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Contents ISSN-0835-605X â€˘ March/April 2011 Vol. 24 No. 2 â€˘ Issued April 2011 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Consulting Editor
Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: email@example.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: email@example.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY
Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., QuĂŠbec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada
Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to email@example.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com
6 Chemistry, the missing science in environmental site assessments 8 Immigrating professionals can offer many benefits to the green economy 10 RBC and Unilever release 2011 Water Attitudes Study 12 Stormwater project balances BC portâ€™s growth with environmental concerns - Cover Story 14 Why water meter approvals and standards need to be simplified 20 New wastewater aeration system improves oxygenation efficiency 22 Effluent grease â€“ a 21st century recyclable product 26 Canadaâ€™s drinking water quality guidelines are updated 28 Using fabric structures for wastewater plant upgrades 30 New pumping station handles storm and wastewater surges near Mexico City 33 Toxics Reduction Act aims to help companies compete globally 34 An innovative approach for sampling groundwater VOCs saves time 36 Evapotranspiration covers help protect groundwater quality 42 Tighter environmental site assessments on the horizon 48 How extreme conditions affect water treatment facility design 50 Preventing radioactive wastes from contaminating groundwater supplies 52 OWWA/OWMA spring conference preview 53 Ottawa area flood control project uses innovative stacked storage system 56 Expanding Reginaâ€™s Fleet Street landfill site 58 Engineered wetland wastewater treatment facility completes NRC testing program 62 Vapour intrusion from soil or groundwater is a challenge for property owners
DEPARTMENTS Product Showcase . . . . . 76-79 Environmental News . . . 68-75 Professional Cards . . . . . 68-75 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Workshop Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 CANECT Floor Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Exhibitors Listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
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Chemistry, the missing science in environmental site assessment By George Duncan
his is the United Nations International Year of Chemistry, so a valid question to ask is: “How much formal education in chemistry should a consultant have in order to sign off on environmental site assessments?” For many consultants currently signing off on Phase I & II ESA reports, the answer is “None”. This is surprising, perhaps even shocking, given the long list of chemical contaminants that form the focus of any environmental site assessment. The Chemical Institute of Canada has long used the slogan “Chemistry - the Central Science” to highlight the crucial role chemistry has played (and still does) in the advancement of modern society. The slogan is also an attempt to counteract the bad press the subject has received, along with the negative connotations of the word “chemicals”. Many universities and colleges in Canada have closed their chemistry departments due to a variety of reasons. Chemistry programs are expensive to run. As chemistry has long lost its prima donna status, student enrolment has declined. Finally, for many, chemistry is perceived to be a difficult and mysterious subject. The mass media often portrays the chemical industry as the chief villain behind the environmental crisis we are now in. Picture nasty men in white suits behind closed doors, concocting wicked brews that are poisoning the planet. True or not, it doesn’t get away from the question that, if consultants are going to assess the environmental condition of a site, they need a workable knowledge of the chemistry of the contaminants beyond highschool level. Knowing how contaminants react, how persistent, how water-soluble, how volatile, how flammable, how toxic, and how they differ one from another, is surely an asset that should be demanded 6 | March 2011
rather than ignored. The list of contaminants is not only long, it is complex and ignorance of their chemistry can lead to serious errors in judgement. From my own experience as a chemist working as an environmental consultant, I’ve encountered many situations where chemical ignorance has led to wrong conclusions regarding the environmental condition of a site. One of the most glaring and most common of these has been the failure to realize just how volatile BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) components in gasoline-impacted soil samples are. Their high volatility leads to very rapid evaporation of the sample upon exposure to air. Ontario’s revised O.Reg. 153/04 has recently changed the sampling method for such soils to one that eliminates these losses but not without much outcry from chemistry-challenged types, claiming: “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it”. There are many other examples such as the common practice of running expensive and un-needed toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests on soils that could not possibly fail. This is because the soil analysis has already shown there isn’t enough contaminant present in the first place! Many landfills will simply not accept gasoline-contaminated soil with less than 20 mg/Kg benzene unless they see a TCLP analysis, verifying the benzene leached is less than 0.5 mg/L. But, a simple calculation shows that, if benzene in the soil is less than 20 mg/Kg, the leach test cannot exceed the 0.5 limit. In this case you don’t need the TCLP! These are simple examples, but a knowledge of reaction chemistry saved the day for a manufacturer operating from a lakeside factory who asked if we could track a major spill of urea from a ruptured underground tank, close to the lakeshore. Since urea doesn’t appear on any of the environmental “hit-lists”, he wasn’t too concerned until it was explained that urea hydrolyses in water to form ammonia, an extremely lethal contaminant to fish. There are many other examples, but one that troubles me is the issue of
dioxin/furans in PCB-impacted sites. Ontario’s Reg.153/04 allowable limit for PCBs on an industrial site in potable groundwater is 25 mg/Kg, but the limit for dioxin/furans, which are the (thermal) breakdown products of PCBs, is 1 nanogram per kilogram, which is 25 million times less than the parent PCBs. At around $800 per test, how do I convince the client to finance the testing program to see if his “clean” PCB soils (< 25 mg/Kg) are not way over the limit for dioxin/furans? In my discussions with environmental labs, they are not running lots and lots of dioxin/furans analyses. Even the Ontario Ministry of the Environment’s “List Of Testing Requirements For Various Types Of Industrial And Commercial Operations”, published as part of the revised O.Reg.] 153/04, does not recommend testing for dioxin/furans on sites where PCBs are the suspected contaminants. However, I’ve already had dealings with one site which fell well below 25 mg/Kg of PCBs but was 1000 times over the limit for dioxin/furans. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment originally allowed Ontario Chartered Chemists to be recognised as “Qualified Persons” for signing off on environmental reports, but later disqualified them, using the excuse that chemistry is not a licensed profession in the Province. The logic of that action is questionable, especially since chemists in Ontario have been pushing for licensing since the 1970s. Thankfully, or perhaps mercifully, the Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario (APGO) has come to the rescue and is issuing limited licenses to qualified chemists with relevant experience. But why is this necessary if chemistry is one of the pillars of environmental science? George Duncan is with A & A Environmental Consultants. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Immigrants can offer many benefits to Canada’s green economy
anada has long been an attractive country for newcomers from around the world. Yet, once they arrive, it can be a struggle for them to integrate into the Canadian workforce. As one foreign-educated professional put it: “While I did not have problems having my credentials recognized by my professional regulatory association, having the same recognition from employers, particularly in the private sector, is still a challenge.” Although many of these individuals already possess a strong foundation of skills and knowledge to offer Canada’s environmental sector, overcoming employment barriers, such as the lack of recognition of past education and work experience, can be difficult. Failing to acknowledge foreign education and experience is estimated to cost the Canadian economy between $4.1 and $5.9 billion annually, while under-utilizing the skills of these internationallytrained professionals is estimated to cost $15 billion. To address this issue in the environmental sector, ECO Canada, the national sector council for the environment, established the Environmental Immigrant Bridging Program. “Environmental sector growth is being hindered by a lack of qualified professionals,” says Grant Trump, CEO at ECO Canada. “At the same time, qualified newcomers are not finding work in their area of specialization. The Program aims to address both of these issues by removing the barriers identified by industry, in order to effectively transition competent immigrants with related education and experience into the environmental workforce.” A lack of Canadian work experience is reported to be the greatest obstacle facing immigrants. A participant in the Program had the following experience, which is all too common for many newcomers: “I got a job interview with a large oil and gas company and had a successful presentation to the interviewers. However, someone from HR asked me if I had any Canadian work experience. At that 8 | March 2011
Overcoming employment barriers, such as the lack of recognition of past education and work experience, can be difficult for many immigrants.
