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Contents ISSN-0835-605X March • 2010 Vol. 23 No. 2 Issued March 2010

Page 60

ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.

FEATURES 7 Some hard lessons about metal fatigue, old tires and friction – Editorial comment by Steve Davey 10-12 WEAO, OWWA/OMWA and BCWWA conference previews 13 Geosynthetic product used for shoreline erosion control at BC park 14 Montreal upgrades remote monitoring of its wastewater pumping stations 16 Inclined-plate lamellas increase water treatment efficiency 18 Reducing phosphorus and SS levels down to tertiary discharge standards 25 Using coffer dams to control flooding on the Red River Page 68 26 Monitoring chloramination at Toronto’s F.J. Horgan WTP 28 Natural treatment systems for wastewater and stormwater polishing 30 Waste site cleaned with one-pass trenching technology DEPARTMENTS 32 New bioremediation product treats WWTP grease on site 34 Modern living necessitates double-filtering residential sewage Product Showcase . . . . . . 74-77 38 BC WWTP upgrade is both environmentally and financially sustainable Environmental News . . . 88-96 42 Recycling water for cooling molten glass Professional Cards . . . . . . 89-95 45 COVER STORY - The case for solar power at water and wastewater treatment plants Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 47 The benefits of using liquid polymer 50 Sound absorbing panels reduce WWTP noise levels 52 Toronto implements new environmental reporting and disclosure by-law 54 Complex mechanical bar screen completed in Simcoe, Ontario 60 A portable solution for degritting aeration basins 63 New level sensors provide benefits for sewage lift stations 66 First Nations community gets new water treatment plant 70 Achieving big returns by automating rural water systems 72 Engineered wetlands for municipal sewage and sludge treatment

CANECT2010 Showguide

PAGES 78-86

Workshop Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 CANECT Floor Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Exhibitors Listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

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March 2010 | 5

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:42 PM Page 7

Comment by Steve Davey

Some hard lessons about metal fatigue, old tires and friction


he history of mankind is filled with countless examples of engineering and construction marvels, as well as many spectacular failures. Among structural engineers, perhaps the best known failure was the collapse of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge, due to aero elastic flutter. Dramatically captured on film, the bridge's uncontrolled swaying and subsequent collapse has had a lasting effect on long-span bridge design. In a recent editorial comment, I reported on the January 2009 wet well malfunctions at Halifax’s new $54 million wastewater treatment plant. The resulting flooding caused an extended plant shutdown, as the electrical room had to be rebuilt and five new pumps installed. During this shutdown, the city’s untreated wastewater had to be discharged directly into the harbour. In both these cases, external factors caused inherent design flaws to overwhelm operational capability. During a snowmobiling trip at a friend’s cottage, I experienced first hand the awful consequences of equipment failure due to metal fatigue, old rubber and excessive friction. Shortly after getting underway one Friday evening, my friend called out “Pull over quickly; smoke is coming from one of the trailer tires!” I pulled to the side of the road and we found that one of the trailer’s steel leaf springs had snapped. This meant that the deck of the trailer, loaded with two snowmobiles, was pressing down on the tire. Survivalists take note - four hundred kilograms of trailer and snowmobile, rubbing against a tire rotating at 60 kph, makes for a great fire starter. This could have been the end of our weekend plans, but my friend’s trailer was at my house. So, braving the cold and wind, we unloaded our snowmobiles off the stricken trailer, left them at the side of the road, and slowly returned the trailer to my house. After re-loading our snowmobiles

Steve Davey (right) with friends enjoying a break from riding.

onto the other trailer, we proceeded on our way to Bancroft, where misfortune struck again. One of the trailer’s age-cracked tires went flat, and we were still 50 km from the cottage. To add insult to injury, the trailer’s spare tire was old, cracked and wouldn’t hold air. With no other option, we left the trailer and snowmobile in a restaurant parking lot, and continued on to the cottage. We drove into town the next day to purchase a new tire and rim, and have a new tire installed on the spare rim. We then drove back to the cottage to prepare for snowmobiling. Shortly after starting out, my friend had to stop, as his engine had become very loud. Close examination revealed that three of the four engine exhaust manifold bolts had vibrated loose and had fallen off. Nothing was broken or damaged, so after an hour of re-assembly, everything was put right and we continued. The rest of the day was outstanding, and we all thought that the streak of bad luck had ended. How wrong we were! During the next day’s ride, we were about 80 kilometres from the cottage, when a large piece of my snowmobile track tore off. Luckily, the track had not torn all the way

across, so my machine was driveable, albeit at a numbingly slow pace. After gingerly making our way back to the cottage, we loaded our snowmobiles onto the trailer and started for home. With two new tires on the trailer, we hoped for an uneventful drive. But, after travelling for a few minutes, the trailer started shuddering. I pulled over and we went out to investigate. Unbelievably the new tire we had installed on the old rim was flat and badly torn. Even worse, the rim had become badly bent and had crimped around the axle hub, which made removal extremely hard to do. Our second flat tire had been caused by the old cracked valve stem splitting apart, possibly due to handling and flexing during tire inflation, and/or the increase in air pressure when the tire heated up during driving. This valve should have been replaced when the new tire was installed, but, for some reason, it wasn’t. Failure of a two dollar part had left us stranded in the cold and snow. Later investigation of my snowmobile track failure revealed that I had inadvertently installed the wrong type of plastic sliders. They were too tall, which meant the idler wheels, continued overleaf... March 2010 | 7

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Comment by Steve Davey

Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: Consulting Editor


Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail:

Technical Advisory Board

which normally keep the sliders away from the track, during road riding, were rendered ineffective. This allowed too much weight to rest on the sliders, resulting in tremendous friction when driving. During road driving that weekend, when there was no snow spray to cool things down, the track got extremely hot. When this happened, its rubber weakened severely, allowing several steel traction studs to pull out of the track. This left large holes, which kept tearing and tearing, at high speed, until the track ultimately failed. Installing the wrong sliders was

Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario

Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $3.75 GST).

8 | March 2010

Steve Davey is editor and publisher of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. E-mail:

Letters to the Editor

Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario

my mistake and it cost me $1,100.00 to have a new track installed. Replacing the broken trailer spring cost another $300.00. So, to the designers of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge and the Halifax Wastewater Plant, you have my deepest understanding. Murphy’s Law is one that too often cannot be avoided, despite well-intentioned engineering, construction and operation.

Hi Steve, I just received the January 2010 edition of Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine and particularly liked the cover story. On our last cruise, I spent 90 minutes with the environmental officer on Holland America’s M.S. Zuiderdam. I have always wondered how they treated their waste, but I was not allowed below deck for a facility tour. He did, however, give me a DVD on Holland America Line’s environmental stewardship. The video discussed how waste is managed and regulated at sea. The international Maritime Organization, an agency of the United Nations, developed MARPOL, and has established a strict set of regulations for ship-generated pollution from sewage to solid waste. Cruise ships are bound by a number of levels of regulations related to pollution management. They must adhere to the regulations of the Flag State (the nation of the Ship’s registry), the Port State (country/state which they are visiting) and local laws, including Port Authorities. In the US they must also follow the regulations of the Coast Guard, including equipment inspections and record audits. Cruise ships are also bound by a variety of international treaties designed to protect unique habitats such as the Antarctic. Holland America’s ships are ISO 14001 Certified with Environmental Management System Standards. The video also discussed the variety of pollution management programs on board their ships. Black water (sewage), including toilets and the drains and sinks

of the infirmary, and grey water which includes showers, sinks, galleys and pantries, are treated together using vacuum systems, micro pore filtration and UV disinfection. They also treat with oil separators an average of 2,200 gallons per day of bilge water which is condensation and lubricant drippings from machinery that collects in the bottom of the hold. To protect sensitive environments from aggressive organisms which may impact new ecosystems, ballast water is only changed in waters with a minimum depth of 2,000 metres and at least 200 nautical miles from any land. Efforts to reduce air pollution include the use of biodegradable oils and the use of shore-side power when in port. Also, the MS Zaandam has recently installed sea water scrubbers to treat exhaust gases. This system eliminates 98 % of sulphur and particle emissions. Food waste is ground up and mixed with water and processed in the waste management room. It is then dewatered with sieves and mixed with paper and cardboard for incineration or dumped at sea. Glass and plastic are crushed or shredded for disposal at shore-side facilities. Recycling programs are dependent on the recycling programs of the ports they visit. After reviewing Holland America’s Environmental Stewardship Program and all the complexities they deal with on an ongoing basis, it is easy to understand why people say a cruise ship is like a small city. Rick Niesink, Region of Niagara

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:43 PM Page 9



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Spring Convention Previews

London to host 2010 WEAO/OPCEA annual conference and tradeshow


he 2010 Water Environment Association of Ontario annual conference and tradeshow will be held April 18-20 at the London Convention Centre. This year’s keynote speaker will be Bob McDonald, who is the host of CBC Television’s science program “Quirks and Quarks”, and also a reporter for “The National”, the network’s nightly news program. Technical sessions will cover: utility management, advanced treatment, collections systems management, asset management, non-conventional contaminants, biosolids management, new technologies, preliminary and primary treatment, membrane bioreactor treatment, stormwater, watersheds, and small community issues. Expanded floor space at the London Convention Centre will allow the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association’s tradeshow to be bigger than last year, featuring approximately 120 exhibitors.

10 | March 2010

Conference attendees can also see some of the best wastewater personnel in Ontario display their expertise during the annual Operations Challenge Competition. Participants are required to compete in five events demonstrating their skills and knowledge against competitors throughout the province. The five events are collection system, laboratory, process control, pump maintenance, and safety. Delegates can test their knowledge of the wastewater industry as they participate or follow along and cheer, as teams compete for top prizes and bragging rights in the annual Totally Wasted Game Show (TWGS) that will take place following the Operations Challenge Competition. Fashioned after a popular TV game show, the TWGS quizzes contestants with questions comparable to those found on the Provincial Certification Exams. Water for People will be hosting a fund-raising reception on April 19, as

Bob McDonald

well as holding a charity auction during the event. The conference also offers a tour of the City of London’s Oxford Pollution Control Plant. For more information, visit, or e-mail:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Spring Convention Previews

Whistler to host 2010 BCWWA annual conference and tradeshow


he British Columbia Water and Waste Association’s annual conference and tradeshow will be held May 1-5, 2010, in Whistler, BC, at the Telus Conference Centre. Technical session topics will cover: large and small water systems, advanced oxidation, wastewater treatment, municipal utility operations, odour control, climate change, infrastructure funding, energy recovery, decentralized wastewater systems, watershed protection/management, flood management, water and wastewater residuals management, water conservation and sustainability, greenhouse gases. The event also offers operators hands-on training sessions and a number of competitions, which will include large and small pump teardown, and operations knowledge. On May 3, the association’s Small Water Systems Committee will hold a

one day symposium, focusing on key issues faced by small water systems. On May 5, four concurrent seminars will cover key issues faced by the water and wastewater industry including: SCADA, leveraging your SCADA data for asset management, energy efficiency-opportunities in aeration, source to tap (CS2TA), climate change. The conference will include two technical tours:

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March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:44 PM Page 12

Spring Convention Previews

2010 OWWA/OMWA joint annual conference and tradeshow to be held in Windsor


he 2010 Ontario Water Works Association/Ontario Municipal Water Association joint annual conference and tradeshow will be held at Caesarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Convention Centre in Windsor, May 2-5, 2010. This yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plenary session is scheduled to feature Herb Gray, Past Canadian Chair of the International Joint Commission, John Gerretsen, Ontario Minister of the Environment, and Dwight Duncan, Ontario Minister of Finance and Chair of the Management Board of Cabinet. Technical session topics will include: treatment, distribution, water efficiency, groundwater, small systems, management, source water protection, cross connection, university research, climate change. Several tours have also been arranged: â&#x20AC;˘ Colasanti Tropical Gardens â&#x20AC;˘ Mastronardi Estate Winery â&#x20AC;˘ Windsor Water Treatment Facility

â&#x20AC;˘ Lakeshore Water Treatment Plant Ontario Ministry of the Environment operator certification exams will be held May 3. On May 4, a full day workshop on distribution system hydraulics and pressure management will be held. As well, all conference delegates can enter the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Water Cup Challengeâ&#x20AC;? and test their water system knowledge. The event also features a 100 booth tradeshow, which is open May 3 and 4. For more information on the conference, visit, or e-mail: On May 5, the Ontario Water Works Equipment Association is hosting the annual Water for People Charity Golf Tournament at the Ambassador Golf Club. For more information on the tournament, contact Mike Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Brien, e-mail:


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Ecosystem Protection

Geosynthetic product used for shoreline erosion control at BC park


C Parks was seeking a permanent environmental solution to prevent ongoing wave erosion along the Newcastle Island Provincial Marine Park shoreline, located across from Nanaimo, British Columbia. The shoreline consists of flat-lying sandstone bedrock, covered intermittently with gravel, cobble shingle, and driftwood. Not only were parkland and trees being negatively affected by erosion, but historical First Nations artifacts on traditional Snuneymuxw territory were threatened. The island is accessible by boat only, so a solution that minimized the need for heavy equipment and material was needed. There has been a noticeable shift in recent years towards adapting ‘soft-engineered’ methods for shoreline protection that are more compatible with preserving habitat and more visually appealing. The recent adoption of the “Green-Shores” guideline in BC is an example of this trend. Deltalok System, a Canadian innovation with worldwide patents, was the ‘soft’ solution of choice for Newcastle Island. It utilizes a reinforced earth concept which interlocks geotextile bags to

The shoreline consists of flat-lying sandstone bedrock, covered intermittently with gravel, cobble shingle, and driftwood.

achieve a 3D bio-engineered erosion protection solution. The system was anchored to the sandstone shoreline, using innovative ‘wrap and lock’ methodology. This meant fast construction and no need for costly and invasive excavation in preparation of a footing channel for the base. The structure was backfilled and compacted, using Sechelt sand for drainage and vegetation purposes. A select seed

was blended with the soil mix on site and used as filler for the GTX bags. In addition, some transplanting of on-site vegetation occurred. The Deltalok System provided instant protection, filtration, and sedimentation control, even prior to vegetation growth. For more information, e-mail:

March 2010 | 13

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:45 PM Page 14


Montreal upgrades remote monitoring of its wastewater pumping stations


he Communauté urbaine de Montréal (the City of Montreal) treats 44% of all wastewater processed in Quebec treatment plants. Its treatment plant has one of the highest pumping capacities in North America. The wastewater treatment system network consists of a central treatment plant and 68 hookup structures, of which 36 are equipped with remotelycontrolled regulating structures. Hookup and regulating structures direct wastewater from trunk sewers through interceptors to the wastewater treatment plant. During rainy weather, sluice gates, mounted in the regulating structure, control the inflow of wastewater and rainwater in response to signals from the control centre at the wastewater treatment plant and from the local PLC. The system also includes pumping stations and measuring points located throughout the system and supervised in real time. Processes are controlled by SICOS, a third-party integrated control and supervision system. The system is connected to every one of the plant’s processes, and pieces of equipment, via a 3.6 km fibre optic network. Over 12,000 I/O points are connected to SICOS.

The City of Montreal's wastewater treatment plant. 14 | March 2010

Schematic of the collection and interception system.

Control system upgrade required standardized PAC program The existing regulating structure/gatehouse flap control system used a third party protocol and communicated to the central DCS over Modbus. It had to be upgraded to an Ethernet-based system with a single standardized program for the 36 new gatehouse programmable automation controllers (PACs). Each of these PACs controls a different I/O configuration, depending on whether it is electric or hydraulic. An additional 10 sites, pumping stations and measuring points, were also upgraded with the same control system. At the heart of the new gatehouse flap control system are 36 identically programmed Premium PACs on a WAN network. They communicate over Ethernet Modbus TCP/IP to one of five Quantum data consolidation controllers. Local I/O adjustments are downloaded from the Quantum PAC to a site-specific address. Unity programming software facilitated mapping the I/O in the Quantum PACs, and allowed the creation of a standardized program for all the Premium PACs. The Quantum controllers communicate to the DCS via Modbus Plus.

Schneider Electric controllers use a standard, native protocol, Modbus Plus, to communicate with the SICOS system, thereby maximizing the amount of data that can be transferred. Moreover, the Premium and Quantum PACs were programmed with Unity Pro software, which allowed the use of Unity’s five IEC languages (IEC Ladder, Function Block Diagram, Sequential Function Chart, Structured Text, and Instruction List). Schneider Electric performed several on-site validation tests and provided solutions for adjusting the differently configured local I/O systems. New system simplifies remote monitoring and troubleshooting The new control system allows uninterrupted communication with the DCS, while accessing the remote controllers with UnityPro for adjustments and troubleshooting. Also, the standard Internet browser allows remote monitoring with the Rack Viewer function. For more information, contact Jacques Bérubé, P. Eng.. Senior Application Engineer, Schneider Electric. E-mail:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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March2010_ES&E:2010 4/9/10 12:03 PM Page 16

Water Treatment

Inclined-plate lamellas increase water treatment efficiency By Steve Minett


city in the north of England needed to increase its drinking water supply and decided to achieve this by upgrading an existing treatment plant. A more traditional/conventional method of sludge settlement was replaced by lamellas, leading to considerable increases in maintenance and operation efficiencies. Carlisle is a city of around 70,000 on the north west coast of England, just south of the Scottish border. A shortfall in drinking water supply for the Carlisle area was identified in 1998. The project involved a £25 million upgrading of the existing water treatment plant at Cumwhinton, both to increase capacity and to reduce the risk of crytosporidium. Construction started in 2004. The flow for the plant is taken predominantly by pumped extraction from the nearby Eden River, supplemented by

16 | March 2010

gravity flow from the Castle Carrock Storage Reservoir. The plant has a designed maximum flow of 27 MLD (megaliters per day), a minimum of 12 MLD and an average flow of 20 MLD. At the raw water inlet, flow is monitored for pH, colour, turbidity and conductivity. The first stage of treatment is dosing with an aluminium sulphate coagulant and a polyelectrolyte flocculant aid to the inflow, plus sulphuric acid to control its pH level. An inlet chamber splits the flow into three streams. (This is part of the general ‘process redundancy’ at the plant, which also includes duplication of key items of equipment, such as pumps and monitors.) The three-stream flow moves on to a flocculator stage and then into Johnson lamella separators, mounted in concrete tanks. These lamellas were manufactured by Nordic Water Products. The main structure is a series of par-

allel plates, tilted backwards, at an angle of 55%, from the direction of flow. (This ‘inclined’ configuration of the plates means that every square meter of tank area can provide 10 square meters of settling area). The units have a patented flow control system, which ensures that the flow is distributed upward and uniformly across the plate assembly. This works by creating a pressure drop in collection channels above the plates, which ensures that the full area of each plate is covered by the flow. As the water flows upward, the flocs and other solids in the water settle on the inclined plates and slide down into the bottom of the tank. Sludge which accumulates at the bottom of the tanks is removed by Zickert bottom scrapers. From the lamellas, clarified water moves onto rapid gravity, dual media sand filters and then to a contact tank where chlorine gas is dosed as a disin-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E:2010 3/30/10 3:48 PM Page 17

Water Treatment fection stage. Sodium hydroxide is added to raise the final water pH to 7.5. Sludge removed from the raw water lamellas (plus the washwater from the rapid gravity filters) is directed to a second, sludge disposal treatment process at the plant. Water extracted from this process is fed back to the raw water inflow to the plant, while the thickened sludge accumulates in two holding tanks, awaiting road transport from the plant to be further de-watered. One of the main stages in this second, sludge-washwater treatment process, consists of two additional Nordic Water lamella separators, though, in this case, they are housed in roughly conical steel containers, with sludge hoppers at the bottom. Thus, there is no need for the bottom scrapers required in the rectangular concrete tanks of the raw water lamellas. Easier cleaning and restarting Prior to the upgrade, upward-flow, flat-bottom, floc-blanket clarification was used for raw water settlement. Following flocculation, the inflow entered a rectangular tank from a series of inlets

One of the main stages in the sludge-washwater treatment process, consists of two Nordic Water lamella separators.

at the bottom. This upward flow led to the formation of a floc blanket suspended below the surface of the water. The blanket moved gradually, over a separating wall, into a sludge pit at the far end of the tank. The sludge then had to re-form before the system was effective again, and this could take anything from two days to two months.

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March 2010 | 17

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:46 PM Page 18

Wastewater Treatment

Novel processes for reducing phosphorus and SS levels down to tertiary discharge standards By Martine Lanoue, Janin Michaud and Ross Garbett


arge population increases in rural areas, stricter discharge regulations, blue-green algae blooms and high phosphorus loads in watersheds are forcing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to consider upgrading their systems to include tertiary treatment of phosphorus. Even when land is available for the upgrade of the system, it is often not economically feasible to do so. Fortunately, a combination of smaller footprint technologies is now available, that can provide efficient tertiary treatment of phosphorus and suspended solids. This article will present two case studies, where a high-rate sand-ballasted clarification process, combined with cloth filtration, yielded a modular, flexible, tertiary treatment plant in just a fraction of the space required by conventional treatment technologies. ACTIDisc® process train The ACTIDisc process train for tertiary treatment is composed of two successive processes: the ACTIFLO® high-rate ballasted flocculation, and the HYDROTECH Discfilter cloth filtration. The ACTIFLO process is a patented technology based on a high-rate settling process that combines the advantages of ballasted flocculation and lamella clarification. The HYDROTECH Discfilter is a mechanical, self-cleaning filter, specially designed for achieving high performance in systems where it is essential to prevent coagulated flocs from fragmenting. The cloth filter works without pressure. Effluent to be treated flows by gravity, or through pumping, into the filter segment from the centre drum. The media mounted on both sides of the partially-submerged discs separates solids from the effluent; the effluent flows through the disc media (microscreen cloth) into the collection tank. Once solids have accumulated on the inside of the media, the discs are cleaned by the counter-current backwash system. Pilot testing and results During the first half of 2009, performance of the ACTIDisc process for 18 | March 2010

Filtration rate (m/h) 4.9 7.3 9.7 12.2 14.7

Total suspended solids after cloth filtration (mg/L) 5.0 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.0

Number of data points (mg/L) 4 4 2 2 2

Table 1. Cloth filter – Effluent TSS performance (Henderson, CO).

