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Contents ISSN-0835-605X â&#x20AC;˘ March/April 2011 Vol. 24 No. 2 â&#x20AC;˘ Issued April 2011 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Consulting Editor
Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: email@example.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: email@example.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Editorial Assistant PETER DAVEY
Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., QuĂŠbec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada
Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to email@example.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com
6 Chemistry, the missing science in environmental site assessments 8 Immigrating professionals can offer many benefits to the green economy 10 RBC and Unilever release 2011 Water Attitudes Study 12 Stormwater project balances BC portâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s growth with environmental concerns - Cover Story 14 Why water meter approvals and standards need to be simplified 20 New wastewater aeration system improves oxygenation efficiency 22 Effluent grease â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a 21st century recyclable product 26 Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s drinking water quality guidelines are updated 28 Using fabric structures for wastewater plant upgrades 30 New pumping station handles storm and wastewater surges near Mexico City 33 Toxics Reduction Act aims to help companies compete globally 34 An innovative approach for sampling groundwater VOCs saves time 36 Evapotranspiration covers help protect groundwater quality 42 Tighter environmental site assessments on the horizon 48 How extreme conditions affect water treatment facility design 50 Preventing radioactive wastes from contaminating groundwater supplies 52 OWWA/OWMA spring conference preview 53 Ottawa area flood control project uses innovative stacked storage system 56 Expanding Reginaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fleet Street landfill site 58 Engineered wetland wastewater treatment facility completes NRC testing program 62 Vapour intrusion from soil or groundwater is a challenge for property owners
DEPARTMENTS Product Showcase . . . . . 76-79 Environmental News . . . 68-75 Professional Cards . . . . . 68-75 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Workshop Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 CANECT Floor Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Exhibitors Listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
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Chemistry, the missing science in environmental site assessment By George Duncan
his is the United Nations International Year of Chemistry, so a valid question to ask is: “How much formal education in chemistry should a consultant have in order to sign off on environmental site assessments?” For many consultants currently signing off on Phase I & II ESA reports, the answer is “None”. This is surprising, perhaps even shocking, given the long list of chemical contaminants that form the focus of any environmental site assessment. The Chemical Institute of Canada has long used the slogan “Chemistry - the Central Science” to highlight the crucial role chemistry has played (and still does) in the advancement of modern society. The slogan is also an attempt to counteract the bad press the subject has received, along with the negative connotations of the word “chemicals”. Many universities and colleges in Canada have closed their chemistry departments due to a variety of reasons. Chemistry programs are expensive to run. As chemistry has long lost its prima donna status, student enrolment has declined. Finally, for many, chemistry is perceived to be a difficult and mysterious subject. The mass media often portrays the chemical industry as the chief villain behind the environmental crisis we are now in. Picture nasty men in white suits behind closed doors, concocting wicked brews that are poisoning the planet. True or not, it doesn’t get away from the question that, if consultants are going to assess the environmental condition of a site, they need a workable knowledge of the chemistry of the contaminants beyond highschool level. Knowing how contaminants react, how persistent, how water-soluble, how volatile, how flammable, how toxic, and how they differ one from another, is surely an asset that should be demanded 6 | March 2011
rather than ignored. The list of contaminants is not only long, it is complex and ignorance of their chemistry can lead to serious errors in judgement. From my own experience as a chemist working as an environmental consultant, I’ve encountered many situations where chemical ignorance has led to wrong conclusions regarding the environmental condition of a site. One of the most glaring and most common of these has been the failure to realize just how volatile BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) components in gasoline-impacted soil samples are. Their high volatility leads to very rapid evaporation of the sample upon exposure to air. Ontario’s revised O.Reg. 153/04 has recently changed the sampling method for such soils to one that eliminates these losses but not without much outcry from chemistry-challenged types, claiming: “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it”. There are many other examples such as the common practice of running expensive and un-needed toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests on soils that could not possibly fail. This is because the soil analysis has already shown there isn’t enough contaminant present in the first place! Many landfills will simply not accept gasoline-contaminated soil with less than 20 mg/Kg benzene unless they see a TCLP analysis, verifying the benzene leached is less than 0.5 mg/L. But, a simple calculation shows that, if benzene in the soil is less than 20 mg/Kg, the leach test cannot exceed the 0.5 limit. In this case you don’t need the TCLP! These are simple examples, but a knowledge of reaction chemistry saved the day for a manufacturer operating from a lakeside factory who asked if we could track a major spill of urea from a ruptured underground tank, close to the lakeshore. Since urea doesn’t appear on any of the environmental “hit-lists”, he wasn’t too concerned until it was explained that urea hydrolyses in water to form ammonia, an extremely lethal contaminant to fish. There are many other examples, but one that troubles me is the issue of
dioxin/furans in PCB-impacted sites. Ontario’s Reg.153/04 allowable limit for PCBs on an industrial site in potable groundwater is 25 mg/Kg, but the limit for dioxin/furans, which are the (thermal) breakdown products of PCBs, is 1 nanogram per kilogram, which is 25 million times less than the parent PCBs. At around $800 per test, how do I convince the client to finance the testing program to see if his “clean” PCB soils (< 25 mg/Kg) are not way over the limit for dioxin/furans? In my discussions with environmental labs, they are not running lots and lots of dioxin/furans analyses. Even the Ontario Ministry of the Environment’s “List Of Testing Requirements For Various Types Of Industrial And Commercial Operations”, published as part of the revised O.Reg.] 153/04, does not recommend testing for dioxin/furans on sites where PCBs are the suspected contaminants. However, I’ve already had dealings with one site which fell well below 25 mg/Kg of PCBs but was 1000 times over the limit for dioxin/furans. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment originally allowed Ontario Chartered Chemists to be recognised as “Qualified Persons” for signing off on environmental reports, but later disqualified them, using the excuse that chemistry is not a licensed profession in the Province. The logic of that action is questionable, especially since chemists in Ontario have been pushing for licensing since the 1970s. Thankfully, or perhaps mercifully, the Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario (APGO) has come to the rescue and is issuing limited licenses to qualified chemists with relevant experience. But why is this necessary if chemistry is one of the pillars of environmental science? George Duncan is with A & A Environmental Consultants. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Immigrants can offer many benefits to Canada’s green economy
anada has long been an attractive country for newcomers from around the world. Yet, once they arrive, it can be a struggle for them to integrate into the Canadian workforce. As one foreign-educated professional put it: “While I did not have problems having my credentials recognized by my professional regulatory association, having the same recognition from employers, particularly in the private sector, is still a challenge.” Although many of these individuals already possess a strong foundation of skills and knowledge to offer Canada’s environmental sector, overcoming employment barriers, such as the lack of recognition of past education and work experience, can be difficult. Failing to acknowledge foreign education and experience is estimated to cost the Canadian economy between $4.1 and $5.9 billion annually, while under-utilizing the skills of these internationallytrained professionals is estimated to cost $15 billion. To address this issue in the environmental sector, ECO Canada, the national sector council for the environment, established the Environmental Immigrant Bridging Program. “Environmental sector growth is being hindered by a lack of qualified professionals,” says Grant Trump, CEO at ECO Canada. “At the same time, qualified newcomers are not finding work in their area of specialization. The Program aims to address both of these issues by removing the barriers identified by industry, in order to effectively transition competent immigrants with related education and experience into the environmental workforce.” A lack of Canadian work experience is reported to be the greatest obstacle facing immigrants. A participant in the Program had the following experience, which is all too common for many newcomers: “I got a job interview with a large oil and gas company and had a successful presentation to the interviewers. However, someone from HR asked me if I had any Canadian work experience. At that 8 | March 2011
Overcoming employment barriers, such as the lack of recognition of past education and work experience, can be difficult for many immigrants.
point, I had only been in the country for six weeks, so of course I did not. I was discounted for the job because of my lack of Canadian work experience, even though, based on skills alone, I was quite overqualified for the position.” Stories like these underscore the challenges facing an economy that relies on immigration for its success. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) reports that between 1991 and 1996 the Canadian labour force grew by 608,000 individuals, 340,000 of whom were immigrants. Additionally, as a result of demographic shifts and retirements, immigrants currently account for 70% of net growth in the labour force. They are expected to account for all net population growth by 2031. With new jobs in renewable energy and energy efficiency, building retrofitting and construction, alternative transportation, waste recycling, and waste management, the emerging “green economy” is a perfect fit for talented environmental professionals, who are new to Canada. Many of the predicted labour shortages in these growing areas could be filled by highly skilled immigrants. Ruth Pierce, Human Resource Director with the environmental firm SLR Consulting, agrees. “Immigrants can contribute by bringing in schooling and experience which is transferable to the Canadian marketplace.” She also had this advice to offer
to newcomers: “With the anticipated shortage of workers in the next decade, I encourage immigrants to work on marketable skills and ensure they have communication and writing skills in English or French.” Most environmental problems are multi-disciplinary in nature, requiring a multi-disciplinary approach for their solutions.The educational background of internationally-trained professionals in geosciences, civil engineering, and environmental engineering technology, coupled with their international experience, can be a great asset in creating a healthy Canadian ecosystem. According to research done by ECO Canada, employers can anticipate seeing an increase in these types of highly skilled environmental workers. A future surplus is expected, for example, from EU countries such as Poland, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and France, over the next 10 years. Currently, Statistics Canada reports that Asia (including the Middle East) is still the largest market of immigrants to Canada. With the prospect of between 11.4 and 14.4 million visible minorities in Canada by 2031, more must be done to assist this highly skilled group into successfully transitioning into the labour force. However, in order for us to successfully link these job-seekers with suitable employment opportunities, employers and individuals must work together. Programs such as the Environmental Immigrant Bridging Program, in Edmonton, Alberta, provide a resource for newcomers to integrate into the Canadian workforce, and help employers to meet their recruitment needs. The Program is run as a partnership between ECO Canada and the Bredin Institute – Centre for Learning. It was created by ECO Canada, in association with over 60 environmental employers, internationally-trained professionals, and employment counselors from across the country. For more information, visit www.eco.ca
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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RBC and Unilever release 2011 Canadian Water Attitudes Study
hile 55% of Canadians continue to believe that fresh water is the country’s most important natural resource and say they are trying reasonably hard to conserve it, 72% admit to flushing items down the toilet that they could dispose of in another manner. Left-over food, hair, bugs and cigarette butts lead the list of items discarded in toilets, wasting an average of six to 20 litres of water with each flush. The fourth annual Canadian Water Attitudes Study was commissioned by RBC and Unilever, and endorsed by the Canadian Partnership Initiative of the United Nations Water for Life Decade. It found that Albertans are most likely to admit to flushing items they could dispose of in another manner, and Quebecers least likely. Also, those aged 18-34 are much more likely to do this than those older than 55. Yet, Canadians’ knowledge of the quality of the water in their toilet, and the volume wasted, is high. Eight in 10 know the water in their toilet is just as clean as the water from their faucet. Three quarters are aware that nearly half of water used in the home is for flushing toilets. “This data highlights that Canadians are not making the connection between
10 | March 2011
their personal water use and the true value of water,” says Bob Sandford, EPCOR, Chair Canadian Partnership Initiative of the UN Water for Life Decade. “They claim to care about conserving it, yet knowingly engage in water wasting activities, including using toilets to dispose of garbage.” Other findings of the study include: 1. Confidence in drinking water is growing. Canadians’ level of confidence in the safety and quality of drinking water has increased significantly over the past two years, from 72% in 2009 to 86% in 2011. Confidence is highest in British Columbia, at 92%, and lowest in Quebec, at 69%. When it comes to the source of water, almost half drink water directly from their tap; one-third drink filtered water; 21% drink bottled water; and 14% drink water from a large-jug cooler. 2. Confidence in long-term supply has also increased. Canadians’ level of confidence that Canada has enough freshwater for the long-term has increased over the past two years, from 70% in 2009 to 77% in 2011. Confidence is highest in British Columbia, at 84%, while Quebecers are less confident at 63%. 3. Canadians increasingly concerned about lakes water quality. On average,
87% are concerned about the quality of water in lakes where they swim. Quebecers are most concerned (90%), followed by Ontarians and Maritimers (both 88%). Most Canadians (63%) believe that the quality of their swimming lakes is getting worse. 4. Canadians don’t know what they pay for water. According to the study, six in 10 admit they do not know how much their household currently pays for water. However, seven in 10 believe that the unknown price is high enough to ensure water is treated as a valuable resource. “Water is a real bargain in Canada, which is another reason Canadians have no concept of its value,” says Sandford. “Compared to other developed nations, Canadians pay very little to have water delivered to their homes. In France, water costs four times more, and in Germany, almost seven times more. Not surprisingly, average daily domestic water use in these countries is less than half of what it is in Canada. Until Canadians make the connection between personal use of water and its true value, our water wasting habits will continue.” For more information, visit www.rbc.com/bluewater
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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BC port balances economic growth with environmental concerns By Daniel Wilson
he Deltaport Third Berth Project (DP3) at the Deltaport container terminal at Roberts Bank, British Columbia, was opened last year by government officials and port industry leaders. The $400-million expansion project was designed to increase the terminal’s capacity from 1.2 million to 1.8 million “twenty-foot equivalent units” (TEUs) by adding a new berth, three quad gantry cranes, 20 hectares of container storage and additional facilities. A TEU is a measure of container volumes based on a standard container 20 feet in length. However, the fragile ecosystem of the Roberts Bank meant that DP3 needed to be particularly sensitive to aquatic and terrestrial vegetation and wildlife. Opened in 1997 and located 40 km south of Vancouver’s inner harbour, Deltaport is currently the largest container terminal in Canada and a central part of the Port of Vancouver, which ranks number one among North American ports in total foreign exports. Together with other Port of Vancouver sites, Deltaport handles $43 billion in cargo annually, with 90 trading economies around the world, including many in Asia. Maritime business forecasts indicate that container volumes will double over the next 15 years. 12 | March 2011
When viewed from a broad perspective, the DP3 project is about regional economic development and job creation. It created about 640 person-years of employment during construction and will add another 356 new jobs as the terminal utilizes the additional capacity created by the new berth. Environmental protection Stringent environmental monitoring is
integral to the DP3 project. The area contains critical watersheds and fragile ecosystems essential to the salmon run and the region’s entire economy. Deltaport is an intermodal site covering more than 65 hectares of mostly impervious surface, filled with constantly moving trucks, trains and heavy equipment. Hazardous materials are among the wide variety of cargo it handles, with the potential
Deltaport installed 14 Stormceptor stormwater treatment systems, in addition to the original 43 such units installed during Stage 1 development in 1996. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Cover Story for spills of plastics and numerous chemicals, not to mention hydrocarbon runoff during rainstorms and daily cleaning. Central to its environmental planning, Deltaport installed 14 Stormceptor stormwater treatment systems, in addition to the original 43 such units installed during Stage 1 development in 1996. The Stormceptor’s patented stormwater treatment systems capture and retain stormwater sediment and pollutant loads such as metals, nutrients and hydrocarbons. Its design allows it to trap hydrocarbons in rainwater runoff, as well as oil and chemical spills. In Phase 1, Deltaport’s engineers installed groups of smaller Stormceptor units working in tandem, rather than one or two large end-of-pipe units. This has proven to be the best solution for the site conditions. With less drainage area to handle, and less dilution, concentrations of pollutants are the highest at the immediate sources, and the tandem systems achieve optimum removal capacity. The DP3 project also installed Stormceptor units in tandem. Port officials needed to have systems in place to trap and completely contain unexpected spills from shipping containers or vehicles, so infiltration was not a preferred option. In coastal development projects, the operative term is “designing for the ultimate contingency”. Deltaport has worked to maintain good relations with environmental activists, First Nations and community leaders in the region, through the use of public outreach and detailed reporting. They retained independent professionals to provide environmental monitoring services throughout all stages of construction. The Deltaport Third Berth Project Community Liaison Committee was formed approximately four years ago to work with Port Metro Vancouver and port industry leaders to identify community concerns and recommend sensible solutions. Other North American ports have followed Vancouver’s example regarding the importance of “giving back” to their regions, and entering into serious dialogue and consultation with local leaders. Sustainable development was always a primary goal for the DP3 project. Port Metro Vancouver worked hard to create a win-win situation, so the natural environment and the port community could www.esemag.com
thrive. Nearly $25 million was invested to implement a comprehensive fish and wildlife habitat plan. Artificial reefs and habitat benches were created for divers and marine habitat, so that all could enjoy the more than 70 species of fish that live in the waters around DP3. Port Metro Vancouver developed an innovative research and science-based approach to monitoring and managing the Roberts Bank ecosystem. This allows for early detection of changes in the
ecosystem, so that potential negative trends caused by the DP3 project can be prevented or mitigated. So far, with more than three years of data collected, there have been no negative impacts attributable to DP3. Daniel Wilson is with Imbrium Systems Corp. E-mail: email@example.com. Photos courtesy Dave Malm, Langley Concrete.
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Why water meter approvals and standards need to be simplified By Gordon B. Moffatt
ith new metering products coming on the market in a virtual torrent these days, how do utilities ensure that what they are purchasing is acceptable for public health concerns, regulatory issues and the performance needs of the water system? Is the product “approved” or “compliant” with standards? Which standards are relevant? Are any standards/specifications mandatory? Will today’s purchase meet tomorrow’s regulations? New products, new materials, NSF61 requirements, and even vendor marketing tactics contribute to the general confusion. The guiding factors in the buying decision should be: 1. Does the product meet the local and/or federal health and safety requirements? 2. Does the product meet the needs of the utility in terms of accuracy, revenue generation, functionality and longevity? 3. Will it perform to the vendor’s specifications and has any approval organization actually tested and certified this (can the claims be verified)? There is a wide selection of existing standards and approvals in the waterworks industry, and Measurement Canada will soon introduce a set of mandatory approvals for all revenue meters in Canada. This makes it all the more relevant to know what you are buying today. American Water Works Association In North America, the default standard for water meters has traditionally been the American Water Works Association (AWWA) C700 series. This set of standards has helped bring relative uniformity to the North American industry by standardizing factors such as residential meter laying lengths, material and piping connection standards, minimum accuracy performance, and factory testing requirements. The standards are developed by a group consisting of utility personnel and not more than 30% meter manufacturers. This ensures that utilities have the 14 | March 2011
Typical small meter test bench certified to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) standards.
Typical large meter test bench certified to NIST standards.
strongest influence, while recognizing the capabilities of the manufacturing industry. AWWA also publishes a document called the AWWA M6 Manual. This doc-
ument has been the best waterworks market guideline, as it lists the minimum accuracy requirements and test flow rates “recommended” by AWWA. It also pro-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Water Metering vides details on how to test and repair meters, set up a meter shop, and a great deal of other excellent information. (AWWA C705 preceded this document but was replaced in the mid-1980s.) However, AWWA does not actually perform tests on, or grant approvals to, any product. It does not require that manufacturers submit meters for any testing. If a vendor states that a product meets the C700 standard, the onus is on the utility to confirm the claims. This point is made in the M6 Manual’s foreword: “The manual discusses recommended practices; it is not an AWWA standard calling for compliance with certain specifications.” Although AWWA is not an approval organization, the M6 Manual and AWWA standards still continue to provide a very strong “best practices” guide to the waterworks industry. International Organization of Legal Metrology For much of the rest of the world, the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) is the industry standard. It produces a series of documents under the heading R49, called Water Me-
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ters Intended for the Metering of Cold Potable Water. These documents lay out the actual metrological and technical requirements of the meter, and cover all aspects of the metering process. For example, R49-1 clearly sets down the metrological and technical requirements for water meters. R49-2 contains over 40 pages of test methods. Rather than set a universal standard (as AWWA does), OIML sets a parameter of performances within which an acceptable meter must operate. There is a minimum accuracy standard, but also varying levels above this. Manufacturers can then determine which level of accuracy their meter will meet. OIML allows for 1%, 2%, 3% or even 5% error, depending on the accuracy class the manufacturer has selected. These values are seen in some specification sheets as Q values and relate to ratios between minimum, low and high flow rates. OIML is a globally recognized international organization, so local regulatory bodies (such as Measurement Canada, British Weights/Measures, Australian National Measurement Institute, etc.) use
these standards to conduct all the extensive tests to certify the meter. The guarantee of metrological operation of the meter is the knowledge that the local regulatory body has actually conducted all the tests against the OIML recommendations, or is using MRA/MAA (mutual recognition/acceptance agreements) with other countries that have already adopted OIML. In other words, every meter is tested against the OIML recommendations. The equipment and methods used to test meters are also subject to stringent rules and an approval process. Test benches, for example, are usually required to be certified and traceable to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) criteria. It is important to note there is a difference between “built to OIML standards” and approved (or accredited) to OIML recommendations. As with AWWA, any manufacturer can say its meters are built to the OIML standards, but unless they are actually submitted and tested by the local regulatory authority, they are not accredited. continued overleaf...
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Water Metering International Standards Organization The International Standards Organization (ISO) is similar to OIML. This organization covers a wide range of â&#x20AC;&#x153;standardsâ&#x20AC;? ranging from meter performance to quality processes to electrical standards. ISO 9000 series standards for quality and ISO 1400 environmental standards are well known. Within the flow measurement group of standards is the ISO 4064 document, which often appears on European specification sheets. Meter accuracies within this standard are grouped into four main classes, each with a higher demand. They are rated Class A through D, with D having the most stringent accuracy demands. Like OIML they allow for different tolerances for different products, and manufacturers can pick which class they want their meter tested and approved to. Of note, the standard AWWA accuracy performance requirements (M6 Manual) fall somewhere between Class B and Class C. Some countries demand all meters meet Class D requirements, hence AWWAcompliant meters would not be accept-
able in those countries. As with OIML, these standards are often adopted by the local regulatory authority, so the ISO label assures the buyer that accuracy tests have been conducted by a government-approved agency.
An ISO label assures the buyer that accuracy tests have been conducted by a government-approved agency.