point, I had only been in the country for six weeks, so of course I did not. I was discounted for the job because of my lack of Canadian work experience, even though, based on skills alone, I was quite overqualified for the position.” Stories like these underscore the challenges facing an economy that relies on immigration for its success. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) reports that between 1991 and 1996 the Canadian labour force grew by 608,000 individuals, 340,000 of whom were immigrants. Additionally, as a result of demographic shifts and retirements, immigrants currently account for 70% of net growth in the labour force. They are expected to account for all net population growth by 2031. With new jobs in renewable energy and energy efficiency, building retrofitting and construction, alternative transportation, waste recycling, and waste management, the emerging “green economy” is a perfect fit for talented environmental professionals, who are new to Canada. Many of the predicted labour shortages in these growing areas could be filled by highly skilled immigrants. Ruth Pierce, Human Resource Director with the environmental firm SLR Consulting, agrees. “Immigrants can contribute by bringing in schooling and experience which is transferable to the Canadian marketplace.” She also had this advice to offer
to newcomers: “With the anticipated shortage of workers in the next decade, I encourage immigrants to work on marketable skills and ensure they have communication and writing skills in English or French.” Most environmental problems are multi-disciplinary in nature, requiring a multi-disciplinary approach for their solutions.The educational background of internationally-trained professionals in geosciences, civil engineering, and environmental engineering technology, coupled with their international experience, can be a great asset in creating a healthy Canadian ecosystem. According to research done by ECO Canada, employers can anticipate seeing an increase in these types of highly skilled environmental workers. A future surplus is expected, for example, from EU countries such as Poland, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and France, over the next 10 years. Currently, Statistics Canada reports that Asia (including the Middle East) is still the largest market of immigrants to Canada. With the prospect of between 11.4 and 14.4 million visible minorities in Canada by 2031, more must be done to assist this highly skilled group into successfully transitioning into the labour force. However, in order for us to successfully link these job-seekers with suitable employment opportunities, employers and individuals must work together. Programs such as the Environmental Immigrant Bridging Program, in Edmonton, Alberta, provide a resource for newcomers to integrate into the Canadian workforce, and help employers to meet their recruitment needs. The Program is run as a partnership between ECO Canada and the Bredin Institute – Centre for Learning. It was created by ECO Canada, in association with over 60 environmental employers, internationally-trained professionals, and employment counselors from across the country. For more information, visit www.eco.ca
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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RBC and Unilever release 2011 Canadian Water Attitudes Study
hile 55% of Canadians continue to believe that fresh water is the country’s most important natural resource and say they are trying reasonably hard to conserve it, 72% admit to flushing items down the toilet that they could dispose of in another manner. Left-over food, hair, bugs and cigarette butts lead the list of items discarded in toilets, wasting an average of six to 20 litres of water with each flush. The fourth annual Canadian Water Attitudes Study was commissioned by RBC and Unilever, and endorsed by the Canadian Partnership Initiative of the United Nations Water for Life Decade. It found that Albertans are most likely to admit to flushing items they could dispose of in another manner, and Quebecers least likely. Also, those aged 18-34 are much more likely to do this than those older than 55. Yet, Canadians’ knowledge of the quality of the water in their toilet, and the volume wasted, is high. Eight in 10 know the water in their toilet is just as clean as the water from their faucet. Three quarters are aware that nearly half of water used in the home is for flushing toilets. “This data highlights that Canadians are not making the connection between
10 | March 2011
