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Contents ISSN-0835-605X â&#x20AC;˘ Mar/Apr 2012 Vol. 25 No. 2 â&#x20AC;˘ Issued April 2012 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com Consulting Editor

TOM DAVEY

Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY E-mail: peter@esemag.com

FEATURES 6 10 13 16 22 26 28 30 34 38 40

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Consulting Chemist, Ontario

44

Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba

50 52 56

Peter Laughton P.Eng. Consulting Engineer, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., QuĂŠbec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.

58 62 66 69 72

Greening Ontarioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s infrastructure necessary to cope with population growth New regulations for storage tanks on federal and Aboriginal lands â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cover â&#x20AC;&#x153;Flight simulatorâ&#x20AC;? developed for WWTP operator training Dissolved oxygen addition improves water quality in water reservoirs I&I study reveals much about Sudburyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wastewater collection system Online ammonia and nitrate monitoring can cut WWTP energy costs Ottawa watermain failure leads to proactive condition assessment Ontario Clean Water Agency assists Moose Factory Island residents New process for effective removal of iron from groundwater Do all potable water leaks come to the surface? Water recycling plant helps irrigate surrounding properties and recharge aquifer Wastewater plants not designed to remove drugs and down-the-drain chemicals Sundridgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proposed RE powered WWTP faces financial challenges Improving a vortex grit chamber using computational fluid dynamics Rehabilitating Parry Soundâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wastewater lagoons required biosolids dewatering Design considerations for a groundwater supplied treatment plant Intelligent real-time stormwater management can reduce flood damage Multilevel groundwater monitoring provides clearer picture of contaminated sites New book reviews facts and fantasies about renewable energy Innovative management of large LNAPL plumes

PAGE 19

Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors.

Environmental News . . . 76-82 Product Showcase . . . . . 83-87 Professional Cards . . . . . 76-82 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

DEPARTMENTS

PAGE 56

2012



  PAGES 88-96

Workshop Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 CANECT Floor Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Exhibitors Listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92


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Guest Comment

Greening Ontario’s infrastructure necessary to cope with population growth and climate change By Gord Miller

A

ging American and Canadian cities share some familiar headaches: their stormwater systems pollute waterways and are prone to flooding; their residents often breathe smoggy air; and heat waves can make summer days miserable. Increasingly, cities like Philadelphia and Portland are responding by taking a leaf out of nature’s book. Instead of spending billions of dollars on traditional big pipes and concrete infrastructure, they are engaging the powerful solutions offered by “green infrastructure.” Philadelphia has embarked on a 25-year plan to capture at least the first inch of each storm through green solutions. Green infrastructure encompasses a broad range of approaches to managing stormwater, including urban forests and other natural areas, greenways, streams and riparian zones, green roofs and green walls, rain gardens, bio-swales, engineered wetlands and stormwater ponds. It also includes simple technologies like porous paving, rain barrels, cisterns and structural soils. Their beauty lies in their multi-function; they not only filter, store and cool water, they can also improve urban air quality, support biodiversity, and moderate local temperature and wind extremes. In effect, green infrastructure allows planners and engineers to work with nature rather than seal it in concrete. In the U.S. planning and engineering agencies have recognized that green infrastructure tools are critical. For example, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has recognized that the loss of coastal wetlands around New Orleans significantly worsened the impacts of Hurricane Katrina. The Corps is now working to restore those wetlands. Likewise, the measurable contributions that urban trees make on air quality, local climate moderation and water management are also widely recognized. For example, energy savings attributed to shading by mature trees around U.S. residences are estimated at about $2 billion 6 | March 2012

annually, while the direct carbon storage of urban trees in the U.S. according to the Department of Agriculture, is valued at $14.3 billion. As Ontario’s Environmental Commissioner, I have observed that green infrastructure is only barely beginning to enter the policy lexicon here in our province. Our existing suite of policies does not effectively recognize or harness the vital services provided by urban forests, wetlands, woodlands and other forms of green infrastructure. A key definition of “infrastructure” is found in the Provincial Policy Statement, 2005 (PPS), but this now dated definition is carefully constrained to mean built structures, or “grey infrastructure,” and points to examples such as sewage and water systems, waste management systems, electric power generation and transportation corridors. At least six Ontario ministries share infrastructure-related decision-making responsibilities linked to this PPS interpretation. The Ministry of Infrastructure (MOI), for example, has a key role, and in June 2011 released a Long-term Infrastructure Plan for Ontario called Building Together. I am pleased that this new plan does at least contain language encouraging municipalities to use green infrastructure. There are compelling arguments for MOI to seize the huge potential embodied in green infrastructure, and to translate the encouraging green words of Building Together into pilot projects, measurable targets and goals. MOI was charged with oversight of close to $16 billion worth of infrastructure projects in 2010/2011 alone. Green infrastructure can provide cost-effective approaches in many settings and at many scales, and deserves serious examination by MOI. Similarly, the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO) oversees the maintenance of 16,500 kilometres of existing roads and right-of-ways, as well as major highway expansion projects worth billions of dollars. There is great potential here to

shift towards greener stormwater management approaches. For MTO, a priority should be to incorporate and emphasize green infrastructure approaches in its key guidance documents, such as the Class Environmental Assessment for Provincial Transportation Facilities (Highway Projects). The Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing (MMAH) has promised to consider the issue of green infrastructure as part of its ongoing review of the PPS. I encourage MMAH, in collaboration with other ministries, to make green infrastructure a major focus of PPS reform. Over the longer-term, bringing green infrastructure into the mainstream of Ontario’s planning and design approaches will also likely require reforms to the Planning Act and the Building Code Act, 1992. Ontario has its very own cautionary tale of how unwise land use practices can devastate whole landscapes, and how restoring such lands means working with nature. The Ganaraska region near Port Hope was reduced from dense forest to a barren wasteland of blowing sand by the 1940s after generations of unsustainable farming and forestry practices. The area’s restoration through the planting of millions of trees has been a testament to good stewardship and a reminder that we depend on our existing green infrastructure, just as surely as New Orleans needed its coastal wetlands. Ontario needs to prepare for the twin challenges of a rapidly growing population and a less predictable future climate, marked by more extreme weather events and higher flooding risks. Green infrastructure can increase the resilience of our communities and landscapes, and help us face the stormy weather ahead. Gord Miller is the Environmental Commissioner of Ontario. This article has been adapted from the Environmental Commissioner’s Annual Report for 2010/2011: Engaging Solutions. For more information, visit www.eco.on.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Letters to the Editor Dear Steve: I read your article in the January issue of Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine regarding the nixing of Alberta’s Keystone XL pipeline, with great interest. First of all let me say that I thoroughly enjoy the magazine and the information it offers to the reader. I have listened to a few radio talk shows where a discussion was held regarding the pros and cons of the pipeline and the jobs that this project may or may not bring to Canadians. The question I have for you is a question of refining. Why doesn’t the Canadian Government and the private enterprises that hope to fund this project sink their finances into constructing a refinery in Alberta near the tar sands so that Canada Dear Davey Family: I wanted to tell you how much I’ve enjoyed your magazine over the years. In my opinion ES&E is the best way anyone in the environmental business can keep abreast of the latest developments, new technologies and research findings, as well as government regulations, legislation and related activities. ES&E’s articles are always wellwritten and succinct (no doubt thanks to your precise editing) and the regular “ES&E NEWS” in the magazine provides timely information on research programs and a host of other newsworthy events that are not covered in our newspapers or by most other environmental magazines. The compressed “News” items save the reader from having to read lengthy technical papers and provide us with enough info to do our own research if we’re sufficiently interested in a topic. I occasionally have young engineers and others ask me about the opportunities for work in the various environmental fields. I do my best to give them advice, which always includes giving them a copy of the latest ES&E magazine and telling them to read the articles, the News and the ads. Then, they’ll learn about the latest trends and what the leading environmental companies are up to. ES&E has also always had great editorials. For many years, Tom Davey wrote the editorials and they were al8 | March 2012

can produce the refined product and sell that product to viable purchasers? Our government always seems to be selling off our raw product and then we end up buying the refined product back. Isn’t it about time that Canada starts to change the way we do business and starts providing competition to the world market? Let’s sell a refined product instead of just producing the raw product. Why don’t the proponents run a pipe line, east or west, overcome the barriers of elevation with the technologies available, keep our raw product and the refined product in our own country and gain a foothold in the world market as a top dog instead of a kicking dog? With a refinery in Alberta, the jobs are for decades to come. By constructing the proposed pipeline, the jobs are limited to ways pointed and fearless, and Tom always found a way to flavor it with some humour. More recently, Steve has written many of the editorials, and he continues to promote the engineers, scientists, technicians, suppliers and contractors who actually do the environmental work that society generally takes for granted. The industry is lucky to have such experienced and eloquent supporters. Penny: I’ve always enjoyed the rare occasions where you and I could get together at conferences and other gettogethers, and I must comment on your Christmas cards. They’re invariably the most interesting and unconventional ones I receive, and they’re also the ones I hang onto the longest. Your recent one with the fine photos from Central America is still on my wall - it sounds like the trip of a lifetime and a personally rewarding journey. Sandra: We’ve met, but we’ve had little interaction. What I intuitively know is that you are the VanderWaals bond that holds ES&E’s molecules together, those molecules being Penny, Steve and Tom. I have been proud and flattered to have been a member of ES&E’s Technical Advisory Board and to have been a very minor part of your excellent publication. Jim Bishop, B.Sc., C.Chem., Executive Consultant and Principal, Stantec

Comment by

I

Steve Dave y Was Obam a’s nixing XL pipeline of Alberta’s Keyston a wise decis e on?

ncreasingly, environment tion, cost-b enefit analys al protecassessment is and risk have trinity of debate become the holy able resour , when it comes any projec ces, t larger than to that the world a lot of experts conce a backyard bed. will depen flower d on oil for de nificant part a sigThe most recent decades, largelyof its energy needs examp pened on for January 18th, le of this happlentiful, portab because it is still the Presidential most when a U.S. Permit was source availa le and energy dense denied for Canadas’s fuel ble. TransKeystone XL It is interes pipeline. Its pose was to ting carry purafter the Keyst to note that a few oil from Alber tar sands derived days one crude XL senior Irania announceme Gulf of Mexic ta, to refineries near n nt, the o. use their navy lawmakers threatened "While we to to block oil tanker traffic are disapp the Persia Canadas’s n Gulf. A remains fully ointed, Transserious situati in given that committed construction almos on, to the of Keystone crude oil passes t 20% of the world Girling, the XL," said Russ ’s through the compa of Hormuz narrow Strait executive office ny’s president and at the mouth chief of the Gulf. sponse, the already underw r. He added that plans In reU.S. are said that they and its allies immed construction ay to largely mainta iately in the schedule of keep the Strait would take swift action that TransC the project to open. anada will and One re-app can idential Permi only wonde ly for a Prest. Map courte this action r how plausi would be, if sy the Natura "Until this ble Defence enviro pipeline is l proval Resou nment rces Council. were requir U.S. will contin constr ed before nuclea al apered aircra ue to impor ucted, the barrels of r powfrom foreig ft carriers t millions conflict oil and hundr supersonic from the Middlof dermine n special interest group East and eds of aircraf Venez Canada’s nation s to unDetermining t could be deployed. countries who uela and other foreig e terest. They al the true do not share attract jet-set economic in- impacts of n values Canad the democratic with some using variou environmental ians of the larges ting celebrities not a simple s sources of ileged to have," and Americans are t personal footprints in oil is process. While privcarbon of liquid the the extraction sands of jobs added Girling. "Thou crude ans not to develoworld to lecture Canad continue to i- is much easier oil from the Middle East, p our natura balance if hang Anyon l and resour in this projec cleaner than e looking the ces. needed to t does not at the ward.” what is provals for extract it go forfrom Alber certain major record of ap- sands, securi ta’s tar Canada canno Joe Oliver, ty projects across are much more and delivery of the produc t help but ural Resou Canada’s Minister of complicated t rces, Nat- clusion that many of come to the conSo, when the . these his ministry’s posted this respon ongoing econo se on been delayed too long. projects have of mainta website: Canad mic cost edge of an ining In many cases, a is on the these projects histori not to mentio peace in the Persian would create energy marke c choice: to diversify upon thousa Gulf, n the enviro thousa our ts nds of jobs trading partne away from our traditi for Canadians, nds sociated with hundreds nmental risks asonal they can take years to r of in yet ing oil the the tanker United world’ continue with get started s plys States, or to the slow, compl due the could argue oceans, are factored in, ulatory proces ex and cumbersome to Unfortunate status quo. that the enviro one regly, print s. there nment of are environment Alberta’s tar and other radica al For examp sands crude footal Keysto l groups that le, the Mack to block this and the would seek Gas Pipeline review enzie Valley they ne XL pipeline, are opportunity not as bad are made out took more trade. Their to diversify years to compl as than nine to be. goal our ete. In Certainly, ect no matter is to stop any major environmen proj- western expansion of comparison, the issues tal protection are param the nation-build families in what the cost to Canad Canadian Pacifi ount, when ian lost jobs ing the constr c Railway evalua growth. No and econo uction of forestry. No mic A. Macdonald took four under Sir John pipeline, a 2,673-kilom ting No gas. No but Presid mining. No years. Under current system etre ent Obama more oil. our wise to consid , building a would be arena on a These group hydro-electric dams. tempo er the rary bigger pictur frozen pond s threaten e, when regulatory in Banff requirice reviewing TransCanad system to achiev to hijack our the approval of the a’s revised federal govern ed stone application. ideological This Keye their delaye radica agenda. They ment. d any loopho seek to exploi l two valuab a decision by two month le they can le months t sfind, stacki lic hearings ng pub- that thousands of to assess something with Canadians lays kill good bodies to ensure that doing for over have been deprojects. They a century. Steve Dave use fundin Despite all y is Editor g the innova 6 | Januar of ES&E Maga tions in renew y 2012 zine. E-ma

il comm steve@esemaents to g.com

Environmenta l Science &

Engineering Magazine

the time in which the pipeline is constructed. Build, produce and buy Canadian. Gerald Reu, City of St. Thomas Dear Steve, I appreciated your perspective on the Keystone pipeline in the last issue of ES&E Magazine. If the pipeline had been designed to carry fresh water (a somewhat renewable resource of which northern Alberta has a significant quantity) as opposed to crude oil (a totally non-renewable resource) there would be massive public outcry, since exporting of water, however much those same areas of drought-stricken Texas having refineries could use it, is contrary to Canada's national policies. If I cannot understand Canada's oil policies, which seem to be depleting any resources for which there is a market as quickly as possible, I find the water policies even more perplexing. What is the downside of harvesting the flow of a pristine northern river, such as is found in northern Newfoundland, immediately before it enters the ocean to become totally saline? It certainly is not going to make a measurable difference in the salinity of the oceans and the water would be a viable, and totally renewable, export. Perhaps even to Texas. Bruce A. Brown, Bruce A. Brown Associates Dear Steve I read your article in the Jan/Feb 2012 edition and was surprised by your repeated use of the term "tar sands". The correct term is “oil sands’. I feel “tar sands” is a propaganda term of extreme left wing thinking and should not be used. John Caputo

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-09 9:29 PM Page 10

Cover Story

Rules changed for storage tanks on federal and Aboriginal lands By Charles Ross

E

nvironment Canada’s final measures to control leaks and contamination from storage systems for petroleum products and allied petroleum products, on federal and Aboriginal lands, go into effect in June of this year. The new Storage Tank Systems for Petroleum Products and Allied Petroleum Products Regulations were enacted in 2008 and implemented gradually to allow owners and operators to adapt to the wide-ranging requirements. Complete information is available on Environment Canada’s website, www.ec.gc.ca. “These timelines were very important in giving owners and operators of storage tank systems time to comply with the law,” says Cliff Holland, environmental coordinator for Spill Management Inc. “There were many old systems out there that were likely leaking, with little being done about them until the new regulations came into effect. “Systems in place prior to the new regulations faced strict inspections and necessary upgrading or replacement to comply with the law. And all plans for new systems installed after 2008 have to conform to the new requirements.” The new regulations apply more broadly and are more comprehensive than

10 | March 2012

Shoreline cleanup with an In-Viro-Drum.

the ones they replace. There are mandatory requirements in areas such as spill reporting, leak detection and monitoring, record-keeping, corrosion protection, removal of high-risk tanks and piping, and emergency response planning for systems on federal and Aboriginal lands. Among the major changes is the re-

quirement for all old and new petroleum product storage tank systems on federal lands to be registered with Environment Canada. This took effect in June 2009, and, since June 2010, a supplier may not make deliveries to an unregistered system, or even one that does not properly display its registration number. In June 2012, the final requirements for compliance will include designated spill containment areas for all fuel transfer areas in storage tank systems greater than 2,500 litres. Other requirements include removal of single-walled underground tanks and piping without corrosion protection. The new regulations apply to storage tank systems on lands that are operated by band councils or owned by private companies or individuals. They also cover systems owned or operated by federal departments, boards and agencies, as well as railways, port authorities and airports. Tank systems storing petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel and home heating oil are covered, as well as allied petroleum products, which are defined in the regulations and include

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-09 9:29 PM Page 11

Cover Story substances such as isopropanol, uninhibited ethylene glycol and E85 fuel. Environment Canada estimates that there are approximately 10,000 storage tank systems within federal jurisdiction. Some 3,000 are more than 20 years old, without leak detection systems, corrosion protection or secondary structures to contain spills. Petroleum products are also found in approximately 66% of the known contaminated sites on federal and Aboriginal lands. The regulations have opened up a whole new world of compliance for owners and operators of the storage systems they cover. Previously, owners were provided with technical guidelines to ensure that tanks were properly equipped and maintained to avoid leaks and spills, but compliance was voluntary. Compliance with the new regulations is mandatory and, according to Environment Canada, aligns more closely to regulations in most provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Under the new regulations, emergency response plans must be prepared and ready to go immediately. Plans must have a list of designated responders and their training, lists of the type and location of emergency equipment, and details about how the public will be notified in case of an emergency. Also required are details of storage systems, the products in each tank, terrain and storage sites and strategies, not only for response, but remediation and recovery. “The emergency response planning requirements are very thorough. You have to

www.esemag.com

prepare emergency scenarios and your plans to prevent them, respond to them or recover from them. That means response plans and training programs must be realistic, site-specific and product-specific, and fit your system and your surroundings,” says Holland. “Just following general guidelines for response, or equipment, isn’t going to be enough.” Challenges for First Nations The new regulations present a particularly difficult challenge to many First Nations communities, particularly in the far north. These communities may be isolated by distance and climate for much of the year. Many of the fuel storage systems are old and have ongoing leaks and soil contamination that First Nations may have felt powerless to deal with. Yet, many communities depend on the generators fueled by the systems for heating and electricity. First Nations communities in northern Manitoba appear to be leading in terms of equipping remote communities to deal with fuel leaks and soil contamination. Spill Management recently ran a series of spill response and emergency planning training courses for 160 participants from 63 First Nations communities in threeday workshops in Manitoba. It also helped prepare emergency response plans and spill response manuals that met the requirements of the new regulations. Training concentrated on site-specific issues that would likely be encountered in remote communities with gasoline and fuel oil storage systems. Fire trucks sup-

Lifting oil off water with an In-Viro-Drum.

plied water to simulate spills and allow practice in cleaning oil from water. Spill controls were improvised with dirt or sand and sorbent materials, to duplicate conditions found in many of these comcontinued overleaf...

March 2012 | 11


ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-09 9:29 PM Page 12

Cover Story munities. Trainees also dealt with fuel spills indoors that could involve other chemicals and cause spontaneous fires or personal injuries. A major issue also came to the forefront, that of spill response or site remediation in communities that depend on winter roads. Vacuum trucks and heavy equipment may not be able to reach many of those communities until winter, no matter when a spill happens. Fuel could leak into the ground in the summer and be totally frozen when equipment arrives. Cleanedup material may have to sit on-site through a summer until the next yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s winter roads are in place. During the summer, frozen soil will melt, releasing contamination back into the environment. The movement of heavy equipment, digging up contaminants and transporting them long distances, can make up most of the cost of restoring the environment after an incident. Further south, where access is not such a problem, a vacuum truck and other equipment may not be available when needed. The effectiveness of vacuum

12 | March 2012

trucks can be affected by the location of a spill. If it is in soft soil, along a water course or in a confined space in a warehouse, it may be difficult to reach. New technologies Methods of spill response and site remediation that have been in place for decades will have to change to incorporate technology that emerged in the late 1990s. One example of new equipment on the market is the In-Viro-Drum from Abcan Environmental Inc. of Calgary. This system provides the performance of a vacuum truck in a package that is about the size of a tote tank (Approximately 4 ft x 4 ft x 4 ft). It weighs 650 pounds and can be towed on a sled behind a snowmobile, or ATV. It can be mounted in the back of a four-wheel-drive truck, transported in a boat, or lifted by helicopter to a spill site. It can be maneuvered easily inside a building or on a building site. In the remote north, a unit could be quickly moved from community to community. Several units could rapidly be brought to one site for response to a serious spill, no matter what the weather or

temperature. If it is not needed for a spill, the In-Viro-Drum can be used to clean out septic systems, or even flooded basements. This portable equipment will handle hazardous and non-hazardous wastes, flammable and non-flammable substances, as well as solids, liquids, slurries and gases. It can lift and separate oil from water and pull contaminated liquid from soil up to four feet deep. Liquid can then be pumped into 45-gallon drums or other containment areas until waste treatment or bulk transportation is feasible. When tanks require more oil storage, the waterpolishing unit of the modular system can remove dissolved hydrocarbons to 5 ppm, as the water phase is being decanted. The system can reduce waste volumes and be used for selective segregation of waste streams, which can make it more cost-effective to transport concentrated liquids and minimize land disturbances. Charles Ross is with Spill Management Inc. E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-09 9:29 PM Page 13

Operator Training

Wastewater treatment plant training system takes lesson from aviation industry

Y

ou are just in the process of filling out the last couple of entries in your log book when it happens: an indicator light on your SCADA screen flashes red and an audio alert sounds… RAS pump failure. The early morning load is pushing the limits in the wet well and the sludge blanket starts to rise in the secondary clarifier. What do you? Relax, take a breath, it’s just a simulation! SimuWorks™ is a flight-simulator for water and wastewater treatment plants, developed by Hydromantis Environmental Software Solutions. It represents an evolution in the use of water and wastewater treatment simulation and modelling technology, extending its use beyond engineering offices. The loss of process knowledge is a major challenge facing wastewater treatment plant owners and operators as experienced staff retire. Efficient methods for facilitating the transfer of general and site-specific knowledge is necessary and sophisticated WWTP simulation technology can offer significant advantages. SimuWorks replicates existing treatment plant supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to provide operators with a life-like training experi-

ence with familiar views and functionality and plant response/behaviour. It is driven by sophisticated mathematical models of their actual plant. Simulation-based training is a mainstay within the military and aviation sectors and is fast becoming commonplace within many key industries, including oil and gas, marine shipping, nuclear energy and, more recently, healthcare. The benefits of this kind of tool in the water and wastewater industry are manyfold. With the virtual plant’s behaviour and the interface control screens matching that of the actual plant, various training, project and risk analysis, plant optimization, and process improvement evaluations can be performed in a risk-free environment. The plant simulators can be deployed as on-site life-size replica control rooms, scaled-down single workstations, or even offered online. Because the simulators are driven by individual plant models and replicated interfaces, a single installation with a library of models could support a regional network of plants, while still offering plant specific training and analysis opportunities. Key advantages of treatment plant simulation include: continued overleaf...

The plant simulators can be deployed as on-site life-size replica control rooms. www.esemag.com

March 2012 | 13


ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-09 9:29 PM Page 14

Operator Training

SimuWorks replicates existing treatment plant supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems.