Measurement Canada Measurement Canada (MC) has been the â&#x20AC;&#x153;watchdogâ&#x20AC;? of the electric and gas meter industry for many years, and is currently developing a set of standards for
water meters. MC has already stated that meters that are in compliance with OIML R49-1 will be legal for trade in Canada. However, MC also recognizes that North American meter practices and waterworks infrastructure are not the same as they are in Europe, Australia or other countries with regulatory processes. Using the existing AWWA standards as a guideline, MC will amend the Weights and Measures Regulations to include technical and performance requirements for the type approval testing of customer billing water meters (nominal sizes up to and including 200 mm). In effect, it is expected that MC will accept meters that have been subjected to type approval testing in accordance with OIML R49-2, or with a new water meter section that will be introduced in the amended Weights and Measures Regulations. The important thing to remember here is that all customer billing meters (nominal sizes up to and including 200 mm) will have to meet the MC standards. This will involve submitting the product for type approval testing (i.e., does the range
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Water Metering of products meet the specification for that type of meter?). MCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intention in the long term is to require that every meter used for customer billing be tested individually (initial inspection) to the MC criteria. Tests may be allowed at the manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s place of business, or done by an outside source. But all test facilities and procedures must also be accredited by MC. After this test, the meter is sealed to prevent tampering and this seal cannot be broken, or removed, until the meter is taken out of service. No meter will be installed without this seal, signifying the product is MC-approved and has passed an initial inspection by an MC-accredited organization. MC will assign a seal period for a particular type and size of meter, and, at the end of this period, a sampling (percentage yet to be determined) of the meters will be removed and re-tested (re-verification inspection). If there are sufficient â&#x20AC;&#x153;passâ&#x20AC;? results, the seal period on the remaining meters in service may be extended. If the â&#x20AC;&#x153;failâ&#x20AC;? rate of this sampling is too high, all meters of that sealing lot must be removed and replaced with acceptable products. MCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mandate is to protect the end user and ensure equality and fairness to all. The initial timetable for implementing the requirement for type approval testing was planned for around 2010, but it is now expected this will take place sometime within the next two or three years. The implementation of a type approval requirement will require a regulatory amendment to the Weights and Measures Regulations. The MC requirement for the initial inspection and re-verification inspections of customer billing water meters will follow the implementation of type approval requirements. This will be phased in over a long period of time and in consultation with water industry stakeholders. National Sanitary Foundation Published by the National Sanitary Foundation, NSF61 is the most commonly quoted health and safety standard relating to water meters. It covers specific materials that come into contact with drinking water, drinking water treatment chemicals, or both. The actual standard is extremely complex. Simply put, the key concern currently is lead content in tradiwww.esemag.com
tional bronze/brass waterworks, and the possibility of lead leaching into the drinking water system. NSF61 was born of an environmental/health and safety issue raised in the late 1990s in California. All bronze/brassbased products, and meter manufacturers reacted by developing products made from materials with lower lead content. Lead was removed and materials such as selenium and bismuth were added, to create new alloys like â&#x20AC;&#x153;Envirobrass.â&#x20AC;?
This standard has been undergoing rapid changes, as it becomes increasingly stringent and lowers lead-content levels. The requirements of NSF61 will become more stringent in 2012. At some point in the near future, the requirement will be for absolutely zero lead content in water meters. This raises the interesting point that most meter companies offer NSF61compliant (certified) products. But decontinued overleaf...
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Water Metering spite the use of words such as “lead free” or “no lead,” lead does exist in the body if it is made of bronze or brass alloy. NSF and the American Safe Drinking Water Act both allow “lead free” or “no lead” terminology to be used if the content is below certain thresholds. A good analogy would be common “no fat” yogurt, which actually contains some fat. Canadian Standards Association and Boiler Approvals Both Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and Boiler Approvals are very seldom seen in the waterworks industry. However, with the expanding use of electronic water meters, some local municipality by-laws may dictate that meters should be CSA-approved, if they are connected to a local 110V service. Factory Mutual and Underwriters Laboratories Factory Mutual (FM) and Underwriters Laboratories (UL) standards have traditionally been related to electrical concerns, like CSA, with one big exception: the use of water meters in fire service applications. The concern is the maintenance of full flow during a “del-
18 | March 2011
uge” fire event. The meter must be capable of withstanding the maximum amount of water, while also ensuring there will be no blockages due to any particulate matter or detritus that could be dislodged upstream. The meter must also withstand pressure and temperature extremes. The overriding concern is that water must flow as freely as possible at maximum flow rates. However, some utilities also want to ensure that the meter measures accurately during a fire, so AWWA developed the C703 standard. The caveat here is to make sure a manufacturer’s claim to FM (or UL) approval is under “fire service use,” not some other category. The FM or UL sticker must be applicable to the category and can only be applied following approval by the relevant organization. Overview Buyers should take the time to review standards in detail and then ask the manufacturer some pertinent questions related to the product. MC-approved meters will be mandatory for revenue billing products. This, or OIML approvals, will ensure that the products will address
Questions 2 and 3 noted at the beginning of this article. AWWA standards will become less important, but, of course, the buyer can also specify AWWA compliance to maintain the excellent best practices within AWWA. Question 1 will be a little trickier to answer, and each utility will have to do some research on local regulations and probably make some political decisions to determine how to proceed. For example, does the installation of NSF-certified water meters automatically mean that all appurtenances within the water distribution system should be immediately changed? Will Health Canada get involved? Could there be some “grandfathering” of older materials? The best answer is for the utility to do its homework to cover any potential liability issues. Gordon B. Moffatt is with Elster Metering. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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New wastewater aeration system improves oxygenation efficiency By Jack Schneider
onventional methods of oxygenation of water, such as propellers, sprayers and fountains, are energy-intensive because oxygen is only sparingly soluble in water. The solubility of atmospheric oxygen in water ranges from about 15 ppm (mg/l) at 0ºC to about 7 ppm at 35ºC under 1 atmosphere of pressure and 0 salts. Most of the critical conditions related to dissolved oxygen deficiency in biological operations, including bioremediation, occur during the summer months when temperatures are higher and solubility of oxygen is at a minimum. For this reason, it is customary to think of dissolved oxygen levels of about 6 to 8 ppm as the maximum available under critical conditions. Because of this low solubility, there is very little “driving force.” In order to accomplish any mass transfer in a reasonable time, energy is expended to create interfacial surface area. Fine bubble diffusers or chemical
SAR 250 gpm aerator at a compost facility.
oxygen production compounds release oxygen in the form of bubbles, usually in the range of 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Supplying oxygen to suspended wastewater biomass is the largest single energy consumer in an activated sludge treatment facility. Recent studies indicate that the aeration systems used currently account for 50–90% of the total power demand. Along with the escaped oxygen and air
are the noxious odours and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that often require scrubbing, at further energy cost. In any biological treatment process, the limited solubility of oxygen is of great importance, because it governs the rate at which oxygen will be absorbed by the medium and, therefore, the cost of oxygenation. Applying Henry’s Law The SAR Air Reactor (patent pend-
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Wastewater Treatment ing), developed by HPM Environmental Ltd., addresses the inherent problems of oxygen absorption in liquids. By using low-energy sump pumps and blowers to bring the liquid into contact with air in the reactor in a centrifugal field, the reactor can accomplish up to 130% oxygen saturation in a single pass. The â&#x20AC;&#x153;driving forceâ&#x20AC;? is optimized by using Henryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Law. This G-factor exerts pressure on the gas bubbles as they emerge into the liquid phase, increasing the solubility of the gas in the surrounding liquid. The second condition is â&#x20AC;&#x153;interfacial surface.â&#x20AC;? Most existing systems produce bubbles referred to as â&#x20AC;&#x153;small,â&#x20AC;? 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 mm in diameter. The SAR Air Reactor produces micron-size bubbles, creating maximum bubble surface for O2 absorption. It accomplishes all this at low liquid and air pressures, using low-energy input cyclonic action as the â&#x20AC;&#x153;driving forceâ&#x20AC;? to optimize maximum absorption. The components of the reactor that facilitate the â&#x20AC;&#x153;mass transferâ&#x20AC;? are: â&#x20AC;˘ high turbulence of the swirling liquid; â&#x20AC;˘ directed flow of the liquid and gas interface; â&#x20AC;˘ controlled pressure inside the reactor; â&#x20AC;˘ optimum flow velocity generating
centrifugal forces within a specific range, thereby extending diffusion rate within the reactor; â&#x20AC;˘ very small pores through which gas permeates into the liquid phase; â&#x20AC;˘ a controlled interfacial ratio between liquid and gas, preventing the liquid from becoming a froth. This last factor is not to be overlooked, as extensive froth (bubbles beside bubbles) is undesirable. Rather, what is needed is a mass of bubbles, with water filling the voids between them to facilitate oxygen transfer. The SAR Air Reactor uses lowerhorsepower sump motors and blowers than conventional aerators, so power requirements are 50â&#x20AC;&#x201C;90% less. The SAR system pumps water from the bottom of the tank and aerates it on the surface using economical blowers. This allows for deeper tanks, using less surface area. The SAR sump pump draws water from the deepest and furthest position away from the reactor. The water is then aerated and dumped back to the pond or lagoon, ensuring the least aerated water is treated. This water then migrates back toward the sump pump, creating constant movement in the tank or lagoon.
As the oxygenated liquid is discharged on the surface, a thin layer of froth and oxygen-saturated water remains on the surface. Any VOCs emerging from the liquid below are absorbed or re-entrained into the pond or lagoon, eliminating odours. The SAR reactors are being used for industrial, agricultural and simple water quality enhancement activities. Recent independent testing at the City of Edmontonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Centre of Excellence Municipal Wastewater Centre has confirmed the application for municipal wastewater treatment. One application of SAR aeration was for wastewater from a brewery in Ontario. The water released to sewerage had to be less than 310 ppm BOD. Since most of the wastewater was from cleaning floors and bottles, BOD levels were in the range of 5,000â&#x20AC;&#x201C;8,000 ppm. Using batch treatment and bacterial addition, these were brought down to acceptable discharge levels, after as little as three days of treatment. Jack Schneider is with HPM Ltd. E-mail: email@example.com
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Effluent grease – a 21st century recyclable product By William Batten and Owen George
he past 40 years have seen a rapid rise in the restaurant industry. The proliferation of restaurants has brought convenience and has enriched lives with a vast array of dining options. However, it has also created a serious problem: sewer line clogs caused by grease. Ten years ago, the Wall Street Journal reported that “75 % of the sewer systems in the United States work at only half capacity because of grease clogs … local governments spend $25 billion per year to keep the sewers running.” The culprit is known as FOG (fat, oil and grease) or “brown grease”. This is a mixture of vegetable oils, animal fats and other substances, such as soaps or cleaning solutions, found in a restaurant’s wastewater stream. Entering a municipal sewer system, these substances solidify into thick layers that eventually clog pipes, much in the same way that a highcholesterol diet can clog human arteries. The result is costly excavation and repair costs, increased load at wastewater treatment facilities, and environmental damage from sewer overflows. As many foodservice facility managers know, grease build-up within a building’s plumbing drainage system is also a major cause of sanitation problems. Effluent grease jeopardizes normal operations and may create health and safety hazards within the facility. Increasingly, sewer districts around the world are implementing programs involving financial penalties to make commercial kitchen operators conform to community standards. The use of specific types of grease separators is being mandated, and documented servicing is being enforced. One of the greatest challenges in the development of an effective municipal FOG program comes from the fact that existing restaurants often have difficulty retrofitting grease separators because of space, plumbing complexity and construction costs. For example, the installation of a traditional 1,000-gallon in-ground gravity grease interceptor may require the excavation of a parking lot or other exterior 22 | March 2011
Automatic grease removal devices can remove up to 98.6% of the grease, oils, fats and incidental food solids from kitchen and food processing flows.
space. With a potential cost in the tens of thousands of dollars, this can be a huge penalty for restaurants operating in an already distressed economy. In dense urban areas, space constraints often eliminate the option of large external grease interceptors, regardless of the cost. Fortunately, with newer technologies, products are available that enable older facilities to meet community code standards economically. These new products fit into two categories: automatic grease removal units (AGRD), and compact supercapacity grease interceptors (CSGI). Automatic grease removal units AGRD units are specifically engineered for separating and removing freefloating (non-emulsified) grease and oils from kitchen drainwater flows. Most units are designed to fit beside pot-washing and dishwashing sinks to capture grease. These units are electrically powered and have a skimming and heating mechanism for daily removal of the cap-
tured fats and oils. For example, in a high-volume hamburger restaurant, the removal of 3 to 5 kg of grease by an AGRD, servicing the three-compartment pot-washing sink, is typical. Because it is removed daily, recovered grease is fresh, water-free and suitable for recycling into biodiesel, cosmetics and other products. The grease is kept out of the facility’s piping, reducing maintenance costs and preventing costly downstream blockages. AGRDs offer the simplest installation and lowest operation costs, with restaurant staff routinely emptying the grease container and solids strainer basket. Annual electricity cost is usually less than $25. AGRDs cost more than non-automatic grease traps, but pay for themselves in one to four years with lower maintenance and servicing costs. Additionally, many AGRDs such as the Big Dipper® feature sanitary stainless steel and polycontinued overleaf...
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Recycling mer construction, that can last three to four times longer than painted steel grease traps. AGRDs are particularly suited to servicing cooking appliances with very high grease effluent output, like wok ranges, rotisserie ovens and combi-ovens. A high-volume rotisserie oven may discharge 50 litres of water and chicken drippings in one day. Typically, this liquid is 70% fat, which means that 35 litres of pure fat can be profitably recovered, while also saving the facility’s and the city’s piping from congealed grease. In these applications, an AGRD may pay for itself in less than one year. In San Francisco, municipal authorities are encouraging the use of AGRDs as a component in an innovative “FOG to Fuel” program. Following years of research to develop a comprehensive FOG management and recycling program, the city recently started one of the world’s first large-scale brown grease recycling programs. Funded through a grant from the California Environmental Commission, the pilot project’s goal is to convert 10,000 gallons of brown grease per week into biodiesel and other fuels. The project is also intended to reduce the $3.5 million in damage caused by brown grease being improperly dumped into the city’s sewer system. Located at the Oceanside Water Pollution Plant, the pilot recycling facility recently began operation. “When fully operational, the goal is to produce 300 gallons a day of biodiesel,” said San Francisco Public Utility spokesperson Idil Bereket. Continued study of the project will determine whether it will serve as a model for other municipalities. Recently, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors approved a new FOG ordinance that provides incentives such as a 14.2% reduction in sewer charges, for restaurants that install AGRDs. Grease from the AGRDs will be collected at dropoff points located across the city and converted to biofuel at the Oceanside facility. Growing use of AGRDs More and more Canadian cities are establishing ordinances that require the installation of grease traps in restaurants and foodservice facilities. For example: • In Ottawa, AGRDs have been installed in the kitchens of federal buildings where food is prepared for legislators and par24 | March 2011
Supercapacity grease interceptors are designed to combine large grease storage capacity within a small footprint unit.
liament staff. The units were specified by engineers aware of the importance of protecting water infrastructure from the damaging effects of FOG. • In Toronto, upscale hotels such as the Four Seasons, that install AGRDs to protect internal plumbing and ensure efficient operation, are also setting the standard as good corporate citizens. • In Ontario’s Muskoka resort area, AGRDs have been installed in restaurants, hotels and retirement homes. Located in natural settings where municipal sewer hook-up is often unavailable, separating FOG from kitchen wastewater is crucial for protecting the establishment’s drain field. • In Northwest Territories mining camps, AGRDs protect onsite wastewater plants from the damaging effects of FOG. Installing the units has led to a 70% reduction of FOG entering the plants. Although numerous Canadian municipalities have FOG ordinances in place, few currently have a proactive policy to monitor restaurants for compliance. However, government officials in Montreal and other Canadian cities acknowledge that enforcement of local FOG ordinances is a growing priority. Compact supercapacity grease interceptors Many restaurant sites have trench and other floor drain receptacles receiving flows from tilt kettles and other greasedischarging appliances. There are other sites that do not generate much grease, such as ice cream shops, downtown grills and sandwich shops, but are required to
have high-capacity grease separators to protect the city’s sewer piping. With available space being a serious constraint, CSGIs are increasingly being installed in these sites. Units such as the Trapzilla® feature corrosion-resistant polymer construction. They are small enough to be carried through a commercial-width doorway, but large enough to hold 150 to 275 kg of retained grease. These separators have evolved into product lines having solid separator modules, with engineered designs that can be mounted between floors, and site-adaptable extension collars. Dave Rockwell of Rockwell Supplies in Halifax, who has overseen the installation of numerous CSGIs in restaurants across the Atlantic provinces, notes a growing trend in their use. “In older cities such as Bedford and Dartmouth, the original grease trap is often rusted and leaking and the restaurant owner tells us to go ahead and replace it,” said Rockwell. Increasing demand for used restaurant oil for recycling can provide a bonus for restaurants that install efficient CSGIs. Innovative new companies such as Quebec’s East Coast Bio-Lubricants, Inc. are converting used restaurant grease into “eco-friendly” alternatives to traditional petroleum-based two-cycle oils and lubricants. The forestry industry on Cape Breton Island has been using two barrels a month of Bio-Lube chain saw lubricant. Increasing consumer demand for “green” products, coupled with rising petroleum prices, provide yet another incentive for the separation of grease from kitchen wastewater. Recovered grease from one high-volume supermarket rotisserie oven may recover $7,500 per year in biodiesel-grade fats. The recovered grease from a high-volume hamburger restaurant’s pot washing sink may be worth $750 a year, as well as $1,200 a year by avoiding facility maintenance costs. With petroleum costs soaring above $100 per barrel and predicted to reach $200 in seven years, capturing effluent grease becomes a profitable enterprise. William Batten is with Thermaco Inc. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org. Owen George is with Owen George Global Strategies Inc. E-mail:email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Canada’s drinking water quality guidelines are updated By Dianne Saxe and Jackie Campbell
n late December, Health Canada released its Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality, prepared by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water (CDW). The new guidelines supersede the 1996 edition, as well as more recent updates, with respect to different contaminants or parameters. While only the summary document is available on-line, it provides an excellent overview of developments in drinking water protection over the past 15 years, and acts as a helpful review to remind us how changes to the guidelines are made. Highlights of the 2010 guidelines The 2010 summary highlights some parameters for which guidelines have been issued, or revised, since the 1996 edition. For example, acceptable turbidity
values are now provided according to the type of filtration system used (as opposed to a single figure used in the earlier Guideline). More stringent maximum acceptable concentrations (MAC) have been introduced for some parameters, including arsenic, uranium and some radioactive isotopes. The MAC for trichloroethylene, a solvent used mainly in metal degreasing operations, was lowered by a factor of 10 in 2005. This was based on extensive scientific review of the risk of cancer and adverse reproductive effects. As well, where no guideline values existed in 1996 for some parameters, these are now in place, e.g., for antimony, bromate, chlorate, chlorite, and haloacetic acids. Following a systematic review of older guidelines, the updated document reaf-
firms the current guidelines for more than 40 parameters, such as several chemicals, taste and temperature. It archives older guidelines for parameters that are no longer found in our drinking water at concentrations of concern to human health (e.g., certain pesticides that are no longer used in Canada). Guidelines, technical documents, guidance documents The CDW establishes formal guidelines only for contaminants that meet three criteria, namely where • exposure to the contaminant could adversely affect health; • the contaminant is likely found in a "large number" of drinking water supplies across the country; and • it is or could be expected to be detected at a level that is possibly
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Water Treatment significant to health. Where a contaminant does not meet all three criteria, the CDW may elect not to set a formal numerical guideline, or develop the Guideline Technical Document (GTD), which sets out supporting scientific and technical documentation for each parameter. However, the CDW may develop a Guidance Document for contaminants or specific issues that do not meet these criteria, and has done so in several instances. Such documents provide operational or management guidance relating to specific issues. For example, issuing boil water advisories, controlling corrosion in distribution systems, or setting out risk assessment information. These documents are intended to be used by drinking water authorities for information about contaminants, and to provide guidance in case of spills or other emergencies. The process for Guidance Documents includes public consultations, as is the case for GTDs. How are guidelines established? Consultation documents are first published on Health Canada's website for pub-
lic comment. At the time of writing, the only current consultation posted is a proposed GTD for certain enteric protozoa, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The document provides a comprehensive review of the health risks associated with exposure to these pathogens, evaluates recent studies, and suggests approaches to reducing concentrations of these pathogens in drinking water, and the acceptable level of risk. Following a review of comments received during consultation, the CDW will establish a Drinking Water Guideline for these parameters, if required. Several Guideline Technical Documents that should soon be posted for public comment are listed in the guideline summary. These include ammonia (which currently has no numerical guidelines), as well as other parameters for which MACs were established as far back as 1986, and require review: carbon tetrachloride, chromium, fluoride, turbidity and vinyl chloride. Summary These health-based guidelines have been developed for several chemicals (including by-products of disinfection),
micro-organisms and physical substances found in Canadian drinking water supplies. As well, the guidelines consider aesthetic effects (e.g., taste, odour and colour) and treatment processes/technologies. For example, water turbidity can interfere with chlorination, while pipe corrosion affects drinking water infrastructure. Provinces and territories may adopt some or all of these guidelines, either as guidance documents or by regulation as enforceable drinking water standards. In Ontario, for example, the drinking water quality standard for arsenic is 0.025 mg/L. In 2007, the province noted that it would review this standard, citing the more stringent Health Canada guidelines, which had in 2006 adopted a standard of 0.01 mg/L. Ontario's arsenic standard did not change. On the other hand, Nova Scotia adopted the federal guidelines (as these are amended from time to time) as binding standards in 2000. For more information, E-mail: email@example.com
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Using fabric structures for wastewater plant upgrades By Jaime Gleba
Many fabric buildings feature white covers which allow daylight to filter through.
ith regulations becoming increasingly stringent and budgets continuing to shrink, wastewater treatment facilities are looking for innovative solutions for physical plant upgrades. In order to reduce processing costs and cut down on odour complaints, many treatment plant operators are choosing tension fabric buildings. Tension fabric buildings, or fabric structures, are a unique and economical method for covering clarifier tanks, providing thermal protection and odour control. When treatment plant operators choose fabric buildings, not only can they benefit from improving community relations through odour control, but they also save on energy costs. Many fabric buildings feature white covers which allow daylight to filter through. This feature re28 | March 2011
duces or eliminates the need for daytime artificial lighting. The fabric covers of these structures also have a temperature-stabilizing effect on the interior, keeping temperatures 10°F to 15°F warmer in the winter. During frigid months, this can help keep substances in the tanks from freezing. One wastewater treatment facility needed to replace a fiberglass enclosure that housed a clarifier tank. The existing enclosure had structural faults and the manufacturer that built the structure was no longer in existence. Other fiberglass structure manufacturers did not provide the type of enclosure that the wastewater treatment facility required. After researching and comparing other enclosure options, the facility chose a fabric structure, a 75’ wide by 70’ long ClearSpan Hercules Truss Arch Building.
