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Contents ISSN-0835-605X • Summer 2012 Vol. 25 No. 4 • Issued August 2012 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Consulting Editor
Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: email@example.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: email@example.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com
Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario Peter Laughton P.Eng. Consulting Engineer, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada
Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.
Product Showcase . . . . . 63-67 Environmental News . . . 68-74 Professional Cards . . . . . 68-73 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Seven billion and counting! - Editorial comment by Steve Davey
Key advice from Canadian employers in the environmental sector 13 Helping young and new professionals in the water and wastewater sectors 16 UV disinfection helps keep Toronto waterfront park safe to use - Cover story 18 Replacing existing wastewater plant control systems must be carefully planned 20 WRF studies manganese removal during potable water filtration 24 BC company upgrades town’s wastewater facility without abandoning its lagoons 28 32 36 40 42 44 48
Desalination systems and their environmental impact Fresh water salination is a tragic result of our addiction to road salt Stormwater system designed to protect 380-year-old Québec site Motion detection protects sludge conveyer system An alternative to removing existing vegetation during development Noise regulation changes proposed by Ontario MOE Constructing a treatment wetland at a Niagara Region and landfill
Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com
ES&E’s Annual Guide To Government Agencies, Associations and Academic Institutions
Associations ............................................................................. 53 Government Agencies ............................................................ 57 Colleges and Universities ....................................................... 62
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Comment by Steve Davey
Seven billion and counting! ecently, I was asked by friends if I thought climate change and global warming were the most important environmental issues humanity faced. They were somewhat surprised when I said, no. In my opinion, overpopulation is the main problem we face as it is the root cause of so many other issues. Here are the facts. At the beginning of the 19th century, human population is thought to have been about one billion. By 1927, it had doubled, and by 1960 it had reached three billion. According to a United Nations report, the world’s population reached seven billion in October 2011. According to some forecasts it will reach eight billion by 2030, and around nine billion by 2050. Incredibly, if the 2010 global fertility rate of 2.52 births per woman continues, there are predictions that the human population could reach 24.8 billion by 2150. However, there is some hope that this unsustainable growth can be avoided. In his new book State of the World 2012: Moving Toward Sustainable Prosperity, Worldwatch Institute President Robert Engelman outlines a series of steps and initiatives that would lower birthrates and halt future population growth. The book outlines nine strategies that could put human population on an environmentally sustainable path: 1. Provide universal access to safe and effective contraceptive options for both sexes. 2. Guarantee education through secondary school for all, especially girls. In every culture surveyed to date, women who have completed at least some secondary school have fewer children on average, and have children later in life, than do women who have less education. 3. Eradicate gender bias from law, economic opportunity, health, and culture. Women who can own, inherit, and manage property, divorce, obtain credit, and participate in civic and political affairs on equal terms with men, are more likely to postpone childbearing and to have fewer children compared to women who are deprived of these rights.
6 | Summer 2012
24.8 billion of us by 2150?
4. Offer age-appropriate sexuality education for all students. 5. End all policies that reward parents financially based on the number of children they have. Governments can preserve and even increase tax and other financial benefits aimed at helping parents by linking these not to the number of children they have, but to parenthood status itself. 6. Integrate lessons on population, environment, and development into school curricula at multiple levels. Refraining from advocacy or propaganda, schools should educate students to make well-informed choices about the impacts of their behavior, including childbearing, on the environment. 7. Put prices on environmental costs and impacts. In quantifying the cost of an additional family member by calculating taxes and increased food costs, couples may decide that the price of having an additional child is too high. 8. Adjust to an aging population instead of boosting childbearing through government incentives and programs. Population aging must be met with the needed societal adjustments, such as increased labor participation, rather than by offering incentives to women to have more children. 9. Convince leaders to commit to stabilizing population growth through the exercise of human rights and human development. By educating themselves
on rights-based population policies, policymakers can ethically and effectively address population-related challenges by empowering women to make their reproductive choices. If most or all of these strategies were put into effect, Engelman feels that global population might begin a gradual decline before 2050. If this happens, humanity’s undeniable resourcefulness should be able to achieve sustainable development of natural resources, environmental protection, and health and prosperity for all. If we are not able to control our numbers, then ultimately nature will do it for us, but likely in ways too hideous and painful to consider. Europe’s historical plagues and, more recently, the 1918 flu epidemic killed tens of millions in a relatively short time span. These pandemics were all largely due to overpopulation and a populace weakened by war and malnutrition. An increasingly crowded world is once again facing these same issues. Steve Davey is Editor of ES&E Magazine. For more information on Robert Engelman’s book, visit www.worldwatch.org. E-mail comments to email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Employment in the environmental sector continues to grow By Angie Knowles nvironmental industries are growing, environmental employment is growing, and both of these trends show no signs of stopping in the near future. What is less well known is the speed at which this growth is happening. Within a relatively short time, ECO (Environmental Careers Organization) Canada has observed a dramatic increase in environmental employment. In 2007, the Profile of Canadian Environmental Employment study found that more than 105,220 Canadian businesses hired environmental employees, with a total of 530,414 professionals performing environmental work. By 2010, over 318,000 organizations in Canada had environmental workers on staff, and more than 682,000 employees spent at least 50% of their time on environmental activities. Yet, while there is growing evidence for the accelerating growth of environmental work, there continues to be only limited information available on the specifics of environmental employment. Clearly, working in the environment presents an appealing and viable career path for numerous potential workers. But, what does it actually take to get one’s foot in the door? Moreover, how can employees ensure their continued career success at an organization once they have been hired? These questions formed the basis of ECO Canada’s latest study on environmental employers, with an overall goal of providing the best possible insight into what it takes to get a job, keep the job, and get promoted. Over the course of the study, it was apparent that there would be a number of important implications. For one, the study results have helped uncover and debunk several popular misconceptions about environmental work. These include the assumption that technical expertise is more integral to environmental work than soft competencies, as well as the belief that a passion for the environment is a necessary and expected trait in employees.
8 | Summer 2012
For another, the study provides an opportunity to compare the differences in perspective between environmental professionals and employers. Earlier this year, ECO Canada completed a landmark report to determine environmental employees’ level of engagement and expectations on preferred human resource strategies. To complement this research, the most recent study flips the focus around to environmental employers, and collects their feedback on the most essential employee competencies and HR practices required by their own organizations. Much of the success of environmental organizations depends on the specialized skills and expertise of the people performing the work, making it essential for employers to be able to find and keep the right professionals. ECO Canada’s report helps environmental employers discover which employee recruitment and retention practices work well, identify the most pressing HR challenges that their industry faces, and learn about effective new approaches. It has yielded a number of important and unanticipated findings. What it takes to land a job, keep it and advance During an initial phase of the study, environmental employers were presented with this fundamental question: What does it take for environmental professionals to get a job? In their responses, employers consistently referred to three major categories of employee competencies and attributes: 1. It was important for a potential employee to possess “hard” competencies, including a relevant post-secondary degree or diploma, professional certifications, long-term industry experience and strong technical or scientific skills associated with certain disciplines. 2. Employers also strongly valued specific soft competencies, including good communication skills (especially writing), critical thinking, customer service skills, business savvy, research skills and technological capability. 3. Lastly, employers noted which personality attributes they liked to see in a
Becoming an employer of choice is a key HR strategy for numerous environmental companies and involves much more than simply providing good salaries or benefits.
job candidate. They had a clear preference for workers who were goal-oriented, autonomous, capable of working well under stress, and team players, with a clearly evident “can do” attitude. While these competencies and attributes in general may not be surprising, their order of importance to environmental employers is. Intuition would suggest that hard competencies, such as technical or scientific expertise, would be the most valuable to employers, since environmental industries are typically characterized by rapid technological changes and complicated regulatory requirements. However, many employers in the study placed a higher degree of importance on soft competencies and personality attributes. In their view, employees can easily attain the necessary technical skills, but a true talent for communicating, client service and even business sense is much more innate and thereby considerably harder to train for. Not only did environmental employers stress the importance of soft competencies and personality, they also noted which sub-areas appeared to be in exceptionally short supply. According to these employers, there is a noticeable lack of adequate communication and business ability in many employees. Communication, from grammar and continued overleaf...
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Human Resources writing, to the ability to conduct critical analysis and write technical reports, was an especially important concern for them. This competency is essential because employees working in environmental businesses often need to explain highly technical processes to clients in laymen’s terms. In summary, the study arrived at a key message for environmental practitioners looking to maximize their career growth. In order to get a job, keep a job and thrive in the environmental sector, it is crucial for professionals to: • Be original thinkers. • Bring a “can-do” attitude to the job. • Be effective problem-solvers. • Demonstrate common sense. • Be curious and tenacious. • Love what they do. Expanding on the last point about enjoying one’s work, environmental employers provided a key observation. The preference for employees who clearly took pleasure in their job was not quite the same as a preference for workers who demonstrated a passion for the environment or environmental issues. In fact, employers placed a higher value on their staff’s ability to maintain objectivity in their work. This is due to the need for many environmental consulting firms to provide independent and balanced assessments for their clients. The business benefits of being an employer of choice In addition to outlining which employee competencies and attributes were the most essential, environmental employers also discussed the strategies that they used to retain existing employees and become employers of choice. For many, well-developed HR strategies were not simply a “nice to have” or an extraneous cost to the organization. Instead, such policies were seen as valuable investments directly linked to the overall success of their company. An informed and effective plan for becoming an employer of choice helped these employers to attract desirable candidates when hiring, as well as to drive engagement, retention and productivity among their current employees. Moreover, these strategies went well beyond simply providing good salaries or benefits. In the experience of these employers, much more was actually needed to 10 | Summer 2012
With the emergence of new industries and the continued expansion of traditional environmental activities, environmental employers are increasingly hard-pressed to find and keep skilled practitioners.
engender long-term loyalty and retention. Accordingly, environmental employers described four different platforms that they based their “employer of choice” practices upon: 1. Environmental leaders. In this approach, employers invest money and time in their involvement as speakers, advocates and spokespeople for relevant environmental, professional or scientific organizations. They strive to establish brand-name recognition and credibility as experts in their field for potential clients and future employees. To meet these objectives, employers who use this approach seek out professionals who are likely to bring passion and commitment to their work. 2. Remuneration. Here, companies focus on remuneration, making an effort to provide the best benefits, top or neartop pay, and matching RRSP contributions. To complement this strategy, employers frequently emphasize how their organization also features integrity, a sense of meaning and accomplishment in one’s work, and the feeling of being valued by the employer. More often than not, this approach appeals to employers when they need to fill seasonal positions, or when their work takes place in resource industries with less desirable work locations. 3. Flexible and like a family. For employers who understand the importance of a changing work dynamic, this strategy caters to the flexible lifestyle
needs of all levels of employees. Companies rely on this platform to create a familial atmosphere in their organization, with a strong emphasis on how they provide a safe, caring and positive place to work. This approach works particularly well for smaller companies, although a growing number of larger businesses are also making an effort to be more flexible and accommodating with their staff. 4. Launching pads. In this strategy, employers realize that they are not likely to retain their employees for more than five years. As a result, these companies try to provide as much training as possible, along with a competitive salary and benefits. At first glance, such an approach would seem self-defeating. However, there is one unexpected potential benefit for environmental consultants. Well-trained employees often leave to join companies that were previous clients. This could actually help the consulting firm’s client retention, since some of their clients now include former work colleagues. Each of these four “employer of choice” strategies differs considerably from the others, and as a result, each presents distinct advantages and disadvantages to environmental employers. To ensure that they have developed the most effective approach possible, employers frequently use a combination of all four, as opposed to focusing on just one. continued overleaf...
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For many environmental employers, soft competencies and personality attributes are paramount. In the view of these employers, professionals can easily attain the necessary technical skills, but a true talent for communication, client service and business sense is much harder to come by.
Furthermore, environmental employers in ECO Canada’s study also mentioned a number of “insider” tips that had worked well for them in their HR planning. These strategies included looking at the engagement practices of successful companies, interviewing can-
didates that had actually turned down a job offer, and listening to the feedback of new hires. Environmental employers can build on these creative and effective HR tactics even further by adopting the engagement strategies that professionals prefer.
