Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine Summer 2009

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Contents ISSN-0835-605X Summer 2009 Vol. 22 No. 3 Issued July 2009

Page 36

Page 41

ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.


New report claims Ontario’s water pipes still leaking at an alarming rate - Editorial comment by Tom and Steve Davey

12 New facility in Hamilton to generate 11.6 MW of electricity from biosolids 17 Small footprint technologies combine for high-rate wastewater plant efficiency 20 A new approach to wastewater lagoon dewatering 22 C02 neutral drinking water desalination 26 Managing stormwater runoff in Surf City USA 28 Pollutant release: A “dirty secret” in stormwater treatment 30 How wireless remote monitoring enables low-cost data logging and control 34 Monitoring the environmental effects of hog production in Manitoba 37 Smooth coating improves pump performance 38 New membrane biological reactor WPCP replaces 40 year old treatment facility 40 Preparing for chemical spill containment in the 21st century 42 Rehabilitation of an underground water reservoir proves challenging 46 Black & Veatch designed water treatment facility earns two APWA awards 48 Rubber 'barges' for oil transportation and spill containment 50 Reviewing fifty years of remediation projects at West Hamilton Closed Landfill 52 Floating cover improves biogas collection at corn processing plant 55 Regionalization of wastewater treatment in Central Alberta

ES&E’s Annual Guide


To Government Agencies & Associations

Product Showcase . . . . . 70-74 Environmental News . . . 75-82 Professional Cards . . . . . .75-80 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Associations ................................................................... 61 Government Agencies .................................................. 65 Colleges and Universities ............................................. 69

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Comment by Tom and Steve Davey

The pipes, the pipes are still appalling - massive rehabilitation programs needed magine a gourmet restaurant where wonderful food is expertly prepared by skilled chefs in a spotless kitchen. Then consider an unlikely scenario where the same food is served from gleaming pots and pans on to chipped crockery to be eaten with corroded utensils. Unlikely? Perhaps. But this scenario could be applied to our drinking water distribution infrastructure. Not only are many water pipes and sewers badly in need of repair or renewal, but their leakage rate is quite as-


tounding to laymen. In 1997, ES&E reported on an Environment Canada survey that estimated that unaccounted-for water losses ranged from a low of 10 percent to a high of 35 percent. Astoundingly, some 12 years later, a new report, released in June 2009 by the Residential and Civil Construction Alliance of Ontario (RCCAO), states that municipal water systems in the province experience leakage rates ranging from 10 to 50 per cent. The report adds that “this massive leakage costs Ontario residents some

Letter to the Editor Dear Tom and Steve, In your May 2009 Editorial Comment, you've touched on a very important point. The quicker we act to minimize levels of lead in drinking water, the sooner public health will be better protected. This is especially important given the fact that infants and young children are particularly susceptible to adverse neurological effects from elevated levels. What makes the matter even more urgent is the fact that recent studies have suggested that no level of lead exposure is safe for children. It has been acknowledged that lead service lines provide the greatest potential for lead uptake. However, it is important not to ignore risks associated with solder and fixtures which contain lead. Lead solder can in fact be a very significant source when its corrosion leads to degradation, resulting in the release of particles which are then consumed. While lead service line replacement is desirable, replacing only the municipal portion has recently fallen out of favour. Some of the reasons are that lead uptake is not simply proportional to lead service length, and the proportion of customers that replace the section which they own is generally very low. The customer-owned portion (as well as lead solder) can still result in unsafe levels at the tap. Additionally, the partial service replacement process has been seen to actually increase lead levels for a period of time following the procedure. As a result, some jurisdictions have decided to replace the municipal portion only when the customer agrees to replace the private section as well. One important tool which your article did not address was adjusting water chemistry to make the water less corrosive. Often municipalities take a source water and make it more corrosive through their chemical treatment. It is interesting to note that under the Lead and Copper Rule in the US optimization of corrosion control is the first step to be taken when lead levels at the tap exceed the action level. Replacing the municipal portion of the lead service line is the next step to be taken if corrosion control does not bring concentrations below the action level. While implementing corrosion control will no doubt increase operating costs, there is doubt that the capital costs incurred in replacing only the municipal portion of a lead service line will result in optimized safety at the tap. John Rudnickas


$700 million annually”. If the environmental costs are included, the price tag would be closer to $1 billion a year. (The full RCCAO study is available at www.rccao.ca) The lead author of the report, civil engineering professor Tamer El-Diraby of the University of Toronto, estimates that, if the work done in the province during the last 10 years had been completed a decade ago, taxpayers could have saved another $160 million. In addition, about 30 per cent of the energy used to pump water could be saved if leakage was addressed. That would amount to about $18 million in energy savings a year, and reduced energy usage would also contribute to a significant lowering of greenhouse gas emissions. The report notes a host of negative costs and impacts associated with leaky watermains, including: • Leakage can cause basement flooding, erosion of foundations, service disruptions, and, in extreme cases, sink holes. • Treated water contains chlorine and this may flow into sensitive water bodies. • Leaking sewer lines result in effluent being discharged into the environment. • There can be increased risks to human health. Another insane result is that leaked drinking water, which has been expensively treated to potable standards, may make its way to the sewage treatment plant, through leaky sewer pipes, where it has to be treated once more, this time as sewage. continued overleaf... Summer 2009 | 7

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Comment by Tom and Steve Davey This report recommends that “several specific forms of deterioration or poor performance be quantitatively assessed and evaluated, including pipe deterioration, blockages and trapped air, pumping, and energy recovery.� Regarding the larger issue of sustainable infrastructure, the report recommends the following actions: 1. Reconfigure the methods used for evaluating return on investments in infrastructure projects to include more

quantitative analysis of sustainability impacts and benefits. 2. Establish long-term and clear policies for life cycle planning of infrastructure systems, including: improving data collection and analyses; incorporating energy-savvy design of utilities; broadening the objectives of the Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009 (GEA) to include urban utilities; creating a fund for expediting the renewal of energy-wasting facilities;

investigating new financing tools to help consumers, per the GEA; and, ramping up the use of advanced technologies. While potholes in roads and garbage piling up due to strikes cause public outrage and political action, neglected water and sewer pipes are out of sight and out of the public's mind. If the public could see what lies beneath the potholes, and what it is costing them, they would demand remedial action. The most cost-effective long-term way to ensure the integrity of our water is to embark on massive inspection and restoration of these water and sewerage systems, some of which are older than the humans they serve. While this will probably protect health more cost-effectively than many preventative medical programs, it will also provide thousands of skilled, highly paid jobs in engineering, construction and manufacturing. Such infrastructure rehabilitation will be good for our stagnant economy, our health and the environment. We have the inspection and remediation technology. What we really need now is the political will to make reducing watermain leakage a top priority. It will ultimately be a win-win situation for taxpayers and the environment. Tom and Steve Davey are editors of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. E-mail: steve@esemag.com

8 | Summer 2009

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Letter to the Editor Dear Steve,

Cover Story

take Next generation filtration systems n to a new level stormwater pollution preventio Potter By Andrew

ince the 1970s, regulations and efforts across Canada have significantly reduced water pollution by more than 60% from sewage traditional point sources like and treatment plants, industrial factories or organic illegal disposal of hazardous

S Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com Senior Consulting Editor


Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $3.75 GST).

10 | Summer 2009

Inserts can be installed in any catch basin drain or inlet.

In his article, “Next generation filtration systems take stormwater pollution prevention to a new level”, Andew Potter describes oil/grit separators (OGS) as being maintenance intensive, which results in them being “often overlooked” with regards to regular maintenance cycles. While this is very true in a lot of places, particularly on private sites, I believe the main reason OGS systems are not maintained, is due to a lack of regulation and enforcement. It is not due to the expense. And, if the owner is going to overlook a routine annual or semi-annual vacuum truck cleanout of their OGS system, how can one be sure that the same wouldnʼt be true for any catch basin technology, where many sites have to be serviced? I would also suspect that the maintenance cycles for point-of-source filtration systems are highly subjective to the site for which they are installed. For example, what happens in the fall when a slug of leaves gets in the catch basin after a wet weather event? Mr. Potter also talks about advances in filtration devices that eliminate clogging by such contaminants as petroleum and hydrocarbons, while at the same time being able to filter particles above 5 microns. I find it very hard to believe that if a filtration product, as a first line of defense, were at a gas station, or maintenance yard, and was subjected to a petroleum or oil spill, that the filtration media would not end up completely fouled. When you consider the different technologies available on the market for stormwater filtration, most require a treatment train approach to ensure the success of the filtration system by having OGS pretreatment before filtration. This ensures that the filters, particularly down-flow designs, are not subject to shock loadings of TSS or gross pollutants which can foul the media, rendering it useless or, at the very least, reducing its life expectancy drastically. To conclude, after all costs, particularly maintenance, are factored in, I believe that point-of-source filtration systems may not provide better overall value than an OGS. For example, one waste. remainIt has become clear that the rivers and ing pollution in most lakes, by stormstreams is primarily caused runoff. water runoff, especially urban snow During rainstorms and spring surfaces melts, built-up pollutants on into are washed away and deposited from catch basins. The runoff travels it is recatch basins and gutters until inwater, of body leased into a larger sources. cluding major drinking water from Most pollutants in runoff result place at a everyday activities that take variety of hot spot locations: experiroadways and lots 1. Parking pollutants ence a significant build-up of maintefrom vehicles, construction, wear and nance and accidents. Asphalt deposit transmission fluid drippings surface sediment, oils and grease. Road and salt. treatments leave behind sand signifConstruction activity introduces oils from icant loads of sediment and at busy construction vehicles. Accidents spills. intersections cause transportation con2. Parks and residential settings stormwater tribute several pollutants to from runoff, including litter and bacteria clippings, organic material like grass of car care leaves and pet feces. The use also inproducts, fertilizers and pesticides the stormtroduces contaminants into water runoff in these locations. yards 3. Maintenance and industrial a varigenerate all types of waste from Vehicle and ety of day-to-day activities. oils equipment repairs deposit solvents, Clean-ups, and other hazardous waste. and other washouts, painting, fueling waste activities leave behind industrial into stormthat is eventually washed water systems. are espe4. Marinas and boatyards to cially critical, due to their proximity 10 | May 2009

Cross-section view of EnviroStream installed in catchbasin.

sandmajor lakes and rivers. Painting, and storing, fueling, engine washing are age, and everyday cleaning activities contamia major source of stormwater nants in these locations. Contaminants here are also often highly concentrated so close to since little dilution occurs major waterways. cen5. Gas stations and vehicle service spills, fueltres experience petroleum that all tank leaks and car washing waste These pollution. stormwater to contribute velocations also experience common hicular pollution and littering. goal of For several years, the primary

to collect stormwater management was as possiand remove water as quickly is ble, using catch basins. Stormwater (NPS) considered as nonpoint source are carried pollution, because pollutants with other a great distance, converging below the streams and becoming diluted into legal limit, before being deposited the environment. not the Unfortunately, dilution is pollumost effective means of solving runoff is tion, and urban stormwater source of now identified as a leading has caused water quality problems. This continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering


OGS can often service a site where many filtration devices would have to be used to treat similar flow volumes. This is because filters have a low hydraulic capacity when compared to an OGS. Although filters provide better overall treatment when compared to an OGS, the difference in the level of treatment can cost exponentially more, maintenance not included. Dale Jackson, ACG Technology Dear Tom and Steve, Your Editorial Comment, “Should Toronto homeowners have to wait for lead-free drinking water?” which appeared in ES&Eʼs May 2009 issue, has been read with great interest. The Canadian Copper & Brass Development Association is the national trade association for the Canadian copper industry. We have a program to encourage the replacement of lead services across Canada and would like to make two important points. Firstly, the City of Toronto is going with partial replacement of lead services, to the property line. Scientific evidence indicates that this is the wrong approach. The City has rejected providing financial assistance for homeowners to replace their portion, but Ottawa and London, for example, are providing loans for such work. Further, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment encourages full service line replacement and coordination of the costs involved. Partial replacement makes no sense in our opinion. Secondly, lead-free alloys for fittings are now being specified by a rapidly growing list of municipalities across Canada. Stephen A.W. Knapp, Executive Director, Canadian Copper & Brass Development Association Dear Tom It was great to open my May 2009 edition of Environmental Science & Engineering and see the reigns being passed on to competent people. You have trained Steve and Penny well, and can be proud of their desire to carry on. Stanley J. Mason, Terminal City, Vancouver, BC

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Biosolids Management

New facility in Hamilton to generate electricity By Wilson Nolan, Mike Thomson and Jennifer Ahluwalia from biosolids n a climate of heightened environmental awareness, both globally and locally, which is increasing pressure for waste diversion from landfill, greenhouse gas (GHG) cap-andtrade schemes, and new legislation to support renewable electricity generation, many jurisdictions are re-evaluating their biosolids management strategies. Developing the green economy is a priority of the current government in Ontario and new developments are occurring rapidly. One of the challenges is creating initiatives, policy and legislation that address issues of waste management, energy use, efficiency, and public health in a way that supports the common goals. There is an inextricable link between GHG reductions and low carbon electricity generation, as well as energy efficiency. Waste management provides an excellent opportunity to improve the efficiency of resource use through the beneficial use of by-products. Significant quantities of biosolids are generated in Ontario. The Biosolids Utilization Committee (BUC) estimates that 200 wastewater treatment plants generate approximately 300,000 tonnes (dry weight) of biosolids in Ontario per year (Meerveld, 2007). Three pulp and paper mills in Southern Ontario generate approximately 150,000 tonnes (dry weight) of biosolids per year, of which nearly 100,000 tonnes were land-applied in 2007 according to BUC (Meerveld, 2007). In Ontario, there are three main management alternatives for biosolids: landfilling, agricultural land application as a source of nutrients and soil amendment, and treatment using thermal technology. Pressure to divert organic waste from landfills takes different forms in each jurisdiction. In Ontario, the diversion goal is currently set at 60%, to be achieved through diversion of both organics and recyclables. In the European Union, the diversion goal of the “Landfill Directive� is only concerned with biodegradable waste with reduction targets of 25%, increasing to 65% in 2020 (EU, 1999). A report from the European Environ-


12 | Summer 2009

Figure 1. A simplified thermal incineration process flow diagram (NBP, 2005).

mental Agency published in June 2009 provides a summary of legislation and public policy from a number of jurisdictions in Europe, used to encourage preferred management solutions. Germany uses one of the most aggressive policy instruments of the nations and regions that the EEA reported upon, where the total organic content of waste sent to landfill must be less than 3%. In the context of biosolids management, setting the threshold so low guarantees diversion or further processing prior to landfilling. Under this scheme, thermal technologies are attractive because of the potential for energy recovery and the ability to deliver a by-product (fly ash) that is low volume and has a low organic content for recycling or landfilling. The risks of pathogen and pollutant release from landfilling have decreased with recent improvements in landfill lining technology. Gas collection systems are typically installed within the landfill to collect methane which can be sold as a commodity or used in an integrated cogeneration system (i.e., to generate electricity and low-grade heat). The collection and utilization of landfill gas is becoming more popular and in some jurisdictions it is mandatory. However, landfill capacity is limited and many jurisdictions have established policies limiting landfill receipts.

Ontario’s requirement for municipalities to achieve 60% diversion of wastes suggests that landfilling of organics is not a viable long-term solution. Source water protection has resulted in a re-evaluation of the potential for environmental impacts from the presence of heavy metals and trace organic compounds found in biosolids. Land application is seasonal and weather-dependent, with nine months of storage now required in Ontario. There are a variety of thermal treatment technologies, including: fixed hearth, multiple hearth, rotary kilns and fluidized bed reactors. Fluidized bed technology provides the advantage of flexibility with respect to the variability of the fuel and is currently the most widely applied (Figure 1). Biosolids are typically dewatered by centrifuges or belt filter presses before being fed to a reactor at approximately 26-30% dry solids (Welp and Partington, 2008). Following combustion in the fluid bed, exhaust gases are directed to a series of air pollution controls (e.g., wet scrubbers, separators). Treated exhaust is emitted through a stack, while ash is collected from the separator and recycled or disposed off-site. To facilitate progress toward GHG reduction commitments, and to increase the amount of energy produced from re-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Biosolids Management newable sources and foster a green economy, the Green Energy Act (GEA) was introduced and passed the Ontario legislature on May 14, 2009. This legislation has a number of key elements, many of which have the potential to affect biosolids management, particularly solutions that include energy recovery for the purpose of electricity generation. Proposed regulations under the Act will provide a new framework to streamline the approvals process for renewable energy projects and a feed-in-tariff system to provide guaranteed pricing for electricity exported to the grid at a tariff that makes economic sense. Supporting environmental initiatives is a priority for most biosolids managers but, until GHG offsets have real monetary value, it can be challenging to justify changing management practices from the status quo. The Greater Vancouver Regional District used life cycle analysis to determine whether landfilling with gas recovery, anaerobic digestion with land application, or incineration with energy recovery was the best solution for their biosolids. All processes downstream of sludge

thickening in wastewater treatment plants were included. Thermal treatment with energy recovery (electrical generation) was found to have the lowest cost on a life cycle basis (GVRD, 2005) It should be noted that life cycle analysis is case-specific and cannot be generalized to all situations. For example, in Vancouver’s case study, transportation reduction provided significant cost savings due to the proposed colocation of the thermal facility with wastewater treatment facilities. However, even without including transportation, incineration with energy recovery was still the least costly solution. It is likely that many of the same assumptions would apply to equally large urban areas in Ontario, especially with the higher electricity prices proposed as a feed-in-tariff system under the GEA ($0.138/kWh for biomass vs. $0.07/kWh used in GVRD study). Thermal treatment with energy recovery A thermal treatment facility poised to generate green electricity has already been approved for the City of Hamilton. The Liberty Energy Centre (LEC) may

serve as the pioneering example for the biosolids-to-energy facilities of the future. The LEC will take advantage of fluidized bed gasification technology to use biosolids as fuel from various sources, and will be capable of using digested and undigested biosolids co-fired with biomass as a second fuel. Biomass used in the process will include leaf and yard waste, arbour waste and clean dimensional lumber scraps. LEC has the potential to play a major role in the phytosanitary management of Emerald Ash Borer infested trees as nearly 100 percent mortality is expected in the next 10 to 15 years. Under normal operating conditions, the LEC will be capable of processing up to 272 dry tonnes of biosolids and 292 dry tonnes of biomass per day. When operating at capacity the facility will have the potential to convert nearly one third of the biosolids produced by Ontario municipal wastewater treatment plants into renewable energy. Reliability of biosolids handling/disposal is critical for municipal facilities that must operate continuously. The continued overleaf...

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Biosolids Management

Figure 2. Artist’s rendition of Liberty Energy Centre process flow diagram.

LEC design incorporates redundancies throughout the process, including duplicate identical process trains, each with its own fluidized bed reactor, and duplicate sets of biosolid/biomass handling and storage equipment. This means that the facility can continue to accept and process biosolids throughout maintenance and upset activities. For a facility to qualify as generating renewable electricity, it must derive 95% of its energy from renewable sources. Biomass is listed under the definition of “renewable energy sources” in the GEA. Both biosolids and biomass from urban sources are included in the definition of biomass in the draft Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) program rules under the GEA. The FIT program provides a reliable mechanism to sell renewable power to the grid under a 20-year agreement which is common in the EU but new to North America. The energy of combustion from the

the Ontario Power Authority’s Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP). Electricity from Unit 2 is expected to receive guaranteed pricing under the new FIT program that replaced RESOP under the GEA. The push for renewable energy is at least partially driven by GHG reduction commitments. As a partner in the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) it is likely that Ontario will formalize a GHG capand-trade system through legislation in the near future. The WCI’s plan is set for implementation in 2012 when the capped system will take effect for partner provinces and states. The Ontario government has already set its own reduction targets based on 1990 emission levels. The targets were set at a reduction of 6% by 2014, 15% by 2020, and 80% by 2050 (Ontario, 2009). The proposed cap-and-trade system targets industries with historically

Biosolids management could enter the electricity market as a method of offsetting emissions through renewable electricity production that is near carbon neutral. gasifier at the LEC will be used to generate 11.6 MW of electricity. The facility has a designed plant load of 1.6 MW, leaving 10 MW for export to the grid. Unit 1 at the facility has guaranteed pricing for electricity sent to the grid under 14 | Summer 2009

high carbon emissions such as electricity generation and primary resource development. The major contributors to GHG emissions from our current electrical energy mix are coal, refined petroleum products

(i.e., heavy fuel oils and diesel) and natural gas-fired stations which require approximately 1000 gCO2e/kWh, 800 gCO2e/kWh, and 400 gCO2e/kWh respectively (Environment Canada, 2005). Biosolids management could enter the electricity market as a method of offsetting emissions through renewable electricity production that is near carbon neutral. Transportation of biosolids provides another opportunity for offsetting GHG emissions if the distances travelled can be decreased. In urban settings such as the Golden Horseshoe in Ontario, landfills and appropriate areas for land application are often far from wastewater treatment facilities, while the proposed location of the LEC is within the industrial zone of the City of Hamilton. Although GHG emission and renewable energy are highly publicized, they are not the only environmental concern for the thermal treatment of biosolids. Liberty received the support of well-informed public interest groups in Hamilton with its extensive air pollution control technology and commitment to odour management. Another part of Liberty's success in gaining public favour was their ability to communicate the technical aspects of their project (see Figure 2). The odour management plan for the facility includes sealed storage of biosolids and indoor receiving of both biosolids and biomass, with all venting to either the gasifier or a biofilter. The air pollution control technology that will treat the exhaust from the gasifier includes: selective catalytic and non-catalytic reduction technology, lime slurry wet scrubbers, fabric filters, and powdered activated carbon (PAC) scrubbers. The LEC in Hamilton is one of three projects that Liberty Energy is proposing for the thermal treatment of biosolids. The other two projects are located in California. The proposed facility in Hamilton has progressed farthest through the permitting process and is set to break ground in 2010. Wilson Nolan is with Liberty Energy, and Mike Thomson and Jennifer Ahluwalia are with ENVIRON (EC) Canada. E-mail: mthomson@environcorp.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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120 days for fair trade deal - FCM t their annual conference in June, members of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) voted to adopt a fair trade resolution, in response to the US’s increasingly protectionist actions. One key item of the resolution is that FCM supports municipalities who choose to adopt procurement policies which favour free and fair trade by ensuring that local infrastructure projects, including environmental projects such as water and wastewater treatment projects, procure goods and materials required for the projects only from companies whose countries of origin do not impose trade restrictions against goods and materials manufactured in Canada. In an address to conference delegates, Jean Perrault, FCM President and Mayor of Sherbrooke, spoke on the resolution. The following is an excerpt of his presentation: "Canada´s cities and communities joined the federal and provincial gov-


Special report by Steve Davey

ernments in a common front to try and stop American protectionism. We stand united in the belief that fair trade and an even playing field are in the best interest of our country, our communities and our citizens. By supporting the resolution brought forward by the Town of Halton Hills, Ontario, our members have strengthened Canada’s bargaining position. By holding back from endorsing countervailing procurement measures for 120 days, we recognized the Prime Minister’s commitment to finding a solution to this issue. “The timeframe of 120 days will give the Canadian and US governments some breathing room. At the same time, it will continue to shine a light on this issue and ensure that everyone’s energies remain focussed on finding a quick resolution. This US protectionist policy is hurting Canadian firms, costing Canadians jobs and damaging Canadian efforts to grow our economy in the midst of a worldwide recession.

“It was municipalities that pushed this issue to the top of the national agenda. We did it by pointing to the damage that protectionism can do, not just to trading relations, but to communities and their residents. “The government’s decision to urgently seek a bilateral deal was the right thing to do. Over the next 120 days we will support the government´s efforts and have offered to assist by providing expertise on local procurement and making the case to our municipal counterparts in the United States. “We are prepared to work closely with Minister Day and the provinces to push for fair trade between our two countries and a deal that protects jobs and the interests of our communities and their residents. A solution is urgently needed. Jobs are on the line.” For more information visit, www. fcm.org.

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www.sdtc.ca 16 | Summer 2009

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Wastewater Treatment

Small footprint technologies combine for high-rate wastewater plant efficiency By R. Lafond, H. Halaweh, C. Scott and R. Niechcial tricter treatment and discharge regulations are forcing wastewater treatment plants in urban and high-growth areas to consider expanding or upgrading their systems. Even if extra land is available, it is often not economically feasible to use this. Fortunately, certain small-footprint technologies now provide efficient high-rate wastewater treatment. For example, the compact moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process, coupled with a unique sand-ballasted clarification and flocculation water treatment system, will yield a very flexible wastewater treatment plant in just a fraction of the space required by conventional treatment technologies.


Figure 1. Skreia WWTP in Norway.

