Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine May-June 2012

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Contents ISSN-0835-605X • May/June 2012 Vol. 25 No. 3 • Issued June 2012 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com Consulting Editor


Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: peter@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba Peter Laughton P.Eng. Consulting Engineer, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.

FEATURES 6 The twelve misunderstandings of green chemistry 10 Managing biosolids in a sustainable manner has many benefits 12 Biosolids dryer facility produces Class A fertilizer pellets 14 Management of transmission mains leakage requires analysis 18 ECO Canada recognizes environmental industry employers 20 Reducing spreadsheet error risk during municipal design work 26 Maximizing the return on investment of sludge transfer pumps 30 LEED 2009 and indoor air quality monitoring plans 32 DO system helps restore lakes, ponds and lagoons 34 Post-installation inspection of pipelines should be standard procedure 36 Canadian firm develops new solution to reducing mercury in water 38 Floating treatment wetlands mitigate lake eutrophication 42 Comparing Doppler and transit time flow meter measurement 44 Using turtles as indicators for wetland assessment and restoration 56 Mobile device apps can improve field data collection 59 A lasting repair for deteriorating wastewater clarifier weirs 60 SCADA for real-time disinfection calculations, modeling and alarming 64 Protecting the Grand River Watershed’s source water PAGE 10

Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com.


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Cover photo: A Bio-Batch Sequencing Batch Reactor by Napier-Reid supplied for the Mafraq Wastewater Treatment Plant in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.


46 Inflatable sealing plugs and bags protect against tank leakage 48 Choosing the right berm fabric to ensure proper spill protection 50 Cover system helps optimize wastewater treatment in cold climates 52 DeconGel helps decontaminate Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant

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Guest Comment

The 12 misunderstandings of green chemistry By James Clark hile in Boston recently, I enjoyed the benefit of a personal tour of John Warner’s new facility, the Warner Babcock Institute for Green Chemistry and I was reminded of the continued importance of his 12 Principles of Green Chemistry and how they continue to be meaningful after almost 20 years. Our excitement at the growth in interest in green chemistry must, however, be tempered by a determination not to allow the concept and the principles that underpin it to be undermined by basic misunderstandings of what is green and sustainable. The term has been hijacked in some cases by labeling an entire area as ‘green’ and thus making it more acceptable or favorable, without a proper appreciation of what it really means to be green. So, in the spirit perhaps more of Ebenezer Scrooge than Father Christmas, I now propose the 12 Misunderstandings of Green Chemistry. 1. Hazardous chemicals must be immediately replaced. Through EU REACH regulation and other instruments we are now identifying chemicals, which are hazardous to human health and/or the environment. These should be replaced, but only with alternatives that we are confident are genuinely safer - as well as being effective - across their life cycle. There is a tendency for chemical users to demand that all ‘relisted’ chemicals be immediately replaced. But we must be careful that we


2. Chemicals should be biodegradable. All substances end up in the environment and when they do it is important that they don't persist or bio-accumulate. However, degradation can prevent (immediate) reuse and while the eco-system will recycle the carbon and other elements, it may be preferable to maximize the useful lifetime of complex (molecular) substances. For example, food waste is rich in interesting and useful complex molecules that can be used for other applications. 3. Water is the greenest solvent. Water has many attractions as a solvent, but it is not a good one for many organic compounds. It can affect the reactivity of many reagents and catalysts, and it can be difficult to work with. Its ability to dissolve small amounts of most substances, means that water effluent can be difficult to treat. We do need to make more use of water as a solvent, but using water does not automatically make the process green! 4. Fossil-derived (non-renewable) chemicals should be replaced by bioderived (renewable) chemicals. Petroleum-derived chemicals are not sustainable in the long term and we must accelerate their replacement with nonfood biomass-derived chemicals. However, we must not let this be an excuse for developing impractical alternatives based on scarce resources or complex, wasteful synthesis routes. Bio-derived chemicals are not automatically green. They must be

don't make matters worse through hasty and ill-conceived substitution. What is clear is that we must invest more in R&D that is directed to finding genuinely greener alternatives to these unwanted chemicals.

processed using green chemical methods to make genuinely green and sustainable products. 5. Conventional sources of energy must be replaced by renewable sources. The most wasteful use of our dimin-

6 | May 2012

ishing fossil resources is single use burning to make energy. A more intelligent use of these increasingly precious resources is to make chemicals (see 4 above). However, we must be more holistic in our selection of alternative energy sources. Some of these are based on the large scale use of elements that have not previously been used in large quantities. We must look at the whole periodic table when making major changes to our energy and manufacturing infrastructure. 6. Involatile solvents are better than volatile ones. Legitimate concerns about the damage to the atmosphere caused by volatile solvents have led to a general belief that all volatile organic compounds (VOCs) should be replaced and that involatile solvents are preferable. Apart from the difficulty of finding enough involatile solvents to replace the very many roles VOCs have in today’s society, we are also in danger of replacing one environmental impact with another. Involatile solvents such as ionic liquids are a useful addition to the green chemistry toolkit but due consideration must be given to all of their ‘green credentials’ including resources, preparation, separation and toxicity, as well, of course, as cost. 7. Catalysts are better than reagents. The replacement of widely used hazardous reagents such as aluminum chloride and sodium chromate with catalytic alternatives rightly remains one of the great challenges in clean synthesis, but we must be careful about the choice of catalyst and catalytic process. Many of the most interesting catalytic metals are also becoming scarce and the process for making some catalysts can in itself have high resource demands and produce large amounts of waste. Efficient catalyst recovery and reuse is also essential. 8. Halogenated compounds are harmful to the environment and should be replaced. While there are some large volume halogenated compounds that need to be phased out, we must not bundle all halogenated compounds in the same ‘red’ continued overleaf...

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Guest Comment basket. Nature turns over enormous quantities of organohalogen compounds and we need to learn from it and avoid, as much as possible, compounds that it cannot deal with, such as perhalogenated compounds. 9. Bio-processes are preferable to chemoprocesses. Nature has developed some supremely elegant processes, which function in a benign environment using non-toxic species to give highly selective processes. However, we have chosen to create a society based on the engineering of resources that goes beyond natural systems. It is unreasonable to believe that we can perform all resource-to-product processes using natural organisms. We can expect an increase in the number of industrial bioprocesses, but chemical processes can be expected to continue to dominate for some time to come. 10. Alternatives need to be assessed by full life cycle analysis (LCA) before they are validated. The appreciation that, if we cannot measure it, we cannot improve it has been one of the most important developments

in green chemistry in the past 10+ years. Green chemistry metrics are now very much part of the toolkit. Part of this is the awareness that you cannot change one stage in a product life cycle without affecting other stages and hence life cycle awareness is important. But this needs to always extend to a full LCA, which is time-consuming and dependent on the quality of input data. 11. Waste minimization should be a priority for any process optimization. Clearly we do not want to produce something that needs to be disposed of, since this is a loss of resource and causes harm to the environment. However, processes that only produce the one desired product are unrealistic. We need to fundamentally change our attitude and see what we currently refer to as waste as co-products with value either within that process or elsewhere. We can no longer afford the luxury of waste. 12. Hazardous or non-renewable chemicals in formulations should be replaced. Almost all chemicals are ultimately used in formulations and we need to rec-

ognize this more in green chemistry. An additional complication of formulations is that changing any one component is likely to lead to a change in more than one property. While undesirable components need to be replaced, we must be careful that a direct X for Y substitution for example to make a product more “natural” or “bio” - may lead to a deterioration in performance and the need to add other components to compensate for this. We must treat formulations as a whole and find ways to simplify them, not make them more complicated. Professor Clark holds the Chair of Industrial & Applied Chemistry, and heads the Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence at the University of York, York, UK. This article is reprinted with the permission of the Green Chemistry Network. www.greenchemistrynetwork.org

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Biosolids Management

Managing biosolids in a sustainable manner has economic and environmental benefits By Scott MacIntosh

Annually, about three trillion litres of effluent are discharged from wastewater treatment facilities in Canada.


t is estimated that 3 trillion litres of effluent are discharged from wastewater treatment facilities in Canada each year, resulting in the production of over 500,000m3 of dry biosolids. Managing sludge and biosolids is a problem, as they are odorous, contain pathogens, require storage and can account for 50% of the facilities’ operating costs. With such large volumes to handle, and populations increasing, new technologies and regulations are being explored to process this waste efficiently and sustainably. Historically, sludge produced by a treatment facility was viewed as waste, and was usually disposed of at landfills, or incinerated. There are some benefits to these applications: applying material in landfills may help to create a bio-layer that reduces emissions and greenhouse gases, and heat exchangers can be used to harness some energy from the incineration process. However, neither method comes close to realizing the full benefits that biosolids have to offer. In today’s economy, and the current climate of environmental awareness, the 10 | May 2012

benefits of sustainability are stressed. This mindset has been adopted in government policy. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) has analyzed the benefits and drawbacks of biosolids’ use, as well as working on harmonizing environmental policy across Canada. To gain insight into how biosolids were being utilized, CCME studied emissions, current legislation, biosolids quality and toxicity, and emerging substances of concern (ESOCs). It has concluded that biosolids are an effective source of nutrients, organic matter and energy potential, but health and air quality impacts must be considered. Land application of biosolids The most common method of biosolids utilization is land application, which takes advantage of the nutrient content. It is estimated that approximately 50% of all biosolids produced in Canada are applied to land. In land application, sludge must first be converted to biosolids through a stabilization process. The goal of stabilization is to reduce the biodegradable content of

sludge, remove pathogens via temperature and pH control, and eliminate odours. There are various ways to do this, with the most common being aerobic and anaerobic digestion, or chemical stabilization. Once the preferred sludge stabilization process has been implemented at a facility, the sludge generator is responsible for sample analysis for nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (N-P-K) content, trace elements and pathogens in the material. The previous practice by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) was to issue a certificate of approval regulating land application. However, the system has recently begun changing to non-agricultural source material (NASM) permits, which are issued by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA). The NASM permit is the responsibility of the landowner, and is typically completed with the aid of a certified NASM broker. It allows regulated concentrations of 11 elements of concern, methodology and amount and timing of application, separation distances from

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Biosolids Management source water or environmentally sensitive areas, and soil types and topography. Currently, both the MOE and OMAFRA share some jurisdiction over the land application process. New NASM permits have changed land application rates, from the previous maximum application of 5 cubic tons/ha/5 years, to a new maximum of 22 cubic tons/ha/5 years. The new number is arrived at by studying the surrounding geography, pertinent hydrology, and the agronomy (i.e., which crop has been planted and how frequently it is harvested). This process allows the permit applicant to devise a strategy that matches application rates with consumption rates, to achieve a nutrient balance over time. By increasing subjectivity in application evaluation, higher volumes of biosolids should be eligible for land application in the future. Although land application is the most common method of utilizing nutrients available in biosolids, there are several technologies that use biosolids for fertilizer production. N-Viro Systems, for example, is a company that takes undigested organic sludge from both municipal and industrial facilities, and processes it to make it suitable for land application. The Pearl Nutrient Recovery Process, developed in British Columbia, can extract phosphorus from concentrated nutrient streams, such as sludge dewatering streams, and turn it into an eco-friendly, pelletized fertilizer. Some municipalities also add biosolids to compost piles, though this process is prohibited by legislation in Ontario. Energy potential Apart from the nutrient content, the most important sustainable feature of biosolids is the energy potential available in the production process. Un-stabilized solids contain organic matter that, when biodegraded under controlled anaerobic conditions, produces bioenergy in the form of methane. Though this requires harnessing and cleaning before use, on a large scale it can offset significant energy costs at municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Due to the extreme high demand and price for gasoline in Europe, there is a focused thrust for alternatives. In some areas of Europe, biogas produced from waste is actually converted into fuel for www.esemag.com

vehicles. Although North America has not taken biogas production to this level, we are starting to see its use expand. The City of Hamilton, Ontario, recently started a gas collection program that actually feeds the natural gas grid. Enbridge has also been in talks with the Ontario government about opening several co-generation facilities, whereby biosolids and other organic materials such as fats, oils and greases are mixed and digested, and the gases captured and cleaned. Enbridge would like a premium

offered for biogas, similar to the premiums offered for solar and wind energy, for supplementing the grid with sustainable energy. If there continues to be a focus on processing biosolids, which were historically considered waste, an effective and sustainable solution could help to alleviate some large, looming social issues. Scott MacIntosh, P.Eng., is with R.V. Anderson Associates. E-mail: smacintosh@rvanderson.com

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Biosolids Management

Biosolids dryer facility turns dewatered sludge into fertilizer pellets


he demands of increased sludge production and rising disposal costs prompted the need for an expansion at a wastewater treatment facility in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The facility was using conveyors to move dewatered sludge from their centrifuge to a storage building. From here it was loaded onto trucks and transported to privately owned sites. The solution was an Andritz biosolids dryer system, which would turn the dewatered sludge into a marketable Class A, EQ (Exceptional Quality) fertilizer pellet. Now, conveyors are depositing the sludge into a custom extended hopper seepex BTI 70-24 progressive cavity pump with paddle mixers to prevent bridging on top of the feed auger. This pump can handle up to 640 gpm of dewatered biosolids with up to 35% dry solids contents. A ribbon-screw auger moves the cake into the compression zone at a rate that is three times greater than the physical capacity of the pumping elements. The high shear of the ribbon-auger and circulation of the thixotropic sludge reduces apparent viscosity, so it is easier and more efficient to pump. The pressure side of the pump is fitted with a chemical injection ring, which meters polymer into the annulus of the sludge


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pipe, using a MD 012-24 seepex metering pump. Polymer injection reduces friction loss from the cake and the resulting discharge pressures by up to 80%. The discharge pipe is fitted with a pressure switch that activates the polymer injection pump when pressure reaches unsafe levels. The BTI pumps sludge through 120 feet of 12-in pipe to the dryer building. When sludge arrives in the building it is deposited in a 24hour storage bin. A second seepex BTE 70-24 sits below the storage bin. Here the dewatered sludge is pumped to a mixer and blended with pellets. The auger forces the material into the compression zone where it is moved into the piping by the cavities formed between the rotor and stator. The mixture is then run through the Andritz dryer system. The resulting product is fertilizer pellets. By using progressive cavity pumps instead of conveyors, sludge has been contained and roughly $1,500 in capital costs has been saved per foot of conveyor. For more information, E-mail: dlakovic@seepex.net

12 | May 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply

Management of transmission mains leakage requires technical and economic analysis By Kevin Laven and Allan Lambert

14 | May 2012

Figure 1: Measured frequency of unreported bursts compared to approximate pipe age.

Figure 2: Distribution of number of bursts (leaks) among the five flow rate classifications.


or decades, it has been common knowledge among water professionals that surveying transmission mains for unreported bursts/leaks using conventional technology will not turn up many. But there is no consensus on the question of why not. The simplest explanation has always been that if we aren’t finding them, they must simply not be there. Bursts that do form on transmission mains tend to be extremely large, often between 5 and 10 m3/hour. So, it might be assumed that bursts of this size will nearly always surface immediately. Another explanation has persisted, that unreported bursts do exist on large-diameter transmission mains, but are not detectable with previously available technology. Suspicion that transmission mains do sustain significant unreported leakage has remained strong enough to spur the growth of a niche market for leak detection technologies. Over the past decade, several such technologies have been developed, and have now been used extensively. Methods, costs and benefits of addressing transmission main leakage are different enough from distribution networks to warrant separate consideration. The cost of detection, location and repair of unreported bursts on transmission mains is significantly greater than on distribution mains, which often leads utilities to simply exclude them from leak detection programs. Transmission mains leakage survey methods Transmission mains present difficulties for a conventional acoustic correlation approach to leak detection. Sound waves attenuate more quickly as diameters increase, meaning that the larger the pipe, the closer together the access points need to be for these methods to be effective. Conversely, transmission mains tend to have far fewer service connections, valves or hydrants available for use as connection points. A connection point every 1,000 m is quite typical on transmission mains, as compared to perhaps every 50 m on distribution mains. To

Figure 3: The contribution to the total leakage rate of each of the five flow rate classifications. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply make acoustic leak detection work in these environments, either the space between listening points must be reduced to mere metres, or the maximum effective separation of listening points must be increased to kilometres. Over the past decade, both resolutions to this problem have been brought to market. The first approach is to bring the acoustic sensor to the source of the sound, by running tethered or free-swimming acoustic sensors through the pipeline. This offers unmatched sensitivity to small bursts, but is quite labour- and cost-intensive (typically around $25,000 per km). The second is to develop better sensors, algorithms and methods to allow those sounds that do remain after long distances to be detected and isolated. This has resulted in the development of transmission main correlators. These devices offer a less expensive approach to transmission main leak detection (around $10,000 per km), but at the cost of limited sensitivity. When the goal is to maximize the volume of real losses detected on a set budget, transmission main correlators


often present the more favourable option. If the intent is to detect every possible burst, then inline methods are more effective. Network configuration should also be a consideration in the selection of technologies. Very long point-to-point transmission mains, with no connections to services, can in fact be more efficient to survey using free-swimming inline methods. Conversely, complex interconnected networks can present operational challenges and risks that make inline methods completely impractical. Frequency of unreported bursts on transmission mains The results of over 3,000 km of international inline survey data, made available by Pure Technologies Inc. and WRc plc, have been used in this analysis. Inline surveys avoid the acoustic attenuation problem completely, so this data should provide a sound picture of the frequency of detectable unreported bursts. The picture it paints is not a pretty one. These surveys revealed a range of 22 to 166 unreported bursts per 100 km, with an average of 92 per 100 km.

Interestingly, irrespective of differences in pipe material and geographic location, older groups of pipe seemed to have higher rates of unreported bursts. A plot of the average age for the various pipe groupings versus the unreported burst prevalence, confirms that this is a relatively consistent trend. It is possible that unreported bursts in the mains surveyed are in fact forming at a relatively consistent pace of around 1.6 bursts per 100 km per year, and accumulating as a backlog over the decades. Influence of pipe materials, diameter and geographic region Breaking down the data by various factors (where available) showed some interesting differences. The incidence of unreported bursts located varied by region, ranging from 22 per 100 km in the Middle East up to 128 per 100 km in Europe. Steel and concrete mains had fewer than 50 per 100 km surveyed, and cast iron 166 per 100 km surveyed. A trend was visible on diameters, with smaller pipes generally showing higher incidence of unreported bursts, but with continued overleaf...