One of the most important aspects when choosing a new structure for plant facilities is whether it will be a lasting solution. For this facility, the structure had to be durable enough to withstand the high amount of snow that falls during the area’s winters. Fabric structures can be custom designed to the wind and snow load regulations of a specific location. In this instance, ClearSpan in-house engineers designed this structure to a snow load of 90 lb. per square foot. Materials used to construct a fabric building are suitable for corrosive environments, such as those encountered at wastewater treatment plants. Frames are usually constructed from galvanized steel and the covers are manufactured from durable polyethylene fabric. These materials will resist rust, corrosion and rotting, and require minimal maintenance.
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Wastewater Treatment A key advantage for using fabric buildings as clarifier tank covers is their design. These structures have high clearances, which provide ample height for catwalk systems to be installed across their middle. Included in the design of the structure was a door on each end of the catwalk for easy access to the tank. Controlling sludge disposal costs Another application for fabric structures is covering dewatered sludge beds. Many wastewater facilities store dewatered sludge on storage pads, exposed to the elements, until there is a large enough amount for disposal or shipping to area farms for use as fertilizer. One village in particular has two activated sludge wastewater treatment plants, where sludge is processed and dewatered. Without any covered storage space, sludge was stored in beds that were exposed to the elements. The village was being charged by the cubic yard for sludge disposal. By storing it without a cover, the sludge would get rained on, increase in mass and become more expensive to dispose of. To reduce costs, the village began to look into possible solutions for covering the sludge beds. They already had a wooden structure with a metal roof at one treatment plant, and the structure chosen came in at less than a third of what the existing structure cost. By installing a 77â&#x20AC;&#x2122; wide by 96â&#x20AC;&#x2122; long fabric building, this plant can now store up to 13,000 cubic yards of sludge under cover.
To reduce costs, the village began to look into possible solutions for covering the sludge beds. With a large, covered storage structure for their dewatered sludge, the village no longer has to be concerned that precipitation will increase disposal costs. One of the major deciding factors in choosing the ClearSpan fabric building for this purpose was its durability. The fact that the building could be engineered to specific snow and wind loads was important. It proved that this wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t going to be just a temporary solution. With the high clearance of this structure and no interior support poles, dump trucks can load the dewatered sludge. The clearspan design of tension fabric structures also means that equipment can maneuver inside with ease. This means removal times are quicker, which is another cost-saving. Fabric buildings are rising in popularity in many industries and for many applications. Many find that tension fabric structures are generally low in cost per square foot, for a smaller initial investment over more traditional structures. These structures also allow users to save on construction costs, because installation timelines are often shorter than a week. Since fabric buildings have minimal foundation requirements, costly concrete foundations are not necessary. Jaime Gleba is with ClearSpan Fabric Structures. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Handling wastewater and stormwater surges near Mexico City By James Tulk
fficials at Mexico’s National Water Commission, the state agency responsible for water and wastewater management, have faced serious challenges in the Mexico City region. The combination of skyrocketing population and rapid urbanization has meant a substantial increase in the demand for water. This demand has been largely met by a growing system of wells drilled into the soft aquifer underlying the region. Unfortunately, this intense exploitation of groundwater has sharply lowered the water table and caused alarming rates of soil subsidence — up to 40 cm/year in some locations. Meanwhile, there has
been a corresponding rise in the amount of wastewater that has to be handled, along with a significant increase in stormwater surges during the region’s rainy season, thanks to deforestation and the spread of urban “hardscape.” This combination of circumstances has had a devastating impact on the region’s wastewater and stormwater management facilities. Not only are there substantially greater volumes of wastewater and stormwater to deal with, but the rate of soil subsidence has been so drastic that some of the rivers, drainage ditches and sewer lines no longer run downhill steeply enough to enable these facilities to efficiently handle rainy-season stormwater.
Flooding in Mexico’s Chalco Basin following breach of a canal carrying a mix of stormwater and wastewater.
The result has been a series of floods, including a spectacular incident in February 2010, when the bank of Rio de la Campañia canal was breached, flooding a major intercity highway and adjacent neighbourhood in the Chaco valley with a mixture of untreated wastewater and stormwater. Infrastructure upgrades To avoid further disastrous flooding, the authorities have launched major upgrades to the wastewater infrastructure in the municipalities of Chalco, Valle de Chalco and Ixtapaluca. The centerpiece of these upgrades is a tunnel, 6.7 km long and 5 m in diameter, designed to divert water away from an overloaded section of the Rio de la Campañia canal. This tunnel, which was built between 2007 and 2009, is designed to collect water from low-lying areas and transfer it downstream to a part of the canal that is better able to handle high-volume flows. At the lower end of this tunnel, a large pumping station has been built to raise the water approximately 30 m to the point where it discharges into the water transport canal. This station, called La Caldera for the neighbourhood where it is located, features two large cylindrical wells, 20 m in diameter and 36 m deep. The station is equipped with 24 huge submersible pumps and has a total capacity of 40 m3/sec. The pumping station project had
Construction of two wells at the La Caldera site. 30 | March 2011
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Stormwater an estimated cost of $25.6 million (US). The pumps for the new system were supplied by KSB. Sixteen of them (eight for each of the plant’s two wells) are rated at 2 m3/sec. Powered by 912-hp motors, these are some of the largest and most powerful submersible pumps currently available. Another eight smaller pumps (four per well, with a capacity of 1 m3/sec each) provide system operators with flexibility in matching pumping capacity to flow requirements, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Refining the design The pump manufacturer also supported the project by optimizing the layout of pumps and flow-control structures at the bottom of the pumping station wells. This was accomplished with a combination of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis and model testing in a fluid dynamics laboratory. The La Caldera pumping station is designed to handle a wide range of flow conditions. During the dry season, flow volumes will typically be in the range of 2–4 m3/sec. Under these conditions, inflows will be limited to a relatively small antechamber region of the well, where the lower-capacity pumps are located. The number of pumps in operation at any time will depend on the amount of water entering the system.
KSB KRT-K high-capacity submersible pump.
Mexican President Felipe Calderon addresses attendees at the official opening of the La Caldera pumping station. (Photo courtesy Federal Government of Mexico)
The design objective for low-volume conditions was to ensure that flow velocities remain high enough that solid particles in the stream will remain suspended, and to minimize the build-up of sediment in the bottom of the well. CFD analysis was used to optimize the shape of the antechamber and the location of the pumps in order to achieve this objective. During periods of higher flows, such as after a heavy rainstorm, the level in the well will rise. Water will flow over the walls of the antechamber and into the main part of the well. At this point, the larger pumps will take on the task of lifting the increased volumes of water. Here again, CFD analysis was used to design flow-control structures that would both minimize violent vortex currents and eliminate pockets of stagnant flow, that could lead to sediment build-up. CFD analysis was used to examine flow patterns for several alternative control-structure configurations and pump layouts. The effect of having different pumps operating was also studied in order to optimize operating procedures. Once suitable designs had been established, KSB constructed a scale model of the well and pump assembly and tested it in their fluid dynamics laboratory. This model featured a scale replica of the flow-control structures, built from clear acrylic plastic, with a number of
suction tubes that simulated the pump intakes. Scale model tests duplicated the operating conditions examined in the CFD analysis and were used to confirm the results of the computer simulation. The combination of computer analysis and model testing enabled the engineers to refine the design and ensure that the final flow-control structure and pump configuration would meet design requirements. KSB also took measures to ensure that the first stage of the pumping station would be online before the onset of the 2010 rainy season. “The big KRT-K pumps weigh over 10,000 kg each and would normally be shipped by sea,” says Mike Blundell, head of KSB’s Canadian subsidiary. “However, because of the very tight timelines for this project, we elected to air-lift the pumps from the factory in Halle, Germany, to Mexico City, in a huge Antonov cargo plane chartered specially for the task.” The first stage of the system (50% of final capacity) was placed in service during the summer of 2010. This upgraded drainage capacity is expected to substantially reduce the risk of flooding in the Chalco basin. James Tulk is a freelance journalist. For more information, E-mail: email@example.com March 2011 | 31
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Toxics Reduction Act aims to help Ontario companies compete globally By M. Philip Girard
ver the past few years, there have been many new federal, provincial and municipal environmental permitting, reporting regulations and initiatives. A large number of these environmental reporting initiatives seem to overlap by requesting the same release, waste and off-site transfer information. Some mandate reductions in neighbourhood impact from industry or emission reductions at source, while others are designed to try and facilitate land use compatibility and promote infilling. At the municipal level, the City of Toronto’s ChemTRAC bylaw and, arguably, the Town of Oakville’s Health Protection Air Quality Bylaw are designed to satisfy the public’s right to information. On a provincial level, the Government of Ontario enacted toxics reduction legislation. Its goal is to reduce or eliminate the use, or creation, of substances that may have a harmful effect on workers, the environment and the general public. In 2009, it passed the Toxics Reduction Act (the Act) in support of its Toxics Reduction Strategy. The strategy has three main goals: to manage and reduce the use and creation of toxic substances; inform residents about sources of toxic substances in their communities; and to help Ontario compete in an increasingly green global economy. In accordance with the Act and Ontario Regulation 455/09, virtually all Ontario manufacturers, as well as mining companies that use chemicals to extract ores, will be required to prepare a toxic substance reduction plan for each qualifying toxic substance. Each plan must document how the use and creation of the toxic substance can be reduced, or document and disclose why no such reduction can be implemented. Companies will be required to post their plan summary on-line, with some of the data made available to the public. Currently, the regulation identifies over 360 toxic substances. It identifies 47 Phase I priority toxics, to be reported as of 2011, with the remaining deemed Phase II toxics, reportable by 2013. These substances will be familiar to companies 32 | March 2011
that report to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI), and Ontario Regulation 127/01, since they are identical. The Toxics Reduction Act thresholds are aligned with the NPRI, so if a company currently reports, or should report to the NPRI, a toxics reduction plan will probably be required. At the very least, facilities must assess their obligations. If reporting and planning is not required, they should prepare due diligence documentation. The Act and Regulation are very prescriptive. For example, for each regulated toxic substance a company must develop process flow diagrams and records that show and describe how the substance moves through production and manufacturing. Companies must quantify how much of each substance is manufactured, processed, used, created, transformed, destroyed or released to air, water, waste, or recycling. They must explain why the substance is used or created and quantify all costs associated with the use or creation of the substance. Once they have completed process flow diagrams and toxic substance accounting records, they are required to identify at least one toxic substance reduction option for each of seven reduction techniques. If an option cannot be identified under each category, they must explain why not. The seven techniques are: • material or feedstock substitution • product design or reformulation • equipment or process modification • spill and leak prevention • on-site reuse and recycling • improved inventory management, or purchasing techniques • training or improved operating practices. Each option must be assessed for technical viability. Each viable option is then assessed for financial feasibility. Technical feasibility may be easy for some proposed changes, such as chemical substitution. Or, it may be very complex and require many months or years of product trials. Similarly, financial analysis may be a simple proposition where the
investment is small and payback quick, or it could be much more complex. Regardless of whether an option is selected, or eliminated on the basis of technical or financial feasibility, the decision to implement a toxic substance reduction measure will be decided by the company itself. Analysis must be documented in the plan, but does not have to be submitted to the government or public. However, the decision and rationale to implement a toxic substance use or reduction measure, or not, must be publicly disclosed. Preparation of a toxic reduction plan is mandatory, but implementation remains voluntary. It is anticipated that, if a facility determines that a toxic reduction option is technically and financially feasible, they will implement the measure because it makes good business sense. It will reduce a company’s toxic footprint, be good for its workers, consumers, and the general public. Based on experience in other jurisdictions, toxic reduction initiatives, properly implemented, have delivered economic and practical benefits. The Ontario’s Toxics Reduction Act is modeled after similar legislation in the United States, especially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts’ Toxic Use Reduction Act (TURA). While Massachusetts reductions have been impressive, they were implemented when pollution prevention was in its infancy. Since the 1990s, Ontario manufacturers have invested heavily in lean and clean manufacturing, and implemented various pollution prevention and ISO 14000 programs. They have made substantial gains because they needed to stay competitive in the global market and it was the right thing to do. It will be interesting to see a relative comparison between Massachusetts reductions in the early years of their TURA legislation and Ontario’s TRA legislation. Nonetheless, our findings indicate that opportunities still exist and net savings are still possible. Currently, Ontario Regulation 455/09 stipulates that a report must be prepared and submitted to the MOE by June 1, 2011, and the first Toxic Substance Re-
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Environmental Regulations duction Plan must be prepared by December 31, 2011. However, the government may delay the first plan deadline by one year. The first report deadline (June 1, 2011) will remain unchanged. (Note: the decision was expected as this article was going to press). If passed by the government, this postponement will provide industry with much needed time, since guidance materials on toxic materials accounting are just being released and formal training has not yet been developed. The MOE has proposed other legislative changes concerning toxic substance reduction, planner training, certification and enhanced planning. Currently, the legislation proposes that each plan must be certified by a licensed Toxic Reduction Planner, with closely prescribed qualifications. However, no training program has been developed. Consequently, in my opinion, there is insufficient time to properly train and license a sufficient number of planners to meet the original deadline. There is no doubt that these first plans will be used as templates for years to come and current baseline plans will be measuring sticks against which future toxic reductions will be rated. Therefore, it is critical to ensure that planners have proper training in toxic substance reduction techniques, to ensure they can competently facilitate the process. Proper training could mean the difference between cost savings, improved efficiency, enhanced bottom line performance and reduced toxics, or simply a reporting burden. If the proposed one year delay is passed, I would encourage companies to begin planning as soon as the first annual report is ready. The assessment of technical options required by the Act can be very time consuming. If you are close to the threshold reporting limits, you have less than one year to get under the limits. If the proposed one year delay is not passed, then you need to start right away. If you are unsure if this Act and regulation apply to your facility, then the first step is to conduct a National Pollutant Release Inventory and Toxic Reduction Act assessment, quickly! M. Philip Girard, P.Eng. is with Pinchin Environmental Ltd. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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An innovative approach to VOC groundwater sampling By Brian Chubb and Claudine Lee
t can be a challenge to gain acceptance of innovative sampling techniques using an emerging technology. In the late 1990s, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) developed a sampling technique for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater, that dramatically lowers sample collection costs, saves field time, and is more accurate at measuring VOCs at specific strata. USGS developed a low density polyethylene bag, as an alternative for low flowing sampling. The bags are available in different volumes (300ml, 500ml and 1000ml) and are between 12 and 24 inches long, with a diameter of 1.2 inches to fit into a 2” well. They are filled with VOC-free water (supplied by the laboratory) and are deployed into a well and held down by a weight. VOCs present in the groundwater will diffuse across the semi-permeable membrane and reach equilibrium with the water in the passive diffusion bags (PDB), based on the Laws of Diffusion and Fick’s Law. The bags are left in the well for a minimum of two weeks, with no documented maximum time. Studies have deployed them for up to one year with no reported bag degradation, or other negative effects. The technology relies on water flowing through the monitoring well, and has been reviewed by regulators and government agencies across the United States, and approved for use. Advantages of the PDB technique There are several advantages to the use of passive diffusion bags: • No well purging is required, saving hours of field technician time. • As no purge water is generated, disposal of contaminated groundwater is unnecessary. • No cross contamination and therefore no decontamination is needed. • Multiple bags can be hung in a well to capture concentrations representative of different strata. • Sediment interferences encountered during laboratory analysis with 34 | March 2011
No well purging is required, saving hours of field technician time. The bags are available in different volumes.
traditional purge and sample techniques are not a problem with PDBs. • Cost for the samplers is relatively inexpensive, at approximately $30/PDB. The Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Workgroup (ITRC) has done extensive field comparisons and has provided detailed sampling guidance for using PDBs. Although most VOCs are compatible with PDB Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Groundwater Sampling samplers, some water soluble compounds like acetone and methyl ethyl ketone have shown poor recovery. An ideal candidate site is impacted with chlorinated solvents and has many wells (i.e. > 10) that require routine monitoring. Maxxam Analytics partnered with Dillon Consulting Limited to evaluate the performance of PDBs at a site in Western Canada, impacted by a chlorinated solvent. The purpose of the study was to collect groundwater samples by both techniques, over multiple sampling events. Then, reproducibility of the PDB technique against the benchmark purge and sample approach was evaluated. A summary of some of the data that demonstrates the reproducibility of trichloroethylene (TCE) sampling with PDBs, as compared to the benchmark purge and sample method, is shown in Table 1. Samples were collected from a sand and gravel aquifer using 12 -1L PDB in a 2” well over three events (3 months). Regulator approval Maxxam approached the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) about the use of PDBs for site investigations in Ontario, including those that will end up in a Record of Site Condition. The MOE made reference to a specific provision for the use of innovative sampling approaches: Samples shall be collected from a monitoring well or equivalent professionally acceptable groundwater collection method – Ontario Regulation 511/09 Schedule E, Part III, Sec 9.1.1.
Date Sample ID Sample 1 – P&S
Event 1 Event 2 Event 3 TCE Concentration (ug/L) 7.8 10 6
Sample 1 - PDB RPD Sample 2 – P&S Sample 2- PDB
n/a 37 36
13 26.09 40 38
7.1 16.79 28 31
RPD Sample 3 – P&S Sample 3 – PDB RPD Sample 4- P&S
2.74 64 64 0 110 150
5.13 77 77 0 130
10.17 54 59 8.85
Sample 4 – PDB RPD Sample 5 – P&S Sample 5 - PDB RPD
130 16.67 140 190 30.30
170 12.5 180 240 28.57
150 14.29 150 210 33.33
n/a – sample was not collected this event using PDB. P&S – sample collected using benchmark purge and sample method. PDB – sample collected with a passive diffusion bag (PDB). RPD – Relative Percent Difference Table 1. Data showing reproducibility of TCE sampling with PDBs, as compared to purge and sample method.
Passive diffusion bags are considered by Ontario’s MOE as professionally acceptable and groundwater samples for approved VOCs (as defined in the ITRC guidance document) are acceptable for use on Record of Site Condition projects. Maxxam is currently in the process of
approaching other provincial regulators to confirm the use of this sampling technique. Brian Chubb is with Maxxam Analytics. E-mail: email@example.com. Claudine Lee is with Dillon Consulting Ltd.
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Evapotranspiration covers can better protect groundwater quality from landfill leachate By John Pries, Jim Jordahl and Jason Smesrud
ith the increased attention to reducing the impacts of solid waste disposal sites and to optimizing these facilities and making them more cost-effective, there is a growing interest in re-assessing traditional closure approaches. This includes emerging technologies to improve existing historic landfill leachate management. One such approach is an evapotranspiration (ET) cover that is composed of soil and plants and is engineered to optimize both soil water storage and ET as a means of reducing percolation of water into the underlying waste. The vegetation functions naturally to dewater landfill cover soils during periods of plant activity, and the soil cover provides water storage for periods when inBEFORE
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36 | March 2011
Third year growth at Kingston Belle Park Landfill.
filtration exceeds evapotranspiration, especially during the non-growing season. Drivers for this new approach to landfill closure include a growing body of evidence on the poor performance of clay covers, the cost differential between ET covers and membrane composite covers, and concerns over the integrity of conventional covers over the long contaminating lifespan of decommissioned landfills. In addition, the regulatory approach favours enhanced biodegradation of landfilled waste over dry entombment to reduce the period of time that the landfill is generating high concentration leachate. In 1999, the US Environmental Protection Agency funded the Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), which monitored and evaluated landfill cover pilot projects at 11 sites, across a wide range of climatic conditions (Albright et al., 2004). Some important conclusions from this work (Albright et al., 2004/2006, Suter et al., 1993 and ITRC, 2003) are summarized below: • The low saturated hydraulic conductivity of clay barriers will increase dramati-
cally when exposed to the surface environment and associated variations in moisture content, freeze/thaw cycles, and biological/ecological influences. Depending on local climatic conditions, a significant increase in hydraulic conductivity is likely to occur within three years. • When the barrier layer function of a compacted clay cover is lost, performance becomes more dependent on soil water storage and ET. • Since soil water storage and ET eventually become the most important mechanisms for performance, these should be the primary considerations in initial design. Material selection, soil layering, and construction methods should be optimized for ET function. • A well-designed ET cover requires availability of suitable soils and plants, as well as a knowledgeable design team. • At most locations, a properly designed, constructed and maintained ET cover can be expected to meet or exceed the performance of a conventional clay cover in the long term. continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Groundwater Protection Although there can be cost and functional advantages to developing an ET cover for landfill closure, there are some uncertainties that must be overcome. Consequently, site owners should be prepared to invest more up-front regulatory and design effort than for conventional cover systems. Performance data A rigorous investigation of clay cover performance was conducted as part of the ACAP. One of the key findings is that the ability of clay covers to limit percolation into underlying wastes declines significantly only a few years after installation, due to soil forming factors, i.e., wetting and drying, freezing and thawing, etc. (Albright et al., 2006). Conversely, the performance of ET covers generally improves over time, when vegetation becomes more fully established and effective in controlling the site water balance. Regulatory acceptance To date, there has been a general openness on the part of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment to the appropriate use of ET covers for landfill closure. Landfill
Five-year old plantation in Muskoka on the Stisted Landfill.
owners also are open to this approach, since it often will reduce the capital costs of final cover system construction and may reduce long-term maintenance costs.