Wastewater treatment using biofilm processing has become popular in recent years. One method, the AnoxKaldnesTM MBBR technology, is a continuously operating, fully biological treatment process based on biofilm processing. The processes use plastic media to grow the biofilm, which is retained in reactors using media retention sieves while an aeration system allows the bacteria/biofilm to provide the treatment required. Effective biomass within the bioreactor is augmented through growth on the media, and nearly all of the biomass is resident on the media. The carrier elements provide a large protected surface area for the biofilm as well as optimal conditions for the bacteria culture to grow and thrive in the rewww.esemag.com

Treatment Results 2007-2008

Avg. removal (%)

Avg. concentration (mg/l)













Figure 2. Treatment results for Handeland WWTP in Norway.

actor tank. The process can be designed for any shape or size of tank and can also be retrofitted into existing tanks. Because the biofilm created around each carrier element provides a more stable environment for the bacteria to grow, less footprint space is required. The MBBR biofilm carriers are sus-

pended and thoroughly mixed throughout the water phase where they move freely in the tanks. Excess biofilm is continuously sloughed from the media and carried out with the effluent. In addition to increasing treatment capacity, the MBBR system has demonstrated ef-

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Wastewater Treatment

MBBR and Actiflo at the Handeland WWTP, Norway.

fective biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal efficiency as well as effective ammonia and nitrogen removal. It can be used as a stand-alone process without the need for backwashing, returning sludge or recycling wastewater. It is designed to handle extremely high loading conditions, yet function within a relatively small footprint. MBBR systems have been success-

fully implemented in more than 500 locations worldwide. The first MBBR, installed 19 years ago, is still using its same biomedia and aeration system. Sand-ballasted clarification and flocculation The high-rate, sand-ballasted clarification and flocculation treatment process, called ACTIFLO®, provides increased capacity without the large surface area re-

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quirements of traditional flocculation/sedimentation systems. These systems are typically one-fifth to 1/20th the size of conventional clarification systems offering similar capacity. In the sand-ballasted flocculation process, raw water is first mixed with a coagulant in a high-shear environment. In the next tank, the water is injected with a polymer and microsand and mixed aggressively before it enters the “maturation zone,” where gentle shear is applied. The microsand-ballasted flocs increase in size, trapping smaller flocs before the water enters the sedimentation tank, where the large flocs immediately begin to settle. At this stage, the clarified water then flows upward through lamellar settling tubes to collection troughs where it can be diverted to various applications. The microsand and other solids in the ballasted flocs that settled in the bottom of the tank are then pumped to a hydrocyclone, where the microsand is cleaned and reinjected for reuse and the waste solids are removed. The technology has proven both flexible and versatile. The coagulation phase works on total suspended solids as well as on chemically active contaminants. The polymer flocculent ensures that the microsand bonds strongly to the flocculated solids. The flocs, by themselves, are typically at or near the density of water, so they cannot settle rapidly without the added weight of the microsand (specific gravity of 2.65). Once ballasted with the tiny microsand particles, the flocs sink immediately in the settling tank. ACTIFLO is a multi-task technology,

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Wastewater Treatment serving as an effective high-rate clarifier and a versatile chemical reaction vessel. Depending on pH conditions, colloidal and particulate pollutants in the influent can be precipitated using classic chemical methods for efficient, sand-ballasted removal in the settling step. Virtually any constituent of raw feed water or wastewater that can be coagulated through physico-chemical means can be effectively processed through the system. Combining high-rate technologies Limited space for wastewater treatment plant expansion is an ongoing challenge for urban areas or constrained peri urban installations. Being able to combine two high-rate wastewater treatment technologies would prove a major benefit for municipal decision-makers. Two municipal plants in Norway are leading by example. Water treatment officials in Skreia wanted to upgrade its 20year-old conventional activated sludge treatment plant to increase capacity by 80% to manage an increasing load from a local potato processor. However, the plant is situated close to Lake Mjosa and the area available for facility expansion was restricted by farmland and a wildlife reserve. Hence, it was necessary to look for a compact treatment solution that could be easily retrofitted with the existing plant. The integration of AnoxKaldnes MBBR and ACTIFLO technologies into the existing Skreia WWTP (Figure 1) allows for wide variations in both hydraulic and organic loads. The MBBR technology was chosen for high-rate biological treatment, to remove soluble organic matter and to increase and enhance the biological treatment capacity. Effluent from the MBBR treatment is then routed to the ACTIFLO unit for final sludge separation and high quality effluent discharge. The plant also has the option of routing MBBR effluent to the plant’s settling tank.

Limited space for wastewater treatment plant expansion is an ongoing challenge for urban areas or constrained peri urban installations. Using the two high-rate, small-footprint technologies has resulted in excellent removal efficiencies, and the expanded plant conforms well to the space limitations presented by the site. The rural area of Handeland, also in Norway, has a small residential population but increasing seasonal tourist activity. The municipality expects even further significant tourist growth in the near future. To meet the challenge, the municipality chose to build a new treatment plant to serve the entire community. The new wastewater treatment plant consists of screening, an MBBR for biological wastewater treatment and the high-rate sandballasted clarification and flocculation technology for sludge separation. The new plant is meeting the needs, requirements and expectations of the municipality (Figure 2). The treatment units consist of two interchangeable trains, providing operational flexibility in handling large variations in flow and load. R. Lafond, H. Halaweh, C. Scott and R. Niechcial are with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies Canada/John Meunier Inc. E-mail: jcigana@johnmeunier.com www.esemag.com

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Sludge & Dewatering

A dewatering technology for lagoon sludge management agoons have long been used for the treatment of liquid waste sludge. While they are an effective means of treating and storing sludge, lagoons often produce unpleasant odours and, if not properly maintained, can lead to environmental concerns. Regular maintenance and upkeep are essential to keeping lagoons operating properly, and to protecting the health of humans and the environment. Despite regular weekly and monthly maintenance, however, lagoons eventually become filled with sludge and must be cleaned in order to allow them to continue operating, or in some cases to allow for their closure. Many municipalities and industries around the world have chosen the Geotube速 dewatering technology as an economical and effective method for lagoon cleanouts. Lagoons containing pulp and paper sludge, agriculture waste, sewage sludge, tailings from mining operations, processing waste from food production


20 | Summer 2009

Geotube速 units along perimeter of lagoon, ready to dewater.

and a host of other waste streams have all been dewatered using this technology. Geotube dewatering units are geo-synthetic containers made from high-tensile woven polypropylene. The technology works by allowing sludge to be filtered through the dual filament polypropylene fabric, while retaining a high percent of solids. As sludge is pumped into a unit, it is injected with a polymer. The addition

of the polymer to the sludge is necessary to flocculate the sludge and allow the technology to dewater as effectively as possible. The technology offers many benefits. The containers provide not only effective dewatering, but also on-site storage capacity. This allows for the cost of the lagoon cleanout to be spread out over time. A lagoon can be dredged in year one and

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Sludge & Dewatering the units can be left to dewater on-site until the following year, at which point the bags can be opened and the retained solids disposed of. The ability to dewater and contain sludge in one process allows for minimum capital expense. When utilizing this technology, the volume to be removed is based on the volume of sludge in the lagoon, and the percentage solids of the sludge. Based on these parameters, a volume of bonedry tons is calculated for removal. The client does not pay for the removal of liquids, only solids. Odour reduction Often lagoon sites are plagued with odour issues, which can cause public backlash and the demand for change to current operations. Lagoon cleanouts utilizing Geotube dewatering containers are done simply and quickly. In many cases the cleanout takes only days. The units sit on a temporary dewatering cell constructed of crushed stone, a geomembrane liner and a non-woven geosynthetic material. The dewatering cell is typically situated around the parameter of the lagoon, sloped so that the effluent is directed


back into the lagoon by gravity. If available space is an issue at a particular site, the dewatering cell can be constructed with a catch basin at one end of the dewatering cell. As the units drain into the basin, the clear effluent is pumped back to the lagoon. A dredge is used to blend the sludge in the lagoon and transfer it to the Geotube units. As the sludge is pumped from the lagoon, it passes through a mobile PVC mixing chamber where it is injected inline with polymer to flocculate the sludge. Once the units begin to fill, clear filtrate immediately begins to filter through the bag, while the solids are retained inside. Due to the high retention of solids, the cost of disposal is greatly reduced. In addition, the waste to be disposed of is no longer in liquid form, but a solid cake, which is important as the public perception of the land application and landfilling of liquid wastes is becoming more negative every day. The same technology can be used by municipalities and industries that currently operate lagoons as a means of sludge management by removing the solids from the waste stream prior to

being deposited in the lagoon. This process is simple. Sludge that would previously have been disposed of in a lagoon system is transferred instead to an underground holding tank. Once the tank has filled with sludge, it is batch-entered into the Geotube units, and the effluent is directed to the lagoon. The solids are contained in the dewatering containers, never reaching the lagoon. Dewatering sludge before it is deposited in a lagoon system removes odours, reduces the size of the system required and, most important, eliminates the need to clean the lagoon and dispose of sludge. Instead of dumping sludge into the lagoon system, the system will be filled with a clear effluent. Every lagoon cleanout is unique, with each presenting a different set of challenges. Lowering transportation costs, on-site storage, reducing odour, retaining valuable solids, quick mobilization and meeting stringent environmental protocols are just a few. Matthew Green is with Bishop Water Technologies. E-mail: matt@bishopaquatic.com

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Drinking Water

CO2 neutral seawater desalination By Nikolay Voutchkov ver the past five years, desalination has gained significant momentum in California. With more than 10 projects in various stages of environmental review, design and construction, desalination is planned to provide 1,500 to 2,000 million litres per day (ML/d) of new fresh drinking water supplies for the state by 2015. One of the largest and most advanced projects under development today is the 189-ML/d Carlsbad seawater desalination plant (Figure 1). This project is colocated with the Encina coastal power generation station, which currently uses seawater from the Pacific Ocean for once-through cooling. The Carlsbad seawater desalination project is being developed as a public-private partnership between the project proponent, Poseidon Resources, and eight local utilities and municipalities. The Carlsbad project received the “green light� from all regulatory agencies in California in August 2008, and construction is planned to begin in the fall of 2009. When completed in 2012, this project will supply 6-8% of the drinking water in San Diego County and will be the largest seawater desalination plant in the United States.


Figure 1. Carlsbad seawater desalination plant.

In 2006, California legislation introduced the AB 32 Global Warming Solutions Act, which aims to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. In response to this initiative, the project proponent has committed to mitigating the carbon footprint associated with the desalination plant opera-

Figure 2. Energy recovery and reuse system. 22 | Summer 2009

tions. When constructed, this will be the first desalination project in the US that will have a zero net carbon footprint. Carbon footprint of desalination The total plant carbon footprint of a desalination plant depends on two key factors: how much electricity is used by the plant, and what sources (fossil fuels, wind, sunlight, etc.) are used to generate the electricity supplied to the plant. The total carbon footprint for the Carlsbad project is estimated at 61,000 metric tons of CO2/yr and is based on desalination plant power use of 3.57 KWh/m3 of produced drinking water and on a GHG emission factor of 248.4 kg of CO2 per MWh of electricity used for the project. Currently, San Diego County imports 90% of its water from the distant (over 800 km) Sacramento Bay Delta and Colorado River via a complex system. The amount of electricity needed to deliver and treat this water is 2.748 KWh/m3. Since the desalination project will eliminate the need to import 189 ML/d of water, this will save 189,800 MWh/yr, or 47,240 metric tons CO2/yr of GHG emissions, from the energy used to pump this water to the county. Thus it is estimated that the Carlsbad desalination

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Drinking Water plant’s net carbon footprint will be reduced from 61,000 to 13,760 metric tons of CO2/yr. The Carlsbad project aims to eliminate the plant’s net carbon footprint altogether by a balanced combination of energy-efficient design and operations, green building design, use of carbon dioxide for water production, on-site solar power generation, carbon dioxide sequestration by creation of coastal wetlands and reforestation, funding renewable power generation projects, and acquisition of renewable energy credits. The desalination plant will reuse energy from the seawater concentrate generated in the salt separation process by a state-of-the-art energy recovery and reuse system (Figure 2). After membrane separation, most of the energy applied for desalination is retained in the concentrated stream (brine) that also contains the salts removed from the seawater. This energy-bearing stream (shown with red arrows in Figure 2) is applied to the backside of pistons of cylindrical isobaric chambers, also known as pressure exchangers (shown as yellow cylinders). These pistons pump approximately 45-50% of the seawater fed into the reverse osmosis membranes for desalination. An average of 5% of additional energy savings and respective carbon footprint reduction (12,308 MWh/yr and 3,057 tons/CO2 per year) are projected to be achieved by using warm cooling water from the Encina Power Generation Station as source seawater rather than collecting cold ambient seawater via a separate ocean intake. The osmotic pressure that has to be overcome during the salt separation process decreases with the increase in seawater temperature. Since the power plant discharge is approximately 5°C warmer than the ambient seawater, the innovative colocation technology used for the Carlsbad project will yield both energy and GHG reduction savings. Green building design The plant will be located on a site currently occupied by a dilapidated fuel oil storage tank. Reclaiming the land will produce a smaller imprint on the environment than if an undisturbed site were used for the desalination plant. A key “green” feature of the plant design is its compactness. Sharing comwww.esemag.com

mon walls, roofs and equipment will allow significant reduction of its physical footprint. The total area occupied by the plant facilities will be less than five acres. When built, this will be the smallest-footprint desalination plant in the world per unit production capacity. The building’s design will follow the principles of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program, which aims to reduce the overall impact on the environment of building construction and functions. Minimizing

energy use for lighting, air conditioning and ventilation will be achieved, for example, by translucent panels to maximize daylight use and views to the outside, automatic light switching, monitored ventilation in individual working areas and water-conserving fixtures for service facilities and landscape irrigation. The energy savings associated with the implementation of the green building design are in the range of 300-500 MWh/yr. The carbon footprint reduction

continued overleaf...

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Drinking Water associated with this design is between 75 and 124 tons of CO2 per year. One enhancement of the green building design is the installation of a rooftop photovoltaic system for solar power generation (Figure 3). The main desalination plant building will have a roof surface of approximately 50,000 square feet, which is adequate to house a solar panel system that can generate approximately 777 MWh/yr of electricity and reduce the net carbon footprint of the desalination plant by 193 metric tons of CO2 per year. Use of carbon dioxide Approximately 2,100 tons of CO2 per year are planned to be used at the desalination plant for final conditioning of the fresh water for corrosion protection. The drinking water ion balance (pH) will be maintained in a range of 8.3 - 8.5 that allows the CO2 to remain sequestered with the drinking water. The plant is planned to use only CO2 collected from industrial operations that generate this gas as a waste stream (breweries, ethanol plants, etc.), which otherwise would be released in the air. Other environmental initiatives Almost every year, parts of San Diego County experience large wildfires. For example, in 2007, San Diego wildfires burned over 35,000 acres, including forests, tree farms and urban forestry. In response to an ongoing wildfire zone revegetation program spearheaded by the California Coastal Commission, Poseidon Resources has committed to invest US$1 million in reforestation activities.

24 | Summer 2009

Figure 3. Solar panel rooftop system.

Total annual carbon footprint reduction associated with the tree sequestration project is estimated at 166 metric tons of CO2 per year. As a part of the Carlsbad project, Poseidon is planning to develop 37 acres of new coastal wetlands in San Diego County. These wetlands will be designed to create habitat for marine species similar to these found in the Agua Hedionda Lagoon (Figure 1), from which source seawater is collected for the power plant and desalination plant operations.

In addition to the benefits of marine habitat restoration and enhancement, coastal wetlands also act as a carbon dioxide “sink.” Tidal wetlands are very productive habitats that remove significant amounts of carbon from the atmosphere, a large portion of which is stored in the wetland soils. While fresh-water wetlands also sequester CO2, they are often a measurable source of methane emissions. By comparison, coastal wetlands and salt marshes release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, so their carbon sequestration capacity is not measurably reduced by methane production. The offset of the desalination plant carbon footprint by the wetland project is estimated at 304 tons of CO2 per year. For the remainder of the project’s GHG emissions, Poseidon will purchase a combination of carbon offset projects and Renewable Energy Credits (RECs). Contracts for offset projects provide more price stability and are typically established for longer terms (10 - 20 years) than RECs (1 - 3 years). Offsets or RECs will be used as the swing mitigation option to “true-up” annual changes to the project’s net carbon footprint. The GHG reduction plan for the Carlsbad project defines a roadmap for carbon-neutral seawater desalination for future projects in the US and worldwide. Nikolay Voutchkov is with Water Globe Consulting, LLC. E-mail: nvoutchkov@water-g.com

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Stormwater Management

Managing runoff in Surf City USA By David Scott untington Beach is the prototypical oceanside community depicted in the hundreds of sitcoms, movies and Beach Boys songs that California has exported to Canada and the rest of the world over the past five decades. The city, located 20 miles south of Los Angeles, has even trademarked itself as “Surf City USA.� Across town, the operators of the Good Shepherd Cemetery focus less on the surf and more on containing and managing the water that runs across their land. The owner, the Diocese of Orange, is expanding the century-old Catholic burial ground. But before the expansion could take place, the Diocese had to prepare a stormwater management plan for the site. The area has faced issues with flooding over the years, with nearby roads and yards puddling up during heavy rains that overwhelmed local drains. The water management plan will eventually include a new public drainage system to control the runoff flowing through, as well as additional runoff emanating from the cemetery site. Along with controlling the runoff from the site, the owners needed to create a system to treat the runoff. California had instituted new rules governing the installation of filtration systems in new projects, so the diocese had to set up systems to remove a variety of pollutants, including metals, bacteria and oils. California is one of several US states to take a lead role in requiring the use of filtration systems to aggressively treat stormwater for harmful pollutants and nutrients that can damage the ecosystem.


Up-Flo-Filter being installed.

southern Ontario. Residential and commercial development around the lake has increased the phosphorus content in the runoff, fostering excessive aquatic plant growth, raising water temperatures and decreasing oxygen levels in the lake. Environmental officials are pursuing a

The diocese had to set up systems to remove a variety of pollutants, including metals, bacteria and oils. Other states include Washington and Maryland, where elevated levels of phosphorus threaten the Chesapeake Bay. In Canada, discussion about stormwater regulations has increased in the counties surrounding Lake Simcoe in 26 | Summer 2009

number of solutions, including a requirement to conduct site-level filtration of pollutants before they enter the lake. Choosing a filtration system The first phase of the California project was completed in late 2008.

While the stormwater treatment system chosen for the site needed to perform to specifications, the owner and contractor had made cost savings a priority in the selection process. After the City of Huntington Beach initially approved a plan that included a radial cartridge filter, Truxaw & Associates Inc., of Orange, California, the engineering firm overseeing work on the project, convinced the city to consider an alternative, more cost-effective solution, the Up-FloÂŽ Filter, designed by Hydro International and supplied locally by Kristar Enterprises. The Up-Flo Filter, based on upflow filtration technology developed at the University of Alabama, incorporates multiple elements of a treatment train

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Stormwater Management — screening, sedimentation and highrate filtration — in a compact modular device. It offers cost savings, made possible by its high treatment efficiency in a small footprint. The Up-Flo Filter uses a sedimentation sump and screening system to pretreat stormwater runoff before it flows up through the filter media where final filtration occurs. A high-capacity siphoning bypass safeguards against upstream ponding or flooding during high-flow events. The siphon also serves as a floatables baffle to prevent the escape of floatable trash. Upflow technology sends flow in an upward direction, countering gravitational forces to fluidize the media and allow the entire depth of the media bed to be utilized. This results in extended run times before clogging. The first unit consisted of two structures, with treatment being conducted in one and water being bypassed into a second unit. The Up-Flo Filter combines these processes into one unit. The differences in design between the first specified unit and the Up-Flo Filter

helped to sell both the engineer and Huntington Beach environmental officials on its long-term benefits.

Inside view of the Up-Flo Filter.

California regulations require stormwater to be treated on the first flush, removing up to 80% of all total suspended

solids. Independent laboratory tests from a variety of sources, including the New Jersey Corporation for Advanced Technology, have verified the Up-Flo Filter’s ability to remove pollutants under a variety of conditions. Van Diest Brothers Construction, the site contractors, installed the first filter during the initial phase of construction. Two or more systems are planned in the second and third phases, which are expected to be undertaken sometime in the next decade. The Up-Flo Filter is one of several stormwater treatment products offered by Hydro International. The Downstream Defender, another vortex separator, has been used successfully in a large number of applications in Canada for the removal of sediment, oil and floatables from stormwater runoff. David Scott is with Hydro International. The company is represented in Canada by ACG Technology Inc. E-mail: greg@acgtechnology.com

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Stormwater Research

Pollutant release: A ‘dirty secret’ in stormwater treatment atch-and-release may be a sound concept in fishing, but catching pollutants in stormwater runoff and releasing them later during large storms is obviously a problem. Yet many stormwater treatment systems do just that; they capture pollutants over time, only to release them back into the environment when the system becomes overwhelmed during high-intensity storms. Communities across Canada have made significant investments in improving water quality. Are we getting the best return on our investments? How effective are most manufactured stormwater treatment systems? And what can be done to ensure that the best systems are being installed? During typical storms, water and sediment flow into the chamber of a stormwater treatment system. Oil rises and sediment settles typically under calm conditions. According to Stoke’s Law, the smaller the particle size of the sediment, the more time is required for it to settle. The primary focus to date in stormwater treatment has been on removing total suspended solids (TSS), which include smaller sediment particles (clay and silt-sized) as well as larger sediment particles (sand and gravel-sized). Many urban pollutants attach themselves to TSS, including hydrocarbon oil, heavy metals and nutrients. It is the smaller particles, with their dramatically larger surface area for a given mass, that absorb the majority of the pollutants. Most stormwater treatment devices or oil and grit separators receive runoff from parking lots or roads. The fine particles that are captured contain brake pad dust, tire wear fragments and motor oil. It is crucial for this black, tar-like, pollutant-laden sediment to settle and remain contained inside the treatment units until it is physically removed during the units’ next maintenance event. How pollutants are released Small storms make up most of the annual volume of runoff and, therefore, typically represent the majority of pollutants coming off an urban site. During these smaller storms, the runoff rates are lower and, in a properly-designed treatment system, sediment and free oil are removed, including the higher pollutant-laden clay and silt-sized particles.


