Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine November-December 2009

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Contents ISSN-0835-605X November • 2009 Vol. 22 No. 5 Issued November 2009 ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.

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FEATURES 7 Preferred status should not mean status quo – Editorial comment by Steve Davey 8 Attendance down, but still healthy at WEFTEC.09 10 Environmental testing labs – science or commodity? Cover story 14 When, where, why and how to employ decentralized wastewater treatment 18 Mineral based algaecide can improve municipal water supply quality 22 Eliminating wastewater pipe odours in Waskasoo, Alberta

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24 Advanced manure composting method reduces GHG emissions 28 Laminated steel culverts standing up to harsh environmental conditions 30 An electric highway – the future of green transportation? 36 PVCO pressure pipe restores Canada Aviation Museum’s water supply

DEPARTMENTS Product Showcase . . . . . 60-65 Environmental News . . . 66-72 Professional Cards . . . . . 66-72 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Never underestimate the importance of training Shaking the project delivery tree Sustainability and the evolution of consulting engineering A push-pull economy and the increased trend toward bundling How consultants can improve recognition for their expertise and knowledge

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Using a fiberglass tank to harvest rainwater Keeping a lid on spill clean-up expenses Wireless technology helps keep spills on-site Constructing North Americaʼs largest domed glass-fused-to-steel biosolids holding tank Choosing the right tank design standard is vital

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Comment by Steve Davey

Preferred status should not mean status quo


s every student of Canadian history learns, the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 was largely caused by resentment towards a group of public officials, often referred to as “The Family Compact”. They, among other things, controlled the distribution of patronage, landgranting policies, the education policies of the government and its economic priorities, and the general favoritism shown to the Church of England and its supporters and to recent immigrants from Britain. This difficult time in our history is a most poignant example of how bestowing preferential status on groups of people, simply because they are on the scene first, can have unforeseen consequences. For example, many municipalities and cities will now only accept bids from suppliers whose equipment is on their list of "Approved Products". I have been told that this system was implemented to control costs for spare parts and to help operations and maintenance personnel working in different plants be as familiar as possible with their equipment. In many cases, equipment was included on an Approved Product List because it was already in use within the municipality. How are new products added to an Approved Product List? Companies wanting to get a product on a municipality’s Approved Product List, must submit an application, along with considerable technical information to back up performance claims. Preparing an application costs suppliers a lot of money, and it must be done for each individual product. More importantly, municipalities maintain their own list and application form, so suppliers have to submit a different one every time. Additionally, each municipality has its own procedure for submitting an application and requires different supporting information. www.esemag.com

One equipment supplier I spoke to estimated that it cost $500.00 in materials and labour for each product submitted for evaluation, per municipality. With 444 municipalities in Ontario alone, the costs could become staggering, should province-wide approval be the goal. Then there is the evaluation itself, which can take anywhere from three months to more than a year in some municipalities. I have been told that some approval committees are so inundated with the lengthy applications that they never have time to review them all. This means some applications are in limbo in perpetuity. Who approves the applications? The application is usually approved by a review committee made up of maintenance, operations and engineering staff, and possibly an outside consultant. In some municipalities, a successful review only earns the supplier an opportunity to do a product presentation. One municipality requires suppliers to travel to their location to do a 15 minute presentation on the product, for which they have supplied literally hundreds of pages of literature and user references. After one supplier’s 15 minutes are up, the next supplier is waiting to give his/her product presentation. How easy is it to appeal if a product is not approved? In many cases, there is no mechanism for appealing a non-approval decision and there may be a one year waiting period before one can re-apply. For one municipality, I was told that the waiting period before a company can re-apply is so long that, even if it was done immediately, it would be years before the product made it to the review committee’s list again. What does this mean to suppliers, municipalities and the public? The original goals of establishing Approved Product Lists were laudable. But, because of the imposing

submittal costs and the backlog in product approval, many improved and advanced products cannot be implemented as fast, or as widespread, as they should be. Will this approval bottleneck not lead to new plants and expansions being designed and built using old or outdated technology? Certainly, evaluating equipment performance claims is vital to ensuring the right purchasing decision. However, since measuring, pumping and treating water and wastewater is a common process to all municipalities, wouldn’t something like a recognized provincewide product evaluation procedure make better sense? It would lower the cost for companies to introduce new and better technology to the marketplace, and it would lessen the risk for an individual municipality purchasing such products. Or perhaps Approved Product Lists should be reserved for commodity items and products. Engineered systems, like mechanical screens, odour control, disinfection, etc., should be chosen on the basis of the best technology for the application. Clearly, all stakeholders need to be involved in fixing this bottleneck in the purchasing process. Anything that lowers costs, benefits everyone, including taxpayers, who are after all the real customers.

Steve Davey is Editor of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. E-mail comments to steve@esemag.com

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Report by Steve Davey

Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com Senior Consulting Editor

Attendance down, but still healthy at WEFTEC.09


Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $3.75 GST).

8 | November 2009

Many WEFTEC attendees went to Cocoa Beach, Florida. (Left to right), Max Rao and Brian Allen of Indachem, Blake Tonogai, Dale and Greg Jackson of ACG Technology, Penny Davey, with her brother Steve Davey of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine.


total of 17,722 water professionals and 995 exhibitors attended WEFTEC.09, which was held in Orlando, Florida, in October. In comparison, WEFTEC.08, which was the largest in the event’s 81year history, attracted 21,950 attendees and 1,111 exhibitors. WEFTEC.09 featured 122 technical sessions, 31 workshops, nine facility tours, and several high profile events. Of particular interest to attendees was a special session featuring Peter Silva, the new Assistant Administrator for the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Water. Mr. Silva discussed his priorities for the US EPA’s water program, the status of stimulus funding for water infrastructure, and the Obama Administration’s agenda for the national water program. Other popular sessions and workshops included in-depth topics, such as private sewer system management, innovative applications of the small-scale use of reclaimed water, water infrastructure investment, recent developments in membrane bioreactor technology, and improved energy efficiency for wastewater treatment plants and processes. At the Opening General Session, keynote presenter Dr. Mike Magee gave a presentation about the relationship between access to potable water and public health. Referencing his book, Healthy

Waters: What Every Health Professional Should Know About Water, Dr. Magee highlighted the facts and figures about water and its enormous impact on quality of life and public health. Other conference highlights included a successful community service project, organized by WEF’s Students and Young Professionals Committee (SYPC); the SYPC’s Career Fair; the 2009 WEF Student Design Competition, including the two first place winning teams from the University of Colorado-Boulder and the University of Florida; WEF’s Global Center; the AAEE/AIDIS/WEF Breakfast, the AEESP/WEF Lecture and Scientists’ Luncheon; and the 2009 Operations Challenge Competition that was won by the 2008 defending champions, the TRA CReWSers from the Water Environment Association of Texas. During the WEFTEC awards ceremony, Dr. Richard Kuchenrither, who is with Black & Veatch and who is also a Past-President of WEF, was awarded the Emerson Distinguished Service Medal. This award recognizes an individual WEF member who has provided exemplary contributions in promoting and improving the standards of the water industry and in supporting the profession. Steve Davey is Editor of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Cover Story

Environmental testing - science or commodity?


nvironmental laboratories play a critical role in the support of environmental management programs. Critical decisions with costly consequences are often made on the basis of specific laboratory results. It is, therefore, vital to have a high level of confidence in the quality of the data. Considerable changes have taken place in the environmental chemistry field over the past three decades. Public awareness of toxic chemicals in the environment has been greatly enhanced and, also, the importance of reliable test results. At the same time, the private laboratory sector was growing rapidly, especially in the late 1980s, and, before long, a “commodity mentality� started to develop in the marketplace. We started to observe a significant emphasis on productivity, especially automation. In the United States and Canada, many mergers and acquisitions have been occurring; the lab business is becoming "big business". Prices have been falling because of the "push" towards productivity gains and cost saving measures. Moreover, environmental testing contracts required by larger corporations, can often be handled by purchasing departments which can interfere with the important interaction between the laboratory service user and provider. A concerted effort has been made by many in the field (from both private and public sectors) to educate industry, regulators, consultants and the public about the field of measurement science as it pertains to environmental monitoring. Considering the importance of environmental monitoring results, the emphasis must be on the science. Productivity, of course, is also important and automation must be employed where appropriate. The environmental testing field is not, however, as amenable to automation as are other types of laboratory operations such as medical, agricultural and geochemical, and yet these are often viewed as models for the environmental sector. Environmental testing is a relatively new and highly complex field that is still undergoing considerable change. Inter-

10 | November 2009

vention by experienced chemists is necessary throughout the testing process. The position of the Canadian Council of Independent Laboratories (CCIL) is that environmental testing is not a commodity that should be purchased based on the lowest price. Following are some of the factors that set the environmental testing field apart from other more automated laboratory sectors. Environmental testing is not routine a) Methods are still evolving – General water and wastewater analyses for a number of standard parameters (nutrients, some metals, BOD, etc.) have been carried out since the 1930s and 1940s. However, most of the tests performed in environmental laboratories today, were initially developed in the late 1970s, especially those for low level organics in water and soil. The methods have been going through considerable technological advancements from the 1980s to the present. US Environmental Protection Agency methodologies are the basis for many environmental test methods in use today. This agency has now recognized that it is not practical to have prescribed "standard" methods for most of these parameters and it has now officially recognized a performance-based method approach. In this way, a laboratory can refine a method on

its own accord as long as specific performance standards (i.e., detection limit, specificity, precision and accuracy) are met. Under this mode of operation, diligent and thorough method validation by the laboratory is extremely critical. For example, the oil and gas industry (both upstream and downstream) is regulated for a number of parameters and, in the case of hydrocarbon classes, different methods can produce drastically different results due to variations in extraction methodologies. Due to the vast differences between laboratories, the regulators in Canada established a benchmark method based on using a "Soxhlet extraction" which is a 16-hour technique involving heat and continuous extraction. To increase productivity, laboratories may choose to develop an alternate method but must prove equivalence (within 15% of the benchmark method). b) The samples are complex - Laboratories that are highly automated process large numbers of uniform sample types. For instance, in medical laboratories the large majority of samples are blood, serum and urine. Within each of these three categories, the sample "matrix" is virtually indistinguishable from sample to sample as the primary composition of bodily fluids does not change; the only variable is the concentration of trace

CCIL member firms must invest significant capital to acquire the most updated laboratory instrumentation. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Cover Story constituents. This is definitely not the case in environmental laboratories where the sample types range from fish livers to air sampler canisters, with concentrations of contaminants ranging from ppt (parts per trillion) or even lower, to percent levels. The consistency of samples, even within a single submission of one sample type (e.g., soils) is not uniform. Soils often range from very fine silt to coarse gravel, even from the same site. Dealing with the consistency of the samples is a highly critical component of the testing process and can have a dramatic impact on the final result. c) Analytical variability must be understood - The ultimate "product" from an environmental laboratory is a report containing a series of results. It is usually well understood that these results are associated with a range or "error - bar" but the degree of variability can in some cases be larger than the client expects, especially for some of the organic compounds. This can have a significant impact on how test results will be interpreted, especially if the reported result is near a particular regulatory limit or guideline. Laboratories are now required under CCIL’s national accreditation to report method uncertainty. CCIL scientists have taken a lead in developing the protocols for determining uncertainty. (See CCIL position paper at www.ccil.com). d) Sensitivity of tests - constantly being "pushed" - In the late 1960s it was routine and acceptable to report a detection limit of 50 ppb (parts per billion) when analysing for lead in water. By the late 1970s the best detection limit routinely reported was 1 ppb. Today, the detection limit requested for environmental baseline monitoring can be as low as 0.01 to 0.05 ppb. This amounts to a 1,000 to 5,000 times increase in sensitivity over a 30-year period and the regulators are still considering the need for greater sensitivity for some parameters. Laboratories are often producing data at levels below the ability of reviewers to understand or interpret. It must be realized that, the more sensitive the analysis, the easier it is to be measuring artifacts such as contamination introduced during sampling, storage and analysis. When projects require ultrawww.esemag.com

low level analysis it is vital to carry out additional and uniquely designed quality assurance (QA) and review these QA results before the data are reported. e) Need for supplemental testing and consultation - "This 'xyz' result does not make sense." This is a frequent query that clients make to a laboratory but it does not necessarily mean there is an error in the analysis. The work and, of course, internal costs associated with this kind of query can be considerable. The resolution process requires that re-analysis be undertaken on a priority basis and can also require significant attention from senior personnel (including the client contact person, lab manager, lab supervisor, analyst and quality manager). In some cases, further diagnostic work can completely change the interpretation of the results. As an example, one of our member laboratories was involved in a project whereby hydrocarbons were reported from using the standard method required by the government and the results were reported to the client. The hydrocarbon results were considerably higher than had been ex-

pected. So, it was requested that a further assessment be done by one of the senior chemists of that laboratory. Upon further diagnostic testing, using alternative detection methods, it was shown that wood waste materials within the samples were being extracted and were registering positive values as hydrocarbons. This was an important, and cost saving, finding for the client. Environmental laboratories face significant costs It is also important for laboratory users to have an understanding of the significant costs that environmental laboratories face to be able to offer the broad range of services required. a) Professional staff - CCIL member laboratories employ a number of senior scientific staff who are not involved in day to day analysis work, and who are thus not doing actual chargeable work. These staff members are needed to carry out important functions such as: training, instrument optimization, method development, research, consultation with clients, issue resolution, quality continued overleaf...

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Cover Story management, data management, and more. b) Facility costs - An environmental laboratory is housed in an extremely complex facility that must address unique HVAC, cooling water delivery, piping of a variety of compressed gases, fume removal, separation of certain chemicals, cold storage of samples, significant power requirements, along with computer linkage, waste storage and more. The typical replacement cost of laboratory space is in the range of $160.00 to $220.00 per square foot for most CCIL members. Thus the cost to build a 30,000 square foot building (or 3,000 square metres) would be in the range of 4.8 to 6.6 million dollars. This is much higher than for most types of service companies in the environmental industry. c) Investment in technology - CCIL member firms must invest significant capital to acquire the most updated laboratory instrumentation as well as Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS). Table 1 provides a few examples of instruments routinely acquired by CCIL member laboratories. d) Supplies - Supply costs represent at

Table 1 – Some representative costs of laboratory instrumentation. Instrument

Cost – (dollars)

Used For


150 to 190K 100 to 140K 200K 50 to 75K 450 to 550K

low level metals organics organics anions dioxins*

ICP – Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometer, MS – Mass Spectrometer, GC – Gas Chromatograph, LC – Liquid Chromatograph – Ion Chromatograph * and other organic compounds requiring extra sensitive testing.

least 15% of a typical laboratory’s overhead. Certain reagents and standards are extremely expensive. For example, some organic standards can cost over $1,000 per gram and have a very short shelf life. In addition to supplies utilized in the laboratory, CCIL member laboratories provide a full array of sampling equipment, supplies and containers, as well as shipping supplies. Each cooler with bottles and sampling reagents can be upwards of $300.00 and often as many as 10 can be requested for a large project.

Laboratory Accreditation All CCIL member laboratories are accredited by either CALA (Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation) or by the SCC (Standards Council of Canada). These two bodies in turn are officially recognized by ISO (International Organization of Standards). The accreditation process is a comprehensive undertaking involving highly detailed site audits along with the analysis of a broad range of proficiency samples. To provide an estimate for a fairly

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Cover Story Table 2. Annual CCIL accreditation costs. Laboratory

ABC Labs Inc

# of employees Services offered

100 Conventional parameters, metals, organics Water, wastewater, soil, sediment, air, foods $15.000 $35,000 $80,000 $10,000

Samples Cost – site audit Cost – proficiency program Cost – QA staff & benefits Cost – dedicated supplies typical lab site the annual accreditation costs are itemized in Table 2. Purchasing laboratory services Reliable environmental monitoring is a multi-step process that includes sampling and testing design, sample collection, sample analysis, data reporting and data evaluation. The CCIL recommendations for consideration in purchasing an environmental laboratory service are: • Qualifications of the staff – many staff are involved in carrying out an environmental laboratory program and the buyer

must be assured of their qualifications. • Relevant project experience – it is important to ensure that the laboratory selected has sufficient experience with the type of project requested. • Relevant laboratory equipment and facilities – if, for example, the intended project involves very low detection limits, the bidding labs must have the appropriate “clean rooms” and the necessary instrumentation such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometer/Mass Spectrometer (for metals) or high-reso-

lution Mass Spectrometer (for organics). • Accreditation – the laboratory must have the relevant accreditation. It is important that the buyer be supplied with the details of a laboratory’s accreditation to make sure they are accredited for every test that could be requested in a particular project. As well, the laboratory must be able to show their systems with respect to sample management, data management and archiving. Two envelope bid protocol It is essential that we continually advocate a bidding process that ensures that the buyer is considering best overall value over the lowest bid. Indeed, CCIL recommends a two-envelope bid protocol so that the best proposal is selected without consideration of the bid price. Once the firm is selected, the price proposal is opened and the value of the contract is further negotiated. This bid protocol is also recommended by the various engineering associations in Canada. For more information, visit www.ccil.com

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Wastewater Treatment

When, where, why and how to employ decentralized wastewater treatment - Part two By Curtis J. Sparks and Ryan Devlin


n Part one of this article, we described the centralized “big pipe” wastewater treatment system and discussed where it makes sense to consider combining decentralized services. When considering a decentralized system, three questions should be addressed: • What technologies could provide long-term treatment and disposal? • How should the systems be funded? • What management structure should be put in place? Assuming that the decentralized wastewater systems are clustered and that treatment equivalent to, or better than the centralized system is desired, there will be pretreatment systems before disposal. Technologies for long-term treatment lie in two broad categories: natural and mechanical systems. The difference is the passive and active nature of these methods. Passive systems include lagoons, single-pass and recirculating filters, and constructed wetlands. Mechanical systems include activated sludge, rotating biological contactors, oxidation ditches, sequencing batch reactors, and membrane bioreactors. Generally, the natural system technologies require larger footprints, less O&M and less energy to operate. Mechanical systems are more compact and have higher process control and sophistication. The advantages and disadvantages of each should be considered for each application. For example, where land area is not a factor and less maintenance is desired, a constructed wetland is an excellent choice for a decentralized residential setting. Where land is at a premium and operations personnel are available on a daily basis, a packaged treatment plant may be more desirable. Disposal technologies include surface water discharge, subsurface dispersal, and reuse. One of the major benefits of a decentralized approach is that all of these options can be considered. Most often subsurface disposal is chosen. 14 | November 2009

The Mississippi River in northern Minnesota is being protected by decentralized wastewater options.