Alternative or ET covers To achieve regulatory acceptance, defining required performance criteria is the critical first step of an ET cover evaluation. Once performance criteria are established, the methodology for evaluating and demonstrating performance, whether by hydrologic model evaluation, field pilot study monitoring, or a combination of both approaches, can be determined. Basic strategies for controlling percolation into underlying waste between ET and conventional covers are drastically different. The water balance control strategy for ET covers relies upon loosely compacted soils, with high water holding capacity and favorable plant rooting characteristics. In contrast, conventional clay covers rely upon highly compacted soils to lower soil permeability and enhance surface runoff of precipitation to minimize percolation into underlying waste. Since these strategies affect both soil material selection and placement, the water balance control strategy must be clearly defined early in the design process. A key design goal is to provide suffi-
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Groundwater Protection cient soil storage capacity, so that deep percolation and, ultimately, infiltration of precipitation into the waste can be controlled to the desired level, using deep rooting vegetation. Although grass- and shrub-based ET covers are more typical in the US and in semi-arid to arid climates, trees have been applied to ET cover applications in several northern latitude sites. They may provide the best water balance control for Ontario sites, when appropriately managed. The trend in thinking about poplar trees for landfill covers is that they may best fit in as a transitional species toward a more sustainable native plant distribution. For ET covers that are vegetated with trees, there can be increasing potential for windthrow (trees blown over by the wind), leading to exposure of wastes at the rootball. ET covers in humid regions are not a “zero infiltration” strategy, since targeting infiltration rates of only a few millimetres annually is not feasible. However, with the move towards the wet landfill management approach, using ET covers to manage, rather than prevent, percolation
becomes more attractive. ET covers can adapt to uneven settlement of the landfill, provide a root zone environment favorable to methane oxidation, and enhance slope stability. ET covers are seen as an especially good option for abandoned sites, where there tends to be considerably greater regulatory flexibility. Over the long term, available data suggests that most ET covers with fine textured soils (silts and clays) trend toward about 10-5 cm/s permeability as a result of soil forming factors. Bioreactor concept The paradigm of dry entombment, or keeping stored wastes as dry as possible by placing very low limits on infiltration, is being challenged by a growing trend towards “wet” landfill management to operate waste storage systems as bioreactors. Wastes in large landfills tend to be short of moisture for degradation, and, even with closed loop recirculation of leachate, may continue to operate under a moisture deficit (USEPA, 2010). Some potential benefits of a wet approach include:
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• Enhanced stabilization rates for waste, leachate, and gas. • Better gas to energy economics, depending on energy demands. • Optimized landfill capacity utilization by accelerating biodegradation of the waste and associated waste consolidation and settlement. Bioreactor landfills generally are engineered systems that have higher initial capital costs and require additional monitoring and control during their operating life. However, they are expected to involve less monitoring over the post-closure period than conventional “dry tomb” landfills (USEPA, 2010). Issues that need to be addressed, during both design and operation of a bioreactor landfill, include (USEPA, 2010): • Increased gas emissions. • Increased odours. • Physical instability of waste mass due to increased moisture and density. • Instability of liner systems. • Surface seeps. • Landfill fires. As landfill systems begin to be opercontinued overleaf...
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Groundwater Protection ated under this new strategy, flexibility in allowing alternative cover systems should also increase. ET covers in Ontario Some applications of ET cover systems in Ontario have included capping gypsum stacks, municipal landfills, and tailings ponds, as well as using trees for groundwater flow interception. 1. Kingston Belle Park Landfill - Belle Park is a closed landfill that extends into the Cataraqui River in Kingston. It has been converted into a public use park and a 9-hole golf course. Due to a high water table, high potential for stormwater infiltration, and leachate discharges around the perimeter, the City installed a series of cut-off walls and a leachate interception/collection system. To further enhance this system, approximately 10,000 poplar and native trees were planted within the park in 2008 and 2009 to help draw down the water table. Leachate collection volumes are being monitored to determine the reduction in infiltration. 2. Stisted Landfill - A pilot poplar tree plantation was carried out in 2002 on the side slopes of the south cell of the Stisted
landfill. At the time of planting, about one-half of the landfill had reached capacity and was closed. The poplar plantation covered about 3 ha of the closed portion. The intent of the pilot was to provide some understanding of the benefits of this approach to landfill capping. The long-range plan is to cap the remaining 50% of the landfill with a poplar plantation once capacity is reached. For the project, a cover material that utilized local available industrial and municipal byproducts such as paper biosolids, wood chips, compost material, and sandy soils was used. 3. Innisfil Landfill - At the Innisfil site, the 8 ha landfill was closed in the late 1990s and a poplar ET cover was installed into an existing clay cover in 2002. The clay cover was amended with compost, wood chips, and local soils to improve the water holding capacity and tree-growing potential of the site. Some limited loss or poor growth of trees due to weed competition and methane gas production was encountered. The plantation experienced slow growth initially due to competition from
grasses and weedy species. However, once the trees extended beyond the height of the grasses, they quickly dominated. 4. Barrie Landfill - At the closed portion of a landfill site close to Barrie, a poplar tree cap system was installed to reduce infiltration and leachate production. The design utilized existing cover material composed of recovered landfill mining fines. Soil amendments were added that increased the water holding capacity of the soil at the site and provided optimum growing conditions for the poplar trees. 5. Deloro Mine - The decommissioned Deloro Mine includes a tailings area of about 8 ha. The clean-up of the tailings area required a remediation alternative that included reducing water contact and infiltration through its surface. This reduced seepage of contaminants through two retaining dams, and reduced contaminant loading to a nearby river. The design of the remediation approach consists of a soil cover of silty clay loam, in combination with topsoil, sand and a geomembrane. Topsoil provides the initial rooting medium for the vegetative ET cover (poplar trees and grasses), while the silty clay loam and sand provide the necessary water storage capacity that will increase the effectiveness of the poplar trees. The underlying geomembrane functions as a low-permeability layer to minimize percolation of remaining water into the underlying limestone cover and tailings (red mud). Based on CH2M HILLâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s findings during the feasibility study and engineering design, construction of a soil cover and trees is predicted to be sufficient to achieve a 83 percent reduction in the current rate of infiltration. Construction of the ET cover is expected to begin in 2011. Conclusion Evapotranspiration covers are emerging as an important alternative approach for landfill covers. However, further research and development of the technology is needed in northern climates to better refine the current design and management approaches. John Pries, Jim Jordahl and Jason Smesrud are with CH2M HILL. E-mail: email@example.com. References available upon request.
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Anti-depressants in waterways affecting fish Researchers at the University of Montreal have found that anti-depressant drugs are passing into Montreal’s waterways and affecting fish. The research team found that these drugs accumulate in fish tissues and affect brain activity. The findings are significant as Montreal’s sewage treatment system is similar to that in use in other major cities. The chemical structure of anti-depressants makes them extremely difficult to remove from sewage, even with the most sophisticated systems available.
WERF award offers $100,000 for water quality research The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) is offering $100,000 to encourage researchers working in wastewater, water reuse, biosolids, stormwater, watersheds, and other areas to pursue groundbreaking research. As one of the largest awards in the water quality industry, the Paul L. Busch Award has provided $1 million in research funding over the past decade. In 2010, Columbia University researcher Kartik Chandran received the award for his work on an autotrophic microbial reactor that converts the greenhouse gas, methane, found in biogas, to the green fuel, methanol. www.werf.org/PaulLBusch
Quebec amends water withdrawals regulation The Quebec government has introduced a draft regulation to amend requirements for the declaration of water withdrawals. The regulation prescribes the regulatory provisions required to implement the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement in Quebec. The revisions outline declaration requirements covering water withdrawals and transfers from the St. Lawrence River Basin which exceed a volume of 379,000 litres per day. The quantities of water consumed must be estimated by a professional. www.gouv.qc.ca
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Tighter environmental site assessments on the horizon in Ontario By Madeleine Donahue
n July 1, 2011, greatly expanded new rules for Phase 1 and 2 Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs) will come into effect in Ontario. Regulation 511/09 under the Environmental Protection Act substantially amended Record of Site Condition (RSC) Regulation 153/04 (Reg. 153). Among the changes are mandatory components for Phase 1 and 2 ESAs that go beyond those normally required by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). This will add to the cost and increase the timeframe for conducting these investigations. Compliance with the new rules will legally apply only to those undertaking the investigations in support of an RSC to be filed on the Ministry of the Environment’s (MOE) environmental site registry. Where no such filing is contemplated or required
by law, parties are free to use them voluntarily, or use the November 2001 CSA Standard Z768-01, or any other protocol. There will be a period of adjustment as everyone sorts out the revised procedures and implications for properties and transactions. However, it is advisable to review these changes now and plan ahead so there are no surprises, or delays, when the regulatory amendments come into force. Highlights of Phase 1 Changes There are some new and amended definitions: 1.Reference to the CSA Standard Z76801 in the definition of Phase 1 ESA is replaced with a definition for “Phase 1 Study Area.” A Phase 1 ESA will have to include not only the Phase 1 property itself, but also any other property located within 250 metres of the property boundary and any property that the qualified
person (QP) determines should be in the study area. The result is that scope of records review will have to increase. 2.A new definition, “Contaminant of Concern,” is added. It means a contaminant in excess of applicable site condition standards for the property, or a contaminant for which no standard is prescribed and which is associated with potentially contaminating activity. “Potentially Contaminating Activity,” also new, is then defined by reference to Table 2 in Schedule D. The table includes a typical list of industrial activities but also includes electricity generation or transformation and power stations as well as importation of fill material of unknown quality, etc. If such activity is found on the Phase 1 ESA property, a Phase 2 ESA is mandatory. 3.“Owner” will now include a beneficial owner, or a receiver of a property.
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Regulations 4.“Enhanced Investigation Property” is another new definition, meaning a property that is or has been used, in whole or in part, for any industrial use or for the following commercial uses: garage, bulk liquid dispensing facility, including a gasoline outlet, or operation of dry cleaning equipment. There are specific Phase 1 ESA requirements applicable to such properties and a Phase 2 ESA is mandatory. However, there is an exception for a property currently used for agricultural or other use or community, institutional, parkland or residential use and that meets certain specifications. 5.“All Reasonable Inquiries” is a review of current and historical sources of reasonably accessible information about a property, to determine uses and occupancies of the property since the property’s first developed use. “First developed use” is also defined. The QP will be required to make all reasonable inquiries to obtain reasonably accessible records. Reg. 511 sets out when information is considered to be reasonably accessible. The QP will have to obtain copies of environmental reports on the property,
not only from the current owner but also former owners. It will be interesting to see how much co-operation former owners will provide. Phase 1 ESA records searches and interviews will ultimately have to be more extensive and take more time to complete. Conflicts of interest: QPs or their employers who hold direct or indirect interests in a RSC property or any property that includes the RSC property, are prohibited from conducting either a Phase 1 or 2 ESA for that property. This will be of particular interest where QPs have taken ownership of brownfield sites and at the same time undertaken investigation and remediation — a classic conflict. Contents of Phase 1 ESAs: Mandatory requirements for Phase 1 ESA reports are not only prescribed in nitty gritty detail in Table 1 of Schedule D, but the order, presentation, sections and titles are also specified. It is a “one-stop” comprehensive shopping list. Reports will, therefore, be more uniform and comprehensive. QPs will also be required to evaluate and interpret the data. Owner obligations: An owner submit-
ting a RSC, or authorizing its submission, has a number of new obligations, including: • Ensuring that the legal description of the property and an up-to-date chronological chain of title and related title information are prepared by a lawyer authorized by the Law Society Act to practice law in Ontario. • Ensuring that a current plan of survey of the property has been prepared, signed and sealed by a surveyor before the lawyer does the title search. Thus, although the QPs will have to prepare an up-to-date chronological chain of title for the Phase 1 ESA, a lawyer will have to undertake the title information for filing the RSC. If an owner does not have a current survey for the property, that will be an added cost. If the owner is not a receiver, the owner must include with the RSC filing a copy of any deed, transfer or other document by which the RSC property was acquired (as determined by the lawyer providing the legal description), even if the document includes other properties in addition to the RSC property. continued overleaf...
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Regulations QPs who traditionally have been including much of the above data in their Phase 1 ESAs may not find these changes too different, although there are definitely new aspects they will have to become familiar with. For others, the new rules should level the playing field and allow clients to compare “apples and apples” when considering pricing on Phase 1 ESAs. Stale-dated information: For both Phase 1 and 2 ESA reports, information must not be older than 18 months before the date of RSC submittal, or commencement of a Phase 2 ESA or risk assessment. That means the date of the last work on all of the records review interviews and site reconnaissance for the Phase 1 ESA must not be older than 18 months. In the case of a Phase 2 ESA the date the last work on planning the site investigation, undertaking the investigation and reviewing and evaluating the information must not be more than 18 months before the RSC is filed or commencement of a risk assessment. However, the QP must determine: • That there is no new or materially changed area of potential environ-
mental concern on the property; • That the reports relied on in filing an RSC otherwise meet the Reg. 153 requirements; and • The report is a single document, not multiple separate prior reports. If these requirements are not satisfied, an updated Phase 1 or 2 ESA must be prepared before filing a RSC or commencing a risk assessment. For some owners it may be more efficient to prepare a new Phase 1 ESA, rather than try to update an older one. Owners and their advisors will need to consider their deal timelines because properties that were previously assessed, and even remediated, may now need added investigation and clean-up work. Conceptual site model: The QP is required to provide a conceptual site model not only for Phase 1 ESAs, but also for Phase 2s. This means including figures, narrative descriptions and assessments showing existing buildings and structures, water bodies, areas of natural significance, other features where potentially contaminating activity has occurred, or any areas of potential environmental concern. The QP is also required to describe
and assess any uncertainty or absence of information that could affect the validity of the model. This is something new for Phase 1 and 2 ESAs and will require a much greater level of effort. Highlights of Phase 2 Changes 1. Mandatory Phase 2 investigations: Phase 2 ESA investigations will be mandatory in certain circumstances. 2. Contents of Phase 2 ESAs: Much like Phase 1 ESAs, Table 1 of Schedule E sets out in great detail the template for what the Phase 2 ESA report must contain. The Phase 1 ESA concept model must be used to determine the scope of the investigation. Even more significant is the requirement to: • Undertake groundwater analysis, not from a test pit but from a groundwater well. • Delineate horizontally, and vertically, each contaminant exceeding applicable site condition standards, including groundwater plume delineation. • Comply with specific protocols when soil vapour investigations are undertaken. The Phase 2 concept site model must be developed in accordance with Reg.
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Regulations 511 and the report must include a number of features. These include an executive summary, conclusions, determination whether applicable site condition standards and standards specified in a risk assessment were met, and a list of all figures and tables. A number of documents must be attached as appendices, including the property survey. Phase 2 ESAs for risk assessment purposes have added requirements. Reg. 511 is highly prescriptive. It specifies requirements for sampling, type of analysis, measurement of groundwater levels, determination of groundwater flow direction, field standard operating procedures, quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) programs. The report must include all correspondence between the analytical lab and the QP, and situations falling outside the QA/QC protocol. 3. Backfilling/imported soil: For soils excavated at the Phase 2 property and intended for use/reuse, the QP will be required to ensure such soils are segregated into stockpiles according to contaminant and concentration. They must then be sampled and analyzed as prescribed to ensure they meet RSC or risk
An abandoned factory building.
assessment standards. Soil may only be brought to a Phase 2 property for backfilling excavations and final grading, if it meets MOE Table 1 standards (background), or generic standards in an approved risk assessment, that includes a soil management plan. The result will be increased construction and remediation costs. If soil does
not meet this standard, there are prohibitions on the types of properties to which the soil may be brought. For potable groundwater sites, the QP must determine that there is no indication of objectionable petroleum hydrocarbon taste and odour associated with the groundwater, failing which, the groundcontinued overleaf...
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Regulations water standard will not be met. This provision is currently in force. Implications The amended Phase 1 and 2 ESA requirements will substantially change how such investigations are to be undertaken and reported. QPs filing RSCs will be required to adhere to the more stringent regulatory requirements, so there will be less deference to a consultant's professional judgment. So-called "limited” Phase 1 or 2 ESAs will not be possible where a RSC is to be filed. Not all consultants will be qualified to undertake the investigations. Currently, any consultant with relevant experience can undertake ESAs. As of July 1, 2011, if an RSC is to be obtained and filed with the MOE, such investigations may only be conducted or supervised by either a professional engineer, or a professional geoscientist. Risk assessments for RSCs can only be conducted by an engineer, or geoscientist, qualified in risk assessment. Thus, a higher skill set is required. Therefore, parties will need to think ahead about whether an RSC is to be filed and who can do the work.
Overall, the changes should result in higher-quality work that can reasonably be relied on by owners, lenders and lawyers. They may also reduce price undercutting by some consultants. If they achieve those objectives, the changes will be worthwhile. However, the new rules mean costs will increase due to the broader scope of records review, investigations, more sampling and analysis, and QA/QC protocols. Some QPs, concerned with liability risk exposure, may further qualify their reports or include limitations that need to be scrutinized with greater care for appropriateness. In commercial transactions, the issue of who pays for the Phase 1 or 2 ESAs may become more important. Real estate and business lawyers and their clients should consider obtaining the assistance of environmental lawyers to review and provide advice on RSC regulatory compliance as well as issues to be aware of in negotiation of transactions. Lenders generally pay close attention to environmental matters when considering financing. A senior environmental risk manager,
with one of the major Canadian financial institutions, noted in a June 2010 presentation that clients should expect slower review times at their banks and should build longer lead times into property developments. He also observed that more municipalities are expected to require RSCs, even if there is not a change in use to a more sensitive land use. Owners and their advisors will have to consider the proposed use of a property and municipal planning requirements earlier than has often been the case. Until everyone has experience with the Reg.511 changes, it certainly appears that due diligence investigations will take longer and cost more. For Phase 1 ESAs, costs could double. With July 1, 2011, on the horizon, it would be prudent for all those involved with property transactions, and those who own or manage properties or provide development approvals, to look ahead, assess and plan now for their impacts. Madeleine Donahue is with Macleod Dixon LLP. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Water quality and conservation initiatives
2011 Canadian Water Summit
The Scotts Miracle-Gro Company, said to be the world’s largest marketer of branded consumer lawn and garden products, has launched new initiatives involving product changes and consumer education efforts to improve water quality and conservation. By the end of 2012, phosphorus will be removed from the firm’s lawn fertilizers. It began reducing phosphorus in its lawn food products in 2006 after concluding that most lawns can flourish without supplemental phosphorus applications. Because phosphorus is essential to the initial root development of grass, the nutrient will remain in the Company’s starter fertilizers, which are used for new lawns. Phosphorus will also remain in its organic lawn food as it naturally occurs in the organic materials contained in the products. Additionally, the company is increasing its focus on more efficient and optimized ways to use nitrogen in its lawn fertilizer products through enhanced science and technology efforts.
Being held June 14 in Mississauga, the Canadian Water Summit will discuss water management, risks and opportunities in some of the most critical sectors of the Canadian economy. Highlights include: CDP Water Disclosure, Smarter Water for Smarter Cities,Water Sustainability in Canada's Agriculture Sector, The Water-Energy Nexus,Risk: The New Frontier. www.watersummit.ca
Fluoride system to be updated In 2007, Health Canada released a review of the health effects of fluoride in drinking water, which stated that community water fluoridation was a safe and effective public health method for the reduction of dental issues. The Canadian Dental Association supports fluoridating water, but states that the decision to do so should be based on an assessment of need. Saskatoon is set to begin a $200,000
renovation to the City’s fluoridation system and the entire chemical system at its water treatment plant will be replaced. Saskatoon has been fluoridating water since the 1950s. It currently costs the City about $150,000 a year in maintenance and chemical costs. According to the Saskatchewan Ministry of Health, less than 37 per cent of the province’s population has access to water with “sufficient levels of fluoride”.
First annual report on Lake Simcoe released The first Minister's Annual Report on Lake Simcoe shows that Ontario has taken action on all 88 recommendations made in the Lake Simcoe Protection Plan that were to be implemented within the first year. For example, the province is working to reduce phosphorus levels in Lake Simcoe by almost 40 % and restore the cold water fishery. Lake Simcoe is a world-class fishing area and an important source of revenue for the local economy. www.gouv.qc.ca
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How extreme conditions affect water treatment facility design By Kevin Conroy
he Summitville Mine is a 498hectare site in the southeastern portion of the San Juan Mountains. It is located at an average altitude of 3,500 m and is approximately 40 km southwest of South Fork, Colorado. In this remote area, a 30.5-km narrow dirt road provides main site access. The site is listed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List, and has been undergoing various stages of remediation for more than 15 years, under the authority of CERCLA. Remedial activities at the site are currently 90% funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 10% by the state of Colorado. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) manages all activities at the site. Water discharges from the site are acidic in nature, with significant concentrations of metals, and are of particular concern, due to heavy use of the nearby Alamosa River for recreation and agriculture. These challenges are compounded by concerns about aquatic life and migratory wildlife habitats. The primary source of contaminated discharge at the site was identified as an underground mine pool that causes seepages at a number of locations, including several bulkheaded adits (nearly horizontal passages from the surface into a mine). Additional sources included seepage from several closed waste rock dumps, the closed heap leach pad, and surface runoff. All contaminated discharges from the site continue to be collected in an approximately 90-million-gallon pond, known as the Summitville Dam Impoundment. Tackling contaminants The Record of Decision (ROD), signed in September 2001, prescribed the final site-wide remedy for the site. One of the major components of the ROD is the capability to control and treat contaminated water prior to discharge. The ROD and precursor engineering and feasibility analyses identified a single-stage lime high-density sludge (HDS) process as the preferred treatment method. 48 | March 2011
Clarifier and lime silo during construction.
The ROD identifies a number of Remedial Action Objectives (RAOs) for the Summitville Mine Superfund Site. Specific RAOs pertaining to the management of contaminated water include: • Control and treat surface water, groundwater and leachate, as necessary, to meet state and federal Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs). • Re-establish state aquatic use classifications and attainment of water quality numeric criteria in the Alamosa River and downstream. ARARs of concern with respect to the design of the new water treatment plant are those related to a point-source discharge or effluent criteria. Effluent criteria in Colorado are based on the nearest downstream segment, for which there are numeric standards. In the case of Summitville, discharges from the site flow into Wightman Fork, which has no promulgated numeric standards, then 5.5 miles downstream to the confluence with the Alamosa River. Extensive investigations and modeling were conducted during the course of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study leading up to the ROD. Through this effort, it became apparent that the numeric standards for iron, alu-
minum and pH were not attainable in the Alamosa River under any remediation scenario. This was due to elevated background concentrations propagating downstream from other sources. Therefore, these three parameters were waived according to CERCLA criteria on the basis of technical impracticability. Through discussion with CDPHE and EPA personnel during a series of working meetings, treatment goals were established for the waived parameters as follows: • Reduce concentrations of waived criteria (aluminum and iron) to the extent practicable in the water treatment plant effluent and use an extended mixing zone, with the goal of meeting the waived criteria further downstream. • Achieve numerical water quality criteria for remaining constituents at the point of discharge from the water treatment plant to Wightman Fork. Single vs. two-stage processes CDPHE subsequently completed a Use Attainability Analysis (UAA) for the segments of the Alamosa River affected by Summitville, as well as other natural sources of contaminant discharge. Extensive modeling of the Alamosa River system, under various Summitville dis-
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Water Treatment charge scenarios, was performed as part of the analysis. The scenarios were based on two different treatment approaches: a singlestage (as recommended in the ROD) and a two-stage lime high density sludge (HDS) system. The single-stage system was based on operating at a pH of 9–10, to maximize removal of contaminants such as copper and zinc. However, the minimum solubility of aluminum is in the range of pH 5–6, and at higher pH values some of the aluminum re-dissolves. The two-stage system was based on operations at two pH values to maximize removal of aluminum, as well as the other metals. The UAA modeling concluded that use of the two-stage process would not result in an appreciable improvement in water quality in the Alamosa River, so the single-stage process was selected for implementation. Final treatment goals for the Alamosa River are more stringent than the interim response action treatment requirements currently in place. As agreed by CDPHE and EPA, all treatment goals will be met at the point of discharge from the facility, with the exception of aluminum. Plant design solutions An existing water treatment plant had been running a single-stage lime precipitation system with sludge recycle, which is similar to a single-stage lime HDS plant. This aging plant was constructed in the early 1990s and had become expensive to operate, so a replacement was
needed. The project scope also included design of collection and conveyance systems from the Summitville Dam Impoundment, as well as infrastructure improvements. During the schematic design phase of the project, Golder Associates developed and implemented a multiple-step process development program. This included review of historical water quantity and quality data, collection of additional water quality data, analysis of site flow data, and completion of bench studies. Design capacity of the facility was increased to approximately 9,000 m3/day. Designing a remote facility The schematic design phase of the project also included the development of space plans and design criteria for the approximate 17,000-ft2 facility. Design life for the facility was set at 50 years. Due primarily to its remote location, a number of facility functions were determined to be necessary, including: • Complete maintenance garage with vehicle lifts and repair facilities for the site’s fleet of heavy equipment and trucks. • Maintenance storage room, including parts shelves, bins and work areas. • Complete male and female locker room facilities with showers. • A large analytical laboratory space. • Offices and conference rooms for site operations staff, CDPHE and EPA. • Break room facilities for site operations staff.