It is crucial for this black, tar-like, pollutant-laden sediment to settle and remain contained inside the treatment units until it is physically removed during the units’ next maintenance event. Larger, high-intensity storms represent a much smaller portion of annual runoff but present the challenge of much higher runoff rates. The main focus during an intense storm, from a treatment standpoint, is to protect the TSS and pollutants that were previously captured. Failure to do so results in the high-velocity runoff stirring up previously captured pol28 | Summer 2009

The pollutant-laden sediment captured by a stormwater treatment device is often tar-like and toxic.

lutants, re-suspending them in the runoff and consequently sending them downstream to our precious water bodies. While much effort has been devoted to designing systems to minimize pollutant release, other inadequately designed devices are very much at risk of re-suspending and releasing previously captured sediment and pollutants when a high-intensity storm occurs. Surprisingly, while most stormwater treatment devices are required to be rigorously tested by numerous agencies to verify pollutant capture rates, the attention given to re-suspension and release has been minimal. The few re-suspension tests that have been completed to date focused mainly on larger particle sizes. In reality, it is the smaller particles (clay and silt) that contain most of the pollutants and are more susceptible to re-suspension and release. The vast majority of pollutant removal testing is conducted on “clean” units. While this makes it easier to measure what was removed initially from runoff water, in real life these units almost always contain previously captured solids and sediment that have built up during previous rain events. One North American agency has recognized this gap in testing methodology and sees pollutant release as a real threat to water quality. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), which has overseen the Technology Acceptance and Reciprocity Partnership Program for stormwater, has begun working on a new re-suspension testing protocol. This protocol needs to be stringent and include fine particles if the industry’s “dirty” little secret is going to be dealt with properly. The NJDEP has also recently implemented a policy requiring all in-field installations to ensure that urban runoff during large storm events will completely bypass the treatment chamber of the device. A set of rigorous re-suspension studies was recently completed by the University of Florida’s (UF) Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. UF has been actively Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Stormwater Research studying the area of re-suspension and has tested two fullscale, manufactured stormwater treatment systems that were pre-loaded with a buildup of sediment in order to replicate the typical conditions in the field. The contrasting results of the two studies clearly highlight that pollutant re-suspension and release occurs without proper flow control technology and bypass functionality. The “Big Three” guidelines The design of a manufactured stormwater treatment system is key in preventing pollutant release. Following are three core guidelines for specifying a re-suspension proof system: 1. Choose a device designed to minimize re-suspension. Several systems incorporate specific design features that reduce pollutant release. In a properly designed treatment device, the incoming runoff velocity and force is significantly weakened and reduced in order to avoid stirring up settled sediment and re-suspending the pollutants. Ensure the manufacturer can back up its claims with third-party studies. 2. Size the device properly. The sizing methodology of a system should be based on supportive testing, to determine the depth and diameter necessary to ensure the correct hydraulic loading rate for the site conditions. There are also advantages to systems that offer highly developed sizing software, with the option to input site parameters including particle size distribution. 3. Maintain the device properly. All stormwater devices require maintenance. Regular maintenance is critical to overall performance. Too often, this is neglected, compounding the pollutant release issue. This is perhaps the biggest “dirty”

The runoff exiting from an underground stormwater treatment device should not contain this level of pollutants.

little secret of all in the industry. Units are specified, installed and then forgotten, often for years. The problem is noticed only when water quality objectives are not met, or when dramatic environmental damage has occurred. We should all be pushing to highlight the importance of proper ongoing maintenance. Like many of the environmental dilemmas facing Canada, combating stormwater pollution requires both ingenuity and commitment. The guidelines listed above, when combined with knowledge of individual site conditions and the regional environment, can help to ensure that the best system is implemented to protect the environment and meet water quality objectives. Brett Johnson is with Monteco. E-mail: bjohnson@monteco.com

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How wireless remote monitoring enables low-cost By Barb Smith data logging and control eeting the requirements for monitoring of mobile assets and remote processes economically always presents project engineers with a considerable challenge. For example, monitoring of combined sewage overflow by water utilities meets a regulatory requirement. Compliance with mandates from agencies such as the United States EPA calls for monitoring of remote locations in which only a single measurement, flow or level, is taken per site. Monitoring of vendor-managed inventory, such as a chemical level in a tank, is an economically driven example. Again, only a single measurement, tank level or pressure, is required. Economic goals include customer satisfaction and operation of the delivery/service fleet in the most efficient manner. Leased generators and pumps exemplify mobile assets in which, at minimum, one or two measurements are recorded. In those cases, however, requirements could grow to dozens of measurements. Customer satisfaction and optimal management and maintenance of the asset inventory are the goals. Basic monitoring requirements As the project begins with reasonably simple goals, basic requirements for a remote monitoring device are established: • Monitoring of discrete inputs such as float switches, on/off status, contacts on doors, entryways. • Monitoring of a primary process measurement such as flow, liquid level, pressure or temperature. • Reporting of alarms and other live conditions. • Wide-area communications, e.g., cellular or land-line telephone. • Rugged packaging for outdoor installation. • Compatibility with a corporate computer system or support by HMI/SCADA software. The team evaluates the possibility of packaging data communication equipment (DCE), such as a modem or cellular radio, or procuring a commercial,


30 | Summer 2009

off-the-shelf (COTS) dialer or notification product. Even with the packaging requirement, DCE devices represent the least expensive approach. A DCE will reside on a wide-area network, typically using cellular technology, and can be programmed to communicate with computer systems. While a DCE device can readily be adapted to discrete process measurements, cyclical measurement of such analog inputs as flow, level or pressure present problems. At a higher but still reasonable price, dialers and similar “notification” products can process the analog measurements and communicate this information to a variety of computer systems. Managing previously unmanaged assets In assessing all the locations that must be accommodated by the monitoring solution, the project engineering team soon learns why those locations are not monitored. Major issues that emerge at this stage include the fact that many sites lack power sources and are not covered by the communications technology inherent in the DCE or dialer product they are favoring. Two requirements quickly rise to the top of the key features needed in the solution: lowest possible power con-

sumption and multiple communications device options. Once the team determines that power is not available, requirements for alternatives such as battery or solar operation come to the forefront. Unless the team includes one or more engineers with extensive experience with low power system design, this aspect of the project can be protracted and possibly prohibitive. This fact quickly narrows the search to COTS devices, such as dialers, data loggers and remote terminal units (RTUs) with low power consumption as key features. Still, power systems’ costs can be high. A distinction in the industry has emerged between “low” and “ultra-low” power consumption. While a low-power device can operate using a small solar power system, e.g., 5-watt or 10-watt solar panel and a 7-amp-hour lead acid cell battery, an ultra-low power device will use only a single battery and operate for five to 10 years between replacements. The ultra-low power device represents a major savings in purchase and operation/maintenance costs related to the power source. Unfortunately, low power consumption and operation of communications devices are competing requirements. Even in the lowest-power DCEs, current draw when transmitting is over 100 mA,

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Monitoring typically at 12V DC. If the device operates for long periods in this mode, the battery will drain or the solar power system will fail. Intelligent management of the DCE device is urgent and will make a major difference in overall power consumption. Project engineers must make a trade-off between power system sizing, and cost, and the frequency of communications. If the DCE is only operated once or twice per day, battery life in terms of many years is possible. A problem with many monitoring devices available today is that they have integrated only one cellular communications technology. In many areas of the world, most notably North America, multiple technologies are required to guarantee coverage. While GSM (global system for mobile communication) is available throughout the world, its use is limited in North America where operators find it available in fewer than half of their coverage areas. CDMA (code-division multiple access) is also a popular technology in North America. Still, a combination of GSM and CDMA leaves many areas uncov-

ered. While this often leads to suppliers reverting to older, hard-wired technology such as a PSTN (public switched telephone network) modem, the cost of running telephone lines out to assets such as storage tanks remains very high. To ensure communications coverage, the monitoring device must integrate at least one additional, non-cellular tech-

The battery-powered T-BOX WM wireless monitor extends advanced monitoring, automation and telemetry capabilities to processes requiring as few as one or two measurements.

nology, such as spread spectrum radio. This licence-free technology provides a means for the operator to implement its own private network. Although spread

spectrum radio range is limited to about 20 miles, it is normally sufficient to reach a relay node that resides on a cellular network. Instead of operating an extensive spread spectrum network, short paths are used to access the nearest cell. Advanced functionality Very often, additional requirements for historical data logging or programmable automation emerge to meet the needs of IT, accounting or operations. Maintaining long-term or “historical� information has become a common feature in a number of COTS products. This feature is common in RTU products and is the key capability of a data logger product. The project team could spend extensive time distinguishing data loggers that include one or more DCE options from those not offering wide-area communications. A problem with many data loggers is that they offer too few DCE options to work at all locations. Programmable automation capability is also a common requirement for operations. The ability to start or stop a motor-driven device, open and close a valve, or regulate flow or level are basic continued overleaf...

YSI ProO ProODO ODO Handheld Opt Optical ica al Dissolved Oxyge Oxygen n Met Meter er Expanded DO range of 0-500% Non-consumptive luminescent method eliminates stirring Easy to read graphic, backlit display and keypad Designed to fit in standard 300 mL BOD bottles Truly field-worthy, impact resistant, IP-67 waterproof case User-replaceable cables in lengths of 1 to 100-meters USB connection and powerful desktop Data Manager software Stores 2000 data sets Multiple languages support

for fo or mor more e info information: ormation: w www.myhoskin.com/pro-odo.pdf ww.myhosk in.com/pro-odo o.pdf

Hoskin Scientific c Ltd. www.esemag.com

www.hoskin.ca www w..hoskin.ca Summer 2009 | 31

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Many decentralized systems employ web pages instead of SCADA HMI software. Using a standard browser, operators can view the live status of all process assets.

requirements. Even if automation is not needed, some programming capability is necessary for customized calculations. While very few data loggers offer such capabilities, they are fundamental to most RTU products.

Finally, the engineering team has determined that one product category, the RTU, meets all requirements. As a next step, the team determines that for small assets and processes, the RTU solution is too expensive.

A contemporary solution Today’s technology enables a solution that meets all basic and advanced technical requirements economically. When combined with a suitable array of communications options, an ultra-lowpower RTU can be effectively deployed in practically any location. To meet basic requirements, an I/O mix in the order of two analog inputs, four discrete inputs and four discrete outputs is fundamental. To simplify installation, the RTU must provide power to operate external transducers or transmitters, including those that use 4-20 mA current. Particularly in the case of the transmitters, duty cycle operation is a key factor. Fortunately, most asset management applications do not require highspeed scanning of measured inputs. Some take a measurement only on an hourly or daily basis. An RTU that is able to operate a transmitter for only a few minutes a day can run for five to 10 years using a single lithium battery. An ultra-low-power RTU that uses wide-temperature components eases the package design. Since many asset locations are outdoors, an IP66 or Nema 4X


tion u l o S he




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2012 pening o y it il ant fac Merch ies e ortunit g rio wid P3 opp d pricin le Onta e b a ix f il a rm s daily city av Long te iosolid g capa b gy f in s o s s e c n ener nne ds pro of gree 1000 to W f o M Biosoli n 0 o 1 icati ating al gasif gy cre Therm chnolo te y g r e able en Renew


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32 | Summer 2009

Linear Infrastructure Water Resources Management

buildings | environment | industrial | transportation | urban land

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Monitoring enclosure is a basic requirement. Such housings are resistant to wind-blown dust and rain. For locations such as storm drains or sewers, in which the equipment could be submerged for some time, an IP68 enclosure will be necessary. Enclosures can quickly become expensive! A compact design will curb the enclosure cost. Today, alarming and data logging functions are common in RTU products. To make the most efficient use of public networks, “push” technology should be employed. Instead of the RTU waiting for a poll from a central computer, it can initiate communications upon an alarm, event or other live condition. Push messaging via email and SMS (short message service) text can be very informative. FTP (file transfer protocol) messaging over IP networks such as GSM/GPRS and CDMA can include history files, tables and trends with significantly more information. Since push technology is event-driven, it allows more “sleep time,” which translates to longer battery life for the RTU. Its system architecture is also decentralized. Messages are directed to multiple recipients, who can acknowledge alarms using their mobile phones or PDAs (personal digital assistants). An integral web server is a major benefit, as it provides an HMI (human-machine interface) capability that can offer significant cost savings versus licensing for SCADA software. Web pages can be accessed by users anywhere in the world via the Internet or an intranet. The web pages also provide a convenient HMI for use by local technicians. In order to provide communications coverage for practically any location, a minimum offering of integral communications devices will include CDMA cellular modem, GSM cellular modem, PSTN modem and spread spectrum radio. Intelligent operation of these devices will allow long battery life and take some of the pain out of maintenance budgeting. Programmable logic is finding its way into even the least expensive RTU products. A programming environment that includes ladder logic will meet many requirements among OEMs and project engineers. A structured text language such as Basic will allow custom calculations and adapt to almost any www.esemag.com

asset management application. Microsoft Automation support also continues to gain in popularity. Full-blown IEC 61131-3 environments are also migrating down the RTU spectrum. While a broad variety of COTS dialers, data loggers and notification products are on the market, new-generation, ultra-low-power RTU products are bringing more advanced capabilities into play for wireless monitoring applications. These products provide intelligent power management, extended battery

life, input measurement, alarm management and data logging in an integrated, weatherproof enclosure. In addition, an integral webserver, “push” messaging, multiple communications options and programmable automation comprise the advanced features that often make the difference for today’s asset. Barb Smith is with Davis Controls. E-mail: bsmith@daviscontrols.com

Levelogger Proven to be Worth its Weight in Gold

Dependable Water Level Datalogger Maintenance Free Design Lifetime Calibration Backwards Compatible 3 Year Warranty Real-Time View The Levelogger Gold is a self contained water level datalogger, which is completely designed, developed and manufactured in-house, in the tradition of all Solinst high quality products. The Levelogger Gold uses infra-red data transfer, providing the flexibility of installing by use of a simple wireline or by using a Direct Read Cable to surface. The Levelogger Gold includes a pressure transducer, temperature thermistor, 10 year lithium battery (based on 1 reading per minute), and internal datalogger with a capacity of 40,000 temperature and water level datapoints.

User-selectable Sampling Schedule 10 Year Battery (1 reading/minute) SDI-12 Compatible

LTC Levelogger Junior Level Temperature and Conductivity NEW LTC Levelogger Junior from Solinst combines temperature and conductivity sensors, pressure transducer, datalogger, memory for 16,000 sets of readings, and a 5-year battery, in a small waterproof housing. It is compatible with Levelogger Gold software, accessories and telemetry. Ideal for salinity studies and a general indication of contamination levels. Low cost !

Leveloader Gold The Leveloader Gold is a rugged data transfer device dedicated to the Levelogger Series. It stores up to 1.39 million datapoints, allows Levelogger re-programming, and viewing of real-time data in the field. High Quality Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring Instrumentation Solinst Canada Ltd., 35 Todd Road, Georgetown, ON L7G 4R8 Tel: +1 (905) 873-2255; (800) 661-2023 Fax: +1 (905) 873-1992; (800) 516-9081 Visit our website: www.solinst.com E-mail: instruments@solinst.com

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Agricultural Wastes

Monitoring the environmental effects of hog production in Manitoba By Dr. Dinko Tuhtar roposals for new hog production operations in Manitoba frequently stir up public controversy, with opponents and proponents providing opposing arguments. The producers often argue that their operations would comply with existing environmental and land planning requirements, while opponents question these claims and even the ability of the existing environmental laws and regulations to adequately protect the environment from the effects of hog production. Manitoba is the largest pig-producing/exporting province and the secondlargest pork producer in Canada. The pork production industry is an important segment of Manitoba’s economy, contributing approximately $2 billion annually in economic activity. More than 13,000 jobs are tied directly to pig and pork production. In 2007, pig production was 9.45 million head. The industry experienced significant growth between 1990 and 2004, with a trend to larger operations and greater concentration of animals and manure in one location. Since then, growth has


34 | Summer 2009

slowed because of several factors, including hog prices, export barriers, and the value of the Canadian dollar. There are now approximately 900 pig farms in Manitoba. The existing hog production operations over 300 animal units must operate under the requirements of the current environmental legislation which specifically targets livestock, including the hog industry. The growth of pork production in the province has raised public concern about the impact of the industry on the environment, with the result that there has been similar growth in provincial environmental legislation and land use planning policies regulating livestock production. Municipal governments have been authorized to regulate the pork industry through farm building permits and land-use decision-making. The proper selection of a potential site for development of a large livestock operation, including a hog operation, is an important step in minimizing the effects of the operation on the environment, including groundwater pollution.

Manitoba, together with Saskatchewan and Alberta, has prepared and adopted a site characterization manual for the development of intensive livestock operations and construction of earthen manure storage systems. The manual takes into account the specific prairie geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics and describes the site assessment and decisionmaking process when the site and design of manure storage structures are contemplated. Guidelines and regulations In 1994, the Agriculture Department issued Farm Practice Guidelines for Hog Producers in Manitoba to manage the growth of the pig and pork industry in a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner. Guidelines have since been prepared for other operations, such as dairy, beef and poultry. The guidelines have been updated several times, most recently in 2007. The guidelines direct producers to use optimum manure management systems and practices designed to protect the environment. They describe best practices in manure handling and storage, application of manure to land, control of odour sources, hog production site selection and disposal of mortalities, and provide guidelines on how to prepare a proposal for a livestock (hog) operation. Soil sampling and analysis is an integral component of sustainable manure management. It provides information on the nutrient load of the field(s) intended for manure spreading and the potential for environmental impact, as well as a basis for nutrient requirements for planned crops. An appendix to the guidelines describes principles of soil sampling, sampling frequency (initial, periodic and annual), soil sampling debts and interpretation of analytical data, and establishes limits of residual soil nutrient loading (nitrogen and phosphorus). The guidelines, which have been developed with the participation of all stakeholders, are used by municipal governments as a tool in evaluating live-

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Agricultural Wastes stock operations in their jurisdictions. At present, the provincial regulations that have the greatest impact on hog production operations are the Livestock Manure and Mortalities Management Regulation and the Provincial Land Use Policies Regulation, under the Environment Act and the Planning Act, respectively. The Livestock Manure and Mortalities Management Regulation (MR 42/98) was enacted in 1998 to ensure that the use, management and storage of manure and mortalities in livestock operations minimize the impact of these operations on the environment. The regulation, which has since been amended several times, establishes the following requirements that all livestock operations, including hog production operations, must comply with: • Design, construction, permitting, location, monitoring and decommissioning of manure storage facilities. • Monitoring and reporting on groundwater quality. This is conditional on the director’s opinion that the operation presents, or may present, a risk to soil and groundwater quality. Operations with more than 300 animal units must also sample and report on the quality of water used for animal drinking at the site. • Field storage of manure is allowed only for solid manure and with predetermined setbacks from surface water. • Manure can be composted only according to described criteria. • Manure must be transported without spills. Any manure spill over a certain threshold volume during manure transportation and manure storage must be reported. • Prohibition on livestock manure burning, unless allowed by the director in special circumstances. • Prohibition of manure discharge into surface water or groundwater. • Manure can be applied to land only as fertilizer. • Application rate of manure must take into account crop nutrient requirements and must not exceed the prescribed residual nutrient load determined by soil sampling and analysis. Nitrate nitrogen and phosphorus are principal nutrients of environmental interest. • Contractors that apply manure to land must have qualifications and hold www.esemag.com

a licence or permit required by the regulation. • Storage, handling, disposing of or applying manure onto land from livestock operations above a threshold limit (e.g., 300 animal units) must be conducted in accordance with a manure management plan previously registered with the government before certain deadlines. • Winter spreading of manure to land is prohibited, except for small hog operations (fewer than 300 animal units). • To protect overloading of the Lake Winnipeg watershed with nutrients, the Red River Valley is designated as a Special Management Area. • Disposal of livestock mortalities and composting of mortalities must follow prescribed requirements. In December 2007, the Manitoba Clean Environment Commission, at the request of the Minister of Conservation, published a comprehensive report on the sustainability of hog production in the province. Based on the commission’s recommendations, Manitoba Conservation has prepared and offered for public consultation a draft of several

amendments to the MB Reg. 42/98. The Provincial Land Use Policies Regulation was established in 1980 with the intent to provide guidelines to municipalities in preparing municipal development plans. The 2006 Planning Act amendments specified that municipal development plans and zoning bylaws must be adopted by January 1, 2008. A municipal development plan must be preceded by public hearings and must be approved by the province. It must also contain the municipal policy on livestock operations, including the siting and setback standards. Municipalities that do not yet have zoning by-laws must regulate livestock operations over 300 animal units as conditional use operations. Approval process New hog production operations over 300 animal units are required to submit their proposal to the municipality or planning district, which, in turn, forwards the application to the provincial government, which refers the application to a regional technical review committee (TRC). continued overleaf...

Engineered for Safety and Reliability SAF-T-FLO chemical injection has what operators need for safe and successful chemical injection. Retractable injection quills Non-retractable injection quills Sampling probes Pressures: 0 -150 psi.,150 - 250 psi., 250+ psi. Materials: PVC, CPVC, Kynar, Stainless Steel, Hastelloy C, Alloy 20, and Titanium (G2) Sizes:

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Agricultural Wastes

Groundwater sampling.

The TRC, composed of representatives of several governmental departments, is tasked with ensuring that the proposal is compatible with good environmental practices for farming operations. As the minimum, the proposal must

include information on the proposed hog production level and on soil nitrogen and phosphorus for fields planned for manure spreading. Manitoba Conservation reserves the right to decide whether the proposed operation’s ma-

nure storage facility is in compliance with permitting criteria. TRC reports are then submitted to the rural municipality and planning district or commission. Rural municipalities hold public hearings on the proposed operation and are authorized to approve, approve with conditions, or reject the proposal. Municipal council decisions are final. While conditional use permits are site- and operation-specific, they have several provisions in common, including the character and criteria for hog confinement facilities, manure retention and storage facilities, manure spreading areas, manure disposal operations, groundwater and soil monitoring by an independent engineer engaged by the municipality, dead animals disposal, inspections, fees payable by applicants, emergency procedures in the case of contamination of groundwater or surface water, and remedies and contingencies. Dr. Dinko Tuhtar, P.Eng., is with BOMA Environmental & Safety Inc. E-mail: info@bomaes.ca

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Smooth coating improves pump performance ost savings have become a hot issue during these difficult economic times. Because energy consumption related to the operation of pumps represents a major expense, it is an area that requires particular attention. Energy losses in a water-circulating pump can be reduced by lining it with a coating system with a smooth surface in order to minimize friction and turbulence. This coating must also be resistant to erosion/corrosion to preserve the smooth surface. In addition, the coating system must have a low affinity for water molecules (i.e., must be hydrophobic) to delay the onset of turbulent flow and consequently reduce skin friction. Belzona® 1341 Supermetalglide was specifically designed as a hydrophobic, smooth surface coating with low surface energy and abrasion-resistant fillers. The technology produces an ultrasmooth surface that reduces the boundary layer of the pumped fluid and also reduces the internal turbulence in the


flow, thus increasing efficiency. It can help restore used pumps up to and beyond their original efficiency, as well as improve the efficiency of new pumps. Performance gains reportedly range from up to 7% on new pumps to 40% on those in service. Even polished metal pump surfaces are found to be relatively rough when examined under high magnification. Further surface roughening of the metal can result from erosion/corrosion or cavitation effects, which cause a continuous reduction in the efficiency of the system. Brush-applied Belzona 1341, which is NSF-approved and does not contain volatile organic compounds, is 15 to 20 times smoother than polished stainless steel, and, because the material is self-levelling, no special application technique is required. Original testing of the coating system was carried out under independent laboratory conditions using the fluid flow test facilities of the U.K. Department of Trade and Industry’s National

Engineering Laboratories, which are the most comprehensive pump test facilities of their type in the world. In this case, the test vehicle chosen was a single-stage, end-suction centrifugal pump with 10-inch suction and discharge branches. The pump, in uncoated condition, running at 1,300 rpm, was found to deliver 875 cubic metres per hour at 26.5-metre head with an overall peak efficiency of 83.5%. Testing of the coated pump gave a maximum 6% increase in the peak efficiency. Also, there was little change to the pump head/flow characteristics with the peak efficiency duty coinciding with that of the uncoated pump. Meanwhile, at this peak efficiency point, the power reduction was measured at 5.1 kW at duty point. Assuming a 5,000-hour operating cycle per annum, the power savings over this period would amount to 25,400 kWh. For more information, E-mail: lmendrek@belzonagreatlakes.com

Telemetry Close-Up HOW TO CHOOSE A SEWAGE LIFT STATION MONITORING SYSTEM WISELY! There are actually three types of Telemetry operational systems: 1 - SCADA (with radio frequency). 2 - Auto-dialer system, with a dedicated telephone line. 3 - Web-interfaced system, via a cell phone. Beware of extensive studies, personalized applications, and so on! Why not test a system offered through select suppliers and then take the time to benchmark and get knowledgeable about a few telemetry systems. Cost detailed per option: 1 - Plan for an average cost varying between $12,000 to $15,500 per pumping unit. 2 - This option is generally 30-60% more expensive on a monthly basis, without even considering installation, connection, and long-distance fees. Moreover, this type of alarm is often rerouted to a central-call system, which will then transfer it to the employee on shift, which will lead to unforeseen fees and waste of time. 3 - A typical cell monitoring system costs $2,900 per site, and you may expect service fees to go for $360 yearly. Based on all of the above information, even the best payback scenario for option 1 or 2 would take around 36 years, which makes no business sense, seeing as these calculations do not even include service calls, systems upgrades and modifications, and equipment maintenance.

Detailed description per option: 1 & 2 - These are complex transfer systems operating with software which will require frequent updates and/or a programming specialist to make any modifications. Attractive reports and graphic interface capability may be very appealing to customers, although difficult to use, but the real question is: are they truly necessary to your needs? Furthermore, alarm calls issued by these types of systems are generally imprecise (e.g. 911) and incur unnecessary service calls. 3 - The stationʼs cellular monitor issues an alarm via e-mail, telephone, or texting system of any alarm conditions pre-determined through the web interface. Data generated by your station may be accessible from any computer through a regular Internet browsing system, and it then becomes a true service station able to issue graphics, detailed event chronology per station, all of which is protected with a username and password (just as simple as online banking). There is no software to be purchased or complex programming to be done! Once an alarm has been resolved and things return to normal, you will be advised. Use Telemetry to cut daily travel, thus ensuring you have time to do regular maintenance. Itʼs really quite simple - a proper Telemetry system should transmit detailed alarm messages, and provide pump activity reports!