Flow rate (m³/h) Rise rate on cloth filter (m/h)

11.35 7.3

Turbidity(NTU) Raw water Clarified water After filtration

130 2.79 1.87

Total phosphorus (mg/L) Raw water Clarified water After filtration

6.44 0.239 0.097

Table 2. ACTIDisc® performance on turbidity and phosphorus removal (N=3) in Henderson, CO.

tertiary treatment was assessed in two pilot scale tests: in Henderson, Colorado, and in Innisfil, Ontario. The purpose of the testing in Henderson was to prove the suitability of this process train to achieve a low level of total suspended solids (lower than 5 mg/L), low turbidity (lower than 2 NTU) and low phosphorus concentration (lower than 0.1 mg/L) in non-clarified water after a secondary reactor. In the Innisfil study, the objectives were stricter and were applied on clarified water. The objectives were to obtain a total phosphorus concentration of less than 0.01 mg/L, and a turbidity lower than 0.2 NTU. Pilot scale test Henderson, Colorado The ACTIDisc treatment train was tested on effluent coming from the Henderson City WWTP. The wastewater feed was located prior to the secondary clarifier. Both ACTIDisc components were

tested and optimized separately. During the optimization period for the high-rate ballasted flocculation process, the removal efficiencies were studied at different flow rates. A rise rate of 61 m/h was optimal at the pilot scale level, and was used for the rest of the tests with the cloth filter. The cloth filter process was tested, following the ballasted flocculation process. The filter panel material (polyester) was woven to a pore size of 10 µm. The average influent turbidity and TSS ranged from 130-150 NTU and 110-140 mg/L respectively. The objective was to achieve less then 10 mg/L of TSS coming out of the ballasted flocculation process and then treating that flow with the cloth filter. Test results are presented in Table 1. It can be seen that a three-fold increase in filtration rate did not significantly influence the effluent TSS of the cloth filter. continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:46 PM Page 19





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Wastewater Treatment Flow rate (m3/h) 15 30 45 60 75 90

N 1 5 3 9 4 12

Rise rate (m/h) 20 40 60 80 100 120

Turbidity (NTU) Raw water Clarified water

Total phosphorus (mg/L) Raw water Clarified water

n/a 7.1 12.5 6.1 8.1 6.3

0.26 0.56 0.72 0.28 0.29 0.29

0.89 1.73 1.00 1.12 0.94 0.98

0.036 0.052 0.034 0.031 0.040 0.042

Table 3. Average results vs. flow rate in the ACTIFLO速 pilot unit (Innisfil, Ontario).

One of the objectives during testing was to achieve less than 0.1 mg/L of total phosphorus using the ACTIDisc process. To achieve this low level of TP, coagulant and polymer were dosed to the high-rate ballasted flocculation process, inline, before the first mixing tank. Coagulant and polymer were also dosed to the cloth filter. Data for turbidity, TP, and OP removal is presented in Table 2. Treatment objectives for final effluent turbidity were to be less than 2 NTU, less than 5 mg/L of TSS, and less than 0.1 mg/L total phosphorus. Tests showed that, at the optimal coagulant dose in the

ACTIFLO and in the discfilter, the final effluent rates were 1.68 NTU turbidity, 3 mg/L TSS, and 0.075 mg/L TP. Pilot scale test - Innisfil, Ontario Fed by wastewater from the town of Innisfil, the ACTIDisc process train was tested at different flow rates. The ACTIDisc process in this pilot study was used as a tertiary treatment (after secondary clarifier). Due to physical space constraints, both the high-rate ballasted flocculation process and the cloth filter were analyzed separately for their performance. The high-rate ballasted flocculation

process pilot unit was tested for flow rates between 15 m続/h and 90 m続/h. Coagulant dosing was added to the raw water, before the coagulation tank and a polymer was added in the injection tank. Table 3 presents the average results on samples collected at the outlet of the high-rate ballasted flocculation clarifier with the associated flow rate. Average clarified effluent TP concentration was 0.039 mg/L. Throughout the pilot testing program, overall TP removal achieved by the highrate ballasted flocculation clarifier alone continued overleaf...

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Introduction of RedHat Next Generation Valves

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Wastewater Treatment Filtered water flow (m3/h)

15 20 25 30

Filtration rate (m/h)

Turbidity (NTU) (average) After filtration 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.95

4.9 6.8 8.1 9.7

Total Phosphorus (mg/L) Raw water 0.18 0.23 0.23 0.23

After filtration 0.015 0.024 0.023 0.017

Table 4. Effluent turbidity and total phosphorus vs. filtered water flow on cloth filter (best results) in Innisfil (Ontario).

was 85%. Clarifier efficiency was not affected significantly by variations in the condition of the raw water. Effluent from the ballasted flocculation process was partly sent to the cloth filter, where coagulant and polymer were added. Table 4 presents the different flow rates applied on the cloth filter and the corresponding average results. Total phosphorus removal was efficient from 15 m³/h to 30 m³/h. During the test, most of the grab samples were measured below the 0.024 mg/L TP objective. Average total phosphorus in the effluent is presented in Table 5. Total phosphorus (mg/L) Raw water After Actiflo® (N=30) 0.29 0.039

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After Discfilter (N=45) 0.024

Table 5. phosphorus in the effluent.

The ballasted flocculation process alone was capable of treating effluent to a turbidity of less than 1 NTU, and a TP removal close to 85%, which correspond to an average effluent concentration of 0.039 mg/L TP. The combination with the cloth filter was able to produce effluent with turbidities in the range of 1.5 - 2.0 NTU. TP removed by the cloth filter approached 40%, which corresponds to an average effluent concentration of 0.0235 mg/L TP. Conclusions Recent research and development efforts have made it possible to extend the phosphorus removal capacity of the high-rate ballasted clarification process by linking it with cloth disc filtration. The ACTIDisc process is aimed at achieving an effluent with a low level of total phosphorus and suspended solids discharge. Both pilot tests have confirmed the efficiency of this combination of technologies, to achieve discharge values as low as 0.023 mg/L in total phosphorus, turbidities of 1.6 NTU, and 5 mg/L in suspended solids.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:51 PM Page 25

Flood Control

Using coffer dams to control flooding on the Red River


n April 2009, Manitoba was expecting the second-worst flooding in 100 years, creating urgent challenges for municipalities located along the Red River. Many rivers in southern Manitoba had risen, due to a rapid snow melt brought on by rain and 18°C temperatures in the prior week. A number of these rivers are tributaries that feed into the Red River, which was already starting to swell. Runoff waters of the tributaries were all expected to join the Red River at roughly the same time, causing a large flood. As people looked for flood control options they could use to battle the rising waters on short notice, the regulator commissioned Layfield to build and ship 25,000 feet of dams to the area, before the floodwaters arrived. Layfield was asked to produce dams that would be able to hold back 24 inches of water. The product chosen for the job was the 3-ft-high by 100-ft-long flood control Aqua Dam, which controls water with water; three feet of liquid held in two tubes within the dam are able to keep two feet of water in check. The tubes prevent the dam from rolling. Lightweight and easy to handle, the dams are well suited for deploying quickly and safely. Weather predictions are never perfect and the floodwaters started arriving faster than initially anticipated, so Lay-

Layfield was asked to produce dams that would be able to hold back 24 inches of water.

field’s Edmonton fabrication plant had to step up its production levels to deliver the product ahead of the original schedule. Every available employee was brought in to help build the dams in record time. What would normally have taken six weeks of full production time was achieved in two weeks. Even employees from the office and field were brought in, effectively doubling the staff at the fabrication plant. The company sent service technicians to Manitoba, ahead of most of the dams, to train the regulator’s staff to install the coffer dams themselves. Half a

It takes an estimated 3,400 sand bags to create a protective barrier equivalent to one Aqua Dam.

dozen dams were erected during the initial training. Aqua Dams can be deployed in one24th the time it takes to install sandbags. Two people can install one of these dams in half an hour, where it would take five people four hours to place the equivalent number of sandbags. And the easy-totransport dams used in Manitoba were delivered to places that were inaccessible by trucks carrying sandbags. When the floodwaters of the Red River arrived, the Aqua Dams performed exactly as expected. The entire process, from the first order of five full truckloads of 250 coffer dams to the last installed dam, had been accomplished in only three weeks. It takes an estimated 3,400 sand bags to create a protective barrier equivalent to one Aqua Dam. At roughly $3 a sandbag, not including transportation, labour, and disposal costs, the savings achieved by using the dams were substantial. And they will keep growing with every flood season, as the Aqua Dam was designed to be reusable. After the flood had passed, the dams were then carefully packaged and stored for the next emergency. For more information, e-mail:

March 2010 | 25

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:51 PM Page 26


Online process analyzer installed at F.J. Horgan WTP to monitor chloramination By Dave Marsh


onstruction was completed on the City of Torontoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s F.J. Horgan Water Treatment Plant in 1979, more than 60 years after chloramine had first been used to disinfect drinking water in an Ottawa plant. By then there was little debate about the benefits of chloramination and it was incorporated into the new plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design as part of the disinfection process. Chloramine is more stable than free residual chlorine and better extends the disinfectant residual throughout the distribution system. It also has been shown to reduce the formation of trihalomethanes and halogenic acetic acids, while reducing taste and odour problems associated with chlorine. It is also relatively inexpensive to produce. However, producing chloramine requires precise control of the process, which has been a challenge that has long delayed its widespread use as a disinfectant. Recently the F.J. Horgan WTP plant installed an online chloramination analyzer to help monitor and optimize its chloramination process. After researching leading analyzers, plant operators selected the ChemScan Model UV-2150/S, manufactured by Applied Spectrometry Associates Inc., which monitors the four key parameters necessary to maintain tight control of the process: monochloramine, free ammonia, total ammonia, and total residual chlorine. The ChemScan allows for the acquisition of two samples from two different sampling points. One sample is taken after the addition of sulphur dioxide for residual chlorine reduction, the other prior to chloramination of the finished water. Knowledge of these four parameters provides the plant operator with the information necessary to determine where the plant is operating on the breakpoint chlorination curve. The unit was officially commissioned at the F.J. Horgan WTP in April 2009, following extensive pilot testing at the plant. Challenges of chloramine production Chloramine is formed by mixing am26 | March 2010

monia with free residual chlorine in a complex process depicted by the breakpoint curve that separates the chloramination process into a series of steps. In the early stages of the process, ammonia added to free residual chlorine produces monochloramine. When the process is optimally controlled, all of the ammonia and available residual chlorine are combined to form monochloramine. However, inefficient process control will result in an imbalance between the amount of ammonia and the amount of residual chlorine, each creating its own set of potential problems.

Plant operators lacking access to fast, reliable chloramination chemistry data will likely first hear about the problem from customers who complain about unpleasant tastes and odours from their tap water. Excess residual chlorine continues to combine with monochloramine, converting it to dichloramine. The remaining residual chlorine then combines with dichloramine to form trichloramine. Plant operators lacking access to fast, reliable chloramination chemistry data will likely first hear about the problem from customers who complain about un-

pleasant tastes and odours from their tap water, which are typically associated with these undesirable chloramine species. While the drinking water is safe for consumption, these characteristics make it aesthetically unpleasant. The other type of chemistry imbalance is excess free ammonia. When allowed to enter the distribution system, it will eventually cause serious problems, such as nitrification, algae growth, dissolved oxygen deficiency, and corrosion, which are difficult to detect. Production of a given concentration of monochloramine, while avoiding the formation of dichloramine and trichloramine, or the accumulation of excess ammonia, requires adding precise amounts of ammonia and chlorine. In order to be successful, operators need timely and current information on key process parameters to make the necessary adjustments. This is what the new chloramination analyzer provides at the F.J. Horgan facility. It enables plant operators to monitor the chloramination process precisely and provide the data necessary for proper adjustment of the ammonia and residual chlorine ratios, before dichloramine forms. Challenges of raw water quality The F.J. Horgan WTP has a nominal rated capacity of 450 million litres of water per day, drawing its raw water from an intake pipe that extends 3 km into Lake Ontario. Prior to installing the new online analyzer, plant operators had been using a residual chlorine analyzer, in conjunction with grab samples, to mon-

The F.J. Horgan WTP has a nominal rated capacity of 450 million litres of water per day, drawing its raw water from an intake pipe that extends 3 km into Lake Ontario. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:51 PM Page 27

Disinfection itor the process. These methodologies do not take into account the seasonal effect of pH, temperature, dissolved organics, and disinfection demand of the raw lake water, which affect the chloramination process. They add more complexity and make it even more critical for plant operators to have access to timely process chemistry information. The varying raw water quality at the F.J. Horgan plant is a challenge shared by many North American surface-water treatment plants that still use grab sampling to control their chloramination processes. This becomes particularly problematic during the season when runoff carries large amounts of animal waste and organic matter into the surface-water source. Treatment plants fed by groundwater can also be affected by inconsistent water quality. Groundwater can be contaminated by fertilizers and other contaminants, creating a high background ammonia concentration in the water. Using an appropriate online analyzer can help adjust to these changing conditions by providing a rapid automatic analysis of the key chloramination con-

trol parameters, including free ammonia, total ammonia, monochloramine and total residual chlorine. Real-time analysis allows the plant operator to adjust the water chemistry promptly. Adjustments can be accomplished automatically using a plant SCADA system. While multiple grab

make adjustments to the water chemistry. To operate at the optimal residual chlorine to ammonia nitrogen ratio, the chloramination process needs to be constantly monitored with the appropriate parameters; a single parameter may not be adequate. For example, the same total chlorine reading can be obtained at different locations on the breakpoint curve. Monitoring multiple parameters, such as free ammonia, total ammonia, monochloramine and total residual chlorine, helps to determine the actual chlorine to nitrogen ratios, the concentration of total chlorine and the amount of total chlorine that is actually in the form of monochloramine. Today, the ChemScan analyzer provides an early warning if too much chlorine is being fed, and plant operators can adjust the process before taste and odour compounds form.

While multiple grab samples throughout the day provide good information for plant operators, an online process chloramination analyzer helps provide timely information to make adjustments to the water chemistry. samples throughout the day provide good information for plant operators, an online process chloramination analyzer helps provide timely information to

Dave Marsh is with Water Works Marketing Services. E-mail:

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March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:51 PM Page 28

Wastewater Treatment

Natural treatment systems for wastewater and stormwater polishing By John Pries


here is a growing need to provide cost-effective methods for upgrading existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). In the current economic climate, wholesale replacement of facilities can be financially onerous, even with infrastructure grants that become available from time to time. Communities will continue to expand, with the resulting need for increased wastewater treatment that could trigger changes to the discharge criteria. Changes could include a reduction in discharge permit limits, requiring a higher level of treatment, or an increase in the range of parameters that may not have been a part of the original permit when the existing system was commissioned. Adding capacity to an existing system can be cost-effective and provide the needed short- or long-term upgrades required to bring a system back into compliance, or to ensure that a system that is nearing its capacity does not go out of compliance. Alternative solutions What do you do with a lagoon or package WWTP system that is still performing within the limits of the original design, but is occasionally, or regularly, exceeding parameters due to overloading, or is nearing its design capacity? There are several options that can be considered:

In 2008, the wetland had 500 visitors and in 2009 this doubled to more than 1,000.

1. Build a new WWTP, utilizing some of the existing lagoon or WWTP for biosolids management. This is the longterm solution presented to towns and municipalities in many cases and is a valid approach, assuming funding is available for both capital and operations/maintenance costs. In addition, operators may require higher-level certifications to operate the WWTP. 2. Add a side-stream treatment system to maintain the capacity of the existing WWTP. A side-stream treatment system, such as a membrane bioreactor (MBR), treats a portion of the flow, which is blended with the effluent from the WWTP, allowing it to remain in compliance. This is a good short-term solution for space-constrained sites, and can also be a good long-term solution for increasing rated capacity, as these units are often modular and additional units can be added as needed. WWTP operator Keith Lee installed a nesting platform for osprey in the wetland. He volunteers his time most weekends during the spring, summer, and fall to allow the public access to the wetland.

28 | March 2010

3. Add a natural treatment system, such as a constructed wetland, to increase the design capacity over the short term. This option allows time for a municipality to set aside tax dollars to fund construction of a conventional WWTP. Capacity afforded by the wetland becomes an integral component of a longterm solution as an adjunct to the capacity provided by the new WWTP. In some cases, the wetland may provide enough capacity as a complete longterm solution. Natural treatment systems require fewer operational personnel, consume less energy, have lower operating and capital costs, and produce fewer residuals than most conventional â&#x20AC;&#x153;concrete and steelâ&#x20AC;? approaches. While natural systems require more land than conventional approaches, they create valuable wildlife habitat and opportunities for passive public recreation. Natural systems are a more sustainable approach, and are distinguished by their reliance on renewable sources of energy: solar radiation, wind, gravity and storage of energy in biological and chemical forms.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment Case history: Brighton, Ontario The Municipality of Brighton is located along the north shore of Lake Ontario and has a lagoon system that was approaching its rated capacity. In 1998, CH2M HILL began discussions with the Municipality while it was already in the process of considering a proposed upgrade of its two-cell lagoon to a conventional activated sludge WWTP system. The cost for the facility was in the $10to $15-million range (1998 dollars). The Municipality had concerns about the proposed approach, including the funding of this large expense by a relatively small community, the impacts of constructing a new outfall pipe and diffuser through an adjacent Class 1 wetland, and the potential negative impact of untreated contaminants on the local fishing industry. During a presentation to the municipal council, CH2M HILL provided background information on the technology and the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history of designing natural treatment systems, to demonstrate the viability of constructing a treatment wetland. The wetland was to provide a shortterm (three- to five-year) remedy for a projected rapid population increase based on 25-year planning predictions by the Municipality. It would also provide long-term capacity that could be incorporated into any WWTP upgrades using conventional technology. Even without providing treatment capacity, substituting the wetland for a required $1- to $2-million outfall pipe provided an immediate cost benefit. In 1999, the Municipality opted to construct a six-hectare treatment wetland on property it already owned, at a cost of about $500,000. This was considerably less than the cost of a conventional treatment system, and about one-third the cost of the outfall pipe alone. The wetland increased the rated capacity of the existing lagoon system from 3,864 m3/d to 4,600 m3/d. Since the construction of the wetland, the Municipality has experienced a lower than anticipated growth rate, and a much lower than anticipated increase in hydraulic and contaminant loading. Installing water meters in all homes helped to reduce water consumption and subsequent discharge to the WWTP.

Since it was brought online in 2000, the wetland system has kept the Municipality in compliance with its Certificate of Approval permit limits. In addition, the wetland has further reduced the loading to Presquâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ile Bay over the past 10 years (five to seven years longer life than originally anticipated and still going strong) by up to about 20 T/year of combined five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and nitrogen. Reviewing the monitoring data shows trends in the concentrations of the contaminants of concern that appear to be seasonal/wildlife-related and operational changes that can affect a wetland system. These include reduced nitrogen removal efficiency during the winter months, continued expected treatment efficiency of the wetland even during a period of almost total removal of standing wetland vegetation by muskrats for hut and feeding mound construction, and no reduced efficiency at low wetland water levels during re-vegetation periods. These and other factors are taken into consideration when designing a wetland system. Ancillary benefits When the initial discussions were underway with the Municipality about the construction of the wetland, there was a short period of skepticism that very quickly gave way to optimism. Discus-

sions with local residents were very positive and the town council was, and continues to be, supportive. The commissioning of the wetland was a gala event, with a catered lunch, speeches, and a wetland tour that brought together politicians, naturalists, local residents, contractors and engineers. Articles were printed in several local newspapers, along with TV coverage. The wetland system has met all of the Municipalityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s expectations and more. The wetland wildlife is receiving attention, not only from many parts of the province but also from farther afield. Visitors from Quebec, England, Russia, the United States and Japan have enjoyed this site. In 2008, the wetland had 500 visitors and in 2009 this doubled to more than 1,000. These numbers are expected to continue to grow in subsequent years as the town implements a permit system to allow unescorted wildlife viewing within the fenced wetland system. The wetland has proven itself to be an essential, reliable, cost-effective component of the Brighton wastewater treatment system. The Municipality is preparing to celebrate the wetland this year on the 10th anniversary of this exciting and sustainable treatment system and wildlife habitat. John Pries is with CH2M HILL. E-mail: March 2010 | 29

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:51 PM Page 30

Site Remediation

Waste site cleaned with one-pass trenching technology


n abandoned sand and gravel quarry in Maryland, with a dubious second use as an industrial waste disposal dumping ground, has been cleaned up with the aid of a technology known as the onepass trenching method. The site had accepted distillation wastes from a local solvent recycler. Due to odours, the dumping prompted citizen complaints that eventually led to an investigation by state officials and the end of disposal activities in 1974. Early studies showed that the shallow groundwater was heavily contaminated with a variety of organic chemicals. Contaminants included benzene, chlorobenzene, trichloroethane, and vinyl chloride, as well as metals. Contaminants had migrated into the underlying aquifer, which is the source of water for local residents. Site clean-up ultimately fell to the federal government, under the auspices of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the quarry was eventually placed on the National Priority List. Over the intervening decades since the disposal was halted, a federally-funded clean-up has continued, based on three separate “Records of Decision”, each of which delineated the steps and process to be taken. Early on, monitor wells were drilled to assess the movement of shallow groundwater. Contaminated water in the aquifer beneath the quarry began to be pumped out and treated on-site. The third and final ROD included the construction of an on-site thermal treatment

At the Maryland site, DeWind installed a series of five trenches totaling 1,040 linear feet, cut to a depth of 35’.

groundwater collection systems were developed. It was the installation of the final groundwater collection system that brought one-pass trenching into the picture. How one-pass trenching works As well as being hazardous to those living near them, contaminated sites pose a particular and immediate threat to those who work on them. Constructing a series of in-ground collection trenches would typically require the displacement of a large portion of contaminated soil. Contact with contaminated groundwater would also pose a threat. Engineers charged with the system design at the Maryland quarry were

As well as being hazardous to those living near them, contaminated sites pose a particular and immediate threat to those who work on them. plant to deal with the tons of contaminated soil through the process of lowtemperature thermal desorption. Safe substances such as oxygen and molasses were added to both the soil and groundwater to facilitate the breakdown of hazardous substances by soil microbes. Plans for installing additional 30 | March 2010

aware of a way to escape much of this: one-pass trenching, developed by DeWind of Holland, Michigan. The method completely avoids creating a large, open excavation, and very little, if any, displacement of soil occurs. The trencher makes a laser–guided surgical cut into the ground and back-

fills with selected media, all in one pass. A worker can actually walk on top of the trench immediately after it is installed in the ground. Really “hot” sites become much more manageable as it is almost impossible to have a level B condition (requiring full body suit and face mask with positive air pressure) occur. At the Maryland site, DeWind installed a series of five trenches totaling 1,040 linear feet, cut to a depth of 35’, with HDPE SDR 11 pipe placed at the bottom. Each pipe was connected to a sump station. All trenches were backfilled with washed pea-stone. The individual sump stations did not have to be constructed separately, but were pre-designed and manufactured by DeWind. They were placed into position by the trencher, fully attached to the connective piping as it was placed into position, again all a part of the same one-pass movement. Currently, one-pass trenching has the capacity to install a number of different types of in-ground collection, control and containment systems, including bio, slurry, and ZVI walls. For more information, e-mail:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Operations & Maintenance

New bioremediation product treats WWTP grease on site



Blixitt was used in the grease trap of the restaurant at the legendary Raffles Hotel, where the Singapore Sling was created in 1915.