In addition to the remote location, the site elevation presented severe climatic concerns that needed to be addressed during design. These included an average annual snowfall of approximately 8.8 m and drifts as high as 15.5 m, as well as high winds and frequent summer lightning. As a result, several other design features were added: • Conventional metal buildings would be damaged by the drifting snow and snow removal activities, so the first 4.9 m of the building shell consists of insulated precast concrete panels. The higher part of the building shell is insulated metal panels. • The clarifier (located outside the building) is covered with a geodesic dome to prevent snow and ice accumulation as well as protect site staff. Extensive lightning protection systems are included, plus a combination of radio and satellite communications systems. • Redundant process equipment is included throughout the facility. • As local groundwater supplies are inadequate to supply the new facility, a reverse osmosis and disinfection system is included to take treated wastewater and produce potable water for use in the facility. Kevin Conroy is with Golder Associates Inc. E-mail: Jodie_Robulak@golder.com
Maintenance garage access during construction. www.esemag.com
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One-pass trencher used to contain radioactive waste site
ngineers with the US Department of Energy have been working for more than a decade to figure out how to control radioactive material that leaked into the ground from the West Valley Nuclear Site in upstate New York. The West Valley facility has become a demonstration project in the DOEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s development of techniques for the management of radioactive waste. A plume of water containing radioactive byproduct is moving beneath and across the site and seeping into a nearby creek that leads to Lake Erie. As such, this relic of the Cold War has drawn much attention from local public interest and environmental groups. One significant new research effort has covered Zeolite, a volcanic mineral compound. Its particular atomic structure provides it with the unique capacity to trap and hold fission products, in this case Strontium-90. Zeolite is formed from volcanic ash and is harvested in conventional open pit mining sites in Arkansas, Idaho and New Mexico. The ore is crushed, dried, and milled. It can be air-classified as to particle size and shipped in bags, or bulk. Crushed product may be screened to remove fine material when a granular product is required. Some pelletized products are produced from fine material. Zeolite is one of the key new approaches to the safe de-commissioning of radioactive waste sites. To prove the efficacy of this mineral resource, the DOE developed a plan to install an 850-foot long trench filled with Zeolite at West Valley. The trench, referred to as a permeable treatment barrier (PTB), will remove Strontium-90 contamination from groundwater, using a concept similar to a home water softener. The PTB is based on the ion exchange capability of Zeolite. As a passive system, with an expected 20-year effective lifespan, it will replace the currently existing pump and treat method, if it proves viable. This will eliminate two vertical well pump systems, providing an expected savings of between $300,000 to $500,000 a year in energy use. 50 | March 2011
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Groundwater Protection With the essential concept in place, the DOE needed to consider what was the best way to actually construct the barrier trench. DeWind Trenching has developed and manufactured a fleet of DEEP-cut trenchers for the clean installation of collection trenches, slurry walls, ZVI walls, and permeable reactive barriers. A significant determining factor in choosing the DeWind One-Pass Trencher was the minimal amount of displaced contaminated soil that is generated. In the fall of 2010, the DOE initiated a number of activities in preparation for this demonstration project. The most important was to make certain the One-Pass Trencher could perform the operation of properly positioning the Zeolite. The form of Zeolite to be used on this project was granular. To make the remediation barrier wholly effective, DeWind needed to specifically design and test a new delivery system that could move the Zeolite effectively into the trench opening with uniformity and density that would establish wall consistency from top to bottom. Although only a small fraction of soil is actually displaced using a One-Pass
The DOE contracted DeWind to design, engineer and manufacture an attachment that could collect and convey excess spoils safely onto a cement pad, without any human contact.
Trenching System, the DOE contracted DeWind to design, engineer and manufacture an attachment that could collect and convey excess spoils safely onto a cement pad, all without any human contact
whatsoever. From here the saturated soil could be removed and treated. In October, DeWind set up their newest One-Pass Trencher, complete with specialized attachments designed for this project, and began the installation of the 850 foot demonstration trench at West Valley. Zeolite was placed unvaryingly in position within the narrow 2 ft wide trench to a depth of 35â&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The result was a consistently uniform wall, that tested perfectly in intercepting the plume of contaminated water containing the Strontium-90 and confining the radiation within the trench. The DOE is ultimately responsible for hundreds of contaminated sites. With the success of the West Valley demonstration project it can look ahead to applying this new Zeolite barrier system elsewhere. This will not only safeguard the environment but promises to save an enormous sum of money for the ongoing control and containment of radioactive waste over the coming decades. For more information, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
w w w. t e r r a t e c . a mw a t e r. c o m www.esemag.com
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Spring Convention Preview
Blue Mountain to host the OWWA/OMWA joint annual conference and tradeshow
he Ontario Water Works Association and the Ontario Municipal Water Association will be holding their 2011 conference and tradeshow, May 1- 4 at the Blue Mountain Resort in the Town of the Blue Mountains. According to conference chair, Lee Anne Jones, City of Toronto, the theme for this year’s conference,“Success in the New Reality”, is backed up with a program that will start off with the witty and imaginative words of Dr. Mike Mandel at the Opening Plenary Session. Delegates will hear presentations on optimizing and improving treatment for ground and surface waters, distribution system improvements, water efficiency initiatives, and means to enhance system management. Many of these presentations focus on successes achieved to date and predictions on where the industry is headed, to help it prepare for the challenges in the years ahead. OWWA’s hope for the future is showcased through the input of younger colleagues represented at the University Research Forum, in the Fresh Ideas contest, and in technical sessions presented by Young Professionals . On January 1, 2013, Section 19 of the Safe Drinking Water Act, Statutory Standard of Care, will come into effect.
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OMWA has been working with the Ministry of the Environment to develop a guide and training course for municipal councillors. Details of the training program will be discussed in two sessions. Another session will cover OMWA’s initiative to develop a website to address the recruitment of a new generation of qualified workers for the public water sector. There will also be a session on training programs provided by the Walkerton Clean Water Centre. The conference offers plenty of opportunities to network with colleagues on a social level, including a Meet and Greet reception, Young Professionals Water
Cup, the OWWEA-hosted Casino Night, the Water For People Golf Tournament fundraiser, and a tradeshow. There will also be two plant tours available. The Thornbury Water Treatment Plant was upgraded in 2009 to replace the existing conventional filters with membrane units. The Creemore Membrane Sewage Treatment Plant is said to be the first in the province to use membrane technology in a sewage treatment plant. For on-line registration and conference details, go to www.owwa.org
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Ottawa area flood control project uses innovative stacked storage system By Lynne Chwyl, Adrien Comeau and Jeff Deloyde
he Sandy Hill community in Ottawa has long suffered the results of a topography and antiquated sewer/drainage system that subjected the area to persistent flooding during major storms. Parts of this area are typically lower in elevation than water levels of the nearby Rideau River during storms. Also, because the sewer and drainage systems in the area were old and inefficient, surface flooding and sewer backup led to surcharge or overflow in the drainage pipes, that often resulted in residential basement flooding, when precipitation of any significant amount occurred. Although the City of Ottawa tried to resolve the problem by separating the combined sewer lines in problematic areas, this was minimally effective and flooding was still a recurring issue in Sandy Hill. Recognizing that the topography could be used as an advantage, the design team from Stantec, contracted by the City, created an innovative stacked water storage system that included both a surface stor-
There were a number of design constraints that made construction of the flood control tank challenging.
age area in Sandy Hill Park and an underground storage tank. Project engineers recommended re-grading the existing
The new design incorporates an improved park layout, modernized facilities and comfortable outdoor places. www.esemag.com
roadways to direct stormwater runoff to the centre of the park where it could be collected in the surface storage area. To alleviate surcharge in the limitedcapacity combined trunk sewer, a diversion chamber was designed to direct excess combined sewage during extreme rainfall events to the storage tank buried under the park. After the storm event passes, combined sewage stored in the underground tank is pumped back to the combined trunk sewer for treatment at the wastewater treatment plant. The surface storage area within the park is located above this underground tank and provides approximately 4,000 m3 of runoff storage. Placement of inlet control devices in catch basins where the roadway dips near the park ensure that the first flush flows are captured and force â&#x20AC;&#x153;cleanerâ&#x20AC;? stormwater runoff that may surcharge the sewer pipes into the park and the surface storage area. Sub-drains and engineered soil assist with faster field drainage, following the spring melt period and after each rainfall event. This is expected to allow the park continued overleaf... March 2011 | 53
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Stormwater Management to open earlier in the spring. It is estimated that the average annual rainfall event (1:2 year event) will not produce enough runoff volume to submerge the entire bottom surface of the storage area. As for the 1:5 year and 1:100 year events, it is estimated that any stored runoff volume will be drained back to the sewer system within four and 13 hours, respectively. The underground tank has a footprint of 55 m x 55 m, with an average height of 4.5 m, for a total storage volume of approximately 12,500 m³. It is divided into two parts, or cells, to limit routine maintenance requirements. Cell No. 1 occupies one-third of the tank’s total volume and is intended for more frequent use (one to two times annually), while Cell No. 2, occupying the balance of the tank, is intended for infrequent storage events (approximately greater than a 1:5-year return period). A total of 10 flushing lanes, complete with flush water storage compartments and hydraulic flushing gates, use some of the stored sewage to clean accumu-
54 | March 2011
The underground tank has a footprint of 55 m x 55 m, with an average height of 4.5 m, for a total storage volume of approximately 12,500 m³.
lated debris from the tank floor after each use. The underground tank is expected to be used approximately once a year and to be filled to capacity once every 50 to 100 years. In the latter case, the tank will fully drain within 24 hours after a storm event. Recognizing the impact of the new infrastructure on the park’s aging facilities, the City of Ottawa also requested Stantec’s landscape architectural services to undertake a complete redesign of the park, including the areas around the community centre. The new design incorporates an improved park layout, modernized facilities and comfortable outdoor places. Every design element of the park respects the engineering design of the flood control and stormwater management plan. Landscaping represented $1 million of the $18 million construction cost. The landscape architectural team embraced the community’s environmental concerns and preserved old-growth trees surrounding the park, reinstated the existing wading pool, incorporated multiple flowerbeds, maximized green space in the design, and incorporated an odour-control system for the tank. Although the “usable” square footage of the park was reduced in order to accom-
modate the flood protection measures, the completed project resulted in a more functional and attractive public space. Design considerations There were a number of design constraints that made construction of the flood control tank challenging. Geotechnical conditions surrounding the park, including sensitive clays, meant that dewatering of the excavation had to be limited to less than 12 months, due to the risk of adjacent foundation settlement. This resulted in a design that limited the size of the excavation and utilized existing rock to increase the speed of construction. In order to limit the depth of the tank/excavation and to decrease potable water usage, flushing gates, utilizing combined sewage to clean the tank, were selected instead of tipping buckets using potable water. A diversion chamber was required to draw off excess flows from the Somerset trunk combined sewer and direct it via an 80 m (long) x 1.8 m (diameter) inlet gravity sewer to the underground storage tank. To significantly reduce dimensions of the diversion chamber, a bending weir was installed with roughly four times the capacity of a standard rectangular weir.
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Stormwater Management Community engagement In addition to addressing the unique technical challenges encountered during this project, the design team worked closely with the City and local community association. Door-to-door visits and public meetings were organized prior to construction, which offered additional opportunities for the public to ask questions, voice concerns and give input. This involvement ultimately resulted in a revitalized public park that includes a new play structure, winter hockey rink, permanent lights, an outdoor stage, various flower beds interspersed between existing old-growth trees, and virtually invisible engineered facilities integrated within the final landscape. A storage tank control building, housing all equipment controls, communication systems and odour control system, is combined with the new park support building, with its change rooms, restrooms and park equipment storage. After two years of construction, the official reopening of the Sandy Hill Park was organized and hosted by the local community. Public involvement was exceptional and resulted in a very positive working relationship with the City and consultants. The project has also won a number of awards, including: • Canadian Society of Landscape Architects: 2010 Award of Excellence – Regional Citation Award. • Consulting Engineers Ontario: 2010 Merit Award – Environment Category. • American Public Works Association: 2010 Project of the Year Award – Environment Category (C$5 to C$25M). • The City of Ottawa Urban Design Award: 2009 Award of Merit – Public Places and Civic Spaces. • Ontario Public Works Association: 2009 Project of the Year Award – Environment Category (Greater than C$10M). Since 2009, the underground tank has been successfully utilized twice to store combined sewage during high-intensity rainfall events. There was no basement flooding.
ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SERVICES
Lynne Chwyl, Adrien Comeau and Jeff Deloyde are with Stantec. E-mail: email@example.com
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Expanding Regina’s Fleet Street landfill site By Deborah Mihial
he City of Regina has operated the Fleet Street Solid Waste Disposal & Recovery Facility since 1961. The only major licensed sanitary landfill in the Regina region, it accepts a range of materials, including commercial and residential waste, some special wastes (with appropriate permits), soil materials from excavations, and recoverable materials such as concrete, asphalt and appliances. The site is subject to Saskatchewan’s Municipal Refuse Management Regulations. Several studies investigating the impacts of the landfill, its closure or expansion planning, have been carried out over the past 27 years. In 1983, a waste management study was completed by a consultant retained by the City of Regina. The purpose of Phase 1 of the study was to evaluate the City’s existing waste management system, identify alternative sites for a new landfill, and provide a preliminary development plan of a preferred waste management system for the City. Phase 2 of the study, completed in 1989, provided a detailed evaluation of the alternative landfill sites identified in the Phase 1 study and developed a long-term comprehensive waste management program. The waste management study report identified and screened 10 potential sites, three of which were short-listed and assessed in detail. In 1991, City Council decided to proceed with plans to develop a new sanitary landfill adjacent to the existing site. In 1992, Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management (now Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment, or SMOE) advised the City of concerns about protecting the aquifer at the existing site during any future expansion. The City’s consultant prepared a revised environmental protection plan and updated cost estimates, incorporating a state-ofthe-art liner system. That same year, SMOE initiated promotion of regional waste management plans and encouraged the City to explore this concept. A preliminary project proposal for landfill expansion was prepared 56 | March 2011
Placing the geotextile liner.
and submitted to SMOE in 1993. The project proposal indicated that the new landfill would be constructed adjacent to the existing landfill and would incorporate engineering design, environmental protection, mitigation and monitoring procedures. In 1993, the City retained an engineering consultant to determine the feasibility of extending the life of the existing landfill. This began a multi-year project: the Fleet Street Optimization Study. A Round Table on Solid Waste Management was established in the mid’90s to provide community input to the solid waste management strategy. Solid waste disposal and regional waste management were included as issues for consideration by the Round Table, and its sub-committee on disposal concluded that the City landfill effectively operated as a regional facility. The optimization study report In 1995, the City’s consultant submitted a report (Fleet Street Landfill Optimization Study) on the potential for extending the life of the landfill. The report presented two configurations for extending the landfill life without
increasing its footprint. These consisted of increased height single-peak and double-peak options. The double-peak option would be more favourable because it was less expensive (due to the extra roadway requirements of the single-peak option), but the single-peak option would provide four additional years of life. In 1999 the Solid Waste Management Plan was adopted by City Council. It recommended that the City of Regina: • Continue to use the existing landfill for as long as possible, subject to technical investigations into environmental impacts; • Prepare a plan for the ultimate development of a new landfill adjacent to the existing site; and • Operate the landfill on a cost recovery basis. The Fleet Street Landfill Optimization Study has been updated since 1995, the latest update being 2005. The City has, therefore, decided to expand the landfill in three phases: south of the existing landfill footprint, west of Fleet Street and fillin of existing site, Phase 1 and Phase 2. The expansion area is designed with a composite liner system consisting of a compacted clay liner and an HDPE geomembrane, as well as landfill gas (LFG) and leachate collection systems. Continuation of waste minimization processes and the establishment of LFG and leachate management are part of the overall waste management strategy for the City of Regina. The Environmental Assessment Act is the provincial law that authorizes SMOE to review the potential environmental effects of a proposed development. Since the Landfill Expansion Project was considered a “development,” it required an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and approval from the minister before going ahead. In 2007, the City of Regina engaged AMEC Earth & Environmental Ltd. and AECOM Canada Ltd. to complete the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIS provided a review of the impacts of the landfill expansion, including environmental, sociological and economic
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Waste Management impacts. Public consultation was a key component of the EIA process. Key stakeholders and the general public were consulted about the findings of the EIA via two open houses and workshops in 2008. At these public consultation sessions, the City of Regina engaged local stakeholders and the public to share information and hear concerns and comments about the project. AMEC submitted the EIS to SMOE in September 2009 and the City received approval in March 2010. Construction of the expanded landfill began in July 2010, and it was ready to receive waste in December 2010. The expansion is state of the art. The technique, known as piggyback extension, is the construction of a new landfill cell on the slope and/or top of an existing cell with its own lining system, as well as leachate and gas collection systems, final capping and site drainage management. The piggyback extension increases the waste capacity of an existing site while minimizing additional land occupation. A barrier layer was designed between the old and new landfill areas, segregating the new waste and leachate from the old.
A barrier layer was designed between the old and new landfill areas.
In total, the three phases will extend the life of the existing site by up to 85 years (Phase 1 – 20 years, Phase 2 – 20 years, Phase 3 – 45 years), based on current annual landfill volumes. Waste re-
duction initiatives could further extend the life of the current site. Deborah Mihial is with the City of Regina. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Stephenville’s engineered wetland facility completes NRC testing By Laura Parsons
tephenville, located on the west coast of Newfoundland, commissioned a new, state-of-theart wastewater treatment facility in the fall of 2009. The facility was designed by Newfoundland and Labrador Consulting Engineers Ltd. (NLCEL), a Trow Global Company, to treat the combined sewer from the town. It featured an Abydoz Engineered Wetland system to naturally treat the sewage and sludge through a series of sub-surface engineered wetlands (Figure 1). The $10million facility received a considerable grant from the Federation of Canadian Municipalities Green Municipal Fund, and was featured at the National Wastewater Conference in Niagara Falls, Ontario, in 2009. The system is the largest sub-surface engineered wetland system in Canada, providing secondary sewage treatment. During 2010, the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) partnered with Abydoz Environmental Inc. to test and evaluate the treatment results of the system. Throughout the year-long testing program, the system continuously reduced biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS) levels, to well below discharge limits. The technology Abydoz Engineered Wetland systems are based on a patented technology, invented in Germany by Dr. Reinhold Kickuth, which uses sub-surface flow engineered wetland technology. The original European systems are now over 40 years old, and are not showing any sign of reduced performance. Abydoz Environmental Inc. is the licensed representative of the Kickuth technology in Canada. Reed plants are used to transfer oxygen to the soil matrix, fostering aerobic microbial activity, which is used to biologically and chemically break down contaminants. It is capable of purifying a wide variety of domestic, municipal and industrial wastewaters, as well as municipal sludge. The treatment area is a stable, engineered ecosystem and is based on complex interrelationships between plants, soils and 58 | March 2011
Figure 1. Aerial view of Stephenville wastewater treatment facility.
Figure 2. Cross-section of Abydoz Engineered Wetland.
micro-organisms. A highly simplified illustration is shown in Figure 2. The effluent first enters a settling chamber/clarifier for primary treatment, where the majority of suspended solids are removed. It then enters the wetland beds for secondary treatment. As the effluent flows sub-surface through the specialized matrix, it encounters oxygen-rich and oxygen-depleted zones. These “zones” create habitats for thousands of different types of bacteria. The primary zones are anaerobic (no dissolved oxygen), anoxic (no dissolved oxygen but contains nitrite/nitrate), and aerobic (contains dissolved oxygen).
These bacteria consume the waste and break down the contaminants to produce a clean effluent. The plants are specially adapted, nursery-produced reed plants, with superior oxygen transfer capabilities. Description of process The Stephenville Wastewater Treatment Facility is located on the Stephenville airport property. The subsurface flow ensures that the wetland does not attract water fowl, or other wildlife, thus enabling it to meet all airport requirements. Combined sewer effluent from the town enters a small headworks building, where it passes through a spiral lift screen to remove gravel, solids and nonbiodegradable matter greater than 9 mm in diameter. The flow then enters a primary clarifier to settle out approximately 70% of the suspended solids. From the clarifier, the flow is split eight ways and proceeds through the horizontal-flow wetland beds, where biological reduction takes place. It is then recombined and passes through two vertical beds, with final discharge to the ocean. Municipal sludge is collected in the
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Wastewater Treatment clarifier by a chain-in-flight system and pumped to a solids holding tank, located below the control building. It is then taken by a pumper truck to the engineered wetland sludge treatment cells on the other side of the airport (Figure 3). Reed plants dewater and mineralize sludge from the clarifier, producing a compost-like material. Liquid in the sludge is partly consumed by the plants and the remainder moves through the cells, leaving the solids behind. It is then treated by a small wetland bed, near the sludge treatment cells. On-site sludge treatment provides significant cost savings by eliminating expensive sludge transportation and disposal costs. It also provides mineralized compost, that can be reused by the community after seven to 10 years in the cell. The system uses no chemicals, few mechanical parts and minimal electricity to treat the wastewater and solids. Not only does this reduce operating and maintenance costs, but it makes for a more sustainable and natural way to treat the townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sewage. Design requirements The treatment system was designed to treat a population equivalent of 7,800 people, with an average flow of 4,555 m3/day. The design objective was to reduce the inlet concentrations from 95 mg/L BOD and 110 mg/L TSS to outlet concentrations below 40 mg/L BOD and 60 mg/L TSS. The system discharges into the ocean (salt water body), allowing for higher discharge criteria under New-
foundlandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s environmental guidelines. The Stephenville system has an overall treatment area of 20,000 m2, composed of eight horizontal-flow subsurface wetland beds and two vertical-flow subsurface wetland beds. It is the largest subsurface engineered wetland system in Canada to date. There are four sludge cells with a
treatment area of 560 m2 each, for a total area of 2,240 m2. All the effluent is held below the surface, eliminating surface contact areas and odour issues. The engineered wetland is an aesthetically pleasing system that looks more like a green field than a typical sewage continued overleaf...
