Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine-March 2009

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March 2009

Drinking water treatment in the Far North An innovative approach to biosolids processing Official Show Guide For:

Canadian Environmental

The 17th Annual

ow Conference & Tradesh

New Canadian process approved to detoxify chlorinated solvents

April 20 - 21, 2009

C A N E C T 2009

n Centre - South Building Metro Toronto Conventio Scheduled Session Topics ental Science & Engio-organized by Environm is the largest event of CANECT neering Magazine, some 2,000 typically attracting Conits kind in Canada, and conference delegates. tradeshow visitors are a high quality and tradeshow visitors ental ference delegates responsible for environm people senior audience of s and compliance issues. engineering, regulation in the same hall again be co-located CANECT 2009 will tradeshow of the annual an Canada, with Health & Safety on (IAPA). This Prevention Associati those including Industrial Accident over 6,000 delegates, ilities. (Visit annual show attracts management responsib with EH&S and senior www.iapa.ca for details) Canada are and Health & Safety Combined, CANECT companies and 8,000 exhibiting 475 some expected to attract from either show will Tradeshow badges tradeshow visitors. charge. To register both shows at no extra or allow admission to visit www.canect.net, registration, please of for free tradeshow came with this copy the free pass that fill out and fax in ES&E magazine. CANECT receive a printed to like would Passfield, If you please contact Darlann conference program, Free: 1-888-254-8769, Toll or 30), (Ext Tel: 905-727-4666 m. Email: darlann@esemag.coavailable at www.canect.net are also Conference details


compliance regulation and Environmental ls and permits Managing approva s compliance Proactive air emission costs Reducing carbon s and guidelines standard ment manage Environmental tors rs and investiga Managing inspecto n and waste diversio Industrial waste ter compliance Water and wastewa new rules the lds Brownfie and compliance Spills management

w w w . C A N E C T.

Economical wastewater lagoon aeration system


Official CANECT 2009 Showguide - Page 78




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Contents ISSN-0835-605X March 2009 Vol. 22 No. 1 Issued March 2009

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Page 40

ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.

FEATURES 7 8 10 14 20 22 24 26 30 34 38 40 44 48 52 54 58 60 62 65 66 69 72 88

Infrastructure costs - when more than the price is right - Editorial comment by Tom Davey Businesses and investors warned about growing water scarcity Achieving faster environmental approvals in Ontario Rebalancing lake chemistry to reduce and control phosphorous contamination DEPARTMENTS The benefits of web-based employee training How one utility simplified its drinking water disinfection operation Product Showcase . . . . . 73-77 Wastewater recycling for carwashes Environmental News . . . 88-95 Ontario accredits municipal drinking water system operators Bioremediation of soils and groundwater contaminated with fuel oil Professional Cards . . . . . 89-95 Extreme drinking water treatment in the Far North Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Bonnechere Valley’s answer to septage disposal London chooses an innovative approach to biosolids processing Controlling lake weeds with mechanical harvesting Oxygen diffusion allows for quick remediation at a former fuel dispensing site New ways of reducing phosphorous in Lake Simcoe Structural rehabilitation of water mains with fast-set polymeric resin Containment of a salt byproduct at a potash mine Official Show G uide Fo r: Rehabilitating and redeveloping a small arms manufacturing facility The 17th Annual New Canadian process approved to detoxify chlorinated solvents C Environanadian OWWA/OMWA spring conference preview men Confe April 2rence & Trad tal Economical wastewater lagoon aeration system 0 - 21, e 2009 show BCWWA spring conference preview Metro To ro Proper training and planning essential for cyanide spill and release response C nto Convention Centre - So uth Buil Why we must effectively manage waterworks infrastructure deficits ding



Official CANECT 2009 Showguide


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine presents the 17th Annual Canadian Environmental Conference and Tradeshow, April 20-21, 2009, Toronto . . . . . . . . . . . .78 CANECT Floor Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80, 81 Exhibitor Listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82-87



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Comment by Tom Davey

Infrastructure costs - when more than the price is right his column has often argued against what it designated as The Low Bid Ethos. As a reporter in the UK, Canada and Australia, I often attended council meetings where idiotic decisions were sometimes passed off as statesmanlike pronouncements. I also attended parliamentary meetings which were even more banal than the council meetings. I recall attending a meeting when one of the councilors announced the result of a decision on infrastructure. It concerned details of a successful award for the supply and construction of a water main over one kilometre long. During the announcement the contractor’s firm was mentioned and the approximate length of the project, but not the diameter of the water main. Nor was the actual pipe material mentioned; it could have been cast iron, asbestos or hollowed out tree trunks. None of the components important for public health or hydraulic sustainability was mentioned. While the contracting firm was


named, no mention was made of the firm’s experience, nor of previous projects it had completed. Nor was there any mention of the reputation of the pipe supplier. The councilor simply announced that the project was over one kilometre long and Grapple Grummets Incorporated had submitted the

Could Canadian trees assist fire-ravaged Australia? Canadians have been seeing the raging Australian fires daily on televsion. It is particularly poignant to me as our daughter Penny was born in Melbourne, Victoria, when I spent some two years working for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Now, hearing of the awful deaths and seeing the massive housing wreckage, along with the severe ecological damage from these forest fires, I wondered how many of these burned-out homes would ever be rebuilt as the fires surely have reduced the amount of timber for logging. The global economic downturn will further handicap Australia. Canada has vast forests, in a country larger than Europe or the United States, along with a very efficient logging industry. While Australia’s


stricken forests will recover over time, I wondered if Canada could donate, say, a shipload of timber for rebuilding of the burned-out homes, perhaps encouraging other countries to emulate this move. I know there are strict regulations about any sort of plant life imports because of the isolated location of the Australian continent, but it seems a possibility as well as an excellent opportunity for Canadians to demonstrate their humanity and forestry capabilities. Tom Davey

lowest bid in all the tenders and had been awarded the project. There was no response to this except a few nods of approval for this safeguarding of the public purse. I wondered if anyone there ever thought of how safe and regular water supply impacts our health. It is not long ago that people died in Walkerton, Ontario, and hundreds more were seriously sickened when tainted water came in through the town’s water supply. This tragedy highlighted the vital role of treatment plant operation and the need for training. One operator was sent to jail for his negligence. Clean water ironically, must be dirt cheap in the low bid ethos. I never hear ladies saying how cheap their dresses or furniture had been, or hosts saying the wine they were serving was the cheapest they could find. In fact, being cheap has, adjectivally, become a put down on a person’s character. Back to infrastructure costs. Most water pipes, hydrants and valves last for decades, with their service to human health being incalculable. The same goes for water and wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Seldom mentioned are the engineer’s skills and knowledge in designing the infrastructure for both services. Consulting engineers, in fact, often have to bid on projects where low price is considered much more keenly than their experience. Would any of the male councilors, so vigorously purchasing environmental infrastructure or selecting consulting engineering firms, shop around for the lowest price surgeons if they were contemplating a vasectomy? No way. They would anxiously research the reputation of the surgeon. Tom Davey is Senior Consulting Editor of Environmental Science & Engineering. March 2009 | 7



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Environmental Science & Engineering Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com Senior Consulting Editor


Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $3.75 GST).

8 | March 2009

Businesses and investors warned about growing water scarcity lobal climate change is exacerbating water scarcity problems around the world, yet few businesses and investors are paying attention to this growing financial threat, according to a report issued today by Ceres and the Pacific Institute. Decreasing water availability, declining water quality, and growing water demand are creating immense challenges to businesses and investors who have historically taken clean, reliable and inexpensive water for granted. These trends are causing decreases in companies' water allotments for manufacturing, shifts towards full-cost water pricing, more stringent water quality regulations and increased public scrutiny of corporate water practices. The report concludes that climate change will exacerbate these growing water risks, especially as the world population grows by 50 million people every year. Already, China, India and the western US are seeing growth limited by reduced water supplies from shrinking glaciers and melting snowcaps that sustain key rivers. Meanwhile, agricultural and power plant production have been cut back due to more frequent and more intense heat waves and droughts in large parts of Australia, California and the southeast US. “The business community needs to wake up to the reality that water is becoming scarcer and will likely become even more so in many parts of the world due to climate change," said Mindy S. Lubber, president of Ceres, which published the report, Water Scarcity & Climate Change: Growing Risks for Businesses and Investors.


“This research sheds important light on the critical link between climate change and water issues. For businesses, addressing the risk factors of water scarcity and conflict is as urgent as addressing energy security and greenhouse gas emissions,” said Jason Morrison, program director at the Pacific Institute and the report’s lead author. The report identifies water-related risks specific to eight key industries, including: • Electric Power: Drought-induced water shortages have already caused power plant shutdowns in Europe, Brazil and the southeast US that led to price spikes and reduced economic growth. The power industry depends heavily on water and accounts for a staggering 39 percent of freshwater withdrawals in the US. • High-Tech: Eleven of the world's 14 largest semiconductor factories are in the Asia-Pacific region, where water scarcity risks are especially severe. IT firms require vast amounts of ultra clean water; Intel and Texas Instruments alone used 11 billion gallons to make silicon chips in 2007. A water-related shutdown at a fabrication facility operated by these firms could result in $100-$200 million in missed revenue during a quarter. • Beverage: Coca-Cola and PepsiCo bottlers lost their operating licenses in parts of India due to water shortages and all major beverage firms are facing stiff public opposition to new bottling plants – and to buying bottled drinking water altogether. Nestlé Waters has been fighting for five years, for example, to build the country's largest bottling plant in McCloud, California. continued on page 96 ...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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Project Management

How to achieve faster environmental approvals in Ontario By Sean Capstick or years, Ontario’s Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has received more requests for environmental approvals than it has been able to process. This increase in approval requests has been caused by a greater focus on environmental compliance from both MOE inspectors and environmental compliance auditors. In addition, the regulations that applicants are required to comply with have become more complicated and the applications have progressed from equipment-specific to facility-wide assessments. The result has been significant delays for facilities in receiving the approvals they need to conduct their business. Now, thanks to some new measures in place, the MOE appears to be ready to turn the corner — processing more applications than it receives, working down some of its accumulated backlog and issuing more timely approvals as a result.


Plant in Middlebury, Vermont. 10 | March 2009

Improvements to the process come none too soon. As Ontario’s economy is challenged by the loss of manufacturing jobs, it is vital that the provincial authorities do what they can to make life easier for the manufacturing sector, while meeting the public’s expectations that the process will help to mitigate environmental impacts and protect the health of the human population and the planet as a whole. However, applicants must do their share of the work. Failure to meet the MOE’s requirements and public expectations can result in a delay or failure of a company’s ability to make the planned changes to its facility. Therefore, successful applicants and technical contacts need to understand the new measures that the MOE is implementing and be aware of the new challenges facing the approvals process in order to take advantage of the more timely process. These steps that are being taken in

Ontario may provide some suggestions for other jurisdictions fighting the same need to process applications in a speedy, transparent way. Giving the Ministry the information it needs As Dale Carnegie might have said, it is important for permit applicants to find out what Ministry officials need to approve the application and the public’s expectations on the project, and then give it to them. Our experience helping applicants meet MOE requirements points to several trends: 1. Better Guidance. One of the biggest changes has been clarity around the MOE’s expectations, so that applicants have a better idea of what the Ministry needs to see in an application. From the applicant’s perspective, sometimes in the past the process has been less than crystal clear. The rising complexity of the MOE’s expectations contributed to murkiness that was frustrating to applicants. From the Ministry’s point of view, many of the applications they received did not provide the information necessary for a speedy reply to be issued, so a back-and-forth dialogue would ensue, resulting in the MOE spending more time on each application, with more chance for rejection or delay. The MOE has consolidated guidance on the approvals program, on its website at www.ene.gov.on.ca/en/business/ cofa/index.php. This page has been organized into sections dealing with air, waste and water approvals. Documentation falls into one of three categories: • “Guide to applying” documents that describe the application process. • Checklists that are required in the application package. • Detailed policy documents that outline the technical requirements of the application. Applicants and technical contacts should familiarize themselves with these requirements before submitting any application. Applicants who provide the MOE with complete applications are promised faster service. continued overleaf...