• Site-specific calibrated models capture a plant’s key process knowledge. • Plant specific models and interfaces target and enhance training. • Customized training and development

scenarios impart site-specific knowledge. • Training for critical events can be conducted in a risk free environment. • Helping standardize levels of

knowledge/ability. • Providing an interactive, realistic and immersive training environment. • Offering the opportunity to perform “what-if ” analysis and investigate plant optimization opportunities. • Providing a project management and risk analysis platform for plant maintenance or modifications. A SimuWork deployment requires the development of a specific model of the target plant. This is done with Hydromantis’ GPS-X™, which is an advanced tool for water and wastewater treatment plant modelling. Once the model is complete and properly calibrated, the site-specific systems information (SCADA) interfaces are replicated and a library of training scenarios is customized to client requirements. The system does not require extensive hardware and, as the user interface is a replica of the plant’s operating systems, training requirements are modest. For more information, E-mail: richarz@hydromantis-software.com

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ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-09 9:30 PM Page 16

Drinking Water Supply

New system for adding DO improves seasonal water quality in lakes and reservoirs By Inken Mello

M

any lakes and reservoirs suffer from low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions, especially during the summer months. Low DO levels cause a number of negative environmental consequences, including the release of iron and manganese from the sediments to the surrounding water, the formation of malodorous and corrosive hydrogen sulphide (H2S), and possible fish kills. These negative environmental effects can be successfully prevented with the targeted addition of pure oxygen to the bottom layer of a lake or reservoir. This is known as hypolimnetic oxygenation. Since lakes and reservoirs typically don’t flow, over time they accumulate organic matter, which settles in the sediment. Microorganisms in the sediment and the lower layer of water (the hypolimnion) consume the organic matter, requiring a constant source of oxygen. During summer months, when sunlight and warm rainwater runoff warm the surface water, the lake stratifies. Warmer water is denser than the cooler water at the bottom of the lake, preventing the two from mixing. Cooler water in the hypolimnion is effectively cut off from any oxygen supply from the atmosphere. At the same time, biological activity in the sediment rapidly consumes the remaining oxygen in the hypolimnion, resulting in anoxic or anaerobic conditions. This typically starts a few days after stratification and lasts throughout the summer. During the fall, as temperatures cool down, water on the surface also cools until it eventually reaches the same temperature and density of the water in the hypolimnion, and mixing occurs. This phenomenon is known as the “fall turnover” and is often characterized by the intense smell of “foul” water or, in extreme cases, fish kills. During the fall turnover, foul-tasting and malodorous chemicals that have been produced throughout the summer stagnation, such as Geosmin, 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB) and H2S, are brought to the surface, along with internal nutrients and 16 | March 2012

An ECO2 System in use at a drinking water reservoir.

dissolved metals from the sediment. Water quality decreases immediately and internal nutrients promote algae growth. Water quality concerns Iron and manganese are bound in the sediment, while dissolved oxygen is present in the surrounding waters. Under anaerobic conditions, iron and manganese go into solution and will have to be removed later at the water treatment plant. Organic taste and odour are caused by algae after the fall turnover algae blooms. Preventing internal nutrient loads from the sediment during the turnover can re-

duce algae bloom and associated water quality issues. Algae blooms contribute to the problem of anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion. Dead algae sink to the bottom and microbes require oxygen to consume the organic matter. The more algae, the faster the oxygen is consumed, and dead zones are created. In these dead zones, phosphates that were tied up in the sediment are re-released and will be brought to the surface during mixing, stimulating more algae growth. continued overleaf...

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Drinking Water Supply All of these compounds degrade the aesthetic quality and treatability of drinking water. Often multi-level intakes are necessary for selective withdrawal, but may be prohibitively expensive. H2S is often an odour source at recycled water reservoirs, where sulphides are formed in anaerobic conditions in and near the sediment. During fall turnover, dissolved sulphides are brought to the surface and stripped out as H2S gas, leading to the familiar rotten egg smell. Apart from being extremely odorous and potentially toxic, H2S is also highly corrosive, and causes costly damage to dams and intake structures. Low DO levels can impair aquatic life in lakes, reservoirs or downstream rivers and should be avoided to maintain a healthy ecosystem. All of these negative environmental effects of anaerobic conditions in a lake or reservoir can be prevented by the targeted addition of dissolved oxygen to the hypolimnion. Aeration versus targeted dissolved oxygen addition There are two approaches to preventing anaerobic conditions in the hy-

18 | March 2012

polimnion. One is to destroy the natural stratification and mix the entire lake volume in an attempt to bring oxygenated water from the surface to the bottom layer of the lake. This requires the movement of large amounts of water and uses large amounts of energy. Traditional aeration systems bubble air, or oxygen, through the water column in the hope that a small portion will dissolve and stay in the hypolimnion. The absorption efficiency is low and depends on the depth of the lake. Any oxygen that is not dissolved in the hypolimnion is wasted. Both approaches cause artificial destratification, which may release nutrients from the sediment that will increase algae growth and the problem of eutrophication. In the case of high sulphide loads, aeration and mixing systems will serve as efficient strippers of H2S to the atmosphere, increasing odour problems. To keep sulphides from escaping, it is best to maintain a quiescent surface and to oxidize dissolved sulphides in the water column with readily available dissolved oxygen.

Destratification also increases the temperature of the bottom waters, resulting in greater biological activity and accompanying sulphide formation. Higher water temperatures degrade coldwater fish habitat, and warm discharges from destratified reservoirs may negatively affect rivers downstream. In drinking water reservoirs, a homogenized water column precludes the optimization of raw water quality by selective depth withdrawal. The second and newer approach is hypolimnetic oxygenation. This method is the technical approach of the ECO2 SuperOxygenation System, which supplements dissolved oxygen directly into the hypolimnion. Targeted addition of dissolved oxygen maintains the natural stratification of a lake or reservoir and supplements dissolved oxygen in the hypolimnion. Rather than destratifying the lake and trying to add a sufficient amount of oxygen from the surface to the bottom, hypolimnetic oxygenation takes a side stream out of the hypolimnion. It raises the DO level in a gas transfer device, known as the ECO2 Speece Cone, and discharges oxy-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Drinking Water Supply genated water horizontally over the sediment into the hypolimnion to prevent the production of H2S and the release of iron and manganese. As the oxygenated water has the same density as the water in the hypolimnion, it remains in the hypolimnion, creating an aerobic cap over the sediment. Thermal stratification creates a natural barrier that prevents oxygenated water from leaving the hypolimnion, making this approach more efficient than artificial destratification. Less oxygen is required to keep the relatively small volume of water in the hypolimnion aerobic, versus the entire water column of a destratified lake. Hypolimnetic oxygenation with the ECO2 Speece Cone has been applied in several water quality applications throughout the US. The system achieves an oxygen transfer efficiency of 90-95%. It fully dissolves pure oxygen gas into the water before it is discharged into the hypolimnion. All of the dissolved oxygen is readily available at the water sediment interface. The device can be installed on shore, or on the reservoir bottom. The only moving part that is required in the installation is a standard industrial water pump. Oxygen addition depends on the demand of the lake and is fully automated. Operation of an ECO2 SuperOxygenation System will not cause turbulence on the lake’s surface, and the system itself will only take up minimal lake surface space where the intake and discharge pipes enter the lake. Ideally, this should be near the intake structures.

www.esemag.com

The ECO2 SuperOxygenation Technology is based upon the scientific principle of Henry’s Law. The Speece Cone is designed to provide enough inlet water velocity to break up the oxygen gas entering the cone. This action forms an intense bubble swarm which has exceptionally large oxygen/water interface. As the bubble swarm grows, the cone’s diameter increases thereby reducing the water velocity to a point lower than the buoyant velocity of the bubbles. This prevents the bubbles from escaping and holds them in suspension until they are dissolved. The ECO2 System has proven a 90-95% efficiency for dissolving oxygen in water. Depending on the pressure in the system, DO levels can be raised up to 50-100mg/L or above. There are no internal baffles or static mixers that could collect rags or stringy materials, nor are there any moving parts in the cone that would require maintenance.

Design considerations To meet the goals of H2S and corrosion prevention, as well as iron and manganese reduction for increased water quality, an aerobic cap has to be created

above the sediment. The amount of oxygen that needs to be supplemented to maintain the aerobic zone can be calculated by multiplying total oxygen demand continued on page 42...

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Copyright Tervita Corporation 2012. EARTH MATTERS and the TERVITA logo are the trademarks of Tervita Corporation. All rights reserved.

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20 | March 2012

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Wastewater Infrastructure

I&I study reveals several issues with Sudburyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wastewater collection system By Robert G. Langlois

T

he City of Greater Sudbury in Ontario is reviewing options to increase the operation efficiency of the various wastewater treatment plants within its area. One facet of the wastewater treatment system that has come under greater scrutiny is the collection system. The City is concerned that a significant amount of water is entering the sewers from outside sources (e.g., rainwater and groundwater), all of which flows to the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 10 wastewater treatment plants. In addition, capacity constraints in the collection network at times overwhelm the system and cause localized flooding and the need to discharge to the environment. The City engaged R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. (RVA) to complete an inflow and infiltration (I&I) study on the wastewater collection system in Lo-Ellen Park, which is a primarily residential area in the

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Sigma flow monitors and Telog recording telemetry units during study.

Probe and band in sewer.

cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s south end. This is an area of Sudbury that municipal engineers were particularly concerned about, given the age of the system (servicing began in 1960), the number of lift stations and force mains due to the rolling topography of the area, and the proximity of Nepahwin Lake. The scope of the I&I study included obtaining an understanding of the collection system, monitoring of sewage flows, performing an assessment and analysis of the collection system, and developing a plan for remediation of the sewers. The study began in the spring of 2009 with rainfall and sewer flow monitoring. Reporting was completed by the end of 2011. At the onset of the study, the Lo-Ellen Park Area sanitary sewage system consisted of four sewage lift stations and associated force mains, 13 km of sanitary sewers and 243 maintenance holes. RVA prepared mapping of the collection system in the study area, complete with tributary areas for each lift station, population and demand information, and routing of each sewer. In the summer of 2009, the City completed a trunk sewage rock tunnel in this area, which allowed for the decommissioning of two lift stations. However, the sources of I&I in the collection system were not alleviated by the trunk sewer, so the principal driver behind the study remained. Assessment and analysis Six Hach Sigma 910 portable flow

monitors and submerged area/velocity sensors were used to monitor sewage flows. The monitors were installed in March 2009 and removed from service in early February 2010. During the course of the study, the City commissioned a permanent flow meter, hence one of the portable meters was relocated in order to measure flows in another region of the study area. Also, a portable American Sigma data-logging rain gauge was set up in a central location to collect rainfall data for the study area. Flow monitor and rain gauge data was recorded at 15minute intervals. Flow monitors were equipped with remote communications by means of Telog RU-33 recording telemetry units. These units were directly connected to the Sigma flow monitors, and logged data as it was being collected. The telemetry units would call the Internet service provider at regular 12-hour intervals, via mobile telephone service, and report the data recorded. The website would then update the records of the data channel for that instrument. Essentially, this equipment allowed staff to verify the various data channels (e.g., flow depth, velocity, battery life, etc.) from their office, rather than making site visits. Field visits were made to each site roughly once per month to download data manually, to perform a visual check on the installation, and to change batteries if required.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Wastewater Infrastructure Raw data was collected from the flow monitors and rain gauge and processed once the study period was complete. Generally, flow was observed to increase in the sanitary sewers when rain occurred. Typically, peak flows in the sewers occurred roughly two hours after peak rainfall, but not all monitors reported observable increases for every rain event. However, the observed increases in sewage flow were typical of infiltration. In addition to the flow and rain monitoring, smoke testing was carried out on roughly 20 km of sewer and service laterals of the Lo-Ellen Park area. This testing involves forcing vaporized liquid smoke into the sanitary sewer system with a portable high-powered fan. The objective of this portion of the investigation was to confirm sewer configuration and identify I&I sources, as flow monitoring alone does not provide a complete picture. Typically, smoke is visible as it emits from all openings into the sanitary sewer system, such as roof vents and maintenance holes. However, occasionally smoke is visible coming from points where the sanitary system should not be connected — such as roof downspouts or storm sewer catch basins. A media release was first issued to residents advising them of the planned work, and a public open house was hosted by the City to answer questions. Testing was carried out over a five-day period in October 2009. In general, results of the smoke testing indicated there were no combined sewer, roof leader or foundation drain connections. The testing did provide information on one possible “indirect” connection, open cleanouts in lawns and possible sags in the sewer system. Five maintenance holes were identified as possible heavy water inflow sources. As part of the investigation, the City provided footage of the closed-circuit television (CCTV) inspection performed on all the sewers in the Lo-Ellen Park area. RVA completed a review of the videos provided by the City’s pre-selected service provider. CCTV was not completed in areas immediately upstream of lift stations, at inaccessible maintenance holes, or where monitoring devices were installed. The CCTV investigation provided www.esemag.com

qualitative information pertaining to the sewers in the area, which are composed of vitrified clay (VC), asbestos cement (AC) transite pipe, concrete and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. In general, the older sections of pipe are in the worst shape. Many of the segments of VC and concrete pipe are beyond their useful life. VC joints have separated and infiltration is apparent, or some gaskets have slipped off the concrete pipes. For the remainder of the pipes there are many

dented segments, sags or pipes “out of round,” but pipe integrity is generally good. Plan for remediation RVA’s investigation of the sanitary system in the Lo-Ellen Park area revealed that the system does not experience high dry-weather infiltration, but does exhibit higher than average flow during storm events. Normally, high response to storm events is due to inflow, continued overleaf...

March 2012 | 23


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Wastewater Infrastructure

Smoke testing was carried out on roughly 20 km of sewer and service laterals of the Lo-Ellen Park area.

which is not generally occurring in the Lo-Ellen area. Accordingly, infiltration observed in the sanitary sewer is likely from groundwater from sources such as pipe joints and cracks, or at older brick maintenance holes. Other sources are weeping tile connections to the sanitary service laterals, which could also be contributing through joints and cracks. While the smoke testing did not reveal direct weeping tile connections, homeowners have noted anecdotally that

Smoke machine.

their weeping tiles run to the sanitary system during rain events and spring runoff. The study made the following additional recommendations. • Disconnect water “blowoffs” (i.e., direct connections to sanitary sewers) • Educate the public about lot grading • Remove VC piping where replacement is warranted • Seal all brick and block maintenance holes • Add inserts to structures in road low points

• Implement open-grate storm maintenance-hole covers at road low points to help alleviate flooding of roads caused by catch basins frozen in under snow banks. The CCTV videos showed pipes with an accumulation/buildup of grease in the area of the 10 restaurants and two schools in the study area. RVA recommended the grease should be cleaned from the pipes and sources addressed. In addition, RVA recommended that the City educate residents of low-lying areas about its new Preventative Plumbing Subsidy Program and encourage them to implement this disconnection program. For homes that do not have weeping tile connections to the sanitary laterals, RVA recommended the City encourage residents to place the sump discharge outside the home to grade and not to laundry tubs or other sanitary sewer connections. Robert G. Langlois, P.Eng., is with R.V. Anderson Associates. E-mail: rlanglois@rvanderson.com

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Instrumentation

Online ammonia and nitrate monitoring can cut WWTP energy costs dramatically By Dr. Heidrun Tippe

O

xygen level is a very important parameter for successful wastewater treatment. Because the degradation of organic matter, as well as the conversion of ammonia to nitrate (â&#x20AC;&#x153;nitrificationâ&#x20AC;?) is done by aerobic bacteria, sufficient aeration of the basin is a must. Microbiological activity of nitrification bacteria is strongly influenced by oxygen concentration. At between one and two mg/l O2, activity levels off. At concentrations higher than 3 mg/l, bacteria show no significant increase in activity, which means this extra O2 is being added for no reason. Online measurement of oxygen can be used to limit under and over-aeration. Prevention of under-aeration by a minimum set point makes the whole treatment process more reliable. Furthermore, inefficient energy usage due to over-aeration is avoided. ISE Sensors Modern online measurement systems also use nutrient parameters, like ammonia and nitrate, for real-time aeration control. The main benefits are dynamic control of the aeration rate, in relation to a detected change of load and nitrification/denitrification situations, and optimized energy efficiency. The ion-selective measuring method (ISE) was developed specifically for these applications to allow accurate, reliable and fast measurements in aeration basins. The measuring principle is quite similar to a pH probe, only the membranes have to be selective for the ammonia and/or nitrate ion. The probe is available as a one-parameter sensor (ammonia or nitrate), or as a two-parameter sensor for both parameters in parallel. The two-parameter version fits well for an intermittent wastewater process, or for sequence batch reactors. This is because both processes have aeration and non-aeration phases in one basin. For process layouts where the zones of aeration (nitrification) and non-aeration (denitrification) differ, one-parameter versions are recommended, due to the dif26 | March 2012

Figure 1.

ferent measuring points for nitrate and ammonia. Ammonia concentrations in two intermittent basins at a WWTP that receives both industrial and municipal influent are shown in Figure 1. The red curve shows the existing control strategy, which was based only on oxygen levels. Due to the various inlet loads, the ammonia concentration in the basin changes significantly. This is because the oxygen measurement does not provide information regarding the load situation, and the changing influent situation affects aeration basin performance. The green curve shows the ammonia concentration at the outlet of the aeration basin, based on a control strategy which involves online information about ammonia concentration (ISE measurement). This control strategy is able to harmonize the outlet concentration of ammonia, despite various influent loads. The idea is to use the online ammonia concentration for an adjustment of the oxygen concentration. In the case of a high load situation, bacteria can be supported by higher oxygen concentrations. In these situations, energy efficiency is weak, but effluent limits are met. In the case of an under-load situation, the ammonia control strategy adjusts the oxygen set-point to a very low level. These are the process situations where energy savings potential are employed, without nega-

tively affecting discharge limits. Energy benchmarking and analysis are not new concepts, but they are enjoying renewed focus due to the escalation in current global energy costs. Because 60% of power consumption is needed for aeration, this process step is important. Furthermore, the biological step is the key factor in reaching limits for COD and nutrients. Process optimization can improve plant reliability and help meet future legislation limits with optimal energy costs. When looking for further energy optimization, the first step is implementation of energy monitoring. A deeper analysis of the main power consumers (or groups of them) and an evaluation of the return on investment (ROI) must then be carried out individually. Dr. Heidrun Tippe is with Endress+Hauser in Germany. For further information, E-mail: scott.whitehouse@ca.endress.com

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Infrastructure

Ottawa watermain failure leads to proactive condition assessment By Lauren Rutherford

T

he Woodroffe Avenue transmission main in Ottawa, Ontario, experienced a major failure in January 2011, which opened a large hole across three traffic lanes and caused serious traffic disruptions. The 1200 mm pipeline runs under a four lane roadway in the west end of the city, and supplies water to roughly 80,000 people. This was the second failure of the prestressed concrete cylinder pipe. The first one occurred in 2007, in a different portion of the line, downstream from the second location. The City of Ottawa, Pure Technologies, and Robinson Consultants of Kanata, Ontario, developed a plan of action which allowed this critical pipeline to be put back in service in May 2011. The first step, as part of the condition assessment program, was to undertake an internal manned visual inspection of the failed section and of a significant length of upstream and downstream sections of the main while it was out of service. Manned inspections are a reliable method of detecting which pipes are in an advanced state of distress. This involved a Pure Technologies field team internally traversing the pipe to visually point out where the rupture had occurred on the main. Following the internal visual inspection, an electromagnetic inspection using the PureRoboticsTM device found that 4.7% (41 out of 865) of the inspected pipes were distressed. PureRobotics modular robotic pipeline inspection systems are remotely-operated tracked vehicles tethered by a fibre optic cable that can be configured to inspect any pipe application of 12 inches and larger. The tool is capable of performing multi-sensor inspections in dry pipe or while submerged. The analysis provided a rating condition for each pipe segment. It also showed that the pipe which failed and the adjacent pipe were experiencing chloride-induced corrosion of the prestressing wires and steel cylinder. Once the Woodroffe Avenue pipeline was repaired, with a substantial section being replaced, a SoundPrint® AFO monitoring system was 28 | March 2012

Crew ready to insert the robotic crawler into the water main.

installed along a 5 km section to monitor both the old sections and newly replaced pipes in near real time. SoundPrint AFO is a patented acoustic fibre optic monitoring system for structural monitoring and leak detection in water and wastewater prestressed concrete cylinder pipes. The Woodroffe transmission main was installed in 1975-76. According to the Ontario Ministry of the Environment’s Asset Renewal Guidelines, the life span of this pipe and others in that age group range from 50-100 years. After results from the condition assessment program determined that several areas of the pipeline were in critical distress with a high risk of eminent failure, the City determined that the main failed well before its expected life span and could not be recommissioned without high risk of another pipe failure. The City’s ability to supply water to this area was greatly limited by the pre-

mature deterioration and failure of the Woodroffe main, which normally supplies nearly all drinking water to the surrounding areas. During the recent repair period, the impacted areas were served by a much smaller backup system, which was only able to deliver 10 per cent of the water volume usually delivered to the area. In April, the City had to implement an outdoor water ban that affected roughly 80,000 residents and remained in place until the pipeline was put back into place in May. The City had to create a contingency plan in case the water use exceeded supply as serious impacts could have occurred, such as potential contamination of the water supply, depressurization of the system, loss of supply, and difficulties in supplying fire protection. Lauren Rutherford is with Pure Technologies Ltd., E-mail: info@puretechltd.com

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Water and Wastewater Emergencies

Ontario Clean Water Agency assists Moose Factory Island residents By Tony Janssen, Glen Lang and Yarlene Frisani

T

here is a growing emphasis on emergency management in the water industry. Governments at all levels are looking to owners and operators of clean water infrastructure to be both resilient and responsive, so they can minimize service disruption in the event of a wide range of emergencies. Whether itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a water-specific tragedy like the one in Walkerton, Ontario, the threat of a pandemic, or the potential for a natural or human-caused disaster that disrupts critical infrastructure, water and wastewater professionals have a growing awareness and commitment to respond effectively and efficiently. As a provincial crown agency committed to delivering safe, reliable and costeffective clean water services, the Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) has had a long-standing role in the management of water emergencies. In 2002, provincial legislation formally identified OCWA as a responder for such events. This was expanded in 2009 to include wastewater emergencies. With this mandate, OCWA continuously renews its emergency management program and maintains fully trained and equipped mobile units to respond to water-related emergencies in Ontario. Effective emergency management The pillars that support effective emergency management are program planning, prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. These are the foundation of OCWAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Emergency Management Program. Emergency plans are in place for both facility-specific and agency-wide emergency scenarios. Guided by legislation, best practices and informed by experience, OCWA continuously develops tests and improves its emergency plans to ensure an effective and efficient response to emergency situations. Prevention has always been a primary focus of the water industry. Facilities are designed to provide a multi-barrier approach. Over the past decade, OCWA and many other utilities also began to utilize 30 | March 2012

The OCWA trailer that was prepared in Kirkland Lake, Ontario.

quality and environmental management systems (QEMS) to provide additional assurances of both regulatory compliance and operational conformance. Emergency preparedness, response and recovery have been an area of focus for OCWA, both for client facilities and in support of provincial water emergencies through its specially trained and equipped Emergency Response Teams (OERT). OERT consists of a group of experienced water professionals, with the training and equipment necessary to assess and mitigate both existing and potential water emergencies.

Equipment for the remediation effort being airlifted to Moose Factory Island.

The dynamic nature of water emergencies requires a highly integrated and coordinated tactical response. With a total complement of 25, OERT is composed of five regional teams, with specially equipped trailers. These can be deployed quickly to provide an immediate response to prevent or recover from a water or wastewater emergency. To ensure the most effective coverage and quickest deployment, these teams have been established in five regions: Eastern Ontario, Central Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Northeastern Ontario and Northwestern Ontario. Each year, the teams establish a series of hands-on scenarios, to test their response plans and train in real-world conditions. Moose Factory A unique opportunity to improve wastewater treatment was presented in the remote community of Moose Factory, Ontario, on the southern tip of James Bay. The community had recently upgraded its sewage pump stations, had some changes in operating staff, and understood the need for long-term maintenance plans and operator training to ensure safe and reliable operations. For OERT members, it was an unfamiliar wastewater system in a remote location, with high potential for degradation. This continued overleaf...