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Figure 4. BOD reduction.
Figure 5. TSS reduction.
Figure 6. Average 16-Hour BOD testing results. 60 | March 2011
plant or lagoon. It has incorporated look-out areas and information display boards along town walking trails to encourage residents to visit and learn about the facility. NRC project The National Research Council of Canada, through the Industrial Research Assistance Program, had previously completed two projects to test pilot systems using the Abydoz Engineered Wetland technology, after it was transferred from Germany. The first was to test results from single-family home installations, and the second for a small-scale municipal pilot project in Marystown, Newfoundland. Results of these studies were very favourable and the designs were expanded for the full-scale municipal project in Stephenville. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the treatment performance of a full-scale system, with design changes from the original German patented technology to allow for North American hydraulic loadings, climate and soil matrix composition. To reduce costs, local materials were also incorporated into the matrix design of the system. During the main testing, inlet and outlet wastewater was sampled monthly for the main parameters of secondary treatment, primarily BOD and TSS. Composite sampling was undertaken, combining the effluent over a four-hour period to improve the quality of results and remove the problems associated with grab sampling. Testing began in 2009. It was initially conducted quarterly while the beds were becoming established. This progressed to monthly testing when the beds were receiving the full design flow of 4,555 m3/day and were fully commissioned. Testing was performed twice a month throughout 2010. Overall treatment results for BOD and TSS are shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively. The system is continuously providing more treatment than required, giving yearly average outlet concentrations of 11.6 mg/L BOD (87% reduction) and 11.8 mg/L TSS (93% reduction). Effluent passes through the headworks and the wetland in a continuous operation. It takes four to six hours for it to move through the primary clarifier, and 11 to 20 hours to move through the wetlands. The effect of freezing and winter conEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Vapour intrusion from soil or groundwater: A challenge for property owners By Khaled Chekiri and Matthew Schroeder
ssessing subsurface vapour intrusion (VI) to indoor air is one of the most complicated and challenging environmental assessment issues. Because of the potential environmental, health, safety and financial impact of VI exposure, it is also one of the most important considerations for owners, operators and managers of commercial properties. The science of vapour intrusion is very complex and includes a number of variables that can have a significant impact on the fate of vapours in subsurface conditions. Further, the regulating community may misunderstand or improperly characterize indoor air issues resulting from VI. Adding to the complexity is a wide disparity between the approaches of various regulatory bodies to tackling VI. There is also a significant challenge to find a good technical approach, which is also economically feasible, to quantify vapour intrusion. Several complex parameters affect the migration of vapours from the subsurface to indoor air. Considerations include screening methods, the use of models, collection of site-specific geological and hydrogeological data, information on building construction and building ventilation, sampling procedures, analytical methods, and data evaluation. The following is a review of the different choices in VI pathway assessment that are considered by the regulators, with the pros and cons for each alternative. A vapour intrusion primer Vapour intrusion is the process by which volatile chemicals in soil or groundwater migrate from the subsurface zone into the air space of a building. Notable cases of VI resulting from “toxic waste sites” include Love Canal in New York in the 1970s and, in 2008, the Bishop Street site in Cambridge, Ontario. Each of these cases points to the significance of VI. The concern surrounding VI is that vapours can have a significant impact on the health and safety of building occupants. Certain vapours associated with toxic chemicals can enter the bloodstream 62 | March 2011
Soil vapour and ambient air sampling setup.
more readily through inhalation than other exposure pathways, such as ingestion or dermal contact. Many toxicologists believe that chronic exposure to vapours, even at low concentrations, increases the risk of developing chronic and acute health problems. Safety concerns stem from the explosive nature of some vapours, such as gasoline components or methane vapours. VI challenges are both regulatory and technical in nature. The regulatory challenge lies in the lack of guidance from Canadian regulatory bodies. The following draft and guidance documents form the basis for investigations of vapour intrusion in Canada: • “Federal contaminated site risk assessment in Canada: Part VII: Guidance for soil vapour intrusion assessment at contaminated sites,” issued by Health Canada in October 2008 (currently in draft form). • A technical guidance document, “Vapour Investigation and Remediation,” issued by British Columbia’s Ministry of the Environment in July 2009. • “Rationale for the Development of Soil and Ground Water Standards for Use
at Contaminated Sites in Ontario,” Dec. 22, 2009. But for these documents, the regulated community is in the relative dark concerning requirements and procedures to investigate (including sampling protocols), assess and mitigate VI in Canada. It should be noted that in the United States, several guidance documents have been developed to address VI, at both the federal and state levels. Nevertheless, there is a need to assess the potential impact of vapours on properties. To conduct these assessments, there are basically three investigating approaches: mathematical modeling, media sampling, and “multiple lines of evidence.” Mathematical modeling Modeling consists of using subsurface geological and analytical data to mathematically predict the chemical concentration in indoor air. Modeling is generally performed as a screening tool to determine whether or not chemical concentration in soil and/or groundwater is likely to result in unacceptable concentrations in indoor air. The entry of soil vapours into buildcontinued overleaf...
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Public Health ings is the result of both diffusive and convective transport processes. As vapours migrate from the subsurface source to the building, a number of factors affect the chemical concentration from one location to the next. These factors are accounted for in the equilibrium partitioning and in the attenuation, coefficient calculations. Provided there is a known chemical concentration in either soil or groundwater, the model simulates indoor air concentration for the chemical. This is a modeled number, and will depend on the accuracy of the inputs. This concentration can be compared to the regulatory indoor air target concentration values. Given an acceptable modeled indoor air concentration, “back calculations” will determine the acceptable chemical concentration in soil and/or groundwater (screening level). The modeling approach has a number of advantages. It can be performed without disturbing the building occupants (i.e. it is non-intrusive), different types of analytical data can be used in the model, and it is relatively inexpensive. However, as previously noted, models are based on a number of assumptions, and the modeled results use data that is, in most cases, roughly estimated. Considering the geologic complexity of the subsurface, soil parameters, soil-airwater relationships, building characteristics, building slab integrity, temperature, air exchange rate, etc., the required sitespecific data are seldom available. Despite the partial validation and frequent adjustments, there is still a relatively large amount of uncertainty associated with models used to predict indoor air chemical concentration from subsurface sources. In a number of field applications, it was found that concentrations predicted by the model were not confirmed by actual measurements. The inability to consistently predict resultant indoor air concentrations from subsurface sources, even at the sites where a wealth of environmental data is available, is somewhat troubling. The alternative is to sample air inside the building. Then to establish the link between chemicals found in indoor air and the chemicals existing at the source (VI pathway) by sampling vapours immediately beneath the building (sub-slab sampling) and those within the soils at 64 | March 2011
Sub-slab sampling port components.
some distance from the building (soil vapour sampling). Media sampling Media sampling involves actual collection of soil vapour samples and submission to analytical laboratories for quantitative analysis. The evolving regulations and science of VI have challenged laboratories to develop new analytical methods and equipment needed to measure chemical concentrations in indoor air (as well as in soil vapour). These methods require the sensitivity necessary to provide analytical results with reporting limits, that are low enough to support risk assessment. Air samples are collected in collection vessels (e.g. Summa® canisters), often six litres in size, specially designed to avoid absorbing ambient chemicals that are not intended as part of the testing protocol. Lower detection limits can be achieved using these collection methods in the “selective ion mode,” or SIM. The SIM analysis can detect selected organic compounds of interest at a very low detection limit (in the 0.01 µg/m3 range), without interference from other chemicals. Indoor sampling Indoor air sampling provides a direct measurement of indoor air concentrations for the chemicals of concern. This sampling provides data on the concentration of the chemicals of concern, not necessarily the origin of the chemicals. Chemicals may have migrated from the
subsurface, or may be present as a result of indoor sources of air contamination. Impact from background chemicals present in the building may be substantial and must be taken into consideration. Attribution to a subsurface source cannot be made until other information is gathered. In addition, an individual indoor air sample may not be representative of the longterm exposure concentration. A number of parameters, such as water table variations, temperature, soil moisture, building condition, HVAC system and atmospheric pressure, may affect VI rates and, therefore, indoor air concentrations. Generally other sampling such as subslab, soil vapour, and outdoor ambient air are conducted concurrent with indoor air sampling, to confirm the VI pathway and to document background conditions. Sub-slab sampling Sub-slab sampling is used for the direct measurement of soil vapour that may accumulate immediately below a building’s foundation. Ideally, both sub-slab and indoor air data are collected simultaneously, so that a pathway is established and a building-specific attenuation factor can be calculated. There are several technical and logistical challenges with sub-slab sampling. Sampling procedures can be very invasive to the building occupants. Usually a rotary drill is used to drill a small hole that extends into the material beneath the continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Public Health VI Pathways.
slab. Utilities need to be located prior to drilling. A stainless steel, small-diameter probe is inserted into the hole, connected to the collection device, and sealed to prevent ambient air from “contaminating” the sample. A vacuum is then applied to the collection device to draw soil vapour into the sampling canister. Leak-proof connections between the probe and the sampling canister are imperative, since the sampling canister vacuum pressure is at 30 inches of mer-
66 | March 2011
cury. It is also important that any holes or breaches made in the slab as part of the sub-slab sampling be properly sealed following the sampling to avoid creating a new preferential pathway for vapour intrusion. Soil vapour sampling Soil vapour is often the preferred subsurface media sampled for evaluating VI pathway beyond the vicinity of the building. Direct measurement of soil vapour will capture vapours from all sources that
may be present, such as contaminated groundwater, soil or, eventually, laterally transported vapours. It is important that soil vapour samples be taken from the appropriate depth, as the site-specific geology and the type and location of the contamination can affect how vapour behaves in the soil column. Active soil-vapour collection is probably the most common method. It involves directly collecting soil vapour by driving either a tube or a screened pipe into the ground. A vacuum is then applied to the collection device to draw soil vapour into the sample container. There must be a good seal between the probe and the ground surface to minimize drawing atmospheric air into the collector and diluting the sample. Multiple lines of evidence Using multiple lines of evidence in evaluating VI has become the “state of the science.” There is a trend away from using just a single data set for attributing chemicals found in indoor air to vapour intrusion. This approach has been termed the “multiple lines of evidence” approach, as it evaluates the “multiple find-
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Public Health ingsâ&#x20AC;? together, before making a decision, rather than relying on a single decision criterion. It is believed that this approach will give a better understanding of the VI pathway and consequently result in the appropriate assessment. Possible lines of evidence that could be used to assess whether the VI pathway is complete include: â&#x20AC;˘ Soil vapour spatial concentrations, including sub-slab and soil vapour data, at some distance outside the perimeter of the foundations with some level of vertical profiling when appropriate. â&#x20AC;˘ Groundwater spatial data, with vertical profiling when appropriate. â&#x20AC;˘ Background concentrations (internal and external sources). â&#x20AC;˘ Building construction and current conditions. â&#x20AC;˘ Sub-slab (or crawl-space) soil vapour data. â&#x20AC;˘ Indoor air data. â&#x20AC;˘ Concurrent outdoor air data. â&#x20AC;˘ Building construction and operation. â&#x20AC;˘ Constituent ratios. â&#x20AC;˘ Fate and transport modeling. It is noteworthy that these various lines of evidence may have different degrees of accuracy and relevance. They may not all need to be evaluated in order to make site management decisions. The challenge for the professional is to determine which lines of evidence are needed to reach a scientifically sound conclusion. Working with regulators before conducting additional field investigations may reduce the amount of information needed for site decision-making. In the lines of evidence listed above, collected data can, for example, be inserted into the fate and transport model. This exercise will help test model assumptions and determine actual attenuation factors. Any discrepancy between observed and modeled data can point to other issues in the conceptual site model. Evaluation of constituent ratios in soil vapour and indoor air will provide evidence as to whether a chemical detected in indoor air is associated with vapour intrusion or is a background chemical. Additionally, a building operated with positive air pressure tends to reduce or prevent soil vapour from entering. The building construction parameters can be used as lines of evidence, including founwww.esemag.com
dation thickness, foundation integrity and the location of utility lines and drains that may create preferential pathways. Conclusion Vapour intrusion into buildings has received increasing attention in recent years, as indoor air quality professionals have recognized it as a significant potential contaminant transport pathway. However, because of the difficulty of reaching definitive answers to the question of how to assess the risks of VI, standards, regu-
lations and methodologies for dealing with VI in Canada are lacking. For owners, operators and potential investors of commercial properties, considering how vapour intrusion could affect occupants and property value, may be one more aspect of environmental due diligence. Khaled Chekiri and Matthew Schroeder are with Dragun Corporation. E-mail: email@example.com
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Data taken from water quality monitoring sites operated by Environment Canada alone, or jointly with federal, provincial and territorial partners, have been used for the first national assessment of nutrient concentrations in Canadian watersheds. Elevated concentrations of total phosphorus were found in some regions of Canada, with close to one-third of the sites classified as eutrophic or hypereutrophic. This assessment covers the trends, from 1990 – 2006, in nutrients in Canada’s watersheds, and an initial synthesis of the state of nutrients from 2004 to 2006. A more detailed report will follow. www.ec.gc.ca
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The basis of the long-awaited water strategy for Nova Scotia is a concept called Integrated Water Management or IWM. IWM is a comprehensive approach to managing water resources, including the effects of human activities on watersheds and ecosystems. A Nova Scotia Water Advisory Group will be formed to work in partnership with government to help implement the strategy. Among other things, this committee would look at which provincial regulations need to be changed or updated. The government report’s recommendations are broken down into actions for today, and actions for tomorrow. Many focus on conservation and water protection.
Fort St. John sees water use decrease
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Water meters are being credited with a significant drop in overall consumption across the City of Fort St. John, British Columbia. The City has been monitoring monthly water usage since 2006, when the meters were installed to see if they would make a difference in water consumption habits. In four years, the reduction has been fairly significant. The City has seen an average 20.7 per cent reduction per month in water usage, i.e., a 826,466,000 cubic metre decrease in water usage for 2010 over 2006. The Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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numbers are from the City as a whole and include residential, commercial and municipal uses. The water conservation measures have meant significant savings for the City including using less electricity for pumping water, and using less chlorine for treating the water.
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Phosphorus pollution on the rise in Lake Erie The Windsor-Essex Region needs to tackle phosphorus pollution and algae blooms in Lake Erie. That would mean doubling or tripling the $400,000 that the Essex Region Conservation Authority (ERCA) receives from the federal and provincial governments to plant trees and reduce the flow of nutrients into rivers and creeks. Algae blooms have made a comeback in Lake Erie in the last decade. In the last two summers there have been algae problems on the Lake and satellite images showed the western basin was green with algae. In the early 1970s, the phosphorus was coming from sewage treatment plants, which have since been upgraded. That, and a reduction in phosphate in laundry detergent, helped cut the amount of phosphorus in Lake Erie by more than half by the early 1990s. Now phosphorus levels are rising and blooms of blue-green algae have been back since 2003. About $1.5 million a year is spent in the region to increase tree cover and reduce nutrients in local waterways. The conservation authority spends $200,000, while the federal government contributes $250,000 and the provincial government $150,000. The remainder comes from corporate donations and landowners.
Environmental Enforcement Act now in force The federal Environmental Violations Administrative Monetary Penalties Act is now in force. The Act establishes minimum penalties and increased maximum penalties for federal environmental offences, makes the liabilities and duties of corporate directors and officers consistent across Canada, and mandates that federal environmental fines be paid into continued overleaf...
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Environment Canada has released a review of the 2009 National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) data. Total releases of pollutants to air, waste and land decreased by 21% between 2003 and 2009. For 2009, 347 substances or substance groups were listed on the NRPI, and over 8,400 facilities submitted reports on the substances that they released, disposed of, or sent to other facilities for recycling. In addition, for the first time, facilities were required to report information on pollutant disposals to tailings and waste rock, retroactive to 2006. The reviewed data are available in multiple formats, including an online search application, map layers to use with Google Earth, and downloadable datasets. www.ec.gc.ca
Olds wastewater turns green The Town of Olds, Alberta, is making green waves in wastewater treatment. The Town, in partnership with Waste Not Limited of Toronto, was among 12 winners of the 2011 Sustainable Communities Awards announced by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities. The awards recognize municipal environmental projects across Canada that demonstrate excellence in environmental responsibility. Olds was one of two winners in the water category for its project “Wastewater Wonder”. Instead of expanding its 30-year-old municipal wastewater treatment facilities, the Town chose to upgrade it with new technology. It installed In-Pipe Technology, which uses high concentrations of special bacteria to turn a passive collection system into a powerful Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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pre-treatment process. The Town avoided the need for new infrastructure, increased the capacity of its treatment facilities by 45 per cent, and reduced the volume of waste sludge by 25 per cent. The Town’s long-term strategy is to pump its wastewater to Red Deer for treatment.
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The multimillion-dollar harbour clean-up project for Saint John, New Brunswick, could be in jeopardy because the municipality can’t acquire the right land for pumping stations and a collector sewer. The land and wastewater infrastructure are critical for the project which is designed to divert all raw sewage away from natural waterways to treatment facilities. The harbour clean-up, which is costing taxpayers about $100 million, involves the construction of a new sewage treatment plant on the east side and a series of lift stations that pump wastewater to that plant and others across the City. Construction crews are on track to finish the new plant in Red Head by July, 2011, with commissioning of the facility planned for August and September. But the overall project could be held up because officials have been faced with “serious” challenges when trying to acquire land for a collector sewer at Marsh Creek and three lift stations. These land acquisitions have to be resolved before infrastructure designs can be completed and construction can begin.
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Canadians want water made a budget priority In 2010, the United Nations passed a historic resolution recognizing the human right to water and sanitation. The resolution passed overwhelmingly, with 122 states voting in favour. Forty one countries abstained, including Canada. A new Environics Research poll, commissioned by the Council of Canadians, indicates that 73% of Canadians want the federal government to recognize the human right to clean and safe water and sanitation. The poll also found that 78% of Canadians support the federal government spending $31 billion over the coming continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
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years for urgently needed maintenance and upgrading of water and wastewater infrastructure. In November 2007, the Federation of Canadian Municipalities released its report titled Danger Ahead: The Coming Collapse of Canada’s Municipal Infrastructure, which stated that $31 billion was needed to “repair and prevent deterioration” in water infrastructure (distribution, supply and treatment) and wastewater systems (sanitary and storm sewers and related treatment facilities). The Environics Research telephone survey was conducted from March 8 - 11, 2011, among a national random sample of 1,000 adults, comprising 503 males and 497 females, 18 years of age and older, living in Canada. The margin of error for a sample of this size is +/3.10%, 19 times out of 20. www.canadians.org
Cityʼs water system to be tested
WƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐ ĞŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƐĐŝĞŶĐĞͲďĂƐĞĚ ƐŽůƵƟ ŽŶƐ DĞĞƟ ŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŶĞĞĚƐ ŽĨ ŽƵƌ ĐůŝĞŶƚƐ ϭͲϴϬϬͲϮϲϱͲϵϲϲϮ ǁǁǁ͘ƌũďƵƌŶƐŝĚĞ͘ĐŽŵ
A tender has been awarded for the testing of the City of Portage la Prairie, Manitoba’s water and its distribution system. The study will review the City’s current water treatment data, the chemicals entering and exiting the water treatment plant, and it will make recommendations for water softening and improving filtration. Since the study is to cover cold and warm water conditions, it will be conducted over a period of several months, with the final report due at the end of October, 2011.
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Water For People, and its CEO Ned Breslin, were recently announced as recipients of the 2011 Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship by the Skoll Foundation. Each year the Skoll Foundation chooses a select group of social entrepreneurs and their organizations working around the world in the areas of tolerance and human rights, health, environmental sustainability, peace and security, and economic and social equity. Recipients receive a three-year grant and join the growing global network of 85 Skoll social entrepreneurs from 70 organizations who are tackling the world’s most pressing social and economic chalEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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lenges. “For the last 20 years, Water For People has been working toward solving the global water and sanitation crisis affecting nearly two billion of the world’s population,” said Sally Osberg, President and CEO of the Skoll Foundation. “Ned Breslin has led the organization to become one of the most innovative NGOs tackling the challenge. By putting transparency and accountability at the heart of its programs, Water For People is demonstrating its commitment to long-lasting water and sanitation solutions and changing the business as usual approach to development.” www.waterforpeople.org
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2011 Steve Bonk Scholarship In recognition of Steve Bonk’s guidance and development of the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association, a scholarship in his name was established by CWWA in 1995. The scholarship is intended to provide educational assistance to those embarking on careers associated with municipal water supply or wastewater. The scholarship of $500 will be awarded annually. Individual applications are now being accepted, with a deadline of June 1, 2011. Complete application criteria and details are available on the CWWA website. CWWA is also seeking sponsorship for the Steve Bonk Scholarship, which would allow them to increase the value of the scholarship and provide a more meaningful contribution to the winner’s education. For more information, visit www.cwwa.ca
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Feds to invest in Great Lakes clean-up efforts Federal Environment Minister Peter Kent has announced that the government is contributing $2,899,500 from its Great Lakes Sustainability Fund, to support 43 projects which will advance remediation and clean up of Great Lakes Areas of Concern in Canada. This year, funding has been provided for work in 11 of the remaining 14 Areas continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
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of Concern, including Hamilton Harbour. The Hamilton Harbour Area of Concern is a 2,150 hectare embayment, located at the western tip of Lake Ontario, and includes several urban centres such as Burlington and Hamilton. It was identified as a "degraded geographic area" because of water quality resulting in undesirable algae and beach closings, sediment contamination, and impairments to fish and wildlife. The Royal Botanical Gardens' (RBG) Grindstone Creek and Cootes Paradise Rehabilitation Project is one of the six projects to receive funding for remediation and clean-up of the Hamilton Harbour Area of Concern in Ontario. Through this project, essential fish and wildlife habitat and water quality in RBG sanctuaries will continue to improve as a result of activities such as the elimination of the damaging effects of carp, the reconnection of isolated habitats, and improvement of inflowing water. RBG hopes to plant approximately 6,500 native plants; monitor water quality at 14 sites throughout the field season; and coordinate public workshops. www.ec.gc.ca/raps-pas
Feds begin regulation of products containing mercury The federal govenment recently announced the start of a regulatory process to prohibit the manufacture, import, and sale of most mercury-containing products in Canada. The main goal of the regulation is to reduce the amount of mercury entering the environment from products. In the environment, mercury can transform into methylmercury, a harmful form of the substance that is absorbed by living organisms, such as fish, and becomes more and more concentrated as it moves up the food chain.