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Water Supply

Small watermain leak.

the trend reversing below 600 mm. The lower unreported burst incidence for diameters below 600 mm may be an indication that conventional technologies have been detecting them more effectively, leaving fewer remaining for the inline surveys to find. Using this data for improved management Analysis of unreported transmission mains burst frequency (1.6 per 100 km per year) and average flow rate (7.7 m3/hr) allows an average rate of rise of real losses due to unreported bursts on the

transmission mains covered by these data to be assessed as 0.016 x 7.7 = 0.12 m3 per hour per km of mains, per year of pipe age (or per year since previous intervention). For example, 80-year-old transmission mains that have never been checked could accumulate around 10 m3 per km per hour of leakage from unreported bursts. Along with the value of water, the rate of rise is a critical factor required to calculate the economic intervention frequency for transmission mains. The economic intervention frequency is the

frequency with which a distribution system or transmission system should be proactively surveyed to minimize total combined costs of both the lost water and the cost of the surveys. The upshot of all this data is quite straightforward. Transmission mains do indeed accumulate unreported bursts at rates similar to distribution mains. Interventions on transmission mains are rather more expensive than on distribution networks, and should be undertaken perhaps every five to 10 years. However, most transmission main networks have never been properly surveyed, and have likely accumulated a massive backlog of unreported bursts. The study has also highlighted the importance of recording the age of mains (or date since mains were last checked) and operating pressure, for inclusion in the analysis of results. Kevin Laven is with Echologics Engineering. Allan Lambert is with Water Loss Research & Analysis Ltd. E-mail: ashorter@muellerwp.com

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Eco Canada recognizes progressive environmental industry employers By Juile Checknita


he Environmental Employers of the Year Awards, presented by Environmental Careers Organization (ECO) Canada, recognize employers within Canada’s environmental industry for their commitment and dedication to engaging employees, and providing a great place to work. Winning organizations are chosen based on the feedback of employees through ECO Canada’s engagement survey and through Human Resources essays showcasing some of the organizations’ most innovative HR strategies. The Awards were presented in Vancouver on March 13, 2012. Whether you are an employer looking to improve employee engagement, a mid career professional exploring other options, or a recent graduate seeking employment in the environment sector, understanding what good employee engagement looks like is important. In no particular order, here are the top five Environmental Employers of 2012. LEPS – Langley Environmental Partners Society LEPS is an environmental organization in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Although, as a nonprofit, it cannot offer health benefits and regularly increasing wage levels, LEPS balances this by being accommodating and flexible with staff hours and offering telecommuting options, allowing a healthy work-life balance for employees. LEPS also provides “Flex Fridays”, where the office is closed every second Friday. This flexibility improves production by having happy, fulfilled and self-motivated staff. EDI Environmental Dynamics Inc. EDI are environmental and natural resources consultants in Western Canada. EDI maintain a commitment to “people first”, and have continued to grow in a measured, sustainable way. In 2011, they diversified their service and client base with the purchase of Streamline Environmental Consulting. It has been a relatively seamless transition. Success did not happen by chance, but was a series of important and planned steps: it was imperative managers clearly communicated to new employees EDI’s 18 | May 2012

Cindy Coutts of Sims Recycling Solutions (left), accepts the award from Grant Trump of ECO Canada.

commitment to the growth of the company and all staff. Immediate steps were taken to start integrating existing and new staff into projects. The single most important attribute of the Streamline acquisition was that of retention. Transfert Environnement At Transfert, staff members are strongly encouraged to initiate social activities. These are varied and occur throughout the year. The participation rate of employees is almost 100%. The following are some of the events held in the past: Défi à l’entreprise (Corporate challenge) Transfert was the 2011 winner among 50 participants; Earth Day Canada’s upcycling challenge (Transfert was the 2011 winner ); Montreal marathon; Snow pentathlon; Sledding day at Mont Tourbillon; Curling; A day in the country; Sugar camp and field trips such as snowshoeing. Sims Recycling Solutions Sims provide electrical and electronics recovery and recycling, worldwide. They want to create an environment where individuals are encouraged to reach their potential. One of the ways this is accomplished, is by paying for continuing education through their Education Assistance Program (up to $2000/year) and by providing continuous training for all employees to help them develop and grow. They

take this one step further, by investing in the development and growth of their employees’ children, by awarding a $1500.00 university scholarship program through their parent company. Inside Education Inside Education is a charitable educational society in Alberta, that offers its employees unparalleled professional development opportunities. Employees' perspectives are broadened by the wide variety of experiences they provide them on the job: visiting a wind turbine operation; flying over the oil sands; or hearing presentations from experts in government, industry, aboriginal and environmental groups. In a more structured learning environment, they might be attending a management seminar, technology workshop, conference, or scientific lecture. Last year Inside Education developed an innovative benefit called the Learning & Wellness Allowance, which provides a designated annual amount for each employee to pursue learning opportunities on their own initiative. Juile Checknita is with ECO Canada. For more information, visit www.eco.ca/awards

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May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:34 PM Page 20

Project Management

Reducing spreadsheet risk during municipal design work By Patrick Coleman


list of publicly reported spreadsheet errors is maintained by the European Spreadsheet Risks Interest Group (EUSPRIG, www.eusprig.org). These errors have been discovered in virtually every situation where spreadsheets are used, including municipal government operations, and their impact can be severe. For example, the Nevada City budget spreadsheet apparently worked correctly until late December 2005, when it developed a problem, causing the 2006 budget to show a $5-million deficit in the water and sewer fund. It took the City Finance Director almost a day to fix the problem, and, while he was working on it, he found other errors in the spreadsheet that needed to be corrected. As the preferred platform for engineering calculations, spreadsheets are a powerful programming tool that is primarily used by non-programmers who do not generally scrutinize their work as thoroughly as a computer programmer would. Further, few engineers are explicitly required to have spreadsheet skills, and very few engage in spreadsheet development as their main task. Another concern is the lack of guidance on spreadsheet “best practices”. If the user 20 | May 2012

constructs and documents a spreadsheet in a logical manner so it can be checked, then the application of simple rules about what should, or should not, be done will improve the quality of the work produced. Research shows that best practices can dramatically improve results, including increasing individual performance by a factor of 10, and team performance by three to five times. Quality management systems distinguish between design calculations and technical software. While both involve inputs, calculations and results, the difference is in the transparency of the calculation. Before the advent of computerized spreadsheets, design calculations were done with a calculator and written down on paper. Technical software, on the other hand, was a compiled computer program (e.g., a process simulator); the user would input data and the program printed out a result. The user could not change program code, so once a program was verified, its use was authorized until a new version was released. The advent of modifiable technical software (e.g., spreadsheets) blurred the distinction between a design calculation and a piece of technical software. If a spreadsheet is used to produce the

equivalent of a paper-and-pen calculation (a design calculation), then it should be possible to print the spreadsheet and check the printed copy as if it were a hand-generated calculation. Once a spreadsheet contains hidden cells or macros, is linked to another file, acts as an interface to another program, or becomes a standardized engineering calculation, it ceases to be a design calculation, because the calculation is no longer transparent. These spreadsheets require a second level of checking (verification) over and above that required for a design calculation. Types of errors Spreadsheet errors have been classified into two categories: culpable violations and blameless errors. A culpable violation occurs when the user violates company policies (e.g., quality assurance) or worse (e.g., fraud). Such errors are not discussed here. A blameless error is an unintended mistake that may be either quantitative or qualitative (see Table 1). The difference between a spreadsheet with a qualitative error and one with a quantitative error is that a sheet with a qualitative error may give the correct result. A common qualitative error is when a parameter (e.g., flocculation well diamecontinued overleaf...

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May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:34 PM Page 22

Project Management ter) is calculated in one place, but is hardcoded into another formula. The error only manifests itself when the sheet calculates a new retention time, changing the flocculation well diameter. Quantitative errors are incorrect formulas, or data cells, that cause the sheet to give the wrong answer. These may be planning or execution errors. A planning (logic) error is caused by an error in spreadsheet layout or logic, while an execution (mechanical) error is caused by a slip or a lapse when the sheet is being created. Errors most commonly made by qualified professionals are quantitative, unintentional errors, such as: • Pointers that indicate the wrong cell. • Changes that are made to some, but not all, of a series of copied cells. • Incomplete ranges. • Temporary fixes (formula changed to value). • Confusion between relative and absolute references. • Incorrect units. • Function arguments in the wrong order. The best practice is to document, test/check and control spreadsheets. A

number of references discuss these three protocols, and much of that research can be found at www.eusprig.org. The principles that follow were extracted from these and other publications. Principles for spreadsheet design 1. Design your spreadsheet so it can be checked. Authors must ensure that the spreadsheet can be easily checked. A poorly designed spreadsheet can take 10 times as long to check as a properly designed one. This has a direct impact on project costs. 2. Use version and document control. Version control tracks who prepared/modified the document, who checked it, who authorized its release to the design team, why it was released, and the dates of these actions. Version control also establishes which version of the spreadsheet is current. Most users have some idea of how to use a spreadsheet, and spreadsheet software is installed on most computers. Hence, the risk that a file could be modified, moved or renamed is much higher than with a computer-aided drafting file. Many quality assurance systems require that calculations be printed out,

signed and initialed. In this case, the paper, not the electronic copy, is the record document. Nevertheless, the electronic version must be preserved, because the next version will build on it. It must be clear to the design team which version (printed, or electronic) is approved for design. 3. Document the spreadsheet. The spreadsheet should document the objective of the calculations, why the calculations are being done, their scope, what codes and conditions apply, and what might change applicability of the calculations (e.g., further data from the client). 4. Identify assumptions that have a critical impact on the design and may change. There are two types of pertinent assumptions. The first is accepted engineering criteria or judgment (e.g., density of water). New information is unlikely to change these assumptions. Backup for these assumptions should be included with the calculations. The second type has a critical impact on the design and may change (e.g., weight of a standby diesel engine). 5. Be able to check the printed copy of the spreadsheet using a calculator. If a

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:34 PM Page 23

Project Management Type Quantitative





Pointing to the wrong cell or mistyping a number

Easiest to detect


Wrong formula because of an error in reasoning Something is left out

Harder to detect

An error that only manifests itself when an input changes

Very difficult to detect


Difficult to detect

Table 1: Classification of blameless errors.

spreadsheet is a design calculation, then it should be possible to check it using a calculator when it is printed off. If this is not feasible, then either the spreadsheet is laid out incorrectly, or it should be viewed as technical software (and checked as such). 6. Spreadsheets must be standalone. A spreadsheet should be designed to stand by itself. If it requires outside references, then a copy of the references should either be pasted into the sheet (e.g., a table from a textbook), or stored with the calculations. 7. Minimize links to other spreadsheets. The Allied Irish Bank fraud cost the bank over US$700 million. The fraudster simply replaced the source spreadsheet that fed the bank spreadsheet with one of his own making. This highlights some of the issues that can arise when one spreadsheet reads in data from another. If there is an error in the source sheet, it will propagate throughout those that it feeds into. If there is a circular ref-


erence, Excel will not detect it across sheets. If a link is lost because a sheet is moved, the primary sheet will not update properly. 8. All numbers and sheets should be visible. Quality assurance rests on the premise of transparency; nothing is hidden from the reviewer or user. Hiding cells or sheets will increase the risk of errors. This is what occurred when Barclays Capital purchased assets from Lehman Brothers in 2008. A clerk resized rows to make the spreadsheet easier to read before he printed it to a PDF file, not realizing that it contained hidden rows and columns. When he resized the rows, these became visible and were printed to the PDF file. This added 179 contracts that were not supposed to be included in the sale. 9. Enter numbers only once (and group them together). Data and cells should be grouped together in a logical manner, so data is entered once and data/formulas are grouped by function. 10. Identify/protect cells containing

input or formulas. Cells typically contain text, formulas, links and data. Data may include constants, arguments for functions, and input. At a minimum, the sheet should clearly mark where data is input into a cell by a user. Formulas are normally identified by placing an explanation next to the pertinent cells. 11. Include units and unit conversions. Unit conversion is a common source of errors, which is why they should never be embedded in a formula. Data in Excel is unit-less. The user must track the units and provide unit conversions. This is particularly important when moving between metric and U.S. customary units. Unit conversion should be identified as an input, so it will be checked as part of the quality assurance process. 12. Beware of functions whose behaviour depends on one of its arguments. Many functions in Excel have arguments that change their behaviour. If the argument is not specified, the function will continued overleaf...

May 2012 | 23

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:35 PM Page 24

Project Management default to a preset behaviour. For example, YEARFRAC calculates the fraction of the year represented by the number of whole days between two dates. The function has three arguments: start date, end date and basis. The default value for the basis argument is 360 days per year. Good practice is for the user always to specify the argument, and have it appear as an input in the spreadsheet. 13. The use of rounding functions should be explicit. Excel includes a number of rounding functions (e.g., ROUND, FLOOR, and CEILING). When they are used, the raw value should be displayed adjacent to the rounded value. There is a danger that the rounding may not be appropriate for all inputs. 14. Understand the different effects cut-and-paste operations have on absolute and relative references. Absolute and relative cell references behave differently during a cut-and-paste operation. It is not uncommon to introduce external links accidentally to a spreadsheet, when copying cells containing absolute references into another workbook. 15. Trap errors. There are several different techniques for trapping errors. For example: • Use the built-in Excel error checking. • Expected range: check a result to see if it is in an expected range. • Cross-foot: sum rows and columns and check if they are equal. • Balance: a mass balance should balance (e.g., COD in – COD out = Methane produced expressed as COD).

• Percentages and normalized ratios should add up to 100% or 1. • Room for expansion: start and end sums at blank cells (to allow for room for expansion). 16. Identify iterations. Identify areas and provide the logic whenever Goal Seek or Solver has been used to obtain a value. Do not create hidden iteration loops. 17. Avoid merged cells. Avoid using merged cells for calculations. (Try Center Across Selection first.) Merging cells impedes the user’s ability to cut, paste and sort data. Training and tools The primary challenge of training is that most individuals feel they do not need it. Therefore, training should focus on the safe use of spreadsheets in an engineering environment—similar to the Q-Validus SpreadsheetSafe course (www.spreadsheetsafe.com/) or O’Beirne’s Spreadsheet Check and Control textbook. Auditing tools expand on the features in Excel to analyze and audit spreadsheets. Many are designed primarily for tracking and checking financial spreadsheets. A listing of these can be found at www.eusprig.org. There are a few tools that can be used to check engineering design calculations. One is Spreadsheet Detective, published by Southern Cross Software (www.SpreadsheetDetective.com). It reduces the time it takes to check a spreadsheet because it shades cells to identify the types of cells, lists all formulas, cre-


ates a dependency tree for a single cell, and identifies external links. Another tool is Formula Viewer by Lyquidity Solutions (www.lyquidity.com), which allows a user to inspect a formula and its references in a side pane. To summarize, there are eight concepts that are critical to spreadsheet engineering: 1. Follow best practices for spreadsheet design and version control. They improve performance and reduce risk. 2. Know how a spreadsheet will be used by others (e.g., will they use it directly or just use the results?). 3. Know the spreadsheet’s function (e.g., will it be given to a client or appended to a report?). 4. Predict future uses and adjust design accordingly (e.g., can the spreadsheet be reused on another project?). 5. Follow good software design practices when building the spreadsheet (e.g., grouping inputs into one part of the sheet). 6. Account for situation-dependent best practice requirements (i.e., knowing when you can break the rules). 7. Design your spreadsheet knowing that someone else may modify or check it. 8. Do it right the first time. Patrick Coleman, PhD, P.Eng., is with AECOM Water. E-mail: pat.f.coleman@aecom.com

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Wastewater Treatment

Maximizing the return on investment of sludge transfer pumps By Jim Becker


o say that the wastewater treatment process is unforgiving and abrasive on pumping equipment would be an understatement, so selecting the correct pump for specific applications is essential. One application where extra caution is needed is sludge transfer. Due to the inherent difficulty of pumping sludge, gravity is used to transfer sludge whenever possible. However, when this is not viable, heavy-duty pumping equipment is required. Since sludge is a viscous, thick material that often contains large amounts of grit and grease, if a pump has not been specifically designed for sludge transfer applications, the end-user often experiences a variety of problems. Although the wastewater treatment process is designed to remove any large solids before primary and secondary treatment occurs, removal of these objects is not a flawless process. Often, primary sludge and return or waste activated sludge will still contain large, stringy solids, which frequently clog pumping equipment. This happens when solids come in contact with the pump’s impellers, especially if the pump’s discharge port is too small to pass these objects. Also, even pumps designed to pass large

Blackmer System One centrifugal pumps in a wastewater application.

solids can experience clogs when stringy material get woven into a mass that gets caught in the pump. Pumps represent a large part of a wastewater treatment facility’s total investment in equipment and account for a large amount of the energy consumed. Because of this, a pump that is able to continually perform at its Best Efficiency Point (BEP) while pumping sludge is the ideal option.

The solution The preferred pump for demanding wastewater applications is the centrifugal vortex pump. This pump has been designed with a semi-open impeller recessed into the volute section of the pump, which allows for clear passage of solids through the ports. Unlike typical centrifugal pumps, the impeller of a vortex pump is recessed into the back of the pump’s casing. It creates


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Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater facilities utilize a variety of specialized pumping equipment.

a liquid vortex in the open casing, which directs solids, slurry, sludge, grit, and stringy or fibrous material through the pump. In addition to allowing for the clear passage of solids, because only 15 to 20 percent of solids come into contact with the pump’s impeller, corrosion is greatly reduced. The design also allows for the handling of entrained air. Because of their concentric casing design, recessed impeller pumps offer more reliable operation at low flows, and can even be shut

off for extended periods of time. Because pumping equipment can represent a large part of the facility’s investment in equipment, it is also important to keep in mind the total cost of ownership when selecting a pump. Not only can centrifugal vortex pumps help reduce maintenance costs, but they can typically be much less expensive to purchase. Blackmer has designed its System One® vortex pumps to maximize reliability during wastewater applications. This includes the transfer of sludge and

slurries with large particle solids, materials with entrained air, and stringy or fibrous materials. Designed around the seal, where 90 percent of pump failures occur, the System One pump helps to improve mean time between failures, resulting in reduced maintenance costs. Jim Becker is with Pump Solutions Group.E-mail: jim.becker@psgdover.com

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Indoor Air Quality

LEED 2009 and indoor air quality monitoring plans By Aisling Dennett


or indoor air quality (IAQ), and more specifically, EQ Credit 3.2: Construction IAQ Management Plan: Testing Before Occupancy, the era of LEED® Canada-NC 2009 means a few important changes that can benefit the buildings they apply to and the tenants who will occupy them. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) sets the framework for better choices when it comes to interior finishes and construction materials. One credit that provides tangible benefits from these choices for building owners and occupants is EQ Credit 3.2. Not long ago building flush outs were often the preferred approach to Credit 3.2 as IAQ testing was considered a gamble. It was an expensive choice and results took days, if not weeks, which would often rule out the possibility of re-testing locations and/or parameters that failed. Also, building flush outs are time-consuming, requiring a dedicated two-week window between the completion of construction activities and occupancy; this can be difficult and costly. As designers move towards separating ventilation from heating and cooling as a proven energyefficiency strategy, many systems are not capable of exhausting the required air volume in a reasonable amount of time. With the 2009 guideline, IAQ testing becomes even more attractive, as the number of locations requiring testing is relative to the number of ventilation sys-

With the new guidelines, the number of locations requiring testing is relative to the number of ventilation systems.