This way, the entire system is self-contained and does not rely on transporting wastewater to another location or discharging to a water body that affects others. Subsurface disposal is accomplished through infiltration beds, trenches or drip irrigation. Again, each option has its advantages and disadvantages. Driving factors for the soil dispersal technology employed will be the local regulations, soil conditions and land availability. Water reuse is emerging as an integrated water management necessity. It includes replacing domestic water with treated reuse water for irrigation, fire protection, commercial laundry and toilet flushing. Government regulations are being amended to allow many of these options and more. The presence of decentralized facilities with treated wastewater within the community allows reuse options to be more easily implemented. Funding In most cases, decentralized wastewater projects serving new residential developments are funded by internalizing the capital costs of the wastewater system into the development cost. The wastewater collection, treatment, and

disposal system is installed and turned over to the management entity as a completed system. Retrofitting an existing unsewered area is generally funded by the municipality through bonds, loans and grants paid by the benefiting property owners. Therefore, the implementation of a decentralized wastewater system is not often burdened by funding issues. However, it should be recognized that funding programs currently favour centralized wastewater approaches. In 2008, the National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project, a cooperative effort funded by the United States EPA, published New Approaches in Decentralized Water Infrastructure. Some of the reasons that decentralization has not caught on were discussed in this report. Fear of liability and the financial disincentive for engineers to propose decentralized wastewater systems were identified by many communities as two of the main barriers. Communities must rely on their engineering consultants to provide them with balanced views of their options. The study concluded that “two major changes continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment

A decentralized wastewater system fits almost transparently into a development.

need to occur before the engineers will feel safer in their recommendations: they are management and funding.” Until grants and low-interest loans are available for decentralized wastewater systems, the centralized approach will continue to be favoured by communities. Government changes are needed to eliminate this economic disparity. Provinces across Canada are closely watching this issue as it unfolds in the US, as the guidelines established by the EPA are directly applicable in Canada. Management of decentralized wastewater systems In both Canada and the US, proper management of wastewater systems has become an issue at almost every level of government. Management includes ownership, financial management, operation and maintenance and public education. The US EPA has identified management of on-site and clustered decentralized systems as critical to the performance of any wastewater system, and it published voluntary guidelines in March 2003. The decision on decentralized systems lies with local units of government, and regulation is by the provincial and state governments. Provinces and states have also addressed the management issue through several approaches, in16 | November 2009

cluding permit programs, guidance and rules. Alberta has management priorities that strongly favour municipal management over homeowner associations. There is evidence that many smaller communities may not have any greater ability to manage decentralized systems than a homeowner association. In these cases, private ownership or regional management programs may be more appropriate. The municipalities where decentralized systems are proposed as the primary treatment method need to create a plan for proper management. Many government and private options exist, so there is no reason that proper management of decentralized wastewater systems cannot be accomplished to guarantee long-term fiscal and operational performance. Case study One very good example of how local municipal governance has decided to adopt the decentralized process as part of its infrastructure planning process is Lac Ste. Anne County (LSAC) in central Alberta. LSAC is located 25 minutes west of Edmonton, north of Highway 16. The County’s planning and development manager, Tanya Vanderwell, commented that the main reason LSAC decided to look at decentralization was

that it did not own any property in the area where a high level of growth was occurring. The creation of a traditional lagoon also puts building restrictions on adjoining land. According to Vanderwell, LSAC’s major concerns about current wastewater strategies are to create lots that can sustain the amount of sewage produced for the development on-site. Having enough property area to create building sites and having sufficient room for additional sewage systems if the first system fails are the two key factors in the wastewater treatment system selection process. “In many cases, the County, through its developers, wanted to create a higherdensity subdivision than is allowed by our Land Use Bylaw and Municipal Development Plan,” she added. Developers who are creating highdensity subdivisions are in favour of decentralization as it allows for a greater number of lots to be created on a smaller parcel of land and is environmentally friendly. This provides a higher level of service to residents who wish to move into Lac Ste. Anne County. Residents get the benefits and services of city life in a country setting. “Lac Ste. Anne County likes to take on new initiatives and plan for a sustainable future for all residents,” said Vanderwell. “This summer, the concept of decentralization will be presented to the public as more projects are reviewed and approved.” It is slowly being realized that expanding centralized wastewater systems is not sustainable and will not meet longterm needs. No longer can we pump and flush our valuable water resources into a river. Recharging groundwater supplies is critical, and decentralized treatment can help accomplish this. Education is still needed for municipalities and the public to bring all involved parties on board. Decentralized water and wastewater systems may be the key to assuring there will be adequate water supplies and a healthy ecosystem now and in the future. Curtis J. Sparks and Ryan Devlin are with Stantec. E-mail: curtis.sparks@stantec.com or ryan.devlin@stantec.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Water Supply

Mineral-based algaecide can improve municipal water supply quality


rotecting water quality is an ongoing concern for those responsible for municipal water supplies. It requires a high state of alertness, competence and diligence to monitor and control the many variables that can impact quality. One variable is algal growth when weather conditions, nutrient levels and water conditions are favourable. There are approximately 30,000 different varieties of algae and they are one of the hardiest and most widespread living organisms on our planet. The presence of algae can quickly bring about negative impacts on the physical, chemical and aesthetic characteristics of drinking water, including changes in colour, taste, smell, turbidity, bacteria count and algal toxins. It is quite clear that the problem of algae control is becoming an increasingly urgent matter as human settlements move towards water supplies that are receiving

18 | November 2009

nutrient-rich run-off from fertilizers, decaying organic matter and other wastes. A further observation is that cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) is becoming more prevalent in many areas of Canada. Cyanobacteria is a serious concern, as its toxins can be quite poisonous. There are many examples each year of wildlife, livestock, pets, even humans, experiencing illness, and, in some cases, death from exposure to algal toxins. Natural mineral ions can control contamination Primary disinfectants are not particularly useful in controlling algae in large water bodies. Halogens, like chlorine, kill target organisms quickly by oxidation. However, they have several significant limitations. They are often only effective for hours before they become ineffective due to evaporation, or chemical change, by being exposed to sunlight. Chlorine can be dangerous to handle

By Frank R. Varseveld

and can form undesirable secondary products, such as trihalomethanes, when combined with organics. Because of these limitations, it is not practical, or economic, to apply halogen-based products to large water bodies. Algal toxins such as geosmin and methyl isoborneol (MIB) can be partially removed with activated carbon. However, this is an expensive solution and is typically only about 50% effective. A preferred solution is to employ methods that stop algal growth before it produces these undesirable contaminants. The use of minerals to control bacteria and algae in water can be traced back to the early Egyptians. They used copper urns to keep stored water safe from biological contamination. Early settlers in North America used silver and copper coins in wooden water barrels for the same reason. In recent times, granulated copper

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Nov09_ES&E:ES&E 11/23/09 4:25 PM Page 19

Water Supply

Water supply reservoir before application of algaecide.

sulphate has been used to control algae in municipal and agricultural water storage. However, because of uneven distribution, unpredictable dissolution of the granules and the high application rate needed to be effective, “hot spots� are common. In addition, under-water soils typically become overloaded with copper from repeated use of granulated cop-


After two weeks of treatment, the reservoir is free of algae.

per sulphate. Any benefits from this treatment method are typically shortlived as precipitation from the dissolved copper sulphate is common. For these reasons, granulated copper sulphate is no longer acceptable by many regulatory agencies for use as an algaecide. Research has recently resulted in copper-based products which are effec-

tive, eco-friendly, economical and safe for human consumption. Public safety issues Copper is a natural mineral, recognized universally as an essential nutrient for humans, livestock, wildlife and plants. Copper cannot be synthesized in the body, so the human diet must supply continued overleaf...

November 2009 | 19

Nov09_ES&E_Final:ES&E 11/26/09 12:54 PM Page 20

Water Supply regular amounts. The average daily dietary requirement for copper in adult humans is estimated to be about 2 mg per day, which is in the order of one hundred times more than the copper that will be consumed from drinking water that has received treatment with properly formulated ionic copper. The liver is the major storage organ for copper, where it is bound with protein. Excess copper is eliminated through bile, feces and urine. The US Environmental Protection Agency has set 1.3 parts per million (ppm) as the level that will not cause any health problems. The World Health Organization concluded in 1974 that the fatal human dose of copper salts is approximately 200 mg per kilogram of body weight. It is very rare that humans succumb to copper poisoning, indicating that the human body can adapt to a wide variation in copper intake without ill effects. Copper must be present in correct ionic speciation Research has shown that copper is most effective when it is present as hexaaqua cupric ions. The challenge for the

water treatment industry has been to find a way to harness the biocidal properties of copper coupled with fast and uniform dispersion, while using only minute amounts. For decades, many researchers have laboured over the challenge to maintain copper in Cu++ speciation for extended periods with inconsistent success. Recent technological breakthroughs make possible formulations that provide these desirable characteristics. These will undoubtedly become the product of choice for water quality managers. Selective biological control is possible Fortunately, algae and pathogenic bacteria are less tolerant to ionized copper than beneficial bacteria, so selective control is possible simply by controlling the dosage. This form of copper targets a variety of organisms in order of increasing copper tolerance as follows: • Generally algae are the least tolerant; • Fungi, bacteria; • Nematodes (worms) gastropods (snails), larvae. There is some overlap of copper tol-

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erance in each of these groups. This form of copper is a very useful, versatile and economical tool that can assist those responsible for the quality of water and water environments. Application of liquid ionic copper concentrate Liquid ionic copper concentrate is typically used in concentrations between 0.04 to 1 part per million (ppm), depending on the application. It is supplied in a concentration of 5% copper (60,000 ppm). Dilution ratios for the concentrate will, therefore, be between 1:60,000 and 1:1,500,000 to achieve the above concentrations. For algae control in municipal drinking water, dilution ratios between 1:600,000 to 1:120,000 (0.1 – 0.5 ppm) are common. In more easily understood terms, 0.5 ppm would represent 0.02 mg of copper in three litres of water. Dilution ratios of 1:60,000 to 1: 120,000 (1.0 to 0.5 ppm) of this form of copper are commonly used for control of bacteria such as E.coli, coliform, streptococcus faecalis, salmonella, enterococci, and other pathogens used as in-



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dicators to assess water quality. As per Health Canada regulations, the maximum limit for copper in drinking water is 1 ppm. Copper products must be properly formulated Copper products must be formulated to resist precipitation, and to maintain ionic speciation for long periods, regardless of high pH, or organic matter levels. Consumption of the copper will gradually diminish as it is assimilated by micro-organisms. The copper solution must be formulated so that it will not form any harmful secondary chemical compounds. Formulations must also be compatible with other disinfectant systems and additives including flocculants, chlorine, ozone and ultraviolet treatment. Whereas halogens work by oxidizing micro-organisms, disinfection with ionic copper takes place when positively charged cupric ions form electrostatic bonds with negatively charged areas on the cell walls of micro-organisms. These electrostatic bonds create stresses that lead to distorted cell wall permeability,

minimizing normal intake of life sustaining nutrients. Once inside the cell wall, copper ions react with sulphur-containing amino acids in the proteins used for photosynthesis. As a result photosynthesis is blocked, leading to cell lysis and death. If the cell manages to live for a short time, the reproduction process is hampered by the presence of copper ions and reproduction of the micro-organism is stopped. In this way, copper becomes a potent biocide in minute quantities, yet is safe for consumption by humans and livestock. Summary The use of an ionic copper bacteriostatic algaecide can be an environmentally responsible and safe method of controlling algae and algae toxins in municipal drinking water. The benefits include improvement in water quality, reduced water treatment costs and the adoption of greater environmental responsibility. Frank Varseveld is with EnvirEau Technologies Inc. E-mail: frank@pureprotection.ca

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Odour Control

Eliminating wastewater pipe odours in Waskasoo, Alberta By Bryan Haan


he Waskasoo Regional Services Board (WRSB) is a group of small communities in central Alberta. Similar to many small communities, the sewage is collected in the town’s system and then transmitted to a larger sewer system that eventually leads to a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF). The area’s transmission sewer is approximately 25 km long, joining the city of Red Deer’s collection system just prior to the WWTF. Red Deer serves a much larger population base of close to 90,000 residents. WRSB’s transmission system was designed to support growth for an additional 30+ years for all contributing sources, but it is currently operating at only 20-30% of capacity. The average daily flow is 1,500 m3. The transmission system consists of both forcemain and gravity sections as well as three pumping stations that operate in sequence. After the third pumping station, the forcemain transitions to a gravity main within the city limits. There are 46 manhole locations on this gravity section of the WRSB transmission sewer. With expansion in recent years, these manhole locations are now at the heart of new residential development areas in the city. A paved trail runs parallel to the road with multiple sewer air release points. These manhole points are zones where the public has close contact with the existing grav-

22 | November 2009

A sewer release air point.

ity sewer line. After this gravity section, the sewage combines with the Red Deer collection system en route to the WWTF. Odour and corrosion problems Odour issues arose at these access points on the gravity main, and local residents and passersby initially brought these to the city of Red Deer’s attention, as the problems occurred within city limits. However, further investigation revealed that WRSB’s sewage transmission line was responsible for the odours. The low flow through WRSB’s collection system causes longer retention of the sewage during transmission. This is a leading contributor to anaerobic conditions that generate odorous compounds. Although odours were the initial concern, further investigation showed corrosion within the collection system from the high level of odorous compounds, specifically hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and this was the driving factor for treatment in this case. Pilot studies WRSB had been researching treatment options for some time, as their system has been in place since 1984. Recent residential encroachment required the odorous conditions be completely dealt with. Many liquid-phase solutions had been investigated over the years, with limited success. These included a wide variety of enzymes as well as chemical treatment utilizing chlorine, peroxide, and caustic soda. A number of physical changes were made to the collection system to decrease H2S generation but, due to the long retention, these had minimal effect. The Board implemented vapour-phase odour control on the gravity main, but it also had little effect and did not address the corrosion issues. WRSB’s contract consulting firm, Watertech Engineering Research & Health Inc., of Calgary, then contacted Siemens Water Technologies. Through discussions with WRSB and Watertech, Siemens developed a treatment approach that incorporated different liquid-phase technologies, and they helped conduct a pilot trial comparing two liquid-phase Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Nov09_ES&E:ES&E 11/23/09 4:26 PM Page 23

Odour Control approaches. The WRSB tested Siemens’ Bioxide™ process and iron salts (ferric chloride) for five days each. The Bioxide process is a bio-chemical approach that provides removal of existing sulphides as well as prevention of their further formation. These attributes enable the process to treat not only existing issues in the sewage but also long retention of the sewage. By comparison, iron salts chemically treat existing sulphides through binding and precipitation of the newly formed particles. The WRSB set up three monitoring locations for the trial: Pumping Station #2, Pumping Station #3, and a manhole along the gravity section within the city limits. The manhole was to be the key control location as that was where odours were measured to be the highest, and it was also the closest location to sensitive receptors. Both trials included liquid and vapour testing, although the vapour H2S loading results were to be the primary monitoring tool. Both treatment options showed positive results during their respective trial periods. The Bioxide process reduced the average daily loading by over 125 ppm of H2S and approached non-detectable conditions. Using iron salts also reduced H2S to non-detectable limits. During the pilot trial, the WRSB odour control team adapted the dosage regime for both products to the flow conditions, specifically the diurnal characteristics. A two pump system was used, allowing for three different dosage


rates throughout the day. Permanent odour solution Siemens Water Technologies issued a comprehensive report to Watertech which, in turn, confirmed the results to WRSB. Product classification (hazardous vs. nonhazardous), dosage regime, dosage volumes, and chemical feed consideration and storage, were all factors considered in the reporting. The levels of treatment achieved by the liquid-phase approach also targeted corrosion control protection for the system.

The Bioxide process is a bio-chemical approach that provides removal of existing sulphides as well as prevention of their further formation. WRSB used the information gained through the Siemens pilot to implement a liquid-phase treatment program as its permanent solution. Monitoring results from the pilot trial also showed higherthan-acceptable levels of H2S in the wet wells at PS #2 and PS #3. WRSB used Siemens’ recommendations to implement three dosage locations - one at each pumping station on the transmission system. While both products that were trialed showed positive results, when all factors were considered, the Bioxide process was chosen as the pre-

ferred treatment solution. As the estimated annual costs of this application for both products were nearly identical, ease of implementation and operations were mainly considered. According to Terry Linthorne, lead operator at WRSB, the non-hazardous nature of the Bioxide process and how that correlated to storage and feed equipment was key. This was especially important because the process would be incorporated into the small existing pumping stations, and storage would be outside. In addition, the Bioxide process also required roughly half the dosage of that of the ferric chloride on this application, so operational considerations and associated costs would be less than those of iron salts. Siemens Water Technologies supplied each of the three pumping stations with a complete system that included a chemical feed panel, double wall storage tanks, and the Bioxide process itself. During commissioning of the system, additional odour analysis ensured that the correct dosage regime was implemented. This again took into consideration the diurnal flow characteristics and seasonal flow alterations. The system has been successfully treating the entire system since the Summer of 2007, with minimal operator involvement. Bryan Haan is with Siemens Water Technologies Canada, Inc., Markham, Ontario. E-mail: bryan.haan@siemens.com

November 2009 | 23

Nov09_ES&E:ES&E 11/23/09 4:26 PM Page 24

Biosolids Management

Agricultural practices for reducing greenhouse gases By Michael Morris


reenhouse gases are emitted from stored manure and other decomposing organic waste. They consist of three main components: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Carbon dioxide emissions from decaying organic matter are classified as neutral because they are considered to be part of the natural carbon cycle, with the amount of CO2 released dependent on the volume of the material decomposing. Methane and nitrous oxide production usually occurs under specific conditions; in the case of methane, the absence of sufficient oxygen is the usual cause. Although methane remains in the atmosphere for a shorter time than carbon dioxide, its levels are reportedly increasing. Methane traps 20 times as much heat as carbon dioxide. Two contributors of methane emissions are agricultural practices and landfill of organic substances. “Regarding the effect of compost turning on CO2 release,� says Dr. Jason Hof-

The Sittler windrow turner is designed to produce an aerobic environment for proper methane elimination.

man, director of Soil Foodweb Canada East, “it seems to me that this is a matter of ‘sooner or later’ and the amount of total CO2 will be the same in the end. Raw compost feed stocks will release CO2 rapidly as the compost food web consumes the easy, simple foods, sugars,

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amino acids and all of the other metabolic intermediates they contain. This rate slows, although it does continue, as the remaining material becomes increasingly resistant to decomposition. Achieving a stable, compost sooner will come with a faster rate of CO2 release but no real change in the total amount released.â€? When considering methane production, we must first consider the methods of decomposition: aerobic, involving exposure to considerable amounts of oxygen; anaerobic, where little or no oxygen is present; and fermentation. The aerobic Advanced Biological Compost™ (ABC) method focuses on creating environments with a balance that encourages a broad spectrum of appropriate microbes tailored for specific plant growth. The microbial profile can be formulated in accordance with the ingredients of the material being composted in order to meet the end use of the application of the compost produced. The main microbial focus is fungaldominated compost. The ABC method helps stabilize the release of ammonia/nitrogen from decomposing waste organic material. “As methanogenic bacteria are strict anaerobes and tolerate even low levels of O2 poorly or not at all,â€? says Dr. Hofman, “aerobic composting could eliminate methane production and release. A carefully managed ABC method of comcontinued overleaf...