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Brampton, Ontario, company has patented a new product, called Blixitt. These tablets are white, slightly thicker than a hockey puck, and give off a time-released combination of aerobic

A Sahara® inspection program for large diameter water distribution mains offers a bigger financial and environmental return on investment (ROI). PPIC inspections have identified an average of 1.4 leaks per mile of large diameter pipelines in North America alone. Sahara® is the most trusted leak detection system in the world. By uncovering small leaks today, pipeline operators can minimize large leaks and ruptures in the future. For more information visit or call 1-866-990-2466. Your Pipeline. Your Reputation.™

32 | March 2010

bacteria, oxygen, nutrients, and buffers. They create oxygen bubbles, which are ten times smaller than with a machine aerator, and they penetrate through grease layers and solids, as well as increasing the total oxygen surface area. Staff at a wastewater treatment facility in East Providence, Rhode Island, found Blixitt tablets to be a cost-effective solution to their maintenance of a grease collection pit. Grease skimmed off the plant’s primary tank is collected into a 7,000 gallon grease pit. Prior to using Blixitt tablets, the pit had to be pumped out ap-

plant’s assistant superintendent wanted to see if they could help reduce maintenance of the grease pit at the East Providence plant. So, twice a week, six tablets were put into the pit and the contents were mixed with a portable compressor for 60 minutes to ensure proper blending. The next day, all free liquid in the pit was decanted and returned to the plant’s primary tank. After seeing positive results in the reduction of grease solids and odors, the plant’s operators continued to use this process. During a 16 month time-frame, the grease pit was only pumped out

Prior to using Blixitt tablets, the pit had to be pumped out approximately four times per year, to keep it effective. A septage hauler would pump out the tank and transport the grease to another treatment facility. proximately four times per year, to keep it effective. A septage hauler would pump out the tank and transport the grease to another treatment facility. The annual cost for this work was about $17,000.00. Another problem with the pit was that the large amount of grease degrading in it created noxious odors that led to complaints from nearby property owners. After seeing how Blixitt tablets reduced hydrogen sulfide levels in a Barrington, Rhode Island, force main, the

once. However, this was not done because of grease build-up, but to remove plastic materials that were normally collected upstream. By using Blixitt tablets to eliminate grease pumping, the East Providence wastewater treatment facility staff have cut their grease pit maintenance costs in half. For more information, e-mail:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:52 PM Page 34

Residential Wastewater Treatment

Modern living necessitates double-filtering residential sewage By E. Craig Jowett


n the 1950s, Ontario riverfronts were often smelly addresses for residential living, as sewers directed raw sewage into rivers and lakes. As kids we swam in and rafted on the Speed and Bighead, for instance, alongside still recognizable pieces of sewage. (Natural immunity to H1N1 may have been an unanticipated benefit!) The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) cleaned up the rivers almost overnight in the 1960s by installing sewer systems and treatment plants. These are professionally operated and consistently remove organics, solids, ammonium, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and pathogenic microbes, before dispersal of treated effluent into now healthy rivers. Natural soils ‘managing’ sewage But what about septic systems used for residential sewage? In the 1950s, they consisted of a septic tank and a tile bed in natural soils; these were larger for clay soil and smaller for loamy soil, with no maintenance contracts. There was modest use of water, chemical cleaners and disinfectants, etc., and septic systems were deemed acceptable if the sewage did not rise out of the ground to create a health risk. Today, the same sized septic tank and a tile bed, with no maintenance contracts required, are still the norm, but water usage has increased as has the use of chemical cleaners and disinfectants. Deterioration in septic tank health is very noticeable with excessive use of household chemicals. Without healthy microbes, sewage treatment will not occur. There is no sign of improvement for septic systems, and, perhaps, not even any recognition of poor habits. Natural soils and groundwater are still relied upon to degrade sewage and disperse and dilute the products of decay; surface break-out is the only trigger to take care of unsafe operation. Disposal, not treatment, is still the objective of soil-based septic systems. In 2001, a study was made of treatment performance in a code-required 900-mm-deep soil vadose (unsaturated) zone. After five months of biological 34 | March 2010

maturing, effluent concentration over the next five months averaged ~30 mg/L BOD and ~20 mg/L TSS, with 96-99% removal of fecal coliform. This effluent quality, entering groundwater at a depth of 900 mm, is poorer than that following the double filtration technologies described below. NSF Standard 40 testing for secondary quality effluent (<25 mg/L BOD, <30 mg/L TSS) ends six months after startup. The 900-mm-thick profiles tested in 2001 would not pass an NSF40 test for secondary treatment units even with the underdrain, controlled laboratory conditions, and after the fivemonth startup period. When a treatment unit cannot pass a test protocol, then it should not be called a treatment unit. The Ontario MOE requires campgrounds, golf courses, truck stops, churches, etc., to treat their sewage before it enters the natural soil. Organics and solids are to be removed before subsurface disposal, and treatment objectives for phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, and pathogens are becoming more prevalent before subsurface disposal. The same can be carried out for residences. Is septic biomat needed in the soil? Potent effluent from septic tanks (Figure 1) promotes a biological mass or “biomat”, a black gelatinous slime and organic layer clogging soil porosity in the upper 150 mm or so. Accumulated organic matter plugs soil pores, decreases permeability, maintains anaerobic or septic conditions, ponds the sewage in the trenches, and increases the risk of unhealthy surface break-out. Even in a coarse-grained sand filter, ponding of ~200 mm occurs within a few months of startup, peaking during winter, and increasing to ~250 mm in the second year. Septic vs. aerobic effluent Commonly heard speculation is that potent wastewater and septic biomat in soils are prerequisites, and that treatment of the sewage before it enters the soil may even be a health risk. In regard to residential sewage systems, an Ontario

Figure 1. Septic tank effluent is potent wastewater that can legally be placed directly into natural soil without treatment and without maintenance contracts.

Figure 2. Clear sand is a standard medium used for filtration of sewage. Microbial biofilm coats the sand grains as wastewater moves down through the narrow interstices between grains. Only treated effluent enters the natural environment.

Figure 3. Beneficial microbes colonize interior surfaces of Waterloo Biofilter absorbent medium, and grow out into large open pores, allowing 10 times the loading rate of sand without plugging, with the same high-quality effluent.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Residential Wastewater Treatment

Figure 4. Multiple-barrier Waterloo â&#x20AC;&#x153;flat bedâ&#x20AC;? and shallow area bed system protecting sensitive lakefront property â&#x20AC;&#x2022; as simple and aesthetic as a filter bed, but with an underdrain to promote free-draining aerobic conditions and a maintenance contract for sustainability.

Clear â&#x20AC;&#x153;sand-filter-qualityâ&#x20AC;? effluent of absorbent filters can be verified and dispersed into the natural soil environment with minimal contamination and less health risk even on difficult sites.

regulatory body has said: â&#x20AC;&#x153;The potential for contamination is increased when highly treated effluent is used and there is no clogging layer formed on the soil surface. The clogging layer, which is formed when septic tank effluent passes through the soil, significantly reduces the coliform bacteria count before it reaches the groundwater. Pre-treated effluent is less likely to form a clogging layer, in which case the effluent will reach the groundwater more quickly with less treatment in the soil.â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;The detrimental effect of non-uniform distribution is further amplified when ..... highly treated effluent is applied.â&#x20AC;? Some scientists echo this. In a 2001 article in Water Research, S. Van Cuyk and others stated; â&#x20AC;&#x153;If clogging zone development is retarded or absent altogether, for example due to the application of highly pretreated effluent (e.g., sand

filter effluent), purification of pathogens and other constituents of concern may be less than predicted and desired.â&#x20AC;? The logic of this argument would lead us to believe that rainwater infiltrating the soil is very risky because it is too clean to develop a septic biomat. Of course, this stance is as insupportable as saying, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Brantford should not treat its sewage â&#x20AC;&#x201D; only the Grand River can do it safely.â&#x20AC;? Biological film does, of course, develop in a sand filter, as in all biological

filters, and microbes have already done the job of the soil-based biomat, but independent of the natural environment. Oxygen supply is needed Ignored is the fact that high-quality effluent carries its own oxygen supply (4-8 mg/L D.O.) into the soil and, with <5% of the organic content of septic effluent, it is far less reliant on the vagaries of natural soils for treatment, especially on soil air influx to promote the aerobic treatment objective. continued overleaf...

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Residential Wastewater Treatment Oxygen delivery down through soil pores to treat sewage, and its effect on biomat and sewage ponding, were discussed by J. Erickson and E.J. Tyler in the 2000 NOWRA Conference Proceedings: “Clogging mats [biomat] develop when organic matter loading is higher than the oxygen supply for aerobic bacteria. If the oxygen supply meets the demand of the soil organisms, then the organic clogging mat will not form. In the absence of a mat, the soil could accept wastewater at rates of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the current design loading rates.” Biomat and ponding are an effect of organic overloading of the soil interface at times when insufficient oxygen enters the soil-water interface to promote aerobic decomposition. Septic biomat appears not to be a desirable or necessary development. It may instead indicate overloading from insufficient trench length and poor soil air infiltration. On filtration treatment units, such as sand, peat or absorbent foam, excessive sewage ponding on the filtration surface is viewed as hydraulic failure and requires recovery; the same standard ap-

36 | March 2010

plies to soil filters. Because it is an introduced accumulation of excess sewage by-products in the soil profile, septic biomat may in fact be termed a “soil contaminant”. Erickson & Tyler also stated, “...... the soil component of the wastewater infiltration system should be large, shallow, narrow, and have separated infiltration areas to maximize oxygen supply.” In order to promote aerobic treatment in soils (which clogs the soil far less), it is better to have longer and narrower trenches, wider spacing between trenches, and higher-quality effluent with low organic loading. In Ontario residences, sewage may be placed directly in trenches, 900 mm wide and 900 mm deep, and in tight soils, counter to oxygen delivery requisites. Even if treatment does occur, it is not verifiable, and soil-based systems can be termed only ‘disposal’, ‘absorption’ or ‘dispersal’, not ‘treatment’. Sand filtration: integrated disposal system The MOE carried out world-class research in the 1970s on tank sludge accumulation rates, sand filtration (Figure 2), contaminant attenuation in groundwater plumes, etc. It formed the basis of Ontario’s prescriptive subsurface regulations in 1982 and of OBC Part 8 in use today. It has been demonstrated that sewage can be treated outside the natural environment to very high “sand-filter quality” (<10 mg/L BOD and <10 mg/L TSS) in the Canadian climate, with only clear effluent entering the earth for “polishing.” Fecal coliform attenuation is excellent with a smaller sand grain size, but the coarse fractions can emit >200,000 cfu/100mL. Biological filtration is the mainstay of small sewage treatment systems in Canada, because of low-energy input, ease of use, and ability to treat cold sewage. Biological film-forming microbes populate the surfaces of the filtration medium and consume contaminants that pass by. Septic and aerobic biofilm stays within the filtration unit and outside the natural environment. The MOE sand filter (OBC Filter Bed) began the trend of recognizing poor habits of soil disposal, and of minimizing soil and groundwater contamination.

Under present practices, the filter bed is installed without the underdrain (as it was originally tested), and, therefore, its performance cannot be predicted or verified. It is a single, integrated system, with sand and soil disposal combined. Clay soil below the sand filter is wetted and “smothered” by the sewage and sand cover, and its permeable topsoil structure is destroyed. A sand “mantle” is placed to the side for lateral dispersal into the shallow topsoil, but integrated into the filtration unit with no chance of verification. It would be an improvement to underdrain the filter bed to verify treatment as tested, use the finer sand sizes and lower 50 L/m2/d loading rate to improve pathogen removal, collect the effluent to verify treatment, polish the effluent in a separate finer sand bed to provide further removal of viruses and residual E. coli, and have maintenance contracts. These additions would bring filter beds up to the standard of the multiple-barrier, detached treatment-disposal systems discussed below. Absorbent filtration: detached treatment disposal system The industry has developed technologies that separate the aerobic filtration treatment and infiltration polishing functions from each other, primarily for verification and maintenance purposes. The biological treatment filter is kept unsaturated, with an underdrain for verification, followed by subsurface disposal in a thin bed of crushed stone and 250 mm of fine grained sand, high in the soil horizon to simulate the role of the “mantle” adjacent to a conventional raised sand filter. In vertical flow conditions, the fine sand layer slows down the flow of treated effluent, disperses it over a wide area and removes all detectable residual fecal coliform, even at an extreme loading of 212 L/m2/day. This fine sand polishing layer is suitable for installation on fractured bedrock, coarse soil, or near the water table. In lateral flow conditions (clay soils), the fine sand removes fecal matter concentrations to swimming water quality levels within 5 m distance, and to nondetectable levels in 10 m, ensuring that surface stormwater ditches or rivers are protected by subsurface sand polishing

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Residential Wastewater Treatment after absorbent filtration treatment. Absorbent filtration units, using engineered peat or synthetic open-cell foam, have been in continuous operation for about 17 years in Canada and the United States. The media are consistent in their physical properties for a more predictable performance, especially compared to soil. As in sand filters, sewage is treated outside the natural environment and septic biomat contamination is restricted to the filtration medium. Unlike integrated sand filters, detached filters can be inspected for ponding malfunction, treatment can be verified in the underdrain, and the system can be recovered after ponding before the entire system needs replacing. In the case of Waterloo Biofilter® open-cell foam medium (Figure 3), the physical properties are the reverse of sand, with large open pores instead of sand grains, and large water pathways instead of narrow interstices. Wastewater is absorbed into a sequence of foam pieces or slabs between capillary gaps in which the microbial colonies are

protected from desiccation and freezing. ‘Multiple-barrier’ protection of soils and groundwater Natural soil should not be used as a sewage dump, just as we have stopped using oceans for garbage. Ontario filter beds can be made verifiable by installing underdrains, which would keep the sand free-draining and aerobic. High-quality effluent from filter beds, peat or foam filters can then be placed in a “shallow area bed” for low-risk disposal. The shallow area bed technology, used in Ontario since 1994, affords a two-stage filtration treatment train (Figure 4). The “roughing filter” of sand, peat or foam removes ~95% of the organics and >99% of E. coli. The second “polishing filter” is the fine sand layer in the shallow area bed, that removes the remaining E. coli for a total of 99.9993% removal before entering the natural environment. The soil and the groundwater are both protected, and health risks are minimized. The double safeguard of filtration treatment followed by filtration disposal is similar to the preferred “multiple-bar-

rier” approach to drinking water safety outlined in the Report of the Walkerton Inquiry: “The multi-barrier approach or defence in depth … has been an approach which has long been used by the water industry … to provide safe and secure supplies of drinking water … we don’t rely only on one barrier in the system, we rely on a series of barriers.” The single biomat barrier in soilbased septic systems does not provide the safety of the multiple-barrier approach. Conclusion Following the trend of improving management of our larger wastewater flows and other waste types, the use of natural soils to dispose of untreated residential sewage is no longer tenable from a technological, health and safety, or environmental viewpoint. Filtration treatment of residential sewage, before disposal, is required for sustainability of our soil and groundwater resources. E. Craig Jowett, Ph.D., P.Eng., is with Waterloo-Biofilter Systems Inc. E-mail:

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Wastewater Treatment

BC sewage treatment plant upgrade is both environmentally and financially sustainable By Chris Town


ince 2001, Urban Systems Ltd. has worked with the City of Kamloops, British Columbia, to develop an alternative design for a sewage treatment plant upgrade that is environmentally sound, economically feasible, and contains many added environmental/sustainability benefits. The City of Kamloops, the client/ owner, utilizes a series of lagoons, with alum added to reduce phosphorus levels, to treat sewage delivered to the site. The City discharges 80% of its treated effluent into the Thompson River; 20% is reused for agricultural irrigation and a golf course. When it came time for the City to expand its treatment facilities, it had to register under the provincial Municipal Sewage Regulation (MSR). The most significant aspect of this regulation for Kamloops was the requirement to achieve an effluent total phosphorus concentration of less than 0.25 mg/L, rather than the more typical value of 1.0 mg/L. Urban Systems determined that, if a plant were constructed to meet the lower criteria, the capital and operating costs would be significantly higher than for a plant built to meet 1.0 mg/L. Challenging the provincial regulation The 0.25 mg/L requirement was in-

38 | March 2010

troduced into the MSR because best available technology could achieve this concentration, and not because specific environmental impact studies had been undertaken to demonstrate that this value had to be met to protect the ecological balance of the Thompson River. Given the large size of the Thompson River relative to the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s discharge, it seemed reasonable to assume that it could assimilate the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s effluent at 1.0 mg/L total phosphorus with no negative impacts. The only legal means to challenge this regulation with the Ministry of Environment was to complete a Liquid Waste Management Plan (LWMP). The City of Kamloops agreed to challenge the regulation for the discharge of its effluent. The LWMP involved an extensive public consultation process and the formation of a Public Advisory Committee, including the Kamloops Indian Band and the chairman of the local chapter of the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of British Columbia (APEGBC). Nine meetings of the committee were held over a threeyear period. There were five public open houses, city-wide distribution of a newsletter, distribution and compilation of 560 questionnaires, and five presentations to community groups, including

the local chapter of APEGBC. In addition, there were nine meetings with a Technical Advisory Committee that included the BC Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, Community Services and Health, as well as Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Agriculture Land Commission, Weyerhaeuser Canada, and the Thompson-Nicola Regional District. The key environmental/sustainability component of the LWMP was the completion of an Environmental Impact Study (EIS). The terms of reference for the EIS included: 1. A detailed literature search of previous scientific work done on the Thompson River system. 2. A two-day workshop in which an expert panel, consisting of eight engineers and scientists with expertise in aquatic biology, river hydraulics, limnology, and nutrient impacts in river/lake systems, considered and debated the potential consequences of allowing a maximum effluent criteria for total phosphorus of 1.5 mg/L, whether nitrogen needed to be reduced, and the scope of an in situ monitoring program along the Thompson River/Kamloops Lake. 3. A Phase 1 Risk Assessment for phosphorus mass balance in the river, based on its projected phosphorus loadings, and on background and cultural inputs. 4. A Phase 2 Risk Assessment for biological response to the projected phosphorus loadings. The conclusions of the Environmental Impact Study were: a) That a maximum effluent total phosphorus concentration of 1.5 mg/L would not have a measurable effect on the river and that going to a full biological nutrient removal plant would not measurably decrease the phosphorus concentration compared to current river concentrations. b) That a year-round maximum effluent total phosphorus of 1.5 mg/L would have little or no effect on the benthic algal and invertebrate communities and

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

Total phosphorus concentration (μg\L)in the Thompson River at Savona.

fish populations of the Thompson River. c) To recommend a six-year river monitoring program (three years at current phosphorus loading and three years at proposed loadings) to confirm the impact on the River. d) To recommend using a biological phosphorus reduction treatment process, to create a reusable product from the biosolids. The LWMP process and the EIS were successful in convincing the Ministry of Environment to accept 1.5 mg/L for an effluent total phosphorus concentration, instead of the 0.25 mg/L stipulated in the Regulation. This effluent criterion saved the City an estimated $42.5 million, based on a 20-year present-worth

analysis as presented in the Stage 2 LWMP Report. As a side note, the river monitoring program recognized the potential of elevated phosphorus concentrations from the City’s effluent to increase algal growth in areas with fish fry. Conceivably, if an excess amount of algae were to die and create a depressed dissolved oxygen environment, fish growth would be hindered. In situ measurements of attached biomass and intra-gravel dissolved oxygen have been taken at 11 sites upstream and downstream of the effluent outfall. This program was devised to collect data that could be analyzed to test the hypothesis that the City’s effluent (in

particular phosphorus) would not negatively impact the ecology of the Thompson River. It has been underway for 4.5 years, and to date the data has demonstrated the effectiveness of 1.5 mg/L maximum total phosphorus effluent concentration to maintain the integrity of the River. Environmental conclusions With respect to the environment and sustainability, the two significant conclusions of the LWMP were to provide a partial biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant and biosolids composting process for the residuals. Urban Systems assisted the City in developing, operating and analyzing the results of a composting program using the alum-based biosolids. The composting program included growth trials which demonstrated that alum sludge could be a great benefit to plant growth. As time passed after the completion of the LWMP, construction costs began to soar and the City showed a preference to incorporate membranes into the treatment process. Construction cost estimates to build the partial BNR plant rose by over $25 million. In response, Urban Systems identified an alternative environmental engineering solution to meet all of the effluent criteria set by the LWMP. The alternative option is an innovative combination of existing lagoons and new clarifiers to create a nitrifying, denitrifying activated sludge process, with both biological and chemical phoscontinued overleaf...

