteel coating is a single, strong, integrated glass and steel material fused together at 1,500°C in a climate controlled furnace. The subsequent hard, inert barrier on both the interior and exterior tank surfaces guards against corrosion. Impermeable to liquids and vapours, it controls undercutting caused by corrosion and offers excellent impact and abrasion resistance. Construction of the roofs began in October, 2011. They are now installed, and the digesters were scheduled to be operational in July 2012. For more information, E-mail: sburn@greatario.com

Greatario’s externally supported roof is built to accommodate higher static and dynamic loads. 10 | September 2012

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Water Treatment

Does artificial water fluoridation mean no golden years for the elderly? By Sheldon Thomas he question that we all ask of ourselves is: “What condition will I be in when I reach old age?” The reasonable among us realize that our own life-choices and actions will greatly determine our health and our quality of life in those years after sixty five. What we have less control of are the practices and actions of others that affect us. Artificial water fluoridation is one of those practices. Ostensibly introduced as a public health measure to reduce the number of dental cavities among whole population groups, the practice got underway without any rigorous toxicology studies, or completed clinical trials. The missing scientific examination was, fortunately, undertaken by impartial researchers. Their findings paint a completely different picture of the safety of fluoridation chemicals, and of the claimed health benefits of ingesting them for many years.There is substantial credible evidence that water fluoridation will undermine the chances of surviving into old age with a sound body and a sharp mind. The Boomers The Baby Boomer generation will, for the most part, turn 65 in a few years. The percentage of elderly in the population will grow markedly from that point. With that projected increase in numbers, the ‘age-related’ problems that commonly affect the elderly will soon enough begin to place massive stress on the provincial and municipal health care systems, and on the families of the elderly. What if many of the age-related ailments that we have grown so accepting of have nothing to do with normal aging? This is no ordinary generation entering its golden years. The birth of all those Boomers near-exactly coincides with the introduction of artificial water fluoridation. The 2006 National Research Council of the Academy of Sciences report on Fluoride in Drinking Water has designated kidney patients, diabetics, seniors and babies as 'susceptible sub-popula-


12 | September 2012

tions' that are especially vulnerable to harm from ingested fluorides. Increased bone fractures in the elderly The elderly are at increased risk of bone fracture injury because of the longterm bio-accumulation of fluoride in their bones. Fluoride seeks out calcium in the body, and there are great calcium reserves in the skeletal system. Most of the fluoride in the body, about 99%, is contained in bone. Where water is fluoridated, bones are high in fluoride by old age. Studies based upon autopsies of deceased elderly have revealed as much as 8000 ppm/kg fluoride in bone ash. Fluoride will seriously weaken the bone structure of the elderly. The action of fluoride causes the bone to lose elasticity, the tensile strength required to resist bending fractures. There is solid evidence that hip fractures increase significantly in fluoridated communities. Increases appear to range from 40-100%, depending on the age of the subjects.

Fluoride, cancer and the elderly As a result of water fluoridation, entire communities, not just the elderly, may face more cancers than would otherwise be the case. In 1990, the US Public Health Service’s National Toxicology Program conducted a well-designed study that showed sodium fluoride to cause cancer at cumulative doses, comparable to those ingested by humans over a number of years. The risk of developing cancer increases dramatically with age. Indications are that 88% of new cases of cancer will occur in people over the age of 50. Approximately 40% of Canadians will develop cancer in their lifetime. These are not acceptable figures. A 2-out-of-5 chance of developing cancer is not a normal expectation of aging. Something is causing this, and many believe the staggering increase of synthetic chemicals created and introduced since World War II is to blame. Dr. Dean Burk, Ph.D., former chief continued overleaf...

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Water Treatment chemist and head of National Cancer Institute Research, believed that the growth of cancers was linked to abrupt environmental change. He was convinced artificial water fluoridation was one of those abrupt changes. Bone cancer Fluoride's particular affinity for the calcium reserves in bone explains its link to bone cancers. Fluoride is a 'mitogen' - meaning it can stimulate the proliferation of bone-forming cells called ‘osteoblasts’. Osteosarcoma is a cancer caused by an abnormal proliferation of osteoblasts. Bone cancer appears to have two peaks, first in adolescence (15 to 19) and second with the on-set of old age (50+). In 1992, Dr. Paul Cohn conducted a thorough, peer-reviewed and large human population study for the State Board of Health in New Jersey. He found that males aged 10-19 were nearly seven times more likely to get bone cancer if they lived in a fluoridated community, than if they lived in a non-fluoridated community.The general population in Cohn’s fluoridated study

14 | September 2012

area was five times as likely to develop bone cancer. General population would include the elderly. Thyroid disease: poor prognosis for the aged In 1955, a report in the New England Journal of Medicine indicated a 400 percent increase in thyroid cancer in San Francisco since that city began fluoridating its drinking water just five years earlier. Fluoride is well known to interfere with the functioning of the thyroid gland which produces vital hormones which control metabolism. An impaired thyroid will lead to diminished mental and physical ability. Fluoride displaces iodine in the thyroid, greatly depressing thyroid function and rendering a person hypothyroid from iodine deficiency. With age comes a progressively greater accumulation of fluoride in the body. Inevitably, this points to the elderly as being particularly affected by hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism has become epidemic on this continent. One out of three is likely to suffer from it by mid-life. Those affected can become overly-tired,

cold-sensitive, overweight, and depressed. They often endure arthritis-like symptoms, hair loss, infertility, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and periods of prolonged illness. In the elderly, thyroid disease is very common. At autopsy, finding a "normal thyroid gland" is rare, testifying to the incredible high prevalence of thyroid disorders among the elderly. Fluoride and aging If the human body were likened to an engine, the engine management module would be the body’s enzymes. Fluoride is a powerful enzyme poison. Austrian researchers proved in the 1970s that as little as 1 ppm fluoride concentration can disrupt DNA repair enzymes by 50%. When DNA can't repair damaged cells, we get old .. fast. By its corruption of enzymes, fluoride robs the body of its natural ability to fend off external pathogens. Fighting infection is a battle often lost by the elderly. According to the Institute of Medicine, “there appears to be a direct relationship between increasing age and susceptibility to infections. Factors that

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Water Treatment may contribute to the predisposition of the elderly to infections include impaired immune function.” Water fluoridation and Alzheimer’s The Boomer generation has been tagged with a second nickname, ‘Generation Alzheimer’s’. “Alzheimer’s is a tragic epidemic that has no survivors. Not a single one,” says Harry Johns, president and CEO of the Alzheimer’s Association. “It is as much a thief as a killer. Alzheimer’s will darken the long-awaited retirement years of the one out of eight baby boomers who will develop it”. Why this generation? Why did Alzheimer’s spike so suddenly across a single generation? What was so different in that immediate time period after the Second World War? Water fluoridation was just getting underway as the war ended. As a never-seen-before program of fluoride mass medication using communal drinking water supplies, it was perhaps the one thing that could immediately, physically, and permanently affect so many newborn across this continent. Aluminum accumulation in brain tissue has long been linked to Alzheimer’s Disease. Recent studies have shown that fluoride enables aluminum to enter the brain, and accumulate in brain tissue. Aluminum is often present in finished drinking water. Aluminum salts are the preferred water industry treatment chemicals used to help clarify raw intake water. Invariably, trace amounts of aluminum remain in the finished drinking water. Unfortunately, it is chemically impossible for fluorine not to combine with aluminum when the two encounter each other. The formation of fluoride compounds is basic chemistry. The fluorine atom is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements. An aluminum atom has three extra electrons in its valence shell. The fluorine atom will bind to any atom with a spare electron. That union will form an ‘alumino-fluoride complex’ as soon as fluorine ion is added to the finished water at the plant. Alumino-fluoride complex is neurotoxic. It is, therefore, a near-certainty that fetuses, babies, children, adolescents, adults and the elderly will ingest alumino-fluoride neurotoxins for as many years as they consume fluoridated water. www.esemag.com

Conclusions The numbers of reasonably robust, clear-thinking elders is shrinking. It seems a rarity to meet someone over 75 who is independent, current with world affairs and capable of voicing a learned opinion, and is still able to tend to their own needs. What we see, instead, is a rich and prospering elder care industry, and a health care system that is taxed to the limit to tend to the numbers of sick, diseased and disabled elderly.

Did water fluoridation cause all of the above? The best answer would be no. But too many studies indicate that water fluoridation may have played a big role in the surprising frailty of those now entering their ‘golden years’. Sheldon Thomas is the founder of ‘Clear Water Legacy’ (www.clearwaterlegacy.com), and a former Manager of Water Distribution for the City of Hamilton, Ontario.

September 2012 | 15

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Water main leaks located non-invasively in Resolute Bay

Resolute Bay is one of the most northerly communities in Canada.

esolute Bay is an Arctic waterway in the Qikiqtaaluk region of Nunavut. Home to approximately 250 people, it is one of the most northerly communities in Canada. It is also one of the coldest inhabited places in the world, with an average yearly temperature of −16.4°C. Resolute Bay’s water system was plagued by underground leaks that were responsible for the loss of approximately 40% of the town’s drinking water. This was an especially costly problem for the community, because of the significant expense required to treat the water and continuously heat and circulate it through the system. This helps prevent freezing and minimizes the expansion and contraction of the insulated, high density polyethylene (HDPE) water mains that are located underneath the permafrost. The government of Nunavut tried numerous leak detection technologies. However, none were effective due to the insulation and plastic composition of the water mains, the system’s lack of service fittings and the inability of most leak detection technologies to differentiate between noise created by circulating water


16 | September 2012

and that created by leaks. Unlike with metallic pipes, leaks on plastic mains are characterized by relatively low noise frequencies and amplitudes that are almost impossible to accurately detect with typical leak noise correlators. Desperate for a solution, Nunavut turned to Kudlik Construction Ltd., to help remedy Resolute Bay’s water loss problem. Kudlik Construction researched numerous leak detection solutions before partnering with Mississauga-based Echologics. Their decision was the result of a report from the National Research Council of Canada’s Institution for Research in Construction. It documented the effectiveness of the company’s acoustic-based technologies in providing accurate, noninvasive leak detection, especially in scenarios involving plastic pipe, multiple leaks and excessive background noise. Traditional acoustic leak detection methods often involve the insertion of hydrophones (water microphones) into a pipe and having the water carry them downstream as they listen for leaks. However, such intrusive technologies would not work in the case of Resolute Bay, as the diameters of pipes in its water system were too small. Echologics’ LeakFinderRT™ technology is non-invasive, as it uses hydrants, valves or direct attachments to the pipe’s outer wall. Surface mounted sensors are placed at two locations along the suspect water line, in most cases on valves or hydrants. Sensors can be placed between 120 m and 1,300 m apart. A correlator compares the acoustic signature of the leak with the expected speed of sound in running water. A computer algorithm then calculates the data to accurately pinpoint the location of the leak. Recent developments in leak detection acoustics enable this kind of technology to detect leaks on pipes of various materials. This is a result of an enhanced correlation function, which dramatically improves the ability to accurately identify and locate narrow-band leak noise. This was ideal for Resolute Bay’s water

system and for others that have plastic pipes, multiple leak situations, and excessive background noise created by water flows. During the three day project, engineers acoustically surveyed more than 2,800 m of plastic mains, using surface mounted accelerometers placed on service shut offs, on valves, or directly on the pipe. The test area was broken down into 39 sections, based on the layout and geometry of accessible fittings.

Each leak was estimated to be responsible for the loss of an average of 3.5 gallons of water per minute.

Engineers non-invasively correlated a total of 11 leaks in eight of the sections. The leaks were located between the surface mounted sensors, which were placed an average of 75 m apart. Each leak was estimated to be responsible for the loss of an average of 3.5 gallons of water per minute. Not only was Kudlik Construction able to help Resolute Bay reduce water loss and gain a better understanding of its water system, but this was carried out without breaking ground or disrupting service. For more information, E-mail: ashorter@muellerwp.com

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Stormwater Management

Simple and efficient multi-stage stormwater flow control By Jeremy Langburt, Gianfranco Maragno, and John Cigana anaging stormwater flow for a range of events with one control device is not always possible or efficient, yet several municipalities require flow regulation for five to 100-year storm events. Conventional design approach A single static flow regulator used to throttle the outlet of a retention basin will meet the design point for a specific storm frequency. However, it will typically release less than the maximum flow permitted in a more intense storm. This approach is inefficient as it forces designers to oversize their retention basins to retain extra water and increases emptying time. To meet multiple set points, a single flow regulator must have moving parts, which increases the capital and maintenance costs associated with the flow control system. Additionally, using electricity to operate the moving parts increases the chances of system failure, since it may not be available during an intense rain storm. With both static and mobile flow regulators, it is nearly impossible to select a single flow regulator that will accurately control water flows from two year storms up to 100-year storms. In order to maintain precision, it is obvious that multiple flow regulators are required. The Hydrovex Multi-Stage approach John Meunier Inc. has developed a design philosophy for retention basin optimization that only employs multiple flow regulators that do not require electricity, or moving parts to operate. The HydrovexÂŽ Multi-Stage is a cost-effec-


tive, precise, and low maintenance solution for stormwater flow control over the entire range of storm intensities. In this design, the inlet for each regulator is placed at a discrete height, corresponding to a specific storm intensity, so that it only begins passing and throttling the flow when necessary. This configuration ensures precision in flow control since each regulator is operating in its intended range. This approach can be used in concrete retention basins, as well as both dry and wet ponds. To regulate flow for minor events, like two and five year storms, a stormwater vortex flow regulator like the Hydrovex VHV flow regulator is proposed. The inlet is placed below the pipe invert for floatables control. This equipment uses the vortex principle to throttle stormwater flows. The main advantage is its ability to offer large openings in the flow path and thereby reducing the chances of the regulator being blocked by solids found in the water. A vortex regulator typically has an opening size four to six times larger than an orifice plate selected for the same design point. In addition to blockage mitigation, the Hydrovex VHV guarantees a 5% margin of error in its flow curve over a complete head range. For medium sized events, such as 10 and 25 year storms, the Hydrovex Pond vortex flow regulator may be used. This regulator uses the same vortex principal as the VHV, but its inlet is elevated above the unit. The inlet pipe acts as an overflow weir, in that there is no flow through the unit until the water level in the basin is above the inlet height. Weir height may


Allowable Discharge Rate (L/s)

5 year 25 year 100 year

9 54 277

Table 1: Sample design criteria for a stormwater flow control system.

be adjusted on site thanks to the Pond’s telescopic arm assembly. This selection is ideal for midrange flows, because it offers the precision and large openings of a vortex regulator, the level control of an overflow weir, and the flexibility to adjust the system in the future. Finally, for very large flow rates, notably 50 and 100 year storms, the recommendation is to use a Hydrovex FluidGate (FG). Since the flow rates for these events are much larger, there is no need for the large-orifice advantage of a vortex regulator for blockage mitigation. The FG uses the orifice-flow principle to throttle stormwater flow. One advantage of the FluidGate is that the opening area can be adjusted on site, in case of future revisions to design. There are dozens of options available for combining different individual Hydrovex wet weather technologies for an optimized flow control system. Case study: Wet pond design To illustrate the operation of one Hydrovex Multi-Stage configuration, a wet pond was designed following standards and regulations for stormwater management in a Canadian province. For the

Storm intensity

Water Elevation (m)

VHV Vortex Regulator (L/s)

Pond Vortex Regulator (L/s)

FluidGate Regulator (L/s)

Total flow leaving basin (L/s)

Wet retention 5 year 25 year 100 year

141.160 141.800 142.150 143.100

0 9 11.6 17.5

0 0 42.4 58.9

0 0 0 200.6

0 9 54 277

Table 2: Sample arrangement for a three-staged flow regulation system in a wet pond. 18 | September 2012

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Stormwater Management purposes of this article, only three different storm intensities are examined. Table 1 lists the maximum allowable stormwater release rates for the three storm intensities in the modeled wet pond. Table 2 illustrates how a system combining the Hydrovex VHV, Pond, and FluidGate can release the maximum permitted discharge for each of the three storm intensities. Since these flow regulators have no moving parts, any increase in water height will force more water to pass through them. Therefore, the design point for higher-flow regulators is adjusted accordingly. Since the basin is designed as a wet pond, all water below the elevation of 141.160 m is retained in the basin. Once water levels rise above the wet retention height, flow regulation through the VHV begins. Even though the pipe inverts for the VHV and the Pond are at the same height, the Pond has no flow through it until a water level of 141.800 m is reached in the basin. The inclinations of the first two sections of the curve are characteristic of

vortex regulators. Having such a steep slope, these regulators are able to reach the maximum permitted outlet flow under low pressures. This effect greatly reduces the retention volume and emptying time of the wet pond. The final section of the curve has a much shallower inclination since the orifice-controlled FluidGate accounts for over 70% of the total out flow. Since only three storm events are examined in this study, the FG curve is meant to account for all intensities greater than a 25-year storm occurrence. As the last column of Table 2 clearly shows, this approach enables designers to achieve the allowable 5 year flow (9 L/s), the 25 year flow (54 L/s) as well as the 100 year flow (277 L/s) without compromising precision or basin minimization. Jeremy Langburt, Gianfranco Maragno, and John F. Cigana are with John Meunier Inc., a subsidiary of Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies. E-mail: jcigana@johnmeunier.com The Hydrovex VHV vortex regulator.

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September 2012 | 19

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Climate Change

Should rich countries pay reparations to poorer ones for the climate crisis? By Dr. Bernard Fleet ust before the Copenhagen conference on climate change in 2009, Naomi Klein, a Canadian author, journalist and environmental activist, wrote an article in Rolling Stone entitled ‘Climate Rage.’ Copenhagen was supposed to be the meeting of world leaders that would set the course to keep global temperatures below catastrophic levels. However, it was another dismal failure, a stalemate, much the same as the previous 14 or more international conventions. Klein’s argument goes as follows. Before the industrial revolution in the 19th century, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels were about 280 parts per million. But it has been known for well over a century that CO2 levels affect global temperatures because of its unique properties to absorb infrared heat radiation. The Swedish chemist and Nobel laureate Svante Arrhenius had speculated more than 100 years ago that CO2 levels in the atmosphere were linked to climate temperature and hence to the occurrence of the Ice Age. Since the industrial revolution, with massive amounts of CO2 released from burning of coal and other fossil fuels, atmospheric CO2 levels have risen to 397 parts per million and are steadily increasing. The challenge is to keep these levels more or less stable; 350 parts per million is the target in order to constrain the rise in global warming to below 2 degrees centigrade by 2050. We have, in fact, passed this target and the number continues to grow. So there were enormous expectations that the 190 world leaders at the Copenhagen meeting would come up with some real solutions to the problem and not just half-measures like carbon offsets and emissions trading — real solutions such as keeping coal and oil in the ground. In fact, Copenhagen proved to be the same as all other climate change conventions dating back to the Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro in 1992. It was another standoff between the wealthy industrialized nations led by the United


20 | September 2012

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii; data posted by National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (Courtesy of Climatenow.org).