Tel: 1-888-835-3045 Fax: 705-721-5851 E-mail: troy-ontor@troy-ontor.ca Web: www.omnisite.com


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MBR system replaces 40 year-old WWTP plant near Brockville n 2007, the Leeds Condominium Corporation Seven (LCC7) Board made a decision to replace the existing 40 year-old wastewater treatment plant at the White House Terrace facility, located on the St. Lawrence River, near Brockville, Ontario, with a FII MicroClearTM MBR System. Their decision was based on the existing wastewater treatment plant’s inability to meet water quality discharge requirements. The property at White House Terrace consists of a hotel, 20 two-bedroom condominium townhouse units, and two three-bedroom detached single family dwellings, with a sewage flow rate of 33,450 L/d. The necessary features of the White House Wastewater Treatment Plant included: meeting stringent effluent guidelines; a compact footprint; fully automatic and quiet operation; telemetry for remote monitoring and control; modular design to allow for future expansion; and low power consumption. Filter Innovations Inc. designed the new wastewater pollution control plant in 2007. Based on the design objectives (Table 1), the Application for Approval of Municipal and Private Sewage Works required by the Ontario Water Resources Act was submitted in January 2008. The project proposal was reviewed by the Environmental Assessment & Approvals Branch of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), and a Certificate of Approval was issued in 2008. The new system became operational in May 2009. Treatment process MicroClear membrane bioreactor technology, utilized in the project, combines a conventional activated sludge process with membrane filtration. The main treatment stages are: primary sedimentation, equalization, activated sludge biological treatment, and membrane filtration. The main treatment occurs in the aeration tank: the biological reactor. In the aeration tank, bacteria and other beneficial microorganisms consume organic pollutants (BOD5, ammoniacal nitro-

By John Dragasevich


38 | Summer 2009

Internal view of the containerized portion of the plant, showing membrane tanks and control panel.

gen, etc.) as food and convert them into carbon dioxide, water, and nitrates. During this process, microorganism numbers increase and excess sludge is formed as a result. To survive and flourish, these microorganisms require the presence of oxygen. An air blower system, equipped with a low pressure alarm switch, provides air to the diffused aeration system installed within the aeration tank. Metal salt is dosed into the aeration tank, causing phosphorus to precipitate as metal phosphate to reach the MOE discharge limits. In the event that alkalinity levels (monitored by an online meter) become too low, alkali is added to maintain pH within the desired range. Treated water from the aeration tank flows into two parallel membrane tanks,

where membrane filtration occurs. The function of this treatment stage is physical filtration, and the retention of any bacteria (1-2 μm), parasites (5-50 μm), and viruses (99.99+% removal). Turbidity levels are also reduced to below 1 NTU at this stage and BOD5 levels to < 5 mg/L. The ‘heart’ of this system is the submerged flat-sheet ultrafiltration (UF) membranes, with a nominal pore size of 0.05 micron. Permeate is drawn through and out of the membranes under a slight vacuum of 0.7 to 0.1 bar. In order to keep the membranes as clean as possible during operation, permeate withdrawal is carried out on a cycle basis. The membranes provide better resistance against clogging by fibrous substances, such as hair. Excess sludge is generated as a re-

Effluent Parameters


Concentration Objective

Concentration Limits









Total Phosphorus





6.0 - 9.5

6.0 - 9.5


Non-toxic effluent

Non-toxic effluent


100 counts per 100 mL

150 counts per 100 mL

Table 1. Design objectives for White House Terrace WWTP. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Schematic flow diagram of White House Terrace WPCP.

sult of biological oxidation, and from chemical precipitation for phosphorus removal. This sludge is pumped to the existing sludge storage tank on a periodic basis. The control system includes a PLC control panel, allowing for reception of input signals, processing of information, and control of outputs that operate

the equipment. Operational monitoring and alarming of the system include FII standard software and automatic E-mail on system alarms. A telemetry module facilitates monitoring and control of the system from a remote computer. The operator can start/stop motors and pumps, view level switch status, monitor dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, and tur-

bidity levels, and monitor permeate flow rate.This means that an operator need only visit the plant on a weekly basis to perform checks. John Dragasevich is with Filter Innovations Inc. E-mail: jdragasevich@filterinnovations.com


Specialists in Groundwater Monitoring Instrumentation Heron Instruments offers a line of high quality groundwater monitoring instrumentation diverse enough for any groundwater project & any budget. The dipper-T & the Water Tape water level indicators are standards for measuring depth of water in wells, boreholes & standpipes. For narrow spaces the Skinny Dipper is a perfect fit. The Heron Conductivity PlμS Level & Temperature meter make conductivity profiling quick and easy. Use the Heron dipperLog groundwater data logger for continual, long term monitoring of water levels & temperature. Add the dipperWave system and communicate with your dipperLog at distances of up to 1 Km (1000 yds). The H.OIL Oil/Water interface meter will measure product layers on your water as thin as 1mm. When portability is an issue, choose either the Little Dipper water level indicator or the Sm.OIL interface meter, small enough to fit in any back pack.


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Due Diligence

Preparing for chemical spill containment in the 21st century By Shachar Parran he number of industrial chemical spills in North America is continuing unabated. According to the US National Response Center and Environment Canada, there are more than 40,000 reported spill events annually in North America. In Canada alone, 175,000 tons of chemicals were released into the water system in 2007 (as reported by the National Pollutant Release Inventory). Despite industry having a best practice for managing these incidents, accidents will happen and managers must undertake due diligence to evaluate every possible contingency. Whether spill containment planning requires redundant systems or external systems, response time is basic to minimizing the risk and its long-term effects. Many facilities entrust their spill containment procedures to off-site,




Water for People Canada 255 Consumers Road M2J 5B6 Tel: 416-499-4042 Fax: 416-499-4687

www.waterforpeople.org 40 | Summer 2009

Figure 1. Photo of St. Marys Cement used in the containment control software. Each number correlates to a drain controlled by the system.

third-party contractors, but that involves a time gap between a reported incident and the arrival of the off-site contractor. On-site, manually deployed solutions are most commonly used, but often do not have enough capacity and are not effective. There are several reasons why companies should invest in spill containment technology: • Fines have increased dramatically in the last five years. Ontario is one of numerous North American jurisdictions that have adopted aggressive measures. In 2005, the Ontario government amended its Environmental Protection Act of 1990, to include Bill 133 — the “you spill you payâ€? law — under which owner-operators and directors have legal liability in the event of chemical release and fines are up to millions of dollars. • The cost of clean-up includes the cost of the contractor, chemical removal and facility downtime. Once the chemicals leave a facility and enter the envi-

ronment, the operator loses all control. The cost can reach hundreds of thousands of dollars. • The regulator expects companies to have a solid plan and the ability to execute it. Failure to meet compliance or be merely reactive to dynamic situations can be very costly to the bottom line, affect shareholders and damage a company’s public image for a long time. • Insurance costs are very high and will skyrocket for a site where a chemical spill has occurred. • In today’s business environment, the bad press that follows a nasty spill often causes irreparable damage. • Executives and directors are held personally liable for chemical spills. Directors have to ask themselves if they can defend their practices in court. Is having a pile of absorbents and rubber mats in the warehouses a defendable practice? Two methods of containment Currently, two methods are used to

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Due Diligence contain chemical spills: manually deployed solutions and permanent immobile solutions, such as dikes, oil water separators and containment tanks. The most common solution is the “magic� spill kits, but these kits actually carry no magic. They take a long time to deploy, can only treat small quantities, and expose employees to hazardous chemicals. What would you use for a 10,000litre spill? Permanent immobile systems may offer a better solution, but they require a large investment in infrastructure. Moreover, although each type of system may provide adequate environmental protection in some circumstances, all have glaring weaknesses that limit their effectiveness. For example, dikes are a good way to contain chemical spills around drains, but there is a need to leave an opening to allow rainwater to drain. Therefore, when a spill occurs, the opening has to be blocked with emergency mobile solutions. Other shortcomings of dikes are the space required and the high cost and time to complete the project.

If one could design the perfect chemical spill containment system, what features would it have? • It would need to be able to contain the spill on-site within seconds of detection. As long as the release is contained within the facility, a release to the environment and its potential liability will be reduced or eliminated. Consider the difference between cleaning up 10,000 litres of oil from a parking lot versus remediation of a river or lake. • Automation is crucial for large facilities. Automation will also decrease the amount of employee exposure to chemicals during spill containment. • The containment system must be able to prevent any amount of chemicals from going down the drains and into the water system. • Investment in infrastructure must be kept to a minimum. Most facilities will want to avoid digging and building on-site. • Management capabilities — the perfect spill containment system would have C3 capabilities (command, control and communication). It should include

containment control over the entire site and a communication system (E-mail/text messages/phone), to enable the operator to contain and control the spill without leaving the operations room. An example of a company that has successfully addressed these issues is St. Marys Cement, in St. Marys, Ontario. Following a thorough analysis of its chemical spill practices, it recently installed a state-of-the-art spill containment system. An analysis led St. Marys to identify potential points of failure in its facility. The system it has installed enables drains to be plugged around the facility by pressing the numbers on the software map (Figure 1). Chemical spills have not changed, but our society, awareness and rules have changed. We can no longer hide behind the “we didn’t know� excuse. The technology is available to deal with spills. All we have to do is to step out of the box and adopt new ideas! Shachar Parran is with ChemiGreen Inc. E-mail: gvardi@chemigreen.com

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Water Supply

A challenging reservoir repair By Tim Starchuk

Corner Seal.

The complicated penetrations and attachments in this project required a significant amount of time and detail.

any municipalities are now finding that their aging underground concrete reservoirs are in need of repairs. Repairing these reservoirs properly is important from a safety standpoint but can be a complicated process. The City of Everett, Washington, experienced this first-hand when it needed to reline its Number 3 reservoir. This was a Type 1 main underground reservoir containing drinking water for the City of Everett and the surrounding community. The scope of the project involved replacing the existing geomembrane with a new HypalonÂŽ Chlorosulphonated Polyethylene (CSPE) geo-


completed before the start of the city’s high-demand season. As well, the reservoir could not be completely bypassed, because it had to be available at all times during construction to handle up to 7.7 cubic metres per minute (3 million gallons per day) of backup overflow directed to the drain sump. There were also a number of unusual difficulties in terms of geomembrane installation. Originally, the reservoir was lined with a 150-mm-thick concrete slab with copper waterstops. A number of years ago, leaking was stopped by installing a geomembrane on the slopes of the reservoir, but it did not cover the floor. Over

The reservoir lining project presented many unique challenges that added complexities and time constraints to an already difficult geomembrane installation. membrane and extending it to provide a completely lined wetted surface area. The project faced some significant challenges. Substantial leaking in the reservoir was found to be caused by the concrete slope and the floor’s poor condition. There were very tight time constraints as the reservoir had to be 42 | Summer 2009

time, water from the inlet pipe wore a tear into the liner, causing it to fail. A new plan needed to be made to prevent this type of failure in the future. One of the first steps for the consulting engineering firm, Layfield, was to determine which liner would be most appropriate. The geomembrane needed to

be NSF 61 certified for containment of potable water as well as have a long-term resistance to chlorine levels as high as 50 ppm. Also the geomembrane had to be flexible, to allow it to be mechanically anchored to a number of inlet, outlet and overflow pipes, concrete columns and four unique slope columns. A custom-designed safety program was put into place, which included sitespecific requirements to deal with surge water, emergency egress, power failure procedures and air safety. All personnel on site were trained on an evacuation procedure in case of a power failure. Gaining access to the reservoir One of the first major challenges was access. The reservoir had only two 1.2 x 3.6-metre roof hatches, with one directly over a staircase. These hatch locations meant that the project materials would have to be either slid or carried up and down the narrow stairs into the reservoir. They also limited air circulation for the workers. To address these issues, a new equipment hatch was designed and constructed on the opposite side of the reservoir. The new hatch allowed heavy materials and equipment to be moved in and out with a crane, and had the added benefit of allowing workers to view the main inlet without using a boat. High-

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Water Supply output fans were placed at the new hatch to solve the air circulation problem, and were backed up by air quality monitoring equipment within the reservoir. To deal with the unpredictable water surges that could not be shut off during construction, it was necessary to figure out a way to divert the water flow and plan for an emergency. To do this, a 2metre layflat bypass tube made of reinforced polypropylene was attached to the surge inflow pipe and extended into the primary drain in the bottom of the reservoir. As a safety precaution against flooding in case of tube failure, two Aqua Dams速 portable coffer dams were kept on site. These could be filled with water to dam off sections of the reservoir long enough to allow people and equipment to be rescued. With the high level of winter rains in the Northwest, rainwater would build up around the site perimeter faster than the existing stormwater removal system could handle. As a result, water constantly found its way into the reservoir through unsealed areas in the roof and perimeter. During these rain events, a steady stream of water created several problems for welding crews who were required to work around standing water. Depending on the level of water infiltration and stage of construction activity, various counter measures were required. These included using elevated welding boards to keep the welding area dry and clean, as well as dewatering by pumping, wet-dry vacuums, small mortar dams and squeegees. This issue was slowly alleviated by a contract requirement calling for the concrete construction joints to be filled with mortar one at a time. The reservoir had no internal lighting and only a limited amount of light entered through the hatch openings. Several modular high-output floodlights were needed throughout the reservoir. The easy solution would have been to use portable generators for power, but the wet environment increased the risk of electrical danger. As the crews were always working in close proximity to water, groundfault circuit interrupters (GFCI) were used on all equipment in the reservoir. Four 50-amp, 220V temporary power cords from temporary power poles with a number of changeable power plug-in boxes provided several 110V circuits, www.esemag.com

Surge tube leading to bypass outlet.

keeping the operation safe. Liner attachments Underground reservoirs usually have a large number of liner attachments due to the roof supports. This reservoir had a few additional challenges. Seven inlet

pipes required waterproof pipe boots including sizes up to 1.2 metres. In addition to the expected 32 column footings that required watertight connections, there were also four column footings located on the slopes requiring much more complicated attachments. Finally, there was a 100-metre-long seismic beam in the centre of the reservoir that required over 230 metres of watertight attachment. A particular challenge was to attach the liner to the vertical face of the column supports as it is difficult to maintain batten bar pressure around the point of the corner. The guidelines of ASTM D6497 for pipe boots and attachments were followed. For attachments on this project, 6-mm x 50-mm 316 stainless steel batten bars and 9.5-mm 316 stainless steel anchor bolts on 150-mm centres were used. The four slope columns used the same batten system modified to accommodate the slope. The pipe boots followed the standard industry attachment guidelines but were challenged by tight space constraints, concrete remedial work and dewatering requirements. To continued overleaf...

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Water Supply address the problem of sealing around concrete corners, the consulting engineers designed and fabricated special compression corner clamps. The complicated penetrations and attachments in this project required a significant amount of time and detail. Failure of the first geomembrane led to significant damage in two of the reservoir’s concrete slope panels. The original project scope was limited to filling construction joints prior to relining. Once the liner system was removed, it was observed that two concrete slope panels had shifted and had significant voids underneath. The damaged panels represented 200 square metres of unreinforced concrete 150 mm thick. Removing these 30 cubic metres of concrete, was a significant problem as site and entry access for heavy equipment was extremely difficult. To compound this problem, a large amount of new liner material was already in place adjacent to the problem areas. After discussions with the City of Everett, a small remotely controlled hydraulic concrete breaker was sourced and low-

ered into the reservoir through the new hatch. The electric unit did not generate fumes, so air quality was maintained. A new sequence of installation was implemented to give the subcontractor time to remove and repair the old concrete without affecting the existing schedule.

A number of steel nuts and washers had been washed into the pipe bells, creating a potential source of damage to pumps if they found their way downstream. Once the old geomembrane was removed, the entire reservoir was washed down with fire hoses. After the cleaning, the City of Everett inspected the drain line and found that a number of steel nuts and washers had been washed into the pipe bells, creating a potential source of damage to pumps if they found their way downstream. After much debate it was

decided that the best option would be to have someone go into the 700-mm pipe. A professional diving team was hired to deal with the extremely confined space entry. A safety program needed to be put in place in the event of a worstcase scenario (possibility of a surge of 3 million gallons of water). As a safety measure, prior to the diver going in, a standpipe was installed that would prevent water from entering the pipe for up to an hour. The diver went approximately 36 metres down the pipe, equipped with surface-supplied air, a helmet-mounted camera and two-way voice communications. It took the diver approximately 40 minutes to collect all the nuts and bolts. The Number 3 Reservoir lining project presented many unique challenges that added complexities and time constraints to an already difficult geomembrane installation. However, it was completed two days ahead of schedule and met all performance and water test requirements. Tim Starchuk is with Layfield Group. E-mail: tstarchuk@layfieldgroup.com

Bennett Jones LLP is pleased to welcome Knox M. Henry to the firm Knox is a Senior Advisor providing conflict resolution (mediation and arbitration) services, as well as strategic advice for a wide range of regulatory matters. Prior to joining us, Knox was a Vice-Chair of Ontario’s Environmental Review Tribunal. He has also served as the Deputy Mining and Lands Commissioner. In recognition of his mediation skills, Knox was inducted as a Fellow of The International Academy of Mediators. Knox can be reached at 416. 777. 6154, or by e-mail at: henrykm@bennettjones.com.

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44 | Summer 2009

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ONLY WEFTEC delivers the top educational program No other water event offers a better, more comprehensive educational program than WEFTEC. ONLY WEFTEC is the largest annual water and wastewater exhibition in the world WEFTEC.08 broke records with 1,111 companies using over 290,000 net square feet. Nearly 22,000 attendees saw the world’s largest selection of water quality products and services all on one show floor. ONLY WEFTEC consistently draws a strong audience from around the world WEFTEC.08 hosted 2,378 international attendees from 71 countries, who consider WEFTEC to be the ONE must-attend water event in North America. ONLY WEFTEC helps you stay strong in an uncertain economy WEFTEC always delivers superior training and education. In fact, attendees can earn CEUs and PDHs for more events than any other conference, providing you with the tools and knowledge you need to strengthen and improve your job skills. ONLY WEFTEC offers you the world’s leading technology WEF launched its first country pavilion at WEFTEC.08. Eight countries displayed their technologies making it a huge success, and momentum is building for 2009.

For full conference details, please view the online planner at http://weftec2009.expoplanner.com 09 82nd Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference Orange County Convention Center Orlando, Florida, USA Conference 10-14 October 2009 Exhibition 12-14 October 2009

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Water Treatment

Black & Veatch’s water treatment facility earns American Public Works Association awards he Geneva Water Treatment Facility, designed by Black & Veatch, was named a 2009 Project of the Year Award winner and a Public Works Project Excellence Award winner by the Chicago Metro Chapter of the American Public Works Association (APWA). The Public Works Project Excellence Award is given to one Project of the Year Award recipient that “defines excellence and the advancement of the profession by the following criteria: greatest impact on the future of public works; best innovative application of an existing or new technology; on time, safe completion; and best example of advancing the field of public works.” When new regulations made it necessary to mitigate elevated levels of radium in the local deep aquifers, the city seized the opportunity to build a new treatment facility that not only removed radium, but also provided softened water for the community of approximately 19,000 people. The Geneva facility replaced an existing


The Geneva Water Treatment Facility was designed to look like a large agricultural barn.

water system that included only iron removal for its shallow wells and direct use of its deep wells without softening. Sustainable solutions, advanced treatment processes, including membrane filtration and a high degree of automation, are incorporated in the new 8 million US gallons-per-day treatment facility’s design. To blend the new treatment plant in with its surroundings, the facility was designed to look like a large agricultural barn and is located on a 40-acre park-like site surrounded by wetlands, open space and a bike trail.

The creative use of space and plant hydraulics greatly reduced life cycle costs for the city. The city followed sustainable practices by choosing conjunctive use of the aquifers to minimize the impact on the area’s water resources. In addition, Black & Veatch designed an elevated aerator to allow gravity flow of the filtered water to the finished-water reservoir, which eliminated the need for a transfer pumping station. The aerator is hidden in the top of a 55-foot-tall silo, which complements the barn. The creative use of space and plant hydraulics greatly reduced life cycle costs for the city. For more information, contact Priscilla Brown, E-mail: brownpr@bv.com 46 | Summer 2009

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Beijing praised for its water and wastewater performance during Olympics

eijing, China, achieved and largely exceeded the drinking water and waste management goals it set as part of its bid for last summer’s Olympics, according to a new report. “Beijing prepared impressively in these areas for the Olympic games. In the end, the city improved its drinking water, as well as its waste disposal and recycling systems,” said Cy Jones, a senior associate at the World Resources Institute (WRI) and lead author of two chapters within the report. WRI’s research - covering the water and waste chapters found that the city’s drinking water treatment plants met China’s new water quality standards and guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Beijing also expanded its wastewater collection and treatment systems, enabling the city to treat 92 percent of its wastewater during the games. “Though many more actions are needed to ensure the longterm sustainability of its water supply, Beijing’s aggressive efforts before the Olympics show that it’s possible for cities to minimize water consumption, maximize the use of available rainwater and treated wastewater, and protect critical surface-water resources,” Mr. Jones added. “Beijing’s efforts and our recommendations can act as a guide for future Olympic host cities.” In addition to improving water quality, Beijing surpassed its goal of sorting 50 percent and recycling 30 percent of all solid waste produced within the city by 2008. Upgrades to the city’s waste disposal system allowed 52 percent of waste to be sorted and 35 percent to be recycled by 2007. Furthermore, Beijing greatly expanded its ability to properly dispose of hazardous waste in specially designated landfills. In 2001, four plants could properly dispose of 2,000 tons of hazardous waste per day combined. In 2008, the city increased that capacity to 30,000 tons and recycled an additional 10,000 tons. “A big step forward has been made by the Beijing municipality in terms of waste disposal and recycling,” said Hanqian Zhang, a WRI researcher and report co-author, based in Beijing. “Olympic bid commitments were achieved through effective infrastructure investment, wise urban planning, technology research, and education programs.” The authors found that Beijing’s water management leading up to the Olympic Games serves as an example to other cities of how to achieve maximum efficiency in the use and management of scarce water resources. Beijing should con-



tinue its efforts. Furthermore, the International Olympic Committee should promote the development and implementation of environmentally sound water and waste management in all cities being considered for future games. The report, entitled Independent Environmental Assessment: Beijing 2008 Olympics Games, was produced by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Data was provided by the Beijing Municipal Government, the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, and the Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee. For more information, visit, www.wri.org

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Spill Management

Rubber 'barges' for oil transportation and spill containment

he Dracone barge may not be a household name, but, for coast guards around the world, this gigantic rubber bladder is part of the first response kit in an oil spill. The Dracone barge is somewhat of a misnomer since it looks nothing like a


canal barge. In fact, it looks more like a beached whale on land, and, at sea, like a giant sea monster. According to Wikipedia, the name Dracone is a reference to science fiction author Frank Herbert’s Dragon in the Sea novel. “It was called a barge for legislative

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and classification reasons,” says Mike Saunders, Business Development Manager, Trelleborg Dunlop GRG, which manufactures the units on demand for coast guard authorities. Dunlop GRG (General Rubber Goods) is based in Manchester in the UK. A Dracone barge is basically a vessel for transporting any kind of liquid – from jet fuel to crude oil, from point A to point B, without the need for the infrastructure of a tanker. A tugboat usually drags the barge through the water. It floats because of large buoyancy panels on either end, but also because many of the liquids that it transports are lighter than water. Sir William Hawthorne, a Cambridge University engineering professor, invented the Dracone barge in the late 1950s following the Suez oil crisis. He was better known for his work developing the jet engine, but also had an interest in energy. Over 500 have been produced since his invention. The largest unit can accommodate more than 935 cubic metres of liquid, is 91.5 metres long, 4.23 metres in diameter, and weighs 6.5 tons empty. It can, however, fold up into the size of a medium van. The barges are made from woven nylon, coated with synthetic rubber polymers for high abrasion resistance. Their lifespan is about 25 years and they are reusable. There could be a major growth market for them in the cruise ship industry.

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Spill Management

Cruise ships still have to empty their bilge, waste and sewage water while anchored offshore.

“Cruise ships are getting larger and larger and are having a harder time entering ports, but they still have to empty their bilge, waste and sewage water while anchored offshore,� says Saunders. How it cleans When an oil spill occurs, the oil is first contained with booms. Skimmers then set to work collecting the oil, water and other debris into a funnel, with the help of a pump attached to a hose at the bottom of the skimmer. The spill is pumped into the Dracone barge for discharge at land-based disposal facilities.

Rescue missions While Dracone barges are not the first items to capture world headlines during an oil spill, they are instrumental in mopping up the mess. Some famous disasters in which they have been used include the Exxon Valdez spill and Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans in 2005. After the hurricane, clean-up crews used them to empty the fuel tanks of capsized boats and ships.