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Project Management 2. Quality control and quality assurance. Errors in calculation or transcription and forgotten attachments slow the approvals process and have a detrimental effect on the regulator’s confidence in the report’s conclusions. As with any production process, there needs to be due diligence around the preparation of each application. Sound procedures include following the long-established engineering practice of “one person calculates, another checks.” Careful process planning includes “stop” signs along the way for verification, to avoid building conclusions on incorrect data. If regulators are aware that the report was prepared with a rigorous QA/QC process, they are likely to have greater confidence in it. In addition, the quality of the report may be improved by the appropriate use of external professional support. While in-house personnel may have full qualifications in developing reports, external professionals may have more experience that pays off in fewer errors, more factors being considered, and in the end, a higher-quality report. It is an approach much like “value

engineering,” which is based on the idea that investing extra resources in the planning stage can pay off in fewer problems and delays during the implementation stage. The MOE has announced a pilot program to provide front-of-the-line service to selected air applications for industries with known and predictable impacts. In order to access this program, the applicant preparer must attend an orientation session conducted by the MOE. 3. Perfect examples. It may seem like a minor point, but one aspect that slows down applications is where information is placed. If the report follows a consistent format, officials reviewing it have fewer problems finding the information they need to make a decision. Less time hunting means a faster ruling. Consistency in formatting also reduces the chances that important information will be inadvertently left out. To support this, the MOE has developed a sample application program for a fictional company. Perhaps as a bow to the astonishingly resourceful ACME company that supplies Wile E. Coyote

in the Roadrunner cartoons, the hypothetical applicant is called ACME Inc. The first sample application package is located on the MOE’s website at www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/gp/5987e. pdf and deals with Section 9 Air and Noise Applications. The MOE continues to develop application packages for air, noise and other media. Additional sample application packages are being prepared for the following application packages: • Part V: Waste approvals that deal with an organics composting facility, a waste transfer and processing facility, a small landfill site and a landfill gas collection system. • Section 9: Air and noise approvals that provide examples of an ESDM Report using the AERMOD dispersion model, an acoustic assessment report, an application package to extend the operational flexibility of a basic comprehensive CofA and the air emissions from the landfill gas collection system. • Section 53 and Safe Drinking Water Act approvals that deal with water and residential services development

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Project Management

Vent and tower at a Mississauga, Ontario, plant.

for stormwater management, sewer and water distribution systems. Over 250 people attended outreach sessions in October 2007 to provide feedback into this process. These sessions were lively discussions that helped shape the application packages and allowed technical input into how the information is best presented. The new sample application packages will be posted to the MOE website. Informal conversations with MOE representatives, and other anecdotal evidence, indicate that most Section 9 applications received now follow the format provided in the online sample. Applicants are advised to review the sample application packages and use the format provided for a faster review. 4. Best practices. In an effort to support the MOE’s desire to receive quality applications, a group of practitioners has been working to develop best pracwww.esemag.com

tice documents that outline practices that will result in a more timely review of a Section 9 air and noise CofA application. This group, with the support of the MOE, has been meeting regularly over the last year to identify “guidance gaps.” The practices contain clarification or examples about what information must be included in an application or emission summary and dispersion modelling report to meet the MOE’s expectations. The idea behind this group is that if all the practitioners support each other with examples of what worked well in the past, then everyone will have more success. The best practices that have been developed to date and a list of topics for future practices can be found in the Ontario sections of the Air and Waste Management Association website: www. awma.on.ca/practitioners.htm. Some of

the people who have driven this initiative are members of the AWMA, which in turn has agreed to allow its website to be used to disseminate the information. This area of the website is open to all, and technical contacts who are preparing applications would be wise to review these topics. The group is also looking for interested individuals to prepare draft practices that can be added to the available list after review by the group. The Ministry’s checking process Applicants are wise to give the MOE what it wants, but the MOE has also implemented a process to check that it is getting what it needs. In the past, applicants may have unknowingly submitted incomplete applications as a result of the lack of clarity, or knowingly left out sections with a promise to submit information later. In response to this, the MOE has enhanced the application screening conducted when an application is received. This completeness check is conducted by non-technical application processors who look for missing information at the same time that they are logging the application into the system. Applicants with incomplete applications are typically given two weeks to submit a complete application or the application will be returned. A challenge is also posed by an application that is not typical. This screening process reinforces the need to understand the guidance material, check your work and follow the examples that are being developed to help you understand the process. Missing a signed checklist from the package can needlessly delay the process. More work is required to make the applications withstand the technical review that follows. An applicant’s goal should be a complete application that provides the minimum information that the MOE requires to approve the application. Upfront efforts taken to “bullet-proof ” the applications will pay dividends during the review process. Close attention to what the Ministry wants, and making sure that applications are prepared along those lines, can help organizations weather today’s “interesting times” more easily. Sean Capstick, P.Eng. is with Golder Associates Ltd. E-mail: sean_capstick@golder.com

March 2009 | 13



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Water Quality

Rebalancing lake chemistry to reduce and control phosphorous contamination By Gilles Fortin, Mark Somers and Jonathan Hodgson he rehabilitation of Lake Heney, a lake with a surface area of 12 km2, was undertaken for the Lake Heney Foundation, and was accomplished through the application of more than 1,600 tonnes of ferric chloride to the lake. Lake characteristics Located 100 kilometres north of Gatineau in the province of Quebec, Lake Heney was the site of a large-scale fish farming operation during the 1990s. The discharge of the aquaculture’s effluent into the lake, combined with other contributing factors, resulted in a steady increase of the lake’s phosphorous concentrations. Since the fish farming business closed in 1999, phosphorous levels in the lake have averaged 25 μg/L without any sign of improvement. Faced with deteriorating water quality conditions, the Lake Heney Foundation sought out a university panel to launch an intensive water quality study aimed at finding a viable water treatment solution. Extensive water quality monitoring events were carried out over a period of several years and established that the lake sediments were deficient in iron, an essential element in binding phosphorous to the lake bed. The lengthy lake retention time, determined to be seven years, was also a


14 | March 2009

Large barge being towed by the tug boat.

contributing factor in phosphorous accumulation. It was also established that the highest phosphorous concentrations appeared during the fall lake turnover event that occurs naturally when the lake’s thermal stratification is broken. Treatment methodology Experts determined that the best treatment option was the application of ferric chloride (FeCl3) during the fall

turnover event. It was selected for its capacity to precipitate phosphorous and to bind it to the lake sediments. Specifically, the ferric chloride injected into the lake reacts with the water to produce iron oxyhydroxide, a solid which binds the phosphorous during the precipitation process. It is commonly used in wastewater treatment systems to remove phosphorous from the treated effluent. continued overleaf...

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Water Quality

Figure 1. 16 | March 2009

In order to determine the effectiveness of this treatment option and its safety when released into an aquatic environment, a pilot project was carried out in a small bay in the lake during the month of November 2004. The bay was isolated using an impermeable membrane and five tonnes of ferric chloride were distributed in the bay in order to obtain a lake concentration of 1.3 mg/L of Fe. The pilot project demonstrated that the large-scale application of FeCl3 being proposed was a viable option.The environmental consulting firm, WESA Envir-Eau, a member of WESA Group Inc., was commissioned to design and implement the treatment throughout the entire body of the lake. The firm was commissioned with overseeing all administrative, engineering and logistical aspects of the project. Logistical constraints WESA Envir-Eau faced major obstacles during the design and execution of this project. One of these was the daily application of 100 tonnes of a highly corrosive liquid in a 25-day period, without jeopardizing the aquatic life of the lake. Ferric chloride is corrosive to most metals and its use on a project of this scale presented many challenges. An injection system had to be designed that prevented contact of the chemical with any metal components. The chemical required heavy dilution prior to its introduction into the aquatic environment in order to prevent any adverse impacts. The product’s corrosivity required a highly controlled and monitored work environment with extensive protective measures for worker health and safety and for the general environment. The application had to be carried out during the fall lake turnover, a time period characterised by high winds, snow, fog and ice, which provided less than favourable navigation conditions. In addition, the short daylight hours during this period forced navigation beyond sunset. A system of “just in time delivery” was coordinated with the chemical supplier to reduce the need for on-site storage of large quantities of hazardous chemicals. A constant supply of FeCl3 was then crucial to the success of the project and this had to be transported by tanker truck over rural roads not designed to handle such heavy traffic. continued overleaf... Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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Water Quality

Lake water is collected using a high-power diesel pump.

Marine equipment Based on logistical constraints, WESA Envir-Eau opted for the use of a single large barge towed by a tug-boat. The barge, which was constructed of six individual compartments assembled together on-site, provided a working area

18 | March 2009

of 560 m2. One of the compartments had an integrated fuel storage component which provided the capability for fuelling the tug-boat, power-generating equipment and the mechanical pump. The barge operations were self-contained and the barge itself was fitted with a heated

office, serving as shelter for the employees and electronic equipment. The navigation relied on a DGPS system and a depth sounder, both feeding a computer in the office. The navigational data was relayed to a computer in the tug-boat by means of a Local Area Network (LAN). Chemical delivery system The product was stored in three tanks that held the daily application of liquid ferric chloride, eliminating the need to return to the base for refilling and thereby optimising the time schedule. Lake water was used to dilute the FeCl3 prior to injection and was collected from the front of the barge using a high power diesel pump. The concentrated ferric chloride was injected into the pump’s discharge line through a venturi device. Once introduced into the system, the mixture was not in contact with metal components. The dilution rate was 150 litres of ferric chloride to 4,000 litres of water. The diluted chemical stream was then routed to a submerged diffusion boom mounted at the stern of the barge. The diffuser boom was designed in conjunction with

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Water Quality McGill University engineers. Flow meters were incorporated into the system at strategic points throughout the assembly to provide operators with the means to control the concentration of the chemical solution through a system of flow valves. The system was designed to allow for a predetermined dilution of the chemical. The storage tanks were fitted with sensors to monitor the level of liquid and to sequence the delivery of the chemical solution, while maintaining a balanced load distribution on the barge. All components of the system were equipped with electronic memories and the data was downloaded daily to the main computer. Project operation In order to ensure a steady supply, several tanker cars of ferric chloride were warehoused at the Ottawa railway yard, more than 125 kilometres from the lake. It was decided that the balance of the stock would be delivered directly from the supplier in Varennes, Quebec. The spreading operation could not be initiated until the fall lake turnover event. The thermal stratification break was reached on November 14, 2007, in the north section of the lake and November 19, 2007, in the southern half. Approximately 1,600 metric tonnes of ferric chloride were distributed throughout the lake over a period of 18 days, from November 20th to December 6th, 2007. The supplier delivered a total of 46 tanker loads, using three tankers a day carrying a combined weight of 100 tonnes of ferric chloride. The lake distribution route was selected to allow for maximum dispersal of the product through the natural currents of the lake (Figure 1). The delivery system was designed to distribute three times more chloride in the south basin in order to compensate for the differing volume ratios between the north and south portions of the lake. The dispersion results met the objective of 1.3 mg/L of Fe in the lake as specified by the Foundation’s scientific consultant. Members of the scientific team were tasked with the monitoring of pH and other parameters throughout the distribution process to prevent any adverse effects on water quality. Conclusions It was necessary to overcome critical logistical, environmental and technical www.esemag.com

challenges throughout the operation. The schedule was short, the weather and visibility poor for the most part and the magnitude of the operation large in the context of a small lake in western Quebec. Due to the short project schedule, many tasks occurred concurrently, such as equipment final design and testing, environmental approvals and ultimately execution. Data available on the Lake Heney Foundation’s website indicate that after the first year of monitoring, the phosphorous concentrations have decreased

to 10 μg/L. The success of this undertaking and the positive impact on lake water quality demonstrates the feasibility of this type of project elsewhere. Large bodies of water may be effectively rehabilitated in limited time-frames. Gilles Fortin, Mark Somers and Jonathan Hodgson are with Envir-Eau Inc. E-mail: gfortin@envireau.ca

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Continuing Education

The benefits of web-based employee training By Nelson Lawrence he Internet and online training have seen significant gains in the last decade. Research indicates that over 67% of Canadians now have an Internet connection and that more people, even in older age groups, are using the Internet on a regular basis. For that reason, organizations today are using online training to complement their “hands on” training efforts. This is especially true of public entities, including water and wastewater management. Many public entities throughout North America are using TargetSafety’s PreventionLink system to help them mitigate risk while providing cost-effective online training. Medteq Solutions is TargetSafety’s Canadian affiliate. With over 40 water and wastewater courses in addition to general safety courses, the PreventionLink course platform library can help organizations ensure the highest level of understanding in the water/wastewater operator subject area. Numerous “soft skill” courses are also available (e.g. WHMIS, sexual harassment, asbestos awareness, etc.) as part of the course library to round out the training solution. Course content is designed with the adult learner in mind and is structured to ensure maximum retention. Each course includes multiple study exercises in every lesson. Most courses consist of approximately 10 lessons that take on average 30-45 minutes to complete. When the student has successfully completed the assigned lessons, a final multiple-choice examination must be taken before the system will generate a student certificate. The passing grade level can be adjusted to suit the organization’s particular requirements. Currently, in Ontario, 18 of the water/ wastewater operator courses are approved for Continuing Education Units (CEUs). Navigation within the courseware is designed so that minimal computer knowledge is required. A simple click of the “Next” or “Back” button will move the student through the lessons. Should a


20 | March 2009

student have a question during the course, he or she can click “Ask a Question” and the system will assemble an email with the question and send it to the individual of your choosing (e.g. supervisor, health and safety representative). Because the system is web-based, no software needs to be downloaded, so organizations with restrictive IT policies can use it easily without computer hardware/software re-configuration. Customized training courses Online training can be made organization-specific by uploading policies and procedures into a respective course. Students must then read and acknowledge that they understand how the policy relates to the standard course content. This provides an organization with a specific training experience, and also strengthens “due diligence” documentation related to policies and procedures. In addition, the PreventionLink system facilitates the uploading of your own training content. This can include videos, PowerPoint presentations and documents of various types. Once uploaded, the system is designed to allow the administrator to create assignments around the uploaded resources. For ex-

ample, a health and safety policy could be assigned to be read by the employee. The system will track that the employee has read the policy as well as provide his or her responses to questions that you have included in the assignment to ensure knowledge retention. The expansion of the Internet has resulted in exponential growth in free, industry-specific training resources. One can easily search the Internet and find content on a subject of interest. The PreventionLink system allows you to harness the power of the Internet by pointing an employee (via url link) to the exact location on the Internet to watch a video or view a manufacturer’s specification sheet, for example, and have the system report back to you if this has been completed. An essential part of an online training and risk management solution is to verify employees’ knowledge retention of subjects related to their job function. PreventionLink provides the ability to create a question bank categorized by subject so that tests can be built using questions from the bank. The question bank can be loaded by simply typing in continued overleaf...