24 | November 2009

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Biosolids Management posting will not produce any methane. “What really seems to me to be most important in this discussion is how much of the organic matter in compost will remain in the receiving soil and how long it will stay there. What is most important is increasing the amount of organic matter (carbon) in soils. If one can manage soils in such a way as to increase continually their organic matter content, then true carbon sequestration is occurring. Adding compost to soil is the most rapid way to build soil OM/carbon and it certainly is not all converted back to CO2 in a few years. Some fractions can remain for decades or longer. “Certainly the structure of the food web will influence the fate of OM/carbon in soils. The activity of soil microfauna is significant in this regard, relating to their generation of fecal pellets — remarkable stuff, micromanure. Every bit of food and organic matter eaten by these soil animals becomes a bit more resistant to decomposition as it is subjected to digestive enzymes and processes and expelled as digested fecal pellets. “Other organisms, mostly bacteria

The water injection system inoculates the compost windrow as required for intensified carbon retention.

and fungi, will invade the fecal pellets and extract what nutrients they can, leaving behind even more resistant organic matter — and so it goes until what is finally left is highly resistant to further degradation (humus). It will remain for very long periods of time before it is fully decomposed, perhaps in the order of centuries.” With the ABC method, the carbon and nitrogen ratios are balanced and acceler-

ation of the compost process is substantial, with the majority of the breakdown, build-up and stabilization occurring in a six-to-10-week time-frame. Natural soil formation can take hundreds of years to produce a layer one inch thick. When the ABC method of composting is used with the Sittler compost windrow turner, it creates finished compost rich in humus. The Sittler windrow turner was specifically designed to pro-



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Biosolids Management vide a base for a sustainable, progressive approach to waste management, nutrient recovery for soil management and crop fertility and greenhouse gas reduction. The United States Compost Council (USCC) agrees with the US EPA that well-managed aerobic windrow composting does not emit methane and that any CO2 generation is biogenic (part of the natural CO2 cycle). Tractor fuel gas emissions have been calculated to be minimal compared to fuel emissions from other composting methods. Manure and other organic waste such as lagoons of liquid manure from swine and dairy cattle can produce significant amounts of methane. Furthermore, the USCC also relates nitrous oxide emissions with anaerobic conditions from waste material, particularly when there is high nitrogen content. Under these conditions, nitrous oxide may be emitted instead of carbon dioxide. When measuring greenhouse gas impact, nitrous oxide is estimated to be 296 times worse than CO2. Nitrous oxide can be emitted from fermenting manure lagoons, spreading manure and conventional fertilizer applications. When

examining the effects of a carbon sink, we need to consider that microbial residuals, particularly from fungi, produce carbon-rich compounds that act like glue, binding mineral particles and forming soil aggregates. This glue-like substance is what holds soil together. Consisting of 30-40% carbon, it accounts for approximately 30% of the stored carbon in soil, and can remain in soil for an estimated seven to 42 years. Farming practices such as tillage and conventional fertilizer applications can have a negative influence on microbial soil life, particularly fungi, microbial residuals and carbon retention. If the amount and duration of carbon sequestering has a direct relationship to the microbial presence and profile in compost and soil, then the role agriculture plays and choices made regarding agricultural practices are significant. Are more of our answers lying just below our feet? If substantially more carbon is naturally stored in the soil root zone where most of the soil microbes exist, as opposed to the above-ground vegetation and atmosphere, don’t we need to focus more on soil microbial pro-

files? How we can adjust them to our advantage for more effective carbon sequestering? With an estimated 167 million acres of farmland in Canada, are there more levels of possibilities than previously anticipated for carbon sequestering and possible trading opportunities concerning agricultural practices? “We must also not forget that the fundamental soil function of nutrient cycling is tightly and directly coupled to organic matter decomposition, which results in CO2 generation,” says Dr. Hofman. “We are not simply burying carbon and expecting it to stay there, as some seem to think. We must remain aware of the always dynamic nature of soil processes and functions so we can manage them to yield a sustainable agriculture built on soils that absorb more carbon than they release, thus effectively reversing the opposite trend in the last century of conventional agriculture that caused soils to release far more carbon than they absorbed.” Michael Morris is with Global Repair Ltd. E-mail: sales@globalrepair.ca

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Polymer-laminated corrugated steel culverts standing up to Ontario’s harsh environmental conditions By David J. Penny

The polymer-laminated CSP is in perfect condition, despite gravel and salt deposits.


ntario, and most of North America for that matter, has seen some very dramatic environmental changes during the past 30 to 40 years that create severe service conditions for highway culvert systems. Industrial pollution and acid rain have had a very adverse effect on our surface water, especially in Northern Ontario, where there is very soft water that is sensitive to acidity. There has also been a tremendous increase in the use of road salt for removing snow and ice and maintaining traction for road safety. In addition to negative environmental consequences, these conditions have manifested themselves in severe corrosion of culvert pipes made from galvanized steel and concrete. Recognizing the significant impact these conditions were having on the lifespan of its highway drainage pipes, the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) and its Gravity Pipe Study partners began evaluating a number of options for specific service conditions and applications. This included evaluation of materials and coatings that demonstrated the ability to generate the 75-year life it expects for major highways and bridges. Polymer-laminated corrugated steel pipe (CSP) was approved by the MTO 28 | November 2009

for use under the 400-series and other highways as part of its Gravity Pipe Study (September 2005). The study was a collaborative effort with various industry associations and engineering experts that evaluated the performance of different types of pipe under specific environmental and water conditions. The result of that study was a set of design guidelines that recommends which type of pipes may be used based on several factors, including environmental/water conditions and design service life. “The MTO Gravity Pipe Design Guidelines ensure that all products are considered in the design process, and only the appropriate ones move forward,” said Art Groenveld, senior engineer, Drainage and Design at MTO. “By considering all products, a strong element of competition is introduced.” Through the study, it became clear that one of the most effective ways to get a 75-year culvert lifespan in Ontario with heavy use of road salt was to choose polymer-laminated steel. Studies showed that Trenchcoattm Protective Film had provided better bonding and corrosion protection versus alternative polymers. Manufactured by the Dow Chemical Company (Dow), Trenchcoat Protective Film is a tough, rugged polyolefin film that is laminated to the inside and out-

side of the galvanized steel that is used to make CSP for use in storm drains and culvert systems, as well as a variety of other applications. Hundreds of polymer-laminated CSP drainage pipes have now been installed in major highways throughout Ontario. A field study tour by representatives from MTO, the Quebec Ministry of Transport (MTQ), the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute (CSPI) and Dow, of five major installations, including several cases where galvanized and concrete drainage pipe were installed nearby, showed the polymer-laminated pipes are providing excellent corrosion resistance. At sites throughout the tour, aluminized, double zinc and galvanized CSP showed signs of corrosion, while the polymer-laminated CSP remained in near-perfect condition. An excellent example of this was observed near the intersection of Roads 8 and 11 in the City of Ottawa, an area that has high road salt levels. Galvanized, aluminized and polymer-laminated pipes were all installed within one kilometre of each other, providing valuable observations for performance comparisons. The 900 mm-diameter aluminized and double zinc culverts were installed beside each other at the intersection in 1996. The galvanized pipe showed signs of mechan-

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Infrastructure ical damage to the end and red rust in the invert area. There were also rust spots on the exterior. The aluminized was stained with some evidence of rusting. One kilometre west of the intersection on Brophy Road (#8), a 1,600 mmdiameter polymer-laminated CSP was installed in 2004. It replaced a 19-yearold galvanized CSP that had no invert remaining due to corrosion. The new pipe was in excellent condition despite gravel deposits in the invert and salt deposits on the interior walls. Another application was observed at Limoges in a culvert under Highway 417, the main road connecting Ottawa and Montreal. In this application, large polymer-laminated corrugated steel pipe arches were slip-lined into twin 100metre long by 4-metre span pipe arches. This pipe is typically half full of water with high salt levels. Chloride levels of 109 mg/litre were observed during the recent field study. At another polymerlaminated site in the area very high chloride levels were measured at greater than 700mg/litre. Continuous improvement Many of the sites on this tour have

A CSPI representative inspects aluminized and double zinc culverts.

been visited on several occasions by CSPI to monitor the condition of the pipe and to measure critical environmental site conditions. The investigations are ongoing. This data is the kind that is now required for all culvert installations using the Ontario Gravity Pipe Design Guidelines. One advantage of including the designers and owners of these projects on the tour is that concerns can be more

easily identified and acted upon. On this tour minor damage was noted on some of the pipes due to rough handling and manufacturing issues. As a result the industry has introduced better handling instructions, repair materials and a quality certification program. David Penny is with the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute. E-mail: djpenny@cspi.ca


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An electric highway – the future of green transportation? By Dr. Bernard Fleet


hen a system is in crisis, the outcome is always uncertain, according to Tom Homer-Dixon in his visionary book, The Upside of Down. The automobile industry is in such a crisis, reflected in the bankruptcy of American icons General Motors and Chrysler, an uncertain future for oil supplies, the financial markets in turmoil, changing public perceptions of personal mobility, and concerns over the impact of emissions from the internal combustion engine on global warming and public health. How the US automakers went from king of the road to road-kill in a few short years is a complex story, but it mainly reflects the failure to develop models to meet the shifting markets from SUVs to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles. This has been the trend for many years in Europe where higher gas prices are the norm and is being copied in the rapidly growing markets in Asia, espe-

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Transportation cially China and India where vehicles such as the Tata Nano micro-car, costing under $2,500, illustrate the trend. In recent years, the most significant change in the auto industry is undoubtedly the shift to “electrification”, implying some type of electric drive system, either linked to the internal combustion engine or operating independently. Electric vehicles have been around since the dawn of the automobile industry over a century ago and count Henry Ford and Thomas Edison among their early disciples. However, until very recently, the battery has been the Achilles heel, being both too heavy and lacking sufficient energy for a realistic driving range. The first major breakthrough in the renaissance of the electric vehicle dates to the late 1990s with the launch of the hybrids from Toyota (Prius) and Honda (Insight). These vehicles contain two drivetrains, both an internal combustion engine (ICE) and a battery-powered electric motor. Hybrids operate in either a parallel or serial mode, where the two drivetrains can either power the wheels together (parallel) or work one through the other (serial).

While the success of the Toyota and Honda hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) caught the market by surprise, prompting many other companies to play catch up, the economics of HEVs have always been questionable. Apart from the favourable emissions reductions, the goal is that the cost premium for a hybrid over a similar gas-powered vehicle should be offset by fuel savings. While this will be dependent both on driving profile and on gas prices that have gone through an enormous roller coaster ride in recent times, there are no real cost savings to be gained from driving a hybrid, with the exception of some highmileage users such as taxi fleets. The playing field In the last few years the spectrum of electric vehicles has expanded enormously. While many of these are still in the prototype stage, at least 60 companies plan to introduce some type of electric vehicle within the next one to three years. These vehicles generally fall into four main classes, conventional hybrids (HEVs), plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), pure battery vehicles (BEVs) and fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs).

The shift from hybrids to plug-in hybrids is based on the simple logic that, if the use of a battery to improve fuel efficiency is good, the use of a bigger battery is better. Hence the introduction of PHEVs that have two important features: first, they can drive on electric power for much longer distances, as much as 40 km in the case of the Chevy Volt; second, the battery can be charged from the electric grid. The electric vehicle industry now seems to be shifting from the established hybrid vehicles in favour of plug-in vehicles (PEVs), a group that includes both plug-in hybrids and pure battery vehicles. Recently, the term Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) has come into fashion. This describes a battery-powered vehicle that has a small ICE generator attached. Once the battery is depleted, the ICE is activated, with the electrical output from the generator going straight to the electric drive motor. PEVs and EREVs are better able to capture the benefits of electric mobility from reduced emissions and lower operating costs. continued overleaf...

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Transportation Fuel cell vehicles, long the great white hope of the mainstream auto industry for achieving improved fuel efficiencies and zero emissions, despite the billions of dollars spent on their development, are unlikely to have any serious impact on the market due to some largely insurmountable technical and economic barriers. Barriers to adoption A question that is often asked is: “If electric vehicles are so good, why don’t we see more of them on the roads?” The answers are, first, electric vehicles are a disruptive technology and until recently the mainstream auto industry resisted the trend. It is only now, with the issue of Peak Oil, where we are seeing the shift to decreasing supplies of ever more expensive oil, often derived from politically unstable regions, that the auto industry has reluctantly decided to embrace “electrification”. The second barrier is the high cost of electric vehicles compared to comparable gasolineor diesel-powered vehicles. The problem is simply that, even though electric vehicles have far fewer parts than a gas vehicle, these components are only manufactured in small quantities

32 | November 2009

Figure 1. Batteries vs. Gasoline - break-even analysis. Assumption ICE - 8 1/100km; EV - 160 w-h/km, 120km max range, 60km commute, 4% lease rate.

and, hence, lacking the economies of scale that the traditional auto industry has achieved, are more expensive. The major issue is battery cost (see Figure 1, courtesy of Roger Martin, Unicell). The new generation of lithium ion batteries is presently quite expensive and this cost can be expressed in two ways. The first (on the Y axis) is the cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt hour of battery capacity. The second cost issue is

how long the battery lasts or more precisely how many charge-discharge cycles is it capable of performing (x-axis), noting that an electric vehicle battery has to be capable of a 10-year calendar life. Figure 1 shows that when capital cost and cycle life are plotted for a range of gasoline prices there are various breakeven scenarios where electric vehicles can match gas vehicles on a level playing field. More important, these break-even

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Transportation scenarios discount other considerable benefits of electric vehicles from reduced GHG emissions and the fact that internal combustion vehicles are facing the need to meet increasingly stringent fuel-efficiency standards. While lithium batteries are already being used in electric vehicles, they are still far from being a mature technology and further improvements in performance, along with reduced costs, are predicted. Governments and major corporations in Japan, Europe, China and North America are investing billions of dollars in battery development. In the US, President Obama launched the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (also known as the Stimulus Fund) that includes some $25 billion to support the growth of electric transportation. Kick-starting an industry Figure 1 illustrates how, at some point in the near future, electric vehicles will be cost-competitive with gas-powered vehicles. This time-frame, however, may extend over a few years. In the interim, the fledgling electric vehicle industry will require financial subsidies to offset the initial higher costs. These financial incentives are being introduced in two ways: to companies with grants and lowinterest loans used to support battery development, component manufacturing and vehicle assembly, and, at the same time, buyers of an electric vehicle can expect to receive a tax rebate or cash incentive that may range from $5,000 to $15,000 depending on the type of vehicle and the jurisdiction where it is purchased. The tipping point Recent forecasts suggest that significant growth in the electric vehicle market is not expected to happen until around 2012 when mass-market vehicles from Mitsubishi, Nissan and some of the other OEMs are introduced. Sales forecasts range from 1 million to 5 million by 2015 (2 to 10% of global sales) but there is one factor that might change the equation. China is making a massive effort to leapfrog the established auto industry leaders and become the global power in electric vehicles. The recent acquisition by Warren Buffett of a quarter billion dollar stake in Chinese battery/automaker BYD Auto is only the tip of the iceberg. While BYD is an industry leader with a staff of over 11,000 engineers and technicians, there www.esemag.com

are potentially dozens of Chinese automakers ready to follow. The Chinese government is also backing the industry’s push towards electric cars and, in addition to $1.5 billion in grants to industry, it has funded a program for 10,000 vehicles for demonstration in 10 cities. China is also the world’s fastest growing auto market with a forecast of 11 million vehicles in 2009 compared to 10 million for the US, while the two Asian powers, China and India are forecast to capture more than half the global

auto market by 2015. Infrastructure A key question is whether the existing, often antiquated electric grid system will be able to handle the forecast millions of electric vehicles that will be on our roads in the years to come. The idea is that electric cars will take advantage of “off-peak” hours of low energy demand late at night when power plants are still producing. This scenario will still require major upgrades to the grid continued overleaf...