States, with Canada right alongside, the more realistic Europeans and the poorer developing countries. The climate debt proposal The smartest but most controversial idea put forward by the developing world leaders was the idea of ‘climate debt’. It proposed that rich countries should pay reparations to poorer countries for the climate crisis. World Bank senior economist Justin Lin spelled it out: “About 75 to 80% of the damages caused by global warming will be suffered by developing countries although they contribute about one-third of greenhouse gases.” In fact, the numbers are even starker; the industrialized nations with less than 20% of the world’s population contribute over 80% of global emissions. Sharon Loomeata, an advocate for the Maasai tribepeople in Kenya, states: “The Maasai do not drive SUVs or 4x4s or fly off thousands of miles on vacation, yet they are the ones suffering.” Drought

caused by climate change has killed thousands of cattle on which their livelihood depends. Climate debt is at the heart of the global climate change debate. If industrialized nations were to put money in a ‘Green Fund’, developing world countries could then access these funds to support many ways of adaptation. This could mean anything from building sea walls to introducing clean energy solutions, such as solar. They argue, convincingly, that these funds should not be seen as a loan or a gift but as the repayment of debt. The major opposition to the idea of climate debt has come from the United States with its strongly supported oil and gas lobby. Two questions need to be answered here: What is a fair and equitable solution to fix the climate change problem? What will happen if we just continue on the same track of ‘business as usual’? continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Climate Change The United Nations Framework on Climate Change, or UNFCC, ratified by 192 countries including the United States, has already asserted that “the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in the developed countries”. It also clearly states that actions to fix the problem should be made “on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities.” Now we see that millions of people on small islands such as the Maldives, poor landlocked communities, and rapidly developing countries such as India, China and Brazil are suffering from the effects of climate change. These countries want to increase their own standard of living, which means increasing the use of fossil fuels. China is building one new coal-fired power plant every two weeks. To meet rapidly growing industrial demand, India needs to increase its energy output seven times over the next decade. Activists from the developing world are actively pushing the climate debt

The government of the Maldives holds an underwater cabinet meeting to raise awareness of climate-induced rising sea levels.

concept, arguing that rich countries should reduce their emissions “to make atmospheric space available to the developing world.” As Klein points out: “It’s a massive challenge, equivalent to a ‘Marshall Plan for the Earth’.” Climate change and global security One last point is the link between cli-

mate change and the rise of terrorism and social unrest. It is clear that as sea levels rise and droughts spread, competition for food and water in developing countries will fuel increasing unrest. This subject was the theme of the very first climate change conference, The Changing Atmosphere: Implications for

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22 | September 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Climate Change Global Security, held in Toronto in June 1988. We have already seen clear signs of this in the recent Arab Spring, which was ignited in a large part by increasing food prices in the region. A 2007 U.S. study on global security predicted that, in order to keep out millions of climate refugees fleeing hunger, drought and conflict, the United States and other rich nations would likely decide to “build defensive fortresses

the Rio+20 conferences, the U. S. and Canada are behaving as if 200 years of over-emissions never happened. Canada’s experience of climate change is quite mild so far, including some melting of sea ice in the Arctic, which is incidentally creating a new fishing industry, and some forest fires. It’s nothing like the U.S. experience, with its series of massive tornados and major droughts, and nothing like what many de-

Canada’s experience of climate change is quite mild so far, including some melting of sea ice in the Arctic, which is incidentally creating a new fishing industry, and some forest fires. around their countries.” We are already seeing this in Europe, where thousands of Africans are risking their lives trying to cross the Mediterranean in leaky boats, and, similarly, where refugees from Central America are trying to reach the United States. But now, after the failures of Copenhagen and more recently at Durban and

veloping countries are facing in the tropical regions with storms, floods, droughts and other weather-related disasters. So why is there so little interest among the public in climate change and the threat of global warming? For Canadians, it is the gradual nature of the threat and the failure to see 10 or 20 years ahead. Paul Krugman, economics

advisor to President Obama, says it is like “boiling the frog.” If you drop a frog into a pot of hot water it will jump straight out. But if you put a frog in a pan of cold water and slowly heat the pan, the frog does not notice and slowly heats up until it dies. In a 2009 report to the U.K. government, Sir Nicholas Stern, former chief economist at the World Bank, warned that global warming is “the greatest market failure the world has seen and the seriousness of the risks from inaction or delayed action is now overwhelming.” Here in Canada, with our oil sands obsession, it is highly unlikely that our government will heed this message anytime soon. Dr. Bernard Fleet is with Ryerson University, Faculty of Environmental Applied Science & Management. E-mail: Fleetec@gmail.com. This article is based on a lecture as part of a graduate course on Our Energy Future: Climate Change and the Transition to the Low Carbon Economy. The full course materials are accessible at www.fleetec.com/ryerson

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September 2012 | 23

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Industrial Wastewater

Treating oily wastewater from machining and casting operations By Ken Rilling astewater from machining and casting operations contains a stew of fluids, including hydraulic oils, die lubricants, mould release agents, cutting fluids, coolants and cleaning agents. It has a milky or cloudy appearance and a high concentration of animal and vegetable oil, as well as mineral oil and grease (MOG), after free oil removal. Samples of chemically stabilized oil-emulsified wastewater are shown in Figure 1. Emulsified oils can be generated mechanically and chemically. Mechanical emulsification is induced by agitation from pumping or mixing. This type of emulsion is relatively unstable and will exist for a relatively short time, allowing for conventional gravity separation to be used for removing the emulsion. Knowing whether the oil-emulsified wastewater contains an unstable emulsion is helpful when deciding how to treat it. A simple method for determining an unstable emulsion is to heat a sample volume of the wastewater in a jar with warm water to approximately 70°C. If separation occurs, that means the thermal energy has increased the buoyancy of the emulsion, allowing for separation. Another approach is to cool the sample on ice to increase density difference; the emulsion may float to the surface. If either of these methods results in the oils and greases being separated, then conventional gravity separation can usually be applied. Otherwise, the oil emulsion is chemically stable and an alternative pretreatment approach will be required. Impact of chemically emulsified oil on wastewater The colour of oil-emulsified wastewater can be explained by the Tyndall effect (scattering). Visible light being scattered off the suspended “oil droplets” or micelles generates a unique colour or appearance. A cloudy or milky-looking appearance indicates that the diameter of the micelles is 1 µm or greater. The micelles can be generated by de-


24 | September 2012



Figure 1: Photos of chemically stabilized oil-emulsified wastewater in glass containers. Wastewater in (a) has a milky appearance and in (b) a cloudy appearance.

tergents and surfactants, reducing the surface tension in the solution, which allows for the formation of the micelles. Some examples of surfactants are stearic acid, laurel dodecyl sulphate, alkanol amide and sodium sulphonate fatty acid salt. These chemicals generate a stable emulsion due to their chemical structure, which has two opposing ends. One is hydrophobic (water-fearing) and the other is hydrophilic (water-liking). The surfactant is contained in the outer surface layer of the micelle, with the entangled hydrophobic ends directed to the interior of the micelle. The hydrophilic ends directed into the aqueous phase allow for the micelle to be a stable suspension in water. The interior of the micelle is a suitable environment for organics and particulates. This results in a relatively high concentration of organics and particulates suspended in the wastewater. Possible consequences of this are wastewater quality parameters that exceed acceptable sewer discharge by-law limits.

Lubricants contain oils that generally constitute 60% to 80% of the mixture. The remainder are chemicals that constitute the additive package. The additive package may contain detergents (surfactants) that aid as friction modifiers and reduce oil deposits (or sludge), viscosity modifiers, anti-foam agents, and dispersants, pour-point depressants that disrupt crystal formation of any waxes, extreme pressure agents and anti-wear compounds. Water-soluble cutting fluids are generally mineral, animal and vegetable oils blended with surfactants and then diluted to a concentration of 5% to 10% in water. Some cutting fluids may appear to be clear, while still containing oils and surfactants. Cooling fluids can also contain polyethylene glycol (PEG). Cleaning agents applied on the manufacturing floor may contain chemical detergents. How do all of these chemicals contribute to exceedances in sanitary sewer continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Industrial Wastewater by-law quality limits? Chemically stable micelles can be generated by the detergents and surfactants utilized as friction modifiers, dispersants, cutting fluid additives and cleaning agents. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), fats oil and grease (FOG) and MOG are affected by the oils and greases in the lubricating fluids. Levels of zinc, phosphates and sulphur are affected by zinc dithio diphosphate esters (ZDDP), acid phosphates and sulphurized fats, respectively, that are utilized as anti-wear and extreme pressure agents. Styrene, aromatic compounds and phenol content in the wastewater can be affected by the styrene esters, alkylene coupled aromatic compounds, and coupled alkyl phenols, respectively, applied as pour-point depressants. Total suspended solids (TSS) of the wastewater can be affected by dirt, rubber and metal particulates or fragments that may be encapsulated by the surfactants. These encapsulated particles provide additional surface area where oils or chemical agents can reside.

Thus, potential chemical contributors to the exceedances in the sewer by-law limits are chemicals from the fluids and lubricants that make up a necessary part of the manufacturing process.

Total suspended solids (TSS) of the wastewater can be affected by dirt, rubber and metal particulates or fragments. Pretreatment technologies Typical approaches to dealing with chemically stable oil-emulsified wastewater, after free oil removal, include: • Chemical treatment with coagulating and flocculating agents in a dissolved (DAF) or induced (IAF) air flotation system. • Concentration of the emulsion by ultrafiltration. • Concentration of the emulsion by evaporation.

Coagulation and flocculation Coagulating reagents generally destabilize the suspension of micelles, by reducing the double layer surrounding the charged surface of the micelle, or neutralizing the charges in the double layer. Reduction in the double layer thickness allows for closer contact of the micelles. Flocculating agents entrap the bridged micelles in the sweep floc, generating the organic float (frothy suspension). Organic float that is generated by flocculation can be skimmed off the surface of the wastewater. It usually constitutes 5% to 10% of wastewater volume being treated. It can be dewatered by a filter press and roughly 10% of the float volume will be generated as pressed organics. Filtrate from the press is returned to the treatment process. The aqueous phase from the DAF unit contains watersoluble organics that can contribute to the BOD. Therefore, this phase may require additional treatment to meet local sanitary sewer by-law limits. Otherwise, surcharges will need to be included in the operating costs. continued overleaf...

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26 | September 2012

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Industrial Wastewater DAF and IAF systems increase buoyancy of the flocs that are generated by the coagulating and flocculating agents. This is achieved in the DAF system by pressurizing, with air, a portion of the aqueous effluent that is sent back to the DAF tank. The flocs in the DAF tank are nucleation sites for the dissolved air to go out of solution, which subsequently provides increased buoyancy for the flocs. In the IAF system, a sparger is applied in the tank to generate air bubbles in the wastewater. These air bubbles prefer to attach to a surface such as the flocs, which increases the buoyancy of the flocs. Wastewater may require pH adjustment prior to addition of the coagulating and flocculating agents as these agents have a pH range over which they are effective. Increasing pH can also aid in precipitating dissolved metals in the wastewater. The effectiveness of the coagulant and flocculant is influenced by chemicals in the lubricants, because different detergents and dispersants can generate more stable micelles. The chemical reagents and/or concentration applied

28 | September 2012

may require modification if changes occur in fluids used in the plant, since they subsequently end up in the process wastewater. Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration (UF) is an approach that may physically retain the micelles, with water removal of up to 90% or greater being achieved. Materials of membrane construction can be polymeric, ceramic or metal-based. The membrane structure can be a composite or an asymmetric homogeneous material. Membrane material and manufacturing process influence average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity of the UF membrane. UF membranes are described by average molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), expressed in units of Daltons. The average MWCO corresponds to an average pore size. The pore size range for UF membranes is 0.01 to 0.1 Âľm, with an approximate MWCO of 10,000 to 100,000 Daltons, respectively. As noted previously, the diameter of the micelles in the milky wastewater is approximately 1 Âľm or greater. There-

fore, a UF membrane with a pore size significantly less than the diameter of the micelles can be applied to retain the micelles. The UF membrane cannot retain water-soluble organics of molecular weight less than the UF membrane MWCO. The micelles can reversibly and irreversibly foul the UF membrane pores. Tubular UF membranes are usually applied in these applications instead of spiralwound or hollow fibre. The relatively high influent flow, that can be applied in tubular membranes, generates turbulent flow radially and axially, which induces mixing. Further, the surface eddies generated aid in reducing the cake layer and membrane fouling. To achieve high recirculation flows, the UF system utilizes relatively large pumps and piping. Membrane life is affected by membrane materials, chemicals present in the wastewater, and cleaning frequency. Pre-filters are required upstream of the UF system to remove emulsified particulates. Generally, filter screens of mesh smaller than 100 Âľm are applied in the pre-filter. Pre-filters add to opera-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Industrial Wastewater tional costs of the UF system, as they can be spent in a relatively short time due to the emulsified particulates. The cost of pre-filter replacement and disposal of the spent pre-filters must be considered when establishing operating costs. The permeate stream may require additional treatment, due to water-soluble organics with a molecular weight less than the MWCO of the membrane. Otherwise, surcharges will need to be considered in the operating costs. The ability to restore a fouled UF membrane depends on the cleaning treatment that can be applied. The maximum operating temperature of some polymeric membranes can be 60ยบC. Some chemicals, such as glycols and silicones, can also irreversibly foul polymeric membranes. Ceramic and metallic membranes, which have a relatively broad range of tolerance to operating temperature and solvents, are viable alternatives. Evaporation Evaporation-based technology has been successful in concentrating oilemulsified wastewater with water removal of 90% or greater being achieved. Evaporation by mechanical vapour recompression (MVR) is less energy-intensive than atmospheric evaporation. MVR accomplishes this by recompressing vapours from the evaporator to a higher pressure to condense them in a heat exchanger. Latent heat energy of the condensing vapours is transferred to the recirculating bottoms in the evaporator. Improved heat energy utilization is obtained by an additional heat exchanger, that is applied to preheat the feed with the higher enthalpy of the condensed distillate. Lubricants can contain low boiling point organics, which can be present in the distillate. Therefore, the distillate may require additional treatment to remove low molecular weight organics or the surcharge costs can be applied to the operating budget. If the evaporation system can utilize waste heat from processes within the manufacturing plant, such as furnace exhaust for heat treatment, there may be reductions in overall operating costs. MVR systems require regularly scheduled cleaning, due to the presence of organics in the wastewater that can foul the heat transfer surfaces. The compressor also requires maintenance. The MVR syswww.esemag.com

tem will require alloy metals for piping and components if corrosive chemicals are present in the wastewater. Operating costs for residual dewatering and removal will also need to be considered. Conclusion The type of treatment selected for handling an emulsified oily wastewater will depend on many factors. These include available plant footprint, allowable capital expenditure, personnel available with appropriate skills to operate the equipment, future demands on the treat-

ment process, and required downstream processing to provide an acceptable effluent that can be discharged. Each manufacturing plant is unique and so are its wastewater treatment issues. A cost-effective and robust solution can be achieved by performing a brief cost analysis of potential pretreatment solutions. Ken Rilling is with Conestoga-Rovers & Associates. E-mail: krilling@craworld.com

September 2012 | 29

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Water Treatment

Resort village’s water treatment system removes arsenic, iron and manganese By Richard J. Cavagnaro levated levels of arsenic, iron and manganese prompted the Resort Village of Kannata Valley in Saskatchewan, approximately 50 km northwest of Regina, to seek a treatment solution for its drinking water. The water system is served by an artesian well that provides drinking water for approximately 250 residents. Raw water levels of arsenic, manganese, iron and turbidity exceeded the Saskatchewan Drinking Water Quality Standards and Objectives (SDWQSO) that came into effect in 2010, as well as federal drinking water quality guidelines. The incoming concentration of arsenic was 31 ppb, iron 1.7 mg/L, manganese 0.09 mg/L and turbidity 10.0 NTU. These were all above the standards set by the SDWQSO of 10 ppb for arsenic, 0.3 mg/L for iron, 0.05 mg/L for manganese and 1 NTU for turbidity.


In November 2009, AdEdge Water Technologies, LLC, was commissioned to supply an arsenic, iron, manganese and turbidity treatment system for the community. The selected system was an AdEdge AD26 oxidation/filtration system, rated for 150 gallons per minute (gpm). The AD26 treatment train consists of one skid-mounted, triplex packaged treatment system with three vessels. A design filtration rate of 3.98 gpm/sq ft was chosen to allow for filtration of the high level of contaminants, including turbidity in a range of 6.34 – 12.0 NTU. Prior to the treatment system, a continuous feed of sodium hypochlorite and polymer is injected into the raw water, using an ADINTM chemical feed system to help achieve the designed treatment goals. Sodium hypochlorite is fed prior to the polymer to oxidize iron, manganese and any arsenic (III) to arsenic (V) for optimal removal. Polymer is injected

into the raw water to assist in the flocculation of turbidity and colour. Dosing of the chemical feed pumps is pulse controlled by an InGeniusTM programmable logic controller (PLC). The feed rate of the chemicals is set manually; however, the frequency of pulsing is adjusted based on system flow rates due to multiple variable frequency drive (VFD) supply pumps. The PLC performs automated functions needed for operation of the control valves. This includes system pressure and differential pressure activated backwashing, flow rate, backwash recycle, air wash and filter drain down, and total gallons processed. Each 48-inch carbon steel vessel contains 25 cubic feet of AdEdge AD26 oxidation/filtration media and 12 cubic feet of Anthracite #1.5. AD26 is a highly catalytic manganese dioxide media used continued overleaf...


DISPOSABLE FILTERS www.waterra.com (CANADA) Waterra Pumps Limited sales@waterra.com • tel: 905.238.5242 (USA) Waterra USA Inc. waterra@openaccess.org • tel: 360.738.3366

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Water Treatment

The AD26 treatment system.

for the removal of arsenic, iron, manganese and hydrogen sulfides. The system is equipped with sample ports, flow meters and totalizers, differential pressure gauges, and flow control valves.