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Continuing Education the question and identifying the correct answer, or by copying and pasting from another document type into the question and answer fields. Creating tests is a simple process that requires identifying the questions or question categories you want in the test, deciding whether to randomize questions and what the passing grade should be. Once the test is created, it is stored in a library that can then be included in assignments sent out to the employee. This means that if you send an employee a policy to review, you can in the same assignment include a test that you created to substantiate his or her knowledge of the policy. This feature will greatly increase the depth of your “due diligence” documentation as well as greatly reduce the amount of time you spend marking tests.

data or send it to a larger database system? PreventionLink allows you to export the data into a comma separated value (.csv) format that basically generates a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet containing your data. Once it is in this format, you can do further sorting and filtering as well as import into other database systems. Web-based training enables the delivery of theoretical components of education in ways that are measurable, verifiable and transferable, and that

complement the practical components, resulting in a more worthwhile and educationally viable training experience. Additionally, return on investment can be very impressive when one considers the many and varied ways that an online training/risk management solution could be deployed in a specific organizational setting. Nelson Lawrence is with Medteq Solutions. E-mail: nelson@medteqsolutions.ca

An essential part of an online training and risk management solution is to verify employees’ knowledge retention of subjects related to their job function. Reporting Web-based solutions provide great flexibility in enabling you to generate reports on employee activity. You can log into your training system and generate reports from any Internet-ready computer equipped with a browser. If you are a “road warrior,” this allows you to make assignments to staff and check on progress of previous assignments from various computer access points throughout your day. Here are a few of the reports you may wish to run: 1. Completed assignments. 2. Overdue assignments. 3. Incomplete assignments. 4. Activity summary by employee. 5. Rapid completion report. 6. Test results. 7. Active user list by department. Web-based solutions will typically generate a report for you to view in an html format, allowing you to view the results of your employees’ activity quickly and easily. But what if you need to do more analysis on the employee www.esemag.com

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From hypo to gas: How one utility simplified its By Gerald F. Connell disinfection operation hesapeake Ranch Estates was established in 1960 on the western shores of the Chesapeake Bay, about an hour’s drive to Washington, D.C. or Baltimore. Since there was no readily available water, a privately owned water system was built to serve the development. By 1979 the community had grown to several thousand subscribers and the Chesapeake Ranch Water Association (CRWA), a not-for-profit co-operative, was founded. The water system has been operated by the co-operative for nearly 30 years. By 2008, the water system supplied almost 10,000 people through 4,000 connections serving homes and businesses, while providing fire protection for the development. Two elevated storage tanks with a combined storage of 750,000 gallons and 70 miles of distribution lines are served by four wells operating at depths in the range of 600 feet. The quality of the aquifer required only the addition of a disinfectant to the water to meet Maryland state guidelines. The CRWA system strove to maintain a 1 mg/L (ppm) residual level to meet these requirements. The disinfectant chosen was sodium hypochlorite (hypo). The water was pumped from the wells for distribution and storage, with hypo added by positive-displacement chemical-feed pumps. Dosages of approximately 2 mg/L (ppm) were sufficient to provide the desired system residual. Hypo was supplied in bulk by truck for off-loading to CRWA tanks. The 12% strength solution was transferred from 1,500-gallon plastic containers on stake bed trucks to both the on-site feed and storage tanks at each well site. Some small systems pump directly from the bulk shipping containers placed at each site. Other small water systems have used common household bleach (5% strength) pumped directly to the system from the bleach container. Operation change For over 30 years, CRWA used the hypochlorite feed system for disinfection. In the 1990s, a new general man-


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ager, George Hanson, arrived. His previous experience had been with regional rural water systems in North Dakota. One of his first actions was to evaluate the system and its operations to determine its needs and plan an improvement program where required. His objective was to reduce operating and maintenance costs and simplify the system, while maintaining the high quality of service that the customers expected and the operating personnel provided. Hanson saw the need to simplify the disinfection operation and replace the labor-intensive and chemically unstable feed system. His successful experience with chlorine gas in the Dakotas led him to recommend a change to a simpler, more stable chemical that offered a simplification of the system. He recommended that hypo be replaced as the disinfectant by chlorine gas. This recommendation ran counter to the general trend in the industry. Perception vs. reality There was and is a great deal of pressure from engineers, regulators, elected officials, the general public and environmentalists to move away from chlorine gas to bulk-delivered or on-site generated sodium hypochlorite. Since the 1980s, there has been a widespread public perception that chlorine gas is unsafe. This view has been stoked by re-

cent newspaper headlines relating to explosive devices strapped to chlorine containers in Iraq. An analysis by the Chlorine Gas Disinfection Association of news headlines about incidents of “chlorine leak,” “chlorine gas” or “chemical explosion” showed that 60-65% of the incidents were hypochlorite-based (calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite), even though the implication was that chlorine gas was the source of the leaks. While it is correct that chlorine gas is toxic and supplied under pressure in 150pound cylinders, ton containers, tank trucks and rail cars, the handling and use of the containers has never been safer. There are over 50,000 water treatment sites and many use chlorine gas from 150-pound cylinders. Only the larger systems, an estimated 1-2% of the water treatment facilities, receive chlorine gas in large quantities or containers such as ton containers, tank trucks or railcars. The fact is that all forms of chlorine may create dangerous conditions. Several incidents have been reported of explosions at installations of on-site generators. Calcium hypochlorite can have chlorine gas releases and can be a potential fire hazard. Sodium hypochlorite can release chlorine gas from mixing with other chemicals (acids and alkalis) and from heat.

Eclipse actuator systems can close hazardous gas valves on 150 lb. and ton cylinders in less than one second when activated by remote sensor and switches. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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Disinfection Hypo, which is made using chlorine gas, is about three times more expensive than an equivalent amount of chlorine gas. The exact value can vary with geographical region and shipping costs. One pound of chlorine gas provides approximately the same oxidizing and disinfecting potential as one gallon of hypo solution (12% strength). The volume of a 150-pound cylinder is less than six cubic feet, while the volume of 150 gallons (over 1,200 pounds) of hypo is about 19 cubic feet. Since the concentrated chlorine gas has less shipping volume and weight for comparable quantities of chlorine gas, shipping costs are less for gas. The solution When Hanson suggested replacing hypo with chlorine gas at CRWA, he met resistance from all sides, but mostly from the operating personnel. The perception that chlorine gas is more dangerous than hypo was the major obstacle. Given these concerns, and since the CRWA system had been using hypo for almost 40 years, a change to gas would certainly require the understanding and co-operation of the operating personnel. Hanson started an educational process, explaining the differences between the two disinfectants from their chemical and physical properties to methods of handling and feeding. Questions were asked and answered. Eventually, the operating personnel agreed to try using gas. All four well sites now operate with chlorine gas as the source of disinfectant. They operate with a minimum of trouble, at lower cost and reduced maintenance. Each disinfectant room uses a set of scales to weigh the 150-pound chlorine cylinders. The cylinders are mounted on each scale and provide an indication of the amount of chlorine consumed. Spare cylinders are stored in the same room. The total amount of chlorine onsite at any time is less than 500 pounds (one cylinder in use, one full cylinder on standby and two replacement cylinders). There is no concern about providing heat since Hanson’s experience of the Dakota operation showed that chlorine gas can be fed even during subzero weather. Continuous chlorine feed rates of 10 pounds per day (200 gr/hr) are attainable with direct cylinder-mounted chlorine gas feeders under sub-zero weather conwww.esemag.com

ditions. Air conditioning of the room is not necessary in summer since the strength of the chlorine is constant at 100%. Changing chlorine containers is required each week or two. CRWA has been using chlorine gas for over eight years. The once reluctant operating personnel are now chlorine gas advocates. One minor leak developed at a container connection that was quickly rectified and caused no damage or injury. Training helped the personnel understand what to do with chlorine

containers if leaks occur in the future. Additional safety systems, such as automatic shutoff systems that would close the cylinders if a leak were detected by the gas detector, could be considered. George Hanson suggests that utilities should look at all the facts (costs, maintenance, service, etc.) to understand the case for staying with chlorine gas or converting from hypo to gas. Gerald Connell is a consultant. E-mail: gfconnell@verizon.net

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Leveloader Gold The Leveloader Gold is a rugged data transfer device dedicated to the Levelogger Series. It stores up to 1.39 million datapoints, allows Levelogger re-programming, and viewing of real-time data in the field. High Quality Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring Instrumentation Solinst Canada Ltd., 35 Todd Road, Georgetown, ON L7G 4R8 Tel: +1 (905) 873-2255; (800) 661-2023 Fax: +1 (905) 873-1992; (800) 516-9081 Visit our website: www.solinst.com E-mail: instruments@solinst.com

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Water Reuse

Wastewater recycling for carwashes By Alan G. McCormick and Kerry G. Smith eclaim is an important buzzword in the carwash industry these days. Many US states have instituted very tight water restrictions and some have even declared a state of “drought emergency.” Many cities, counties and townships now require reclaim (wastewater recycling) to be a standard part of any new carwash, and some require existing carwashes to retrofit. Carwash owners are, therefore, now looking harder at reclaiming their used water for many reasons, but mostly as a way to stay in business. In locations where water is plentiful, few consumers realize that using water in various processes, including carwashes, creates waste. Sewer systems are reaching capacity and many need major upgrades and/or rebuilding. Reducing the volume and level of pollutants in wastewater can save millions in upgrades. Carwash owners and their suppliers have avoided reclaim systems for years. Past systems were plagued with problems such as foul odours, high maintenance, poor water quality and breakdowns that interrupted washing. Between the lost revenue and poor wash quality, reclaim got a bad name, prompting many in the business to avoid it whenever possible. Reclaim systems are now available that are reasonably priced, inexpensive to install, do not smell, maintain themselves and do not interrupt the operator’s revenue stream. Even better, from the operator’s point of view, they pay for themselves by dramatically reducing the carwash’s water and sewer bills. These reclaim systems can reduce water purchases from the municipality by 50-75%, and, since the sewer bill is based on how much water is used, it is also substantially reduced. In many cases, the savings less the payment on the equipment equals profit on the bottom line, starting with the first month of operation. What’s more, in the United States, governmental assistance plans are in place or being developed in several states. Designed to aid companies in the


24 | March 2009

quest for wastewater recycling, some of these plans will pay up to one-half of the cost of buying and installing a system. How reclaim works For all types of carwashes, particularly touchless systems, it is important to understand how reclaim works. There are several types of systems, in two main categories: biological and mechanical systems.

Biological systems Biological systems use bacteria to break down and consume the organic contaminants found in the wastewater. This is done most commonly within a bioreactor. Bioreaction systems provide an environment suitable for collection and consumption of the contaminants within a vessel (container) that houses a biomass material the bacteria can at-

tach to and live within. This vessel (bioreactor) is aerated, providing a suitable amount of oxygen to keep the bacteria aerobic. Wastewater is passed through the bioreactor, where contaminants are collected and consumed very much like a sewer plant. The pros – Biological systems will consume organic chemicals such as hydrocarbons (oil and grease) and almost all biodegradable soaps. This helps reduce the level of soap buildup within the system from washing operations. Biological systems are less likely to produce foul odours and require less maintenance. Sludge in carwash pits is reduced by consumption of the organic materials within the sludge. The cons – Bacteria cannot break down and consume inorganic materials such as minerals. Dirt (soil) is made up of three primary parts: sand (rock), clay and organic materials. To a gardener, a good soil blend is about one-third of each. Biological systems will leave particulates floating in the water unless they are removed by another method or have plenty of time to settle out. Suspended solids left in the water may adversely affect the life of the washing equipment. Mechanical filtration Mechanical filtration methods vary widely. They consist of filters in cyclonic, centrifugal, bag, cartridge or multimedia form. All are designed to remove particulate matter; some will also filter out contaminants such as hydrocarbons. The mechanical approach is different from system to system and all have their good and bad points. Many mechanical systems require large in-ground pits to support their function, and these sometimes cost more than the filtration equipment itself. Mechanical systems require filter changes or back-flushing to remove the collected contaminants. Intervals between filter changes vary from system to system. The pros – Mechanical systems are capable of reducing suspended solids in the wastewater from as large as 100 microns down to as small as one micron.

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Water Reuse Reducing suspended solids results in longer washing equipment life. The cons – Mechanical filtration will not remove soaps, wax and other liquids, causing a rainbow on the car finish. Some systems operate at very high pressures to increase filter life and then become a safety concern. Downtime for filter changes must be considered. Finally and most importantly, biological odours may be a problem. The best system A combination bio/mechanical system can do it all. These systems can remove suspended solids, organics, soaps, wax and hydrocarbons, reduce pit sludge and provide the cleanest water possible for the washing processes. Properly designed systems won’t smell. Bad odour is a serious problem because customers will not come back to a carwash that puts a skunk in their trunk. Bacteria growth in reclaim water begins to occur immediately. There are many possible ways to eliminate an odour problem: 1. Ozone, when input into the entire water supply in sufficient quantities, may eliminate bacteria via oxidation. The downside is that it also creates oxidation on all the equipment and most often will require chemical supplementation. 2. Hydrogen peroxide or chlorine can be dosed into the wastewater (reclaim system) to kill bacteria on contact. Much like ozone, these chemicals are corrosive and hard on equipment. 3. Microbiological treatment using


biodigesters – a combination of bacteria, enzymes and nutrients – can overwhelm naturally occurring bacteria, eliminating odour. They work by outcompeting the naturally occurring bacteria that cause smells and take control of the system. This approach brings additional benefits such as decreased pit sludge, removal of organic chemicals (soaps and waxes) and hydrocarbons (oil and grease) and, best of all, an overall cleaner system.