their personal water use and the true value of water,” says Bob Sandford, EPCOR, Chair Canadian Partnership Initiative of the UN Water for Life Decade. “They claim to care about conserving it, yet knowingly engage in water wasting activities, including using toilets to dispose of garbage.” Other findings of the study include: 1. Confidence in drinking water is growing. Canadians’ level of confidence in the safety and quality of drinking water has increased significantly over the past two years, from 72% in 2009 to 86% in 2011. Confidence is highest in British Columbia, at 92%, and lowest in Quebec, at 69%. When it comes to the source of water, almost half drink water directly from their tap; one-third drink filtered water; 21% drink bottled water; and 14% drink water from a large-jug cooler. 2. Confidence in long-term supply has also increased. Canadians’ level of confidence that Canada has enough freshwater for the long-term has increased over the past two years, from 70% in 2009 to 77% in 2011. Confidence is highest in British Columbia, at 84%, while Quebecers are less confident at 63%. 3. Canadians increasingly concerned about lakes water quality. On average,
87% are concerned about the quality of water in lakes where they swim. Quebecers are most concerned (90%), followed by Ontarians and Maritimers (both 88%). Most Canadians (63%) believe that the quality of their swimming lakes is getting worse. 4. Canadians don’t know what they pay for water. According to the study, six in 10 admit they do not know how much their household currently pays for water. However, seven in 10 believe that the unknown price is high enough to ensure water is treated as a valuable resource. “Water is a real bargain in Canada, which is another reason Canadians have no concept of its value,” says Sandford. “Compared to other developed nations, Canadians pay very little to have water delivered to their homes. In France, water costs four times more, and in Germany, almost seven times more. Not surprisingly, average daily domestic water use in these countries is less than half of what it is in Canada. Until Canadians make the connection between personal use of water and its true value, our water wasting habits will continue.” For more information, visit www.rbc.com/bluewater
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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BC port balances economic growth with environmental concerns By Daniel Wilson
he Deltaport Third Berth Project (DP3) at the Deltaport container terminal at Roberts Bank, British Columbia, was opened last year by government officials and port industry leaders. The $400-million expansion project was designed to increase the terminal’s capacity from 1.2 million to 1.8 million “twenty-foot equivalent units” (TEUs) by adding a new berth, three quad gantry cranes, 20 hectares of container storage and additional facilities. A TEU is a measure of container volumes based on a standard container 20 feet in length. However, the fragile ecosystem of the Roberts Bank meant that DP3 needed to be particularly sensitive to aquatic and terrestrial vegetation and wildlife. Opened in 1997 and located 40 km south of Vancouver’s inner harbour, Deltaport is currently the largest container terminal in Canada and a central part of the Port of Vancouver, which ranks number one among North American ports in total foreign exports. Together with other Port of Vancouver sites, Deltaport handles $43 billion in cargo annually, with 90 trading economies around the world, including many in Asia. Maritime business forecasts indicate that container volumes will double over the next 15 years. 12 | March 2011
When viewed from a broad perspective, the DP3 project is about regional economic development and job creation. It created about 640 person-years of employment during construction and will add another 356 new jobs as the terminal utilizes the additional capacity created by the new berth. Environmental protection Stringent environmental monitoring is
integral to the DP3 project. The area contains critical watersheds and fragile ecosystems essential to the salmon run and the region’s entire economy. Deltaport is an intermodal site covering more than 65 hectares of mostly impervious surface, filled with constantly moving trucks, trains and heavy equipment. Hazardous materials are among the wide variety of cargo it handles, with the potential