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March2010_ES&E:2010 3/30/10 3:48 PM Page 41

Wastewater Treatment phorus reduction mechanisms, to treat 54,500 mÂł/d. The construction cost of a partial BNR plant with membranes at the same hydraulic capacity as the alternative option was estimated at $73 million in 2009. The estimate to construct the alternative option in 2009 was $40 million. These savings will contribute to the economic sustainability of the City, keeping rate increases to a minimum. In addition, a second, smaller parallel treatment plant using existing lagoons will be created for effluent destined for irrigation. This smaller plant will not have the nitrogen and phosphorus reduced because they are nutrients that will benefit the vegetation. This concept of utilizing a parallel plant was subjected to an engineering economic evaluation which demonstrated its value in comparison to simply increasing the size of the main plant. Other environmental/sustainable aspects of the proposed process are to: 1. Retain one anaerobic lagoon upstream of both plants. This reduces biochemical oxygen demand, phosphorus and total suspended solids, with no input of mechanical energy. Urban engineering economics were used to complete a cost-benefit analysis of retaining the anaerobic lagoon. The analysis concluded it would make economic sense to retain it, primarily because of the energy and chemical savings resulting from the treatment occurring in this lagoon. 2. Cover the anaerobic lagoon, collect the gases and eliminate the odorous ones, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and investigate the economics of converting methane to reusable heat or energy. 3. Convert to ultraviolet light disinfection from gaseous chlorination. This satisfies the terms of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act to ensure toxic chlorine residuals are eliminated from effluents. It will also minimize the release of pathogenic organisms to protect public heath. 4. Extend the outfall further into the thalweg of the river to eliminate the potential development of acute and chronic toxicities due to ammonia. This will satisfy the new Canada-wide Strategy for the Management of Municipal Wastewater completed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. The project is due to be built by

2013. The provincial and federal governments have reviewed the project in depth and offered $14.2 million in grants. This alternative option maximizes the use of existing infrastructure, and frees up a considerable area of land that could be used for other purposes, such as composting. The approach of using principles of engineering to challenge the terms of the Municipal Sewage Regulation is applicable to other communities. For exam-

ple, the City of Merritt, BC, went through a similar liquid waste management process to render its effluent criteria more environmentally relevant and economically sustainable. Chris Town, P.Eng., M.A.Sc., is with Urban Systems Ltd. E-mail:

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Water Reuse

Figure 2. Two Orival Model ORG-060LS filters.

and instrumentation within the plant. To prevent shut-down conditions, cooling water was once more switched back to municipal supplies. The filter manufacturer supplied 50-micron screens to attempt the removal of the finer particles. Eventually the oil leak was fixed and

the emulsified oil in the retention ponds dissipated. The system went back onto filtered reuse water with no further mishaps. Payback for the filtration system was a mere 33 days. By reusing water, an automatic selfcleaning screen filtration system makes it possible to maintain precise product temperature control and keep heat exchangers and vacuum pumps free-flowing and instrumentation reliable, all without depending on potable water supplies. Even in resource-rich North America, water is becoming a precious commodity. Proactive companies like Philips Lighting are looking for ways to minimize potable water usage by reusing water to the maximum extent possible. By reusing 1.6 million gallons of water each day, the Danville plant is making potable water available for 4,000 additional households in this Kentucky community. Marcus N. Allhands and Tom Broderick are with Orival Inc. E-mail:

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1,100-gpm average flow rate. Water could now be recycled numerous times through the plant (Figure 2). Though the pump house seemed large, open space had to be maintained to allow forklifts to enter and pull out the two existing vertical turbine pumps for periodic maintenance, so media tanks would take up too much room. Each filter is equipped with over 466 sq in. of effective screen area. To initiate a cleaning cycle, the filtration system controller uses either a signal from a pressure differential switch reaching a threshold across the inlet and outlet piping, or the termination of an internal timer. The automation and reliability provided by this technology has made life easier for the maintenance department. The entire cleaning cycle takes about 30 seconds. Each filter has a 1½-in. rinse valve designed to conserve water by minimizing the volume used during each cleaning cycle. The control timer is set to initiate a cleaning cycle every three hours. The time function initiates most cleaning cycles, since the differential pressure threshold of 7 psi is seldom reached in three hours. The initial filtration degree of the installed screens was 200 microns, or about twice the diameter of a typical human hair. Two subsequent problems occurred following the filtration system installation. First, a chronic oil leak from a specialized piece of equipment in the glass-making process began flowing into the floor drains leading into the retention ponds. This equipment was installed in such a way that the leak could not be accessed until a scheduled shutdown occurred. The furnaces must be kept full of molten glass at all times as withdraws are compensated for by new raw materials. An unscheduled shutdown would have resulted in tons of solidified glass throughout the furnaces, flumes and machines. The leaked oil was emulsified in the retention ponds so no free oil could be skimmed from the system. The second problem occurred when the emulsified oil mixed with a fine powdery colloidal material used occasionally in the glass-making process. The oil and colloids passed through the screens and began gumming up pipes

March 2010 | 43

March2010_ES&E:2010 3/30/10 3:49 PM Page 44

A Home For Your Business… That Feels Like Home. The Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville is one of the jewels of the GTA. Located just north of Toronto on highway 404, Whitchurch-Stouffville offers easy access to clients in the GTA and to new business in the fastest-growing economy in Canada – York Region. The Town also has something truly rare: low taxes and available business properties. And as you grow your business you and your employees can grow your families in a community that offers small-town warmth and all the amenities and services you want. If you have always dreamt of living close to your business and having your business close to the action, Whitchurch-Stouffville is worth a look.

For more information contact:

Rebecca Mustard, Economic Development Offi cer, Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville

1-866-640-4111 or visit


March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:54 PM Page 45

Cover Story

The case for solar power at water and wastewater treatment plants By Michael Albanese


ater and wastewater treatment plants, as they are municipally owned, are excellent candidates for becoming alternative energy production facilities. The typical asset base of a municipality includes: parks, the town or city hall, work yards, stadiums and arenas, community centres, libraries, police and fire stations, water treatment plants (WTPs) and water reservoirs, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and pumping and booster stations. Among all these facilities, WTPs and WWTPs, and possibly pumping stations and reservoirs, are best suited for providing solar and wind power plants. This is because they: • Are fenced-in to deter vandalism or theft; • Are monitored by skilled utility operators, who can determine and troubleshoot potential problems and perform required maintenance; • Are large users of electricity, and alternative energy is best produced

where consumed, to avoid transmission losses and inefficiencies; and • Usually have available space, covered tankage and buildings that can be used for mounting panels. According to a 2008 paper presented at WEFTEC by CDM, a large US engineering consulting firm, WTPs and WWTPs are the single largest consumers of electricity within municipalities, accounting for over 60% of energy use. However, solar and wind installations require a fairly large capital investment and the return on investment can take many years. Recently, the Ontario government put forward a formidable plan to put alternative energy and the province at the forefront of the green power industry worldwide. Municipalities in Ontario are able to take advantage of the Feed-in Tariff (FIT) program offered by the Ontario Power Authority (OPA). This is perhaps the most generous program in North America for green energy, where munic-

For any PV project, the Ontario Power Authority will guarantee the above rates in a 20-year contract.

ipalities (and private businesses) can earn money for the energy produced. Although the program covers solar, wind, biogas, and water projects, the most attractive incentives are for solar photovoltaic (PV) projects. The projected tariffs for solar PV projects are: • Small commercial and industrial (projects 10-250kW in size) $0.71/kWh • Medium commercial and industrial (projects 250-500kW in size) $0.64/kWh • Large commercial and industrial (projects greater than 500kW) $0.54/kWh • Ground mount (projects greater than 10MW) $0.44/kWh For any PV project, the OPA will guarantee the above rates in a 20-year contract. Under the program, participants are paid a fixed price for the electricity they generate, regardless of whether they use any, some or all of it. With the FIT program, the return on any such capital project investment is suddenly far better and faster. Homeowners can also qualify for a similar program called the MicroFIT, which pays even higher rates. Is solar justified with Ontario’s climate? Perhaps surprisingly, southern Ontario has an annualized average of 4.3 hours of sunlight per day, only one hour per day less than sunny Florida, for instance. Why is the Ontario government paying these incentives? The program was conceived under the former energy minister, George Smitherman, in the belief that paying an incentive for solar and alternative energy to build up the province’s electrical generating capacity would be less costly and faster than adding more nuclear power plants. Considering that an average nuclear plant would cost between $8 and $15 billion and take over 10 years to build, that is probably a valid point. In addition, at some point after the alternative energy continued overleaf... March 2010 | 45

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:54 PM Page 46

Cover Story system is paid for, it provides free energy, and it is good for the environment, reducing our reliance on fossil fuels. New green jobs to be created There are 2,500 MW of renewable energy earmarked for the first round of the FIT program. As of Dec. 1, 2009, the OPA had received 1,022 FIT applications. The first FIT projects will generate more than $5 billion in investments in manufacturing, design, construction, and engineering, according to OPA estimates, and lead to the creation of thousands of new jobs. Minimum domestic content requirements for both FIT and MicroFIT projects are intended to help support the creation of 50,000 new green jobs in Ontario. FIT projects will help create new local businesses and green jobs as demand rises for technology, such as solar panels, wind turbines, biomass, and electricity storage systems, and for Ontario companies that can design, build, install, operate and maintain these technologies. At present, there is only one company manufacturing solar panels in Ontario, Sentinel Power Systems

in Concord, although others are moving to do the same. Crunching the numbers As an example, one local municipal WTP or WWTP may have 20,000 sq ft of available space. Let’s assume this space is on existing building rooftops and on covered tanks. The rule of thumb is about 50 kWh of PV generation per 10,000 sq ft of available area, so this municipality would be able to provide 100 kWh, which requires about 550 panels. This system would cost approximately $750,000 installed and would fall in the Small FIT category, which pays $0.71/Kwh. Even de-rating the 4.3 hours per day to 3.4 hours per day to account for inefficiencies, the municipality could receive $242 per day from the OPA. The system would pay for itself in 8.5 years (straight cash basis) and, after that, the municipality would receive 11.5 years of pure profit, which in this case would amount to $1 million. Not a bad return on investment at all. Moreover, municipalities can usually qualify for some provincial and federal

funding for capital costs, so the upfront costs are actually less. For municipalities that cannot front the money, many forms of private financing are available, and, in some cases, they can just receive rent for the available space. Currently, approximately 1,275 MW of renewable electricity are being generated in Ontario, excluding large-scale hydro. Since 2003, the province has gone from lagging behind on renewable energy to being a North American leader. Home to Canada’s largest wind and solar farms, Ontario is Canada’s leader in wind power and solar photovoltaic capacity, and among the top 10 solar jurisdictions in North America, ranked even higher than sunny places like Florida and Texas. Municipalities can now consider this as an investment that is guaranteed for 20 years and one that will actually make money for them in the long run. Michael Albanese is with H2Flow Equipment Inc. E-mail:

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:54 PM Page 47

Water Treatment

The benefits of using liquid polymers By Greg Kriebel


major concern at water and wastewater treatment facilities is identifying the most effective and efficient way to deal with solid particles and materials found in the liquid stream. These unwanted contaminants can have an adverse effect on the plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operation, if they are not contained properly. The best way to eliminate these solid particles is to have them clumped together into a sludge that can be swept out of the water-treatment stream. The most effective means of achieving this sludge-creating process is through the use of polyelectrolytes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; polymers that consist of long-chain organic molecules. These polymers can attract and absorb suspended solid particles, making them easier to remove from the water that is being treated. Activated polymer molecules can perform this crucial task, because they have a myriad of charged sites that attract suspended solids of opposite charge. continued overleaf...

A dynaBLEND installation.

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:54 PM Page 48

Water Treatment Although their higher molecular weight makes them very effective for this process, polymers can be extremely difficult to mix and feed into the treatment process. While other typical water/wastewater chemicals, such as alum, ferric chloride, and sodium hypochlorite, can be easily diluted or applied directly to the treatment process from a storage container, polymers must be “activated” to be effective, i.e., hydrated and extended prior to their dilution and introduction into the process stream. Polymers are commonly used to remove colloidal suspensions from surface waters and to condition municipal wastewater sludges to enhance the dewatering process. While lower-cost metallic salts, like alum or ferric chloride, can be used to initiate the coagulation process, high-molecular-weight polymers, or flocculant aids, are fed into the process to form larger neutralized particles, called flocs, that settle faster. Potential negative side effects of using metallic salts for coagulation include the chance that they can contribute to high levels of residual metal content in the treated water, and, in some cases, an excessive amount of sludge, which

Cutaway view of a dynaBLEND blending unit.

will increase treatment costs. A more cost-effective approach to coagulation and flocculation would be to use smaller doses of metallic salts for charge neutralization and to add polymer for bridging, to create a large, settleable floc. The challenge of using polymers When polymer makes initial contact with water, the outer surfaces of the polymer particles become very sticky. If the

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particles are not properly dispersed prior to and during the initial wetting phase, agglomerations, or “fish-eyes,” will be formed. Agglomerations make it more difficult for water to penetrate and hydrate and activate the bound-up polymer. Pumping neat (concentrated) polymer into a tank of water and using a high-speed mixer may properly disperse the polymer and prevent clumping, or the formation of agglomerations. Once activated, however, polymers are extremely fragile. In their concentrated form, they are like coiled springs, but when the molecules are uncoiled and extended, the polymer molecules become very fragile and are susceptible to fracture by any high-shear device. Highspeed mixers, that are used to keep the sticky polymer particles separated, will fracture the activated polymer strands and render them less effective in forming settleable flocs. To compensate for any reduced effectiveness, plant operators often feed more polymer than necessary, which leads to increased chemical costs. Another option is to use low-speed, low-shear mixing to avoid fracturing the polymer molecules. Unfortunately, this method requires excessively large tanks that allow for the slow dissolution of the inevitable agglomerations that are formed. Such a system also requires the batching of polymer to be started hours before the diluted polymer solution is needed, which greatly increases the capital costs of equipment and facilities. A better alternative to large and expensive tank systems is a liquid polymer blending and feed unit. An ideal polymer feed system should include a means of introducing the neat polymer to the water so as not to form agglomerations, while incorporating a two-stage or tapered mixing system in its design. The first stage supplies the high shear and high energy needed to disperse and wet the polymer molecules, a process often referred to as inversion. To meet these criteria, polymer feeder manufacturers have developed various ways of introducing polymer to the dilution water in order to prevent formation of agglomerations. One such method is to draw the polymer out in a ribbon-like thin sheet and introduce it to a high-energy water stream. Research has shown that, when polymer is introduced into the water in this fashion, it will be instantly and thoroughly wetted into a useable solution. These wetted and extended polymer molecules may be easily fractured if

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:54 PM Page 49

Water Treatment they remain in the high-energy zone for an extended period of time. That requires a second low-shear zone or tapered mixing regime that will complete the blending of the polymer with dilution water, while not damaging the activated and fragile polymer strands. Types of polymers Polymers are available in a variety of different forms and concentrations. Understanding their different characteristics is essential in properly evaluating the process design that best suits a particular operation. 1. Dry polymers. Shipped in a powder form that is similar to table salt or sugar, dry polymers are considered 100% active when calculating for process design. The typical shelf life for dry polymers is several years, making them ideal for quantity purchase and storage. 2. Emulsion polymers. Available in an oil-based liquid form with a milky opaque appearance, emulsion polymers have viscosities that range from 100 to 2,000 cps, which is similar to motor oil. Emulsion polymers have an average content that is 40% active. The typical shelf life for emulsion polymers is four to six months. 3. Dispersion polymers. Also available in an oil-based liquid form with a viscosity similar to that of motor oil, dispersion polymers differ from emulsion polymers in that their average content is 50% active when calculating process design. Their shelf life is four to six months. 4. Solution polymers. These are known as polyamines and are used for coagulation purposes only, primarily in water plants. Solution polymers are a water-based liquid with viscosities ranging from 2,000 to 10,000 cps, similar to honey. The average content is 10% active for the purpose of calculating process design. 5. Mannich polymers. This formaldehyde-based liquid has a clear-to-milky appearance with viscosities that range from 10,000 to 50,000 cps, similar to gelatin. The average content is 5% active for calculating process design. The typical shelf life of this polymer is several weeks. Choosing the right polymer Choosing which polymer to use depends on a number of variables, not least of which is the type of clarifier, filter or dewatering equipment being used in the water-treatment process. Equipment selection also must consider water and wastewater characteristics, potential changes in those characteristics,

test results and a comparison of savings versus ease of use. For handling liquid polymers in water and wastewater applications, the dynaBLENDÂŽ Liquid Polymer Blending System from Fluid Dynamics, meets all of the recommended polymer-activation criteria. The dynaBLEND system has been designed to effectively activate all types of liquid polymer. Its non-mechanical mixing chamber is very reliable and its injection check valve has been designed for easy disassembly and inspection. All of these features allow the system

to apply ultra-high mixing energy at the point of initial polymer and water contact to prevent polymer gelling and agglomeration, while prolonged turbulence allows the polymer to complete the blending process gently and fully. Finally, after the polymer is initially activated, the gentle mixing energy does not break the fragile molecular chain. Greg Kriebel is with a division of Neptune Chemical Pump Co. E-mail:




March 2010 | 49

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:55 PM Page 50

Plant Operations

Sound absorbing panels reduce WWTP noise levels


oise levels in the pump and blower rooms at newly constructed wastewater treatment facilities in Coney Island, New York, exceeded OSHA requirements, and communication between workers was extremely difficult. Part of the problem was the nature of the construction of the two large rooms. Walls and floors were concrete and the ceiling was metal deck, all of which are highly reflective surfaces. There were multiple pieces of equipment in each room. Average background noise levels in the pump room were 92 dBA and, in the blower room, they were 87 dBA. A goal was set to reduce the level to 85 dBA, or less. Rooms within the integrated wastewater and sludge treatment facility were evaluated as to their noise problems. Based on these studies, several rooms needed to be treated with unit sound absorbing panels.

Figure 1. Engine Generator Room before installation of EFPs.

Figure 2. After installation of EFPs.

Acoustical treatment to achieve maximum noise reduction was calculated. Functional (unit) sound absorbing panels were installed on the ceilings and walls of both rooms. The average noise level in the pump room was reduced to 85 dBA, and in the blower room it was reduced to 82 dBA. This brought the rooms into OSHA compliance, and re-

duced reverberation to levels that did not interfere with communication between workers. Engine generator and pump room In the generator room, which is 87 ft. wide x 153 ft. long x 41 ft. high, there are four sets of 2,500 HP diesel engine generators, with multiple pumps available. They drive 600 HP motors, which

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:55 PM Page 51

Plant Operations


Engine Generator Room No. 2-02 One Engine & Two Engines & 3 Pumps Running 4 Pumps Running Before After Before After


dBA 92.60 93.10 95.60 90.70 92.00 91.10 92.90 92.60

Average 92.58

dBA 82.70 83.30 88.10 80.70 81.60 80.90 82.60 81.90 Change


82.73 -9.85

dBA 93.00 92.50 94.60 91.00 90.10 89.50 93.00 91.90

dBA 85.80 86.90 88.10 83.40 82.70 82.20 86.00 84.70 Change


84.98 -6.98

Table 1. Coney Island Water Pollution Control Project Noise Survey. Blower Room No. 3-02 Two Blowers Running Position




dBA 85.50 84.90 88.60 87.80 89.00 85.60 86.30 86.61

dBA 81.10 79.50 84.60 86.00 82.10 81.00 79.70 82.00

-4.81 Change



-5.32 Change W/O BR4


(Near Field Condition)

Conclusion Unit sound absorbing panels offer several advantages as a method of adding sound absorption to spaces with hard reflective surfaces. They can be installed in new or existing facilities, without interference with utilities such as sprinklers, lighting, ventilation, etc. They require little or no maintenance, and are effective in lowering background noise and reverberation in a wide variety of industrial and architectural applications. For more information, e-mail:

WILO Canada Appointments Omar As’ad Omar As’ad has been appointed as Ontario and Manitoba Regional Sales Manager. Omar is a registered professional engineer in Ontario and has 10 years experience in the water and wastewater industry, including four years experience in the pumps industry in Ontario. He is experienced in process and hydraulic design of various water and wastewater facilities, including pump stations.