The featured H2ZeroTM Backwash/Recycle system conserves water by storing and treating contaminated backwash water from the treatment system. Liquid or solid residuals, resulting from the fil-

tration process, require regular backwashing to remove suspended solids and iron particulates that accumulate in the bed. Kannata Valley’s treatment system is designed to backwash once or twice weekly to prevent excessive pressure loss from the system. Air-wash occurs before the backwash cycle. Water exiting the treatment system feeds two 25,000 gallon hydro-pneumatic storage tanks and is distributed to the end users. The system was commissioned in August 2010 and is treating approximately 100,000 gallons per day. It has met all the SDWQSO maximum contaminant levels for arsenic, iron, manganese and turbidity. Arsenic in the treated water has been recorded consistently below detection (<2 ppb) and turbidity to 0.014 NTU. Monitoring and periodic sampling of the system is performed by the site’s certified operator in accordance with the operating permit. Richard J. Cavagnaro is with AdEdge Water Technologies. E-mail: sales@adedgetechnologies.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Government Affairs

How Ontario’s latest budget is affecting environmental programs By Sandra Tavares and Marisa Reynen he 2012 Ontario budget, passed on June 20, was touted as an “austerity budget” even prior to its release, in light of its fee increases and aim to balance the budget in five years. Although its main focus is on healthcare and education, industry can expect to be affected by this budget. Earlier in the year, the provincial auditor general and the Drummond Commission on the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services recommended that greater priority be placed on prevention and the “polluter-pay” principle. This is directly applicable to contaminated sites. It was emphasized that those responsible for creating pollution and waste should bear the costs of environmental programs and services. Bearing this in mind, fees for water taking, Environmental Compliance Approvals (ECAs), and hazardous


34 | September 2012

waste were increased by approximately $10 million. Water taking Phase 1 of the province’s Water Taking Charges Program was implemented in April 2007. At that time, a set charge of $3.71 per million litres for high-consumption water users was put in place. High consumers are typically those producing beverages such as bottled water or other products such as ready-mix cement or fertilizers. It is worth noting that this charge is assessed against the total amount of water taken annually, not just the amounts incorporated into the highly consumptive processes. The Water Taking Charges Program utilizes a “user-pay” model. This is to provide incentive to the approximately 100 applicable commercial and industrial facilities in Ontario to, first, improve

water conservation, and, second, explore, incorporate and develop more efficient and sustainable methods into their daily processes. In this way, the program is also expected to create opportunities for clean-technology jobs in Ontario. Money collected from these charges is used to cover a portion of the province’s costs for water quantity management activities and programs, such as preparing water budgets, monitoring, and controlling takings and their impacts. Implementing Phase 2 of the program will expand the user-pay base and apply the charge to most of the remaining industrial and commercial significant water users in Ontario not previously included in Phase 1. Some of the affected sectors are construction, petroleum, mining, food production and recreational facilities.

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Government Affairs The provincial government is currently completing a fiveyear review of the program to determine the efficacy of the current charge framework and to assess whether adequate rates are charged to ensure the program costs are covered. Upon completion of this review, the charge rate to be paid by facilities identified in Phase 2 of the program will be determined. It is estimated this initiative will generate $3.5 million in 2013/14 and $6.0 million in 2014/15. Environmental Compliance Approvals In an effort to move towards full cost recovery, the government will revise the fee structure for ECAs (formerly Certificates of Approval or C of A) and the related Environmental Activity and Sector Registry (EASR). The fee structure for this approvals system has not been revised since 1998. It is estimated this initiative will generate $3.8 million annually. In the past, a business had to apply for multiple approvals for individual processes and pieces of equipment. Currently, a business can register on the EASR, or apply for a single ECA that addresses all of its emissions, discharges and waste. If the activities of a business impact the natural environment by releasing pollutants into the air, onto land or into water, that business needs permission from the Ministry of the Environment to operate legally. ECAs are the vehicle to do so in Ontario. Hazardous waste Hazardous waste fees, which have not been updated since 2002, will also be revised. The government tracks the generation, movement and disposal of hazardous and liquid industrial waste. Fees are based in part on tonnage of waste generated and the records of goods being shipped, typically called manifests. The province has indicated that raising tonnage fees will improve program cost recovery and will provide greater incentives to reduce or recycle waste. In addition, the increase in fees will be borne by the larger generators of hazardous waste, in line with the “polluter-pay” principle mentioned earlier. Furthermore, the fee for paper manifests will be increased, encouraging the switch to a paperless system and greater use of the lower-cost electronic manifesting system. The government estimates this initiative will generate $2.5 million in 2014/15. In light of the fact that fees for hazardous waste are increasing, corporations can benefit by targeting reductions in this area. “Reducing hazardous waste generation can have significant economic, environmental and social benefits,” says Bruce Taylor, of Enviro-Stewards Inc. “For example, hazardous waste reduction work combined with energy, water and waste reduction at 19 small to medium-size facilities in the Greater Toronto Area eliminated 424 tonnes per year of hazardous waste, while generating collective savings of $3 million per year with a 1.1 year payback.” Sandra Tavares and Marisa Reynen are with Tavares Group Consulting Inc. E-mail: marisa@tavaresgroupconsulting.com


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Chatham-Kent upgrades five historic road structures By David J. Penny he Municipality of ChathamKent in Southwest Ontario has a long history in agriculture and trade. The Chatham dockyards (est.1790) supplied food stocks and implements to the British Navy’s Lake Erie fleet and Tecumseh’s large tribal confederacy throughout the War of 1812. It was here on Oct 5, 1813 at the Battle of the Thames, that Tecumseh was killed while waiting for reinforcements to come by road from distant Fort Burlington. The road was poor, reinforcements didn’t come and our history took a turn. During the same period, Colonel Thomas Talbot organized the development of the Region. He stipulated that all persons who received land must construct and maintain a road in front of their farm within three and a half years of settlement. By the late 1820s he had linked the roads


Glen A Hubbell with 9.75m long riveted corrugated steel pipe (circa 1949).

and organized the completion of a 480 km long, good quality road, the Talbot Trail, running from Lake Ontario to the Detroit River. This helped to make the Talbot Set-

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tlement the most prosperous part of Ontario. Since then the roads have improved. Two hundred years later, Chatham Kent continues to find innovations in road construction and to produce high quality meats, fish, fruits, maple syrup and vegetables, that are shipped by road to markets throughout North America. As agriculture and roads have modernized, Chatham-Kent industries have not only kept up but have led the way with new developments. In 1878, E.S. Hubbell, a young tin-smith, established a hardware and metal fabricating business in Thamesville. In his time, roads were corduroy and bridges were simple wooden structures. Culverts were typically of wood stave construction. The business thrived and continues to support farming and road-building into the fifth generation of Hubbells. In the early 1930s, his sons embraced the modern technology of corrugated steel pipe (CSP) and established a steel culvert manufacturing facility. Early CSP was made by hand riveting galvanized and corrugated sheets together. Today the company produces high volume, high quality spiral pipe on modern equipment in a variety of corrugations and coatings. Some of the oldest corrugated steel pipe in Canada was installed in ChathamKent as culverts and bridges were re-

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Infrastructure placed on the development roads. An extensive network of drainage canals created the need for many crossings, as they allowed farmers to work this flat fertile land early in the season. Intense farming, fertilizers, flat terrain, standing water, road salt on paved roads and general growth in the Region have all created unique challenges for road designers and builders. Many of the early roads, culverts and bridges are reaching the next phase of their natural service life and must be upgraded or replaced. The replacements, however, must safely handle larger farm equipment, heavier and faster trucks and, because of the significant investment in and complexity of new infrastructure, must be sustainable over a longer period of time. One of the ways that Chatham-Kent has met the demands is by embracing new technologies in CSP. Deeper corrugations and thicker steels have made it possible to construct economical wide span and low profile box culvert shapes that fit the challenges of flat terrain and heavy loads. Polymer laminates and polymer coatings on steel have dramatically increased the

Laminates and coatings have increased the service life of culverts.

service life of culverts often affected by fertilizers and salt. In the winter of 2009-2010, five structures along a scenic stretch of the Talbot Trail (Hwy 3 from Blenheim to Eatonville) required replacement. The commencement of bridge projects is typically subject to the receipt of approvals

from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), Coast Guard, Conservation Authority and other agencies, to ensure the overall interests of the community are identified. All permits and approvals were met for this project and, as DFO required that all “in water work” must be completed by March 15, 2010, a precise and rapid construction plan that could be implemented in winter was necessary. Large diameter polymer laminated corrugated steel pipe and polymer coated structural plate corrugated steel pipe (SPCSP) were selected for the replacement structures, mostly for their installed economy. The contract for the five structures, which was largely funded by the citizens of Chatham-Kent, was in fact awarded at a price 31% lower than the engineers’ estimate. All structures are expected to still be performing when the Talbot Trail celebrates its 300th birthday several more generations from now. David Penny is with the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute. E-mail: djpenny@cspi.ca

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Peel’s council says yes to concrete pressure pipe and ‘Protect Ontario Jobs’ ouncil in Ontario’s Peel Region was recently asked to decide whether to allow steel pipe supplied by a company from the US as an alternative to concrete pressure pipe for its Hanlan Water Project. The Hanlan Water Project is the largest and most extensive watermain project the Region has ever designed and constructed. It will require a combination of open-cut construction and tunnelling. This project includes installation of 14.5 kilometres of 2,400 mm diameter feedermain and 6 kilometres of 1,500 mm diameter subtransmission watermain. This is needed to meet the water demands of future population growth in Peel Region. Representatives from the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association (OCPA), Munro Ltd., and Hanson Pipe and Precast gave a presentation to council, entitled ‘Protect Ontario Jobs’. Concrete pressure pipe is manufactured in Ontario by Hanson Pipe and Precast and Munro Ltd. Combined, these two companies represent over 1,000 direct manufacturing jobs. Cement, steel (plate and coil), aggregates (stone and sand), gaskets, couplings, plugs, and welding supplies are all sourced from Ontario companies. In addition to the 1,000 direct manufacturing jobs at Hanson and Munro, there are 3,000 to 4,000 indirect jobs in the supply chain. Councillors were asked to contrast these statistics with those of the US company, which has no jobs or supply chain in Canada. If it supplied steel pipe for the Hanlan project, Canadian manufacturing jobs would be at risk. Every dollar invested in infrastructure creates as much as $1.11 in economic growth, according to a Conference Board of Canada analysis of recent investments. But, OCPA believes that is only true when infrastructure is built in Ontario with Ontario-supplied products and labour. The Hanlan Water Project represents large quantities of pipe, almost 2,400 pieces of 2,400 mm diameter pressure pipe and close to 1,000 pieces of 1,500 mm pipe. Also, there are the asso-


38 | September 2012

ciated fittings and valve chambers. This project is representative of the province at large: “Ontario today has one of the most dynamic markets for infrastructure in the world” according to the Ontario government’s long-term infrastructure plan - Building Together: Ministry of Infrastructure Ontario, 2011. It is no wonder that American companies are interested, says OCPA. The US company’s delegation said “it’s not about Canada; it’s not about the United States”. They asked councillors to “allow fair competition (in materials) for the region’s rate payers”. OCPA feels this might be acceptable if Canadian infrastructure manufacturers were allowed to compete in the United States. However, various “Buy American” legislations, attached to US federal funding for municipal water infrastructure projects, prevent this. As an example, the current version of the 2013 Appropriation Bill for the Environmental Protection Agency, which is still pending a House/Senate conference, contains a new Buy American provision that would be applied to all water and wastewater projects funded by this measure. The amendment was unanimously approved by Republicans and Democrats alike. In addition, a number of US states and municipalities impose domestic content restrictions for water infrastructure projects, therefore preventing Canadian companies from participating in these projects. In many infrastructure bid documents, there is the statement: “Manufacturers limited to Made in USA only”. All of these Buy American restrictions based on domestic content usually require that all products must be manufactured in the US, and that more than 51% of the components used come from the US. While many Canadian companies think that NAFTA has created open access to the US markets for Canadian manufacturers, an examination of government procurements shows this to be false. The US has exempted from the coverage of NAFTA the transfer of funds

from the federal to other levels of government. This allows the US government to impose domestic content requirements even if the actual entity buying the products is a state or municipality. It is also worth noting that only 37 states have signed on to the WTO-Government Procurement Agreement, and that municipalities are not covered by any of the trade agreements signed by the US government. Some business associations, such as the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters (CME), have called for a Canada-US agreement on government procurements, which would give companies from both countries an open and fair access to each other’s government procurements. OCPA says that it too would support such an agreement. Mayor Hazel McCallion of Mississauga concluded at the July 5th Peel Regional Council meeting that, based on the arguments that she had heard, she would choose concrete pipe. She went on to state: “I do not support importing material from the United States for this line...Orion Bus has just been closed down in Mississauga. Every bus that is manufactured in Canada can only be manufactured fifty per cent here. It then has to be shipped across the border to be finished in the United States because the US government will not give subsidies to any city that buys buses completely manufactured in Canada...We talk about free trade, but it really isn’t and it never has been, certainly as it applies to buses.” Ultimately, Peel Regional Councillors voted to allow only concrete pressure pipe to be used on the Hanlan Water Project. For more information, E-mail: gerry.mulhern@ocpa.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Make sure equipment breakdown doesn’t break your operation By Louis Vatrt n the industrial world, running a successful business has everything to do with making sure your equipment is operating efficiently. Equipment breakdown can lead to anything from a lost business opportunity to additional expenditures and even bankruptcy. It is important to recognize that, while a standard property insurance policy will protect your business against losses related to natural disasters (such as flooding, wind damage or fire caused by a storm), it does not cover the sudden and accidental breakdown of equipment. These losses can be debilitating to your operations, but you have more control than you may think. While it’s almost impossible to predict when or how a potentially devastating loss will strike, there are several things you can do to be proactive in protecting your business. Choosing the right equipment First and foremost, when your opera-


tions rely on functioning equipment in order to turn a profit, having the right machinery is a no-brainer. Nonetheless, in times of economic difficulty, it is certainly tempting to take shortcuts and go for discounts or secondhand equipment. Regardless of whether you’re buying brand name, brand new, or secondhand discounted equipment, it is important to be familiar with the suppliers and manufacturers of the machinery you are purchasing. This way you know what you will be facing when it comes time to repair or replace the equipment or parts. Short term savings could mean astronomical expenditures over the long term, especially if your equipment requires constant repair, or if the suppliers for specific replacement parts are limited in number and/or located overseas. Presumably, you have some knowledge of the equipment manufacturers and suppliers you’re dealing with, and

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don’t discount the importance of expert advice. Rely on your business network to help you identify experts who can recommend good quality machinery, parts suppliers with good track records, and dependable warranties or guarantees. They can also potentially help you negotiate good prices, payment options, or terms and conditions. This is something a good insurance partner or broker will be able to do as well. They deal with a wide network of engineering firms and other similar businesses on a daily basis. Preventive maintenance It is extremely important to keep up regular maintenance on your machinery. Dealing with ongoing maintenance may seem like a hassle, but it’s a lot more affordable to run a regular maintenance program than it is to have to replace your equipment. As well, sometimes you’ll find that the one part you need to replace is not easily obtained. You could find yourself needing to replace something that’s out of stock, discontinued, or only available from a supplier located overseas. The repair, replacement and shipping costs are one concern, but the additional cost to your operations in terms of lost productivity could be financially crippling. Long-term effects and cost comparisons usually favour preventive maintenance over performing reactive maintenance actions. Making sure you have the right insurance A common misconception among property insurance policyholders is that their machinery is protected against any type of loss. This is not the case. Most property policies exclude loss arising from the explosion, bursting or rupture of boilers and pressure vessels and mechanical or electrical breakdown. Equipment breakdown insurance (EBI) specifically fills these gaps in a property policy. EBI is simply a form of property insurance, with the purpose of insuring against financial losses such as property damage, business interruption and spoilage that can result from an ‘ac-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Insurance cident’ to an ‘object.’ An ‘object’ is defined in an EBI policy as: • Any boiler, any fired or unfired vessel. • Any refrigerating or air conditioning pressure vessel. • Any mechanical machine, electrical machine, or electrical apparatus, including fibre-optic cabling and apparatus used for the generation, transmission or utilization of mechanical or electrical power. • Any electronic equipment, including the data or media contained therein, used primarily to control, monitor or operate one or more objects. The definition can be expanded to provide coverage for production machinery. Some examples of objects are low and high pressure boilers, compressed air receivers, steam cookers and hot water tanks. Mechanical equipment includes compressors, pumps and internal combustion engines, and gas turbine engines. Electrical equipment includes transformers, electric motors, generators, cabling and electrical distribution panels. Production machinery includes crushers, SAG and ball mills, mixers, CNC equipment and ship loaders. When it comes to finding the right insurance policy, make sure you are dealing with an insurance broker who understands the business you’re in and

what you specifically need in order to maintain viable operations. They should also have a good knowledge and understanding of what types of insurance policies are available and what your options are, not only from a pricing standpoint, but a quality perspective. Typically, as a commercial industry player you should be looking to deal with insurance companies with strong financial ratings (A-rated or higher) by reputable rating agencies, such as Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and AM Best.

