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Polymer and Drry y-Feed Preparation — with ProMinent E Experts x p e r t s in i n Chemical C h e m i c a l Feed Fe e d and a n d Water Wa t e r Treatment Tr e a t m e n t


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Contents ISSN-0835-605X Summer 2010 Vol. 23 No. 4 Issued July 2010 ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.

FEATURES 7 8 10 12 18 20 22 24 28 31 34 36 38 40 43 45 46 48 50 54 57 59

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Page 51

Let’s hope a “Gulf of Mexico” type oil spill never happens in the Great Lakes - Editorial comment by Steve Davey What lies ahead for the water and wastewater sector labour force? Twenty year old fibreglass pipeline found to be in pristine condition Optimizing a WWTP lift station using CFD modeling New electric winch system helps screen Colorado River water Rainwater harvesting system installed at Florida college campus Sub-metering is an effective way to measure and control energy usage Using floating islands for tertiary nutrient removal The social context of wastewater management in remote communities Security and safety considerations for gaseous chlorine Niagara Parks Commission program reduces tour bus idling Emerging advances in level measurement Wireless real-time data used in contaminated soil clean-up operation Optimizing primary sludge pumping at London’s Greenway plant Engineers and effective solid waste management Cover: The Transocean ultra-deepwater New report says legally-binding drinking water standards essential semisubmersible rig, DevelopDrinking water treatment and distribution in the Arctic ment Driller III, has been drilling a relief well, which will intersect New technology developed for drinking water pathogen detection the existing well bore, and pump Reducing waste while recovering hydrocarbons and wash water heavy fluids and cement in to plug the leaking well. Inset photo Effluent sewers sustainably accommodate growing communities shows in-situ burning of leaked “Geography of Hope” author to open Western Canada Water annual conference surface oil. What today’s environmental students want, need and ask for Photos courtesy BP. Summer



strikes the Gulf of Mexi co

ES&E’s annu al guide associatio ns and acadto government, emic instit Tertiary utions nutrient removal for lagoo ns Drinking water issue the Arcti s in c

Effluent sewers for communiti growing es

ES&E’s Annual Guide


To Government Agencies & Associations

Product Showcase . . . . . 70-74 Environmental News . . . 75-82 Professional Cards . . . . . .75-82 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Associations ................................................................... 61 Government Agencies .................................................. 65 Colleges and Universities ............................................. 69

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Comment by Steve Davey

Let’s hope a “Gulf of Mexico” type oil spill never happens in the Great Lakes he Deepwater Horizon Drilling platform exploded and sank in the Gulf of Mexico, on April 20, 2010, tragically killing 11 workers and setting off the largest oil spill on record. Thanks to live underwater video feed, the whole world could see the brown plume of oil blasting out of the broken well head, at rates estimated to be between 6,000 to 60,000 barrels per day. Some three months later, on July 16, BP announced that it had finally been able to cap the 1,500 metre deep well, shutting off the flow of oil. However, only when two relief wells are finished, and the well is sealed off permanently, will the threat of further oil release be eliminated. The total amount of oil released is staggering, ranging from 500,000 to five million barrels of oil. In a July 15, 2010, statement to a US Senate Appropriations Committee, Environmental Protection Agency administrator, Lisa P. Jackson explained that the US Coast Guard (USGC) is the incident-specific chair for the gulf spill and that her agency is one of many providing support. EPA’s monitoring and sampling activities provide the USCG, the Gulf states, and local governments with information about the potential impacts of the oil spill on the health of residents and aquatic life along the shoreline. EPA is collecting samples for chemicals related to oil and dispersants in the air, water and sediment, supporting and advising USCG on efforts to clean reclaimed oil and waste from shorelines, and closely monitoring the effects of dispersants in the subsurface environment. On May 10, 2010, EPA and USCG issued a Directive requiring BP to implement a monitoring and assessment plan for both subsurface and surface applications of dispersants, which are part of its oil spill response. For subsea monitoring, toxicity data generated from monitoring to date did not indicate significant effects on aquatic life, according to Ms. Jackson. She added that


the EPA is closely watching dissolved oxygen levels, which so far had remained in the normal range. She also stated that the USCG, in consultation with EPA, issued directives to BP on June 29, 2010, on how the company should manage oil, contaminated materials and liquid and solid wastes recovered in clean-up operations from the oil spill in the affected Gulf states. These directives create enforceable requirements, implementation procedures and oversight plans related to BP’s handling of waste materials. The directives require BP to give EPA and state agencies access to facilities, or locations where waste is temporarily or permanently stored. So now what happens? As with past spills, the environmental, legal, political, social and economic ramifications, caused by this disaster, will likely be felt for decades. According to some reports, Prince William Sound in Alaska has still not fully recovered from when the tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on March 24, 1989, and released some 260,000 to 750,000 barrels of crude oil into its waters. According to a report by the World Resources Institute (, the dockside value of fish brought in from the Gulf of Mexico is approximately $997 million per year. Assuming that this value can be distributed according to primary production levels, each square kilometre affected by the spill can be thought of as generating $3,261 in annual commercial fisheries value. A twenty percent loss of this ecosystem service value over a twenty year period would imply a present value loss in the order of $350 million, or $875 million if loss of value is closer to 50%. The report also says that, from the Yucatan Peninsula to Key West in Florida, the oil spill has jeopardized recreation, tourism, property values along the coast, and the ability of coastal marsh areas to sequester carbon dioxide and provide storm and hurricane protection. I am sure that most people are un-

Summer 2010

Disaste r strike s

the Gulf of Mexic o

ES&E’s annual gu associa tions an ide to governme d academ nt, ic instit Tertiary utions nu for lagoo trient remova l ns Drinking the Arcti water issues in c Effluent se commun wers for grow ing ities

aware that there have been natural gas drilling rigs in Lake Erie for almost 100 years. Also, that there are still an estimated 46.1 million barrels of oil and 3.01 trillion cubic feet of natural gas under it. In total, it is estimated that 311.7 million barrels of oil and 5.23 trillion cubic feet of natural gas still lie under the US side of the Great Lakes. While drilling has been banned in the Great Lakes since 2005, many groups believe the ban should be lifted, as there have been virtually no environmental problems to date. Hopefully, the Deepwater Horizon disaster will stiffen the resolve of regulators on both sides of the border to maintain the ban on drilling in the Great Lakes, no matter how much oil costs in the future. Depending on where it occurred, on top of any environmental damage, an oil leak in the Great Lakes could cut off drinking water supplies for up to 40 million people. Certainly the odds of anything going wrong would be very low. but I’ll bet that’s what BP was thinking before April 20, 2010.

Steve Davey is editor and publisher of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. E-mail: Summer 2010 | 7

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Human Resources

Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: Consulting Editor

What lies ahead for the water and wastewater sector labour force?


Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail:

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rate: Canada $75.00 (plus HST).

8 | Summer 2010

recent report, released by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, has revealed that Canadian municipalities are reaching a breaking point. Over the past 20 years, growing responsibilities and reduced revenues have caused the deficit in municipal infrastructure to grow to approximately $120 billion dollars and it will continue to grow by 2 billion each year, as assets reach the end of their service life, and repair and replacement costs increase. Evidence of how this kind of decline could affect us has become apparent over the past few years. In 2000, following a period of heavy rain, Walkerton, Ontario’s water was sending residents to the hospital with E.coli poisoning. Only 11 months later, the City of North Battleford, Saskatchewan, experienced a drinking water outbreak of gastroenteritis, which affected some 5,800 to 7,100 people from the area. Unfortunately, many municipalities do not have the capacity to fund upgrades or new facilities on their own, leaving it up to Infrastructure Canada to foot the bill. So far, they have created the Building Canada Fund to assist Canadian municipalities in upgrading and replacing their existing infrastructure. However, while this initiative secures funding for new facilities, it does not examine the labour market required for these facilities. To research this, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada sought out ECO Canada (Environmental Careers Organization). In order to gain an understanding of the


current labour market situation, ECO Canada’s research team designed a study to identify and investigate critical human resource issues facing Canadian municipalities. The result was a report titled Municipal Water & Waste Management Labour Market Study that outlines labour supply patterns and trends. Research was carried out through several surveys and focus groups with facility managers, human resources personnel, hiring managers, and association representatives. Some of the issues outlined in the study include: an aging workforce, shallow candidate pools, a history high of turnover rates, a lack of resource and training support, and overall awareness. 1. An aging workforce. According to research, the labour force working in both water/wastewater and solid waste management facilities share the same key demographics. Both are primarily made up of men, with women representing less than 20% of every occupation examined. Focus group and National Working Group participants felt the lack of female representation is due to poor marketing. Though women have the skills to do the job, many are not aware of the career possibilities. Some participants reflected this could also be the result of a legacy of hiring managers who are biased towards male candidates. A large portion is approaching the average age of retirement, and perhaps most alarming is the prevalence of workers in positions critical to facility operation nearing retirement. For example, in both water/wastewater treat-

continued on page 64...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply Infrastructure

Twenty year old fiberglass pipeline found to be in pristine condition ccelerated aging tests, such as ASTM D3681, Standard Test Method for Chemical Resistance of Fiberglass Pipe in a Deflected Condition, are a common method employed to predict the life of an object after a shorter period of testing. Tests of Hobas pipe predict a lifespan of over 100 years, but how can this be verified in practice? Last year in Odessa, Texas, the recovery of a pipeline gave the company the opportunity to retrieve pipe that had been in service for 20 years. In 1987, the West Texas Water Supply System (WTWSS), which operated near Odessa, expanded its distribution lines using 18-inch diameter, centrifugallycast, fiberglass pipes. Two separate lines were included in the project to deliver brackish water from the Capitan Reef to nearby oil fields for use in secondary recovery processes. Centrifugally-cast,fiberglass-reinforced polymer mortar (CCFRPM) “fiberglass


10 | Summer 2010

Pepe Rodriguez with new and old Odessa pipe. The foreground pipes are some of those unearthed. The new pipe is in the background.

pipes” were chosen because of their inherent corrosion resistance. The brackish water temperature is normally around 9095 degrees F, and it is also contaminated with hydrogen sulfide. The first of the two lines installed was 21,000 feet long. It was completed in the fall of 1987, field tested to 185 psi without signs of a single leak, and put into service delivering 35,000 barrels per day. A second line, which included a 124,000foot extension, was completed in early 1988. Each of the lines could deliver up to 120,000 barrels per day. Last year, Centurion Pipeline L.P. contacted Hobas. An adjacent gas pipeline rupture had damaged several segments of the existing brackish water line and the owner needed replacement pipes. Timely repair of this main supply line was critical. Eighty feet of new 18-inch diameter CCFRPM pipe were supplied to repair the small portion of the damaged line. “Throughout the process, we were

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply Infrastructure lucky enough to receive some of the over 20-year-old pipe back,” stated Pepe Rodriguez, Hobas’ quality control supervisor. “We reviewed the files we keep onsite for all manufactured products and were able to determine that this was one of the first CCFRPM pipes manufactured in the US, back in November of 1987.” It is rare that segments of pipeline are available for testing as most remain in use for their lifetime. Stork Materials Technology, of Houston, was hired to evaluate the mechanical properties of the returned CCFRPM pipe. A variety of tests were performed in accordance with the ASTM standards for the product. In all cases, the results exceeded the original requirements. WTWSS management expected a 50 year or longer service life for the CCFRPM pipes in this particular environment. Testing on pipe after 20 years confirmed this expectation. Kimberly Paggioli is with Hobas Pipe. E-mail:

Testing performed in accordance with ASTM standards showed original requirements were exceeded. Physical testing of specimens included axial tensile strength and strain (pictured), hoop tensile strength, hoop flexural strength and strain, and axial compressive strength.

The centrifugal casting process allows Hobas to accurately control the thickness of the pipe’s layers.

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Wastewater Treatment

Optimizing a WWTP lift station using CFD modeling By Chris George, Shawn Scott, Brad Johns and Bruce McFadden n 1992, a Class Environmental Assessment was completed to evaluate options to service an expanding population within the tributary area of the Sudbury, Ontario, Wastewater Treatment Plant. The preferred option was to expand the existing plant to treat an average day flow of 102,375 m3/day, a maximum day flow of 204,750 m3/day, and a peak flow of 409,500 m3/day. It included construction of a new Lift Station at a total cost of $17.5 million (1992 estimate) to handle future peak wet weather flows. Recently, the Class Environmental Assessment (EA) was amended and a revised 25 year future peak wet weather flow of 386,000 m3/day was estimated. The Challenge: Optimize the Sudbury WWTP Lift Station Due to the unique geological conditions in the Sudbury Basin, a network of rock tunnels was constructed in the early 1960s to convey sewage to the Lift Station at the Sudbury WWTP site. Approximately 21 km of rock tunnel of various depths terminates at the Lift Station where the sanitary sewage is pumped roughly 30 metres to the surface for treatment. The Sudbury WWTP Lift Station has experienced a number of operational issues over the last 15 years, primarily related to peak wet weather flows. In 1996, the Lift Station incurred a major pumping failure resulting from flooding in the dry well, which affected numerous nearby residences and left the City without wastewater treatment for an extended period of time. Since that time, the City has replaced four of the original conventional dry pit pumps with two 280 hp and two 525 hp Flygt dry pit submersible types. The remaining two pumps are conventional dry pit types, each rated at 300 hp. On occasion, peak flows have challenged the capacity of the station, causing the rock tunnel to surcharge approximately 20 m and forcing the City to bypass untreated sewage upstream of the plant. In addition to limitations with capacity, wastewater at the plant is currently pumped after the headworks. This intermediate pumping is currently a bottle-


12 | Summer 2010

Figure 1: Sudbury Wastewater Treatment Plant.

neck and a costly operation at the plant. To facilitate future upgrades at the plant, retrofit the headworks, and eliminate the intermediate pumping, the Lift Station pumping needed to accommodate an additional 3.0 m of static head. After improvements to the existing Lift Station over the past 10 years, a reduction in flows, and the replacement of four of the original pumps, the City contemplated continuing with upgrades to the existing station as opposed to constructing a new facility at a revised cost of roughly $30 million (2009 dollars). Incorporated in the approach was the proposal to eliminate the existing intermediate pumps by elevating the headworks and hydraulic grade from the pump station. R.V. Anderson Associates Limited (RVA) was retained by the City to design upgrades to the Lift Station and replace the two remaining original conventional dry pit pumps with high efficiency dry pit submersible types. By doing so, the City will delay, likely indefinitely, the construction of a new lift station and headworks. The detailed design of these upgrades employed Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Modeling to substantiate the performance of the Lift Station pumping. Pump upgrades The existing Sudbury WWTP Lift Station was constructed in 1960 with a

dry well/wet well configuration and a separate screening room approximately 30 m below surface. The incoming sanitary flow from the rock tunnel is split into two 1.2 m x 2.1 m channels that convey sewage through coarse screens to the pump intakes, as shown in Figure 2. A 400 mm diameter equalization line links the wet wells. The dry well houses six raw sewage pumps. In 2009, the City and RVA initiated the preliminary design to replace the two remaining pumps. The preliminary design reviewed the hydraulics at the Lift Station in order to answer the following questions: • Can the new pumping configuration handle the projected peak flows? • Can the surcharge in the rock tunnel be utilized in the wet well to increase pumping capacity? • Will the existing wet well configuration convey adequate raw sewage to satisfy the pump requirements? And should the smaller pumps be moved to the end of the wet well? • Will a larger equalization pipe between the existing wet wells improve pump suction conditions? • How will the existing suction hoods affect pump performance conditions under various flow scenarios? continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

Figure 2: Lift Station Pumping Layout.

• What are the risks of vortexing, pre-rotation, pump cavitation, premature wear, etc? A desktop hydraulic review of the rock tunnel was completed, utilizing asbuilt data and projected flows to assess the available surcharge at the Sudbury WWTP Lift Station under peak flow conditions. Although future peak wet weather flows are estimated at 386,000 m3/day, the review also considered the theoretical ultimate peak flow of 432,000 m3/day as outlined during the design of the City’s South End Rock Tunnel. The range of available surcharge was developed to evaluate the Lift Station performance based on the proposed pumping configuration in an attempt to satisfy the 25 year peak flow as well as the ultimate capacity of 432,000 m3/day. The static profile of the rock tunnel permits approximately 18.9 m of surcharge, prior to affecting sanitary service; however, the desktop analysis indicated that up to 5 m of surcharge is available at the Lift Station under peak flow scenarios. The Lift Station can theoretically accommodate the future peak flow of 386,000 m3/day under 4 m of surcharge with the largest pump out of service, satisfying MOE design guidelines. Furthermore, under minimal surcharged conditions, it was determined the station could accommodate the ultimate peak 14 | Summer 2010

flow with all six pumps in service. Theoretically, the design of the pumping upgrades indicated that the Lift Station could accommodate the peak flows and proposed elevated headworks; however, the City and RVA had numerous questions regarding the performance of the wet well and pumps under these operating conditions. This ultimately led to a CFD modeling exercise on the proposed pumping configuration. Computational Fluid Dynamic modeling The CFD modeling was done by ITT Water and Wastewater in order to: • Review pumping performance and operation of the pumps with the addition of the proposed configuration under peak flows and surcharged conditions. • Optimize pump layout including suction/discharge piping. • Gauge wet well performance including flow limitations, potential cavitation, vortexing, or any negative effect that may affect the performance of the pumping configuration. • Provide recommendations to improve hydraulic efficiency of the pumping configuration. The modeling assignment included: • Constructing a three-dimensional computer model based on as-built information and proposed pumping

configuration including wet well dimensions, pump data, and inlet and suction conditions provided by RVA. • Using computational fluid dynamic CFD++ unified grid modeling program to simulate flow scenarios. (CFD++ provided by Metacomp Technologies, California) • Modeling at least five base pumping sequences to determine worst-case scenario(s). • Reviewing results of base runs and recommend modifications and efficiencies. • Modeling at least two optimization pumping sequences based on results of base runs incorporating recommendations. • Providing results of optimization and final recommendations for hydraulic efficiencies, including modifying the equalization line and moving pump locations. The evaluation criteria to interpret the CFD results were adapted from The American National Standard for Pump Intake Design (ANSI/HI 9.8-1998) and The Hydraulic Institute Standards which generally included: 1) Velocity Distribution at the Pump Inlet – where deviations from the mean should be no less than 10%. 2) Swirl Angle at the Pump Inlet – where continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Wastewater Treatment

Figure 3: Flow paths to pump 2B during a peak flow simulation.

swirl angle, defined as the arctan of tangential velocity divided by the axial velocity, should not exceed 5 to 7 degrees. 3) Vortices – which must be avoided near pump inlets. 4) Temporary Variations of Flow – where fluctuations of velocity at any

point shall produce a standard deviation from the time-averaged signal of less than 10%. 5) Air Entrainment – air entrainment should be avoided from vortices and other sources. Air entrainment was eliminated as a risk for the proposed pumping configu-

ration due to the characteristics of the incoming sanitary flow and did not form part of the modeling exercise. Base simulations were carried out, and their results evaluated at the impeller plane for each pump. Each simulation identified similar behaviour noted as significant swirling, and both wet wells had similar results. The swirling effect was attributed to the abrupt flow transition from the rock tunnel inlet to the wet well which caused reverse flow circulation, where the flow near the top of the wet well reverses direction prior to entering the suction hoods. Figure 3 shows flow paths at pump 2B during a peak flow simulation. In order to reduce the high swirl angles in the suction piping, guide vanes were proposed inside each of the existing suction hoods. Subsequent flow simulations determined that swirling was reduced to an acceptable level. Vortices were not evident, provided the liquid level was maintained at an appropriate level and the suction hoods remained intact. CFD modeling did identify that, due

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

The swirling effect was attributed to the abrupt flow transition from the rock tunnel inlet to the wet well which caused reverse flow circulation, where the flow near the top of the wet well reverses direction prior to entering the suction hoods.

Downtown Sudbury.

to relatively low velocities at the end of the wet well, the wet wells may be prone to inducing sedimentation. The risk of sedimentation may be reduced by exercising the pumps furthest from the intake at full capacity on a regular basis as a means of flushing the wet wells. Furthermore, since the maximum liquid level difference between the wet wells under the different flow scenarios was negligible, the equalization line had no impact

on the flow distribution in the wet well. Summary Investment in a CFD modeling study has helped to optimize the pump capacity of the existing Sudbury WWTP Lift Station, and the recommendations derived from the modeling were incorporated into the detailed design of the Lift Station pumping upgrades. This has allowed the City to achieve a number of benefits, including:

1. Use of existing infrastructure to handle the projected peak wet weather flows. 2. Deferred construction of a new lift station at a total cost of $30 million. 3. Reduced capital construction cost by maintaining existing pumping configuration. 4. Removal of the intermediate pumping station at the plant, which represents significant operational and maintenance savings. 5. Recognition of the need to aggressively reduce inflow and infiltration, as well as peak flows. The detailed design of the Lift Station upgrades was completed in March 2010. Construction is expected to be complete by December 2010 for an estimated cost of $5 million. Chris George, P.Eng., and Shawn Scott, P.Eng., are Associates with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited. Brad Johns, P.Eng., is with the City of Greater Sudbury. Bruce McFadden is with ITT Water and Wastewater. For more information, E-mail:

Summer 2010 | 17

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Water Treatment

New electric winch system helps screen Colorado River water hen the largest submerged membrane water treatment plant in the world called on the Metropolitan Water District (Metropolitan) in Los Angeles, California, to pipeline unfiltered, screened water to the new facility, updating a set of trash racks became a necessity. Located upstream from the Twin Oaks Valley Water Treatment Plant in San Diego, the trash racks provide large-scale screening. After channeling Colorado


An epoxy finish was added to the winch system.

Metropolitan decided to use electrical power for the raising and lowering of the trash racks.