LEED environment for product selection, this may not be a significant change. Since IAQ starts at the product selection stage, it is beneficial for LEED professionals interested in pursuing this credit to have an idea of what materials should be a concern when considering IAQ testing. In addition, knowledge of strategies to mitigate a problem, prior to testing or re-testing, is advantageous. When buildings incorporate carpet with Styrene Butadiene rubber (SBR) backing, an additional test for 4-Phenylcyclohexene (4-PC) is required. Due to the

Not long ago building flush outs were often the preferred approach to Credit 3.2 as IAQ testing was considered a gamble. tems, as opposed to square footage alone. For the actual contaminant maximums specified by LEED, there are no significant changes. Formaldehyde maximum concentrations are decreased from 50 parts per billion (ppb) to 27 ppb. Although this is almost half, based on the sources of this contaminant and the 30 | May 2012

nature of the sampling and analysis of this compound, re-testing may not be an option prior to occupancy. So this is a factor to consider when selecting carpet. If it is the only option, due to cost and/or design choice, flushing air from the room prior to testing is the best preventative measure. Ultimately, the best strategy for suc-

cess is to keep your IAQ testing consultant involved in the process from start to finish. They can guide you through the process and provide recommendations for scheduling and preparation that are specific to your building, based on the size, function, and any site specific issues that need to be addressed. This process can then continue, even after success is achieved. Considering the investment spent designing a building to create ideal IAQ, a system for maintaining this should be integrated into the building’s operation. And therein lies the challenge. What will happen when occupants move in photocopiers, repaint, add furniture from a discount supplier or seal the concrete floors in the mechanical room? Activities such as these have the potential to impact the indoor air quality and cause occupant discomfort. An annual monitoring program can ensure the IAQ at occupancy is not a one-time achievement, but a commitment to work towards the goals that are the foundation of LEED. Aisling Dennett is with MTE Consultants. E-mail: Adennett@MTE85.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:35 PM Page 31



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Water Quality

DO system helps restore lakes, ponds, and lagoons By Astha Vashisht


uitable levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) are important for the health of fish, molluscs, aquatic plants, and aerobic microbial populations; they are also critical to restoring, or maintaining, healthy water systems. When oxygen supply is limited in water, microbes may completely deplete it, if they are faced with an overabundance of nutrients and organic matter to digest. With low DO levels, aerobic microbes essentially become dormant and anaerobes prevail. Most ponds and wastewater lagoons experience cycles of anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Aerobic and facultative microbes proliferate with a greater efficiency under aerobic conditions and efficiently perform the “housekeeping” functions of degrading organic sludge and clarifying the water. However, when these microbes use up the DO, the water becomes anoxic and bacteria are forced to enter an anaerobic phase. During the anaerobic phase, oxygen gets scavenged from the sulphates, nitrates and phosphates, reducing them to malodorous hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Phosphorus is freed into the water column, making it available to feed algae blooms and consequently contributing to eutrophication. Anaerobic zones also carry harmful polluting bacteria, including methanogens and sulfur-reducing bacteria that produce greenhouse gases. The rate of pollution at times overwhelms the natural processes that ponds, lakes and lagoons use to increase DO. When this occurs, water bodies often remain

Anaerobic water condition. 32 | May 2012

trapped in the anaerobic phase of the cycle. In some cases, the water has been poisoned with chemical algaecides or industrial pollution, so severely that there are few or no beneficial indigenous microbes remaining. Once loaded with nutrients and organic matter, a pollutant sludge layer is formed at the bottom of the water body which is also where the microbial population resides. Therefore, the solution lies at the bottom of the water body. Sustainable solutions The EOS-2000 System restores water bodies by increasing dissolved oxygen levels throughout and clarifying the water. This is accomplished without mechanical aeration or chemical treatment. It has been proven to reduce unhealthy odours and turbidity, and reduce/eliminate undesirable algae (including cyanobacteria), milfoil and elodea. Natural aerobic processes are enhanced by the system to rejuvenate the water. Under aerobic conditions, microbes bring the water’s ecosystem into balance, eliminating excessive organic debris. This technology operates on the principle that the bottom layer controls the water quality. By increasing DO throughout the water body, aerobic microbes are stimulated to convert colloidal and dissolved carbonaceous organic matter into various gases, like CO2, N2, cell tissue, and precipitant complexes of sulfur, sulfates, and phosphates in the water. These nutrient complexes are locked in the bottom aerobic sediments, thereby

helping to maintain a balanced and healthy ecosystem. Specialized coherent low energy waves generated by the system facilitate and enhance ionization of water and formation of hydronium and hydroxyl ions. As the energy and concentration of these energy waves (of specific frequencies) increases, a coherency factor is imparted to the water, arranging the ions in orderly units. Furthermore, this specific energy breaks the hydroxyl bond and facilitates the formation of the superoxide anion (O2-). DO being generated in this ionic form is more efficient (readily reactive and easily assimilated by the organisms), than gaseous oxygen. This reactive form of oxygen stays in the water until it is consumed and it has also been proven safe for fish. Some pH and hydrogen shifting may take place, but is non-measurable. Additionally, this technology amplifies a natural process of dissolution of oxygen into water. With the overall increase in the energy, molecular hyperbolic centripetal rotations (vortexing action) take place, causing suction of atmospheric oxygen from the air, through the water-air interface. During the course of treatment, a dramatic cyclic pattern has been consistently observed. The peaks depict high DO concentration levels near saturation. These are followed by troughs that indicate vigorous consumption of excess DO by active proliferation of the aerobic and facultative microbial population. These low levels of DO are quickly remedied

EOS-2000 System. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:36 PM Page 33

Water Quality with the EOS-2000 System as it is constantly generating DO. This cycling continues until the body of water achieves an ecological balance. Under conditions of enhanced oxygen supply, facultative bacteria behave aerobically, converting complex organic sludge into simpler compounds. Aerobic nitrifying bacteria (Nitrosomonas and Nitrobactoer) convert the ammonia to stable nitrates. Nitrates in the presence of high DO undergo aerobic denitrification and are converted to nitrites, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide and finally to diatomic nitrogen gas, which leaves the water system. Enhanced oxygen directly oxidizes hydrogen sulfides and the phosphorus (organic and inorganic), precipitating sulfur and phosphate complexes in the bottom sediment. Therefore, oxidation of hydrogen sulfides eliminates the problem of malodours, because aerobic conditions needed by healthy water systems are being maintained. Locking up phosphorus as complex salts (aluminum, iron and calcium phosphates) in the bottom, reduces feed for the algae and keeps it, or excessive aquatic


Aerobic water condition.

plants, from growing. Chemical treatment has been a common way to treat stressed water bodies. However, chemical intervention treats symptoms and not the whole water body. Some commonly used chemicals include FeCl3 and alum (hydrated potassium aluminum sulfate). Both of these chemicals are harmful to aquatic organisms, and toxic to beneficial microbes and compact soils/sediments. Using the EOS-2000 System, the

water’s ecosystem is revitalized in a natural way, in the absence of chemicals, making it a safer habitat for aquatic flora and fauna. It is solar powered and can be employed in remote areas. This not only makes it eco-friendly, but also very costefficient, since there is no cost of generators, blowers or chemicals. Astha Vashisht is with WCI Environmental Solutions Inc. E-mail: avashisht@wcienvironmental.ca

May 2012 | 33

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-06-01 7:46 PM Page 34


Why post-pipeline installation inspection should be standard operating procedure By Professor A. Abolmaali


ormer U.S. President Ronald Reagan once said “trust, but verify,” when referring to America’s relations with the former Soviet Union. While the subsequent fall of communism arguably ranks higher in historic significance, storm pipe infrastructure is clearly important enough to warrant the use of Reagan’s signature phrase as well. The deteriorating state of aging infrastructure has become a pressing concern at all levels of government. In some cases, long-delayed repairs to bridges, highways and roadway pipeline drainage systems can no longer be postponed. In others, decisions made in hopes of saving money in the short term are coming home to roost in the form of earlier-than-expected replacement and repair bills. Many of these expensive projects could have been avoided. One simple step can mean the difference. Post-installation inspection of all cul-

Remote visual examinations with camera and video equipment have become commonplace. Photo: Courtesy of American Concrete Pipe Association


Challenges inspire us.

Construction Materials Engineering Environmental and Process Engineering Geotechnical Engineering Metallurgy and Corrosion Prevention Contaminated Site Assessment and Remediation Building Science

Halkirk Wind Energy Project 34 | May 2012


verts, storm, and sanitary sewer systems can ensure proper design life and safe operation of the roadway systems they support. This common sense approach to quality assurance should become standard operating procedure with provincial transportation ministries, regional governments, and municipalities. Storm and sanitary sewer system owners have long recognized that the only way to adequately ensure a product’s service life is to confirm that it has been designed and installed correctly. Operators recognize that some type of post-installation quality assurance is essential. This will confirm that the culvert, or pipeline system, was not damaged during construction in a way that could result in inadequate structural capacity, require excessive maintenance, or cause unanticipated failures. Over the past several decades, techniques for the inspection of sanitary sewers have steadily improved. Remote visual examinations with camera and video equipment have become commonplace over the last 20 years. Inspection tools that can confirm shape control of

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-06-01 7:46 PM Page 35

Infrastructure flexible pipeline systems were developed, as flexible conduits entered the sanitary sewer market decades ago. More recently, laser profiling and laser micrometer measuring devices are specified more commonly, and an increasing number of contractors are equipped to perform this work as an enhancement to traditional video inspection. Laser profilers are stand-alone tools used with closed circuit television video (CCTV) survey systems to collect data and create reports. This technology measures faults and features inside the pipeline, including pipe size, water levels, deformation, and hydraulic capacity. Laser micrometers are normally part of the camera apparatus and can be used to measure cracks, joint gaps, and other conditions that might be found inside the pipe. Though laser technology has been around for more than a decade, recent developments in digital video analysis have made it a substantial improvement over traditional video inspection and mandrel deflection testing. The benefits of post-installation inspection to each of the stakeholders in the

storm and sanitary sewer installation process are many, and clearly outweigh the modest additional cost associated with performing them. Design engineers benefit from the reassurance that their design assumptions were correct and that proper installation standards were followed. This, in turn, mitigates their liability due to premature failure. Installers gain from the reduced likelihood of liability, because any damage that may have occurred during the installation process should be identified, properly evaluated, and remediated if needed. Knowing in advance that an inspection is scheduled to take place provides further incentive for installation crews to remain vigilant throughout handling, storage, and installation. Project owners benefit from post-installation inspection by receiving a third-party “seal of approval” that the installation was sound and trouble-free. This, in turn, ensures that the pipeline’s predicted service life will likely be met or exceeded, and the risk of an expensive failure or excessive maintenance is

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unlikely. Pipe producers and suppliers with stringent quality control standards welcome the independent confirmation of structural integrity in the field environment. Post-installation inspection ensures that their product was installed properly, reducing the potential for liability due to unanticipated maintenance or failure. The public deserves safe roadways and the structurally sound infrastructure that supports them. Pipelines are the “unseen bridges” of our ground transportation systems. As such, requiring the additional step of post-installation inspection of these critical systems is a rare example of an “everyone wins” approach to construction. Professor A. Abolmaali is with the University of Texas at Arlington. For more information, visit www.ccpa.com



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May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-06-01 7:46 PM Page 36

Wastewater Treatment

Canadian company develops cost-effective method for removing soluble mercury By Don Wilson and Bill Purves


wastewater treatment process that uses a highly effective adsorbent to reduce mercury to extremely low levels has been developed by ZorbTech Environmental Solutions. During the course of research to develop this process, a special adsorbent was formulated that has the capacity to absorb mercury and potentially other heavy metals. An independent research laboratory in the United States was contracted by Biosafe Environmental to test the adsorbent, a thio-based functional resin, and compare its performance with several known media now used for the removal of mercury. Using wastewater samples from a chlor-alkali plant, bench tests demonstrated that 99.999% of the soluble mercury in the contaminated stream can be removed. Mercury, when released into the environment, is often converted into more toxic methyl mercury chloride by aquatic organisms and accumulated in the tissue of fishes and birds. When adult humans consume seafood and fish with high levels of methylmercury, it affects the nervous system, resulting in Parkinson’s-like symptoms. In small children, it can cause permanent damage to the central nervous system. For these reasons, mercury must be removed to very low lev-

36 | May 2012

els from the wastewater generated by industries such as chloralkali plants, gold mines and metal smelting and plating operations. Traditional treatment methods, such as sulphide/carbon systems cannot reduce mercury to the levels required by new regulations, so more effective wastewater treatment methods need to be developed. Understanding the complexities surrounding mercury, and its ability to attach itself to a multitude of compounds, is the first step in solving this difficult problem. New regulatory limits Strict regulations on the amount of mercury to be removed from highly contaminated waste streams have been imposed in certain U.S. states. For example, all mercury discharges into the Ohio River must not exceed 0.012 ug/L. This is 12 ng/L, or 12 parts per trillion, and has proven to be extremely difficult to achieve in waste streams that are highly contaminated with mercury. Unlike sewage waste streams, which have an average mercury content of 120 ng/L, the contamination levels in these waste streams in some cases exceed 1,600,000 ng/L. As discharge limits reach parts per trillion, established water treatment methods fall short. For example, the standard polymer and sulphide approach for mercury achieves average removal rates of 1,000 to 10,000 ng/L. One of the current approaches to achieve the new regulatory limits is to add a carbon bed to an existing system. These retrofit setups do achieve a lower mercury concentration, but not consistently to the 12 ng/L level. What is left is dissolved mercury at levels that are still in the 200–500 ng/L range. Often the carbon medium is depleted faster than anticipated. The result is that high levels of mercury are still discharged into the ecosystem. New treated carbons and synthetic media have had some success, but suffer from rapid depletion, as well as increased cost. Starting from scratch The testing phase of the new process for removing mercury initially utilized methods such as modified isotherms that were established for carbon. Carbon media and other natural and synthetic media are not the same, so comparing data was like comparing apples to oranges. However, the capacities of various media were compared in order to establish a benchmark in terms of how each medium could adsorb a given volume of mercury. For example, the results of the study showed that carbon was able to adsorb 1,170 ng/gm of mercury from an initial concentration of 320,000 ng/L. The proprietary adsorbent DioSorb™ was able to adsorb 145,000 ng/gm from the same concentration. During the course of these tests, the research team began to explore why the amount of mercury being removed did not meet certain expectations or preconceived levels, based on the results of earlier tests. It was determined that a new approach was needed. The first new approach was based on the theory that other Continued on page 63... Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-06-04 10:05 AM Page 37

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:36 PM Page 38

Water Resources

Floating treatment wetlands mitigate lake eutrophication By Mark Reinsel


n enhanced floating treatment wetland (FTW) that incorporates air diffuser technology is under evaluation in an ongoing study at Floating Island International in Montana. The latest-generation system lifts and circulates water through floating streambeds within the FTW. This combination of FTW and improved water circulation/aeration is part of a product range called BioHaven®. The primary objective of the study is to determine whether biofilm-based microbes can provide nutrient removal, while increasing fish productivity. This system, which is a new type of constructed wetland, has been evaluated for treatment of agricultural effluent and municipal wastewater. Cost-effective treatment options for end users with limited funding will be its greatest benefit. It can provide treatment of agricultural-impacted waters, municipal wastewater, stormwater

Figure 1. Fish Fry Lake near Shepherd, Montana.

and polishing of tertiary wastewater, along with lake restoration. Fisheries managers will be especially interested in the productivity potential afforded by a biological system, which can reduce algae and grow more (and bigger) fish.

Overview Wetland areas have been reduced worldwide, while nutrient loading has increased with growing human populations. Mass-production agriculture, as practised in many developed nations, can contribute to hyper-eutrophication in water bodies that were previously low in nutrient concentrations. In fresh water, partly as a result of normal seasonal stratification, nutrient loading can deplete oxygen levels within the livable temperature zone for fish species. Over the last 11 years, Floating Island International (FII) has developed the BioHaven FTW technology, which mimics the ability of natural peat-based wetlands to purify water. The Leviathan™ extrapolates this technology by maximizing surface area and circulation, which are key components of wetland effectiveness. The islands are also designed to provide optimal perennial plant habitat.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:36 PM Page 39

Water Resources

Figure 2. Schematic of Leviathan floating treatment wetland.

System background Dissolved oxygen and temperature measurements taken on Fish Fry Lake, FII’s 6.5-acre research lake in 2008/2009 indicated that stratified water near the surface was too warm to sustain a trout

fishery. While temperatures below the stratified warm water layer were sufficiently cool for trout, that zone contained low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. During late summer, no strata of water could consistently provide the cold-water, high-

DO environment demanded by fish, such as rainbow, brown and Yellowstone cutthroat trout. Groundwater containing variable nutrient concentrations enters the lake at an continued overleaf...

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Water Resources

Figure 3. Dissolved oxygen and temperature gradients at Fish Fry Lake, before (2009) and after (2010) Leviathan implementation.

estimated average rate of 18 m3/hr. Surface water also flows into the lake with variable nutrient concentrations and flow rates. Evaporative loss and outflow are balanced to maintain the lake level, which is approximately 9 m deep.

As the lake was filled several years ago, a series of BioHaven floating islands covering 5,200 square feet (480 m2) of lake area and providing over 9.3 ha of saturated surface area was installed. Several islands were positioned next to the inflow

to maximize exposure to the highest nutrient concentrations. These islands were designed to maximize production of biofilm (organisms attached to underwater surfaces), and to move nutrients into and through the food web. After addition of the last 232-m2 FTW, floating islands now cover approximately 715 m2, or 2.7% of the lake’s surface area. Active treatment system with floating streambed Leviathan is an enhanced form of constructed wetland, and is FII’s latest effort to move excess nutrients into the food chain or harvest them. It integrates highvolume, low-pressure circulation with matrix surface area constructed of postconsumer (recycled) polymer fibers, for maximum wetland performance. Air-driven directional diffusers circulate up to 2,300 m3/hr, pushing it through the BioHaven matrix and plant roots. The system’s floating streambed contributes to aeration and nutrient uptake. The FPZ-brand air diffusers require 3 hp (2.2 kW) to operate, typically with 230V single-phase power. Leviathan is designed to provide the


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Resources





60 6.0 55 4.0

Temperature (Deg F)

65 8.0





40 0



Depth (ft)



Dissolved Oxygen 2009

Dissolved Oxygen 2010

Temperature 2009

Temperature 2010


Figure 4. Maximum livable depth for Yellowstone cutthroat trout at Fish Fry Lake, before and after Leviathan implementation.

complete “wetland effect,” including aerobic, anaerobic and anoxic microbial nutrient conversion. This allows it to treat large, nutrient-rich stratified bodies of water, including “dead zones,” in both freshwater and marine settings. Removal of ammonia, nitrate, phosphate and soluble organic carbon has been demonstrated. The system can move nutrients from any depth into and through the islands’ biologically active substrate. In the process, these nutrients are digested by beneficial microbes and form periphyton (attached plant and animal organisms embedded in a polysaccharide matrix, similar to biofilm), which is the base of the freshwater food chain. As these excess nutrients transition into the food chain via biofilm/periphyton, both water quality and fish growth rates can be dramatically improved. Leviathan can de-stratify water bodies, resulting in greatly expanded habitable zones for targeted fish species. As part of this process, high DO levels can be achieved and maintained, and water temperatures homogenized. Results A 232-m2 Leviathan system, incorporating floating streambeds and grid-powered water circulation, was installed in the lake in April 2009. This system circulated up to 770 m3/hr through the stream channels within the island. Each cubic meter of Leviathan’s matrix, averaging 0.64 m in thickness, provided 820 square www.esemag.com

meters of surface area. After 17 months of operation, water clarity had improved from a low of 0.36 m of visibility to as much as 3.3 m. Clarity is now at 5.8 m. Simultaneously, the water temperature gradient was reduced, creating a larger zone of “livable” water for fish. Two age classes of Yellowstone cutthroat trout were introduced 13 and 14 months into the test. Through the summer of 2010, a favorable temperature/dissolved oxygen strata, ranging from the water surface down to a depth of at least 3.7 m, was maintained as potential cutthroat trout habitat. One-year-old and two-year-old black crappie were also introduced two months into the test, and naturally-occurring northern yellow perch were present in the lake when it was filled. All three species have flourished. The new aeration scheme in the lake improves water quality by incorporating dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen into the aquatic food web, in the form of periphyton, while limiting the growth of deleterious algae. Total phosphate concentrations are reduced from about 0.04 mg/L to 0.02 mg/L, while nitrate-nitrogen concentrations decrease from about 0.6 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. Fish Fry Lake is relatively unique in that it supports fish accustomed to cold water (Yellowstone cutthroat trout), temperate water (perch) and warm water (crappie). Montana officials have made

two unsuccessful attempts at sustaining cutthroat populations in an adjacent stretch of the Yellowstone River. Fish catch rates and growth rates are now being monitored at the lake. Initial data show that experienced fishermen catch an average of one perch every two minutes. Visual observations from diving and an underwater viewing station indicate that perch approaching or exceeding the Montana state record of 1.0 kg now inhabit the lake. The perch harvest at Fish Fry Lake averaged 12 kg of fish per week from MayNovember 2011. With a phosphorus content of 0.9% in perch, phosphorus removal from the lake via fishing averaged 0.10 kg/wk, or 84% of the estimated phosphorus input to the lake. In summary, Fish Fry Lake was poised to become another eutrophic waterway, until a new form of applied stewardship was introduced, which reversed the process. Mark Reinsel is with Apex Engineering. E-mail: mark@apexengineering.us Neptune™ Polymaster™ Polymer Makedown System