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ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-09 9:32 PM Page 32

Water and Wastewater Emergencies

How the trailer got from Kirkland Lake to Moosonee.

mirrored some of the conditions and complexities teams might face if called in to respond to a real emergency. “It was important to satisfy the need for a sewage-specific training component, since emergency response teams were now being trained to respond to both water and wastewater related emergencies,” says Tony Janssen, OERT team lead for Northeastern Ontario and operations manager for OCWA’s North Eastern Ontario Hub. The idea was to carry out, as a “real-life” practice, a “hands-on” remediation of a sewage works for a small

remote community that was looking for assistance. In preparation for the response in Moose Factory, a preliminary plan was established. It recommended OERT teams be deployed in four successive sessions to remediate problems, implement maintenance and safety procedures, and train local staff. With an OCWA oversight contract in place to follow up and keep the plan on course, a permanent turnaround was thought to be possible. Funding was allocated and the plans were approved and finalized, with the response set to take place in May 2011. Two team leads, Tony Janssen and John Seguire, from the Eastern Ontario team, travelled to the island to inspect the situation and identify the resources, supplies and tools needed to complete the project. A safety assessment was completed, according to OERT protocols, to evaluate hazards crews would be facing and make the necessary provisions. Upon first inspection of Moose Factory’s five pumping stations, a variety of issues were identified. It was found that the operation of three stations was com-

A freshly painted station.

promised, due to electrical and mechanical issues that had occurred since the upgrades. Immediate electrical safety concerns were identified and repairs made; some adjustments were made to the plan in light of changed conditions. Over the course of the visit, final team members were chosen from the OERT volunteers, according to the skill sets required. Specific tools and supplies needed to rectify the problem were identified for inclusion in the trailer being prepared in Kirkland Lake. The trailer would first be shipped to Moosonee —

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Water and Wastewater Emergencies located 1.5 miles across the river from Moose Factory â&#x20AC;&#x201D; via train. From there, the contents would be delivered to Moose Factory by helicopter as this was the only means of transportation due to seasonal weather conditions. The response The first OERT group arrived in Moosonee in the first week of May. The team unloaded the trailer, stocked with tools and supplies, and packed totes in separate lifts to ship to Moose Factory via helicopter. Upon arrival in Moose Factory, the team met with water plant and other Moose Cree First Nations staff, to discuss the plan of action as well as any additional equipment required to complete the pumping station work. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The first team concentrated on repairing the guide rail systems and correcting mechanical and basic electrical deficiencies.â&#x20AC;? says Janssen. The second team travelled to the island mid-May and focused mainly on repairing the lift stations. Team members completed mechanical repairs, started working on the electrical control systems and alarms, and also organized the tools, spare parts and safety equipment belonging to the First Nations. At the same time, the third team prepared standard operating procedures (SOPs) and rounds sheets to organize the work and ensure proper checks and maintenance procedures were in place once the repairs were completed. The fourth and final team arrived in Moose Factory in late May. The regular

The fourth and last team that was deployed to the island (left to right: Carl Grimstead, Tony Janssen, Roger Mellow, Stephane Barbarie and Bruce Larstone â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Operator/Mechanic from the North Eastern Ontario Hub who will be looking after the Moose Factory sewage oversight project).

response team had an additional member on the roster; Bruce Larstone, an OCWA operator/mechanic was tasked to support local operators looking after the Moose Factory plant over the coming years. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Bruceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s job is to follow up where OERT leaves off, as a system remediation like this one takes years to be declared completely successful,â&#x20AC;? Janssen explains. The final team refined the rounds sheets, trained First Nations staff on the routine procedures and critical equipment SOPs and tested the alarm systems that were functional. One lift station was painted and First Nations staff painted the rest. After the remediation effort, several

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follow-up visits were carried out, using North Eastern Ontario Hub staff to assist in cleaning up any remaining issues. In November, two courses â&#x20AC;&#x201D; â&#x20AC;&#x153;Pumping and Lift Stationsâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;Electrical Awarenessâ&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; were held on Moose Factory Island. Training was specifically modified and adjusted to be as relevant as possible for the local conditions. The result The result was not only a reliable collection system, but one with a very good chance of remaining that way due to the hard work of the OERT experts, future oversight by OCWA, and the newfound confidence of the Moose Factory operators. With proper maintenance, technical support from OCWA and standardized work practices, the pumping stations are able to function at full capacity. The â&#x20AC;&#x153;hands-onâ&#x20AC;? experience that each team member gained from supporting this remote community was undoubtedly beneficial in preparing OERT members to plan and stage responses and think on their feet in difficult situations, with limited access to external resources. Federal funding of $2.9 million was recently announced to establish a program to remediate the lagoon treatment system. OCWA is also providing assistance with this. Tony Janssen, Glen Lang and Yarlene Frisani are with OCWA. E-mail: cstancati@ocwa.com

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Groundwater Remediation

New process for effective removal of iron from groundwater By Irene Hassas

R

emediation of hydrocarboncontaminated sites often involves some form of groundwater pumping as a contaminant control or recovery. Pumped groundwater from these sites often has dissolved ferrous iron (Fe2+) present that originates from the soils, rocks, and minerals in contact with the groundwater. The extent to which iron dissolves in groundwater depends on the dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and redox potential. Iron occurs in two dissolved forms in groundwater: as ferrous (Fe2+) and as ferric (Fe3+). Once the soluble ferrous iron is exposed to the oxygen, the change to Fe3+ occurs rapidly and is accompanied by an iron precipitate, ferric hydroxide {Fe(OH)3} and, often, a bacterial slime. Iron-related groundwater treatment issues The combination of the ferric hydroxide and bacterial slime coats the interior

34 | March 2012

The system is typically fabricated from carbon steel, stainless steel, or plastic materials, and includes the necessary piping, as well as a stainless steel mesh bulkhead to enclose the filtration media.

The systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s automated controls and separation units allow for the removal of both types of iron (ferrous and ferric) to below 0.3 ppm.

of the recovery wells, the piping, separators, air strippers, and the carbon typically associated with hydrocarbon groundwater treatment processes. Treatment equipment can also be fouled through bacteria grow-

ing on biodegradable organics in the groundwater. This fouling typically occurs at concentrations of >5 mg/L of total iron. Total iron concentrations as low as 1 mg/L can cause operational fouling problems. Groundwater recovery pumps, operating at hydrocarbon-impacted sites with

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Groundwater Remediation elevated iron concentrations, show early signs of iron fouling and biological growth. An oil/water separator will often present ideal conditions for the formation of ferric hydroxide and biological slime. Air strippers also provide perfect conditions for iron fouling. Iron will continue to precipitate throughout the process and often limits the lifespan of a carbon bed. Placement of bag filters prior to carbon vessels provides some ferric hydroxide removal but is not effective against dissolved iron. In addition to the cost of equipment maintenance issues related to iron fouling, there is the additional issue of equipment downtime. Depending on the site location and availability of maintenance personnel, iron fouling could increase downtime be 40% to 50%. Existing treatment technologies Concentrations of iron in water can be approached with different treatment processes and technologies: Oxidation Dissolved iron can precipitate through oxidation using atmospheric oxygen. Oxygen converts dissolved iron to insol-

uble oxidized ferric forms. This type of treatment is cost-effective, and there is no chemical cost associated with it. However, there are some disadvantages, such as the need for a large reaction tank and the need to control slime growth that could cause taste and odour issues. Also, the oxidation process is slow, and changes in water quality may affect the pH of the water. Sequestration For low (less than 1 ppm) to medium (1-3 ppm) levels of iron in the water, sequestering agents can be used. A continuous feed of potassium permanganate with or without chlorine will oxidize the iron. Polyphosphate masks the effects of iron concentrations in the distribution system. Adding phosphate to the water will keep the iron in solution. The iron or manganese ions are surrounded by a chain of phosphate molecules and cannot precipitate. Sequestration delays the precipitation of oxidized manganese and iron, reducing the layer of scale in pipes. Ion exchange Ion exchange is a simple reversible

chemical reaction process where an ion, from a solution flowing through the solid particles of a resin bed, is exchanged for a similarly charged resin ion (acid or base exchange sites). The main advantage of the system is the use of a low-cost chemical (i.e., salt). Some disadvantages of the system are that iron removal is limited to a concentration of less than 1 ppm, and dissolved oxygen or iron bacteria can foul the resin with iron and manganese deposits. Also, exchange capacity will be reduced over time by plugged pores. The resin can be cleaned, but the process is expensive and causes capacity reduction. Chemical treatment system For high levels of iron in the water (100 to 1000 ppm), a chemical treatment system can be utilized. Certain chemical processes are designed to precipitate metal ions from different industrial wastewater and groundwater, where chelants and other agents have surrounded the metal ions. Chemical treatment processes are typically required when metals in solution are in a stable, continued overleaf...

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Groundwater Remediation dissolved form and ions cannot be converted to insoluble particles. These systems can be fully automatic. Based on the influent pH, dosing of coagulants and flocculants can be designed to be self-adjusting and proportional to the flow rate. Most chemical treatment systems have a large footprint, have high chemical and operational costs, and require watertesting materials. Also, safety issues regarding working with hazardous materials during their transportation, storage, usage, installation, and disposal, as well as during maintenance, are some of the challenges of working with these systems. FII IRS iron removal system Filter Innovations’ FII IRS with Deferum technology has been designed specifically for construction site applications to eliminate some of the existing remediation limitations resulting from iron precipitation in filtration equipment. Other applications for which this technology can be utilized are mining and agricultural operations, as well as the treatment of contaminated water from domestic sources. The system’s automated controls and separation units allow for the removal of

Polymer floating filter media (PFFM) is an effective alternative to traditional heavy filtering materials such as sand, clay, anthracite, etc.

both types of iron (ferrous and ferric) to below 0.3 ppm. With a capacity of up to and above 132,500 gallons per day (501,567 litres per day), it can accommodate iron concentrations from 3 ppm to 75 ppm on a non-reagent basis, as well as low concentrations of manganese.

Water is the connection Kemira is committed to being a leading water chemistry company. We are a global leader in process know-how offering an extensive range of high-quality products for environmentally responsible and cost-effective water and wastewater treatment. Our broad product portfolio covers multiple applications for municipal and industrial facilities.

System components The system is typically fabricated from carbon steel, stainless steel, or plastic materials, and includes the necessary piping, as well as a stainless steel mesh bulkhead to enclose the filtration media. The AKV aerator/degasifier part of

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36 | March 2012

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Groundwater Remediation the system is composed of a set of proprietary components fabricated from stainless steel 304L material. The units are located at the inlet to the iron treatment system. Feed water is supplied at a pressure of minimum 65 psi and the velocity of water flow reaches 180 km/h, creating a deep vacuum in the vacuum chambers. Dissolved gases are released immediately and high iron is oxidized. Polymer floating filter media Polymer floating filter media (PFFM) is an effective alternative to traditional heavy filtering materials such as sand, clay, anthracite, etc. It is manufactured from EPA food-grade polymer material, is chemically and physically stable, and can work in a wide range of temperatures and pH. It also has an extended particulate-capturing capacity of up to 500 mg/L (initial capacity) for suspended solids. PFFM must be conditioned, over a short period of time, to optimum operating parameters. It is an ideal filtering material for "contact" filtration, when reagents are introduced into the feed water immediately in front of the filter.

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The buoyancy of the media causes it to arrange itself as a floating filter bed. Filtration can be either upward or downward in direction, depending on the application, with the â&#x20AC;&#x153;bedâ&#x20AC;? restrained by a fine mesh and supported by a grid. It effectively removes fine particles, over the full service flow cycle, down to 1.5 microns. Operation Feed water is pumped from the collection tank/borehole at 65 psi to the AKV aerator/degasifier connected to the top of the Hydro-Robot assembly, where intensive processes of liquid aeration and gas removal occur. Then, water flows down the Hydro-Robot and into the hydro-automatic filter tank filled with floating filter media. Here, iron particles in insoluble form are removed throughout the depth of the filtering bed. Filtered water flows by gravity into the filtrate collector via the discharge pipe. Gradual fouling of the bed increases its resistance, raising the water level in an adjacent Hydro-Robot until it reaches the maximum level at which time a backwash is initiated. This draws water out of the filtration chamber at such a speed that

flow through the filter bed reverses and the filter bed is backwashed. During the backwash, the filter bed is expanded by 30% to 70%. The combination of the downward flow of filtrate and the upward buoyancy of the floating media produces a vigorous agitation and scrubbing effect. This results in a fast regeneration of the media in one to three minutes. Loss of water for backwash purposes normally does not exceed 1.5% to 3.0% of the daily flow of water. Conclusion An analysis of different iron management solutions and an evaluation of existing FII IRS-Deferum system installations have demonstrated effective removal of iron in groundwater treatment applications. In most cases, the system removed 80-95% of iron and, as a result, minimized the requirement for backwashing with activated carbon. This resulted in a drastic reduction in operation and maintenance costs. Irene Hassas is with newterra ltd. E-mail: ihassas@newterra.com

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Watermain Leakage

Do all water leaks come to the surface? By Rita Gowen and Gary Fricke

O

ne of Canada’s most spectacular drives is along the north shore of Lake Superior where one will find the picturesque village of Rossport, two hours east of Thunder Bay or six hours west of Sault Ste. Marie. In 2007-08, the Local Services Board of Rossport (LSB), with the assistance of the Ontario government, built a new water treatment plant to better serve the village. The plant went online in June 2008 and produced an average of 4,100 to 4,550 l/hr. Rates continued to rise, until the plant was averaging 6,365 – 6,820 l/hr. Even in the middle of the night, flow rates were averaging 5,455 l/hr. This was alarmingly high when one considers that Rossport only has a population of about 100. In the fall of 2010, the LSB contacted Hetek Solutions for help in determining the best equipment for finding what surely had to be mainline leaks. Rossport’s distribution pipes are PVC, encased with 3-inch foam insulation. Gary Fricke, Project Manager with Hetek Solutions, recommended a Sewerin Aquaphon A100 electro acoustic leak detector, which consists of a contact probe and ground microphone. The contact probe allows the operator to listen on valves, hydrants and directly on the pipe when exposed. When the suspected leak is on the buried water pipe, the operator uses the ground microphone to listen directly on the surface over the buried pipe for any leak noise. In the summer of 2011, the Rossport LSB purchased the equipment and began to survey their water distribution system for suspected water leaks. Joe Campbell, Utility Supervisor and Chairman of the Rossport Local Services Board, was checking the mainline, about 30 metres west of the water plant, and getting readings of 3 to 5, when he suddenly got a reading of 60 on the mid-range scale of 100. No water was coming to the surface and the spot was not where a pipe joint should be. However, excavating the pipe revealed the leak and it was not at a joint. It is believed that because the leak was close to the lake and in sandy soil, water percolated through the sand and into the lake. 38 | March 2012

Using the Aquaphon to detect non surfacing underground leaks.

Therefore, it never reached the surface. Repair clamps were applied to the main and the leak was easily fixed. Prior to discovering the leak, the plant was supplying 7,175 l/hr into the main. After the leak was fixed, average usage had dropped to 1,545 l/hr. Flow rates at night are now sometimes as low as 9 – 13.5 l/min. Personnel had to adjust plant equipment and correct computer programming, which had been set up for the much higher flow rates. Plant personnel had tried to manage

operations so that water treatment could take place primarily at night, to take advantage of cheaper off-peak electricity rates. This became less and less possible as leakage increased. Finding and stopping the mainline leak now allows for all treatment to take place at night, cutting the plant’s electrical costs in half. Rita Gowen is an operator at the Rossport Water Treatment Plant. Gary Fricke is with Hetek Solutions. E-mail: gary.fricke@hetek.com

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Wastewater Reuse

Wastewater recycling plant helps irrigate surrounding properties and recharge aquifer By Mark Strauss

W

hen stricter regulations were implemented to improve the quality of treated wastewater discharges to the Santa Clara River, the City of Fillmore, California, had a decision to make. Its wastewater treatment plant, which was built in 1955, needed significant upgrades both to comply with the increased standards and to meet the demands of a growing population. Rather than simply building a facility to discharge highly treated water to the river, the City took an innovative approach and decided to replace the plant with a new, state-of-the-art water recycling facility. This would end the practice of river discharges and enable development of a full-scale water reuse system to benefit many areas of the town. The result is a facility that meets the requirements of federal and state regulations as a zero-discharge facility, and a water-recycling program that irrigates

school grounds, parks and other green areas. This project goes far beyond wastewater treatment and encompasses water and energy conservation, environmental preservation, sustainability, recreation, education and an overall better quality of life for the residents of Fillmore and Ventura Counties. It also serves as an example of how a community can tackle an infrastructure challenge by choosing a public-private partnership (PPP) and a design-build-operate (DBO) model. The City chose to contract with American Water in a PPP to design, build and operate a facility to produce high-quality disinfected water to meet the stringent standards required for surface and subsurface irrigation of public and private facilities. The total project cost $42.5 million, and included a $26-million zerodischarge, membrane bioreactor plant and appurtenances, and a $4-million water reuse system. The balance of the

The safe solution.

40 | March 2012

cost included offsite engineering, construction and permits. Features of the plant The plant incorporates state-of-the-art technology that maximizes energy efficiency, helping to keep costs down. A flow-equalization system minimizes water flow during the day, when cost and energy use are highest. Wastewater is cycled back into the plant where it is treated during off-peak hours, when power demand and cost are lower. A membrane bioreactor system and an ultraviolet disinfection system yield cleaner recycled water suitable for irrigation. Treated water flow is regulated through pumps based on pressure and flow measurements. The UV disinfection system features an automated mechanical wiper cleaning system that removes debris without removing the UV lamps or halting operation. Using recycled wastewater significantly reduces demand for potable water. The recycled water irrigation system is controlled via a fibre optic network using state-of-the-art monitoring and control systems. Operating at full capacity, the Fillmore plant is designed to treat 2.4 million gallons of water daily (mgd). The current configuration is intended to operate at 1.8 mgd. The plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s peak pumping capacity is 4,146 gallons of effluent per minute. Facilities also include a recycled water tank that has a storage capacity of 1 million gallons. The new plant is yielding water 10 times cleaner than other types of modern activated sludge plants. This water is being used to irrigate multiple properties, which is a true luxury in California, where water is always in demand. The current irrigation system provides 200,000 gallons per day to two public schools, the new Two Rivers Park and a new greenbelt along a historic railroad in downtown Fillmore. About 800,000 gallons per day are discharged to an underground effluent disposal system (EDS) that provides groundwater recharge. Plans for irrigation water also include areas in new home developments, com-

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Wastewater Reuse

The plant incorporates state-of-the-art technology that maximizes energy efficiency, helping to keep costs down.

mercial building developments, the site of the old wastewater treatment plant (which is being converted into a park), the grounds at City Hall and other public

areas. As the transfer piping and irrigation systems are developed for these areas, water will be diverted from the EDS to the irrigation systems.

As part of the reuse and disposal system, American Water is operating a subsurface drip irrigation system on about 20 continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Reuse acres of grass playing fields. This unique form of irrigation saves about 30% of water consumed and allows the disposal of recycled water during rain events, which is a critical need for the zero-discharge plant. Additionally, the current volume of 200,000 gallons per day being used for irrigation has reduced the use of potable water sufficiently to allow the City to postpone drilling a new well, and helps preserve its limited supply of good-quality potable water. Added benefits of the project Beyond the environmental and community success of this project, the PPP approach and DBO model helped the City save $4 million. Working through a single contract with the City at a guaranteed cost allowed City officials to manage expenditures effectively, and significantly contributed to the project being completed ahead of schedule and under budget. A unique characteristic of this project was the sharing of the potential savings in the contingency funds. American Water, the City, the contractor and engineer, all had potential savings to realize at the end of the project if the contingency

reserve could be increased and preserved. This gave the team a shared goal of achieving value and cost savings when selecting equipment and making design decisions, and this teamwork approach was sustained through the completion of the project.

Working through a single contract with the City at a guaranteed cost allowed City officials to manage expenditures effectively, and significantly contributed to the project being completed ahead of schedule and under budget. The City and American Water worked closely to bring together cost-saving ideas and innovation to save money in both construction and operations, while maintaining the high quality of discharges required.

Examples include the use of UV disinfection; real-time control of electrical usage; a fully automated, 100% redundant control system to allow the plant and the offsite irrigation sites to operate without staffing during late-night hours, producing significant electrical cost savings; and use of the screw press for sludge dewatering instead of more expensive centrifuge or belt press units. The City and American Water also worked closely to obtain permits and approvals for these systems, avoiding delays on several occasions. The project, which began operating in October 2009, has received numerous industry awards, including the 2010 Public-Partnership Award from the National Council on Public-Private Partnerships, the Global Water Intelligenceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 2010 Global Water Awards for Water Reuse Project of the Year, and the 2010 Environmental Business Journal Business Achievement Award. Mark Strauss is with American Water. For more information visit: www.amwater.com

Dissolved oxygen addition improves water quality in water reservoirs (Continued from page 19)

An ECO2 Speece Cone is made ready to be placed underwater.

by the required water amount that needs oxygenation. The total oxygen demand in the hypolimnion is a function of the SOD (sediment oxygen demand) and the HOD (hypolimnetic oxygen demand). The drop in DO resulting from stratification is the best measure of the total oxygen demand, representing both SOD and HOD. Another approach for controlling sulphide, iron and manganese downstream of 42 | March 2012

the reservoir is to create a large aerobic zone around the intake structures in which H2S, iron and manganese can be oxidized. This is both a biological and chemical process, that is influenced by several water quality variables. Typically, in clean lake water, it takes 24 to 48 hrs to oxidize H2S, iron and manganese. Therefore, the aerobic zone must represent at least 48 hours of hydraulic retention time sur-

rounding the intake structure. This zone will be affected by the release rate of the lakes, i.e., the higher the release rate, the larger the zone needs to be. To create an aerobic zone of 48 hours hydraulic retention time, twice the daily release rate has to be kept aerobic around the intake structure. Once the total daily oxygen demand has been established, an oxygenation system can be sized accordingly. ECO2 typically works closely with the owner, the consulting engineer and contractor through each step of the design process to make sure the project will be a success. Once installed, the Speece Cone operates basically maintenance-free. All orifices are a minimum of 4 inches to allow for solids passage if necessary, and there are no moving parts in the cone, making it a very reliable device for continuous oxygen addition. Inken Mello is with ECO Oxygen Technologies. E-Mail: imello@eco2tech.com

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Wastewater Treatment

Canadian wastewater plants not designed to remove drugs and other PPCPs By Deborah Everest-Hill

C

anadians rarely encounter the threat of water-related illness experienced in other countries. However, reports of trace contaminates, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), estrogens, and household products, in Canadian lakes, rivers and streams have gained nation-wide attention. “The problem,” says Chris Metcalfe, Professor of Environmental and Resource Studies at Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario, “is that wastewater treatment plants are designed to remove conventional pollutants such as ammonia, dissolved solids and biochemical oxygen demand substances. They aren’t designed to remove ‘down-the-drain’ chemicals, which pass through them.” Water naturally contains bicarbonates, sulphates, sodium chloride, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Besides the

Reports of trace contaminates, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), estrogens, and household products, in Canadian lakes, rivers and streams have gained nation-wide attention.

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Wastewater Treatment obvious, common ingredients of municipal wastewater influent include metals, oils, nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, natural and synthetic hormones, household chemicals and PPCPs. “These chemicals,” says Metcalfe, “can even appear, usually at extremely low concentrations, in drinking water.” In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) conducted a survey of emerging organic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A (BPA). Over a 16-month period, 258 samples were analyzed from selected source waters and 17 drinkingwater systems. The most frequently detected compounds in finished drinking water were carbamazepine (anti-epileptic drug), gemfibrozil (cholesterol-lowering drug), ibuprofen and BPA. The presence of these contaminates in wastewater has been a concern for twenty years, but the development of more sensitive analytical methods in the past decade has enabled researchers to quantify their suspicions. Today, approximately 400 PPCPs can be detected out of more than 4,000 available on the market,

says Joanne Parrott of Environment Canada’s Water Science and Technology Directorate. Environment Canada has conducted studies on the distribution of pharmaceuticals and veterinary drugs in marine/ coastal watersheds of Eastern Canada, prairie watersheds, the St. Lawrence River, and the Great Lakes and Fraser River basins. An analysis of wastewater at 18 sewage treatment plants (STPs) in 14 municipalities from September 1998 to February 1999, revealed salicylic acid (acne medication), ibuprofen, naproxen (used to treat pain and inflammation) and carbamazepine in both the influent and effluent of several STPs. Gemfibrozil was detected in the influent of three STPs. Interestingly, the concentration of carbamazepine found in influents was similar to that found in effluents – possible evidence that the drug is resistant to treatment. Metcalfe says that, while some compounds like acetaminophen and naproxen are relatively easy to remove (>90 per cent), others such as carbamazepine and meprobamate (a tranquilizer) are not. “A

compound’s physical and chemical characteristics play a major role in defining its removal mechanism,” explains Lori Lishman of the Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research Division at Environment Canada. Polycyclic and nitro musks (PNMs) are another group of organic compounds detected in municipal wastewater according to Environment Canada. PNMs are present in perfumes, deodorants, cosmetics, soaps, shampoos, laundry detergents, household cleaners, and air fresheners. In 2006, these compounds were detected in both the influent and effluent of 36 wastewater samples on the Thames River. Further, between 1999 and 2000, a United States Geological Survey (USGS) analysis of 139 streams, considered susceptible to contamination because of urbanization and livestock production, found 80 per cent contained organic compounds such as fecal steroid, cholesterol, insect repellant, caffeine, triclosan (found in products such as soap, toothpaste and deodorant) and fire retardant. The median number of organic comcontinued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment pounds found per sample was seven, with some samples containing as many as 38. According to the USGS, the insect repellant DEET is the third most common contaminant in streams. Caffeine is fourth and triclosan, fifth. There are approximately 3,700 wastewater treatment systems in Canada to process the estimated 6 trillion litres of sewage Canadians produce each year. According to Environment Canada’s 2007 Municipal Water Use Report, 68 per cent of Canadians received at least secondary wastewater treatment (47 per cent mechanical and 21 per cent advanced treatment). About 23 per cent of the population relied on treatment plants providing primary treatment and 6 per cent were served by stabilization ponds. Approximately 3.2 per cent of Canadians relied on systems with no treatment. Further, the report indicated that more than 150 billion litres of sewage could be discharged untreated or under-treated into surface waters. While some municipal wastewater systems in Canada are good, Metcalfe says others are poor. Many municipalities

Wastewater treatment plants aren’t designed to remove ‘down-the-drain’ chemicals, which pass through them.

still use primary treatment. Some trace contaminants are removed through adsorption to solids or by degradation. In British Columbia, 36 per cent of wastewater received less than secondary treatment, according to the 2007 Municipal Water Use Report. In three east coast

provinces and Quebec, only half of the wastewater received secondary wastewater treatment, or better. On the other end of the spectrum, in Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario the percentage of wastewater receiving secondary treatment was 99, 98, and 89 respectively. “Today, it’s anticipated that 75 per cent of wastewater systems meet the proposed secondary treatment standards,” says Henry Lau, Spokesperson, Ministerial Communications, Environment Canada. The remaining 25 per cent will have to make changes to meet the proposed requirements. In Ontario’s Halton Region there are seven STPs to process wastewater: four secondary and three tertiary. “The level of treatment provided depends on the requirements of the receiver,” explains David Andrews, Director of Wastewater Services. While secondary treatment is required for one discharge location, tertiary may be required for another. In Halton, all STPs include disinfection with ultraviolet radiation (UV).“The use of UV instead of chlorine eliminates the need for chemical addition and the poten-