The Government of Canada will still allow some important mercury-containing products to continue to be manufactured and imported, including scientific instruments, dental fillings, and fluorescent lamps. There will be limits on the amount of mercury allowed in different types of fluorescent lamps, and improved label information for consumers about the mercury in the products and how to safely dispose of them at the end of their useful lives.
McGill researchers develop a new way of filtering water using silver nanoparticles Disasters such as floods, tsunamis, and earthquakes often result in the spread of diseases like gastroenteritis, giardiasis and even cholera, because of an immediate shortage of clean drinking water. Researchers at McGill University in Montreal have taken a key step towards making a cheap, portable, paper-based filter, coated with silver nanoparticles. “Silver has been used to clean water for a very long time. The Greeks and Romans kept their water in silver jugs,” says Professor Derek Gray, from McGill’s Department of Chemistry. “But, though silver is used to get rid of bacteria in a variety of settings, from bandages to antibacterial socks, no one has used it systematically to clean water before.” Professor Gray’s team coated thick (0.5mm) hand-sized sheets of an absorbent porous paper with silver nanoparticles and then poured live bacteria through it. The results were definitive. Even when the paper contains a small quantity of silver (5.9 mg of silver per dry gram of paper), the filter is able to kill nearly all the bacteria and produce water that meets the standards set by the US EPA. The filter is not envisaged as a routine water purification system, but as a way of
providing rapid small-scale assistance in emergency settings. “It works well in the lab,” says Gray, “now we need to improve it and test it in the field.” www.mcgill.ca/pprc/members/gray
Manitoba to help protect against sewer backup damage The Manitoba government and several cities in the province will offer a subsidy to assist homeowners with the cost of purchasing and installing sump pumps and in-line backwater valves in homes to protect them from sewer backup. The subsidy program will pay up to 60 % of the cost of installing a sewer/drainage backup system to a maximum of $3,000 per household (up to $1,000 toward the installation of an approved in-line backwater valve and up to $2,000 toward the installation of a sump pump and pit drainage system). New home construction will not be eligible as sump pumps and in-line backwater valves are required under the building code.
Irving Oil receives EIA certificate The Newfoundland and Labrador government has issued an environmental impact assessment certificate of approval to Irving Oil Compay for its Eider Rock marine terminal project in St. John’s. In accordance with the Clean Environment Act, a review determined that the measures identified during the review process, along with the conditions outlined in the certificate of approval, will mitigate all potential impacts of the project. The project will include a marine terminal, a barge landing facility, a heavy haul road and a linear facilities corridor, with a minimum 30-year operational lifespan. The certificate of approval includes conditions to ensure the protection of water quality and quantity, fish habitat, air quality, wetlands and archaeological resources, as well as to ensure appropriate monitoring will be in place.
Leaky pipes causing problems for Aurora The Town of Aurora, Ontario, is taking action against unwanted water with a proposed $1.5 million wastewater rehabilitation project aimed at keeping the rain and 74 | March 2011
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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groundwater that seep into cracked and corroded pipes out of the town’s wastewater collection system. If not resolved, the additional water will use up available treatment capacity and, ultimately, force the Town to expand its treatment infrastructure. During the past two years, the town has used money from a $4.4-million Building Canada Fund grant to inspect 87 kilometres of sewer, inspect hundreds of manhole covers, and re-line 2.3 km of sanitary sewer. The grant allowed the Town to split the cost of the work with the federal and provincial governments. If Council approves the recommendations, this year’s work plan calls for more manhole cover inspections, closed circuit inspections of 12 km of sewer line, and the re-lining of another 1.1 km of damaged pipe.
Increased water monitoring and analysis needed for oil sands Alberta’s water monitoring data review committee recommends comprehensive monitoring, more rigorous scientific analysis, and new monitoring objectives, in order to gain a better understanding of environmental impacts in the oil sands region. A committee of six independent scientists from across North America was asked by the Premier in September 2010 to examine the data and methodologies used by government scientists and University of Alberta researchers Dr. Erin Kelly and Dr. David Schindler. After an in-depth review, the committee found that data from the different research projects is not comparable, because the studies had different objectives and were not designed to examine the same potential impacts. The committee suggests that more work is needed to fully understand the effects of oil sands development on the environment.
Alberta advances land reclamation programs To improve clarity, security, and environmental performance within the oil sands and coal mining sectors, the Alberta government is moving forward with a number of enhanced reclamation initiatives. Currently operators post financial security for reclamation each year, based on the following year’s estimated land www.esemag.com
disturbance. The security is returned when the land is reclaimed. The new mine financial security program takes an asset-to-liability approach which recognizes the resource value - whether bitumen or coal - as an asset in terms of cash flow. For new mines, a base security will be collected early in the mine’s life, when the risk of mine closure or abandonment is at a minimum. Full financial security will be collected later in the mine’s life, but before assets are completely reduced. For mines already operating, existing security held by the province will be used as base security. Over the long term, the total security amount collected will be considerably higher than with the previous approach. All oil sands mines, including those previously providing security at older rates, will now provide security based on full reclamation costs. Oil sands processing plants located on mine sites are also now covered under the program. Government is also enhancing reclamation reporting by boosting the number of milestones used to track reclamation. Previously, only three reporting mile-
stones were used - disturbed, reclaimed, and certified. Recognizing that reclamation occurs over long periods of time and goes through many stages, eight milestones will now be used by both the province and industry. This will result in greater transparency and consistency of reporting.
Solution recommended for sludge disposal The City of Greater Sudbury has been using tailings ponds in the Lively area for 30 years as a disposal site for waste activated sludge. It must find an alternate solution to its wastewater sludge disposal methods by the end of 2012. As well, foul odour originating from the disposal site has contributed to the importance of developing new practices.
HOBO Water Level Data Logger The new HOBO Water Level Logger features high accuracy at a great price, and HOBO easeof-use. Ideal for recording water levels and temperatures in wells, streams, lakes and wetlands.
Low Cost | No-vent-tube design | Fully sealed housing | Optical/USB interface Lightning protection | Multiple-rate sampling | Titanium version available HOBOware™ software | Compensated for barometric pressure*, temperature and water density (*second barometric sensor required) for more information see www.myhoskin.com/waterlevel
Hoskin Scientific Ltd.
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ABS pumps range
Ranging from 2.7 HP to 536 HP, ABS EffeX pumps provide outstanding benefits for optimal lifecycle economy, including long-term reliability, greater energy savings, excellent rag handling, and future-proof design.Visit www. abseffex.com for more information. Tel: 800-988-2610, Fax: 905-670 3709 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.absgroup.ca ABS Group
P roduct & Service Showcase
American Public University offers more than 70 affordable on-line degrees, including Environmental Science with concentrations in Environmental Planning, Environmental Sustainability, Environmental Technology, and more. Classes start monthly and are 100% on-line. Let us help you get started today. Web: www.StudyatAPU.com/enviro American Public University
Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to provide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush, roller or spray. Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona. com Web: www.densona.com Denso
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Package Treatment System ACG Technology’s package treatment system offers performance and durability. It provides sewage treatment within a small footprint. Aeration, mixing and settling can be accomplished in compact, easily transported ISO containers, ideal for remote locations. Provides flexibility of adding future parallel units, an economical means of meeting the needs of any growing sewage loads. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology
Remote area lighting system The new Pelican 9440 remote area lighting system is a portable, battery-operated, maintenance free, LED light array with 2400 lumens of brightness (on high). It has a fully extendable mast up to 7’ with a 360º rotating head and a 120º beam spread. The 9440 is recharged with an integrated 110 VAC charger and can provide up to 3-6 (highlow) hours of light between charges. Tel: 1-800-265-0182, (905) 949-2741, Fax: (905) 272-1866 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Safety Equipment
Coalescing oil/water separators ACG Technology’s coalescing oil/ water separators are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP and polypropylene construction. Standard systems include air-operated diaphragm pump, air filter and floating skimmer. Adjustable weir and skimmer height provides optimal oil removal and minimal disposal volume. Standard range is 1 to 50 GPM. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology
New rain logger Telog’s new RG-32 lowcost, wireless, battery-powered rain logger works with most tipping bucket rain gauges. Rainfall data is wirelessly delivered to a password-protected website for you to view. It is small, easy to install, with up to a 5 year battery life. Tel: 905-829-0030, Fax: 905-829-4701 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.can-am.net Can-Am Instruments
Another world first
Vortex mixing system
Endress+Hauser has developed the first real two-wire Coriolis mass flow meter, with a full 4 to 20mA measuring range. Two-wire devices are in high demand in the chemical, petrochemical, utility, and oil and gas industries, as intrinsic safety is extremely important. The new Promass flow meter meets all of the relevant standards in process industries such as NAMUR, HART and SIL. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.ca.endress.com
The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used for sludge mixing, anaerobic digester mixing, and aerobic digester mixing. Among the advantages of the system are: minimal tank obstructions; easy cleaning, loading/unloading; ideal for varying liquid levels; simplified maintenance; easy retrofitting; and, finally, its ‘as needed operation’. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: Sales@greatario.com Web: www.greatario.com
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems
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PAX Mixer is a very innovative, simple mixer designed to mix water storage reservoirs and standpipes. It offers superior mixing performance with little energy consumption, easy installation, low capital cost. It eliminates stagnation and stratification, minimizes residual loss, prevents nitrification. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.h2flow.com H2Flow Tanks & Systems
The Heron dipperLog is a low cost data logger with many features of higher priced models. It provides 32,000 readings of level and 32,000 readings of temperature between downloads. Automatic elevation and barometric compensation are available with the Heron barLog. Remote downloading and reprogramming are an option with the Heron dipperWave system. Tel: 1-800-331-2032, 905-634-4449, Fax: 905-634-9657 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.heroninstruments.com Heron Instruments
Hand-held DO meter The YSI ProODOTM handheld DO meter provides extreme durability for the measurement of optical, luminescent-based dissolved oxygen for any field application. Web: www.hoskin.ca
Inclined screw press
Inline sludge screen
The YSI Professional Plus handheld multiparameter meter provides extreme flexibility for the measurement of a variety of combinations for dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, salinity, resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ORP, pH/ORP combination, ammonium (ammonia), nitrate, chloride and temperature. Web: www.hoskin.ca
The RoS3Q Inclined Screw Press from Huber Technology provides high performance sludge dewatering in a compact, entirely enclosed machine. It provides efficient and reliable operation with minimal operator attendance. The slow rotational design is simple and energy-efficient. Tel: 541-929-9387, Fax: 541-929-9487 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.huber-technology.com
With more than 700 installations, Huber Technology’s Strainpress® Inline Sludge Screen is designed to effectively screen sludge in pressurized lines. It reduces maintenance costs and increases the operating reliability of downstream sludge treatment systems. The Strainpress is precision manufactured of stainless steel. Tel: 541-929-9387, Fax: 541-929-9487 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.huber-technology.com Huber Technology
Streamliner CR relining pipe from Ideal Pipe is a strong, light corrugated HDPE pipe designed to ‘streamline’ the upgrading of old metal culverts. In-place relining with Streamliner CR eliminates the trouble and expense of road reconstruction, while improving drainage through the culvert. Tel: 800-265-7098 Web: www.idealpipe.ca IDEAL Pipe
New jet aerators
Imbrium Systems is a green-tech company that designs, manufactures and distributes stormwater treatment technologies to protect water resources from pollutants. Imbrium has a strong record of environmental innovation in the industry with the Stormceptor, the Jellyfish, SorbtiveMEDIA and SorbtiveFILTER. Tel: 888-279-8826, Fax: 301-279-5433 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.imbriumsystems.com Imbrium Systems
Based on the clogfree Flygt Npumps, the new Flygt jet aerator from ITT Water & Wastewater has become easier to install and maintain. The major changes in the new generation jet aerators are: an improved lift in, lift out structure, and a strengthened stand equipped with rubber dampers. Available with up to three ejectors, the Flygt jet aerator is a flexible aeration solution for small- and mediumsized tanks. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.ittwww.com ITT Water & Wastewater
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Chemical-free water treatment
WEDECO Ozone Generators from ITT Water & Wastewater eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and micro-organisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.ittwww.ca
Need to measure a “no flow” event? John Meunier offers innovative fluid control technology with a unique “no flow” alarm for all water and wastewater applications, especially sodium hypochlorite dosing skids. It is available for a wide flow range, and provides simple and effective protection. Tel: 1-888-MEUNIER E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com
ITT Water and Wastewater
P roduct & Service Showcase
Fluid control technology
MSU Mississauga’s MG Safety Hatch is the ultimate in fall through protection. It is made in Canada, in standard and custom sizes, and is available in aluminum and stainless steel. It is welded to CSA W47.1 and W47.2 Standards. Tel: 1-800-268-5336, Fax: 1-888-220-2213 Web: www.msumississauga.com MSU Mississauga
Solids density meter The Suspended Solids Density Meter from Markland eliminates unnecessary pumping, reduces water, material and energy costs, and optimizes water/wastewater treatment and industrial processes. It is easily installed and calibrated in tanks/pipelines and requires no approvals. Samples are tested free-ofcharge. Tel: 1-855-873-7791, Fax: 905-873-6012 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.sludgecontrols.com
Markland Specialty Engineering
Pumping systems solutions
Progressive cavity pumps
Satisfying pumping needs at the lowest cost over the life cycle of the system, Myers optimizes system efficiencies with complete engineering services, providing cost-effective solutions and immediate cost savings when planning a pump station. Myers software programs provide the engineering tools to properly design the ideal station. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: email@example.com
NEMO® Progressive Cavity Pumps are normally used in wastewater treatment plants with the following properties: low viscosity or compacted, fibrous, adhesive, thixotropic, abrasive, corrosive, high gas content, toxic, varying temperatures, lubricating and non-lubricating. Capacities are available up to 1,800 gpm, with pressures up to 720 psi. Tel: 705-797-8426, Fax: 705-797-8426 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.netzsch.ca
Myers Engineered Products
Odour control system
Parkson’s OHxyPhogg™ odour control system uses patented air atomizing threefluid nozzles for efficient fogging results. It eliminates scrubbers or significantly reduces scrubber load, requires no chemicals, and is easy to install. There is minimal start-up cost. Tel: 800-249-2140, Fax: 954-252-4085 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.parkson.com
With its fullysealed design and advanced power-conserving microcomputer technology, the TruBlue 555 level submersible transducer and data logger is part of Pressure Systems’ new product line, specifically designed for monitoring water level and quality in environmental and watershed management. Tel: 757-865-1243, Fax: 757-865-8744 E-mail: sales@PressureSystems.com Web: www.pressuresystems.com
The awardwinning delta® with optoDrive® provides diverse control and operating capabilities in a capacity range of 7.5 - 75 l/h, 362 psi - 29 psi. The delta from ProMinent has many advanced features: pulsed or continuous dosing; automatic detection of airlock, low pressure and high pressure; and an automatic degassing option. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.prominent.ca/delta
ProMinent Fluid Controls
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Wastewater Pump Stations
Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment.
Sanitherm has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, preplumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint!
Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.prominent.ca
Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.sanibrane.com
Energy-saving Smith & Loveless wastewater pump stations are ideal for collection system and WWTP influent pumping. S&L stations arrive at the jobsite completely built and thoroughly factory-tested. Now available with expanded pump sizing: 4" - 12" piping (100-300 mm); horsepower: 1.5 to 300 HP; capacity: up to 50,000 GMP (3155 lps). Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com
ProMinent Fluid Controls
Smith & Loveless
Water level data logging
Controlling contaminated groundwater
Proven in the field by thousands of satisfied customers, the Levelogger Gold is a dependable, high-accuracy water level and temperature datalogger. With lifetime calibration, the Levelogger Gold features 0.05% FS accuracy, a 10year battery and memory for 40,000 sets of readings. Tel: 905-873-2255, 800-661-2023 Fax: 905-872-1992, 800-516-9081 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.solinst.com
Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wall for groundwater containment and control. It is a new design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills assisted in developing the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www. waterloo-barrier.com
Inline disposable filter
Waterra produces the 0.2 micron CAP300X2 inline disposable filter. This capsule filter contains 300 square centimetres of 0.2 micron, high purity polyethersulphone media. Like all Waterra filters, each CAP300X2 filter is pre-washed with 1 litre of ultra pure water, and all batches are certified by ICPMS. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps
NEW portable optical dissolved oxygen measurement system The AquaPlus™ is the most affordable portable optical DO system. It records up to 3,000 data sets, recording DO, EC, temperature, barometric pressure and GSP coordinates. The complete AquaPlus system retails for less than $1,800.00. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps
Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.waterloo-biofilter.com Waterloo Biofilter
Wilo’s mixers for water and wastewater applications are known for their durability and for the functionality of the propellers in slow, medium and high-speed applications. For more information, please send your request to email@example.com Tel: 866-WILO-CDN, Fax: 403-277-9456 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.wilo-canada.com WILO Canada
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Official Show Guide For:
The 19th Annual
Conference & Tradeshow
May 16 - 18, 2011
International Centre - 6900 Airport Road, Mississauga
o-organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, CANECT is the largest event of its kind in Canada, typically attracting up to 2,000 tradeshow visitors and conference delegates. Conference delegates and tradeshow visitors are a high quality audience of senior people responsible for environmental engineering, regulations and compliance issues. CANECT 2011 will be co-located in Ontario with Partners in Prevention, an annual tradeshow organized by Workplace Safety & Prevention Services.
Combined, CANECT and Partners in Prevention Tradeshow are expected to attract some 400 exhibiting companies and 7,000 tradeshow visitors. Tradeshow badges from either show will allow admission to both shows at no extra charge. To register for free tradeshow registration, please visit www.envirogate.ca, or fill out and fax in the free pass that came with this copy of ES&E magazine.
Scheduled Session Topics May 16: Environmental Regulation and Compliance 2011 Water & Wastewater: Compliance; Management and Opportunity Brownfields: The New Rules
May 17: Environmental Management Essentials Toxics: Complying with the New Toxics Reduction Act Air & GHGs: Air Emissions Regulation and Compliance
May 18: Environmental Due Diligence for Managers and Supervisors Environmental Approvals Modernization Spills, Leaks and Environmental Emergencies.
w w w. e n v i r o g a t e. c a
If you would like to receive a printed CANECT conference program, please contact Darlann Passfield, Tel: 905-727-4666 (Ext 30), or Toll Free: 1-888-254-8769, Email: email@example.com. Conference details are also available at www.envirogate.ca
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Environmental Regulation and Compliance 2011 Essential Overview and Update CANECT’s essential annual introductory and update course presented in association with leading environmental lawyers from Bennett Jones LLP - has established its reputation as Canadian industries’ chosen source for cutting-edge environmental regulation, compliance and due diligence training.
Water and Wastewater: Regulation, Compliance, Opportunity Leading organizations have long recognized that an enlightened water and wastewater strategy is fundamental to maintaining compliance and sustainability. Governments are supporting this trend with new legislation on water-taking, water-pricing and ever more stringent treatment standards. Attend this course and learn the latest management and compliance challenges and opportunities.
Brownfields: Working with the new rules Extensive changes to the Brownfields regulatory regime took effect last year and will extend into 2011. This course, developed by Janet Bobechko, of Blaney McMurtry LLP, provides registrants with an authoritative guide to working with the new rules governing Records of Site Condition and Phase I and Phase II site assessments. A ‘must-attend’ for all engineers, consultants, lawyers, planners, site-owners, investors, insurers and developers.
Program - Day 2, May 17 Environmental Management Essentials This new ‘Environmental Management Essentials’ course, developed especially for CANECT and presented by Randy Sinukoff of Stantec, offers a key guide to planning and implementing a flexible and responsive environmental management system designed for continuous performance improvement. Environmental Management Standards under ISO 14001 are outlined, along with a guide to environmental auditing and opportunities for integration with other management and sustainable development standards.
Toxics Reduction: Complying with new toxics reduction acts and bylaws This course, developed especially for CANECT by Pinchin Environmental, provides practical insight into complying with Ontario’s Toxics Reduction Act and Toronto’s toxic emissions bylaw. Guidance and instructive case study examples illustrate how you can turn toxic reduction to competitive advantage.
Air & GHG Emissions: Management & Compliance This course, now in its 10th year, delivers Canada’s most up-to-date guide to complying with federal and provincial air and GHG emissions regulations, including Ontario’s new Greenhouse Gas Reporting Regulation along with key compliance do’s and don’ts gleaned from practical experience in Alberta, BC and through the WCI. In addition, the course provides practical strategies for managing everyday air-related issues related to noise, odour and dust and approvals.
CANECT Workshops Program - Day 3, May 18 Professional Development Courses offered on Day 3 Demonstrating and Documenting Environmental Due Diligence This course provides practical insight into environmental due diligence and why it is important to document and demonstrate its application in commercial transactions; dealing with contractors and consultants, ministry investigations, operational best practices and management systems. Proof of environmental due diligence can provide managers with a first line of defence against environmental charges and save thousands of dollars in penalties.
Approvals Modernization This course, developed exclusively for CANECT and presented annually by C of A specialists at Golders and MOE’s Approvals Branch, has become the gold standard for those seeking to keep up-to-date with the Ministry of Environment’s Approvals Modernization process as well as those seeking guidance on best practices for managing all types of C of A and permits from Comprehensive Approvals, to Environmental Compliance Approvals, to filling out the new forms.
Spills: Best Practices for Reporting, Contingency Planning, Communicating and Emergency Response An environmental emergency can occur at any time. Attend this course and be sure you and your response team know what to do to respond professionally to environmental emergencies. What plans do you need to have in place? Who must you report to? What information must you divulge? What practical steps must you take to protect employees, your organization, its assets, and the health and safety of surrounding communities?