The Polymaster dilutes, mixes and thoroughly activates emulsion, dispersion and solution polymers, including the new lines of high-molecular-weight products. The heart of the Polymaster system is the patented Gatlin motorized mixing chamber, which hydraulically segments polymer into ultra-thin film platelets that maximize the amount of polymer area that is exposed to dilution water. Other features include: speeds from 1/3 to 20 gpm; easy access to all components; manual or automatic operation; and 120 VAC singlephase power usage. Neptune Chemical Pump Co. 295 DeKalb Pike, North Wales, PA Tel: 888-3NEPTUNE or 215-699-8700 Fax: 1-800-255-4017 E-Mail: info@neptune1.com www.neptune1.com

May 2012 | 41

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Flow Measurement

Comparing Doppler and transit time flow measurement technologies


oppler and transit time are two very popular types of flow meter for non-invasive measurement of flow in full pipes. These technologies are often confused, because they are both ultrasonic, and both measure flow by using sensors clamped onto the outside of a pipe. They actually work best in opposite applications and successful installation depends on understanding the differences and making the right choice. Ultrasound is sound generated above the human hearing range, i.e., above 20 kHz. Ultrasonics are a mature technology and widely used in medical and industrial applications. The transducer clamp-on design is popular because the flow meters can be installed without cutting the pipe, or shutting down flow. There is no pressure drop, and the non-contacting transducers are

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immune to chemicals, abrasives and pressure. They work on non-conductive fluids, including oils, and are not affected by electromagnetic fields or radiation. They have a wide temperature operating range, plus excellent repeatability and reliable operation. At the heart of each ultrasonic transducer is a piezo-electric crystal. The piezo-electric crystal was discovered in 1820 by French physicist Pierre Curie, but it was not until the mid 1900s, that the technology was applied in industrial sensing applications. The piezo-electric crystals, which are glass disks about the size of a coin, are embedded in rugged metal or plastic housings. Specially-selected materials conduct sound efficiently, through the face of the transducer. These crystals are polarized and expand, or pulse, a minute amount when electrical energy is applied to the surface electrodes. As it pulses, the transducer emits an ultrasonic beam approximately 5 degrees wide, at an angle designed to efficiently pass through a pipe wall. The returning echo (pressure pulse) impacts a second passive crystal and creates electrical energy. This is the received signal in a Doppler or transit time transducer. Transit time flow meters must have a pair of transducers. One transducer transmits sound, while the other acts as a receiver. As the name suggests, these flow

meters measure the time it takes for an ultrasonic signal, transmitted from one sensor, to cross a pipe and be received by a second sensor. Upstream and downstream time measurements are compared. With no flow, transit time would be equal in both directions. With flow, sound will travel faster in the direction of flow, and slower against the flow. Because the ultrasonic signal must cross the pipe to a receiving transducer, the fluid must not contain any significant concentration of bubbles or solids. Otherwise, the high frequency sound will be attenuated and will be too weak to traverse the pipe. Transit time transducers typically operate in the 1-2 MHz frequencies. Higher frequency designs are normally used in smaller pipes and lower frequency designs for large pipes up to several metres in diameter. Operators must select transducer models/frequencies, according to the application. Transducers can be installed on opposite sides of the pipe, so that the ultrasonic signal travels once diagonally across the pipe. This method is called ‘Z’ mounting and typically is used in large pipes, or weak signal applications. The most common mounting configuration is ‘V’ mode. Transducers are installed on the same side of the pipe, with the sound bouncing off the opposite pipe wall, so that it crosses the pipe twice. ‘W’ mode mounting is often used in very small diameter pipes, where the signal crosses the pipe four times. As calibration parameters are entered, the flow meter’s software will normally specify the recommended mounting method and transducer separation distance. The Doppler Effect was first documented in 1842 by Christian Doppler, an Austrian physicist. It is the distinct tone change, for example, from a passing train whistle, or the exhaust from a racing car. We hear this tone change, or Doppler Effect, only because we are stationary and the sound transmitter - the train or the racing car - is in motion. Doppler flow meters use the principal

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:37 PM Page 43

Flow Measurement Doppler Ultrasonic

Transit Time Ultrasonic

that sound waves will be returned to a transmitter at an altered frequency, if reflectors in the liquid are in motion. This frequency shift is in direct proportion to the velocity of the liquid. It is precisely

measured by the instrument to calculate the flow rate. So, the liquid must contain gas bubbles or solids for the Doppler measurement to work. Doppler transducers usually operate at

640 kHz to 1 MHz frequencies, and work on a wide range of pipe diameters. Doppler flow meters manufactured by Greyline Instruments use a single-head sensor design allowing fast, simple mounting on the outside of pipes. Dual-head Doppler flow meters are often confused with transit time meters because they also use separate transmit and receive transducers. Although they look very similar to transit time, dualhead Doppler instruments are still only measuring the frequency shift of the transmitted signal from one transducer to the received signal by another. Whether single-head or dual-head design, Doppler instruments always work by measuring the frequency shift of signals reflected from moving particles, or bubbles in the fluid. Doppler flow meters work best in dirty or aerated liquids, like wastewater and slurries. Transit time flow meters work best with clean liquids like water, oils and chemicals. For more information, E-mail: info@greyline.com

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Environmental Management

Using Blanding’s turtles as biological indicators for wetland assessment and restoration By Shannon Ritchie and Magda Kula


oronto Zoo's Adopt-A-Pond Wetland Conservation Programme aims to provide community groups with resources and opportunities to help conserve, restore and protect wetland habitats and biodiversity. The objective for the Rouge Park Wetland project was to partner wetland assessment with organizations devoted to restoration initiatives like the Toronto and Regional Conservation Authority (TRCA), and to make recommendations to improve wetland habitat quality in the urbanized regions of the Greater Toronto Area. This project took place in Rouge Park, which is a biodiversity refuge in an urban landscape for some of the only remaining populations of Species at Risk turtles in the GTA, including Blanding's turtles (Status: Threatened), Map turtles (Status: Special Concern) and Snapping turtles (Status: Special Concern). Assessment of the Rouge Park wetlands was unique, as it was performed using the habitat requirements of Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) as biological indicators of wetland quality. Blanding's turtles served as the focal species of this study because they are long-lived animals that use a variety of wetlands types to complete their life cycle (i.e., permanent deep ponds, ephemeral swamps, marsh lands, etc.). They are also a top wetland predator species, which, when present, indicate a robust ecological food chain. Blanding’s turtles’ diverse habitat needs serve as an excellent model to design wetland landscapes, which attract a rich biodiversity of species. To assess each site, GIS technologies were used to analyze and develop a comprehensive inventory of existing wetlands and areas identified as potential sites where wetland creation could occur. GIS was also used to model areas of high quality nesting habitats, so that wetland restoration or the creation of new wetland sites were located in close proximity to prime nesting habitat. This project found that nesting habitat was a limited resource 44 | May 2012

Co-author Shannon Ritchie conducting survey.

in the Rouge Park and must be created if overall wetland complexes are improved. Finally, ground surveying (groundtruthing) of all existing and potential wetland sites was performed. ArcMap 10.0 was used to provide a visual analysis of the Rouge Park landscape to pin-point ideal wetland locations for potential and restoration sites. Four main layers were overlaid for site analysis, including watercourses, drainage lines, hill shade and aerial imagery. Areas where drainage lines naturally ended at large depressions in the ground, or bowlshaped areas, were classified as potential sites. Once all current water bodies and potential restoration sites were mapped, a

visual interpretation of the area was used to identify areas where nodes or clusters of wetlands stood out. This data was then added to the known inventory of water bodies of the Rouge Park Conservation wetland layer. The map included all pooling water bodies, such as wetlands, ponds, oxbows, storm water retention ponds, etc. Ground-truthing was completed to assess wetlands sites predetermined by the GIS analysis. Assessment included measuring water chemistry, soil characteristics and biodiversity parameters at existing wetland sites, and assessing suitable wetland creation at potential sites. Each site was ranked according to a biological and

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Environmental Management was found to be suitable for wetland creation. The majority of sites visited in this study are man made. Dominant agricultural activity in what was historically a wetland area has left the Rouge Park predominantly free of natural wetlands. Water quality analysis found that complexes had generally sufficient water characteristics (pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity) to support aquatic life. Blanding’s turtle habitat requirements served as an excellent model for wetland assessment and creation specifications. Based on this assessment, Rouge Park has the potential for approximately 180 ha of available wetlands, if all remediation and wetland creation took place. Shannon Ritchie and Magda Kula are with the Toronto Zoo. For more information, E-mail: shannon.ritchie.d@gmail.com.

A Blanding’s turtle basking in the sun.

water quality analysis in relation to Blanding’s turtles ideal habitat requirements. Sites were then digitized as polygons to determine size and abundance in the Rouge Park.

Only 117ha of the 4700ha of Rouge Park parkland was determined to be wetland habitat, and most was not of suitable quality to support Blanding’s turtles. However, an encouraging 52.30ha of land

(All photos were provided by Toronto Zoo's Adopt-A-Pond Wetland Conservation Programme.)

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A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E’s semi-annual look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.

Inflatable sealing plugs and bags protect against hazmat leakage By Peter Wall


round the world, inflatable leak-sealing bags and accessories are used for temporary leak sealing of tanks, drums, barrels, tanker trucks, railway tankers, pipes and containers of all shapes and sizes. Inflatable rubber plugs, bags, bandages and accessories are available for internal or external sealing of liquid leaks on virtually any container. Many of these feature specially formulated, oil-resistant rubbers that are reinforced with a variety of fibres, including Kevlar®, polyester and rayon, to meet the challenge of sealing and containing a wide variety of liquids. The fibres vary with each type of bag or plug. Internal sealing is accomplished by inserting an inflatable pipe plug into the open end of the pipe where the flow is to be stopped. Multi-size outside diameters of the plugs overlap for greater user choice and, therefore, provide a wide application range. Plugs from 1 to 72 in. diameter are available, each capable of sealing several pipe sizes, e.g., 4 – 8 in., 8 – 16 in., 15 – 30 in., etc. Blocking plugs are used to block the flow until a permanent repair is made. Bypass plugs will also block the flow, but allow liquid in the pipe to be drained

46 | May 2012

Large leak sealing bag.

Mini leak sealing bag.

through a built-in bypass into a secure containment vessel. Plugs are flexible enough to bend easily around tight corners, or when being installed in manholes. A full assortment of pipe plug accessories such as protective sleeves, inflation pumps, hoses and controllers are also available. Prepackaged in waterproof and corrosion-proof cases, pipe plug kits can be provided with a range of plugs with

pipe diameters and accessories to suit the needs of users’ applications. Plugs are made with anti-static, electrically conductive rubber to eliminate the possibility of sparking. If access to the inside of a leaking pipe is not feasible, there are many external sealing solutions. Pipe-sealing bags are wrapped around pipes or small round containers and are

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 10:41 PM Page 47

Inflatable containment berm.

Remote placement and sealing lance.

held securely in place by integral ratchet straps. They seal small leaks instantly when inflated. There is no need to shut down an entire process because of one leak; a sealing bag can be placed on the leak temporarily and then a permanent repair can be made at a later, more convenient time. Tank-sealing bags are available in a wide range of sizes, from mini bags that can seal anything that the Velcro® straps can reach around, to large bags that are used to seal leaks in tanks, large-diameter pipes and containers of all shapes and sizes. The bag is simply strapped in place over the leak with ratchet belts and in-


flated to the required pressure. Lower pressures from 22 psi, through medium pressures of 87 psi, to higher pressures of 145 psi are used as required to suit the nature of each leak. Acid bags and sealing plates are available if needed to protect the sealing bags. Depending on the degree of danger associated with a leaking liquid, it may be necessary to stand at a safe distance from the leak source. A remote placement and sealing lance can be used to keep away from the leak as it is sealed. A specially designed plug is inserted from a distance into the leak and inflated to stop the flow. Small, medium and large wedge-

shaped plugs work well to quickly seal straight-line punctures, such as those caused by forklift blades, while coneshaped plugs are suitable for round punctures. If a leaking vessel needs to be drained while a leak is contained, there are two options available. The first is a leak drainage bag, which is held onto the tank with ratchet belts. Drainage sealing bags have an inflatable sealing perimeter that stops the leak but still allows venting and controlled drainage of the liquid from the tank. The second alternative is a vacuumsealing drainage bag that seals and sticks to the tank with a vacuum so belts are not needed. Vacuum is achieved using a highpressure air source and a venturi vacuum generator. The vacuum-sealing chamber seals the outside perimeter of the bag, while the inner low-pressure chamber is used to drain the liquid. These bags can cover holes up to 8 in. diameter. Mega sealing kits can be used to handle virtually any leak. They are deployed at chemical processing plants, oil refineries, liquefied natural gas plants, exploration and drilling platforms, ocean transport vessels, railway tankers and pipeline transport facilities. The mega kit is completely self-contained and requires no external energy or equipment support. Its lightweight, noncorrosive design is especially well suited for saltwater environments. The moulded waterproof case will not rot or rust, and when sealed will float indefinitely in any position. The integral pressure purge valve will allow safe air transport as the case self-equalizes its own internal air pressure. Finally, there are occasions when liquids need to be collected and contained as they leak, before an inflatable leaksealing bag can be installed, or when a bag is not available immediately. In such cases, a portable inflatable containment berm can be deployed until the bag and assistance arrive. These units are available in various sizes and configurations. Leaking hazardous liquids, such as oils and fuels, are easily contained with inflatable leak-sealing bags and low-profile capture and containment berms. Peter Wall is with Footage Tools Inc. E-mail: pwfootage@rogers.com

May 2012 | 47

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:37 PM Page 48

Choose the right berm fabric to ensure proper spill protection By Nancy Argyle


oday, it is common for inspectors to request that operators provide secondary containment around fuel drums and other bulk fuel storage sites. Depending on the location, some regulations may also require spill prevention equipment in fuel transfer areas. For operators who don’t comply, heavy fines and expensive work stoppages can result and, if an uncontained spill occurs, the consequences are even more costly. In contrast, implementing a spill prevention plan and owning the proper spill prevention equipment is a low-cost method of insuring against penalties and non-compliance outcomes. One of the basics tools in the spill prevention toolkit is a berm that is designed to meet your specific requirements, whether storing fuel, chemicals or black water. Since not all berms are created equal, it is important to choose a berm fabric with the correct specifications. To make the right choice, you will need to understand some key specifications: 1. Strip Tensile (ASTM D-751): This specification is used to determine how well a fabric will perform when it is pulled in opposite directions (the higher the test result, the better). When a berm is full of liquid, a force pulls on both sides of the fabric, which means a low strip tensile strength may result in a fabric tear. 2. Adhesion (ASTM D-751): This specification is used to determine how strong the bond (weld) is between the layers of fabric. Again, a higher test result is

better. Aboveground berms need to support the full hydrostatic load they are subjected to when storing liquid, without a seam pulling apart. 3. Cold Crack (ASTM D-2136): This specification is used to determine how well a fabric will work in cold weather. In this case, the lower the temperature, the better. 4. Diffusion (ULC-ORD-C58.9 and MIL-T-52983): The diffusion rating is

Using the right berm fabric can have a significant outcome for both the operator and the environment. perhaps the most important and most misunderstood number of them all. This test determines how much fuel transfers through the fabric and potentially enters the environment in the event of a spill. In Canada, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) requires secondary containment to meet a minimum permeability rate and refers to the ULC-ORD-C58.9. This states that permeance or diffusion rate that can be determined (by conducting a MIL-T52983 test) cannot exceed 5g/m2/h for below-ground secondary containment

and 10g/m2/h for above-ground secondary containment materials. Certain provinces, territories or aboriginal lands have lower diffusion rates and any area near waterways may have a lower rate as well. 5. Chemical Resistance (ASTM D471): Chemical resistance is tested by the immersion of the fabric in a liquid, then by measuring any mass loss to determine the fabric’s capability. Mass loss (typically, plasticizer loss) during exposure to a liquid over time is measured as a percentage. The lower the percentage of loss and the longer the exposure time, the better. In most cases, spill berms are used to provide secondary containment for materials hazardous to the environment in the event that the primary storage containers become defective or damaged. Using the right berm fabric can have a significant outcome for both the operator and the environment. One of the most advanced berm fabrics on the market today is a proprietary material called Arctic-Shield. Developed by SEI Industries Ltd. of Delta, British Columbia, this fabric was built specifically for above-ground secondary containment of fuels in arctic climates at remote sites. Arctic-Shield fabric has a high strip tensile and adhesion strength, a low cold crack temperature below -50º C, and low diffusion rates (well below the CCME and ULC requirements). It was designed specifically for long duration fuel expo-

Comparison Table Strip Tensile Adhesion Diffusion Chemical Resistance: Mass Loss Chemical Resistance: Duration

Arctic-Shield™ 363/373 lb/in 40 lb/in 0.019 g/m2/h <3.0% 30 days

Common Berm Fabric 200/140 lb/in 10 lb/in N/A <5.0% 7 days

Table 1. 48 | May 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Framed berm.

sure that might occur if a fuel spill were to happen at a remote site that is unmanned for the winter. SEI offers the fabric on its Insta-Berm (framed and L-Rod models) as well as its smaller Mini-Berm. For comparison, Table 1 shows the difference between Arctic-Shield fabric and another com-


L-Rod berm.

monly-used berm fabric. Once you have selected the right berm for the job, you need to include an overflow option like SEI’s RainDrain. This filter automatically removes rainfall and water, which normally collect inside a berm, while also holding back hydrocarbons. Using a go-no-go gravity filter, the

RainDrain safely holds back fuel, while rainwater is allowed to drain out. Berms need to remain empty to have the capacity to contain any spills. Nancy Argyle is with SEI Industries. E-mail: nancy@sei-ind.com

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May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:37 PM Page 50

Cover system helps optimize wastewater treatment in cold climates By Poldi Gerard


old climates present serious difficulties for biological wastewater treatment. Falling temperatures produce lowered biological activity in lagoons, which results in lower BOD removal rates. Total nitrogen removal and ammonia removal rates also decline as air and water temperatures decrease. Ammonia removal is a particular challenge. Ammonia is removed from lagoonbased wastewater treatment systems through several processes, including oxidation by nitrifying bacteria into nitrates (NO₃) and nitrites (NO₂). Nitrates and nitrites are subsequently converted to molecular nitrogen (N₂) by denitrifying bacteria. The action of these two types of bacteria is highly temperature-dependent. Recognizing the difficulty of ammonia and total nitrogen removal at colder temperatures, environmental authorities

Lemna Technologies designed a two-pond biological wastewater treatment plant for the town, using insulated covers to retain the heat of the influent wastewater.

often provide a less stringent winter requirement for communities in cold regions. Summer discharge limits can be more stringent, since removal efficiency

• First Crosslink tanks approved for chemical storage by NSF • Linear polyethylene tanks certified by NSF International to ANSI 61 standards for potable water • FDO (Full Drain Outlet) outlet assembly provides the ability to fully drain your tank without the need for mechanically installed nozzles • Certified tank models ranging in size from 20 to 12,000 gallons • Variety of options available to modify tanks to meet your specifications