While employers believed that mentorship opportunities and the chance to train fellow colleagues were effective ways to boost employee engagement, environmental professionals did not share this perspective. For them, it was more important that their employers supported ongoing professional development, provided training in environmental or technical topics, and hosted company events to highlight achievements. For professionals, finding and keeping a job, and advancing in one’s career is not always easy in an industry characterized by rapid change and increasing skill requirements. Similarly, environmental employers face significant challenges both in finding the right professionals to support their business activities, and in keeping this talent once they have found it. For both sides of the equation, ECO Canada’s latest study provides an important source of new information to ensure sustainable labour growth in environmental industries. Angie Knowles is with ECO Canada. For more information, visit: www.eco.ca
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Helping young professionals thrive in the environmental industry By Dania Chehab oung professionals can be defined as people in the environmental industry who are under 35 years old, with less than five or 10 years of industry experience. Exact requirements will vary depending on the organization. Many professional organizations in the environmental field offer young professional (YP) committees that enable young people to participate with others with similar work backgrounds, either by attending events or even participating in planning. For example: • American Water Works Association (AWWA) National YP Committee • AWWA Sections YP Committees, e.g., Ontario Water Works Association YP Committee • Water Environment Federation (WEF) Students and Young Professionals Committee • WEF Section Committees, e.g., Water Environment Association of Ontario (WEAO) New Professionals (NP) Committee YPs include individuals in any line of work, such as consulting, manufacturing, operations, equipment sales, contracting and more. Generally, their committees hold seminars and workshops, social events and site tours. Many, if not all, events are not restricted to just YPs. Indeed, seasoned professionals are more than welcome to attend, and encouraged to do so. What is the value of participation? Young people who participate in events associated with professional associations gain hands-on experience and invaluable skills that sometimes cannot be learned on the job or through coursework. Given that events are run by YPs and part of the target audience is YPs, these events offer a non-intimidating environment for individuals to move ahead in the industry and develop their skills outside the workplace. Technical seminars and workshops organized by YP committees are geared toward topics that interest young people and provide an excellent means for professional development, with the bonus of re-
YP Tour of Toronto’s R.C. Harris Water Treatment Plant, organized by OWWA.
duced or zero cost. Typically, workshop topics are broad enough to provide an overview and good understanding of a field, while detailed enough to allow participants to apply the information to their work. They are technical in nature and include presentations by topic-specific experts, speaking about relevant theory and case studies. Social events include mixers, holiday parties, sports and charity events. Again, these events are usually free of charge. Although at first glance it seems that a social event is just that, it does offer participants a chance to improve their networking and social skills, while meeting new people and catching up with old friends. These skills are integral to many professional roles, including sales and consulting, but can be challenging to learn. YP events offer a casual environment for young people to interact with their peers in the industry. Site tours and visits are another key area where YP committees provide an enjoyable way to learn about the industry. They can include visits to places like water and wastewater treatment facilities, equip-
ment manufacturing plants and power plants. This provides a behind-the-scenes look at facilities one rarely has the opportunity to see. Because YPs are new to their work, they have not yet had a chance to experience the many processes and equipment that they work with. It is one thing to size a pump in an office, but quite another to see one running, or how it is built. Site visits provide YPs with context for their work and help with viewing the bigger picture. They also offer an opportunity to ask the guide, usually a senior operator or manager at the facility, questions about the process and equipment that may relate back to their projects or personal interest. Benefit to employers and the industry In addition to all the personal benefits to YPs, employers gain advantages from encouraging their young (and seasoned) staff members to participate in YP events. Many employers require personnel to complete a minimum amount of formal professional development annually in the form of conferences, seminars or courses. The costs can be a burden to professional continued overleaf... Summer 2012 | 13
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Human Resources development budgets. Employers can take advantage of reduced rates for YPs and encourage their young staff to attend as many free technical events as possible. This not only helps the company save money, but also shows employees that the firm has an interest in their professional development. Similarly, firms are not always able to schedule site visits or tours due to logistical constraints and conflicting schedules. YP committees tend to schedule site visits on weekends, understanding that weekday visits can be difficult to attend. Employers can use this as another inexpensive (or free) opportunity for professional development. A key factor in adult learning is motivation, which can be in the form of social relationships, personal advancement or escape/stimulation. Site visits can provide effective learning opportunities by satisfying these motivators through providing networking opportunities, personal professional development and time away from the office. They can be an inexpensive way to enhance learning among staff, allowing them to tie together work in the
office and the field. For even more benefit, younger staff can be encouraged to participate in an organizing committee. This provides a great way to improve general and time man-
A key factor in adult learning is motivation, which can be in the form of social relationships, personal advancement or escape/stimulation. agement skills, as well as organization and communication abilities — all critical for a successful business. Moreover, word-ofmouth referrals and updates, or discussions about work, occur naturally among YP committee members. They are an effective way to market a product line or service expertise.
YP committees help to bridge the gap and transition young people into the workforce. Young professionals are the future of the industry, and success depends on them learning both the technical and soft skills they need to move ahead. How can you participate? Contact the local chapter of your preferred professional organization and ask if they have a YP committee. If they do, contact the chair of the committee to get specific information and join the mailing list. If not, it would be worthwhile to find out why, and suggest that one be started. The Internet is another great resource. Consider searching the terms “young professionals committee,” your city and the organization of choice. Social media like Facebook and Twitter can offer another angle at finding local committees and events. Dania Chehab is with R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. For more information, contact your local section of AWWA (www.awwa.org) or WEF (www.wef.org).
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Watermain leak detection program offers many benefits eeting current demand and supplying water for future generations are significant challenges for the water industry. Leak detection can significantly reduce consumption and ease the strain on water supplies. Deteriorating infrastructure, fluctuating water temperatures, soil movement, vibrations and water pressure changes are just some of the factors contributing to water leakage. Not only do leaks account for lost water, they can also allow contaminants into the system that endanger public health. It is up to utilities and municipalities to adopt and implement technologies to more effectively manage and conserve water supplies by developing methods to detect, locate and stop leaks. A leak detection program can be highly proactive, help water utilities automate water systems, detect problem areas earlier, and provide tools to monitor water use, provide more accurate rates, and reduce demand. Benefits of leak detection It is essential that this resource be captured, not only because it is becoming increasingly scarce but also because of the energy used to produce it and its greenhouse gas footprint. Minimizing leakage has many other benefits, including: • Extended life of pumping and treatment facilities. • Improved operational efficiency. • Less disruption for business and highways. • Lowered water system operational costs. • Reduced potential for contamination. • Reduced potential property damage and water system liability. • Reduced water outage events. Technology in practice Water industry experts have developed comprehensive water preservation and efficiency strategies, utilizing leak detection technologies, including: 1. Automatic Meter Reading. Advances in water meter technology can automatically record and report leakage within the
customer-owned portion of the plumbing, by detecting a constant flow of water. Such technology not only helps to conserve water, but helps the customer avoid unnecessarily high water bills. 2. Continuous Acoustic Monitoring of Water Mains via Valves. Leak detecting sensors that record sound vibrations overnight are installed on water main valves or water services. Trained staff periodically download the information into specially designed software to analyze pipe noise for the sound of leaks. 3. GIS Analysis. Reviewing historical leak information via GIS mapping helps clearly identify leak-prone areas, which typically occur in smaller-diameter pipes installed more than 50 years ago. 4. Improved Pressure Control. Reducing and modulating water pressure in water systems lowers the amount of water leaking out of pipes and reduces stress on pipes, while still providing customers with needed supply. 5. Large Transmission Main Testing. Several complex methods are currently being evaluated to detect leaks on large pipes, including inserting leak-finding sensors inside water pipes and sensing noise transmitted by running water. 6. Leakage Control Zones. Some systems are subdivided into separate “zones of supply” monitored by master meters that periodically measure water use in a particular area. Higher-than-expected water flow in the middle of the night is a tip-off that a certain spot requires further investigation. 7. Main Replacement Program. Water system data, especially main breaks, are collected and evaluated to identify and replace ageing mains. Finding solutions In some cases, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and continuous acoustic monitoring (CAM) technologies work to detect hard-to-find leaks in a timely manner and better manage water loss. AMI involves a two-way communication device that automatically collects and transmits consumption and interval data from smart meters to a
computer network. The utility then analyzes this data to uncover irregularities that likely signal a leak, meter tampering or water theft. By deploying these technologies throughout distribution systems, water utilities are able to survey for pipeline leaks every day. The acoustic monitors, whether installed on the service line or placed on valves in the distribution system, can relay data back through the AMI telemetry system to operators using an analytic software package. The software processes data and alerts the system operator when a monitor is detecting a “noise” indicative of a leak. Sophisticated vendor software displayed via Web sites interprets changes and the magnitude of sounds to rank possible source locations and to identify the exact location of the leak. The leak can then be repaired, or the infrastructure replaced, as required. In the end, using these technologies to find leaks and better record water usage improves customer service, conserves water and keeps rates down. The effective use of technologies that protect water supplies and manage nonrevenue loss also promotes the importance of conservation among customers. Public awareness programs are crucial for educating customers about how to use water more wisely. AMI data can serve as a communication tool for informing customers about their current water use patterns. By detecting and repairing leaks, utilities can save water and energy. Households and businesses can do their part by installing low-flow household faucets and toilets, stormwater collection systems, and timed or climate-controlled irrigation systems as a means of limiting water usage. Becoming more informed about water use habits will enable the population to make better and more conscious decisions about water use in the future. For more information, E-mail: email@example.com Summer 2012 | 15
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UV disinfection helps keep Toronto waterfront park safe to use ocated in Toronto, Sherbourne Common is an innovative waterfront park that provides the public with green recreational space along Lake Ontario in a former industrial area. This park features three large art sculptures that rise almost nine metres from the ground. Known as “Light Showers”, these sculptures combine water and lights to create a stunning visual piece. The water then flows through an artificial river accessible to the public before discharge into Lake Ontario. Environmental sustainability was an important element in the design of the waterfront park. Water used in the art sculptures comes from either Lake Ontario, or from stormwater collected at the park. Stormwater runoff is stored in underground tanks that allow for sedimentation of suspended solids. Clarified runoff is then sent for disinfection, before exiting the water features. Because the water features are accessible to the public, water must be disinfected in order to make it suitable for human contact. Historically, a limit of 100 CFU/100 mL of E.coli has been adopted for safe swimming in Lake Ontario. However, the design limit for this project was 10 CFU/100 mL of E.coli. This is especially important because the area is susceptible to combined sewer overflow (CSO) events during periods of intense rainfall which can increase the potential for microbial contamination in the park’s water supply. In order to meet the disinfection criteria for this project, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection was selected as the preferred process. With UV, no chemicals are used, which eliminates the formation of disinfection by-products typically formed through chlorination. UV has the added benefit of inactivating chlorine-resistant protozoa like Cryptosporidium and Giardia that are regulated to low limits. This is Canada’s first installation of UV for a neighborhood-wide stormwater treatment system. In the summer of 2011, Trojan Technologies installed two TrojanUVFit™ re-
16 | Summer 2012
Water flows from the park’s art sculptures through an artificial river accessible to the public and is then discharged into Lake Ontario. Therefore, the water is disinfected to make it suitable for human contact. Image Courtesy of Waterfront Toronto. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Cover Story wiping system to minimize quartz sleeve fouling. This feature maximizes the UV output from the lamps and, along with automatic dimming capabilities, reduces overall power consumption. Another key requirement for this project was the demonstrated performance of the UV system. The reactors have all undergone bioassay validation testing in accordance with the Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidelines for Drinking Water and Water Reuse (NWRI/AwwaRF, May 2003). This
third-party testing confirms the reactors as sized to meet the project’s disinfection limits, and will perform consistently under real-world conditions. They were validated over a wide range of flow rates and UVTs. This allows for accurate and reliable sizing based on empirical data which is critical in reuse and stormwater applications. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sherbourne Common is an innovative waterfront park.
actors at the Sherbourne Common stormwater treatment facility, located in the basement of the park’s pavilion. Each unit can operate at a flow rate of 70 L/s, allowing for 100% redundancy. Space has been allocated for future expansion to allow installation of an additional reactor for ultimate treatment of 140 L/s (with 50% redundancy). The TrojanUVFit is a closed-vessel system, available in multiple configurations to treat a wide range of flow rates. The streamlined hydraulic profile of closed-vessel systems disinfects effluent without head loss during the treatment process. These benefits, along with UV’s ability to provide chemical-free treatment for chlorine-resistant microorganisms, made this system an attractive option for this application. Each reactor features an automatic www.esemag.com
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New approach optimizes replacement of old plant control systems lant control systems consolidate the physical assets of water and wastewater treatment facilities. When these systems go down, the entire plant is affected. Preventative strategies are impossible with integrated control systems, as they rarely show warning signs prior to failure. As such, all municipalities should establish a regimented replacement schedule for all integrated processor based control systems, based on a 15 - 20 year lifecycle. The challenge with control systems is that they completely engulf the process of every water or wastewater facility and cannot be taken off line, without impacting process delivery, quality, and operations. The key to upgrading legacy systems is to provide an unwavering operational acceptance, through a completely seamless control transfer utilizing a Parallel Control System (PCS) approach. The distinct feature of the PCS approach is the co-existence of both the legacy and the new control system. This enables the integration team to present a “real-time” side-by-side comparison of each control system during the upgrade. The installation process involves each control panel. The new control system is temporarily mounted beside the old controller. This is done so that during com-
missioning, two distinct programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are installed on the common Input/Output (I/O) set within each control panel. The new PLC is then connected to its own SCADA interface, human machine interface (HMI) and/or a thin-client SCADA node, depending on project configurations. Application loads are then developed for each PLC and each respective subprocess by referring to the adjacent legacy control. During the application development, the integration team leverages system integration advancements in technologies and seeks to refine subprocesses. This is accomplished by referring to the legacy control functionality and utilizing the experience and familiarity of the operators. Co-existence of legacy and new control allows for a unique perspective from plant operations. An operator and the systems integration team can refer to the new control interface side-by-side with the legacy control system interface. Each system can be switched, seamlessly, between control and supervisory roles, and vice versa. Under PCS installations, if an operator cannot easily find something within the new control interface, they can utilize the legacy system as a fall-back option. Then, the integration team can make adjustments during
Filter control panel depicting the legacy and new PLC controllers on the same I/O set.