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Landfill Management

Fifty years of remediation projects at West By Fabiano Gondim and Craig Murdoch Hamilton Closed Landfill he West Hamilton Closed Landfill site in Hamilton, Ontario, was in operation from around 1942 until it was closed in 1975. Efforts to remediate the site began in 1957. The total waste footprint is approximately 23 hectares. The site accepted primarily domestic, commercial and industrial solid wastes from the north and west parts of the city of Hamilton. The landfill was developed in a north-south direction in an existing wetland. The water table is about 2.5 metres below ground surface in the southern part of the site, and 5 - 6 metres below the ground surface in the middle to northern part. Flow within the shallow aquifer is generally westward towards Chedoke Creek. It has been more than 50 years since the first capping of the landfill (known at the time as the West End Dump) took place in an effort to control odours, diseases, rodents, litter, scavenging and visual impacts. Since then, a number of remediation projects have occurred, reflecting advancements in regulations, environmental responsibility, public funding management and available technologies. Figure 1 shows the remediated areas of the landfill and a summary of key remediation projects undertaken at the site from 2004 to 2008 to control leachate impact. These included: 1. Purge well: As a temporary solution to remediate the major leachate seep that was discharging into Chedoke Creek, a leachate purge well (130 metres north of the site entrance) and forcemain (100mm diameter) to pump leachate to the sanitary sewer were installed in 2004. 2. Pond remediation: A pond on the eastern side of the landfill was filled/abandoned in 2005 because it was a potential contributor to leachate and a potential source of mosquitoes and West Nile virus proliferation. 3. Re-grading and re-capping: The site was fully re-graded and re-capped with clay in 2005/2006 to minimize infiltration of rainwater and consequent leachate generation. Existing soccer fields and


50 | Summer 2009

Figure 1: Remediation projects at the West Hamilton Closed Landfill (2004-‘07).

baseball diamonds as part of the site (currently known as Kay Drage Park) were reestablished and improved. 4. Chedoke Creek bank stabilization and leachate management: An assessment of the area concluded that improvements were required to reduce bank erosion, improve slope stability and control leachate seeps of the east bank of the creek. Based on an evaluation of alternative remedial measures, the revegetation of the area, the installation of hard slope protection (bioengineering) and the installation of a leachate collection system

were chosen as the preferred solution. The planning and design for this project followed the Municipal Class Environmental Assessment (EA) process for Schedule “B� projects. The design phase and tender package was completed in June 2007 by Dillon Consulting and Urban & Environment Management. The project was tendered in June 2007 and the contract was awarded to Rankin Construction for $2.3 million to build the north portion of the project, which has an approximate extension of 500 metres from the site entrance

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Landfill Management

Installation of leachate collection system and bioengineering structures.

to Coots Paradise. Construction began in July 2007 and was completed in the fall of 2008. All increek works were completed in late September 2007, including armour stones, perforated piping to collect leachate (300-mm diameter, laid at a 0.1% slope), geosynthetics, crib walls and log vanes (to increase fish habitat). The pumping station is remotely operated though a SCADA system by the municipal wastewater treatment plant. The project won the 2009 Ontario Public Works Association project of the year award (environment category between $2 million and $10 million). 5 and 6. Storm sewer replacement project: Two existing 900-mm storm sewers were identified as reaching the end of their operating life. The project was completed in June 2007 and replaced 168 metres of sewer, HDPE pipe, 900-m diameter, SDR17 and 56 metres of 900-mm concrete storm. The total cost, including consulting fees, was approximately $1 million. A total of $8.1 million was spent on remediation projects for the West Hamilton Closed Landfill site between 2004 and 2008. Fifty per cent of the eligible costs were funded by the Ontario Millennium Partnership Fund and the other 50% by the City of Hamilton. It is anticipated that the following benefits will result: • Enhancement of public health and environmental protection, including surface water quality improvements at the Chedoke Creek. • Improvement to community servwww.esemag.com

ices with soccer fields and baseball diamonds being upgraded and the east bank of the Chedoke Creek remediated with bioengineering structures to ensure that the Desjardin Trail (a trail located on the west bank of the Chedoke Creek) has a pleasant, naturalized view. • Improved fish habitat with the installation of log vanes. • Improved slope stability and bank

erosion control of the Chedoke Creek east bank, providing additional structural slope stability to Highway 403, next to the site. Fabiano Gondim, M.Eng., P.Eng., and Craig Murdoch, B.Sc., are with the City of Hamilton. E-mail: fabiano.gondim@hamilton.ca

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Energy From Waste

Floating geomembrane cover improves biogas By Jim McMahon collection s one of Canada’s biggest and oldest manufacturers of cornrefined ingredients, Casco Inc. makes products that are used in industries from food and beverage to pharmaceuticals to paper manufacturing. Combined, its three Ontario-based manufacturing facilities process 4.5 million bushels of corn each month. One of its plants, located in the town of Cardinal on the St. Lawrence River, is among the most automated corn wet milling facilities in the industry. Opened in 1858, and processing 70 million pounds of corn monthly, the facility manufactures high-fructose corn syrup, glucose, specialty starches and corn oil. Along with its high volume of production, the plant needs to process a continuing effluent of organic waste, an average of 792,000 gallons of wastewater per day. Eighty per cent of this effluent is processed through an anaerobic digester. Casco’s bulk volume fermenter (BVF), designed and built in 1988 by ADI Systems, is limited to receiving 641,000 gallons of wastewater per day, as set by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE). This effluent is generated from several areas of the plant through the wet milling process, in which various components from the exterior and interior of the kernel are mechanically and chemically separated. A softened-kernel mixture is ground in a mill to separate the starch and gluten


from the hulls. The protein, called gluten meal or corn meal, is then separated from the starch. The starch is either refined into sugar or turned into foodgrade or industrial-grade starch by employing surfactants (surface active agents) to produce chemical modifications in the granules. This process accounts for ten percent of the wastewater effluent going into the BVF. During the conversion process for changing the starch to sugar, ion exchange resins are employed, requiring the use of hydrochloric acid and caustic for regeneration. The initial regeneration flow, along with any sugar that is rinsed out with the resins, goes out as wastewater to the BVF reactor, accounting for 70% of the plant’s total effluent. Various other processes at the plant supply small volumes of effluent to the BVF. Biogas collection Anaerobic digestion is widely used to treat wastewater sludges and organic waste because it provides volume- and mass-reduction of the input material. Casco’s raw solids are added directly into its BVF for digestion. Comparatively long retention times, typically greater than seven days, and the large physical size of the four-million-gallon bioreactor with a high volume of biomass maintained in it, work together to provide the system with inherent stability against shock conditions caused by organics and solids loading, and temper-

Casco's 20-year-old cover prior to replacement. 52 | Summer 2009

ature and pH fluctuations. The biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen gives off primarily methane, but also carbon dioxide and some traces of hydrogen sulphide, which together are labeled biogas. Although biogas-derived methane and carbon dioxide come from an organic source with a short carbon cycle, they still contribute to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. This is diminished, however, when biogas is combusted. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel to run heat engines or to generate mechanical or electrical power, making anaerobic digestion a renewable energy source. The Casco plant has used a geomembrane cover on its BVF bioreactor since it became operational. In 2008, the company upgraded to an improved-design floating, insulated geomembrane cover with a streamlined capability to collect biogas. The cover captures all of the biogas from the BVF treatment process. Without a cover, the biogas would be released to the atmosphere. Designed and built by Geomembrane Technologies Inc. (GTI), this new cover is collecting an average of 236,000 cubic feet of biogas per day from the bioreactor at a 65% methane concentration. “Over the past two years, Casco’s 20year-old cover was getting to where it needed to be overhauled or changed,” says Victor Cormier, an engineer with

Casco's new GTI floating geomembrane cover. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Energy From Waste GTI. “It was beginning to inhibit biogas collection. Our latest cover design is significantly different from the previous cover, which fluctuated up and down with the wastewater level inside the tank. This new design is a trampoline type, with no folds and a very taut fit for better biogas collection.” Casco’s new cover is made up of a one-inch layer of polyethylene foam laminated to polyethylene sheeting on the wastewater-facing side. The top layer is a non-laminated sheet of 40 mil specialty PVC (ethylene interpolymer alloy) that acts as a gas-tight barrier to keep the biogas from passing through. It also incorporates a weave design that provides maximum strength-to-weight ratios. Since this topsheet is exposed to the sun, it is equipped with advanced UV inhibitors. The polyethylene sheeting and insulation are perforated to allow the biogas to pass through and become trapped by the top layer. This design has exceptional seam strength, extreme puncture and tear resistance, low thermal expansion and contraction properties, a wide range of chemical resistance, high flexibility, and

dimensional stability under high loads and temperature fluctuations. The cover works under a vacuum, using a blower system that keeps the gases withdrawn and suctioned underneath it. The system incorporates a novel floating-beam design that creates a tentlike effect, giving extra migration paths for the biogas to follow. All panel sides of the cover are bolted down to make a gas tight seal. Once collected, Casco’s biogas is then flared, although the company is examining options for utilizing the biogas within the plant. Importance of heat retention The efficiency of the BVF bioreactor, i.e., its ability to maintain digestion of the continuously incoming influent, is critically dependent on keeping its temperature at 25–32 degrees C. This is particularly important in Casco’s cooler, northern-climate location. Heat loss in large volumes of wastewater translates to energy loss, and lost heat must then be compensated for by adding heat. Casco supplements its BVF with heat generated from its refinery wastewater, which is intentionally heated to maintain

the bioreactor’s temperature. Casco’s new cover provides a heightened level of insulation to hold heat better within the reactor, and its snug fit reduces heat loss to a greater extent than the previous cover. Elimination of water evaporation, prevention of ice buildup within the reactor, and reduced sunlight penetration also help maintain proper water temperature. These factors all contribute to reducing Casco’s energy consumption. Control of a potential unplanned biogas release and its attendant odour, which is generated mainly from hydrogen sulphide, prompted Casco to move forward with the new upgraded cover. Standards set by the Ontario MOE do not allow methane to be released to the environment. Casco needed to be sure that the cover on the BVF would meet these standards. Complicating the problem was that just 150 feet from the bioreactor is a residential neighbourhood, so an unplanned methane release could present a safety hazard. “GTI was doing regular inspections on the original cover,” says Gerald Morand, process engineer and environcontinued overleaf...

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Energy From Waste mental co-ordinator for Casco. “Their technicians advised us that the cover had become thin in a number of areas and was getting to a point where it could fail. Our technicians were no longer able to walk out on the cover to take measurements of sludge levels. Because of this and the environmental and safety implications, we made the decision to replace the cover.� A challenging cover switch Because of the possibility of an unplanned biogas release, GTI completed

the project quickly, in less than three weeks. A critical factor was the need to execute the cover switch without stopping the wastewater flow from manufacturing. The solution involved diverting some of the plant effluent away from the BVF to the aerobic lagoon while the work was in progress. “We were concerned with the activity of the BVF unit while the cover was off,� continues Mr. Morand. “Exposed to the air, we expected the bioreactor to have a decrease in activity, so we didn’t want to


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54 | Summer 2009

overload the system. We decreased the COD going to the BVF by 55%, leaving enough influent to keep the biological activity up, but diverted the balance directly to the aerobic lagoon.� The bioreactor is located directly adjacent to the St. Lawrence River, with only 25 feet of clearance available on three sides of the system. The fourth side was space-limited by a railroad line. This posed challenges both with removing the old cover and installing the new one. GTI had to manufacture and transport the new 130 x 410-foot cover in four large, folded and rolled sections. The rolls were placed directly onto the BVF water one at a time with heavy equipment, opened and connected together using the GTI floating-beam design.

Companies that upgrade to the latest cover technology will find themselves in a better competitive position, particularly as energy costs continue to escalate and become an increasingly critical factor in plant operations. “The floating beams allowed us to connect the large cover panels together without having to weld them,� Mr. Cormier continues. “We minimized the use of heat, because we didn’t want to ignite the biogas. We also removed the old cover at the same time the new cover was being installed to limit the release of biogas.� Inevitably, manufacturers with anaerobic wastewater bioreactors will gravitate to more energy-efficient cover systems to maximize biogas collection and usage, streamline their operations and improve their bottom lines. Those companies that do upgrade to the latest cover technology will find themselves in a better competitive position, particularly as energy costs continue to escalate and become an increasingly critical factor in plant operations. Jim McMahon is a freelance writer. For more information, E-mail: bms@gti.ca. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment

Regionalization of wastewater treatment in Central Alberta By Stephan Weninger and Pervez Sunderani n the autumn of 2005, following several years of robust population growth and increasing demands on area watersheds, Alberta Environment advised the municipalities in the Central Alberta region that continuous wastewater discharges into a sensitive stretch of the Red Deer River between the Dickson Dam and the City of Red Deer Water Treatment Plant’s intake would be phased out. With 150,000 people in two dozen urban and rural municipalities relying on this segment of the watershed, the department needed to find a new way to keep operations running. Considering the centralization of wastewater treatment and disposal as an initiative consistent with both its Sustainable Resource and Environmental Management (SREM) policies and the Water for Life Program, which is aimed at protecting water resources and ensur-


ing access to quality sources of water, the department determined that centralizing wastewater treatment and disposal would be its best option. A reduction in the number of wastewater treatment plants and lagoons discharging to the Red Deer River was also considered preferable to upgrading or replacing the six wastewater treatment plants in the area that were operating at or over capacity and were up for approval over the next few years. To begin moving forward with a plan, Alberta Environment then invited several of the urban municipalities in the region – the City of Red Deer and the Towns of Lacombe, Blackfalds, Sylvan Lake, Innisfail and Olds – to provide representation on a steering committee to oversee the development of a conceptual design for a regional wastewater transmission system or systems extending north, south and west of the City of Red Deer.

In February 2006, the steering committee retained the engineering firm, Stantec, to develop regional transmission and treatment options, to identify priority areas for system connections, and to identify governance and rate structure options for the resultant regional system or systems. Making connections The conceptual design identified a “core area” of priority system connection and a secondary servicing area, in which connection to a regional system was deemed less critical because of low wastewater impact on the Red Deer River sub-basin, the capacity of existing facilities to meet current demands, proximity to the centralized area, or a combination of those factors. The core area consisted of 14 municipalities, requiring the addition of over 150 km of wastewater transmission lines continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment

The centralization plan for the Red Deer WWTP will be rolled out over the course of several phases, the first of which is expected to be completed in 2011.

with a price tag of $252 million. Servicing both the core and the secondary areas would require 300 km of transmission mains at a capital investment of $394 million. With these estimates in hand, Alberta Environment hosted an information session for elected officials and media in April 2006 and received immediate buy-in from several municipalities. Over the course of the next several months, Alberta Environment worked with Alberta Transportation, the province’s capital projects funding arm, to devise a roll-out strategy that would address the needs of sustainable growth and environmental protection in the subbasin, while meeting budgetary constraints during a period of high growth and rapidly inflating construction costs. The province decided to move ahead with the plan, first focusing on services for the core area by augmenting at the City of Red Deer Wastewater Treatment Plant with the South Leg, a 90-km system to connect the towns of Innisfail, Bowden and Olds, and Mountain View County to the Red Deer plant. Once the connection plan moved through preliminary design, the system would then in56 | Summer 2009

corporate the Waskasoo Regional Sewer System, a 30-km gravity and forcemain system built in 1984 to connect Red Deer County and the Town of Penhold to the Red Deer plant. Meanwhile, the municipalities of the core area worked with the province to develop the Central Alberta Regional Wastewater Master Plan, which established the guiding principles and timelines for the development of regional wastewater infrastructure in Central Alberta. On its completion, the master plan was endorsed by the 16 municipalities of the core area. Planning for growth On the governance front, the core area municipalities branched into three separate groups, each applying to become a regional commission. Under the province’s Municipal Government Act, regional commissions are similar to municipalities, with power to establish bylaws and accrue assets and debt separately from member municipalities. As a result, the South Red Deer Regional Wastewater Commission (SRDRWC) was created in August 2008, and included the towns of Penhold, Inn-

isfail, Bowden and Olds, and the counties of Red Deer and Mountain View. The Sylvan Lake Regional Wastewater Commission (SLRWWC) was created in October 2008, and included the Town of Sylvan Lake, Red Deer County, Lacombe County and the summer villages of Jarvis Bay, Norglenwold, Half Moon Bay, Sunbreaker Cove and Birchcliff. The North Red Deer Regional Wastewater Services Commission (NRDRWWSC) was also created in October 2008, and included the towns of Blackfalds and Lacombe and Lacombe County. The City of Red Deer agreed in principle with the plan to provide wastewater treatment to the SRDRWC, subject to confirmation that the group was able to upgrade its own plant to meet its longterm treatment capacity needs. To this end, an updated City of Red Deer Wastewater Treatment Plant Master Plan was needed to assess the current plant capacity and to provide a plan for phased plant expansion to meet city and regional growth needs over the next 50 years, over which time plant capacity would be expanded from the current 35 MLD to over 300 MLD.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment In December 2008, the city engaged Stantec to complete the year-long master plan update, which included the first complete review of the plant’s biosolids management system as well as its longterm strategy for wastewater treatment. A project steering committee was also established, including representatives of the city, Alberta Environment, Alberta Transportation, the SRDRWC and Stantec. Planning for an eightfold increase of influent wastewater flows involved a complete revision to previous facility capital planning. While the newest bioreactors at the plant have a 12.5MLD capacity, future upgrade phases had to be significantly larger just to meet the short-term needs of the new regional legs, let alone city growth. Conversely, sizing of the new components had to be small enough to be built within project timelines and local industry capacity, and to avoid stranding capital investment and the budget. Also of importance, the team had to consider how the continued development of the area and the diversification of the economy would change the characteris-


tics of the influent wastewater in a city with additional loadings from large meat processing and oilfield service industries. Ultimately, the major liquids treatment components were sized to 25MLD capacities in each phase, with one phase roughly representing the respective 25-year needs of each of the three regional transmission legs and the other related to the City of Red Deer’s expected growth. The phases will each be developed based on the collective treatment capacity needs of the city and the three regional systems, with new phases coming on-stream every five years to coincide with demand growth. In order to shoehorn as much treatment capacity as possible onto the plant site, future primary and secondary clarifiers will be arranged in long, rectangular shapes instead of the current circular configurations. This will also facilitate a future conversion to membrane biological nutrient removal (MBNR) technology. At present, biosolids from the treatment process are stored in sludge lagoons on-site and disposed by land application on local agricultural fields

twice annually, with the liquid supernatant returned through the plant during the summer. The sludge lagoons operate at or near capacity on an annual basis, and the prospect of urban development

In order to shoehorn as much treatment capacity as possible onto the plant site, future primary and secondary clarifiers will be arranged in long, rectangular shapes instead of the current circular configurations. in the area, coupled with changing regulatory trends, suggests that the current storage and land application process will not be viable over the long term. A total of 15 options were explored, including the identification of marcontinued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment

The Red Deer River sub-basin’s core area includes 14 municipalities, requiring the addition of over 150 km of wastewater transmission lines.

Bringing it all together The South Red Deer Regional Wastewater System will be the first of the three regional legs to connect to the City of Red Deer Wastewater Treatment Plant. When completed, the system will include the 30 km of transmission mains, in-

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ketable byproducts of the biosolids. Ultimately, it was determined that the most cost-effective option was to transition to sludge dewatering to improve storage capacity on-site, and then to move towards fluidized bed treatment of biosolids for energy recovery.

cluding the three lift stations of the former Waskasoo Regional Sewer System, 92 km of new mains, and six new lift stations. With the completion of the South Red Deer line, three existing wastewater treatment facilities will be taken offline: the Town of Bowden's facultative lagoon system, and the two rotating biological contactor (RBC) plants, both over 30 years old and servicing towns of 7,500 in Olds and Innisfail. Portions of existing storage cells in Bowden and Innisfail will be converted into emergency storage ponds for the new system, and oversized collection mains will be added in each, to all three communities upstream of their lift stations, to provide on-line storage of wastewater to attenuate system flows under peak events. While the vast majority of the system will consist of forcemains, additional flow attenuation of flows will be achieved through the incorporation of gravity sections in the system between Bowden and Innisfail and along the last 8 km of the system upstream of the wastewater treatment plant. The project is being rolled out for tender in three stages, the first of

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Wastewater Treatment which is being tendered this spring. The overall SRDRWC system is expected to be completed by the end of 2011. The SLRWWC is developing the west leg of the Central Alberta Regional Wastewater system. The Sylvan Lake area is a rapidly developing residential and recreation area, and the Town of Sylvan Lake has consistently ranked among the fastest-growing communities of its size in Canada over the past decade. In addition to the town, seven municipalities (summer villages) surrounding Sylvan Lake will need service connections. The Town of Sylvan Lake operates an aerated lagoon system that also services the summer villages of Jarvis Bay and Norglenwold, while the remaining unserviced developments around the lake are currently using septic tank-truck haul or on-site systems. The SLRWWC is currently proceeding with interim upgrades to the Sylvan Lake WWTP in order to extend septage haul services to the remaining lakeside communities until a regional transmission line extension to the Red Deer WWTP is established.

wastewater discharges until the development of the 30-km regional transmission system to service their communities and growth areas of Lacombe County. With the exponential growth Central Alberta has experienced over the last several years, it is no surprise that the region’s infrastructure is beginning to reach its limits. Expansion plans must consider not only the increasing capacity needs of their service areas, but also the important environmental and economic effects those changes will have both immedi-

ately and as the region continues to grow. By centralizing wastewater transmission and treatment into regional hubs, as this Red Deer example shows, municipalities can ensure continued service to their residents with manageable costs and minimize the impacts their operations have on the surrounding environment. Stephan Weninger, P.Eng., is with Stantec. Pervez Sunderani, P.Eng., is with Alberta Environment. E-mail: info@stantec.com

The SLRWWC is currently proceeding with interim upgrades to the Sylvan Lake WWTP in order to extend septage haul services to the remaining lakeside communities until a regional transmission line extension to the Red Deer WWTP is established. The unserviced areas are concurrently developing low-pressure sanitary collection systems, which will ultimately connect to SLRWWC lift stations around the lake, which will in turn pump the wastewater to a centralized lift station for transmission to Red Deer. The members of the NRDRWWSC are currently preparing for the initiation of design phases of the regional system. Its two urban municipality members, the towns of Lacombe and Blackfalds, have moved ahead with interim upgrades to their respective aerated lagoon wastewater treatment systems in order to maintain regulatory compliance in their www.esemag.com

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Conference Preview

Winnipeg to host WCW’s 2009 annual conference he 61st Annual Western Canada Water conference and trade show will be held at the Winnipeg Convention Centr September 20 to 23, 2009. The year’s keynote speaker will be Maude Barlow, national chairperson of the Council of Canadians, senior advisor on water to the President of the United Nations General Assembly and co-founder of the Blue Planet Project. The conference will include some 90 water and wastewater papers and a government affairs round table session. Water topic categories include: asset management, cross connection control, CDF modelling, distribution systems, disinfection, leak detection, membranes, and water treatment projects. Wastewater topic categories include: asset management, wastewater treatment, wastewater collection, nutrient management, stormwater management, effluent reuse, rural/northern/remote issues, and emerging issues and technology. The second annual government affairs round table session will be hosted



by the WCW AWWA government affairs committee and is intended to provide conference delegates with an opportunity to interact with government. Local government officials will discuss topics of concern in the water industry. Two tours are offered: 1. The West End Water Pollution Control Centre is The City of Winnipeg’s newest wastewater treatment plant. It was recently upgraded for Biological Nutrient Reduction. Since construction was completed in September 2008, the plant has consistently been meeting its nitrogen and phosphorus license limits. 2. The Portage la Prairie Water Treatment Plant utilizes a state of the art ballasted flocculation process, with a multi barrier approach to supply drinking water to the citizens of Portage la Prairie, from the Assiniboine River. WCW was founded in 1948, to promote the exchange of knowledge of water treatment, sewage treatment, distribution of water and collection of sewage for towns and cities in Western

This year’s keynote speaker will be Maude Barlow.

Canada. It has approximately 4,000 members in Western Canada. For more information, E-mail: member@wcwwa.ca, Tel: 403-709-0064 or visit www.wcwwa.ca

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ES&E’s Annual Guide To Government Agencies & Associations Associations ...................................................................61 Government Agencies ..................................................65 Colleges and Universities .............................................69

ES&E ’s Guide To Associations ABORIGINAL WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO 2547 Eglinton Ave W Toronto ON M6M 1T2 (416) 651-1443 Fax: (416) 651-1673 Web site: www.ofntsc.org/awwao AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION (AWMA) One Gateway Center, 3rd Floor 420 Fort Duquesne Blvd Pittsburgh PA 15222-1435 USA (412) 232-3444 Fax: (412) 232-3450 Web site: www.awma.org ALBERTA WATER AND WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION (AWWOA) 11810 Kingsway Ave Edmonton AB T5G 0X5 (780) 454-7745 Fax: (780) 451-6451 Web site: www.awwoa.ab.ca AMERICAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 1303 W Walnut Hill Lane Suite 305 Irving TX 75038-3008 USA (972) 506-7216 Fax: (972) 506-7682 Web site: www.concrete-pipe.org AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA) 6666 W Quincy Ave Denver CO 80235 USA (303) 794-7711 Fax: (303) 347-0804 Web site: www.awwa.org

Toronto ON M5H 3C6 (416) 971-9856 Fax: (416) 971-6191 Web site: www.amo.on.ca ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPAL RECYCLING COORDINATORS 100-127 Wyndham St N Guelph ON N1H 4E9 (519) 823-1990 Fax: (519) 823-0084 Web site: www.amrc.ca

ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO LAND SURVEYORS (AOLS) 1043 McNicoll Ave Toronto ON M1W 3W6 (416) 491-9020 Fax: (416) 491-2576 E-mail: admin@aols.org Web site: www.aols.org Ontario land surveyors provide specialized services related to boundaries, land development and information management. The Association of Ontario Land Surveyors regulates the practice of professional land surveying and governs its members so that public interests may be served and protected. ATLANTIC CANADA WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (ACWWA) PO Box 41002 Dartmouth NS B2Y 4P7 (902) 434-6002 Fax: (902) 435-7796 Web site: www.acwwa.ca

ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSORS OF CANADA INC. P O Box 490 Fenelon Falls ON K0M 1N0 (877) 512-3722 Web site: www.aesac.ca

AUDITING ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 262-610 Ford Drive Oakville ON L6J 7W4 (866) 582-9595 Fax: (519) 488-3655 Web site: www.auditingcanada.com

ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS OF CANADA (ACEC) 616-130 Albert St Ottawa ON K1P 5G4 (613) 236-0569 Fax: (613) 236-6193 Web site: www.acec.ca

BRITISH COLUMBIA GROUNDWATER ASSOCIATION 1708 197A St Langley BC V2Z 1K2 (604) 530-8934 Fax: (604) 530-8934 Web site: www.bcgwa.org




V5J 3M6 (604) 433-4389 Fax: (604) 433-9859 Web site: www.bcwwa.org BCWWA is a non-profit association dedicated to the safeguarding of public health and the environment through the sharing of skills, knowledge and experience in the water and wastewater industries. The British Columbia Water & Waste Association evolved into an organization supporting over 3,700 water and wastewater professionals in BC and Yukon with training, educational opportunities, technology transfer, and networking opportunities.

CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABORATORY ACCREDITATION (CALA) 310-1565 Carling Ave Ottawa ON K1Z 8R1 (613) 233-5300 Fax: (613) 233-5501 E-mail: ngravel@cala.ca Web site: www.cala.ca Laboratory accreditation, proficiency testing, training. CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGIES 7885 Jock Trail Ottawa ON K0A 2Z0 (613) 222-6920 Fax: (613) 822-4987 Web site: www.renewables.ca CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF RECYCLING INDUSTRIES (CARI-ACIR) 1-682 Monarch Ave Ajax ON L1S 4S2 (905) 426-9313 Fax: (905) 426-9314 Web site: www.cari-acir.org CANADIAN ASSOCIATION ON WATER QUALITY PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1 Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (905) 336-6291 Fax: (905) 336-4877 Web site: www.cawq.ca

continued overleaf... Summer 2009 | 61

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations

Associations CANADIAN BROWNFIELDS NETWORK (CBN) c/o OCETA, 201A-2070 Hadwen Rd Mississauga ON L5K 2C9 (905) 822-4133 Fax: (905) 822-3558 Web site: www.canadianbrownfieldsnetwork.ca

Web site: www.cielap.org

CANADIAN CENTRE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (CCOHS) 135 Hunter St E Hamilton ON L8N 1M5 (905) 572-2981 Fax: (905) 572-2206 Web site: www.ccohs.ca

CANADIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION 11-1010 Polytek Rd Ottawa ON K1J 9H9 (613) 747-0524 Fax: (613) 747-0523 Web site: www.cwwa.ca

CSA INTERNATIONAL 178 Rexdale Blvd Toronto ON M9W 1R3 (416) 747-4000 Fax: (416) 747-4149 Web site: www.csa-international.org

CANADIAN WATER NETWORK 200 University Ave W Waterloo ON N2L 3G1 (519) 888-4567 Fax: (519) 883-7574 Web site: www.cwn-rce.ca

DUCTILE IRON PIPE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION 245 Riverchase Parkway E Suite O Birmingham AL 35244 USA (205) 402-8700 Fax: (205) 402-8730 Web site: www.dipra.org

CANADIAN WATER QUALITY ASSOCIATION 330-295 The West Mall Toronto ON M9C 4Z4 (866) 383-7617 Fax: (416) 695-2945 Web site: www.cwqa.com

ECO CANADA 200-308 11 Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 (403) 233-0748 Fax: (403) 269-9544 Web site: www.eco.ca

CANADIAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 205 Miller Dr Georgetown ON L7G 6G4 (905) 877-5369 Fax: (905) 877-5369 Web site: www.ccpa.com CANADIAN COPPER & BRASS DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION 415-49 The Donway West Don Mills ON M3C 3M9 (416) 391-5599 Fax: (416) 391-3823 Web site: www.coppercanada.ca CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING ASSOCIATION 1-6820 Kitimat Rd Mississauga ON L5N 5M3 (905) 814-1274 Fax: (905) 814-1158 Web site: www.ceaa-acve.ca CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL CERTIFICATION APPROVALS BOARD (CECAB) 200-308 11 Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 (403) 233-7484 Fax: (403) 264-6240 Web site: www.cecab.org CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ASSOCIATION 301-130 Spadina Ave Mississauga ON L5N 5M3 (905) 814-1274 Fax: (905) 814-1158 Web site: www.cela.ca CANADIAN GENERAL STANDARDS BOARD 6B1-11 Laurier St Place du Portage Gatineau QC K1A 1G6 (800) 665-2472 Fax: (819) 956-5740 Web site: www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca CANADIAN GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 1600 Bedford Highway Suite 100 – 409 Bedford NS B4A 1E8 (902) 845-1885 Fax: (902) 845-1886 Web site: www.cgwa.org CANADIAN INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND POLICY (CIELAP) 305-130 Spadina Ave Toronto ON M5V 2L4 (416) 923-3529 Fax: (416) 923-5949

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throughout Canada, we work with designers, owners and contractors to create flexible and versatile solutions to meet drainage and unique construction requirements. Through CSPI, we share our vast resource of knowledge and experience in order to bring to you the greatest value for today's dollar.

CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION 100-5060 Spectrum Way Mississauga ON L4W 5N6 (416) 747-2705 Fax: (416) 401-6692 Web site: www.csa.ca

INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET ASSOCIATION PO Box 28154 Scottsdale AZ 85255 USA (480) 544-0105 Fax: (480) 473-9068 Web site: www.iuva.org

CANADIAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 900-280 Albert St Ottawa ON K1P 5G8 (613) 237-9363 Fax: (613) 594-5190 Web site: www.cwra.org

INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SCIENCES (ISEIS) 413-4246 Albert St Regina SK S4S 3R9 (306) 337-2306 Fax: (306) 584-5356 Web site: www.iseis.org

CANADIAN WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION 810-170 Laurier Ave W Ottawa ON K1P 5V5 (613) 234-8716, (800) 922-6932 Fax: (613) 234-5642 Web site: www.canwea.ca

MANITOBA ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION INC. (MEIA) 301-35 King St Winnipeg MB R3B 1H4 (204) 783-7090 Fax: (204) 783-6501 Web site: www.meia.mb.ca

CEMENT ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 703-1500 Don Mills Rd Toronto ON M3B 3K4 (416) 449-3708 Fax: (416) 449-9755 Web site: www.cement.ca/cement.nsf COMPOSTING COUNCIL OF CANADA 16 Northumberland St Toronto ON M6H 1P7 (416) 535-0240 Fax: (416) 536-9892 Web site: www.compost.org

MANITOBA WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 1600 Portage La Prairie MB R1N 3P1 (204) 239-6868 Fax: (204) 239-6872 Web site: www.mwwa.net

CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE INSTITUTE 2A-652 Bishop St N Cambridge ON N3H 4V6 (866) 295-2416 or (519) 650-8080 Fax: (519) 650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web site: www.cspi.ca The Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute is a Canadian association of manufacturers of corrugated steel pipe and material suppliers. With production facilities and technically trained sales staff in communities

MARITIME PROVINCES WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (MPWWA) Box 41001 Dartmouth NS B2Y 4P7 (902) 434-8874 Web site: www.mpwwa.ca MUNICIPAL ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION 2-6355 Kennedy Rd Mississauga ON L5T 2L5 (905) 795-2555 Fax: (905) 795-2660 Web site: www.municipalengineers.on.ca MUNICIPAL WASTE INTEGRATION NETWORK Box 1116, 704 Glen Morris Rd W

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Ayr ON N0B 1E0 (519) 620-9654 Fax: (519) 620-9678 Web site: www.mwin.org NATIONAL GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 601 Dempsey Rd Westerville OH 43081 USA (614) 898-7791 Fax: (614) 898-7786 Web site: www.ngwa.org NEBB CANADA 8094 Esquesing Line Milton ON L9T 2X9 (905) 693-9090 Fax: (905) 693-8282 Web site: www.nebb.ca NEW BRUNSWICK ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (NBEIA) PO Box 637 Stn A Fredericton NB E3B 5B3 (506) 455-0212 Fax: (506) 452-0213 Web site: www.nbeia.nb.ca NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (NEIA) 101-90 O’Leary Ave Parsons Building St. John’s NL A1B 2C7 (709) 772-3333 Fax: (709) 772-3213 Web site: www.neia.org NORTH AMERICAN HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3030 W 81st Ave Westminster CO 80031-4111 USA (303) 433-4446, Fax: (303) 458-0002 Web site: www.nahmma.org NORTHERN TERRITORIES WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION 201-4817 49th St Yellowknife NT X1A 3S7 (867) 873-4325 Fax: (867) 669-2167 Web site: www.ntwwa.com NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION 161 Brock St E Thunder Bay ON P7E 4H1 (807) 626-0155 Fax: (807) 626-8163 Web site: www.noma.on.ca OCETA 201A-2070 Hadwen Rd Mississauga ON L5K 2C9 (905) 822-4133 Fax: (905) 822-3558 Web site: www.oceta.on.ca ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF CERTIFIED ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS AND TECHNOLOGISTS (OACETT) 404-10 Four Seasons Pl Etobicoke ON M9B 6H7 (416) 621-9621 Fax: (416) 621-8694 Web site: www.oacett.org ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF SEWAGE INDUSTRY SERVICES PO Box 91 Sundridge ON P0A 1Z0 (705) 384-9264 Fax: (705) 384-2880



Web site: www.oasisontario.on.ca. ONTARIO BACKFLOW PREVENTION ASSOCIATION PO Box 265 Campbellville ON L0P 1B0 (416) 249-2837 Fax: (905) 854-0180 Web site: www.obpaonline.com ONTARIO COALITION FOR SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE 2-6355 Kennedy Rd Mississauga ON L5T 2L5 (905) 795-2555 Fax: (905) 795-2660 Web site: www.ogra.org ONTARIO CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 447 Frederick St, Second floor Kitchener ON N2H 2P4 (519) 489-4488 Fax: (519) 578-6060 Web site: www.ocpa.com

ONTARIO ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (ONEIA) 218-330 Adelaide St W Toronto ON M5V 1R4 (416) 531-7884 Fax: (905) 855-0406 E-mail: info@oneia.ca Web site: www.oneia.ca ONEIA is the business association representing the interests of Ontario’s environment industry – working together to promote environmental businesses to industry and government. With over 200 product and service companies, members provide market-driven solutions for society’s most pressing environmental problems. ONTARIO GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 48 Front St E Strathroy ON N7G 1Y6 (519) 245-7194 Fax: (519) 245-7196 Web site: www.ogwa.ca ONTARIO MUNICIPAL WATER ASSOCIATION 43 Chelsea Cres Belleville ON K8N 4Z5 (613) 966-1100, (888) 231-1115 Fax: (613) 966-3024 Web site: www.omwa.org ONTARIO ONSITE WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 831 Stn Main Cobourg ON K9A 4S3 (905) 372-2722 Web site: www.oowa.org ONTARIO SEWER & WATERMAIN CONSTRUCTION ASSOCIATION 300-5045 Orbitor Dr Building 12 Mississauga ON L4W 4Y4 (905) 629-7766 Fax: (905) 629-0587 Web site: www.oswca.org

ONTARIO POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION (OPCEA) PO Box 137 Midhurst ON L0L 1X0 (705) 725-0917 Fax: (705) 725-1068 Web site: www.opcea.com Our association is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting member companies in the promotion of their equipment and services to the pollution control market sector of Ontario. Originally founded in 1970 under the name Ontario Sanitation Equipment Association, the OPCEA has since grown to over 140 member companies whose fields encompass a broad spectrum of equipment and services for the air and water pollution control marketplace. ONTARIO SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 4950 Yonge St., Suite 502 Toronto, Ontario M2N 6K1 (416) 223-9961 Web site: www.ospe.on.ca ONTARIO WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3-2005 Clark Blvd Brampton ON L6T 5P8 (905) 791-9500 Fax: (905) 791-9514 Web site: www.owma.org ONTARIO WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (OWWA) 200-1092 Islington Ave Toronto ON M8Z 4R9 (416) 231-1555 Fax: (416) 231-1556 Web site: www.owwa.com

ONTARIO WATER WORKS EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION Website: www.owwea.ca The Ontario Water Works Equipment Association (OWWEA) is an organization that represents its membership within the waterworks industry of Ontario. Membership consists of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, agents and contractors dedicated to serving the Ontario municipal market. PLASTICS PIPE INSTITUTE 825-105 Decker Court Irving TX 75062 USA (469) 499-1044 Fax: (469) 499-1063 Web site: www.plasticpipe.org PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS ONTARIO 1000-25 Sheppard Ave W

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Associations Toronto ON M2N 6S9 (416) 224-1100 Fax: (416) 224-8168 Web site: www.peo.on.ca PULP AND PAPER TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 1070-740 rue Notre-Dame O Montreal QC H3C 3X6 (514) 392-0265 Fax: (514) 392-0369 Web site: www.paptac.ca RESEAU ENVIRONNEMENT 220-911 rue Jean-Talon E Montreal QC H2R 1V5 (514) 270-7110 Fax: (514) 270-7154 Web site: www.reseau-environnement.com SASKATCHEWAN ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY AND MANAGERS ASSOCIATION (SEIMA) 113-2025 11th Ave Regina SK S4P 0K6 (306) 543-1567 Fax: (306) 543-1568 Web site: www.seima.sk.ca

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations

SOLID WASTE ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA (SWANA) 1100 Wayne Ave Suite 700 Silver Spring MD 20910 USA (800) 467-9262 Fax: (301) 589-7068 Web site: www.swana.org THE GREEN BUILDING INITIATIVE 2104 SE Morrison Portland, OR 97214 USA (877) 424-4241 Fax: (503) 961-8991 Web site: www.thegbi.org WATER AND WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (WWEMA) PO Box 17402 Washington DC 20041 USA (703) 444-1777 Fax: (703) 444-1779 Web site: www.wwema.org

SASKATCHEWAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (SWWA) 46 Windfield Rd Regina SK S4V 0E7 (306) 761-1278 Fax: (306) 761-1279 Web site: www.swwa.sk.ca

WATER ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO (WEAO) PO Box 176 Stn Main Milton ON L9T 4N9 (416) 410-6933 Fax: (416) 410-1626 Web site: www.weao.org



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Alexandria VA 22314-1994 USA (703) 684-2400 Fax: (703) 684-2492 Web site: www.wef.org

McLaughlin Hall 406 Queen’s University Kingston ON K7L 3N6 (613) 533-2657 Fax: (613) 533-6550 Web site: www.sesci.ca

WATER FOR PEOPLE-CANADA 6666 West Quincy Ave Denver CO 80235 USA (303) 734-3490 Fax: (303) 734-3499 E-mail: info@waterforpeople.org Web site: www.waterforpeople.org Water For People-Canada is a charitable nonprofit international humanitarian organization dedicated to the development and delivery of clean, safe water and sanitation solutions in developing nations. It is the Canadian equivalent of the US based charity, Water For People. Canadian water industry professionals established Water For People-Canada in 1995, to support and promote the mission of Water For People in Canada among the public and the water community. WESTERN CANADA WATER PO Box 1708 Cochrane AB T4C 1B6 (403) 709-0064 Fax: (403) 709-0068 Web site: www.wcwwa.ca

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations

ES&E ’s Guide to Provincial and Federal Government Environmental Agencies Alberta Alberta Infrastructure & Transportation Fl3-6950 113 St NW,Edmonton,AB, T6H 5V7,Tel:780-422-7434 Alberta Capital Region Wastewater Commission 23262 Township Road 540,Fort Saskatchewan,AB,T8L 3Z6, Tel:780-467-8655 Alberta Community Development 404-4911 51 St,Red Deer,AB, T4N 6V4,Tel:403-755-6102 Alberta Environment PO Box 563,Swan Hills,AB, T0G 2C0,Tel:780-333-4288 Alberta Environment PO Box 1540,Pincher Creek,AB, T0K 1W0,Tel:403-627-5544 Alberta Environment 930-1009 2 Ave N,Vulcan,AB, T0L 2B0,Tel:403-485-2293 Alberta Environment 535 30 St N,Env Monitor/Eval,Lethbridge,AB, T1H 5G4,Tel:403-381-5300 Alberta Environment Fl2-200 5 Ave S,Water Mgmt Ops, Lethbridge,AB,T1J 4L1,Tel:403-381-5966 Alberta Environment 2938 11 St NE,Monitoring Prog Del,Calgary AB,T2E 7L7,Tel:403-297-5917 Alberta Environment 4912 Viceroy Pl NW,Calgary,AB, T3A 0V1,Tel:403-297-7884 Alberta Environment 111-4999 98 Ave NW,Mun Approvals, Edmonton,AB,T6B 2X3,Tel:780-422-6050 Alberta Environment Fl3-9915 Franklin Ave,Compliance/ Monitoring,Fort McMurray,AB,T9H 2K4, Tel:780-743-7414 Alberta Environmental Appeals Board Fl3-10011 109 St NW,Peace Hills Trust Tower,Edmonton,AB,T5J 3S8, Tel:780-427-6207 Government of Alberta,Environmental Natural Resources 201-800 Railway Ave,Canmore,AB, T1W 1P1,Tel:403-678-5508 Government of Alberta Fl2-5226 53 Ave,Water Management, High Prairie,AB,T0G 1E0,Tel:780-523-6512 Government of Alberta Fl2-10106 100 Ave,Compliance,High Level,AB,T0H 1Z0,Tel:780-926-5263/2731 Government of Alberta 9915 108 St NW,Alberta Environment, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2G8,Tel:780-427-2391 Government of Alberta 9820 106 St NW,Env Strategies, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6,Tel:780-415-4515


Government of Alberta 4816 89 St NW,Water Monitoring, Edmonton,AB,T6E 5K1,Tel:780-422-3798 Government of Alberta 4946 89 St NW,Air Monitoring, Edmonton,AB,T6E 5K1,Tel:780-427-7888 Government of Alberta PO Box 8001 Stn Main,Spruce Grove,AB,T7X 4C7,Tel:780-960-8611 Government of Alberta PO Box 900 Stn Main,Approvals,Peace River,AB,T8S 1T4,Tel:780-624-6545 Government of Alberta 10320 99 St,Approvals,Grande Prairie,AB,T8V 6J4,Tel:780-833-4351 Government of Alberta 810 14 Ave,Wainwright,AB,T9W 1R2,Tel:780-842-7538

British Columbia BC Ministry of Environment RR 1 S14 C25,Naramata,BC,V0H 1N0,Tel:250-490-8247 Dept Fisheries and Oceans 401 Burrard St,Vancouver,BC,V6C 3S5, Tel:604-469-1216 Environment Canada 1833 14th Ave W,Vancouver,BC,V6J 2J8, Tel:604-924-2541 Fisheries and Oceans Canada 3690 Massey Dr,Prince George,BC,V2N 2S8, Tel:250-561-5905 Government of Canada 3015 Ord Rd,Kamloops,BC,V2B 8A9, Tel:250-554-5220 Ministry of Environment 3726 Alfred Ave,Bag 5000,Smithers,BC, V0J 2N0,Tel:250-847-7620 Ministry of Environment 205 Industrial Road G,Water Stewardship Kootenay East,Cranbrook,BC,V1C 7G5, Tel:250-489-8540 Ministry of Environment 400-10003 110 Ave,Env Mgmt Section, Fort St John,BC,V1J 6M7,Tel:250-787-3391 Ministry of Environment 4607 23rd St,Env Quality Section,Vernon, BC,V1T 4K7,Tel:250-371-6308 Ministry of Environment 102 Industrial Pl,Env Mgmt Section, Penticton,BC,V2A 7C8,Tel:250-490-8208 Ministry of Environment 1259 Dalhousie Dr,Allocation,Kamloops, BC,V2C 5Z5,Tel:250-371-6200 Ministry of Environment 300-640 Borland St,Water Stewardship Cariboo,Williams Lake,BC,V2G 4T1, Tel:250-398-4255 Ministry of Environment 325-1011 4th Ave,Enforcement Program, Prince George,BC,V2L 3H9, Tel:250-565-6135

Ministry of Environment 200-10428 153 St,Water Allocation,Surrey, BC,V3R 1E1,Tel:604-582-5218 Ministry of Environment Fl2-836 Yates St,Env Assessment Office, Victoria,BC,V8W 1L8,Tel:250-356-7483 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9047,Stn Prov Govt,Victoria,BC, V8W 9E2,Tel:250-387-1187 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9339,Stn Prov Govt,Env Stewardship Div,Victoria,BC, V8W 9M1,Tel:250-356-0121 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9340,Stn Prov Govt,Water Use Planning/Utilities,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel:250-952-6805 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9341,Stn Prov Govt,Air Protection Section,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel:250-356-0634 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9342,Stn Prov Govt,Env Mgmt Branch,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel:250-387-9971

continued overleaf...

Key Government Web Sites Alberta www.gov.ab.ca

British Columbia www.gov.bc.ca

Government of Canada www.gc.ca

Manitoba www.gov.mb.ca

New Brunswick www.gnb.ca

Newfoundland and Labrador www.gov.nl.ca

Northwest Territories www.gov.nt.ca

Nova Scotia www.gov.ns.ca

Nunavut www.gov.nu.ca

Ontario www.gov.on.ca

Prince Edward Island www.gov.pe.ca

Québec www.gouv.qc.ca

Saskatchewan www.gov.sk.ca

Yukon Territory www.gov.yk.ca

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Government Ministry of Environment PO Box 9362,Stn Prov Govt,Water Stewardship Div,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M2, Tel:250-356-0293 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9369,Stn Prov Govt,Regional Operations,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M3, Tel:250-398-4549 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9334 Stn Prov Govt,Regional Ops Branch,Victoria,BC,V8W 9N3, Tel:250-356-8174 Ministry of Environment, 1355 Lyall St,Victoria,BC,V9A 5H7, Tel:250-356-5005 Ministry of Environment 3373 Joyce Pl,Victoria,BC,V9C 2G6, Tel:250-387-9513 Ministry of Environment 2080a Labieux Rd,Nanaimo,BC,V9T 6J9, Tel:250-751-3186

Manitoba Department of Conservation PO Box 301,Snow Lake,MB,R0B 1M0, Tel:204-358-2521 Department of Conservation P.O. Box 52,59 Elizabeth Dr,Thompson, MB,R8N 1X4,Tel:204-677-6703 Government of Canada PO Box 155, Dauphin,MB,R7N 2V1, Tel:204-622-2153 Government of Manitoba 1007 Century St,Infrastructure/Ops, Winnipeg,MB,R3H 0W4,Tel:204-467-4722 Government of Manitoba 200 Saulteaux Cres,Env Stewardship Div,Winnipeg,MB,R3J 3W3, Tel:204-945-7107 Manitoba Clean Environment Commission 305-155 Carlton St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 3H8, Tel:204-945-5293 Manitoba Conservation PO Box 900,Carberry,MB,R0K 0H0, Tel:204-827-8800 Manitoba Conservation 160-123 Main St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 1A5, Tel:204-945-7015 Manitoba Conservation PO Box 2019 Stn Main,Steinbach,MB, R5G 1N6,Tel:204-346-6066 Manitoba Conservation Parks 143 Main St,Flin Flon,MB,R8A 1K2, Tel:204-687-1653 Manitoba Department of Conservation PO Box 231,Riverton,MB,R0C 2R0, Tel:204-378-5422 Manitoba Floodway Authority 200-155 Carlton St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 3H8, Tel:204-945-4900 Manitoba Infrastructure & Transportation 730-215 Garry St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 3Z1, Tel:204-642-6069 Manitoba Water Services Board PO Box 3,Stephenfield,MB,R0G 2R0, Tel:204-745-8735

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Manitoba Water Services Board PO Box 22080,Rpo Brand.Downtown, Brandon,MB,R7A 6Y9,Tel:204-726-6073 Manitoba Water Stewardship 25 Tupper St N,Portage,La Prairie,MB, R1N 3K1,Tel:204-239-3186 Province of Manitoba Water Stewardship 68 Silver Birch Dr,Brandon,MB,R7B 1A9, Tel:204-726-6563

New Brunswick Ministry of Natural Resources 80 Pleasant St,Miramichi,NB,E1V 1X7, Tel:506-627-4049 Ministry of Natural Resources 2570 Route 180,South Tetagouche,NB, E2A 7B8,Tel:506-547-2075 Ministry of Natural Resources 3732 Route 102,Island View,NB,E3E 1G3, Tel:506-444-4888 Ministry of Natural Resources 25 Rue Guy,Edmundston,NB,E3V 3K5, Tel:506-735-2040 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn LCD 1,Moncton,NB, E1C 8R3,Tel:506-856-2374 NB Environment and Local Government 316 Dalton Ave,Miramichi,NB,E1V 3N9, Tel:506-778-6032 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Bathurst,NB, E2A 3Z9,Tel:506-547-2092 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Saint John,NB, E2L 4Y9,Tel:506-658-2558 NB Environment and Local Government 12 McGloin St,Inorganic Chemistry, Fredericton,NB,E3A 5T8,Tel:506-453-2477 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 6000 Stn A,Air Sciences Section, Fredericton,NB,E3B 5H1,Tel:506-444-2644 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Grand-Sault/Grand Falls,NB,E3Z 1G1,Tel:506-473-7744