River water through the racks, the water filters through a much finer mesh traveling screen downstream, then journeys along the pipeline to the treatment facility. Traveling screens provide fine screen-

18 | Summer 2010

ing, down to approximately one millimetre. To avoid damaging the screen and ensuring properly screened water intake, installing a reliable trash rack upstream to collect larger items was essential. Rather than manual operation, Metropolitan decided to use electrical power for the raising and lowering of the trash racks, to ensure more reliable cleanout capabilities and properly screened water downstream. The solution was an electric winch system with two-part rigging and custom drum configuration from Thern, Inc., of Winona, Minnesota. Because of limited geometry, installation soon became a challenge as well. “It was a significantly tight installation with limited deck space and a short fleet angle distance,” said Justin McProud, an

engineer for Thern who oversaw the project. “Plus, we had a high load capacity requirement and needed the winch to perform both pull and lift functions.” Meeting these challenges, the custom winch system provided a narrow drum configuration for easier mounting on the limited deck space. To supply the required load handling capacity, the twopart rigging feature afforded a load capacity rating of 9,000 pounds each, delivering a total of 18,000 pounds capacity. An epoxy finish was added to the winch system as well to provide added durability in the corrosive environment. For more information, E-mail:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply

Rainwater harvesting system installed at Florida college campus By Michael Gauthier Florida community college’s new 60-acre campus, located in Tampa, is a LEED-certified green campus, consisting of an environmentally friendly building, rainwater harvesting system, and sustainable landscaping materials and methods. Designed to be a model “Florida Yard,” the landscape demonstrates the use of native and drought-tolerant plants, xeriscaping, rainwater catchment, pervious walkways, and other ways to reduce detrimental runoff into Florida’s estuaries and bays. This project showcases ways to conserve resources, learn about energy efficiency, understand water conservation, use the least toxic building materials and recycled products, and reduce runoff. The philosophy of a “green” building is a minimalist approach to the environmental impact that any new development, in this case, the school, has on nature. A good example of green building is the development of rainwater harvesting systems. A well-engineered system provides for reduced flood occurrence, erosion


Installing the 20,000 gallon customdesigned rainwater collection tank.

control, stormwater management, and a decrease in the reliance on the municipal water supply. Florida has taken a leadership role in the water conservation arena. As a result, the use of a rainwater harvesting system was deemed an integral part of obtaining

The engineered “green” system incorporates buildings, and landscaping. 20 | Summer 2010

the points needed for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver status at the new school. The rainwater harvesting system uses rainfall that would otherwise be collected as surface runoff and channeled through the municipal stormwater system to discharge. The “free” rainwater will instead be stored in a cistern and used for flushing low-flow toilets and landscape irrigation, eliminating the need for expensive, municipally-treated fresh water. The critical framework of the rainwater collection system consists of: • a cistern to collect water, • transfer pumps to convey the stored water to the building, • a particulate filtration system to remove sand and grit, and • a disinfection system to kill harmful bacteria and contaminants that may be present in the water. How the system works The cistern at the new college is a 20,000-gallon Highland Tank HighDRO® protected, steel underground rainwater collection tank (RCT). Steel was the natural material of choice for the tank because of its LEED “point scoring” high recycled content and high reclamation rate. Other user benefits that influenced the choice included the compatibility of materials, inherent strength of the tank to withstand over four feet of overburden and, most importantly, the long-term security of the stored water. Features of the RCT include an inlet diffusion baffle, SSPC-SP-10 grit blast and NSF compliant polyurethane internal coating, heavy-duty 100% solids polyurethane external coating, overflow with trash skimmer, easy access manways, and a duplex pump package. The pumps utilize floating suctions to convey clean water to the building. A special level sensor was designed to control and monitor the water levels in the RCT and send a continuous signal to the building management system. Particulate filtration is the first line of defence against contamination in a rainwater collection treatment train. The filtration system basically consists of a

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Water Supply vides clean water to the fixtures with a maximum flow rating of 1,500 gal/min. Determining the size of any rainwater harvesting system requires accurate measurement of the rainwater catchment area and fairly complex plumbing and instrumentation design and engineering. In the community collegeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s case, the roof served as the main collection point and was specifically designed to supply sufficient amounts of rainwater to the cistern. The size of the cistern was based on the annual rainfall, storage

needs, and water demand. A well-engineered rainwater harvesting system, such as this, will supply uninterrupted clean water to the fixtures during the entire school year. Additionally, the new system will highlight the collegeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commitment to protecting the environment. Michael Gauthier is with ASME Pressure Vessels & Water Tanks. For more information, E-mail:

Laser Marked Water Level Meters

The Day Tank.

pressure tank filled with a multi-stage media to remove particles greater than 10 microns in diameter. An automatic back-flush feature provides continuous, low-maintenance protection. Ultraviolet light is the primary method of disinfection, with a secondary chlorine drip to provide a residual means of disinfection detection. In harvesting systems, the level of disinfection required for rainwater depends on the quality of the collected water and the purpose

In harvesting systems, the level of disinfection required for rainwater depends on the quality of the collected water and the purpose for which it will be used. for which it will be used. Once the water passes through the treatment system, it will be stored in an indoor day tank to provide water for the urinals and irrigation. The tank is a 300gallon, protected, steel above-ground storage tank that includes an NSF-compliant internal lining, and an overflow and level sensor to control the pumping sequence. The duplex booster pack


Flat Tape Water Lever Meter



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Energy Conservation

Sub-metering is an effective way to measure and control energy usage By Domenic Capobianco

Carlo Gavazzi energy meter being used in the Firestone Textile Plant in Woodstock, Ontario.

educing electricity costs will boost your bottom line. This isn’t news, it’s something you know and have heard before. But there are various ways to accomplish this goal; so, where do you begin? Unless you have the data, you cannot manage your energy costs effectively. In a recent survey conducted on “best-inclass” companies, it was noted that, with an energy management program, they were able to reduce their energy consumption by 15% year after year and have an overall equipment effectiveness of 90%. Starting an energy management program within your facility is the easiest and most effective way to decrease your energy usage and increase overall efficiency. Since 1990, energy efficiency in the industrial sector has improved by 13%.


22 | Summer 2010

In 2005 alone, Canadian industry saved $3.9 billion in energy costs. Accompanied by reducing energy usage, power quality issues such as power sags, swells, transients, harmonics, etc., can be addressed and rectified, as it is estimated that 30% of all business downtime is related to a power quality issue of some sort. Here are a few steps to help you begin: • Ensure top management commitment. • Establish an energy committee with employee members. • Assign responsibilities. • Prepare an energy file to track progress. • Measure base load energy. • Monitor energy usage to quantify results and savings. The best way to give an accurate indication of how and where you are using

energy within your facility is through sub-metering. This method also provides the information needed to begin and sustain an energy management program. Sub-meters can be installed in different departments to determine areas of excessive energy use, even down to individual pieces of equipment to determine efficiency before and after an upgrade. Energy costs are increasing every year, and surveys indicate that at least 30% of industry’s overall energy savings potential can be obtained without capital expense, by simply making changes to procedures and behaviour. Remember, you cannot save it unless you track it! Domenic Capobianco is with Carlo Gavazzi Canada Inc. For more informatioin, E-mail:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Summer 2010 | 23 Email

Summer2010_Layout 1 22/07/10 12:33 AM Page 24

Wastewater Treatment

Using floating islands for tertiary nutrient removal By Archis Ambulkar, Stephen Zeller and Douglas Klinger

Floating island base matrix prior to the plantation of vegetation.

loating islands are constructed wetland systems in which macrophytes (woody plants) and grasses are planted on an artificial buoyant matrix surface that is porous enough to allow roots to penetrate the matrix into the water column. The floating island system is based on a similar concept to that of constructed wetland rock reed filters for wastewater treatment, consisting of basins of rocks with plants inserted at the surface, with their roots extending into the water col-


umn in the rocks. The basic difference between floating island technology and a constructed wetland system is that these islands are installed to float on the water surface to facilitate nutrients uptake through the plant roots and bacteria (attached to the roots) of the macrophytes planted on the surface of the islands; the roots penetrate the island matrix and suspend into the wastewater column. Floating islands are environmentally friendly, natural treatment systems aimed

Sr. No.


Before Upgrades (Jan’06 – Nov’06)

After Upgrades (Dec’06-Jan’09)



158 – 264 (Avg. = 206)

142 – 257 (Avg. = 195)



66 – 144 (Avg. = 99)

48 - 148 (Avg. = 91)


Average Flows

0.0488 – 0.1061 (Avg. = 0.067)

0.0399 – 0.0919 (Avg. = 0.060)

Table 1: Comparison of WWTP Influent Data. 24 | Summer 2010

at removing nitrogen and phosphorus species, primarily through the root zone area (which develops below the water line), the microbes (which populate this area and island matrix), and the synergistic interactions between the plant rhizomes and microbes. Further, the vegetation helps to cool the surface of the water column and block sunlight, which helps to control algae; the vegetation gives off oxygen during daylight and CO2 at night. Uptake of the nutrients by the roots/ bacteria is a removal of the nitrogen and not a conversion process such as nitrification. Therefore, once the plants uptake the nitrogen, it is completely fixed from the water column and no longer available as a pollutant. Wiconisco Township, in Pennsylvania, owns and operates a 0.125 million-gallonper-day (MGD) secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) which has two lagoons, which can be operated in series or in parallel. Each lagoon (total volume 1.8 MG) is divided into two sections with a baffle. The inlet section is completely aerated and the second section is partially aerated, resulting in facultative conditions.

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Wastewater Treatment Surface aerators (three 5 hp aerators/mixers in the complete mix area and one 7.5 hp aerator/mixer in the settling area) provide aeration and mixing for each lagoon. The facultative section of the lagoons also serves as the biosolids storage area. Brinjac Engineering Inc. assisted the Wiconisco Township with obtaining a Growing Greener Innovative Wastewater Treatment Grant Award for $65,000 to install floating islands for tertiary nutrient removal at the treatment plant. The Wiconisco treatment plant is the Beta test site for this kind of floating island system application in wastewater treatment. In November 2006, Wiconisco WWTP installed three BioHaven floating island wetlands units (each approximately 250 sq ft) in Lagoon #2. These were provided by Floating Island International (FII). As described by FII, the BioHaven floating island is an advanced form of floating treatment wetland that â&#x20AC;&#x153;bio-mimicsâ&#x20AC;? natural floating wetland systems invented by nature. Vegetated with native plants (preferably perennials), it is a natural and sustainable eco-system that provides many benefits, from habitat restoration to water cleansing. BioHaven floating islands are buoyant mats, planted like a garden and launched onto a waterway. They are made from a matrix of fibres that looks like a pot-scrub or loofah. The matrix is water filtration material made from 100% recycled plastic (PET), from drink bottles, which use the most inert plastic available. Layers of matrix are bonded together with foam, which also provides buoyancy. Treatment system performance Treatment plant influent organic and hydraulic conditions were monitored before and after the installation of the floating island units between January 2006 and January 2009. Table 1 shows WWTP average flows and influent BOD and TSS data prior to and after upgrades obtained from the discharge monitoring reports (DMRs). There were no significant changes in the influent parameters, indicating that the influent hydraulic loadings and organic loadings were consistent over this period. WWTP inflow was split equally between Lagoon #1 and Lagoon #2 with the continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment

Three floating island units installed at the Wiconisco WWTP.

help of a splitter box; hence the influent hydraulic and organic loadings to both the lagoons were considered to be similar. Realizing that the influent parameters remained the same, a comparison was performed for the effluent data obtained during sampling for both the lagoons. The only difference between them is

26 | Summer 2010

the floating islands installed in Lagoon #2. Analysis focused on an operational data comparison between November 2006 and January 2009 (i.e., after system upgrades) with Lagoon #1 being the control system and Lagoon #2 the upgraded system. Also, since the Wiconisco wastewater

treatment plant was upgraded with a solar circulation system in March 2009, the floating islands system comparison data was limited to January 2009. Operational data was compared for effluent BOD, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). (Figures 1, 2 and 3) As Figure 1 indicates, no significant

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Wastewater Treatment trend was observed for effluent BOD concentrations for the lagoons, although effluent BOD concentration in Lagoon #2 was observed to be lower than that for Lagoon #1 after September 2007 (10 months after island installation). Overall, the average effluent BOD concentration for the lagoons remained at 22.0 mg/l each between November 2006 and January 2009. Effluent data in Figure 2 indicates that, with all three floating island systems becoming operational in November 2006, the upgraded system showed improvements in total nitrogen removal. The average effluent TN concentration for Lagoon #1 between November 2006 and January 2009 was 22.5 mg/l, whereas it was 20.8 mg/l for Lagoon #2. Correspondingly, with the annual average daily flow of 0.06 MGD for this period (from Table 1), an equivalent 0.85 lbs TN/day or 310 lbs TN/year reduction was estimated in treated effluent. Effluent data in Figure 3 shows that between November 2006 and January 2009, total phosphorus concentrations from Lagoons #1 and #2 remained in a similar range, with no significant trend for im-

provements in TP with floating island upgrades. Average effluent TP concentration for Lagoon #1 between November 2006 and January 2009 was 5.7 mg/l, whereas it was 5.9 mg/l for Lagoon # 2. Improvements in BOD and TN concentrations during the later part of the treatment plant operations were considered to be due to the vegetation growth on the islands and root development below them. The three floating islands installed in only Lagoon #2 occupied only 2-4% of the total surface area.

Installation of additional floating islands would potentially increase the vegetation and roots surface area available for nitrogen and phosphorus removal and would further improve nutrient removal. Archis Ambulkar and Stephen Zeller are with Brinjac Engineering Inc. Douglas Klinger is with the Wiconisco Wastewater Treatment Plant. E-mail:

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NEWS Young professionals honoured by the water industry Shoeleh Shams, a research assistant for the University of Waterloo’s Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Chair in Water Treatment, earned first place honors for her work on nitrate removal technology at the seventh annual Fresh Ideas Poster Session, held at the American Water Works Association’s recent Annual Conference and Exposition in Chicago. This year’s poster session, jointly developed by AWWA’s Manufacturers/Associates Council and the AWWA Young Professionals Committee, featured 13 section winners from across North America. Research topics ranged from ways to monitor, model and remove microbes and contaminants, to treatment plant design.

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Wastewater Treatment

The social context of wastewater management in remote communities By Ken Johnson he remote areas of Canada constitute as much as 45% of the country’s land mass, including the regions of the Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Nunavik (northern Quebec), and Nunatsiavut (northern Labrador). This vast region is populated by a mere 100,000 people occupying 90 communities, for an average population of 1,100 per community. In fact, the communities of Whitehorse (24,000), Yellowknife (19,000) and Iqaluit (7,000) account for about half of the population, making the average population, more realistically, fewer than 600 people per community. Developing and sustaining infrastructure in remote communities has always been influenced by a variety of technical, financial, administrative, operational, and regulatory factors. Over the past decade, the complexity of these factors has increased substantially, with changes to available financial resources, administrative structures, operational responsibilities, and regulatory environments. Many of these changes have increased the overall complexity of infrastructure development and sustainability in remote communities, particularly at the community level. Many communities are finding the demands of these complexities to be well beyond their financial and administrative resources, and, as a consequence, are placing themselves in very undesirable situations with regard to community funding and regulatory compliance. The challenges associated with wastewater management in remote communities occur in the areas of science, applied science and social science. Science of wastewater management The science of modern wastewater treatment systems can be described by a number of unit processes, each of which provides an increasingly higher quality of sewage effluent by applying various physical, chemical and biological actions. The unit processes include preliminary treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, tertiary treatment, disinfection, and residuals management.


28 | Summer 2010

Sewage sludge composting in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

Applied science of wastewater management Applied science is the process of taking the science and applying it to specific applications. Thinking “outside the box” is necessary for applied science in remote communities in response to the challenges of extreme cold, very limited access, extraordinary costs, and scant resources. These are a few of the routine challenges that engineers, suppliers and contractors must face in designing and constructing wastewater treatment facilities for remote areas. The applied science, or engineering, of wastewater systems in remote communities should follow the key principle of appropriate technology. This principle has been applied inconsistently to projects in remote communities, and, consequently, a significant number of projects are not meeting the performance expectations of the communities, or the regulatory authorities. Appropriate technology suggests that, whatever process is being applied for wastewater treatment, it must consider the biophysical context of the project site, which includes location, climate, landforms, and possibly the native vegetation. Cold weather and distance are the two major factors in the consideration of appropriate technology. Although engi-

neering designs may take into account measures to prevent wastewater facilities from freezing, it is also prudent to design the means to thaw a facility in the event it does freeze. In fact, it may be appropriate to say that it is not a matter of if the facility freezes, but when it freezes. Remote communities, by definition, are located at a great distance from what would be considered the “normal” amenities available to a community. Consequently, the resources available for routine operation and maintenance may not be available at the facility site, and mobilizing them may be not be possible for days, or more, and may cost extraordinary amounts of money. Appropriate technology for wastewater treatment in remote locations can make use of the extensive cold. One example is the concentration of sewage biosolids through the freeze-thaw process, and subsequent composting through the limited summer months. This process is just beginning to be applied in the community of Iqaluit, Nunavut. Social science of wastewater management Although the science and applied science of wastewater treatment need more attention, at least some work has been done on these factors over the past several decades. In contrast, the social sci-

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Wastewater Treatment ence of wastewater management in remote communities has been virtually ignored. Even the term “social science” may not be all-encompassing enough to apply to “all the other stuff” associated with wastewater management in remote communities, but it is a start. Social science associated with wastewater management in remote communities presents a multitude of challenges, including administrative, financial, and human resources issues. Any remote community, regardless of size, has the need for a fully funded, fully staffed and fully trained community administration, but this is seldom seen. Administrative challenges include multiple levels of government, limited resources and changing rules. There may be several levels of local government representing the aboriginal community, as well as the non-aboriginal community, plus the territorial government, and land claims by the aboriginal community. The federal government may have several departments working independently to represent their own mandates. In some communities, there may be six or more levels of government.

Sewage lagoon and wetland in Ulukhaktok (Holman), Northwest Territories.

The devolution of responsibilities has continued for several decades in response to demands for autonomy from some communities, as well as the downsizing of territorial governments. This devolution process has had varying degrees of success. For instance, the latest chapter in

the Northwest Territories is the so-called “New Deal”, which was implemented in 2007 and provides block funding to all communities. Some communities are seizing the opportunity, while others are overwhelmed. In spite of the best-concontinued overleaf...

AQUA GUARD® Self-Cleaning Bar/Filter Screen The Aqua Guard screen is a self-cleaning, in-channel screening device that uses a unique filter element system designed to automatically remove a wide range of floating and suspended solids from wastewater. The unit provides both fine and coarse screening to protect pumps and downstream processes. The Aqua Guard screen’s self-cleaning feature allows efficient operation for extended unsupervised periods of time with minimal maintenance. Over 1,500 units are operational in both industrial and municipal applications as references of performance and quality. • Tel 514-636-8712 • Fax 514-636-9718 205-1000 St-Jean • Pointe-Claire, QC H9R 5P1 An Axel Johnson Inc. Company

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Wastewater Treatment


w w w. i f a t . d e / t i c k e t s / e n



I N T E R N AT I O N A L P R O D U C T S / S E R V I C E S F O R WA S T E A N D R A W - M AT E R I A L S M A N A G E M E N T

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30 | Summer 2010

ceived and comprehensive introduction possible, the New Deal will fail in some communities. Financial challenges include financial management, capital funding, and operation and maintenance funding. Financial management is a challenge for any community, and represents a continuing challenge for many remote communities. Every remote community has a community budget that is proportionately larger than would normally be expected in a southern context. Management of this budget requires skill and training that many communities do not possess. Funds from senior governments for capital, operations and maintenance have diminished significantly over the past decade, and communities are being encouraged to be more self-sufficient financially. Human resources issues may be the most challenging aspect of the social science of wastewater management. People represent a very dynamic environment that has been plagued with a chronic lack of resources for hiring, training, and retaining.

Funds from senior governments for capital, operations and maintenance have diminished significantly over the past decade, and communities are being encouraged to be more self-sufficient financially. New technologies Lagoons have been the sewage treatment process of choice for most remote communities, because of their cost-effectiveness and simplicity of operation, and the abundance of space that is available to most communities. This situation has been changing over the past decade as regulators have lobbied water boards and pressured communities to improve effluent quality by applying conventional “southern” mechanical technologies. This evolution has had mixed results, with new mechanical systems operating in the northern communities of Fort Simpson, Rankin Inlet, Iqaluit and Pangnirtung. Although it may be said that these systems are generally operating in compliance with the water licence parameters, the communities are faced with sustaining these processes with limited financial and human resources. New challenges are emerging because of demands for managing the significant biosolids waste stream produced by these waste treatment processes. The ecosystems of the remote regions of Canada are unique and fragile, and must be protected; therefore, wastewater treatment is needed. Public health must also be protected, and wastewater treatment must serve this purpose as well. To date, however, the protective measures for these ecosystems and public health have not been developed, or implemented, based on the necessary science, applied science and social science information. Ken Johnson is with AECOM. E-mail: Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Summer2010_Layout 1 22/07/10 12:34 AM Page 31

Plant Security

Security and safety considerations for gaseous chlorine By Gerald F. Connell ver since the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, there has been increased interest in making water and wastewater treatment plants safer and more secure in both design and operation. The water and wastewater industries pride themselves on the safety and security of their operations. Recent efforts by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the National Rural Water Association (NRWA) have resulted in design criteria to assist designers and operators of water plants in choosing a disinfectant and using it to meet potentially hazardous situations. The AWWA’s Selecting Disinfectants in a Security Conscious Environment (2009) goes a long way toward guiding engineers, designers, facility managers and plant operating personnel in the choice and use of disinfectants. It is anticipated that the previous re-


Eclipse gas shutoff actuator.

quirements of the US’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s PSM (Process Safety Management) program and the US Environmental Protection

Agency’s RMP (Risk Management Program) will be retained and new security regulations will be added. The new regcontinued overleaf...

HOBO U30-GSM REMOTE MONITORIN MONITORING G SYSTEM W Web-based eb-based Outdoor Out do or E Environmental n vir onmen tal Monitoring M onit or ing Wireless


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Advanced Standalone HOBO U30/NRC (USB) monitoring data logging weather station

Pulse Input Analog Input Barometric Pressure

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Hoskin Scientific Ltd. www ww . Summer 2010 | 31

Summer2010_Layout 1 22/07/10 12:34 AM Page 32

Plant Security ulations will cover all possible disinfectants, including chlorine gas, calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite, onsite generation, ultraviolet light, ozone, and others. In addition, fire code regulations must be considered. There has been some consolidation of the codes so there are only two in current use. They are the international code (a consolidation of the standard code and national code) and the NFPA 1 (National Fire Protection Association), formerly known as the uniform code. In addition, The Ten State Standards, written specifically for the water and wastewater industries, are still employed in aiding the design of water and wastewater plants. New security regulations will soon be in force for water and wastewater treatment plants. The US House of Representatives passed the Chemical Water and Security Act in November 2009, calling for the EPA to establish security programs for water and wastewater plants. In the case of water treatment plants, the first criterion to be used is the size of the population served. Then, the facility

Duplex Model II system controller.

is to be classified into a Tier system (Tier 1, 2, 3 or 4) that can be used to establish the security hazard. These new security regulations will deal with the design and use of the facility, with the primary purpose of protecting it from attack by individuals such as terrorists. Although details are yet to be finalized, it is anticipated that the plant boundaries must be protected from encroachment, gates monitored, and materials used in the treatment of the water and wastewater protected during deliv-

Engineered solutions for the entire wastewater spectrum including: TRADITIONAL GRAVITY, ALTERNATIVE SEWER, DECENTRALIZED SOLUTIONS AND ON-SITE TREATMENT. Grinder Pumps • 2 HP through 15 HP models with heads to 260 feet and

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Custom Controls

ery, receipt, storage, and use. Of primary interest are the toxic and hazardous chemicals (chlorine, sulfur dioxide, ammonia) used in these facilities, their containment, and the prevention of their release to the surroundings, both inside and outside the plant boundaries. Containment of the hazardous chemicals can be provided by a scrubbing system. Such systems are capital-intensive and may require frequent servicing and periodic operation to ensure that the entire system is operational. Another containment system is Halogen Valve Systems automatic valve operator (AVO). These are much simpler than scrubbing systems and automatically close any open valve on the compressed cylinders or containers in use. They can be activated with electrical contacts created by fire alarms, gas leak detectors, seismic devices, or remote electrical control systems like SCADA. The plant operator can activate them with a panic button located outside the storage and use room or in the control room. Up to six cylinders or containers can be activated with one control system. The system provides an electrical contact after the closing and torquing of all cylinder and container valves. Each AVO is electrically operated and is mounted directly on the container or cylinder valve stem. It is battery-powered and operable even during a power failure. Halogen AVOs are designed for electromechanical valve closure only. Manual opening of the valve by the operator is the only recommended safety procedure after the valve has been closed. This requires visiting the site, examining the cause of the valve closure and correcting the cause, before the system is restarted. The Chlorine Institute has recognized the advantage of these emergency shutoff systems for chlorine gas and has included their use in guidelines for cylinder and ton container valve operation. Anywhere compressed toxic or hazardous gases are used in a process application, there is a need to consider the safety and security of the containers in storage and use.