Insurers will be looking at what you’re doing to prevent equipment breakdown when they underwrite your business. Use your broker as your partner, and make sure they work closely with the insurance company in managing, mitigating and adequately transferring your risks. Louis Vatrt is Vice-President & Director of Equipment Breakdown Insurance at RSA Insurance. For more information, visit: www.rsagroup.ca


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Microtunnelling two new jet fuel lines at Pearson minimizes environmental and operational impacts By Theresa R. Erskine ow do you build tunnels for two new jet fuel lines at a major international airport with minimal environmental and operational impact? By microtunnelling. That’s exactly how they did it at Toronto’s Lester B. Pearson International Airport. The new fuel lines run under Airport Road and the Terminal 3 entrance/exit highways. They were built without digging a single trench, minimizing environmental impact and causing zero disruption to airport operations or local traffic and commerce. The only visible evidence of this major infrastructure project was a small jobsite next to Terminal 3, with a launch tunnel shaft, a control room to operate the tunnel boring machine (TBM), a separation unit to screen soil fines from suspension, and the stock of microtunnelling pipe itself. Microtunnelling, also known as slurry pipe jacking, is not a new method. It continues to grow every year, especially as urban density increases along with the demand for more environmentally responsible practices. It is, however, a relatively new practice in Ontario. So what is microtunnelling? Simply put, it’s an automated system for small-bore-diameter tunnels. Boring is directed from a control room at ground level, using a laser-guided system to stay in alignment. Equipment consists of the AVN 1200 micro tunnel boring machine (MTBM), a control container, jacking frame, separation, water circuit, and ancillary equipment and a bentonite lubrication system. A preference for slurry shield TBMs has emerged in areas with difficult ground conditions, as the excavation face can be stabilized through the use of pressurized water-based slurry. These machines have the option of various head arrangements – scrapping teeth to shear softer soils, cutting discs to split rocks/boulders, or a mixed head combining the properties of the two heads for challenging, variable ground. Openings in the cutter head allow excavated


42 | September 2012

Munro pipe in tunnel launch shaft.

material to enter a crushing cone, where any large rock, cobbles, or gravel pieces are broken down for transport to the surface via a water circuit for separation. Water-based slurry is pumped to the head of the MTBM at a pressure matching the in situ ground stresses, where it mixes with excavated material. The slurry mixture is then pumped back to the surface, where spoil is removed in a separation plant comprised of a series of vibrating screens, hydrocyclones, and centrifuges. To maximize resource efficiency, water is re-used and re-circulated to the head of the machine in a continuous cycle. Forward thrust of the MTBM is provided by a pipe-jacking operation, where the pipe is jacked or pushed into the newly created tunnel. Concrete reinforced microtunnelling pipes, 2.5m or 3m long, are pushed from a launch shaft until the MTBM reaches the exit shaft. Operation of the MTBM is controlled remotely at ground level. Pipes are installed in the launch shaft, eliminating the need for man entry or work in the tunnel. Microtunnelling is particularly suited

to wet ground conditions and in areas highly sensitive to settlement, such as highly populated cities, under critical utility services, or under railway lines and roads. The MTBM is sealed, preventing the possibility of water or soil entering the tunnel. Therefore, soil dewatering is not needed with the system. As an added advantage in Ontario, the MTBM head is designed to break down the boulders that are so frequently found in the glacial till conditions. Specially engineered and manufactured for the job Microtunnelling drive lengths can range from only 20m to over a kilometre. Due to the need to advance longer distances than conventional jack and bore operations, the pipe has to be specifically designed by the manufacturer for each particular microtunnelling project. The pipe Munro Ltd. manufactured for the Pearson airport project was specifically designed for a slurry MTBM from Herrenknecht AG, owned and operated by Ward and Burke Microtunnelling. Based on the required tunnel length and diameter of the jet fuel line, Ward and Burke determined that the tunnel lining pipes had to be 1200mm inside diameter. The outer diameter of the jacking pipe was based on the standard dimensions of the Herrenknecht MTBM. Reinforcement requirements based on the required wall thickness and loading conditions were calculated by Munro engineers, and the pipe was manufactured to these specifications. The joints of microtunnelling pipe are different from conventional reinforced concrete pipe and reinforced concrete jacking pipe. In traditional reinforced concrete jacking pipes, there is a concrete bell that reduces the bearing area at pipe joints and, therefore, reduces the jacking force the pipe can withstand. In microtunnelling pipe, the bell is replaced with a steel band which is tied into the reinforcement cages inside the pipe walls. The result is a pipe that maximizes the continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Infrastructure bearing surface at pipe joints, providing much greater jacking capacities. The steel band has a waterstop that is cast into the concrete, so the pipe can withstand water pressures greater than 20m below the water table. This special design requirement necessitated retooling at Munro Ltd. Pipe for the Pearson project was hydrostatically tested in the manufacturing process to ensure it met design requirements and tunnel boring conditions. The steel band was coated with a red epoxy coating to prevent corrosion. A very important feature with the microtunnelling system is the ability to lubricate the 25mm overcut annulus created by the MTBM. Munro manufactured special pipes with three lubrication ports, installed every 15 metres in the tunnel alignment. These ports allowed Ward and Burke to effectively lubricate the overcut annulus throughout the drives. Lubrication prevents ground closure, settlement, and minimizes skin friction on the pipe. Once the tunnel is complete, the ports in these pipes can be used to grout the annulus.

44 | September 2012

Ground level control room for micro tunnel boring machine.

A new record set Two 318m parallel tunnels, 0.5m apart, were tunnelled at Pearson International airport. The proximity of the two parallel tunnels is a testament to the microtunnelling process, which causes minimal settlement issues in the ground while maintaining excellent alignment. The tunnel lengths have also created a

new pipe-jacking record in Canada. The entire project took less than two months. Lower impact, less disruption Microtunnelling is an environmentally sound way to approach installation of pipes for many applications. Concrete microtunnelling pipe is designed to withstand the forces of the pipe jacking operation and can act as a tunnel liner

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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The joints of microtunnelling pipe are different from conventional reinforced concrete pipe.

(in the case of the jet fuel lines), or as pipe to convey fluids directly. Microtunnelling minimizes the amount of material excavated, as the diameter of the tunnel bored is very close in diameter to the pipe being installed. As there is less material to take away from the job site, there is less air pollution from the dump trucks used.

Equipment required at the site is minimal, making it possible to microtunnel in urban areas, while minimizing or even eliminating the possibility of traffic disruption. There’s also less dust and noise because only an entrance shaft and an exit shaft are excavated. Pipes can be jacked underground, passing over, or under, existing pipes in the ground.

The expense is greater than open cut. But, when the environmental cost of open cut construction and the cost of disruption to traffic and businesses, is factored in, microtunnelling becomes a more attractive option. Theresa R. Erskine is with Munro Ltd. E-mail: terskine@munroltd.com

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Dewatering and remediation in the redevelopment of Toronto’s shoreline By Steve Brett he newly developed East Bayfront area is the first of three neighbourhoods to be transformed by Waterfront Toronto, a joint initiative of the governments of Canada, Ontario and Toronto. Prior to the redevelopment, this area had become one of the least used parts of the city’s waterfront, with over 800 hectares of undeveloped and unusable land. A large percentage of the area is comprised of “fill” and was identified as containing some contaminates at levels beyond that of normal residential soil parameters. When soil contains contaminates, groundwater has a tendency to have the same ones. During the different phases of construction, Atlas Dewatering Corp. designed, installed, implemented and operated several environmentally sound techniques to assist with the ongoing construction activities. Among these techniques were: • The use of Atlas Aqua-Barriers to contain and filter tremie concrete runoff. • Specifically designed eductor and wellpoint dewatering systems. • Atlas Enviro/Weir tanks for reduction of total suspended solids (TSS) in pumped water. • Carbon vessels for the reduction and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Tremie concrete runoff The Aqua-Barrier is a water-filled dam that utilizes a patented internal baffle for stability. This barrier replaces oldstyle constructed earth and rock coffer dams, that tend to leave siltation trails within environmentally sensitive lakes, rivers and streams. Water from the existing watercourse is pumped into the barrier to “inflate” it. Upon completion of the work, the same water is returned to the watercourse, causing no damage to the local habitat. In the East Bayfront development, the contractor needed to drill and pour largediameter friction caissons utilizing tremie concrete. The use of tremie mix forces water contained within the caisson up and


46 | September 2012

Concrete slurry water is not easy to treat quickly to meet municipal guidelines for disposal into storm or sanitary drains.

out of the hole and, if left unchecked, onto the ground. Concrete slurry water is not easy to treat quickly to meet municipal guidelines for disposal into storm or sanitary drains. Atlas proposed the use of an 8 ft (2.4 m) high Aqua-Barrier installed on a gentle (2%) uphill gradient. This would allow approximately 901 US gal per lineal foot to be stored on-site. The uphill gradient allowed cementitious slurry to settle to the lower sections of the Aqua-Barrier and the clean water to be pumped off on a daily basis. Eductor and wellpoint dewatering systems Along the water’s edge at this location is a man-made seawall, which is generally comprised of sheet pile wall at the lake, cable tie from the sheet pile, and wooden pile “tri-pod” cable tie approximately 20 metres northward. The seawall is designed to contain Lake Ontario to the south and the land on the north. The design of the anchor system takes into account the hydrostatic loading of the seawall by groundwater. Cutting through the development is Queen’s Quay Blvd. E. Buried underneath this is a myriad of sewer systems, telecommunication duct banks, gas services and

hydro duct banks. As dewatering systems are operated, a zone of influence on the water table emanates from that system. Infrastructure that falls within the zone of influence could be affected by ground loss or settlement of the surrounding soils as water is removed. This could be extremely detrimental and potentially catastrophic if not taken into account at the time of the dewatering design. Atlas’ initial dewatering system began with the construction of Corus Quay. Lowering of the ground water table became a fine balance between obtaining excavation depths for the contractor, ensuring that the pumping system was not drawing soil “fines” out from underneath the aforementioned structures, and monitoring the seawall anchor system and sheet pile face. When groundwater was taken away from the inside face of the seawall, the loading dynamics change and there was potential for the wall to start an inward creep. Reduction of TSS According to the city’s sewer use bylaw, any elements/compounds that are in excess of their acceptable discharge standards must be reduced to acceptable levels before the water will be discharged

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Remediation into any sewer system. Monitoring and mitigation plans were designed and implemented by Atlas to ensure compliance with City of Toronto municipal by-laws and with both the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and the federal Department of Oceans and Fisheries regulations. Enviro tanks are typically utilized where pumping discharge water needs to be detained for short periods to allow particulate settlement. It is usually this particulate that contains a large quantity of the identified contaminates. Once flow rates have been slowed down sufficiently enough to allow TSS reduction, water exits the tank and travels on to either the final discharge point or to carbon vessels for VOC treatment. Carbon vessels Several technologies exist to perform VOC reduction in vapour streams. Atlas accomplished VOC reductions through the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) in contained adsorber vessels. Many VOCs readily adsorb onto GAC, and the spent GAC can often be sent for thermal reactivation as an effective, environmentally friendly means of disposal. Atlas began the initial testing of the site with the installation of a small eductor system. It was operated for a short period in order to obtain factual information on the drawdown, zone of influence and water quality. Steve Brett is with Atlas Dewatering, E-mail: steve@atlascorp.com

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Climate Change

How municipalities will help Canada reduce GHG emissions By Dan Beare t a time when national efforts to curb climate change are failing, there are encouraging signs that our local governments are filling the void. Cities, towns and regional governments are taking up the challenge and developing initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Conference of Parties (COP) talks in Copenhagen, Cancun, and most recently Durban, have seen limited success. Negotiations have stalemated between developing and developed economies over who should take action. Meanwhile, experts warn that average surface temperatures will rise by at least 2°C by 2050. This year alone, many areas of Canada have seen unusual weather, with a mild winter and early spring, extreme heat and humidity in central Canada, damaging floods in the west, and droughts and wildfires in the north. These extreme weather events are only expected to increase, taxing municipal infrastructure and likely costing billions of dollars. A changing climate will put immense strain on Canadian municipalities. Estimates suggest that municipalities have control or influence over approximately 50% of national GHG emissions. About 80% of Canadians are now classified as urban, presenting a tremendous opportunity to tackle a significant percentage of Canada’s emissions. If we are to meet the 2020 Copenhagen targets of reducing emissions by 17% from 2005 levels, municipalities must play a role. Municipalities across the country are learning from the experiences of others and moving forward with adaptation and mitigation plans. The Federation of Canadian Municipalities operates the Partners for Climate Protection program. It has been largely successful and a majority of Canadians now live in municipalities that have committed to formal GHG reduction targets. Unfortunately, research suggests that many municipalities are failing to take


48 | September 2010

Estimates suggest that municipalities have control or influence over approximately 50% of national GHG emissions.

the necessary action to meet their targets, for a variety of reasons. Unstable economic conditions, a lack of resources and knowledgeable personnel, aversion to risk, and internal resistance to change can put an end to efforts by municipal managers.

Comparing municipal GHG emissions In 2010, the Toronto Region Conservation Authority launched the Town Hall Challenge, which ranked participants on the energy consumption of their municcontinued overleaf...

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Climate Change ipal town halls. Interestingly, municipalities insisted that they be included in the rankings, even if they placed relatively poorly. To help municipal governments to reduce their emissions, a new tool is needed to encourage action and find value in projects. With these findings in mind, I designed a template to compare municipal GHG emissions as part of my graduate thesis research. The template can be used by municipalities to assess areas of improvement and best practices, learning from the experience of others without having to invest valuable resources to reinvent the wheel. By fostering cooperation (and some friendly competition) it is hoped that municipalities can share resources, learn from one another, and reduce GHG emissions. Through a series of interviews with experts, 19 peer-developed indicators were crafted to measure municipal emissions. Currently, there is no standardized set of indicators, and many existing initiatives use conflicting emission factors and assumptions. Research has shown flaws in the current development of in-

dicator sets, such as a lack of transparency in the selection of particular indicators and arbitrary decision-making. For that reason, the indicators were developed openly by consulting with experts and municipalities. The indicators measure emissions from seven categories: buildings and operations, transportation, streetlighting

municipalities in Ontario. The questions helped to gather data needed for the indicators. Despite barriers to action such as the current economic crisis, municipalities were interested in participating. Eight answered the survey and contributed the necessary data for a comparison. The survey produced interesting re-

Municipal vehicle fleets and public transportation systems were moderately high, while water treatment and distribution, wastewater and sewage treatment, and streetlighting and traffic lights were relatively low. and traffic lights, residential land densities, water/wastewater treatment, and solid waste. Municipalities have the most control over these sectors and can, therefore, find the best returns on investment. To demonstrate how the template would work, a survey was distributed to

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sults and provides a glimpse of what municipalities are currently working towards. Emissions from buildings and operations and solid waste were found to be the greatest overall contributors. Municipal vehicle fleets and public transportation systems were moderately high, while water treatment and distri-


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Climate Change bution, wastewater and sewage treatment, and streetlighting and traffic lights were relatively low. A secondary indicator set helped to measure municipal programs and efforts to reduce emissions. Almost all of the municipalities in the study are actively pursuing green buildings, especially LEED (Leadership in Energy Efficiency and Design) certification. Some are finding value in new building automation systems that reduce energy consumption by controlling temperature and lighting. Others are investing in renewable energy, or purchasing clean energy from companies such as Bullfrog Power. Many municipalities are greening their corporate vehicle fleets by rightsizing vehicles and purchasing biofuels. In recent years, Ontario has passed legislation governing development, such as the Places to Grow Act and the GreenBelt Act. Other acts have tackled brownfields, wastewater treatment and solid waste. The new legislation has greatly influenced municipal operations and planning. For example, municipalities are now required to intensify population densities in existing urban areas. As a result of highway congestion and air pollution, many are planning and constructing new public transportation systems such as bus rapid transit (BRT) and light-rail transit (LRT) routes. Many of these projects will have co-benefits that go beyond climate change. For example, green


buildings are healthier for employees and increase productivity. Expanded public transportation services improve quality of life, allow for mobility, and increase property values. Results of the municipal comparison also help municipal managers to make important decisions about directing resources and efforts. There remain many areas of uncertainty where future research is necessary. Research into how the new legislation is influencing growth and sustainability would be useful. In 2012, Ontario Regulation 397-11, which is part of the Green Energy Act, came into force, requiring municipalities to report their corporate (government) energy emissions by July 2013. By 2014, they will be required to have plans in place to address emissions from the community at large. Participants in the study are already gathering the necessary information to meet the new regulations. With readily available data, the template described above can be easily modified and expanded to meet the needs of municipal managers, perhaps providing an annual comparison of municipalities to track success. The biggest challenge will be addressing community GHG emissions. These are often very difficult to control or influence, with educational or promotional campaigns achieving mixed results. They require behaviour modification and do not have simple solutions. One municipality has begun to take a multi-stakeholder approach to solving

this dilemma. Waterloo Region has teamed up with Sustainable Waterloo Region, a non-profit organization, to create the Climate Collaborative. This initiative will measure the Region’s community GHG emissions. Sustainable Waterloo Region also operates the successful Regional Carbon Initiative program, which brings together organizations and businesses to voluntarily commit to GHG targets and reductions. Partnerships with NGOs and local businesses provide an excellent opportunity for municipalities to share resources and expertise, while engaging the community. How municipalities react today to the risks posed by climate change will have long-term consequences. For example, buildings and infrastructure are designed to last decades and they may fail because of extreme weather events. Experts warn that delays in taking action will cost much more in the future. By being proactive, learning from the experiences of others, and undertaking initiatives to reduce emissions, municipalities can position themselves to best confront the challenges of the future.

Dan Beare is completing a master’s degree in Environmental Applied Science and Management at Ryerson University, Toronto. E-mail: dan.beare@gmail.com

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Watershed Management

Greater Vancouver tries new approach to sustainable development planning By Crystal Campbell and Dana Soong reater Vancouver’s population is projected to grow from 2.2 million (2006 census) to 3.4 million by 2041. This puts incredible pressure on local governments to meet development needs, while maintaining the liveability of their communities and protecting the environment, The City of Coquitlam’s yet-to-be-developed Partington Creek town centre in British Columbia is an example of a new approach to sustainable development planning. The Partington Creek watershed is an undeveloped and ecologically rich watershed located on Burke Mountain in Coquitlam. Most of its 625 hectares are covered by diverse second-growth forest. Partington Creek is one of the last ecologically healthy streams in Metro Vancouver, a prolific salmon spawning stream and home to many aquatic species-at-risk such as white sturgeon, Dolly Varden and coastal cutthroat trout. Black bear, mule deer, river otter, mink, and great blue heron are frequently observed in the watershed, and terrestrial species-at-risk such as the Pacific Water Shrew are found in the riparian zone surrounding the main channels. As part of Metro Vancouver’s Regional Growth Strategy and Coquitlam’s Official Community Plan, the lower third of the Partington Creek watershed is planned for greenfield development. Over the next 20 years, what is now


The Partington Creek watershed is mostly covered by second-growth forest and has sparse rural development.

shed planning, land development planning, and financial modelling were conducted concurrently. This deviated from the current approach to land development, which is to first develop land use plans and then engage civil engineers to mitigate the impacts of development. Such a reactive approach limits the mitigation opportunities and solutions available. The end result has often been

Watershed planning, land development planning, and financial modelling were conducted concurrently. forested land will become a new town centre, home to about 12,000 people. Development objectives and approach Coquitlam’s goal was to create a sustainable, economically viable, and lowimpact development that would preserve the natural creek system and environmental values in the Partington Creek watershed. To accomplish this, water52 | September 2012

inadequate and costly mitigation plans, and urban developments that significantly harm adjacent watercourses and their aquatic life. In the case of the Partington Creek development, engineers, planners, and financial analysts were able to develop plans that not only provide a high level of environmental protection, but also meet the financial and sustainability objectives of the project.