Toll-free: 888-357-3181 www.assmann-usa.com Certified to NSF/ANSI 61

Assmann Corporation Garrett, IN 46738 Fax: 888-TANK FAX (826-5329) E-mail: info@assmann-usa.com

reliably rises with increasing temperature. Activity of the bacteria responsible for BOD removal also slows as temperatures decline. The addition of a LemTec insulated modular cover to aerobic, facultative or anaerobic lagoons retains the temperature of the incoming wastewater so that biological activity can continue even under extremely cold conditions. This allows BOD and ammonia removal rates to be maintained in every season. The patented floating cover consists of individual casings of closed-cell extruded insulation sealed between two sheets of durable HDPE geomembrane. The insulating factor in each cover can be adjusted per the design requirements as determined by the specific temperature parameters of each application. This can range from an R-value of 4 to 15, or even higher if needed. Experience has shown that, in the majority of cases, an R-value of 5 is usually sufficient to retain heat and keep incoming wastewater at temperatures adequate for effective biological treatment. The LemTec biological treatment process, using the modular cover, can meet stringent effluent limits. When compared with activated sludge systems, both capital and operations costs are lower, as are annual maintenance costs. The process

Manufacturing facilities in Garrett, IN and Marshall, TX

50 | May 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Installing tank cover.

is simple and operator-friendly, making it particularly attractive for smaller communities. The floating cover is easy to install on any water level and works well with fluctuating water levels. Existing treatment facilities can be retrofitted with the insulated modular cover to achieve heat retention and significantly improve cold weather performance. Case studies One small town of 560 people needed a wastewater treatment plant. Mean temperatures for the month of January in the area hover around –4°C, and a nearby weather station reported an all-time low temperature of –29.4°C in 1982. Lemna Technologies designed a twopond biological wastewater treatment plant for the town, using insulated covers to retain the heat of the influent wastewater. After preliminary treatment (screening), wastewater flows to a three-cell aeration pond covered with a LemTec insulated modular cover with an R-value of 10. During winter, the mixer in the first aeration cell is used to create complete mix conditions. In summer, this mixer can be turned off and the cell can be operated as a partial mix cell. The two other aeration cells are partial mix cells. The same type of cover, also with an R-value of 10, was placed on the settling pond following the aeration pond. This small facility was required to meet a winter ammonia limit of 2.6 mg/l and a summer limit of 1.9 mg/l. The BOD limit was 25 mg/l. The system has performed well since its installation in 2005. The insulated modular cover has kept the temperature


in the lagoons within a few degrees of the influent temperature, even as the air temperatures have varied dramatically from season to season. Because the water temperature in the ponds was maintained at a level suitable for biological activity of the various bacteria, the community was able to meet its discharge requirements reliably. Biological treatment remained effective throughout the year, regardless of air temperatures. The LemTec floating insulated modular cover can also be used to retrofit existing lagoon-based treatment systems to boost performance and/or increase flow capacity. A recent retrofit of an existing system was made in a town of 1,700 inhabitants. The wastewater treatment plant was failing to meet ammonia effluent limits of 4 mg/l in winter and 2 mg/l in summer. In fact, its average effluent ammonia ranged from five to seven times the permitted level. January is typically the coldest month, with average temperatures ranging from a low of –15.6°C to a high of –5.6°C. During the winter months, most days have an air temperature below freezing. The town

retrofitted its biological wastewater treatment ponds with the modular insulated cover, which was easily installed while water remained in the ponds. The cover’s ease of installation meant that it could be installed during cold winter weather. In spite of the frigid air temperature, the water temperature in the ponds quickly rose to 6°C and the town has since recorded no water temperature lower than 5°C. Adding the cover to the existing wastewater treatment system was much more cost-effective than designing and building an entirely new plant. Operations and maintenance costs were also lower than would have been required in a new activated sludge facility. In warmer climates, the cover functions to control odours and prevent algae growth. It performs these functions in cold climates as well, but there it has proven its worth in heat retention and optimizing cold-weather performance of biological wastewater treatment facilities. Poldi Gerard is with Lemna Technologies. For more information, visit www.lemnatechnologies.com

May 2012 | 51

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DeconGel helps decontaminate Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant By Linda Jameson


arch 11, 2012 marked one year since a 9.0 magnitude earthquake rocked the northeastern coast of Japan, generating a tsunami that ended operations at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The disaster stemmed from a series of events, the first of which was the massive tsunami, followed by a series of equipment failures, nuclear meltdowns, and releases of radioactive materials. It is the largest nuclear disaster since Chernobyl in 1986. The Fukushima Plant was one of the largest nuclear power stations in the world. While the plant itself covers 860 acres, the effects of the disaster extend far beyond and will affect human lives and the environment for decades. Removing and decontaminating Caesium-137 DeconGel™, a product invented by CBI Polymers, Inc., is one of the solutions being considered for Japan’s longterm decontamination efforts, especially to remove Caesium-137 (Cs-137) which is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed by nuclear fission. It has a halflife of 30.17 years. As a result of the disaster at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, significant outdoor areas have surface contamination, predominantly Cs-137. Be-

Letting it dry.

Applying DeconGel.

rubber, Plexiglas, herculite, wood, porcelain, tile grout, and vinyl ceramic and linoleum floor tiles. When the hydrogel dries, the product locks the contaminants into a polymer matrix. The film containing the encapsulated contamination can then be peeled off and disposed of according to applicable government regulations. It captures radioactive isotopes and hazardous waste, including PCBs, beryllium, mercury, and chromium.

While the plant itself covers 860 acres, the effects of the disaster extend far beyond and will affect human lives and the environment for decades. cause of the prolonged exposure to weather, most of the contamination has become more difficult to remove from outdoor surfaces. DeconGel’s efficacy has been proven through extensive testing in Fukushima Prefecture, including government and municipal buildings, residences, and the Fukushima Daiichi Control Room. The water-based DeconGel coating can be applied to horizontal, vertical and inverted surfaces, including bare, coated and painted concrete, aluminum, steel, lead, 52 | May 2012

Beyond buildings The CBI Polymers team collaborated with partners in Japan to remediate harmful radiation from the campus of Asahimachi Baptist Church and Little Lamb Kindergarten in Fukushima, Japan. Children today are playing outside on swings, slides and a playground once deemed hazardous which kept the youngsters inside for more than four months following the meltdown. CBI Polymers donated $250,000 worth of DeconGel toward this effort.

The film containing the encapsulated contamination can then be peeled off and disposed of.

Cham Dallas, PhD, a radiation mitigation expert and Director of the Institute for Health Management and Mass Destruction Defense at the University of Georgia, oversaw the application of DeconGel and removal of radiation for the project. Unlike traditional methods of using soap and water which moves the radiation into the soil and water table, DeconGel absorbs the harmful radioactive material and provides a safe environment for personnel while preventing the toxins from spreading. Personnel peel back the thick dried hydrogel and roll it up like a painter’s tarp for safe disposal. Linda Jameson is a former NBC/CBS news reporter and US Pacific Command analyst. For more information, visit www.decongel.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Double wall tanks

Corrosion protection

Prevent chemical spills with double wall tanks from 20 to 6,550 U.S. gallons, with heavier-top sidewalls and dome, a primary inner tank and a secondary locked on outer tank. Assmann’s linear polyethylene tanks are certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 61 and high-density crosslink resin tanks are certified for chemical storage. Their quality management system is ISO 9001:2008 certified. www.assmannusa.com/Double_Wall_Tanks

Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to provide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush, roller or spray. Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Geomembrane Technologies Inc.

Water reservoir & tank mixer

Free span buildings

PAX Mixer is a very innovative, simple mixer designed to mix water storage reservoirs and standpipes. It offers superior mixing performance with little energy consumption, easy installation, low capital cost. It eliminates stagnation and stratification, minimizes residual loss, prevents nitrification. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: michael@h2flow.com Web: www.h2flow.com

Every square foot of space is profitable in a MegaDome building. Ranging from 30’ to 125’ wide and with no limitation to its length, MegaDome provides a production or storage area built in accordance with all building codes in your area. Tel: 888-427-6647, Fax: 450-756-8389 E-mail: info@harnois.com Web: www.megadomebuildings.com

H2Flow Tanks & Systems


Assmann Corporation of America

The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensure that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Specialist training

Cover systems for tanks and lagoons

Geomembrane Technologies Inc. (GTI) designs, fabricates and installs cover systems on tanks and lagoons worldwide. Wastewater and water plants use GTI covers to control odours, block sunlight, collect gas, or reduce heat loss. Web: www.gticovers.com

Spill containment systems

Containment system

Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web: www.spillmanagement.ca

To avoid any major reoccuring expenses like oil/water filtration, shoveling snow and debris, or incurring tainted water disposal costs, Transport Environmental Systems offers open collector pan models and closeable lid models to help avoid collecting snow, rainwater and debris. Also available are roll-under spill collector pans and other products for train/tanker truck loading, unloading and spill containment. Tel: 252-571-0092, Fax: 252-489-2060 E-mail: info@transenvsys.com Web: www.transenvsys.com

Westeel's CRing Containment Systems are ideal for petrochemical, frac water storage, oil and gas, fertilizer, hazardous material, and agricultural applications. All systems are made with high-strength (50-ksi) steel and have heavy-duty G115 galvanizing, meeting the stringent requirements of ISO 9001. Tel: 1-888-674-8265, 204-233-7133 Fax: 1-888-463-6012 E-mail: info@westeel.com Web: www.westeel.com

Spill Management

Transport Environmental Systems


Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats


Storage/Containment & Spills Product Showcase

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:38 PM Page 53

May 2012 | 53

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:38 PM Page 54

Water Supply

International Water Management Institute named 2012 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate


he International Water Management Institute (IWMI), with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, has been named the 2012 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate for pioneering research that has served to improve water for agriculture management, enhance food security, protect environmental health and alleviate poverty in developing countries. H.M. King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden will present the prize at a Royal Award Ceremony during the 2012 World Water Week in Stockholm on August 30. Seventy percent of global freshwater withdrawals are used in agriculture. With global food demand projected to double by mid-century, more food will need to be grown with less water. IWMI has been the driving force promoting policies and techniques to help farmers to produce “more crop per drop”, and to implement solutions that enable agriculture to cultivate enough food to feed the planet’s growing population with limited water resources. In its citation, The Stockholm Water Prize Nominating Committee states: “The International Water Management

Dr. Colin Chartres, Director-General, IWMI Photo credit: IWMI

Institute is the foremost organization in agricultural water management. Their work has led to new policies and investments in agriculture that have not only enabled more productive use of water, but have enhanced food security, economic development and environmental health around the world.” On receiving the news, Dr. Colin Chartres, Director General of IWMI said: “It is an incredible honour for our organization. The real winners, of course, are IWMI’s dedicated staff members who, for

A vast repository of data has helped its scientists and partners develop sophisticated models. These have been used to inform complex water management decisions and ensure that users get the quality and quantity of water they need. Photo: Timothy Syrota/IWMI 54 | May 2012

just over a quarter of a century, have consistently delivered research of the highest quality. This work has had a profound influence on water management policy throughout the globe, delivering real benefits for some of the poorest people on earth.” Leading global knowledge and local solutions Over the past quarter century, IWMI has established its place as the definitive source for comprehensive data and knowledge on global water resources. From 2002-2007, IWMI led a team of 700 scientists to produce one of the most important research programs of water management ever conceived. The resulting publication, Water for Food, Water for Life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, established an unprecedented knowledge base on the status of global water and land resources, and is one of the most influential studies ever produced on water and agricultural policy. By providing clear evidence of where and how water scarcity has increased and its impact on all sectors of the economy, the report’s findings have placed sustainable water resource management as a priority issue for governments, industries and international organizations around the world. The Institute’s extensive work with irrigation reform has led the way for new and improved design, operation and maintenance of irrigation systems throughout Asia and Africa. IWMI has also helped shape the current international guidelines on how wastewater can be safely used in agriculture, a practice that is employed by tens of millions of farmers worldwide. IWMI continues to lead new initiatives to establish business models to attract investments in wastewater reuse systems that can benefit rural communities in developing regions. Mapping the world’s water resources IWMI’s advancements in the application of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis have dramatically improved the ability to

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 10:41 PM Page 55

Water Supply

90% of agriculture in Africa is rain-fed. Finding out how its productivity could be improved will benefit some of the world's poorest farmers. Photo: David Brazier/IWMI

measure the availability and efficiency of water use, and directly enable farmers across the world to better manage agricultural water resources. IWMI’s Water Data Portal, and its global maps on water

scarcity, irrigation use, environmental flows, and drought patterns, are among the most important information sources in the water science arena. Over 100,000 publications are downloaded from the

IWMI website every month, and are widely read on leading digital repositories worldwide. This work has also led to the creation of a water accounting system that can determine the amount of potentially usable water in a basin, assess where the water is going and calculate the actual cost per cubic meter. The tool is widely used by planners to identify where water can be saved, and how it can be used most effectively. Bold vision for the future The 2011 publication, An Ecosystem Services Approach to Water and Food Security, led by IWMI and the United Nations Environment Programme, outlined how a new ‘ecosystems-based’ approach to agriculture can protect natural systems and potentially double agricultural production. The continued work in this area can radically change how agriculture is practiced in the future and ensure food security for a global population set to reach 9 billion by 2050. For more information, visit www. siwi.org

NASM Plan Consulting and Application of Industrial and Municipal Materials Serving municipal, industrial and commercial NASM generators across the province Services Include: · Preparing Non-Agricultural Source Material (NASM) Plans for submission to OMAFRA · Provide all preparation for NASM Plans including soil sampling, field assessments and GIS site maps in compliance with OMAFRA and MOE regulations · Perform follow up documentation for single and multi year NASM plans · Provide transport and injection application of liquid and solid NASMs

For more information please contact: Rob Alton or PAg, CCA-CA 905-312-4095


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W. www.terratec.amwater.com May 2012 | 55

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:38 PM Page 56


Mobile apps now make environmental data collection accessible and easy By Stephen Grant


n the consumer market, the adoption of mobile devices and mobile applications has exploded over the last few years. Smartphones, tablets and apps are ubiquitous. Industry analysts Gartner and IDC have both reported that almost 500 million smartphones were sold worldwide in 2011 alone. Last December, Apple announced there are now over 500,000 different applications available in its AppStore. Mobile advances have made an obvious impact in the consumer space. However, much of this same technological advancement has gone unnoticed and unexploited by many enterprises, including those that have highly mobile workforces. While numerous companies in “steeltoe” industries (engineering, construction, oil and gas, etc.) have deployed smartphones to their field workers, often these are used for little more than e-mail and everyday voice communications. However, these mobile devices can easily run data-centric applications such as safety inspections, work orders, building assessments and field data collection. By using smartphones, or tablets, companies can reduce service-related costs, avoid “paper shuffle,” reduce or eliminate data transcription and resulting delays and errors, and capture and centralize information in “near-real time”. Mobile platforms can easily allow the user to create finished PDF reports, or send structured data to a back-office system, such as MS Access or Excel, or even to complex enterprise systems like SAP or Oracle. Past challenges If it’s so easy to deploy enterprise mobile apps, why aren’t more companies doing it? The main reason is that, until very recently, it was quite expensive and still fairly risky to develop mobile applications for business purposes. In the first place, a company had to make a mobile operating system decision. There was little in the way of platform inter-operability, so a decision had to be made about which platform to adopt (e.g., Windows Mobile CE, BlackBerry, Palm, 56 | May 2012

PocketPC, etc.) One constant challenge, of course, is trying to guess which operating system will survive in the future and not become obsolete. Often companies would be unsure what choice to make, so they would postpone the decision. But as time went by, the choices got more difficult. Consider that only two years ago there was no iPad, and Android devices were still rare in the marketplace. Clearly, the mobile market is volatile, and the ability to foresee what it will look like in the future is difficult. Committing development resources to a single operating system can be quite risky. In addition, specialized skills are required. Creating and deploying mobile applications are different from building an enterprise database application, or programming a web site. Mobile applications are typically written in specialized environments like J2ME or C Sharp, which are uncommon skills in a company’s IT department. Then there are real-time issues, like network outages, modal changes from 3G networks to WiFi, priority interruptions from events such as phone calls or alerts. Furthermore, the development of a robust test environment to ensure appropriate operation on various carriers and on all possible device types can be costly and difficult, especially if users are sometimes disconnected from the network. What has changed? Some companies, most notably Federal Express and others in the parcel transport business, were pioneers in mobile communications, growing from analogue telecommunications to digital datacomm as the technology evolved. This development was essential to their businesses, but it was also very difficult and expensive, costing FedEx hundreds of millions of dollars. At least four major elements have changed since then that now allow enterprises to deploy mobile applications at a fraction of the cost, with very little risk and in a fraction of the time. 1. Mobile devices. Expensive single-purpose mobile data terminals have histori-

cally cost a few thousand dollars each. While they are very capable pieces of equipment, they can in many instances be adequately replaced by volume-priced smartphones or tablets. Adequate capability may be provided for some by digital pens, which, while not as fully featured as smartphones, are less expensive and may be suitable for some applications. 2. Network access. Mobile pioneers often had to build out their own private data networks, leasing dedicated bandwidth across the continent, sometimes running on long-haul fibre, microwave backbone or even satellite communications. Today, companies have near-universal access to the digital network via 3G/4G phone service in virtually all urban centres, and via WiFi in an ever-increasing number of buildings. Enterprise applications are often designed for “occasionally connected” users. Similar to travelers using e-mail in airplane mode, these apps allow users to work locally on their mobile devices even when not connected, then sync back to the server when they reconnect to the network. 3. Dedicated servers. Early mobile users had to build out the mobile service from the ground up within their own data centres, with complex protocol converters and communications brokers, speaking “mobile” out one side and “enterprise” out the other. Today these services are running “in the cloud” and are available to the end user as software-as-a-service (SaaS) from numerous providers. Getting started on these pay-as-yougo services is inexpensive (often less than $50 a month) and about as simple as signing up for a Hotmail account. 4. Software platforms. Finally, mobile software also had to be designed and coded “from scratch” with few tools or software development kits available. It was not uncommon for the budget for a complex mobile application to be $50,000 to $100,000, and to require six man-months of effort. Today, by using application development solutions that offer intuitive web-based design studios, many forms-based applications (work or-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 10:36 PM Page 57

Communications ders, inspections, assessments, surveys, etc.), customized to a company’s business needs, can be designed, built, tested and deployed in only a few days, for well under $10,000. By building and deploying an application based on the current class of software platforms, companies can realize the following benefits: • The enterprise application is easy to set up, use, and manage, and it often requires no software installation on the customer’s premises. (It all runs as a native application on the mobile device, talking to services running in the cloud.) • Use of a platform dramatically reduces development and deployment of a forms-based application. It is often said that, if you have an idea for a mobile application, someone has already written the first 85% of it. And that portion — the difficult part of mobile application connectivity — is now available through the mobile platform service. • The mobile platform service handles all the difficult mobile elements: device characterization (keyboard layout, event keys, touch screen, etc.), memory management, various screen sizes, data

synching, network outages, real-time events, security, account management and integration to built-in device peripherals like camera, signature capture and GPS functionality. • A single form or application definition is published from a design studio and runs on all major device types (BlackBerry, iPad, iPhone, Android tablets, etc.) simultaneously. A case study Opus2 Mobile Solutions recently undertook a mobile application project with Concentric Associates International, an Ontario-based environmental engineering firm, which showed the flexibility and responsiveness of this technology. The partnership began in early 2010 on a construction project at a hospital in a major Canadian city. To ensure that dust and fumes from the work would not travel into the rest of the hospital, the firm was hired to perform daily inspections for appropriate seals and negative air pressure. A form was created in a single business day. Employee accounts were created and software was downloaded “over the air” to the BlackBerry smartphones.