Many cities, counties and townships now require reclaim to be a standard part of any new carwash, and some require existing carwashes to retrofit. What are the goals for your carwash? Using reclaim water in the wash can actually help provide very clean cars. Because the carwash is using “free” reclaim water, it can use more of it. There is no need to reduce water flows to the wash cycles to reduce water usage. In fact, the flow can be increased to provide optimum washing. With a properly functioning reclaim system, the only fresh water needed is for the final “spotfree” rinse and possibly for mixing chemicals.

Some chemicals can be mixed using reclaim water, but this may take a bit of experimentation. Chemical companies are rushing to develop “reclaim friendly” products. Based on which wash the customer buys, water usage without reclaim will be from a low of 30 to a high of 64 gallons per car. With reclaim, a car can be washed with as little as seven gallons of fresh water. The following are some water volume examples for a touchless washing system and the possible alternatives, using reclaim: 9 gals. undercarriage wash (reclaim) 6 gals. presoak pass (reclaim) 12 gals. each high-pressure wash pass (reclaim) 12 gals. high-pressure rinse (reclaim) 6 gals. wax application (possibly reclaim) 12 gals. primary rinse (reclaim) 7 gals. spot-free rinse (fresh) Conclusion Carwash operators choosing a reclaim system should consider the total cost of ownership, including installation (with underground tanks and plumbing), filter replacements, lost revenue during filter changes, odour control chemicals and pit maintenance. Downtime experienced during a retrofit must be considered. Finally, they should get a guarantee that it won’t smell. Alan G. McCormick and Kerry G. Smith are with Hydro Engineering Inc. For more information, E-mail: jack@pumpsandpressure.com

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Operator Certification

From tragedy to quality: Ontario accredits municipal drinking water system operators By Sachere Butler and Daniel Lamothe n initiative to regulate the management and licensing of municipal drinking-water systems across Ontario is now being implemented. It will involve the Conformity Assessment Division of the Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) as well as the provincial government, and it is the culmination of an eight-year process following an event that most Ontarians will remember. Between May and June 2000, a tragedy took place in Walkerton, Onario, that led to the deaths of seven residents and the serious illness of more than 2,000 others. At the time, the cause of the tragedy was not understood; no one had reason to suspect that the town’s drinking water system was contaminated with E. Coli bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7. However, many questions led to the suspicion that the safety of the town’s drink-


26 | March 2009

ing water had been compromised. As a result, the government of Ontario called for an inquiry into the Walkerton event. Effective June 13, 2000, the Hon. Justice Dennis R. O’Connor was appointed as a commissioner to carry out the inquiry, report on his findings, and provide recommendations to ensure the safety of Ontario’s water supply. Part One of the Report of the Walkerton Commission Inquiry was released on January 18, 2002. It found that a number of factors had played a role leading up to the contamination of Walkerton’s water supply system and, ultimately, the water itself. Justice O’Connor also found that several failures in the way the provincial government exercised its overview role had been contributing factors. Part Two of the report, released on May 23, 2002, contained Justice O’Con-

nor’s recommendations for the future safety of drinking water. One of those recommendations was for a governmentwide drinking water policy and a Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for Ontario. Justice O’Connor proposed that the Ministry of Environment (MOE) take the lead in developing and implementing the policy. He also addressed the need for quality management through mandatory accreditation and operational planning. The government implemented several measures to meet these recommendations, including the passing of Bill 195, Safe Drinking Water Act, 2002, enacted as Chapter 32 of the Statutes of Ontario, 2002; the implementation of The Municipal Drinking Water Licensing Program (MDWLP); the development and enacting of Section 19 of the SDWA; and the development of the Drinking Water Quality Management

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Operator Certification Standard (the Standard). The MOE is responsible for the administration of the SDWA and the MDWLP and overall assurance of adherence to the Standard. Paragraph 22 of Part IV of the SDWA requires that one or more accreditation bodies be designated or established for the accreditation of the operating authorities for drinking water systems. The CGSB was approached by the MOE to take part in this provincial program as the accreditation body for the operating authorities. The CGSB was selected for its unique financial structure as a cost-recovery organization, and for its successful ongoing relationship with the provincial government through auditing in the food sector using the Hazards Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). In November 2006, the CGSB initiated testing of the accreditation program for operating authorities as a pilot program. The Municipality of North Middlesex was selected to be the first participant and Middlesex received a Certificate of Acknowledgement in April 2007 for its successful completion of the pilot program. Four other pilot sites followed suit: Lake Huron, Napanee, Ver-


Water plant operator cleaning filter assembly.

milion Bay/Machin and Dryden. On March 31, 2008, the CGSB signed a five-year agreement with the MOE to provide accreditation services for its licensing program. The role of the CGSB The CGSB’s role as accreditation body

will be to review the operating authorities’ applications for accreditation, carry out audits to ensure adherence to the Standard, accredit the operating authority after considering the auditor’s recommendations, and monitor the ongoing conformcontinued overleaf...

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Operator Certification

ity of the accredited operating authority’s quality management system (QMS) to the requirements of the Standard. The CGSB is responsible for accrediting the operating authorities and the MOE is responsible for licensing the owners. The Accreditation Program for Operating Authorities has been designed to facilitate the process for the operating

authorities. Applications will be received throughout 2009 and 2010 in staggered stages, beginning with the larger municipalities, then the medium-sized municipalities and ending with the smaller ones. There are three options available to the operating authorities during initial application, based on whether an on-site audit is conducted and on the number of

Standard elements covered. These options are Limited Scope – Partial Standard, Limited Scope – Entire Standard, and Full Scope – Entire Standard. There are also options available throughout the program for transitional and emergency situations in which one operating authority replaces another. The program will be carried out in the following manner. The operating authority submits its application to the CGSB. Each application received will be assigned to an auditor who will conduct a systems audit (desktop review) of the QMS documentation and prepare an audit report identifying any corrective actions to take. Operating authorities that applied for Limited Scope – Partial Standard accreditation and Full Scope – Entire Standard accreditation will then proceed with an on-site verification audit, and corrective action request if necessary. Once all corrective actions have been addressed to the satisfaction of the CGSB, a certificate of accreditation will be issued to the operating authority for the accredited subject system. Regardless of the initial option chosen by the

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Operator Certification operating authority, the end result is that all operating authorities must obtain Full Scope – Entire Standard accreditation for their subject systems as a requirement under MOE’s licensing program. Once Full Scope – Entire Standard accreditation has been obtained, the CGSB will conduct annual audits of each operating authority’s QMS to ensure continued adherence to the Standard. This will be carried out in three-year cycles with the first two years involving a surveillance audit (a systems’ audit and, if necessary, an onsite verification audit) and the third year involving a full re-accreditation audit (a systems’ audit and an on-site verification audit). Certificates will be re-issued every three years upon successful completion of the re-accreditation audit. The key people managing the program are Don Fulton, manager, Daniel Lamothe, conformity assessment specialist, and Sachere Butler, administrative co-ordinator. The team is currently working on recruiting auditors and additional resources, and making final program infrastructure arrangements to start receiving applications. In November 2008, Fulton and Lamothe attended a question-and-answer session with members of the MOE in Toronto. The session gave the operating authorities a chance to ask questions about both the accreditation program and the Municipal Drinking Water Licensing Program, as well as to meet the members of the CGSB. Approximately 70 operating authorities attended the session, and other sessions are being planned with the goal of connecting with all operating authorities in the province. In total, there are over 700 municipal drinking water quality management systems that will require Full-Scope – Entire Standard accreditation by June 2012. This means completing more than 700 audits across Ontario in approximately 3½ years, a challenge for the Canadian General Standards Board, but, with its 75 years of experience, it is confident it can provide the necessary service on this important initiative. Sachere Butler and Daniel Lamothe are with the Canadian General Standards Board. For more information, E-mail: james.g.carleton@pwgsc.gc.ca www.esemag.com

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Bioremediation of soils and groundwater contaminated with fuel oil oil and groundwater contamination resulting from the failure of domestic fuel oil storage tanks on residential properties can present a number of significant environmental problems. These include contamination of drinking water and harmful vapours, which can lead to significant impacts to the environment, health threats to humans, and potential risks to plants, animals and the ecosystem. When a domestic fuel oil spill occurs, remediating the contaminated soils and groundwater is paramount for homeowners, not only for health reasons, but also with a view to maintaining property values. When fuel oil escapes from leaking or damaged domestic fuel oil storage tanks or fuel oil supply lines, it can quickly become a very complicated situation, especially if any of the spilled oil migrates underneath the structure of the home or has the potential to affect the groundwater. Depending on the site conditions, the costs of cleaning up domestic fuel oil spills can range from a few thousand dollars to hundreds of thousands of dollars or more. As these costs continue to increase, insurance companies, environmental consultants and property owners are constantly looking for ways to control them. Excavating contaminated soils and transporting the soils off-site for disposal has become significantly more expensive over the past few years, so the use of alternative technologies such as oil-degrading microbes to treat the contaminated soils and groundwater on-site has resulted in considerable savings in overall clean-up costs. Under ideal soil conditions, in which the soils are of uniform composition and density, the migration route of the oil through the soils would be downward in a conical pattern. Whenever there are obstructions and/or changes in soil composition, the oil, drawn by gravity, will follow the route of least resistance. Accurately determining the extent of a contamination plume depends on several different factors, including the complex-

By Larry Muzzin


30 | March 2009

Oil seepage on the inside wall of the foundation.

ity of the soil conditions and the site topography. A spill of this nature occurred at a residential property near Dwight, Ontario, on the shore of Lake of Bays. Approximately 900 litres of heating oil escaped from a storage tank located at the front corner of a home on a steep upgradient from the lakeshore. The lakeshore was approximately 18 metres from the spill site and the slope of the terrain towards the lake was approximately 45 degrees. Due to the steep grade and heavy rains at the time the oil spill occurred, free-phase oil had reached the lake within days of the spill, necessitating the installation of oil spill containment booms to prevent further migration of the oil into a nearby protected waterfowl sanctuary. In addition to installing the booms in the lake, the topography of the site required an interceptor trench to be excavated upgradient of the lake, and the heavily affected soils were immediately excavated from the exterior of the foundation walls of the residence. Additional site investigations confirmed that the oil had also seeped through the cinder blocks of the foundation wall and migrated under the residence. The soil and groundwater under

the dwelling were heavily affected by the spill. As the groundwater contamination at this site presented the highest risk of further impacts to the lake, a series of monitoring wells and a large-diameter recovery well were installed at the site. The groundwater from the recovery well was pumped to a mobile treatment unit (MTU) provided by Oil Spill Control Services Inc., which treats contaminated groundwater through an oil separator and filter system. Once the MTU was activated and no further contamination was found in the lake, on-site hydraulic containment of the contaminated groundwater was achieved. Attention was then focused on the remediation of the contaminated soil beneath the residence. In addition to oil seeping through the foundation wall in the basement, oil contamination was found in the concrete of the basement floor. The resulting vapours permeated the home, forcing the occupants to relocate for health reasons. The walls and floor were treated with Golden BioClean 200, an oil and grease degrading cleaner, and air scrubbers were activated in the basement. After four days, the vapours had diminished and the homeowners were able to move back into the residence. Portions

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Bioremediation the bacteria will remain in the soil until all the food supply, the petroleum hydrocarbons, is depleted. The harmless by-products, H2O and CO2, and the expired microbes become a part of the natural soil structure. The areas where the contaminated soil had been excavated were not backfilled, allowing easier access for the microbial slurry to the expected migration route of the contamination plume. A retaining wall with a roof extension was put in place to prevent erosion along the building’s foundation walls, and was in due course also enclosed and heated so the microbial activity could continue during the winter months. The microbial slurry was also applied in the area of the basement where the soil had been exposed from the removal of the concrete floor. The microbial slurry and support agents were applied in these two areas, the excavated area and the exposed basement area, equally and on an ongoing basis, from July 2007 to August 2008. Field observations showed that the bioremediation products that had been applied had reached the recovery well,

32 | March 2009

establishing that these products had saturated the area from the site of the spill to the location of the recovery well. Test results from the groundwater samples taken from the MTU showed progressively less dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The diminishing petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the groundwater samples confirmed that the microbes were degrading the fuel oil. Once the groundwater samples coming through the MTU were clear of fuel oil contamination, it was reasonable to conclude that the remediation of the soil had been accomplished. The MTU continued to operate to ensure this conclusion, and to alleviate any concerns of further undetected contamination or typical rebound effects when remediating contaminated groundwater. The time required for the remediation of the contamination at the property was approximately 15 months. If bioremediation had not been considered, other feasible alternatives for remediation would have been demolition of the building and removal of the contaminated soil, or underpinning the building and removing

the contaminated soil. In the first case, a new building would have had to be constructed; in the second case, soil would have had to be replaced. Both scenarios would have been costly - up to three or four times the cost of bioremediation. Demolishing buildings and excavating contaminated soils on any contaminated site will not improve the levels of contamination in the groundwater, and groundwater remediation will still be required in order for the legislative cleanup requirements to be met. Although the drawback to bioremediation is the amount of time required for it to take place, the benefits go beyond the financial. They include reducing contamination in landfill sites, reducing damage to the integrity of the contaminated area, and reducing use of heavy machinery, all factors that reduce the impact on the environment. Larry Muzzin is with Golden Environmental Services. For more information, E-mail: info@goldenenviro.ca