18 | Summer 2012
the commissioning process. Once the systems are established, commissioning perspectives can shift towards using any technological advances. This provides an opportunity to streamline existing processes that may have been inappropriately controlled through the legacy control system. These improvements can positively impact plant efficiencies, reduce chemical and power costs, while improving plant performance. Also, there will be opportunities in advancements in communications. For example, leveraging internet communications through secure Virtual Private Network/Wide Area Network configurations makes data on all municipal infrastructure available anywhere, and in real time, to central control, maintenance management and data acquisition systems. The Parallel Control System approach has proven that the ease and comfort of being able to re-establish the legacy systems during commissioning, is key to establishing operator confidence about removing those systems, once the new system is established. Marc A. Therrien is with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited. E-mail: email@example.com
Filter control panel post-commissioning, in which, the new controller and HMI interface panel have replaced the legacy system highlighting a much “cleaner” installation. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Occurrence, impacts, and removal of manganese during potable water biofiltration ne of the most effective and common means of Manganese (Mn) removal in water treatment plants is the induced oxide-coated media effect (IOCME), which sequesters Mn on the filter media in the presence of an oxidant such as chlorine. IOCME controls Mn so transparently that some water utilities may not recognize that Mn is being removed. This is especially true for utilities that do not have a significant Mn concentration in the source water, but add Mn to the process through impurities in process chemicals, such as coagulants, or recycle flows. The adsorption/oxidation mechanism associated with Mn removal by IOCME is well known. Oxidation of manganous Mn [Mn(II)] by oxygen is a slow reaction at pH values below 9.5. Oxidation of Mn(II) by strong oxidants such as chlorine and permanganate are faster, although they are strongly dependent upon solution conditions, such as pH and temperature. If the application of a strong oxidant is terminated, filters can continue to remove applied Mn(II) as long as Mn oxide adsorption sites are available. When these sites are exhausted, Mn removal will cease and the filters will pass dissolved Mn directly to the filter effluent. Moreover, the oxides of Mn can be reduced by organic material retained in the filter bed or organic material in the influent water. This means that filter effluent Mn concentrations can exceed influent Mn concentrations. Some utilities have experienced a significant release of accumulated Mn from the filter media, which decreases the aesthetic quality of drinking water during the transition period to a biological mode. More stringent drinking water regulations for disinfection byproducts (DBP) have caused many water utilities to implement changes or consider implementation of changes to move the initial application point for chlorine to downstream of the filters. By moving the chlorine application further downstream in the treatment process, the potential for
20 | Summer 2012
forming DBPs will be reduced, because less organic material will remain in the water to react with chlorine. However, this process change eliminates the free chlorine residual from the filters and therefore eliminates the ability to control Mn by IOCME. In addition, without chlorineâ€™s biological suppression, the amount of biological activity in the filter will increase significantly. Other treatment objectives that may cause a water utility to use biologically active filtration (BAF) as part of its treatment process include stabilization of the water when ozone is used, removal of specific compounds such as ammonia through nitrification, and removal of biodegradable contaminants in the water. If biological oxidation of Mn(II) can be established in the filter bed, then Mn can be oxidized and retained in the filter even in the absence of chlorine. Biological processes have been used in Europe and Canada for the control of manganese. Research approach A Water Research Foundation project on the subject consisted of the following components:
1. A literature search to expand upon previous Water Research Foundation projects to include literature relevant to the understanding of the control of Mn by biological processes. 2. Surveys of several water utilities that use BAF to gain a better understanding of their Mn-control challenges, the treatment processes that they use at their plants, and their operational experiences. 3. Collection and analysis of samples from full-scale water treatment plants (WTP), a pilot plant, and a demonstration plant to study and quantify a filterâ€™s ability to biologically remove Mn and the relationship of metals coating on the filter media to BAF. 4. Testing at a Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) pilot plant to determine the impact of water quality and operational factors on the ability of granular filter media to control Mn after termination of free chlorine from the water applied to the filter. The factors investigated were calcium, Mn oxidation state, and coagulant (iron- and alucontinued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Water Treatment minum-based). In addition, the initial operation of filters in a biological mode was observed using the PWD pilot plant to mimic start up. 5. Testing with the Gold Coast Water (GCW) demonstration plant in Australia to determine the impact of several factors that may stress the effectiveness of BAF for removing Mn. The factors investigated were elevated Mn loading, elevated and reduced pH, and oxidation inhibitors (phosphate, nitrite, and ammonia). Also studied at the GCW demonstration plant was the impact of sulfide contamination on BAF. 6. Microbiological testing of the biofilm from filters, which were operated in a biologically active mode, to characterize the microbial communities in a general way. Results/conclusions There are full-scale water treatment plants that control Manganese using biological aerated filter (BAF) technology. The biological filters at these plants have a media with a well established Mn-oxide coating. At one plant, the Mnoxide coating appeared to have devel-
oped in the presence of both an abiotic and a biotic process. At another plant, the Mn-oxide coating was the result of biological activity alone. The investigations showed that the media material had an effect on Mn removal. In a side-by-side comparison, Mn was removed significantly better by a granular activated carbon (GAC) filter than by an anthracite filter. There was more Mn-oxide coating on the GAC media than on the anthracite media. Utilities that were unable to control Mn with BAF had little Mn-oxide coating on the filter media. Pilot plant research was conducted to determine what would happen once chlorine was terminated. As expected, the filters were able to control Mn for a period of time until the adsorption sites were filled. When the sites were full, the media began to release Mn. The duration of the transition period (from chlorine termination to Mn release) was shown to be generally a function of pH and water temperature. The higher the pH, the longer the filter was able to control Mn. Similarly, the
warmer the water, the longer the filter controlled Mn. It was also shown that the greater the Mn-oxide coating, the greater the amount of Mn released to the filter effluent and the longer it took to reach a new steady state condition. An attempt was made to run the pilot plant filters continuously in a biological mode to promote the development of a Mn-oxidizing biofilm. However, the biofilm could not be established during the six-week duration of the investigation. Previous research has indicated that the seeding of a filter is required, but often it occurs naturally from bacteria in the source water. The principal investigators (PI) concluded that Mn-oxidizing bacteria must not have been present in the influent water. If the bacteria were present, the PIs believe that the filter would have established a Mn-oxidizing biofilm within six weeks. Future research could test the efficacy of introduction of known Mnoxidizing bacteria into a filter (seeding the reactor). In Australia, a demonstration plant with a functional biological filter was
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Water Treatment developed at one site and then moved to another. The filter retained its ability to control Mn. However, after an episode occurred that destroyed the biofilm, the filter was unable to re-establish the microbial population needed to control Mn. This was because the Mn-oxidizing bacteria were not present in the new source water. Gold Coast Water in Australia tested the robustness of a biologically active upflow filter using a demonstration plant. The filter was stressed with high Mn loads, phosphate, nitrite, and ammonia. It reflected the anticipated inhibitory effects of these stressors by reduced Mn-removal performance, but was still able to remove Mn. Only in the case of sulfide, a true biofilm toxin, did the filter’s biofilm lose its Mn-removal capacity. Even in that case, the biofilm recovered in 1 to 2 weeks. The demonstration plant investigations also determined that pH had an impact on Mn removal. Of three test pHs, a pH of 7.9 provided the best performance and a pH of 5.2 provided the worst.
Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of the biofilm from biological filters proved useful for comparing microbial communities, but not for identifying specific Mn-oxidizing bacteria. The results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing showed known Mn-oxidizing bacteria Pedomicrobium and Leptothrix to be common in the filter biofilm. Correlation of the presence of these bacteria to Mn removal or release was not part of the research. Applications/recommendations It is important that utilities recognize that eliminating the chlorine residual in the water applied to filters, which have been controlling Mn, will likely cause a release of Mn from the filters to downstream processes and/or the distribution system. The PIs recommend that utilities consider all alternatives to meet their treatment objectives, before making the change from IOCME to BAF for Mn control. If chlorine must be eliminated, utilities should consider the source of the Mn in optimizing its control. For example, • If Mn is in the source water, consider
pretreatment using an upflow biological filter. • If Mn is in the coagulant, consider a source for procuring the chemical that offers a product with less Mn, or an alternative coagulant that does not contain Mn. • If Mn is in the sludge, process the sludge sooner to prevent the sludge blanket from becoming anoxic. Or eliminate the return of supernatant to the treatment process. Utilities intending to convert an existing filter, which was used to control Mn, to a biological filter should consider removing the media and replacing it with new clean media. Utilities wishing to improve the Mn-removal efficiency of existing biological filters should consider raising the pH of the applied water. Enzymatic (intracellular) oxidation of Mn can be achieved in biological filters at a pH of 6.5 or greater; increasing the pH above 7.0, increases Mn oxidation. For more information, visit www.waterrf.org
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Wastewater facility upgraded without abandoning existing lagoons By Kevin Vieira, Ken Musyoka and Merle Kroeker ffluent quality limits for municipalities discharging treated wastewater into watersheds have become more stringent in recent years. However, many communities struggle to find the technical and financial resources to keep up with these limits, due to restricted options for postlagoon nutrient removal technologies. Until recently, cost-effective tertiary treatment technologies, following cold oxidation ponds or aerated lagoons, that meet low ammonia levels have been few and far between. Communities have been left with no choice but to abandon their lagoons and construct a new mechanical treatment plant, in order to remain compliant with the regulations. Recent advances in cold-climate nitrification have provided the Town of Mentone, in Kosciusko County, Indiana, with an innovative solution for post lagoon nutrient removal. The community
Mentone’s SAGR (Submerged Attached Growth Reactor).
added the SAGR® (Submerged Attached Growth Reactor) technology to its existing lagoon system to provide nitrification, without taking the existing lagoons off-line.
The existing wastewater treatment facility consisted of a two-cell facultative lagoon system providing secondary treatment. This facility was designed to meet effluent BOD5/ TSS limits of 25/70 mg/L,
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Mentoneâ€™s WWTP facility utilizes two SAGR beds for post-secondary treatment.
but was unable to meet the required National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) limits for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) of 9.6 mg/L in summer and 10.4 mg/L in winter. Nelson Environmental Inc. collaborated with the townâ€™s engineering consultant to design an upgraded system that retained the facultative lagoons for
secondary treatment, followed by a SAGR. SAGR process The SAGR is an aerated gravel bed reactor, with a horizontal-flow hydraulic profile. The module provides year-round nitrification well beyond most total ammonia permit requirements for influent water temperatures as low as 0.5oC
(32.9oF), making it ideal for post-lagoon treatment in cold climates. An added benefit of the process is effluent polishing to BOD5/TSS levels of less than 10/10 mg/L. Test data from a demonstration facility in Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, have also shown significant (90%+) reduction of fecal coliform to less than 200 CFU; in some cases this has eliminated the need for additional disinfection. SAGR was developed primarily to provide post-lagoon ammonia removal without abandoning existing lagoon treatment infrastructure. The performance parameters and sizing for the process are based on extensive testing performed on the post-lagoon SAGR in Lloydminster and a demonstration SAGR that was located in Steinbach, Manitoba. The process can be utilized for nitrification following any secondary treatment process, including either aerated or non-aerated lagoons. It is a clean gravel bed with a horizontal flow distribution chamber at the front end to distribute influent wastewater across the width of the entire cell. The aggregate is submerged, continued overleaf...
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Mentone WWTP: influent and effluent cBOD5 / TAN data in 2011-’12.
providing the necessary surface area for growth and attachment of a nitrifying biomass within the bed, and is sized to optimize bacterial growth and hydraulic
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flow. A horizontal effluent collection chamber at the back end collects all the treated effluent and channels it to the discharge structure. Sizing of the bed is based on influent flow and loading rates, expected influent water temperature, and the required rate of nitrification. The SAGR process is very simple to operate. There is no solids return to monitor and adjust, or sludge to waste
two beds in parallel, with each bed handling 50% of the hydraulic loading. No aeration was required in the lagoons to meet the recommended lagoon effluent BOD5 feeding the process. It is estimated that over the long term, the operator of the Mentone facility will spend an average of 30 minutes per day doing a systems check (visual inspection) and maintenance. It is estimated that 50% energy savings are realized with this design compared to other systems achieving similar effluent quality. The trade-off is the higher lagoon footprint required for the necessary residence time. Since the capacity was available at the onset of the system design, utilizing the existing infrastructure was deemed the most costeffective approach for Mentone. Using the existing lagoons provided cost savings in both the construction and longterm operation and maintenance of the system. Commissioning and performance Nelson Environmental Inc. provided system commissioning and operational training on March 24, 2011. Following a two-week startup window, effluent quality from the Mentone facility is not only meeting NPDES permit requirements but is producing low effluent concentrations averaging 6.5 mg/l BOD, 3
The process is similar to the operation of a conventional diffused-air aerated lagoon. and dispose of. The operations and maintenance aspect of the process is similar to the operation of a conventional diffused-air aerated lagoon. The only moving parts in the system are the blowers supplying oxygen to the SAGR process. A simplified control scheme manages the day-to-day operation of the blowers. Blowers for the SAGR are sized to meet the oxygen requirements for nitrification and final BOD polishing only. This translates to significant energy savings, that would otherwise be required to run blowers for a conventional aerated lagoon system. Mentone’s SAGR system consists of
mg/L /TSS and 0.3 mg/L TAN yearround. The system design flow is 0.12 MGD (454 m3/day). The upgraded system in Mentone is an example of a cost-effective and efficient solution for WWTP operators in North America, who face the same regulatory challenges and want to keep their existing lagoon system, while maintaining low operation complexity. Kevin Vieira, Ken Musyoka, and Merle Kroeker are with Nelson Environmental. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Desalination systems and their environmental impact By Kourosh Mohammadi and Christopher Nielsen esalination of seawater or brackish water is a unique way to supply water for drinking and industrial purposes. In the oil and gas industry, salt water is extracted along with the targeted oil and gas resources. In agriculture, surface or subsurface drainage water contains high concentrations of minerals and salts that can be harmful to aquatic life in receiving water bodies. In all these cases, desalination systems can be used to reduce salinity and minimize adverse environmental impacts. Installed desalination capacity around the world has increased from 5 million m3 in 1980, to more than 65 million m3 in 2010. Municipalities, with 63% of installed capacity in 2010, were the highest users of desalination systems. Industry was second, with 25.8%, followed by power stations, irrigation, tourism and the military. Distillation and reverse osmosis (RO) are the most common technologies for producing fresh water from saline or brackish water. In 2010, about 60% of the installed capacity consisted of RO systems, while about 34% were thermal systems, and 6% were others. An acceptable desalination plant is expected to meet environmental regulations, be cost-effective in terms of construction and operation management, and have minimal costs associated with monitoring and permit fees. Despite the many benefits the technology has to offer, there are concerns about potential negative impacts on the environment, including concentrate and chemical discharges to the marine environment, emissions of air pollutants, and the energy demand of the processes. Desalination plant waste includes high salt concentrations, chemicals used during pre-treatment and post-treatment, plant maintenance and cleaning, and filter backwash containing suspended solids, micro-organisms and organic debris, non-toxic and toxic metals. Desalination processes The thermal distillation process in-
28 | Summer 2012
Thermal distillation plant.