Collaborating to create better outcomes The project proceeded in several phases and involved extensive stakeholder consultation, as well as the concurrent preparation of an Integrated Watershed Management Plan (IWMP) by lead engineering consultant, Kerr Wood Leidal Associates, and a Neighbourhood Plan (NP) by lead planning consultant, HB Lanarc. Raincoast Applied Ecology provided environmental services to both studies. The study groups collaborated with each other and with stakeholders to develop watershed and neighbourhood plans with common goals. Stakeholders included City departments, regulatory agencies (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, BC Ministry of Environment, and Agricultural Land Commission), environmental groups, developers, and local residents. New topographic survey information revealed a network of small, seemingly insignificant watercourses located under

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Watershed Management the proposed town centre. They were, in fact, a network of ephemeral headwater streams that provide an important food source to downstream aquatic life. The IWMP study team recommended that the proposed town centre be moved to better protect the watershed’s ecology. Because engineering, land use, and financial decisions were being made concurrently, the planners could respond to this recommendation. In fact, the engineering and environmental recommendations of the IWMP team had such a profound effect on the land use planning process that planners redrafted the land use plan. To address environmental concerns, planners moved the village core to the east and modified land use densities. Collaborating with engineers, planners increased the proposed building heights and forms, and the scale and intensity of the development, so that more space could be set aside for environmental protection and sustainable infrastructure. Land use designations were redrafted and refined, and road layouts amended to strategically minimize im-


A 1.5 billion greenfield development, future home to some 12,000 people, is being planned for the lower third of the Partington Creek watershed.

pacts to Partington Creek and optimize stormwater infrastructure. In areas where source controls could not be implemented, engineers incorporated underground baseflow augmentation facilities, which will mimic the natural hydrologic processes in a watershed and sustain aquatic life. This new

technique uses water quality treatment facilities, underground storage facilities, and specialized flow splitters so that baseflows, low flows and flushing flows continue to the natural creek system. Excess impervious area flows are conveyed by a diversion pipe to the Deboville continued overleaf...

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Watershed Management

New and innovative baseflow augmentation facilities and diversions with flow splitters will mimic natural creek flows. These will be located underground.

Slough at the mouth of Partington Creek, where excess energy is quickly dissipated. Unlike surface ponds, which are common practice in stormwater management and are heat sinks that can

warm creeks to fish-harming levels, these underground storage tanks will keep water temperatures cool for fish. The land area above them can be used for practical and recreational purposes. Collaboration among disciplines en-

abled the City of Coquitlam to implement measures that will best protect the watershed as a whole. For example, the IWMP will allow some losses in a less sensitive tributary, Star Creek, in favour of bolstering and enhancing the best fisheries habitat areas on the main stem of Partington Creek. The main stem will be enhanced by moving a 1.5 km section of road 30 metres away from the creek channel to accommodate channel works and create a riparian corridor. This has multiple benefits such as floodplain creation, an increased sediment management area, increased riparian setbacks, and instream complexing. Floodplain forest and marshes will be created. The works will benefit all aquatic species, with the greatest benefit to the spawning habitat for chum salmon. Sustainability and financial objectives met By using this progressive approach of iterative collaboration among planning, engineering, environmental and financial professionals, and stakeholders, it was possible to create a more sustainable and economically viable community. The resulting development will reflect stakeholders’ most strongly desired outcomes for the watershed, which include protecting watercourses, and maximizing forest cover, green spaces, and conservation areas. This will be accomplished while still meeting the financial objectives of the development and preserving the development’s pro forma. By creatively changing the land use to accommodate environmental objectives, the City’s population plan was maintained and its development cost charge (DCC) revenue preserved. The total value of the development once built out will be approximately $1.5 billion. The $30 million in stormwater management and environmental enhancement works are fully funded through DCCs. This project received an Award of Excellence from the Association of Consulting Engineering Companies – British Columbia in 2012. Crystal Campbell, P.Eng., is with Kerr Wood Leidal Associates. E-mail: ccampbell@kwl.ca. Dana Soong, P.Eng., is with the City of Coquitlam. E-mail: dsoong@coquitlam.ca

54 | September 2012

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Drinking Water Safety

Protecting critical infrastructure and cyber assets in municipal water systems he North American water supply and distribution network faces increasing threats from forces both inside and outside distribution systems. Some enemies have already struck. In 2006, a foreign hacker used the Internet to plant malicious software in a water-filtering plant in Pennsylvania. The next year, a former employee of a canal authority in Northern California was charged with damaging the computer used to divert river water to farmers’ fields. Not all security breaches are malicious. When a large Southern California water system recently hired a professional hacker to probe the vulnerabilities of its computer networks, he needed just one day to seize control of the equipment used to chemically treat drinking water for millions of people. The hacker got in through a gaping security hole: County employees had been logging into the network through their home computers. Fortunately, none of these cyber incidents caused cascading problems. But experts are warning that security surrounding water systems must be substantially tightened to help prevent bioterrorism and other potential disasters. Experts say that the industrial control systems (ICS) currently used by most municipal and private systems have left


By connecting to the larger web of networks, water-control systems are exposed to the myriad threats that lurk in cyber space.

the water sector vulnerable to cyber criminals and accidental threats. “Today’s industrial control systems are incredibly complex assemblages of technology, processes and people,” the American Water Works Association noted in a 2008 report on water-system weaknesses. “Increasing connectivity, the proliferation of access points, escalating system complexity, and wider use of

common operating systems and platforms have all contributed to heightened security risks.” The evolution of risk To take advantage of digital advances, water-process control systems have changed dramatically in the last two decades. Once isolated and proprietary, most water-control systems today are part of a converged network that con-

Present Pre esent at the t Pr Premier remier e G Gro Groundwater oundwaterr Confer Conference rence e Join keynote speaker Charle Charles Fishman, New Y York oork Timess best-selling author 2013 NGWA NGWA Summit. your abstract to present at the 2013 of The Big Thirstt. Submit yo www.GroundwaterSummit.org until Abstracts are being accepted online at www.GroundwaterSummit.org 12. 111:59 1:59 p.m. ET ET,, October 22, 20 2012.

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Drinking Water Safety nects plant operations to the administrative environment. The migration from single-purpose supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to industry standard, network-based systems provided numerous benefits. These include increased information-sharing across the operation, and remote access to control systems. But those advances also created security gaps. By connecting to the larger web of networks, water-control systems are exposed to the myriad threats that lurk in cyber space, including viruses, worms and trojans. Poor control-system architecture, unfettered user access, and lax oversight of security policies and procedures have all combined to heighten the risk. Meanwhile, manuals and training videos on ICS are publicly available, and many hacker tools can be downloaded or purchased on the Internet. Cyber criminals need little systems knowledge to infiltrate ICS operations. For all these reasons, the number of control-system cyber-security incidents in the water/wastewater industry has escalated sharply, according to the Repos-

itory of Industrial Security Incidents (RISI). It reported a 300 percent increase in reported events between 2004 and 2009. RISI is a subscription-only database that collects, analyzes and shares information regarding cyber-security incidents that directly affect SCADA and process control systems. According to RISI, almost half of all cyber incidents across all industries during that five-year period were caused by malware, including viruses, worms and trojans. But unauthorized access, or sabotage by internal sources, such as disgruntled workers or contractors using access privileges to cause harm, rose considerably at the same time. Network anomalies also triggered failures in control-system equipment. The threats to water systems extend well beyond technology. Most municipal systems include miles and miles of pipes that carry water from the main plant to homes and businesses. Along the way are pumping stations and numerous other essential apparatus. If left unsecured, these physical components could provide access for anyone with the motive and the

means to contaminate the water or otherwise sabotage the system. In today’s world, where social-engineering and savvy reconnaissance are easily combined with state-of-the-art cyber technology, new threats are being created to prey on human nature and curiosity and ever-present weaknesses or oversights in control system design. The contemporary, wired-world must anticipate new threats like a Stuxnet 2.0. Furthermore, threats and potential attacks from both inside and outside the six walls of a facility must be considered and mitigated in order to help assure safety and operational integrity of the systems on which so many rely. Rockwell Automation offers securityenabled products and systems, innovative software, and expert consultation on everything from control system design, deployment and maintenance to establishing comprehensive disaster and recovery plans. For more information, visit www.rockwellautomation.com/security

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New mobile hardware solutions can increase staff productivity round the world, mobile devices are becoming increasingly popular and widespread. Look around and you will see tablets, smartphones, ultrabooks and netbooks being used by everyone. But what if you are a professional, managing large data sets, running multiple virtual machines, designing the next generation of products or technologies, collecting and analyzing environmental data or monitoring large amounts of incoming variables? You will clearly need much more capable and powerful hardware than the average consumer. The work of engineers, designers, operators and managers of municipal water and wastewater treatment systems, stormwater management, industrial/hazardous waste management and air pollution can be made easier and more productive by the use of capable mobile hardware. Teams, working with mobile workstations on their customers’ sites or anywhere outside their offices, need a system to run multiple applications on multiple operating systems. Eurocom has assisted many organizations with a strategy called “Engineeringon-the Go”. When utilized properly, it can greatly reduce organizational costs while improving a company’s ability to adapt to challenges. Its advantages include: 1. Being able to design new products or address production problems anywhere in the world. 2. Offering customers engineering capacity onsite, anywhere. 3. Being able to receive feedback and making adjustments face-to-face with final users, customers, co-developers and other third parties. 4. Reduced time to market, downtime and development costs of projects. 5. Increased profitability and market share. 6. Improved compliance, timeliness and auditability of field-collected data. Engineering-on-the-Go can be applied from a single engineer visiting a customer for a consulting session to a complete en-


58 | September 2012

Having powerful mobile workstations that are used to diagnose, simulate and solve issues are a must for companies that do not and cannot accept downtime.

gineering team being deployed onsite for the full length of the project, and the monitoring and maintenance that follows. Eurocom has defined three levels of Engineering-on-the-Go implementation: consulting, projects-based, and organizational-wide. The consulting level can be applied by any size of engineering company and only requires a relatively small investment. A mobile workstation is acquired for an engineer or environmental worker, allowing the individual to perform on-the-go consulting activities or test his draft design with final users in the field. The mid level of implementation is the act of applying the strategy on a project basis. By equipping an engineering team with mobile workstations for each individual engineer and a mobile server to contain the master file set, back up the data and provide a network for the team members, the company can provide its customers with the extra service of applying the team at a customer’s site. This increases speed to market and reduces development costs. The ultimate form of Engineering-onthe-Go implementation is to integrate it into the competitive strategy of the organ-

ization. This requires the organization to provide all its engineers with mobile workstations and have mobile servers available to apply to every project. This greatly increases the company’s ability to adapt to changes in the global market. Case study: Mechanical engineering In the design and development of a massive development project, engineers benefited from the capacity and mobility of mobile workstations to adjust the original design, based on the feedback they received while face-to-face with customers, co-developers, final users and others. Traditionally, engineers, product developers and designers are used to working on their office desktop workstations. Due to the limited capacity of laptops, engineers were unable to display or adjust their designs in real life on three-dimensional software programs during their visits. To process the feedback gathered in the field, the engineer would be forced to return to the office, adjust the design and receive feedback — a lengthy and inefficient process. With capable mobile workstations, users are able to visit their different marketing and sales units (MSU) all around

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Computers the world and show their design to them in their CAD and 3D modeling programs. Engineers can process the feedback to the original designers and move on to the next MSU instead of having to stop by the office to make adjustments. Case study: Infrastructure A user in the infrastructure engineering industry deployed a whole team of engineers to customers’ sites to design, construct and service such projects as a state-of-the-art power generation facility. For the design process, this company had chosen to send a full team of engineers to the customer site for optimal communication between the client and the engineers. The design team for the development of a power plant consisted of various types of professionals. The IT department of this company was pleased that the engineers all worked on a single hardware platform that made their support much easier, and they were still able to provide the engineers with mobile workstations that could be configured to fulfill their individual needs. As well as the mobile workstation for each of the engineers, this team was


Eurocom has assisted many organizations with a strategy called “Engineering-on-the Go”.

equipped with a Eurocom mobile server, making it possible for the different engineers to work together on location in an office-like environment. The direct communication with the client reduced the design process by 30%, compared to their traditional estimate. During the construction phase of this project, mobile workstations replaced paper drawings normally used in the tra-

ditional construction process. Blueprints were no longer printed but were viewed directly on the screens of the mobile workstations. After completion of the construction phase, the mobile workstations were used to monitor the power plant’s performance. Emergency preparedness Organizations with emergency relief operations and maintenance crews have to be prepared to get to a location on very short notice. These organizations need portable high-end computing to co-ordinate relief activities while on location. Maintenance crews for engineering and environmental monitoring companies, large power generation installations, and factories, for example, need to be able to get to the scene within minutes of a problem or sign of a possible issue. Having powerful mobile workstations that are used to diagnose, simulate and solve issues are a must for companies that do not and cannot accept downtime. For more information, E-mail: bradentaylor@eurocom.com

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Wastewater Treatment

Fast tracking the Kirkland Lake wastewater treatment plant upgrade By Asim Masaud and James Su he Town of Kirkland Lake Ontario’s Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) is a secondary treatment plant, originally constructed in 1972. It uses a contact stabilization process with aerobic digestion and has a design flow of 13,630 m3/day. In February 2009, the roof covering the WWTP collapsed, damaging various components and equipment. The age of the existing system, along with building code requirements and proximity to residential areas, did not warrant its reconstruction. Significant changes to the existing system were implemented to allow the plant to function temporarily in the outdoor environment. With an approved application to the Federal/Provincial Green Infrastructure Fund ($32 million in total) and an added municipal contribution, the Town was successful in obtaining funding for a total project value of $35.5 million for construction of a new wastewater treatment system. The challenges of constructing a new system included: • Selecting the new site in proximity with the existing receiver. • Revising wastewater effluent criteria. • Completing the Class Environmental Assessment (EA), given that the existing plant was grandfathered so no EA was ever conducted. • Project scheduling, given the completion/funding deadline (March 2014). As the Town’s professional project manager, the Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) Engineering Services Department assisted in streamlining the process from the day the roof collapsed. OCWA identified the need for reconstructing the existing system through a condition assessment of the plant, as well as the design requirements for the new system. The Schedule “C” Class EA process was initiated in September 2010 from scratch as no prior Environmental Study Report (ESR) work had been completed. A comprehensive ESR was filed in August 2011. Completion of the ESR took just under a year, largely due to rigorous


60 | September 2012

Contact tank during clean up of roof collapse.

and systematic co-ordination with the Ministry of the Environment (MOE). As a result, only a desktop assimilative capacity study was required. Project management approach OCWA Engineering Services conducted a condition assessment, which determined that reconstructing the existing system would not serve Kirkland Lake’s long-term goals. To help the Town in securing grant funding, project estimates and a business case were prepared and submitted to funding agencies. After the funds were secured, the project’s first phase began with consultant selection through a competitive request for proposals (RFP) process. With the project’s regimented timeline, the scope of Phase I was clearly defined. Completing the ESR within a year was a good start, but with only 2½ years to complete design and construction and have an operating plant, there was much work to be done. A detailed evaluation matrix was developed to identify the preferred plant location. Murdock Creek is a small tributary that receives stormwater and treated effluent from the plant. There is a power

plant downstream, that takes water from the creek for cooling purposes. During dry months, the power plant depends on WWTP effluent as a water supply. Locating the new plant downstream of the power plant would cause significant challenges for its operations. One of the site selection criteria included addressing this stakeholder’s needs. Following careful analysis of engineering feasibility, safety, environmental impact and relative costs, the preferred plant location was identified on a site approximately 200 m southwest of the current WWTP. Effluent criteria Murdock Creek is a low-flow receiver that has been degraded over the years. Effluent total phosphorus (TP) for the new plant was the parameter of concern. The MOE was of the opinion that Murdock Creek is a Policy 1 receiver with respect to TP. This meant that water quality with respect to TP had to be maintained at, or above, provincial water quality objectives. Subsequently, the MOE suggested a 0.2 mg/L monthly effluent compliance limit for TP, which is relatively low for a northern community. The design team,

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Wastewater Treatment however, recommended a 0.5 mg/L of TP effluent criteria, along with 15 mg/L of BOD5, 15 mg/L of TSS and non-acute lethal ammonia compliance limits. It determined that, based on historical data and modeling results, the receiver body is a Policy 2 receiver. The Town’s position was to adopt the BATEA (best available technology economically achievable) approach for the TP design objective of 0.3 mg/L. After numerous discussions, it was agreed to adopt a 0.5 mg/L monthly compliance limit for TP, with in-stream receiver monitoring for one year. The MOE will review the data collected and determine if further improvements are to be made in the receiver. Value engineering session A value engineering (VE) session was organized and held after preparation of a preliminary design report (PDR), in which the proposed design and estimated cost of the new Kirkland Lake WWTP were laid out. The purpose of the VE session was to obtain an experienced thirdparty review of the concept plans and capital cost for the new plant.


Wet well area after roof collapse.

Experienced operator inputs were valuable to the session, especially the northern climate experience. The session reviewed major design ideas and proposed potential cost-saving avenues, identifying potential savings of approximately

$7 million. Although not all ideas could be fully implemented, the exercise identified available options that could prove to be valuable in later design stages. continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment Process

Preliminary design

Final design

Raw sewage pumping station

New raw sewage pumping station at the existing WWTP.

Retrofit wet well in the existing WWTP.

Stormwater/peak flow treatment

All flow to be treated at the new WWTP.

Reuse existing tankages. Lower the design peak flows.

Preliminary treatment

2 mechanical bar screens, each sized for peak flow capacity. 1 vortex grit tank sized for peak flow capacity.

2 mechanical bar screens (each sized for lower peak flow capacity). 2 vortex grit tanks sized for 50% peak flow capacity.

Primary treatment

None, as sewage is relatively low strength.

None, as sewage is relatively low strength.

Secondary treatment

2 train biological nutrient removal (BNR) bioreactors (2 aerobic trains and 1 pre-anoxic/anaerobic/anoxic train). 2 rectangular clarifiers.

2 circular extended aeration bioreactors “carousel units” with aerobic and anoxic zones. The inner radius of each carousel unit provides secondary clarification.

Tertiary treatment

3 disk filters, each with capacity to treat maximum day flow.

2 disk filters, each with capacity to treat 66% of peak flow.


2 Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection units, each with capacity to treat 50% peak flow.

2 Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection units, each with capacity to treat 100% peak flow (peak flow is lower than preliminary design).

Sludge treatment

1 aerobic digester with 3 cells.

2 smaller aerobic digesters.

Table 1. Summary of process changes made from preliminary design to detailed design.