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Figure 2. The Tesla Roadster – courtesy of Tesla Motors.

network to create a Smart Grid capable of supporting the vast network of private and public vehicle charging points. With PEVs expected to consume up to 10% of the total grid load by 2020, the new Smart Grid will also be required to support features such as bi-directional energy flow. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G), a concept where electric vehicles are used as a storage resource, is being tested in Denmark which has invested heavily in

34 | November 2009

Figure 3. The all-battery Aptera offers the equivalent of 135 mpg.

wind power. Since wind power is most intense during nighttime, the idea is to store this energy in the batteries of electric vehicles and then draw it back during daytime periods of peak demand. Range anxiety The recent Canadian government “Roadmap for the Electric Vehicle Industry” noted that the general public was poorly educated on the most basic technical features of electric vehicles. Per-

formance was a concern, with little public awareness of the fact that EVs have similar if not superior acceleration and road handling characteristics to comparable sized gas-powered vehicles. In fact, the Tesla Roadster (Figure 2), an all-battery sports car, can outperform the competition from famous manufacturers such as Ferrari or Porsche. Possibly the public’s biggest concern is of running out of power; this is known

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Transportation as “range anxiety”. This concern can be resolved in several ways. Some of the most advanced lithium battery designs use nanostructures that enable rapid recharging to 50 to 80% of full capacity in fewer than 20 minutes. Another approach to the question of range is that proposed by California entrepreneur Shai Agassi, whose company, Better Place, has come up with the innovative concept of treating the automobile as a “transportation service” akin to that offered by the cell phone industry. In the Better Place model, customers pay a monthly service fee based on the number of miles driven. An important element of the program is the use of Battery Switch Stations where a drained battery can be exchanged for a fresh one in a few minutes. While the economics of battery swapping are not too convincing, the Better Place model has found some high-profile adopters, including Israel, Denmark, Western Australia and several others. As a counter argument, why is it necessary to design a car with a 400 km range

when more than 85% of all daily vehicle commutes are less than 60 km? Most PHEVs, or small city battery EVs, have a

Recent forecasts suggest that significant growth in the electric vehicle market is not expected to happen until around 2012 when mass-market vehicles from Mitsubishi, Nissan and some of the other OEMs are introduced. range of 100 to 200 km and can easily fill this important gap in the market. A vision of the future While the internal combustion engine will be dominant over the next 20 years, it is certain that there will be a trend towards smaller, more fuel-efficient mod-

els using more lightweight materials. Business models with reworked profit structures such as sharing common parts and platforms will be vital to enable these vehicles to be profitable. At the same time, electric vehicles are expected to capture an increasing share of the market as new companies with innovative solutions to the challenge of personal mobility emerge (see Figure 3) and by mid-century will dominate the market. There is one compelling reason for this conclusion. Both President Obama and Prime Minister Harper have made a commitment that by 2050 GHG emissions will be reduced by 80% from 2005 levels. From a transport perspective this goal can only be achieved if we abandon oil and shift to an industry dominated by zero-emission electric vehicles powered by renewable energy. Dr. Bernard Fleet is senior partner at Fleet Technology Partners. E-mail:bernard@fleetec.ca

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PVCO pressure pipe takes off at Canada Aviation Museum

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he Canada Aviation Museum has been engaging visitors with the wonders of flight since it opened its doors in 1960 with three major aircraft collections owned by the Canadian government. Located on a former Department of National Defence site at the Rockcliffe Airport in Ottawa, the museum presents visitors with the story of mankind’s dream of flight and showcases more than 130 aircraft and associated artifacts. This has earned the museum a reputation for having one of the most extensive aviation collections in the world. To further provide access to Canada’s aviation heritage, the Canada Aviation Museum embarked on an extensive renovation in 2009 that added two state-ofthe-art classrooms and a multi-purpose auditorium for its more than 150,000 annual visitors. While the new spaces will enrich programming and outreach activities that focus on technology in the sky, it is the technology under the ground that is helping save money and the environment. A more durable option Like many projects, the Canada Aviation Museum renovation was faced with a budget that required them to keep costs at a minimum and consider system longevity for all major infrastructure upgrades. Due to significant water loss, a water main replacement was at the top of the list of priorities. In addition to requiring longevity, unknown site conditions called for extremely durable pipe

that would stand up to the rigours of construction. At the Ontario Water Works Association conference in April 2008, Brian Rogers, of Robinson Consultants Inc., was introduced to molecularly enhanced PVC pipe. As project engineer for the water main replacement, Rogers believed that the robustness of the new technology made it a logical fit for the museum renovation. IPEX Inc. introduced Bionax™ PVCO (molecularly oriented polyvinyl chloride) pipe for municipal applications. IPEX is the first PVCO manufacturer to receive third-party certification by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) to ASTM F1483 and AWWA C909 standards for pressure pipes. When Brian Rogers performed an hydraulic analysis of the system with Bionax pipe included, he discovered an added benefit for the Canada Aviation Museum. When compared with typical PVC pipe, PVCO pipe’s slightly larger inside diameter enabled increased flow. This allowed Rogers to downsize the pipe for approximately twenty percent of the total project length. According to his estimate, the downsizing would result in an overall project cost reduction of about ten percent. Further cost savings were anticipated due to the ease of installation of the pipe. As it is 40% lighter than conventional PVC pipe, Bionax is safer and easier to carry on the job site, reducing

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36 | November 2009

Bionax can be used for water and wastewater applications. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Nov09_ES&E:ES&E 11/23/09 4:28 PM Page 37


The Canada Aviation Museum.

the need for equipment and improving installation speed and efficiency. Its increased longitudinal tensile strength gives it the flexibility required to allow it to more easily fit around gradual curves. Joining sections is simple with easy-to-assemble gasketed joints that require no special training. Once joined, Bionax is light enough that several joined lengths can be lifted as a single unit and installed in a trench. Based on overall longevity, strength, and cost savings analysis, Ian MacLean, chief of facilities services for the Canada Aviation Museum, gave the goahead for the water main renovation project to proceed with Bionax. The pipe for the museum renovation was produced at IPEX’s plant near Mon-


treal, Quebec, and included 150 mm (6 inch) and 200 mm (8 inch) pressure-rated 200 psi CIOD (cast iron outside diameter) pipe conforming to ASTM F1483. The total length produced for the project was 460 metres (1,400 feet) of 150 mm and 2,350 metres (7,300 feet) of 200 mm pipe. Thomas Cavanagh Construction of Ashton, Ontario, installed the pipe. Following installation, the completed line tested successfully at 200 psi. A greener solution Many engineers and designers today are now looking at projects with an eye on the environmental bottom line as well as the financial one. PVCO pipes contain less embodied energy than other products available on the market today. Embodied energy is an

energy assessment process that describes all energy inputs into a manufacturing process that result in the final product, including energy consumed to extract the raw materials for manufacturing and any energy required to maintain the product over the whole life cycle. Many factors can affect embodied energy like pipe size, amount of raw and recycled materials, durability, life expectancy, and maintenance requirements. A breakthrough in quality PVCO pipe is manufactured using an on-line stretching process called biaxial orientation, which allows more of the spherical molecules to fit into a single layer and be aligned in the direction of the expected load. This gives the material a higher molecular density. Biaxially oriented pipe was once difficult to produce efficiently and reliably in high volumes. In the past, oriented PVC was expanded in a mold, resulting in orientation in only one direction. With the biaxial orientation process used to manufacture Bionax PVCO pipe, the pipe is stretched over a mandrel at extremely tightly controlled temperatures and stress levels. As with the Canada Aviation Museum renovation project, Bionax is ideal for use in water mains. It can also be deployed in sewer force mains, process piping, and irrigation applications. For more information, E-mail: jentuc@ipexna.com

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Each year, ES&E invites experts and leaders in environmental consulting to share their opinions, experiences and values with our readers. We continue to be honored every year with erudite responses from some of our leading consulting engineers. Their opinions are based on many years of collective experience in maintaining high standards, while keeping up with the diversity and complexities of environmental engineering and managerial leadership.

Never underestimate the importance By Ian Drever, B.A.Sc., P. Eng., Senior of training Vice President, Private Sector, R.J. Burnside and Associates Limited


hile few would ever encourage a recession, there were those of us in the industry who might have welcomed some relief in the demand for skills that a recession typically brings. Some of us might even have thought there might be an opportunity to recruit that elusive intermediate engineer, - you know, the one we are all looking for - skilled in design or project or client management, a professional engineer who can simply step in and relieve the stresses on key senior staff. Many things have changed in the last year, but the skill shortage is not one of them. While some firms have suffered and indeed have had to layoff staff, others, having a balanced clientele, have hardly missed a beat. Those that have seen their revenues drop have returned to more reasonable workloads, and have done their best to maintain their key staff. So, there simply has not been a glut of skilled, trained staff in the marketplace. Going forward, the truly successful firms will be those who can effectively develop and retain their junior staff. In fact, staff development does not stop there; it must continue through to your intermediate and senior levels. Why is this so important? Think back to your 38 | November 2009

own education, and compare it to the structure of your daily routine. So much of what we do in consulting is about people, whether it be managing, debating, persuading or collaborating. Strong communication skills are essential, both written and verbal. Yet how much of your education truly prepared you for this reality? That emotional intelligence or cognitive awareness that makes so many people successful, the skills that our clients and our colleagues demand, are not being offered in Fluid Mechanics or Mechanics of Materials 101. The development of people skills is sorely lacking within engineering curriculae. Then there are the technical aspects of the business. We recently met with a small group of fourth year engineering students who are collaborating with our firm on their civil design project course. We outlined for them our expectations for a basic design project and report, and showed them a complete set of drawings. The look on their face was priceless – they clearly were out of their element. While their education was giving them a foundation of principles on which to build, the practical application of that knowledge was far from developed. However, one could not help but be

impressed with their enthusiasm for the task at hand. Their willingness to learn, to be a sponge, was not in question. With such willing participants, why is it so difficult to effectively train and develop people? Likely the single biggest obstacle is time. We have found that effective staff development, especially at the junior level, requires a significant investment of time, and time is a precious commodity, especially in an industry that essentially generates revenue through its very sale. There are many who are quick to invest in recruiters because that buys us time we simply don’t have, or would like to preserve. Yet there are untold advantages in a homegrown approach that warrant an investment in time. Increased staff loyalty and satisfaction, more rapid and effective development of your recruits, and developed staff being immersed in your culture and approach from the very beginning, are just a few of the benefits of an effective training program. Another stumbling block is simply finding senior engineers who enjoy training and/or mentoring. There are many in our industry who find this an annoyance, somehow forgetting that their own success is largely due to the

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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fact that someone invested effort in their careers. Some of this attitude can be clearly traced to those time pressures previously noted. When senior staff members are faced with multiple client demands on top of their administrative responsibilities, spending an inordinate amount of time with a junior or intermediate engineer, to solve a problem which might take you five minutes, can seem a burden. We quite often recognize those on the front lines, who develop clients or land the big project. But someone who is an effective trainer, who has the ability to develop and leverage skills, is every bit as important to the organization, for, without capacity building, those same projects cannot be delivered. These people should be recognized and rewarded for their efforts. Technical training aside, engineers by our nature are not readily equipped to develop the cognitive skills, the people skills that are so critical to the success of our business. Those of us who are effective communicators likely already started that way, or survived some sort of baptism by fire during the early part

of our careers. While we may be effective in our own role, that does not necessarily make us good trainers in this critical skill area. At Burnside, we like to say “the difference is our people�. It says so on our business cards. But what does it really mean? If your people are going to be difference makers, they had better be pretty special. It starts with an effective recruiting process, getting those people on board who give you the best chance to succeed. But more important is what you do with them upon their arrival. For many years, we talked a good game when it came to training, but we seldom walked the walk. Over the last few years, however, there has been a noticeable difference in our commitment to training. Senior management have fully embraced and endorsed a comprehensive training approach for staff at every level in the organization. In fact, they are often called on to participate in training sessions, and willingly do so. Driven by our inability to find key people to fill positions in what was, and remains, a highly competitive marketplace for skills, and recognition that our

human capital is our most valuable resource, we changed our approach to staff development as a whole. While we are still at an early stage, the results are not surprising – where our training programs are most developed and effective, our level of staff engagement and satisfaction is at its highest. We look forward to the next three to five years when we expect the influence of our programs on the organization to be exponential. All this does not mean we will abandon the use of recruiters as a tool to accelerate the development of our staff complement, but their use will be more strategic, effectively being used to plug holes. The firms that can navigate the roadblocks to staff development will ultimately be the most successful. And right now, I like our chances. Contact: ian.drever@rjburnside.com

Expert People. Better Decisions. At XCG Consultants, we are committed to our clients by delivering innovative and practical expertise and solutions. Partner with our experts on your next environmental project and gain the leadership and communication that is essential for successful completion. Contact us for Wastewater, Water Resources, Municipal Infrastructure, Drinking Water and many other environmental services.


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Shaking the project delivery tree By Bill De Angelis, P.Eng., MBA, Vice President and General Manager of Associated Engineering


e speak of the shortages of skilled staff in our consulting firms, of finding and retaining talent. Our client base is telling us that there is some dissatisfaction with the performance of the consultant pool. We hear from contractors that consultants are not putting out a very good product. It would seem that we, as consultants, are not doing a very good job of providing value to our clients. Is any of the above true? Perhaps. There is no such thing as the perfect job. Does the success of an assignment rest on the efforts of the consulting engineer alone? Definitely not. Everybody speaks of the concept of a team to deliver a project. We have all been trained in team concepts, collaborative management, consultation, transparency, budget and scope control, and equity. We take courses in project management and delivery, client relations, team building and risk management. In the case of municipal engineering projects, the “team” would be the consultant, the client, and the contractor. There is lots of discussion, participation in design development, drawing and specification review, tendering and award, and contract execution. So far so good. Until something goes wrong, then what happens? It’s the consultant’s fault. Recent experience has shown that more projects end in a struggle than are cleanly executed. Clients complain about their consultants. Consultants complain about their clients. Contractors complain about the clients and the consultants. What is wrong with this picture? Can one consultant, owner or contractor be singled out? No. This is an industry-wide issue that it seems is becoming more problematic with each passing year. In analyzing how we got here, we can come up with several assertions. In recent years: • The consulting sector’s experience 40 | November 2009

base has eroded. • The contracting sector’s experience base has eroded. • The municipal clients’ experience base has eroded. • Consultant and contractor selection is mainly based on price. • Risk transfer from clients to consultants and contractors has increased. • Policy and legal considerations have usurped the goal of project delivery. If we believe the above, if we believe we cannot change the above in the near term, and if we further believe that projects will still need to be delivered in the interim to address infrastructure upgrades and replacement, then we need to re-think how we collectively deliver projects, or we risk failure. And fail we will. A poor engineering design runs up construction and administration costs. A poor contractor increases the workload on the consultant and client. An unresponsive client costs the consultant and the contractor money. All three parties lose, and so does the public. Jobs are poorly executed, completed over budget and behind schedule. The public are often inconvenienced during the works, and ultimately absorb overruns in cost. Rethinking the concept of project delivery All three parties need to admit complicity in the creation of a system that almost ensures failure. All need to agree that they share responsibility for project delivery. All need to accept a part of the risk inherent in any assignment. All need to acknowledge that there is no perfect job. All need to agree on the end goal, that being to deliver a good design, well built, and offering the utility expected when the project was initiated. Resolution requires the following actions: 1. Client or Owner - Write a terms of reference that clearly outlines the project scope. Support the terms of reference with

accurate documents and expectations. Clearly lay out expectations around deliverables, unknowns, liabilities and risk. Set up an evaluation criterion that clearly allows differentiation of effort from submitting parties. Consider team experience as well as individual expertise during reviews. Recognize that low price does not equate to best value – depressed markets drive pricing and ultimate value downwards. Qualifications or Quality Based Selection based methodologies are appropriate and defensible in the procurement of professional services and should receive serious consideration. Understand that the selected consultant is an ally, not an adversary in the awarded assignment. There is nothing wrong with assisting the consultant by providing scope clarity during design and project execution if it helps deliver a quality project at the end of the day, which meets expectations in terms of timeline, scope and dollars. Don’t be afraid to turn down a low price if it is an outlier in multiple submission evaluations. When a bid is inordinately low, it may be because something was missed in the submission. Holding a consultant’s feet to the fire to deliver a product when you know they haven’t sufficient budget to do so is unreasonable. The notion of complete transferral of risk to a low bidder may not be defensible; the owner must assume some responsibility if the project falls off the rails. Build into your budget a reasonable and realistic contingency to account for what will be unexpected additions to scope, especially when dealing with retrofit and upgrade projects. 2. Consultant - If the consultant is unsure of the project scope, he or she should ask questions. Bidding low and then expecting to ramp up change orders to address scope deficiencies is a strategy that often backfires. Delivering just what the client ordered, even if you know it is lacking, is irresponsible.

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If a project is poorly scoped, or if there is an unreasonable transfer of risk, decline to submit a proposal for it. Risking your firm just to get the job is not an acceptable practice. Taking on a job without knowing its true scope will lead to cutting corners in delivery to save money, ultimately negatively affecting deliverables’ quality for drawings and specifications. Prepare the highest quality drawings and specifications possible within time and budget constraints – the better the quality of the bidding documents, the better and more closely aligned the contractor bids. Wide spreads in pricing are indicators that the quality of the deliverables was poor. Clients don’t like surprises; address scope and change order issues as they arise. Don’t wait until the project is so far along that the client has difficulty securing additional funds. Even if the request is warranted, it may be difficult to attract additional dollars at a later date. 3. Contractor selection - When evaluating bids, ensure the consultant performs a thorough review to validate recommendations. Ensure that representative project references are provided. Don’t be afraid to turn down a low bid if the contractor lacks the documented project history and references to support his claims about ability to complete the job at hand. Not doing so will drive up project costs (capital, engineering support, internal) and risks. 4. Construction - The contractor, client and consultant should be working towards a common goal, that being to deliver the project as designed, within the project timelines and budget envelope. Again, some projects have seen success by virtue of partnering sessions that preceded the project execution. The key is to focus on the end point, and fill in the blanks in between to get there. Micromanagement of the contractor by the client or engineer will only exacerbate issues and matters dealing with project execution, and introduce unnecessary delays and claims. If the contractor asks for help, provide what assistance is possible without compromising the owner’s position. Regular requests come from lack of clarity or understanding about details on construction drawings and specifications, as well as changes in the field. www.esemag.com

Speedy turnaround of construction documentation is paramount in maintaining schedules. Holding up the contractor can introduce potential for delay claims that could otherwise be avoided. 5. Each party has a role - The most successful jobs are the ones where relationships have been formed at the commencement of the job and the parties understand each other’s positions, goals and expectations early on in the process. At the end of the day, clients, consultants and contractors each have roles and

obligations in project execution. All must be willing to work towards a common goal, that being project delivery. All must focus on the same end point for the project to be successful. Contact: deangelisb@ae.ca

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Sustainability and the evolution of consulting engineering By G. Zukovs, President, and R.J. Rush, Co-Founder and Senior Consultant, XCG Consultants Ltd.


nder a bright blue sky on October 24, 2009, thousands of people gathered on the steps of the opera house in Sydney, Australia, to kick off a worldwide climate change day of action. Over 5,000 events in more than 180 countries took place that day, including right here in Canada, where hundreds of people gathered on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and across the country to demand action on climate change. The events were coordinated by 350.org, an international group dedicated to building a movement to unite the world around solutions to the climate crisis. The focus of the group is on the number 350 parts per million, which is considered to be the safe upper limit level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Right now it’s at 387 ppm and rising. In 2012, the Kyoto Protocol expires, and world leaders are meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark, this December to renew climate change commitments. Instead of protesting government inaction, 350.org is offering world leaders a specific goal, one that the event organizers believe is needed in order to sustain humanity.