Field technicians were using the application in the field in less than a week. An employee would complete the form on the smartphone, tap the “send” button, and a completed PDF report, with the inspection data, would be sent immediately via e-mail to the project manager. Then, late in 2011, Concentric was contracted by a federal government agency to perform extensive building inspections throughout Nunavut. Opus2 Mobile Solutions worked with Concentric to design and deploy a lengthy inspection report with over 400 questions or data points, as well as GPS coding and numerous comment fields and photographs. A draft version of the form was ready in about three days and deployed to an iPad for testing in Concentric’s Ottawa office. Within two weeks of project start, Concentric had a team travelling through Nunavut communities gathering important facilities data on iPads and providing critical planning information for the government department. Based on the success of this initial project, the technology is scheduled to be rolled out for similar continued overleaf...

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:38 PM Page 58



The use of mobile applications implemented on smartphones, tablets or even digital pens can help environmental companies with environmental objectives.

projects in another 25 national regions. What if you’re still not ready? For some companies, the technology may be ready but the corporate culture is not. Even companies that are not yet prepared to deploy smartphones to their workforce may want to consider using digital “smartpens.” These provide similar data-gathering capability, but work using regular ink and paper. Innovative digital pens are available that allow a user to complete an inspection,

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assessment or work order using standard ink on forms printed on standard paper. No user training is required and solutions can be deployed within days at modest cost. Intelligence is built into the form using software that names fields, assigns unique form serial numbers, and prints this information in a barely visible microcode pattern integrated into the form graphics. When the user is filling out the form, a tiny infrared camera, integrated in the pen, reads what is written and creates a digital copy of the information, while also reading information from the micro-coded dot pattern. It can, therefore, create not only a PDF image of the completed form, but also a structured data representation of the information that has been collected. Data can be transferred via USB or Bluetooth to the network. Advanced editing and auditing (review) capabilities can be built into the data collection process to ensure that all digital information transmitted to a database is valid and correct. Smartpens may be a sensible interim solution for an organization, providing some of the key benefits of electronic field data collection, until smartphones become more common in their workplace. Intelligent planning can ensure that forms designed for smartpen use will be compatible with smartphone-based forms definitions, if and when the company chooses to deploy smartphones or tablets more extensively. The use of mobile applications implemented on smartphones, tablets or even digital pens can help environmental companies, or operational arms of companies with environmental objectives, to improve compliance, timeliness and auditability of field-collected data. Building these applications on the new class of application platforms can provide for fast implementation with minimal upfront investment. These platforms allow a company to deploy apps to numerous mobile device types simultaneously, thereby “future-proofing” the organization as the mobile landscape evolves. Stephen Grant is with Opus2 Mobile Solutions. E-mail: sgrant@opus2mobile.com


58 | May 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:38 PM Page 59

Wastewater Treatment

A lasting repair for deteriorating clarifier weirs


taff at a water pollution control plant in Southwestern Ontario recently expressed concern over the condition of the concrete weirs in their secondary clarifiers. They were also attracting high amounts of algae growth, making them difficult to clean. The clarifiers were only 11 years old, yet they were in worse condition than the primary clarifiers that were almost 50 years old. For over 60 years, Belzona has provided solutions to such maintenance problems by minimizing downtime, labour and equipment replacement costs, while increasing efficiency and ensuring environmental compliance. After these benefits were discussed, the plant’s lead operator decided to conduct a test patch. The clarifier was drained and waterblasted at 10,000psi. The repair process proceeded with conditioning the substrate, then filling cracks, pits and holes with Belzona® 4131 (Magma-Screed),

The entire surface was protected with two coats of Belzona® 5811.

which is highly resistant to abrasion and chemical attack. Lastly the entire surface was protected from further deterioration with two coats of Belzona® 5811 (Immersion Grade), a high performance barrier coating. This would also aid in the

removal of algae growth. After a successful test, the entire clarifier was coated. For more information, E-mail: lmendrek@belzonagreatlakes.com

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May 2012 | 59

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Drinking Water Treatment

Using SCADA for real-time water disinfection calculations, modeling and alarming By N. Hallas, H. Sim, K. Sayers, N. Sherwood and G. Nasby


f the many operational challenges associated with delivering clean, reliable drinking water, the management of the disinfection process in surface-water treatment plants is among the most difficult. Raw water, whether from lakes or rivers, contains small amounts of naturally occurring pathogens that must be removed and/or inactivated before the water is fit for human consumption. The key process step used to accomplish this in a multiple-barrier treatment process is primary disinfection. To work effectively, primary disinfection requires that the dosage of the disinfecting agent, water flow rates and the amount of time the water spends in contact with the disinfecting agent be carefully controlled, monitored and alarmed. This is an application where computerized supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems have proven to be an important tool. Better primary disinfection calculation tools Using mathematical models for modeling primary disinfection is not a new concept. In fact, disinfection regulations have existed in Ontario and various other jurisdictions for many years, specifying standardized “contact times” and disinfectant “dosage residual concentrations.” This has resulted in the CT (Chlorine

60 | May 2012

concentration x Time) concept, whereby a standardized calculation is performed to verify compliance with regulatory requirements. From a day-to-day operations perspective, water plant operators have dealt with these regulations in several different ways. Some have created standard operating procedures (SOPs) that require operators to complete hand calculations manually at

set times during the day. Others have created spreadsheets, or have utilized complex third-party software applications to help them perform the calculations. In Ontario, drinking water systems must comply with the Safe Drinking Water Act, along with its accompanying regulations, technical bulletins and standardized procedures. In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment issued a set of updates to its Procedure for Disinfection of Drinking Water in the Province of Ontario in the form of updated log inactivation tables. Rather than seeing this change as just another modification to its existing spreadsheet tools, Niagara Region carefully thought about how it could leverage the new procedures and use them to help optimize its water plants. With the help of the engineering firm Stantec, the Region embarked on a project to use the new regulations to develop a more sophisticated, feature-rich, spreadsheetbased model of the primary disinfection processes. By utilizing key disinfection-related process parameters, that an operator could

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Drinking Water Treatment enter into the spreadsheet, the Region now had the ability to see exactly how well its disinfection processes were performing and use these figures for process optimization. After a successful pilot project, the Region implemented the updated spreadsheet models at a number of its facilities. While the spreadsheets were accurate, they did not offer a real-time view of the CT value. Each time operators wanted to use the spreadsheet, they had to collect the relevant process values from the plant and enter them into the calculator. What the Region really wanted was to be able to use the spreadsheet calculations in real time and free the operator from having to enter in numbers manually each time. Fortunately, the Region already had the powerful tool of SCADA in each of its water treatment plants. In fact, when operators were entering numbers into the spreadsheet, they were getting information from the SCADA system’s computer screens. So why not put the spreadsheet functionality right into the SCADA system? Leveraging SCADA technology With the help of Eramosa Engineering, R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. (RVA) and Stantec, the Region converted the spreadsheet calculations into real-time programming in the SCADA system’s programmable logic controllers (PLCs). By using one of its smaller plants as a pilot, and by consulting with the operators who would use the new online calculator, the team created a set of computer screens that displayed a schematic of the CT process, key disinfection process parameters and the all-important “chlorine concentration and time ” calculations. Eramosa and RVA jointly implemented the real-time online calculator and the results were positive. Operators especially appreciated that CT calculations could now be done in real time, utilizing live process values. Based on the successes of its pilot project, the Region embarked on a program to add the new SCADA-based CT calculator to the rest of its surface-water treatment plants. By 2008, all of Niagara Region’s plants were either using the new calculator, or in the process of having it installed. Additional features possible with SCADA The original CT calculation spreadwww.esemag.com

sheet included the determination of a “safety factor” for the disinfection process. Measured as a percentage, it gave operators an indication of how much additional active disinfection capacity they had available at any time. Good operating practice is to always maintain some additional online capacity, but not too much. Having too much extra online capacity is costly, can result in higher chemical use than necessary, can potentially affect disinfection byproduct formation, and the taste/smell of

the treated water. The inclusion of prioritized real-time alarming was another major advantage of the new system. Using the SCADA alarm system, the CT calculator can offer both “warning” and “critical” level alarms. If calculated CT values continue to decrease below the warning level, the SCADA system issues a critical alarm, set at a higher priority, which notifies operators that the disinfection system recontinued overleaf...

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May 2012 | 61

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Drinking Water Treatment quires immediate attention. As an added feature for the operators, a “virtual calculator” was incorporated into the PLC logic and SCADA. Operators like the tool, because they can quickly check to see what the effect of a proposed process change would be, such as operating at a lower reservoir level, or turning on an additional high lift pump, without having to type all of the values into an offline spreadsheet. When they want to test out a process adjustment, they can simply enable the virtual calculator by clicking a button on the SCADA screen, adjust the values in the virtual calculator in which they are interested and witness the outcome. This provides operators with a higher level of control over the disinfection process. The CT calculators have also been seen as a benefit with local regulatory agencies, as they enable enhanced reporting and trending information. Putting technology investments to work When it implemented the online CT calculators, the Region was careful to leverage existing technology investments,

instead of using a third-party application. Additionally, the online CT information, calculations and alarms were easily integrated into the Region’s existing historical SCADA databases. Best of all, by using the existing SCADA infrastructure, the Region now had a system that could be easily maintained, without requiring the ongoing services of an outside consultant. Real-time calculations as a technology Using the SCADA system for online calculations and implementing real-time process models, such as the Niagara Region’s primary disinfection processes, enables this technology to be applied to a wide variety of processes and applications. For the Region’s disinfection CT calculators, real-time process values such as flows, temperatures, levels and pH, along with physical plant geometry, are used to calculate actual disinfection performance. Values calculated by the SCADA system include the actual CT, minimum required CT, log reduction achieved, log reduction required, and derived values

such as a safety factor. To use this same technology for other applications and processes, the inputs and outputs and the programming that links them together could be easily replaced by other mathematical models. Other municipal waterworks applications could include implementing process models for reverse osmosis membrane performance, monitoring degradation for residual secondary disinfection and modeling ongoing filter performance. This technology could be used in wastewater treatment for mass balance calculations, thickening/dewatering processes, and tracking solids transport in activated sludge systems. N. Hallas and G. Nasby are with Eramosa Engineering Inc. H. Sim is with Niagara Region. K. Sayers is with R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd., and N. Sherwood is with Stantec Consulting Ltd. For more information, E-mail: dennis.mutti@eramosa.com


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62 | May 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-06-01 7:46 PM Page 63

Wastewater Treatment

Canadian company develops cost-effective method for removing soluble mercury (Continued from page 36) chemicals must be competing for active sites located on the surface of the medium. It was found that water containing sulphide used in the current mercury treatment process was creating site problems. This required removing the bulk of the mercury from the raw water using a process that would not introduce a compound that would take up active sites in the media. The second approach was to use the most active medium to remove the remaining mercury in the water to achieve this goal. The system is a pre-filter, followed by series of columns that reduce the mercury concentration to less than 1,000 ng/L, and then a series of media columns to remove the remaining mercury from the water. The system is designed as a continuous flow process. The bench design is capable of removing mercury to under 12 ng/L. This design processes the water in just less than 1.5 hours. Based on previous experience and flow controls, the system can be speeded up or slowed down, depending on the final concentration needed. The original setup was based on processing 120 gal/min. Table 1 shows data achieved from three trials. Based on these results, it can be concluded that reducing mercury to the extremely low levels required by the new regulations can be achieved. ZorbTech is in the process of setting up a pilot-scale plant in order to illustrate this technology. Much of the processing information is a variation of a previous pilot study and plant. The information learned in this latest study will allow the pilot plant to be refitted and demonstrate the scaling up of the process. The plant, as currently devel-

ZorbTech’s mercury removal wastewater treatment pilot plant.

oped, can process up to 40 gal/min, and the redesigned plant may have the same capacity. A larger bench scale system is being designed to process up to 5gpm of water, utilizing the multiple columns and media processing on a continuous basis. This system will allow various media to be tested in a real working system. If the theoretical data generated to date is close to an actual removal rate, even the bench scale will treat a significant volume of water. The early estimates indicate 1 kilogram of DioSorb can treat upwards of 170,000 gallons. A metric tonne of this adsorbent could have the capacity to treat

170,000,000 gallons of water. The estimated treatment cost per gallon is in the range of $0.00035 per gallon. The system can test mercury levels at various points and a complete mass balance of the mercury can be calculated from start to finish. Loading capacity data and the cost per gallon will be available when the test is completed later this year. Don Wilson and Bill Purves are with ZorbTech Environmental Solutions. E-mail: don.wilson@zorbtechenvironmental.com


Initial Concentration

Final Discharge

Test 1 Merculite Diosorb

1,600,000 ng/L

11.7 ng/L

Test 2 Merculite Diosorb

1,600,000 ng/L

11.4 ng/L

Test 3 Merculite Diosorb

1,600,000 ng/L

7.8 ng/L

Table 1. www.esemag.com

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Drinking Water

Protecting the Grand River Watershed’s source water from chemicals and pathogens By Emily Stahl, Martin Keller and Gregg Zwiers


ntario’s Clean Water Act Source Water Protection Program provides a consistent framework for science based assessment of ground and surface water sources and has resulted in the development of effective policies to protect municipal residential drinking water sources. The science upon which the Program is founded is presented on a watershed basis within the Assessment Reports. Protection of the municipal residential drinking water sources is afforded by the Source Protection Plans. Both the assessment reports and the Plans are developed by a local multi-stakeholder committee and approved by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE). These Plans contain policies to either prohibit or manage activities that have been prescribed as drinking water threats through the Act. Technical rules in the Clean Water Act include requirements that must be followed for the completion of groundwater and surface water technical studies that form the basis of the assessment reports. These reports describe for each municipal residential drinking water system the spatial extent of where policies are applied and how restrictive policies can be for both existing and future land use activities. The Grand River Watershed is located within the Lake Erie Source Protection Region. It covers an area of approximately 6,800 square kilometres in south central Ontario and flows 300 kilometres from the headwaters of the Upper Grand to Lake Erie. Groundwater provides approximately 82 percent of the population

Lake Erie Source Protection Region Boundary.

tive, natural conditions, as well as the hydrological and hydrogeological environment in which the policy will be implemented, must be understood. To achieve this, the Act requires the determi-

Technical rules in the Clean Water Act include requirements that must be followed for the completion of groundwater and surface water technical studies in the Grand River Watershed with their potable water, and is used in agriculture, industry, and the commercial production of bottled water. To develop ground and surface water policies that are implementable and effec64 | May 2012

nation of the susceptibility of municipal drinking water to contamination. For groundwater, one of the approaches considered acceptable by the MOE is to determine the advection time of a contaminant released at surface to

travel to the aquifer of interest: the Surface to Aquifer Advection Time (SAAT). Two separate components are determined. The unsaturated zone advection time (UZAT) is computed using values assumed for the depth to the water table, mobile water content and infiltration rate. The water table to aquifer advection time (WAAT) computation includes aquifer porosity, thickness of the geologic layer, vertical hydraulic conductivity and the difference between the head in the confined aquifer and the water table. Within large areas of the Lake Erie Source Protection Region, the SAAT method is used to calculate regional vulnerability, which forms one component of the vulnerability analysis of a munici-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Drinking Water pal residential drinking water well. Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) mapping is based on the time of travel capture zones delineated for each municipal well field. These capture zones are based on current and future pumping rates of municipal wells within the saturated zone. Determination of the WHPAs identifies the 100 metre, 2 year, 5 year and 25 year time of travel zones as shown for the Community of Arthur. These WHPAs are overlain and integrated with the SAAT map to produce vulnerability scores for each. The higher the score, the more susceptible groundwater is to potential drinking water threats. For surface water, the approach identifies Intake Protection Zones (IPZ) around the surface water intake, as presented for the City of Brantford. IPZ-1 is based on a one kilometre radius circle for Great Lake intakes and 200 metres for river intakes. The IPZ-2 is defined as the minimum two hour travel time to the in-

take. The IPZ-3 includes areas beyond IPZ-2. Both IPZ-2 and IPZ-3 comprise specified setbacks from the edge of the watercourse. Further, an analysis of any natural or human-made transport pathways such as tiled fields and gullies was completed and, as necessary, included in IPZ-2. Vulnerability scoring was determined for each zone, based on factors such as run off potential hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, depth and distance of the intake to land, and historical water quality concerns. The vulnerability score for each zone refers to the likelihood of a contaminant entering the surface water and impacting the water supply intake. The higher the vulnerability score in an area, the more vulnerable the intake is from spills and contamination. After determining vulnerable areas, identification of existing chemical drinking water threats (e.g., solvents, fuels and continued overleaf...

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May 2012 | 65

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Drinking Water

Surface Water Intake Protection Zone for City of Brantford.

pesticides) and pathogen drinking water threats (e.g., sewage, manure) is undertaken. Specific activities have been iden-

tified as drinking water threats and are outlined in the Act. The ranking of threats into significant, moderate and

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low is based on the combination of the vulnerability score and a hazard score. The hazard score considers the toxicity, environmental fate, and quantity of the contaminant and is being determined through technical rules. The scientific basis of the WHPAs, IPZs and vulnerability scoring enables development of municipal based drinking water policies that are more effective and defensible. For example, restrictive policies requiring the prohibition of an activity can now be directed to areas where, through the assessment of local ground and surface water, conditions have been determined to be very susceptible to contamination. Therefore, more stringent policy measures can be implemented in that area. Through the Source Water Protection Program, historical raw groundwater chemistry was also analysed for each municipal drinking water system. Analysis determined if concentrations of contaminants were present at the well, which would lead to deterioration of the quality of the water used for drinking. In such cases where monitoring data showed elevated nitrate or chloride levels, an “Issue” was noted for this system. For each identified Issue, an Issue Contributing Area (ICA) was developed. In most cases, this is the 25 year time of travel capture zone, as presented for the County of Brant. The ICA is the area within which activities have, or are likely to contribute to the elevated contaminant at the well. The focus of policy development in

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Drinking Water these areas is to control, reduce or eliminate potential sources, therefore reducing contaminant loading over time. There are cases where municipalities are successful in reducing the loading of contaminants, such as nitrate and chloride at their wells. With greater understanding of local environmental conditions, the scientific basis in the development of source water protection plan policies allows for effective protection from chemical and pathogen threats. Vulnerability mapping shown in the assessment reports identifies areas that need to be protected, to ensure long-term quality of drinking water supplies. As Source Protection Plans are approved and implemented, the required monitoring of the effectiveness of policies will allow for an analysis of the success of this program. Emily Stahl is with WESA Inc. Martin Keller and Gregg Zwiers are with the Grand River Conservation Authority. For further information, E-mail: estahl@wesa.ca, or visit www.sourcewater.ca, or www.grandriver.ca. Wellhead Protection Area for the City of Brant.