Program - Day 1, May 16
Don Bell, Founder and Former Executive Vice-President, WestJet
Margaret Trudeau, Celebrated Canadian and Mental Health Advocate
Dr. Jeff Linkenbach, Director, Center for Health and Safety Culture, Montana State University
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CANECT Exhibits ... Manufacturers, distributors, suppliers and companies from the following areas:
• • • • • • • •
Air pollution control Analytical laboratory Confined space entry Consulting engineering Containment Decontamination systems Emergency response Environmental auditing
• • • • • • • •
Filters Groundwater treatment Hazardous waste treatment Health & safety Instrumentation & control Legal services Liners/geotextiles Noise & vibration control
• • • • •
Oil & water separation Pumps, pipes, valves, fittings Protection/safety equipment Recycling Residuals dewatering, disposal & handling equipment • Site & soil remediation
• • • • • • • •
Software systems Spill control & containment Stormwater control Tanks & storage Transportation services Water treatment Wastewater treatment Waste disposal
Hours May 17 - 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
May 18 - 8:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.
CANECT SESSION FLOOR ROOM PLAN 2011
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Best Management Practices for Response Capability ON-SITE
Since 1989 - Best Service Dates
BOOK NOW For Best Training Dates
Book 1 to 5 Day Courses Book 3 to 6 Months in Advance
HANDS-ON MODULES • Chemical (Hands-on) • Test and Verify • Evaluate Properties • CBRNE • Response (Hands-on) • Techniques, Controls • Countermeasures • Recovery (Hands-on) • Waste Reduction • Time Critical Issues
Training Unit • Workbooks • Response Supplies • Recovery Equipment
On site training ...
Mines • Pulp & Paper • Steel • Hydro • Light & Major Industries • Government Institutions • Research • Hospitals • Municipal • Water Treatment • Emergency Site Specific Assessments • Photo-documentation of findings • Review of Prevention, Preparedness & Response Capability Measures • Site-location, Spill kits & Equipment Report: Power Point with Photos
of Assessment Flat Rate Cost is credited to training completed within ONE YEAR
www.spillmanagement.ca Ph: 905-578-9666
‘Training You Remember ... Experience You Can Use’
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Canadian Environmental Conference & Tradeshow List of Exhibitors as of March 30, 2011 Accuworx Inc. #1227 Brampton, ON 416-410-7222 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.accuworx.ca Contact: John Theurer Products/Services to be displayed: Accuworx services include ultra high powered vacuuming, hazardous waste removal/disposal, hazardous waste disposal, ultra high pressure water blasting, hot water washing, emergency spill response and building/site remediation. ACE Canada #1337 Toronto, ON 416-594-3001 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.ace-ina-canada.com Contact: Ricardo Philip Products/Services to be displayed: ACE Environmental Risk goes beyond offering traditional insurance. We focus on your complete risk, instead of a segment of it. ACG Technology Ltd. #1238 Woodbridge, ON 905-856-1414 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.acgtechnology.com Contact: Greg Jackson Products/Services to be displayed: Water, wastewater and stormwater treatment equipment. ‘
Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E
AET Consultants #1541 Kitchener, ON 519-576-9723 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.aet-consultants.com Contact: Scott Freiburger Products/Services to be displayed: AET Consultants is a multi-disciplinary environmental consulting and auditing company offering services in Waste, Ecology, Building Sciences, Energy and Environmental Management. AGAT Laboratories #1536 Mississauga, ON 905-712-5074 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.agatlabs.com Contact: Steve Boloudakis Products/Services to be displayed: AGAT Laboratories’ operations offer full-service analysis to industries within the Environmental, Energy, Mining, Industrial, Transportation, Life Sciences and Agri-Food sectors. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E ALS Global #1236 Mississauga, ON 905-507-6910 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.alsglobal.com Contact: Melissa Burke Products/Services to be displayed: Laboratory analytical services.
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Altech Technology Systems Inc. #1422 Toronto, ON 416-467-5555 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.altech-group.com Contact: George Bennett Products/Services to be displayed: Air pollution control: System REITHER venturi scrubber, packed tower chemical scrubbers, jet venturi, mist eliminators, activated carbon industrial wastewater treatment: System HydroKleen membrane bioreactor, pH control systems, ultrafiltration membranes. AMEC Earth & Environmental #1528 Mississauga, ON 905-568-2929 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.amec.com Contact: Steve Lamming Products/Services to be displayed: Air monitoring, modelling and testing, air quality management permitting and compliance, greenhouse gas assessment reduction and validation, acoustic assessment. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Avensys Solutions #1223 Toronto, ON 888-965-4700 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.avensyssolutions.com Contact: Louise Clément Products/Services to be displayed: Water Quality & Sampling, Flow Monitoring, Emissions & Air Quality, Gas Detection & Analysis, Combustion Monitoring, System Integration. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E BakerCorp #1437 Hamilton, ON 800-BAKER-12 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.bakercorp.com Contact: Amber Reimers Products/Services to be displayed: BakerCorp, the industry leader in containment, pump, filtration and shoring equipment rental solutions, with over 90 locations nationwide and operations in Europe, Canada and Mexico. BSI Group Canada Inc. #1228 Mississauga, ON 800-862-6752 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.bsigroup.ca Contact: Carine Delorme/Anne-Marie Pizzitelli Products/Services to be displayed: Certification (ISO 9001, 14001, OHSAS), training solutions services and software solution for management systems. Caduceon Environmental Laboratories #1418 Richmond Hill, ON 289-475-5442 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.caduceonlabs.com Contact: Damien Gilbert Products/Services to be displayed: Providing analysis for remediation, industrial, landfills and drinking water on a variety of parameters and compounds. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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CANECT Exhibitors Canadian Association for #1419 Laboratory Accreditation Ottawa, ON 613-233-5300 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.cala.ca Contact: C. Charles Brimley Products/Services to be displayed: Internationally recognized laboratory accreditation service; proficiency testing service; quality assurance services; in-class and online training courses. Can-Am Instruments Ltd. #1521 Oakville, ON 905-829-0030 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.can-am.net Contact: Mark Reeves Products/Services to be displayed: Oil/water separators, level, flow, flow monitoring, gas detection, samplers, TOC, COD, chlorine monitors, sludge monitors, BOD, oil/water monitors, alarm dialers. Carlo Gavazzi Inc. #1329 Mississauga, ON 888-575-2275 E-mail: Gavazzi@CarloGavazzi.com Web site: www.GavazziOnline.com Contact: Markus Feldhofer Products/Services to be displayed: Carlo Gavazzi is an international innovator in the design, manufacturing and marketing of electronic control components for the industrial automation market. Chemco inc. #1232 Saint-Augustin de Desmaures, QC 418- 878-5422 or 800-575-5422 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.chemco-inc.com Contact: M. Jean-Serge LeBlanc or Brian McCoy Products/Services to be displayed: Chemical manufacturer of coagulants and flocculants; alum and ferric sulfate solutions. Chemco inc. has served Canadian industries and cities for 20 years. Claessen Pumps Limited #1432 Innisfil, ON 705-431-8585 E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.claessenpumps.com Contact: Gord deBruin or Daniel Blandford Products/Services to be displayed: Claessen Pumps Limited, Your Ontario Sales & Service provider of Grindex Submersible and Power Prime Diesel pumps. ClearTech #1520 Mississauga, ON 905-612-0566 E-mail: Ontario@cleartech.ca Web site: www.cleartech.ca Contact: Mike O'Brien Products/Services to be displayed: Chemicals and equipment for water and wastewater treatment. Dragun Corporation #1433 Windsor, ON 519-979-7300 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.dragun.com Contact: Clifford Lawton Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental consulting and engineering firm providing environmental site assessments, site closures, site decommissioning, litigation support, and peer reviews. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E
Drain-All Ltd. #1213 Ottawa, ON 613-327-5906 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.drainall.com Contact: Stephen Huza Products/Services to be displayed: Liquid/solid hazwaste removal/disposal; emergency spill response; confined space entry; industrial wet/dry vacuuming, excavation; high pressure blasting. Eckel Industries of Canada #1429 Morrisburg, ON 613-543-2967 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.eckel.ca Contact: Dawn Stark Products/Services to be displayed: Acoustical Testing and Sound Solutions. ECO Canada #1534 Calgary, Alberta 403-476-1931 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.eco.ca Contact: Kevin Nilsen Products/Services to be displayed: Job Board, Environmental Professional Certification, Internships, Academic Accreditation, Professional Development & Training. Certificate courses specific to Aboriginals and Newcomers to Canada, Networking, Employer Services. Elemental Controls - Thermo Scientific #1318 Mississauga, ON 866-544-9974 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.elementalcontrols.com Contact: Keith Grattan Products/Services to be displayed: Thermo Scientific Portable Analyzers; Environmental Instruments Dust and Gas Analysis; Niton XRF Instruments Heavy Metals in Soils, Lead in Paint. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Emnor Mechanical Inc. #1226 Hamilton, ON 905-312-9666 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.emnor.com & www.cobeta.com Contact: Pat Kennedy Products/Services to be displayed: Pump parts, pump repairs, pattern making, castings, most alloys, full CNC machining.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine Aurora, ON 905-727-4666 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.esemag.com Contact: Steve Davey Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. E.R.E. Inc Montreal, QC 514-326-8852 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.ereinc.com Contact: Mary Baccari
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CANECT Exhibitors Products/Services to be displayed: E.R.E. Inc. specializes in the areas of site remediation and wastewater treatment as well as equipment required for sampling and monitoring of air, water and soil. FERRO Canada Inc. #1230 Richmond Hill, ON 905-763-0787 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.ferrocanada.com Contact: Peter Ferrante Products/Services to be displayed: Asbestos Abatement, Mould Remediation, Lead Abatement, Demolition, Soil Remediation, Decommisioning, HAZMAT Handling, Trauma, Flood/Fire/Wind, Emergency Response and Construction. Filter Innovations Inc. #1423 North York, ON 416-490-7848 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.filterinnovations.com Contact: Gail Horobin Products/Services to be displayed: MBR wastewater treatment, water filtration products, pump & treat groundwater, oil water separator, activated carbon, bag filters, automatic backflushng filters. First Response Environmental Inc. #1523-1535 Hamilton, ON 289-639-2020 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.first-er.com Contact: Wes Hicks Products/Services to be displayed: We provide complete Environmental Management on an Emergency basis, as well as Confined Space Rescue services and complete Training services. Flochem Ltd. #1522 Guelph, ON 519-763-5441 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.flochem.com Contact: Brent Schwindt Products/Services to be displayed: Hydrogen Peroxide 35% and 50% for soil remediation, Captor for dechlorination and ozone quenching, other related chemicals, storage tanks, distribution programs. Golder Associates Ltd. #1428 Mississauga, ON 905-567-4444 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.golder.com Contact: Roxana Bahrami Products/Services to be displayed: Golder Associates is a respected, employee-owned, global company providing consulting, design, and construction services in our specialist areas of earth, environment, and the related areas of energy. From offices worldwide, our employees work with clients to manage their environmental and engineering activities in a technically sound, economically viable, and socially responsible manner. H2Flow #1229 Concord, ON 905-660-9775 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.h2flow.com Contact: Michael Albanese Products/Services to be displayed: Water - Wastewater treatment for industrial applications: Pre-treatment to sewer, filters, clarifiers, sludge dewatering presses, odour control, liquid storage tanks. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E 86 | March 2011
IDES Canada Inc. #1233 Markham, ON 416-666-9180 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.scentroid.com Contact: Ardevan Bakhtari Products/Services to be displayed: Olfactometer, odour assessment equipment. Scentroid is the first truly mobile dynamic olfactometer designed for in-field use. JMAR #1327 San Diego, California 858-312-7769 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.jmar.com Contact: Steve Fischer Products/Services to be displayed: BioSentryPlus Online, Real-Time Microbial Monitoring for Water. Lakes Environmental Software #1438 Waterloo, ON 519-746-5995 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.weblakes.com Contact: Julie Swatson Products/Services to be displayed: Lakes Environmental supplies easy-to-use and sophisticated air dispersion modeling, emissions inventory and risk assessment software to industries, government agencies and academia. Levitt Instruments #1319 Oakville, ON 866-741-7101 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.levitt-instruments.com Contact: Joey Pacheco Products/Services to be displayed: Levitt Instruments Sales and Rental offering; portable and fixed gas detection and particulate monitoring with locations across Canada. Met-Pro Product Recovery Pollution #1540 Control Technologies Inc. Vaughan, ON 905-760-9000 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.met-pro.com Contact: Jim Lively Products/Services to be displayed: Flex Kleen Brand dust collectors, Duall Brand wet particulate and chemical scrubbers, mist eliminators and carbon absorbers, Systems Brand thermal oxidizers. Monitario Technical Services Inc. #1340 Cambridge, ON 519-748-8024 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.monitario.com Contact: Randy McLean Products/Services to be displayed: Design, install, calibrate, upsize, retrofit, certify and appraise flow measurement instrumentation/systems - â&#x20AC;&#x153;objective accuracyâ&#x20AC;?. NESTEC, Inc. #1313 Douglassville, PA 610-323-7670 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.nestecinc.com Contact: James L. Nester Products/Services to be displayed: Thermal oxidation system for VOC control. Thermal oxidizer service and energy audits. Process ducting and capture systems. Pollution control consulting. Pack-A-Cone c/o Mindspace Inc. Markham, ON 905-284-1000 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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CANECT Exhibitors Web site: www.packacone.com Contact: Cory Tse Products/Services to be displayed: Pack-A-Cone is the original collapsible pylon. Introducing UNDERFYRE - the latest in performance FR Wear – fire resistant, wicking, cotton clothing. Polystar, Inc. #1328 Twinsburg, OH 330-963-5100 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.polystarcontainment.com Contact: Rob Nightwine Products/Services to be displayed: Spill prevention and secondary containment products for Truck, Rail and AST applications. Quantum Murray LP #1212-1218 Stoney Creek, ON 877-378-7745 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.qmlp.ca Contact: Sarah Urquhart Products/Services to be displayed: Emergency Response, Confined Space Rescue, Industrial Training, Chemical Spills. Recycling Council of Ontario #1224 Toronto, ON 416-657-2797 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.rco.on.ca Contact: Lucy Robinson Products/Services to be displayed: Take Back the Light, the fluorescent lamp recycling program, 3Rs Certified, a program for certifying an organization’s waste reduction achievements. ReNew Canada / Water Canada #1332 Toronto, ON 416-444-5842 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: renewcanada.net/watercanada.net Contact: Lee Scarlett Products/Services to be displayed: ReNew Canada and Water Canada are two national business publications on infrastructure renewal and water issues across Canada. Rice Earth Sciences #1424 Vaughan, ON 905-760-0170 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.riceeng.com Contact: Mike Kleespies Products/Services to be displayed: Rice Earth Sciences manufactures, distributes and rents environmental and gas detection equipment. Royal Roads University #1435 Victoria, BC 250-391-2600 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.royalroads.ca Contact: Sandy Huang Products/Services to be displayed: Royal Roads University delivers applied and professional programs to advance professionals in the workplace. Programs are delivered online and face-to-face on campus. RWDI AIR Inc. #1412 Guelph, ON 519-823-1311 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.rwdiair.com Contact: Tammy Gazzola Products/Services to be displayed: RWDI AIR provides
consulting services and field measurements related to air quality, GHGs, energy management, noise, and hazard & risk. Sarafinchin Consulting Engineers #1322 Toronto, ON 416-674-1770 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.sarafinchin.com Contact: Christopher Burke Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental Site Assessments, Site Remediation, Hydrogeology, Risk Assessment, UST Decommissioning, Designated Substance Surveys, Geotechnical Engineering, Construction Inspection and Materials Testing. SGS Canada Inc. #1532 Lakefield & London, ON 887-747-7658 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.ca.sgs.com Contact: Chris Sullivan Products/Services to be displayed: Analytical Laboratory Services for water, wastewater, soil, sediments, waste, biosolids, air and biota. SICK Ltd. #1434 Calgary, AB 403-538-8791 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.sicknorthamerica.com Products/Services to be displayed: SICK Process Automation offers in situ and extractive analyzers for gas and liquid analysis and measurement instrumentation for dust, opacity and volume flow. SNC-Lavalin Environment #1219 Toronto, ON 416-635-5882 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.snclavalin.com Contact: Susan Froud Products/Services to be displayed: EHS Compliance, Air Monitoring & Permitting, Water & Wastewater Management, Hazardous Materials Management, Phase I/II Assessments, Remediation & Risk Assessment.
Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Spill Management Inc. #1338 Stoney Creek, ON 905-578-9666 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.spillmanagement.ca Contact: Ruth Holland Products/Services to be displayed: Spill Management teaches Hands-On Response Skills, Strategies, and ER Planning to Industry, Emergency Services, Institutions, Hospitals and Universities across Canada.
Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E St. Lawrence County Industrial #1333 Development Agency Canton, NY 315-379-9806 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.slcida.com Contact: Brian Norton Products/Services to be displayed: With great incentive programs New York State’s St. Lawrence County is the best location for your company to connect with the U.S. marketplace - The U.S. market starts here!
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CANECT Exhibitors StormTrap #1222 Morris, IL 877-867-6872 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.stormtrap.com Contact: Dean Gross Products/Services to be displayed: StormTrap is the ultimate solution for projects requiring stormwater management. StormTrap’s modular design allows the system to be completely customizable, giving it the ability to fit all types of job site parameters. The system’s innovative design maximizes the total volume of stormwater stored while minimizing the project’s footprint and overall cost. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E TEAM-1 Academy Inc. #1235 Oakville, ON 905-827-0007 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.team1academy.com Contact: Brian Kovalcik Products/Services to be displayed: Providing Professional Safety Training, Equipment Sales, Standby Rescue, Rope Access, Confined Space & Wind Industry Services for the last 20 years. T.F. Warren Group Inc. #1427 /TARSCO Brantford, ON 519-754-3731 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.tfwarren.com Contact: George Bojeczko Products/Services to be displayed: The T.F. Warren Group can undertake any size project in the fabrication and repair of tanks, vessels and industrial services. Through our close connections with steel plate producers, engineering and logistic partners, we are able to safely complete turnkey projects on time and on budget. Our health and safety systems are in place to protect both our workers and the surrounding environment. Our project management system ensures that all projects are completed in a cost effective and efficient manner. This unique approach has been recognized by being awarded a number of high value contracts. Let our group add success to yours. Toronto Recycling Inc. #1225 Richmond Hill, ON 905-881-0999 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.torontorecycling.com WEEE Collect! Contact: Kurt Altinbilek Products/Services to be displayed: Toronto Recycling Inc. is an environmentally responsible recycler of Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) such as Computers, Monitors, TVs, Printers, Audio & Video players and other e-waste. Our processing facility is approved by Ontario Electronic Stewardship Program, ISO-14001 Certified and certified as an e-Waste Disposal and Processing Facility by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Municipalities work with us to organize e-waste collections on Environment Days. Property managers in condominiums benefit from our e-waste collection programs. Commercial clients take advantage of our complete IT Asset retirement services: Pickup Service, Data Sanitation, Certificates of Destruction/Recycling, De-Branding, Re-Marketing and value return.
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University of Toronto Scarborough #1524 Graduate Programs Toronto, ON 416-287-7357; 416-287-7358 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com Web site: www.utsc.utoronto.ca Contact: Julie Quenneville/Anna Maria Russo Products/Services to be displayed: Please visit our booth to learn about our graduate programs in Environmental Science including a 12-month professional Master of Environmental Science and a Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Science. You may also inquire about hiring our students through our placement program for our Master of Environmental Science program. Worldwide StormTrap #1222 Morris, IL 877-867-6872 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.stormtrap.com Contact: Dean Gross Products/Services to be displayed: StormTrap is the ultimate solution for projects requiring stormwater management. StormTrap’s modular design allows the system to be completely customizable, giving it the ability to fit all types of job site parameters.The system’s innovative design maximizes the total volume of stormwater stored while minimizing the project’s footprint and overall cost.
Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Xogen Technologies Inc. #1426 Orangeville, ON 519-941-9500 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: www.xogen.ca Contact: Laszlo Lakatos-Hayward or Dr. Hector Alvarez-Vazquez Products/Services to be displayed: Industrial and Municipal Wastewater Treatment solutions and services. X-Treme Energy Group Inc. #1341 Red Deer, AB 403-341-0067 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.protecstorage.ca Contact: Tony Smethurst Products/Services to be displayed: ANSI/ISEA 2358. 1-2009 certified self-contained emergency showers; municipal household hazardous waste storage buildings; hazardous flammable/chemical storage buildings.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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AGAT Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 . . . . . .email@example.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.agatlabs.com
American Public University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.studyatapu.com American Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.terratec.amwater.com American Water Works Association . . . . . . . . .63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.awwa.org/ace11/esem Associated Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ae.ca Avensys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.avensyssolutions.com AWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.awifilter.com C&M Environmental Technologies . . . . . . . . . .37 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cmeti.com Canadian Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.canadiansafety.com Cole Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.coleengineering.ca Cole Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . .www.coleengineering.ca Degremont Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.degremont-technologies.com Delcan Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.delcan.com Denso
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.densona.com
Endress + Hauser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ca.endress.com Gorman-Rupp of Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . . . .www.grcanada.com
ACG Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90, 91 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . . . .www.acgtechnology.com
Greatario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.greatario.com H2Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.h2flow.com Heron Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . .www.heroninstruments.com Hetek Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hetek.com Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20, 33, 66, 75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hoskin.ca HPM Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hpmltd.ca Huber Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.huber-technology.com Hydro International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hydro-international.biz Imbrium Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . . .www.imbriumsystems.com ITT Water & Wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ittwww.ca John Meunier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . .www.johnmeunier.com JWC Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.jwce.com Markland Specialty Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . .38 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . .www.sludgecontrols.com Maxxam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.maxxam.ca MegaDome/Harnois Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.megadomebuildings.com MSU Mississauga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . .www.msumississauga.com Mueller Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.muellercanada.com ONEIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.oneia.ca Ontario Clean Water Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ocwa.com Orival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.orival.com OWOTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . .www.owotc.com Pressure Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . .www.pressuresystems.com Pro Aqua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.proaquasales.com ProMinent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . .firstname.lastname@example.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.prominent.ca Sanitherm Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . .email@example.com . . . . . . . . .www.sanibrane.com SEW-Eurodrive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 . . . . . 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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.uniqair.com
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Levelton Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.levelton.com
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TRUST Municipalities across Ontario trust the Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) to operate their water and wastewater facilities — efficiently and effectively.
That’s because we take our commitment to clean water, community health, and the environment, just as seriously as they do. If your community is challenged by water or wastewater issues … think OCWA. Think trusted partner.
For additional information, or to enquire about job opportunities, call us at 1-800-667-OCWA or look us up on the internet at www.ocwa.com.