The Sydney Opera House. 42 | November 2009

George Zukovs

Sustainability and technology are familiar issues to the environmental consulting engineering profession. And, as evidenced by a recent internal review undertaken by XCG Consultants Limited, sustainability and technology are expected to play an increasingly important role, not only in terms of the assignments that consulting engineering firms undertake, but also in terms of company business practices. Back in the 1970s and 1980s, when environmental awareness was gaining a foothold in the collective social consciousness, acid rain, phosphate levels in lakes, and the impact of polychlorinated biphenyls and other toxic chemicals on human health and the environment were some of the issues facing consulting engineers. The emphasis tended to be short-term and focused on clean-up, rather than deterrence. Wastewater effluent polishing using tertiary treatment was still exotic. State of the art communication technology was a fax machine. Later, in the 1990s, pollution prevention became a prominent theme. Environmental consulting engineers spent a lot of energy, literally, rehabilitating

Richard Rush

brownfields to allow redevelopment to occur. Master planning became a mainstream approach to municipal servicing, and recent master plans, such as the water and wastewater master plan for York Region, have emphasized sustainability as a guiding principle. The past twenty years have seen increasing reliance on computer models to predict outcomes, and greater reliance on the Internet, not just as an instant source of information, but also as a mechanism for active communication. Now, as environmental consulting moves further into the 21st century, sustainability and sustainable practices are becoming leading areas of practice. The signing of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol led to the development of carbon dioxide emissions trading as one way for governments to encourage reductions. To date, most of the carbon emission trading activity has taken place in Europe. The current lack of a trading market in Canada means only one thing – it’s just a matter of time. The opportunities for environmental consulting companies are many: assisting governments to develop efficient and effective trading schemes; assisting trading partners to achieve emissions targets; and, participating in market development, brokering, auditing and monitoring. Furthermore, future emissions trading schemes won’t be restricted to air or to carbon dioxide. Water quality trading is already established in the United States, and is making its way north. Ontario’s Lake Simcoe Protection Plan, released in June this year, calls for the Ministry of Environment to examine the feasibility of water quality trading as one means of reducing phosphorus loadings within the Lake Simcoe watershed. The article by Paul O’Callaghan in the September 2009 issue of Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

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could easily have been renamed from “phosphorus may become a sustainability issue” to “phosphorus is becoming a sustainability issue”. Sustainability through carbon neutrality is another area of opportunity for consulting engineering companies, and not just as a service to clients. As part of XCG’s strategic review, the company examined the impact of its own practices in terms of carbon output. In 2008, which was chosen as the baseline year, XCG generated just over 220 tonnes of greenhouse gases, made up of business travel (106.8 T), electricity consumption (64 T), heating (39T), and employeeowned vehicles (12T). The company now has a program underway to reduce carbon output in each of its five offices. Through a combination of changes in work and purchasing practices, energy efficient retrofits, increased use of technology to reduce business travel, favouring the use of hybrid vehicles, and investing in renewable energy, XCG has committed to be carbon neutral by 2019. By demonstrating leadership in its own internal operations, XCG will have the credibility and experience to assist clients to meet their sustainability goals. The company envisions a time when XCG-made carbon credits are available to clients, suppliers, or even competitors. Canadian consulting engineers will also soon face changes in the way proposals and tenders are evaluated, once sustainability criteria are incorporated into procurement processes. According to the United Nations Environmental Programme, sustainable procurement is an “acquisition process whereby organizations meet their requirements for goods, services, works and utilities in a way that achieves value for money on a “whole of life” basis in terms of generating benefits not only to the organization, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimizing its impact on the environment.” The reference to life cycle analysis is a welcome one, and has already been adopted in Australia, where the Australian Capital Territory has directed government departments to use whole of life costing methodologies, rather than a simple analysis of the initial purchase price, when evaluating bids. Sustainable procurement is already a reality in other sectors, notably the hoswww.esemag.com

pitality sector, which has adopted the Green Key Eco-Rating Program to recognize hotels, motels, and resorts that are committed to sustainable practices. “Green meetings” are becoming more prevalent, as event planners seek to minimize the environmental impacts of their meetings. As an example, the recent Engineers Canada Board of Directors meeting in Ottawa was virtually paperless. The next logical step is virtual meetings, which is what the Water Environment Federation Research Foundation is now offering. Partly in response to the economic downturn and its impact on company travel budgets, the WERF is now holding an increasing number of its events on-line. The 5th Annual WERF Research Forum takes webinars up a notch, by providing an exhibition hall, networking lounge, and resource center, in addition to the line-up of presentations. Paperless and virtual meetings demonstrate how technology can enhance sustainable practice. Teleconferences are standard fare these days, as are video links. Platforms such as Skype™ and Google™ Talk make communication as simple and easy as an Internet connection. For the consulting engineering profession,

these services expand the repertoire of tools that can be used for client liaison, for communication with remote sites, and for public consultation. The Sony™ Digital Reader Book and Amazon™ Kindle are wireless reading devices that may one day be used for engineering feasibility reports. In the future, environmental consulting engineering work will rely less on the place of business and more on the optimization of time and appropriate tools to deliver results. Sustainability and technology will continue to evolve and the consulting engineering profession can actively choose whether to be driven or be the drivers. One thing that is also sure to increase in the future is competition, as more companies go “green”. Future success will increasingly rely on John Elkington’s Triple Bottom Line of people, planet and profits, in that order. You can bet your carbon credit on it. Contact: georgez@xcg.com, richard@xcg.com

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By Peter Mallory, Canadian Water Business Group Manager and Senior Vice-President of CH2M HILL

A push-pull economy and the increasing trend toward bundling


ow’s the economy in Canada today? It depends who you ask and what industry they are in. My answer, as a consultant in the municipal infrastructure sector, is that we’re in a push-pull economy. Although improving lately, economic forces have been pulling the economy down. Sub-prime lending and banking weakness have led to tight capital markets, over-leveraged buyers, and a lack of consumer spending. We have also seen a strong Canadian dollar relative to the US dollar hurting the manufacturing sector, and, of course, the low price of oil and a resulting stall in oil and gas infrastructure investment. However, countering this in the infrastructure business, we have the federal stimulus program pushing the economy back up. Despite what we see in the newspapers - mostly quoting the opposition parties - the stimulus program has generated significant, real work for both consultants and contractors designing and constructing roads, bridges, and

Lemieux Island Water Purification Plant. 44 | November 2009

water and wastewater infrastructure. And we’re doing it with a sense of urgency, due to the looming March 2011 funding deadline. To give one example, CH2M HILL had recently designed and supervised construction of a water treatment plant for the Town of Clarence-Rockland, east of Ottawa, who then asked us to help them apply for stimulus funding. The project involves replacing the water mains and upgrading the roads in a number of small communities recently connected to the new water plant. Getting a positive funding decision after receiving significant funding for their water plant was a real challenge but all were pleasantly surprised when they received $26M under the stimulus program. We were working on the project within weeks of the funding announcement and contractors were putting pipe in the ground within four months. How individual firms are doing depends on two major factors: for larger firms – diversification; for smaller firms

- the market niche they serve. My assessment is that those working in infrastructure markets that have benefited from the stimulus funding are still doing well. As the economy improves (and the “recovery” articles are definitely starting to outnumber the “recession” articles in the newspapers), in combination with the ongoing 2010/11 stimulus work, the short-term outlook for the environment businesses looks healthy. An increasing trend, not necessarily related to this push-pull economy but one businesses in the infrastructure industry need to be aware of, is the bundling of multiple projects into large programs. When I worked for the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton in the 1990s as the program manager for a $44M ($85M in today’s dollars) upgrade to the Lemieux Island Water Purification Plant, we delivered this program as 36 separate and stand-alone projects. Most had separate engineering assignments, but often with the same consultant, and the construction contracts were tendered separately. At any one time there would be three to five contractors on various parts of the island, all on individual projects. Today many, if not most municipalities would bundle these 36 projects and manage this as one program with one consultant and, potentially, one contractor. There are a number of factors that play into this rationale: 1. An increasing infrastructure backlog - There is just more work that needs to be done, with aging infrastructure, regulatory drivers and growing populations all contributing. 2. Contracting bureaucracy - Like it or not, in business today we need signed contracts. Most medium and large municipalities have purchasing departments and a lot of processes to go through to award consulting assignments and construction contracts in a public atmosphere that is demanding more accountability for its tax dollars. Bundling streamlines this process with one consultant assignment

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and one contractor award, or one total in the case of design-build. 3. Resource shortages - The demand for more accountability for public expenditure and below inflation tax increases is also resulting in fewer staff at municipalities to manage a greater number of projects. 4. Consulting industry consolidation Consolidation in the consulting industry means the new larger firms, or consortiums including smaller firms, can handle larger assignments and the associated program administration of significant bundled programs. 5. More efficient delivery - Bundling brings economies of scale and a program approach to delivering the work. Standards and templates can be developed within one program for common repeatable elements and tasks to improve delivery efficiency. 6. Health & Safety legislation - Occupational Health and Safety “Constructor” or “Prime Contractor” legislation now requires separation of time or space on construction sites in order for the owner to avoid becoming the party responsible for overall site health and safety. Bundling the work on one site as one general con-

tract is the best way to deal with this. There are clear lines of accountability, when a single prime contractor is responsible. There are numerous ways to deliver multiple elements (projects) in a bundled program. For example: conventional design-bid-construct with one consultant and one contractor; design-build with only one entity to contract and single point accountability; and program delivery with one consultant but multiple contractors. There are many bundled programs happening today in the municipal infrastructure sector across Canada. Here are a few examples: • City of Toronto, Basement Flooding, a $250M program with 72 individual flood reduction projects bundled into one program with one consultant and multiple contractors. • City of Hamilton, Woodward Avenue Wastewater Treatment Plant Expansion, with a capital budget of $550M being managed as one overall program. • City of Winnipeg, Strategic Partnership, where the City is looking to enter into a public private partnership for delivery of a $1B wastewater program.

• Capital Region District, Victoria, BC, which recently selected a program manager to oversee design and construction of more than $1B of green-field wastewater treatment facilities. The key to an effective approach and successful delivery of these programs is to combine proven project management resources with a program management approach. Use key staff that have led large multiple element programs before and employ systems designed to track, monitor and control the multiple elements of a program and gain the efficiencies of bundling. In this challenging push-pull economy it pays to be aware of how the market is changing and to adjust your delivery approach to suit the clients’ current needs. Bundling projects into programs is a good idea for more efficient delivery of increasingly large infrastructure works. Contact: peter.mallory@ch2m.com

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How consultants can improve recognition for their expertise and knowledge By Carl Friesen, Associate, Emerson Consulting Group Inc.


icture two consultants, bidding for the same project. One says to the prospect: “Here’s our brochure.” The other says: “Here’s a USB key containing some of the articles I’ve written on the issues you’re facing, a video clip of a presentation I gave recently, and a chapter from my book.” Who do you think will get the project? In today’s tight-budget environment, clients are looking for reassurance that their projects are in good hands and will progress smoothly. Particularly for challenging or high-profile projects, they need to know that the individuals doing the work are the best possible for the job. You may have many years of experience, have some stellar, leading-edge

46 | November 2009

work to your credit, and a long list of awards and commendations, but you are not likely to get the chance to grow to your full potential unless you are a recognized authority in your field. Recognized thought-leaders are sought out by potential clients, are able to charge their time at a higher rate, and can choose assignments that will help them grow professionally. The work they bring in can generate many billable hours for junior members of their firm, and they have the satisfaction of knowing that they have contributed to the growth of their profession. It is important, however, to remember that there must be substance behind the public profile. You won’t get much credibility as a thought-leader if you don’t

have the professional success to back up your claims. But if you do, the rewards are great. Putting a thought-leading plan in place As with any project, you will not achieve a positive outcome without a plan. Build your plan by first considering your objective. Consider the expertise you want to be known for, which may be different from what you have now. Then consider who you want to be known to – the kinds of people you want to reach, including their type of industry, branch of government, occupation and other circumstances. You may want to put this in the form of an aspiration: “By 2019, I will have delivered at least one keynote address to

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an international conference, have published three papers in peer-reviewed journals, have published ten articles in business magazines read by people in my market, have been interviewed on a major television news program, and have published at least one book.” That’s quite an itinerary, but not unrealistic over a ten-year period. Then, work out the steps you’ll take to make your plan happen and build your profile as a thought-leader. Know and use the tools available Your professional work may involve a range of tools, including devices for field measurement, computer-based models and templates for producing reports. Your success depends in part on having the right tools, but more on your ability to use them correctly. Building your thought-leading profile requires similar knowledge of the tools available. A colleague Ken Lizotte, in his book “The Expert’s Edge”, says that continued on page 74...

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A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E’s semi-annual look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.

Using a fiberglass tank to harvest rainwater


ometimes a company has an opportunity to be part of a unique, innovative project. That was the case for ZCL Composites when the Grand House Student Co-operative in Cambridge, Ontario, decided to incorporate a fiberglass cistern for rainwater harvesting into its innovative housing project. Grand House is a 4,500-square-foot student housing co-operative that is a registered LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design) building under the Homes Pilot Program. When the project was being developed, the municipality of Cambridge stipulated that no rainwater could run off the site into the sewer system. The new housing project posed a number of challenges in terms of installing a rainwater harvesting system. The house’s urban setting on the edge of the Grand River meant putting a water cistern on a site with river stone and clay soil that could not accept very heavy loads. But an even greater concern was that the tank had to be delivered to a point some distance from the road and brought down a steep slope into a tight space. Coming in from the bottom of the site was not an option since the house sits just off a busy four-lane street. “Rainwater collection like that at Grand House is not a common feature

48 | November 2009

of buildings in the area, especially in an urban setting,” explains Laura Knap, a Grand House organizer. Grand House consulted University of Guelph master’s engineering students Chantelle Leidl and Christopher Despins (advised by Prof. Khosrow Farahkbaksh) for design of the rainwater harvesting system. They, in turn, referred to RH2O® North America, based in Breslau, Ontario, which proposed a rainwater har-

vesting filtration and storage system that would include a ZCL lightweight 25,000litre fiberglass tank. In May 2009, RH2O provided a rainwater harvesting package that included a single-wall water tank from ZCL’s Drummondville, Quebec, manufacturing facility. “Grand House had originally been looking into a concrete cistern,” says Knap, “simply because they are more common. The question of how we

The Grand House Student Co-operative in Cambridge, Ontario.

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would get it in place had never been resolved. The most obvious solution would have been a large crane, but that would have meant a completely prohibitive cost. Happily, when we found the fiberglass tank, this question about the installation evaporated.” Even though Knap was convinced that the fiberglass tank was the way to go, she was nervous about the installation. She was pleasantly surprised, however. What she feared the most ― getting the tank onto the site and down a steep hill ― went very well. Four cleaning principles The RH2O rainwater harvesting system employed at Grand House utilizes four basic cleaning principles: 1. Rainwater flows from the roof to a rainwater filter, where dirt particles and debris are separated from the water. 2. The filtered rainwater enters the ZCL storage tank through an inlet that prevents any disturbance to fine sediment at the bottom of the tank and ensures that oxygenated water is introduced to the lower layers of the stored water. 3. A rainwater harvesting filter allows some small particles to enter the tank. Any particles lighter than water

float slowly to the water surface, where they are removed. Particles heavier than water sink to the bottom of the tank. 4. Water is extracted through a floating suction filter that is suspended just below the water surface where the cleanest water resides.

ZCL lightweight 25,000-litre fiberglass tank.

The cleaned rainwater that is pumped into Grand House is currently used for low-flush toilets and garden irrigation. However, in time, the intention is to use the collected rainwater for laundry, dishes and perhaps showers. Local municipality codes do not currently allow

for collected rainwater to be used for showers. However, many municipalities are seeing that, with water shortages, it may be time for change. The system was designed to meet all Grand House’s non-potable water needs, but in times of water shortage, the system’s solenoid valve allows a switch to city water if necessary. Knap explains why she thinks projects like the Grand House rainwater harvesting system are so important: “We have so many students here, mostly architecture students, pushing for more green solutions. We’re hoping that by taking on innovative solutions, we’ll make it possible for architecture students to see how it is to live with these innovations and then bring uncommon solutions to projects wherever they go.” For more information, E-mail: kpeterson@xerxescorp.com

Innovative Water Storage Water is valuable. ZCL Composites Inc. can help you store it wisely while also earning LEED design points with cost-effective fiberglass underground tanks. Some of todays most innovative Green Building projects recognize that water storage is a key element in maximizing water conservation design possibilities.

Green Building applications utilizing ZCL fiberglass tanks include: • Rainwater Harvesting • Stormwater Management • Water Efficient Landscaping Irrigation • Onsite Wastewater Systems • Greywater Recycling • Chiller Unit Water Collection www.zcl.com • (780) 466-6648 phone • (780) 466-6126 fax


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Keeping a lid on spill clean-up expenses By Cliff Holland


hen spills escalate and threaten open water, regulatory compliance becomes reality, the urgency to respond turns into panic, and response capability can become laborious efforts that may or may not produce positive results. In the past few years, new Canadian technologies have provided world-class innovations for keeping spills on site, for recovering oil from land and water, and for removing dissolved hydrocarbons from water. ChemiGreen electronic plugs for stopping spills at discharge points throughout a plant address worldwide ISO standards such as ISO 14000. This wireless system allows sensors to be activated by water monitors, by hand-held remote control, or from a computer generated map of an area up to a one mile radius. The In-Viro-Drum patented technology is capable of lifting free oil from water with a recovery rate of better than 80%. These units have been designed to provide vacuum truck capability for Canada’s ‘oil patch’ and for remote areas of the Arctic. The lightweight systems can fit onto the back of a half ton truck and are very economical to use. In comparison, a full sized vacuum truck, such as the ones used to clean out municipal catch basins, cost $500,000 to purchase, or up to $600 per hour to contract for critical spills. Another Canadian company, EMRP, is dedicated to the removal of dissolved hydrocarbons, including PCBs, from water as a result of their involvement with the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. They are now capable of removing dissolved PCBs from water to parts per trillion. Responding to the ‘it will never happen spill’, on land or water, is an art. Responders require training on-site to address soil or ground conditions, the characteristics of the oil or hydrocarbon, discharge flow rates, wind conditions. As well they must be able to assess the effectiveness of spill procedures, response supplies, equipment and any on-call contractors. 50 | November 2009

Boat driving into spill to pull the boom into position to contain discharge.