Deltaport installed 14 Stormceptor stormwater treatment systems, in addition to the original 43 such units installed during Stage 1 development in 1996. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Cover Story for spills of plastics and numerous chemicals, not to mention hydrocarbon runoff during rainstorms and daily cleaning. Central to its environmental planning, Deltaport installed 14 Stormceptor stormwater treatment systems, in addition to the original 43 such units installed during Stage 1 development in 1996. The Stormceptor’s patented stormwater treatment systems capture and retain stormwater sediment and pollutant loads such as metals, nutrients and hydrocarbons. Its design allows it to trap hydrocarbons in rainwater runoff, as well as oil and chemical spills. In Phase 1, Deltaport’s engineers installed groups of smaller Stormceptor units working in tandem, rather than one or two large end-of-pipe units. This has proven to be the best solution for the site conditions. With less drainage area to handle, and less dilution, concentrations of pollutants are the highest at the immediate sources, and the tandem systems achieve optimum removal capacity. The DP3 project also installed Stormceptor units in tandem. Port officials needed to have systems in place to trap and completely contain unexpected spills from shipping containers or vehicles, so infiltration was not a preferred option. In coastal development projects, the operative term is “designing for the ultimate contingency”. Deltaport has worked to maintain good relations with environmental activists, First Nations and community leaders in the region, through the use of public outreach and detailed reporting. They retained independent professionals to provide environmental monitoring services throughout all stages of construction. The Deltaport Third Berth Project Community Liaison Committee was formed approximately four years ago to work with Port Metro Vancouver and port industry leaders to identify community concerns and recommend sensible solutions. Other North American ports have followed Vancouver’s example regarding the importance of “giving back” to their regions, and entering into serious dialogue and consultation with local leaders. Sustainable development was always a primary goal for the DP3 project. Port Metro Vancouver worked hard to create a win-win situation, so the natural environment and the port community could www.esemag.com
thrive. Nearly $25 million was invested to implement a comprehensive fish and wildlife habitat plan. Artificial reefs and habitat benches were created for divers and marine habitat, so that all could enjoy the more than 70 species of fish that live in the waters around DP3. Port Metro Vancouver developed an innovative research and science-based approach to monitoring and managing the Roberts Bank ecosystem. This allows for early detection of changes in the
ecosystem, so that potential negative trends caused by the DP3 project can be prevented or mitigated. So far, with more than three years of data collected, there have been no negative impacts attributable to DP3. Daniel Wilson is with Imbrium Systems Corp. E-mail: email@example.com. Photos courtesy Dave Malm, Langley Concrete.
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Why water meter approvals and standards need to be simplified By Gordon B. Moffatt
ith new metering products coming on the market in a virtual torrent these days, how do utilities ensure that what they are purchasing is acceptable for public health concerns, regulatory issues and the performance needs of the water system? Is the product “approved” or “compliant” with standards? Which standards are relevant? Are any standards/specifications mandatory? Will today’s purchase meet tomorrow’s regulations? New products, new materials, NSF61 requirements, and even vendor marketing tactics contribute to the general confusion. The guiding factors in the buying decision should be: 1. Does the product meet the local and/or federal health and safety requirements? 2. Does the product meet the needs of the utility in terms of accuracy, revenue generation, functionality and longevity? 3. Will it perform to the vendor’s specifications and has any approval organization actually tested and certified this (can the claims be verified)? There is a wide selection of existing standards and approvals in the waterworks industry, and Measurement Canada will soon introduce a set of mandatory approvals for all revenue meters in Canada. This makes it all the more relevant to know what you are buying today. American Water Works Association In North America, the default standard for water meters has traditionally been the American Water Works Association (AWWA) C700 series. This set of standards has helped bring relative uniformity to the North American industry by standardizing factors such as residential meter laying lengths, material and piping connection standards, minimum accuracy performance, and factory testing requirements. The standards are developed by a group consisting of utility personnel and not more than 30% meter manufacturers. This ensures that utilities have the 14 | March 2011
Typical small meter test bench certified to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) standards.
Typical large meter test bench certified to NIST standards.