Detailed design Following the completion of Phase I (Class EA and preliminary engineering), another RFP was issued for the selection of a consulting engineer to complete Phase II (detailed design and construction contract administration). The intent for the second RFP was to obtain competitive pricing and other innovative design ideas. OCWA’s project management methodology was to obtain the best value for the client while not losing sight of project timeline and cost. The detailed design was much more comprehensive and ideas in the PDR were refined. Ultimately, JLR, CH2M HILL and Stantec were the design consultants chosen. Table 1 provides a summary of changes made from preliminary design to detailed design. These changes were based on the perspective of lowering capital cost and providing greater operational flexibility. Worth mentioning was the reusing of existing tankages 62 | September 2012

(clarifiers) as peak flow treatment. This allowed the new WWTP and equipment to be sized smaller and the flow to be better controlled. Also important was changing the secondary treatment process from biological nutrient removal (BNR) to extended aeration. It was determined that the raw sewage influent did not require full BNR. A simpler and less costly nitrification/denitrification process would readily meet the proposed effluent limits. The process would include a smaller anoxic zone with approximately 10-20% of the bioreactor volume, followed by 80-90% aerobic zone. Clarification occurs in the inner radius of the carousel, eliminating the need for separate clarifiers. There are challenges in every project, especially one the size of the Kirkland Lake WWTP upgrade, given the scale and schedule of the project. These challenges were examined, categorized and addressed proficiently with the help of the

project team. For the Town’s professional project manager, there is a responsibility to support the Town’s interests. All options available and their financial and environmental implications were presented to ensure the Town could make an informed decision. With 1½ years left and construction not yet begun, priority is to set the stage for smooth construction with as little delay as possible by refining the design details and carrying out all due diligence with the regulatory and approval agencies. Having met and worked through a series of challenges already, the project team is confident that the new Kirkland Lake Wastewater Treatment Plant will be substantially completed by March 2014 and in operation soon after. Asim Masaud and James Su are with the Ontario Clean Water Agency. E-mail: jsu@ocwa.com

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WEF announces its 2012 Excellence Awards

ES&E editorial board appointment

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine has appointed Archis R. Ambulkar of Brinjac Engineering (www.brinjac.com) to its Editorial Advisory Board. Mr. Ambulkar has more than 10 years of research and consulting experience in the environmental and chemical engineering fields. He has been involved with basic and detail engineering for municipal water/wastewater treatment plants and sanitary sewer systems. In addition to contributing several articles to ES&E in recent years, Ambulkar has worked with several other industry publications.

The Water Environment Federation (WEF) has announced the winners of its 2012 Excellence Awards. The awards will be presented this October at the WEF Awards and Presidential Celebration Reception during WEFTEC® 2012, WEF’s 85th annual technical exhibition and conference in New Orleans, Louisiana. Brian Evans, from the United Arab Emirates, has been awarded the Engelbrecht International Achievement Award. Evans was President of the Water Environment Association of Ontario in 1993. He became a member of the WEF International Committee in 1989 and assisted in organizing and moderating the Global Sessions at the WEF Annual Conference. He subsequently chaired the International Committee in the 1990s. In the late 1990s, the International Committee was reorganized with separate committees for each global region. Evans served as the Middle East and Africa representative after the reorganization. A subsequent reorganization renamed the

committee as the International Coordinating Committee (ICC). Under that structure, Evans served as Vice Chair from 2006 to 2009 and as Chair from 2009 to 2012. He organized the WEF New and Emerging Technologies Specialty Conference in Toronto in May 1995 and served on the Organizing Committee for the WEFTEC Asia Conference in 1998. His service to the WEF international committees has been long and exemplary. Evans was instrumental in proposing and fostering the establishment of the WEF emembership category, designed to encourage less affluent members from around the world to participate in WEF. He is also actively working toward making WEF documents more available electronically for global benefit. He has initiated discussions on the global outreach of WEF through electronic means with the goal of providing WEF with visibility in the developing countries. For more information on the award winners, visit wef.org

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September 2012 | 63

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Wastewater Infrastructure

Non-destructive assessment of Calgary wastewater mains needed for flow reversal project By Tim Ross ccurate and regular condition assessment of large-diameter pressure pipelines has become increasingly more important as these assets continue to age and the risk of failure increases. However, data from over 12,500 km of pressure pipe condition assessment by Pure Technologies indicates that only a small proportion of these pipes (less than 5%) need repair, and they, therefore, have a significant remaining useful life. Wastewater force mains are typically more challenging to assess than water transmission mains because they lack redundancy. This means the pipeline cannot be shut down for comprehensive condition assessment. However, failure of a wastewater force main can have more catastrophic results than a water transmission main, since there may also be an environmental impact from wastewater release. Calgary has had significant population growth in recent years, becoming one of Canada’s major economic centres. This growth has led to a shift in population distribution throughout the region and the need to adjust buried infrastructure networks to meet new demands. In 2011, the City of Calgary’s Anderson Force Main and Fish Creek Force Main flowed north, feeding the Bonnybrook Wastewater Treatment Plant. Due to limited capacity for growth at the Bonnybrook facility, the City had to explore new options for wastewater treatment due to the steady population growth in the southern part of Calgary. The end result was a project to build a new wastewater treatment facility south of the City and investigate potentially reversing the direction of flow within the Anderson and Fish Creek Force Mains to direct flow to the new plant. Proactive condition assessment Before enacting such a major operational change, the City needed to assess the force mains proactively to ensure a flow reversal was possible and would not increase the risk of failure. “A comprehensive assessment of the existing force mains in our network is an essential part of the ongoing analysis of


64 | September 2012

PipeDiver® collects pipe wall condition data as it traverses the pipeline, using sensors attached to fins.

options for the expansion and optimization of the City of Calgary’s collection and treatment facilities,” says Andy Dutton, Lead Project Engineer at Bonnybrook Wastewater Treatment Plant. Pure Technologies was contracted to perform an electromagnetic (EM) inspection and subsequent condition assessment of the two force mains. The Anderson Force Main is a 750-mm prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) manufactured in 1985, while the Fish Creek Force Main consists of 762-mm bar-wrapped pipe (BWP) manufactured in 1993. For the inspection, Pure Technologies used PipeDiver®, a free-swimming tool that collects pipe wall condition data as it traverses the pipeline, using sensors attached to fins. Specifically, the EM collects data on the condition of the prestressing wire within PCCP, as well as the bars and steel cylinder in BWP. Conducting a non-destructive inspection using the PipeDiver platform, the work was completed in two days. Additionally, the force mains remained in service during the inspection, causing minimal disruption to normal operating procedures. Although BWP looks similar to PCCP in cross-section, their design and materials are significantly different. PCCP is a concrete pipe that remains under compression because of the prestressing wires. With BWP, the cylinder plays a much larger role in the structural integrity of the pipe. BWP is essentially designed as a steel pipe, with mild steel used to manufacture

the steel cylinder and steel bars. PCCP utilizes mild steel for the cylinder, but high-strength steel for the wire, which is wrapped under high tension. As a result, the bar in BWP and wire in PCCP respond differently to corrosive forces. The high-strength steel wire in PCCP is smaller in diameter and wrapped under higher tension, therefore corrosion makes it quite vulnerable to breakage. The mild steel bars in BWP are thicker and wrapped under less tension, so corrosion takes significantly longer to lead to breakage. The type of failure is also much different. PCCP tends to fail suddenly with a large dispersion of energy. This type of failure is less likely in BWP, where failures are similar to steel pipe with long periods of leakage occurring prior to rupture. Although in some cases, BWP has experienced sudden failure. Over the past decade, Pure Technologies has done extensive research and development to build on its traditional EM technology and provide utilities with the ability to perform assessments of BWP and other ferrous materials. “The challenge with accurately assessing BWP, and the main difference between assessing BWP and PCCP, is that you have to evaluate the condition of not only the prestressing wire and/or reinforcing bars but also the steel cylinder,” says Travis Wagner, engineering manager at Pure Technologies. “The cylinder plays an important structural role when it comes

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Infrastructure

Inserting a PipeDiver unit.

to the integrity of the pipe. Our latest EM solutions provide exactly that capability.” The EM inspections spanned just over 12 km (7.5 km of PCCP, 4.5 km of BWP) and were conducted between Dec. 13 and 15, 2011. The PCCP portion of the inspection started at the Anderson Lift Sta-

tion and concluded at the Bonnybrook Wastewater Treatment Plant. Two days later, the BWP portion of the inspection began, with the insertion at the Fish Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant and finishing at the Bonnybrook Treatment Plant. Results of the inspection The inspection results showed five of 1,022 pipes on the Anderson Force Main having EM anomalies that were consistent with wire break damage, and one pipe with a signal consistent with a cylinder defect. On the Fish Creek Force Main, two of the 583 inspected pipes showed EM anomalies consistent with bar breaks, and one pipe showed an anomaly consistent with a cylinder defect. In addition to the anomalous pipes, the inspection detected several pipe sections with lengths different from what was shown on the lay sheets. This data is valuable for the City as it moves forward with the flow reversal project and for future management of this pipeline. The information about the pipeline will be now more accurate, allowing for more precise results on pipeline condition.

Based on the inspection results, Pure Technologies and the City of Calgary discussed several options for future management of these force mains. In order to monitor the condition of pipeline effectively, hydraulic modeling, including transient pressure monitoring, was presented as an option. This would ensure that the actual operating conditions of the pipeline do not exceed the remaining capacity of the force main determined during the condition assessment. For the PCCP force main, acoustic fibre-optic monitoring may be an option to track future prestressing wire breaks along the Anderson Force Main. This will allow for intervention on pipe sections before they fail. The inspections yielded no recommendations for pipe section replacement, and allowed the comprehensive assessment of the force mains to continue within the flow reversal project. Tim Ross is with Pure Technologies. E-mail: tim.ross@puretechltd.com

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September 2012 | 65

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Water Quality

Protecting ground and surface water at a shuttered bulk explosives facility By Doug Bright and Michael Choi he Kemess South Mine in northeast British Columbia operated between 1998 and 2011.The former bulk explosives fabrication (BX) facility within the mine area produced ammonium nitratebased explosives (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil — ANFO) to support mining operations. Explosives fabrication and handling caused significant accumulations of ammonia and nitrate (AN) in shallow soils surrounding the BX facility, and groundwater concentrations of AN were identified beneath the site. Soil-based environmental quality guidelines or standards for AN do not exist federally or provincially, so, in order to facilitate protection of groundwater for drinking water purposes, and to protect aquatic life in the adjacent Kemess Creek, site-specific remedial objectives (SSROs) were developed to


allow innovative and appropriate remediation of ammonia and nitrate concentrations in soil. During the mid to late 2000s under Northgate Minerals Corp., the mine extracted an average volume of 300,000 ounces of gold and 75 million pounds of copper per year. The current owner is actively reclaiming portions of the Kemess South Mine area, which is located approximately 300 km northwest of Mackenzie, BC. Nature of contamination The main ingredients of ANFO explosives were granular ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel, which were stored in separate areas. During operations, ammonium nitrate can be accidentally released to soil from storage facilities as a result of tracking by or spillage from heavy equipment handling, losses through any large cracks in the founda-

tion of the storage shed, or dustfall in the surrounding areas. These ingredients can decompose and remain in soil as AN for a period of time after deposition, depending on site-specific environmental hydrological, hydrogeological and biogeochemical processes. As a result, AN released from the soil into groundwater and surface water can potentially affect the quality of water used for human consumption and/or affect aquatic life in nearby water bodies, such as the adjacent Kemess Creek. Investigations at the BX facility did identify AN in soil and groundwater samples. Concentrations in soil varied across the site and with depth, depending on the investigation location relative to historical storage and mixing operations. The highest soil concentration was measured at 540 μg/g ammonia-N and 700 μg/g total ammonia-N plus nitrate-N.

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Water Quality Groundwater samples were collected on several occasions. The highest measured concentrations were 33 mg/L ammonia-N and 101 mg/L nitrate-N, with concentrations in several wells exceeding the applicable Contaminated Sites Regulation Aquatic Life and/or Drinking Water Standards. Compared to nitrate-N in the tens of mg/L, measured nitrite-N concentrations in groundwater were small, with concentrations typically much less than 2 mg/L. Further management of the risks, based on the combined sum of the two anions, did not add any value to the overall risk management objectives. Regulatory review The Kemess South Mine is currently undergoing closure as governed by the Ministry of Energy and Mines under the Mines Act, which regulates the core areas of a producing mine, such as the Pit. The Ministry of Environment, under provisions in the British Columbia Environmental Management Act, also provides regulatory oversight through the Water Stewardship Division (permitting and dams) and the Environmental Protection

Division (human health and the environment, including contaminated sites). The Contaminated Sites Regulation (CSR) and the Hazardous Waste Regulation apply to the non-core areas of a producing mine, including the BX facility. Currently, there are no provincially adopted or federally endorsed generic soil quality guidelines for ammonia, nitrate or nitrite developed for protection of groundwater or aquatic life. For provincial water quality, the CSR Groundwater Standards (Schedule 6) and the BC Water Quality Guidelines define values that can be used to inform the development of leaching-based soil values. BC CSR Aquatic Life Standards are applicable to groundwater prior to entry into waters frequented by aquatic life. BC Water Quality Guidelines are intended to be applicable to the ambient environment. Since there is no BC CSR Schedule 6 Standard, BC Water Quality Guideline (or Canadian Drinking Water Quality Guideline) for ammonia for the purpose of drinking water protection, it is not possible to calculate a leaching-based

soil value for ammonia based on the potable water exposure pathway. CSR Schedule 6 groundwater standards do exist for ammonia for aquatic life protection, and for nitrate and nitrite for both drinking water and groundwater protection. Hence, SSROs for soil values were determined for ammonia and nitrate. Calculation of leaching-based soil values The leaching-based SSROs for soil values were calculated using the simplified soil/water partitioning model that describes the ability of contaminants to sorb to soil (EPA 1996) and accounts for the aerial extent of soil contamination. More complex and less conservative models use additional site specific data for the calculation of leaching-based soil values for ammonia and nitrate. However, the data required to use these models at the BX facility site was not available. Using the soil/water partitioning model, the BX facility SSRO soil ammonia leaching-based value for protection of groundwater to surface water used for aquatic life was calculated. continued overleaf...

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Water Quality

Mine site during clean-up.

Hemmera, an environmental consultancy firm involved in the project, was unable to find in the published, peer-reviewed literature any Kd values for nitrate that departed from zero (0). A Kd

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value of zero essentially indicates that nitrate in a soil/groundwater system will occur in predominantly dissolved phase, with little to no sorption to soil surfaces. Biological uptake and N conversions play a far greater role in N partitioning than physical sorption-desorption reactions. Since a soil-water partitioning coefficient for nitrate or nitrite that departs from zero could not be defined, a leaching-based soil value for nitrate or nitrite could not be derived using the soil/water partitioning model (EPA 1996). Instead, an alternative approach for these contaminants was selected for the site. The state of Kansas developed a set of risk-based soil standards (updated October 2010) for nitrate, nitrite and ammonia as these are common soil contaminants due to agricultural fertilizer spills, feedlots and animal wastes, septic systems and other sources. Kansas has developed Tier 2 soil clean-up guidelines for many substances based on potential to leach into groundwater, using methods very similar to those presented above for the ammonia leaching-based soil value. The Kansas soil clean-up guidelines were developed “in consultation with Kansas State University agronomy experts to provide non-site specific soil clean-up goals that are generally protective of groundwater and capable of sustaining vegetative growth.�

Attenuation considerations Based on sampling conducted at the site, the areas excavated to remove ammonia contamination in soil would also result in the removal of nitrate contamination. Once the major source of nitrate and ammonia contamination is removed from the site, it is reasonable to anticipate an appreciable reduction in the levels of ammonia and nitrate in groundwater. It should be noted that calculations were conservatively applied for ammonia-N. Remediation of soils using the leaching-based soil values described above do not consider additional environmental fate mechanisms that would reduce ammonia and nitrate flux into groundwater, and during groundwater transport to Kemess Creek. For example, significant naturally occurring biological processes are not accounted for in the derivation of leachingbased soil values. The biological processes include assimilation (inorganic to organic N by plants and bacteria), nitrification (ammonia-N to nitrate-N mediated by bacteria), and denitrification (reduction of nitrates to nitrogen gas by bacteria). Therefore, appreciable reductions in the dissolved concentrations of ammonia and nitrate would be expected based on abiotic and biotic reactions occurring along the transport pathway and at the outflow face for groundwater to surface water (i.e., slope face water seeps and/or Kemess Creek). Applying the soil SSROs, meant only targeted areas of AN-impacted soil were removed from the site. Rather than bulk removal of all soils impacted with ammonia-N and nitrate-N (>1,200 m3), cost-effective targeted excavations of removed soil contamination provided valuable efficiencies in effort and energy to complete the remediation. Doug Bright and Mike Choi are with Hemmera. E-mail: dbright@hemmera.com or mchoi@hemmera.com

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Drinking Water Disinfection

WRF commissions comprehensive UV disinfection study

ltraviolet (UV) disinfection for drinking water has evolved considerably over the last 10 years in terms of regulations, science, and technology. The Water Research Foundation has released a study, which involved the following components: • Identify issues and questions regarding drinking water UV disinfection from participating utilities, regulators, and consultants. • Collect and analyze UV system data through surveys of participating utilities and field evaluations of installed systems. • Conduct an evaluation of mercury release from the breakage on low-pressure high output (LPHO) and medium-pressure (MP) lamps and develop engineering approaches for mitigating mercury release. Survey data collected during the spring of 2008 indicated that 161 utilities in Canada and 148 in the United States have installed or are implementing drinking water UV disinfection at plant flows greater than 0.5 mgd. Seventy-eight percent of UV systems were installed for Cryptosporidium and/or Gi-



ardia inactivation, 12% for virus inactivation based on a “UV dose” of 40 mJ/cm2, and 9% for heterotrophs, total coliform, or bacteria inactivation. Twenty-four percent of the UV systems were treating ground waters, while 76% were treating surface waters. Design flow rates ranged from 0.03 mgd to 2,200 mgd and the total design capacity was 6.1 bgd. Seventy-three percent of systems used MP lamps and 27% used either LPHO or amalgam LPHO UV lamps. The nominal power of LPHO and MP lamps ranged from 240 to 427 W and 2.4 to 21.6 kW, respectively. The average ratio of amalgam to MP lamps was 10 to 1. MP UV systems were typically equipped with automatic wipers, while LPHO systems used automatic mechanical or physchem wipers, offline acid cleaning, or manual cleaning. Offline acid cleaning chemicals included phosphoric or citric acid. Utilities indicated that 25% of LPHO systems and 53% of MP systems required additional manual cleaning. UV systems used either DVGW or ÖNORM-compliant or proprietary UV sensors. ÖNORM sensors were used

more with LPHO systems while DVGW sensors were used more with MP systems. Only 69% of utilities stated that they used reference UV sensors to check duty UV sensors, and a majority of utilities reported having only one reference UV sensor. Forty-eight percent of the utilities used flow meters on each reactor train, while 40% used a single flow meter on the combined flow. Sixty-three percent of utilities reported using an on-line UVT monitor, and only 52% reported conducting UVT monitor checks. The data indicates a need for improved QA/QC with operating UV systems. Forty and 25% of U.S. and Canadian systems have off spec requirements. Reporting with U.S. systems includes UV dose and flow rate (78%), UV sensor readings and check data (55%), UVT and check data (44%), and off spec performance (33%). In contrast, Canadian systems report UV dose and flow rate data (90%), UVT data (60%), UV sensor data (10%), UV sensor and UVT monitor check data (5%), and none report off spec performance. The differences between U.S. and continued overleaf... September 2012 | 69