Newfoundland and Labrador Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities PO Box 21040,Rpo Macdonald Drive, St.John’s,NL,A1A 5B2,Tel:709-726-1133 Department of Environment and Conservation Policy & Planning,P.O. Box 8700,St.John’s, NL, A1B 4J6,Tel:709-729-2664 Department of Environment and Conservation Pollution Prevention,P.O. Box 8700, St.John’s, NL, A1B 4J6,Tel:709-729-2664 Department of Environment and Conservation Pollution Prevention P.O. Box 2006,89 West Valley Road,Corner Brook,NL,A2H 6J8,Tel:709-637-2528

Department of Environment and Conservation Pollution Prevention 35 Alabama Drive, Stephenville,NL,A2N 2K9, Tel:709-643-6114 Department of Environment and Conservation Environmental Assessment P.O. Box 8700,St.John’s,NL,A1B 4J6, Tel:709-729-4211 Department of Environment and Conservation Environmental Assessment P.O. Box 2006,3rd Floor,Noton Building, Corner Brook,NL,A2H 6J8,Tel:709-637-2375 Department of Environment and Conservation Water Resources Management Division Confederation Building,4th Floor,West Block,PO Box 8700, St.John’s,NL,A1B 4J6,Tel:709-729-2574 Department of Environment and Conservation, Water Resources Management Division Provincial Building, 3 Cromer Avenue,Grand Falls-Windsor,NL, A2A 1W9, Tel:709-292-4220 Department of Environment and Conservation Water Resources Management Division,3rd Floor,Noton Bldg,133 Riverside Dr, PO Box 2006,Corner Brook,NL, A2H 6J8, Tel:709-637-2542 Green Bay Waste Authority Inc. 160 Roberts Arm Rd,South Brook Gb,NL,A0J 1S0,Tel:709-657-2233

Nova Scotia Environment Canada Fl5-45 Alderney Dr,Queen Square, Dartmouth,NS,B2Y 2N6,Tel:902-426-7231 Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources PO Box 698,Stn Central,Halifax,NS,B3J 2T9, Tel:902-424-5935 Nova Scotia Dept.of Transportation & Public Works PO Box 186,Stn Central,Halifax,NS, B3J 2N2,Tel:902-424-5875 Nova Scotia Environment 205-219 Main St,Antigonish,NS,B2G 2C1, Tel:902-863-7389 Nova Scotia Environment 224-1595 Bedford Hwy,Bedford,NS, B4A 3Y4,Tel:902-424-2560 Nova Scotia Environment 295 Charlotte St,PO Box 714,Sydney, NS,B1P 6H7,Tel:902-563-2100 Nova Scotia Environment PO Box 442,5151 Terminal Road, Halifax,NS,B3J 2P8,Tel:902-424-3600 Nova Scotia Environment 136 Exhibition St,2nd Floor,Kentville,NS, B4N 4E5,Tel:902-679-6086 Nova Scotia Environment PO Box 697 Stn Central,Air Quality Branch, Halifax,NS,B3J 2T8,Tel:902-424-2177

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Nova Scotia Environment 12-218 Macsween St,Port Hawkesbury, NS,B9A 2J9,Tel:902-625-0791 Sydney Tar Ponds Agency PO Box 1028 Stn A,Sydney,NS,B1P 6J7, Tel:902-567-1035

Northwest Territories and Nunavut Dept Municipal & Community Affairs 600-5201 50 Ave,Yellowknife,NT,X1A 3S9, Tel:867-669-2377 GNWT Environment & Natural Resources PO Box 1320 Stn Main,Enr FB,Yellowknife, NT,X1A 2L9,Tel:867-920-3387 GNWT Public Works & Services PO Box 240,Fort Simpson,NT,X0E 0N0, Tel:867-695-7247 Public Utilities Board Of Northwest Territories 203-62 Woodland Dr,SS99,Hay River,NT,X0E 1G1,Tel:867-874-3944 Community and Government Services PO Box 200,Cambridge Bay,NU,X0B 0C0, Tel:867-983-4129 Department of Environment, PO Box 1000 Station 1360,Iqaluit,NU, X0A 0H0,Tel:867-975-7731 Department of Environment PO Box 2226,Iqaluit,NU,X0A 0H0, Tel:867-975-7733 Govt of Nunavut Public Works PO Box 002,Rankin Inlet,NU,X0C 0G0, Tel:867-645-8184

Ontario Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency Fl22-160 Elgin St,Place Bell Canada, Ottawa,ON,K1A 0H3,Tel:613-948-1942 Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission 280 Slater St,Ottawa,ON,K1P 5S9, Tel:613-995-2768 Environment Canada 930 Carling Ave,Env/Eng Services,Ottawa, ON,K1A 0C5,Tel:519-457-1470 Environment Canada 335 River Rd,Env Assess/Fed Progs,Ottawa, ON,K1A 0H3,Tel:416-739-4788 Environment Canada 49 Camelot Dr,Ottawa,ON,K1A 0H3, Tel:613-952-8679 Environment Canada PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1,Aquatic Ecosystem Protection,Burlington,ON,L7R 4A6, Tel:905-336-4789 Environment Canada 4905 Dufferin St,Air Quality Research, North York,ON,M3H 5T4,Tel:416-739-4836 Environmental Commissioner of Ontario 605-1075 Bay St,Toronto,ON,M5S 2B1, Tel:416-325-0363 Environmental Protection Review Canada Fl1-240 Sparks St,Ottawa,ON,K1A 1A1, Tel:613-947-4060


Environmental Review Tribunal 1700-2300 Yonge St,Toronto,ON,M4P 1E4, Tel:416-314-4600 Ministry of Environment Fl1-113 Amelia St,Cornwall,ON,K6H 3P1, Tel:613-933-7402 Ministry of Environment PO Box 22032,RPO Cataraqui,Kingston, ON,K7M 8S5,Tel:613-540-6850 Ministry of Environment 1259 Gardiners Rd,Kingston,ON,K7P 3J6, Tel:613-540-6888 Ministry of Environment 345 College St E,Belleville,ON,K8N 5S7, Tel:613-962-3641 Ministry of Environment 300 Water St,PO Box 7000,Peterborough, ON,K9J 8M5,Tel:705-755-4328 Ministry of Environment 300-4145 North Service Rd,Burlington, ON,L7L 6A3,Tel:905-319-1389 Ministry of Environment Fl12-119 King St W,Air/Pesticides/Env Planning,Hamilton,ON,L8P 4Y7, Tel:905-521-7551 Ministry of Environment Fl9-5775 Yonge St,Water Resources, North York,ON,M2M 4J1,Tel:416-325-6966 Ministry of Environment Fl12-2 St Clair Ave W,Air and Noise,Toronto, ON,M4V 1L5,Tel:416-211-4621 Ministry of Environment Fl14-135 St Clair Ave W,Dep Minister’s Office,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel:416-314-4463 Ministry of Environment 125 Resources Rd,Air Modelling/ Emissions,Etobicoke,ON,M9P 3V6, Tel:416-235-6230 Ministry of Environment 1222 Ramsey Lake Rd,Air Quality Monitoring,Sudbury,ON,P3E 6J7, Tel:705-929-1080 Ministry of Environment Fl3-289 Bay St,Sault Ste Marie,ON, P6A 1W7,Tel:705-942-6306 Ministry of Environment PO Box 5150 Stn Main,Kenora,ON,P9N 3X9, Tel:807-468-2720 Ministry of Natural Resources 300 Water St,Great Lakes Branch, Peterborough,ON,K9J 3C7, Tel:705-755-2902 Ministry of Natural Resources 1450 7th Ave E,Upper Great Lakes Mgmt,Owen Sound,ON,N4K 2Z1, Tel:519-371-5924 Ministry of Natural Resources 400-70 Foster Dr,Science/Information Branch,Sault Ste Marie,ON,P6A 6V5, Tel:705-945-6703 Ministry of Natural Resources 221e-435 James St S,Upper Great Lakes Mgmt,Thunder Bay,ON,P7E 6S7, Tel:807-475-1375 National Round Table On The Environment 200-344 Slater St,Ottawa,ON,K1R 7Y3, Tel:613-943-0394

National Water Research Institute 867 Lakeshore Rd,Burlington,ON,L7R 4A6, Tel:905-336-4605 Walkerton Clean Water Centre 220 Trillium Court,Building Three,P.O. Box 160,Walkerton,Ontario N0G 2V0,Tel: 519881-2003,Toll Free:1-866-515-0550,Fax: 519-881-4947 Email: inquiry@wcwc.ca Website: www.wcwc.ca

Prince Edward Island Environment Energy and Forestry Watershed Management Section,PO Box 2000 Stn Central,Charlottetown,PE, C1A 7N8,Tel:902-368-5024 Environment Energy and Forestry Energy and Minerals,4th Floor Jones Building,PO Box 2000,Charlottetown,PE, C1A 7N8,Tel:902-894-0288 Environment Energy and Forestry Forests, Fish and Wildlife,Frank Gaudet Tree Nursery,Box 2000,183 Upton Rd., Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368 4700 Environment Energy and Forestry Pollution Prevention, Jones Building, 4th Floor,11 Kent Street, PO Box 2000, Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-4700 Environment Energy and Forestry Water Management, Jones Building, 4th Floor,11 Kent Street, PO Box 2000, Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-5024 Environment Energy and Forestry Investigation and Enforcement,PO Box 2000,Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-4808 Fisheries, Aquaculture and Rural Development Jones Building, 5th Floor,11 Kent Street, PO Box 2000,Charlottetown, PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-3675

Québec Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec 4e-945 Av Wolfe,Quebec,QC,G1V 5B3, Tel:418-650-5115 Centre d’excellence de Montreal en Rehab Sites 3705 rue Saint-Patrick,Montreal,QC, H4E 1A1,Tel:514-872-4323 Environment Canada 105 rue McGill,Montreal,QC,H2Y 2E7, Tel:514-283-4252 Environment Canada 710-351 boul Saint-Joseph,Gatineau, QC,J8Y 3Z5,Tel:819-953-6161 Environment Canada 351 St Joseph Blvd,Gatineau,QC,K1A 0H3, Tel:519-956-9305 MAMR-Direction des Infrastructures 2e-10 rue Pierre-Olivier-Chauveau,Quebec, QC,G1R 4J3,Tel:418-691-2005

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Government Public Works & Govt Services 6b1-11 rue Laurier,General Standards Board,Gatineau,QC,K1A 1G6, Tel:819-956-1236 Recyc-Quebec 200-7171 rue Jean-Talon E,Anjou,QC,H1M 3N2,Tel:514-352-5002 St. Lawrence Seaway 9200 boul Marie-Victorin,Brossard,QC,J4X 1A3,Tel:450-672-4115 Ministere du Developpement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs

Bas-Saint-Laurent et Gaspesie – Ilesde-la-Madeleine Rimouski 212,ave Belzile,Rimouski,QC,G5L 3C3;Tel:418-727-3511 Sainte-Anne-des-Monts 124,1re Ave Ouest,Sainte-Anne-desMonts,QC, G4V 1C5, Tel:418-763-3301

Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean Saguenay 3950,boul Harvey,4e etage,Saguenay,QC,G7X 8L6,Tel:418-6957883

Capitale-Nationale et ChaudiereAppalaches Quebec 1175,boul Lebourgneuf,bureau 100,Quebec,QC,G2K 0B7, Tel:418-644-8844 Sainte-Marie 675,route Cameron,bureau 200,SainteMarie,QC,G6E 3V7, Tel:418-386-8000

Mauricie et Centre-du-Quebec Trois-Rivieres 100,rue Laviolette,1er etage,TroisRivieres,QC,G9A 5S9, Tel: 819-371-6581 Nicolet 1579,boul Louis-Frechette,Nicolet,QC,J3T 2A5,Tel:819-293-4122

Estrie et Monteregie Sherbrooke 770,rue Goretti,Sherbrooke,QC,J1E 3H4,Tel:819-820-3882 Longueuil 201, Place Charles-Le-Moyne, 2e etage,Longueuil,QC,J4K 2T5, Tel:450-928-7607

Montreal, Laval, Lanaudiere et Laurentides Montreal 5199,rue Sherbrooke Est,bureau 3860,Montreal,QC, H1T 3X9, Tel:514-873-3636 Laval 850,boulevard Vanier,Laval,QC,H7C 2M7,Tel:450-661-2008 Repentigny 100,boulevard Industriel,Repentigny,QC,J6A 4X6,Tel:450-654-4355

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Sainte-Therese 300,rue Sicard,bureau 80,SainteTherese,QC,J7E 3X5,Tel:450-433-2220

Outaouais Gatineau 170,rue de l’Hotel-de-Ville,bureau 7,340 Gatineau,QC,J8X 4C2,Tel:819-772-3434

Abiti-Temiscamingue et Nord-duQuebec Rouyn-Noranda 180,boulevard Rideau,1er etage,Rouyn-Noranda,QC,J9X 1N9,Tel:819-763-3333

Cote-Nord Sept-Iles 818,boulevard Laure RC,Sept-Iles,QC,G4R 1Y8,Tel:418-964-8888 Baie-Comeau 20,boulevard Comeau,BaieComeau,QC,G4Z 3A8,Tel:418-294-8888

Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Environment & Resource Management PO Box 1672 Stn Main,North Battleford,SK,S9A 3W2,Tel:306-787-2700 Saskatchewan Environment B21-3085 Albert St,Env Prot Branch,Regina,SK,S4S 0B1, Tel:306-787-0465 Saskatchewan Environment 107-3410 Park St,Regina,SK,S4V 2M8, Tel:306-787-8253 Saskatchewan Environment 206-110 Ominica St W,Moose Jaw,SK, S6H 6V2,Tel:306-694-3586 Saskatchewan Environment 102-112 Research Dr,Saskatoon,SK, S7N 3R3,Tel:306-933-3659 Saskatchewan Environment 108-1146 102nd St,North Battleford,SK, S9A 1E9,Tel:306-446-7987 Saskatchewan Research Council 422 Downey Rd,Saskatoon,SK,S7N 4N1, Tel:306-933-5663 Saskatchewan Water PO Box 281,Wakaw,SK,S0K 4P0, Tel:306-233-5645 Saskatchewan Watershed Authority PO Box 2133, 201 1st Ave E,Nipawin, SK,S0E 1E0,Tel:306-862-1754 Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 420-2365 Albert St,Regina,SK,S4P 4K1, Tel:306-787-0913 Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 330-350 3rd Ave N,Saskatoon,SK,S7K 6G7, Tel:306-933-7434 Saskwater PO Box 3003 Stn Main,Prince Albert,SK, S6V 6G1,Tel:306-953-2250

Environment Canada Env Protection 91782 Alaska Hwy,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 5X7, Tel:867-667-3400 Government of Canada PWGSC 105-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5, Tel:867-667-3945 Government of Yukon PO Box 39,Mayo,YT,Y0B 1M0, Tel:867-996-2852 Government of Yukon 9010 Quartz Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2Z5, Tel:867-667-5187 Govt of Yukon Env Health Services 2 Hospital Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 3H8, Tel:867-667-8391 Indian & Northern Affairs Canada 415-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5, Tel:867-667-3809 YTG Water Resources 202-419 Range Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 3V1, Tel:867-667-3102 Yukon Government 310-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5, Tel:867-667-3223 Yukon Government PO Box 2703 Stn Main,Whitehorse,YT, Y1A 2C6,Tel:867-667-3171

Yukon Territories Energy, Mines & Resources PO Box 2703,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2C6, Tel:867-667-3136

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ES&E’S AT A GLANCE GUIDE TO CANADIAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES The following institutions offer diploma and degree programs in these areas: Environmental Biology, Environmental Control, Environmental Technician, Environmental Engineering/Technology, Environmental Health and Science, Environmental Studies, Environmental Toxicology, Environmental Health Engineering.

Alberta Concordia University College of Alberta King's University College Lethbridge College Mount Royal College Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, The Red Deer College Southern Alberta Institute of Technology University of Alberta University of Calgary University of Lethbridge

Edmonton Edmonton Lethbridge Calgary Edmonton Red Deer Calgary Edmonton Calgary Lethbridge


Courtenay Victoria Castlegar Kamloops Langley Prince George


Britsh Columbia North Island College Royal Roads University Selkirk College Thompson Rivers University - Kamloops Trinity Western University University of Northern British Columbia

Manitoba University of Manitoba University of Winnipeg

Winnipeg Winnipeg


New Brunswick Collège communautaire du Nouveau-Brunswick Campbellton Mount Allison University Sackville New Brunswick Community College Fredericton


Newfoundland Memorial University of Newfoundland

St. John's


Nova Scotia Saint Mary's University



St. Catharines Sudbury Sudbury Thunder Bay Oshawa Peterborough Toronto Thunder Bay Sudbury Niagara Ancaster Toronto


Ontario Brock University Cambrian College Collège Boréal Confederation College Durham College Fleming College Humber Institute of Technology Lakehead University - Thunder Bay Laurentian University/Université Laurentienne Niagara College Canada (Niagara-on-the-Lake) Redeemer University College Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology

University of Guelph University of Ottawa/Université d'Ottawa University of Waterloo University of Western Ontario University of Windsor Wilfrid Laurier University Ryerson University Sault College Sheridan College St. Lawrence College Trent University University of Toronto Willis College of Business and Technology York University

Guelph Ottawa Waterloo London Windsor Waterloo Toronto Sault Ste. Marie Oakville Kingston Peterborough Toronto Ottawa Toronto




Sherbrooke Montréal Montréal Saint-Félicien Mirabel Montréal Sherbrooke Chicoutimi Montréal Rimouski Trois-Rivières Québec City Québec City Québec City


Regina Air Ronge Moose Jaw Prince Albert Saskatoon Saskatoon Regina Regina Saskatoon


Prince Edward Island Holland College

Québec Bishop's University Concordia University McGill University Cégep de St-Félicien Centre de formation agricole de Mirabel Université de Montréal Université de Sherbrooke Université du Québec à Chicoutimi Université du Québec à Montréal Université du Québec à Rimouski Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières Université du Québec Université du Québec Télé-université Université Laval

Saskatchewan First Nations University of Canada Northlands College Institute of Applied Science and Technology Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science Institute of Applied Science and Technology St. Thomas More College Luther College University University of Regina University of Saskatchewan

*This list is intended as a quick reference only. Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine makes no claim to the accuracy or completeness of this list.


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Package Treatment System ACG Technology’s package treatment system offers performance and durability. It provides sewage treatment within a small footprint. Aeration, mixing and settling can be accomplished in compact, easily transported ISO containers, ideal for remote locations. Provides flexibility of adding future parallel units, an economical means of meeting the needs of any growing sewage loads. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

P roduct & Service Showcase

Quality tanks

Coalescing oil/water separators ACG Technology’s coalescing oil/ water separators are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP and polypropylene construction. Standard systems include air operated diaphragm pump, air filter and floating skimmer. Adjustable weir and skimmer height provides optimal oil removal and minimal disposal volume. Standard range is 1 to 50 GPM. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com

ADI’s latest innovation in industrial wastewater treatment and waste-toenergy is the anaerobic membrane bioreactor, or AnMBR. This membranebased, high-rate anaerobic treatment system provides superior treatment of wastes in a small-footprint, easy-tooperate package. Tel: 800-561-2831, Fax: 506-452-7308 E-mail: systems@adi.ca Web: www.adisystemsinc.com

ACG Technology

ADI Systems

Stormwater solutions

Tel: 800-232-7385, Fax: 780-447-1984 Web: www.wilbert.ca

Armtec provides a wide range of CONTECH stormwater quality management systems throughout Canada. Products include VORTECHS hydrodynamic separation systems and VORTFILTER filtration systems. These systems are among the best for capturing suspended solids, oils, grit and trash from stormwater runoff. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com

Alberta Wilbert Sales


At Alberta Wilbert Sales we sell, service and deliver Alberta’s largest tanks, with capacities as high as 10,000 gallons, and back them with a 20-year warranty. Four key manufacturing processes make our tanks superior: custom-designed moulds, quality control concrete, special pour techniques and careful handling.

Professional land surveying

Fish-friendly culverts

Ontario Land Surveyors provide specialized services related to boundaries, land development and project management. The Association of Ontario Land Surveyors regulates the practice of professional land surveying and governs its members so that public interests may be served and protected. Tel: 416-491-9020, Fax: 416-491-2576 E-mail: admin@aols.org Web: www.aols.org

Atlantic Industries Limited offers a wide variety of environmentallyfriendly fish passage solutions for salt or fresh water applications, including their open-bottomed arches in recycled/recyclable galvanized steel or Dur•A•SpanTM aluminum structural plate. The units ship and install easily with minimal site impact and their openbottom designs comply with stream crossing codes. Tel: 877-245-7473 Web: www.ail.ca

Association of Ontario Land Surveyors

Atlantic Industries Limited

70 | Summer 2009

Anaerobic membrane bioreactor

Concrete arch bridges

Armtec provides BEBO concrete arch bridges in Québec, Ontario and Western Canada. Based on technology developed in Switzerland, BEBO arches are an economical alternative to cast-inplace concrete or structural steel bridges. They are available in a range of shapes with spans up to 31m. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com Armtec

Banff wildlife crossings

Atlantic Industries Limited was selected to help design and produce wildlife overpasses for the current phase of the TransCanada Highway twinning project in Banff National Park. Two large structures have been created using AIL Super•Cor® high profile arches and MSE structural walls with precast concrete panels. Tel: 877-245-7473 Web: www.ail.ca Atlantic Industries Limited

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• Optimizes all types of filters • Extremely low profile; lowest available • Manufactured from corrosion-resistant stainless steel • Variable custom orifice sizing • Custom hydraulic design • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution • Rapid, low-cost installation Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

New stainless steel pumps

Phoenix Panel System

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Installs directly over existing underdrain system • Eliminates the need for base gravel layers • Improves backwash flow distribution • Provides longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Underground stormwater management

Self contained breathing apparatus The new frontier industrial SCBA from ISI meets and exceeds industry standards, is NIOSH approved and is suitable for spill response, haz-mat, confined space entry, chemical plants, arenas and pools, etc. Options such as remote airline connection and buddy breather are available and the frontier comes in either low or high pressure in 30, 45 and 60 minute cylinder durations. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Safety Equipment

Gravity pipe design

Grindex’s new stainless steel pump line combines the integrity of years of tested design with the ingenuity and durability of new technology. Inox pumps can be used in applications that would destroy their aluminum predecessors. Their stainless steel construction enables them to endure pH values from 2 – 10, making them ideal for extreme environments with highly acidic or alkaline contents. Tel: 705-431-8585, Fax: 705-431-2772 E-mail: pb@claessenpumps.com Web: www.claessenpumps.com Claessen Pumps

Using large diameter corrugated steel pipe under parking areas and playgrounds is a cost-effective way to meet reduced runoff and environmental restrictions while allowing revenue producing services, recreation and commercial development. Design software is available, FREE. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca. Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Flow simulation system

Analytical measurement

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

PROline FieldCheck™ is an in situ verification test tool from Endress+Hauser. It performs flow meter verifications, providing an unalterable document that can be audited by government agencies. It assures meter functionality, allows predictive maintenance and extends calibration intervals. This hand-held unit saves you time and money while optimizing up-time. Web: www.ca.endress.com Endress+Hauser

The Memosens pH is an inductive, watertight, noise free connection with digital signal transfer for the highest degree of accuracy and stability. Sensor head memory chip stores electrode information and calibration data, making remote calibrations possible under ideal laboratory conditions. Memosens is pH made easy! Web: www.ca.endress.com


Canadian Durability Guideline for Corrugated Steel Pipe Culverts. Your location in Canada may affect the long-term performance of your infrastructure. Understanding your local environment helps you to select the steel material best suited to your site, for optimum durability and value. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute


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Product & Service Showcase

Phoenix Underdrain System

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The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

New generation of circulators The ALPHA from Grundfos Pumps is an energy-optimized, 115-volt circulator featuring a permanent magnet motor design that will cut power consumption by a minimum of 50%. Designed for hydronic heating applications, the compact ALPHA is equipped with the Grundfos AUTOADAPTTM function that automatically modulates circulator performance. Tel: 905-829-9533, Fax: 905-829-9512 Web: www.grundfos.ca Grundfos

P roduct & Service Showcase

Pipe for new construction and rehab

Handheld DO meter

HOBAS’ centrifugally cast, fiberglass-reinforced, polymer mortar pipe is ideal for new construction and rehab for storm or sanitary sewers, potable water and corrosive environments. Benefits include inherent corrosion resistance, lightweight, high strength and service life up to 100 years. Tel: 800-856-7473, Fax: 281-821-7715 E-mail: info@hobaspipe.com Web: www.hobaspipe.com HOBAS Pipe

The YSI ProODOTM handheld DO meter provides extreme durability for the measurement of optical, luminescent-based dissolved oxygen for any field application. Web: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

Sewer and water pipe

Many municipalities have centrifugally cast HOBAS pipe in sewer and water applications. It is ideal for virtually every installation method. Sections join with push-together, leak free, gasket sealed couplings. Non-pressure and pressure classes are manufactured in diameters from 18 -110 inches. Tel: 800-856-7473, Fax: 281-821-7715 E-mail: info@hobaspipe.com Web: www.hobaspipe.com HOBAS Pipe

Multiparameter meter The YSI Professional Plus handheld multiparameter meter provides extreme flexibility for the measurement of a variety of combinations for dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, salinity, resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ORP, pH/ORP combination, ammonium (ammonia), nitrate, chloride and temperature. Web: www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientific

New pressure pipe

Fusible PVC™ pipe

IPEX has introduced Bionax™ PVCO Pressure Pipe. Using a revolutionary new production process, PVC is molecularly modified to form a new material – biaxially oriented PVC or PVCO. PVC is transformed into a “super material” with almost double the tensile strength and three times the strength of the starting stock.