strongest influence, while recognizing the capabilities of the manufacturing industry. AWWA also publishes a document called the AWWA M6 Manual. This doc-
ument has been the best waterworks market guideline, as it lists the minimum accuracy requirements and test flow rates “recommended” by AWWA. It also pro-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Water Metering vides details on how to test and repair meters, set up a meter shop, and a great deal of other excellent information. (AWWA C705 preceded this document but was replaced in the mid-1980s.) However, AWWA does not actually perform tests on, or grant approvals to, any product. It does not require that manufacturers submit meters for any testing. If a vendor states that a product meets the C700 standard, the onus is on the utility to confirm the claims. This point is made in the M6 Manual’s foreword: “The manual discusses recommended practices; it is not an AWWA standard calling for compliance with certain specifications.” Although AWWA is not an approval organization, the M6 Manual and AWWA standards still continue to provide a very strong “best practices” guide to the waterworks industry. International Organization of Legal Metrology For much of the rest of the world, the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) is the industry standard. It produces a series of documents under the heading R49, called Water Me-
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ters Intended for the Metering of Cold Potable Water. These documents lay out the actual metrological and technical requirements of the meter, and cover all aspects of the metering process. For example, R49-1 clearly sets down the metrological and technical requirements for water meters. R49-2 contains over 40 pages of test methods. Rather than set a universal standard (as AWWA does), OIML sets a parameter of performances within which an acceptable meter must operate. There is a minimum accuracy standard, but also varying levels above this. Manufacturers can then determine which level of accuracy their meter will meet. OIML allows for 1%, 2%, 3% or even 5% error, depending on the accuracy class the manufacturer has selected. These values are seen in some specification sheets as Q values and relate to ratios between minimum, low and high flow rates. OIML is a globally recognized international organization, so local regulatory bodies (such as Measurement Canada, British Weights/Measures, Australian National Measurement Institute, etc.) use
these standards to conduct all the extensive tests to certify the meter. The guarantee of metrological operation of the meter is the knowledge that the local regulatory body has actually conducted all the tests against the OIML recommendations, or is using MRA/MAA (mutual recognition/acceptance agreements) with other countries that have already adopted OIML. In other words, every meter is tested against the OIML recommendations. The equipment and methods used to test meters are also subject to stringent rules and an approval process. Test benches, for example, are usually required to be certified and traceable to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) criteria. It is important to note there is a difference between “built to OIML standards” and approved (or accredited) to OIML recommendations. As with AWWA, any manufacturer can say its meters are built to the OIML standards, but unless they are actually submitted and tested by the local regulatory authority, they are not accredited. continued overleaf...
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Water Metering International Standards Organization The International Standards Organization (ISO) is similar to OIML. This organization covers a wide range of â€œstandardsâ€? ranging from meter performance to quality processes to electrical standards. ISO 9000 series standards for quality and ISO 1400 environmental standards are well known. Within the flow measurement group of standards is the ISO 4064 document, which often appears on European specification sheets. Meter accuracies within this standard are grouped into four main classes, each with a higher demand. They are rated Class A through D, with D having the most stringent accuracy demands. Like OIML they allow for different tolerances for different products, and manufacturers can pick which class they want their meter tested and approved to. Of note, the standard AWWA accuracy performance requirements (M6 Manual) fall somewhere between Class B and Class C. Some countries demand all meters meet Class D requirements, hence AWWAcompliant meters would not be accept-
able in those countries. As with OIML, these standards are often adopted by the local regulatory authority, so the ISO label assures the buyer that accuracy tests have been conducted by a government-approved agency.
An ISO label assures the buyer that accuracy tests have been conducted by a government-approved agency.
Measurement Canada Measurement Canada (MC) has been the â€œwatchdogâ€? of the electric and gas meter industry for many years, and is currently developing a set of standards for
water meters. MC has already stated that meters that are in compliance with OIML R49-1 will be legal for trade in Canada. However, MC also recognizes that North American meter practices and waterworks infrastructure are not the same as they are in Europe, Australia or other countries with regulatory processes. Using the existing AWWA standards as a guideline, MC will amend the Weights and Measures Regulations to include technical and performance requirements for the type approval testing of customer billing water meters (nominal sizes up to and including 200 mm). In effect, it is expected that MC will accept meters that have been subjected to type approval testing in accordance with OIML R49-2, or with a new water meter section that will be introduced in the amended Weights and Measures Regulations. The important thing to remember here is that all customer billing meters (nominal sizes up to and including 200 mm) will have to meet the MC standards. This will involve submitting the product for type approval testing (i.e., does the range
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