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Drinking Water Disinfection Canadian systems likely reflect the influence of the LT2ESWTR and UVDGM, which is greater with U.S. systems. The labour hours per month as 10th and 90th percentiles ranged from 1 to 20 hours per month with LPHO systems and 1 to 10 hours per month with MP systems. Fifty percent of LPHO systems and 41% of MP systems observed sleeve and UV sensor port window fouling. The median ratio of spare lamps, sleeves, ballasts, and UV sensors was 12:2:3:1 with LPHO systems and 4:2:1:1 with MP systems. While utilities have observed issues with UV disinfection, overall they report that their UV systems are effective and simple to use and maintain, with UV component performance exceeding warranties and vendors providing good service. UV system performance was also evaluated with eight installed UV systems. Many of those systems did not have access to validation reports and did not understand their UV dose-monitoring algorithm. One system used an unvalidated algorithm. Over dosing was common (e.g., factor of 2 to 3), due to use of unnecessary safety factors, inefficient implementation of UV sensor set point monitoring approach, or limitations on reactor turndown. The combined lamp aging and fouling (CAF) index, calculated as the ratio of the observed UV sensor readings to those predicted using the UV sensor equation, was used to quantify lamp aging and fouling. Data showed lamp aging well within design criteria. Fouling was site specific with some locations experiencing little if any fouling, even with MP lamps, while others showed significant fouling over time. At locations where fouling was observed, the automatic mechanical and physicalchemical wipers used with MP lamps kept the sleeves and UV sensor port windows clean. However, internal sleeve fouling was an issue with MP systems. Significant fouling was observed with LPHO systems using offline acid cleaning. It appears operators may not be motivated to clean the reactor if the PLC indicates the reactor is delivering the required UV dose even though the fouling significantly impacts O&M costs. 70 | September 2012

Mercury release following a lamp breakage event was evaluated using a pilot reactor and showed that mercury transport following a lamp break depends on lamp type and operation. During a lamp break, the vapor phase mercury dissolves into solution and is carried downstream of the reactor, whereas liquid and amalgam mercury settles to the bottom of the reactor. The mass of vapor phase mercury with operating LP and LPHO lamps is orders of magnitude less than an operating MP lamp because the former operate at much lower temperatures. A mercury mitigation plan should include prevention, detection of lamp breaks, modeling of mercury release and transport, capture and containment, sampling, treatment and disposal of contaminated water, and cleanup and re-commissioning of the UV reactor. Resonant sleeve vibration is a cause of lamp breaks not mentioned in the UVDGM. The mercury concentrations in piping and basins downstream of the reactor following a lamp break can be predicted using advective-dispersion equations, CFD-modeling, or residence time distributions obtained from tracer studies. Recommendations The project team and the participating utilities identified numerous recommendations for utilities planning to implement UV disinfection. They should consider the UV dose requirements specified within the 2006 UVDGM, based on optimized validation test microbes as an alternate to an MS2 dose of 40 mJ/cm2. Utilities should collect a robust data set on UVT to define design criteria. Lamp aging and fouling factors used for design should also be clearly defined by the design team. UV design recommendations include providing a redundant reactor for maintenance, using high flow reactors to minimize the number of reactor trains, using large drain lines with large reactors, balancing building capital with requirements for upstream and downstream straight pipe lengths, using automatic motorized isolation valves, sending off spec water to the plant headworks, equipping MP systems with wipers even with waters with low iron levels, providing dedicated space for spare parts and maintenance tasks, and having operators

and plant personnel participate in all phases of design and construction. Off-site validation is recommended over on-site validation due to challenges obtaining required flows and UVTs, and water disposal. Utilities should have clear documentation describing the UV dose-monitoring algorithm used by their UV systems and confirm the algorithm programmed into the PLC matches that provided in the validation report. Utilities should evaluate and improve the efficiency of UV dose monitoring and control to reduce over-dosing and associated O&M costs. Utilities need to improve UV system operational QA/QC, including UV sensor and UVT monitor checks. Wet UV sensors are not recommended and reference UV sensors should use electronics independent of the reactor. Criteria for UVT monitor accuracy should be based on the impact of that error on UV dose monitoring. UV system operators should calculate the CAF index for their reactors on a weekly basis and use the results to optimize UV system operation and maintenance such as manual cleaning or lamp replacement. Operators should inspect sleeves for internal fouling. Utilities reported that UV disinfection requires regular maintenance ― it is not a low maintenance technology. Utilities did not plan for enough operational staff, and recommended having a dedicated maintenance technician. Overall, the project identified a need for improved training with UV system operators. Utilities should implement a mercury response plan that accounts for the transport of mercury expected with LPHO and MP lamps. The plan should prevent resonant sleeve vibration and address detection of the lamp and sleeve breaks, response time of valves and water hammer, sampling locations and method detection limits, and discharge limits and the need to treat mercury contaminated water. For more information, visit www.waterrf.org

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Foam plug for leaks

American Water provides beneficial reuse of biosolids; advanced technologies - Class A biosolids; mobile dewatering; digester, reactor, tank and lagoon cleaning; confined space entry; treatment plant by-pass; vacuum and haulage services; custom, mobile screening; and free assessments and quotations. Tel: 800-846-2097 E-mail: terratecsales@amwater.com Web: www.terratec.amwater.com

Syntho-Plug is a football-shaped, polyurethane impregnated, water activated foam plug used to temporarily stop the flow from a leak in anything from a pipe to a tanker, to a railcar and even a boat hull. It is initially pliable to insert into a void and quickly expands and hardens to fill the void; it can even be applied below the water line. Tel: 800-265-0182, 905-949-2741 Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com

American Water

Canadian Safety Equipment

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Multiparameter controller

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Memosens sensor technology and the new digital Liquiline CM442 platform make "plug & play" online analyzers and samplers a true reality. Modular design allows for any combination of inputs (DO, TSS, pH, conductivity, chlorine, nitrate, Ion Selective and blanket level). All are easily customized to your specific process. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/analysis

Liquid hypochlorite injection system

Fluid Metering, Inc. has introduced their NEW Chloritrol™ valveless metering system for accurate, maintenance-free injection of liquid sodium and calcium hypochlorite for purification of municipal drinking water and other sanitizing operations. Tel: 800-223-3388, 516-922-6050 E-mail: pumps@fmipump.com Web: www.chloritrol.com Fluid Metering


Process mixing system The HYDRAULIX mixing systems feature a unique double nozzle design which allows for even energy distribution. This process optimizes solids suspension and contact to promote efficiency in a wide range of wastewater and bio-fuels applications. E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

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Online education

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Ozone systems

Dissolved oxygen logger

H2Flow offers Pinnacle’s revolutionary Zenith ozone systems, producing up to 600 lbs/day (5% wt.) per unit. With their highly efficient design, they can be turned up/down for 100% dosage variability. They are built with solid components, are rugged, proven, extremely compact, and water cooled, with no yearly maintenance. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: info@h2flow.com Web: www.h2flow.com

The HOBO Dissolved Oxygen Logger – U26-001offers DO monitoring with 0.2 mg/L accuracy, optical DO sensor technology, optical USB interface and an easy-to-replace DO sensor cap. The software corrects for measurement of temperature and dissolved oxygen drift from fouling. Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: salesv@hoskin.ca Web: www.hoskin.ca


Hoskin Scientific

Redundant level sensing

The new PSL 5.0 Pump Station Level Controller from Greyline Instruments features redundant level sensing. It includes a non-contacting ultrasonic sensor and you can also connect a loop-powered pressure sensor for redundant sensing in applications with foam or grease. Tel: 888-473-9546 E-mail: info@greyline.com Web: www.greyline.com Greyline Instruments

P roduct & Service Showcase

Multi-parameter monitoring The YSI EXO Advanced Water Quality Multi-Parameter Monitoring Platform features: wireless Bluetooth communication; smart sensors; wetmateable sensor/cable connectors; built-in GPS; extended battery life (90 days). New parameters include fDOM & total algae. Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: salesv@hoskin.ca Web: www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientific

Grit washing and dewatering The latest addition to Hydro International’s line of advanced grit removal equipment, the GritCup™/SpiraSnail™ Grit Washing & Dewatering System combines principles employed in other successful Hydro products. The result is an economical, high-performance alternative for smaller plant grit removal upgrades, retrofits, or new installations. Tel: 503-615-8130, Fax: 503-615-2906 E-mail: wastewater@hydro-int.com Web: www.hydro-int.com Hydro International

72 | September 2012

Screw press

Sludge screen

Huber Technology’s RoS3Q Inclined Screw Press provides high performance sludge dewatering in a compact, entirely enclosed machine. The RoS3Q provides efficient and reliable operation with minimal operator attendance. The slow rotational design is simple and energy-efficient. E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.huberforum.net/ESE

The Strainpress® Inline Sludge Screen from Huber Technology is designed to effectively screen sludge in pressurized lines. Reduces maintenance costs and increases the operating reliability of downstream sludge treatment systems. The Strainpress is precision manufactured of stainless steel. There are more than 700 installations. E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.huberforum.net/ESE

Huber Technology

Huber Technology

New technical reference blog

IPEX has launched ABetterSewer.com, a new blog for wastewater engineers, designers and operators. It will cover technical issues related to drop structures, sewer hydraulics and odor control, and will inform on technology and opinions of industry experts with a specific focus upon the Vortex Flow Solution. Tel: 905-403-0264 E-mail: jennifer.tuck@ipexna.com Web: www.abettersewer.com IPEX Management

Physicochemical pretreatment HYDREX™ water treatment chemicals are formulated to meet the individual specifications of customers in the industrial and municipal sectors. They are key components in physicochemical pretreatment of water, including clarification, antiscaling, anti-fouling and corrosion mitigation applications. Tel: 1-888-LINKVWS (546-5897) E-mail: canada.service@veoliawater.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com John Meunier

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater pump stations are facing an influx of sewer clogging rags and debris, so JWC Environmental engineers developed a breakthrough vertical Auger Monster® screening system to fit inside cramped pump stations and provide complete pump protection. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-833-8858 E-mail: jwce@jwce.com Web: www.jwce.com JWC Environmental

Interpreter register Master Meter's Interpreter Register System, based on proven Dialog® 3G technology, is a universal AMR upgrade that replaces the existing register on almost any brand of meter in minutes, without service interruption. It delivers AMR technology without wires or connections. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: mastermeter.com Master Meter

Septage receiving system

Standardized booster pumps

The Honey Monster® SRS-XE is an improvement to JWC Environmental’s award-winning Honey Monster. This automated septage receiving system uses a combination of grinding, solids removal, washing and dewatering to remove unwanted trash before septage is allowed to enter a wastewater treatment plant. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-833-8858 E-mail: jwce@jwce.com Web: www.jwce.com

KSB has added the MOVITEC line of high-pressure, inline pumps to its Canadian portfolio. Coming in a range of sizes (up to 90 mm pipe diameter), these proven off-the-shelf pumps provide straightforward and cost-effective solutions for mid-capacity, high-pressure booster systems. Applications include firefighting systems in high-rise buildings, water supply/treatment, condensate transport, boiler feed and reverse osmosis desalination systems. Tel: 905-568-9200 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca

JWC Environmental

KSB Pumps

Ultrasonic meter

Octave® offers the latest in ultrasonic metering technology and is an excellent alternative to mechanical compound, single-jet, and turbine meters with no moving parts. Octave excels at maintaining sustained accuracy for the life of the meter while providing smart AMR capabilities. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: clauret@mastermeter.com Web: mastermeter.com Master Meter

Safety hatches MSU MG Safety Hatches - the open and shut case for hatch standards. With single, double and multi-door configurations in aluminum and stainless steel, they are made right here in Canada. Check us out on the web www.msumississauga.com Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com

MSU Mississauga

Safety hatches

Pumping system solutions

NGWA Summit

MSU MG Safety Hatches set the standard in Canada for fall-through protection. They withstand pedestrian and occasional traffic loads. With single, double and multi-door configurations in aluminum and stainless steel, they are made in Canada. Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com Web: www.msumississauga.com

Satisfying pumping needs at the lowest cost over the life cycle of the system, Myers optimizes system efficiencies with complete engineering services, providing cost-effective solutions and immediate cost savings when planning a pump station. Myers software programs provide the engineering tools to properly design the ideal station. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: epsl@telus.net

A call for abstracts is under way for the 2013 National Ground Water Association Summit, which is taking place April 28-May 2 in San Antonio, Texas. For more details on the 2013 NGWA Summit and to submit your abstract, visit www.GroundwaterSummit.org. Tel: 800-551-7379, 614-898-7791 Fax: 614-898-7786 Web: www.GroundwaterSummit.org

Myers Engineered Products

National Ground Water Association

National Ground Water Association MSU Mississauga


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Product & Service Showcase

Screening system

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Portable test for TPH

Metering pump

The NETZSCH TORNADO® positive displacement, self priming, valveless pumps, offer high performance and are selected and configured for the requirements of each application. They are designed for intermittent or continuous operation, provide gentle pumping of the pumped product and are ideally suited for transfer, process and dosing applications. There are highly abrasion resistant and replaceable protection plates on both faces of the housing. Tel: 705-797-8426, Fax: 705-797-8427 E-mail: info@netzsch.ca Web: www.netzsch.ca

The PetroFLAG system is a field portable test for determining total petroleum hydrocarbon in soil by quantifying all fuels, oils, and greases as total hydrocarbons. The test is ideal for site assessments, tank removal procedures, oil spill clean-up and remediation activities. Tel: 800-560-4402, Fax: 877-820-9667 E-mail: tmcgowan@ospreyscientific.com Web: www.ospreyscientific.com

The awardwinning delta® with optoDrive® provides diverse control and operating capabilities in a capacity range of 7.5 - 75 l/h, 362 psi - 29 psi. The delta from ProMinent has many advanced features: pulsed or continuous dosing; automatic detection of airlock, low pressure and high pressure; and an automatic degassing option. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca/delta

NETZSCH Canada Inc.

Osprey Scientific

ProMinent Fluid Controls

Rotary lobe pump

P roduct & Service Showcase

Metering pumps Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment.

Solution architecture

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca

Schneider Electric is the only global specialist providing EcoStruxure, an integrated systems architecture unifying process management, energy management and security management for water and wastewater. Our solutions can save up to 30% in operating and design costs. Tel: 800-565-6699 E-mail: canadian.pss@ca.schneiderelectric.com Web: www.schneider-electric.com

ProMinent Fluid Controls

Schneider Electric

Screening and grit removal in one package

PISTA®Works™ provides four headworks processes on one skid package. It combines screening, grit removal and grit washing into one integrated system which is pre-assembled and shipped direct to the job site, significantly reducing field installation costs while allowing for a compact footprint. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

74 | September 2012

S&L Super Non-Clog Pump Energy-reduction and limiting downtime for lift station and WWTP process pumps are critical to reducing utility power and maintenance costs. Long-lasting S&L Super Non-Clog Pumps with exclusive oversized bearings and stainless steel shaft offer superior wire-to-water efficiencies compared to leading submersible and self-priming pumps. The result saves end-users thousands of dollars annually on power demands, long-term maintenance and associated CO2 output emissions. Tel: 913.888.5201, Fax: 913.888.2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

Automation solution The simple combination design of the Smart Servo Package allows for an extremely high level of flexibility with various extension products, which can be optionally combined to meet the requirements of the application, communication and automation structure. Tel: 905-791-1553 E-mail: marketing@sew-eurodrive.ca Web: www.sew-eurodrive.ca


TLC meter "how-to" video

A Solinst TLC Meter measures water level, temperature, and conductivity. To ensure accuracy of readings, the user can easily calibrate the meter for conductivity. To simplify the process, Solinst has a practical video that guides the user through a two-point calibration. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com/Prod/107/ 107ins/ 107insd3.html Solinst

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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The YSI IQ SensorNet water quality monitoring and control system is specifically designed for wastewater applications. With a variety of sensors, many of them available with advanced self-cleaning technology, the IQ SensorNet helps optimize your process while lowering energy costs. Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-293-9774 E-mail: info@spdsales.com Web: www.spdsales.com SPD Sales

Engineered metal doors U.S.F. Fabrication, Inc. manufactures a complete line of engineered metal doors for underground utility access. They have been “fabricating solutions since 1916” with over 160,000 sq ft of manufacturing space. This allows them to offer the best lead times in the industry. Their friendly and knowledgeable staff is committed to providing customers with the right product for their application and shipping it when they need it. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: epsl@telus.net

Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wall for groundwater containment and control. It is a new design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills assisted in developing the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: info@waterloo-barrier.com Web: www. waterloo-barrier.com

U.S.F. Fabrication

Waterloo Barrier

Peristaltic pumps

Inline disposable filters

Waterra currently has three Inline Disposable Filter options available: the 0.45 Micron high turbidity FHT-45, the 0.45 Micron medium turbidity FMT-45, and the 0.2 Micron CAP300X2. All our filters use high quality polyethersulphone filter media (which offers excellent particle retention above the target micron size range) and are pre-rinsed with 1L of de-ionized water to ensure purity. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

Groundwater sampling The HydraSleeve Discreet Interval No-Purge Sampler provides a formation quality sample with very little effort and cost. In independent studies, the HydraSleeve was found to be 50%-80% more cost-effective than other sampling methods. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps


Controlling contaminated groundwater

The Pegasus Alexis® Peristaltic Pump from Waterra is a self-contained sampling station that includes all the best features of these devices. Packaged in the rugged Pelican™ 1430 case and incorporating its own power supply and charger, this pump will keep you sampling in the field all day long. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

Chemical-free water treatment

Mechanical actuators The portable, electrically operated Hydrolift has been one of the most popular mechanical actuators for the Waterra Inertial Pump, and we've been working to make it better. Today, the improved Hydrolift is more durable and easier to use and, most importantly, more affordable than ever. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

New Amalgam UV lamps

WEDECO Ozone Generators from Xylem eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and micro-organisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca

Xylem’s new WEDECO ECORAY® ultraviolet lamps offer significant savings in operation and life cycle costs. The UV lamps incorporate a new long-life coating and improved overall stability and performance. An innovative gas and amalgam mixture in the lamp utilizes up to 80 percent less mercury. Corresponding electronic ballast cards have been fine-tuned to the specific requirements of ECORAY lamp aging characteristics. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca



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Water quality monitoring

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Xylem announces scholarship winners

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Five decades of excellence in infrastructure planning & engineering

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Xylem, through its Goulds Water Technology Professional Dealers Association (GPDA) has awarded fourteen $1,000.00 post secondary scholarships to Canadian and US high school students. All recipients are children of Goulds Professional Dealers Association members. The GPDA is the industry’s oldest and largest association comprised of more than 7,000 independent water systems professionals. Since the GPDA scholarship program was formed, nearly 150 high school seniors have been awarded scholarships based on academic achievement, community service and leadership. This year’s Canadian recipients are: Jenna Cassidy, Miramichi, New Brunswick, and Travis Clelland, Loring, Ontario. www.xyleminc.com

WesTech acquires Microfloc and General Filter WesTech Engineering, Inc. has signed an agreement with Siemens Industry, Inc. to purchase its conventional water treatment business that includes the Microfloc and General Filter product portfolios. The agreement includes all active projects, associated assets and liabilities, inventory, and associated patents and trademarks, as well as the facility in Ames, Iowa. “The Microfloc and General Filter product lines are solid businesses with excellent employees, a rich history, and strong brand recognition,” said Dr. Lukas Loeffler, CEO Water Technologies, Siemens Industry Automation Division. “But these products are not a fit with our focus on portfolio differentiation, which is a key driver of our business overall.”