volves boiling saline water and cooling the purified vapour to produce virtually salt-free water. Three commonly used thermal processes are: 1. Multi-stage flash evaporation (MSF). Incoming seawater in this process passes through the heating stages. Before reaching the first stage where flash-boiling occurs, it approaches the maximum temperature using externally supplied steam. Fresh water is formed by condensation of the water vapour collected at each stage. 2. Multiple effect desalination (MED). An MED unit evaporates seawater in one or more stages at low temperature (< 70oC). Steam is condensed on one side of a tube wall while saline water is evaporated on the other side. Energy used for evaporation is the heat of condensation of the steam. The MED process is designed to produce distilled water with steam or waste heat from power production of chemical processes. 3. Vapour compression (VC). Mechanical energy is used to compress the vapour to increase its pressure and temperature. Then this vapour is used as a source of thermal energy and the latent heat rejected during condensation is used to generate additional vapour. 4. Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems. In RO systems, saline water moves through a semi-permeable membrane under high pressure. The large mole-
cules of salt and other impurities cannot pass through the membrane, while the water filters through. 5. Electro dialysis. Electro dialysis is an electrochemical process and involves the removal of salts by passing them through cation and anion membranes, leaving the water behind. This process is mainly used for brackish water. Environmental issues Environmental considerations are a major factor in the design and implementation of desalination technologies. All desalination processes generate a low-salinity product water and a highsalinity concentrate water. The main local environmental impacts that arise from the desalination process are from brine concentrates and from discharges of chemicals in the desalination process. Energy intensity is also considerable, although resulting emissions of greenhouse gases should be examined on the international level (in relation to the Kyoto Protocol). Local impacts are acute in comparison to global impacts and could thus be seen to be more significant. From an environmental perspective, there are differences between seawater and inland desalination plants. In addition, thermal and RO systems have different considerations and affect the environment differently. The common continued overleaf...
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What’s the difference between these two glasses of water? One took
energy to produce Minimise operational expenses with our end-to-end energy management solutions Energy is a major part of water’s price and, of course, your facility’s operating costs. In addition, energy is the single largest contributor to the carbon footprint of the water process. Fortunately, Schneider Electric™ has the solution to manage and optimise your energy in line with your process obligations — and to reduce your carbon footprint. Our comprehensive approach to energy management, along with combined power and process services, can yield an energy cost reduction of up to 30 per cent of your existing installation. And with visibility across your entire water network, you’ll be able to optimise the management of your process, reducing and avoiding energy waste in real time.
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Water Treatment factors that can be considered for all systems are: 1. Impact on source water. Marine water intakes can cause impingement and entrainment. That means both large marine organisms like fish and/or small aquatic organisms such as plankton, fish eggs and larvae can be trapped or entrained with the intake water, causing injury and death to these organisms. Using near-shore wells can minimize this threat, but will increase energy consumption. For inland plants, brackish groundwater is a common source for desalination plants. Withdrawal of brackish groundwater can harm the physical sustainability of the aquifer, with potential for subsidence or salt water intrusion. Especially when the aquifer is located near the sea or a water body with a higher salt concentration. 2. Impact from concentrate. Brine water produced by desalination processes (sometimes referred to as reject water), is the main environmental concern. When the source water is seawater, it requires exclusion of suspended and dissolved solids. These solids are re-
jected with the unprocessed water, increasing its density and solids concentration, together with the chemicals added in the pre-treatment stage. If the process is thermal, the temperature of the reject water is higher than that of seawater and can cause severe environmental impacts. In addition, increasing the salinity of the seawater near the intake can reduce the performance of the desalination system. Reject water from inland desalination systems is usually discharged into rivers, lakes or wells, and can have adverse environmental impacts on the receiving water body. 3. Issues with desalinated water product. Not all constituents and contaminants are removed during the desalination process. This is more evident in RO systems, because a small fraction of ions, especially monovalent ions such as sodium and chloride, and dissolved organic molecules (e.g., some pesticides or herbicides), can pass through to the permeate water. Boron and bromide are examples of two other potential contaminants that can go through single-pass
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RO desalination processes without being removed. Higher levels of boron may cause adverse health effects. 4. Impact from gas emissions. The energy used in the desalination process is primarily electricity and heat. Large amounts of greenhouse gases are produced by desalination plants due to high energy requirements. RO technology generally requires less energy than other desalination technologies. Mitigating environmental impacts Desalination projects require an environmental impact assessment (EIA) study to determine their impact on the environment. The EIA considers all environmental parameters and criteria. It evaluates the potential impacts to air, land and marine environments and also proposes mitigation measures to reduce them. If a desalination plant is located next to a power plant, desalination plant concentrate can be mixed with the higher volume of hot cooling water that is being returned to the ocean. This dilutes the brine and marginally lowers the discharge temperature so there is less of an impact on sea life. However, for inland
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30 | Summer 2012
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Reverse osmosis desalination system.
plants that are far from the sea, this method is usually not applicable. It is also possible to co-locate the desalination plant with wastewater treatment facilities so the brine can be mixed with the freshwater discharge to achieve a lower salt concentration. But in arid and semi-arid regions where water is scarce, even treated wastewater is valuable. It is not advisable to lower the quality of the water, by mixing it with
highly concentrated salt water. Additives to feed water, including pre-treatment or anti-scaling agents, are other sources of potential contamination in reject water. Therefore, optimal use of these chemicals is critical to mitigating the negative environmental impacts. Zero liquid discharge techniques are another alternative in areas where surface water, sewer disposal and deep well injection are not possible, or are prohibited.
In this technique, solid waste from reject water is produced. It can be placed in a landfill but may pose environmental problems due to leaching of chemicals and highly concentrated salt into groundwater. Due to the similarity between seawater desalination plants and power generation plants in the intake and disposal of water from and to the sea, environmental aspects of marine desalination systems are known in some detail. Inland desalination, on the other hand, especially with RO systems, needs more studies and regulatory guidelines to protect the environment. Before starting a new project in inland areas, knowledge of the environment is essential. It can be obtained through monitoring, data collection, comparison with similar projects, simulations and pilot studies. Kourosh Mohammadi and Christopher Nielsen are with Coffey Geotechnics Inc. E-mail: email@example.com, or firstname.lastname@example.org
Summer 2012 | 31
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Fresh water salinization: A tragic consequence of Canada’s addiction to road salt By Natasha Barzso and Lisa James he availability of fresh potable water in North America is often taken for granted. However, tests are now showing that sodium chloride from winter salt is present in increasing concentrations in fresh water sources. Each year, Canada uses over 5 million tonnes of road salt — sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride, potassium chloride and calcium chloride — to improve the safety of winter roads. This inevitably ends up in surface and groundwater resources after snowmelt. The serious concern with the ever-increasing use of road salts is that, if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate, many surface waters would not be suitable for human consumption and would become toxic to fresh water life within the next century. This shocking prediction becomes more concerning as the years go by and no significant changes are made to reduce the amount of road salts used. As well as the abundant surface fresh water that Canadians enjoy, millions of people depend on groundwater sources, aquifers and moraines as a main source for drinking water, irrigation and industrial use. Damaging the quality of the remaining water is exponentially increasing the rate of aquifer destruction. Road salt can spread up to 200 m from the road due to tire spray and snow removal, and is absorbed into the ground. This salt then seeps into the aquifers and moraines, causing significant erosion damage and mineral weathering that wholly destroys the structural integrity of the subterranean area. If this occurs, there is a risk of land subsidence, cracking of house foundations, and natural drainage pattern change. In Pine Creek, Ontario, investigations were carried out to evaluate the consequences of road salting on underground water sources. They found that 50% of salt applied to the roads accumulated in the shallow subsurface and severely degraded the quality of the region’s groundwater. Groundwater concentra-
32 | Summer 2012
Road salt can spread up to 200 m from the road due to tire spray and snow removal.
tions normally have background chloride concentrations of 15 mg/L, but with winter road salt loading levels they were found to be as high as 1,200 mg/L. At 275 mg/L the concentrations are strong enough to pose a risk to aquatic biota if exposed to these levels for four days or longer. The major implications of this type of damage to the ecosystem over long periods of time include collapsing aquifers, severe degradation of water, and in some cases, total destruction of drinking and well water sources. Eutrophication Aside from providing safe and potable water for consumption, fresh water also plays a crucial role in mineral cycling that returns needed nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon) into usable forms. These minerals are cycled through water systems either through plant-animal interactions, or through seasonal turnovers that occur in spring and winter.
In a healthy body of water, there is turnover of colder and warmer layers of waters, mixing nutrients and oxygen. However, with high levels of salinity, the salty water remains at the bottom due to its greater density, impeding the turnover. Without this important mixing process, oxygen supply in the water is significantly cut off to all organisms in that body of water, potentially leading to the collapse of the aquatic ecosystem. If the turnover process is continually interrupted, it can eventually lead to eutrophication. Species and individual elimination With constant seasonal influxes of road salt in fresh water, a significant number of species are being eliminated from aquatic ecosystems. A test performed in 26 ponds in Nova Scotia upholds this theory. The findings showed that the greater the chlorine (Cl) levels from the addition of NaCl, the fewer amphibian species there were. Ambystoma maculatum (spotted salamanders) and Rana sylvatica continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Water Supply (wood frogs) were the key indicator species due to their limited resilience to disturbances of their environment. The result was that of the eight amphibian species identified, the maximum species number was six, and the minimum zero. The indicator species was the first to not be found as Cl concentrations increased. Although these results only include the impacts of salt on amphibian biodiversity, they can be extrapolated to many other species. The elimination of a predator or prey species in a pond or lake creates a critical imbalance in the aquatic ecosystem and larger food web, changing the population levels of many species significantly. Alternatives currently used In Canada, a number of alternatives to road salt have been investigated to help alleviate some of the aquatic damage. However, to date, these all have other environmental impacts. Calcium chloride has been used in combination with road salt because it is able to remain efficient at lower temperatures. It emits heat as it dissolves, which melts the snow and ice faster than
NaCl can on its own. However, this compound is expensive and requires greater storage care as it must remain dry prior to release on the roads, in order to remain efficient. A salt-free highway topping has been developed at Michigan Technology University. This product is made of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and groundup beer bottles; it is applied to roads before a storm. The principle behind this method is that the ground glass from the beer bottles provides a means of traction for vehicle tires. It has proven to work just as efficiently as NaCl, and, during the trial in the Michigan area, it was found to eliminate some of the environmental consequences of NaCl. However, it also interrupts turnover and reduces the levels of dissolved oxygen in fresh water. Grit has become a common additive to the winter road maintenance schedule in order to provide more traction, while using less road salt. Although grit occurs naturally and does not create the chemical and toxic changes that road salt does, it can be a significant nuisance.
In large quantities, grit has the ability to block rivers and streams, interrupting the natural flow of water and the migration of fish. This occurs most often in roadside rivers and streams that drain into nearby bodies of water. Grit that is transported in the water flow increases the level of sediment floating in the water, lowering the sunlight that can penetrate through to the bottom. This can impede the amount of photosynthesis that would otherwise occur. In turn, this reduces oxygen levels and can create difficult living conditions for plants and animals alike. When grit is ploughed off the roads and piled up high in the drainage ditches, water cannot pass through. When this occurs, it is strongly correlated to lower water levels in underground systems, from which drinking water is drawn. Using grit instead of or in combination with road salt does not necessarily ensure the protection of fresh water and the organisms within it. Alternatives not yet explored Potassium formate (KHCO2) is a natural compound that has potential to in-
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Water Supply crease road safety but has not been utilized. It is not as harmful to organisms, soil and water as the chemical applications for de-icing. This compound has the added benefit of increasing the absorption capacity of oxide surfaces, which allows for healthier soil and greater agricultural productivity than NaCl. A volcanic mineral marketed under the name EcoTraction™ can also be used to provide traction in the winter. The mineral has a unique structure that allows it to absorb the thin layer of water on top of ice and embed itself firmly into the ice. It then acts like sandpaper, providing instant traction in the most slippery conditions. There are currently no known negative side effects of this mineral on water, as it is inert and safe to ingest. EcoTraction has not yet been used on a large enough scale to determine the long-term implications. However, what makes this product significantly more useful as a winter road maintenance product is its ability to adsorb toxins from water and hold onto them, helping to actively purify water for human consumption. When used correctly, 1 m3 of
EcoTraction can process up to 2,500 m3 of soiled water. The product is known for its ability to adsorb ammonia out of wastewater. There has yet to be a mineral or compound discovered with such high potential to maintain winter road safety while actually helping to protect the environment. Although a number of these alternatives have the potential to alleviate some of the stress on fresh water systems caused by road salting, they are not used because they are more expensive. Currently, the main approach is to reduce the amount of salt used and to distribute it in a more efficient manner. To achieve this goal, a number of technologies have been developed. Environment Canada has attempted to make some modifications to the equipment for safer distribution. It has installed a Fixed Automated Spray Technology (FAST) and an Advanced Road Weather Information System (ARWIS) that work together to apply chemicals to roads in a calculated and controlled fashion. This system has proven to be effective
in reducing accidents and traffic delays, and minimizing salt damage to the surrounding environment. However, as with all alternatives to road salting, these systems have their own drawbacks, including the high cost of proper equipment and training programs. While these systems will use road salt more efficiently throughout the winter, hundreds of thousands of tonnes will still enter the water system each year, threatening the future viability of Canada’s drinking water. Canada’s addiction to road salt is continuing to degrade water resources and damage plant, animal and crop cycles. It is imperative that we recognize the deleterious effects that road salt is having on ecosystems across North America and take steps to correct this problem. Natasha Barzso and Lisa James are with the Environmental Advisory Group. E-mail email@example.com
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Stormwater system designed to protect 380-year-old Québec historical site he Saint-Louis Forts and Chateaux historic site has a new stormwater retention system that will provide erosion protection. Located under Dufferin Terrace in Québec City near the Chateau Frontenac, the project was finished in early 2011. Using a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe system helped overcome problems with the difficult terrain of a cliff face and the demands inherent in the preservation of centuriesold buildings. Between 1620 and 1834, four forts and two chateaux were constructed in upper Québec City. The site has three elements - the forts, the chateaux and gardens. The first of the forts was made up of a few wooden buildings, surrounded by a palisade, that was constructed by Samuel de Champlain in 1620 after his discovery of the area in 1608. Champlain built a second fort, which he called St. Louis, in 1626. A third fort was constructed in 1636 by Charles Huault de Montmagny who built over Champlain's second fort during a 24-year construction project, which included the first chateau. The fourth fort was built in 1693, followed by a new chateau the next year. The Dufferin Terrace was added to the complex in 1879.