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32 | Summer 2010

Gerald Connell is a consultant with Halogen Valve Systems. For more information, E-mail:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Summer2010_Layout 1 22/07/10 12:34 AM Page 33

 Denso offers hands-on training Hands-on training allows Denso the opportunity to directly show a wide variety of people how to utilize and properly apply its petrolatum systems. Live application demonstrations give waterworks operators first-hand knowledge and training hours that are required to maintain their operator licenses. They also allow engineers and inspectors the chance to ask questions and see how they could best use these materials for specific projects. Over the past several years, Denso has emphasized that hands-on-training should become part of municipal specifications. Training assures the engineer who specified the Denso system that it will be correctly installed. It also helps contractors understand what they should be doing in the field. For more information, E-mail:

WCWC appoints new CEO Laurence F. Moore, Ph.D., CRSP, has been appointed Chief Executive Officer of the Walkerton Clean Water Centre. Over his 35 year environmental career, Dr. Moore has worked intensively with large and small water and wastewater utilities.

He is the Coordinator of the Collaborative Study to Protect Lake Ontario Drinking Water and he led the Ontario Water Works Research Consortium for a decade. He has served on the Board of the Canadian Water and Wastewater Assn. Dr. Moore has held senior management positions with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, the Ontario Clean Water Agency and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. For more information, visit

AGI and EMRP amalgamate AGI and EMRP have amalgamated to form Ground Force Environmental Inc. GFEI will provide turn-key environmental, soil, water and process technology remediation. AGI provides remediation services for a variety of clients in Ontario. EMRP is a distributor of advanced water treatment technologies, including granular activated carbon, ion exchange media, and Mycelx oil removal, as well as a wide variety of spill response products.

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Schlumberger partners on Abu Dhabi symposium Schlumberger Water Services (SWS) recently announced that it has partnered with the Environment Agency of Abu Dhabi (EAD) to organize the seventh International Symposium on Managed Aquifer Recharge (ISMAR7), which will be held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, October 9-13, 2010. This event will bring together many of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experts in managed aquifer recharge along with leaders from government agencies, water utilities, industry and environmental consultants who have been entrusted with achieving sustainable and reliable groundwater supply.

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Air Pollution Abatement

Niagara Parks Commission program reduces tour bus idling By Aaron Butler and Carla Cavasin

A ‘Spare the Air’ Program sign, featuring the National Idle-Free logo – a yellow caution symbol with a motor coach driving in a hamster wheel and the words “Idling Gets You Nowhere”.

Buses parked at the Maid of the Mist drop-off area in Niagara Falls, Ontario.

nitiatives to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are being implemented by communities across Canada. One of the focuses of these programs is the elimination of unnecessary vehicle idling. On average, a diesel vehicle idling at 1,000 revolutions per minute will consume approximately four litres of fuel per hour. For every litre of fuel consumed, about 2.8 kilograms of GHGs are released. An idling diesel-powered vehicle can release up to 11.2 kilograms of GHGs per hour, including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide, as well as volatile inorganic compounds and particulate matter. The Niagara Parks Commission (NPC) was established in 1885 to act as steward for important and sensitive park lands in the vicinity of the Niagara Falls. Over 10 million people visit these areas each year. The NPC’s experience is that compliance with its policies and regulations is best accomplished through partnerships, cooperation and education. The ‘Spare the Air’ Emissions Reduction Program was developed in 2001 to focus on the reduction of unnecessary idling of the more than 40,000 motor coaches that bring visitors to Niagara Falls and Niag-


34 | Summer 2010

ara Parks attractions annually. Soon after it was initiated, NPC expanded the focus of the program to include the City of Niagara Falls, the Town of Niagara-on-theLake, the Town of Fort Erie, Ontario Power Generation, the Peace Bridge Authority, and the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission. Transport trucks were added to the program at international border crossings. The program is undertaken during the peak tourist season (Victoria Day to Thanksgiving). It focuses on educating drivers. Activities include erecting signs, distributing brochures at tourist parking areas and border crossings, surveying motor coach and transport truck drivers about vehicle idling habits, as well as speaking directly to drivers to educate them about the benefits of reducing unnecessary vehicle idling. Monitoring In addition to driver education, the program also includes compliance monitoring. Monitoring allows for improvements to the program, including increasing focus on “priority sites” and targeting specific problem drivers and/or companies. Average idling times and compliance rates are calculated. To be completely compliant, motor coach and transport truck drivers must

turn off their engines within 30 seconds of arriving at a site and are allowed to idle for up to one minute before leaving. When a motor coach is loading or unloading passengers, an extra three minutes is allotted at arrival and departure. The program is based on voluntary compliance; no fines or penalties are given to drivers who are not in compliance with program measures. Driver responses Surveys are conducted to understand the reasons that drivers may idle their vehicles excessively. The most common reasons for idling, as cited by motor coach and transport truck drivers, are outlined in Table 1. Through the driver survey process, it is apparent that companies are becoming more aware of the environmental and economic benefits of reducing unnecessary idling. Some companies surveyed have implemented formal policies to reduce idling, and many others are monitoring the idling times of their vehicles, have installed automatic shut-off devices, are educating drivers about the effects of idling, and offer incentives to reduce idling such as bonuses and intracompany recognition. Driver surveys also provide insight into the level of awareness of the pro-

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Air Pollution Abatement gram. In 2009, over 400 motor coach and transport truck drivers were surveyed. Based on these surveys, close to 70 percent of the motor coach drivers who visited the Niagara River Corridor in 2009 were aware of the Spare the Air Program, while 30 percent of the transport truck drivers at the two border crossings had knowledge of the program. Lower awareness by transport truck drivers is expected due to the greater number of transport trucks and the less frequent nature of their trips. Information from the surveys assists in future facility planning, such as creating more shaded areas so buses stay cooler in the summer, or establishing or better equipping lounges so that drivers do not have to wait in their vehicles while their passengers visit the area. Idle-Free Toolkit The success of NPC’s Spare the Air Program led Motor Coach Canada and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop an Idling Reduction Toolkit, which was completed in 2007, and is available to motor coach companies, and tourist destination operators across Canada. The toolkit also includes pro-

Table 1. Commonly cited reasons for idling by motor coach and transport truck drivers.

grams and information to reduce transport truck idling at Canada-US border crossings. The toolkit was developed by Urban & Environmental Management Inc., in consultation with over 100 stakeholders across Canada. It contains a step-by-step guide for implementing a successful idling reduction program and provides example materials such as signage, posters, and brochures. The toolkit also contains information on program scheduling and budgeting, how to develop part-

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nerships with municipalities and local organizations, and provides instructional material on developing and implementing idling control by-laws. It is available online at Aaron Butler is a summer student at Urban & Environmental Management Inc. Carla Cavasin is with Niagara Parks Commission. For more information, E-mail:

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Emerging advances in level measurement By Donald Koeneman

Schematic shows where different types of level measurement technologies are best suited.

ngineers should have a thorough understanding of available technologies, whether they are selecting instrumentation for level, open channel flow, or sludge blanket monitoring in new or retrofit installations. No single technology is appropriate for all level measurement challenges because of the variety of applications and operational differences in the processes. Regardless of application, there are two major classifications of level measurement instrumentation: point level and continuous level measurement. Point level (On/Off) measurement indicates the absence or presence of the level at a certain threshold (point) within a vessel. Point level switches are used as high level and spill prevention alarms, low level and pump protection alarms, and to turn pumps on and off. Continuous level (Proportional) measurement indicates the level in a vessel


36 | Summer 2010

over the full span of measurement. These devices typically are used for process control as well as inventory control and management. The technologies used to measure level are affected differently by the varying process conditions. A brief description of each of the different technologies commonly used in a wastewater facility follows: • RF Admittance employs a radio frequency signal. A change in RF admittance indicates either the presence or absence of material or how much material is in contact with the sensor, making it highly versatile and a good choice for a wide range of conditions and materials for point or continuous level measurement. • Radar uses frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) through-air transmission that allows for accurate noncontact reading of reflected electromagnetic signals. • Magnetostrictive uses an electric pulse

from ferro-magnetic wire to accurately detect the position of a float with embedded magnets. As the pulse intersects the magnetic field from the float, a second pulse is reflected back to an electric circuit that accurately reads the level. • Conductivity Switch measures the drop in resistance that occurs when a conductive liquid is brought into contact with two probes or a probe and a vessel wall. • Ultrasonic (Point Level) measurement electronically resonates a crystal at fixed frequency to generate sound waves that travel across an air gap to a second crystal. As liquid fills the gap between the two crystals, the second crystal begins to resonate with the first. • Ultrasonic (Continuous Level) measurement uses a transmitter to generate an ultrasonic pulse and measures the time it takes for a reflected signal to return to the transducer to determine the level of a liquid. • Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)

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Instrumentation takes a highly focused electronic wave, guided by a metallic rod or flexible cable, to the surface of a liquid and reflects it back along the rod or cable to determine the level. â&#x20AC;˘ Hydrostatic Pressure immerses a two-wire transmitter with a sensing diaphragm and a sealed electronic circuitry that transmits an analog signal proportional to the liquid level above the sensor. â&#x20AC;˘ Float Switch relies on a low-density float mounted in a vessel that is magnetically coupled to a limit switch. â&#x20AC;˘ Vibration/Tuning Fork is piezoelectrically energized and vibrates at a frequency of approximately 1200 Hz. When the fork is covered in material, the frequency shifts. The frequency shift is detected by the internal oscillator and converted into a switching command. Point level solutions Advanced RF point level devices are the most versatile of the point level switches. They provide excellent spill/overfill protection, are simple to install, and have no moving parts, making them virtually maintenance free. Their robust design and circuitry that ignores coatings, make them an ideal solution for many wastewater applications. Both tuning forks and ultrasonic gap switches provide reliable high or low-level measurement in a wide variety of liquids. For non-coating conductive liquids, conductivity switches provide economically priced measurement, while float switches can be used in many basic applications at cost-effective prices. Continuous level solutions Mechanical systems such as floats and bubblers require extensive maintenance and are less reliable and accurate than electronic systems. Hydrostatic systems afford greater reliability, are simple to use and are able to transmit data to another receiver for remote monitoring, recording, and control. RF Admittance technology is the best available for level indication and control. It inherently provides the greatest accuracy and repeatability in interface measurements. Variations in the makeup of upper and lower phases of a liquid have no appreciable effect on system accuracy. Recalibration is not required. For short span measurements, RF Admittance technology provides the best measurements, particularly as the level of measurement span decreases. In spans of only a few centimetres, RF systems can repeatedly produce accuracies of 0.8 mm. Non metallic tanks do not pose technical problems for Ultrasonic, Magnetostrictive, Hydrostatic Pressure, Radar and TDR technologies. The TDR approach is suitable for vessels with internal obstructions and uses lower energy levels than airborne radar technologies. Non-contact technologies, such as radar and ultrasonic, can have measurement ranges up to 40 metres. For long-range measurements or headroom limitations, flexible sensors offer insertion lengths up to several hundred feet for Hydrostatic Pressure and RF Admittance products. Loop-powered TDR-based products allow measurement ranges up to 35 metres in selected applications. Magnetostrictive technology allows accuracy of 0.1% of measurement span in flexible sensor designs up to a maximum range of 12 metres. Donald Koeneman is with AMETEK Drexelbrook. For more information, E-mail:

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Soil Remediation

Wireless real-time soil data used in contaminated soil clean-up operation By Keith Bellingham sing a data acquisition network by Stevens Water Monitoring Systems, Environ International Corporation (ENVIRON) is developing new methods to bioremediate contaminated soils. All organisms need food, which provides energy and nutrients. Food first needs to be metabolized so that it can be converted to energy and materials for cell growth. When an organism digests food, it chemically takes the food apart one molecule at a time by breaking and making chemical bonds. When a chemical bond is broken, the organism needs to get rid of extra electrons. Organisms get rid of the extra electrons using electron acceptors. Chemical removal of these extra electrons is done during respiration, or breathing. There are two types of respiration: aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic biochemical reactions use oxygen as an electron acceptor, and anaerobic organisms use other com-


The Stevens Hydra Probe II, currently being used in soil remediation projects.

pounds such as sulfates and phosphates. Animals, some bacteria and fungi are aerobic, while other kinds of bacteria are anaerobic. Generally, aerobic microorganisms can decompose petroleum hydrocarbons, glycols, and explosives. Anaerobic microorganisms can decompose chemicals that contain halogens such as pesticides, dry cleaning and chlo-

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Hoskin Scientific Ltd. 38 | Summer 2010

rinated solvents. ENVIRON is treating chlorinated pesticides both anaerobically and aerobically, using an innovative new approach. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and other chlorinated compounds are lethal to pests because they shut down an organismâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nervous system. Generally, aerobic bacteria will not decompose chlorinated compounds. One of the methods ENVIRON is using to decompose the DDT is called CVSR (Controlled Vadose-Zone Saturation Remediation). CVSR employs anaerobic microorganisms, which do not require oxygen and in fact thrive in an oxygen deficient environment. In order to maintain anaerobic conditions in the CVSR areas, the soil is irrigated to, or near, saturation (40 to 50%). The CVSR areas are also dosed with a lactate electron donor/energy source prior to irrigation to promote microorganism growth. While the upper contaminated soil needs to stay at or near saturation, it is important that soil moisture levels below the treatment areas stay below the field capacity (25 to 30%) to prevent toxins from leaching downward, contaminating the underlying aquifer. Data from the Stevens Hydra Probe helps ensure that the soil moisture levels at the various depths stay at the optimal moisture level, allowing the anaerobic microorganism community to thrive, while preventing the downward leaching. The second method ENVIRON is using to remediate the chlorinated pesticide contaminated soil is a new, innova-

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Soil Remediation tive aerobic process utilizing fungi. Because white rot fungus (WRF) does not have a nervous system, chlorinated pesticides are not toxic to it. ENVIRONâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s research involves using WRF to decompose pesticides under aerobic conditions in biopiles. Soil moisture in the biopiles is maintained at a constant 30%. In addition to maintaining the soil moisture at 30%, biopiles are also aerated with blowers. ENVIRON is operating a total of nine stations, with two or three Hydra Probe sensors in each station. Five of the stations are aerobic biopiles containing the WRF, and four of the stations are anaerobic CVSR. Hydra Probes are configured to be digital RS485 half duplex. The first RS485 bus reaches four CVSR stations consisting of 14 Hydra Probes. The second RS485 bus contains 10 Hydra Probes in the aerobic biopiles (two probes per pile) and is connected wirelessly to the first bus using 900 MHz Spread Spectrum Technology. The Master Radio, as well as the RS485 bus, are connected to a cell modem. A Python script running on a virtual server polls the data from the sensors and

Soil remediation site, with contaminated soil contained under the black plastic cover. Shown is a radio node housed in a NEMA-4 box, with connected Hydra Probe soil sensors.

exports them to the Stevens-Connect website. This site includes an easy-to-use graphing feature that allows users to display historical data and compare it to real time data. This tool helps hydrologists and engineers to quickly evaluate large amounts of data, while having the power to select certain parameters. In addition to the advanced graphing feature, the

Stevens-Connect website can also store site data such as pictures and text. Keith Bellingham is a soil scientist and geochemist with Stevens Water Monitoring Systems, Inc. For more information, E-mail:

w w w. t e r r a t e c . a mw a t e r. c o m

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Wastewater Treatment

Optimizing primary sludge pumping at Londonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Greenway plant By Mark Spitzig he City of London, Ontario, operates six wastewater treatment plants, with a combined average daily flow of approximately 210,000 cubic metres. Primary and secondary sludge from all plants is dewatered at the Greenway plant using belt filter presses, prior to incineration in a fluidized bed incinerator. Phosphorus removal is achieved through chemical addition, and final effluent receives seasonal disinfection using ultraviolet light, before release into the Thames River. At the Greenway plant, primary sludge pumping frequencies and durations have traditionally been controlled through set points entered into the SCADA system. This control system, while simple, did not adjust for variability in sludge concentrations during cycles, or between individual sumps. In an effort to control the volume and concentration of solids removed from the primary clarifiers, two Metso KajaaniTS solid state, non-intrusive, total solids meters were installed for each of the two pumping groups. Online sludge density measurement helped optimize sludge withdrawal rates and reduced sludge accumulation in the primaries. This led to a reduction in primary clarifier mainte-


Aerial view of the Greenway plant.

nance and improvements in the dewatering and incineration processes. Under the original operation strategy, the sequence was set to start based on the interval time set-point from the SCADA control system. Once the interval time had elapsed, each enabled valve discharging the clarifier would stay open for the duration time in seconds entered on the SCADA system. The original control

Figure 1. Current sequence control window with solids density control. 40 | Summer 2010

system was maintained for two weeks after the meters were connected and logged information into the SCADA system. This provided a baseline for the variation in sludge concentration necessary to automate the process. For example, with interval time set to 90 minutes and duration set at 3 minutes, the pumping sequence would occur every 90 minutes and each enabled valve would stay open for 3 minutes, then the SCADA would move on to the next discharge valve sequence. This process would repeat every 90 minutes. Under the new system, new operator set-points have been programmed in the SCADA application, such as solids density (concentration) set-point, SDM skip time and maximum duration per sump. In the new sequence, the operator enters an interval time in minutes. Once this time has elapsed, the first primary clarifier discharge valve will open, and, once the valve position is open, the pump will start. The operator also enters SDM skip time valve indexing (seconds); during this time the solids density (concentration) measurement is ignored to allow for the line to charge with representative sludge from the respective tank. When this delay period elapses, the solids density (concentration) measurement is compared with the operator-entered set-point.

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Wastewater Treatment When the solids density (concentration) process variable is less than, or equal to, the set point, the valve is triggered to close and the next enabled valve will be triggered to open. Once the valve open status is verified, the delay between valve indexing will start. When the delay has elapsed, the solids density measurement will be used to trigger the next enabled valve to open. This will be repeated until all enabled valves have cycled. A maximum time safeguard is also entered in the SCADA system that limits the pump time per sump. (See Figure 1) With the success of the installations at Greenway, the same strategy has been implemented at all of the City’s wastewater treatment plants. Value of online instrumentation There are some observations that would be very difficult to understand without online instrumentation. Figure 2 shows the primary sludge pumping before the addition of a sludge flow meter and density meter. It offers very little insight other than the duration the pump was running and the duration

each sump was open. The only approach is to continually monitor the blanket level and guess at how long each sump should be pumped. Continuous monitoring is a difficult task, and plant operators have many other things to take care of. Figure 3, with the addition of the instrumentation, tells a more comprehensive story. We can see sludge density peaks of 10%, meaning the last few sumps are pumping longer with higher sludge densities, and the pump is working hard to pump the high density. The last sumps in the cycle are getting more of the solids because the flow and solids balancing across the eight clarifiers are not equal. The trend line can be used to adjust the flow weirs to equalize this. Guess where the primary clarifier mechanism problems have been at this plant? Another observation worth mentioning is that, with the sludge pump running at 100% speed, the sump would vortex and the pump would draw water through the blanket. To correct this, the speed of the pump was varied to find an optimal

speed set point that did not vortex, but still provided favorable flow rates. This was completed over a number of cycles. By optimizing the speed of the pump to avoid vortexing, the amount of water being pumped was further reduced, conserving sludge holding tank volume and sludge disposal capacity. Cost summary To completely rehabilitate a primary clarifier — 160 man hours plus $40,000 in material. Cost of taking a primary clarifier tank out of service for inspection — about 20 man-hours. Cost of realizing the primary clarifiers are not balanced — priceless! The technology The basic principle used by the KajaaniTS meters is that the transmitter measures the time of flight of a microwave signal in the process medium. The time of flight depends on the permittivity of the measured medium. For organic or inorganic substances, it is practically constant, whereas the permittivity of water is considerably different. continued overleaf...

Figure 2. Trend graph showing timed sequence control.

Figure 3. Trend graph showing current solids density control with the instrumentation added.

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Wastewater Treatment

Figure 4. Correlation data.

Thus, the measured change in permittivity allows the total solids content in the medium to be calculated. The transmitter flow-through design gives a representative measurement and effectively eliminates the risk of plugging. In wastewater processes, microwave technology has several advantages over other types of solids measurement: • The start-up and calibration are performed within a few minutes. • There is no reaction to changes in the

composition of solids, thus allowing reliable single-point calibration. • There are no moving parts, therefore the units are practically maintenancefree. • Impurities on the ceramic measurement antenna have minimal impact on results, due to the representative method of measurement. • Additional selectable current output signals are available: either process temperature or process conductivity.

• The KajaaniTS uses special ceramic sensors that are resistant to dirt accumulation and provide long-term measurement stability. During the commissioning of the KajaaniTS meters at Greenway, a series of samples were taken using the special sample feature of the transmitter. While the sample feature is enabled in the instrument, a grab sample is taken as close to the measuring element as possible. Sample ports were installed using saddle tees during installation. Once a number of samples were taken, they were compared to lab results and an average offset was determined and entered into the transmitter. Figure 4 illustrates the correlation of the online instrument to lab results. The City of London has experienced problems related to sludge accumulation in the primaries, following snow melts and rain events during the winter and early spring. The implemented automation strategy ensures that solids are not building up in the clarifiers and potentially damaging equipment. Since implementation of the new meters, there has been no mechanical breakdown due to heavy sludge buildup. The most recent preventative maintenance has shown a considerable reduction in mechanism wear, and the number of replacement parts being used during this process has been significantly reduced. No longer are complete chain and sprocket assemblies being replaced. Before the density meters were installed, it was common to take a clarifier out of production and completely drain and clean a tank to replace broken flights and chain. With the density meters, the operators are able to keep ahead of the sludge volumes. The system automatically varies the amount of time each sump is pumped, and the density. High sludge density occurs when blanket levels are left to build up. The implemented system has built-in adjustability to allow for compression settling, keeping the density of the sludge between 3% and 4%. Mark Spitzig is with the City of London Environmental and Engineering Services, Pollution Control Operations. For more information, E-mail:

Metso KajanniTS measuring element and transmitter. 42 | Summer 2010

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Waste Management

Engineers and effective solid waste management By W.D. Goodings olid waste is defined as refuse from domestic, industrial, commercial or institutional sources, produced as a result of human activity. In general, it excludes wastes that are hazardous, radioactive or liquid. Solid waste management is concerned with the creation, avoidance, reduction, collection, transport, processing and/or disposal of waste materials. Properly done, it will ensure that there are minimal negative effects on human health; that any effect on the environment is manageable; that natural resources are maintained; and that the aesthetic and socio-economic values of affected communities are not degraded. All too often, government authorities charged with following and guiding the environmental hearing process into solid waste management have unfairly frustrated the applicants, in an otherwise smooth process, by leaning toward interveners’ concerns or by changing the rules of engagement. This has led to extra costs for applicants and subsequent delays in decisions by hearing panels. The reasons for this may include the desire of elected officials to avoid angry voters on contentious solid waste management issues; a lack of accurate information about fiscally viable, environmentally-appropriate solutions; or focusing too soon on a course of action without full investigation of all reasonable options. To overcome these constraints, engineers must effectively engage the public and decision-makers, and persuade them of the merits of the science and engineering behind their proposed solutions. Governments can assist this process by providing greater certainty and transparency in the environmental assessment and approval processes which dictate the approach to identification, screening and selection, construction, and operation of a range of reasonable alternatives. The ability of engineers, decisionmakers and the public to resolve solid


waste management issues would benefit from a more definitive and transparent rule-based process that is accepted and respected by all stakeholders. Engineers like myself, who have spent many years working on projects such as these, believe that the following stages for the management of solid waste should be used:

• Prevent waste generation where possible. • Reuse waste for other purposes. • Recycle waste through the creation of other useful products. • Compost the organic fraction of the waste stream and use the resulting material. continued overleaf...