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Water Treatment

Extreme water treatment in the Far North By Glenn Prosko and Ken Johnson hinking “outside the box”, or in the case of the Canadian North, “outside the ice cube”, has resulted in design and construction innovations for water treatment plants in response to extreme conditions across the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. The challenges of working in the Canadian north extend well beyond remembering to add 10 to 20 degrees of latitude beyond the 49th parallel for a project location. Extreme cold, very limited access, extraordinary costs and scant resources are a few of the routine challenges that engineers, suppliers and contractors have become familiar with in designing and building for high latitudes. Maps of the NWT and Nunavut may suggest that the territories have an abundance of water, but they don’t present the entire picture. Raw water supplies may be abundant, but they may be at a great distance from communities, and may only


34 | March 2009

be accessible for a few weeks each year. Distance presents a problem because of the high cost of building and maintaining roads and pipelines. At nearly $1 million per kilometre for a road and a pipeline in some locations, simple economics places distant piped water sources beyond the reach of most communities. Add to this cost the potential for pipeline freezing and the severe operating conditions, and closer becomes a lot better. Over the past decade, the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) has committed significant resources to ensuring safe, reliable and accessible drinking water for all residents. A co-ordinated effort of GNWT departments has been established to deliver on this commitment. From a technical perspective of drinking water quality, a multi-barrier approach is the grounding principle. A multi barrier is an integrated system of procedures, processes and tools that collectively prevent or reduce the contam-

ination of drinking water from source to tap in order to reduce risks to public health. For the NWT multiple-barrier approach, three distinct barriers have been formulated. The first barrier is “keeping water clean” by preventing contaminants from entering drinking water sources. The second barrier is “making water safe,” which focuses on identifying, treating and removing natural or man-made impurities. The third and final barrier is “proving water is safe,” by developing and maintaining strong quality monitoring programs and taking swift corrective action when deficiencies are identified. Sachs Harbour project All of these factors were applied to the extreme water treatment engineering completed in Sachs Harbour, NWT, by AECOM (formerly Earth Tech). Sachs Harbour is located along the Beaufort Sea, on the southwestern shore of Banks Island, at 71˚ 59' N latitude,

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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Water Treatment

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Sachs Harbour intake and truckfill facility.

125˚14' W longitude. It is the most northerly community in the Northwest Territories, 520 km northeast of Inuvik. This small traditional community has a population of approximately 150, which is serviced by water and sewage trucks. Access to Sachs Harbour is by scheduled and charter air service from Inuvik. Freight service is completed by a single annual supply barge, which departs from Hay River in June. Sachs Harbour was named after the ship Mary Sachs of the Canadian Arctic Expedition of 1913. In 1929, a permanent settlement was established when three Inuit families settled there to trap. In 1953 the RCMP set up a detachment post, and the residents lived a very traditional lifestyle, hunting muskox, caribou and polar bear. Today the community's economy is still based primarily on hunting and trapping, and to a lesser degree on tourism. Oil and gas exploration conwww.esemag.com

tinues in the Beaufort Sea, and local businesses include retail and food sales, supporting mostly the local needs. In 1978, an intake and truckfill facility near Water Lake (also referred to as DOT Lake, MOT Lake and Water Supply Lake) was constructed in Sachs Harbour. This water system included one intake complete with a submersible pump feeding water from Water Lake into the truckfill facility. Raw water from Water Lake was chlorinated using a calcium hypochlorite solution that was mixed and stored in the facility. During August of 2002, the GNWT Department of Public Works and Services completed a review of Sachs Harbour’s water system management and infrastructure. This report identified several deficiencies related to the existing water supply system and the operation and maintenance practices. The continued overleaf...

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Water Treatment Parameter

Current Guidelines

Anticipated NWT/GCDWQ Future Guidelines

Goal for Sachs Harbour

All parameters listed under the current GCDWQ



GCDWQ except where superseded within this table


MAC = 1.0 NTU AO < 5.0 NTU

Conventional Treatment MAC = 0.3 NTU Membrane Treatment MAC = 0.1 NTU Cartridge Filtration = 1 NTU AO < 5.0 NTU

Conventional Treatment MAC = 0.3 NTU Membrane Treatment MAC = 0.1 NTU Cartridge Filtration = 1 NTU AO < 5.0 NTU


IMAC = 100 ug/L

LRAA: 80 ug/L

LRAA: 80 ug/L

Haloacetic Acid


LRAA: 60 ug/L

LRAA: 60 ug/L

Giardia cysts


99.9% (log 3) removal

99.9% (log 3) removal



99.99% (log 4) removal

99.99% (log 4) removal

Cryptosporidium oocysts


99.9% (log 3) removal

99.9% (log 3) removal

Table 1: Water Quality Goals for Sachs Harbour.

major recommendation arising from this report was the need for a new water treatment facility in the community. During the summer of 2003, AECOM was selected to provide engineering services to upgrade the existing water treatment facilities in Sachs Harbour. The scope included compliance with current and future water quality requirements, and accommodation of future increased water demands as a result of population growth.

Recognizing the need for a simple, easy-to-operate water treatment system, the GNWT conducted pilot testing on various raw water sources around the territory. The testing concentrated on the use of cartridge filtration in small northern communities that have excellent raw water characteristics, with the aim of gaining regulatory approval for the use of cartridge filtration for meeting all of the existing and proposed fu-

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ture Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ). The results of the pilot testing proved favourable for the application of cartridge filtration for small communities, and approval from the regulatory authorities was received in October 2003. The approval letter stated that the cartridge filtration treatment method, along with chlorination, met the proposed new GCDWQ turbidity guideline, and therefore was approved for treating pristine surface water sources. The success of this pilot project provided another significant alternative to consider for water treatment upgrading in Sachs Harbour. Goals and process options for Sachs Harbour The water treatment evaluation in Sachs Harbour used the following water use criteria for evaluating the potential water treatment processes and designing the water treatment system: • 2025 population – 192 • 2025 average daily demand – 18,043 L/day • 2025 peak day factor – 2.1 • 2025 peak daily demand – 37,980 L/day • Fire flow requirement – 1,000 L/min AECOM reviewed existing and anticipated legislation pertaining to drinking water quality requirements for the NWT, as set out in the Public Water Supply Regulations (1990) under the Public Health Act (which follows the GCDWQ). The recommended water quality goals for the upgraded Sachs Harbour water treatment system are shown in Table 1.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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Water Treatment Treatment Train



Clarification-Filtration - UV (Future) - Chlorination

Proven technology in the NWT (Aklavik and Fort MacPherson are similar except without UV)

• Production of chemical sludges that need to be stored and disposed of by truck • Operators must posses knowledge of chemistry in order to deal with changes in raw water quality • Future UV disinfection requires a large amount of power • Requires water to be stored within the plant for fire flow requirements

Cartridge Filtration-UV (Future)-Chlorination

• • • •

• Cost of replacement cartridge filters • Future UV disinfection requires a large amount of power

UF Membrane Filtration-Chlorination

• One-step treatment train to meet all water quality goals • Limited operator intervention, simple operation • Wastes can be disposed of directly to the environment

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• Amount of wastewater generated is greater than other options • High capital and maintenance cost • Requires water to be stored within the plant for fire flow requirements

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Table 2: Water Treatment Process/Train Options.

A raw water quality analysis in Sachs Harbour revealed that only the turbidity parameter exceeded the goals, which indicated that the source water from Water Lake is very good. Although no analysis was done for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, it was determined that Sachs Harbour faces a low risk for the contamination of these two pathogens of the water supply due to the absence of any activities associated with them near Water Lake. Various viable treatment process options were evaluated for water treatment improvements. Several advantages and disadvantages of each option were identified and used in the evaluation of the options, which are summarized in Table 2. The evaluation indicated that Cartridge Filtration-UV (Future)-Chlorination was the best treatment option for Sachs Harbour, based on meeting the water quantity, water quality and operational requirements. Financial requirements of the various treatment train options were also considered in the evaluation. The O&M costs for UF membranes are based upon an estimated membrane life, but this can be difficult to predict without extensive pilot work and can www.esemag.com

vary greatly among manufacturers and raw water sources. Cartridge filtration may achieve a 2log reduction of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and exceed the USEPA turbidity objective of 1.0 NTU. Therefore, cartridge filtration provides treatment greater than the current GCDWQ, and is capable of meeting the new turbidity guidelines. Based on this conclusion, UV disinfection was deferred as a future process improvement, to be added if and when the GCDWQ adopt a Cryptosporidium goal of 3-log removal. Considering that the Cartridge Filtration-UV (Future)-Chlorination process was capable of meeting all the current requirements and was the least expensive, it was the recommended treatment train. This process is capable of meeting all the objectives outlined by the GNWT for Sachs Harbour, and will provide a secure, easy-to-operate water treatment plant for this extreme location well into the future. Glenn Prosko, P.Eng., and Ken Johnson, M.A.Sc., MCIP, P.Eng., are with AECOM. E-mail: ken.johnson@aecom.com

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Biosolids Management

Bonnechere Valley’s answer to septage disposal By Matthew Green or many septage haulers across Ontario, the uncertainty surrounding the future of septage disposal is the cause of both frustration and confusion; however, this is not the case for haulers in the Township of Bonnechere Valley (Eganville). Located an hour west of Ottawa, Bonnechere Valley is one of the few municipalities in Ontario which has already addressed the issue of septage disposal by using GeotubeŽ dewatering containers. The township first trial-tested these dewatering containers in a small pilot project, processing about 21,000 gallons of septic tank waste in July 2005. A Geotube unit measuring 22 ft. x 22.5 ft. was filled and allowed to dewater through the winter months. Not only did the unit successfully dewater the sludge, the lab results of both the effluent and retained solids were impressive. The effectiveness, simplicity and affordability of the technology encour-


Local septic pumper George Griffith delivering a load to the Geotube Facility.

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aged Bonnechere Valley to use Geotube units as a long-term solution for the treatment of septage and biosolids from the wastewater treatment plant. Construction on the permanent dewatering and processing facility began in September 2007 and was completed in April 2008. Located directly across the road from the wastewater treatment plant in the Village of Eganville, the dewatering and processing facility is now fully operational and consists of six, thirty foot circumference, fifty foot long Geotube units. Two of the units are located in a greenhouse structure so that biosolids from the wastewater treatment plant can be dewatered during winter months. These units also provide haulers with a winter disposal facility for emergency pump outs that may be required during the winter. The process for a septage hauler to empty a truck at the dewatering facility is simple and straightforward. Haulers are required to pull their tanker trucks up to the septage station and empty the load from their tanker into the 10,000 gallon underground holding tank. After emptying their trucks, haulers can then Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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Biosolids Management drive away and resume business as usual. Local haulers will no longer have to spend time land-applying septage to fields, nor will they have to handle potentially dangerous chemicals. A simple bar screen removes solid waste, such as plastics, during emptying to ensure nothing too large is pumped into the holding tank. Once the 10,000 gallon holding tank has reached capacity the screened septage is mixed by a submersible pump located in the holding tank. The waste is then pumped into a Geotube container. While the sludge is being pumped from the holding tank it is mixed with a polymer solution. As with most dewatering technologies, polymer is required in order to separate the solids from the liquids. While the dewatering containers are filling, a clear filtrate immediately begins to filter through the container. Eganville’s units sit on a concrete drainage bed which is designed to direct the filtrate, via gravity, into a 10,000 gallon filtrate storage tank. Once the storage tank is filled with clear filtrate, a batch entry is made back to the head-

works of the treatment plant where the filtrate undergoes further treatment to meet stringent Ministry standards before being released to the environment. Once the unit has finished dewatering and the retained solids have been processed into a nutrient, the contents can be easily removed by a front end loader. Now the nutrients can be applied to approved fields, or used for energy production. The simplicity and affordability of Geotube dewatering containers means proactive septage haulers do not have to wait for decisions to be made on biosolids disposal in Ontario. Affordable facilities can be implemented by haulers on their own land, providing dewatering, treatment and storage of septage. Haulers can also encourage their respective municipalities to follow Bonnechere Valley Township’s example and address the issues facing the septage industry.

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Biosolids Management

An innovative approach to biosolids processing By Scott MacIntosh he City of London, Ontario, is serviced by six wastewater treatment plants. The Greenway Pollution Control Centre is the largest of these, and accepts all biosolids produced in the City. The Greenway PCC stores sludge, typically containing 3% to 4% solids, in holding tanks. The sludge is then mixed with polymer and pulp, and dewatered into a cake with an average solids concentration of 22.5%. An average of 217 tonnes/d of this cake was produced in 2007, resulting in a Total Dry Solids mass of 48.6 tonnes/d. After the sludge has been dewatered, it is incinerated. Due to the high capital cost of these units, the City has opted to accept all biosolids at the Greenway facility for centralized incineration. In the summer of 2008, an extensive rebuild project was undertaken to rehabilitate the incinerator. R.V. Anderson


Bioset product after storage and screening.