Many on-call contractors have clauses in their contracts that allow them the ‘first right to refuse’ to come to a spill, if their personnel and equipment are busy doing other servicing. Or, they may send unskilled personnel, with minimum experience and/or subcontract to another company to fulfil your needs. On-site responders, trained specifically to deal with all-risk and all-hazard conditions, are the ‘spills masters’ that handle routine spills, adverse conditions, potential impacts, as well as the scale of impact that could occur. Because they are trained with relevant hands-on exercises to address site-specific conditions, they are the best people to decide which spill supplies and equipment will work best at each point at risk. They are also the best people to take personnel from various departments and teach them how to employ specific countermeasures, i.e., measures that will slow the advance of a spill, divert the spill to a more manageable area, or away from sensitive areas, and stop, or contain, the spill before key personnel, emergency services and response contractors can be at the scene. Trainees become responders in the same day Site-specific training in actual conditions paid dividends during a recent

hands-on training session. Participants learned, while working with oil in a training tank, how it behaved on water, and how to deploy adsorptive booms to address existing and changing conditions. Participants recovered 20 to 30 litres of oil from the water, with less than 10% water content and then prepared for open water exercises using their boats, supplies and equipment. Shock and amazement were experienced by the participants when they arrived on the scene and saw an actual and significant oil spill that was discharging at a flow rate of five feet per second from an outfall 20 feet wide and 8 feet deep. The spill was immediately reported to the Ministry of the Environment as the participants prepared to handle the spill response. Two responders were instructed to take a rope and move to the two points of land on either side of the effluent channel, while others accessed and hooked together 200 ft of the eight inch sorbent booms brought for training. The booms were pulled by rope into position at each point of land, as the current was carrying them out into open water. Changing wind conditions started to move the booms back into the fast-flowing discharge, about the time the response boat came on the scene and so the personnel on the boat were able to hook

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Contractor cleaning sheen without concentration.

onto the boom and drag it to the middle of the open water channel. An anchor from the boat was then attached to the boom to hold it in place and to corral the ongoing discharge of oil. This was accomplished within 20 minutes. Next, the boat moved 200 metres down wind to get ahead of the spill, as the oil on the surface was being forced up stream due to the wind conditions. The trainees were able to operate the boat and slowly pull one end of the

boom, while others walked the shoreline, pulling the booms as they maintained their seal against the shoreline to concentrate the spill in a cove type setting where the oil was recovered with blanket material. The booms in the cove area were left to do their job, should any other trace amounts accumulate. A week later the booms were removed, with significant oil accumulation. Back in the turbulent area, the water was discharging to the centre of the channel and a reverse flow was bringing oil back into the shore, where an In-ViroDrum portable vacuum system was used to skim sheen from the water. The conditions were not conducive to concentrating the oil sheen for pickup; therefore the skimming exercise was used only to demonstrate how ineffective vacuum trucks can be on-site, if support personnel are not trained to consolidate the oil before attempting recovery. The two drums of oily water, recovered with the In-Viro-Drum, were opened up after ninety minutes of skimming to observe the amount of oil collected. Without being able to prepare collection areas, and while properly operating the system the participants did

Trainees attempting to concentrate oil, and pick up sheen.

not even collect enough oil to saturate an 18 inch square adsorption pad. Yet in the training tank exercise, they recovered 20 to 30 litres of oil in less than 15 minutes, with less than 10% water, which showed the importance of proper oil concentrating procedures during spill containment. Cliff Holland is with Spill Management Inc. E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca

Clean Buoy Orange Floating Lift Station Degreaser

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Clean Buoy dissolves grease, fats, oil and slime in lift station wet wells, grease traps, septic tanks and catch basins. Clean Buoy floats on the surface, rising and falling with the water to prevent grease buildup on walls and water surface. It prevents fouling of ejector station probes and level sensing tubes in lift stations and keeps pump seal filters clear, allowing pumps to run cooler. Clean Buoy won’t upset clarifiers, degrade effluent quality, inhibit waste digestion or affect BOD or ODI when used as directed. Phone: 888-237-2444 E-mail: mtl_fxr@rogers.com www.esemag.com

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November 2009 | 51

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Keeping spills on-site with wireless technology By Shachar Parran


hemical spills occur throughout industry on a daily basis. With the United States National Response Center reporting more than 37,000 spills in 2008 and Environment Canada reporting over 10,000 spills annually, it is clear there is a need for more than a band-aid solution. A spilled chemical will always flow to the lowest point in the facility: the drain. If it is not stopped at this unprotected point, any control of the spill is lost and the damage is done. Chemical spills not only create irreversible environmental damage, but also tarnish the facility’s reputation and carry extremely high monetary costs, as environmental agencies have stiffened their penalties and increased their enforcement efforts. The trend towards a greener and cleaner industry and greater environmental responsibility suggests that companies can no longer afford to neglect their chemical spill reaction plan. Reviewing historical chemical spill containment results will show that most large chemical spills are not contained effectively and large amounts of chemicals are often released into the environment. Although almost every spill can be handled with the proper training and equipment within a few hours, this current standard is simply not good enough. To be effective, a solution must contain the chemical spill within seconds of detection, preferably by an employee with very little training and from a safe distance. Chemical spill containment procedures have lagged years behind advances in automation and computerization. The most commonly used spill control devices include absorbent pads and sands or rubber mats that are manually deployed. All of these manual devices carry a symbolic value at best when a large spill occurs, and they can put employees reacting to the spill at greater risk. Recently, ChemiGreen Inc. introduced an innovative system: a wireless spill containment system, the WI-Plug. This patented system has been installed in a number of facilities in southern Ontario and Quebec, and has been thoroughly 52 | November 2009

Figure 1. Layout of spill containment system.

tested and proven effective in its application. The WI-Plug system is an incident command and spill control system whose sole function is keeping spills onsite. The system commander can monitor effluents and detect and contain spills. The commander signals the system to block the discharge from entering the drainage system. The system immediately deploys and contains the spill while the commander transmits the alarm to the plant’s control centre. Simultaneously, key personnel are notified of the incident by e-mails. By removing the time constraints, the system transforms this emergency situation into a routine and safe clean-up. In addition, the system requires no infrastructure, so it is not only efficient and flexible, but also economically sound. As the WI-Plug substantially reduces the environmental risk involved in chemical spills, it is likely to reduce the costs of training personnel as well as insurance costs. The system layout is show in Figure 1. The system commander is placed in the centre, and controls the entire operation. It is the central processing unit of the system and can activate up to 128

plugs simultaneously. The commander receives an activation signal wirelessly, from one of the system’s sources such as a remote control unit, sensor, alarm system and computer. Each WI-Plug can be controlled individually or as a group. The commander is located in an office or control room. It can be connected to a PC or network to allow easy access to the system for quick activation or for the system’s management. The commander can also be connected to any alarm or sensor system to enable automatic activation when a sensor detects chemicals in the effluent or if there is a fire alarm. The commander uses an encrypted wireless mesh network with three levels of encryption for security. The mesh network is extremely robust and designed for industrial use. The commander will continue normal operation even during a power outage (up to 48 hours). The WI-Plug can be installed with no change of infrastructure in any location regardless of pipe size (up to 30 inches), orientation or location. It can be installed in horizontal or vertical pipes and can be put underground at any depth. The installation is non-invasive and requires no flanges, pipe cutting or changes of infracontinued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Nov09_ES&E:ES&E 11/23/09 4:31 PM Page 54

Figure 2. WI-Plug deployed within a 21-inch pipe.

Figure 3. WI-Plug system management software.

structure. Installation is easy and generally takes under one hour. The system can be tailored to an assortment of chemicals. It will report to the user, via e-mail, if maintenance or battery change is required. It will also report on the success or failure of the plug deployment. A deployed plug in a 21-inch pipe is shown in Figure 2. The plug was activated from the control room 150 feet away during an actual spill (water simulation). The easy to use, hand-held, remote control unit (RCU) enables the activation 54 | November 2009

of any WI-Plug from any location in the facility using a few keystrokes. Deployment is completed within seconds and the RCU receives real-time status reports of the success or failure of the deployment. The RCU enables personnel to contain a spill and alert the Emergency Response Team simultaneously. An RCU can be placed at any location with a spill risk, in order to enable spill containment within seconds of detection. The system management PC software allows connection to the commander from any desktop or laptop computer for

system monitoring and configuration. The software also sends e-mail notifications on warnings, errors and deployments. The WI-Plug system can work autonomously without a PC connection during power outages. A snap shot of the software is shown in Figure 3. With such a system installed, plant engineers and environmental officers should change the type of training and equipment that their personnel need for emergency responses. The plant can be re-analyzed for spill risks, and all highrisk drains should be protected by wireless plugs. In addition to chemical spills, the system can also solve another serious problem: firefighting water. According to the Ontario fire code, the water used by firefighters during industrial fires is considered a chemical. When the WIPlug system is connected to the fire alarm it can be automatically deployed and prevent the contaminated fire water from leaving the facility. These new safety measures give companies leverage when negotiating their pollution insurance premiums. As in home insurance when measures to protect the home are installed, the reduced risk of chemical spills and its damage should reduce the cost of insuring the facility. Given these lower insurance costs, most facilities would be able to offset the installation costs of the system within the first year or two. Conclusion When a spill occurs, the Emergency Response Team has three main missions. The first is to stop the spill at its source in order to minimize the amount of chemical being spilled. The second is linked to the first and is to fix the equipment and return the production line to normal as soon as possible. The third is to prevent the chemical from entering the drainage system. When spills happen during the night shift, finding enough people to handle all jobs can be hard. With a system like the WI-Plug installed, the third critical mission is covered in seconds by simply pressing a button. This will lead to better results in terms of both environmental protection and getting production back online. Shachar Parran is with ChemiGreen Inc. E-mail: info@chemigreen.com

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“Big Bradford” is North America’s largest domed glass-fused-to-steel wastewater treatment tank


he population of the Town of Bradford West Gwillimbury, in Ontario, has been growing, up from approximately 18,000 in 2005 to 26,000 in 2009. When the Town first realized it needed more biosolids storage and a significant expansion of its older wastewater treatment plant in 2005, it envisioned a two-step process that would eventually serve a population of 44,000. “But when we got into the project, we realized it was more efficient and economical to plan ahead and expand for 20 years from now, all in one shot,” says Brad Sullivan, Waste Water Manager for the Town of Bradford West Gwillimbury. “Population growth told us we needed more sludge storage. We basically wanted tank storage that would get us up to 17,400 cubic metres.” The new plant expansion is called “Plant D,” with Plants A, B and C making up the adjacent older part of the treatment facility.The digester in the old plant has been used for sludge storage. The new wastewater treatment site rests in a “Green Area,”, an environmentally sensitive floodplain ecosystem with the Holland River running behind the plant. The river eventually empties into Lake Simcoe, a severely stressed lake that suffers

56 | November 2009

from nutrient algae blooms.The cleanliness of the wastewater entering the lake must meet stringent regulations for lack of nutrients; the phosphorus loading must be 0.11 part per million, for example. With it being in a sensitive area, the whole site had to go to the Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority for approval. Existing drainage and stormwater management had to be considered. Drainage flows away from the site into a trenched creek that carries it to the river; the discharge point is only a few feet above the high water table, while the river levels rise and fall during the course of the year. The 100-acre site needed additional biosolids storage on a small footprint that would even allow for future expansion. The Town wanted to store its biosolids above ground due to the high water table. The small footprint and above ground storage led the engineering firm to compare glass-fused-tosteel versus concrete. Construction cost was a driving factor behind choosing the glass-fused-to-steel and the Town went with the recommendation of the engineering firm, AECOM. It will not have to paint the Big Bradford down the road, and it will provide the longevity needed for growth. The glass-fused-to-steel tank is also self-cleaning as the solids do not adhere to the walls of the tank. Greatario provided the engineered drawings for the tank/roof, foundation and mixing system and erected the tank and dome, while Kenaidan Contracting installed the foundation and piping. The Aquastore tank and dome were erected in only eight weeks. Odour control is important. Although the site is within an industrial valley, there are surrounding homes, and the new site was located as far away from these homes as possible. There is also a biofilter for odour control. Biosolid management central to planning Computing exactly how much biosolid storage will be needed 20 years from now was a challenge. “As the designing engineers, we took the town’s criteria as to raw sewage coming in and calculated how much biosolid would be produced, then developed an injection strategy as well as a biosolids storage strategy,” says Mike Gundry, Water and Waste Water Manager for AECOM. “The key consideration is that you cannot spread biosolids on frozen ground, so you need at least 180 days storage. We also had to optimize diameter versus height.” “We were not aware at the time that we were building the largest domed glass-fused-to-steel wastewater treatment tank in North America,” he adds. Aquastore glass-fused-to-steel tanks are manufactured by Engineered Storage Products Company, while the dome is made by Temcor. The JetMix® Vortex Mixing System from Liquid Dynamics is powerful enough to allow the Town to turn it on or off intermittently to reduce their overall operating costs. The mixer can Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Schematic of the wastewater treatment plant.

stir the biosolids that have settled at the bottom of the tank and have it operating within 48 hours, even after months of rest, or it can be used on a regular basis. Over the winter, all of the solids settle to the bottom of the tank and get very thick. Liquid can be decanted off the top of the tank. There is a ladder on the outside of the tank and an access port at the top to view the liquid in the tank. A slip tube can be lowered down into the solution to take the clear liquid off the top and return it to the head of the plant. The biosolids from the plant are pumped into tanker trucks which then haul the biosolids to farmers’ fields for land application during the permitted time period of May 1 to November 30. How the system works Raw sewage is pumped from the pumping station, screened to remove rags and other material, then grit is removed. From

there, it enters the aeration tanks for biological treatment and then secondary clarification for secondary settling, then tertiary filtration and UV disinfection before it is discharged (see schematic). The Big Bradford is waiting its turn to contribute to the town’s treatment plant operations. The tank has been filled with plant effluent water for testing, and everything looks set to go. So why is the Big Bradford resting idle? “The new plant expansion started accepting sewage in June of 2009,” Sullivan explains. “So it will take a while before we build up enough biosolids that we would start to use Big Bradford. Two other concrete biosolids tanks that hold 6,000 cubic metres each are filling first. The concrete tanks are designed so that they can be switched over to anaerobic tanks in the future. There are 10,000 cubic metres of aerated lagoon storage.” “There is room for another Greatario tank,” says Sullivan. He doesn’t know if it will be as large as the “Big Bradford,” but he likes glass-fused-to-steel’s adaptability to the site. E-mail: jrodger@greatario.com

“Big Bradford” under construction (above) and completed (right).


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Choosing the right tank design By Darrin Hopper standard is vital


olted steel tanks provide a cost-effective and flexible solution for containment in water or wastewater applications. Standards for bolted steel tanks have limitations either by the application (chemical reaction vessels) or by the standard itself (water only). The new ISO standard is specifically for glass-fused-to-steel bolted-steel tanks and has application guidelines for both water and wastewater. The AWWA standard is applicable to both epoxy and glass-fused-bolted-steel tanks but it does not specifically address wastewater applications. If glass-fused-to-steel is the preference within the AWWA standard, then Section 10.4 needs to be referenced as well. The ISO 28765:2008 Standard establishes the requirements for the design and use of vitreous-enamel-coated (glassfused-to-steel) bolted cylindrical steel tanks for the storage or treatment of water or municipal or industrial effluents and sludges. It applies to the design of the tank and any associated roof and gives guidance on the requirements for the design of the foundation. It applies where: • The tank is cylindrical and is mounted on a load-bearing base substantially at or above ground level; • The product of the tank diameter in metres and the wall height in metres lies within the range 5 to 500; • The tank diameter does not exceed 100 m and the total wall height does not exceed 50 m; • The stored material has the characteristics of a liquid, exerting a negligible frictional force on the tank wall; the stored material may be undergoing treatment as part of a municipal or industrial effluent treatment process; • The internal pressure in the headspace above the liquid does not exceed 50 kPa and the internal partial vacuum above the liquid does not exceed 10 kPa; • The walls of the tank are vertical; • The floor of the tank is substantially flat at its intersection with the wall; the floor of the tank may have a rise or fall built in to allow complete emptying of 58 | November 2009

This 17m diameter x 19.8m tall bolted steel tank was installed at Crowne Isle, BC.

the tank contents, the slope of which does not exceed 1:100; • There is negligible inertial and impact load due to tank filling; • The minimum thickness of the tank shell is 1.5 mm; • The material used for the manufacture of the steel sheets is carbon steel (tanks constructed of sheets made from aluminum or stainless steel are outside the scope of this international standard); • The temperature of the tank wall during operation is within the range -50 °C to +100 °C under all operating conditions. This international standard also gives details of procedures to be followed during installation on site and for inspection and maintenance of the installed tank. However, it does not apply to chemicalreaction vessels. It does not apply to tanks fitted with floating roofs and does not cover resistance to fire. The ANSI/AWWA D103-09 Standard is the established AWWA standard for factory-coated bolted steel tanks for water storage (Revision of ANSI/AWWA D103-97). The purpose of this standard is to provide minimum requirements for the design, construction, inspection, and testing of new cylindrical, factory coated, bolted carbon-steel tanks for the storage of water. This standard is only applicable to tanks with a base elevation substan-

tially at ground level. Some of the revisions to the 1997 edition follow: 1.1.1 Tank roofs. All tanks storing potable water shall have roofs. Roofs may be column-supported, self-supported, or aluminum dome. Tanks storing non-potable water may be constructed without roofs. 1.1.2 Items not described. This standard does not cover all details of design and construction. Details that are not addressed shall be designed and constructed to be as adequate and as safe as those that would otherwise be provided under this standard. This standard is not applicable to tanks of corrugated construction. This standard is not applicable to tanks constructed of stacked plates or sheets laminated to form multiple layers. 1.1.3 Local requirements. This standard is not intended to cover storage tanks erected in areas subject to regulations more stringent than the requirements contained within this standard. In such cases, this standard should be followed where it does not conflict with local requirements. Where more stringent local, municipal, county, or state government requirements apply, such requirements shall be specified and this standard shall be interpreted to supplement them. Major revisions This edition of the standard includes numerous corrections, updates, revi-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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regarding qualifications, procedures, and inspection. Sec. 14 Seismic Design and Sec. 15 Wind Design were revised extensively to reflect the requirements of the International Building Code and ASCE 7. Appendix A Commentary for FactoryCoated Bolted Carbon-Steel Tanks for Water Storage was added to provide background information for many of the requirements contained in the standard. Other general and specific revisions, additions, and corrections were made throughout the standard. The specifying process When did you last review your tender specifications? Are they in-line with the current standards and the needs of your clients? When specifying glass-fused-boltedsteel tanks, the tender document need only reference either one or both of these standards and any proprietary manufacturer’s wording can be eliminated. Anaerobic digestion, biosolids storage, sludge cake storage, industrial effluents, and leachate storage, for example, should be governed by the ISO standard

and not AWWA. The ISO standard addresses those applications, whereas the AWWA standard does not. Restrictions by the AWWA standard to limit maximum sheet thicknesses to 12.7 mm (previously 9.5 mm), and its current failure to cover laminated panels would mean that many larger tanks here in Ontario and Canada could not have been built or designed. There is a definite demand for these high load designed tanks and the use of the ISO standard will lessen the limits of this demand. A client’s options in choice of manufacturers, engineers and standards create a positive and competitive environment. Choosing the right standard for the right application is extremely important. Darrin Hopper is with H2Flow Tanks & Systems. E-mail: darrin@h2flow.com






1-888-575-8642 www.h2flow.com



sions, and new material to clarify some of the existing requirements. Sections were rearranged and revisions made to eliminate contractual language. Metric equations and dimensions were added. Sec. 1 General was revised to clarify that corrugated tanks and tanks constructed of multiple layers of steel were not applicable to the standard. Sec. 2 References was revised and updated. Sec. 4 Materials was revised and includes additional grades of plates, sheets, structural shapes, hardware, and other tank construction materials. Sec. 5 General Design was revised to include maximum thickness of flatpanel shell plates of 0.5 in. (12.7 mm); foundation anchor bolt Sec. 5.9.4 was revised; and reinforcing criteria for diameter of connections was decreased from 4 in. (102 mm) to 2 in. (51 mm). Bolted piping flanges Figure 2 was eliminated. Sec. 7 Accessories for Tanks was revised regarding ladder requirements to bring into compliance with updated OSHA regulations 29 CFR Part 1910. Sec. 8 Welding was revised and updated

November 2009 | 59

Storage/Containment & Spills Product Showcase

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Quality tanks

At Alberta Wilbert Sales we sell, service and deliver Alberta’s largest tanks, with capacities as high as 10,000 gallons, and back them with a 20-year warranty. Four key manufacturing processes make our tanks superior: custom-designed moulds, quality controlled concrete, special pour techniques and careful handling. Tel: 800-232-7385, Fax: 780-447-1984 Web: www.wilbert.ca Alberta Wilbert Sales

Chemical feed stations

Assmann’s compact feed stations, ranging from 40 to 550 gallons, store small amounts of liquids and other chemicals. The feed stations are lightweight, strong and easy to handle. Assmann linear polyethylene tanks are certified by NSF to NSF/ANSI Standard 61. Tel: 888-357-3181, Fax: 888-826-5329 E-mail: info@assmann-usa.com Web: www.assmann-usa.com Assmann Corporation of America

Floating cover systems

GTI’s modular floating cover systems control algae and odors in tanks and lagoons. These durable, UV-protected covers can also be used to provide insulation. The covers can be installed quickly without disrupting plant operations and are easy to maintain while in service. They can safely support foot traffic and snow loads. Tel: 506-452-7304 E-mail: covers@gticovers.com Web: www.gticovers.com Geomembrane Technologies Inc.