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Wastewater Treatment tial formation of chlorinated by-products,” adds Andrews. While most studies indicate the risk to humans from trace pollutants is very low, Metcalfe believes “vigilance” is required to minimize the risks, especially for the young and the elderly. “What we're missing is the risk assessment part,” he says. “Do these compounds at low concentrations have the potential to have an impact on the environment or human health?" That’s a difficult question to answer, according to Viviane Yargeau, chemical engineer and Associate Professor at McGill University. Due to the large number of compounds in wastewater effluent, “it’s challenging to fully assess the potential effects of these substances on the environment.” What we do know, thanks to Environment Canada research scientists like Parrott, is that some estrogens, pharmaceuticals and personal care products at low concentrations (nanograms per litre (ng/L) to micrograms per litre (ug/L)) appear to cause effects in aquatic organisms such as fish and turtles. Concentrations of PPCPs in these ranges exist in Great Lakes municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE), rivers and waters. Female Medaka exposed to fluoxetine (anti-depressant) in the lab illustrated delayed maturation and changes in both egg production and reproductive behaviour. Fish exposed to diclofenac (anti-inflammatory) exhibited effects in gills and liver. In another Environment Canada study, Darters collected downstream of a Grand River wastewater treatment plant showed evidence of feminization. Similarly, male fathead minnows that were caged for two weeks below a wastewater treatment plant began producing egg yolk protein, a sign of estrogen exposure. While research on the effects of PPCPs is being conducted in Europe and North America, Yargeau says that there are many studies that illustrate the effects of compounds like estrogen at concentrations as low as 1 ug/L, but there is little or no information about many other compounds. “More importantly,” she adds, “little is known about the effects of a mixture of compounds.” “Prioritizing the substances is challenging because many factors such as the amount discharged in the environment and the potential risk must be considwww.esemag.com

ered,” says Lau. “Health Canada has been working on priority lists,” he adds, “an important step toward making recommendations for improved wastewater treatment.” Studies in North America and Europe suggest that many “down-the-drain” chemicals can be removed more effectively with advanced treatment systems. Saad Y. Jasim, Director, Great Lakes Regional Office, International Joint Commission, and former Chief Executive

Officer of the Walkerton Clean Water Centre, believes that ozone is a promising treatment method to remove traces of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. As the Director of Water Quality and Production at the Windsor Utilities Commission, in the City of Windsor from 2002 to 2005, Jasim and colleagues evaluated the effectiveness of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting chemicals from the municipality’s raw continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment water supply. The analysis revealed that removal rates for trace levels of compounds such as carbamazepine, caffeine, cotinine, and atrazine were greater with ozone than with conventional treatment. “While active carbon is expensive and can be ‘hit and miss,’ ozone is efficient at removing these compounds and is costeffective,” says Jasim. He also says more focus on the wastewater treatment process will result in less being required at the drinking water stage. “We saved about $247,000 in the first year using ozone, due to a reduction of chemicals used in the treatment processes.” In 1999, he proposed that the Windsor Utilities Commission begin using ozone to treat drinking water. In 2001, it was the first municipality in Ontario to supply water treated with ozone. Since then, other municipalities such as Burlington, Oakville, Mississauga and Toronto have followed suit. In an Environment Canada report, Lishman indicates that the advanced treatment of wastewater effluents using either ozonation, or granulated activated carbon, appears to be effective in remov-

ing/degrading PPCPs based on a limited dataset. However, she notes that most studies of removal rates during treatment have involved pure compounds. In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment conducted an analysis of pharmaceuticals, hormones and BPA in untreated source waters and finished drinking water. Removal efficiency for carbamazepine was determined to be be-

cent respectively. In Barcelona, Spain, the Department of Environmental Chemistry compared the removal rates of a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a conventional activated-sludge (CAS) process in a wastewater treatment facility. In general, the MBR was more effective in removing pharmaceuticals (>80 per cent). In some instances, removal rates for com-

In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment conducted an analysis of pharmaceuticals, hormones and BPA in untreated source waters and finished drinking water. tween 71 and 93 per cent for drinking water systems using granulated activated carbon (GAC). It was 75 per cent when GAC was followed by ultraviolet irradiation. For gemfibrozil, the removal efficiency using GAC was between 44 and 55 percent and increased to 82 per cent when followed with UV. The use of GAC, or GAC followed by UV, resulted in a removal efficiency of BPA of 80 and 99 per

pounds such as ibuprofen, naproxen and hydrochlorothiazide were high for both processes. Carbamazepine was the most persistent compound, passing through both the MBR and CAS systems. According to Environment Canada, a membrane bioreactor will provide a high degree of solids removal. In contrast, ozonation and other advanced oxidation treatments provide a more complete re-

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Wastewater Treatment moval of dissolved material in the wastewater, such as organics and pathogens. Lishman says further work with these technologies using final effluents will provide a better assessment of their capabilities. Yargeau believes “improving the current wastewater treatment units to remove the recalcitrant compounds does not seem to be the most viable alternative.” However, she says current treatment plants should not be replaced but upgraded. “Polishing steps,” she says, “will address issues related to contaminants of emerging interest and the disinfection of wastewater.” Because wastewater treatment in Canada varies from coast to coast and from one city to another, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) endorsed the Canada-wide strategy for the management of municipal wastewater effluent in 2009. Under the Fisheries Act, regulations will require waste treatment facilities across Canada to provide secondary treatment or an equivalent. The proposed regulations were intro-

duced in March 2010 followed by a formal 60-day comment period. In addition to proposing national effluent quality standards, the regulations specify conditions for the deposit of effluent containing harmful substances such as biochemical oxygen-demanding matter, suspended solids, total residual chlorine and un-ionized ammonia. The proposed regulations would apply to wastewater systems that deposit a toxic substance and discharge 10 m3 or more from its final discharge point. Wastewater systems that pose a high risk would be required to comply within 10 years, while others would have either 20 or 30 years depending on the potential risk. Environment Canada aims to publish the final regulations in 2012. In addition to a harmonized approach to wastewater treatment, Yargeau says research at full-scale water treatment plants and continued collaboration among engineers, scientists and toxicologists is required to understand the treatment conditions faced here in Canada. For communities that provide primary treatment, the transition to advanced

treatment systems will require a substantial investment by all levels of government in the coming years. Metcalfe says many municipalities across Canada are already making these investments. Several cities are considering membrane filtration technologies, while Montreal is planning an ozonation plant. Metcalfe hopes the new Environment Canada minimum standards for wastewater treatment will prove an incentive for those communities still lagging behind. “Investment in improved sewage treatment will not only cut back on the release of conventional pollutants like ammonia, suspended solids and BOD,” he says. “It will have the added benefit of removing many of these ‘down-the-drain’ chemicals.” Deborah Everest-Hill is a freelance writer and communications professional living in Stoney Creek, Ontario. E-mail: deboraheverest-hill@sympatico.ca

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Renewable Energy

Sundridge’s proposed RE powered WWTP faces financial challenges By Richard Leverton

T

he Village of Sundridge, Ontario, currently uses settling ponds for its wastewater treatment. Because of seasonal overcapacity and the expected population increase, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment is mandating a full and modern wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). One item that was going to make this an expensive project was that the new WWTP would be located seven kilometres away from the nearest 3-phase electrical line. The cost to bring power to the new plant would be approximately one million dollars. As an alternative to this, the design and building consultant for the Village proposed powering the facility with a renewable energy (RE) system. It would save both the cost and environmental impact of installing a power line to the plant and the long-term cost of consumed electricity. Hybridyne Power Systems Canada was commissioned to carry out a feasibility study, which showed that a hybrid RE power system could pay for itself in about 15 years. As a bonus, the RE system would prevent some 326 tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHG) from being produced annually. Hybridyne proposed to produce electricity through an RE system consisting of twelve direct drive, high efficiency 10kW wind turbines. These would produce about 567,648 kiloWatt hours of electricity per year. Also, 48 kW of photovoltaic solar panels, coupled with Hybridyne’s high efficiency DC/AC conversion system, would produce an additional 83,885 kiloWatt hours of electricity per year. A single phase power line nearby could be used as a backup and supplemental energy source. The RE system is designed to supply the plant’s total power needs for twenty four hours per day, with a reserve power supply of seven to ten additional hours using lead/calcium batteries. This proprietary system, designed and supplied by Hybridyne, would be the first one used anywhere to power a municipal WWTP. When the MOE decided that the local 50 | March 2012

Hybridyne’s proposed system consisted of twelve 10-kW wind turbines and 48 kW of photovoltaic solar panels.

single phase power grid was not reliable enough for a backup to the RE system, it required the addition of a backup diesel generator. Accordingly, the design was altered to add one. As well, in keeping with the overall system philosophy, a hydrolyzer was proposed, so that any unused electricity would be used to generate hydrogen from water. The hydrogen would then be stored and used to augment the diesel generator’s fuel supply. Injection of hydrogen into the generator’s air/fuel mix would decrease fuel costs and cut exhaust pollution by up to 50%. Additionally, since the generator would rarely be used, surplus hydrogen could be used to help power some of the village’s diesel trucks. The net result of this design was a WWTP with a highly reliable system, totally powered by renewable energy, and backed up by a small residential power grid and dual-fuel genset. It would be ca-

pable of paying for itself through the savings compared to the consumption of ever-more-expensive grid supplied electricity. No greenhouse gases would be generated except the small amount from the diesel genset on the rare occasion when it would be needed, and that small amount was further mitigated by the use of hydrogen as a blended fuel. The Village of Sundridge was pleased about being a world first for industryleading Canadian know-how. It was excited about sharing this concept with other communities in Northern Ontario and worldwide in developing nations, who all had similar challenges, i.e., modern infrastructure which needed lots of reliable, and otherwise expensive and/or hard-to-reach electricity. Hybridyne were equally pleased because this would be a pilot project further applying their proprietary and patented Hybrid Renewable Energy system in a

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Renewable Energy new application, an Ontario-designed wastewater treatment system/concept which could be used throughout Canada and exported worldwide. Funding for the project was to be from the federal and provincial governments and the Village of Sundridge in equal thirds. In November 2008, the Village applied to the Building Canada Fund (BCF) – Communities Component Program and was successful in getting some funding approved. So what went wrong? An application for the BCF program was submitted when the project was in the second public consultation stage of its Environmental Assessment. This meant that final costs and detailed design, including the addition of an RE system, had not been completed. When the final design was done, the cost for the project was much more than the funding approval received. A Renewable and Clean Energy Application was submitted in September 2009. The Village was notified in January 2010 that it was not approved. It was told that, while the application met all of the requirements for funding, there was not enough funding available for all of the submissions received. The Village then ran into multiple bureaucratic and government policy roadblocks: • The BCF has a set timeline, during which the project has to be complete in order to receive funding; the timeline could not be met.

Located on Bernard Lake, between Huntsville and North Bay, Sundridge is a popular summertime destination and focal point for cottagers.

• Many of the funding applications stated that, if you had already received funding approval (even if it was inadequate), you could not apply for more. • The Village resubmitted its application to BCF for additional funding after completion of the detailed design and asked for additional funds to be added to the project. However BCF would not approve it. • An application under the first intake of Ontario Small Waterworks Assistance Program was submitted in February 2011. The Village was notified in June 2011 that it was not approved. • Another application was submitted under the Showcasing Water Innovation Fund in June 2011. The Village was notified in January 2012 that it was not approved.

Sundridge’s council is extremely disappointed that they have been unable to power their WWTP with Renewable Energy and is concerned about the following consequences: • Installation cost of a seven kilometre long power line will be a drain on the Village’s finances. • Electricity costs will be an ongoing burden and will increase every year as prices rise. • The cost of diesel fuel for the backup generator will also increase every year. • Delays are extending the environmental impact of the existing wastewater process, because grid-supplied electricity will generate hundreds of tonnes of GHGs per year. • The Village had been eagerly looking forward to being a leader in Canada and northern Ontario and had been anticipating visits from civic leaders from all over the world to visit their one-of-a-kind RE-powered WWTP. To date the project has not moved forward. Because of the main upgrades, some of which were required by the MOE, available funding is far short of what is needed. The timetable has been negatively affected by the lack of funding approval and by delays waiting for the various funding applications. Richard Leverton is with Hybridyne Power Systems Canada Inc, E-mail: richard.leverton@hybridynepower.ca

To read more on Barrie’s SW TP and the state-of-art technologies being used by the City of Barrie, visit Barrie.ca .ca.

www.esemag.com

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Wastewater Treatment

Improving an induced vortex grit chamber using Computational Fluid Dynamics By Denis Aubin, Mike Bruneau and John Cigana

T

he headworks of a wastewater treatment plant is not only the first step of the wastewater treatment process, but also an essential one, as it sets the tone for overall treatment performance. Generally speaking, the headworks is composed of a mechanical screen, grit chamber and solids handling equipment. Modern grit chambers remove grit by inducing a vortex pattern. A drive paddle in the induced vortex unit maintains organics in suspension and circulation under all flow conditions. Grit slurry pumps periodically remove accumulated grit from the hopper at the bottom of the grit chambers. Efficiency of the grit chambers is important for the remainder of the wastewater treatment process. Removing solids increases treatment efficiency, improves downstream hydraulics, and protects against excessive wear and tear in pumps. Traditionally, for design purposes, grit particle sizes have included particles larger than 65 mesh (0.008 in.) with a specific gravity of 2.65. Removal of at least 95% of these particles has always been the target of grit removal design, but empirical studies in the literature validating these performances have been rare. Enhanced performance at the headworks stage is critical for advanced treatment technologies like membranes, MBRs and MBBRs. These are all sensitive to the presence of gross solids and grit deposition. Grit removal performance is also critical to lagoon-type treatment rehabilitation. Research objective : defining a 360o Induced Vortex Grit Chamber A research program was established recently to define a variangle (full 360º rotation) Induced Vortex Grit Chamber (IVGC) design, identified as the MECTAN V®. The objectives of this program were to create a new configuration that would: • Position the outlet channel in any desired direction to facilitate the plant design without affecting the unit’s performance, 52 | March 2012

Figure 1. Original Fluent modeling of classic IVGC based on Ridgecrest, California, installation.

thus the variangle. • Provide enhanced grit removal efficiency compared to the classic results and general market requirements. Finally, this research program would lead to a predictive model based on field performance and computer modeling. Background and methodology Classic grit chamber design is typically referred to as 270º, referring to the rotation angle of the water from the inlet channel to the outlet channel. This implies that the inlet and outlet of the unit

ure 1. The models were established using a classic design IVGC unit installed in Ridgecrest, California. The grit removal performance obtained through CFD simulations were then validated with empirical data from onsite trials. At the time of testing, the Ridgecrest WWTP was at 25% of nominal flow. Even though not considered close to the actual expected 100% design flow, but close to average daily flow for many WWTPs, these tests have provided considerable data for developing the new technology.

Enhanced performance at the headworks stage is critical for advanced treatment technologies like membranes, MBRs and MBBRs. are on the same side of the induced vortex tank. In order to fully understand the performance of the classic design, the exact geometry of a 270o induced vortex grit chamber was modeled through CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The Fluent® software (ANSYS) was used for this modeling, as shown in Fig-

The sand dosage method was used during these performance tests in Ridgecrest. The quantity of injected sand was sufficient and the velocity in the channel was high enough to avoid the settling of sand before the grit removal system. While sand was injected, two samples, at equal flow rates, were taken simultane-

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Wastewater Treatment ously, one upstream and one downstream of the grit chamber, using two submersible pumps installed at the inlet and outlet of the grit chamber. Samples were then sent to an external laboratory where analyses of sand granularity and density were done. Grit samples were sieved through three different mesh sizes: 50, 70 and 100 (corresponding to 300, 250 and 150 Âľm). Thus four ranges of grit were obtained, corresponding to particle sizes <100, 100-70, 7050 and >50 mesh (corresponding to <150, 150-200, 200-300 and >300 Âľm). Figure 2 is a typical grit removal efficiency curve for a classic design IVGC at 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of design flow. The four computed curves on this figure clearly show one of the great benefits of the IVGC design: grit removal efficiencies increase with decreasing influent flowrate. This is extremely positive since 100% of design flow is rarely achieved on a continuous basis. Removal efficiencies are therefore always better during average daily design flow, which is anywhere between 25% to 50% of design flow. CFD development of the variangle flow path design and test sites The projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s central objective was to develop a new and more efficient variangle configuration, while adapting the design to current approaches. While very practical for bypass installation, the classic design requires the outlet channel to be parallel to the inlet channel in order to connect to the downstream treatment systems. In the late 1980s, configurations using in-line inlet and outlet configurations appeared. This approach addressed the flow direction issue, but did not fully address the grit removal performance. Two sets of full-scale testing were completed at fully operational installations in Soledad, California, and Jackson, Kentucky. The sand dosage methodology described for the Ridgecrest test was also used for the validation in Soledad and Jackson. Soledad Wastewater Treatment Plant The unit in Soledad, California, was one of the first variangle units to be installed. The municipal wastewater was fed by gravity into the 16-ft-diameter unit. The feed rate only provided 25% of total design flow to perform the tests of www.esemag.com

Figure 2. Classic IVGC configuration grit removal efficiency vs. flow variations (typically, grit removal efficiency increases with flow-through reduction).

Figure 3. Soledad, California, variangle field test results compared to CFD modeling

the variangle concept. Figure 3 compares different results obtained through CFD modeling and empirical data. The black line represents the grit removal efficiencies that a classic IVGC would yield at 100% of design flow. The dashed magenta line represents the efficiency for the same 100% design flow but with a variangle configuration. It can be clearly seen that the grit removal performance is enhanced by a variangle design, across all grit sizes.

Furthermore, when comparing on this same figure the grit removal efficiencies at 25% of design flow (the conditions where the tests were performed in Soledad) for the variangle design and a comparable classic design, it becomes clear from the empirical sand dosage tests that the efficiency of the smallest grit sizes (between 100 and 150 microns) is enhanced by the variangle design. It was determined that the sand dosage test method could typically exaggerate grit distribution in the channel, so, from March 2012 | 53


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Wastewater Treatment

Figure 4. Jackson, Kentucky, variangle field test results compared to CFD modeling

a practical point of view, the curves for the classic and variangle design are essentially identical for grit sizes above 150 microns. However, for the grit sizes below 150 microns the efficiency is substantially higher when using a variangle

design. This particle size is typically considered as very fine grit and very difficult to capture. Jackson Drinking Water Plant The Jackson, Kentucky drinking water plant uses a grit removal system, as

it draws muddy and gritty water from the nearby river. The 7.5-ft-diameter grit tank was installed after the intake pumps. Although not tested at 100% design flow, this installation did provide the opportunity to test the variangle concept at 60% of total design flow. Figure 4 also compares different results obtained both through CFD modeling and empirical testing. The black, orange and pink curves present the CFD-generated grit removal efficiencies for an equivalent classic IVGC design at 100%, 75% and 50% of design flow. The dashed blue colour curve shows what the expected grit removal efficiency would be with a variangle design at 100% of design flow. Again, it is clear that the variangle design offers better grit removal performance than the equivalent classic design at 100% of flow, as grit removal efficiencies are better across the board than with a classic design. The sand dosage tests were performed at 60% of design flow. The real-world results obtained on grit removal efficiency again show the superior performance of the variangle design over the classic design. For example, for a 100 micron grit

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Wastewater Treatment Particle size (microns) Above 300 Above 210 and below 300 Above 150 and below 210 Above 100 and below 150

Particle size (MESH) efficiency Above 50 Above 70 and below 50 Above 100 and below 70 Above 140 and below 100

Grit removal 96% 87% 75% 68%

Table 1. Expected grit removal performance for a variangle design (2.65 specific gravity).

size, it can be clearly seen from empirical data that grit removal efficiency is close to 80%. By interpolating between the 50% and 75% curves for the classic design, the expected efficiency would be in the range of 50% grit removal efficiency. This represents a huge improvement in grit removal performance at sizes considered extremely difficult to intercept.

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CFD backed performance for grit removal Computational fluid dynamics is a powerful and flexible tool that allows the study of a wide variety of applications in the water industry. Field tests are bringing additional credit to the use of CFD as a design tool. This study combined both CFD evaluation and field results with the

objective of developing and validating a variangle IVGC. As a conclusion, Table 1 presents the grit removal performances that were achieved through this study. Ongoing field results and continuous CFD modeling are being considered in order to enhance and provide for even more accurate prediction of grit removal performances with the Fluent速 CFD program. Denis Aubin, Mike Bruneau and John F. Cigana are with John Meunier Inc., Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies Canada. a subsidiary of Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies. E-mail: John.Cigana@veoliawater.com

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Biosolids Dewatering

Rehabilitating Parry Sound’s wastewater lagoons required biosolids dewatering solution By Matthew Green

Geotube units were deployed and connected to a manifold system.

T

he Municipality of McDougall operates a four lagoon cell system close to Parry Sound, Ontario, for the management of sewage sludge. In the fall of 2010, the cells were in need of major rehabilitation, which included replacement of the cell liners and the repair of the cell walls. In order to perform the rehabilitation, sludge from the lagoon cells had to be removed, dewatered and transported offsite. The Municipality intended to landfill the material, and in order to do so, required a dewatering technology which could not only produce a material that would pass the slump test, but one that could be deployed quickly and economically. Geo-Dredging and Dewatering Solutions Inc. was contacted by Fowler Construction, the project’s general contractor, to undertake the dewatering portion of the project using Geotube® dewatering containers. These are constructed of a special woven polypropylene material which is extremely efficient at retaining solids, while producing a clear effluent. The tubes sit upon a constructed area, which is designed to direct filtrate to a specific location. As sludge is pumped 56 | March 2012

into the tubes, it is chemically conditioned with a polymer to allow maximum dewatering efficiency. Once pumping is completed, the Geotubes are left until the

water has drained out and the odorless material retained is removed and transported offsite. Before undertaking the project, com-

Geo-Dredging responded to the unanticipated increase in volume by adding two more 60’ x 100’ long and two 45’ x 100’ long Geotube units to the site. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Biosolids Dewatering pany representatives made a visit to the lagoon cell to collect samples of the sludge. After bench testing several samples, it was determined that the sludge was approximately 5-6% solids and was optimally flocculated using 4.7 kg of polymer per dry ton of material. A dewatering cell was constructed in close proximity to the lagoon cells in order to transfer the filtrate produced through the dewatering process back to the lagoon as simply as possible. Fowler Construction undertook construction of the dewatering cell, which measured 120’ in width x 200’ in length. It was designed to accommodate four Geotube units measuring 60’ in circumference x 200’ long. Berms were constructed around the

Berms were constructed around the perimeter of the dewatering cell in order to limit the risk of filtrate being discharged to the environment.

mated nature of the system ensured optimal flocculation over the course of the project by reading the percent solids of the sludge every 15 seconds and automatically adjusting dosage rates. During the course of the project it became apparent that the original volume of 15,000m3, thought to be contained in the lagoon, had been underestimated. GeoDredging responded to the unanticipated increase in volume by adding two more 60’ x 100’ long and two 45’ x 100’ long Geotube units to the site. Because the dewatering cell had been constructed for the four original units, the onsite crew had to place the additional dewatering units on top of the original ones. This allowed the project to continue without additional lay down area being constructed. Pumping continued until the lagoons had been emptied and the dewatering aspect of the project concluded in October 2010. The Municipality then commissioned the removal of solids from the units in April 2011. Samples of the dewatered material were collected and analyzed for total solids content. Although it was raining

heavily during the solids removal, samples collected were analyzed at approximately 30% solids. This easily passed the slump test, allowing the township to haul the material to landfill. The custom chemical conditioning system used by Geo-Dredging not only adjusts dosage rates to ensure proper flocculation, it records detailed data pertaining to every project undertaken. At the completion of the project, approximately 30,000m3 of material at an average of 5.5% solids had been pumped to and dewatered by the Geotube units. This left approximately 8,000m3 of dewatered material to be transported offsite. Use of the Geotube technology for the dewatering aspect of this project allowed the Municipality to pump the sludge during 2010 and dispose of the dewatered material in 2011. This enabled them to spread the cost of the project over two years. Matthew Green is with Bishop Water Technologies who supplied the Geotubes for this project. E-mail: matt@bishopwater.ca

perimeter of the dewatering cell in order to limit the risk of filtrate being discharged to the environment. The area was sloped at approximately 1% so that filtrate could be discharged to a collection trench located at the end of the cell. Once the base of cell was constructed, an impermeable geomembrane liner was installed to control the flow of filtrate produced through the dewatering process. A non-woven geosynthetic was installed on top of the liner to protect it from damage over the course of the project. Finally a drainage media was installed, in order to promote dewatering from the bottom of the Geotube units. After completion of the dewatering cell, the Geotube units were deployed and connected to a manifold system capable of feeding them all simultaneously, or one at a time. Sludge was pumped to the units by a PTO driven manure pump. As the sludge was transferred, it was conditioned inline by Geo-Dredging’s custom-designed mobile polymer injection system. The autowww.esemag.com

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Water Treatment

Design considerations for groundwater supplied treatment plants By Jahangir Chowdhury