A New Level of Thinking A new energy is flowing at Delcan Water. We have always been at the forefront of providing government and corporate clients in Canada and around the world with the highest level of engineering expertise and services. Now, Delcan Water offers even broader capabilities with the establishment of Delcan IWS (Intelligent Water Systems), which offers leading edge design and implementation of automation, network and information management systems; expertise that complements Delcan Water’s established reputation for engineering services. Delcan Water also benefits from even greater global resources with our new alliance to DHV Netherlands. DHV is an international leader in water technologies having provided integrated solutions to over 1,000 plants worldwide. Contact us today and learn more about how you can benefit from the new ideas that are flowing at Delcan Water.

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Waste Management • Anaerobically biodegrade the organic fraction of the waste stream to recover methane for energy, and use the resulting biodegraded material. • Incinerate, change the form, and reduce the volume of the combustible fraction of the waste stream and recover energy while safely disposing of or using the products of combustion. • Landfill waste in a safe location, using methane and other gases as a source of energy. Residual wastes still remaining, following each stage, would be considered for treatment in the next or succeeding stages. In order to determine the most appropriate solution, engineers follow a process that begins with defining the solid waste management challenge to be resolved, and identifying regulatory and other compliance requirements. They then evaluate the technical feasibility, costs, and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of appropriate options to assist decision-makers in determining the preferred alternative. Techniques for managing our waste

can provide useful products. Aerobic and anaerobic composting systems produce stabilized organics; so do sanitary landfills after a very long time. In most cases, the products from composting systems can safely be used in the agricultural industry. If there are doubts about their safe use, they can be applied as cover for sanitary landfills, both operating and closed. Landfills have systems in place to deal with any contaminant which prevents the use of the product in agriculture. Methane that is released into the atmosphere can cause up to 20 times the damage as the same amount of carbon dioxide. Therefore, it is very important that methane emanating from a sanitary landfill be captured and burned off in a system using the gas’s energy, or simply flared off. Incinerating waste converts all carbon into energy and in the process emits vast amounts of carbon dioxide. By comparison, composting, either by aerobic or anaerobic means, has a product consisting largely of carbon which can be reintroduced into the soil and hence has a very small carbon footprint.

What many people don’t realize is that glass waste is neither a pollutant, nor is it present in large volumes in any sanitary landfill. Why recycle glass then, particularly since the sand used to make glass is one of the world’s most abundant natural resources? For the same reason we choose incineration as a waste management system of last resort. The production of glass from raw materials requires a great deal of energy. Melting recycled glass shards (called cullet) requires far less energy to be converted into useful glass products. Professional engineers are in the best position, based on their skills and experience, to identify a range of appropriate solutions that take advantage of the benefits of technology and minimize environmental and socio-economic impacts. William Donald Goodings, P.Eng., is on the Board of the Ontario Society of Professional Engineers and Past-Chair of OSPE’s Solid Waste Management Task Force. For more information, visit

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Drinking Water

New report says legally-binding drinking water standards essential to the health of all Canadians en years after the Walkerton drinking water crisis, there are still major gaps in Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s national framework for drinking water protection, and worrying evidence of inequitable access to clean water across the country, according to a new report from Ecojustice (formerly the Sierra Legal Defence Fund). In 2008, the Canadian Medical Association reported that 1,766 drinking water advisories were in effect across Canada. The Ecojustice report says that unequal access to safe drinking water in Canada is particularly evident in Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s First Nations communities and in rural and remote communities. As of April 30, 2010, there were 116 First Nations communities across Canada under a Drinking Water Advisory, with a mean average duration of 343 days. In rural Canada, it is estimated that 20â&#x20AC;&#x201C;40% of all rural wells have nitrate concentrations, or coliform bacteria counts, in excess of drinking water guidelines. Issues with the provision of safe drinking water can in part be attributed to the absence of national legally-binding standards in Canada, unlike in the United States and the European Union. Instead, Canada has voluntary national guidelines. Provinces establish their own standards, which may, or may not, meet those guidelines. According to the report, this leaves significant populations, such as First Nations and rural communities, vulnerable to waterborne diseases, boil water advisories, and associated health effects. The patchwork of drinking water laws across the country also means that, depending on which province or territory people live in, they may have access to a higher standard of drinking water than those living elsewhere. Justice Dennis Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, in his report on the causes of the Walkerton water crisis, emphasized the importance of legallybinding standards for protecting the health of Canadians, when he concluded that drinking water quality standards â&#x20AC;&#x153;should have the force of law.â&#x20AC;? He added that â&#x20AC;&#x153;conservative and enforceable water quality standards are an important basis for a multi-barrier approach to water safety.â&#x20AC;?


Justice Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor also saw a strong role for the federal government, particularly in ensuring First Nations had access to safe drinking water. He encouraged First Nations and the federal government to formally adopt drinking water standards, applicable to reserves, that are as stringent as, or more stringent than, the standards adopted by the provincial governments.

The purpose of the Ecojustice report is to highlight one of the gaps that exist in Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s framework for drinking water protection - the lack of consistent and binding drinking water quality standards across Canada - and to outline the necessary steps and actions to address that gap. The authors of this report do not recommend a major overhaul of drinking water responsibility in Canada. However, they believe that maintaining the status quo will lead to greater health risks and increase the likelihood of another drinking water tragedy. They recommend that the current system be strengthened, so that a safety net of legally-binding standards apply to all Canadians, including First Nations. They also recommend that responsibilities and accountability of all stakeholders be clearly established and articulated. For more information, visit

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Drinking Water

Drinking water treatment and distribution in the Arctic By Bhabesh Roy unavut, “Our Land”, is the largest part of the Arctic, and the newest and largest Federal Territory of Canada. It is one fifth of Canada’s land mass, and made up of 1,932,255 km2 of land and 160,935 km2 of water. The current population is roughly 29,500. Interestingly, one fifth of Nunavut is covered by freshwater. In Nunavut, it can be said: “Water, water everywhere, but much too hard to drink.” The Arctic waters are frozen most of the year with ice floes and the land is covered with sheets of ice, water pools, and rivers. Any groundwater aquifer is merely a dream due to the deep permafrost. Nunavut has four hydrologic periods: snow melts; outflow breakup period; a summer period with no ice cover and high evaporation; and a winter period where ice cover thicker than two metres exists on lakes.


The top two metres become frozen on the surface of the storage reservoir, and remain frozen for almost nine months of the year.

Surface water management The federal Crown, through Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), retains ownership of the surface water in Nunavut. Surface water use is licensed by the Nunavut Water Board. INAC is responsible for the development, implementation and interpretation of all legislation and policies relating to its water management in Nunavut. It is also responsible for inspections of licensed operations in Nunavut. 46 | Summer 2010

Water storage In Nunavut communities, there are three types of water storage: natural lakes, man-made storage reservoirs, and steel tanks. A small community that depends on stream flow must have steel storage tanks, whereas larger communities have man-made storage reservoirs. The earthen reservoir has two restrictions: one metre free board to satisfy dam safety guidelines, and 1.5 m at the bottom for pump submergence. Normally, this type of reservoir is lined and made non permeable. Every summer, it is filled from stream flows either by gravity feed, or by pumping. Stream flows freeze up and are not accessible for almost nine months of the year. The top two metres become frozen on the surface of the storage reservoir, and remain frozen for almost nine months of the year. Therefore, the intake is fixed at approximately one metre above the bed level of the reservoir, where the water never freezes. Natural lakes are uncontrollable and, in some cases, overflow arrangements are made to maintain the water level. The quantity of intake water is regulated and proportional to the population of the community. It is considered roughly 90 litres per day, per person. For emergencies, like fire protection, there is no limit. Fire protection The reservoir must also provide water storage to fight fires within the community. In 2004, the Northwest Territories Water Board published a Good Engineering Practice Guideline. This document recommends that a minimum of 60,000 litres of storage for fire protection be provided in the reservoir for a community that is serviced by a truck haul system, if the source is not available throughout the year. In addition, the pumping facility should be capable of supplying a minimum of 1,000 litres per minute from the reservoir to the water trucks for fire protection. Water treatment Water treatment consists of an intake system, disinfection process, and the filling of water trucks with potable water.

1. Intake Pipe: This is a single or dual system, heat-traced HDPE pipe. The pipeline follows the gradient of the dyke of the water reservoir, or the bank of the natural lake. The submerged end has a mesh, which prohibits any fish or foreign objects from entering the pipe. Piping rests about one metre above the bottom of the water body to reduce turbidity in the water supply. Pipe segments that are most vulnerable to freezing are the inclined shaft intake from the water body and the truck fill arm. The truck fill arm will drain back through the supply piping into the water storage tank at the end of each pumping cycle. A valve is incorporated into the piping to provide a vent to ensure the required drainage. Freeze protection of the intake is achieved by heat tracing. Existing casing pipe is covered with 50 mm of polyurethane foam insulation. 2. Disinfection: Nunavut’s surface water requires very little disinfection. Chlorine is the main disinfecting reagent (calcium hypochlorite 65%). A chlorinator is installed inside the water truck fill station. Chlorine in powder form is imported from the south and stored for use the rest of the year. Powdered chlorine is mixed with water in the chlorinator before being injected into the water discharge pipe. All drinking water is chlorinated, and has a free chlorine residual concentration of no less than 0.40 milligrams per litre (mg/l) at the time of loading into the

Truck fill station.

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Drinking Water

Natural lakes are uncontrollable and, in some cases, overflow arrangements are made to maintain the water level.

storage tanks. These pieces of ice are melted by heat traces, then the water is disinfected and distributed following the standard procedures of the community. Quality management Nunavut communities themselves are responsible for drinking water quality monitoring and management until the water is delivered to the end user. The Department of Health and Social Services of the Government of Nunavut

Should the water delivery nozzle and/or coupler come into contact with the ground, or any other source of contamination, it is immediately cleaned of debris and then re-disinfected.

maintains Quality Control and Quality Assurance and enforces the guidelines. Individual home owners are responsible for maintenance and cleaning of their own water tanks, to keep the drinking water safe up to the tap. Bhabest Roy, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., is a Municipal Planning Engineer with the Government of Nunavut. E-mail:

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water delivery truck, and a free chlorine residual concentration of no less than 0.20mg/l at the time of delivery. A free chlorine residual concentration of 0.20 mg/l is measured from the delivery hose nozzle after a thorough mixing of the chlorine and water and 20 minutes of contact time. Immediately prior to the first delivery of each day, the delivery hose nozzle and/or coupler are disinfected by a 5.25% sodium hypochlorite spray. Should the water delivery nozzle and/or coupler come into contact with the ground, or any other source of contamination, it is immediately cleaned of debris and then redisinfected. Drinking water is not retained in a water delivery truck longer than 24 hours after loading. Any remaining water in the tank is drained and not used for drinking. 3. Filling the water delivery truck: Each water truck tank, with a capacity ranging from 10,000 to 15,000 gallons, has an opening on the top. The truck is filled at the rate of 1,000 l/m. Each community has two to three water trucks and they are filled up in sequence. The rotation is such that one water truck is normally available in the community with a full load of water. The water truck drivers also work after hours, on weekends, and during emergency situations. Testing of the water is conducted by the truck driver on each and every truck, either at the truck fill station, or in front of the community office prior to delivery to clients. Monitoring is done by testing free chlorine residual. Monthly samples are sent to an Iqaluit health laboratory for testing microbiological parameters. Water is distributed by trucks to the tanks of homes and individual buildings. Water is metered during delivery and users are charged monthly for this service. Each community has a regular rate and a rate for delivery after hours. Icebergs as an emergency source The community that depends on stream flows and storage, sometimes will run out of stored water, especially in winter. Then, they must look for different natural sources like icebergs. This is only manageable for small communities with populations of less than 200. The residents cut the icebergs into pieces, transport them using komatiks pulled by snowmobiles, and store them in water

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Drinking Water Testing

New technology developed for drinking water pathogen detection By Ron Aube n order to safeguard public health, drinking water operators must conduct a multitude of elaborate tests, designed to isolate and identify indicators of pathogens and other contaminants. Beginning with proper sample collection, traditional methods involve intricate preparation and meticulous procedures, using highly-trained technical staff. Some methods involve quantitative counts to determine the most probable number (MPN) of organisms in a sample, while others determine the presence, or absence, of such organisms without their quantification. All these methods require the addition of liquid, or solid, nutrient media to encourage coliform growth, while suppressing the development of other bacteria. Another standard method relies on a membrane filtration method which concentrates and retrieves a small number of bacteria from a sample of water. This method uses a cylindrical funnel and a filter attached to a vacuum manifold, and


48 | Summer 2010

The TECTA B16 detection system offers real time monitoring capacity.

requires several additional steps, including applying the filter to a special medium in a petri dish. The media utilized contain substrate compounds that the E. coli bacteria will alter in such a way that it will fluoresce when exposed to a UV light source. This principle of substrate-based chemistry is approved by the majority of regulators worldwide for

the analysis of E. coli and total coliform bacteria in drinking water. To obtain results, both methods (MPN and membrane filtration) require several procedural steps, a minimum of 18 to 24 hours of incubation time at 35°C, and human visual interpretation. Given the restrictions from the required minimum incubation time, none of these methods can provide early warning detection or real-time alerting capabilities. The contaminated water crisis in Walkerton, Ontario, in 2000, increased awareness of the need for better detection methods that included automation, on-site testing capabilities, reduced reliance on human interpretation, and a quicker sample-to-result time. Largely driven by the events of 2000, a technology was developed by a group of scientists led by Dr. Stephen Brown and the departments of Chemistry, Environmental Studies, and Microbiology and Immunology, at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, with the aim of incorporating recommendations from the Ontario Clean Water Agency. Now owned by Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies, the technology has been developed into a commercially available product line, called ENDETEC. The TECTATM B16® detection instrument features built-in incubation, UV light emission, and a sophisticated optical system for the measurement of E. coli and total coliforms. Similarly, the TECTATM CCA® test cartridge combines the

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Drinking Water Testing reagents to detect both E. coli and total coliform bacteria, in an “all-in-one” cartridge format. The quantification of E. coli method used by the TECTA system is performed through correlation with time to detection, where it is related to the initial number of cells and growth rate. No sample dilution is required and the results can be expressed over a wide dynamic range. The technology can determine levels of bacteria in a sample (in colony forming units, or CFU equivalents) because it dynamically monitors kinetics of growth and expression of indicator enzymes. E.coli and coliform bacteria begin to grow and multiply once the cartridge is inserted into the instrument. At some point in time (the time to detection or TTD), the number of bacteria cells and

incubation, it will alert the operator in as little as two hours for a severely contaminated sample (~106 colonies); 14 hours for single cell detection; and 18 hours for presence-absence. In case of an adverse event, the instrument will immediately display a color-coded image on the user interface’s display screen. An audible signal is also heard, and wireless data transmission configuration is available for immediate alerting on cellular phones, or other

portable communication technologies. The TECTA system is approved for use in licensed laboratories in Ontario, and is awaiting other regulatory approvals. The technology is also AOAC certified for performance under the PTM program. Ron Aube is with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies. E-mail:


The contaminated water crisis in Walkerton, Ontario, in 2000, increased awareness of the need for better detection methods the amount of enzyme in each cell reaches a level where the signal crosses a particular threshold. Since the growth is exponential in time, a plot of log (CFU) vs. TTD is linear and provides the calibration function (Brown, 2010). By contrast with conventional methods, the “all-in-one” polymer-partitioning system provides simplicity, with an instrument allowing for simultaneous incubation, measurement, and real-time monitoring of the sample, all at once. Time saving is realized in part because the test cartridge contains all the necessary reagents to perform the determination, thus eliminating the need for typical lengthy sample preparations. Operators simply add water up to the 100-ml level and load the cartridge into the instrument. Additionally, on-site testing capability eliminates the need to ship samples to an outside laboratory, significantly reducing the time needed to obtain results. An advantage of this new technology is its real-time monitoring capacity. Without having to wait 18 to 24 hours for

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Petrochemical Wastes

Innovative approach reduces waste while recovering hydrocarbons and wash water By Pat Carswell and Mark McMillan

A self-contained mobile circulation unit, operating at a customerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s site, decontaminating a distillate tank as part of the non-entry tank decontamination process.

efineries store feedstock, process and waste materials in tanks and other storage containers. Sludge accumulates in the bottom of tanks; therefore, they require regular cleaning to ensure optimal efficiency and effectiveness. When making decisions regarding tank cleaning, refineries weigh several considerations, including tank down time, how to manage environmental and safety risks, and what to do with the residues. Due in part to stricter government regulations and new technologies that offer the ability to more safely recover material that was once considered waste, refinery operators are increasingly looking to service providers that are not only able to clean tanks, but also to help minimize the environmental impacts of what comes out of the tanks. Moving away from traditional approaches Conventional thinking in tank management centres on disposal. Typically,


50 | Summer 2009

when cleaning a storage tank, a service provider will remove sludge, prepare it for disposal, and send it to a hazardous waste landfill or incinerator.This process involves taking the tank offline and diluting the sludge found in the bottom by adding light hydrocarbon-based fluids to mobilize the solids. Once removed, the liquid slurry requires solidification in order to be suitable for disposal. Each of these steps significantly increases the volume of material requiring disposal. Add to this the safety risks involved with confined space entry into the tank, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transporting large volumes of material, and the costs of taking the tank offline, and the traditional tank cleaning model can be costly, with a potentially significant environmental footprint. Government regulation driving change As public concern for a cleaner environment drives stricter environmental regulations, many companies are looking for

new, more sustainable ways of doing business. In Ontario, for example, new Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) now prevent hydrocarbon-contaminated sludge from being sent directly to land farms or landfills. Newalta has introduced a waste minimization and product recovery-focused approach to tank cleaning to customers in the chemical and petrochemical industries in Ontario, primarily in the Sarnia Valley. Because this tank sludge is considered hazardous and must now undergo further processing before it can be disposed of, the ability to minimize the amount of waste material requiring disposal is an attractive proposition. Maximizing environmental and economic value This new approach reduces the volume of actual waste for disposal by up to 95 percent and maximizes the recovery of valuable hydrocarbons and water from sludge. This reduces or offsets costs for

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Petrochemical Wastes customers, by reducing transportation and disposal requirements and returning a valuable commodity that can go back into production. Additionally, it significantly lessens the environmental footprint of tank cleaning by: • Reducing GHG emissions associated with transportation by operating on customers’ sites. • Reducing the volume of material sent to landfills, incineration or other disposal methods. • Recovering water that can be further treated by the customer and either reused as process water, which reduces the requirement for fresh water, or safely returned to the natural environment. • Recovering a usable crude oil product with less environmental impact than that obtained through conventional drilling and production. Tank management The typical tank management process includes the following steps: 1. Consultation, imaging and sampling - Newalta works with the customer to determine the scope of the project and establish expectations. Sludge is profiled using infrared technology and 3D-modeling to analyze tank contents and determine optimal processing methods. 2. Non-entry tank decontamination and sludge suspension - Robotic or automated technology reduces the need for confined space entry. Tank materials are liquefied to mobilize and suspend solids in the sludge, which is then removed to maximize product recovery potential. 3. Centrifugation, filtration and product recovery - Newalta’s centrifuges are specifically engineered to manage oily sludge found in tanks. Depending on the sludge profile and contaminants in the tank, a decanter centrifuge is used to separate solids and hydrocarbons, or a tricanter to separate oil, water and solids. In the case of sludge with low levels of solids, a filtration system can be used. 4. Disposal - By recovering oil and water from sludge, the amount of solids requiring disposal is reduced by 85-95 percent. The remaining solids are sent offsite for safe disposal. 5. Tank cleaning and coordination of inspection and maintenance - After the sludge is removed, tanks are cleaned using safe entry protocols. If required,

Tank cleaning equipment is prepared at a refinery in Ontario.

inspection and maintenance are coordinated with appropriate third parties. Mobile closed loop solution Refinery heaters generate energy required to process hydrocarbons. Due to

the high levels of heat involved, hydrocarbons in the heaters are unavoidably “cracked” and a solid waste “coke” precipitates over time on the walls of the continued overleaf...

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Petrochemical Wastes

A typical refinery installation with generator (left), mixing tank (centre right), heat exchanger (right) and centrifuges on stands (background).

heaters. This coke lessens the efficiency of energy transfer so the heaters periodically require de-coking to be able to continue to operate efficiently. The de-coking process is known as “pigging” and uses large volumes of water to push devices called “pigs” through boiler lines to remove built-up coke. The water used in this process becomes contaminated with fine coke particles (coke “fines”) and must be properly dealt with by refinery operators. The traditional approach to managing pigging wastewater has involved disposal in a well or transportation to a wastewater treatment facility for processing. Newalta has developed a mobile wastewater treatment process that closes the loop on pigging water. It uses a combination of mobile equipment, including hydrocyclones, settling tanks and high flow horizontal filters, to process and return water in a ready state to the de-coking unit for reuse. It runs continuously during the pigging operation and includes the following basic steps: • Step 1: A centrifugal pump pulls wastewater from the operator’s storage tank



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Petrochemical Wastes and feeds it to a hydrocyclone. Centrifugal forces of approximately 100-Gs then cause the heavy particulates to drop and flow out of the lower discharge of the hydrocyclone. Upper discharge fluid flows into the rear section of a weir tank (a tank designed to settle solids as fluids flow through them) with the lighter particulate, while the lower discharge fluid (water with the heavier effluent particulate) discharges from the bottom of the cyclone to a trough that runs to the front of the weir tank. • Step 2: The solids settle out due to gravitational forces and are collected and safely disposed of offsite. Wastewater then flows over two baffles to the rear of the weir tank and mixes with the wastewater that was discharged from the upper portion of the cyclones in Step 1. • Step 3: A second centrifugal pump pulls water through an adjustable skimmer from the rear section of the weir tank and feeds wastewater through a horizontal filter, where between 95 and 99 percent of the remaining solids are removed before water is returned to the pigging pumper’s clean water tank for reuse.