Using a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe system helped overcome problems.
Starting in 2005, an archeological research project in the area uncovered significant artifacts from the 1620s, including walls, platforms and cannon balls. Because of the extensive work on the archaeological site under the Dufferin Terrace, visitors now have access to the remains of the basement of Castle St. Louis. Every
year, an average of 2.5 million visitors walk along Dufferin Terrace, looking over the St. Lawrence River. Installation of the stormwater system in conjunction with the creation of an outdoor museum at the site was carried out by JES Construction (Québec City) during November and December 2010.
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The stormwater retention system is more than 91 metres long.
JES also rebuilt the steel structure supporting the Terrace, replaced joists and wooden planks and improved lamp post wiring. Located under the Terrace, the stormwater retention system is more than 91 metres long and consists of four rows of 1200 mm diameter watertight pipe and one run of 900 mm diameter perforated HDPE pipe. It can contain 125 cubic metres of water runoff from the roofs of the buildings and surrounding areas. For the watertight sections, the pipe used was a double walled (smooth inside,
ribbed outside) corrugated HDPE pipe from Soleno, Inc. (Québec City), called Solflo® Max. The corrugated HDPE pipe used is AASHTO M294 certified, meets ASTM standards for F405 and F667, and complies with Canadian Standards Association, CAN/CSA B182.8. A 10m long section of 900 mm diameter perforated Solflo Max corrugated HDPE pipe is tied in at the end and will vent any overflow, should the system reach maximum capacity. Manhole heights ranged from 2 m to 3.41 m. A clean stone cover was used to wick away extraneous water. The system
was also covered with extruded polystyrene insulation as well as a waterproof membrane and an added geotextile protective layer. "This is a very innovative use of corrugated HDPE pipe," stated Tony Radoszewski, executive director of the Plastics Pipe Institute, Inc. "Mostly we see its use in road work, under parking lots and in other modern building projects. For more than 200 years this was the hub of French and English rule in Quebec and served as the official residence and seat of power for most governors.” continued overleaf...
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The limited space and the age of the site posed logistical challenges.
Champlain built on this site nearly 400 years ago.
The limited space and the age of the site posed logistical challenges for the construction team, according to Eric Blanchette of JES. "We had to make sure
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pipe is that it is light which made it easy to take sections under the Terrace. "The other challenge was backfilling. We put in clean stone so we would have voids between the stones that would take water around the pipe. We surrounded the whole system with non-permeable membrane to protect and contain any water volume inside." The reason Parks Canada wanted a closed-in stormwater retention system was because it would enable part of the area under Dufferin Terrace to join the museum. To protect this area and make it possible for visitors to actually see and walk around structures that date to the 1600s, it had to be enclosed with walls and windows. But by doing this, stormwater that used to come through the Terrace could no longer go into the ground. This created an overflow of rain water, which had to be detained before it flowed over the cliff and onto the houses and buildings below. The water had to be held and later released at a specified rate into the sewer system. Champlain built on this site nearly 400 years ago. With the new stormwater retention system controlling water runoff and erosion, it will last for many years to come.
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Motion detection system protects sludge conveyance system By Vijay Acharya he Seymour-Capilano Filtration Plant, which is part of the Metro Vancouver water supply system, is the largest of its kind in Canada. Once it is running at full capacity, the facility will have the ability to treat 1.8 billion litres of water per day from the Seymour and Capilano watersheds. The challenge Dewatering and sludge disposal are two very important processes in the water treatment cycle. The SeymourCapilano Filtration Plant (SCFP) has a daily sludge handling and disposal capacity of 80 tonnes. Monitoring the screw conveyor’s motion is crucial to keeping the sludge dewatering and disposal system running smoothly. If the screw stops because it breaks or disengages from the motor, conveyance is interrupted and sludge begins building up in the conveyor system.
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This type of stoppage can cause damage to the filter press, as more and more solids build up. Therefore, any interruption to the screw’s motion has to be monitored and reported instantly. Operators can then take immediate corrective action to prevent damage to the filter press and also to ensure that trucks are continuously receiving the sludge. Monitoring the level of sludge being loaded into the trucks is also important. The solution The SCFP uses process protection devices from Siemens that consist of a Milltronics MFA 4p motion failure alarm controller and XPP-5 heavy-duty motion sensing probe. The system detects any changes in the motion and speed of screw rotation. If there is damage to the conveyor system, the alarm will stop the belt press and machinery will not load any more sludge onto the conveyor. The controller also sends an alarm to the control system, which will shut down the press. Milltronics’ MFA 4p is a highly sensitive single set point motion sensor system. It is designed for a wide range of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Biosolids Management plant uses non-contact ultrasonic level measurement. This system consists of an Echomax XPS-15 transducer, mounted above the filling area, and MultiRanger 100 mounted at eye level to monitor levels of sludge while trucks are being filled. When a truck is filled to its maximum capacity, a MultiRanger 100 notifies the operator, who then moves the truck away and brings in the next one to fill. With the help of these process protection devices, plant staff are immediately aware of problems and can react to them quickly. Vijay Acharya is with Siemens. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org Siemens ultrasonic level measurement system comprising an Echomax XPS-15 transducer mounted above the filling station and the MultiRanger 100 at eye level, provides continuous level monitoring in SCFPâ€™s truck load-out process.
industrial applications including screw conveyor flights, tail pulley shafts, driven pulleys, motor shaft sensing, belt or drag conveyors, bucket elevators, fans, and pumps.
The system works in conjunction with a Milltronics MSP-12 probe, which can be installed into new processes or retrofitted into existing equipment. To keep truck load-outs efficient, the
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An alternative to removing vegetation during development construction By Henry J. Kortekaas uring the development construction process in Ontario, if a site’s vegetation is locally common in an ecological sense, the standard practice is to remove all, or at least most of it. Mature wood lots, stream valleys and locally uncommon vegetation are usually retained as stipulated by approval agencies. The development approval process is slow, and many vegetated sites or urban edge farms are scheduled for development years in advance through a municipality’s official plan process. There are “land banks” owned by developers and what was once farmland now lies fallow. Meanwhile, the former farm fields are being regenerated by early successional woody plant species. Over time, significant portions of the site become re-vegetated. After 10 to 20 years, the developer’s earthmoving equipment finally arrives and significant areas of young vegetation are removed. However, there are alternatives. For example, today's earthmoving technology can relocate significant swaths of young, existing vegetation. Large rubber-tired loaders with modified steel buckets can now be used to transplant large areas of early successional, understory plants, small wooded areas or even small streams. Whole ecosystems and their seed banks can be moved if warranted. This will ensure that common or rare plants and their ecological communities are relocated as a complete, functioning ecosystem. Granted, plants cannot be too large, and soil depth and moisture conditions must be just right for this kind of relocation to be successful. The quality, type and depth of soil and subsoil, as well as the timing of transplanting, are extremely critical. Late fall, winter or early spring are the best times to move plants, as they are in their dormancy period, and weather and temperature conditions are best. Site conditions will also dictate when plants can be moved. Winter transplanting when the ground is just frozen for 10 to 12 in. is best. Machines can move over the frozen ground, while still
42 | Summer 2012
allowing the rubber-tired loader’s bucket to cut through the ground under the roots of the plants. Case Study: Birchdale residential community The proposed Birchdale residential community in North Courtice, Bowmanville, Ontario, was slated for development by both the local and regional official plan processes. An environmental assessment was carried out, resulting in recommendations for transplanting locally uncommon plants. The environmental consultant recommended that each locally rare plant be potted and transplanted by hand. Henry Kortekaas & Associates recommended an alternative method using a skid steer to transplant “slabs” of vegetation. Slabs
of plants, with their entire root systems intact, were moved to an appropriate location having generally the same or better soil, moisture, light and orientation conditions as the original site. The plant slabs were roughly 3 x 6 ft, with a topsoil depth of 8 to 10 in. In many cases, depth of topsoil and organic conditions were improved by this method, because the slab was placed over existing topsoil that had been scarified. Case Study: New England Village, Wasaga Beach The goal was the understory transplanting of a forest slated for development in Wasaga Beach, Ontario. The site vegetation consisted of mature sugar maple, beech, black cherry and white ash, with a regenerating understory veg-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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The slab technique of transplanting has been used in several other projects.
etation of sugar maple and white ash saplings. The site sloped towards a golf course pond, which had effectively drained the perched water table. This resulted in drier conditions for the mature maple-beech-oak woodlot. It had been stressed over the past seven to eight years, resulting in the decline and death of many of the mature trees. The solution was to move the understory vegetation to preserve the woodlot.