V

arious factors need to be taken into account when designing a typical groundwater treatment plant in Ontario. Raw water from drilled wells is deemed by Ministry of the Environment (MOE) criteria to be groundwater, under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI). Such raw water may contain elevated levels of iron, manganese, colour, turbidity, taste/odours and microbiological contamination. It is affected more by the presence of dissolved substances than the presence of suspended solids. In accordance with the MOE requirements, the service agreement for a water treatment plant (WTP) stipulates that treated water produced by the facilities must be in compliance with the Technical Support for Ontario Drinking Water Standards, Objectives and Guidelines, June 2003, and the Drinking-Water Systems Regulation (170/03). The required treatment process for this raw water consists of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration (or equivalent treatment). It must achieve an overall performance that provides a minimum 3.0–log removal/inactivation of Giardia cysts and 4.0–log removal/inactivation of viruses. There are three possible treatment component options: 1. Conventional chemically assisted direct filtration followed by granular-activated carbon (GAC) adsorption system. This option is considered best, because the raw-water supply is not affected much by suspended solids. Additional advantages of direct filtration are the decreased space and construction requirements due to the lack of a sedimentation unit. Chemical costs and sludge production are also reduced due to decreased coagulant dosages. 2. Fully conventional chemically assisted sedimentation, filtration, followed by GAC adsorption system. This would not be effective because the amount of settleable solids removed in the sedimentation tank would be low. 3. Membrane filtration. This would also not be effective in reducing dissolved substances, and therefore is not considered. Typical plant components and process The main components of a water treatment plant are one rapid mixer, three identical flocculation tanks, three dual-media filters, filtered water well, three GAC contactors, clearwell, highlift pumps, backwash and GAC transfer pumps, residue holding tank and management system, chemical feeding and storing system, and standby power. A treatability study concluded that effective treatment for this typical raw water would be coagulation followed by anionic polymer, filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption and disinfection. The selected chemical for coagulation is aluminum sulphate–alum (Al2(SO4)3 x 14 H2O); for coagulant aid it is anionic polymer; for pH adjustment it is potassium hydroxide (KOH); for disinfection it is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); and for fluoridation it is hydrofluosilicic acid (H2SiF6). Raw water entering the treatment plant is dosed with aluminum sulphate and polyelectrolyte, immediately followed by 58 | March 2012

a rapid mixer, where dynamic mixing will occur. The polyelectrolyte and alum will destabilize the charge on suspended particulates and colloids, promoting coagulation of the colour material and reduction of turbidity. The effects of alum dosage are pH reduction and increase of sulphate concentration in the raw water. The reaction can be represented as: Al2(SO4)3 → 2 Al3+ + 3 SO42Al3+ + 3 H2O ↔ Al(OH)3 ↓ + 3 H+ CO2 + H2O ↔ HCO3- + H+ Al3+ + 3 HCO3- ↔ Al(OH)3 ↓ + 3 CO2 The flocculation chambers following rapid mix will enhance agglomeration of coagulated material, resulting in the formation of flocs. Flocculated water will then flow through dual-media filters with a top layer of anthracite and lower layer of Filox-R or similar media. Flocculated iron and colour will be removed in the top layer of anthracite, and remaining iron and manganese will be removed in the lower media. Dissolved Fe (II) and Mn (II) are usually removed from water by oxidation in engineered conditions to their insoluble forms, followed by removal of precipitated ferric hydroxide and manganese dioxide by filtration, represented as: 4 Fe2+ + O2 + 10 H2O → 4 Fe (OH)3 ↓ + 8 H+ 6 Mn2+ + 3 O2 + 6 H2O → 6 Mn O2 ↓ + 12 H+ The lower Filox-R media has superb adsorption capacity because of its high MnO2 coating. The coated manganese dioxide strongly adsorbs Mn2+, represented by the following reaction: Mn2+ + MnO2 (s) → MnO2 (s) - Mn2+ MnO2 (s) - Mn2+ + HOCl + H2O → 2 MnO2 (s) + Cl- + 3 H+ Potassium hydroxide (KOH) is used at the dual-media filters’ effluent to increase the pH of water. The effects of KOH dosage are removal of CO2 and increase of hydrocarbonate (HCO3-) ions in the water. KOH + CO2 → K+ + HCO3pHnew = pHin (after filtration) + log [(HCO3-)/( CO2)] GAC adsorption following dual-media filtration adsorbs organic materials, which impart the potential tastes and odours, and which might otherwise be converted to trihalogenated methanes and homologues when chlorine is applied for disinfection. Following GAC adsorption, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is injected to disinfect and inactivate pathogenic organisms in the water supply. Treated water is collected in the clearwell, prior to being pumped into the distribution system. Top-up chlorination will also be provided at the highlift discharge header to provide the required free chlorine residual throughout the water distribution system. Hydrofluosilicic acid is also injected into the highlift discharge header to provide a fluoride residual in the finished water. Treatment process units The following process units’ size requirements are established based on standard engineering design protocols developed by the MOE and the American Water Works Association, and Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Water Treatment on information from equipment manufacturers. a) Rapid mixer. The rapid mixer should be capable of providing velocity gradient (G value) up to 4,000 s-1. The variable speed drive is required to allow the mixer speed to be changed to adjust G and GT values as flow conditions vary and to improve mixing efficiency. b) Flocculators. The typical treatment plant has three parallel flocculation trains, each having two flocculation cells in series. Three trains operating simultaneously should provide a contact time of 15-30 minutes at design flow. With one flocculation train out of service, contact time should be set at 10-20 minutes. Mixing in the first flocculation cell shall be capable of providing G value up to 100 s-1. Mixing in the second cell shall be capable of providing G value up to 50 s-1. c) Dual-media filters. The typical treatment plant has three filters. The filter units shall allow the full design capacity to be produced, including allowances for in-plant use and backwashing, with a filtration rate not exceeding 10 m/hr. Each filter unit shall be designed to be capable of independent operation and backwash. Each filter unit shall be connected to the backwash water supply line and air scour blower to facilitate the backwashing of filters. Backwash rate of each dual-media filter shall not exceed 50 m3/m2/hr and required blower discharge rate shall not exceed 600 SCFM, providing an air scour rate not exceeding 45 SCFM/m2 for each filter. d) GAC contactors. Similar to that for flocculation and filtration, the GAC contactor of a typical plant also has three independent trains. Three GAC contactors operate simultaneously to provide an empty bed contact time (EBCT) not less than 15 minutes at design flow. During maintenance of one contactor, the EBCT can be reduced to not less than 10 minutes, if design flow coincides with the maintenance. Backwash rate of each GAC contactor shall also not exceed 50 m3/ m2/hr. Dualmedia and GAC contactor backwashes will not be concurrent, allowing the same pump to be used for both backwash purposes. Due to plant hydraulics, GAC contactors require the pumping system to transfer filtered water to them. The same www.esemag.com

Levelton Consultants Ltd. /HYHO WRQ &RQVXO WDQWV /WG  LV SO HDVHG WR DQQRXQFH WKH DSSRLQWPHQWV RI  1LFN 'DYLV 3 (QJ D V 3UHVLGHQW DQG $O H[ 6FKXWWH % 6F  (3 DV  9LFH 3UHVLGHQW HIIHFWLYH $SULO   . Nick received a diploma in Civil Engineering from %&,7 DQG D GHJUHH LQ *HRO RJLFDO  (QJLQHHULQJ IURP KH KDV 8%&  $IWHU MRLQLQJ /HYHO WRQ LQ  VXFFHVVIXO RI URO H V  SURMHFW O \ ÂżO O HG D YDULHW\ HQJLQHHU SURMHFW PDQDJHU DQG UHJLRQDO PDQDJHU   $O H[ KDV D GHJUHH IURP 0F*LO O 8QLYHUVLW\ LQ  0HWHRURO RJ\ DQG (QYLURQPHQWDO 6FLHQFHV 6LQFH   MRLQLQJ /HYHO WRQ LQ  $O H[ KDV WDNHQ RQ WHFKQLFDO  PDQDJHULDO DQG RSHUDWLRQDO URO HV LQ WKH   organization. /HYHO WRQ SURPRWHV WKH GHYHO RSPHQW RI VWURQJ VNLO O V O HDGHUVKLS DQG EXVLQHVV PDQDJHPHQW DPRQJ LWV HPSO R\HHV DQG VWULYHV WR SURYLGH opportunity for advancement. Congratulations H RI WKH 1LFN DQG $O H[ IRU ULVLQJ WR WKH SLQQDFO /HYHO WRQ RUJDQL]DWLRQ.

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March 2012 | 59


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M

Filter 2

Filtered Water Well

Rapid Mixer Flocc. Flocc. Tank 3A Tank 3B

M

Ancillary Systems

Filter 3

Fluoride

Sodium Hypochlorite

Via GAC pumps

MM

Flocc. Flocc. Tank 2A Tank 2B

Raw Water Pumps

GAC system 1

Sodium Hypochlorite

Filter 1

Potassium

M

Flocc. Flocc. Tank 1A Tank 1B

Hydroxide

Aluminum Sulfate Polyelectrolyte

Sodium Hypochlorite

Water Treatment

GAC system 2

GAC system 3

To Distribution via Highlift Pumps Clearwell

Backwash System

Residue Management System

Typical plant components and process.

pumps shall be used for backwash and to pump water from the filtered water well to the GAC contactors. A total of four backwash and GAC transfer pumps shall be provided, for backwash of dual-media filters and GAC contactors, GAC transfer, and standby capacity.

e) Clearwell. The volume of the clearwell is based on providing adequate chlorine contact time to meet CT requirements, and also in making up the shortfall in distribution system storage such that projected maximum demands and fire flow requirements would be met.

The volume for minimum CT requirements is based on a required 1.0–log removal/inactivation of Giardia cysts (CT1.0-log, Giardia) and a 3.0–log removal/inactivation of viruses (CT3.0-log, Virus). According to the MOE guideline, distribution system storage requirements are

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60 | March 2012

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Water Treatment as follows: Total system storage = A + B + C A = Fire storage B = Equalization storage (25% of maximum day demand) C = Emergency storage (25% of A + B) f) Highlift pumps. A typical plant has four highlift pumps. One pump will be capable of meeting the average day demand. Two pumps operating simultaneously can meet the maximum day demand. During fire demand, three pumps operating simultaneously will be able to meet total requirements. Other factors It has been assumed for this scenario that the wastewater will be discharged to a residue holding tank from which the waste shall be pumped directly into the existing sanitary sewer over a 24-hour period at a uniform rate. The residue holding tank shall have a capacity equal to the total volume of backwash produced from dual-media filters and GAC contactors, including filter-to-waste rinses. Monitoring the treatment plant processes is required so that all necessary flow measurement and some parameter analyses can be conducted on a continuous basis. Grab sample analyses are required for some chemical parameter analysis. • Magnetic or Venturi flow meters are required for the raw-water header, highlift discharge header, filter and GAC effluent pipes, and backwash water supply pipe. • Chlorine residue analyzers are required for the highlift discharge header. • Turbidity meters are required for the highlift discharge header and filter effluent lines. • Facilities and equipment are required for on-site testing for iron, manganese and fluoride residual in the plant effluent. • Ultrasonic level transducers are required in the dual-media filters, GAC/backwash suction well, GAC contactors, highlift suction well, clearwell and residue holding tank. A diesel generator set is required to provide highlift pumping capacity equal to design year maximum flow, plus required fire flow, as well as operating the treatment plant during times of electric power supply failure. The overall process control strategy of the plant is a conventional level-based apwww.esemag.com

proach, When the distribution system requires highlift pumps to operate, the water level in the clearwell will drop. This will cause the effluent rate control valves on the GAC contactors to open, and the level in the GAC contactors will drop.

Monitoring the treatment plant processes is required so that all necessary flow measurement and some parameter analyses can be conducted on a continuous basis. In turn, this will cause the GAC transfer pump to start, with its rate control valve modulating to maintain nominal level in the contactors. Since the GAC transfer pump draws from the filtered

water well, the level in that well will begin to drop. This will cause the effluent rate control valves on the filters to open, and the level in the filters will drop. The raw-water flow control valve will then adjust position to try to maintain level in the filters. Should this raw-water rate control valve reach a fully opened position without the filter level rising, the raw-water/well pump next in the duty cycle will be started. As demand in the distribution system reduces, highlift pumps shut down, causing levels in the clearwell to raise. This high level will shut down the GAC contactors and the filtered water well level will rise. The filter effluent valves will close, causing the level in the filter to rise and the raw-water rate control valve to close to maintain its control level. If the filter level continues to rise, the rawwater/well pump will be stopped. Jahangir Chowdhury is with Hatch Mott MacDonald Group. E-mail: Jahangir.Chowdhury@hatchmott.com

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Stormwater Management

Intelligent real-time stormwater management can reduce flood damage By Carmen De Miguel and Jim Forester

The US National Guard helps a family evacuate flooded home during the Midwest flood.

L

ast year’s overflowing of major North American rivers, including the Red River in Manitoba and the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers in the mid western United States, caused one of the worst series of floods in the past century. It left homes and businesses under water for months and caused extensive damage to public and private property. While last autumn and this winter have been remarkably dry, long-term predictions of changing weather patterns point to an increase in flooding across North America. The increasing intensity and frequency of rainfall patterns, with more virulent storms reported each year, is leading to dramatic consequences for both urban centres and the natural environment. This is prompting public works officials to take stock of their stormwater management systems and revise their long-term strategy. A case in point is the city of Council Bluffs, located just outside Omaha, Nebraska, and home to 62,000 citizens. The city’s wastewater treatment plant treats stormwater and domestic and industrial wastewater before it is discharged to the 62 | March 2012

Missouri River. While it typically processes 7 to 8 million gallons per day (mgd), it operates closer to its 12.5-mgd capacity during heavy rainfall events. When precipitation is expected, pumping station operators need to be informed as soon as possible so they can prepare by opening and closing valves at the river’s levee station, in order to control the amount of water being sent to the treatment plant. Each municipality and city needs to find its own individual strategy to mitigate street flooding, optimize wastewater treatment plant operations, and reduce combined sewer overflows, based on its unique infrastructure and topography. Execution of each strategy depends on a capable monitoring system that offers access to critical information without delay. The faster all the mission-critical information is available, the more effective the response strategy. Nothing beats access to real-time information for both assessment of the current situation and predictive modeling. With the help of an intelligent stormwater decision support system (DSS), such as Telvent’s Stormwater Management Solution, water utility and public works employ-

ees can manage stormwater runoff proactively and adequately. In the event of an impending crisis, these management systems help employees quickly implement best practices and deploy human resources when and where they are needed most. Importance of forecasting quality Because severe weather events are often extremely localized and difficult to predict, a stormwater management solution’s performance relies both on the accuracy of forecasting and the quality of the simulation model. It is important to be aware of the limits of publically available weather forecasts. Often they are neither accurate enough nor sufficiently detailed to be used in a predictive model of water runoff into the system. All drainage districts may not be affected equally, even when they are located next to each other. The modeling found in most freely available systems often leads to overly generalized predictions of overflows. Considerable time and money can be saved by focusing efforts on high-risk locations and operations through highly localized forecasts. With so much depending on accurate, advance warning of impending weather events, operators of the Council Bluffs

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Stormwater Management wastewater treatment plant rely on the comprehensive weather radar and forecasting services provided by Telvent. These forecasts are based on sophisticated technology that combines numerical weather prediction models, on-the-ground sensor networks, and remote sensing input via satellite and radar. Using the latest observations from the field and the most recent forecast data available, a staff of 50 professional meteorologists provides operators with forecasts 24/7 that are updated every hour, are highly localized and extremely accurate. Should there ever be a question regarding the impact of a particular forecast, customers can connect with a meteorologist instantly for further consultation. With this information at their fingertips, the staff at the Council Bluffs plant always know when and how much rain to expect. “When we see rain forecast, we let staff at the pumping station know so they can open valves to grit chambers that are not currently being used,” says Dan West, chief operator. “The pumping station needs to make sure the generators are on,

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valves are open, and all other necessary actions are taken prior to the storm.” Accurate precipitation forecasts also improve staffing efficiency. “Knowing when we can expect rain helps me schedule my team’s daily activities,” says West. “We can make arrangements for more staff if necessary and save valuable time during severe weather.” Essential model components To make prevention cost-effective, communities need to know not only the exact path of a storm and how much precipitation it will bring to their exact location, but also how it will affect the saturation levels of the area and the resulting risk of flooding. Accurate, realtime weather forecasts are just one critical element of the more comprehensive, intelligent stormwater management systems that can help cities monitor and optimize their complete water collection and flooding mitigation systems. A state-of-the-art decision support system combines multiple interconnected models to provide a complete view of runoff flow through the urban drainage system and accurately predict flooding

locations, extent and severity. In addition to the precipitation forecasting model, a second critical component is a set of dynamic models. First, a hydrological model reflects the land phase, or catchment, aspect of stormwater management, while accounting for the fact that saturated soils generate significantly more runoff than dry soils. This runoff model should also accurately predict the increase in flows in storm drains, based on precipitation and on the monitoring of detainment basins. Secondly, the DSS should include a hydraulic model that not only models the connection between basins, but also the potential for overflows and other predictable events when the system is operating both at capacity and over capacity. The hydraulic model simulates overflow water levels above ground and flow rates in below-ground piping systems that result from the runoff predicted by the hydrological model. This information identifies flooding and overflow locations, extent and severity. Finally, the DSS should be complecontinued overleaf...

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Stormwater Management mented with real-time network measurements from field sensors located at pipes, pumps, valves, gates, weirs and other vital system operations points. When variation does occur between forecast and actual precipitation development, field sensors ensure that predictions are always adjusted immediately. Stormwater management solutions are usually accessible through a visualization portal, where operators can chose relevant layers of data to be applied to a mapping of their infrastructure. In state-of-the-art solutions, the model output, including sewer surcharge, CSO location, overflow values and other information, should be presented in a user-friendly graphical interface, along with animated maps of flood-risk areas with flood extent, and alerts at locations where operational or safety limits are exceeded. The graphical interface should be designed in a way that allows operators to spot risks instantly. The stormwater management solution should generate alarms whenever there is an impending overflow, and provide guidance and recommendations for operating lift stations, retention facilities, treatment

facilities and outfalls to prevent overflows. Because public works officials must be very mobile in their jobs, the most advanced industry solutions issue customized warnings and alerting services and can be accessed both through computer and smart phone web browsers. Additional benefits As well as helping prevent and manage acute flooding, a stormwater management solution is a tool that can benefit the whole organization, from operators to planners and engineers. The mathematical representations of the urban drainage network are not only useful to map severe threats, but also provide a critical tool for the design modifications and extensions to sewer and stormwater systems. The system is also useful in creating a costeffective maintenance schedule for stormwater detention basins, wet wells and dry ponds. Training and proper knowledge management are critical to the long-term success of public works organizations. Advanced stormwater management solutions support hypothetical scenario development and simulations based on historical

data, to prepare staff for a diverse set of possible risks, and establish best practices in advance of real events. But perhaps most importantly, using an integrated DSS for stormwater management and hydrology helps municipal agencies comply with the strict safety and compliance regulations, one of the main challenges facing the industry. Using these highly sophisticated tools demonstrates that the municipal agency is proactively addressing its mandate to protect the community from CSOs. Flooding preparedness and stormwater management are critical elements of any community’s crisis response plan. As communities prepare for changing weather patterns, they can look to leading real-time IT solutions and information providers for information that helps all stormwater management divisions plan and cope with stormwater runoff. Carmen De Miguel and Jim Forester are with Telvent. For more information, visit www.telvent.com

pH contr control ol Less sludge MORE OXYGEN

When it comes to environmental process applications, we’re really in our element At Air Liquide Canada, we’re working hard to provide solutions to some of the most important challenges we face today. Our process applications include: CO2 to neutralize pH of alkaline effluents O2 to increase bio-basin oxygenation capacity while decreasing polymer

Finding solutions is in our nature Air Liquide Canada Michel Épiney: 450-641-6218 Camille Lanctot-Downs: 780-438-5635 airliquide.ca

64 | March 2012

O3 for bio-sludge reduction to reduce sludge handling, nutrient and dewatering polymer Find out more about how Air Liquide Canada’s green approach to process applications is not only good for the planet but good for business too.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-12 4:14 PM Page 65

Public education

The Water Brothers TV series premieres

T

he first season of “The Water Brothers”, an original six part documentary series from SK Films, premiered on March 19th, which marked Canada Water Week and UN World Water Day. The series is also available for streaming nationally at www. tvo.org. While last autumn and this winter have been remarkably dry, longterm predictions of changing weather patterns point to an increase in flooding across North America.

housie. They are making this series, largely on their own. Alex is researching, writing, co-hosting and interviewing water experts. Tyler is co-hosting, directing, co-producing and shooting. The two brothers are in their twenties. Word about The Water Brothers is spreading and they already have a very strong and growing following. They are frequently asked to host and speak at

water and conservation related events and this past fall, they made a presentation at the TEDx Youth@Toronto conference. Excerpts from the series were selected for inclusion in the Youth Climate Report, during the 2011 UN convention on climate change (COP17) in Durban, South Africa. www.skfilms.ca

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Audiences join Tyler and Alex Mifflin, as they travel the world exploring the challenges facing water. The Water Brothers are passionate and bring a fresh perspective to one of the most compelling contemporary subjects of our time."We are at an amazing time in human history, where we can all initiate change in our daily lives to solve global problems. We hope, through this series, that we can shed some light on the state of what’s really happening with water issues around the world," says co-host Tyler. The brothers show that you can still have some fun, enjoy local cultures, and investigate serious subjects. Season one includes stunning footage and compelling stories as the brothers explore the massive coral reef system of Central America and Mexico ("Reefer Madness"), the potential impact of dams on the Mekong River including Cambodia and Vietnam ("Valley of the Damned"), the Arctic ("The Big Thaw"), the gigantic, engineered water systems of California ("Water in All the Wrong Places"), the threat to the Great Lakes from the invasive Asian Carp ("Carpageddon") and our obsession with bottled water ("Bottlegate"). Tyler is a film production graduate from UBC. Alex is an environmental/international studies graduate from Dalwww.esemag.com

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March 2012 | 65


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Monitoring

Multilevel groundwater monitoring provides clearer picture of contaminated sites By Tricia Lane

C

ontaminated site investigations have moved to the forefront in Canada, through increased government funding and updated regulations and guidance documents. Under the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan, more than 18,000 contaminated or suspected contaminated sites have been identified in Canada, for a total of over 21,000 sites in the Federal Contaminated Sites Inventory. With continued funding through Canada’s Economic Action Plan, it is expected that the number of contaminated sites assessed and cleaned up will be accelerated. Another program putting focus on contaminated site investigations is the Green Municipal Fund. Overseen by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, this provides funding to municipal governments and their partners for brownfield redevelopment, including grants for the initial site investigations and studies. In addition to increased funding, site investigation regulations and guidance documents are being reviewed and updated. In July 2011, changes made to Ontario Regulation 153/04 came into effect. The regulation outlines how Environmental Site Assessments and Records of Site Conditions are to be completed, and describes how work is to be undertaken at contaminated sites. One of the key changes described in the Guide for Completing Phase Two Environmental Site Assessments under Ontario Regulation 153/04 is the preparation of a “conceptual site model” (CSM). A CSM is a detailed description of the site, including geology, hydrogeology and contaminant distribution, using data from multiple sources and testing methodologies. It provides the basis for management of a contaminated site. The regulation also requires more thorough sampling and testing to be completed. Another example of moving towards better investigative techniques is the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment's Technical Guidance on Contaminated Sites for Groundwater Investigation 66 | March 2012

and Characterization, which came into effect in February 2011. The guidance focuses on investigative approaches that increase the amount of spatial and temporal data collected. The overall objective is to create a larger three-dimensional data set and accurate conceptual site model to work from. Tools are now required to help consultants and custodians perform accurate site investigations in the most efficient manner. Multilevel groundwater monitoring systems are an example of one of these, which can provide a clearer picture of the hydrogeologic environment.

Multilevel monitoring technologies Multilevel groundwater systems allow a number of depth-discrete zones in one well. When installed in transects across a site, they enable groundwater assessment on both horizontal and vertical axes, providing a three-dimensional understanding of the site’s subsurface. Multilevel systems also provide the detailed data required for accurate site characterizations and for creating representative conceptual site models. Flexible monitoring options allow groundwater samples, hydraulic head and permeability measurements to be ob-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-12 4:14 PM Page 67

Monitoring tained from each depth-discrete zone. Water samples can be collected using devices such as peristaltic, pneumatic or inertial pumps. The depth to water can be measured with small-diameter water level meters or transducers. Pressure transducers allow for automated level monitoring, facilitating continuous water level monitoring during hydraulic tests, or long-term monitoring. In some systems, it is possible to install both a pneumatic pump and pressure transducer at each port. Multilevel systems are an integral part of determining the overall hydrogeological conditions of a site. This includes groundwater flow and direction, contaminant distribution and concentration gradients, contaminant migration pathways, including high-permeability features and preferential transport pathways, and contaminant fluxes and mass transport. Newer guidance documents include recommendations on well spacing and the screened interval of each monitoring zone. Guidance suggests the use of more wells at various depths to ensure full coverage of an aquifer, as well as shorter screened intervals to avoid cross-conta-

mination between aquifers, or between different layers within the same aquifer. Typical multilevel systems have hydraulically isolated short-screened intervals at various depths. This effectively overcomes the issues of aquifer coverage and cross-contamination, without the use of traditional nested or clustered monitoring wells. Shorter screened intervals also provide true groundwater chemistry at each monitoring zone and eliminate the issue of chemistry being averaged across long screens. Investigative advantages Environmental consultants, drilling contractors and custodians are pressured not only by legislative requirements when investigating a site, but also by their clients with time and monetary constraints. Therefore, they need tools that can help them accomplish investigations in the most efficient and cost-effective manner. With multilevel systems, there are fewer and generally smaller-diameter holes to drill, when compared to a cluster, or nest, of conventional monitoring wells. This results in lower drilling, installation

and sediment disposal costs, with less site disturbance. In addition, it is easier to backfill and seal around a single casing, than to seal around a number of nested wells in the same borehole; this saves on installation costs as well. In some regions, multilevel systems help offset rising well-permitting costs. For example, in early 2011, a county in the U.S. was proposing to increase the fee for monitoring well installation permits from $201.00 to $489.00 per well (for the first 25 wells). With these fees, it would cost $3,423 to apply to install seven standard groundwater monitoring wells at varying depths. In comparison, a 100-ft multilevel system with seven monitoring zones would only need one permit, thus reducing the permit cost to $489. The interval that a multilevel port encompasses is typically smaller than a conventional well. So, when sampling multilevels, there are smaller purge volumes and rapid responses to water level changes. Purge and sampling times are decreased, along with the costs to dispose of or contain purged water. Some multicontinued overleaf...