Research building has “net positive” footprint Environmental Management System Solutions

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76 | September 2012

Stantec engineers have designed sustainability systems at the University of British Columbia’s Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) that have helped make it one of the “Greenest Buildings in North America.” Stantec’s Vancouver-based engineers provided mechanical and electrical engineering design for the project, employing Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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extensive photovoltaic panels, rainwater harvesting, a living wall, an eco-roof and a host of innovative sustainable features. The result is a building that is net-positive in four categories: energy, water, operational carbon (emissions from operations), and structural carbon (emissions or damage from creation of the building). Every drop of the building’s water comes from rainfall which is stored and treated on-site. Low-flow fixtures decrease water usage. CIRS is the first building in Canada approved by municipal health authorities to use rainwater as drinkable water. Wastewater and sewage are treated, without the use of chemicals, to be reused for irrigation around the site. www.stantec.com

OCWA to use Hydromantis software The Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA), a provider of water and wastewater services, has announced its collaboration with Hydromantis Environmental Software Solutions, Inc. on enhancements to OCWA’s training program for wastewater operators. OCWA will be incorporating Hydromantis’ SimuWorks™, an advanced training and development platform based on their industry leading GPS-X 6.1 simulation technology. It should be available starting early fall and will be incorporated into existing and new OCWA training courses. For more information, E-mail: wmortimer@ocwa.com

Black & Veatch chosen to lead research Energy costs are a significant part of utility operating budgets, and a growing number of utilities endeavor to become energy neutral, or even net-energy producers, by recovering more energy from the treatment process than what they use. The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) has contracted with Black & Veatch, in partnership with AECOM, the North East Biosolids and Residuals Association, and Hemenway Inc., to explore energy balance, reduction, recovery and production opportunities. The research project – Energy Balance and Reduction Opportunities, Case Studcontinued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGES HIGH VOLUME PUMPING-HDPE PIPE HDPE PIPELINE FUSING GEO TUBE DEWATERING Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds, Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction, Municipal & Industrial Tel: (506) 684-5821 | Fax (506) 684-1915 | www.girouxinc.com

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Elemental Controls Heavy Metals In Soils

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Portable Analyzers for Industrial Applications Lead Based Gas Analysis Paint Instrumentation

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Phone: 905-777-9494 E: info@hydrologic.ca W: www.hydrologic.ca


OTT Fine Bubble Diffusers • • • •

highest efficiency, intelligent, intuitive designs proven worldwide in more than 23 years of service quickest and easiest installation and maintenance uniquely environmentally friendly


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PHI BUBBLETRON Mixing Technology Innovative, most energy-efficient mixing No in-basin moving parts Anoxic mixing Ideal for many applications Sludge mixing Water reservoir circulation Sewage pump station grease cap & odor control


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78 | September 2012

Tel: (705) 733-0111, Fax: (705) 721-0138 E-Mail: iws@iws.ca

ies of Energy-Neutral Wastewater Facilities and Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Research Planning Support (ENER1C12) – will help transfer industry knowledge and experience among utilities and provide guidance for achieving energy self-sufficiency. Co-sponsored by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the 18-month study will include participation by 23 utility partners from the U.S. and Australia. The research team will identify ways for utilities to reduce demand, increase energy efficiency, recover energy and produce energy onsite by developing baseline energy flows for common wastewater treatment processes. The team will also document successes and obstacles at energy-neutral or nearnet-neutral facilities and identify sustainable options for managing biosolids through TBL assessment of biosolids-toenergy recovery processes and other biosolids management practices. Completion of WERF’s Barriers to Biogas Use for Renewable Energy (OWSO11C10) report in late July preceded the new study. www.werf.org

CEO commends Ontarioʼs infrastructure strategy Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO) has commended the Ontario government for its launch of the Municipal Infrastructure Strategy. The program will foster a new era in long-term planning in the province and will help communities build the capacity to manage their infrastructure. At an address to the 2012 Association of Municipalities Ontario conference in Ottawa, Minister of Infrastructure Bob Chiarelli spoke about the launch of the Municipal Infrastructure Strategy and shared details with the municipalities in attendance. He outlined that, within the $60 million investment, $9 million will be set aside for small and medium-sized municipalities to develop asset management plans, and the remaining $51 million will be available in 2013 for capital investments for the most pressing infrastructure needs. Consulting Engineers of Ontario launched a Think Long-Term Ontario Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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campaign in 2010 to encourage all levels of government to plan according to infrastructure lifecycles and not election timeframes. Asset management was presented as a critical tool to achieve this objective. Asset management plans help municipalities to map the infrastructure in their communities, to better understand what needs maintenance and renewal and how to plan the sequence of work so that public safety and quality of life are optimized. Recent numbers estimate that there is a $60B infrastructure deficit in Ontario. www.ceo.on.ca

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WFP honors its outstanding volunteers Water For People (WFP), an international nonprofit organization dedicated to providing safe water and sanitation services for people living in poverty, has announced the 2012 recipients of the Kenneth J Miller Founders’ Award. Presented annually, the Founders’ Award gives volunteers special recognition for their service and leadership in advancement of the WFP mission at the local committee and regional levels. Recipients of the award are selected by each local WFP committee of the AWWA Section or WEF Member Association. The 2012 honoree from Canada is Carolyn Stewart from British Columbia. www.waterforpeople.org

Arctic sea ice levels hit record low Arctic sea ice has hit record lows with weeks still to go in the melt season, an indication of accelerating global warming. It has reached the lowest level ever observed in the three decades since polar cap observations began, according to scientists from NASA and the National Snow and Ice Data Center. “The Arctic is already warming at twice the global average, and the loss of sea ice and its ability to reflect heat back to space is now starting to melt the permafrost, which is releasing still more climate-warming gases,” said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development (IGSD). “This feedback loop is pushing continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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us closer to one of the first tipping points that could cause irreversible climate damage.” Scientists last year predicted that the Arctic could be free of summer sea ice in the next thirty to forty years and sea-levels could rise up to 5 feet by the end of the century, with melting snow and ice in the Arctic making a significant contribution. “In addition to a crash course to cut black carbon in the Arctic,” Zaelke said that “we also need to phase down HFCs through the Montreal Protocol, which is one of the biggest and fastest and cheapest ways to mitigate climate change.” Other efforts to reduce short-lived climate pollutants are underway in the new Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants, launched by U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton earlier this year. There are now 27 members of the Coalition. IGSD sits on the Steering Committee of the Coalition as the representative of nongovernmental organizations. According to a recent UNEP/WMO report, full implementation of a package of sixteen emission reduction measures targeting black carbon and ozone precursors, including methane, can cut the rate of warming in the Arctic by two-thirds and the rate of global warming by half for the next 30 to 60 years. For more information, E-mail: nborgford-parnell@igsd.org

Banning plastic bags not a simple issue Plastic bag bans may make people feel they are supporting environmentally friendly policies, but these bans are bad for the economy, bad for public health and bad for the environment, according to the National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) “Reusable bags are making people sick,” said Senior Fellow H. Sterling Burnett. “When they are used to carry meat and dairy products, reusable bags pick up bacteria that can cause illness in bag users and contaminate anything else they touch. Unfortunately, washing makes reusable bags deteriorate quickly.” Using plastic bags also supports manufacturing. “Imposing plastic bag bans is simply handing China one more industry,” said Burnett. “The plastic bag industry in

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America directly employs more than 10,000 people. However, China dominates the market for reusable bags. It’s all pain, no gain from an economic and environmental perspective.” www.ncpa.org

Organic waste treatment project receives funding The Quebec and federal governments are committing some $25M for the second phase of a project to install complementary infrastructure for the treatment of organic waste through biomethanization in the City of Saint-Hyacinthe. The Quebec government is contributing $14,389,571 under the Program for the Treatment of Organic Matter through Biomethanization and Composting (PTMOBC) and supplements the $5,666,667 allocated to complete the first phase of the project. The federal government could provide up to $11,387,011 in funding under the Green Infrastructure Fund. With the new facilities, the city will be able to boost its biogas production significantly. This second phase of the project also marks the beginning of a co-operative effort between the city and Gaz Métro, which has committed to purchase the city’s surplus biogas production. The annual biogas production could reach up to 6 million cubic metres in the first years and could ultimately reach up to 13 million cubic metres per year. The city’s waste treatment capacity will be increased by installing two hydrolyzers, two digesters, two centrifuges and one food and green waste receiving station.

of water resources 3. Aging water infrastructure/capital needs 4. Shifting water demands (per capita reduction) 5. Changing workforce, dynamic talent life-cycle 6. Expanding technology application 7. Mass/social media explosion 8. Increasing/expanding regulations 9. Efficiency drivers, resource optimization 10. Climate uncertainty Potential strategies to manage and even take advantage of these trends were also developed by analyzing each and determining the possible range of impact from low to high. The strategies address the trends in a broad, multi-faceted manner rather than in a narrow approach. The report analyzes research data and the top trends to develop a desired vision of the future for the industry. Known as the “Water Sector Blueprint,” it provides seven key strategic imperatives, or priorities for the water utilities industry to pursue in order to attain the desired future: 1. Communication: multi-faceted engagement 2. Collaboration/partnerships 3. Total systems view 4. Rate making/financing 5. Applied technology 6. 21st century leadership skills 7. Adaptive planning www.WaterRF.org

Ontario lauded for clean air, water and energy actions Ontario has been named Canada's greenest province in the latest Green Provincial Report Card from the Corporate Knights. The report card evaluated provinces and territories on their progress in seven categories including air and climate, water, nature, transportation, waste, energy and buildings, and innovation. Ontario earned the highest grade in the 2012 report card. The province was recognized for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the phasing out of coalfired electricity generation -- the single largest greenhouse gas reduction initiative in Canada. Recently, the province also introduced the proposed Great Lakes Protection Act that, if passed, would ensure cleaner Great Lakes for the future. The Corporate Knights is a Canadian company, focused on green capitalism. www.corporateknights.com

Mercury concentrations in fish remain stable Environment Canada scientists have published a new study showing that mercury concentrations in fish in the Athabasca River watershed are not increasing. The study sought to verify whether mercury concentrations in fish were changing over time in the oil sands region. continued overleaf...

WaterRF report forecasts future water utility trends The Water Research Foundation (WaterRF) has published a research report that will help water utilities better understand what the future may hold. Forecasting the Future: Progress, Change, and Predictions for the Water Sector identified and analyzed social, political, economic, environmental, and business trends that are expected to influence the water industry over the next 20 years.These include: 1. Uncertain economy, financial instability 2. Decreased availability/adequacy www.esemag.com

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Advertiser INDEX



ABS .................................................25 ACG Technology............................83 AMEC ..............................................47 American Public University ..........23 American Water/Terratec...............37 Associated Engineering..................5 Barr Plastics...................................68 C&M Env. Technologies ...............39 Canadian Safety.............................22 Cancoppas ....................................49 CIMA+ .............................................34 Cole Engineering ...........................22 Concept Controls...........................34 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute ....84 Delcan Water ....................................8 Denso ...............................................6 Duperon ..........................................29 Endress + Hauser ..........................17 Envirocan ......................................83

Scientists from Environment Canada conducted a comprehensive study of mercury trends in fish using extensive data from provincial, federal, and industry funded sources. It was based on determinations of mercury concentrations in fish caught from 1975 to 2011 in the Athabasca River, Clearwater River, the Peace-Athabasca Delta, Lake Athabasca, and other surrounding lakes. More than 1,600 fish samples were analyzed. The study revealed that mercury concentrations in fish are not increasing over time. In addition, concentrations in the Athabasca River ecosystem water and surface sediments are relatively low and appear stable at levels that are similar to concentrations observed outside the oil sands development areas in earlier decades.

Fluid Metering ................................35 Greatario.........................................54 Greyline Instruments.....................35 Grundfos.........................................44 H2Flow ............................................32 Halogen Valve Systems.................50 Hoskin Scientific......................28, 61 Huber Technology ...........................9 Hydro International........................59 Infilco Degremont ..........................26 IPEX...........................................11, 33 John Meunier .................................57 Kemira.............................................67 KGO Group.....................................27 KSB Pumps ....................................40 Master Meter.....................................3 MSU Mississauga ..........................31 Munro..............................................63 National Ground Water Assoc. .....56 NETZSCH Canada..........................36 Ontario Clean Water Agency ........13

Brownfield grants will help B.C. communities The British Columbia government has committed $1.64 million for 24 projects through its Brownfield Renewal Funding Program. Each of the projects has been selected for its redevelopment potential. Sites like old gas stations, industrial storage facilities or former industrial sites are often located in prime areas for redevelopment and can help revitalize the surrounding community once the issue of contamination is addressed. The B.C. Brownfield Renewal Funding Program encourages brownfield redevelopment across British Columbia by providing the initial funding to help property owners, businesses and local governments better understand the extent of contamination so that they can remediate it. www.brownfieldrenewal.gov.bc.ca

Orival...............................................51 Osprey Scientific ...........................67 ProMinent .........................................2

Report shows B.C. on track to meet 2012 target

Schneider Electric .........................21 SEW-Eurodrive...............................66 Smith & Loveless...........................14 Solinst Canada...............................15 SPD Sales .......................................45 Stantec............................................50 Sulzer Pumps .................................25 Veolia Water ...................................57 Waterloo Biofilter Systems ...........66 Waterra .........................19, 30, 53, 65 XCG Consultants ...........................32

From 2007 to 2010, British Columbia reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 4.5 per cent or 2.9 million tonnes, which is the equivalent to eliminating emissions from all the homes in Metro Vancouver (almost three million). The province also achieved GDP and population growth above the Canadian average during the same period. At the same time, according to a recent report, B.C.’s green business opportunities are providing 117,160 direct jobs and its

clean tech sector sales growth was 48 per cent over this period. Also noted in the report is a reduction in B.C. sales of the main types of fossil fuels (natural gas, diesel, motor gas and light fuel oil) since 2007, and in each case by a greater degree than the rest of Canada. While data remains limited, making it premature to directly attribute lower fuel use results to climate change policies, B.C.’s experience so far is exceptional in Canada and could be the result of increased efficiency, switching to other fuels like electricity, and North America’s most comprehensive, revenue neutral carbon tax. The tax is designed to work with other policies to promote energy efficiency, behaviour changes and the adoption of new clean technologies. www.gov.bc.ca

Rio Tinto Alcan receives amended licence After consultation with local municipalities, the government of British Columbia has issued an amendment to its 1950 agreement, as previously amended in 1987 and 1997, with Rio Tinto Alcan under the Industrial Development Act to allow for the company to complete its Kemano Back Up Tunnel Project. Under the 2012 Amendment, Rio Tinto Alcan has been granted the authority to put in the second tunnel, connect the second tunnel to the first tunnel and existing penstocks, and complete the partially built intake for the second tunnel at West Tahtsa Lake. The 2012 Amendment does not authorize the addition of any other works. It does not provide any increase in water rights, and no other new works (including, but not limited to, the addition of new penstocks and related generators) are authorized by the agreement. As part of its commitment to open government, the B.C. government, along with Rio Tinto Alcan, consulted with municipal governments in Kitimat, Vanderhoof and Prince George, before issuing this amendment. As well, Rio Tinto Alcan has consulted with local First Nations. www.gov.bc.ca

Xylem ................................................7 Xypex ..............................................41

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Two Companies • Many Lines One Number To Call PRIMARY TREATMENT • Complete line of fine screening equipment • Self cleaning perforated plate screens • Floerkea® front raked fine screens • Floerkea® front raked bar screens • Floerkea® low flow • Screenings washer/compactor • Auger conveyor • Self Cleaning trashracks • Muffin Monster® grinder for sludge, scum, septage, screenings & wastewater • Channel Monster® grinder for pump sta ons and sewage treatment plant headworks • Honey Monster® septage receiving sta on • Auger Monster® fine screen system • MOST fine screen & band screen perforated plate fine screens with 2, 3 & 6mm perfora ons • Screenings washer/compactors • Rota ng drum screens down to 2mm perus • Raptor screenings washer press SECONDARY TREATMENT • Aqua Jet® direct drive floa ng aerator • Aquarid mechanical floa ng mixer • Fine bubble aera on systems using membrane or ceramic diffusers with gas cleaning systems • Stainless steel coarse bubble aera on systems • Mul stage acted biological process MSABP • Two & three rotary lobe P/D blowers • Centrifugal mul stage blowers • Floa ng diversion curtains for aerated lagoons, activated sludge systems & clear wells • Subsurface jet aera on/mixing systems for high rate & low rate treatment systems • Drop in jet aerators/mixers • Spiraflo & Spiravac peripheral feed clarifiers • Closed loop reactor oxida on ditch systems • Rotary brush aerators • LemTec™ cover system floa ng modular cover for lagoons & tanks/basins • LemTec™ lagoon biological treatment process • High efficiency single stage integrally geared blowers • Direct drive turbo type blowers • Aera on system controls & instrumenta on • Chain & flight clarifier systems & components plas c, cast iron or stainless steel


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Formerly Bay Odor Control

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