A specialized decoking filtration unit.

• The system continuously filters wastewater at up to 4.6 cubic metres per minute. It reduces disposal costs by minimizing the volume required for disposal and lessens the overall environmental footprint of the operation by reducing waste transportation requirements, as

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well as the amount of fresh water needed for pigging. Pat Carswell and Mark McMillan are with Newalta Corporation. E-mail: or

Communal & Residential

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Wastewater Systems

Effluent sewers sustainably accommodate growing communities By Geoff Salthouse and Mike Insole any rural communities that use septic systems have outgrown that technology. Some are experiencing widespread failure of aging systems. Others are growing, but their soil conditions won’t accommodate additional septic systems. Larger communities want to grow, but their existing sewer systems can’t accommodate new connections. In all these cases, neither conventional septic systems, nor gravity sewer systems, are feasible. Effluent sewers are a proven and sustainable solution for decentralized and rural wastewater collection across Canada, and in many other countries. Not only can effluent sewers serve rural areas, but they are also a cost-effective way to serve fringe development, just outside towns that do not want to expand their conventional sewer system. How effluent sewer systems work In an effluent sewer system, primary treatment takes place in a small, watertight, underground tank (called an interceptor tank) at each property. Raw wastes separate into solid sludge, floating scum, and liquid effluent; this is a passive and reliable process, requiring no energy input. The solids remain in the tank for years. Because the anaerobic biological processes in the tank tend to consume the solids, most tanks only need to be pumped every ten or more years, with larger tanks even less frequently. Unlike solids, clarified liquid effluent remains in the tank for only a couple of days. Then it is conveyed from the tank to the next treatment step. Systems in which the effluent flows by gravity are called septic tank effluent gravity (STEG) systems. If each household has a pump that pushes the effluent, the system is called a septic tank effluent pumping (STEP) system. Both types of connections can exist on the same collection network. Because only liquid effluent is pumped intermittently, special small, energy-efficient pumps (typically one-half horsepower) are used, costing the homeowner only pennies a month for electricity. Effluent collection lines are typically


54 | Summer 2010

Both pumped and gravity-discharge lots can be connected to the same smalldiameter effluent sewer system. (Credit: Orenco System Inc.)

50-100 mm in diameter and can be shallowly buried following the terrain. Installation can be done by directional drilling, further reducing the impact on the community and the environment. No expensive lift stations are needed, and the watertight effluent sewer system does not require manholes. This significantly reduces costs, while also eliminating critical points where spills can occur. Interceptor tanks are high quality, but simple vessels that provide emergency storage and remain almost unnoticed by homeowners. Packed-bed treatment systems After primary treatment in the interceptor tanks, liquid effluent usually must receive secondary or advanced treatment. Effluent sewers can discharge to traditional municipal treatment plants and can be connected into a regional gravity sewer, but many are part of satellite or decentralized cluster systems. In decen-

tralized effluent sewer systems, further treatment of wastewater is often done cost-effectively in packed-bed (media) filters; again this is a passive, reliable process that requires minimal energy to trickle effluent over the filter media bed. Traditional sand filters are still used in some communities. However, engineered filter media provides more surface area than sand to facilitate the growth of microorganisms. It also provides more open pore space for the movement of oxygen. For example, in AdvanTex® treatment systems, manufactured by Orenco Systems®, Inc., effluent circulates over hanging curtains of a specific synthetic fabric. A single 2400 x 5000 mm AX100 pod can treat design flows of 19,000 litres per day (LPD) of residential-strength wastewater, which would require 93 square metres of sand filter to treat. Packed-bed filters can be built, or in-

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Wastewater Systems stalled, as needed in sequential modules to match phased construction. They consistently produce high-quality effluent at low operational cost, even with wide variations in flows and waste strength. Case Study - Victoria, PEI Victoria, Prince Edward Island, is a small but popular tourist community, with a peak season between June and September. Its wastewater system, designed by Engineering Technologies Canada (Stratford, PEI), in cooperation with Harland Associates 02 Inc., consists of about 48 STEG systems. Effluent from these flows to a lift station that pumps it to the treatment plant. The effluent sewer system also incorporates five residential STEP systems and two commercial STEP systems. Campbell’s Concrete Ltd. of Charlottetown, PEI, manufactured the interceptor tanks, and Atlantic Purification Systems of Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, supplied the effluent sewer and treatment equipment. The treatment system consists of ten AdvanTex AX100 pods, with room to add an additional five units, if the community grows. The modular system accommodates the large seasonal variation

Green space was preserved at Habitat Acres in Alberta using a decentralized wastewater system.

in flows. During winter months, flows average 22,7000 LPD and only one-third of the treatment system is used. During the summer, flows rise to 49,200 LPD, and the entire modular system is utilized. After secondary treatment in the AdvanTex pods, effluent is dispersed to the ground. The system has two drainfields:

a pressure dose sand bed, and a drip irrigation system. The pressure dose bed works all year round; the drip system comes online automatically in mid-June and goes offline September 22. During these months, both drainfields are in operation. continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Systems

Effluent sewers allow low-impact installation with small trenches and directional drilling.

Case Study: Habitat Acres, Alberta Sten Berg, a farmer, livestock producer, and consultant, wanted to create a sustainable housing development on 27.5 hectares of his land near Sherwood Park, Alberta. Habitat Acres, a 29-home planned community, is the result. It includes an 18.2-hectare nature reserve, two waterfowl nesting areas, and the first self-contained effluent sewage treatment system ever approved in Alberta. To maximize open space and preserve wetlands, Mr. Berg wanted to reduce lot sizes from the usual 0.8-hectare minimum, so conventional septic systems were out of the question. An Orenco effluent sewer with AdvanTex treatment solved the problem. Onsite Specialties Inc., of Sherwood Park, supplied the collection and treatment system. Each of the 29 lots has a 4,500 litre concrete interceptor tank, supplied by Alberta Wilbert Sales, Edmonton. Effluent is pumped to three AdvanTex AX100 pods. After treatment, effluent is discharged to a drip irrigation system. Managing effluent sewer systems Remote monitoring allows utility companies, or other authorities, to efficiently manage decentralized systems. In both Victoria and Habitat Acres, STEP units at individual homes are equipped with Orenco VeriComm control panels. The AdvanTex treatment systems are also controlled by TCOM telemetry control panels from Orenco. VeriComm panels communicate with the system operator, via the home’s phone line or broadband connection. 56 | Summer 2010

Once a month, they check in and upload operation data to a secure Web site. They also alert the operator to problems, such as excessive pump cycles. In many cases, the operator can diagnose the problem remotely and adjust settings to correct it. Even if a site visit is required, the operator arrives prepared with information about the likely cause of the problem, such as a stuck float or a leaking toilet. Several models for wastewater system management exist throughout North America. While some require the homeowners to take responsibility for equipment located on their lot, a private or public utility is typically better equipped and more efficient in responding to onsite service needs. Therefore, the preferred model is for a responsible management entity (RME) to accept that responsibility. The RME may be as small as a homeowners’ association, or as large as a County. Web-based services, such as OnlineRME (, allow jurisdictions to verify that all on-lot systems in their area are being maintained in good order. Effluent sewers can be ideal solutions for villages and small cities, but there is no limit to the number of lots connected to the collection network. Many larger cities have incorporated this technology into their overall sewer management system, where the effluent sewer serves thousands of homes and commercial lots. This allows city engineers to choose the best option to serve various areas in the city, without being limited to only gravity sewers.

Other benefits There are may other benefits from using an effluent sewer system, including: • In most systems that are built to serve new developments, the cost of the on-lot equipment is included in the homeowner’s mortgage, so upfront investment by the community or developer is minimal. • Small-diameter collection lines can be installed in shallow, narrow trenches, or directional drilled, minimizing disruption in the community. Lines follow the contour of the land, avoiding difficult and expensive deep trenching. • Service can begin as soon as the first household in a new development is connected. No minimum velocity is required for the effluent sewer network, as solids are excluded, simplifying design, installation, and operation. • Effluent sewer systems are watertight, eliminating infiltration and inflow common to gravity sewers, and reducing the hydraulic loading on the treatment plant. • Sludge management is greatly reduced through natural, passive, anaerobic digestion in the interceptor tanks, simplifying treatment plant design and minimizing life-cycle costs. • Since primary treatment occurs at each home or business, abuse of the system, such as disposal of chemicals, generally affects only the household responsible. • Risks are minimized and distributed as malfunctions generally affect only one household at a time. In the event of a malfunction or natural disaster, the septic tank provides reserve holding capacity. • Properly maintained effluent sewer systems require fewer personnel and less heavy equipment to service than other sewer systems do. Together, effluent sewers and media filter advanced treatment form a sustainable and robust system that uses minimal energy, safeguards groundwater and the environment, and imposes costs fairly on the users. Communities of all sizes can benefit from this technology. Geoff Salthouse is with Orenco Systems Inc. Mike Insole is with Alberta Wilbert Sales Ltd. E-mail:

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Conference Preview

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Geography of Hopeâ&#x20AC;? author to open 2010 WCW Conference & Trade Show uthor and journalist Chris Turner will be keynote speaker at the 2010 Western Canada Water conference and tradeshow in September. Mr. Turner traveled the globe in search of hope for a sustainable future and now points to the bright light at the end of the very dark tunnel. He has chronicled his findings in his best-selling book and popular speaking topic: The Geography Of Hope: A Tour of the World We Need. He asks: "Would this - this place, this machine, this social system or way of life - be capable of continuing on its present course for the foreseeable future without exhausting the planet's ability to sustain human life at something like the current population and quality of life?â&#x20AC;? Technical sessions The conference, which will be held September 21-24, at the Telus Centre in Calgary, will also feature over 20 sessions on the following topics: â&#x20AC;˘ Conveyance & pumping â&#x20AC;˘ Government affairs â&#x20AC;˘ Project delivery â&#x20AC;˘ The Australian experience â&#x20AC;˘ Wastewater collection systems â&#x20AC;˘ Wastewater technology and innovation â&#x20AC;˘ Water quality â&#x20AC;˘ Instrumentation & controls â&#x20AC;˘ Linear infrastructure maintenance â&#x20AC;˘ Odour control â&#x20AC;˘ Reclamation & reuse â&#x20AC;˘ Stormwater management â&#x20AC;˘ Utility management â&#x20AC;˘ Wastewater technology & innovation â&#x20AC;˘ Water technology & innovation â&#x20AC;˘ Global perspective â&#x20AC;˘ Regional systems â&#x20AC;˘ Trenchless technology â&#x20AC;˘ Wastewater technology & innovation â&#x20AC;˘ Water resource management Facility tours Three tours have been arranged for registrants: 1. Shepard Stormwater Diversion This project will address stormwater quality and quantity issues in the Western Irrigation District (WID) system. Much of East Calgary presently drains to


the Alberta Environment Headworks (AENV), Western Headworks (WH) Canal and then into the Western Irrigation District. During major storm events, the Shepard Stormwater Diversion Project will divert water from the WH Canal to the Bow River by way of a 3.5 km drainage channel, a 155 hectare constructed treatment wetland, and a 9.5 km ditch and discharge structure. 2. Pine Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant - The City of Calgaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s newest wastewater treatment plant, with a nominal capacity of 100 ML/d, is now fully commissioned and is undergoing fine tuning. This BNR plant, complete with tertiary filtration, is producing an extremely high quality effluent. 3. Bearspaw Water Treatment Plant The Bearspaw and Glenmore Water Treatment Plants are currently undergoing major upgrades, including high-rate ballasted flocculation pretreatment, residuals management, onsite sodium hypochlorite generation, ultraviolet disinfection, and filter improvements. For more information, contact Western Canada Water at (403) 709-0064, or visit

` Ă&#x20AC; Â&#x2C6; Â&#x2DC; Â&#x17D; Â&#x2C6; Â&#x2DC; }Ă&#x160;Ă&#x153; >Ă&#x152; iĂ&#x20AC; Âś &ORBILLIONPEOPLEINTHEDEVELOPINGWORLD


Water For People helps people in developing countries improve their quality of life by supporting the development of locally sustainable drinking water resources, sanitation facilities and health and hygiene education programs. Our vision is a world where all people have access to safe drinking water and sanitation; a world where no one suffers or dies from a water- or sanitation-related disease. Summer 2010 | 57

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Guest Comment

What environmental students want, need and ask for By Phil McLimont s one who has spent much of his career as an environmental engineer dealing with municipal and industrial wastewater, I am used to being the butt of jokes when the question comes up at social hour: “So, what do you do for a living?” The reaction to my reply is typically predictable. Almost immediately, a look of pain appears on the person’s face at the thought of sewage. I sense them leaning away from me, as if they might catch something. But almost simultaneously, an expression of sympathy wells up in their eyes as if they are truly sorry for my unfortunate lot in life! The reality is that I love sewage! Both municipal and industrial! After all, pollution has given me great employment and a challenging career. Even when the economy takes a dive, pollution does not go away. As a professor of environmental engineering, it gives me great satisfaction to introduce students to real-time wastewater treatment issues and concerns. I am constantly closing up the textbook, leaving it on the podium, in favour of presenting actual wastewater scenarios and soliciting student solutions. What students ask for Today’s students ask for relevancy. They ask: “What do we really need to know?” and “Why do we need to know this?” They expect practical courses, not just theoretical. If a college or university professor’s enthusiasm for water and wastewater treatment excites students to go further and make environmental engineering and science their career direction, then I’m all for it. If presenting materials that are “as relevant as possible” and walking students through “possible situations we could get into” also motivates them, then I’m all for that, as well. Both new and seasoned water and wastewater professionals have relevant and practical information available to them through many professional organizations and publications. Environmental students, however, who may be feeling that they’re being dragged through organic chemistry, cell physiology, and numerous physics and engineering cal-


58 | Summer 2010

culations, need some encouragement. When I put the textbook down, I see the students’ interest pick up. Our new young professionals are truly concerned about real issues, not just textbook information. As educators, we in the classroom must allow our students to explore, and we call on all employers everywhere to allow our graduates to continue exploring. Take advantage of their enthusiasm — don’t just tell them to operate what has already been built. Give them permission to use their creativity to try something new. They may just surprise you with something affordable, sustainable, simple. I believe that greater emphasis in the classroom on what is relevant and practical to the student will produce a very valuable asset to the employer. Greater emphasis in the classroom on what is relevant and practical to the seasoned professional will achieve this desired end result. So I remember what has been most relevant to me as I have worked in the field, and I pass this on. And just in case I might get out of date, I ask those in the field what is relevant to them, and I pass this on as well. It is when students are told to close their textbooks that they become creative. Case in point: Class is given time to consider turning various wastewaters into that much needed resource we call potable water. When students consider a form of reverse osmosis to produce potable water, they have a technically correct textbook answer. However, they soon realize that financially they would be broke due to the high cost of pressuring water against a concentration gradient, and also the high cost of cleaning or replacing a membrane. When students consider a form of desalination to produce potable water, again they have a technically correct textbook answer. However, they realize that environmentally they would be choosing an activity that can be described as unsustainable since it is very energy-intensive and emits thousands of tonnes of carbon dioxide yearly. They have learned that, sometimes, a technically correct textbook solution

Phil McLimont, B.Sc., M.Eng., Professor of Environmental Technology, Lambton College of Applied Arts and Technology, Sarnia, Ontario.

should come with a warning. In this case, they learned that improved water management should mean lower water usage, not unsustainable development. Not to sound too simple, but when students consider a form of fine filtration and carbon adsorption to begin producing potable water, now they realize they have a method that not only works, but is both affordable and sustainable. They are quick to see the “green” advantages. What students need Too often, the classroom instructor emphasizes the more sophisticated technologies, and the large-scale applications of these technologies, likely because we think that’s where the students will find gainful employment. Too often, consultants and contractors look for the bigger projects to bid on, likely because they think these projects will provide the most jobs. Of course, the reality is that industry looks for the best return on the dollar, and local municipal council decisions must be based on costs, and costly water and wastewater treatment is not always placed high on the priority list. We must look to the classroom for the first step in overcoming these economic challenges. Young municipal planners must graduate understanding environmental priorities; young township inspectors must graduate understanding the significance of both properly designed

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Guest Comment

Figure 1. Definition of Yesterday's Environmental Education.

Figure 2. Definition of Today's Environmental Education.

Figure 3. Definition of Tomorrow's Environmental Graduates.

and properly constructed rural systems; young engineers must graduate understanding the importance and necessity of the smaller and simpler systems, in addition to the scaled-up and sophisticated; young environmental technologists must graduate understanding that the affordable and sustainable are just as valid options as the costly and complex. What students want Today’s students want real jobs. Speaking with my environmental technology students each year, I emphasize that they will, in time, become the professionals in their facilities. They will

come to know their equipment and standard operating practices inside and out, including which procedures work and which do not. I emphasize that, in time, the graduate as the new professional will become a valuable part of the on-site continuous improvement process. I emphasize that new operators must also learn to speak up and tell their supervisors what is and is not working, and what they do and do not need. And so environmental education continues beyond the classroom. Chemistry, biology and physics are necessary for a good background and in-

troduction to environmental education. Yet it is the real-time input of the seasoned professional that introduces a very necessary component to that education. If it is invited, please give it. If it is not invited, please offer it. That’s what students want so they can be prepared and useful after graduation. That’s what employers want so they can confidently put their newest team members to work right away. It’s a win-winwin situation for the student, the employer and the environment. E-mail:

Two thirds of the earth’s surface is covered by water. The rest is covered by SEW-EURODRIVE. Manufacturers and machine builders in C Canada anada and ar around ound the w world orld look to to SE SEW-EURODRIVE W-EURODRIVE for for integrated integrated dr drive ive solutions and around-the-clock around-the-clock service service and support. support. W With ith three three Canadian Canadian assembly plants plants and mor more e in inventory ventory than all our ccompetitors ompetitors - we we are are the nation’s nation’s leading supplier of gear geared ed mot motors, ors, speed reducers reducers and electronic electronic controllers. controllers. For For the ccomplete omplete solution, call

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Summer 2010 | 59

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If you can only attend one event during the year, make it WEFTEC, the largest water quality exhibition in North America. Take advantage of the opportunity to meet one-on-one with more than 900 exhibiting companies, the most knowledgeable manufacturers, consultants, and contractors in the water and wastewater industry. Capitalize on unique educational opportunities and form quality business relationships for your organization. WEFTEC Exhibitors represent the most comprehensive array of products and services including: Activated Carbon

Contractor Services

Environmental Filters


Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment

Consultant Services

Hydrogen Sulfide Control


Contaminant Removal

Infiltration/Inflow Control


Aeration Systems

Corrosion Protection


SCADA Systems

Aerobic and Anaerobic Treatment

Computer Software



Biological Nutrient Removal

Data Monitoring and Analysis

Leak Detection


Biosolids and Sludge

Membrane Technologies



Chemicals and Chemical Handling

Motors and Motor Controls



Odor Controls

Water Recycling/Reuse



...and so much more.

Collection Systems

Preview the technical program and exhibitor list at 83rd Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference New Orleans Morial Convention Center | New Orleans, Louisiana USA Conference: October 2–6, 2010 | Exhibition: October 4–6, 2010

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ES&E’s Annual Guide To Government Agencies & Associations Associations ...................................................................61 Government Agencies ..................................................65 Colleges and Universities .............................................69

ES&E ’s Guide To Associations

ABORIGINAL WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO 2547 Eglinton Ave W Toronto ON M6M 1T2 (416) 651-1443 Fax: (416) 651-1673 Web site: AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION (AWMA) One Gateway Center, 3rd Floor 420 Fort Duquesne Blvd Pittsburgh PA 15222-1435 USA (412) 232-3444 Fax: (412) 232-3450 Web site:

ALBERTA WATER AND WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION (AWWOA) 11810 Kingsway Ave Edmonton AB T5G 0X5 (780) 454-7745 Fax: (780) 451-6451 Web site: AMERICAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 1303 W Walnut Hill Lane Suite 305 Irving TX 75038-3008 USA (972) 506-7216 Fax: (972) 506-7682 Web site: AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA) 6666 W Quincy Ave Denver CO 80235 USA (303) 794-7711 Fax: (303) 347-0804 Web site: ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSORS OF CANADA INC. P O Box 490 Fenelon Falls ON K0M 1N0 (877) 512-3722 Web site: ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS OF CANADA (ACEC) 616-130 Albert St Ottawa ON K1P 5G4 (613) 236-0569 Fax: (613) 236-6193 Web site: ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPALITIES OF ONTARIO 801-200 University Ave

Toronto ON M5H 3C6 (416) 971-9856 Fax: (416) 971-6191 Web site: ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPAL RECYCLING COORDINATORS 100-127 Wyndham St N Guelph ON N1H 4E9 (519) 823-1990 Fax: (519) 823-0084 Web site: ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO LAND SURVEYORS (AOLS) 1043 McNicoll Ave Toronto ON M1W 3W6 (416) 491-9020 Fax: (416) 491-2576 E-mail: Web site: APPRO – ASSOCIATION OF POWER PRODUCERS OF ONTARIO 1602-25 Adelaide St E Toronto, ON M5C 3A1 (416) 322-6549 Fax: (416) 481-5785 Web site: ATLANTIC CANADA WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (ACWWA) PO Box 41002 Dartmouth NS B2Y 4P7 (902) 434-6002 Fax: (902) 435-7796 Web site: AUDITING ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 262-610 Ford Drive Oakville ON L6J 7W4 (866) 582-9595 Fax: (519) 488-3655 Web site: BRITISH COLUMBIA GROUNDWATER ASSOCIATION 1708 197A St Langley BC V2Z 1K2 (604) 530-8934 Fax: (604) 530-8934 Web site:


(604) 433-4389 Fax: (604) 433-9859 Web site: CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABORATORY ACCREDITATION (CALA) 310-1565 Carling Ave Ottawa ON K1Z 8R1 (613) 233-5300 Fax: (613) 233-5501 E-mail: Web site: Laboratory accreditation, proficiency testing, training. CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGIES 7885 Jock Trail Ottawa ON K0A 2Z0 (613) 222-6920 Fax: (613) 822-4987 Web site: CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF RECYCLING INDUSTRIES (CARI-ACIR) 1-682 Monarch Ave Ajax ON L1S 4S2 (905) 426-9313 Fax: (905) 426-9314 Web site: CANADIAN ASSOCIATION ON WATER QUALITY PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1 Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (905) 336-6291 Fax: (905) 336-4877 Web site: CANADIAN BROWNFIELDS NETWORK (CBN) c/o OCETA, 201A-2070 Hadwen Rd Mississauga ON L5K 2C9 (905) 822-4133 Fax: (905) 822-3558 Web site: CANADIAN CENTRE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (CCOHS) 135 Hunter St E Hamilton ON L8N 1M5 (905) 572-2981 Fax: (905) 572-2206 Web site:

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Associations CANADIAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 205 Miller Dr Georgetown ON L7G 6G4 (905) 877-5369 Fax: (905) 877-5369 Web site: CANADIAN COPPER & BRASS DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION 415-49 The Donway West Don Mills ON M3C 3M9 (416) 391-5599 Fax: (416) 391-3823 Web site: CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING ASSOCIATION 1-6820 Kitimat Rd Mississauga ON L5N 5M3 (905) 814-1274 Fax: (905) 814-1158 Web site: CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL CERTIFICATION APPROVALS BOARD (CECAB) 200-308 11 Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 (403) 233-7484 Fax: (403) 264-6240 Web site: CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ASSOCIATION 301-130 Spadina Ave Mississauga ON L5N 5M3 (905) 814-1274 Fax: (905) 814-1158 Web site: CANADIAN GENERAL STANDARDS BOARD 6B1-11 Laurier St Place du Portage Gatineau QC K1A 1G6 (800) 665-2472 Fax: (819) 956-5740 Web site: CANADIAN GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 1600 Bedford Highway Suite 100 – 409 Bedford NS B4A 1E8 (902) 845-1885 Fax: (902) 845-1886 Web site: CANADIAN INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND POLICY (CIELAP) 305-130 Spadina Ave Toronto ON M5V 2L4 (416) 923-3529 Fax: (416) 923-5949 Web site: CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION 100-5060 Spectrum Way Mississauga ON L4W 5N6 (416) 747-2705 Fax: (416) 401-6692 Web site: CANADIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION 11-1010 Polytek Rd Ottawa ON K1J 9H9 (613) 747-0524 Fax: (613) 747-0523 Web site:

62 | Summer 2010

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations CANADIAN WATER NETWORK 200 University Ave W Waterloo ON N2L 3G1 (519) 888-4567 Fax: (519) 883-7574 Web site: CANADIAN WATER QUALITY ASSOCIATION 330-295 The West Mall Toronto ON M9C 4Z4 (866) 383-7617 Fax: (416) 695-2945 Web site: CANADIAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 900-280 Albert St Ottawa ON K1P 5G8 (613) 237-9363 Fax: (613) 594-5190 Web site: CANADIAN WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION 810-170 Laurier Ave W Ottawa ON K1P 5V5 (613) 234-8716, (800) 922-6932 Fax: (613) 234-5642 Web site: CEMENT ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 703-1500 Don Mills Rd Toronto ON M3B 3K4 (416) 449-3708 Fax: (416) 449-9755 Web site: COMPOSTING COUNCIL OF CANADA 16 Northumberland St Toronto ON M6H 1P7 (416) 535-0240 Fax: (416) 536-9892 Web site: CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE INSTITUTE 2A-652 Bishop St N Cambridge ON N3H 4V6 (866) 295-2416 or (519) 650-8080 Fax: (519) 650-8081 E-mail: Web site: CSA INTERNATIONAL 178 Rexdale Blvd Toronto ON M9W 1R3 (416) 747-4000 Fax: (416) 747-4149 Web site: DUCTILE IRON PIPE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION 245 Riverchase Parkway E Suite O Birmingham AL 35244 USA (205) 402-8700 Fax: (205) 402-8730 Web site: ECO CANADA 200-308 11 Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 (403) 233-0748 Fax: (403) 269-9544 Web site: INTERNATIONAL OZONE ASSOCIATION PO Box 28873 Scottsdale AZ 85255 USA

(480) 529-3787 Fax: (480) 473-9068 Web site: INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET ASSOCIATION PO Box 28154 Scottsdale AZ 85255 USA (480) 544-0105 Fax: (480) 473-9068 Web site: INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SCIENCES (ISEIS) 413-4246 Albert St Regina SK S4S 3R9 (306) 337-2306 Fax: (306) 584-5356 Web site: MANITOBA ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION INC. (MEIA) 301-35 King St Winnipeg MB R3B 1H4 (204) 783-7090 Fax: (204) 783-6501 Web site: MANITOBA WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 1600 Portage La Prairie MB R1N 3P1 (204) 239-6868 Fax: (204) 239-6872 Web site: MARITIME PROVINCES WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (MPWWA) Box 41001 Dartmouth NS B2Y 4P7 (902) 434-8874 Web site: MUNICIPAL ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION 2-6355 Kennedy Rd Mississauga ON L5T 2L5 (905) 795-2555 Fax: (905) 795-2660 Web site: MUNICIPAL WASTE INTEGRATION NETWORK Box 1116, 704 Glen Morris Rd W Ayr ON N0B 1E0 (519) 620-9654 Fax: (519) 620-9678 Web site: NATIONAL GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 601 Dempsey Rd Westerville OH 43081 USA (614) 898-7791 Fax: (614) 898-7786 Web site: NEBB CANADA 8094 Esquesing Line Milton ON L9T 2X9 (905) 693-9090 Fax: (905) 693-8282 Web site: NEW BRUNSWICK ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (NBEIA) PO Box 637 Stn A Fredericton NB E3B 5B3 (506) 455-0212 Fax: (506) 452-0213 Web site:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations

NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (NEIA) 101-90 O’Leary Ave Parsons Building St. John’s NL A1B 2C7 (709) 772-3333 Fax: (709) 772-3213 Web site: NORTH AMERICAN HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3030 W 81st Ave Westminster CO 80031-4111 USA (303) 433-4446, Fax: (303) 458-0002 Web site: NORTHERN TERRITORIES WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION 201-4817 49th St Yellowknife NT X1A 3S7 (867) 873-4325 Fax: (867) 669-2167 Web site: NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION 161 Brock St E Thunder Bay ON P7E 4H1 (807) 626-0155 Fax: (807) 626-8163 Web site: OCETA 201A-2070 Hadwen Rd Mississauga ON L5K 2C9 (905) 822-4133 Fax: (905) 822-3558 Web site: ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF CERTIFIED ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS AND TECHNOLOGISTS (OACETT) 404-10 Four Seasons Pl Etobicoke ON M9B 6H7 (416) 621-9621 Fax: (416) 621-8694 Web site: ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF SEWAGE INDUSTRY SERVICES PO Box 91 Sundridge ON P0A 1Z0 (705) 384-9264 Fax: (705) 384-2880 Web site:

pass a broad spectrum of equipment and services for the air and water pollution control marketplace. ONTARIO ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (ONEIA) 218-330 Adelaide St W Toronto ON M5V 1R4 (416) 531-7884 Fax: (905) 855-0406 E-mail: Web site: ONEIA is the business association representing the interests of Ontario’s environment industry – working together to promote environmental businesses to industry and government. With over 200 product and service companies, members provide market-driven solutions for society’s most pressing environmental problems. ONTARIO GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 48 Front St E Strathroy ON N7G 1Y6 (519) 245-7194 Fax: (519) 245-7196 Web site: ONTARIO MUNICIPAL WATER ASSOCIATION 43 Chelsea Cres Belleville ON K8N 4Z5 (613) 966-1100, (888) 231-1115 Fax: (613) 966-3024 Web site: ONTARIO ONSITE WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 831 Stn Main Cobourg ON K9A 4S3 (905) 372-2722 Web site: ONTARIO SEWER & WATERMAIN CONSTRUCTION ASSOCIATION 300-5045 Orbitor Dr Building 12 Mississauga ON L4W 4Y4 (905) 629-7766 Fax: (905) 629-0587 Web site:

ONTARIO BACKFLOW PREVENTION ASSOCIATION PO Box 265 Campbellville ON L0P 1B0 (416) 249-2837 Fax: (905) 854-0180 Web site: ONTARIO COALITION FOR SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE 2-6355 Kennedy Rd Mississauga ON L5T 2L5 (905) 795-2555 Fax: (905) 795-2660 Web site: ONTARIO CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 447 Frederick St, Second floor Kitchener ON N2H 2P4 (519) 489-4488 Fax: (519) 578-6060 Web site:


ONTARIO POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION (OPCEA) PO Box 137 Midhurst ON L0L 1X0 (705) 725-0917 Fax: (705) 725-1068 Web site: Our association is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting member companies in the promotion of their equipment and services to the pollution control market sector of Ontario. Originally founded in 1970, the OPCEA has since grown to over 160 member companies whose fields encom-

ONTARIO SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 4950 Yonge St., Suite 502 Toronto, Ontario M2N 6K1 (416) 223-9961 Web site: ONTARIO WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3-2005 Clark Blvd Brampton ON L6T 5P8 (905) 791-9500 Fax: (905) 791-9514 Web site: ONTARIO WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (OWWA) 200-1092 Islington Ave Toronto ON M8Z 4R9 (416) 231-1555 Fax: (416) 231-1556 Web site: ONTARIO WATERWORKS

EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION Website: The Ontario Water Works Equipment Association (OWWEA) is an organization that represents its membership within the waterworks industry of Ontario. Membership consists of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, agents and contractors dedicated to serving the Ontario municipal market. PLASTICS PIPE INSTITUTE 825-105 Decker Court Irving TX 75062 USA (469) 499-1044 Fax: (469) 499-1063 Web site: PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS ONTARIO 1000-25 Sheppard Ave W Toronto ON M2N 6S9 (416) 224-1100 Fax: (416) 224-8168 Web site: PULP AND PAPER TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 1070-740 rue Notre-Dame O Montreal QC H3C 3X6 (514) 392-0265 Fax: (514) 392-0369 Web site: RESEAU ENVIRONNEMENT 220-911 rue Jean-Talon E Montreal QC H2R 1V5 (514) 270-7110 Fax: (514) 270-7154 Web site:

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Associations SASKATCHEWAN ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY AND MANAGERS ASSOCIATION (SEIMA) 113-2025 11th Ave Regina SK S4P 0K6 (306) 543-1567 Fax: (306) 543-1568 Web site: SASKATCHEWAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (SWWA) 46 Windfield Rd Regina SK S4V 0E7 (306) 761-1278 Fax: (306) 761-1279 Web site: SOLAR ENERGY SOCIETY OF CANADA INC. McLaughlin Hall 406 Queen’s University Kingston ON K7L 3N6 (613) 533-2657 Fax: (613) 533-6550 Web site: SOLID WASTE ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA (SWANA) 1100 Wayne Ave Suite 700 Silver Spring MD 20910 USA

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations (800) 467-9262 Fax: (301) 589-7068 Web site:

(703) 684-2400 Fax: (703) 684-2492 Web site:

THE GREEN BUILDING INITIATIVE 2104 SE Morrison Portland, OR 97214 USA (877) 424-4241 Fax: (503) 961-8991 Web site:

WATER FOR PEOPLE-CANADA 255 Consumers Road, Suite 300 Toronto, Ontario, M2J 5B6 (416) 499-4042 Fax: (416) 499-4687 E-mail: Web site: Water For People-Canada is a charitable nonprofit international humanitarian organization dedicated to the development and delivery of clean, safe water and sanitation solutions in developing nations. It is the Canadian equivalent of the US based charity, Water For People. Canadian water industry professionals established Water For People-Canada in 1995, to support and promote the mission of Water For People in Canada among the public and the water community.

WATER AND WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (WWEMA) PO Box 17402 Washington DC 20041 USA (703) 444-1777 Fax: (703) 444-1779 Web site: WATER ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO (WEAO) PO Box 176 Stn Main Milton ON L9T 4N9 (416) 410-6933 Fax: (416) 410-1626 Web site:

WESTERN CANADA WATER PO Box 1708 Cochrane AB T4C 1B6 (403) 709-0064 Fax: (403) 709-0068 Web site:

WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION 601 Wythe St Alexandria VA 22314-1994 USA

What lies ahead for the water and wastewater sector labour force? Con’t from page 8 ment and solid waste management, over 40% of facility managers are over 50 years of age. 2. Shallow candidate pools. The most challenging positions for water/wastewater facilities to recruit and retain were those of intermediate operator or operator in training (OIT). Over 50% of facilities surveyed reported hiring for these positions over the past two years and close to 30% expect to hire another in the next year. Facilities in the study reported recruitment was becoming increasingly difficult for all positions and experience levels. While solid waste management facilities reported that skilled labour positions were the most in demand, no recruitment difficulties for these positions was expressed. Conversely, the recruitment of facility managers was a notable challenge, as 59% of facilities surveyed reported difficulty in hiring for this role. The current shortage in qualified operators shows signs of only increasing as qualified workers reach the age of retirement. According to the study, the labour shortage will be magnified in small, remote communities that have fewer resources, a smaller labour pool to draw from, and lose top talent to larger communities. 3. High employee turnover. For the past three years, turnover in water/wastewater 64 | Summer 2010

treatment facilities has been nearly double that of solid waste facilities. One-third of the facilities surveyed had difficulties retaining workers at the intermediate experience level. However, both water/wastewater treatment and solid waste management facilities have reported much lower turnover in 2009 than in the previous two years. This is likely due to the economic conditions of 2008/2009. Many older practitioners who are close to retirement are staying in their positions to recover some lost retirement income, and younger practitioners are not moving around as much due to fewer opportunities in both the public and private sectors. Also, in times of economic uncertainty, the public sector is more appealing due to the job stability. Unless something is done, turnover could revert back to the levels of 2007 and 2008, which for each industry were double the current turnover. 4. Lack of resource and training support. Many municipalities feel the training resources available to them are insufficient, and that there is a lack of appropriate training courses to satisfy the professional development needs of practitioners. Since current training and professional development for practitioners in solid waste facilities tend to focus on the technical as-

pects, the lack of “soft skill” training has led to considerable gaps in the industry in areas such as leadership skills, communication skills, and computer skills; this hinders a practitioner’s abilities to move up in the workforce. Focus group participants cited lack of recognition of training and experience, both between provinces and internationally, as a considerable hindrance to operator mobility. Programs created to eliminate this problem would also serve as an incentive towards greater employee retention. 5. Raising awareness. Another issue that municipalities identified relating to solid waste management was ensuring that careers in that industry are recognized as respectable careers that promote environmental health and protection. Unfortunately, there is limited career growth in smaller facilities and career paths for solid waste management practitioners are not always clear. Focus groups identified that larger facilities, with more roles and positions, do not have this problem, and practitioners have an easier time advancing their careers. For further information, visit

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations

ES&E ’s Guide to Provincial and Federal Government Environmental Agencies Alberta Alberta Infrastructure & Transportation Fl3-6950 113 St NW,Edmonton,AB, T6H 5V7,Tel:780-415-0507 Alberta Capital Region Wastewater Commission 23262 Township Road 540, Fort Saskatchewan,AB,T8L 3Z6, Tel:780-467-8655 Alberta Community Development 404-4911 51 St,Red Deer,AB, T4N 6V4,Tel:403-755-6102 Alberta Environment PO Box 1540, Pincher Creek,AB, T0K 1W0,Tel:403-627-5544 Alberta Environment 930-1009 2 Ave N,Vulcan,AB, T0L 2B0,Tel:403-485-4580 Alberta Environment 535 30 St N,Water Monitoring, Lethbridge,AB, T1H 5G4,Tel:403-381-5977 Alberta Environment Fl2-200 5 Ave S,Water Mgmt Ops, Lethbridge,AB,T1J 4L1,Tel:403-381-5300 Alberta Environment 303-2938 11 St NE, Calgary AB,T2E 7L7,Tel:403-297-5914 Alberta Environment 4912 Viceroy Pl NW, Calgary,AB, T3A 0V1,Tel:403-297-7884 Alberta Environment 111-4999 98 Ave NW, Edmonton,AB,T6B 2X3,Tel:780-427-7617 Alberta Environment Fl3-9915 Franklin Ave,Compliance/Monitoring, Fort McMurray,AB,T9H 2K4, Tel:780-743-7281 Alberta Environmental Appeals Board Fl3-10011 109 St NW,Peace Hills Trust Tower,Edmonton,AB,T5J 3S8, Tel:780-427-6207 Government of Alberta Environmental Natural Resources 201-800 Railway Ave,Canmore,AB, T1W 1P1,Tel:403-678-5500 Government of Alberta Fl2-5226 53 Ave,Water Management, High Prairie,AB,T0G 1E0,Tel:780-523-6512 Government of Alberta Fl2-10106 100 Ave,Compliance, High Level,AB,T0H 1Z0,Tel:780-926-5263 Government of Alberta 9915 108 St NW,Alberta Environment Relations, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2G8, Tel:780-422-1447 Government of Alberta 9820 106 St NW,Env Strategies, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6,Tel:780-644-4963 Government of Alberta 4816 89 St NW,Water Monitoring, Edmonton,AB,T6E 5K1,Tel:780-422-4420

Government of Alberta 4946 89 St NW,Air Monitoring, Edmonton,AB,T6E 5K1,Tel:780-427-7888 Government of Alberta 1-250 Diamond Ave,PO Bo 8001 Stn Main, Spruce Grove,AB,T7X 4C7, Tel: 780-960-8600 Government of Alberta 9621-96 Ave, PO Box 900 Stn Main, Approvals,Peace River,AB,T8S 1T4, Tel:780-624-6502 Government of Alberta 10320 99 St,Approvals,Grande Prairie,AB,T8V 6J4,Tel:780-833-4350 Government of Alberta 810 14 Ave,Wainwright,AB,T9W 1R2, Tel:780-842-7538

British Columbia BC Ministry of Environment RR 1 S14 C25,Naramata,BC,V0H 1N0, Tel:250-496-4120 Department of Fisheries & Oceans 401 Burrard St,Vancouver,BC,V6C 3S5, Tel:604-664-9100 Fisheries and Oceans Canada 3690 Massey Dr,Prince George,BC,V2N 2S8, Tel:250-561-5905 Government of Canada 3015 Ord Rd,Kamloops,BC,V2B 8A9, Tel:250-554-5246 Ministry of Environment 3726 Alfred Ave,Bag 5000,Smithers,BC, V0J 2N0,Tel:250-847-7620 Ministry of Environment 205 Industrial Road G,Water Stewardship, Kootenay East,Cranbrook,BC,V1C 7G5, Tel:250-489-8540 Ministry of Environment 400-10003 110 Ave,Env Mgmt Section, Fort St John,BC,V1J 6M7,Tel:250-787-3391 Ministry of Environment 4607 23rd St,Env Quality Section,Vernon, BC,V1T 4K7,Tel:250-371-6308 Ministry of Environment 102 Industrial Pl,Env Mgmt Section, Penticton,BC,V2A 7C8,Tel:250-490-8251 Ministry of Environment 1259 Dalhousie Dr,Env Protection, Kamloops,BC,V2C 5Z5,Tel:250-371-6200 Ministry of Environment 400-640 Borland St,Env. Protection,Williams Lake,BC,V2G 4T1,Tel:250-398-4716 Ministry of Environment 325-1011 4th Ave, Prince George,BC, V2L 3H9,Tel:250-565-6445 Ministry of Environment 10470-152 St, Source Water Prot.,Surrey,BC,V3R 0Y3,Tel:604-582-5226 Ministry of Environment FL2-836 Yates St,Env Assessment Office, Victoria,BC,V8W 9V1,Tel:250-356-7479

Ministry of Environment PO Box 9047,Stn Prov Govt,Victoria,BC, V8W 9E2,Tel:250-387-1187 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9339,Stn Prov Govt,Env Stewardship Div,Victoria,BC, V8W 9M1,Tel:250-356-1161 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9340,Stn Prov Govt,Water Use Planning/Utilities,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel:250-387-6939 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9341,Stn Prov Govt,Air Protection Section,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel:250-356-0634 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9342,Stn Prov Govt,Env Mgmt Branch,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel:250-387-9971 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9362,Stn Prov Govt,Water Stewardship Div,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M2, Tel:250-356-5180 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9334 Stn Prov Govt,Regional Ops Branch,Victoria,BC,V8W 9N3,

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Key Government Web Sites Alberta

British Columbia

Government of Canada


New Brunswick

Newfoundland and Labrador

Northwest Territories

Nova Scotia



Prince Edward Island



Yukon Territory

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Government Tel:250-387-9990 Ministry of Environment, 1355 Lyall St,Victoria,BC,V9A 5H7, Tel:250-356-5005 Ministry of Environment 3373 Joyce Pl,Victoria,BC,V9C 2G6, Tel:250-387-9513 Ministry of Environment 2080a Labieux Rd,Nanaimo,BC,V9T 6J9, Tel:250-751-3186

Manitoba Department of Conservation 59 Elizabeth Dr,Thompson,MB, R8N 1X4,Tel:204-677-6704 Government of Manitoa 22 Drayton Drive,Winnipeg,MB, R2J 3N1,Tel:204-945-7012 Government of Manitoba PO Box 499,Grosse Isle,MB, R0C 1G0,Tel:204-467-4722 Health Canada 300-391 York Ave, Winnipeg,MB, R3C 4W1,Tel:204-983-2615 Department of Conservation 10 Errington Place,Niverville,MB, R0A 0A2,Tel:204-945-5035 Department of Conservation 1015-2080 Pembina Highway,Winnipeg,MB,R3T 2G9, Tel:204-945-2614 Department of Conservation 160-123 Main Street,Winnipeg,MB, R3C 1A5,Tel:204-945-7015 Department of Conservation 200 Saulteaux Cres.,Winnipeg,MB, R3J 3W3,Tel:204-945-3730 Department of Conservation 466 Main Street,Lower Level,Selkirk,MB, R1A 1V7,Tel:204-785-5349 Department of Conservation PO Box 388,Winnipeg Beach,MB, R0C 3G0,Tel:204-389-2752 Department of Conservation PO Box 1,River Hills,MB,R0E 1T0, Tel:204-369-5237 Department of Parks & Conservation 143 Main Street,Flin Flon,MB,R8A 1K2,Tel:204-687-1653 Department of Parks & Conservation PO Box 2550,The Pas,MB,R9A 1M4, Tel:204-627-8449 Department of Conservation PO Box 231,Riverton,MB,R0C 2R0, Tel:204-378-5422 Department of Infrastructure & Transportation 730-215 Garry St,Winnipeg,MB, R3C 3Z1,Tel:204-642-6069 Manitoba Water Services Board PO Box 3,Stephenfield,MB,R0G 2R0,Tel:204-745-8735 Manitoba Water Stewardship 1129 Queens Ave,Brandon,MB, R7A 1L9,Tel:204-726-6226 Manitoba Water Services Board PO Box 22080,Brandon,MB,

66 | Summer 2010

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations R7A 6Y9,Tel:204-726-6081 Ministry of Environment 1202-155 Carlton Street,Winnjpeg,MB, R3C 3H8,Tel:204-945-2245 Ministry of Environment 330-Legislative Building,Winnipeg,MB, R3C 0V8,Tel:204-945-3730 Office of Drinking Water 1007 Century Street,Winnipeg,MB, R3H 0W4,Tel:204-945-7014 Office of Drinking Water 25 Tupper Street N,Portage La Prairie,MB,R1N 3K1,Tel:204-239-3186 Office of Drinking Water 284 Reimer Ave, Unit B,Steinbach,MB, R5G 0R5,Tel:204-345-2166 Parks Canada Agency 5981 Highway #9,St Andrews,MB, R1A 4A8,Tel:204-785-6059 Manitoba Water Stewardship 68 Silver Birch Drive,Brandon,MB, R7B 1A9,Tel:204-726-6563