Gavin Wu Table 2. Coney Island Water Pollution Control Project Noise Survey.

operate the pumps. For the normal running mode, one engine generator set is used to drive two or three pumps. The typical overload is two engine sets to drive four pumps. One of the other sets of engine generators is redundant; the other is kept in reserve. Prior to installation of Eckel’s Eckoustic Functional Panels (EFP), sound level measurements were taken at eight locations within the room, at various distances from the engine generators (Figure 1). Acoustic treatment here involved a ceiling treatment with 6,602 sq. ft. (50%) coverage and wall treatment with 2,069 sq. ft. (10%) coverage (Figure 2). For the ceiling treatment, three-quarters of the panels were 30” x 10 ft. The remainder were 30” x 8 ft. On the walls, the panel sizes were 48” x 8 ft. and 24” x 6 ft. (All of these are standard sizes.)

With one engine set and three pumps running, background noise was reduced from 92.5dBA to 82.7dBA after EFP treatment, a reduction of 9.85dBA. With two sets of engine generators and four pumps running, average noise levels were reduced by 6.98dBA, to bring the overall noise level below 85dBA (Table 1). Blower Room Similar results were obtained for the blower room. Here, too, a mix of panel sizes was used – 30” x 10 ft., 30” x 8 ft., 30” x 4 ft., and 42” x 5 ft. – as the most efficient means of achieving the desired noise reduction. This room measures 53 ft. x 120 ft. x 25 ft., so 2,651 sq. ft. of panels were adequate for effective treatment. With two blowers running, the average reduction in noise levels, with EFPs installed, was over 5dBA, from 86.6dBA to 81.3dBA (Table 2).

Gavin Wu has been appointed as Application Engineer for Municipal & Industrial Products. Gavin has more than 12 years experience in the water and wastewater industry, including six years working as technical support for WILO China, three years as a process engineer, and three years as a project manager. He is an experienced engineer in process design of water and wastewater treatment applications and in the design selection of submersible pumps and mixers. March 2010 | 51

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:55 PM Page 52


Toronto implements new environmental reporting and disclosure by-law By James Ayres


n one of the most sweeping environmental reforms in the Municipalityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history, thousands of enterprises in the City of Toronto have been mandated to report on their use of toxic chemicals in business operations, or face fines of up to $100,000. The Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s "Environmental Reporting and Disclosure By-Law" was passed by City Council on December 4, 2008, and came into force on a four-year phased-in basis, beginning January 1, 2010. This "community right to know" initiative requires businesses and facilities (including City operations) located in the City of Toronto to annually report their use, manufacture, process and release of 25 toxic chemicals of priority health concern (priority toxic substances), which are above prescribed thresholds or levels. The threshold is 100kg/year for most

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52 | March 2010

toxic chemicals, but even lower for certain chemicals deemed â&#x20AC;&#x153;highly toxicâ&#x20AC;?. It is anticipated that this disclosure initiative will impact 5,000 to 7,000 industrial, commercial and institutional facilities, once the reporting period has been phased in over the four years. The reporting program is intended to complement programs at the federal and provincial levels, by filling in the gaps stemming from the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI), under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and Ontarioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Toxic Reduction Strategy Program (TRSP) under the Toxics Reduction Act, which came into force on January 1, 2010. Unlike NPRI and TRSP, which apply to large facilities, the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s initiative will apply to large, medium and small sized facilities operating within the City of Toronto. Businesses which use, manufacture, process and release one or more of the 25 priority toxic substances, including volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx), vinyl chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perchloroethylene, chromium, benzene, formaldehyde, lead, mercury Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E:2010 3/30/10 3:49 PM Page 53

Regulations and nickel, among others, will be required to report to the City’s Department of Public Health (TPH). Phase I sector industries, namely, food and beverage manufacturing, printing and publishing, chemical manufacturing, wood industries, power generation, and waste and water facilities, will be required to begin tracking their 2010 chemical use and emissions, with the data to be reported to TPH by June 30, 2011. Phase II sector industries, namely, chemical wholesale, waste management and remediation services, medical and diagnostic laboratories, dry cleaning and laundry services, auto body repair, and funeral services establishments, will begin tracking 2011 data, with reporting (along with Phase I sector industry 2011 data) by June 30, 2012. “Other manufacturing” sector industries not exempt under the By-Law, or Phase III industries, comprised of paper manufacturing, primary metal manufacturing, machinery manufacturing, among others, will begin tracking 2012 data, with reporting (along with Phase I and II sector industry 2012 data) on June 30, 2013.

Facilities which are exempted include: those engaged solely in retail sales, medical or dental offices, construction and building maintenance sites, food accommodation services, facilities that distribute, store or sell fuels, and facilities that maintain and repair vehicles (except for painting or stripping of vehicles, and rebuilding or remanufacturing vehicle components, which are not exempt). Once reported, individuals will have access to the information, subject to the Municipal Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, on the basis that community members have the right to know the location, source and health effects of toxic chemicals in their community. It is anticipated that this information may be accessed electronically (web based) by either facility name, chemical name, or by neighbourhood. The By-Law imposes a significant mandatory reporting obligation on all facilities that use or emit the toxic chemicals which TPH has labelled as being a priority health concern. The By-Law provides that every person who contravenes it, and every direc-

tor or officer of a corporation who knowingly concurs in its contravention by the corporation, is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of $5,000.00 for a first offence, $25,000.00 for a second offence, and $100,000.00 for a third or subsequent offence. The By-Law aims to lessen or eliminate chemical use and the release of chemicals into the natural environment. The obligations imposed by the By-law will require facilities to carefully track chemicals and will give rise to public scrutiny achieved through the reporting and disclosure obligations. Further information regarding the City’s initiative and what impact, if any, it will have on your business, or facility, may be obtained at chemtrac. James Ayres is with Cassels Brock & Blackwell LLP. E-mail: jayres@

March 2010 | 53

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March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:56 PM Page 56

Wastewater Treatment

Installing the new bar screen.

directly over the centre of the wet well and, according to record drawings, the centreline of the incoming pipe. The building was designed to connect to the roof of the wet well via a concrete shaft that would provide a vertical path for the mechanical screen down to the plant’s inlet. The shaft was sized to be supported along the front wall of the wet well and sharp-edged corbels at the back, ensuring that enough space was provided, not only for the screen but for a ladder access for operators. (Figure 1) Design issues Once the preferred alternative was selected, the focus shifted to resolving predicted design issues. One significant issue that had to be overcome was the angle of the bar screen. Where the preference of most manufacturers is to have the screen sitting at a 70° angle, site limitations required it to operate completely vertically in the shaft. This constraint was discussed at length with various manufacturers and only a few were found to have the ability to address the situation. The site contractor, H2 Ontario Inc., used the Headworks® bar screen to complete the task.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:56 PM Page 57

Wastewater Treatment Without an existing inlet channel, RVA then addressed the issue of getting all the flow to enter the bar screen without shortcircuiting. The wet well is 6.5 m wide, while the bar screen width is only 900 mm. Simply lowering the unit into place would not ensure that all flow met the screen field. The solution was a rugged, stainless steel box, with the ability to be overflowed in the case of high wetweather flows. The steel box provides a tight seal as an entryway to the screen. Challenges during construction Once design was complete, construction-related issues were handled as they developed. The first challenge was to find a method of safely bypassing the only entrance to the plant during screen installation. A manhole located 30 m upstream of the wet well, on the opposite side of the nearby walking trail and outside the limits of the plant, was chosen as the location where flow would be diverted. The outlet from the manhole was plugged and submersible pumps were temporarily used to transfer flow to the primary clarifiers. During the one-week bypass, overland pipes were guarded

nightly by a contracted security company to avoid incident. Next, the new building and deep shaft were designed with the understanding that they would be in close proximity to the adjacent shallow-footed grit building. Using the plant’s geotechnical report, RVA’s structural team worked directly with the contractor’s engineer to develop a successful shoring plan. Throughout excavation, the slope and building foundation were monitored regularly to prevent incident. With the shoring plan implemented, the contractor was able to begin excavation. Before long, it was discovered that the steps cantilevered from the raw sewage pump house were not supported by the deep wet well, as hoped. It was clear that excavation would undermine the steps, causing immediate collapse and severe damage to the old building. Therefore, it was recommended that the contractor use hydro excavation to expose the roof of the wet well, locate its thick outer wall, set in a cage of rebar and pour concrete for a reinforced column to support the steps. Once complete, the contractor was

Expert People. Better Decisions.


able to excavate to the roof of the wet well without issue. Since record drawings had indicated that the incoming 900-mm pipe was located at the centre of the wet well, original plans called for the contractor to remove the wet well roof an equidistant amount from either side of the wet well’s centreline. When the roof was removed, it was revealed that the sewer was, in fact, not centred. To avoid redesign and delays, RVA and H2 Ontario worked together to develop a solution that would allow the screen to be located in the centre of the wet well, as planned. By setting the stainless steel box further back from the inlet and installing baffle plates, the flow was shifted as necessary, without exceeding the space restrictions of the screen’s concrete shaft. Lessons learned The mechanical bar screen is currently removing more than 1.5 m3 of solids weekly. In addition to being easily maintained and reliable, its benefits include a reduction in surface scum in the primary clarifiers and reduced foaming. This is because much of the fats, oils continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment jectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s outcome. There are many bar screen suppliers that are capable in a variety of wastewater applications, but every job is different and it is important to be sure that the manufacturers specified have experience in the type of project being considered. Communication also helped during the shop drawing phase to avoid conflict with height and space restrictions. Next, a client has a great opportunity for capital investment savings with a well-written, clearly defined scope in the tender documents. By removing the element of uncertainty, the need for additional contingencies can be minimized. Finally, it is highly beneficial to take time to predict potential construction issues when they can be resolved during design. Preventative investigations will always be less costly than discovering problems in the field. This includes core samples of concrete to determine strength prior to removal, and vacuum excavation, or other means, to confirm pipe locations. In addition, the confirmation of critical information on record drawings and the importance of contingency plans cannot be overlooked. A step-back approach to view the bigger picture goes a long way to preventing problems after the first shovel has broken ground.

Figure 1. New headworks design.

and greases in the influent attach to solids that are removed before being transferred from the wet well. Success was achieved with extensive forethought and innovative ideas that de-

veloped as the job progressed. In any construction project, there are lessons to be learned and this was no exception. First, involving manufacturers from the design stage was critical to the pro-

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Wastewater Treatment

A portable solution for degritting aeration basins


he Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant in Niagara Falls, New York, is located less than a mile south of the Falls and can be seen from the Canadian border. It is one of the largest treatment plants in the northeast United States, serving about 550,000 residents in the city of Buffalo and surrounding suburbs. The plant has provided primary treatment of sewage since it opened in 1938. A $200-million upgrade project added secondary treatment processes in the late 1970s. The plant has no shortage of capacity; it accommodates flows of up to 180 million gallons on a dry day, 600 MGD during wet-weather periods, and 360 MGD through its secondary treatment processes. One of the Bird Island plant’s principal challenges over the years has been grit removal. For the first 65 years of operation, it relied on a rudimentary grit-removal system consisting of longitudinal channels with chains, buckets and scrapers to lift grit from the channels. The

The Eutek Grit Snail captures fine grit and abrasives by providing sufficient clarifier area to retain 75-micron particles.

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Wastewater Treatment channels slowed the flows to about one foot per second and the buckets and scrapers removed grit from the bottom of the channels into a hopper. This cleaned some of the grit, but allowed a significant volume of material to pass through the headworks and settle in the aeration basins. The plant’s operator, the Buffalo Sewer Authority, installed a new paddlewheel, mechanically-induced vortextype system in 2004, improving the performance of the overall grit-removal operation. But a problem remained: the grit that had passed through the basic chain-and-flight system for years had accumulated in the aeration basins to the point where it had buried the fine-bubble diffusers in one to two feet of grit. Plant operators needed to clean out years of grit accumulation and set up a process that would remove similar build-ups in the future. “This was a major issue,” says Jim Keller, plant superintendent of the Buffalo Sewer Authority. “We had so much grit deposited in the system, it was forcing us to use more energy to run the blowers in the aeration basins. It had

gotten to the point of diminishing returns.” Grit removal is an important process. It protects centrifuges, digestion systems, solids handling equipment, high-pressure progressing cavity and diaphragm pumps, and other expensive mechanical equipment, by reducing unnecessary abrasive wear. Options for removing grit The Sewer Authority considered a number of solutions to clean the grit out of the 16 aeration basins. Hiring contractors was too expensive. Using pumps, vactor trucks, or centrifuge systems, all had downsides. Some of these options involved harmful chemicals, while others required the plant to implement difficult work processes. During his search, Mr. Keller discovered an alternative solution: buying a skid-mounted system to remove and degrit the slurry accumulated in the basins. At a local conference, he saw an open-vortex grit removal model in operation, and was convinced. In plants such as Bird Island, where grit removal processes do not remove enough grit from peak flows, sludge

degritting is used to provide sludge processing equipment with a constant, homogenous feed mixture. Sludge degritting typically involves applying centrifugal forces to separate grit particles from organic sludge. The process protects digestion systems and other expensive sludge process equipment, and reduces the overall volume of sludge requiring disposal. Today, the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant uses a portable sump pump to feed grit slurry to a Eutek SlurryCup™ grit-washing unit from its secondary clarifiers. A Eutek Grit Snail™ dewatering escalator is used to remove water from the captured grit. Both systems are supplied by Hydro International. Unlike some sludge degritting setups, the equipment used at the Bird Island plant is not installed permanently in one area of the plant, but is positioned on a portable steel skid that can be moved around by a forklift or crane. The Sewer Authority used the mobile system to remove grit from four of the 16 aeration basins during the summer of 2008. In the first phase, the system recontinued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment

Washed grit from the SlurryCup Snail system is loaded into dumpsters for local landfill disposal.

moved about 250 tons of grit. The Authority plans to move the system around the plant, cleaning out the remaining 12 tanks, four at a time, in three phases over the next couple of years. The Eutek SlurryCup removes grit and fine abrasives as small as 75 microns, with minimal unattached organic solids. Its open free vortex operates as a centrifugal solids separator and classi-

62 | March 2010

fier with secondary washing. Liquidparticle separation occurs within the system as a result of centrifugal forces exceeding fluid drag forces. Classification and separation of particles according to size occurs within the boundary layer. Once the particles are captured in the boundary layer and swept to the centre, the Eutek Slurry-Cupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hydraulic Valveâ&#x201E;˘ uses clean rinse

water for secondary washing to separate attached organics. This allows the unit to remove and wash over 90% of grit as small as 50 microns in diameter in both headwork and sludge-degritting applications. The Eutek Grit Snail captures fine grit and abrasives by providing sufficient clarifier area to retain 75-micron particles. A slow-moving, cleated belt gently lifts grit from the clarifier pool without re-suspending captured fine grit particles, which would allow them to escape with the clarifier overflow. The combined degritting system delivers clean, dry grit, containing 60% total solids and less than 20% volatile solids (organics). During the aeration basin cleaning operation, grit and other solids deposited in the aeration basins are washed to one end of the basin with a fire hose. The slurry is pumped to the degritting system. Degritted effluent is stored in an adjacent basin and chlorinated to destroy filamentous bacteria prior to re-entering the treatment process. For more information, visit

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:57 PM Page 63


New level sensors provide benefits for sewage lift stations By Rob Knowles


ewage lift or pump stations all work on the same principle, and have the same objective of moving sewage from one level to a higher elevation. Their installation costs range from $150,000 (20 gallons per minute) to $1.5 million (100,000 gallons per minute), generally based on capacity and complexity. Pump technology has come a long way in recent years, and, in particular, a small component has received significant development. This is the level sensor, which is essential to pump control and the reliability of the station. A typical schematic for a sewage lift station, featuring the level sensor (pressure transmitter) and its associated hardware, is shown in Figure 1. The purpose of the level sensor is to provide an electrical feedback to the pump, telling it when to switch on and off.

Traditionally, floats have been used, which simply provide an on and off signal to the pump at the high and low levels. Bubbler systems have also been utilized, although they create increased maintenance challenges, as they require a continual gas flow. Today, there are many other sensor technologies for measuring liquid levels, such as radar, ultrasonic, and conductive. These can be either expensive for a relatively simple lift station, or unreliable due to the operating environment. Recently, submerged hydrostatic pressure transmitters have been developed to withstand the environmental conditions and provide continuous monitoring for enhancement of control, with increased long-term reliability. The technology A number of manufacturers, such as Process Measurement & Controls

(PMC), have developed dedicated sensors for this application. An example is the VL2000. Many features have been designed into this level/pressure transmitter to overcome the challenges faced in sewage lift stations. As many lift stations are located in difficult to reach places, the overwhelming requirement is for reliability. This requires a clean design with high integrity seals. Due to the nature of the effluent, the sensing element must be exposed to avoid clogging. This problem is also becoming more important as a result of the increase in FOG (fats, oil and grease) associated with fast-food restaurants. Ceramic capacitive sensing technology provides a rugged open-face sensor that can achieve high accuracy of better than 0.1%, down to sewage levels of just a few inches of water. continued overleaf...

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Figure 2. SW2000 sink weight (bird-cage style) incorporating submersible level transmitter.

Figure 1. Schematic of a typical lift station featuring the depth/level sensor and control system.

The technology also provides a very high overpressure of at least three times the rated range, with no degradation of sensor performance. This protects the

transmitter from damage due to overflow or back pressure. The laser-welded, one inch-diameter housing is generally made from 316L stainless steel, al-

though titanium is often preferred where the effluent is more corrosive. A further design feature is the electrical connection. The most reliable solution is to incorporate a custom-molded cable using thick-walled polyurethane, which becomes integral to the transmitter and can be supplied in any length up to 5,000 ft. This cable not only incorporates the electrical connection, but also houses a nylon breather tube and Kevlar strain relief. The Kevlar will support over 200 lb breaking force and will not stretch until

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:58 PM Page 65

Instrumentation 97% of its breaking load is applied. This is a very valuable feature if the transmitter has to be removed and is buried in the sludge at the bottom of the tank. Various electrical outputs are required, including the most popular 4-20 mA two-wire loop power. Other outputs include 1-5 volts, or even digital such as Hart®. In some cases, users wish to adjust the level transmitter and this can be done via digital communication, featuring a full-scale range turndown to 10% of the originally specified range. These transmitters can be provided with a fullscale pre-set range to suit any sewage lift station. In lift stations where hazardous gases exist, transmitters can be certified ‘FM intrinsically safe’ for use in Class I, II & III, Div. I, Groups A, B, C, D, E, F and G. The cable termination is also important, not only to provide connection to the control system and pump, but also to create an outlet for the breather tube to the atmospheric pressure. This is vital to ensure the correct operation of the transmitter, which would otherwise be affected by changes in barometric pressures. How-

ever, this breather tube must be protected from ingress of moisture. There are many techniques for accomplishing this, such as using desiccant within the termination enclosure to enhance the long-term reliability of the transmitter. PMC has developed a sealed Mylar enclosure that requires zero maintenance and does not rely on the use of desiccants or consumables. Because the transmitter is relatively lightweight and is preferably positioned a few inches from the tank bottom, it is fairly common to use sink weights. An example can be seen in Figure 2. This type of sink weight is sometimes called a “bird cage” and, in the case of the PMC transmitter, can be removed from the transmitter if necessary. In other cases, the bird cage is integral to the transmitter. The same technology can be applied to deep wells for the monitoring of groundwater. In such cases, the transmitter is usually slightly smaller in diameter, 3/4-in, and more likely to be contained within a titanium housing to protect against the possibility of corro-

sion caused by brackish water. One additional feature of these transmitters is a protective nose cone. This not only avoids damage while lowering the transmitter into the well, which can be up to 5,000 feet deep, but also protects the sensor from harm due to water hammer, a phenomenon often created in close proximity to a down-hole pump. Today’s high-integrity, well-developed submersible pressure transmitters provide highly reliable, zero-maintenance level monitoring and pump control for sewage lift stations and deep well monitoring. These hydrostatic level measuring transmitters continually monitor the sewage level and, with the enhancements in the associated control systems, provide information related to pump performance and general health monitoring of the facility. Rob Knowles is with Process Measurement & Controls. E-mail:

March 2010 | 65

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Water Treatment

Rolling River First Nation community gets new water treatment plant


n 2006, the Canadian government introduced a water plan of action that significantly changed the way water quality was addressed in First Nation communities. Twenty one communities in Canada had been identified as having high risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories in effect. Projects to provide a safe drinking supply for First Nations were a priority. Rolling River First Nation in Manitoba had been served by a softening plant with greensand filters. By 2006, the population had grown to 336 people, which was far more than the plant was designed for. To ensure a sufficient and healthy water supply, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) decided to provide financial assistance to build a new plant, so treatment capacity could be increased by 400%. Construction of a new water treatment plant started in 2007. Raw water from two underground wells has high hardness, iron, manganese, and organic content. Finished water is required to meet Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines and the Federal Government’s Protocol for Safe Drinking Water in First Nation Communities. The treatment process Napier-Reid provided a system consisting of MD-80 catalytic media filtration, followed by nanofiltration. The system is designed for a feed rate of 936 m³/day, and a permeate rate of 70% after nanofiltration to produce 648 m³/day of drinking water, without the use of coagulating agents. The package plant consists of two trains, comprised of three MD-80 pressure filters, a cartridge filter and a membrane filter for each train and a common control panel. The two trains are independent and operate simultaneously. The MD-80 filters are used to remove iron and manganese. Water leaving the MD-80 filters goes to the nano membrane system. The first component on the membrane filter skid is the cartridge filters, then the actual nano membrane filters. Booster pumps on the membrane skid are used to force water through 66 | March 2010

The MD-80 pressure filters.

these membranes and provide circulating water to keep them clean. Clean permeate water from the membranes passes to the clear well. Concentrate water carries contaminants to waste. MD-80 iron and manganese removal filters The three MD-80 pressure filters use MD-80 catalytic media for the removal of iron because iron will cause the membranes to become fouled quickly. Typically, these filters are each backwashed once per day. If any one of the three filters is backwashing, the other two filters are able to handle the total flow rate. Auto-backwash function for them is blocked until the first backwashing finishes. That means only one of three MD80 filters is allowed to backwash, and at least two of the three filters must be in service. In normal filtering mode, the inlet raw water entering the top of the filter exits it at the bottom. The inlet and effluent valves are open whenever the well pumps are on. These valves close automatically when the low lift pump stops, or when the filter is in backwash mode. When a filter begins its run, there is usually a high turbidity in the effluent water for a short period, before the filtering process stabilizes. The MD-80 filters will perform a rinse when the raw well pumps start at the beginning of a

filter run. During the rinse, treated effluent water is sent to waste, instead of to the next stage. The duration of the rinse is usually about fifteen minutes and is adjustable from the process screen of the PanelView display. A rinse also occurs after a backwash, again to allow the filtering process to stabilize. Potassium permanganate is injected into the influent, to react with dissolved iron and manganes. This allows the manganese MD-80 filter media to remove iron and manganese from the raw water. Potassium permanganate is the first chemical to be added in the flow, so its dosage should be established first. The dosage should be high enough to produce a very slight pink colour in the incoming well water. The potassium permanganate dosage must not be too high, as this would cause the pink colour to carry through to the filter effluent. The pink colour is absorbed by the manganese MD-80 in the process of “re-generating” it. If the system is operated with insufficient potassium permanganate, the manganese MD-80 will become depleted. If this happens, it will no longer be able to remove iron and must be replaced. Membrane filters Filtered water is then split into two membrane filter units. Cartridge filters,

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E:2010 3/30/10 3:50 PM Page 67

Water Treatment with a pore size of one micron, are the first stage, followed by membrane nanofiltration filters for removal of hardness and organics. The cartridge filters each contain seven filter elements. These are disposable elements, which must be replaced when they become clogged, or every two weeks. The operator will know that these elements are clogged, because the differential pressure, indicated on two pressure gauges on each cartridge filter, will be more than 70 Kpa. Elements are not able to be used longer than two weeks, even if the difference of pressure is less than 70 Kpa. If the system has been shut down for longer than one week, installing new elements is required, before the system is turned on again. The membrane filters have five spiral wound membrane elements inside each pressure housing. Incoming raw water is brought to a high pressure by the booster pump and enters the housings. A portion of the raw water passes through each membrane to the centre. This clean permeate water exits from the 40 mm connection at the opposite end. Water that remains on the outside of the mem-

Design Output: 648 m続/day



(Tested Average)


Hardness as CaCO3 (mg/L)




Iron (mg/L)








TDS (mg/L)




Turbidity (NTU)




Color (TCU)




COD (mg/L)


BOD (mg/L)


Key water quality parameters.

branes is referred to as the concentrate, because this outer water now contains a concentrated portion of the contaminants from the raw water. Membrane filters remove virtually all suspended dirt particles in the water, by forcing it through very small openings in the membrane media. These small openings must be continuously scoured with water to prevent them from becom-

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ing blocked. This scouring action is created by a high flow rate of water passing along the outside of the membranes. Anti-scalant and sodium bisulphite are dosed into the system for membrane protection. Clean-in-Place The nano membrane units perform automatic flushes regularly, to remove continued overleaf...