Associates Limited was retained by the City of London to select and implement an alternative biosolids processing strategy. The process would be operational for the six month period that the incinerator was expected to be taken offline. During this time, throughput for the interim stabilization system had to match that of the incinerator, as additional storage was not available. The treated sludge had to comply with Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) regulations and a revised Certificate of Approval was required. The biosolids were to be transported by truck via city streets, so the aesthetics of the biosolids were extremely important. Selection There were two strategies considered: processing the biosolids so that they were suitable for land application, or shipping wet cake to the landfill facility. Land application provided the benefit of recycling nutrients in the processed sludge, the sustainable option. Conversely, this option was weather dependent and would require storage of the biosolids until ambient outdoor conditions were suitable for application. The 40 | March 2009

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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Biosolids Management

Lime silo is raised above the roof.

biosolids would also have to comply with the Nutrient Management Act. The second option, sending wet cake to the landfill facility, would require the least amount of capital cost but would cause a variety of other issues to arise. Odours would be very strong and shipping through city streets would likely lead to many odour complaints from the public. Pasteurization of the sludge would not be taking place so the biosolids would have to be immediately buried at the landfill, causing tipping fees for disposal of the wet cake to be six times the cost of storing Class A biosolids. The cake would not be suitable for use as either daily cover or land application. Due to costs, odour and spill concerns, and environmental responsibility, this option was quickly dismissed. It was determined that the biosolids would be processed and stored at the W12a landfill facility. A portion of the material would be used as daily cover, while the rest would be stockpiled for potential land application pending MOE review. An application for a Certificate of Approval for a transfer station at the landfill is currently being reviewed by the MOE. In order to meet the landfill criteria for eventual land application, processed biosolids had to meet Class A requirements for pathogen reduction. www.esemag.com

After analyzing some methodologies capable of producing Class A biosolids, a few downfalls became apparent. Some processes produced a liquid slurry that was high in ammonia and very odorous. These liquids would have the potential to contaminate a water source via storm sewers if a tanker truck spill occurred. Some processes would produce Class A biosolids under elevated temperatures and pH, but could potentially lose this status once the product was returned to normal environmental conditions. The process offered by Texas-based Bioset, Inc. satisfied the design criteria. The output from the process is solid rather than liquid, and thus a spill would be less likely to migrate into a water body. It would also make the clean-up much easier. These were major factors as shipping of this product was to occur several times a day for six months. The output appears much more like topsoil, negating some of the negative public perceptions for land application of an odorous liquid slurry. The output has low levels of ammonia, making the odour much less noticeable than many liquid land-applied products. The process The initial installation of a BIOSET™ process was made ten years ago at the Kingwood, Texas WWTP, and services the 5.25 MGD facility. After its initial success, an additional five pilot study plants were set up in the United States. Two were located in Louisiana and three in Florida, all providing good results. Operators from the Greenway PCC travelled to Florida to look at two installations. After being impressed with the operator

Lowering the lime silo through the roof.

feedback, the City gave their support to this method. The process achieves Class A biosolids via the time vs. temperature equation and pH adjustment per the EPA 503 regulations. Biosolids and chemicals are homogeneously mixed in a screw feeder and pumped to an insulated reactor using a hydraulically activated duplex piston pump. The reactor is a 32-foot long cylindrical vessel with plug flow characteristics. The design retention time was one hour, with a peak flow retention time of 43 minutes. This easily exceeds the 20 continued overleaf...

Pump and hopper. March 2009 | 41



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Biosolids Management

The Bioset process.

minute peak limit set by the EPA. All processing takes place in the enclosed vessel, so odours can be contained and easily removed with an ammonia scrubber. The process relies on the addition of quicklime and sulphamic acid. The quicklime increases the pH in excess of 13, breaking down cells within the reactor, resulting in increased concentrations of free ammonia. The process utilizes this free ammonia to kill pathogens in the biosolids. The high pH in the material is often maintained for some time after being discharged from the reactor, ensuring pathogen reintroduction does not occur. Some reports have shown a pH of 12 was maintained for up to six months. Because the free ammonia is responsible for disinfection, operating temperatures need only to be maintained at 55°C. Pasteurization through temperature alone occurs at 70°C, requiring either additional chemical or energy costs. The tem-

Reactor vessel. 42 | March 2009

perature increase is achieved through the exothermic chemical reaction, thus the system requires no additional heating input. By eliminating the need for auxiliary energy requirements, costs and environmental impacts are reduced. The process also offers some additional benefits to pasteurization. Many metals contained in the biosolids are precipitated out in high pH conditions, reducing their solubility and mobility. This was not a major factor, however, at the GPCC as their sludge is typically low in metals. The process also provides free calcium ions that can react with hydrogen sulphide and organic mercaptans, reducing these biological waste odours. Design, construction and commissioning Since the process relies on maintaining adequate temperatures, the ambient temperature of the installation location is important. Most installations had been

made in the southern United States, so the process was placed entirely outdoors. Given Canada’s cold conditions, an outdoor installation would not work. To further complicate matters, outdoor installations typically have less space constraints and a linear setup can be completed. There was no space for a linear arrangement in the existing Greenway building, so a three-story design was needed. This required cutting a large hole in the roof of the building and lowering a 45’ tall lime silo through the roof with minimal horizontal clearance. The pump and piping were installed in the basement of the building and the reactor on the third floor. The installation in London is the first of its kind in Canada. Accordingly, the approvals process necessitated early contact with the MOE to confirm this new technology was suitable for the application and would be acceptable to the Ministry. The installation at the GPCC, a facility that operates in excess of 30 MGD, is also the largest installation by Bioset, Inc. in the world. The incinerator contract mandated shutdown on August 15, 2008, so a critical deadline had to be met. The Bioset process was first considered in December of 2007. From the time of initial consideration to design, approval, implementation, and operation, a period of only eight months elapsed. The design, approval, and implementation of new technologies can be very time-consuming, but, given the mandatory incinerator shutdown date, there was no possibility for extension. This created a very demanding timeline with no flexibility. Operations Biosolids were hauled at a rate of at least one truck per hour, creating a continuous flow of traffic. This process was run for 24 hours a day, five days a week. The process was shut down on the weekend to prevent hauling traffic at peak times. This left little room for error in the process as storage space was limited. Night dumping at the landfill was also required, which typically is not done. The process accepts cake from sludge presses into a hopper, where it is mixed with the lime and acid and then pumped to the reactor on the third floor. There are four presses feeding into the hopper, which complicated the system

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Biosolids Management

Multi-tier installation of reactor vessels.

controls. Depending on which presses were running, the pumping rates and acid/lime feed rates had to be adjusted accordingly. Operators had to monitor the hopper levels and pump rates to ensure the process ran correctly. When the process ran continuously there were very few problems. Issues began occurring when weekend shut-

downs took place. Typical installations operated with a cake that was about 13% to 15% solids. The cake produced at Greenway is mixed with polymer and pulp, and then fed through presses producing a material that is about 22.5% solids. Due to the high solids concentration of the cake, the reactor outlet pipe would get plugged. A lubrication

system at the outlet had to be constructed to inject water into the reactor to ensure proper flow on start up. Conclusions The project was delivered on time and on budget. The process output was regularly monitored and, with a few exceptions, met the requirements of Class A biosolids for storage at the landfill facility. During the period of time that this hauling took place, there were no odour complaints. Given the high public exposure of this project from continuous hauling on city streets, it was significant that the output from the system was aesthetically acceptable. The incinerator is now back on line, but the process has been retained as a contingency system for the future. This will allow processing of all biosolids produced in the City, even in an emergency situation where the incinerator is undergoing maintenance. Scott MacIntosh, B.A.Sc, EIT, is with R.V. Anderson Associates Limited. E-mail: smacintosh@rvanderson.com

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March 2009 | 43



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Ecosystem Management

Controlling lake weeds with mechanical harvesting By Bruce Foxton ince the 1970s, aquatic vegetation growth on Canada’s playground waters has been increasing at an alarming rate. This infestation has resulted in areas becoming overgrown and congested, with major losses for tourism. In addition, damage to watercraft through fouled propellers and water intakes has caused many overheated engines and substantial repair costs. Boat owners and those observing the overgrown waters now look for new destinations to visit and spend their tourist dollars. This problem originally began in Europe and then made its way into the United Sates and up into Canada. At one stage in the US, watercraft being taken from one lake to another would be put in quarantine for a period of one week or chemically sprayed to kill any fragments of plant vegetation that might have attached themselves to the boat or trailer. Fragments from some plants have been noted to begin producing roots as early as four days after separation from the main plant. With this re-growth and the expanding water sports market, the spread of fragments from lake to lake or within the existing lake habitat is affecting the waterways in many ways. As the impact of this invasion became clear, governments began to study the problem more closely, to find ways to control the spread and to evaluate whether there was a use for the vegetation to offset the costs of controlling it. In Ontario, only one chemical was authorized for use in the aquatic environment, along with mechanical harvesting methods, to control the vegetation. Various agricultural processes were undertaken but were of limited value. Drawbacks of chemical treatment Chemical treatment appears to deal with some plants, but does not address others. In addition, a licensed applicator must apply the permitted treatment in larger commercial areas, while individual cottage owners may apply their own with approval. Posting of signs is also required to advise adjacent landowners of the application date. Use of the water is limited for the following four to five


44 | March 2009

Launching the harvester.

days while the chemical remains active. This form of aquatic plant control continues today, but the invasion of various aquatic plants into many lakes and rivers has been changing since the mid'80s, resulting in reduced effectiveness of chemical treatment. In addition, the public has become far more aware of chemical applications, both on land and in the water environment. With chemical treatments, die-back of the plant vegetation occurs. After a few days, the dead plant material begins to decompose and fall to the floor of the water body. With the decomposition, oxygen is used up in the water column that normally provides oxygen to other inhabitants of the environment. This is the same process that occurs during the fall and winter months in a body of water when the vegetation dies back because of dropping water temperatures and lack of sunlight. These diebacks can result in fish kills appearing in the spring as a result of reduced oxygen levels and icing-over conditions; these can prevent fresh oxygen from getting into the water and dissolving, as normally happens during the course of wave and other water actions. With both the artificial die-back caused by the chemical contact and the die-back that occurs naturally in the end-

of-season cycle, many years of plant vegetation accumulate. In addition, the water bodies are affected by silt being disturbed on the floor by storm conditions or shoreline discharge. This material becomes a suspended solid in the water column. In areas where vegetation has remained untouched and reaches the water’s surface during the summer season, the suspended solids in the water column are trapped by the vegetation, which acts as a snow fence. There is no room to maintain the circulation of the solids among the dense vegetation in the water column so it falls to the floor onto the layers of dead vegetation that have accumulated. Over time, this build-up on the floor removes storage capacity within the water basin, causing flooding downstream during high-water times of the year. Further accumulation can be found around obstructions in the water such as rocks, debris, docks and other structures that act like snow fences, causing water movement to slow and settling out the suspended solids. Mechanical weed harvesting More favourable results can be obtained with the use of mechanical harvesting rather than chemical treatment to deal with the vegetation problem. The continued overleaf...

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Ecosystem Management methods are comparable in cost. However, mechanical harvesting needs to be done properly. Commercial operations use state-of-the-art equipment with paddle-wheel propulsion that does not get tangled in vegetation, as outboards or similar types of propulsion do. This commercial equipment also has sides to control the direction of the harvested vegetation, up and onto the harvester head following cutting. Normal operations are usually not permitted until July 1, unless otherwise stated in the issued permits. In commercial-size operations, shoreline off-loading operations have to be set up, usually through the use of a shoreline conveyor, in which a harvester can travel to the nearest off-loading site and transfer the harvested vegetation onto the conveyor.This, in turn, moves the material into trailers, roll-off boxes or trucks to be removed to organic processing sites or local composting programs. The basic principle of mechanical harvesting is a mechanical head with cutting teeth along the bottom and two sides. As the harvester moves forward through the water, the teeth located on the three sides

of the head move and cut the vegetation down to a depth of approximately five feet. The vegetation is then conveyed onto a moving conveyor located behind the cutting teeth and centred between the two sidewalls of the head. Concerns about fish being swallowed up by the conveying head are not justified, as vibrations from the splashing of the paddle wheels in the water cause the fish to move away. When the vegetation is dense, small minnows may already be trapped in it, but the harvester design permits workers to be supported on either side of the harvester head, where they can manually sort through the dense vegetation and return the minnows to the water. When the vegetation is not as dense, the construction of the harvester allows the small minnows to flow or fall through the conveyor links and return to the water. If necessary, the conveyor can be put in reverse to off-load any material caught on the head. The vegetation that is conveyed out of the water is then discharged onto a secondary conveyor on the deck of the unit. Once fully loaded, the harvester transfers the load to the

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shoreline conveyor. When excessive rain forces up water levels, mechanical harvesters can get closer to shore, but, with increased water levels and rainfall, undermining of shorelines can result in off-loading problems, as soft ground makes it difficult to set up a shoreline conveyor or to bring trucks close to shore. Under the opposite conditions, dry seasons can result in lake and river levels receding from shorelines, allowing floating vegetation from the spring months to become stockpiled in these shallows, then decomposing, resulting in odours. This can limit the ability of mechanical harvesters to get near shore to remove accumulated vegetation. Sometimes not even manual removal can deal with the volume of vegetation stockpiled by local onshore winds. Harvesting innovations Inland Aquatics has adapted a walking dredge that can work both on land and in the water, carrying out many functions with a nine-foot rake on its excavator-like head. This unit can move itself into the shallows, stockpile the vegetation and bring it back out into operational

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Ecosystem Management

The harvester in action.