Geomembrane GeoFlex Geomembrane is a unique blend of virgin polymers and additives that have been optimized to deliver flexibility, elongation, cold temperature resistance, long-term UV stability, and advanced chemical resistance. Layfield’s GeoFlex will consistently perform to the highest standards available in the industry.

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Specialist training Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats

Tel: 800-840-2884, Fax: 780-455-5218 E-mail: ese@layfieldgroup.com Web: www.layfieldgroup.com

Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web: www.spillmanagement.ca

Layfield Group

Spill Management

60 | November 2009

Equipment rental

BakerCorp maintains an extensive inventory of over 18,000 pieces of quality rental equipment including more than 17 varieties of steel tanks, roll off boxes, pumps, filtration and specialty equipment. For over 65 years, BakerCorp has provided outstanding customer service, quality equipment and application expertise. Tel: 905-545-4555, 1-800-BAKER12 Web: www.bakercorp.com BakerCorp

Water reservoir & tank mixer

PAX Mixer is a very innovative, simple mixer designed to mix water storage reservoirs and standpipes. It offers superior mixing performance with little energy consumption, easy installation, low capital cost. It eliminates stagnation and stratification, minimizes residual loss, prevents nitrification. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: michael@h2flow.com Web: www.h2flow.com H2Flow Tanks & Systems

Underground tanks ZCL’s underground tanks are constructed of non-corrosive fibreglass composite material and premium quality grade resin. They are marketed under the trade names Prezerver® and Greentank®. Safe and durable, ZCL tanks have become the #1 choice for environmentally safe storage of petroleum products. Tel: 1-800-661-8265 Web: www.zcl.com ZCL Composites

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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ACG Technology’s package treatment system offers performance and durability. It provides sewage treatment within a small footprint. Aeration, mixing and settling can be accomplished in compact, easily transported ISO containers, ideal for remote locations. Provides flexibility of adding future parallel units, an economical means of meeting the needs of any growing sewage loads. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

Coalescing oil/water separators ACG Technology’s coalescing oil/ water separators are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP and polypropylene construction. Standard systems include air operated diaphragm pump, air filter and floating skimmer. Adjustable weir and skimmer height provides optimal oil removal and minimal disposal volume. Standard range is 1 to 50 GPM. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

Stormwater solutions

Opacity measurement and dust compliance

Armtec provides a wide range of CONTECH stormwater quality management systems throughout Canada. Products include VORTECHS hydrodynamic separation systems and VORTFILTER filtration systems. These systems are among the best for capturing suspended solids, oils, grit and trash from stormwater runoff. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com

The Land Model 4500 Mk III from Ametek achieves the highest available performance specifications as defined by ASTM Standard D6216-Standard Practice for Opacity Monitor Manufacturers to Certify Conformance with Design and Performance Specifications. It is an accurate and reliable stack opacity measurement and dust concentration monitoring instrument ideally suited for all types of industrial applications. Tel: 888-965-4700 E-mail: info@avensys.com Web: www.avensyssolutions.com


Avensys Solutions

Phoenix Panel System

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Installs directly over existing underdrain system • Eliminates the need for base gravel layers • Improves backwash flow distribution • Provides longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI www.esemag.com

Lightweight ground tents The PELSUE lightweight ground tents are one piece including all fiberglass poles (integrated into the shell) and set up in seconds.The tents are manufactured from flame retardant 250 denier polyester and are used for protection from the elements during equipment repair.They are also used as portable shelters, Haz-Mat Decon, field offices and rest areas. Sizes include 6’ x 6’, 8’ x 8’, 10’ x 10’, 12’ x 12’ and 14’ x 14’. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Safety Equipment

Concrete arch bridges

Armtec provides BEBO concrete arch bridges in Québec, Ontario and Western Canada. Based on technology developed in Switzerland, BEBO arches are an economical alternative to cast-inplace concrete or structural steel bridges. They are available in a range of shapes with spans up to 31m. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com Armtec

Phoenix Underdrain System

• Optimizes all types of filters • Extremely low profile; lowest available • Manufactured from corrosion-resistant stainless steel • Variable custom orifice sizing • Custom hydraulic design • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution • Rapid, low-cost installation Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

New stainless steel pumps Grindex’s new stainless steel pump line combines the integrity of years of tested design with the ingenuity and durability of new technology. Inox pumps can be used in applications that would destroy their aluminum predecessors. Their stainless steel construction enables them to endure pH values from 2 – 10, making them ideal for extreme environments with highly acidic or alkaline contents. Tel: 705-431-8585, Fax: 705-431-2772 E-mail: pb@claessenpumps.com Web: www.claessenpumps.com Claessen Pumps November 2009 | 61

Product & Service Showcase

Package Treatment System

Product & Service Showcase

Nov09_ES&E:ES&E 11/23/09 4:32 PM Page 62

Polymer laminated coating

Guideline for CSP culverts

Dissolved air flotation

Polymer Laminated Corrugated Steel Pipe provides protection against the uncertainties of tomorrow.This tough, mill-applied coating protects both the steel and galvanized coating from attack by a multitude of agents. The coating has performed well in extremely aggressive environments and is expected to provide continuous protection for more than 100 years. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca

Use the Canadian Performance Guideline for Corrugated Steel Pipe Culverts as your location in Canada may affect the long-term performance of your infrastructure. Understanding your local environment helps you to select the steel material best suited to your site, for optimum performance and value. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca

The AquaDAF® Clarifier High-Rate Dissolved Air Flotation System is a viable alternative to conventional settling and DAF clarifiers. It is highly effective for treatment of a range of raw water characteristics including troublesome waters exhibiting low turbidity, high TOC, colour and algae. Tel: 201-794-3100 Web: www.degremont-technologies.com

Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute


Vertical UV lamp system

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Ozonia’s Aquaray® 3X Vertical Lamp System offers a high amount of UV output within a reduced footprint, while providing the degree of disinfection required for even the most stringent of effluent criteria. Operator-friendly, the 3X is ideally designed for large wastewater plants. Tel: 201-794-3100 Web: www.degremont-technologies.com

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com



One-Pass trenching

With DeWind's One-Pass trencher technology, deep environmental horizontal collection trenches, reactive barriers, and slurry walls are installed in a single pass directly into contaminated water and soil. There is no need to dewater or remediate. Tel: 616-875-7580, Fax: 616-875-7334 E-mail: dewind@iserv.net Web: dewinddewatering.com DeWind Dewatering & Trenching 62 | November 2009

Multi-channel transmitter

The Liquiline CM44 is a four-wire multi-channel transmitter from Endress+Hauser, compatible with a full complement of digital Memosens sensors for all parameters. The large backlit screen, navigation wheel, dropdown menu structure and adaptive software make operation simple and intuitive. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com Endress + Hauser

One-pass trenches

DeWind provides one-pass installation of gravel filled trenches with simultaneous installation of horizontal HDPE screens near trench bottom; also, trenches for groundwater collection, free-product recovery, or air-sparging applications. Dewatering is generally not required. Depths to 35 feet building up to 57 feet in key trenches. Tel: 616-875-7580, Fax: 616-875-7334 E-mail: dewind@iserv.net Web: dewinddewatering.com DeWind Dewatering & Trenching

Sub-meter mapping Geneq has introduced an OmniSTARcompatible receiver for sub-meter mapping wherever OmniSTAR VBS is broadcast.The SXBlue II-L also incorporates its SBAS signal processing for using WAAS/EGNOS/ MSAS, and future SBAS signals. The ability to select from either OmniSTAR or SBAS provides GIS professionals with a sub-meter mapping solution virtually anywhere in the world. Tel: 800-463-4363 E-mail: rparise@geneq.com Web: www.sxbluegps.com Geneq Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Oil and sand removal

The Terminator emergency shutoff system sequentially closes 150 lb. cylinder valves containing toxic gas in less than three seconds when activated from remote sensors and switches.The Gemini controller has a self-contained battery system that guarantees the operation of the motorized closing mechanism even during a power failure. The latest Fire Codes recognize and approve the “automatic-closing fail-safe shutoff valve” system in lieu of scrubber treatment systems. Tel: 877-476-4222, Fax: 949-261-5033 Web: www.halogenvalve.com Halogen Valve Systems

The new Stormceptor® OSR from Hanson Pipe and Precast is a very cost-competitive stormwater quality device. The OSR is smaller, easier to install, competitively priced and meets Ministry of the Environment requirements with the same proven Stormceptor performance. Tel: 888-888-3222, Fax: 519-621-8233 E-mail: hal.stratford@hanson.com Web: www.hansonpipeandprecast.com Hanson Pipe and Precast

Flow meter

Multiparameter meter

The Transit Time Flow Meter (TTFM) from Hetek Solutions is easy to use, with accuracies better than ±1%. The NI-MH battery provides up to 12 hours continuous use, and the data logger can store up to 2000 lines of data. Tel: 888-364-3835, Fax: 519-453-2182 E-mail: hetek.sales@hetek.com Web: www.hetek.com or www.hetekusa.com

The YSI Professional Plus handheld multiparameter meter provides extreme flexibility for the measurement of a variety of combinations for dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, salinity, resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ORP, pH/ORP combination, ammonium (ammonia), nitrate, chloride and temperature. Web: www.hoskin.ca

Hetek Solutions

Hoskin Scientific

Relining pipe

Streamliner CR relining pipe from Ideal Pipe is a strong, light corrugated HDPE pipe designed to ‘streamline’ the upgrading of old metal culverts. In-place relining with Streamliner CR eliminates the trouble and expense of road reconstruction while improving drainage through the culvert. Tel: 800-265-7098 Web: www.idealpipe.ca Ideal Pipe www.esemag.com

Water level indicator The yellow, tensile steel tape makes the Heron dipper-T a very accurate water level indicator. The markings in feet and 100/th of a foot are protected under the polyethylene jacketing. The dog bone design makes this a no stick tape. Fully encapsulated, water resistant electronic module with A/C signal eliminates probe corrosion. Beeps and flashes when in water. It’s that easy! Tel: 905-634-4449, 800-331-2032 Web: www.heroninstruments.com Heron Instruments

Hand-held DO meter The YSI ProODOTM handheld DO meter provides extreme durability for the measurement of optical, luminescent-based dissolved oxygen for any field application. Web: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

Energy efficient mixer

Small mechanical face seals

The motor in the new Flygt 4650 LSPM mixer relies on LineStarted Permanent-Magnet (LSPM) technology to deliver optimal efficiency in terms of mixer thrust and electrical input. It can provide about 10-20% lower energy consumption, 15% higher motor efficiency and 40% lower current consumption. Applications include biological wastewater treatment, denitrification, sludge handling, etc. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.ittwww.ca

ITT Water & Wastewater has launched Griploc, a new generation of robust mechanical face seals. To facilitate mounting, the new Flygt seals feature one uniform mounting procedure, and each seal comes with a disposable, easy-touse mounting tool. Fewer versions can also reduce spare part inventory. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.ittwww.ca

ITT Water and Wastewater

ITT Water and Wastewater November 2009 | 63

Product & Service Showcase

Emergency gas shutoff

Nov09_ES&E:ES&E 11/23/09 4:33 PM Page 64

Desalination pumps

KSB offers pumps optimized for seawater desalination. The efficient multistage high-pressure pumps meet the most challenging requirements of reverse osmosis applications. They cover a wide range of capacities (up to 1,500 m3/h) and heads (as high as 950 m). All critical parts are made of duplex stainless steel. Tel: 905-568-9200 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca KSB Pumps Inc.

Water filters

KSB provides convenient spare parts kits for its popular Amarex KRT submersible pumps used in water and wastewater applications. The all-inclusive service kits help to reduce time and cost for scheduled maintenance. They are stocked in Canada – and contain all parts for tuneups in a complete package, offered at approximately 30% less than individual parts’ prices. Tel: 905-568-9200 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca

Stainless steel, carbon steel, NSF coating, Hastelloy, titanium – whatever materials are required, ORIVAL will meet all customer specifications when manufacturing fully automatic self-cleaning filtration systems, in sizes ranging from ¾” to 24”. Tel: 1-800-567-9767 E-mail: filters@orival.com Web: www.orival.com

KSB Pumps Inc.


Metering pumps

Metering pump

DynaSand continuous backwash, upflow, deep bed, granular media filters handle high levels of suspended solids, and may eliminate the need for pre-sedimentation or flotation. They have few moving parts, easily handle plant upsets, and require little operator attention and maintenance. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: canada@parkson.com Web: www.parkson.com

Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca

The awardwinning delta® with optoDrive® provides diverse control and operating capabilities in a capacity range of 7.5 - 75 l/h, 362 psi - 29 psi. The delta from ProMinent has many advanced features: pulsed or continuous dosing; automatic detection of airlock, low pressure and high pressure; and an automatic degassing option. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca/delta


ProMinent Fluid Controls

ProMinent Fluid Controls

Granular media filters ®

Product & Service Showcase

Spare parts for pumps

Chemical injection equipment

SAF-T-FLO Chemical Injection manufactures a complete line of chemical injection equipment for all types of chemical feed systems. A large inventory of retractable and non-retractable injection quills and sampling probes are available to meet your needs. In addition, experienced technical sales staff can answer your questions or help solve your problems. Tel: 800-957-2383, Fax: 714-632-3350 E-mail: gkline@saftflo.com Web: www.saftflo.com SAF-T-FLO Chemical Injection 64 | November 2009

Membrane bioreactor Sanitherm has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, preplumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint! Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: information@sanitherm.com Web: www.sanibrane.com Sanitherm Inc.

New catalogue from Serfilco Serfilco, Ltd. announces a new catalogue. The company has been a worldwide supplier of fluid treatment equipment and transfer pumps to the chemically demanding process fluids industry for nearly 50 years. A review of their new 2009 catalogue will give you an idea of the diversity of their product line. For your hard copy of this 400 page catalogue, contact your local rep or call the main office. Tel: 800-565-5278, Fax: 905-820-4015 E-mail: sales@service-filtration.com Web: www.service-filtration.com Service Filtration of Canada Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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SEW-Eurodrive’s patented keyless hollow shaft design TorqLOC® mounting system adds advantages to the F-Series (the Snuggler®), K-Series (helicalbevel) and S-Series (helical-worm) reducers, resulting in benefits for users and original equipment manufacturers. Tel: 905-791-1553, Fax: 905-791-2999 Web: www.sew-eurodrive.ca SEW-Eurodrive Company of Canada

Confined space rescue

Wastewater Pump Stations Energy-saving Smith & Loveless wastewater pump stations are ideal for collection system and WWTP influent pumping for municipalities, private developments and industry. Proven lift station designs minimize delays because S&L stations arrive at the jobsite completely built and thoroughly factory-tested. Now available with expanded pump sizing: 4" - 12" piping (100-300 mm); horsepower: 1.5 to 300 HP; capacity: up to 50,000 GMP (3155 lps). Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

Confined space entry and rescue training

Water level meters

Solinst Model 101 Water Level Meters feature extremely durable and accurate flat tape that is very easy to repair. For narrow applications, the Model 102 Water Level Meters feature flexible coaxial cable, precisely laser marked every 1/100th foot or millimetre. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com Solinst Canada

Blower application software

Are you finding the cost of equipment, maintenance and training for confined space rescue to be too costly? Team-1 Academy, emergency response and rescue specialists, have the solution Standby Rescuers for hire. They supply the equipment and manpower.

Team-1 Academy specializes in confined space entry and rescue training. All of their instructors are active professional emergency responders with years of training experience. Your staff will be taught correctly the first time and every time!

Safety through action... success through commitment!