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Water Treatment

The membrane filtration system produces 648 m3 of potable water per day.

accumulated solids from the system. There will still be a build-up of stubborn solids, which will not be removed by these automatic flushes. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a clean-in-place

68 | March 2010

operation every six months. The term Clean-in-Place (CIP) refers to the fact that the membranes are in place inside the membrane housings. The system consists of one 1000 litre CIP tank, one

5 KW heater installed in the CIP tank, one centrifugal CIP pump, one 50mm PVC isolation valve, and one pressure gauge. The CIP consists of two separate cleaning cycles. The first cleaning cycle uses an acid-based cleaner. This removes hard water scale from the membranes. The second cycle uses an alkali-based cleaner to remove organic fouling. A rinse must be executed between the two chemicals to prevent the acid neutralizing the alkali cleaner. After the CIP operation, the membrane unit must be rinsed for approximately 30 minutes. Napier-Reid also supplied instrumentation for measuring the quality of the water and PLC to control all the functions of the Rolling River First Nation water plant. The project started in early 2008 and is operating very satisfactorily. The system has produced water exceeding the specified effluent criteria since July 2008. For more information, e-mail:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 10:59 PM Page 69

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Water Treatment

Achieving big returns by automating rural water systems By Troy A. Hertog


t is not only big cities or large water districts that can take advantage of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Smaller communities or water districts can often benefit more from a reliable automation system than their larger counterparts. Ironically, larger communities tend to dedicate people to monitoring and controlling an almost fully automated water system. In contrast, smaller communities use their staff more diversely to run a water system that is minimally automated (if at all). Minimal automation and growing demands of aging equipment often result in stretching available resources to the point where not everything that needs to be done gets done. This is especially true for small communities that have manually operated plants. Benefits of automation Many smaller communities and water districts are finding that automating their systems improves the reliability and quality of the water they deliver to their

customers. It also frees up their personnel to perform other duties. Real-time monitoring provides quicker notification of problems before they are noticed by water customers. And depending on its capabilities, the automation system can be a useful tool in the maintenance and prevention of problems associated with failing or failed equipment. This allows more up time and continuity in the quality and reliability of the product. If done properly, automation is usually a wise investment that will pay for itself in a relatively short time. The types of automation and technologies that may be employed vary widely, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. Factors to consider It is important to select the proper technology for your system. When automating a system, think about what needs to be done today. Ascertain critical and other desired functions, and make sure protective systems are in place to prevent equipment/system damage when equipment is operated without supervision.

The control panel should be sized to accommodate needed equipment for easy access and provide clear identification of components and termination points. 70 | March 2010

Also consider future expansions and new regulations, projecting at least five years down the road. Assess the existing technology/automation you currently have and determine if any of it can be reused. Identify your technology comfort level, the desired system access/notification, and any necessary training and spare parts. Many rural water districts inadvertently accumulate various technologies that provide a basic level of control/monitoring for different water system components, wells, booster pumps, filters, holding ponds, lagoons, tanks, flow meters, etc. Over the years, districts add to, modify, or otherwise update their systems. Unless careful consideration is given to the designs, there is usually little or no continuity in the type of installed equipment. This lack of continuity can be difficult for operators and, over the life of the equipment, will add to the cost of operating a system. Communities with a hodgepodge of equipment and limited finances would find it beneficial to sit down, at some point, and create a technology/system road map. This road map would address the considerations mentioned above and develop a strategy for creating continuity in the system. Because of the flexibility of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s automation systems, existing equipment can sometimes be easily accommodated and economically integrated into the new system. However, care must be taken not to incorporate existing equipment that is unreliable. It is best to use a technology made for water and wastewater applications that is also based on an open and scalable architecture. Open architectures allow the best chance to interface with existing and new technologies and increase automation system life. Scalable architecture allows a system design that can perform the functions needed today, with the ability to be scaled up to a much larger and more capable system that does not need to switch to or integrate different technologies to accom-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E:2010 3/30/10 3:50 PM Page 71

Water Treatment

Adding an integrated trend screen representing system process to the site graphic gives quick visibility to the actual process performance and allows quicker diagnosis of system problems.

modate higher levels of automation. Automation products that are made for water and wastewater are more userfriendly, easier to operate and often have built-in diagnostics that reduce the level of technical expertise needed to troubleshoot the equipment. Automation can benefit every user.

`Ă&#x20AC;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2DC; }Ă&#x160;Ă&#x153;>Ă&#x152;iĂ&#x20AC; Âś &OR BILLIONPEO P L E I N THE DEVEL O P I NG WO R L D


Critical aspects of this dual duplex lift station are shown clearly and provide operators with status and user-adjustable setpoints for complete monitoring and control.

There are several ways a community can bring reliable, cost-effective automation to its system. Regardless of the system selected, it is important to seek a company/automation partner that has expertise and significant experience in providing automation of water systems. Often the technology aspect is less im-

portant than the application knowledge that is necessary to realize the full value of automating a system. Troy A. Hertog is with Siemens Water Technologies. E-mail:

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Wastewater Treatment

Engineered wetlands for municipal sewage and sludge treatment


he towns of Appleton and Glenwood are located on opposite sides of the majestic Gander River in the central region of Newfoundland. By 2002, the townsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; old sewage treatment plants had become overloaded and costly to maintain and operate, so a local consulting firm, CECON Ltd., was hired to investigate the options and costs associated with a modern, more efficient treatment system.

The benefits in maintenance and operations made a combined system for both towns the preferred choice. The final review came down to two options: an aerated lagoon or the Kickuth Engineered Wetland, a wastewater treatment system that has been used for many different types of waste in over 600 projects in more than 30 countries. In the wetland system, sludge is treated on-site, whereas the lagoon sys-

Figure 1. Stormwater bed during commissioning.

Figure 2. Aerial view of Appleton-Glenwood system. 72 | March 2010

tem relies on transporting sludge to a remote location for disposal. Sludge disposal costs of about $15,000 annually, or $450,000 over 30 years, are not included in the cost estimate for the lagoon system. The capital cost for the wetland includes the construction of sludge treatment cells, which is approximately $400,000. Operating and life cycle costs of the wetland also include sludge treatment. Although the capital costs were higher, the engineered wetland was chosen for its lower operating and life cycle costs and greater environmental benefits. The engineered wetland system was also eligible for, and received significant funding from the Green Municipal Fund. This system would be the first fullscale Kickuth Engineered Wetland treatment system operating in Newfoundland and Labrador, and also the first of this type providing full secondary treatment in Canada. Abydoz Environmental, the North American licence-holder for the Kickuth system, was commissioned to provide the engineering design. Design loading conditions Design loadings were calculated based on the combined population of the two towns and provincial guidelines. The Appleton-Glenwood system services an approximate population of 1,470 and a population equivalent of 1,800. Actual flow information showed significant infiltration into the sewage collection system and highly fluctuating hydraulic conditions, especially during spring run-off. The system was, therefore, designed for an average daily flow of 3,037 m3 and a maximum of 1.5 times the average flow, or 4,555 m3 /day. A separate stormwater treatment bed was designed to accommodate the large peak flows and prevent a push-through effect on the main wetland, which would result in reduced retention times and treatment. The wetland was designed for an average organic loading of 150 kg/day BOD, with an additional 50% loading during stormwater events. Discharge

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment limits were set by the provincial regulations for discharge into a sensitive freshwater body at 20 mg/L BOD. Design size and configuration Design of early wetland systems was based on empirical data and used ruleof-thumb loading methods to size the systems. This often resulted in oversized systems. More recently, wetlands have been modelled as plug flow reactors, or a series of continuously stirred tank reactors. However, the patented Kickuth system is designed according to a specific set of calculations based on the movement of effluent through a soil matrix, with the matrix providing significant treatment. A series of first-order equations is used, with constants based on degradation curves established from analysis of different matrix designs. The data for these curves was collected from the many Kickuth systems operating worldwide, which treat various types of wastes in different climates. In Appleton-Glenwood, the wetland size was based on the required BOD and TSS reduction, with additional sizing to account for the use of more local content in the matrix. The final design size of the main treatment wetland, excluding sludge cells, was 12,400 m². The shape and configuration were selected, based on the hydraulic capabilities of the matrix and the desired configuration. A hydraulic proof was then performed using Darcyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s law and varying flow conditions to determine if the shape and configuration were sufficient. The final configuration for the main treatment system was for five subsurface-flow wetland beds, consisting of one vertical-flow bed, followed by four parallel horizontal-flow beds. Treatment system components The sewage from both communities is pumped to the treatment facility by a combination of lift stations. On entering the treatment facility, effluent passes through a grinder and a spiral lift screen to remove non-organic materials. Flow then enters a series of settling chambers, where the majority of solids and suspended solids are removed by gravity and settle to the bottom of the chambers. Settling chambers provide a minimum four hours retention time. Flow is then split by a weir arrangement that

lows the main flow to move into the main treatment beds. Stormwater flows, which can reach 12,000 m3/d, are diverted into a 1,216 m2 stormwater treatment bed. This bed is designed to hold and treat storm surges and slowly release them. It has a much deeper basin than the other beds. The main flow, after the settlement chambers, flows into the vertical flow wetland bed of 2,040 m2. Effluent is then collected and split equally between the four horizontal flow wetland treatment beds, each 2,583 m2. They are bilateral

units with the inlet down the centre of the beds and discharges along both sides. The main flow and stormwater flow are combined at the end of the system and flow out into the Gander River through a diffused outfall. The use of the stormwater bed means that 100% of the effluent discharged to the river is treated under all flow conditions. Other than the screen and grinder, there are no mechanical or electrical components in the engineered wetland continued on page 98...

Figure 3. Sludge cells being filled at Appleton-Glenwood.

Figure 4: Gaseous pathways for oxidation and reduction around the root zone. March 2010 | 73

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 11:00 PM Page 74

Package Treatment System ACG Technology’s package treatment system offers performance and durability. It provides sewage treatment within a small footprint. Aeration, mixing and settling can be accomplished in compact, easily transported ISO containers, ideal for remote locations. Provides flexibility of adding future parallel units, an economical means of meeting the needs of any growing sewage loads. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: Web:

P roduct & Service Showcase

ACG Technology

Coalescing oil/water separators ACG Technology’s coalescing oil/ water separators are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP and polypropylene construction. Standard systems include air operated diaphragm pump, air filter and floating skimmer. Adjustable weir and skimmer height provides optimal oil removal and minimal disposal volume. Standard range is 1 to 50 GPM. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: Web: ACG Technology

Pressure sensors

Piston valves

Designed with a one-piece pressure cavity, ASCO pressure sensors prevent leaks – and down time. With high sensitivity, low drift, and highly repeatable signalling, you’ll get extremely accurate and stable output measurements from 0 to 10,000 psi. Tel: 519-758-2700, Fax: 519-758-5540 E-mail: Web:

Ideal for handling aggressive fluids such as steam, hot water, solvents, and light slurries, ASCO’s 8290 Piston Valves are as reliable as they come – solving your challenges with a single, reliable source. Tel: 519-758-2700, Fax: 519-758-5540 E-mail: Web:

ASCO Valve Canada

ASCO Valve Canada

University courses online

APU’s exclusively online M.S. in Environmental Policy and Management program is designed for working adults who wish to advance their studies in fields such as Environmental Sustainability, Environmental Planning, and Global Environmental Management. Courses start monthly. Learn more at environmental-studies. American Public University

Lightweight plastic ventilator

PELSUE introduces the new 1325P Axial Ventilator with Airpac 15 or 25’ hose canister. This rugged ventilator is perfect for confined space entry ventilation and is available in 12 VDC or 115 VAC. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: Web: Canadian Safety Equipment

Dissolved air flotation

Vertical UV lamp system

Polymer Laminated Corrugated Steel Pipe provides protection against the uncertainties of tomorrow. This tough, mill-applied coating protects both the steel and galvanized coating from attack by a multitude of agents. The coating has performed well in extremely aggressive environments and is expected to provide continuous protection for more than 100 years. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: Web:

The AquaDAF® Clarifier High-Rate Dissolved Air Flotation System is a viable alternative to conventional settling and DAF clarifiers. It is highly effective for treatment of a range of raw water characteristics including troublesome waters exhibiting low turbidity, high TOC, colour and algae. Tel: 201-794-3100 Web:

Ozonia’s Aquaray® 3X Vertical Lamp System offers a high amount of UV output within a reduced footprint, while providing the degree of disinfection required for even the most stringent of effluent criteria. Operatorfriendly, the 3X is ideally designed for large wastewater plants. Tel: 201-794-3100 Web:

Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute



Polymer laminated coating

74 | March 2010

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 11:01 PM Page 75

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: Web: Denso

Water reservoir & tank mixer

Multi-channel transmitter

The Liquiline CM44 is a four-wire multi-channel transmitter from Endress+Hauser, compatible with a full complement of digital Memosens sensors for all parameters. The large backlit screen, navigation wheel, dropdown menu structure and adaptive software make operation simple and intuitive. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: Web: Endress + Hauser

TurboDrum screen series

The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensure that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax 519-469-8157 E-mail: Web: Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Multiparameter meter

PAX Mixer is a very innovative, simple mixer designed to mix water storage reservoirs and standpipes. It offers superior mixing performance with little energy consumption, easy installation, low capital cost. It eliminates stagnation and stratification, minimizes residual loss, prevents nitrification. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: Web:

Innovative advances in water treatment such as membrane biological reactor (MBR) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) processes require finer screenings removal (liquid-solid separation) on the front-end. Headworks® TurboDrums™ have been specifically engineered to achieve these higher levels and are a reliable, cost-effective way to meet these removal challenges. Tel: 713-647-6667 E-mail: Web:

The YSI Professional Plus handheld multiparameter meter provides extreme flexibility for the measurement of a variety of combinations for dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, salinity, resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ORP, pH/ORP combination, ammonium (ammonia), nitrate, chloride and temperature. Web:

H2Flow Tanks & Systems

Headworks Inc.

Hoskin Scientific

Relining pipe

Hand-held DO meter The YSI ProODOTM handheld DO meter provides extreme durability for the measurement of optical, luminescent-based dissolved oxygen for any field application. Web:

Hoskin Scientific

Groundwater technolgy and vertical turbine specialist • Pump sales, rentals installation and maintenance • Well & pump performance testing • Preventive maintenance programs • Groundwater exploration and hydrogeologic services • Well design, construction and testing • Geophysical logging and video inspection

Streamliner CR relining pipe from Ideal Pipe is a strong, light, corrugated HDPE pipe designed to ‘streamline’ the upgrading of old metal culverts. In-place relining with Streamliner CR eliminates the trouble and expense of road reconstruction while improving drainage through the culvert. Tel: 1-800-265-7098 Web:

Tel: 705-733-0011, Fax: 705-721-0138 E-mail: Web:

Ideal Pipe

International Water Supply Ltd.

March 2010 | 75

Product & Service Showcase

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 11:01 PM Page 76

Chemical-free water treatment

Innovative stand for submersible mixers

Based on the clogfree Flygt Npumps, the new Flygt jet aerator from ITT Water & Wastewater has become easier to install and maintain. The major changes in the new generation jet aerators are: an improved lift in, lift out structure, and a strengthened stand equipped with rubber dampers. Available with up to three ejectors, the Flygt jet aerator is a flexible aeration solution for small- and medium-sized tanks. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: ITT Water & Wastewater

KSB has introduced AMAROC, a new support structure for propeller-type mixers used in wastewater treatment. The excellent vibration damping of the non-steel compound contributes to smoother, quieter, and more efficient operation of the mixers. The new design simplifies installation and requires virtually no maintenance. The combination of mixer and stand offers real advantages for operators. Tel: 905-568-9200 E-mail: Web:

Pumping systems solutions

Filters for suspended solids

Metering pumps certified

Satisfying pumping needs at the lowest cost over the life cycle of the system, Myers optimizes system efficiencies with complete engineering services, providing cost-effective solutions and immediate cost savings when planning a pump station. Myers software programs provide the engineering tools to properly design the ideal station. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail:

DynaSand® continuous backwash, upflow, deep bed, granular media filters handle high levels of suspended solids, and may eliminate the need for pre-sedimentation or flotation. They have few moving parts, easily handle plant upsets, and require little operator attention and maintenance. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax 514-636-9718 E-mail: Web:

ProMinent’s delta® with optoDrive®, Gamma/L, Sigma, ConceptPLUS, and Beta® metering pumps now comply with the NSF®/ANSI 61 standards for safe drinking water. Metering pump products are tested to ensure that there is no leaching or fugitive emissions from the dosing head and the diaphragm which could get into the water stream. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: Web:

Myers Engineered Products


ProMinent Fluid Controls

WEDECO Ozone Generators from ITT Water & Wastewater eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and micro-organisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: ITT Water and Wastewater

P roduct & Service Showcase

New jet aerators

ProMinent celebrates 50 years ProMinent is celebrating its 50th year of providing high quality, precision equipment used in chemical metering, water treatment, and measurement and control. From humble beginnings in 1960, ProMinent has grown to be a recognized reliable solution provider for chemical feed and water treatment, a global presence, and the world’s largest manufacturer of metering pumps. We thank you, our customers, for your business and look forward to being of service to you. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: Web: ProMinent Fluid Controls

76 | March 2010

Chemical injection equipment

Membrane bioreactor

SAF-T-FLO Chemical Injection manufactures a complete line of chemical injection equipment for all types of chemical feed systems. A large inventory of retractable and non-retractable injection quills and sampling probes is available to meet your needs. In addition, experienced technical sales staff can answer your questions or help solve your problems. Tel: 800-957-2383, Fax: 714-632-3350 E-mail: Web: SAF-T-FLO Chemical Injection

KSB Pumps

Sanitherm has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, preplumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint! Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: Web: Sanitherm Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 11:01 PM Page 77

The new CTD-Diver* is a multi-parameter datalogger which is ideal for monitoring municipal groundwater supplies, saltwater intrusion, and injected wastewater. Designed for corrosive and high salinity conditions, environmental professionals rely on CTDDiver to get accurate results. (*Mark of Schlumberger) E-mail: Web: Schlumberger Water Services

Simple to operate pump controller

Keyless hollow shaft mounting system

SEW-Eurodrive’s patented keyless hollow shaft design TorqLOC® adds advantages to the F-Series (the SNUGGLE®), the K-Series (helical-bevel), and the SSeries (helical-worm) reducers. Tel: 905-791-1553, Fax: 905-791-2999 Web: SEW-Eurodrive Company of Canada

Hatch safety net

The NEW Model 464 Pump Control Unit is fully automatic, with preset sample modes from low through high flow sampling. It also saves 99 user-created flow rates. Use with a Solinst Model 407 Bladder Pump for effective VOC and low-flow groundwater sampling. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: Web:

The lightweight Hatch Safety Net is designed to be permanently installed and easily retractable in floor and roof openings where the risk of fall through is present. When closed, the net system allows people to move freely around confined space openings without fear of falling into the opening. It also allows visibility of inspections and accessibility for limited maintenance and float adjustments. When entry/exit is required, the net can be easily unhooked on all but one side of the opening. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail:

Solinst Canada

USF Fabrication

Water quality meters

Submersible pumping

Waterra's new Aquaread™ GPS Aquameter™ gets you fast, reliable, accurate and dependable water quality readings. Attach one of the eight available multiparameter probes to measure dissolved oxygen, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, pH and ORP.