SAVE THE DATE 5thAnnual Ontario Water Works Equipment Association

Charity Golf Tournament In support of: Water For People Canada Held in conjunction with the OWWA / OMWA 's Joint Annual Conference

Water For People is dedicated to creating reliable access to safe drinking water, improved sanitation facilities, and hygiene education programs in Africa, Asia, Central America, and South America.

Wednesday May 9th, 2012 It’s not enough to help some but not others. In the regions where we work, we are committed to providing access to every person–today and in the future–and we monitor our work for at least 10 years post-implementation to guarantee its impact.

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Enjoy a wonderful day of golf and support a very worthwhile water industry charity!

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March 2012 | 67


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Monitoring

Solinst CMT multilevel well.

level systems allow for simultaneous purging of channels, saving even more time. With monitoring times reduced, there are further savings in field personnel time. Multilevel systems can be installed for short-term or long-term monitoring. After the initial site investigation is complete, they can continue to be used to track the attenuation process or remedia-

tion efforts at a contaminated site. Continuous multilevel tubing Since 1999, Solinst Canada Ltd. has been manufacturing the CMT® (Continuous Multichannel Tubing) Multilevel System, which can monitor up to seven depth-discrete zones in a single well. The CMT system consists of an extruded polyethylene tube, 28 mm or 43 mm in diameter, with either three or seven isolated channels running internally along its length. Ports are manually constructed at desired depths along the tubing, so each channel can be used to monitor separate specific depths. Systems are quick and easy to build; their design and port construction can be carried out right at the drilling site. Using conventional drilling methods, including direct-push, experienced contractors have drilled and built several complete wells in less than a day. Over 150 environmental drilling contractors have been trained to assemble and install CMT systems. Thousands of systems have been used at contaminated sites around the world, including Canada, the U.S., the UK, Germany, Italy, Hungary,

France, Sweden, South Africa and Australia. These projects involved nuclear waste sites, mine tailings, landfills, petroleum spill sites, and large MTBE plumes. The depth-discrete data obtained using CMT provides site investigators with a better understanding of the threedimensional flow and distribution of contaminants in the subsurface. This allows for more detailed groundwater site characterizations and site conceptual models to be produced, helping site investigators meet legislative requirements. More accurate site investigations also allow remediation strategies to be targeted more precisely, providing defensible data for legal cases if required. Overall, as the initiative to clean up contaminated sites and brownfields in Canada moves forward, multilevel monitoring systems are providing high-resolution groundwater data, allowing a clearer picture for consultants, drilling contractors and custodians to assess and eventually remediate the sites. Tricia Lane is with Solinst Canada Ltd. E-mail: tricia.lane@solinst.com

Mueller® Resilient Wedge Gate Valves Engineered for performance and longevity, they have special features to ease operation, to protect critical areas from wear and tear during operation, and to avoid corrosion. Lubricated thrust collar and rugged thermoplastic bearings let parts turn or slide with less friction. The Mueller PRO-GUARD™ Epoxy Coating System wth its superior fusion-bonded power epoxy, covers the interior and exterior. The wedge is 100% encapsulated. Stainless steel bolts are standard in valves to 12”. It all adds up to consistent performance, long-lasting service life, and lower life-cycle costs. Contact your Mueller Representative

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www.muellercanada.com 68 | March 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-09 9:35 PM Page 69

  Clearing the smog: A review of Renewable Energy: Facts and Fantasies By Peter Davey

A

s the world’s population recently crawled past the seven-billion mark, we are drawn back to the question of sustainability. Energy in all its forms is necessary to grow crops, pump water, fuel cars and heat homes. In calculating the carrying capacity of our planet, the underlying factor is that of energy: how much we need, and how it can be generated. Renewable Energy: Facts and Fantasies by Craig Shields, is an informative and engaging read, guiding readers through the many aspects of the clean energy industry. Mr. Shields, who has a degree in physics and over 25 years experience as a marketing consultant, entered into clean energy a few years ago after realizing its importance and potential. In addition to this book, Mr. Shields is the editor of 2GreenEnergy.com, a resource for innovation and investing in the clean energy industry. Ongoing debates surrounding the movement toward renewable energy are sure to continue and become a focal point of the 2012 American election. Renewable Energy, while published in 2010, remains a rich and useful source of information for those interested in what is sure to be the most important challenge of this century. I was able to speak with Mr. Shields, and in talking with him, it became apparent that very little progress, notably in the United States, is being made. Indeed, the exploitation of new natural gas reserves in America, made possible through hydraulic fracturing, may potentially stall or impede the movement away from fossil fuel power generation. The book is the product of 26 interviews, conducted by Mr. Shields with various experts in fields relating to energy. The variety of experts, each discussing their relative and overlapping areas of focus, provides readers with a comprehensive look at renewable energy. Peak oil, electric cars, ecological concerns, capital formation and even cold fusion, are examples of Mr. Shields’ broad discussion. The book’s “question and answer” format explains complex and variwww.esemag.com

ous subjects in an engaging, easily digestible manner. As the book is divided into separate interviews, it does not read like a novel. Three sections of “Tough Realities” which compose Renewable Energy, deal with The Political Scene, The Technologies, and Advocacy, Economics and Other Issues. These sections contain interview chapters relating to the section, but not necessarily to each other. This is especially the case in the Technology section, in which a number of energy sources are explained separately, relying on an expert particular to that method of generation. Renewable Energy draws on well-educated and prestigious individuals for its information, including leading climate change scientists, high-level government officials, physicists, vice-presidents of energy companies, and ecologists. Every discussion, from the effects of wind turbines on bats, to the quantum mechanics of photovoltaic solar cells, is clearly explained without being pedantic. Some readers who are involved in, for example, wind turbine research and production, or in the electric vehicle industry, may find the sections dealing with their background generalized or simple. However, given the wide array of topics covered in this book, familiarity with one technology should not influence a reader to discount the whole book. Interviews conducted by Mr. Shields reveal that the renewable energy movement, far from being homogenous, is in actuality quite fragmented. For example, while one expert dismisses the role of electric vehicles, another emphasizes their importance, yet another laments the lack of interest in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. In talking with Mr. Shields, he reveals that the public is generally unaware of the fragmentation in the green or alternative energy movement. Although his book does not expressly highlight this conflict, it is quite evident to the reader that the industry has yet to agree on set agendas. While the experts may disagree when it comes to setting a course, there is broad consensus that the United States is, ac-

cording to Mr. Shields, “almost dead in the water” in moving towards clean energy. Ongoing frustration with partisan bickering, short-sighted politicians, and deliberate obfuscation of climate change and energy sciences, are all impediments, which experts agree, the industry faces. These “tough realities,” as Mr. Shields refers to them, are softened by a keen sense of optimism. Cases of successful pilot projects; consumer awareness of harmful externalities; and a seemingly endless supply of ingenuity characterize the interviews. It is a refreshing break from the usual discussions on energy, which tend to be overwhelmingly grim or unrealistically optimistic. The message of the book seems to be that we will eventually achieve a clean energy based economy, but when, and at what cost?

Renewable Energy: Facts and Fantasies By Craig Shields, 322 pages, Clean Energy Press (July 30, 2010), ISBN-10: 0615388353, ISBN-13: 9780615388359, is available from Amazon.com. Peter Davey is with Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. E-mail: peter@esemag.com

March 2012 | 69


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ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-12 4:15 PM Page 72

Groundwater Remediation

Innovative management of large LNAPL plumes By Richard Johns, Francisco Perelló, Cam Patterson and David Brogliatto

(1998-2003)

Figure 1: Annual Product Recovery

Actual LNAPL Recovered Theoretical LNAPL Recovery

6000 5000

LNAPL recovered (L)

M

anaging large plumes of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) is expensive and time-consuming. Standard LNAPL recovery technologies are useful to a point, but they steadily decline in efficiency as the more easily removable product is recovered. An innovative approach to LNAPL recovery at an active railway yard has been developed by Keystone Environmental and Canadian National Railway (CN). A portion of the yard was affected by 75,000 litres of LNAPL in a mobile plume the size of a football field, which had the potential to reach sensitive ecological receptors at a nearby river. Thus, containment and removal/recovery were key steps in the remedial process. The objectives for the project were to: • Recover LNAPL. • Reduce dissolved phase hydrocarbons (DPH).

4000 3000 2000 1000 0 MAY 98-99

MAY 99-00

MAY 00-01

MAY 01-02

MAY 02-03

Year

• Maintain containment to prevent off-site migration of the plumes. • Reduce the timeline and costs for site remediation. • Identify and complete improvements to the design. • Uncover applicability of the technology to other sites.

Through groundwater contouring, the engineering team manipulated the groundwater table and LNAPL interface levels to improve the capture and recovery of LNAPL and enhance the containment and treatment of DPHs. The effectiveness of this approach was investigated at a portion of the CN railway yard in the City of Prince

The use of a Waterra Hydrolift-2 inertial pump actuator will eliminate the fatigue that can be experienced on large monitoring programs and will result in a big boost to your field sampling program. Perfect for purging and sampling 2" diameter monitoring wells up to 200 feet deep, the Waterra Hydrolift-2 gives you the power and endurance you need. Get the job done quickly and easily — without breaking a sweat. • SUITABLE FOR USE WITH STANDARD FLOW, HIGH FLOW & LOW FLOW INERTIAL PUMPS • ADAPTS TO ALMOST ANY SIZE CASING OR PROTECTIVE WELL CASING • REDUCES FATIGUE WHEN PURGING LARGE VOLUMES FROM WELLS • MOST EFFICIENT WELL DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM AVAILABLE

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72 | March 2012

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-12 4:15 PM Page 73

Groundwater Remediation George, British Columbia. Field data was collected to evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of the groundwater contouring on the contaminated site remediation strategy. Project background CN’s Prince George railway yard has been in use for almost a century and is located near the confluence of the Nechako and Fraser Rivers. The site geology consists of fluvial coarse sand and gravel between 1.5 and 11 metres below ground surface. Hydrogeologically, the site is characterized as a highly permeable unconfined aquifer with flat hydraulic gradient and a shallow but seasonably variable water table. Hydraulic conductivity at the site ranges from 4 x 10-4 to 4 x 10-3 cm/s. The groundwater table elevation typically ranges from 3.5 to 5.5 m below ground surface due to seasonal fluctuations of the river elevations. Across most of the site the hydraulic gradient is very low, approximately 0.05%. (0.0005 m/m - metres vertically per metre horizontally). Using these values, the average groundwater velocity was calculated to be 1 to 2

Mechanics of groundwater monitoring.

metres per year. An LNAPL plume of weathered diesel fuel existed at the site due to former fuelling-related activities. The plume was identified and delineated in 1996 and remedial systems (reflecting the technology of the day), consisting of three depression pumps and LNAPL recovery systems

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(P1, P2 and P3), were installed. The depression pumps operated between 1997 and 2007 to enhance the LNAPL recovery and contain the contaminant plumes. In 2002, when recovery rates were observed to be in decline, the engineering team explored alternative approaches to continued overleaf...

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Groundwater Remediation

Figure 3: Annual Product Recovery

(1998-2008)

LNAPL recovered (L)

6000 Actual LNAPL Recovered Theoretical LNAPL Recovery

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

MAY 98- MAY 99- MAY 00- MAY 01- MAY 02- MAY 03- MAY 04- MAY 05- MAY 06- MAY 0799 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08

Year

increase recovery rates. Using five years of LNAPL recovery data, the engineering team identified how naturally occurring site conditions were affecting the recovery. The main finding was that variations in the groundwater table elevations had a significant effect on the LNAPL recovery, with high or rising groundwater table elevations producing the greatest recovery rates. Based on this information, groundwater contouring systems were designed and evaluated using groundwater modeling programs. The model showed that injecting water up-gradient of the LNAPL plume causes a flushing effect, which simulates high groundwater elevations and hydraulically displaces trapped LNAPL from the soil pores. After a successful pilot study to test the hypothesis, four injection systems were installed in May 2003. These were further enhanced with two recovery trenches (at P1 in 2003 and P2 in 2005). The injection wells provided groundwater hydraulic mounding and flushing and the trenches elongated the capture zone of the pumping wells in the direction of the LNAPL plume. To analyze the effectiveness of the groundwater contouring systems, data was collected in two sampling events each year: • Groundwater elevations from 26 monitoring wells. • LNAPL thicknesses from 16 monitoring wells. • Light extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (LEPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations from 10 monitoring wells. • LEPH and PAH concentrations from the water injected into four injection 74 | March 2012

wells. • LNAPL recovered at the three recovery systems. Results and findings The results from the four years of monitoring (2003 to 2007) demonstrated that the groundwater contouring systems were producing results similar to those modeled during the planning phase of the project. Drawdown from the depression pumps and mounding at the injection wells affected the hydraulic gradient of the groundwater table as planned. The sustained LNAPL recovery was the equivalent of more than a 400% increase over the estimated recovery during the four years of the study. This led to the recovery of 13,000 L of LNAPL from the three recovery systems. This was 9,000 L more than the estimated recovery from the un-enhanced system. Although the injection and recovery trenches were operated in conjunction, the injection appeared to have the greater effect as the majority of the LNAPL was recovered from recovery well P3. P3 did not have an associated recovery trench (due to site constraints). Monitoring indicated that the LNAPL plume boundaries did not significantly change. However, there was a narrowing of the plume at the centre of the product recovery area due to flushing of the injection wells. The monitoring wells adjacent to the P1 recovery trench exhibited a decline in product thickness, indicating a significant volume of LNAPL was being pushed into the recovery trench. Elevated concentrations of DPH were monitored at the fringe of the LNAPL plume and in the injected water quality. This indicates that while no significant

change in the location of the DPH plume was observed in the four years of the study, long-term increase and down gradient migration of DPH concentrations could occur. One identified drawback to the system was that the water balance was essentially “even.” Water that is pumped and injected up-gradient has no net effect on the hydraulics in the larger context of the site. Theoretically, the injection of water pushes the recharge water (from up-gradient) around the edge of the product recovery area (PRA) and then resumes the natural flow on the down-gradient side. In reality, it appears that the recharge water partially mixed with the re-injected water, which slowly increased in DPH concentrations. Therefore, the capture zone of the pumping wells may no longer fully contain the dissolved phase plume. The system was designed to recapture all injected water using the depression pumps, but mingling of the injected water and up-gradient recharge water may allow some groundwater containing DPHs to escape the hydraulic containment. The injected water is flushing LNAPL toward the centre of the PRA, but the recovery wells may not be fully capturing the DPH plume moving in the down-gradient direction. The potential migration of the DPH plume could cause a risk to down-gradient receptors that could be unacceptable in a risk-based management strategy. Study conclusions and recommendations Based on the results and findings, this technology has many useful benefits for the remediation of LNAPL contaminated sites. Monitoring of the DPH plume is warranted and additional remedial system upgrades could be necessary to improve this technology. The benefits of groundwater contouring include significantly increased LNAPL recovery, reduced timelines and costs for site remediation, and low maintenance requirements. Meanwhile, the drawbacks include no gain in water mass balance, potential reduced containment of DPHs, and a reduced cone of depression due to extension in lateral direction from the product recovery trench. On this site the reduced timeline, due to the increased LNAPL recovery, led to a significant cost saving for the remediation

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Groundwater Remediation Figure 4-1: Hypothetical flow paths

Figure 4-2: Observed flow paths

(No interaction of recharge and injected water)

(Interaction of recharge and injected water)

Pumping Well Pumping Well

Injected Water

Injection Well

Recharge Water

Injection Well Injected Water

Recharge Water

Note: DPH contaminants shown with dashed lines, clean recharge water shown with solid line

of the site, estimated to be in the order of $1.5 million over the lifetime of the project. This estimate is based on the anticipated reduction of the time for remediating the site from 50+ years to 15 years. This low-maintenance technology requires no chemical handling, limited maintenance and servicing and only occasional monitoring of groundwater levels at the recovery and injection wells. These tasks can be added to the LNAPL recovery system operator’s standard duties. The life expectancy of the injection wells was conservatively estimated to be five years and the replacement costs were factored into the cost savings from the systems. Due to concern about potential downgradient migration of the DPH plume and to fit with the site risk management strategy, the following operational improvements and system upgrades were completed: • A portion of the re-injected water was segregated to adjust the water balance in the PRA and improve containment provided by the existing pumping wells. • A new treatment system was installed for the segregated water to allow for off-site disposal. • Additional monitoring wells were installed to better delineate the LNAPL and DPH plume at the leading edge. • Both the injection wells and the product recovery trenches were considered independently for use at other sites. www.esemag.com

Applicability and barriers to use at other sites The trends observed in the results are specific to this site but can be expected to affect comparable sites in a similar manner. The groundwater table at this site fluctuates more than 3 m in elevation each year, mainly due to seasonal variations. This increased the process of LNAPL flushing and the migration of DPHs. Sites with less permeable soil con-

In this project, the DPH plume was migrating onto the neighbouring property, so containment was a key element of the risk-based remediation plan.

LNAPL plumes that are further away from site boundaries or potential ecological receptors, the containment of the DPH plume may be less important as natural attenuation limits the extent of migration. Preferential pathways will also significantly alter the effectiveness of these technologies at other sites. It is important for the consultant or site manager to be aware of utility corridors or fill areas that may alter the hydraulics of the site to prevent the flushing of LNAPLs. This study demonstrated that groundwater contouring can significantly reduce the time required to remove an LNAPL source, and to begin the risk assessment process for final remediation. Richard Johns, Francisco Perelló and Cam Patterson are with Keystone Environmental Ltd. David Brogliatto is with Canadian National Railway Company. E-mail: fperello@keystoneenvironmental.ca

ditions could expect a greater lag time in the startup of injection systems and observable increases in LNAPL recovery. This lag time may also lead to reduced DPH migration, which would be beneficial to sites where off-site migration is a concern. Containment of DPHs is more crucial at some sites than others. In this project, the DPH plume was migrating onto the neighbouring property, so containment was a key element of the risk-based remediation plan. For many other sites with March 2012 | 75


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 CWWA history published

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The year 2011 marked the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association’s 25th Anniversary. Over the years the Association has evolved and adapted to changing membership needs and the changing (and often transitory) priorities of the federal government. To commemorate this milestone, CWWA has published a history of the Association available for download from its web site. www.cwwa.ca. The history examines the initial formation of the Association, and activities and achievements over the past 25 years.

First WFP Canadaʼs gala sells out

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Water For People (WFP) Canada recently hosted its first-ever Annual Gala at the Liberty Grand in Toronto. Co-hosts Jeff Douglas (CBC, As It Happens) and Joey Schooley welcomed a sold out crowd of over 300 guests, leaders, and sponsors from Ontario’s water and wastewater industries. The goal was to raise awareness and support for WFP’s water and sanitation initiatives in the developing world. One highlight of the evening was an inspiring keynote speech from worldrenowned mountain climber, Jake Norton. Norton has planned a ground-breaking series of expeditions to climb the three highest peaks in each of the seven continents. This initiative, known as Challenge 21 (www.challenge21.com), aims to raise awareness about the world's clean water crisis and to raise funds for WFP. www.waterforpeople.org

Cranbrook wastewater system to receive funding

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The City of Cranbrook, British Columbia’s wastewater system is set to complete a major overhaul, thanks to $8.5 million provided through Canada’s Gas Tax Fund. The City will use the funds to complete four remaining phases of the Wastewater Improvement Project, including the installation of aeration systems, completion of the transfer pipeline, as well as improvements to the transfer pump station and the irrigation pump station. The overall upgrade program will produce quality treated water which will meet or exceed national guidelines released earEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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 lier in 2011. The project will see the reuse of most of the treated effluent for crop irrigation. www.cleanfarms.ca

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Canadian town has worldʼs best water Judges at an international water tasting competition determined that the Canadian town of Greenwood, British Columbia, has the world's best tap water. It comes from underground aquifers and is untreated. The mayor of the hamlet of 676 people shipped a sample of Greenwood's drinking water to the 22nd annual international water tasting competition in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia, where judges gave it a score of 40 out of a possible 44. Water from the communities that entered the competition was assessed for appearance, odour, flavour, mouth feel, aftertaste and overall impressions.

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Manitoba supports green leaders Projects that will reduce greenhouse-gas emissions by 2,000 tonnes a year over the next decade are receiving more than $230,000 in grants through the Manitoba Climate Investment Pilot Program. The Program was introduced in spring 2011 to help businesses and not-for-profit organizations in Manitoba measure and reduce their greenhouse-gas emissions. The province's latest progress report on climate change showed that Manitoba's greenhouse-gas emissions were two per cent lower in 2010 than in 2000, meeting the initial reporting target. This reduction is equivalent to taking 90,000 cars off the road every year. www.gov.mb.ca

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 five year period, WaterSense helped U.S. consumers save 470 billion litres of water. Ontario-based manufacturers can now get their water-efficient products certified and promoted under the program. Retailers, municipalities and other organizations in Ontario can also participate. www.epa.gov/watersense

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Nutrient recovery technologies to be analyzed The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) is funding well-qualified teams of experts to provide analysis and guidance on nutrient (specifically, phosphorus) recovery technologies and processes. The goal of WERF’s Nutrient Recovery challenge is to support the transition from a treatment-based water quality industry to a resource recovery and reclamation industry. Although nutrients will be the first target, eventually all materials in wastewater that can be commoditized will be. Extracting resources from wastewater is not new. Recently, a new category of processes has emerged that extracts specific chemical compounds, with market value, from wastewater treatment streams. www.werf.org

Silicone industry welcomes findings that D5 is safe The Silicones Environmental, Health & Safety Council of North America (SEHSC) has issued a statement commending Environment Canada’s decision to implement the findings of an independent scientific panel that concluded that Siloxane D5 is safe for the environment. D5 is a widely used silicone material that can be found in a variety of consumer and industrial products, such as shampoo, tires, cooking utensils, and industrial sealants. As a result of the Minister’s acceptance of the “Board of Review” (BOR) findings, D5 will be removed from a proposed list of toxic substances under the Canadian Environment Protection Act (CEPA). Prior to the Board of Review being established, Health Canada had already determined that D5 was safe for human health. The Board of Review was composed of a panel of three toxicologists appointed by Environment Canada. It conducted a comprehensive scientific evaluation to assess Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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 the behaviour of D5 in the environment and concluded that the material does not pose a danger to the environment or its biological diversity. www.cdr-siloxaned5-bor.ca

Water stewardship key to sustainable food production Without clean water, Canada's brewers wouldn't be able to continue supplying Canadians with their signature products. Over the past two decades, they have reduced how much water is used in brewing by over 50%. Company employees at Labatt Breweries of Canada have implemented 815 water conservation innovations over the past few years alone. Small changes, like reducing water pressure when washing bottles, yield significant consumption savings. Across Canada, beer consumers return over 90% of bottles and cans they purchase. Recycling bottles, cans and the cases they're sold saves billions of litres of water each year. This is because reusable bottles use 50-80% less water than singleuse bottles. E-mail: bz-k@nationalbrewers.ca

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Veolia selected for NB mine effluent treatment A contract for the design and supply of a 1,000-m³/day effluent treatment plant, to serve Trevali Mining Corporation’s Halfmile Zinc-Lead-Silver-Copper Mine in New Brunswick, has been awarded to Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies Canada. The treatment plant will provide precipitation, decantation and filtration and pH adjustment. It will incorporate metals precipitation using Veolia’s Actiflo® Turbo, a high-rate, small footprint clarification process. The ACTIFLO process uses sand-ballasted settling and a TURBOMIX™ draft tube reactor that allows for a very compact design with high overflow rates and short detention times. This design enables the unit to perform well under dynamically changing flow rates without impacting final effluent quality. By combining a proprietary reagent to magnesium hydroxide, solids produced in the ACTIFLO unit will be larger than sodium sulphide, which facili-