Existing understory vegetation was composed of young sugar maple saplings, avidly racing to the light openings left in the canopy by the dead or dying trees. They were growing in sandy loam soils about 8 to 10 in. thick over subsoil of sand and gravel. They can be moved, not individually, but in slabs of frozen soil, roots and plants that are 12 â€“ 16 in. thick by 8 ft by 8 ft. Prior to the removal of the mature woodlot, as part of the develop-
ment process, large, rubber-tired front loaders can move much of the understory vegetation that is regularly cut down. Native tree saplings tend to grow more successfully if moved in this manner, rather than through transplanting individual trees using pots. This is due to their extensive, intertwining root system. The intent is to place the slabs of saplings in their final location if possible. If necessary, temporary holding areas can be designated for the saplings, which can then be moved again when the heavy construction is complete and receiving areas are ready for planting. The slab technique of transplanting has been used in several other projects, resulting in a more successful preservation of natural vegetation while achieving significant cost savings. Large earthmoving equipment can, if used in an appropriate manner, provide very positive environmental benefits. Henry J. Kortekaas is a landscape architect with Henry Kortekaas & Associates. E-mail: email@example.com
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Noise guideline changes at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment By Scott Penton he Ontario Ministry of the Environment is in the process of replacing its existing noise guidelines for industrial approvals and land use planning. The existing stationary (industrial) noise guideline Publications NPC-205 and NPC-232, and that for Land-Use Planning (LU-131), are to be replaced with a new combined comprehensive guideline, called NPC-300. NPC-300 drafts were circulated in November 2010 and April 2011, and the new guideline is set to be approved this year. The draft guideline contains several changes and additions that will affect new infill development, and how industries determine compliance. On the whole, the new guideline will be helpful in assessing industrial noise impacts on new developments; however, some specific types of noise sources and industries may be adversely affected. Readers are urged to review the drafts to see how they may affect their own operations. Although the new guideline is still a draft, concepts from it are already being used in some development applications. This article focuses on how the draft guideline addresses “stationary” industrial noise. The assessment techniques for road, rail and aircraft transportation noise for new residential development will remain largely unchanged. New area classifications As in the original predecessor publications, the NPC-300 guideline limits depend on the sound characteristics of the area where the receptor is located, with designated classifications principally distinguishable on the basis of the amount of man-made noise present. The existing “Class 1 – urban,” “Class 2 – semi-rural” and “Class 3 – rural” area classifications from the original guidelines remain, with Class 3 being the most stringent. A new area classification, Class 4, has been created, which has higher (less stringent) guideline limits. This designation is intended for infill residential developments (areas that would otherwise
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be Class 1 or 2) that are close to existing established industries. Identification of an area as Class 4 requires formal confirmation from the land-use planning approval authority for the area. Mechanisms for designating Class 4 areas have been left to municipalities to develop. Some “suggested” methods of implementation range from official plan designations, inclusion in the zoning bylaw, down to a simple letter from the chief planner. Existing Class 1 and 2 areas cannot be re-designated as Class 4 areas, unless they are torn down and redeveloped. The 2010 version of the draft guideline also included a Class 5 designation, for areas adjacent to airports or heavily travelled rail corridors. This was deleted from the 2011 draft, and the definition of ambient background noise was also altered to provide a method to allow rail and aircraft noise to be considered. It is uncertain whether the Class 5 designation will return in the final guideline, or if the revised ambient background calculation methods will remain in the final
document. New definitions for points of reception Stationary (industrial) noise must be evaluated at all noise-sensitive points of reception. The definition of point of reception has been expanded significantly, and borrows heavily on the concepts from Publication LU-131. For existing residences, points of reception include: • Outdoor ground level amenity spaces within 30 m of a facade and at a height of 1.5 m. • Balconies and elevated terraces, if they are the only outdoor area for the occupant, are greater than 4 m deep and are unenclosed. • The plane of windows associated with noise-sensitive spaces. Guidance is also provided on points of assessment for “zoned for future use” land uses: • Where a building is approved under Section 41 of the Planning Act, or where a building permit has been issued, but where construction has not begun, the point of reception is at the
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Noise Pollution centre of the proposed building and at heights representing noise-sensitive windows. • If the location is a noise-sensitive vacant lot, where no planning or building approvals have been provided, then guidance is given depending on the lot size. The point of reception should also be consistent with the surrounding zoning and typical building pattern in the area. The latter definitions are focused on urban and suburban land uses, and offer limited guidance on assessment in rural areas. For example, most agricultural zonings allow for residences to be constructed. It is unclear from the definition if a “house” must therefore be assumed to exist on all agricultural lots, even when one is not anticipated (for example, where an individual farm owns several lots). This could affect rural industries, such as grain dryers and feed suppliers (and other agri-businesses) and pit and quarry operations. It is to be hoped that this will be clarified in the final document. New guideline limits and assessment time periods The draft NPC-300 guideline provides new guideline limits. Like the previous guidelines, limits are provided for steady and varying sound (cumulative noise from fans, HVAC units, trucks, etc.), as well as impulsive noise (hammer hits, trucks coupling or uncoupling, punch presses, pneumatics, etc.). Unlike the previous NPC documents, the guideline provides separate limits at outdoor points of reception and planes of windows of noise-sensitive spaces. The limits for steady and varying noise are shown in Table 1. The limits for Class 1, 2 and 3 areas remain essentially unchanged, and assume open windows. The new Class 4 limits are +5 dB higher for outdoor amenity spaces, and +10 dB higher for the plane of noise-sensitive windows. The higher window limits are meant to reflect the concept that the windows would remain closed, and that air conditioning would be provided for these receptors. It is particularly important to note that, unlike the predecessor land-use approval guideline LU-131, the draft NPC-
Table 1: Exclusion Limits for Steady and Varying Sound (Leq(1hr) Values, dBa)
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Noise Pollution Table 2: Exclusion Limits for Impilsive Sound (LLM(1hr) Values, dBal)
300 limits do not distinguish between daytime and night-time points of reception for windows. The daytime guideline limits will need to be met at former
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“night-time” points of reception, such as second-storey bedroom windows. This will affect industries that have previously relied on having “daytime” opera-
tions only, and that relied on berms and noise walls to provide noise mitigation. Such facilities include many pits and quarries, warehouses and ancillary transportation facilities. These facilities may require significantly higher (and wider) earthen berms and noise walls to mitigate noise levels. Revised noise limits are also provided for impulsive noise sources. Again, the limits are now provided at outdoor points of reception and at the plane of noisesensitive windows. The limits for “specific impulsive sounds” in NPC-205 have been removed. This may affect compliance at some metal working operations, and their noise guideline limits may decrease by 5 dB (become more strict) during the night-time period. In addition, the new limits replace the previous definition of “frequent” versus “infrequent” impulses. This essentially defined infrequent activity as fewer than 20 impulses occurring in a two-hour time frame. The new guideline has a sliding scale, depending on frequency of impulses per hour, which are shown in Table 2. The new lower limits and cor-
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Noise Pollution responding number-of-impulse thresholds will again potentially affect industries that previously relied on the “infrequent” categorization. Examples would include industries relying on heavy trucking, with transport truck coupling and uncoupling, and those relying on outdoor storage of products, which may generate impulses when being moved. The sound level limits for emergency equipment during non-emergency periods, such as normal testing and maintenance, have also been relaxed (made less stringent). Examples include emergency electrical power generators used for standby power. The new limits for such equipment would be 5 dB higher than the values in Tables 1 and 2. Predictable worst-case scenarios The “predictable worst-case scenario” that is the subject of the assessment has been clarified. Regular, routine operations and equipment are to be included. “Infrequent” events are also included, if the operation of the equipment occurs twice a month or more, for at least half an hour on each occasion. Routine testing and maintenance of emergency equipment are also part of the assessment, but are subject to the less stringent +5 dB limits. The 2010 draft noted that for land use planning assessments, the potential future expansions of the industry should be taken into account, either by reviewing the industry’s corporate plans, or based on the restrictions in its Comprehensive Certificate of Approval. This language is missing from the 2011 draft, although apparently this does not represent a policy shift at the MOE. Receptor-based mitigation methods Unlike in NPC-205 and 232, receptor-based noise mitigation measures are now allowed to be used by the industry in assessing guideline compliance. Acceptable methods include: • Receptor-based outdoor noise control measures, such as berms and barriers. • Receptor-based site planning noise control measures, such as height restrictions and interior layouts. • Receptor-based “on-building” noise control measures, for buildings in Class 4 areas. The April 2011 draft suggests that, whenever receptor-based noise mitigawww.esemag.com
tion measures are used, they should be subject to a three-party, legally binding agreement. This would be between the developer, the municipality and the industry, registered on title, to ensure their installation and maintenance. Concern has been raised on implementation, and whether this incorrectly places the industry in an approval role. The 2010 draft only required a legal agreement with the industry, when at-source mitigation was to be installed. Receptor-based “on-building” noise control measures could include such things as sealed windows (where allowed under the Ontario Building Code, or OBC), barriers on portions of balconies, or blinder walls that shield the affected windows. An innovative approach provided in the guidelines is the use of an “enclosed noise buffer” balcony. An “ENB balcony” is essentially an enclosed solarium that overlaps the affected windows. It can be equipped with operable exterior windows, and must be less than 2 m deep. The facade separating the balcony from the indoors must include exterior grade walls, win-
dows and doors meeting OBC minimum requirements. The concept is illustrated in Figure 1. ENB balconies may only be used for high-rise, multi-tenant buildings in Class 4 areas. The proposed NPC-300 guideline addresses many of the uncertainties and inconsistencies in the previous NPC-205, 232 and LU-131 guidelines. The new, higher guideline limits and receptorbased mitigation measures may make infill and brownfields redevelopment easier. This will help industries maintain compliance, developers build, and municipalities meet the objectives of Ontario’s Places to Grow Act. Uncertainties remain as to how the new guidelines will be implemented, and how the transition from the current NPC guidelines to the new guideline will be addressed. This will be important for the industries noted above, where guideline changes may affect their compliance status. Scott Penton is with Novus Environmental Inc. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Constructing a treatment wetland at a Niagara Region landfill By Bruce Gall and Kyle Monteith he Rice Road Landfill served the communities of Thorold, Pelham and Fonthill in the Niagara Region of southern Ontario from 1949 until it was closed in 1986. It was built in a deep ravine that is part of the headwater area of Twelve Mile Creek, which is the only cold-water fishery in the region. To maintain the hydraulic connection between upgradient lands and Twelve Mile Creek that was originally provided by the ravine, a corrugated steel pipe (CSP) was installed in the ravine during the early days of landfill development. In 2000, leachate-affected dryweather baseflow and stormwater from the CSP were identified as adversely affecting surface water conditions in Twelve Mile Creek. Un-ionized ammonia and phosphorus discharges were of particular concern. The City of Thorold, the owner of the site, has a population of approximately 18,000. The closed Rice Road Landfill is the only waste management facility within the Cityâ€™s jurisdiction, therefore, resources for management of the remediation project were not readily available. As a result, the City looked to public-private partnership models where a turnkey approach could be utilized to appropriate risk, optimize schedule and maximize project value. It was determined that the Cityâ€™s goals could be achieved with a project delivery package consisting of: a) Project design and approvals; b) Project management; c) Construction and procurement; and d) Operations, maintenance and management. To develop and implement a solution, the City retained Integrated Municipal Services (IMS), a subsidiary of the Walker Environmental Group, and its design/build/operate project team, consisting of Urban and Environmental Management (UEM) and Aquatic Sciences Inc. (ASI). The project team, in cooperation with regulatory authorities such as the Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Natural Re-
48 | Summer 2012
Monthly average influent and treated effluent un-ionized ammonia for 2010-11.
sources, Niagara Peninsula Conservation Authority, Niagara Escarpment Commission and Enbridge Pipeline Inc., developed a remedial solution that would meet the requirements and needs of all stakeholders. The solution required a life cycle cost analysis approach that accounted for all environmental, social and economic impacts and aspects associated with the required treatment objectives. This triple bottom line evaluation determined that an onsite wetland treatment system would meet the treatment objectives, minimize long-term operational and
ever, mosquito habitat was a concern within the area, so the FWS system was not seen as desirable in this situation. By keeping flows sub-surface, odour concerns could be eliminated (particularly as oxygen status is kept high via the implementation of a free draining system). Also, keeping flows within a porous media offered a significant level of thermal insulation, that has allowed for continued operation during cold periods. Formal experimentation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environment Canada, at Niagara-on-
This triple bottom line evaluation determined that an onsite wetland treatment system would meet the treatment objectives and minimize long-term operational and maintenance costs. maintenance costs, and incorporate the natural characteristics associated with the surrounding riparian habitat. There are generally two types of constructed wetlands that could have been implemented to provide treatment: a free-water surface (FWS) system or a sub-surface flow (SSF) system. How-
the-Lake in the early 1990s, demonstrated that SSF wetlands could operate successfully during extended periods of freezing weather. These experiments were based on very successful cold-climate research that had been undertaken in Norway. The Niagara-on-the-Lake pilot SSF
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Water Quality wetlands demonstrated that vegetative thatch from cattails and/or bulrushes further insulates wetland cells from the impact of cold air. It is also beneficial to create wetland cells that are as deep as possible, to allow for the storage of thermal energy. With these points in mind, the project team determined that the Rice Road wetland treatment system would best be designed as a sub-surface vertical flow wetland. It required a design which would reduce un-ionized ammonia and total phosphorus loading from leachateaffected stormwater coming from the site. It was also determined that an SSF wetland should minimize or negate adverse cold weather impacts on biological activity and hydraulic efficacy. Designing the wetland Flows discharging from the landfill were assessed to determine optimal configuration for the treatment wetland. Water quality/quantity analyses showed that baseflow discharging from the landfill was highest in terms of contaminant concentrations and long-term, cumulative loadings. It was decided that the influent to the wetland system would be volumetrically controlled to accept the peak spring baseflows. The target baseflow rate entering the wetland system was set at 13 m3/day. A combination of weir and orifice control was utilized at the inlet to the wetland structure to assure appropriate baseflow influent rates. The wetland system was further protected through the
design and implementation of a system bypass weir. Since Twelve Mile Creek is a particularly sensitive waterway, stringent effluent objectives were set. Total phosphorus limits were set at 0.03 mg/L and un-ionized ammonia concentrations
were not to exceed 0.02 mg/L for flows of 13 m3/day. The wetland was designed and built so that gravity regulates flows, eliminating the need for pumps or blowers and allowing the wetland to operate with no continued overleaf...
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Annual average wetland performance of the Rice Road Landfill treatment wetland for 2011.
fuel or electricity. The design was based on a first-order plug-flow reactor model, which resulted in a total wetland surface area of 1,100 m2 over three cells in series, each with a 0.67 m depth. The design strategy required a treatment media consisting of a mediumto-coarse sand with a porosity of approximately 30%. An evaluation was conducted of locally available materials to determine a suitable media. Several materials were evaluated, including an unwashed, well-graded native sand, a washed, uniform filter sand, a uniform crushed limestone manufactured sand, and a uniform crushed limestone, 1/8inch chip. Laboratory analysis of the four materials included porosity, grain size analysis and coefficient of uniformity. Based on this analysis, it was determined that a 2:1 blend of filter sand and 1/8-inch crushed limestone chip, respectively, would provide an optimum porosity, coefficient of uniformity and effective size for use in the SSF wetland treatment system. Both materials could be sourced locally to maintain the economic viabil-
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firstname.lastname@example.org | (519)748-8024 Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Water Quality ity of the project. Immediately upstream of the SSF wetland cells, a pair of primary treatment chambers were specified to remove solids and any oils, grease or “floatables” that might cause the cells’ porous media to become clogged. Soil bearing capacity estimates indicated that two 12.5 m3 concrete tanks (pre-fabricated septic tanks) could be used for this purpose. Construction of the wetland Due to the lack of available land, the SSF wetland system was sited at the bottom of the north slope of the landfill, within a valley that contained a seasonal creek. Developing the treatment system within this valley created several challenges. A work permit was required from the Ministry of Natural Resources and construction was only allowed between May 30 and September 1. The soft, saturated organic soils, with a low bearing capacity were another challenge. A geotechnical assessment was required to ensure these soils would support the system infrastructure, as well as to ensure that construction activities
Construction of the treatment wetland at the closed Rice Road Landfill.
would not affect the steep side slopes of the ravine. An additional complication was that of having to cross the Enbridge Pipeline
right-of-way. Construction required a crossing agreement for the transport of all equipment, materials and supplies continued overleaf...