New Brunswick Ministry of Natural Resources 80 Pleasant St,Miramichi,NB,E1V 1X7, Tel:506-627-4050 Ministry of Natural Resources 2574 Route 180,South Tetagouche,NB, E2A 7B8,Tel:506-547-2080 Ministry of Natural Resources 3732 Route 102,Island View,NB,E3E 1G3, Tel:506-444-4888 Ministry of Natural Resources 25 Guy Street,Edmundston,NB,E3V 3K5, Tel:506-735-2040 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn LCD 1,Moncton,NB, E1C 8R3,Tel:506-856-2374 NB Environment and Local Government 316 Dalton Ave,Miramichi,NB,E1V 3N9, Tel:506-453-2690 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Bathurst,NB, E2A 3Z9,Tel:506-547-2092 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Saint John,NB, E2L 4Y9,Tel:506-658-2558 NB Environment and Local Government 12 McGloin St,Inorganic Chemistry, Fredericton,NB,E3A 5T8,Tel:506-453-2477 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 6000 Stn A,Air Sciences Section & Env Comm,Fredericton,NB,E3B 5H1, Tel:506-453-3700 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Grand-Sault/Grand Falls,NB,E3Z 1G1,Tel:506-473-7744

Newfoundland and Labrador Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities PO Box 21040,Rpo Macdonald Drive,

St.John’s,NL,A1A 5B2,Tel:709-726-1133 Department of Environment and Conservation Policy & Planning,P.O. Box 8700,St.John’s, NL, A1B 4J6,Tel:709-729-2664 Department of Environment and Conservation Pollution Prevention P.O. Box 8700,St.John’s, NL, A1B 4J6, Tel:709-729-2664 Department of Environment and Conservation Pollution Prevention P.O. Box 2006,89 West Valley Road,Corner Brook,NL,A2H 6J8,Tel:709-637-2528 Department of Environment and Conservation Pollution Prevention 35 Alabama Drive, Stephenville,NL,A2N 2K9, Tel:709-643-6114 Department of Environment and Conservation Environmental Assessment P.O. Box 8700,St.John’s,NL,A1B 4J6, Tel:709-729-4211 Department of Environment and Conservation Environmental Assessment P.O. Box 2006,3rd Floor,Noton Building, Corner Brook,NL,A2H 6J8,Tel:709-637-2375 Department of Environment and Conservation Water Resources Management Division Confederation Building,4th Floor,West Block,PO Box 8700, St.John’s,NL,A1B 4J6,Tel:709-729-2574 Department of Environment and Conservation Water Resources Management Division Provincial Building, 3 Cromer Avenue,Grand Falls-Windsor,NL, A2A 1W9, Tel:709-292-4220 Department of Environment and Conservation Water Resources Management Division,3rd Floor,Noton Bldg,133 Riverside Dr, PO Box 2006,Corner Brook,NL, A2H 6J8, Tel:709-637-2542 Department of Environment and Conservation Water Resources Management Division 2 10th Street,Happy Valley-Goose Bay,NL,A0P 1E0,Tel;709-896-5542

Nova Scotia Environment Canada Fl5-45 Alderney Dr,Queen Square, Dartmouth,NS,B2Y 2N6,Tel:902-426-7231 Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources PO Box 698,Stn Central,Halifax,NS,B3J 2T9, Tel:902-424-5935 Nova Scotia Dept.of Transportation & Public Works PO Box 186,Stn Central,Halifax,NS, B3J 2N2,Tel:902-424-5875

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Nova Scotia Environment 205-219 Main St,Antigonish,NS,B2G 2C1, Tel:902-863-7389 Nova Scotia Environment 224-1595 Bedford Hwy,Bedford,NS, B4A 3Y4,Tel:902-424-2560 Nova Scotia Environment 295 Charlotte St,PO Box 714,Sydney, NS,B1P 6H7,Tel:902-563-2100 Nova Scotia Environment PO Box 442,5151 Terminal Road, Halifax,NS,B3J 2P8,Tel:902-424-3600 Nova Scotia Environment FL2-136 Exhibition St,,Kentville,NS, B4N 4E5,Tel:902-679-6086 Nova Scotia Environment PO Box 697 Stn Central,Air Quality Branch, Halifax,NS,B3J 2T8,Tel:902-424-2177 Nova Scotia Environment 12-218 Macsween St,Port Hawkesbury, NS,B9A 2J9,Tel:902-625-0791 Sydney Tar Ponds Agency PO Box 1028 Stn A,Sydney,NS,B1P 6J7, Tel:902-567-1035

Northwest Territories and Nunavut Dept Municipal & Community Affairs 600-5201 50 Ave,Yellowknife,NT,X1A 3S9, Tel:867-669-2377 GNWT Environment & Natural Resources PO Box 1320 Stn Main,Enr FB,Yellowknife, NT,X1A 2L9,Tel:867-920-3387 GNWT Public Works & Services PO Box 240,Fort Simpson,NT,X0E 0N0, Tel:867-695-7285 Community and Government Services PO Box 200,Cambridge Bay,NU,X0B 0C0, Tel:867-983-4129 Department of Environment, PO Box 1000 Station 1360,Iqaluit,NU, X0A 0H0,Tel:867-975-7729 Department of Environment PO Box 1200,Iqaluit,NU,X0A 0H0, Tel:867-975-5111 Govt of Nunavut Public Works PO Box 002,Rankin Inlet,NU,X0C 0G0, Tel:867-645-8184

Ontario Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency Fl22-160 Elgin St,Place Bell Canada, Ottawa,ON,K1A 0H3,Tel:613-957-0700 Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission 280 Slater St,Ottawa,ON,K1P 5S9, Tel:613-995-2768 Environment Canada 930 Carling Ave,Env/Eng Services,Ottawa, ON,K1A 0C5,Tel:519-457-1470 Environment Canada 335 River Rd,Env Assess/Fed Progs,Ottawa, ON,K1A 0H3,Tel:416-739-4788 Environment Canada 49 Camelot Dr,Ottawa,ON,K1A 0H3,

Tel:613-952-8679 Environment Canada PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1,Aquatic Ecosystem Protection,Burlington,ON,L7R 4A6, Tel:905-336-4789 Environment Canada 4905 Dufferin St,Air Quality Research, North York,ON,M3H 5T4,Tel:416-739-4836 Environmental Commissioner of Ontario 605-1075 Bay St,Toronto,ON,M5S 2B1, Tel:416-325-0363 Environmental Protection Review Canada Fl1-240 Sparks St,Ottawa,ON,K1A 1A1, Tel:613-947-4060 Environmental Review Tribunal 1500-655 Bay Street,Toronto,ON,M5G 1E5 Tel:416-212-6349 Ministry of Environment Fl1-113 Amelia St,Cornwall,ON,K6H 3P1, Tel:613-933-7402 Ministry of Environment PO Box 22032,RPO Cataraqui,Kingston, ON,K7M 8S5,Tel:613-540-6850 Ministry of Environment 1259 Gardiners Rd,Kingston,ON,K7P 3J6, Tel:613-540-6888 Ministry of Environment 345 College St E,Belleville,ON,K8N 5S7, Tel:613-962-3641 Ministry of Environment 300 Water St,Peterborough,ON,K9J 8M5, Tel:705-755-4300 Ministry of Environment 300-4145 North Service Rd,Burlington, ON,L7L 6A3,Tel:905-319-1389 Ministry of Environment Fl12-119 King St W,Air/Pesticides/Env Planning,Hamilton,ON,L8P 4Y7, Tel:905-521-7551 Ministry of Environment Fl9-5775 Yonge St,Water Resources, North York,ON,M2M 4J1,Tel:416-325-6966 Ministry of Environment Fl12-2 St Clair Ave W,Air and Noise,Toronto, ON,M4V 1L5,Tel:416-211-4621 Ministry of Environment Fl14-135 St Clair Ave W,Dep Minister’s Office,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel:416-314-4463 Ministry of Environment 125 Resources Rd,Air Modelling/ Emissions,Etobicoke,ON,M9P 3V6, Tel:416-235-6230 Ministry of Environment 1222 Ramsey Lake Rd,Air Quality Monitoring,Sudbury,ON,P3E 6J7, Tel:705-929-1080 Ministry of Environment Fl3-289 Bay St,Sault Ste Marie,ON, P6A 1W7,Tel:705-942-6309 Ministry of Environment PO Box 5150 Stn Main,Kenora,ON,P9N 3X9, Tel:807-468-2720 Ministry of Natural Resources 300 Water St,Great Lakes Branch, Peterborough,ON,K9J 3C7, Tel:705-755-2902 Ministry of Natural Resources 1450 7th Ave E,Upper Great Lakes

Mgmt,Owen Sound,ON,N4K 2Z1, Tel:519-371-5924 Ministry of Natural Resources 400-70 Foster Dr,Science/Information Branch,Sault Ste Marie,ON,P6A 6V5, Tel:705-945-6703 Ministry of Natural Resources 221e-435 James St S,Upper Great Lakes Mgmt,Thunder Bay,ON,P7E 6S7, Tel:807-475-1375 National Round Table On The Environment 200-344 Slater St,Ottawa,ON,K1R 7Y3, Tel:613-943-0394 National Water Research Institute 867 Lakeshore Rd,Burlington,ON,L7R 4A6, Tel:905-336-4605 Walkerton Clean Water Centre 220 Trillium Court,Building Three,P.O. Box 160,Walkerton,ON,N0G 2V0, Tel:519-881-2003

Prince Edward Island Environment Energy and Forestry Watershed Management Section,PO Box 2000 Stn Central,Charlottetown,PE, C1A 7N8,Tel:902-368-5054 Environment Energy and Forestry Energy and Minerals,4th Floor Jones Building,PO Box 2000,Charlottetown,PE, C1A 7N8,Tel:902-368-5000 Environment Energy and Forestry Forests, Fish and Wildlife,PO Box 2000,183 Upton Rd.,Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-6410 Environment Energy and Forestry Pollution Prevention, Jones Building, 4th Floor,11 Kent Street, PO Box 2000, Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-4700 Environment Energy and Forestry Water Management, Jones Building, 4th Floor,11 Kent Street, PO Box 2000, Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-5024 Environment Energy and Forestry Investigation and Enforcement,PO Box 2000,Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-4808 Fisheries, Aquaculture and Rural Development 540 Main Street,PO Box 1180,Montague, PE, C0A 1R0,Tel:902-838-0910

Québec Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec 4e-945 Av Wolfe,Quebec,QC,G1V 5B3, Tel:418-650-5115 Centre d’excellence de Montreal en Rehab Sites 3705 rue Saint-Patrick,Montreal,QC, H4E 1A1,Tel:514-872-4323 Environment Canada 105 rue McGill,Montreal,QC,H2Y 2E7, Tel:514-283-4252

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Government Environment Canada 710-351 boul Saint-Joseph,Gatineau, QC,J8Y 3Z5,Tel:819-953-6161 Environment Canada 351 St Joseph Blvd,Gatineau,QC,K1A 0H3, Tel:519-956-9305 MAMR-Direction des Infrastructures 2e-10 rue Pierre-Olivier-Chauveau,Quebec, QC,G1R 4J3,Tel:418-691-2005 Public Works & Govt Services 6b1-11 rue Laurier,General Standards Board,Gatineau,QC,K1A 1G6, Tel:819-956-1236 Ministere du Developpement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs Bas-Saint-Laurent et Gaspesie – Iles-de-laMadeleine Rimouski 212,ave Belzile,Rimouski,QC,G5L 3C3; Tel:418-727-3511 Sainte-Anne-des-Monts 124,1re Ave Ouest,Sainte-Anne-desMonts,QC, G4V 1C5, Tel:418-763-3301 Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean Saguenay 3950,boul Harvey,4e etage,Saguenay,QC,G7X 8L6, Tel:418-695-7883 Capitale-Nationale et Chaudiere-Appalaches Quebec 787,boul Lebourgneuf,bureau 100,Quebec,QC,G2K 0B7, Tel:418-644-8844 Sainte-Marie 675,route Cameron,bureau 200,SainteMarie,QC,G6E 3V7, Tel:418-386-8000 Mauricie et Centre-du-Quebec Trois-Rivieres 100,rue Laviolette,bureau 102,Trois-Rivieres,QC,G9A 5S9, Tel: 819-371-6581 Nicolet 460,boul Louis-Frechette,Nicolet,QC,J3T 2A5,Tel:819-293-4122 Estrie et Monteregie Sherbrooke 770,rue Goretti,Sherbrooke,QC,J1E 3H4, Tel:819-820-3882 Longueuil 201, Place Charles-Le-Moyne, 2e etage,Longueuil,QC,J4K 2T5, Tel:450-928-7607 Montreal, Laval, Lanaudiere et Laurentides Montreal 5199,rue Sherbrooke Est,bureau 3860, Montreal,QC,H1T 3X9,Tel:514-873-3636 Laval 850,boulevard Vanier,Laval,QC,H7C 2M7, Tel:450-661-2008 Repentigny 100,boulevard Industriel,Repentigny,QC, J6A 4X6,Tel:450-654-4355 Sainte-Therese 300,rue Sicard,bureau 80,SainteTherese,QC,J7E 3X5,Tel:450-433-2220

68 | Summer 2010

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Outaouais Gatineau 170,rue de l’Hotel-de-Ville,RC 120,Gatineau,QC,J8X 4C2,Tel:819-772-3434 Abiti-Temiscamingue et Nord-du-Quebec Rouyn-Noranda 255,ave Principle, RC 01,RouynNoranda,QC,J9X 1N9,Tel:819-763-3333 Cote-Nord Sept-Iles 280,ave Arnaud,Sept-Iles,QC,G4R 1Y8, Tel:418-964-8888 Baie-Comeau 625, boul Lafleache, Rc 701,Comeau,QC,G4Z 3A8,Tel:418-294-8888

Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Environment & Resource Management PO Box 1672 Stn Main,North Battleford,SK,S9A 3W2,Tel:306-787-2700 Saskatchewan Environment B21-3085 Albert St,Env Prot Branch,Regina,SK,S4S 0B1, Tel:306-787-5021 Saskatchewan Environment 107-3410 Park St,Regina,SK,S4V 2M8, Tel:306-787-8253 Saskatchewan Environment 206-110 Ominica St W,Moose Jaw,SK, S6H 6V2,Tel:306-694-3586 Saskatchewan Environment 102-112 Research Dr,Saskatoon,SK, S7N 3R3,Tel:306-933-6514 Saskatchewan Environment 108-1146 102nd St,North Battleford,SK, S9A 1E9,Tel:306-446-7987 Saskatchewan Research Council 422 Downey Rd,Saskatoon,SK,S7N 4N1, Tel:306-933-5663 Saskatchewan Water PO Box 310,Wakaw,SK,S0K 4P0, Tel:306-233-5645 Saskatchewan Watershed Authority PO Box 2133, 201 1st Ave E,Nipawin, SK,S0E 1E0,Tel:306-862-1754 Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 420-2365 Albert St,Regina,SK,S4P 4K1, Tel:306-787-0913 Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 330-350 3rd Ave N,Saskatoon,SK,S7K 6G7, Tel:306-933-7434 Saskwater PO Box 3003 Stn Main,Prince Albert,SK, S6V 6G1,Tel:306-961-1755

Yukon Territories Energy, Mines & Resources PO Box 2703,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2C6, Tel:867-667-3212 Environment Canada Env Protection 91782 Alaska Hwy,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 5B7, Tel:867-393-6700 Government of Canada PWGSC 105-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5,

Tel:867-667-3945 Government of Yukon PO Box 310,Mayo,YT,Y0B 1M0, Tel:867-634-2110 Government of Yukon 9010 Quartz Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2Z5, Tel:867-667-5187 Govt of Yukon Env Health Services 2 Hospital Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 3H8, Tel:867-667-8351 Indian & Northern Affairs Canada 415-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5, Tel:867-667-3809 YTG Water Quality 202-419 Range Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 3V1, Tel:867-667-3217 Yukon Government, Water Resources 310-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5, Tel:867-667-3195 Yukon Government PO Box 2703 Stn Main,Whitehorse,YT, Y1A 2C6,Tel:867-667-5652



Features FLEXIBLE – offering a full line of modular gear drives engineered for flexibility. POWERFUL- greater torque density in a compact housing configuration GLOBAL – dimensionally interchangeable with major global competitors EFFICIENT- greater electrical efficiency provided as a standard integral offering.

OUTCOME – the lowest Total Cost of Ownership

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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ES&E’S AT A GLANCE GUIDE TO COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES The following institutions offer diploma and degree programs in these areas: Environmental Biology, Environmental Control, Environmental Technician, Environmental Engineering/Technology, Environmental Health and Science, Environmental Studies, Environmental Toxicology, Environmental Health Engineering.

Alberta Concordia University College of Alberta King's University College Lethbridge College Medicine Hat College Mount Royal College Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, The Red Deer College Southern Alberta Institute of Technology University of Alberta University of Calgary University of Lethbridge

Edmonton Edmonton Lethbridge Medicine Hat Calgary Edmonton Red Deer Calgary Edmonton Calgary Lethbridge


Courtenay Victoria Castlegar Kamloops Langley Okanagan Prince George Victoria


British Columbia North Island College Royal Roads University Selkirk College Thompson Rivers University - Kamloops Trinity Western University University of British Columbia University of Northern British Columbia University of Victoria

Winnipeg Winnipeg


Campbellton Sackville Fredericton Fredericton


St. John's


New Brunswick Collège communautaire du Nouveau-Brunswick Mount Allison University New Brunswick Community College University of New Brunswick

Newfoundland Memorial University of Newfoundland



St. Catharines Ottawa Sudbury Sudbury Kitchener Thunder Bay Oshawa Peterborough Toronto Thunder Bay


Ontario Brock University Carleton University Cambrian College Collège Boréal Conestoga College Confederation College Durham College Fleming College Humber Institute of Technology Lakehead University - Thunder Bay




Sherbrooke Montréal Montréal Saint-Félicien Mirabel Montréal Sherbrooke Chicoutimi Montréal Rimouski Trois-Rivières Québec City Québec City Québec City


Regina Air Ronge Moose Jaw Prince Albert Saskatoon Saskatoon Regina Regina Saskatoon


Charles Town


Prince Edward Island Holland College

Bishop's University Concordia University McGill University Cégep de St-Félicien Centre de formation agricole de Mirabel Université de Montréal Université de Sherbrooke Université du Québec à Chicoutimi Université du Québec à Montréal Université du Québec à Rimouski Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières Université du Québec Université du Québec Télé-université Université Laval


Nova Scotia Saint Mary's University

Sudbury Hamilton Stoney Creek Niagara Ancaster Toronto Guelph Ottawa Waterloo London Windsor Waterloo Toronto Sault Ste. Marie Oakville Lindsay Kingston Peterborough Toronto Ottawa Toronto


Manitoba University of Manitoba University of Winnipeg

Laurentian University/Université Laurentienne McMaster University Mohawk College Niagara College Canada (Niagara-on-the-Lake) Redeemer University College Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology University of Guelph University of Ottawa/Université d'Ottawa University of Waterloo University of Western Ontario University of Windsor Wilfrid Laurier University Ryerson University Sault College Sheridan College Sir Sandford Fleming College St. Lawrence College Trent University University of Toronto Willis College of Business and Technology York University

First Nations University of Canada Northlands College Institute of Applied Science and Technology Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science Institute of Applied Science and Technology St. Thomas More College Luther College University University of Regina University of Saskatchewan

United States American Public University System

*This list is intended as a quick reference only. Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine makes no claim to the accuracy or completeness of this list.

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Package Treatment System ACG Technology’s package treatment system offers performance and durability. It provides sewage treatment within a small footprint. Aeration, mixing and settling can be accomplished in compact, easily transported ISO containers, ideal for remote locations. Provides flexibility of adding future parallel units, an economical means of meeting the needs of any growing sewage loads. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: Web:

P roduct & Service Showcase

ACG Technology

Coalescing oil/water separators ACG Technology’s coalescing oil/ water separators are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP and polypropylene construction. Standard systems include air-operated diaphragm pump, air filter and floating skimmer. Adjustable weir and skimmer height provides optimal oil removal and minimal disposal volume. Standard range is 1 to 50 GPM. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: Web: ACG Technology

MBR technology ADI Systems Inc. offers leading-edge anaerobic membrane biological reactor technology, featuring Kubota’s award-winning submerged membrane units in the process. This technology produces the highest-quality effluent in a small footprint and can be used alone or paired with an ADIMBR to meet the strictest discharge limits. Tel: 506-452-7307, Fax: 506-452-7308 E-mail: Web: ADI Systems

Septic tanks

University courses online

New low power valves

Alberta Wilbert Sales’ two-chambered septic tanks range from 700 to 5,600 gals, with the 2,400 and 4,100 sizes having three chambers. New this year is the 2,000 gal, rink top design septic tank. All tanks are CSA approved and now come with full warranty with Metakolin for high sulphate water. 1,200, 1,500 and 2,000 gals two-chambered septic tanks are CSA approved for 13’ (4m) of burial cover. Tel: 1-800-232-7385 Web:

American Public University offers 76 affordable degrees, 100% online, including Environmental Studies with concentrations in Environmental Policies, Environmental Sustainability, Global Environmental Management, Environmental Technology & Management, Regional & Community Environmental Management, and Fish & Wildlife Management. Visit us for more information. Tel: 1-877-777-9081 E-mail: Web:

ASCO’s new low power valves are now available with the reliability you expect, but at the lowest power rating ever – only 0.55 watt! You can install more devices on a process plant bus network, or use them in remote locations with solar/battery sources. Tel: 519-758-2700, Fax: 519-758-5540 E-mail: Web:

Alberta Wilbert Sales

American Public University

ASCO Valve Canada

Electronic platform

Phoenix Panel System

Phoenix Underdrain System

The Numatics G3 Fieldbus is the next generation electronic platform that allows easy access to I/O connections. The G3 Fieldbus is the only pneumatic valve manifold on the market today to contain a graphical display used for configuration/commissioning and diagnostics. E-mail: Web: ASCO Valve Canada

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Installs directly over existing underdrain system • Eliminates the need for base gravel layers • Improves backwash flow distribution • Provides longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: Web: AWI

• Optimizes all types of filters • Extremely low profile; lowest available • Manufactured from corrosion-resistant stainless steel • Variable custom orifice sizing • Custom hydraulic design • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution • Rapid, low-cost installation Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: Web: AWI

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Dissolved air flotation

The new Grace Employee Monitor (GEM) solves the problem of employees working alone or in a remote area. It uses a small battery-operated transmitting alarm unit which, if it detects lack of motion, gives the worker a pre-alert for 8 seconds and then the alarm device emits a 95db audio alarm and sends a radio signal back to the receiver (up to ¾ mile line of sight). Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: Web:

The AquaDAF® Clarifier High-Rate Dissolved Air Flotation System is a viable alternative to conventional settling and DAF clarifiers. It is highly effective for treatment of a range of raw water characteristics, including troublesome waters exhibiting low turbidity, high TOC, colour and algae. Tel: 201-794-3100 Web:

Canadian Safety Equipment


Multi-channel transmitter

The Liquiline CM44 is a four-wire multi-channel transmitter from Endress+Hauser, compatible with a full complement of digital Memosens sensors for all parameters. The large backlit screen, navigation wheel, dropdown menu structure and adaptive software make operation simple and intuitive. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: Web: Endress + Hauser

Water reservoir & tank mixer

PAX Mixer is a very innovative, simple mixer designed to mix water storage reservoirs and standpipes. It offers superior mixing performance with little energy consumption, easy installation, low capital cost. It eliminates stagnation and stratification, minimizes residual loss, prevents nitrification. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: Web: H2Flow Tanks & Systems

Denso Petrolatum Tapes Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: Web: Denso

Membrane bioreactor Based on flat-sheet ultrafiltration membrane technology, the FIIMBR system produces ultraclean effluent which effectively meets any wastewater standards for discharge and reuse. The MBR system is pre-packaged, either skid-mounted or containerized, for municipal and industrial effluent. Tel: 416-490-7848 E-mail: Web: Filter Innovations

The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensure that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax 519-469-8157 E-mail: Web: Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Emergency gas shutoff

Multiparameter meter

The Terminator emergency shutoff system sequentially closes 150 lb. cylinder valves containing toxic gas in less than three seconds when activated from remote sensors and switches. The operator is then required to correct the condition, check the facility, and then manually reset the valve before restarting the gas system. The motorized closing mechanism operates even during a power failure. Tel: 877-476-4222, Fax: 949-261-5033 E-mail: Web: Halogen Valve Systems

The YSI Professional Plus handheld multiparameter meter provides extreme flexibility for the measurement of a variety of combinations for dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, salinity, resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ORP, pH/ORP combination, ammonium (ammonia), nitrate, chloride and temperature. Web: Hoskin Scientific

Summer 2010 | 71

Product & Service Showcase

Lone worker protection

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Hand-held DO meter The YSI ProODOTM handheld DO meter provides extreme durability for the measurement of optical, luminescent-based dissolved oxygen for any field application. Web:

Hoskin Scientific

P roduct & Service Showcase

Vortex flow regulator

Do you have stormwater drainage issues? The sturdy Hydrovex VHV/SVHV Vortex Flow Regulator creates a throttling effect that limits the flow to the municipal sewer, avoiding any unwanted blockages. Tel: 514-334-7230 E-mail: Web: John Meunier

Radar level transmitter

Chemical-free water treatment

WEDECO Ozone Generators from ITT Water & Wastewater eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and micro-organisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: ITT Water and Wastewater

New jet aerators Based on the clogfree Flygt Npumps, the new Flygt jet aerator from ITT Water & Wastewater has become easier to install and maintain. The major changes in the new generation jet aerators are: an improved lift in, lift out structure, and a strengthened stand equipped with rubber dampers. Available with up to three ejectors, the Flygt jet aerator is a flexible aeration solution for small- and mediumsized tanks. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: ITT Water & Wastewater

Submersible transducer

A mid-size workhorse

Ametek’s low cost submersible model 375 is a 1%, 2 wire, 420 mA transducer. A 316 S.S. housing and factory sealed cable provide liquid tight performance. Available calibrated for 13.8 to 692 ft of water. Desiccant vent filter is included. It is distributed by Peacock, a division of Kinecor.