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An innovative Canadian water infrastructure rehabilitation approach saves money, water and reduces greenhouse gas emissions By Joe Loiacono


s were metals in the 19th century and oil in the 20th, water is becoming the most valuable commodity in the 21st century. It is common knowledge that water infrastructure is ageing and past its useful life in many areas of the industrialized world. Therefore, our most precious resource must be managed to minimize loss in water distribution networks. In Canada, most of the water infrastructure was built in the post-WW II era. Every year, cities, large or small, have to repair many breaks and leaks at a great cost to the community. For example, the City of Toronto experienced 1,115 breaks in 2011. These repairs can cost as much as $5,000 to $8,000 each, which can amount to hundreds of thousands if not millions of dollars annually for certain cities. This does not include the cost of water lost and the hardships endured by citizens. Large Canadian cities lose as much as 42% of the water treated in the distribution systems. The lost water often flows to the

Installation of the structural curedin-place liner. 68 | May 2012

Water main break. (Photo courtesy of City of St-Jérome.)

deteriorated sewage system and is treated as sewage before being discarded. This is costly and environmentally unsound. The results of a survey carried out in several Canadian cities by the Centre for Expertise and Research on Infrastructure in Urban Areas (CERIU), show that the total annual cost, for a city, due to breaks and water loss is estimated to be between $500,000 and $100 M depending on the size of the water system. It is evident from these results that important potential savings can be achieved by simply reducing or eliminating water main breaks and leaks by implementing a water main renewal program. Up until 10 to 20 years ago, open cut replacement was the method of choice for replacing old deteriorated water mains with newer ones. Compared to other available methods, open cut can be very costly and disturbing to residents. Now, most Canadian cities are reverting to trenchless cured-in-place piping (CIPP) to renew their water mains. CIPP methods use a lining system that allows the owner to renew their water mains with a fully structural solution without the inconvenience of digging trenches. Distribution water mains, which account for the majority of mains installed in North-America, are typically much smaller in diameter (150 mm to 300 mm)

than transmission mains. They are also equipped with service connections located at every home and business in order to provide them with drinking water. Although trenchless technologies such as pipe bursting, slip lining and horizontal directional drilling could be used to renew these small diameter distribution water mains, their installation methods require the excavation of every service connection in order to restore water service to the home owner. These technologies can be more easily used in larger diameter transmission mains where there are few or no service connections. Structural CIPP has been installed in well over 900 kms of water mains in North America. The technology not only provides a structural solution but it also allows for the reinstatement of the service connections from inside the pipe with the use of robotics. Sanexen Environmental Services Inc. developed the AQUA-PIPE® technology in the mid nineties to provide a low dig structural solution for deteriorated water mains and the robotic reinstatement of service connections. AQUA-PIPE is the only Canadian liner certified for potable water use by the BNQ to NQ Standard 3660-950 and by NSF to NSF/ANSI Standard 61. Two projects awarded in 2010 and

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Infrastructure Description



Length of CIPP installed in the City of Montreal (km) Total water loss before rehabilitation (L/h) Total water loss after rehabilitation (L/h) Overall water savings (L/h) Overall water savings(m3/year)

20.0 90 963.9 927.5 90 036 788 719

10.0 46 297.7 285.9 46 011.8 403 063

Table 1. Total water savings after CIPP rehabilitation of distribution water mains.

2011 required the structural rehabilitation of 20 km and 10 km, respectively, of small diameter distribution water mains throughout a dozen boroughs of the City of Montreal. Both contracts specified that a hydrostatic pressure test be carried out on the water mains before the start of construction, and that a similar test be carried out after work was completed. The final results of these tests can be seen in Table 1. The overall annual water savings for these two projects are over 99%. For the years 2008 to 2010, the City saved over $60 M in direct construction costs for the structural rehabilitation with CIPP of approximately 36 kms of water mains, compared to replacing the pipes using the open cut method.

Structural CIPP provides many other benefits beyond being a low dig and less costly structural solution, including: increased pressure and flow capacity; prevents future tuberculation; possibility to line through bends; rapid and less disruptive construction; reduced breaks and water loss; reduced social impacts. Another important benefit of CIPP technology is the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Calculations of AQUA-PIPE’s GHG emissions were completed according to a rigorous quantification protocol based on the ISO 140642-2 international standard, the principles of life cycle analysis and two other validated protocols. The quantification report has been verified by the BNQ, a

standard development organization, according to the requirements of the ISO 14064-3 international standard. It was determined that AQUA-PIPE reduces GHG emissions by 84% compared to traditional open cut replacements. This figure does not include GHG savings due to other impacts such as traffic detours and increased vehicle idling. Structural CIPP is now a proven technology which is approved and used by water utilities throughout North America. Joe Loiacono is with Sanexen Environmental Services Inc. E-mail: jloiacono@sanexen.com. References are available on request.


Celebrating 100 years in Canada


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Guest Comment

What does Ontario’s budget mean for environmental and clean tech firms? By Alex Gill


arlier this year, Ontario Finance Minister Dwight Duncan unveiled what he hoped would be a “Goldilocks” budget. Like many of his predecessors from governments of all stripes, he tried to hit that sweet spot of “not too hard, not too soft, just right” that we all remember from the children’s story. But was he successful? In a province facing an unprecedented budget deficit, the government is predicting it will spend $126-billion in the coming year, offset by just $112-billion in revenues. And while the Finance Minister reports he is on track to balance the books by 2017-18, many observers are disappointed that the province does not appear to have fully embraced the bold vision offered in last month’s Drummond Report. Most of the Drummond panel’s recommendations focused on reinventing the way in which government does things, calling for stronger partnerships with the private sector and a rethink of large scale investments that are not backed by independent research (such as smaller class sizes). The province appeared initially supportive of Drummond and had set an expectation that the report would pave the way for largescale changes in government operations and public services. While the budget does have a definite austerity focus, it falls short of totally embracing the Drummond recommendations. To read ONEIA’s analysis of the Drummond Report, please visit www.oneia.ca What can Ontario’s environmental and clean tech companies take away from this budget? There are numerous aspects that will affect them, from freezing the reductions in corporate taxes to increased water usage fees. But, three of them bear closer scrutiny: 1. Rationalizing programs – but will they be rational? In ONEIA’s 2009 Ready to Grow report, we called for the government to restructure programs and support for firms in our sector to better reflect their reality. Environmental and 70 | May 2012

clean tech companies across Ontario had told us that they often do not apply for government programs because it takes too much time and places an undue burden upon them that is not matched by the possible outcome. “If it costs us $10,000 in time to apply for a $50,000 grant that we might not get, what’s the point?” said the CEO of one firm. The Drummond panel picked up on this concern and strongly recommended that the province’s various support programs be rationalized. The Ontario budget committed to take 40 programs that offer more than $2-billion in support across seven different ministries and

Environmental and clean tech companies across Ontario had told us that they often do not apply for government programs because it takes too much time. amalgamate them into one “Jobs and Prosperity Fund.” This commitment was accompanied by a parallel pledge to make this new fund “administratively more efficient.” Environmental and clean tech firms will only benefit from this rationalization, however, if the way small- and medium-sized companies can apply for this support is made more realistic and accessible. There may be an opening to do this through a new “Jobs and Prosperity Council”, which was also established in the budget. This new Council will provide advice to government on “…improving research and development (R&D) tax credits to increase business R&D expenditures and simplify compli-

ance and administration.” 2. Serious budget cuts at MOE – but where will the axe fall? The Ontario Ministry of the Environment will see its budget decrease by more than $50-million in the coming year – a reduction of 9% from the previous year. As a large number of the companies in the environmental and clean tech sector rely on stable and progressive regulatory enforcement, they will be justifiably worried about what cuts of this magnitude might mean. Traditionally, government departments deal with budget cuts in one of two ways: a) they innovate and find ways to meet their mandate by doing less, prioritizing or doing things differently; or b) they try to do things the way they always have, but with fewer resources. With both of these options in play, ONEIA will be watching to see how internal cuts at MOE play out and what impact they may have on a sector that is becoming one of the most consistent job creators in the Ontario economy. 3. Approvals modernization will continue, but at what cost? ONEIA’s Ready to Grow report also strongly urged the province to modernize the approvals process at MOE. The Ministry responded positively and we are midway through an effort to replace the former Certificates of Approval (CofA) with Environmental Compliance Approvals (ECAs) and a new electronic registry (or EASR). While companies have been cautiously optimistic about this move, this budget announced that fees for this new approval process will increase as part of a move towards “full cost recovery.” While the budget also commits to “the establishment of service standards … to ensure timely and efficient approvals”, ONEIA will be watching this move carefully, lest environmental and clean tech firms be stuck paying more for a system that may not deliver faster approval times. Alex Gill is the Executive Director of ONEIA. E-mail:agill@oneia.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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ACG Technology’s package treatment system offers performance and durability. It provides sewage treatment within a small footprint. Aeration, mixing and settling can be accomplished in compact, easily transported ISO containers, ideal for remote locations. Provides flexibility of adding future parallel units, an economical means of meeting the needs of any growing sewage loads. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

Oxygen for lagoons and activated sludge

Coalescing oil/water separators ACG Technology’s coalescing oil/ water separators are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP and polypropylene construction. Standard systems include air-operated diaphragm pump, air filter and floating skimmer. Adjustable weir and skimmer height provides optimal oil removal and minimal disposal volume. Standard range is 1 to 50 GPM. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com

To reduce BOD, odour, sludge volume index and polymer, activate your sludge systems with a boost of oxygen. VentoxAL pure-oxygen transfer systems are designed for easy installation. Contact one of Air Liquide Canada’s specialists. Tel: 450-641-6218 E-mail: michel.epiney@airliquide.com Tel 780-438-5635 E-mail: Camille.lanctot-downs@airliquide.com

ACG Technology

Air Liquide Canada

Online education

Phoenix Panel System

Phoenix Underdrain System

American Public University is a leading provider of quality online education. APU offers more than 170 undergraduate and graduate degree and certificate programs for environmental science, policy, and management professionals. When you’re ready to learn more, visit StudyatAPU.com/ESE. Tel: 877-777-9081 E-mail: info@apus.edu Web: StudyatAPU.com/ESE American Public University

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Installs directly over existing underdrain system • Eliminates the need for base gravel layers • Improves backwash flow distribution • Provides longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

• Optimizes all types of filters • Extremely low profile; lowest available • Manufactured from corrosion-resistant stainless steel • Variable custom orifice sizing • Custom hydraulic design • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution • Rapid, low-cost installation Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com

Process Control

Package treatment plant

High rate filtration system

WesTech Engineering’s ClariCell-B™ Package Treatment Plant utilizes a two-stage configuration consisting of an up-flow buoyant coarse media roughing filter followed by a conventional down-flow fine media filter. Pre-engineered for simplicity, the ClariCell-B is easily installed and integrated into new or existing flow sheets for low to medium flow water treatment. Tel: 705-725-9377, Fax: 705-725-8279 E-mail: info@cmeti.com Web: www.cmeti.com

The WWETCO FlexFilter™ from WesTech Engineering provides an innovative solution for CSO, primary treatment, tertiary treatment and industrial water pretreatment. The combination of tapered media compression, porosity gradient within the media bed and a low flow backwash system make the FlexFilter one of the most versatile and efficient filters on the market. Tel: 705-725-9377, Fax: 705-725-8279 E-mail: info@cmeti.com Web: www.cmeti.com

C&M Environmental Technologies

C&M Environmental Technologies

The Burkert mxControl type 8620 is designed to automate the control of process variables within a water treatment system. This multi-purpose process and chemistry controller can integrate an HMI, PLC, data logger, enclosure, and power supply and is designed to be connected live to the Web with an on board Ethernet port. Tel: 905-632-3033, Fax: 905-632-3833 E-mail: sales.ca@burkert.com Web: www.burkert.ca Bürkert Fluid Control Systems



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Product & Service Showcase

Package Treatment System

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P roduct & Service Showcase

Portable lighting

Rentals department

The AirStar portable emergency lighting operates from 110V and will light up a wide area for emergency work at night or in poorly lit areas. It is self-inflating, pops up quickly and easily, and will work in all types of weather. Tel: 800-265-0182 905-949-2741, Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com

Concept Controls’ rental inventory is the largest in Canada, giving our customers a flexible alternative to buying. We ensure that we always have the most up-to-date Gas Monitors, Industrial Hygiene instrumentation, and Environmental Monitoring equipment, calibrated and ready for you. Tel: 888-207-2212 E-mail: rentals@conceptcontrols.com Web: www.conceptcontrols.com

Canadian Safety Equipment

Concept Controls

Multiparameter controller

Water sampler

Memosens sensor technology and the new digital Liquiline CM442 platform make "plug & play" online analyzers and samplers a true reality. Modular design allows for any combination of inputs (DO, TSS, pH, conductivity, chlorine, nitrate, Ion Selective and blanket level). All are easily customized to your specific process. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/analysis

The new CSF48 from Endress+Hauser sets the benchmark in water quality monitoring. Choose between vacuum or peristaltic pumping, and multiple sampling routines. Opt for the two industrial digital sensors (expanding to eight in the future) and connect to the SCADA with the latest communications protocols. A complete monitoring and collection solution responding to today’s industrial requirements. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com



Denso Petrolatum Tapes Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Process mixing system The HYDRAULIX mixing systems feature a unique double nozzle design which allows for even energy distribution. This process optimizes solids suspension and contact to promote efficiency in a wide range of wastewater and bio-fuels applications. E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Ultrasonic flow meter

Ozone systems

Groundwater data logger

The new Greyline TTFM 1.0 Transit Time Flow Meter accurately measures flow from the outside of metal or plastic pipes. It includes clamp-on ultrasonic transducers for easy flow measurement of liquids including water, oils and chemicals. Powerful new digital signal processing ensures high ±1.0% accuracy in a wide range of applications and operating conditions. Tel: 888-473-9546 E-mail: info@greyline.com Web: www.greyline.com

H2Flow offers Pinnacle’s revolutionary Zenith ozone systems, producing up to 600 lbs/day (5% wt.) per unit. With their highly efficient design, they can be turned up/down for 100% dosage variability. They are built with solid components, are rugged, proven, extremely compact, and water cooled, with no yearly maintenance. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: info@h2flow.com Web: www.h2flow.com

The Heron dipperLog is the answer to your long-term groundwater level monitoring program. It will measure and record groundwater levels and temperatures over long periods of time. See how Heron Instruments has made groundwater data logging easy and cost-effective for everyone who needs to monitor their water level and temperature. Tel: 800-331-2032 Web: www.heroninstruments.com

Greyline Instruments


Heron Instruments

72 | May 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:40 PM Page 73

The YSI ProODOTM handheld DO meter provides extreme durability for the measurement of optical, luminescent-based dissolved oxygen for any field application. Web: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

Multiparameter meter

Screw press

The YSI Professional Plus handheld multiparameter meter provides extreme flexibility for the measurement of a variety of combinations for dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, salinity, resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ORP, pH/ORP combination, ammonium (ammonia), nitrate, chloride and temperature. Web: www.hoskin.ca

Huber Technology’s RoS3Q Inclined Screw Press provides high performance sludge dewatering in a compact, entirely enclosed machine. The RoS3Q provides efficient and reliable operation with minimal operator attendance. The slow rotational design is simple and energy-efficient. E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.huberforum.net/ESE

Hoskin Scientific

Huber Technology

Sludge screen

Protecting sensitive watershed

The Strainpress® Inline Sludge Screen from Huber Technology is designed to effectively screen sludge in pressurized lines. Reduces maintenance costs and increases the operating reliability of downstream sludge treatment systems. The Strainpress is precision manufactured of stainless steel. There are more than 700 installations. E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.huberforum.net/ESE

Strescon Limited in Saint John, New Brunswick, has supplied the largest Stormceptor ever installed in Atlantic Canada, an STC 14,000 installed at the Costco Wholesale site in Fredericton. The site encompasses Corbett Brook and adjacent wetlands on the grounds of the University of New Brunswick, which are home to various species, a mature forest and wetlands. Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: info@imbriumsystems.com Web: www.imbriumsystems.com; www.stormceptor.com

Huber Technology

Imbrium Systems

New technical reference blog

IPEX has launched ABetterSewer.com, a new blog for wastewater engineers, designers and operators. It will cover technical issues related to drop structures, sewer hydraulics and odor control, and will inform on technology and opinions of industry experts with a specific focus upon the Vortex Flow Solution. Tel: 905-403-0264 E-mail: Jennifer.tuck@ipexna.com Web: www.abettersewer.com IPEX Management

Polymer hydration

Physicochemical pretreatment

Single-stage pumps

HYDRA-POL Systems for the preparation and Injection of polymer powder offer: a turn key package, pre-wired and pretested; complete hydration of polymer (4 zones); real-time monitoring of polymer activation available; posiportion volumetric feeder; stainless steel tanks; and panels and controls specialized to customer requirements. Tel: 905-286-4846 E-mail: instrumentation@johnmeunier.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com

HYDREX™ water treatment chemicals are formulated to meet the individual specifications of customers in the industrial and municipal sectors. They are key components in physicochemical pretreatment of water, including clarification, antiscaling, anti-fouling and corrosion mitigation applications. Tel: 1-888-LINKVWS (546-5897) E-mail: canada.service@veoliawater.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com

KSB’s line of RDLO pumps are best-in-class performers in split volute casing pumps. Reliable workhorses for moving large volumes of fluid, these powerful single-stage utility pumps can handle a wide range of applications – from water transfer, irrigation and desalination to industrial water supply. Standard RDLOs come with capacities up to 10,000 m3/h and heads as high as 240 m. Tel: 905-568-9200 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca

John Meunier

John Meunier

KSB Pumps Inc.


May 2012 | 73

Product & Service Showcase

Hand-held DO meter

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:41 PM Page 74

Safety hatches MSU MG Safety Hatches - the open and shut case for hatch standards. With single, double and multi-door configurations in aluminum and stainless steel, they are made right here in Canada. Check us out on the web www.msumississauga.com Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com

P roduct & Service Showcase

MSU Mississauga

Water reuse systems

Safety hatches

MSU MG Safety Hatches set the standard in Canada for fall-through protection. They withstand pedestrian and occasional traffic loads. With single, double and multi-door configurations in aluminum and stainless steel, they are made in Canada. Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com Web: www.msumississauga.com MSU Mississauga

ORIVAL, Inc. now provides complete water filtration systems designed for specific municipal and industrial applications. These systems include filters, manifold, valves and control. ORIVAL ORG and OR Series of Automatic SelfCleaning Filters are designed to withstand the day-in and day-out rigours of POTWs. A wide range of filters is available from ¾” to 24”, and filtration degrees from 5 to 3000 microns. Tel: 201-568-3311, 800-567-9767 E-mail: filters@orival.com Web: www.orival.com ORIVAL, Inc.

Area monitoring

Metering pump

Metering pumps

The Dräger Xzone 5000, in combination with the Dräger X-am 5000, monitors up to six hazardous gases and warns at pre-set levels. This easily transportable, robust and waterproof instrument extends mobile gas detection technology to a unique system with many applications. Tel: 800-560-4402, Fax: 877-820-9667 E-mail: sales@ospreyscientific.com Web: www.ospreyscientific.com

The awardwinning delta® with optoDrive® provides diverse control and operating capabilities in a capacity range of 7.5 - 75 l/h, 362 psi - 29 psi. The delta from ProMinent has many advanced features: pulsed or continuous dosing; automatic detection of airlock, low pressure and high pressure; and an automatic degassing option. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca/delta

Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment.