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WƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐĞŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐĂŶĚƐĐŝĞŶĐĞͲďĂƐĞĚƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐ DĞĞƟŶŐƚŚĞŶĞĞĚƐŽĨŽƵƌĐůŝĞŶƚƐ ϭͲϴϬϬͲϮϲϱͲϵϲϲϮ ǁǁǁ͘ƌũďƵƌŶƐŝĚĞ͘ĐŽŵ

tates downstream filtration. After clarification, the water undergoes sand filtration to remove any remaining solids, followed by pH adjustment. Also, the instrumentation and automation package permits remote monitoring of the entire wastewater treatment plant, which is a major benefit for the operation of the plant. E-mail: david.oliphant@veoliawater.com

Endress+Hauser honours its inventors

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Patents with a sustained and positive effect on Endress+Hauser’s business success were honoured at the company’s Innovators’ Meeting, held recently in Maulburg, Germany. Thomas Sulzer and Johannes Ruchel have advanced an interior polyurethane liner for magneto-inductive flow meters that allows them to be used for drinking water. Peter Zinth, Wolfgang Steidle and Tobias Stückl have made an environmental sampler suitable for use in explosion hazard zones. Ralf Reimelt and Herbert Schroth have improved the precision and reliability of level measurements with guided radar. E-mail: scott.whitehouse@ca.endress.com

New lamp recycling facility opens in Toronto Ontario Lamp Recyclers has opened a new lamp recycling facility in Toronto, which has a capacity of 12 million lamps per year. Fluorescent and other lamps are processed to separate the mercury vapour and mercury-rich phosphor powder from the clean and recyclable glass and metal end caps. The mercury bearing materials are treated off-site and reintroduced into the lamp manufacturing process. E-mail: martin@ontariolamp.com

American Water receives grant for desalination project American Water has received a grant from the WateReuse Research Foundation to conduct a joint research project with Drexel University to measure and reduce biological fouling on membrane filters in desalination applications. The research will monitor the biological fouling poten80 | March 2012

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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 tial using a recently developed tool for measuring readily biodegradable components in seawater. The desalination industry will benefit from improved membrane operations by monitoring and controlling biodegradable matter in the pretreatment process. RO membrane desalination is on the rise but the industry continues to be plagued by problems with membrane fouling, which increases operation, maintenance, and replacement costs of the membrane filters. www.amwater.com

Delcan named one of Canadaʼs 50 best managed companies Delcan, a multidisciplinary engineering, planning and technology firm, was named one of Canada’s 50 Best Managed Companies. Established in 1993, Canada's 50 Best Managed Companies is an awards program, recognizing excellence in Canadian companies. Every year, hundreds of companies compete for this designation in a rigorous and independent process that evaluates management abilities and practices beyond just financial performance. www.delcan.com

ONEIA’s Post-Globe 2012 proves to be an inspiring event The three day event held in Toronto from March 18-20, hosted numerous international delegates and representatives from prominent Ontario environmental firms. Networking was the main theme of the event, with panels and sessions generously interspersed by coffee breaks in an energetic social setting. Running throughout the day was the Export Café, a business to business matching service provided by ONIEA. The physical stimulants of coffee and cakes were matched by the thought provoking discussions of the morning panels. The opening address was given by Ms. Donna Cansfield of the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation, a prominent figure in Ontario’s environmental sector. An Ontario market briefing followed, providing a candid look at the makeup and future of Ontario’s environmental industry. The panel, composed of Brandon Moffat of StormFisher Biogas, Sam Stevens, former Executive Director of NRC-IRAP Ontario and of Business Development at Calgon Carbon, and Scott MacDonald of McRock Capital, was moderated by Nick Parker of Water Technology Acceleration Project (WaterTAP). Concern regarding the status of the Feed in Tariff (FIT) program was voiced by all panelists, but divergence on business man-

agement, small vs. large enterprises and international expansion prompted an entertaining back and forth among participants. Inspiration followed, as Anton Davies, principal of RWDI; Don Gorber, CEO Senes Consultants; and John Fahey, Principal Global Manufacturing for Golder Associates, discussed their companies’ successful ventures outside of Canada. Moderated by Kerry Freek of Water Canada, the panelists answered and elaborated on questions relating to challenges they faced. The audience was urged to, “do their homework and keep their eyes open,” when moving into different countries and cultures. The honest and open discussion encouraged confidence in the competiveness of Canadian companies in the global economy. Following a luncheon address from Neil Tonge of Molson Coors, the conference broke up into three concurrent sessions: Ontario water companies, renewable energy and business sustainability. The smaller sessions featured speakers from Trojan Technologies, GE Digital Energy, Canadian Tire and many more. Post-Globe 2012 was definitely a worthwhile event to attend. Peter Davey is an Editorial Assistant with Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. E-mail: peter@esemag.com.

YSI instrumentation available from SPD Sales YSI’s online water quality instrumentation is now available in Canada from SPD Sales.YSI has launched its new digital based IQ Sensor Net 2020 XT. This online instrument is a digital multi parameter system with modular design for the measurement of DO, pH, ORP, turbidity, conductivity, TSS, NH4+, NO3-, COD, BOD, TOC, SAC and temperature. E-mail: sales@spdsales.com

WaterRF studies source protection The Water Research Foundation (WaterRF) has just completed a new study, Source Water Protection Vision and Roadmap (#4176b), that will help drinking water utilities and other stakeholders develop a strategy to protect the vital sources of drinking water. So that by 2025, every public commucontinued overleaf... www.esemag.com

March 2012 | 81


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 nity water supply will be protected by an active source water protection program, the Roadmap calls for action in four areas: raise awareness; enhance coordination; provide support; and, increase recognition. An annotated bibliography of source water protection information, comprehensive case studies, and other background details are provided in the companion document, Developing a Vision and Roadmap for Source Water Protection for U.S. Drinking Water Utilities (#4176a). To help advance general understanding

of the challenges associated with source water management and the importance of implementing proactive management strategies, the Foundation is making both reports available to the public at www. WaterRF.org.

Are the First Nations being set up to fail? On March 1, 2012, the federal government introduced Bill S-8, Safe Drinking Water for First Nations Act. In announcing the

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introduction of Bill S-8, the government claimed it was acting to protect drinking water for First Nations. The Bill is very similar to a previous version (known as S11), which encountered a widespread opposition from First Nations. “One of the main concerns with this Bill, similar to the previous Bill, is that there is no provision of resources to ensure that First Nations are able to meet any standards that are set. The government is well aware of the fact that many First Nations in Ontario do not meet the department’s current protocols. The concern is that First Nations are being set up to fail and then who is held liable when they fail to meet the regulations?” stated Ontario’s Regional Chief Toulouse. In July 2011, the federal Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada published the National Assessment of First Nations Water and Wastewater Systems. The contractor inspected water and wastewater systems in 120 First Nations communities in Ontario. This report found that out of 158 water systems inspected, 72 were considered high risk, 61 as medium risk, and 25 as low risk. Of the 77 wastewater systems inspected, 28 were categorized as high risk, 38 as medium risk and 11 as low risk. Bill S-8 states that the government is committed to improving the health and safety of residents of First Nation lands, and that the government is “committed to working with First Nations to develop proposals for regulations to be made under this Act”. Regional Chief Toulouse indicated that it makes no sense to set drinking water standards without addressing the obvious infrastructure gaps that exist. The Ontario First Nations Technical Services Corporation estimates that it will cost approximately $228 - $296 million to upgrade the 158 existing water treatment plants found in First Nations communities. This is consistent with the cost estimate identified by the contractor that produced the government-commissioned national assessment. CWWA Bulletin, March 2012

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ACG Technology’s package treatment system offers performance and durability. It provides sewage treatment within a small footprint. Aeration, mixing and settling can be accomplished in compact, easily transported ISO containers, ideal for remote locations. Provides flexibility of adding future parallel units, an economical means of meeting the needs of any growing sewage loads. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

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Online education

Gas analysis systems

American Public University is ready to help you move your career forward. We offer more than 150 undergraduate and graduate degree and certificate programs in a wide variety of specialities including environmental science. Classes start monthly and are 100% online. Tel: 877-777-9081 E-mail: info@apus.edu Web: www. StudyatAPU.com/ese

Awite’s Gas Analysis Systems are specifically designed for biogas applications and implemented in more than 1,200 biogas plants worldwide. The standardized System AwiEco offers a reliable and costeffective measurement. The customized System AwiFlex offers highest flexibility and more options than other conventional analysis systems. A complete solution with low maintenance effort – adjusted to every customer’s needs. Tel: 888-965-4700 E-mail: info@avensyssolutions.com Web: www.avensyssolutions.com

American Public University

Avensys Solutions

Phoenix Underdrain System

• Optimizes all types of filters • Extremely low profile; lowest available • Manufactured from corrosion-resistant stainless steel • Variable custom orifice sizing • Custom hydraulic design • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution • Rapid, low-cost installation Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

www.esemag.com

Oxygen for lagoons and activated sludge

Process Control

The Burkert mxControl type 8620 is designed to automate the control of process variables within a water treatment system. This multi-purpose process and chemistry controller can integrate an HMI, PLC, data logger, enclosure, and power supply and is designed to be connected live to the Web with an on board Ethernet port. Tel: 905-632-3033, Fax: 905-632-3833 E-mail: sales.ca@burkert.com Web: www.burkert.ca Bürkert Fluid Control Systems

Phoenix Panel System

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Installs directly over existing underdrain system • Eliminates the need for base gravel layers • Improves backwash flow distribution • Provides longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Package treatment plant WesTech Engineering’s ClariCell-B™ Package Treatment Plant utilizes a two-stage configuration consisting of an up-flow buoyant coarse media roughing filter followed by a conventional down-flow fine media filter. Pre-engineered for simplicity, the ClariCell-B is easily installed and integrated into new or existing flow sheets for low to medium flow water treatment. Tel: 705-725-9377, Fax: 705-725-8279 E-mail: info@cmeti.com Web: www.cmeti.com C&M Environmental Technologies

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Package Treatment System


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High rate filtration system

Portable shelter

Rentals department

The WWETCO FlexFilter™ from WesTech Engineering provides an innovative solution for CSO, primary treatment, tertiary treatment and industrial water pretreatment. The combination of tapered media compression, porosity gradient within the media bed and a low flow backwash system make the FlexFilter one of the most versatile and efficient filters on the market. Tel: 705-725-9377, Fax: 705-725-8279 E-mail: info@cmeti.com Website: www.cmeti.com

The Pelsue ground tents are one piece (including all poles integrated into the shell) and set up in seconds for protection from the elements during equipment repair. These tents are also used as portable shelters, haz-mat decon, field offices and rest areas. They are manufactured from flame retardant 250 denier polyester and a 10’ by 10’ tent only weighs 48 lbs. Tel: 800-265-0182, 905-949-2741 Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com

Concept Controls’ rental inventory is the largest in Canada, giving our customers a flexible alternative to buying. We ensure that we always have the most up-to-date Gas Monitors, Industrial Hygiene instrumentation, and Environmental Monitoring equipment, calibrated and ready for you. Tel: 888-207-2212 E-mail: rentals@conceptcontrols.com Web: www.conceptcontrols.com

C&M Environmental Technologies

Canadian Safety Equipment

Concept Controls

P roduct & Service Showcase

Sludge press The Dehydrist™ Twist Sludge Press is an advanced sludge dewatering process from Degremont, employing the Bucher Unipektin hydraulic piston press technology. Up to 30% reduction in sludge bulk volume can be achieved over conventional dewatering, and digested sludge can be dewatered to autothermal conditions before incineration. E-mail: hao.pham@infilcodegremont.com Web: www.degremont-technologies.com Degremont

Analytical system

The new Liquiline CM44x platform from Endress+Hauser is a true multi-channel “Plug & Play” analytical system, using Memosens digital communications. Just plug in up to eight digital sensors and you are ready to go! Move now to a true digital system. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com Endress+Hauser

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Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Water sampler

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

The new CSF48 from Endress+Hauser sets the benchmark in water quality monitoring. Choose between vacuum or peristaltic pumping, and multiple sampling routines. Opt for the two industrial digital sensors (expanding to eight in the future) and connect to the SCADA with the latest communications protocols. A complete monitoring and collection solution responding to today’s industrial requirements. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com Endress+Hauser

Environmental response

GPS/GIS data collection

First Response/Recycle City brings you a true 24/7/365 source for your environmental needs. We own and operate fully licensed Hazardous, Non Hazardous Recycling Centres. We also offer confined space rescue services, training courses and emergency response to any and all incidents. Tel: 866-774-5501, Fax: 905-679-4038 E-mail: wes@first-er.com Web: www.first-er.com

The SXPad, a fullfeatured, affordable, rugged, handheld computer for GPS/GIS data collection, is built for mobile GIS users in applications ranging from water/electric/gas utilities, and transportation to mining, agriculture, and forestry. With its waterproof seal and surviving one metre drops to concrete, the SXPad is built tough to survive outdoors, and works in extreme temperatures from -4F (-20C) to 140F (60C). Tel: 514-354-2511, Fax: 514-354-6948 E-mail: rparise@geneq.com Web: www.sxbluegps.com

First Response Environmental

Geneq

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Water level indicator

Heron offers the dipper-T Water Level Indicator with power, with high visibility yellow tape and for lengths from 1,000 ft (300 m) up to 3,000 ft. Using a power reel will make taking level readings in deep wells faster and less strenuous. All power reels are available with 12V or 120V DC. Large double frame allows for easy fastening on to drill rigs or truck beds. The tape you need at the price you want...now with power. Tel: 800-331-2032 E-mail: info@heroninstruments.com Web: www.heroninstruments.com Heron Instruments

Ozone systems

The new Greyline TTFM 1.0 Transit Time Flow Meter accurately measures flow from the outside of metal or plastic pipes. It includes clamp-on ultrasonic transducers for easy flow measurement of liquids including water, oils and chemicals. Powerful new digital signal processing ensures high ±1.0% accuracy in a wide range of applications and operating conditions. Tel: 888-473-9546 E-mail: info@greyline.com Web: www.greyline.com

H2FLOW offers Pinnacle’s revolutionary Zenith ozone systems, producing up to 600 lbs/day (5% wt.) per unit. With their highly efficient design, they can be turned up/down for 100% dosage variability. They are built with solid components, are rugged, proven, extremely compact, and water cooled, with no yearly maintenance. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: info@h2flow.com Web: www.h2flow.com

Greyline Instruments

H2Flow

Hand-held DO meter The YSI ProODOTM handheld DO meter provides extreme durability for the measurement of optical, luminescent-based dissolved oxygen for any field application. Web: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

Multiparameter meter The YSI Professional Plus handheld multiparameter meter provides extreme flexibility for the measurement of a variety of combinations for dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, salinity, resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ORP, pH/ORP combination, ammonium (ammonia), nitrate, chloride and temperature. Web: www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientific

Screw press

Protecting sensitive watershed

The Strainpress® Inline Sludge Screen from Huber Technology is designed to effectively screen sludge in pressurized lines. Reduces maintenance costs and increases the operating reliability of downstream sludge treatment systems. The Strainpress is precision manufactured of stainless steel. There are more than 700 installations. E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.huberforum.net/ESE

Huber Technology’s RoS3Q Inclined Screw Press provides high performance sludge dewatering in a compact, entirely enclosed machine. The RoS3Q provides efficient and reliable operation with minimal operator attendance. The slow rotational design is simple and energy-efficient. E-mail: marketing@hhusa.net Web: www.huberforum.net/ESE

Strescon Limited in Saint John, New Brunswick, has supplied the largest Stormceptor ever installed in Atlantic Canada, an STC 14,000 installed at the Costco Wholesale site in Fredericton. The site encompasses Corbett Brook and adjacent wetlands on the grounds of the University of New Brunswick, which are home to various species, a mature forest and wetlands. Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: info@imbriumsystems.com Web: www.imbriumsystems.com; www.stormceptor.com

Huber Technology

Huber Technology

Imbrium Systems

Sludge screen

www.esemag.com

March 2012 | 85

Product & Service Showcase

The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensure that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover.

Ultrasonic flow meter


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Physicochemical pretreatment

Safety hatches

HYDREX™ water treatment chemicals are formulated to meet the individual specifications of customers in the industrial and municipal sectors. They are key components in physicochemical pretreatment of water, including clarification, antiscaling, anti-fouling and corrosion mitigation applications. Tel: 1-888-LINKVWS (546-5897) E-mail: canada.service@veoliawater.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com

MSU MG Safety Hatches - the open and shut case for hatch standards. With single, double and multi-door configurations in aluminum and stainless steel, they are made right here in Canada. Check us out on the web www.msumississauga.com Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com

John Meunier

MSU Mississauga

P roduct & Service Showcase

Wastewater treatment

The SAGR® (Submerged Attached Growth Reactor) is a tertiary wastewater treatment process that can provide nitrification with prolonged cold water temperatures (<0.50C). The SAGR process can be utilized for nitrification following any secondary treatment processes, including aerated or facultative lagoons. Tel: 888-426-8180, Fax: 204-237-0660 E-mail: mkroeker@nelsonenvironmental.com Web: www.nelsonenvironmental.com Nelson Environmental

Safety hatches

MSU MG Safety Hatches set the standard in Canada for fall-through protection. They withstand pedestrian and occasional traffic loads. With single, double and multi-door configurations in aluminum and stainless steel, they are made in Canada. Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: sales@msumississauga.com Web: www.msumississauga.com MSU Mississauga

Area monitoring

Metering pump

The Dräger Xzone 5000, in combination with the Dräger X-am 5000, monitors up to six hazardous gases and warns at pre-set levels. This easily transportable, robust and waterproof instrument extends mobile gas detection technology to a unique system with many applications. Tel: 800-560-4402, Fax: 877-820-9667 E-mail: sales@ospreyscientific.com Web: www.ospreyscientific.com

The awardwinning delta® with optoDrive® provides diverse control and operating capabilities in a capacity range of 7.5 - 75 l/h, 362 psi - 29 psi. The delta from ProMinent has many advanced features: pulsed or continuous dosing; automatic detection of airlock, low pressure and high pressure; and an automatic degassing option. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca/delta

Osprey Scientific

ProMinent Fluid Controls

Industrial gear units

Headworks system

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca

SEW-Eurodrive have rounded off the lower power range of the robust helical and bevel-helical gear units that are part of the X Series of industrial gear units, by offering the proven gear units for the torque range of 6.8 to 45 kNm (5,000 to 33,000 ft-lb). Tel: 905-791-1553 E-mail: s.mamo@sew-eurodrive.ca Web: www.sew-eurodrive.com

Smith & Loveless Inc. announces its latest headworks innovation, PISTA® WORKS™, a pre-engineered packaged headworks system, combining screening, grit removal and grit washing into one integrated system. It is pre-assembled and shipped direct to the job site, significantly reducing field-installation costs, while allowing for a compact footprint. All equipment components are constructed of stainless steel. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com

ProMinent Fluid Controls

SEW-Eurodrive

Smith & Loveless

Metering pumps Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment.

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Solinst Canada has introduced a new version of the Levelogger water level and temperature datalogger. The new Levelogger Junior Edge provides a costeffective option for groundwater or surface water monitoring applications. It has an increased memory capacity of 40,000 sets of water level and temperature data points, a 5-year battery, and accuracy is 0.1% FS. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com/Prod/3001/ Junior/ Solinst Canada

Inline disposable filters

Waterra currently has three Inline Disposable Filter options available: the 0.45 Micron high turbidity FHT-45, the 0.45 Micron medium turbidity FMT-45, and the 0.2 Micron CAP300X2. All our filters use high quality polyethersulphone filter media (which offers excellent particle retention above the target micron size range) and are pre-rinsed with 1L of de-ionized water to ensure purity. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra

NEW affordable optical dissolved oxygen measurement system The new AquaPlus™ Meter, together with the AquaPlus Probe, provides an affordable optical dissolved oxygen measurement system. It can record up to 3,000 data sets, including DO, EC, temperature and barometric pressure. The AquaPlus system retails for $1,425.00. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

www.esemag.com

Specialist training

Enhance bioremediation

Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats The Waterloo Emitter™ is a simple, low cost device designed for the remediation of contaminated groundwater. It enables oxygen or other amendments to diffuse through silicone or LDPE tubing in a controlled uniform manner, enhancing aerobic bioremediation. Fits 50, 100, 150 mm diameter wells. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com

Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web: www.spillmanagement.ca

Solinst Canada

Spill Management

Peristaltic pumps

Mechanical actuators

The Pegasus Alexis® Peristaltic Pump from Waterra is a self-contained sampling station that includes all the best features of these devices. Packaged in the rugged Pelican™ 1430 case and incorporating its own power supply and charger, this pump will keep you sampling in the field all day long. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

The portable, electrically operated Hydrolift has been one of the most popular mechanical actuators for the Waterra Inertial Pump, and we've been working to make it better. Today, the improved Hydrolift is more durable and easier to use and, most importantly, more affordable than ever. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Waterra Pumps

New name for ITTWWW

ITT Corporation’s water business is now a standalone global water technology corporation, named Xylem. The company’s product brands include Flygt, Wedeco, Sanitaire, and Leopold. Xylem continues to maintain a strong Canadian presence, with 14 sales locations, 24 authorized distributors and several service partners to service the water and wastewater market. Tel: 514-695-0100 E-mail: raymond.simond@xyleminc.com Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca Xylem

Chemical-free water treatment

WEDECO Ozone Generators from Xylem eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and micro-organisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca Xylem

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Official Show Guide For:

The 20th Annual

Canadian Environmental

Conference & Tradeshow

April 30 - May 2, 2012

CANECT2012

International Centre - 6900 Airport Road, Mississauga

C

o-organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, CANECT is the largest event of its kind in Canada, typically attracting up to 2,000 tradeshow visitors and conference delegates. Conference delegates and tradeshow visitors are a high quality audience of senior people responsible for environmental engineering, regulations and compliance issues. CANECT 2012 will be co-located in Ontario with Partners in Prevention, an annual tradeshow organized by Workplace Safety & Prevention Services. Combined, CANECT and Partners in Prevention Tradeshow are expected to attract some 400 exhibiting companies and 7,000 tradeshow visitors. Tradeshow badges from either show will allow admission to both shows at no extra charge. To register for free tradeshow registration, please visit www.envirogate.ca, or fill out and fax in the free pass that came with this copy of ES&E magazine.

Scheduled Session Topics April 30: Environmental Regulation & Compliance Water and Wastewater: Regulation, Compliance and Opportunity Brownfields: The new rules

May 1: Environmental Management Essentials Managing Toxics and Toxics Reduction Air and GHG Emissions Regulations & Compliance

May 2: Documenting and Demonstrating Environmental Due Diligence Changes to the Certificates of Approval Process Best Practices for Spills Prevention and Management

w w w. e n v i r o g a t e. c a

If you would like to receive a printed CANECT conference program, please contact Darlann Passfield, Tel: 905-727-4666 (Ext 30), or Toll Free: 1-888-254-8769, Email: darlann@esemag.com. Conference details are also available at www.envirogate.ca

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Environmental Regulation and Compliance 2012 Essential Overview and Update CANECT’s essential annual introductory and update course presented in association with leading environmental lawyers from Bennett Jones LLP - has established its reputation as Canadian industries’ chosen source for cutting-edge environmental regulation, compliance and due diligence training.

Water and Wastewater: Regulation, Compliance, Opportunity New federal wastewater effluent treatment regulations are due to be published this spring, but leading organizations have long recognized that an enlightened water and wastewater strategy is fundamental to maintaining compliance and sustainability. Governments are supporting this trend with tough new laws on source water protection, water-taking, pricing and treatment standards. Attend this course and learn proven management and compliance strategies and solutions.

Brownfields: Working with the new rules Extensive changes to the Brownfields regulatory regime took effect July, 2011. This course, developed by Janet Bobechko, of Blaney McMurtry LLP, provides registrants with an authoritative guide to working with the new rules governing Records of Site Condition and Phase I and Phase II site assessments. An annual ‘must-attend’ for all engineers, consultants, lawyers, planners, site-owners, investors, insurers and developers.

Program - Day 2, May 1 Environmental Management Essentials This new ‘Environmental Management Essentials’ course offers a key guide to integrating a flexible and responsive environmental management system with similar ISO management standards covering health and safety, quality, and energy management. Environmental Management Standards under ISO 14001 are outlined, along with opportunities for integrating these with other management and sustainable development standards including the new ISO 50001 Energy Management Standards.

Chemicals Management: Alert - your deadline for complying with the TRA is just months away! The Toxics Reduction Act, 2009 requires operators of regulated facilities to report annually to the ministry on facilitywide amounts of toxic substances used, created, and contained in product. The deadline for submitting Phase 1 toxic reduction plans is months away - December 31, 2012. The course provides guidance on complying with the TRA as well as other similar federal and municipal chemicals management regulations.

Air & GHG Emissions: Management & Compliance This course, now in its 12th year, delivers Canada’s most up-to-date and authoritative guide to complying with federal and provincial air and GHG emissions regulations, including new Environmental Compliance Approvals for Air and Noise. In addition, the course provides practical strategies for man aging everyday air-related issues related to noise, odour and dust.

www.esemag.com

CANECT Workshops Program - Day 3, May 2 Demonstrating and Documenting Environmental Due Diligence Proof of environmental due diligence can provide managers with a first line of defence against environmental charges and save thousands of dollars in penalties. This course provides practical insight into environmental due diligence and why it is vital to document and demonstrate its application in commercial transactions, dealings with employees, contractors and consultants, stakeholders and communities, and in response to ministry investigations.