KSB's Omega split-case pumps are designed to provide reliability, durability and value for watermoving applications requiring capacities of up to 2,800 m3/h (12,300 gpm) and heads up to 190 m. Like their 'big brothers', the RDLO series, Omega pumps have numerous features aimed at extending the working life of the pumps and reducing maintenance costs.

Tel: 1-800-313-3103, Fax: 905-890-0846 E-mail: Web: or

Tel: 905-568-9200 E-mail: Web:


KSB Pumps

Clear span buildings

pH/ORP sensors

Optimized for the needs of the municipal and environmental markets, the new Magnetrol R82 Radar Level Transmitter features advancements that make radar costcompetitive with ultrasonic level transmitters. Fully submersible - 26 GHz frequency - 24 VDC, loop-power - fully encapsulated horn antenna - range to 12.2 metres – adjustable beam - HART® communications. Tel: 905-738-9600 E-mail: Web:

Every square foot of space is profitable in a MegaDome building. Ranging from 30’ to 125’ wide and with no limitation to its length, MegaDome provides a production or storage area built in accordance with all building codes in your area. Tel: 888-427-6647, Fax: 450-756-8389 E-mail: Web:

SensoLyt® Sensors are specifically suited for continuous pH/ORP measurement, under the difficult conditions often found in sewage treatment. The sensors consist of a submersible housing with a builtin preamplifier and the appropriate combination pH or ORP electrode. With our high-performance monitors, the sensors constitute an integrated, extremely reliable pH/ORP measuring system. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: Web:


MegaDome/Harnois Industries

Metcon Sales & Engineering

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Pumping systems solutions

Metcon offers a variety of pre-engineered, dry chemical feed packages, with small foot prints and reduced maintenance, whether the application calls for KMnO4, lime, PAC, polymer, fluoride, alum or soda ash. Features include: continuous/batch operation; dust collection; no slurry handling; minimal field erection; super bag systems with optional automatic bag unloaders; elimination of slurry tank/mixer. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: Web:

Satisfying pumping needs at the lowest cost over the life cycle of the system, Myers optimizes system efficiencies with complete engineering services, providing cost-effective solutions and immediate cost savings when planning a pump station. Myers software programs provide the engineering tools to properly design the ideal station. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail:

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Myers Engineered Products

Fine screens

The Helisieve® Fine Screen combines screening, conveying and dewatering into one reliable, automatic, compact and cost-efficient system. Shaftless spiral technology helps dewater screenings up to 30% dry weight to lower disposal costs, and the spiral is enclosed to minimize odors. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: Web: Parkson Corporation

Chemical injection equipment

Water reuse systems go Green Orival, Inc. now provides complete water filtration systems, designed for specific municipal and industrial applications. These systems include filters, manifold, valves and control. Orival ORG and OR series of Automatic SelfCleaning Filters are available from ¾” to 24” and filtration degrees from 5 to 3000 microns. Tel: 800-567-9767, 201-568-3311 E-mail: Web: Orival

Metering pump

Metering pumps

The awardwinning delta® with optoDrive® provides diverse control and operating capabilities in a capacity range of 7.5 - 75 l/h, 362 psi - 29 psi. The delta from ProMinent has many advanced features: pulsed or continuous dosing; automatic detection of airlock, low pressure and high pressure; and an automatic degassing option. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: Web:

Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment.

ProMinent Fluid Controls

ProMinent Fluid Controls

Membrane bioreactor Sanitherm has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, preplumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint!

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: Web:

Groundwater monitoring The new CTD-Diver* is a multi-parameter datalogger which is ideal for monitoring municipal groundwater supplies, saltwater intrusion, and injected wastewater. Designed for corrosive and high salinity conditions, environmental professionals rely on CTDDiver to get accurate results. (*Mark of Schlumberger)

SAF-T-FLO Chemical Injection manufactures a complete line of chemical injection equipment for all types of chemical feed systems. A large inventory of retractable and non-retractable injection quills and sampling probes is available to meet your needs. In addition, experienced technical sales staff can answer your questions or help solve your problems. Tel: 800-957-2383, Fax: 714-632-3350 E-mail: Web:

Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: Web:

E-mail: Web:

SAF-T-FLO Chemical Injection

Sanitherm Inc.

Schlumberger Water Services

Summer 2010 | 73

Product & Service Showcase

Dry chemical feed

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Intelligent Motor Control Centre

Wastewater Pump Stations

Accurate interface meters

Schneider Electric’s IMCC facilitates remote monitoring/configuration of motor control systems, and can reduce installation/ commissioning costs by up to 20%. Advanced software and diagnostics allow remote monitoring, via Ethernet TCP/IP, DeviceNet, CanOpen, Modbus or Profibus, down to the device level. Tel: 416-615-3406 Web:

Energy-saving Smith & Loveless wastewater pump stations are ideal for collection system and WWTP influent pumping. S&L stations arrive at the jobsite completely built and thoroughly factory-tested. Now available with expanded pump sizing: 4" - 12" piping (100-300 mm); horsepower: 1.5 to 300 HP; capacity: up to 50,000 GMP (3155 lps). Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: Web:

Solinst Interface Meters feature a narrow 16 mm (5/8") diameter probe, flexible flat tape, and sturdy reel. These meters provide clear, accurate measurements of water and product level and thickness (LNAPL and DNAPL), and are certified intrinsically safe in explosive environments. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: Web:

Schneider Electric

Smith & Loveless

Solinst Canada

Specialist training

P roduct & Service Showcase

Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats

Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: Web: Spill Management

NEW portable optical dissolved oxygen measurement system The Aquaread AquaPlus™ system is the only portable Optical DO system available which includes direct EC measurement for accurate salinity compensation. Automatic temperature and barometric pressure compensation are also included. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: Web: Waterra Pumps

74 | Summer 2010

Trickling filters

Hatch safety net The lightweight Hatch Safety Net is designed to be permanently installed and easily retractable in floor and roof openings where the risk of fall through is present. When closed, the net system allows people to move freely around confined space openings without fear of falling into the opening. It also allows visibility of inspections and accessibility for limited maintenance and float adjustments. When entry/exit is required, the net can be easily unhooked on all but one side of the opening. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: USF Fabrication

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: Web: Waterloo Biofilter

Submersible mixing

Submersible pumps As a leader in submersible pumping station technology, Wilo offers a unique solution for grit and solid removal by pre-filtering the bigger solids to effectively eradicate the possibility of a pump blockage and to reduce power consumption. For more information, please send your request to Tel: 866-WILO-CDN, Fax: 403-277-9456 E-mail: Web: WILO Canada

Wilo’s mixers for water and wastewater applications are known for their durability and for the functionality of the propellers in slow, medium and high-speed applications. For more information, please send your request to Tel: 866-WILO-CDN, Fax: 403-277-9456 E-mail: Web: WILO Canada

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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 Proposed federal wastewater regulations criticized A coalition of environmental groups is submitting formal comments on the federal Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations that were made public on March 20, 2010. They feel that, despite mandating a minimum of secondary level sewage treatment for all Canadian municipalities, the regulations contain significant loopholes that would see sewage dumping continue at current levels for many cities until as late as 2039. The formal comments being submitted by environmental groups recommend that timelines for upgrading facilities be shortened to five years (or 2015) for high risk facilities, ten years (or 2020) for medium risk facilities, and 15 to 20 years (or 2030) for low risk facilities, and that major loopholes for key pollutants and combined sewer overflows be closed.

Acoustic Panels, Enclosures & Products WE WELCOME YOUR INQUIRIES

Email: Web: Tel: (613) 551-6100

Plan to reduce fluid tailings approved The Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) has conditionally approved a plan by Suncor Energy Inc. for improving fluid tailings management. The ERCB has also approved construction and operation of Suncor’s first commercial application in the Alberta oil sands of a new technology designed to reduce the volume of fluid tailings. Suncor’s Tailings Reduction Operation (TRO) involves converting fluid tailings into a solid landscape, suitable for reclamation. The project is located 40 km northwest of Fort McMurray. The ERCB believes that application of TRO will enable Suncor to reduce the volume of fluid tailings remaining at the end of the project life by 33 million cubic metres (about 30%). Suncor has already committed approximately $450 million to TRO technology and other measures designed to improve tailings management. So far, oil sands operators have committed more than $1 billion in tailings pond upgrades.


continued overleaf...

• ANTHRACITE • QUALITY FILTER SAND &GRAVEL • CARBON • GARNET ILMENITE • REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax: (519) 751-0617 E-mail: • Web:

Water treatment specialists for the resource and energy industries 6 6 6 6 6

Recover dissolved metals Remove sulphate Improve water re-use Comply with regulations Lower life cycle costs for water treatment Summer 2010 | 75

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 Nova Scotia restricts bottled water use

MARKHAM, ONTARIO 905-747-8506

Specialists in a comprehensive range of Municipal, Environmental, Structural, Building, Water Resources, Transportation and Municipal Engineering Collingwood






Get a clear view of: “Specialists in non-intrusive ground investigations” Tel: 905.458.1883 Fax: 905.792.1884 E-mail: Web:

• UST's, buried metal, debris & fill • Former excavations & structures • Leachate plumes • Voids and fractures • Stratigraphy • Pipes and utilities

The Nova Scotia government recently announced a new policy to eliminate the purchase and use of bottled water by all government departments with access to potable tap water. The policy emphasizes the high quality of Nova Scotia's tap water and reduces the amount of plastic entering the province's waste recycling systems. The policy will apply only to government departments where potable tap water is available and not to public institutions such as hospitals. It will not apply to private sector organizations. The policy allows a department to use bottled water only in certain circumstances, including times of emergency, or if potable tap water becomes unavailable. Many organizations in Canada, such as universities and municipalities, have developed a similar policy to reduce plastic waste. The Federation of Canadian Municipalities urges all members to phase out the sale and provision of bottled water in municipal facilities.

Atlantic environment ministers hold discussions

Environmental Site Investigations and Remediation • Hydrogeologic Evaluations • Soil and Groundwater Remediation • Phase I/II Environmental Site Assessments • Site Decommissioning • Designated Substance Surveys • Expert Witness and Litigation Support • Peer Review • Asbestos and Mould Assessments

76 | Summer 2010

Since 1988

436 Elmstead Road RR1 Windsor, Ontario N8N 2L9 519.979.7300 Clarify the Issue Quantify the Data Defend the Position

Environment ministers from Atlantic Canada met recently in Fredericton, New Brunswick, to discuss regional approaches and co-operation on a number of environmental issues. They addressed various subjects, including developing shared information packages on cosmetic pesticides, climate change adaptation partnerships, and clean air initiatives. The ministers agreed on the importance of the Atlantic provinces investing in green projects and initiatives that provide opportunities for economic growth, while offering innovative solutions to environmental issues. Ministers also discussed the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Environmental Co-operation in Atlantic Canada. The MOU outlines a set of environmental management principles of co-operation and is designed to guide the creation of more specific agreements or annexes; the first of these is a water annex. Ministers will also be forwarding a letter to Federal Environment Minister Jim Prentice, emphasizing that EnvironEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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 ment Canada should work with the Municipal Wastewater Effluent (MWWE) Coordination Committee to bring the regulations in line with the MWWE strategy, and allow them the opportunity to review the revised regulation before it is published in the Canada Gazette Part II. Finally, ministers agreed that the concept of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a positive way to further reduce waste in the Atlantic region. Regional best practices were discussed, and ministers formed a group to work on regional harmonization around packaging and other opportunities such as pharmaceuticals and construction and demolition debris.



Clean water for Aberdeen RGX

The Town of Aberdeen, Saskatchewan, now has a safe, clean and reliable supply of drinking water. Construction of the SaskWater $4 million transmission works was started in 2009. The project included a pipeline from Saskatoon to Aberdeen, a booster pump station, and a meter building. The Town started supplying potable water to its residents in early April. The Highway 41 Water Utility will soon connect to SaskWater's system and distribute water to rural residents.

PEI residents can access online water data

Phone: 905-777-9494 E: W:


OTT Fine Bubble Diffusers • • • •

highest efficiency, intelligent, intuitive designs proven worldwide in more than 23 years of service quickest and easiest installation and maintenance uniquely environmentally friendly


Phone: 905-777-9494 E: W:

PHI BUBBLETRON Mixing Technology Innovative, most energy-efficient mixing No in-basin moving parts Anoxic mixing Ideal for many applications Sludge mixing Water reservoir circulation Sewage pump station grease cap & odor control


Phone: 905-777-9494 E: W:

Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis, Inc. Consulting Engineers Prince Edward Islanders can now go online to review and search the latest drinking water and surface water information in their communities and local watersheds. The data available includes historical data, data collected as part of current monitoring programs, and drinking water results. Users of the information include farmers who rely on stream level indicators to determine when they can withdraw water from streams for irrigation. continued overleaf...

! 420 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, N1T 2H9 Tel: (519) 624-7223 Fax: (519) 624-7224 ! 1685 1 James Street Ontario, L8P L8S 4R5 1G5 Main St. South, West,Suite Suite1601, 302,Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax: (905) 522-0031

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Creating the online public data system is one of the recommendations of the Report on the Commission of Nitrates in Groundwater, which was established to develop a strategy to reduce nitrate concentrations in groundwater and surface water.

Concerns about increased outflow from North Dakota Manitoba Premier Greg Selinger has expressed his disappointment after learning that North Dakota has increased the flow of water from the Devils Lake outlet from 100 cubic feet per second (CFS) to as high as 250 CFS, without a filter being in place. â&#x20AC;&#x153;While we empathize with the residents of Devils Lake and the flooding they endure, it is essential that we protect Manitoba's waterways from risk,â&#x20AC;? Mr Selinger said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;It is imperative the advanced filtration system be put in place to prevent harmful algae, pathogenic bacteria, fish parasites and fish diseases from entering Manitoba.â&#x20AC;? The Canadian and the US federal governments reached an agreement to install an advanced filter in 2005 but the filter is not yet in place. The Manitoba government has been at the forefront of pressing the federal governments in Canada and the US to help find a solution to the problem.

Manitoba leads efforts to reduce phosphorus







An effort led by Manitoba to reduce phosphorus in consumer products across Canada resulted in a ban going into effect, July 1, 2010 on dishwashing detergent containing phosphorus. The national ban, affecting household dishwasher and dishwashing detergent containing more than 0.5 per cent phosphorus, is consistent with the measures contained in Manitobaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Phosphorus Reduction Act, passed in June 2008. Manitobaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s actions, similar legislation passed in Quebec, and lobbying by the Canadian Specialty Products Association, prompted the federal government to introduce national standards on this product. Additionally, in 2009, Manitoba followed Minnesotaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lead and introduced a ban on the application of lawn fertilizers Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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 containing more than one per cent phosphorus. Fertilizers containing higher levels of phosphorus are still permitted for new lawns and gardens, where nutrients can be fully used by plants. In addition, golf courses, municipalities and agricultural areas are subject to restrictions under the Nutrient Management Regulations. Under these regulations, no fertilizer can be applied near bodies of water. Buffer zones range from three metres along most rivers and streams, to 15 metres along the Red and Assiniboine Rivers, and 30 metres along Lake Winnipeg.

Environmental groups challenge Ontarioʼs Open for Business Act Three Ontario environmental organizations have stated their opposition to the Ontario government’s proposed Open for Business Act. The Canadian Environmental Law Association, the Canadian Institute for Environmental Law and Policy, and Ecojustice, claim that under the proposed Act, Ontarians will lose fundamental legal rights established under the Environmental Bill of Rights, one of Ontario’s most important laws. The Open for Business Act will remove the opportunity for public notice and comment for certain industrial activities that will be subject to a new environmental approvals process. Citizens will also lose the right to appeal approval of these activities through the Environmental Review Tribunal. The groups have called upon the Ontario government to amend the proposed Act, so as to leave intact the public notice and comment, and third party appeal rights under the Environmental Bill of Rights.

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Canadian office opened by UN agency Mokugift, a UN Environment Program partner, which is helping plant twelve billion trees worldwide to fight deforestation and climate change, has opened an office in Canada. An official partner of the UNEP Billion Tree Campaign, Mokugift Canada continued overleaf...

Summer 2010 | 79

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Partnering to provide sustainable solutions

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will help Canadian businesses, schools and non-profit organizations engage customers and supporters by planting trees on their behalf in tropical, deforested countries that are the most effective in mitigating climate change. “For $1 apiece, giving a Mokugift tree is similar to sending an e-card,” said Nat Zavier of Mokugift Canada. “After selecting the country where their tree is planted, donors can display their trees online at Facebook, MySpace, Yahoo!, and many other popular websites.” Mokugift trees are planted with the help of local farmers practising environmentally sustainable forestry and agricultural methods in tropical zones in Central America, Africa and Asia. The plantings restock existing forests with native trees that have been depleted and will contribute to more diverse, productive and economically sustainable land-use systems. So far, approximately 10 billion trees have been planted.

Ontario places strict conditions on York/Durham sewer expansion According to the Ontario government, strict conditions are being attached to the approval of the new Southeast Collector Trunk Sewer for the York-Durham Sewage System. The new project will expand the sewer system to support York Region's future growth in Richmond Hill, Aurora, Markham, Newmarket and Vaughan. The region's population is forecasted to grow from 930,000 in 2006 to 1,500,000 by 2031. Strict conditions will ensure the Region builds and operates the sewer in a way that protects human health and the environment. It will be required to monitor and report every year to show the project is meeting all conditions of approval. These conditions include: • Monitoring for potential impacts on ground and surface water, as well as air quality during construction and operation of the sewer. • Implementing and reporting on measures to conserve and use water efficiently, and to reduce inflow and infiltration of water into the sewer. • Implementing and reporting on odour continued overleaf...

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Alberta Wilbert Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Public University System . . . . . . . . .16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASCO Valve Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Associated Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Can-Am Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Canada Unlimited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 . . . . . . . . . Canadian Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cole Engineering Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delcan Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Denso

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ACG Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Endress + Hauser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Floating Island International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 . . . . . . Greatario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H2Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31, 38, 44, 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ITT Water & Wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

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Metcon Sales & Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MegaDome/Harnois Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myers Engineered Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 . . . . .

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 Study Area Boundary

control measures, including a protocol for dealing with odour complaints. • Setting up an advisory committee to review and give advice on required monitoring and reporting plans. • Protecting and enhancing Bob Hunter Memorial Park. The new Southeast Collector Trunk Sewer will connect to the existing York Durham Sewage System, a system of pipes and pumping stations that carry sewage from the major urban communities in York Region to the Duffin Creek Treatment Plant on Lake Ontario.

Companies recognized for environmental excellence Southeast Collector Truck Sewer EA Location of Preferred Route.

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• Hazardous Site Clean-up & Remediation • Decommissioning and Demolition • Asbestos and Mould Abatement • Contaminated Soil Removal • On-site Water Treatment

PowerStream and Warren's Waterless Printing are the newest members of Ontario's Environmental Leaders program. PowerStream is committing to achieving annual conservation targets, and reducing the amount of PCBs used in providing electricity to its customers in York Region and Simcoe County by 40 per cent by 2013. Other environmental actions include meeting internationally recognized green building standards in the construction of new facilities, as well as further reducing vehicle emissions. Warren's Waterless Printing is recognized for buying all its electricity from Bullfrog Power, a supplier of 100 per cent renewable energy. Other recent environmental actions include reducing volatile organic compounds by 15 per cent in 2009, and reducing electricity use by 20 per cent by 2010.

Letter to the editor Supporting our Nation's Infrastructure for over 100 years by Building Canada's most reliable Standby Generator Battery Chargers. Insist on reliability, rely on Vulcan's historical certainty. For new installations or retrofits have your service provider visit

Dear Tom,

Thank you so much for the education and encouragement you have provided me over these many years. When I wondered as a new professional if I was accomplishing anything, your editorial comments always reminded me that I was. And now, as a seasoned professional, your editorial comments still push me to do and be the best I can. No longer in the "field" as an environmental engineer, I take great pride in passing on what the collective "we" know so that my graduates can pick up where "we" left off. Phil McLimont, Lambton College (Please See Page 58, for Dr. McLimont’s article on mentoring students and new professionals)

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine Summer 2010  
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine Summer 2010  

This issue focuses on: Tertiary nutrient removal for lagoons; drinking water issues in the Arctic effluent sewers for growing communities; D...