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Water Quality across an active inter-provincial 24-inch crude oil pipeline and an inactive 18inch pipeline. All necessary approvals and engineering were needed to ensure construction activities did not affect the pipelines. Staging of the entire construction effort had to be closely coordinated as site access was only available via the south end of the ravine. This, combined with the soft soil conditions, required the use of geosynthetics and temporary access road construction to allow heavy equipment to operate on the soft organic soils. A 90 m temporary access road underlain by a non-woven geotextile was constructed throughout the length of the ravine. Heavy equipment worked off the end of the road, and as construction progressed, the road was removed to make way for the SSF wetland treatment system. Specialized, six-wheel-drive articulated haul trucks were needed to transport excavated soils out of the valley and treatment media back in for use in the wetland cells. Following design and approvals, the SSF wetland was fully constructed
within two months in late 2005 at a cost of $200,000, including design, approvals and construction. It was commissioned in February 2006. Operations and performance The certificate of approval (CofA) issued by the Ministry of Environment set discharge limits on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids, un-ionized ammonia, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and pH. These parameters are sampled every second week in the raw influent, primary effluent and treated effluent for compliance purposes. The CofA initially required weekly sampling of these parameters, but due to consistently good performance, the MOE has authorized a reduced sampling frequency. These same locations, plus the system bypass, are also sampled every second month for a longer parameter set that includes additional conventional parameters and metals. Iron, a common landfill-related metal, is reduced from influent concentrations of 20 mg/L to typically less than 0.03 mg/L in the treated effluent. This is well below the
provincial water quality objective for surface waters of 0.3 mg/L. In addition to water quality sampling, influent flow, effluent flow and bypass flow are continuously monitored at the site using battery-powered level meters. Operation and maintenance includes winterization with a 0.5 m straw thatch blanket over the upstream 30% of each cell, periodic removal of invasive species, flushing and cleaning of the weir and sediment chambers as required, twice-yearly exercising of valves, and flow-meter maintenance. Since 2009, Integrated Municipal Services and the City of Thorold have utilized the wetland treatment system as an outdoor learning opportunity. Students from Niagara Collegeâ€™s Ecosystem Restoration and Environmental Technician programs have been onsite to learn how the wetland functions and to exercise their newly acquired skills and education in a practical setting. Most recently, the students have assisted with the winterization of the wetland, conducted plant inventories, and helped with the management of invasive species and the improvement of habitat features. In the future, the wetland will feature signage for future student education and overall public awareness about the importance of the wetland treatment system and all its features. Following a brief startup period, the treatment wetland at the closed Rice Road Landfill has provided consistent removal of ammonia, phosphorus and other parameters listed in the site CofA. This includes excellent cold-weather performance. A new investigation has begun at the site to examine the feasibility of increasing the peak flow rate through the treatment system, to reduce the frequency of wet-weather bypass events. Bruce Gall is with Urban & Environmental Management Inc. E-mail: email@example.com. Kyle Monteith is with Integrated Municipal Services. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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52 | Summer 2012
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ES&E’s Annual Guide to Government Agencies, Associations and Academic Institutions Associations ...................................................................53 Government Agencies ..................................................57 Colleges and Universities .............................................62
ES&E ’s Guide To Associations ABORIGINAL WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO Web site: www.awwao.org AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION (AWMA) One Gateway Center, 3rd Floor 420 Fort Duquesne Blvd Pittsburgh PA 15222-1435 USA (412) 232-3444 Fax: (412) 232-3450 Web site: www.awma.org ALBERTA WATER AND WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION (AWWOA) 10806-119 Street Edmonton AB T5H 3P2 (780) 454-7745 Fax: (780) 454-7748 Web site: www.awwoa.ab.ca AMERICAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 350-8445 Freeport Parkway Irving TX 75063-2595 USA (972) 506-7216 Fax: (972) 506-7682 Web site: www.concrete-pipe.org AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA) 6666 W Quincy Ave Denver CO 80235 USA (303) 794-7711 Fax: (303) 347-0804 Web site: www.awwa.org ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSORS OF CANADA INC. PO Box 490 Fenelon Falls ON K0M 1N0 (877) 512-3722 Web site: www.aesac.ca ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERING COMPANIES (ACEC) 420-130 Albert St Ottawa ON K1P 5G4 (613) 236-0569 Fax: (613) 236-6193 Web site: www.acec.ca ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPALITIES OF ONTARIO 801-200 University Ave Toronto ON M5H 3C6 (416) 971-9856 Fax: (416) 971-6191 Web site: www.amo.on.ca
ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO LAND SURVEYERS (AOLS) 1043 McNicoll Ave Toronto ON M1W 3W6 (416) 491-9020 Fax: (416) 491-2576 Web site: www.aols.org ASSOCIATION OF POWER PRODUCERS OF ONTARIO (APPRO) 1602-25 Adelaide St E Toronto ON M5C 3A1 (416) 322-6549 Fax: (416) 481-5785 Web site: www.appro.org ATLANTIC CANADA WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (ACWWA) PO Box 41002 Dartmouth NS B2Y 4P7 (902) 434-6002 Fax: (902) 435-7796 Web site: www.acwwa.ca AUDITING ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 129 Timber Drive London ON N6K 4A3 (866) 582-9595 Fax: (519) 488-3655 Web site: www.auditingcanada.com BRITISH COLUMBIA GROUNDWATER ASSOCIATION 1708 197A St Langley BC V2Z 1K2 (604) 530-8934 Fax: (604) 530-8934 Web site: www.bcgwa.org BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION (BCWWA) 221-8678 Greenall Ave Burnaby BC V5J 3M6 (604) 433-4389 Fax: (604) 433-9859 Web site: www.bcwwa.org CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABORATORY ACCREDITATION (CALA) 310-1565 Carling Ave Ottawa ON K1Z 8R1 (613) 233-5300 Fax: (613) 233-5501 Web site: www.cala.ca CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGIES 7885 Jock Trail Ottawa ON K0A 2Z0 (613) 222-6920 Fax: (613) 822-4987 Web site: www.renewables.ca
CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCERS 403-235 Water St St. John’s NF A1C 1B6 Web site: www.capp.ca CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF RECYCLING INDUSTRIES (CARI-ACIR) 1-682 Monarch Ave Ajax ON L1S 4S2 (905) 426-9313 Fax: (905) 426-9314 Web site: www.cari-acir.org CANADIAN ASSOCIATION ON WATER QUALITY PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1 Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (905) 336-6291 Fax: (905) 336-4877 Web site: www.cawq.ca CANADIAN BROWNFIELDS NETWORK (CBN) 310-2175 Sheppard Ave E Toronto ON M2J 1W8 (416) 491-2886 Fax: (416) 491-1670 Web site: www.canadianbrownfieldsnetwork.ca CANADIAN CENTRE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (CCOHS) 135 Hunter St E Hamilton ON L8N 1M5 (905) 572-2981 Fax: (905) 572-2206 Web site: www.ccohs.ca CANADIAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 205 Miller Dr Georgetown ON L7G 6G4 (905) 877-5369 Fax: (905) 877-5369 Web site: www.ccpa.com CANADIAN COPPER & BRASS DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION 415-49 The Donway West Don Mills ON M3C 3M9 (416) 391-5599 Fax: (416) 391-3823 Web site: www.coppercanada.ca
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Guide to Government Agencies, Associations and Academic Institutions
CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL CERTIFICATION APPROVALS BOARD (CECAB) 200-308 11 Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 (403) 233-7484 Fax: (403) 264-6240 Web site: www.cecab.org CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ASSOCIATION 301-130 Spadina Ave Toronto ON M5V 2L4 (416) 960-2284 Fax: (905) 960-9392 Web site: www.cela.ca
Fax: (613) 234-5642 Web site: www.canwea.ca
(202) 422-2445 Fax: (202) 318-4561 Web site: www.iuva.org
CEMENT ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 704-1500 Don Mills Rd Toronto ON M3B 3K4 (416) 449-3708 Fax: (416) 449-9755 Web site: www.cement.ca
MANITOBA ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION INC. (MEIA) 100-62 Albert St Winnipeg MB R3B 1E9 (204) 783-7090 Fax: (204) 783-6501 Web site: www.meia.mb.ca
CHEMISTRY INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 805-350 Sparks St Ottawa ON K1R 7S8 (613) 237-6215 Fax: (613) 237-4061 Web site: www.canadianchemistry.ca
CANADIAN GENERAL STANDARDS BOARD 6B1-11 Laurier St Place du Portage Gatineau QC K1A 1G6 (819) 956-0425 Fax: (819) 956-5740 Web site: www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca
COMPOSTING COUNCIL OF CANADA 16 Northumberland St Toronto ON M6H 1P7 (416) 535-0240 Fax: (416) 536-9892 Web site: www.compost.org
CANADIAN GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 1600 Bedford Highway Suite 100–409 Bedford NS B4A 1E8 (902) 845-1885 Fax: (902) 845-1886 Web site: www.cgwa.org
CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE INSTITUTE 2A-652 Bishop St N Cambridge ON N3H 4V6 (866) 295-2416 or (519) 650-8080 Fax: (519) 650-8081 Web site: www.cspi.ca
CANADIAN INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND POLICY (CIELAP) 301-130 Spadina Ave Toronto ON M5V 2L4 (416) 923-3529 Fax: (416) 923-5949 Web site: www.cielap.org
CSA INTERNATIONAL 178 Rexdale Blvd Toronto ON M9W 1R3 (416) 747-4000 Fax: (416) 747-4149 Web site: www.csa-international.org
CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION 100-5060 Spectrum Way Mississauga ON L4W 5N6 (416) 747-4000 Fax: (416) 401-2473 Web site: www.csa.ca CANADIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION 11-1010 Polytek St Ottawa ON K1J 9H9 (613) 747-0524 Fax: (613) 747-0523 Web site: www.cwwa.ca CANADIAN WATER NETWORK 200 University Ave W Waterloo ON N2L 3G1 (519) 888-4567 Fax: (519) 883-7574 Web site: www.cwn-rce.ca CANADIAN WATER QUALITY ASSOCIATION 330-295 The West Mall Toronto ON M9C 4Z4 (416) 695-3068 Fax: (416) 695-2945 Web site: www.cwqa.com
DUCTILE IRON PIPE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION 2000 2nd Ave S Birmingham AL 35233 USA (205) 402-8700 Fax: (205) 402-8730 Web site: www.dipra.org EARTH ENERGY SOCIETY OF CANADA 435 Brennan Ave Ottawa ON K1Z 6J9 (613) 371-3372 Fax: (613) 822-4987 Web site: www.earthenergy.ca ECO CANADA 200-308 11 Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 (403) 233-0748 Fax: (403) 269-9544 Web site: www.eco.ca INTERNATIONAL OZONE ASSOCIATION PO Box 28873 Scottsdale AZ 85255 USA (480) 529-3787 Fax: (480) 473-9068 Web site: www.io3a.org
CANADIAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 9 Corvus Ct Ottawa ON K2E 7Z4 (613) 237-9363 Fax: (613) 594-5190 Web site: www.cwra.org
INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SCIENCES (ISEIS) 413-4246 Albert St Regina SK S4S 3R9 (306) 337-2306 Fax: (306) 584-2305 Web site: www.iseis.org
CANADIAN WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION 710-1600 Carling Ave Ottawa ON K1Z 1G3 (613) 234-8716, (800) 922-6932
INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET ASSOCIATION 276-1718 M St NW Washington DC 20036 USA
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MANITOBA WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION 202-9 Saskatchewan Ave W Portage La Prairie MB R1N 0P4 (204) 239-6868 Fax: (204) 239-6872 Web site: www.mwwa.net MARITIME PROVINCES WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (MPWWA) PO Box 41001 Dartmouth NS B2Y 4P7 (902) 434-8874 Web site: www.mpwwa.ca MUNICIPAL ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION 22-1525 Cornwall Rd Oakville ON L6J 0B2 (289) 291-6472 Fax: (289) 291-6477 Web site: www.municipalengineers.on.ca MUNICIPAL WASTE ASSOCIATION (MWA) 100-127 Wyndham St N Guelph ON N1H 4E9 (519) 823-1990 Fax: (519) 823-0084 Web site: www.municipalwaste.ca NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL BALANCING BUREAU 50 Hill St Kitchener ON N2H 5T3 (519) 571-0971 Fax: (519) 571-1277 Web site: www.nebb.ca NATIONAL GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 601 Dempsey Rd Westerville OH 43081 USA (614) 898-7791 Fax: (614) 898-7786 Web site: www.ngwa.org NEW BRUNSWICK ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (NBEIA) PO Box 637 Stn A Fredericton NB E3B 5B3 (506) 455-0212 Fax: (506) 452-0213 Web site: www.nbeia.nb.ca NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (NEIA) 101-90 O’Leary Ave Parsons Building St. John’s NL A1B 2C7 (709) 772-3333 Fax: (709) 772-3213 Web site: www.neia.org NORTH AMERICAN HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3030 W 81st Ave Westminster CO 80031-4111 USA (303) 451-5945 Fax: (303) 458-0002 Web site: www.nahmma.org