Approvals Modernization: The ‘industry standard’ The new regime for environmental approvals took effect Nov.1, 2011 and is still ‘a work in progress.’ This course, jointly presented by members of MOE’s Approvals Modernization branch and approvals specialists at Golders, has been called “the industry standard” for those wanting to keep up-to-date with the latest developments, as well as those seeking guidance on best practices for managing all types of approvals and permits.

Spills: Best Practices for Reporting, Contingency Planning, Communicating and Emergency Response Amendments to federal Environmental Emergency (E2) Regulations took effect Dec. 21, 2011 and extend the scope and requirements of mandatory ER planning to cover an additional 41 substances. Even if federal regulations do not apply to you, Environment Canada ‘strongly recommends that you create an emergency plan voluntarily.’ Attend this course and learn more about the new requirements and what to do to respond professionally to spills, leaks, and other environmental emergencies.

Keynote SPEAKERS

Program - Day 1, April 30

Wednesday Morning Keynote Tod Maffin, Digital Technology & Marketing Guru

Tuesday Morning Keynote John Furlong, Chief Executive Officer, Vancouver 2010 Organizing Committee

Wednesday Lunch Keynote Michael Kerr, “The Workplace Energizer”

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CANECT ‘12

CANECT Exhibits ... Manufacturers, distributors, suppliers and companies from the following areas:

• • • • • • • •

Air pollution control Analytical laboratory Confined space entry Consulting engineering Containment Decontamination systems Emergency response Environmental auditing

• • • • • • • •

Filters Groundwater treatment Hazardous waste treatment Health & safety Instrumentation & control Legal services Liners/geotextiles Noise & vibration control

• • • • •

Oil & water separation Pumps, pipes, valves, fittings Protection/safety equipment Recycling Residuals dewatering, disposal & handling equipment • Site & soil remediation

• • • • • • • •

Software systems Spill control & containment Stormwater control Tanks & storage Transportation services Water treatment Wastewater treatment Waste disposal

Hours May 1 - 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

May 2 - 8:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

CANECT 2012 CANECT Floor Plan FLOOR PLAN 2012 CANECT Floor Presentations

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www.esemag.com

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Canadian Environmental Conference & Tradeshow List of Exhibitors as of April 5, 2012 Accuworx Inc. #1434 Brampton, ON 877-898-7222 E-mail: jtheurer@accuworx.ca Web site: www.accuworx.ca Contact: John Theurer Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental compliance, Remediation, Vacuum trucks, Emergency Response, Waste treatment facility. ACG Technology & Envirocan #1238 Woodbridge, ON 905-856-1414 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web site: www.acgtechnology.com, www.envirocan.ca Contact: Greg Jackson Products/Services to be displayed: Wastewater, stormwater and water treatment systems and equipment. Open channel and full-pipe flow meters, data-loggers and telemetry. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Acoustic Product Sales #1212 Long Sault, ON 613-551-6100 E-mail: info@acousticproductsales.com Web site: www.acousticproductsales.com Contact: Blake Noon Products/Services to be displayed: Acoustic metal panels, acoustic enclosures, acoustic test facilities - (product, medical, research), sound surveys. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Adler Tank Rentals #1521 Syracuse, NY 716-799-3044 E-mail: Scott.Hinman@adlertankrentals.com Web site: www.adlertank.com Contact: Scott Hinman Products/Services to be displayed: Tanks, Vac boxes, Water tight roll off, AGAT Laboratories #1234 Mississauga, ON 905-712-5100 E-mail: info@agatlabs.com Web site: www.agatlabs.com Contact: Kristi Huff Products/Services to be displayed: AGAT Laboratories offers full-service laboratories to the Environmental, AgriFood, Life Sciences, Energy, Mining, Industrial and Transportation sectors. AIM Environmental Group #1332 Stoney Creek, ON 905-560-0090 E-mail: info@aimgroup.ca Web site: www.aimgroup.ca Contact: Justin Lim Products/Services to be displayed: Environment services, waste management, soil remediation and groundwater treatment, bioremediation, contaminated material disposal, organics processing and composting. Altech Technology Systems Inc. Toronto, ON

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#1336

416-467-5555 E-mail: gbennett@altech-group.com Web site: www.altech-group.com Contact: George Bennett Products/Services to be displayed: Air pollution control equipment: System REITHER venturi wet scrubber, packed towers, mist eliminators, industrial wastewater treatment equipment: System HydroKleen MBR, ultra filtration membranes, pH control, coagulation and flocculation. A-MAPS Environmental Inc. #1334 Ottawa, ON 613-270-9378 E-mail: dspitzer@amapsenv.com Web site: www.amapsenv.com Contact: Daniel Spitzer Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental mapping, Air quality mapping, Interactive Graphical User interfaces for air pollution risk assessments, Smartphone applications for environmental risks alerts. Avensys Solutions #1223 Toronto, ON 416-499-4421 or 888-965-4700 E-mail: info@avensys.com Web site: www.AvensysSolutions.com Contact: Jennifer Loeffler, Anup Jain Products/Services to be displayed: As an industry leader in the process and environmental monitoring systems in the Canadian marketplace, Avensys Solutions provides instrumentation and analytical equipment for measurement of flow, gas, level and water quality. Serving the industrial, water/wastewater, green energy and power general markets. Avensys Solutions also offers strong engineering and servicing capabilities. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E BakerCorp Canada #1437 Hamilton, ON 905-545-4555 E-mail: kbailey@bakercorp.com Web site: www.bakercorp.com Contact: Kevin Bailey Products/Services to be displayed: Tank and filtration equipment rental, filtration media sales. BSI Group Canada #1228 Mississauga, ON 800-862-6752 E-mail: inquiry.canada@bsigroup.com Web site: www.bsigroup.ca Contact: Christine Abella Products/Services to be displayed: BSI Group is a leading global services organization with solutions to drive business performance â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ISO standards, certification, training, and software.

The Cannington Group Gormley, ON 905-841-1848 E-mail: fapollinaro@thecanningtongroup.com

#1419

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CANECT Exhibitors Web site: www.thecanningtongroup.com Contact: Frank Apollinaro Products/Services to be displayed: The Cannington Group has been providing clients with the most cost-effective solutions for their environmental and demolition needs since 1976. Specializing in site remediation, hazardous waste cleanup, demolition, building decommissioning and tank removals and installation we are dedicated to developing solutions that are safe, cost-effective, and address complex challenges, public concerns and comply with the latest government regulations. The Cannington Group is a registered contractor with the Technical Standards and Safety Authority (TSSA), and is a member of the Ontario Petroleum Contractorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Association and the National Demolition Association.

E-mail: stephen.huza@drainall.com Web site: www.drainall.com Contact: Stephen Huza Products/Services to be displayed: Emergency Response, Hazard waste removal-disposal, spill containment, confined space entry/rescue, precision hydro excavation, chemical lab packing, CCTV Inspections. Dragun Corporation #1426 Windsor & Toronto, ON 519-979-7300 E-mail: ahahn@dragun.com Web site: www.dragun.com Contact: Alan Hahn Products/Services to be displayed: Soil and groundwater assessments. Cost-effective remediation of soil and groundwater. Peer reviews. Expert witness services. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

CETCO Oilfield Services #1224 Arva, ON 519-663-5444 E-mail: al.ross@cetro.com Web site: www.cetcooilfieldservices.com Contact: Al Ross Products/Services to be displayed: CETCO Oilfield Services provides comprehensive solutions for a host of oilfield, petrochemical, and refining needs. Our holistic approach to service gives our clients the most comprehensive and knowledgeable experience possible. CETCO Oilfield Services combines products, patented technologies, and highly trained technical expertise to solve extraordinary problems. We offer: Water Treatment, Industrial Wastewater Treatment Products, Produced Water Treatment Systems, Well Testing Services, Pipeline Services, Nitrogen Services, Coiled Tubing Services. Claessen Pumps Ltd. #1432 Innisfil, ON 705-431-8585 E-mail: djb@claessenpumps.com Web site: www.claessenpumps.com Contact: Daniel Blandford Products/Services to be displayed: Grindex Submersible pumps. Continental Carbon Group #1429 Stoney Creek, ON 905-643-7615 E-mail: hskinner@continental-carbon.com Web site: www.continental-carbon.com Contact: Hugh Skinner Products/Services to be displayed: Continental Carbon Group: service provider for water & wastewater filter systems, media supply & exchange, underdrain service, and maintenance services. Dalimar Instruments Inc. #1333 Richmond Hill, ON 905-707-9000 E-mail: mike@dalimar.ca Web site: www.dalimar.ca Contact: Mike Cardillo Products/Services to be displayed: Instruments for noise and vibration measurements in the workplace and in the environment. Sound level meters, noise dosimeters, human vibration meters and related accessories. Drain-All Ltd. Ottawa, ON 613-327-5906

#1322

ECO Canada (Environmental Careers Organization) #1435 Calgary, AB 403-233-0748 E-mail: info@eco.ca Web site: www.eco.ca Contact: Lesley Schonhoffer Products/Services to be displayed: ECO Job Board, EP (Environmental Professional) Certification, Wage-Subsidy Internships, Professional Development and Training, Academic Institution Accreditation, HR Consultation. E.R.E. Inc. #1523 Montreal, QC 514-326-8852 E-mail: sales@ereinc.com Web site: www.ereinc.com Contact: Mary Baccari Products/Services to be displayed: E.R.E. Inc. specializes in the areas of site remediation & wastewater treatment as well as equipment required for sampling & monitoring of air, water & soil. Exova Canada Inc. #1341 Mississauga, ON 905-822-4111 E-mail: kelly.lancaster@exova.com Web site: www.exova.com Contact: Kelly Lancaster Products/Services to be displayed: Exova is a global provider of laboratory testing, advising and assuring services to many of the world's most innovative companies. exp Global #1528 Brampton, ON 905-796-3200 E-mail: lynn.rockett@exp.com Web site: www.exp.com Contact: Lynn Rockett Products/Services to be displayed: exp Global provides professional, technical and strategic engineering consulting services in six practice areas: buildings, earth & environment, energy, industrial, infrastructure, and sustainability. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E FERRO Canada Inc. #1328 Richmond Hill, ON 905-763-0787 E-mail: info@ferrocanada.com Web site: www.ferrocanada.com Contact: Jamie Ferrante Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental Contracting Company - expertise in abatement of asbestos, mould, lead, PCBs and soils as well as interior and structural demolition.

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CANECT Exhibitors First Response Environmental Inc. #1319 Hamilton, ON 289-639-2020 E-mail: wes@first-er.com Web site: www.first-er.com Contact: Wesley Hicks Products/Services to be displayed: First Response, a 24/7/365 source for your environmental needs – we offer Confined Space/ High Angle Rescue, Training, and Emergency Response services. Footage Tools Inc #1337 Vaughan, ON 905-695-9900 or Toll Free: 1-888-737-3668 E-mail: bf@footage.ca Web site: www.footagetools.com Contact: Ben Ferguson Products/Services to be displayed: Footage Tapping Tools, Sava Pipe Plugs and Haz-Mat products, Wheeler-Rex Professional Tools and Xena Intelligent Security Locks. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Golder Associates Ltd. #1428 Mississauga, ON 905-567-4444 E-mail: ebonnell@golder.com Web site: www.golder.com Contact: Elaine Bonnell Products/Services to be displayed: Golder Associates is an employee-owned, global company providing consulting, design, and construction services in earth, environment, and the related areas of energy. H2Flow Equipment Inc. #1229 Concord, ON 905-660-9775 E-mail: info@h2flow.com Web site: www.h2flow.com Contact: Michael Albanese Products/Services to be displayed: Water - Wastewater treatment for industrial applications; Pre-treatment to sewer, screens; DAFs, sludge dewatering presses, odour control, liquid storage tanks. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Heron Instruments Inc. #1340 Burlington, ON 905-634-4449 /800-331-2032 E-mail: info@heroninstruments.com Web site: www.heroninstruments.com Contact person: Vicky Toon Products/Services to be displayed: Heron Instruments Inc. specializes in groundwater level measurement equipment. Water Level Indicators, Oil/Water Interface Meters & Groundwater Data Loggers. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Hoskin Scientific #1226 Burlington, ON 905-333-5510 E-mail: salesb@hoskin.ca Web site: www.hoskin.ca Contact: Corey Lunman Products/Services to be displayed: Rental and Supply of Sampling and Monitoring Equipment for Air, Water and Soil for Environmental, Mining, Forestry and Agricultural Markets. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Hespro Stevensville, ON 888-840-3456 E-mail: BBaert@hespro.ca 94 | March 2012

#1233

Web site: www.hespro.ca Contact: Brian Baert Products/Services to be displayed: Hespro is a regulatory and compliance company serving the Health, Safety and Environmental needs for its valued clients.

Imprint Plus ™ #1427 Richmond, BC 800-563-2464 E-mail: sheldon.wilson@imprintplus.com Web site: www.imprintplus.com Contact: Kayli Flanders Products/Services to be displayed: Imprint Plus is the only manufacturer of the reusable, eco-friendly name badge system – serving over 2.8 million happy customers worldwide. With Imprint Plus’ patented, award-winning name badge system, you can create professionally branded, customized badges in-house with just a PC and printer. Employee turnover? No problem! While each badge may look permanently engraved, they are entirely reusable! This eliminates replacement costs, per-unit shipping and wasted materials! Our easy-to-use software makes name badge customization a breeze; add your own logos, graphics, names, and titles for top-quality, professional name badges in seconds. Discover the time and money you can save at BOOTH 1427. Indicium Compliance Solutions Inc. #1312 St. Catharines, ON 905-938-9465 E-mail: dplatakis@photech.com Web site: www.indiciumcs.com Contact: Dave Platakis Products/Serivices to be displayed: Indicium Compliance Solutions Inc. is a division of a privately owned industrial waste management company providing training, audits and assessments, and performance packaging. Lakes Environmental Software #1438 Waterloo, ON 519-746-5995 E-mail: sales@webLakes.com Web site: www.webLakes.com Contact: Julie Swatson Products/Services to be displayed: Lakes Environmental supplies easy-to-use and sophisticated air dispersion modeling, emissions inventory and risk assessment software to industries, government agencies and academia. Levitt-Safety EHS Instrument Solutions #1219 Oakville, ON 800-268-6196 E-mail: instruments@levitt-safety.com Web site: www.levitt-safety.com Contact: Norman Dean Products/Services to be displayed: Field Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring. Soil, Water and Air. Fixed and Portable Gas Detection, Bore Hole Gas Monitoring, PID,FID, GC/GCMS. LiquidMix Agitators Inc. #1222 Coe Hill, ON 905-670-9486 E-mail: sales@liquidmixagitators.com Web site: www.liquidmixagitators.com Contact: Denzel Brown. Products/Services to be displayed: Side Entry Mixer, Top Entry Mixer, Portable Mixer, Blender & Tanks.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-09 9:45 PM Page 95

CANECT Exhibitors Mandel Scientific Company Inc. #1218 Guelph, ON 519-763-9292 E-mail: mgreen@mandel.ca Web site: www.mandel.ca Contact: Michael Green Products/Services to be displayed: Canadian developed and manufactured multi-parameter, titration, BOD and COD analysis equipment for the environmental laboratory, water, wastewater, and process analytics.

Rice Earth Sciences #1536 Vaughan, ON 905-760-0170 E-mail: mkleespies@riceeng.com Web site: www.ricerentals.ca Contact: Michael Kleespies Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental Monitoring and Sampling Equipment for water, soils and air.

newterra ltd. #1423 Toronto, ON 416-490-7848 (877-803-0878) E-mail: ihassas@newterra.com Web site: www.newterra.com Contact: Irene Hassas Products/Services to be displayed: newterra engineers, manufactures and supports wastewater treatment systems and groundwater remediation systems, and supplies air quality instrumentation and treatment solutions.

Royal Roads University #1522 Victoria, BC 250-391-2600 E-mail: infosessions@royalroads.ca Web site: www.royalroads.ca Contact: Timothy Kituri Products/Services to be displayed: Royal Roads University delivers applied and professional programs to advance professionals in the workplace. Graduate and undergraduate degrees are delivered online and face-toface on campus.

Novatech #1422 Mississauga, ON 905-569-9814 E-mail: arenesjc@novatech.ca Web site: www.novatech.ca Contact: J.C. Arènes Products/Services to be displayed: Portable and continuous emissions analyzers, particulate & opacity, integrated systems. Opus2 Mobile Solutions #1236 Woodbridge, ON 905-850-9111 E-mail: info@opus2mobile.com Web site: www.opus2mobile.com Contact: Stephen Grant Products/Services to be displayed: Customized mobile applications in days, not months. Gather field data, inspections, or workorders using smartphones or smartpens and integrate to backoffice systems. Osprey Scientific Inc. #1424 Edmonton, AB / Mississauga, ON 800-560-4402 E-mail: sales@ospreyscientific.com Web site: www.ospreyscientific.com Contact: Tanya McGowan Products/Services to be displayed: We specialize in the areas of water quality, toxicity, gas monitoring for personal safety and site evaluation, environmental assessment, remediation measurements and waste characterization. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E PACK-A-CONE c/o Mindspace Inc. #1230 Markham, ON 905-284-1000 E-mail: info@packacone.com Web site: www.packacone.com, www.underfyre.com Contact: Cory Tse Products/Services to be displayed: Pack-A-Cone is the original collapsible pylon. Introducing UNDERFYRE - the latest in performance FR Wear â&#x20AC;&#x201C; fire resistant, wicking, cotton clothing. Quantum Murray LP #1531-1537 Stoney Creek, ON 905-388-4444 E-mail: info@qmlp.ca Web site: www.qmlp.ca Contact: Jim Galea Products/Services to be displayed: Emergency Response, Confined Space Rescue, Industrial Training, Chemical Spills.

www.esemag.com

RWDI #1412 Guelph, ON 519-823-1311 E-mail: solutions@rwdi.com Web site: www.rwdiair.com Contact: Elaine Farrow Products/Services to be displayed: Air Quality, Noise & Vibration, Water & Waste, Environmental Software, Source Testing, Odour, Dust, GHGs, Toxic Reduction, Ventilation, Ambient Measurements. SciCorp International Corp. #1532 Barrie, ON 705-733-2626 E-mail: justin@scicorp.net Web site: www.scicorp.net Contact: Justin Maat Products/Services to be displayed: SciCorp manufactures micronutrients for biological wastewater treatment and other organic waste applications to reduce cost, eliminate odours, and improve plant performance. SNC-Lavalin Environment #1232 Toronto, ON 416-635-5882 or Toll Free: 877-635-5882 E-mail: chris.webb@snclavalin.com Web site: www.snclavalin.com/environment Contact: Chris Webb Products/Services to be displayed: SNC-Lavalin Environment provides professional environmental services pertaining to air quality, acoustics, planning, approvals, site assessment, remediation, risk management, waste, audits & management systems. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Spill Management Inc. #1338 Stoney Creek, ON 905-578-9666 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web site: www.spillmanagement.ca Contact: Ruth Holland Products/Services to be displayed: Spill Management teaches hands-on response countermeasures to all industries, institutions, Municipalities, Provincial, and Federal agencies, and also exercises Emergency Response Plans, across Canada. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E St. Lawrence County Industrial Devel. Agency Canton, NY 315-379-9806

#1418

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ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-09 9:45 PM Page 96

CANECT Exhibitors E-mail: bnorton@slcida.com Web site: www.slcida.com Contact: Brian Norton Products/Services to be displayed: SLCIDA is the most comprehensive source of business information, financial resources and real estate sites for companies expanding into the U.S. marketplace. The U.S. market starts here!

Testmark Laboratories Ltd. #1433 Mississauga, ON 905-821-1112 E-mail: sylvia.rennie@testmark.ca Web site: www.testmark.ca Contact: Sylvia Rennie Products/Services to be displayed: Testmark Laboratories is a leading provider of accredited environmental laboratory testing services. Operating out of 4 city-centres in Ontario, we provide organic, inorganic, toxicological, microbiological and industrial testing. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

TEAM-1 Academy Inc. #1235 Oakville, ON 905-827-0007 E-mail: brian@team1academy.com Web site: www.team1academy.com Contact: Brian Kovalcik Products/Services to be displayed: TEAM-1 Academy Inc., North America’s leader in professional safety training, equipment sales, standby rescue, confined space, rope access and wind industry services for over 20 years! No matter what your needs are, we have a solution for you. We are an authorized distributor for PETZL, DBI/SALA, Dräger, PROTECTA, North, Miller, Norguard, Skylotec, and many more! We offer a complete line of safety equipment, service and installation. We look forward to working with you! Safety through action…Success through commitment!

96 | March 2012

Titan Environmental Containment Ltd. #1540 Ile des Chenes, MB 866-327-1957 E-mail: john@titanenviro.ca Web site: www.titanenviro.ca Contact: John Mooney Products/Services to be displayed: Titan supplies and installs geomembranes for waste and effluent containment. Titan is a premier installer of bolted and welded steel tanks.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-12 4:20 PM Page 97

105TH ANNUAL

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ES&E Mar2012_4_2012 12-04-12 4:17 PM Page 98

Advertiser INDEX

Legal Affairs ACG Technology............................99 Air & Waste Management Assoc. .97 Air Liquide Canada ........................64 American Public University ..........45 American Water .............................49 American Water Works Assoc.70-71 Associated Engineering..................5 Avensys Solutions.........................55 AWI ..................................................17 Barr Plastics...................................22 C&M Env. Technologies ................31 CALA...............................................73 Canadian Safety.............................24 Canadian Water Summit ...............96 CCS Corporation ......................20-21 CIMA+ .............................................35 City of Barrie ..................................51 Cole Engineering ...........................44 Concept Controls...........................48 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute ..100 D’Aqua Technologies ....................32 Delcan Water ..................................33 Denso .............................................11 Duperon .........................................65 Endress + Hauser ..........................15 exp Global ......................................73 FedDev Ontario ..............................10 Gorman-Rupp.................................25 Greatario.........................................57 Greyline Instruments.....................36 H2Flow ............................................24 Heron Instruments.........................37 Hoskin Scientific......................12, 63 Huber Technology ...........................9 Imbrium Systems...........................59 IPEX.................................................43 John Meunier .................................18 Kemira.............................................36 KSB Pumps ....................................61 Levelton Consultants ....................59 Master Meter.....................................3 Minotaur Stormwater Services .....54 MSU Mississauga ..........................27 Mueller Canada ..............................68 Orival...............................................19 Osprey Scientific ...........................46 Pro Aqua .........................................39 ProMinent .........................................2 Schneider Electric .........................29 SEW-Eurodrive...............................32 Smith & Loveless...........................14 Solinst Canada...............................23 Spill Management ..........................91 Stantec............................................46 Tervita ........................................20-21 The City of Barrie...........................51 USF Fabrication .............................40 Veolia Water ...................................18 Water for People ............................67 Waterloo Biofilter ...........................35 Waterra ........................34, 41, 60, 72 WEFTEC..........................................82 XCG Consultants ...........................48 Xylem ................................................7 Xypex ..............................................47

Ecojustice says feds are failing to enforce Canada’s environmental laws

T

he federal government is failing to enforce its own environmental laws, according to a new report from Ecojustice. Getting Tough on Environmental Crime analyzes available enforcement information, under several federal environmental laws, and finds the federal government is underperforming on many fronts. It found that the number of inspections and warnings issued under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) has declined since 2005/06, despite an increased number of enforcement officers. The number of CEPA investigations, prosecutions, and convictions has also declined steadily since 2003/04. “The average number of convictions under CEPA is about 20 per year, which is extremely low in relation to the number of inspections, warnings and investigations,” says William Amos, Director of the Ecojustice Clinic at the University of Ottawa and coauthor of the report. “Considering that the threat of conviction is crucial to deterring polluters, these low numbers cast serious doubt on the effectiveness of CEPA enforcement in preventing environmental crime.” Average fines for environmental offenders, which amount to about $10,000 per CEPA conviction, are also too low to serve as an effective deterrent for wouldbe polluters, according to the report. It took Environment Canada more than 20 years to collect $2.4-million in fines under CEPA. In comparison, the Toronto Public Library collected $2.6-million in fines for overdue books in 2009 alone. The report found that enforcement data gathered under different federal environmental laws is often inconsistent, incomplete and hard to access. Very limited information identifying environmental offenders, incident location and the exact nature of the violation is then disclosed to the public. Data on compliance rates by regulated entities is not publicly available. “The Canadian government should make all information about pollution, environmental degradation and enforcement efforts publicly available online,” Amos said. The report recommends adopting an

online enforcement disclosure approach similar to the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO). The report also offers a series of recommendations about how the government can do better: • Provide sufficient resources for all environmental enforcement departments, to ensure quality reporting and quality control. • Establish a comprehensive online database to provide full disclosure of compliance and enforcement of all federal environmental laws. • Release all non-confidential enforcement information concerning regulated entities (i.e. businesses and municipalities), including inspections, investigations, warnings, orders, prosecutions, convictions, penalties and fines. For more information, visit www.ecojustice.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E Mar2012_2_2012 12-04-05 2:00 PM Page 99

  

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Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine March-April 2012  

This issue focuses on: Simulator helps wastewater treatment plant operator training; Improving water quality in reservoirs; Real-time stormw...

Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine March-April 2012  

This issue focuses on: Simulator helps wastewater treatment plant operator training; Improving water quality in reservoirs; Real-time stormw...

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