As a leader in submersible pumping station technology, WILO offers a unique solution for grit and solid removal by prefiltering the bigger solids, thus effectively eradicating the possibility of a pump blockage and reducing power consumption. Tel: 403-276-9456 or 1-866-WILO-CDN Fax: 403-277-9456 E-mail: Web: WILO Canada

Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: Web: Waterra Pumps

Wastewater Pump Stations Energy-saving Smith & Loveless wastewater pump stations are ideal for collection system and WWTP influent pumping for municipalities, private developments and industry. Proven lift station designs minimize delays because S&L stations arrive at the jobsite completely built and thoroughly factory-tested. Now available with expanded pump sizing: 4" - 12" piping (100-300 mm); horsepower: 1.5 to 300 HP; capacity: up to 50,000 GMP (3155 lps). Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: Web: Smith & Loveless

Trickling filters

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: Web: Waterloo Biofilter

Submersible mixing WILO offers submersible mixers for water and wastewater applications, which are known for their durability and for the functionality of the propellers in slow, medium, and high-speed applications. Tel: 403-276-9456 or 1-866-WILO-CDN Fax: 403-277-9456 E-mail: Web: WILO Canada

March 2010 | 77

Product & Service Showcase

Groundwater monitoring

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Official Show Guide For:

Canadian Environmental

The 18th Annual

ATION NEW LOe,CMississauga, Ontario

ntr International Ce

Conference & Tradeshow

May 3 - 5, 2010


International Centre - 6900 Airport Road, Mississauga


o-organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, CANECT is the largest event of its kind in Canada, typically attracting some 2,000 tradeshow visitors and conference delegates. Conference delegates and tradeshow visitors are a high quality audience of senior people responsible for environmental engineering, regulations and compliance issues. CANECT 2010 will again be co-located in Ontario with Partners in Prevention 2010, an annual tradeshow of the Industrial Accident Prevention Association (IAPA). This annual show attracts over 6,000 delegates, including those with EH&S and senior management responsibilities. (Visit for details) Combined, CANECT and Partners in Prevention 2010 Tradeshow are expected to attract some 475 exhibiting companies and 8,000 tradeshow visitors. Tradeshow badges from either show will allow admission to both shows at no extra charge. To register for free tradeshow registration, please visit, or fill out and fax in the free pass that came with this copy of ES&E magazine.

Scheduled Session Topics Environmental regulation and compliance Managing approvals and permits Proactive air emissions compliance Reducing carbon costs Environmental management standards and guidelines Managing inspectors and investigators Industrial waste and waste diversion Water and wastewater compliance Brownfields - the new rules Spills management and compliance

w w w . C A N E C T. n e t

If you would like to receive a printed CANECT conference program, please contact Darlann Passfield, Tel: 905-727-4666 (Ext 30), or Toll Free: 1-888-254-8769, Email: Conference details are also available at 78 | March 2010

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 11:10 PM Page 79

CANECT Workshops Professional Development Courses offered 1A

Environmental Regulation and Compliance 2010 Essential Overview and Update

CANECT’s essential annual introductory and update course - presented in association with leading environmental lawyers from Bennett Jones LLP - has established its reputation as Canadian industries’ chosen source for cutting-edge environmental regulation, compliance and due diligence training.


Brownfields: Working with the new rules

Extensive changes to the Brownfields regulatory regime took effect Jan. 1, 2010 and will extend into 2011. This course, developed by Janet Bobechko, of Blaney McMurtry LLP, provides registrants with an authoritative guide to working with the new rules governing Records of Site Condition and Phase I and Phase II site assessments. Radical new changes to the regime this year makes this a ‘mustattend’ for all engineers, consultants, lawyers, planners, site-owners, investors, insurers and developers.

Day 2 - May 4 Professional Development Courses offered 2A

Dealing with Industrial Air Emissions

This course, presented by RWDI AIR Inc. and Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP, delivers Canada’s most up-to-date guide to complying with tough, new provincial air emissions rules and standards and provides practical insights into managing everyday air-related issues related to noise, odour and dust.


Toxics Reduction: Complying with new toxics reduction acts and bylaws

This course, developed especially for CANECT by Canada’s only Certified Toxics Reduction Planner, provides practical insight into complying with Ontario’s new Toxics Reduction Act (which took effect Jan.1) and the new Toronto toxic emissions bylaw.


Meeting the challenge of Industrial Waste Management & Waste Diversion

An essential annual update on current issues in waste management and an industry guide to meeting the new regulatory and practical challenges of waste auditing, manifesting, waste diversion and product stewardship.


Remediation of contaminated sites

This new course - developed by Jeanette Southwood, Principal and Global Sustainable Cities Leader, Golder Associates Ltd. - goes beyond ‘dig & dump’ to explore new, in-situ remediation solutions for contaminated sites. The course further develops the themes of Course 1B on Brownfields and will be a ‘must-attend’ for buyers, sellers, lawyers, municipalities and environmental consultants.

Professional Development Courses offered 3A

GHGs Reporting and Reduction

Greenhouse Gas Reporting Regulations are now in effect in Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and BC. This course summarizes key federal and provincial requirements; provides an authoritative guide to Ontario’s new Greenhouse Gas Reporting Regulation (in effect Jan.1, 2010) and key compliance do’s and don’ts gleaned from practical experience in Alberta, BC and through the WCI.


Dealing with Certificates of Approval and Permits

This course, delivered by C of A specialists at Golders and MOE’s Approvals Branch, has become the gold standard for those needing to keep up-to-date with best practices for managing all types of C of A and permits. Help with everything: from Comprehensive Approvals to filling out the forms.


Inspections and Investigations: Successfully meeting the challenge of a visit from the MOE

A routine visit from a MOE inspector needs to be handled diligently if it is not to balloon into a more serious investigation and possible prosecution. The consequences of mis-handled communications can be severe. This is the only course solely dedicated to giving managers, supervisors, owners and directors the information they need to manage MOE visits successfully.


Spills and Environmental and Security Emergencies

Attend this course and be sure you and your response team know what to do to respond professionally to environmental and security emergencies. What plans do you need? Who must you report to? What information must you divulge? What practical steps must you take to protect employees, your organization, its facilities and surrounding communities?


Day 1 - May 3

Day 3 - May 5

Bruce Lourie Cameron Herold

Chris Mazza Graham Lowe March 2010 | 79

March2010_ES&E:2010 3/30/10 3:51 PM Page 80

CANECT ‘10 CANECT Exhibits ... Manufacturers, distributors, suppliers and companies from the following areas: Air pollution control Analytical laboratory Confined space entry Consulting engineering Containment Decontamination systems Emergency response Environmental auditing

• • • • • • • •

Filters Groundwater treatment Hazardous waste treatment Health & safety Instrumentation & control Legal services Liners/geotextiles Noise & vibration control

• • • • •

Oil & water separation Pumps, pipes, valves, fittings Protection/safety equipment Recycling Residuals dewatering, disposal & handling equipment • Site & soil remediation

• • • • • • • •

Software systems Spill control & containment Stormwater control Tanks & storage Transportation services Water treatment Wastewater treatment Waste disposal

To CANECT conference rooms 1605














1601 1604 1600



Coffee Station


• • • • • • • •




1517 1504










To “Your Workplace” Tradeshow

To “Partners in Prevention Tradeshow” 1400 1404










May 4



- 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

1302 1318

May 5

1301 1317 1304





- 8:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

1314 1316





To “Partners in Prevention Tradeshow”

To “Your Workplace” Tradeshow 1204


To “Your Workplace” Tradeshow

80 | March 2010














Snack Bar




Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E:2010 3/30/10 3:51 PM Page 81

Best Management Practices for Response Capability ON-SITE

Shared-Cost Training


Since 1989 - Best Service Dates

BOOK NOW For Best Training Dates

Book 1 to 5 Day Courses Book 3 to 6 Months in Advance

HANDS-ON MODULES • Chemical (Hands-on) • Test and Verify • Evaluate Properties • CBRNE • Response (Hands-on) • Techniques, Controls • Countermeasures • Recovery (Hands-on) • Waste Reduction • Time Critical Issues

Training Unit • Workbooks • Response Supplies • Recovery Equipment

On site training ...


Mines • Pulp & Paper • Steel • Hydro • Light & Major Industries • Government Institutions • Research • Hospitals • Municipal • Water Treatment • Emergency Site Specific Assessments • Photo-documentation of findings • Review of Prevention, Preparedness & Response Capability Measures • Site-location, Spill kits & Equipment Report: Power Point with Photos



of Assessment Flat Rate Cost is credited to training completed within ONE YEAR Ph: 905-578-9666

‘Training You Remember ... Experience You Can Use’

March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 11:11 PM Page 82

Canadian Environmental Conference & Tradeshow List of Exhibitors as of March 23, 2010 ACG Technology Ltd. #1413 Woodbridge, ON 905-856-1414 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Greg Jackson Products/Services to be displayed: Water, wastewater and stormwater treatment equipment.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Actual Media #1501 Toronto, ON 416-444-5842 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Lee Scarlett Products/Services to be displayed: Actual Media is a business publisher and custom research/graphic design firm. Our publications influence the leaders of the infrastructure and water communities in Canada. AET Group Inc. #1202 Kitchener, ON 519-576-9723 E-mail:: Web site: Contact: Scott Freiburger Products/Services to be displayed: Recognized as a leader in the environmental consulting industry, AET provides expertise in solid and hazardous waste management, ecological assessments and monitoring, building sciences and LEED consulting, energy assessments and feasibility studies, environmental management, sustainability consulting, specialized communications and training. AGAT Laboratories #1214 Mississauga, ON 905-712-5074 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Camilla Swagar Products/Services to be displayed: AGAT specializes in soil and water analysis for all environmental applications including: inorganic, trace organic, toxicology and microbial services. Albarrie GeoComposites Limited #1514 Barrie, ON 705-737-0551 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Lauren Howles Products/Services to be displayed: SorbWeb™ Plus is a containment system that provides protection against oil spills from transformers. No maintenance required. Contact Albarrie – 1-866-269-8275 or ALS Laboratory Group Mississauga, ON

82 | March 2010


905-507-6910 Web site: Contact: Melissa Burke Products/Services to be displayed: Laboratory analytical services. AMEC Earth & Environmental Mississauga, ON 905-568-2929 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Chantal McCollum


Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Avensys Solutions #1410 Toronto, ON 416-499-4421 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Pierre Michaud, Anup Jain, Louise Clement Products/Services to be displayed: Industry leader in providing instrumentation and integrated solutions for the monitoring of industrial processes and environmental surveillance applications for air and water in the Canadian marketplace.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E BakerCorp #1515 Seal Beach, CA 562-342-7922 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Amber Reimers Products/Services to be displayed: BakerCorp, the industry leader in containment, pump, filtration & shoring equipment rental solutions with over 90 locations nationwide and operations in Europe, Canada and Mexico. Bishop Water Technologies #1307 Eganville, ON 613-628-5266 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Kevin Bossy Products/Services to be displayed: Bishop Water Technologies specializes in sludge management using Geotube® technology. Our focus is on the development of cost effective solutions. Caduceon Environmental Laboratories #1304 Kingston, ON 613-544-2001 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Damien Gilbert Products/Services to be displayed: Full service environmental laboratories providing organic, inorganic, micro and mould analysis. Client committed quality assured.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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CANECT Exhibitors Cambridge Materials Testing Limited #1404 Cambridge, ON 519-621-6600 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Jeff Brown Products/Services to be displayed: CMTL is an independent ISO 17025 testing facility servicing a broad range of products, from raw materials to finished parts. Can-Am Instruments Ltd. #1115 Oakville, ON 800-215-4469 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Mark Reeves Products/Services to be displayed: Instrumentation including: oil separators, samplers, flow meters, wireless communication, analyzers for ammonia, nitrate, suspended solids, pH, DO and much more. Claessen Pumps Limited #1516 Innisfil, ON 705-431-8585 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Daniel Blandford Products/Services to be displayed: Grindex submersible pumps. Cover-All Building Systems of Ontario #1517 Lucknow, ON 800-268-2768 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Kelly Thomson Products/Services to be displayed: Cover-All Building Systems is the leading manufacturer of steel-framed membrane buildings. Dragun Corporation #1210 Windsor, ON 519-979-7300 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Alan Hahn Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental consulting and engineering. We work with senior management and legal counsel who may be concerned with the direction, cost and/or liability associated with environmental investigation or remediation efforts. Drain-All Ltd. #1411 Ottawa, ON 613-739-1070 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Stephen Huza Products/Services to be displayed: Liquid/solid hazwaste removal/disposal; emergency spill response; confined space entry; industrial wet/dry vacuuming, excavation; high pressure blasting. Dyson Canada Ltd. Toronto, ON 416-849-5359 E-mail: Web site:


Contact: Ken Pariag Products/Services to be displayed: The Dyson Airblade™ hand dryer. ECO Canada #1502 Calgary, AB 403-476-1931 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Jessica Reynen Products/Services to be displayed: ECO Canada is an industry-leading human resources organization that: develops programs that help individuals build meaningful environmental careers, provides employers with resources to find and keep the best environmental professionals, and informs educators and governments of employment trends to ensure the ongoing prosperity of this growing sector. Ecolog Group/HazMat Management #1412 Toronto, ON 416-442-5600 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Carol Bell-LeNoury Products/Services to be displayed: Canada’s leading source of environmental and health & safety publications and online services including HazMat Management Magazine and the EcoLog National Legislative Service. Elemental Controls – Niton Analyzers Mississauga, ON 905-282-9974 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Keith Grattan


EMRP Inc. #1405 Brantford, ON 519-751-3504 E-mail: Web site: Contact: John Theurer Products/Services to be displayed: Water treatment specialists, ground, process, reinjection treatment, metals, oil, PCB hydrocarbon extraction, soil solidification & stabilization technologies. Environmental Analytical Systems #1205 Barry’s Bay, ON 613-756-0101 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Nigel Newing Products/Services to be displayed: Health & safety instruments for noise, dust, indoor air quality instruments, meteorological instruments, water quality instruments, chlorophyll, algae, depth & parameters. Filter Innovations Inc. #1504 Toronto, ON 416-490-7848 E-mail: Web site: Contact: John Dragasevich Products/Services to be displayed: Water filtration products, pump & treat groundwater, oil/water separation, wastewater treatment, activated carbon, bag filters, automatic backflushing filters.

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CANECT Exhibitors Giffin Koerth Smart Forensics #1104 Toronto, ON 416-368-1700 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Matt Allen Products/Services to be displayed: Forensic engineering consulting services for insurance, risk and litigation including environmental, health & safety, accident investigation, compliance and expert witness.

Intersteam Technologies #1416 Hamilton, ON 905-526-1453 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Elle Dietrich Products/Services to be displayed: Chemical free steam based cleaning equipment for commercial and industrial applications. Proud distributor of SteamKing, Magic Vapour, Sioux and Walters.

Golder Associates Ltd. #1314 Mississauga, ON 905-567-4444 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Roxana Bahrami Products/Services to be displayed: Golder Associates is an employee-owned, global company specializing in ground engineering and environmental services. From offices worldwide, our employees work with clients who want to manage their environmental and engineering activities in a technically sound, economically viable and socially responsible manner.

John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. #1510 Toronto, ON 800-567-4797 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Aleksandra Tasic Products/Services to be displayed: John Wiley & Sons is a leading global publisher of professional resources with an extensive line of environmental engineering books.

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems #1204 Innerkip, ON 519-469-8169 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Jeff Rodger Products/Services to be displayed: Columbian Tectank, Aquastore® glass-fused-to-steel storage tanks, Temcor® aluminum domes and covers, JetMix™ Vortex mixing systems, Hexa-cover®.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E H2Flow #1211 Concord, ON 905-660-9775 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Michael Albanese Products/Services to be displayed: Water – wastewater treatment for industrial applications: pre-treatment to sewer, filters, clarifiers, sludge dewatering presses, odour control biofilters, storage tanks.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Lakes Environmental Software #1505 Waterloo, ON 519-746-5995 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Julie Swatson Products/Services to be displayed: Lakes Environmental supplies easy-to-use and sophisticated air dispersion modeling, emissions inventory and risk assessment software to industries, government agencies and academia. Linkon Technology Inc. #1108 Vaughan, ON 416-888-3680 E-mail: Web site: Contact: David Kim Products/Services to be displayed: To export and import new environmental technology – non-metal sludge collector (chain type made from 100% recyclable material); activated carbon (new/regeneration/high-grade activated carbon made from coconut); environmental measuring instruments; global supplier of environmental equipment (such as LG Ultrasonic); algae measuring system, flowmeters and lab instruments, etc.

Imperial Coffee & Services #1500 Toronto, ON 416-638-7404 Web site: Contact: Evan Glazer Products/Services to be displayed: Ontario’s leader in office coffee and drinking water.

Maxxam Analytics #1110 Mississauga, ON 905-817-5700 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Erika Stoss Products/Services to be displayed: Analytical testing for the environmental industry, including: remediation, effluent, sewer and drinking water and air.

Indicium Compliance Solutions Inc. #1604 St. Catharines, ON 877-751-4029 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Dave Platakis Products/Services to be displayed: Provider of assorted regulatory and health and safety training. Supplier of UN approved dangerous goods packaging.

OHE Consultants #1511 Mississauga, ON 905-278-7000 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Kelly Shea Products/Services to be displayed: OHE provides consulting engineering services specializing in occupational & environmental hygiene, environmental assessments & re-

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CANECT Exhibitors mediation, asbestos and building hazardous materials management & control and indoor air quality investigations. On Track Safety Ltd. #1300 Thornhill, ON 905-660-5969 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Paul Furlano Products/Services to be displayed: On Track Safety Ltd. provides complete traffic control services which include free-way set up crews, crash trucks, sales and rentals. Pack-A-Cone c/o Mindspace Inc. #1414 Markham, ON 905-284-1000 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Cory Tse Products/Services to be displayed: Pack-A-Cone is the original collapsible pylon! Available in a range of sizes and they all collapse down to just 2â&#x20AC;? (5cm)! Pollutech Group of Companies #1319 Oakville & Sarnia, ON 905-847-0065 & 519-339-8787 E-mail: & tmoran@ Web site: Contact: Greg Fullarton & Tim Moran Products/Services to be displayed: Atmospheric emissions, toxicity testing, noise & vibration, water & wastewater, industrial hygiene & occupational health, marine services, analytical services, and spill response.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Polystar Inc. #1200 Twinsburg, OH 330-963-5100 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Bob Hoge/Rob Nightwine Products/Services to be displayed: Polystar offers a complete line of secondary containment for hazardous materials. Power Plant Supply Company #1316 Scarborough, ON 416-752-3339 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Stephen Riesberry Products/Services to be displayed: HeatTrak heated walkway mats & stair treads; Heatizon low voltage radiant heat products; snow melting, roof deicing, floor warming. Quantum Murray LP #1313 Stoney Creek, ON 877-378-7745 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Mark Jasper Products/Services to be displayed: Emergency response, confined space, emergency plan development, training, metals recycling, remediation, abatement, demolition, waste management.

Royal Roads University #1111 Victoria, BC 877-778-6227 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Sandy Huang Products/Services to be displayed: Our learning model combines short on-campus residencies with team-based online learning that allows you to work, study and maintain your life. RWDI AIR Inc. #1206 Guelph, ON 519-766-7605 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Elaine Farrow Products/Services to be displayed: Air quality, noise & vibration, environmental consulting services, ventilation, GHG, emission inventories, permitting, odour, dust, meteorology, stack testing, LEED. SNC-Lavalin Environment #1106 Toronto, ON 416-635-5882 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Thom Kewen Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental assessment and remediation, risk management, air quality services, asbestos and designated substance surveys and abatement, regulatory compliance and permitting. Sonic Soil Sampling Inc. #1406 Concord, ON 905-660-0501 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Alan Archibald Products/Services to be displayed: Serving the environmental, geotechnical and mining industries for 29 years with a low, cost-effective method to your sampling needs. Spill Management Inc. #1400 Stoney Creek, ON 905-578-9666 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Ruth Holland Products/Services to be displayed: Spill Management teaches hands-on response skills, strategies, and ER planning to industry, emergency services, institutions, hospitals and universities across Canada.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E St. Lawrence County Industrial Development Agency #1101 Canton, NY 315-379-9806 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Brian Norton Products/Services to be displayed: St. Lawrence County â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The U.S. market starts here! Your best location for an expansion with the U.S. marketplace. Strata Drilling Group Richmond Hill, ON


continued overleaf...

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CANECT Exhibitors 905-764-9304 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Ron Reid or Jan Dean


Summit Process Controls Group Inc. #1212 Brockville, ON 613-926-0108 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Steve Paquette Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental monitors, IAQ monitors, gas detection monitors and analyzers, combustion/emissions analyzers, confined space/hazmat/safety monitors, air velocity and clean room monitoring. Team-1 Academy Inc. #1213 Oakville, ON 905-827-0007 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Brian Kovalcik Products/Services to be displayed: Providing confined space standby rescue services & safety training for the last 15 years. Safety through action...success through commitment! Team 1 Environmental #1605-1617 Hamilton, ON 289-639-2020 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Wesley Hicks Products/Services to be displayed: Emergency response; confined space standby rescue; waste management; waste transportation; training; spill products.