Osprey Scientific

ProMinent Fluid Controls

ProMinent Fluid Controls

Solution architecture

Schneider Electric is the only global specialist providing EcoStruxure, an integrated systems architecture unifying process management, energy management and security management for water and wastewater. Our solutions can save up to 30% in operating and design costs. Tel: 800-565-6699 E-mail: canadian.pss@ca.schneider-electric.com Web: www.schneider-electric.com Schneider Electric

74 | May 2012

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca

Automation solution

Headworks system

The simple combination design of the Smart Servo Package allows for an extremely high level of flexibility with various extension products, which can be optionally combined to meet the requirements of the application, communication and automation structure. Tel: 905-791-1553 E-mail: marketing@sew-eurodrive.ca Web: www.sew-eurodrive.ca


Smith & Loveless Inc. announces its latest headworks innovation, PISTA® WORKS™, a pre-engineered packaged headworks system, combining screening, grit removal and grit washing into one integrated system. It is pre-assembled and shipped direct to the job site, significantly reducing field-installation costs, while allowing for a compact footprint. All equipment components are constructed of stainless steel. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:41 PM Page 75

The LTC Levelogger Junior from Solinst allows datalogging of conductivity, along with water level and temperature. It combines memory for 16,000 sets of readings and a 5-year battery in a small waterproof housing, with 2% accuracy from 500 to 50,000 μS/cm. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com Solinst Canada

Inline disposable filters

Waterra currently has three Inline Disposable Filter options available: the 0.45 Micron high turbidity FHT-45, the 0.45 Micron medium turbidity FMT-45, and the 0.2 Micron CAP300X2. All our filters use high quality polyethersulphone filter media (which offers excellent particle retention above the target micron size range) and are pre-rinsed with 1L of de-ionized water to ensure purity. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra

Groundwater sampling The HydraSleeve Discreet Interval No-Purge Sampler provides a formation quality sample with very little effort and cost. In independent studies, the HydraSleeve was found to be 50%-80% more cost-effective than other sampling methods. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps


Hatch safety net

Controlling contaminated groundwater

The lightweight Hatch Safety Net is designed to be permanently installed and easily retractable in floor and roof openings where the risk of fall through is present. When closed, the net system allows people to move freely around confined space openings without fear of falling into the opening. It also allows visibility of inspections and accessibility for limited maintenance and float adjustments. When entry/exit is required, the net can be easily unhooked on all but one side of the opening. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: epsl@telus.net USF Fabrication

Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wall for groundwater containment and control. It is a new design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills assisted in developing the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: info@waterloo-barrier.com Web: www. waterloo-barrier.com

Peristaltic pumps

Mechanical actuators

The Pegasus Alexis® Peristaltic Pump from Waterra is a self-contained sampling station that includes all the best features of these devices. Packaged in the rugged Pelican™ 1430 case and incorporating its own power supply and charger, this pump will keep you sampling in the field all day long. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

The portable, electrically operated Hydrolift has been one of the most popular mechanical actuators for the Waterra Inertial Pump, and we've been working to make it better. Today, the improved Hydrolift is more durable and easier to use and, most importantly, more affordable than ever. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Waterra Pumps

New jet aerators Based on the clogfree Flygt Npumps, the new Flygt jet aerator from Xylem has become easier to install and maintain. The major changes in the new generation jet aerators are: an improved lift in/lift out structure, and a strengthened stand equipped with rubber dampers. Available with up to three ejectors, the Flygt jet aerator is a flexible aeration solution for small- and mediumsized tanks. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca Xylem

Waterloo Barrier

New Amalgam UV lamps Xylem’s new WEDECO ECORAY® ultraviolet lamps offer significant savings in operation and life cycle costs. The UV lamps incorporate a new long-life coating and improved overall stability and performance. An innovative gas and amalgam mixture in the lamp utilizes up to 80 percent less mercury. Corresponding electronic ballast cards have been fine-tuned to the specific requirements of ECORAY lamp aging characteristics. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca


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Product & Service Showcase

Conductivity levelogger

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:41 PM Page 76

Impacts of Canadaʼs 2012 Economic Action Plan

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With federal program funding cuts being announced, the impacts of the "2012 Economic Action Plan" are now being realized. Public Safety Canada (PSC) has announced that they are closing the Canadian Emergency Management College. The College provided emergency management training to practitioners. Justification for the closure is that this training is widely available from provincial and municipal governments, as well as colleges, universities and private sector organizations. The government is examining ways of offering e-learning and other alternative course delivery options. PSC has also announced the termination of the Joint Emergency Preparedness Program (JEPP). The original objectives of this program, namely, to enhance local emergency preparedness and response capacity, have been met. Federal contributions for emergency preparedness projects under JEPP will end in 2013 as will federal funding provided under JEPP for Urban Search and Rescue and for Critical Infrastructure initiatives. Funding continues to be in place for projects submitted for consideration in 2012-13. It is also believed that the federal government is making cuts to its water programs. Among other programs, it will stop financial support for the implementation of the WaterSense labeling program in Canada. WaterSense provides verification and labeling for water efficient appliances and fixtures. It may also discontinue the National Municipal Water and Wastewater Survey, which provided data on water use, treatment, and discharge. Finally, the Water Resources Strategies Section of the Sustainable Water Management Division will cease operations.

WEAO produces new biosolids video

Markham, Ontario 905-747-8506 WeKnowWater@BV.com Consulting • Engineering • Construction • Operation

76 | May 2012


The Water Environment Association of Ontario has produced a new video, Biosolids: Naturally Sustainable. This 18 minute documentary explores the use of biosolids as a safe, effective fertilizer alternative for Ontario’s agricultural sector. The video has been nominated for the award for best educational tool given by the Water Environment Federation. www.weao.org Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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CWWA appoints new Executive Director Robert Haller has been selected as the new executive director of the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association. Haller has worked with the City of Ottawa, the Township of Goulbourn, the Town of Prescott, Tay Valley Township, and as a municipal consultant. www.cwwa.ca

Endress+Hauser Canada donates $1.4 million to trades and technology complex Endress+Hauser Canada is making a $1.4 million donation to the new SAIT Polytechnic Trades and Technology Complex in Calgary, Alberta. The donation will fund the Endress+Hauser Process Lab, which will provide state-of-the-art training to students attending the prestigious SAIT’s MacPhail School of Energy. The labour shortage in this specialized trade, coupled with growing demand in the coming decade, make the donation very timely. The lab will be outfitted with the latest flow and interface measurement technologies, in addition to guided-wave radar instruments and nuclear density profiling systems. The company will also provide guest lecturers and various training materials that explain the different measurement technologies. www.ca.endress.com

Canada's GHG emissions remain steady

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Canada’s Environment Minister Peter Kent and Parliamentary Secretary Jacques Gourde recently announced that Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions remained steady in 2010, even though the economy grew. “We are seeing good progress in our sector-by-sector approach to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions by 17% below 2005 levels by 2020,” said Gourde. “Emissions have declined in almost all sectors since 2005.” The Government of Canada simultaneously released the National Inventory Report, the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program facility-level data and related continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

Elemental Controls Heavy Metals In Soils

In-situ analysis Low PPM levels 33 elements ie Pb, Cd, As

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Particulate Monitoring

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Phone: 905-777-9494 E: info@hydrologic.ca W: www.hydrologic.ca



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overview report, and the greenhouse gas indicators of the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators program. The reports showed that: • Between 2009 and 2010, emissions remained steady despite economic growth of 3.2%. • Since 2005, annual greenhouse gas emissions have dropped by 48 megatonnes. • Emissions have declined in almost all sectors, including oil and gas, and electricity generation, since 2005. • Per capita emissions remain at an historic low of 20.3 tonnes of carbon dioxide. • Equivalent per person, their lowest level since tracking began in 1990. • While emissions have grown 17.5% since 1990, Canada’s economy has grown 60.5%. www.ec.gc.ca

KSB appoints rep for Western Canada KSB Pumps Inc. has appointed Calgarybased Waste’n WaterTech Ltd. as its exclusive distributor for the municipal water and wastewater markets in Western Canada. The company offers a diversified line of equipment and technologies needed to handle water, wastewater and biosolids. www.ksb.ca

Changing NB water and wastewater commissions Water and wastewater commissions in New Brunswick would be subject to greater accountability and strengthened governance rules under amendments proposed to the Clean Environment Act, in accordance with recommendations made by the Auditor General in 2011. The new measures include: setting term limits for commission members; allowing municipal and rural community councils to appoint their own members; requiring commissions to submit annual budgets, financial statements and reports to communities and the Minister; requiring commissions to conduct annual general meetings that are open to the public; and authorizing the Commissioner of Municipal Affairs to direct a financial audit of a commission. www.gnb.ca/environment Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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BCʼs brownfield renewal funding program British Columbia is providing up to $1.8 million this year to revitalize brownfield sites. Since its creation in 2007, the Program has provided more than $4.2 million toward 60 projects in 44 communities. The funding program is part of the BC Brownfield Renewal Strategy, developed to encourage redevelopment. Recipients can use the funding to conduct environmental studies to determine if a site is contaminated and the options and costs of site remediation. www.brownfieldrenewal.gov.bc.ca

Cigarette waste to be collected and recycled TerraCycle and Canada’s largest tobacco manufacturer have launched a free program to collect and recycle cigarette waste. The Cigarette Waste Brigade program will divert used cigarette butts, along with cigarette foil and plastic packaging waste, from landfills. Waste collected through this free program will be recycled into plastic pallets for industrial use. The organic parts of the waste – the paper and remaining tobacco – will be composted. Everything but the recyclable cardboard box is accepted – the filter, the aluminum and plastic packaging. Filters can be collected in receptacle like ashtrays as usual. Collectors then deposit the waste in any plastic bag which gets recycled as well. Once enough waste is collected, participants log into their account and print a free prepaid UPS shipping label to return their box at no cost. www.terracycle.ca

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Regulations for geothermal systems strengthened

Alliston, Ontario CANADA


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Ontario is strengthening the regulation of vertical closed loop drilling for geothermal energy systems, with new rules that take effect immediately. The province is improving public health and safety by requiring geothermal installers to: obtain provincial approval for vertical closed loop geothermal systems; consult with a certified geoscientist or engineer before continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

May 2012 | 79

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drilling; and develop an emergency plan before drilling. The Ministry of the Environment will consult with industry stakeholders in the coming months on the new regulations. It will also be conducting inspections to ensure installers are meeting safety standards. Since 2008 more than 8,800 geothermal systems have been installed in Ontario.

Quebec commits $4.6 million for Plan Nord environmental protection Québec’s Minister of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks, Pierre Arcand recently announced a trio of measures designed to strengthen environmental protection and monitoring in the territory

of Plan Nord. “Plan Nord will become an international reference in sustainable development. We have committed to protect 50% of this territory, a total of some 600 000 km2. With new resources, an advanced mobile laboratory and a centre for northern and mining expertise, our monitoring and environmental control will be even more rigorous and effective,” declared the Minister. In total, 38 additional people will be assigned to activities concerning the territory of Plan Nord. This will significantly strengthen the ministry’s effectiveness in the area, notably for environmental monitoring and handling authorization requests. Also, for swift and effective intervention in the event of an environmental




emergency, an advanced mobile laboratory will be created that can get to places inaccessible by road. Nearly $1 million will go to the purchase of stand-alone portable equipment that can be transported easily by helicopter. With the new laboratory, the ministry will be able to sample for contaminants in the air, water and soil, and obtain results in real time. In all, thirty testing devices will be devoted specially to problem analysis and environmental emergencies in Québec’s north.

$1 million provided to support watersheds The British Columbia government is providing further support for the BC Living Rivers Trust Fund with an injection of $1 million for their core programs. This money is in addition to the $21 million that was given to the organization between 2002 and 2006. The Living Rivers Trust Fund supports delivery of critical fisheries research and fish habitat restoration programs throughout BC. It was established by the provincial government to provide a legacy based on healthy watersheds, sustainable ecosystems and thriving communities. The trust is administered by the Living Rivers Advisory Group and focuses on three major program areas, including: the Fraser Salmon and Watersheds Program, the Georgia Basin/Vancouver Island Program, and the Skeena Fisheries Program. Over the past six years, the fund has enabled 450 projects and leveraged the provincial investment by at least three times through shared funding with other organizations. Nearly $8 million has been invested in the Georgia Basin/Vancouver Island regions on numerous initiatives to improve management of watersheds for the health of fish, aquatic environments and the people who use those resources. www.brownfieldrenewal.gov.bc.ca



CEO pleased with the new Ontario budget Municipal Engineering Environmental Assessments dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ Transit Planning and Engineering Roundabouts ϭϭϬ ^ĐŽƟĂ ŽƵƌƚ͕ hŶŝƚ ϰϭ͕ tŚŝƚďLJ͕ KE͕ >ϭE ϴzϳ WŚŽŶĞ͗ ϵϬϱ͘ϲϴϲ͘ϲϰϬϮ &Ădž͗ ϵϬϱ͘ϰϯϮ͘ϳϴϳϳ ͲDĂŝů͗ ŝŶĨŽΛƐƌŵĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞƐ͘ŽƌŐ Žƌ sŝƐŝƚ hƐ KŶͲ>ŝŶĞ͗ www.srmassociates.org DĞŵďĞƌ ŽĨ dŚĞ ^ĞƌŶĂƐ 'ƌŽƵƉ /ŶĐ͘

80 | May 2012

Ontario’s consulting engineers are pleased with the recent provincial budget announcement about infrastructure funding levels. The province announced it will maintain spending for infrastructure at $35 billion over the next three years. “Finance Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

May2012_ES&E_4_2010 12-05-31 5:41 PM Page 81

Minister Dwight Duncan’s decision to maintain infrastructure spending for now is a good one,” said Barry Steinberg, Chief Executive Officer of Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO). “While we understand Premier McGuinty and Minister Duncan are under immense pressure to address the budget deficit, cutting infrastructure funding will cost more money in the long term.” Mr. Steinberg delivered a deputation to Finance Minister Dwight Duncan during his pre budget consultations in December 2011, stressing the importance of reinvestment into the province’s electrical, water and wastewater assets, to help reduce a growing infrastructure deficit. www.ceo.on.ca

proval system and the role of bodies such as the National Energy Board, but this is only the tip of the decision-making iceberg. Keeping Pace: Improving Environmental Decision-Making in Canada is part of the Canada West Foundation’s Our Natural Advantage project, and provides a diagnosis of the state of the current decisionmaking process used to manage the environmental effects of natural resource development. The report is based on interviews with 23 experts, including former senior civil servants, industry leaders, former Cabinet ministers, renowned scientists, and environmental leaders. The report outlines both the shortcomings of the environmental decision-making process and how they can be addressed.

The general consensus of these experts is that science is not properly integrated into the decision-making process and that we have to move beyond what has become a highly polarized debate about what is or is not appropriate when it comes to resource development. The report recommends a renewed emphasis on scientific information, greater intergovernmental cooperation, and a much clearer articulation of how elected officials plan to address the combined challenges of resource development and environmental protection. For a copy of Keeping Pace: Improving Environmental Decision-Making in Canada, visit www.cwf.ca continued overleaf...

New MB rules aimed at protecting well water users The Manitoba government is proposing to update its almost 50-year-old groundwater regulations as part of a strategy to better protect the 25 per cent of its residents who rely on well water. About 1,500 water wells are drilled in Manitoba each year. There are currently about 35,000 active water wells. The proposed legislation would include new driller responsibilities and liability insurance requirements that would protect landowners, including protection from the cost of uncontrolled flowing wells. Property owners who construct wells with their own equipment on their own property will not require licenses or certification. However, well construction standards and other measures would apply to all to ensure that groundwater is protected. Requirements would also apply to geothermal, geotechnical and monitoring wells that are not addressed in the existing legislation. The new rules would build on previously introduced regulations for sewage disposal introduced in 2009 and would support long-term aquifer protection from bacteriological contamination. www.brownfieldrenewal.gov.bc.ca

Improving environmental decision-making in Canada Canada’s environmental decision-making process can and should be improved. At present, the focus is on the regulatory apwww.esemag.com

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Advertiser INDEX



AECOM ...........................................12 Air Liquide Canada ........................38 American Concrete Pipe Assoc. ..67 American Public University ..........39 American Water/Terratec Env. ......55 Assmann Corporation ...................50 Associated Engineering..................5 AWI ..................................................21 Barr Plastics...................................42 Black & Veatch ...............................26 Canadian Safety.............................22 CCS Corporation ......................28-29 CIMA+ .............................................58 Cole Engineering ...........................27 Concept Controls...........................27 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute ....84 Delcan Water ..................................24 Denso .............................................23 Endress + Hauser ..........................25 Envirocan ......................................83 Greatario.........................................51 H2Flow ............................................49 Hoskin Scientific......................15, 33 Huber Technology ...........................9 IPEX.................................................31

MB changing its Contaminated Sites Remediation Act Proposed amendments to the Contaminated Sites Remediation Act would strengthen the investigation and management of sites that could affect human health and safety, according to Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship Minister Gord Mackintosh. The original act, introduced in 1996, is based on the principle that the polluter pays for the cleanup of a site that is designated as a contaminated site. The new bill would require the owner or occupier of a site that is contaminated to a level above the environmental quality standards to report it to Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship. Under the amended legislation, sites that pose an immediate risk would continue to be designated as contaminated. But sites which could pose a risk would be designated as impacted. A new process would be established for the management of impacted sites and the remediation of any designated site would have to be authorized by the department.

John Meunier .................................17 Kemira.............................................43 Levelton Consultants ....................34 Master Meter.....................................3 MSU Mississauga ..........................19 MTE Consultants ...........................59 Mueller Canada ..............................69 Neptune Chemical Pump ..............41 Ontario Clean Water Agency ........13 Opus2 Mobile .................................36 Osprey Scientific ...........................43 ProAqua..........................................37 ProMinent .........................................2 SEW-Eurodrive...............................22 Smith & Loveless...........................16 Solinst Canada ...............................11 Stantec............................................59 Tervita ........................................28-29 Transport Env. Systems ................49 Water for People ............................66 Waterloo Barrier.............................35 Waterra ...........................8, 40, 45, 62 WEFTEC..........................................61 XCG Consultants ...........................35

Tervita acquires well abandonment technology Tervita Corporation, a North American environmental and energy services company, has acquired an exclusive patent for Direxit, from Renelco Energy. Direxit is a chemical that more effectively seals wells with surface casing vent flow (SCVF) or gas migration (GM) problems. More than 10,000 wells in Alberta alone are impacted by SCVF or GM challenges, two conditions that require expertise and technical knowledge to reduce liability and abandonment costs while mitigating groundwater contamination. Direxit was developed by a major oil & gas producer to improve sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery projects. It has also found success in water shut-off, SCVF and GM applications. “This patent complements and enhances Tervita’s current environmental service offerings,” said John Gibson, Tervita president and CEO. “Direxit has been used for a number of years for a variety of practices. We strategically acquired this product because we see a definite need

among our clients to seal wells with integrity problems.” GM, SCVFs and casing leaks are problems that have been solved by Direxit when no other material succeeded. The low viscosity water-like solution allows it to penetrate the pore space and block pressure losses up to 170 MPa/meter of core (7,500 psi/ft).

Environment Canada set to reduce its workforce Meteorologists, chemists and other scientists are among 700 Environment Canada (EC) employees, who are facing job cuts in the coming months. Weather monitoring and other services could be affected as a result of the $3 million in budget cuts, according to one of the unions representing EC workers. While it is not known yet exactly how many jobs will be lost, according to the Federal Government they will eliminate duplication on water monitoring and save money on a program that already has a high rate of compliance. The cuts will not affect Canada’s ability to meet its air pollution and GHG targets, according to a statement by Environment Minister Peter Kent. With regards to protecting water quality, the government said that much of the water monitoring work needed is already done either by Statistics Canada, provinces or municipalities. EC cuts in this area simply will eliminate duplication of work.

Gorman-Rupp Canada appoints new GM Gorman-Rupp, a global manufacturer of pumps and pumping systems, has appointed Robert Furneaux as General Manager for its Canadian operations, which are based in St. Thomas, Ontario. He will succeed current VP Gary Creeden, who is retiring July 1, 2012. Mr. Furneaux began his career with the CIBC and has held various senior management roles with Pella/Hunt, Romaco, Herman Miller, CanWel, Weston Forest and PTM Industries. www.grcanada.com

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