Fusible PVC pipe is AWWA C900/905 pipe joined in the field using a specially-designed butt-fusion process. The result is a monolithic, fully restrained PVC pipe that is perfectly suited for horizontal directional drilling and other trenchless applications. Municipalities can standardize on PVC throughout their systems.

Tel: 800-463-9572, Fax: 905-403-1124 E-mail: jentuc@ipexinc.com Web: www.ipexinc.com

Tel: 800-463-9572, Fax: 905-403-1124 E-mail: jentuc@ipexinc.com Web: www.ipexinc.com

WEDECO Ozone Generators from ITT Water & Wastewater eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and microorganisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.ittwww.ca



ITT Water and Wastewater

72 | Summer 2009

Chemical-free water treatment

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Small mechanical face seals

Energy efficient mixer

Leopold Underdrain technology from ITT Water & Wastewater is a unique water recovery channel that allows a broader airflow range of 1 to 5 scfm/sf, improved air stability, continuously uniform air flow, and lower water maldistribution of less than 5% (total). Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.ittwww.ca

ITT Water & Wastewater has launched Griploc, a new generation of robust mechanical face seals. To facilitate mounting, the new Flygt seals feature one uniform mounting procedure, and each seal comes with a disposable, easyto-use mounting tool. Fewer versions can also reduce spare part inventory. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.ittwww.ca

The motor in the new Flygt 4650 LSPM mixer relies on LineStarted Permanent-Magnet (LSPM) technology to deliver optimal efficiency in terms of mixer thrust and electrical input. It can provide about 10-20% lower energy consumption, 15% higher motor efficiency and 40% lower current consumption. Applications include biological wastewater treatment, denitrification, sludge handling, etc. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.ittwww.ca

ITT Water and Wastewater

ITT Water and Wastewater

ITT Water and Wastewater

Water filters

Stainless steel, carbon steel, NSF coating, Hastelloy, titanium – whatever materials are required, ORIVAL will meet all customer specifications when manufacturing fully automatic self-cleaning filtration systems, in sizes ranging from ¾” to 24”. Tel: 1-800-567-9767 E-mail: filters@orival.com Web: www.orival.com Orival

Fine Screen

The Helisieve® Fine Screen combines screening, conveying and dewatering into one reliable, automatic, compact and cost-efficient system. Shaftless spiral technology helps dewater screenings up to 30% dry weight to lower disposal costs, and the spiral is enclosed to minimize odors. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: canada@parkson.com Web: www.parkson.com Parkson

Continuous backwash filter DynaSand® continuous backwash, upflow, deep bed, granular media filters handle high levels of suspended solids, and may eliminate the need for pre-sedimentation or flotation. They have few moving parts, easily handle plant upsets, and require little operator attention and maintenance. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: canada@parkson.com Web: www.parkson.com Parkson

Metering pumps

Metering pump

Chemical injection equipment

Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca

The awardwinning delta® with optoDrive® provides diverse control and operating capabilities in a capacity range of 7.5 - 75 l/h, 362 psi - 29 psi. The delta from ProMinent has many advanced features: pulsed or continuous dosing; automatic detection of airlock, low pressure and high pressure; and an automatic degassing option. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca/delta

SAF-T-FLO Chemical Injection manufactures a complete line of chemical injection equipment for all types of chemical feed systems. A large inventory of retractable and non-retractable injection quills and sampling probes are available to meet your needs. In addition, experienced technical sales staff can answer your questions or help solve your problems. Tel: 800-957-2383, Fax: 714-632-3350 E-mail: gkline@saftflo.com Web: www.saftflo.com

ProMinent Fluid Controls

ProMinent Fluid Controls

SAF-T-FLO Chemical Injection


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Product & Service Showcase

Underdrain air/water backwash

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Membrane bioreactor

Wastewater Pump Stations

Remote water level monitoring

Sanitherm has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, preplumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint! Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: information@sanitherm.com Web: www.sanibrane.com

Energy-saving Smith & Loveless wastewater pump stations are ideal for collection system and WWTP influent pumping for municipalities, private developments and industry. Proven lift station designs minimize delays because S&L stations arrive at the jobsite completely built and thoroughly factory-tested. Now available with expanded pump sizing: 4" - 12" piping (100-300 mm); horsepower: 1.5 to 300 HP; capacity: up to 50,000 GMP (3155 lps). Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com

Built for Solinst Leveloggers, the system provides reliable remote site data collection, using radio, cellular and satellite communication. Intuitive software makes for simple setup, operation, and data management. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com

Sanitherm Inc.

Smith & Loveless

Solinst Canada

Specialist training

Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

Environmental services

P roduct & Service Showcase

Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats

Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web: www.spillmanagement.ca Spill Management

Controlling contaminated groundwater

Virtual Engineers offer many services, including: • Industrial detailed engineering • Site plan approval • Building permits • MOE CofA • Innovative technologies implementation • Site utilities, piping, unit operations • Plant integration and ecosystems • Civil, structural, mechanical, electrical, chemical process. Tel: 866-337-9333 E-mail: info@virtual-engineers.com Web: www.virtual-engineers.com

The patented AnoxKaldnesTM MBBR biofilm-based process is compact and reliable, with simple operation and low maintenance. It is used for BOD removal, nitrification, and denitrification for municipal and industrial wastewater. It is suitable for new WWTPs as well as for upgrades, expansions or retrofits. Tel: 905-286-4846 E-mail: salescanada@veoliawater.com Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies Canada

Virtual Engineers


Trickling filters

Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wall for groundwater containment and control. It is a new design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills assisted in developing the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: info@waterloo-barrier.com Web: www. waterloo-barrier.com

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: wbs@waterloo-biofilter.com Web: www. waterloo-biofilter.com

Waterloo Barrier

Waterloo Biofilter

74 | Summer 2009

Waterra's Grip 'n Lock is the only hinged, locking well cap — and the only truly tamperproof well cap available on the market today. Constructed from heavy duty UV resistant nylon, this cap is quickly and easily installed onto 2" and 4" monitoring wells by simply pounding it onto the well casing with a mallet. Once installed, it cannot be removed. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: sales@waterra.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

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NEWS Water For People has record fundraising year Despite tough economic times, people are still donating to a cause in which they believe: safe drinking water and sanitation. Generous employees of several large corporations have supported Water For People in a record fundraising year. Employees from CH2M HILL raised more than $229,000 through online donations, personal checks, fundraising events and payroll deductions. American Water donated over $216,000 to Water For People through its company-wide 2009 fundraising campaign. More than $140,000 of this was raised from employee contributions through personal checks and payroll deductions. Water For People relies on donations to support its work in 10 developing countries around the world. www.waterforpeople.org

New municipal drinking water licenses issued Members of the Ontario Municipal Water Association are among the first five municipalities to have successfully applied for the new Ontario municipal drinking water system license. They are Huron County, the City of Hamilton, the City of Kingston, Halton Region and the Town of Tecumseh. Development and implementation of the Municipal Drinking Water Licensing Program is based on Justice O’Connor’s recommendations in the Part II Walkerton Report. The report recommended that the Ontario Ministry of the Environment require all owners of municipal drinking water systems to obtain a license to operate their systems. It also recommended that the owners and operating authorities of these systems implement a quality management approach to operations and management. According to the Ministry, it is the first quality management system of its kind in North America. The license is based on continuous improvement of day-to-day operations. It consolidates a number of existing approvals into one, including a permit to take water, a drinking-water works permit (formerly a Certificate of Approval), an operational plan, an operating author-

• ANTHRACITE • QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL • CARBON • GARNET ILMENITE • REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax: (519) 751-0617 E-mail: swildey@anthrafilter.net • Web: www.anthrafilter.net

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NEWS Specialists Speci alists in a comprehensive range of Municip Municipal, pal, Environmental, Structural, Building, Water Resources, Tra Transportation nsportation and Municipal Engineering Collingwood Colli ngwood



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Get a clear view of: • UST's, buried metal, debris & fill • Former excavations & structures • Leachate plumes • Voids and fractures • Stratigraphy • Pipes and utilities

“Specialists in non-intrusive ground investigations” Tel: 905.458.1883 Fax: 905.792.1884 E-mail: general@geophysics.ca Web: www.geophysics.ca

More than 30 Years More Ye ears of Water Water Solutions & Wastewater Wastewater S olution ns

ity accreditation, and a financial plan. Licensing is being phased in, starting with large municipalities. All owners of municipal drinking water systems must apply for their licenses by June 1, 2010.

Terratec Environmental receives biosolids management award Terratec Environmental Ltd., a subsidiary of American Water Enterprises, Inc., has received a 2009 Exemplary Biosolids Management Award from the Water Environment Association of Ontario. The award was presented to Terratec in the category of Technology Innovation and Development Activities for its nursery enhancement project. www.amwater.com

New club for retired engineers

W Wastewater astewater C Collection/Treatment ollec tion/Treatme ent W Water ater Supply, Supplyy, Treatment, Treatment, SStorage torag ge & D Distribution istribution En Environmental vironmental SSite ite A Assessment/Remediation ssessment/R t emediation H Hydrogeological ydrogeological Investigations/Modelling Investigationss/M odelling W Watershed/Stormwater atershed/Stormwater Management M anagement Inf Information ormation Technology/Data Te echnology/Data Management M anagement

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On November 25, 1985, the Toronto Star published an article entitled: ”Unique scientists’ club turns research into cottage industry. “Jack Miller, the author, described Front Wave Inc. as “a sort of club of scientists and engineers, some of whose members are PhDs working fulltime elsewhere as factory hands or as clerks to pay their rent.” The “FWI” was formed to assist newly-arrived scientists and engineers who escaped the communist regime in Poland and who needed “Canadian experience”. During its operation, FWI had 160 master graduates and 35 PhDs working for it. In addition to providing valuDetectronics multi sensor flowmeter

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76 | Summer 2009

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Hetek Solutions Inc. offers the new Detectronics GSM128 Intrinsically Safe Multi Sensor Flow Meter. This area velocity meter has a GSM wireless module, 5year battery life in the field under typical conditions, and is ATEX approved. The GSM module allows alarm dial-out (high and low, individually programmed), to minimize wastewater fouling, low power or other service issues, as well as wireless data transfer. Tel: 519- 659-1144, Fax: 519-453-2182 Email: sales@hetek.com Web: www.hetek.com Hetek Solutions Inc. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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NEWS able Canadian experience, the company also developed several important technologies, including two small footprint, vertical biological wastewater treatment systems and a sulphur-scrubbing device to control industrial air emissions. Recently, a small group of the old members decided to reactivate the Front Wave idea. The New Front Wave Inc. (NFWI) will act as a ‘club’ for retired scientists and engineers. One goal of NFWI is to act as a permanent depository and a distributor of specialized personal experiences. The club will gather information about the specific experience of each retired member and will make direct contact between the member and a potential end-user of their expertise. NFWI will contact organizations such as the Canadian National Research Council, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, Sustainable Development Technology Canada, and other government agencies as well as large Canadian industrial organizations. It will ask them to suggest problems that need solutions. If NFWI can find, or develop one, it will try to sell the participating organization the solution to the problem they needed solving. For more information on The New Front Wave Inc., E-mail: Don Prazmowski at dbf.inc@rogers.com.

Making the Great Lakes great again The Ontario Society of Professional Engineers and the Arcelor Centre for Engineering and Public Policy at McMaster University are presenting the second in a series of one day international symposia Engineering in a Climate of Change: Making the Lakes Great, a North American Symposium - on April 29, 2010, at the MaRS Centre in Toronto, Ontario. The goal of the conference is to highlight how engineers and the engineering profession, through scientific and technological advancements and the formulation of public policy, can advance efforts to mitigate, adapt and build resilience to the effects of a changing climate, thereby informing public policy. The symposium will emphasize the opportunity to revise the bi-national Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement so that continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis, Inc. Consulting Engineers ! 420 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, N1T 2H9 Tel: (519) 624-7223 Fax: (519) 624-7224 ! 1685 1 James Street Ontario, L8P L8S 4R5 1G5 Main St. South, West,Suite Suite1601, 302,Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax: (905) 522-0031

E-mail: info@hydromantis.com Web: www.hydromantis.com

Insitu Groundwater Contractors • • • • • P: 519-763-0700 F: 519-763-6684 • 150 Stevenson Street, South Guelph, ON N1E 5N7

Dewatering systems Mobile groundwater treatment systems Well and pump installation and maintenance Pump, filter, generator rentals Sediment tank rentals Insitu groundwater remediation systems



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NEWS programs and policies are in place to address climate change. The symposium will engage large lakes of the world, including the Laurentian Great Lakes region. For more information, visit www.ospe.on.ca

New Environmental Enforcement Act cracks down on offenders







Canada’s new Environmental Enforcement Act sets minimum fines for serious offences of between $5,000 for individuals and $500,000 for large corporations. As well, the Act raises maximum fines to as high as $6 million. It also gives enforcement officers new powers to investigate cases and grants courts new sentencing authority that ensures penalties reflect the seriousness of the pollution and wildlife offences. The Act also expands the authority to deal with environmental offenders by: specifying aggravating factors such as causing damage to wildlife or wildlife habitat, or causing damage that is extensive, persistent or irreparable; providing fine ranges higher for corporate offenders than for individuals; doubling fine ranges for repeat offenders; authorizing the suspension and cancellation of licenses, permits or other authorizations upon conviction; requiring corporate offenders to report convictions to shareholders; and, mandating the reporting of corporate offences on a public registry. Fines imposed by the courts will go to the Environmental Damages Fund which provides funding for local environmental restoration, improvement, research and development.

Ontarioʟs rigorous drinking water safeguards are working Ontario’s Chief Drinking Water Inspector’s fourth annual report, which covers the period of April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2008, provides an overview of the state of the province’s drinking water. It describes the results of drinking water quality tests, inspections of drinking water systems and the performance of regulated systems. Findings show results of drinking water tests met Ontario’s strict water quality standards, including: • 99.85 per cent of tests at municipal 78 | Summer 2009

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NEWS residential drinking water systems. • 99.39 per cent of tests at systems serving designated facilities such as children’s camps, day care centres, schools or health care facilities. • 99.40 per cent of tests at private systems serving residential developments such as trailer parks. For the first time, the report provides test results for lead in drinking water in schools, day nurseries and communities. It also reports on the ministry’s actions to protect source water, enforce regulatory requirements, certify and train operators, and educate owners and operators.

Peter J. Laughton, P. Eng. Consulting Engineer

Environmental Engineering Services

King City, Ontario CANADA


tel: +1.905.833.6738 fax: +1.905.833.8497

The federal government recently announced up to $779,817 in funding from the EcoAction Community Funding Program for 23 projects in Québec. The total value of these projects is $2,682,625. In the Mégantic region, Environment Canada has contributed $82,167 to the Action Belles Rives Grand Lac SaintFrançois project, which aims to renaturalize 300 shoreline properties. This riparian strip will improve the lake’s health and is effective in preventing blue algae. To maximize the project’s impact, the participating shoreline residents will have to be committed to the revegetation of their properties, to using phosphatefree dishwashing soap, and to not using pesticides or fertilizers on their lawns. www.ec.gc.ca/ecoaction





Federal government to support Quebec projects

Billions of litres of sewage escape treatment According to a recently released report by EcoJustice, tens of billions of litres of untreated sewage are discharging annually into Ontario’s waterways, because of outdated sewage infrastructure and poor oversight by the provincial government. “Flushing Out the Truth: Sewage Dumping in Ontario”, highlights Ministry of the Environment (MOE) figures that show the total volume of sewage dumped from municipal treatment plant bypasses was approximately 18 billion litres in 2006 and 15 billion litres in 2007. It also draws attention to massive quantities of sewage being released from comcontinued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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bined sewer overflows and the incomplete information being collected by the MOE. “Sewage is the largest source of water pollution in the Great Lakes,” says Elaine MacDonald, Senior Scientist for EcoJustice. “The fact that the Ontario government fails to even monitor it correctly demonstrates poor planning and dangerously uninformed decision-making.” In total, eight municipalities dumped more than one billion litres of untreated or undertreated sewage through bypasses during the 2006-2007 period. Niagara Falls released almost 7 billion litres of untreated or undertreated sewage in 2007 alone. Other cities with more than a billion litres of sewage released during 2006-7 include: Hamilton (5 billion); Windsor (4.3 billion); Welland (3.9); Toronto (2.7 billion); Sudbury/Greater Sudbury (2.6 billion); London (1.8 billion); and Leamington (1 billion). www.ecojustice.ca

BC leaders urged to tackle water shortage and privatization issues Water experts in British Columbia are urging politicians to address public concern about water safety and shortages. A 2009 Canadian Water Attitudes Study, administered by Ipsos Reid, showed that the long-term supply of freshwater is a top concern for Canadians, second only to health care availability and financial market stability. Yet, when polled, BC’s two main political parties are willing to address only some of the concerns presented in a recent survey which was sponsored by eight leading organizations. Some highlights of the poll include: • Over 600 waterways in BC have been staked for the development of privatelyowned Independent Power Projects with licensing that does not involve public input and has major loopholes around environmental assessments. The Liberal Party does not plan to slow private power development to allow these issues to be addressed. The NDP does plan to stop the current “gold rush approach” and evaluate cumulative environmental impacts of runof-river projects. • BC has the worst rate of water-borne diseases in Canada, yet the Liberals do not plan to make drinking water quality continued overleaf...

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ADI Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 . . . . . .systems@adi.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.adisystemsinc.com Alberta Wilbert Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.wilbert.ca Aqua-Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.aqua-pipe.com Armtec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20,21 . . . . . .sales@armtec.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.armtec.com Associated Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . .admin-group@ae.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ae.ca Association of Ontario Land Surveyors . . . . . .64 . . . . . .admin@aols.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.aols.org Atlantic Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ail.ca AWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . .info@awifilter.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.awifilter.com Bennett Jones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.bennettjones.com CALA Training Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 . . . . . .ngravel@cala.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cala.ca Canadian Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cdnsafety.com CH2M HILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 . . . . . .ch2mhillcanada@ch2m.com . . . . . . . . . .www.ch2mhill.com Claessen Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . .pb@claessenpumps.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.claessenpumps.com

Advertiser INDEX

ACG Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 . . . . . .sales@acgtechnology.com . . . . . . . . . . .www.acgtechnology.com

Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 . . . . . .info@cspi.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cspi.ca Delcan Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 . . . . . .info@delcan.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.delcan.com Denso

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Endress + Hauser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 . . . . . .info@ca.endress.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ca.endress.com Genivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.genivar.com/careers Geomembrane Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 . . . . . .bms@gticovers.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.gticovers.com Greatario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 . . . . . .bbaird@greatario.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.greatario.com H2Flow Tanks & Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 . . . . . .tanks@h2flow.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.h2flow.com Heron Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 . . . . . .info@heroninstruments.com . . . . . . . . . .www.heroninstruments.com Hetek Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 . . . . . .hetek.sales@hetek.com . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hetek.com

Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13, 31, 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hoskin.ca ITT Water & Wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ittwww.ca John Wiley & Sons Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 . . . . . .atasic@wiley.com

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.wiley.ca

Liberty Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.libertyenergycentre.ca Master Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.mastermeter.com Maxqsoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 . . . . . .design@maxqonline.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.maxqsoft.com MSU Mississauga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 . . . . . .virginia@msumississauga.com . . . . . . .www.msumississauga.com Myers Engineered Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 . . . . . .epsl@telus.net Parkson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 . . . . . .canada@parkson.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.parkson.com Saf-T-Flo Chemical Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 . . . . . .gkline@saftflo.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.saftflo.com Sanexen Environmental Services . . . . . . . . . . . .8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.aqua-pipe.com Sanitherm Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 . . . . . .information@sanitherm.com . . . . . . . . .www.sanibrane.com SEW-Eurodrive Company of Canada . . . . . . . .53 . . . . . .marketing@sew-eurodrive.ca . . . . . . . . .www.sew-eurodrive.ca Smith & Loveless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 . . . . . .answers@smithandloveless.com . . . . . .www.smithandloveless.com Solinst Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 . . . . . .instruments@solinst.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.solinst.com Stantec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 . . . . . .info@stantec.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.stantec.com Sustainable Development Technology Canada 16 . . . . . .info@sdtc.ca

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Troy-Ontor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 . . . . . .troy-ontor@troy-ontor.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.omnisite.com University of Toronto – Centre for Env. . . . . . . .58 . . . . . .d.workman@utoronto.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . .http://learn.environment.utoronto.ca USF Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 . . . . . .epsl@telus.net Waterra Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 . . . . . .sales@waterra.com

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.waterra.com

WEFTEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.weftec.org XCG Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 . . . . . .toronto@xcg.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.xcg.com


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NEWS standards legally binding as recommended by the World Health Organization. The NDP have made this policy change a possibility. • Neither of the two major parties committed to ensuring adequate water flows for fish and the environment through legally binding water allocations. The Green Party committed to this step. • Though BC is the only province in Canada that does not require a government licence for groundwater extraction, the NDP did not commit to regulating groundwater withdrawals, while the BC Liberals did. • Most current water demands can be met with far less water than is currently being used. Both the Liberals and NDP are considering the creation of water efficiency standards for agriculture, industry, commercial and residential use.

Feds to lower phosphorus concentration limits In the Canada Gazette, the federal government has tabled “Regulations Amending the Phosphorus Concentration Regulations. The amendments include provisions that will lower the phosphorus concentration limit for household laundry detergents from 2.2% by weight of phosphorus to 0.5%, and clarify that a concentration limit of 2.2% still applies to commercial and industrial laundry detergents. Phosphorus concentration in household dishwashing compounds and cleaners will be limited to 0.5% by weight.

The amendments also specify that, for the purposes of the Regulations, any analysis for the determination of the concentration of phosphorus shall be conducted by a laboratory accredited under the International Organization for Standardization Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and whose accreditation includes the analysis of phosphorus within its scope of testing. According to a Canadian Water and Wastewater Association communiqué, the amendments will decrease the release of phosphorus into the environment by an estimated 28,400 tonnes over 25 years. Benefits are expected to include reductions in phosphorus removal at wastewater treatment facilities, improvements in water quality in Canadian lakes and rivers, and reductions in human and environmental exposure to algae blooms. There will be an additional reduction of 5,100 tonnes of phosphorus that are released directly into the environment from untreated wastewater. The complete text of the regulation is available at: www.gazette.gc.ca

EMSL opens Canadian lab EMSL Analytical has opened a new Canadian laboratory in Mississauga, Ontario. The facility adds to the existing network of close to 40 EMSL and LA Testing locations. The laboratory was recently accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program for bulk asbestos fibre analysis.

EMSL Canada Inc. is located at 10 Falconer Drive, Unit 3, Mississauga, Ontario. Tel: (289) 997-4602. E-mail: kpang@emsl.com.

Neptuneʼs pumps and mixers earn CE certification Neptune™ Chemical Pump Company recently announced that all lines of its chemical metering pumps and mixers have earned CE certification. CE certification is mandatory for machinery and low-voltage equipment sold within the 27 countries of the European Union, as well as within all countries of the European Economic Area and European Free Trade Area. In addition, many countries that are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement are voluntarily requiring CE certification. www.neptune1.com

MTE Consultants receives award for remediation project The Consulting Engineers of Ontario presented MTE Consultants Inc. with an Award of Excellence for the engineering services they provided on the City of Kitchener’s Joseph and Gaukel streets reconstruction and coal tar remediation project. This project was a complex combination of civil infrastructure, environmental remediation and landscaping that transformed the heart of Kitchener’s downtown core into a grand public space. www.ceo.on.ca

Greenpeace activists arrested after protest On July 8, eleven Greenpeace activists were arrested after they unfurled a 2,275 square foot banner on Mount Rushmore that challenged President Barack Obama to show stronger leadership on the climate crisis. The demonstration coincided with the G8 leaders’ summit in L’Aquila, Italy, where discussions about the global warming crisis were scheduled to take place in the lead up to UN climate treaty negotiations in Copenhagen this December. Specifically, Greenpeace is calling on President Obama to: • Cut emissions in the US by 25-40 percent by 2020, compared to 1990 levels. • Strive to keep global temperatures as far below a 2 degrees • Join with and encourage other members of the G8 to Celsius increase as possible, compared to pre-industrial establish a funding mechanism that provides $106 billion levels. per year by 2020 to help developing countries adapt to • Set a goal of peaking global emissions by 2015 and be global warming impacts that are now unavoidable, and to as close to zero as possible by 2050, compared to 1990 halt tropical deforestation. levels.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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