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Guide to Government Agencies, Associations and Academic Institutions NORTHERN TERRITORIES WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION 201-4817 49th St Yellowknife NT X1A 3S7 (867) 873-4325 Fax: (867) 669-2167 Web site: www.ntwwa.com NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION PO Box 10308 Thunder Bay ON P7B 6T8 (807) 807-683-6662 Web site: www.noma.on.ca ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF CERTIFIED ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS AND TECHNOLOGISTS (OACETT) 404-10 Four Seasons Pl Toronto ON M9B 6H7 (416) 621-9621 Fax: (416) 621-8694 Web site: www.oacett.org ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF SEWAGE INDUSTRY SERVICES 2534 Con 6 RR2 Collingwood ON L9Y 3Z1 (877) 292-0082 Web site: www.oasisontario.on.ca. ONTARIO BACKFLOW PREVENTION ASSOCIATION PO Box 265 Campbellville ON L0P 1B0 (416) 249-2837 Fax: (905) 854-0180 Web site: www.obpaonline.com ONTARIO CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENT (OCETA) 201A-2070 Hadwen Rd Mississauga ON L5K 2C9 (905) 822-4133 Fax: (905) 822-3558 Web site: www.oceta.on.ca ONTARIO COALITION FOR SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE Web site: www.on-csi.ca ONTARIO CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 447 Frederick St, Second floor Kitchener ON N2H 2P4 (519) 489-4488 Fax: (519) 578-6060 Web site: www.ocpa.com ONTARIO ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (ONEIA) 410-216 Spadina Ave Toronto ON M5T 2C7 (416) 531-7884 Fax: (416) 644-0116 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.oneia.ca ONEIA is the business association representing the interests of Ontario’s environment industry – working together to promote environmental businesses to industry and government. With over 200 product and service companies, members provide market-driven solutions for society’s most pressing environmental problems. ONTARIO GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION
48 Front St E Strathroy ON N7G 1Y6 (519) 245-7194 Fax: (519) 245-7196 Web site: www.ogwa.ca ONTARIO MUNICIPAL WATER ASSOCIATION 43 Chelsea Cres Belleville ON K8N 4Z5 (613) 966-1100, (888) 231-1115 Fax: (613) 966-3024 Web site: www.omwa.org ONTARIO ONSITE WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 831 Cobourg ON K9A 4S3 (905) 372-2722 Web site: www.oowa.org
ONTARIO POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION (OPCEA) PO Box 137 Midhurst ON L0L 1X0 (705) 725-0917 Fax: (705) 725-1068 Web site: www.opcea.com Our association is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting member companies in the promotion of their equipment and services to the pollution control market sector of Ontario. Originally founded in 1970, the OPCEA has since grown to over 160 member companies whose fields encompass a broad spectrum of equipment and services for the air and water pollution control marketplace. ONTARIO SEWER & WATERMAIN CONSTRUCTION ASSOCIATION 300-5045 Orbitor Dr Building 12 Mississauga ON L4W 4Y4 (905) 629-7766 Fax: (905) 629-0587 Web site: www.oswca.org ONTARIO SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 502-4950 Yonge St Toronto, Ontario M2N 6K1 (416) 223-9961 Fax: (416) 223-9963 Web site: www.ospe.on.ca ONTARIO WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3-2005 Clark Blvd Brampton ON L6T 5P8 (905) 791-9500 Fax: (905) 791-9514 Web site: www.owma.org
The Ontario Water Works Equipment Association (OWWEA) is an organization that represents its membership within the waterworks industry of Ontario. Membership consists of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, agents and contractors dedicated to serving the Ontario municipal market. ONTARIO WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (OWWA) 200-1092 Islington Ave Toronto ON M8Z 4R9 (416) 231-1555 Fax: (416) 231-1556 Web site: www.owwa.com PLASTICS PIPE INSTITUTE 825-105 Decker Court Irving TX 75062 USA (469) 499-1044 Fax: (469) 499-1063 Web site: www.plasticpipe.org PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS ONTARIO 101-40 Sheppard Ave W Toronto ON M2N 6K9 (416) 224-1100 or (800) 339-3716 Web site: www.peo.on.ca PULP AND PAPER TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 1070-740 rue Notre-Dame O Montreal QC H3C 3X6 (514) 392-0265 Fax: (514) 392-0369 Web site: www.paptac.ca RESEAU ENVIRONNEMENT 220-911 rue Jean-Talon E Montreal QC H2R 1V5 (514) 270-7110 Fax: (514) 270-7154 Web site: www.reseau-environnement.com SASKATCHEWAN ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY AND MANAGERS ASSOCIATION (SEIMA) 2341 McIntyre St Regina SK S4P 2S3 (306) 543-1567 Fax: (306) 543-1568 Web site: www.seima.sk.ca SASKATCHEWAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (SWWA) PO Box 7831 Stn Mn Saskatoon SK S7K 4R5 (306) 761-1278 Fax: (306) 761-1279 Web site: www.swwa.sk.ca SOLAR ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOCIETY OF CANADA INC. 1700 Des Broussailles Terrasse Ottawa ON K1C 5T1 (613) 824-1710 Web site: www.sesci.ca SOLID WASTE ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA (SWANA) 700-1100 Wayne Ave Silver Spring MD 20910 USA (800) 467-9262 Fax: (301) 589-7068 Web site: www.swana.org
ONTARIO WATERWORKS EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION Website: www.owwea.ca
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Associations THE GREEN BUILDING INITIATIVE 2104 SE Morrison Portland OR 97214 USA (503) 274-6538 Fax: (503) 961-8991 Web site: www.thegbi.org
WATER AND WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (WWEMA) PO Box 17402 Washington DC 20041 USA (703) 444-1777 Fax: (703) 444-1779 Web site: www.wwema.org WATER ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO (WEAO) PO Box 176 Stn Main Milton ON L9T 4N9 (416) 410-6933 Fax: (416) 410-1626 Web site: www.weao.org
Water For People-Canada is a charitable nonprofit international humanitarian organization dedicated to the development and delivery of clean, safe water and sanitation solutions in developing nations. It is the Canadian equivalent of the US based charity, Water For People. Canadian water industry professionals established Water For People-Canada in 1995, to support and promote the mission of Water For People in Canada among the public and the water community. WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION 601 Wythe St Alexandria VA 22314-1994 USA (800) 666-0206 Fax: (703) 684-2492 Web site: www.wef.org WESTERN CANADA WATER PO Box 1708 Cochrane AB T4C 1B6 (403) 709-0064 or (877) 283-2003 Fax: (877) 283-2007 Web site: www.wcwwa.ca
WATER FOR PEOPLE-CANADA 400-245 Consumers Rd Toronto, Ontario, M2J 1R3 (416) 499-4042 Fax: (416) 499-4687 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.waterforpeople.org
ESSENTIALS 2012 For SUPERVISORS, MANAGERS & PRACTITIONERS December 3 - 5, at the Mississauga, Ontario, Grand Banquet & Convention Centre. Proven courses to ensure environmental compliance and due diligence at your facility!
December 3 - Environmental Regulation and Compliance December 4 - Environmental Due Diligence December 5 - Environmental Approvals and Permits For further information, please contact: Judy Earl, Envirogate Event Management, Tel: 416-920-0768, Fax: (416) 920-0620, E-mail: email@example.com 56 | Summer 2012
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ES&E ’s Guide to Provincial and Federal Government Environmental Agencies Alberta 24-hour Environmental Hotline Tel:1-800-222-6514 Environment Information Centre Floor 4,Twin Atria Bldg,4999-98 Ave, Edmonton, AB T6B 2X3 Tel:780-427-2700 Sustainable Resource Development Information Centre 9920-108 St NW,Edmonton,AB T5K 2M4 Tel:780-944-0313 Water Management Operations Floor 2,Provincial Bldg,200–5 Ave S, Lethbridge,AB T1J 4L1 Tel:403-381-5300
Regional Offices: Central Region – Red Deer 304 Provincial Bldg,4920–51 St,Red Deer,AB T4N 6K8 Tel:403-340-5022 Northern Region – Edmonton Twin Atria Bldg,111,4999–98 Ave, Edmonton,AB T7B 2X3 Tel:780-427-7617 Southern Region – Calgary 3-3 Deerfoot Square Bldg,2938 11 St NE,Calgary,AB T2E 7L7 Tel:403-297-7602
Local Offices: Camrose Floor 2,Provincial Bldg,4867–50 St, Camrose,AB T4V 1P6 Tel:780-679-1274 Dickson Dam PO Box 6139,Innisfail,AB T4G 1SA Tel:403-227-1106 Fort Chipewyan PO Box 39,Fort Chipewyan,AB T0P 1B0 Tel:780-697-3762 Fort McLeod 744–26 St,Fort Macleod,AB T0L 0Z0 Tel:403-553-5053 Fort McMurray Floor 6,Provincial Bldg,9915 Franklin Ave,Fort McMurray,AB T9H 2K4 Tel:780-743-7472 Grand Prairie Floor 1,Provincial Bldg,10320–99 St, Grand Prairie,AB T8V 6J4 Tel:780-538-8040 Hanna Floor 2,Provincial Bldg,401 Centre St,Hanna,AB T0J 1P0 Tel:403-854-5589 High Level Floor 2,Provincial Bldg,10106–100 Ave, High Level,AB T0H 1Z0 Tel:780-926-5263 High Prairie Floor 2,Provincial Bldg,5226–53 Ave,
High Prairie,AB T0G 1E0 Tel:780-523-6512 Lac La Biche Floor 2,Provincial Bldg,9503 Beaverhill Rd,Lac la Biche,AB T0A 2C0 Tel:780-623-5236 Lethbridge Floor 2,Provincial Bldg,200–5 Ave S, Lethbridge,AB T1J 4L1 Tel:403-381-5322 Medicine Hat Floor 3,Provincial Bldg,346–3 St SE, Medicine Hat,AB T1A 0G7 Tel:403-528-5205 Old Man River Dam 769 Main St,Pincher Creek,AB T0K 1W0 Tel:403-627-5544 Peace River Floor 2,Provincial Bldg,9621–96 Ave, Peace River,AB T8S 1T4 Tel:780-624-6502 Rocky Mountain House Floor 1,Provincial Bldg,4919–51 St, Rocky Mountain House,AB T45 1B5 Tel:403-845-8241 Spruce Grove Floor 1,250 Diamond Ave,Spruce Grove, AB T7X 4C7 Tel:780-960-8600 St Mary Dam PO Box 1,Spring Coulee,AB T0K 2C0 Tel:403-758-3382 Swan Hills Gaetan Bldg,4831 Plaza Ave,Swan Hills, AB T0G 2C0 Tel:780-333-4288 Vulcan Drawer 930,1009–2 Ave N,Vulcan, AB T0L 2B0 Tel:403-485-4580 Wainwright Provincial Bldg,810–14 Ave,Wainwright,AB T9W 1R2 Tel:780-842-7535
British Columbia Region 1 – Vancouver Island 2080-A Labieux Rd,Nanaimo,BC V9T 6J9 Tel:250-751-3100 Region 2 – Lower Mainland Floor 2,10470 152nd St,Surrey,BC V3R 0Y3 Tel:604-582-5200 Region 3 – Thompson 1259 Dalhousie Dr,Kamloops,BC V2C 5Z5 102 Industrial Pl,Penticton,BC V2A 7C8 Tel:250-371-6281 Region 4 – Kootenay 401-333 Victoria St,Nelson,BC V1L 4K3 205 Industrial Rd,Cranbrook,BC V1C 7G5 Tel:250-354-6333 Region 5 – Cariboo 400-640 Borland St Williams Lake,BC V2G 4T1 Tel:250-398-4530 Region 6 – Skeena
3726 Alfred Ave,Smithers,BC V0J 2N0 Tel:250-847-7260 Region 7A – Omineca 4051 18th Ave,Prince George,BC V2N 1B3 Tel:250-565-6135 Region 7B – Peace 400-10003 110th Ave,Fort St John,BC V1J 6M7 Tel:250-787-3411 Region 8 – Thompson 102 Industrial Pl,Penticton,BC V2A 7C8 Tel:250-489-8540 Environmental Protection Division Conservation Officer Service Water Stewardship Division 325-1011 4th Ave,Prince George,BC V2L 3H9 Tel:250-565-6155
Manitoba Environment Services 1007 Century St,Winnipeg,MB R3H 0W4 Tel:204-945-2970 Environmental Emergency 24 hour Service Tel:204-944-4888
Key Government Alberta Web Sites www.gov.ab.ca
British Columbia www.gov.bc.ca
Government of Canada www.gc.ca
New Brunswick www.gnb.ca
Newfoundland and Labrador www.gov.nl.ca
Northwest Territories www.gov.nt.ca
Nova Scotia www.gov.ns.ca
Prince Edward Island www.gov.pe.ca
Yukon Territory www.gov.yk.ca
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Regional Offices: Brandon 1129 Queens Ave,Brandon,MB R7A 1L9 Tel:204-726-6064 Dauphin 27-2nd Ave SW,Dauphin,MB R7N 3E5 Tel:204-622-2030 Gimli 75-7th Ave,Gimli,MB R0C 1B9 Tel:204-642-6095 Lac du Bonnet Highway 502/PO Box 4000,Lac du Bonnet,MB R0E 1A0 Tel:204-345-1444 Portage la Prairie 25 Tupper St N,Portage la Prairie,MB R1N 3K1 Tel:204-239-3608 Selkirk Lower Level, 446 Main St,Selkirk,MB R1A 1V7 Tel:204-785-5030 Steinbach Unit 5-284 Reimer Ave,Steinbach,MB R5G 1N6 Tel:204-346-6060 The Pas Provincial Bldg,The Pas,MB R9A 1M4 Tel:204-627-8499 Thompson 59 Elizabeth Dr,Thompson,MB R8N 1X4 Tel:204-677-6857 Winkler Main Plaza,565 Main St,Winkler,MB R6W 1C4 Tel:204-325-1750
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T H I S MIGHT BE AS GOOD AS I T GET S 5NS A F E W A T E R K I LLS PEOPLE EVER Y S INGLE DA Y 7E C A N T G O O N LETTING PEOPLE DIE THIS WA Y & I ND OUT HOW YOU C AN HEL P
New Brunswick Head Office: Marysville Place,20 McGloin St, Fredericton,NB E3A 5T8 Tel:506-453-2690 Environmental Emergency 24 Hour Service Tel:1-800-565-1633
Regional Offices: Region 1 â€“ Bathurst 159 Main St,Room 202,Bathurst,NB E2A 1A6 Tel:506-547-2092 Region 2 â€“ Miramichi 316 Dalton Ave,Miramichi,NB E1V 3N9 Tel:506-778-6032 Region 3 â€“ Moncton 355 Dieppe Blvd,Moncton,NB E1A 8L5 Tel:506-856-2374 Region 4 â€“ Saint John 8 Castle St,Saint John,NB E2L 3B8 Tel:506-658-2558 Region 5 â€“ Fredericton Priestman Ctr,565 Priestman St, Fredericton,NB E3B 5X8 Tel:506-444-5149 Region 6 â€“ Grand Falls 65 Broadway Blvd,Grand Falls,NB E3Z 2J6 Tel:506-473-7744
Newfoundland/ Labrador Head Office: Floor 4,West Block,Confederation Bldg,PO Box 8700,St.Johnâ€™s,NL A1B 4J6 Tel:709-729-2563