depths for the mechanical harvesters to collect and return to accessible shoreline locations for off-loading. To deal with such extreme conditions, a vehicle with balloon tires can be propelled through the water to accept vegetation from mechanical harvesters and transport some 15 tons of material to accessible boat launches, road ends or beach

accesses, and discharge it into waiting containers while permitting harvesters to continue operating. This unit can travel into the near shore, remove the vegetation through a conveyor system or rake operation similar to the dredge, and then move on with limited disturbance to the area. Studies have revealed that following mechanical harvesting, the harvested area

becomes much healthier because of increased water circulation, reduced water temperatures and improved fish health. Bruce Foxton is with Inland Aquatics. E-mail: bruce.foxton@inlandaquatics.ca


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March 2009 | 47



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Site Remediation

Oxygen diffusion allows for quick remediation at a By Tricia Lane and Rick McGregor former fuel dispensing site istorical releases of petroleum hydrocarbons at fuel dispensing facilities have resulted in impacts to groundwater and soil. These impacts may represent a risk to human health, the ecology, or present a liability to the facility owner. Remedial approaches to these sites range from natural attenuation, to pump and treat, to excavation of all impacted materials. Limitations of these approaches include prolonged remedial time-frames and/or excessive costs. At a former fuel dispensing site in southern Ontario, historical petroleum hydrocarbon impacts were preventing the site from being redeveloped, as well as representing a potential liability to the current site owner. During facility decommissioning activities in the mid1990s, contamination in the shallow groundwater and soil were noted. Limited excavation was completed to remove readily accessible impacted soil. These initial excavation efforts failed to completely remediate the groundwater on the site, which was migrating towards a sensitive receptor down gradient. In 2007, Vertex Environmental Inc., who specialize in the in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater, were contracted to assess and ultimately clean up the site. A review of remedial options for the vacant site was completed and recommended the installation of an enhanced bioremediation system involving the introduction of oxygen into the subsurface. However, concerns due to nearby residences limited the methods available for the introduction of oxygen to passive/semi-passive techniques that would not produce petroleum hydrocarbon vapour. Based on a technical and financial review, the recommended remedial approach involved the installation of Waterloo Emitters™ to allow the diffusion of oxygen into the impacted groundwater with the objective of stimulating biological degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Migration towards downgradient receptors was a major concern; this solution would work quickly and ef-


48 | March 2009

Waterloo Emitter groundwater remediation device.

fectively to help eliminate the potential for exposure. Emitters are installed quickly, provide immediate remedial action, and require minimal maintenance costs throughout the remedial process. The Waterloo Emitter is a device, developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo, which uses a patented technology to allow the enhancement of natural groundwater remediation processes. The technology is based on diffusion principles, whereby a concentration gradient is set up between the inside of the device tubing and groundwater. This allows for the release of oxygen, or other bio-enhancing amendments through the tubing to encourage and sustain the growth of microorganisms required for in situ bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. Manufactured by Solinst Canada Ltd., the Waterloo Emitter simply consists of silicone or polyethylene tubing coiled

around a PVC frame. Single or multiple Emitters can be installed in screened wells or open boreholes, spanning the contaminant plume thickness. When a fluid is introduced into the tubing, a concentration gradient is created between the inside of the tubing and the groundwater. The device works in accordance with Fick’s Law, whereby diffusion will occur until there is equilibration in chemical concentration inside and outside of the tubing. With this technology the oxygen (or other amendment) can be replenished constantly and, since the groundwater flow around the Emitter is continuous, an equilibration point is never reached. This results in steady, controlled diffusion into the groundwater, without any decrease in concentration of the amendment gas due to bubbling. A total of fourteen devices were installed on site in October of 2007. The continued overleaf...

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Site Remediation geology of the site consists of granular fill to a depth of approximately three metres below ground surface, which is underlain by a thin sand unit on top of weathered dolostone. The groundwater table is located approximately two metres below ground surface within the fill unit.The contaminant plume occurred in the unconsolidated silty sand to a depth of approximately three metres, and initially stretched 30 metres long and 15 metres wide. The devices were installed in 4-inch diameter wells screened at and below the water table. The shallow groundwater flow is towards a nearby river located approximately 40 metres to the north of the property. Flow is estimated to be approximately 15 metres per year. In order to prevent the contamination plume from reaching the river, the Emitters were installed in wells forming a “fence� along the down-gradient property boundary. Using three oxygen tanks, the devices were placed in series, with five Emitters each connected to two tanks and four sharing the last tank. Dried air containing 21% oxygen was released through the

Groundwater Flow Direction




Historical Plume

Former UST MW-1

Layout of property and remediation efforts on site.

polyethylene tubing and allowed to diffuse directly into the contaminant plume. When a gas is applied to the Emitter, there is a direct correlation between an increase in applied pressure and an in-

crease in the amount of gas available to diffuse into the groundwater. An oxygen tank and gas regulator maintained at 20 psi provided oxygen, allowing immediate bioavailability of molecular oxygen.



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Site Remediation Purging each series, once every week, allowed any groundwater gasses (CO2, CH4) that may have back-diffused into the tubing, to be vented to the atmosphere. Purging ensured the performance of the units, by making certain that the concentration of oxygen in the tubing remained at an optimal level, providing a steady flow of oxygen to the contaminant plume. During the remedial process, dissolved oxygen (DO) samples were collected on a monthly basis and groundwater samples for BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were collected quarterly from down-gradient monitoring wells. Samples collected within one month of the installation showed that DO levels in the monitoring wells had increased an average of 880%. These levels help create ideal conditions for microorganism growth, which leads to aerobic breakdown of petroleum hydrocarbons. Alkalinity within the groundwater increased from an average of 89 mg/L as CaCO3, to greater than 300 mg/L, suggesting an increase in micro activity. Throughout the remedial process it was also observed that the pH of the groundwater remained neutral, between 6.7 and 7.0. Initially, TPH levels were measured to be a maximum of 27,000 μg/L and averaged 9,600 μg/L. Initial BTEX levels

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Samples collected within one month of the installation showed that DO levels in the monitoring wells had increased an average of 880%. were approximately 11,000 μg/L. Within six months, sample results showed that the levels of BTEX and TPH had dropped below the analytical detection limit. Upon meeting the Soil, Ground Water and Sediment Standards for potable water, as set in the Ontario Environmental Protection Act, the Emitter system could be decommissioned just one year after the installation. At decommissioning, no biofouling of the system was noted, nor was the rate of oxygen release decreased with time. Some ferric iron precipitation was observed on the Emitters, which could explain the decrease in dissolved iron that was measured throughout the process. Dissolved iron levels decreased from an average 890 μg/L to below the analytical detection limit. In the end, the site was cleaned up in less than a year. The remedial efforts worked quickly, eliminating the risk to the sensitive down-gradient receptor, while protecting the health of nearby residents. The site owner is no longer dealing with contamination issues, and has property that is now safe for redevelopment. Tricia Lane, BSc. (Hon) is with Solinst Canada Ltd. E-mail: tricia.lane@solinst.com Rick McGregor, MSc., MBA, CGWP, P.Geo., is with Vertex Environmental Inc. E-mail: rickm@vertexenvironmental.ca www.esemag.com

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New ways of reducing phosphorous in Lake Simcoe Photos courtesy of LSRCA very year approximately 67 tonnes of phosphorous enter Lake Simcoe from sewage treatment plants, storm sewers, septic systems, urban, rural and agricultural run-off, rain, snow and wind-borne dust. To improve water quality, the Ontario government passed the Lake Simcoe Protection Act in December 2008. It requires the province to develop a protection plan for the lake and surrounding areas to address excessive phosphorous. The draft Lake Simcoe Protection Plan, the most comprehensive watershed-based legislated plan in Canada, was released in January 2009 for public consultation. It calls for developing a comprehensive strategy for managing phosphorous by reducing the loading to 44 tonnes per year. As part of the protection strategy, the province is working with the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) on a pilot project to evaluate a product called Phoslock® that could help to reduce phosphorous from sources such as stormwater ponds and the Holland Marsh. The LSRCA received $276,000 to measure the effectiveness and safety of Phoslock for use in the local watershed.


52 | March 2009

Phoslock is made by combining clay called bentonite with the element lanthanum. When mixed with water, it forms a semi-liquid or slurry, which is then sprayed onto the surface of a water body. As the mixture sinks, it binds with phosphorous in the water to form an insoluble compound that traps phosphorous particles in a fine layer of sediment at the bottom. In this form, phosphorous is no longer available as a nutrient to plants and algae. Phoslock has undergone significant testing and is safe, based on the concentrations used within the pilot project. It is already being used in several countries such as Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Germany, the Netherlands and the U.K. Evidence from tests around the world indicates it can remove up to 95% of phosphorous and does not harm water quality or aquatic species. LSRCA’s field test applications of Phoslock in the Lake Simcoe watershed are the first to be carried out in Canada. The pilot project consists of: • A field trial on a marsh located on a farm. • An application into a stormwater management pond in Newmarket.

• A one-time application into the Scanlon Creek reservoir in Bradford. • A field study by the Conservation Authority and the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs to look at the impact of Phoslock on irrigation and operational practices on farms. • Laboratory testing to validate the science and test Phoslock, particularly in “muck” soil, in Ontario. • Testing the product to assess impacts on the aquatic health of the ecosystem. Evaluating Phoslock is just one action the Ontario government is taking to address phosphorous levels in Lake Simcoe. For more information,visit www.ene.gov.on.ca/en/water /lakesimcoe or www.lsrca.on.ca/phoslock

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1-800-32 SPILL



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Water Main Rehabilitation

Structural rehabilitation of water mains with fast-set polymeric resin n the fall of 2008, the City of Vaudreuil-Dorion, Quebec, an off-island suburb of Montreal with a population nearing 28,000 people, rehabilitated a total of 1.4 kilometres of 150-mm and 250-mm-diameter cast and ductile iron water mains using a fast-set polymeric resin. The work consisted of cleaning, drying and projecting several coats of NSF61 polymeric resin on the inside walls of the mains to obtain the required structural reinforcement. Since the resin sets in only a few seconds, it was possible to restore water service to customers on the same day of the work, without using a bypass system. The City estimated it saved several hundreds of thousands of dollars that would otherwise have been spent to replace the water mains. Acuro is believed to be the first company to having successfully sprayed a structural liner inside a potable water


main in North America. More than 10,000 kilometres of mains have been rehabilitated over the last 10 years, mostly in Europe and Australia, using a spray-on, non-structural fast-set resin. Like cement or epoxy lining, this lining forms a physical barrier between the water and the main surface, preventing tuberculation and water quality deterioration. However, “non-structural” means it does not guard the water mains against any leaks or breaks, and that was exactly the problem the City of Vaudreuil-Dorion wanted to solve. The water mains had lost most of their structural integrity due mostly to an aggressive soil. A total of six leaks and two breaks had occurred last year. NSF-61-compliant Spray-in-PlacePipe (SIPP) quick-set structural polymeric resin can be used for the rehabilitation of 2-inch-diameter and larger potable water


By Stephane Joseph

mains. The polymeric resin is structural by definition, since it exceeds the physical requirements of the Cure-in-Place-Pipe (CIPP) ASTM F1216 standard (bagliner), widely accepted in the industry. The fast-set nature of the polymeric resin (gels in five seconds, tack-free in 30 seconds) allows return to service on the same day as the work, rendering optional the use of a bypass system. In this case, the City opted not to use a bypass while asking for residents’ co-operation, thus saving thousands of dollars (and headaches). Acuro’s rehabilitation method aims at the structural reinforcement of distribution and transmission water mains, pipelines and conduits by installing a formulated fast-set polymeric resin liner, which is spray-formed to the original conduit by use of a hand spray or robotic sprayer. The polymeric resin is a thermoset material, cure-applied using

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Water Main Rehabilitation

Water main lined with polymeric resin.

impingement mixing under hydraulic pressure within the tube. The SIPP is continuous and tight-fitting. The polymeric resin used for the project is corrosion-resistant; encrustation will cease and the water main CFactor will not decrease over time. The C-Factor of a water main lined with resin is comparable to that of a PVC pipe. Polymeric resin shows a 10% elongation, which enables protection and service continuity in the case of a


pipe break. In addition, the resin is resistant to all chemicals used in water treatment processes, including chlorine. Without VOCs, the resin has a 50-year life span. In fact, the resin passed the 100-year life span required for use in nuclear plants. Another major benefit of the polymeric resin is that it is renewable; it can be sprayed over and over, year after year if need be. It also bridges small cracks and it provides a monolithic, close-fit

lining to the host pipe, regardless of its diameter or shape. Non-NSF polymeric resin has also been used for many years to rehabilitate manholes, sanitary and storm sewers and surfaces. Polymeric resin is also an encasement system for lead, heavy metals and asbestos. Work procedures In Vaudreuil-Dorion, a public tender was issued with both the bag-liner CIPP and SIPP specifications. The SIPP method was selected. Compared to the current trenchless CIPP rehab method used, SIPP is usually about 30% less expensive. The scope included the rehabilitation of 350 metres of 150-mm and 1.2 kilometres of 250-mm-diameter water mains, along with the addition and/or replacement of main valves located on the mains to be rehabilitated. Although some changes have been brought to the process, field operations were mostly based on the Code of Practice: In Situ Resin Lining of Water Mains from the UK water industry, and AWWA M28. Assistance from City staff was continued overleaf...