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Web: www.team1academy.com Team-1 Academy

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Tuthill Vacuum & Blower Systems has updated BlowerXpert™ 8, a widely used rotary blower selection tool. It is available for download, (WinXP/ Vista, 2.5 MB, v8.0). New features include the incorporation of relative humidity into air applications, and the addition of links to CDC/NIOSH online Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards for access to information about gases. Tel: 800-825-6937, Fax: 417-865-2950 E-mail: aburlison@tuthill.com Web: www.tuthill.com

Team-1 Academy

Tuthill Vacuum & Blower Systems

Trickling filters

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: wbs@waterloo-biofilter.com Web: www.waterloo-biofilter.com Waterloo Biofilter www.esemag.com

Water quality meters Waterra's new Aquaread™ GPS Aquameter™ gets you fast, reliable, accurate and dependable water quality readings. Attach one of the eight available multiparameter probes to measure dissolved oxygen, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, pH and ORP. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

Water control gates Whipps, Inc's low leakage water control gates have been field-proven in water and wastewater applications since 1977. Equipment such as slide gates, sluice gates, hand-pull stop gates, stop logs, flap gates, shear gates, tilting weirs and telescoping valves are produced at the company headquarters in Athol, Massachusetts. Tel: 978-249-7924, Fax: 978-249-3072 Web: www.whipps.com Whipps, Inc. November 2009 | 65

Product & Service Showcase

Hollow shaft mounting systems

Nov09_ES&E_Final_ES&E 23/11/09 7:38 PM Page 66

Help for rural Alberta water plants The Alberta Federation of Rural Water Co-operatives recently completed a best practices manual on enhanced operational guidelines. A $100,000 grant will be used to establish workshops to discuss and develop customized emergency response plans and operational procedures for each unique facility. The federation represents 77 rural water co-ops in Alberta addressing the diverse needs of the province’s rural residents and ensuring safe, secure water supply for both domestic and agricultural uses. www.environment.alberta.ca

NF studies corrosion of drinking water piping

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The Newfoundland government recently released results of a 2009 pilot study which was carried out to determine the extent of corrosion in public water supplies. Based on the findings, it is concluded that corrosion is not a major issue in most of Newfoundland and Labrador’s water supplies. Only three per cent of samples taken were above the recommended guidance for lead as a corrosion indicator. The key objective of the study was to determine the extent to which corrosion may affect plumbing systems in homes and public buildings in the province. A total of 352 samples were taken. The study was also used to determine the feasibility of specialized lead monitoring procedures in measuring the corrosive potential of municipal water supplies, rather than the standard lead monitoring procedures. In the study, lead was used as the indicator of corrosion, and the sampling procedures focused on the concentrations of lead only. Public water supplies in the province are routinely tested for pH, lead and all other metals.

Feds to fund new Great Lakes projects

MARKHAM, ONTARIO 905-747-8506 weknowwater@bv.com www.bv.com

66 | November 2009

The federal government recently announced $410,000 in funding from the Great Lakes Sustainability Fund for four projects to clean up the Detroit River Area of Concern. Thirty-seven projects Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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NEWS throughout the Great Lakes are receiving $2.2 million in funding this year. During the LaSalle Riverfront Park Habitat Restoration project, the Essex Region Conservation Authority and the Town of LaSalle will be using soft shoreline engineering techniques to restore a stretch of Detroit River shoreline in a way that will create and enhance wetland and fish habitat. Irregular rock shoreline habitats will be built to encourage fish habitat. Three additional projects focused on water quality and habitat improvements will be undertaken in the Area of Concern.

Biosolids task group develops GHG calculator The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) has established a Biosolids Task Group (BTG) which is developing a Canada-wide approach for the management of wastewater biosolids, including: developing an inventory of emerging contaminants in Canadian biosolids; reviewing current Canadian legislative frameworks for biosolids; and, developing a calculator tool, the Biosolids Emissions Assessment Model (BEAM) for determining greenhouse gas emissions from various biosolids management practices. For BEAM, the task group undertook a review of literature and leading GHG accounting and verification protocols, and developed a model for calculating GHG emissions from biosolids management. Using the model, GHG emissions estimates were calculated for nine scenarios across Canada. The literature review was completed to verify potential GHG sources and emission factors for biosolids and sludge management processes in the model development. Values, emission factors and assumptions were corroborated by multiple sources to ensure the use of the most current and accurate information possible. A review of existing GHG accounting and verification protocols was completed to ensure the terminology and reporting methods adopted in the model were consistent with these protocols. Development of the model was based on leading protocols to facilitate the use of the model as a tool that is widely accepted as a verificontinued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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NEWS able method of determining carbon credits which can be sold or traded to offset the cost of biosolids management. www.ccme.ca

Easter Island hotels choose ADI

Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis, Inc. Consulting Engineers ! 420 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, N1T 2H9 Tel: (519) 624-7223 Fax: (519) 624-7224 ! 1685 1 James Street Ontario, L8P L8S 4R5 1G5 Main St. South, West,Suite Suite1601, 302,Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax: (905) 522-0031

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Phone: 905-777-9494 E: info@hydrologic.ca W: www.hydrologic.ca


Easter Island is the site of a new ADI Systems’ wastewater treatment plant being installed at the Hanga Roa Hotel. The new system will treat the hotel’s wastewater, so that it can be directly discharged to a local stream. For two years an existing ADI plant has operated successfully at Hotel Explora, another luxury resort located on the island. The island is a popular tourist destination, noted for its long-lost civilization that carved the giant heads, a perfect climate and beautiful landscapes. Its sensitive environment, and limited fresh water resources, present a challenge to locals and to the tourism industry. www.adi.ca

Abu Dhabi treatment plant to expand

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68 | November 2009

Dewatering systems Mobile groundwater treatment systems Well and pump installation and maintenance Pump, filter, generator rentals Sediment tank rentals Insitu groundwater remediation systems


SBR system under construction.

In 2008, the sewage and sanitary authority in Abu Dhabi, UAE, decided to convert two of the existing concrete emergency storage tanks at the Mafraq Wastewater Treatment Plant into an SBR system. The system was designed to treat 50,000 m3 per day. Napier-Reid Ltd. was awarded a contract to design and supply a two-train sequential batch reactor (SBR) system that would meet stringent effluent discharge limits. Treated water will be reused for non-potable applications. Under this contract, Napier-Reid provided detailed process design and supplied most process equipment, including four 18m Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Nov09_ES&E:ES&E 11/23/09 4:33 PM Page 69

NEWS long duplex decanters, control valves, flow meters, fine-bubble aeration system, submersible mixers, pumps, instrumentation and PLC control systems. www.napier-reid.com

Parkson meets ISO 9001:2008 standards Parkson Corporation has expanded its quality management systems to increase certification from the ISO 9001:2000 standards to the amended ISO 9001:2008 certification levels. The ISO 9001:2008 standard expands coverage of all key processes and includes proscribed monitoring activities to ensure effectiveness. In addition, this standard is relevant to checking procedures, to evaluating operations and to a comprehensive review of procedural results. The scope of Parkson ISO 9001:2008 certification upgrade includes design, engineering and project management of water and wastewater treatment systems. www.parkson.com


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New water sector worker competency model The American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Water Environment Federation (WEF) have released the Water Sector Competency Model, which defines the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities, for prospective water professionals and encourages careers in the water sector. It is designed to increase the pool of certified and experienced water sector professionals through a variety of training and career advancement solutions. AWWA and WEF are committed to supporting the competency-based training and certification in the water sector to ensure experienced and certified water sector professionals are available to support public water systems and wastewater treatment plants in the future. www.wef.org

Water For People selected for Malawi project The Blantyre Water Board, operated by the government of Malawi, recently secontinued overleaf... www.esemag.com

November 2009 | 69

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Ontario hopes innovation in toxics reduction will help build green economy

Peter J. Laughton, P. Eng. Consulting Engineer

Environmental Engineering Services

King City, Ontario CANADA

70 | November 2009


lected Water For People to provide technical support for a 31-million-euro initiative funded by the European Union (EU) Water Facility and European Investment Bank (EIB), to bring safe drinking water and improved sanitation to more than 540,000 people in 21 low-income areas in the region. Water For People, a nonprofit international development organization, has supported and implemented sustainable programs designed to increase water and sanitation coverage in Malawi since 2000. The Denver-based nonprofit organization will receive more than $1.56 million (USD) as the Facilitation Services Provider for the program. “The Blantyre Water Board is very successful in providing water and sanitation facilities, while Water For People has proven experience in creating and implementing services that can be delivered in a sustainable way,� said Elias Chimulambe, a Water, Sanitation, and Community Development Specialist at Water For People–Malawi. www.waterforpeople.com

tel: +1.905.833.6738 fax: +1.905.833.8497

The Ontario government will invest $13.6 million in GreenCentre Canada, located at Queen’s University in Kingston. The centre, which will be operated by PARTEQ Innovations, will connect green chemistry discoveries in Ontario universities with companies to develop alternatives to toxic chemicals and get them to the marketplace faster. In its first five years, the centre expects to create several start-up companies and at least 250 jobs, while strengthening the global competitiveness of Ontario’s $21-billion chemical industry. The province is also asking for public comment on the draft regulation that will spell out how industry must comply with the Toxics Reduction Act to help protect public health and the environment. Both measures were initiated to support the government’s commitment to reduce toxic substances by supporting green chemistry and innovative new technologies to reduce industrial reliance on toxic substances.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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KSB Aktiengesellschaft is set to deliver a huge vertical tubular casing pump for an intake structure in Saudi Arabia. Driven by a powerful, highly energy-efficient 4200 kilowatt synchronous motor, the SEZA 24-160 pump unit will handle more than 16,000 litres of seawater per second; the water will be pumped into a piping system to supply Yanbu's industrial park. The complete pump unit will weigh about 100 tonnes, while the pump alone weighs around 60 tonnes. www.ksb.ca


Huge cooling water pump for Saudi Arabia

New study done on PLE arsenic removal process The newly implemented arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10μg/L in drinking water is impacting thousands of water utilities in the United States. The Water Research Foundation has released the results of a study on the pilot-testing of a selective ion exchange process, based on a polymeric ligand exchanger (PLE). Pilot-testing results confirmed that the copper-loaded PLE was highly selective for arsenate over other competing anions such as sulfate and chloride that are omnipresent in natural groundwater. The PLE can effectively remove As(V) under typical groundwater conditions and in the pH range of 6.5–8.3, with the lower pH being more favorable. It was uniquely selective for arsenate. The study notes that the most notable merit of this technology is its unique secontinued overleaf... www.esemag.com

www.trg.ca Experience, Innovation, Diversity, Teamwork & Commitment


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NEWS lectivity for arsenate, reusability of the resin, and much reduced waste process residual. While the technology appears promising for a broad range of groundwater conditions, the high arsenic selectivity of PLE is best utilized for treating water of high sulfate and relatively low alkalinity. www.waterresearchfoundation.org

management of resources and/or minimize negative environmental impacts. AET was judged in six primary categories: reducing non-renewable resources; reducing energy and water consumption; reducing pollutants; recyclability; environmental design; and, environmental leadership.

Dr. Saad Jasim elected Chair of IOAʼs Pan Am Group

AET Group wins RCO award AET Group recently won a Gold award at the Recycling Council of Ontario's Waste Minimization Awards for Sustainable Product/Service. This award evaluates products, or services, that improve the

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72 | November 2009

Environmental Employer of the Year Awards

Dr. Saad Jasim, CEO of the Walkerton Clean Water Centre, has been elected as Chair of the International Ozone Association-Pan American Group. His two-year

• Hazardous Site Clean-up & Remediation • Decommissioning and Demolition • Asbestos and Mould Abatement • Contaminated Soil Removal • On-site Water Treatment

term will begin in January 2010. He also currently serves as Vice President of the Ontario Water Works Association, is a Member of the Council of Great Lakes Research Managers with the International Joint Commission, and is a member of the NSF Joint Committee on Drinking Water Treatment Units - NSF International.

ECO Canada has teamed up with Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine for the annual Environmental Employer of the Year Awards. This partnership provides a new platform for participating organizations to showcase their innovative human resource (HR) practices directly to environmental professionals. Taking place at GLOBE 2010 in Vancouver, the Environmental Employer of the Year Awards recognize employers within Canada’s environment industry for their commitment and dedication to HR excellence. It is also one of Canada’s only awards in which winning organizations are selected based on the feedback and scoring of those who are most impacted by a company’s HR initiatives— the employees. As part of the application process, all organizations are required to distribute an employee satisfaction survey to their staff. These results are used by an independent selection committee, consisting of human resource professionals, to select three finalists in each category. It is not until this stage of the awards process when management is consulted to supply an essay describing the HR initiatives of the organization. All participating organizations receive a comprehensive report of the survey results for free. These results assess engagement levels and also highlight quick solutions to improve satisfaction levels. Winners in both categories also receive a free HR consultation, to help further improve HR and workplace practices. Organizations have until December 18, 2009, to complete an Environmental Employer of the Year application form. Full eligibility requirements and application forms can be found at www.eco.ca/awards.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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ACG Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 . . . . .sales@acgtechnology.com . . . . . . . . .www.acgtechnology.com Armtec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18, 19 . . . . .sales@armtec.com

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.armtec.com

Associated Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . .admin-group@ae.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ae.ca Atlantic Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 . . . . .info@ail.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ail.ca C&M Environmental Technologies . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . .info@cmeti.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cmeti.com CALA Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 . . . . .ngravel@cala.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cala.ca CCIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 . . . . .ccil@magma.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ccil.com Canadian Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . .27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Standards Association . . . . . . . . .32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.csa.ca/infrastructure CH2M HILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 . . . . .ch2mhillcanada@ch2m.com . . . . . . . .www.ch2mhill.com Claessen Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 . . . . .gd@claessenpumps.com . . . . . . . . . .www.claessenpumps.com Cole Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.coleengineering.ca

Advertiser INDEX

ABS Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 . . . . .laureen.curley@absgroup.com . . . . . .www.absgroup.ca

Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute . . . . . . . . . .76 . . . . .info@cspi.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cspi.ca Delcan Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 . . . . .info@delcan.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.delcan.com Denso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 . . . . .sales@densona.com . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.densona.com Endress + Hauser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . .info@ca.endress.com . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ca.endress.com Globe 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.globe2010.com Greatario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 . . . . .bbaird@greatario.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.greatario.com H2Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 . . . . .info@h2flow.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.h2flow.com Hanson Pipe & Precast . . . . . . . . . . .(Insert) 35 . . . . . .hal.stratford@hanson.com . . . . . . . . . . www.hansonpipeandprecast.com Heron Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . .info@heroninstruments.com . . . . . . . .www.heroninstruments.com Hetek Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 . . . . .hetek.sales@hetek.com . . . . . . . . . . .www.hetek.com Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11, 21, 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hoskin.ca ITT Water & Wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ittwww.ca John Wiley & Sons Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 . . . . .atasic@wiley.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.wiley.ca Lawson Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 . . . . .mtl_fxr@rogers.com Master Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.mastermeter.com Parkson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . .canada@parkson.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.parkson.com ProMinent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . .sales@prominent.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.prominent.ca Saf-T-Flo Chemical Injection . . . . . . . . . . . .24 . . . . .gkline@saftflo.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.saftflo.com Sanitherm Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . .information@sanitherm.com . . . . . . .www.sanibrane.com Sapphire Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 . . . . .info@sapphire-group.ca . . . . . . . . . . .www.sapphire-group.ca SEW-Eurodrive Company of Canada . . . . .27 . . . . .marketing@sew-eurodrive.ca . . . . . . .www.sew-eurodrive.ca Smith & Loveless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 . . . . .answers@smithandloveless.com . . . .www.smithandloveless.com Solinst Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 . . . . .instruments@solinst.com . . . . . . . . . .www.solinst.com Spill Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 . . . . .contact@spillmanagement.ca . . . . . .www.spillmanagement.ca Stantec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 . . . . .info@stantec.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.stantec.com Team-1 Academy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 . . . . .brian@team1academy.com . . . . . . . .www.team1academy.com The Pressure Pipe Inspection Company . . .21 . . . . .info@ppic.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ppic.com Waterloo Barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 . . . . .info@waterloo-barrier.com . . . . . . . . .www.waterloo-barrier.com Waterra Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 . . . . .sales@waterra.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.waterra.com Whipps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 . . . . .ran@whipps.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.whipps.com World Water & Wastewater Solutions . . . . .20 . . . . .info@worldwatertraining.com . . . . . . .www.worldwatertraining.com XCG Consultants

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 . . . . .toronto@xcg.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.xcg.com

ZCL Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.zcl.com www.esemag.com

November 2009 | 73

Use this information to contact our advertisers directly

Ideal Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 . . . . .sales@idealpipe.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.idealpipe.ca

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How consultants can improve recognition for their expertise and knowledge - con’t from page 47 there are five “pillars of thought-leading.” Here’s my view on how these apply in the environmental sciences sector. 1. Articles published in magazines, authoring books In deciding which publications to write for, remember who you want to reach. While you may want to write for environmental industry publications you’re familiar with, to reach your intended market you will need to step further afield. If your clients are in mining, for example, write for mining-sector publications. For your water and wastewater skills, seek public works and manufacturing magazines. There is a magazine for virtually every business sector you can imagine. You can find those magazines reaching your market through on-line searches, media directories in the larger public libraries, or just asking the people you want to reach, what they read. To publish an article, do not just sit down in a fit of creativity, dash off 3,000 words and then try to find an editor who will publish it. That’s like doing a baseline study and then trying to find someone to pay for it. Rather, suggest the idea to the editor first, modify it as needed, and gain the editor’s buy-in. Do this with what journalists call a “query letter” or “pitch.” It describes the article concept, shows why the readers of this particular magazine will be interested, gives a point outline of your proposed article, and lists your qualifications. An editor will never promise to publish an article without seeing it first, so you’ll always be writing “on spec.” Most editors will chop out anything that sounds like self-promotion, so don’t bother putting it in. Publishing a book can be straightforward once you have enough content from your article-writing program. Increasingly, self-publishing is a viable way to get your message into book form and “having a book” is quite possibly the single most effective way to demonstrate expertise. 74 | November 2009

Public speaking gives you a chance to demonstrate your expertise.

2. Speaking engagements Public speaking gives you a chance to demonstrate your expertise and to speak afterwards with potential clients. Arranging speaking engagements is much like finding article-writing opportunities; look for organizations that reach your target market and present them with a concept for a presentation to their members. While having good speaking skills is helpful, they’ll be more interested in your content and expertise, so having some published articles to show them may help them say “yes” to your idea more readily. One of the best ways to build your speaking skills is through the international speaking club Toastmasters; visit toastmasters.org to find a club near you, join it and go through their program. 3. Media relations Getting yourself quoted in newspapers, magazines, television, radio and online media is a great way to get thirdparty credibility for your positioning as an expert. Build relations with reporters, editors and producers by sending them news items, and offering yourself as an informed source. 4. Creative use of the Internet This is a fast-moving target. Currently, LinkedIn is expanding from a site displaying what are, in effect, online résumés, into a networking tool. FaceBook is morphing from a toy to a tool. YouTube is

shifting from “funniest home videos” territory into being a viable medium for displaying expertise. Despite the growth of these media, my view is that the individuals with budgets to spend still rely more on print publications. 5. Original thought A thought-leader needs to, well, be a thought-leader. You need to be pushing the frontiers of your area of expertise. Develop new insights, new methodologies, new technologies, bring together ideas that haven’t been brought together before. This is where publishing in peer-reviewed journals comes in, for many environmental professionals, as a significant source of credibility. This can also be a lot of work for a limited and uncertain return as there is a high likelihood that the paper will not be published. And, do you really want to provide your competitors with your insights? Implementing a program to build your profile as a thought-leader is a serious investment in time and money. But the rewards are great, with more billable work at a higher rate, challenging projects that help you grow professionally, and your chance to make a greater contribution to your profession and to the world at large. Contact: carl@thoughtleading.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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