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Formerly IAPA Health & Safety Canada Conference Ontario’s Prevention System partners have joined forces to present Partners in Prevention 2010 – a new health and safety conference and trade show for all Ontario workplaces. t Access the collective expertise of the Ontario Prevention System: Over 60 interactive sessions, workshops, professional development courses and keynote speakers. t One-stop shopping for best practices, compliance advice and business solutions including take-away tools, post conference followup and a trade show with over 400 exhibitors.

Testmark Laboratories Ltd. #1507 Garson, ON 705-693-1121 E-mail: Web site: Contact: Sylvia Rennie Products/Services to be displayed: Providers of environmental analytical services (inorganic, organic, microbiological and toxicological). Our locations: Mississauga, Garson, Sault Ste. Marie and Kirkland Lake. Waterra Pumps Limited #1102 Mississauga, ON 905-238-5242 E-mail: Web site: Contact: John Newall Products/Services to be displayed: Inertial pumps, water level indicator, oil/water interface meter, GPS water quality meter, HydraSleeve, 12 volt submersible pumps, bailers, well caps.

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Join the Air & Waste Management Association (A&WMA) for our 103rd Annual Conference & Exhibition (ACE), the environmental industry’s premier education, networking, and solutions event! ACE 2010 will feature: • Over 500 exciting presentations • Professional development courses taught by industry leaders • An expansive exhibit hall • Fun social and networking events • And much more! Based around the conference theme “Energy and Environment” the ACE technical program will explore a wide range of related issues including the future of fossil fuels, alternative energy solutions, and greenhouse gas emissions management, innovation, and technology. CALGARY 2010 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT

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 Highlights of the 2010 Federal Budget According to Federal Environment Minister Jim Prentice, Budget 2010 includes new measures totaling $190 million to support a cleaner, more sustainable environment, including: • The establishment of a $100 million Next Generation Renewable Power Initiative to support investment in advanced clean technology in the forestry sector. • Expansion of the accelerated capital cost allowance for clean energy generation equipment. • $16 million over two years to continue to protect the Great Lakes by cleaning up areas identified as being the most degraded. • Data about Canada's North will be improved by the allocation of $11.4 million over two years to deliver meteorological services and navigational services in the North and $8 million over two years to support community-based environmental monitoring, reporting, and baseline data collection. • $18.4 million allocated to enhance the tracking of environmental data through the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators program.

Canada-wide wastewater regulation proposed A draft of proposed regulations for municipal wastewater systems effluent is now available for public consultation. Once in force, these regulations will set standards for the discharge from all wastewater facilities in Canada. They will be a key component in implementing the Canada-wide Strategy for the Management of Municipal Wastewater that was endorsed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) in 2009. The proposed municipal wastewater regulations will provide national performance standards and give regulatory clarity on standards and rules on reporting for more than 4,000 Canadian wastewater facilities. The Government of Canada has supported wastewater projects under the Green Infrastructure Fund and Building Canada Fund. Canada's Economic Action Plan accelerated and expanded the exist88 | March 2010

ing $33-billion federal investment in infrastructure with almost $12 billion in new infrastructure stimulus funding across Canada over two years.

apartment superintendents. The deadline for nominations is April 30, 2010.

PEI changes guidelines for wind energy projects

14 additional substances assessed Leona Aglukkaq, Minister of Health, and Jim Prentice, Minister of the Environment, recently released the final screening assessment reports, and, where applicable, the proposed risk management approach documents for 14 substances assessed in Batch 7 of the Chemicals Management Plan. Of the 14 substances assessed in this batch, three pose a risk to human health (Michler's ketone, n-butyl glycidyl ether, and 2-butanone oxime). Michler's ketone is primarily found in Canada as a residue in paper colorants; n-BGE is used as a diluent in epoxy resins which are then used to make coatings, adhesives, binders, sealants, fillers, electrical insulation, and resins; and 2-butanone oxime is used primarily to prevent film from forming in alkyd paints, primers, varnishes and stains. The federal government is recommending that the Significant New Activity (SNAc) provisions of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999), be applied to nine of the remaining 11 substances. This provision requires that it is notified of any new import, manufacture, or use of these substances, and that human health and ecological risk assessments be completed prior to any new use. Two of the remaining 11 substances do not pose a risk to human health or the environment and no further action is recommended.

Nominations open for Mobius Environmental Awards The Resource Recovery Fund Board is now accepting nominations for the 2010 Mobius Environmental Awards. Now in their 12th year, the awards recognize the achievements of innovative individuals and organizations that have helped make Nova Scotia a leader in waste reduction, recycling and composting. Past winners have included manufacturers, hospitality businesses, medical professionals, and

Changes to Prince Edward Island’s Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Guidelines will tighten requirements for wind energy projects. Environment, Energy and Forestry Minister Richard Brown announced recently that EIA guidelines have been amended to include three new requirements: • Any proposed wind turbine project must include an approved power transmission corridor. Projects that do not include a corridor will not be considered for an EIA approval. • EIA review will be required for the construction of transmission lines with a voltage of 69 kilovolts or greater, and for major maintenance work on these lines. “Distribution” lines – those under 69 kilovolts – will not require an Environmental Impact Assessment. • Public notification requirements will be amended so that EIA eligible projects must be advertised publicly for six consecutive days. Current guidelines call for at least one day of advertising, though several days of advertising have normally been required from proponents.

Research project to explore using fish oil as fuel A Memorial University research project will investigate the possibility of converting marine waste to an environmentally friendly biofuel. With the assistance of $81,000 from the Newfoundland and Labrador Green Fund, Dr. Kelly Hawboldt, Associate Professor with the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, will determine the feasibility of using fish oil blended with petroleum-based fuel for powering fish plants and marine vessels. Biofuels are fuels derived from plant material and residues such as agricultural crops, waste from animal processing, or by-products from agricultural or forestry initiatives. In cases where an engine is flexible in terms of fuel quality and a lower quality biofuel oil can be used, the oil from the processing of vegetables and animals can be directly used for power

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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 generation and heating. There are lower emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other toxins throughout the production, use and disposal of these biofuels. For more information, e-mail:

Sale of NB Power to help achieve goals The sale of NB Power to Hydro-Quebec would help reduce the province's annual greenhouse-gas emissions by 11 per cent, and would be instrumental in the province achieving the goals set out in the New Brunswick Climate Change Action Plan, says Environment Minister Rick Miles. The department's data show that under this potential agreement, New Brunswick will exceed its 2012 reduction target for greenhouse-gas emissions by one million tonnes due to the decommissioning of NB Power's facilities at Grand Lake and Dalhousie. Data also show that mercury emissions will be below the 2010 Canada-wide Standard for coal-fired power plants set for New Brunswick, and will reach the high end of 2010 reduction targets set by the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers. Sulphur dioxide emissions will be more than two times lower than 2010 targets set by the conference. While there are no plans to close any facilities other than Grand Lake and Dalhousie, the potential closure of all of NB Power's carbon-based facilities would result in annual reductions of more than six megatonnes of greenhouse-gas emissions, 33,000 tonnes of sulphur dioxide, 13,000 tonnes of nitrogen oxides, 6.5 tonnes of volatile organic compounds, and 96 kilograms of mercury.

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Manitoba introduces new rules for livestock wastes Manitoba is implementing comprehensive new rules for livestock waste management in response to recommendations made by the Clean Environment Commission (CEC) and the auditor general, according to Conservation Minister Stan Struthers. The new regulations include a complete ban on winter spreading of manure continued overleaf...

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on Manitoba farms by 2013, a requirement that all new pig producers register manure management plans with the province, and a minimum capacity for manure storage. In addition, University of Manitoba scientists will use a provincial grant of $300,000 to study the relationship between phosphorus build-up in the soil and how it later gets into Manitoba’s waterways. The new rules and research funding follow significant action already taken to reduce phosphorus loading to provincial lakes and rivers. Manitoba was the first jurisdiction in Canada to pass legislation to control phosphorus in cleaning compounds, first to pass a regulation banning application of nutrients to buffer zones along streams, rivers and lakes, and first to regulate the content of phosphorus in fertilizers used in urban and rural residential areas for cosmetic purposes.

Manitoba wins ruling on water supply project

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The US District Court has again ruled in favour of Manitoba in its case against the Northwest Area Water Supply (NAWS) project. In October 2002, Manitoba filed a legal challenge in US District Court in Washington, DC. It argued that the NAWS project, one of the Garrison Diversion projects that would divert Missouri River water across the continental divide to the Hudson Bay basin, could cause severe and irreparable harm to Manitoba and had been improperly assessed. In early 2005, the court ruled in Manitoba’s favour and ordered the US federal government and North Dakota to go back and do a proper assessment of the risks of transfer of harmful biota or invasive species. Additional work was undertaken and, in 2009, the US federal government and North Dakota returned to the court and asked the injunction on further work be lifted, so that the project could proceed. Manitoba and Missouri objected, saying the proper assessment still had not been done as originally ordered, and that the project still placed Manitoba at considerable risk of harm. Manitoba was joined in its lawsuit by the Canadian federal government, Minnesota, Missouri, the US National Wildlife Federation, the Great Lakes EnvironmenEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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 tal Law Centre, the Minnesota Conservation Federation and the South Dakota Wildlife Federation. AIR RELEASE/VACUUM BREAK VALVES FOR SEWAGE & WATER

CSA develops technical guide The Canadian Standards Association’s Municipal Infrastructure Solutions Program (MISP) has released a new guide entitled “Performance Improvement Tools for Small- and Medium-Sized Water and Wastewater Utilities”. This guide will provide operators and owners of water and wastewater utilities with practical tools to help improve their operations and efficiently utilize resources. It will adapt and apply existing knowledge about quality systems and performance indicators, and present it in a usable and understandable format. With this guide, small- and medium-sized utilities will be able to measure their performance in a consistent and standardized way, plan for and implement changes, and measure their progress in a cycle of continuous improvement. To order the guide, visit

Survey results of Canadaʼs drinking water plants released Statistics Canada’s new Survey of Drinking Water Plants was conducted to provide Canadians with national and regional information related to the production of drinking water. The survey includes drinking water plants serving communities of 300 or more people, and asked for information on volumes of water drawn and treated, treatment type, financial aspects of the operation, as well as raw and treated water quality. Highlights of the survey • In 2007, Canadian drinking water plants processed 5,878 million cubic metres of raw water, the majority of which was surface water. • In 2007, the majority of the Canadian population (28 million) received their drinking water from plants serving communities of 300 or more people. That year, just under 24 million people received drinking water obtained from surface water sources. continued overleaf...




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Earlier this year, Lakehead University in Thunder Bay pleaded guilty to one violation under the Ontario Water Resources Act for a sewage spill to the McIntyre River which may have impaired the quality of the water. The university is comprised of a number of buildings that are serviced by a complex storm and sanitary sewer network that was constructed in the late 1960s. On February 22, 2008, the Ontario Ministry of the Environmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Spills Action Centre received a report of a sewage spill into the McIntyre River on the university campus. The discharge occurred due to a blocked sanitary sewer line which allowed sewage to back up through a manhole and enter an adjacent storm sewer manhole located in the same concrete reservoir.

Liberty Mines fined for failure to report effluent exceedances On November 19, 2009, Liberty Mines Inc. was fined $70,000, plus victim fine surcharge, after being convicted of one violation under the Environmental Protection Act. The company specializes in mining exploration and production of nickel and Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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 cobalt. Redstone Mine Site, located 22 kilometres east of Timmins, Ontario, is owned by Liberty Mines Inc. and possesses significant nickel ferrous sulphide deposits. A provincial officer reviewed effluent data generated from the Redstone Mine Site and found a number of violations of the company’s Certificate of Approval. These related to effluent exceedances for nickel and total suspended solids and failing to report effluent exceedances to the ministry.

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Peter J. Laughton, P. Eng. Public input sought on proposed EA process The Ontario government wants to make it easier for businesses to apply for and obtain environmental approvals (EA), while increasing protection of the environment. The new model would be introduced over the next two years and focus resources on activities that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment. Anticipated changes include: improving and simplifying the application process; introducing a new, public electronic environmental registry to enhance transparency; focusing on businesses or facilities with poor compliance records; and improving standards of environmental protection and compliance. Known as a risk-based approach, the proposal recognizes that not all requests require the same level of review. The province is looking at an approach that streamlines approvals for low-risk activities and focuses resources and efforts on activities that pose the greatest risk to public health and the environment.

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The Pressure Pipe Inspection Company Ltd. (PPIC) has reached a distribution agreement with Advanced Engineering Solutions Limited, based in England. Under the agreement, PPIC will be the exclusive North American service provider for the ECAT™ pipeline condition assessment tool, which provides mapping of metallic pipe walls to predict remaining service life. ECAT uses high-powered magnets to continued overleaf...




PPIC expands metallic pipeline inspection services

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 create a magnetic field within a pipeline. The patented technology then calculates the rate and location of the field loss during the inspection. Magnetic waves travel through structurally weak areas of the pipe at a faster rate and allow for predictions to be made on the remaining life of the pipe. This information can be used by municipalities to prioritize repair and replacement programs, and ultimately minimize the risk of metallic pipeline ruptures.

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94 | March 2010


• Hazardous Site Clean-up & Remediation • Decommissioning and Demolition • Asbestos and Mould Abatement • Contaminated Soil Removal • On-site Water Treatment

Endress+Hauser has opened production facilities in Aurangabad, India, in India, about 300 kilometres east of Mumbai. “Through our local production facilities, we can avoid long distances and exchange rate risks, as well as high transport and customs costs and expand our worldwide production and logistics network”, explained Klaus Endress, CEO of the Endress+Hauser Group. In addition to the Indian market, Aurangabad also directly supplies the markets of Australia, South Africa, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Japan. Expansion into other countries in the Southeast Asian region and the Middle East is planned for the future.

Parkson and Vapex to work together Parkson Corporation and Vapex Environmental Technologies recently announced a partnership to bring Vapex's odor control technology to the North American municipal market. Vapex’s O-Mega hydroxyl ion fogging technology eliminates odors and reduces pH corrosion found throughout wastewater systems. Instead of more traditional technologies which use a considerable amount of energy to extract and scrub the odors, the O-Mega oxidizes the odorous space itself, eradicating the odors without the expense of moving high volumes of air. The two companies will also offer the Sentinel scrubber control system. For scrubber systems, the Sentinel monitors the internal gas passing through the scrubEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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NEWS to 60%. Parkson will also work with Vapex to develop new, customized applications for specific in-plant odor-control solutions, creating efficient methods to treat offensive odors.

Biorem to enter new $400 million growth markets Biorem Inc. recently announced it will expand into the key industrial air emissions control markets of volatile organic compounds and methane emissions. Solutions currently available to clean these emissions from air streams, such as thermal oxidizers, chemical scrubbers, and iron sponges, are non-biological in nature and can generate further greenhouse gases or harmful byproducts during the cleaning process, according to Biorem. Methane is 23 times more powerful as a global warming agent than carbon dioxide and accounts for more than 14% of all man-made greenhouse gas emissions on Earth. Capturing methane emissions and converting them for power generation or automobile fuel sources has the dual effect of mitigating atmospheric damage and providing sustainable, clean energy.

MOE reviews proposed Durham/York EFW facility The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has made available its Notice of Completion of a Review of the Durham/York Residual Waste Study Environmental Assessment, also known as the proposed energy-from-waste (EFW) facility. The Review states that “the proposed thermal treatment facility will benefit the communities in the Regional Municipalities of Durham and York. The ministry is satisfied that the proposed mitigation methods and contingencies will ensure that any potential negative impacts will be minimized and managed.” The proposed EFW facility would be capable of processing up to 140,000 tonnes per year of post-diversion residual waste. It is anticipated that during the 35year planning period, the facility could be expanded up to a maximum capacity of 400,000 tonnes per year. The proposed EFW facility would be located on a 12-hectare parcel of land, located north of

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ITT to purchase Nova Analytics ITT Corporation has agreed to purchase Nova Analytics Corporation, a privatelyheld manufacturer of laboratory, field, portable, and on-line analytical instruments used in water and wastewater, environmental, medical, and food and beverage applications. “This acquisition fits perfectly with ITT’s strategy to expand into categories adjacent to our core businesses and build on our global leadership positions in water, wastewater and industrial process, and products for the food and beverage market,” said Gretchen McClain, president of ITT Fluid and Motion Control group.

Avensys to represent Sensidyne gas and flame detection products Avensys Solutions, a division of Avensys Inc., has entered into a distribution agreement with Sensidyne LP, a supplier of gas and flame detection products for power, chemical, oil and gas, mining, industrial gases, semi-conductor, metals, and water and waste treatment facilities.

Desalination plant achieves performance milestones Tampa Bay Water, American Water, and Acciona Agua, announced recently that the Tampa Bay Seawater Desalination Facility, the largest seawater desalination plant in the US, has passed the final two performance milestone tests. The tests required the plant to produce 25 million gallons of water per day (MGD) for 120 consecutive days, and also average 20 MGD for 12 consecutive months. Both milestones were successfully completed this February. At 25 MGD, the plant provides about 10 percent of the Tampa Bay Region’s drinking water supply. As a result of passing the test, Tampa Bay Water will receive $31.25 million from the Southwest Florida Water Management District.

AWWARF outlines research agenda The AWWA Research Foundation has announced a 2010 research budget of $6.25 million. These funds will be leveraged with in-kind support and partnerships to a total research value of $15 million. Approximately one-third of the funding will go towards three targeted areas: climate change; distribution system water quality; and endocrine-disrupting compounds/pharmaceuticals and personal care products. March 2010 | 95

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March 2010 | 97

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March2010_ES&E_2010 25/03/10 11:13 PM Page 98

Wastewater Treatment

Wetlands for sewage and sludge treatment - Continued from page 73

Figure 5. Plant growth as of 2009.

system, and no requirements for electricity or chemicals. The overall layout of the system can be seen from the aerial photo in Figure 2, with the horizontal beds in the foreground, and the vertical bed and stormwater bed behind. Concrete settling chambers are to the far left, with the location of the outfall to the far right perpendicular to the system. Sludge treatment Solids that are removed from the settling tanks are treated by a wetland system of sludge cells. Liquid sludge from the settlement chambers is applied to the surface of the sludge cells, and flows vertically through the plants and matrix to pipes that feed the liquid back into the main wetland. Solids remain in the sludge cells to be treated. Plants create pathways for continuous drainage, absorb water from the sludge, and provide oxygen into the root zone to stimulate biological mineralization of the sludge. The end product is a composted material that can be used for landscaping or other purposes. Up to 2.5 m of sludge can be applied to each sludge cell per year. As the plants grow up through the composted sludge, new sludge can be applied for seven to eight years before the cells need to be emptied. Since the sludge treatment system began operating, it has provided savings of approximately $20,000 per year in transportation and disposal costs. Secondary treatment 98 | March 2010

Wetlands purify wastewater using a variety of mechanisms. Matrix material can contain natural elements to provide for chemical interactions. The matrix also acts as a filter, trapping and binding contaminants. However, the majority of treatment occurs by biological degradation in the root zone. Wetland beds are planted with a monoculture of nursery-produced and adapted common reed plants (phragmites australis). These plants transfer oxygen to their root systems and into the surrounding rhizosphere, creating zones of varying oxygen levels within the matrix. The three main zones are an anaerobic zone containing no dissolved oxygen, an anoxic zone containing no dissolved oxygen, but having nitrite/nitrate, and an aerobic zone containing dissolved oxygen. These zones, and the boundaries between them, create habitat for many different kinds of micro-organisms, including bacteria, amoebae, ciliates, rotifers and flagellates. In municipal applications, secondary or tertiary treatment can be achieved, depending on the size, configuration, and retention time of the beds. Operation and treatment results The Appleton-Glenwood system was designed in 2005. Construction was started in June 2006, and completed in November 2006. The system was turned on in December 2006, and has run continually since then, with commissioning

activities being performed over the first year. Operational requirements for the system have been as expected. The grinder and screen are checked regularly and debris from the screen is removed weekly or bi-weekly. Operational maintenance of the wetlands involves checking on the beds weekly, with a more thorough review monthly. In the first years of a system, weeding and plant propagation need to be addressed. This is considered part of the overall commissioning and is not a longterm maintenance activity. The highest maintenance activity involves removing the settled sludge from the settling tanks, in this case every three to four months, and pumping it to the sludge cells. In total, overall monthly requirements are approximately four to six man-days per month, or approximately 50 to 80 man-days per year. In addition to labour costs, the system only uses electricity for the grinder and the spiral screen, which amounts to approximately $2,000 per year. The overall operating costs have been lower than expected, at approximately $20,000 per year. The system has performed above expectations from day one, even though incoming BOD levels were, on average, 40% higher than expected during the first year. Effluent is tested prior to entering the Gander River and at a downstream location. Effluent at both stations is clear, colourless and very low in organic matter, suspended solids, phosphorus, ammonia, nitrogen and pathogens. The effluent meets all standards set by the Newfoundland and Labrador government for discharge into a sensitive freshwater body. Since the system performance during the summer months was very high, the second yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s testing focussed on the spring and fall seasons. The results were recognized in 2008, when the Town of Appleton was presented with the Newfoundland and Labrador Environmental Award. For more information, E-mail

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

March2010_ES&E:2010 3/30/10 3:52 PM Page 99


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Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine March-April 2010  
Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine March-April 2010  

This issue focuses on: The case for solar powering water and wastewater treatment plants; Natural treatment systems for waste and stormwater...