March 2009 | 55



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Water Main Rehabilitation

Spray reel used to apply polymeric resin.

minimal. Field technicians had received the proper training and were certified by the manufacturer of the spray-on system. Following site investigation and project planning with City staff, boil-water advisories were distributed door-to-door to customers, advising the nature of the project and warning about the water interruption between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. As a courtesy, water bottles were offered to

56 | March 2009

customers and arrangements with sensitive customers were also planned. The customers’ service lines were closed right after 8 a.m. every morning. The access pits had been excavated at the existing valves’ location one or two days previously. A one metre section of the water main was cut and removed to get access from both ends of the water main. The main was inspected with a

video camera and cleaning operations started immediately afterward. All video inspections were digitized on-site. Following power cleaning, the main was dried with squeegee and compressed air. Another video inspection was conducted to validate the cleanliness of the water main prior to spraying. A 3-mm thickness of resin was applied for the 150-mm water main, and 5mm thickness for the 250-mm water main to meet the Fully Deteriorated Pipe condition of the ASTM F1216 standard. A robotic cutter was used to drill and reinstate the service lines, which were only partially blocked and easily visible, as their locations were also marked prior to lining. In addition to the printed record produced by the spray-rig software, confirming the volume (resin thickness) applied, a video inspection was also performed to validate proper installation, especially around the service line connection. The water main was then disinfected as per AWWA standards, pressure and water tightness tests were performed and water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The main was reconnected only at one extremity, creating an artificial dead-end until final test results were known. All tests results came back negative. Water service was always restored at the end of each day for sanitary use even though it was not considered potable. Backfilling and reinstatement of the road surface followed. Lessons learned Lessons were learned from the application in Vaudreil-Dorion: 1. Waving of the resin on the main wall is amplified and appears worse than it actually is. During the last week of work, the outside temperature was down to –15C. It was found that warming the compressed air used at the tip of the spray gun allowed for the proper dispersion of the resin. 2. As the resin was sprayed in both directions in the water main, coverage of the near surrounding of the service lines was excellent, preventing water infiltration between the liner and the main. 3. The water distribution system mapping was quite accurate. However, an additional access pit was required to negotiate a 90-degree bend that was not marked on the original drawings.

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Water Main Rehabilitation

Electomagnetic probe.

4. Because the 250-mm-diameter water main was very fragile, a bypass was installed between hydrants only to regulate the pressure between the two zones, thus preventing water main breaks during the opening-closing operation of the valves. 5. Polymeric resin can be sprayed manually for larger transmission water mains. As an example and to meet the CIPP standard, calculations show that 14 mm of polymeric resin would be needed to structurally reinforce a 750mm-diameter transmission water main. Structural evaluation A structural evaluation of the water mains had been done several weeks previously, using an electromagnetic probe to measure the wall thickness loss. The

worst area observed showed a 55% material loss. For such an evaluation, no excavation was required, only the dismantling of the fire hydrants’ inner mechanism. However, the probe can also be used right after cleaning and prior to lining. Traveling at about 10 metres/minute, the probe is inserted from one end of the water main to the other to determine, in situ, the water main’s wall thickness loss, and thus its true structural condition. CARE program To maximize water main rehabilitation budgets, Acuro has developed the CARE (Clean-Assess-Rehabilitate) program to provide assurance and guidance about the level of rehabilitation required for each water main. The work steps are as follows:

1. Clean the water main in the morning. 2. Determine on-site the wall thickness loss using the probe. 3. Spray the desired thickness of polymeric resin in the afternoon to provide a non- to a full-structural rehabilitation. A step-by-step program is feasible since as many coats of resin as required can be applied to obtain the desired protection, as guided by the results of the evaluation. Managers now have the option to rehabilitate the water mains in a nonstructural fashion (i.e. 1-mm thickness) and use the on-site evaluation to determine the water main’s true structural state and increase the resin thickness when required. Conclusion To date, the City of Vaudreuil-Dorion has not experienced any water quality complaints or leaks or breaks on the lined water mains, despite the polar temperatures of this winter. Stephane Joseph, B.A. (Env.), is with Acuro Inc. E-mail: sjoseph@acuro.ca

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Containment of a salt byproduct at a potash mine Dewind One Pass Trencher installing sump station.

arge potash mining operations are being carried out in multiple sites by a company in Canada’s western provinces. At one of the mining operations, tailings containing large concentrations of salt are consolidated in massive piles in holding areas. Surrounded by dykes, these piles create a contamination hazard as, over time, the salt contained in these tail-


ings slowly leaches into the ground. Percolating downward into a substrata of sandstone, the leachate locates cracks or fissures in the sandstone and then, under pressure, begins to migrate outward beyond the containment site area. DeWind One Pass Trenching’s task at this mine location was to install a trench as part of the containment/control system that would effectively prevent the

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movement of the leachate offsite where it would create an environmental hazard to surrounding farmland. MDH Engineering Solutions designed a system of deep interceptor shafts drilled every 3.048 metres to a depth of 22.86 metres into the sandstone substrata and then filled with sand. As the salty plume migrated through the sandstone it would make contact with a sand filled shaft and, being under tremendous pressure, would rise up the shaft toward the surface. Once near the surface it would be captured, channeled and redirected back into the containment area by way of a continuously running trench. The trench was designed to gravity flow the contaminated water toward a sump and then pump the liquid back inside the containment site. In effect, what MDH Engineering Solutions designed was an elegantly engineered closed loop system where migrating contaminants would be continuously captured and returned back behind the containment dyke. However, the construction of the trench portion of the capture system

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Groundwater Protection posed some difficulties. The high moisture content of the soil, with its tendency to collapse, would make construction not only difficult but, in fact, hazardous. The trench system would by necessity have to follow the outside perimeter of

maintaining soil stability in and around the construction zone, especially close to the dykes. Schnell found what he was looking for in the One-Pass Trenching system developed by DeWind, of Holland,

Because the One-Pass Trencher supports the opening as it cuts and simultaneously backfills the trench with sand, gravel, or iron, a collapse is essentially eliminated. the dykes that surrounded the mountainous piles of tailings. These soil dykes could themselves collapse while excavating the capture trench. A conventional open excavation construction method was likely to cause the very kind of cave-in that the site manager, Lorne Schnell from Morsky Industrial Services, feared. “Basically there was no room to dig a trench this close to the dyke�, he said. Schnell knew this project was going to require a construction method that would minimize soil disturbance, thus

Michigan. It is more of an incision-like cut that displaces minimal amounts of soil. Because the One-Pass Trencher supports the opening as it cuts and simultaneously backfills the trench with sand, gravel, or iron, a collapse is essentially eliminated. In this project the backfill was 2NS sand placed over HDPE-SRD11 slotted pipe which was placed at the bottom of the trench, all in the same pass. The project remains ongoing as work is discontinued in the winter months and restarts in late spring.

DeWind has to date installed well over 2,000 metres (6,561 ft) of trench to a laser precise depth that declines slightly over distance, allowing the effect of gravity to direct the flow of captured contaminants downward toward the sump pumping station. The station itself was placed in position by the One-Pass Trencher. Other important advantages inherent in the DeWind One-Pass approach include the reduction of spoils requiring management and removal. A reduced amount of soil is removed to cut the trench and some of this soil actually is repositioned right back over the cut. Furthermore, because there is no open excavation, there is an inherent safety factor built right in which makes the installation risk free to on-site personnel. The work done in the construction of the trench at the mining operation’s tailings site was less costly, more precise and installed significantly quicker than would have been possible if a conventional approach had been attempted. For more information, E-mail: cbusher@dewindonepass.com

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Decommissioning and redeveloping a small arms manufacturing facility site By Doug Dolby

Original building section of the Dominion Arsenal Lindsay occupied by the brass foundry and coal gasification plant. Upon its final use as a manufacturing facility this portion of the building manufactured inner tubes for various types of equipment.

n September of 2006, Terrasan finalized the purchase and acquisition of a 60 acre parcel of land known as the Dominion Arsenal Lindsay and began the appropriate steps to redevelop this historic property. The property was utilized for industrial manufacturing purposes, from the construction in 1914 of a small arms manufacturing facility, owned and operated by the Canadian government, up until its closure in June 2005 as a rubber manufacturing facility. When Terrasan acquired the derelict and under-utilized property, it housed nine interconnected buildings, totaling approximately 200,000 ft2, three outbuildings, one partially-submerged concrete munitions’ test firing range, and eight former munitions’ storage cells. The property is located in the south end of Lindsay, Ontario, and is surrounded by residential, parkland and institutional property uses. Although the site was zoned General Employment, the City of Kawartha Lakes recognized that it was not a long-term General Employment use site. As a result, Terrasan put forth a site development plan that encompasses a


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mixed use plan, incorporating residential, light industrial, commercial and institutional land uses. The proposed architectural design is based on stewardship concepts which will focus on environmental responsibility, resource efficiency, occupant comfort and well-being, and community development. The pre-purchase, due diligence review completed by Terrasan, prior to acquiring the site, revealed that the various decommissioning works required for redevelopment would cost in excess of $5 million and would include hazardous material abatement, structural demolition and subsurface soil and groundwater remediation. Upon a thorough review of the overall site conditions, including salvage opportunities, implementation of building reclamation strategies, resource material recovery opportunities, as well as implementing sustainable remedial strategies, the site decommissioning costs were calculated to be well below the original estimate of $5 million. Terrasan has completed an extensive hazardous material abatement program, which involved the removal of asbestos containing materials (ACMs), mercury,

polychlorinated biphenyls, and hazardous chemicals located throughout the building. The asbestos abatement work component included the containment and removal of the asbestos-containing pipe insulation wrapping located along the 20 ft high ceilings throughout the nine interconnected buildings and the three outbuildings, and the subsurface aerosol boiler pipe wrapping located within subsurface trenches located throughout the property. PCB decommissioning at the site meant the removal of all light ballasts, and transformer decommissioning. Demolition activities took place in 2007. On-site structural demolition was performed by mechanical means, utilizing tracked excavators with various demolition-related attachments such as grapples, shears and pulverizers to expedite efficiency. Demolition activities adhered to the Waste Audit Report. The purpose of the waste audit was to determine the amount of demolition material which could be reduced, reused and recycled. It was determined that approximately 99% of the demolition material, including all concrete,

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Proposed Master Plan Concept looking from the southeast.

brick, concrete block, ferrous and nonferrous metal, and wood, could be reimplemented into the new development plan or sold as processed recyclicate. A review of the subsurface soil and groundwater conditions at the site revealed that contaminants of concern consisted of chlorinated solvents, petro-

leum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various heavy metals. At this time, Terrasan is in the process of reviewing the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of utilizing various remedial strategies. The remedial options being considered for the project are: ex-situ bioremediation in constructed bio cells;

ex-situ and in situ chemical oxidization; groundwater “pump and treat” through installed extraction wells; and solidification/stabilization of the surficial soils impacted with heavy metals. To expedite the development process, Terrasan has sub-divided the property into a 20 acre parcel and a 40 acre parcel. The rationale behind this methodology is to seek two separate Records of Site Conditions (RSC). The 20 acre parcel of land, located to the northwest of the property, housed the industrial buildings and, therefore, subsurface soil and groundwater impacts are more predominant in this area of the site. The 40 acre parcel located to the south of the property has remained primarily untouched by industrial usage. Completing two separate RSCs will enable development to commence via a tiered approach by initiating development within the 40 acre parcel and remediating the 20 acre parcel in tandem. Doug Dolby is with Terrasan Group of Companies. E-mail: doug@terrasan.com

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Site Remediation

New Canadian process approved to detoxify chlorinated solvents ue to their pervasive use in industrialized countries, persistence in the environment, and poor disposal techniques prior to regulations, chlorinated solvents rank among the most severe and common groundwater contaminants in the world. Recently, Environment Canada approved a new method, which uses micro-organisms to eradicate these toxic compounds. It is built on a sophisticated, mixed culture of naturally-occurring anaerobic bacteria. One particular species converts poisonous chlorinated solvents into benign compounds. Known as bio-augmentation, the remediation technology was pioneered by Dr. Elizabeth Edwards, a chemical engineering professor at the University of Toronto, and her colleagues at Geosyntec Consultants. Dr. Edwards’ discoveries and innovations were funded largely


Students from Dr. Edwards’ lab visit Geosyntec in Guelph; Dr Edwards is in the front row on the left.

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Site Remediation

Reductive dechlorination.

Electron micrograph of the Dehalococcoides in KB-1.

by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council (NSERC). Drawing on post-graduate students from Dr. Edwards’ team, Geosyntec formed a subsidiary, SiREM Labs, to commercialize the technology. Since 2003, SiREM has deployed the mixed culture, dubbed KB-1®, to clean up more than 150 contaminated sites in the United States and Europe. According to David Major of Geosyntec, there are tens of thousands of sites in North America, contaminated with various forms of chlorinated solvents. This class of chemical compounds includes: perchloroethene or PCE with

four chlorine atoms; trichloroethene or TCE with three; dichloroethene or DCE with two; and monchloroethene (or vinyl chloride) with just one chlorine substituent. Vinyl chloride, used to make plastics, is a known carcinogen. PCE, or “Perc” is a common dry cleaning solvent. PCE and TCE, even in tiny concentrations measured in parts per billion, are suspected of causing cancer as well as other severe ailments, such as liver, central nervous system, respiratory and kidney diseases. The military, along with the automotive, aerospace and electronics sectors,


employs chlorinated solvents as industrial-strength degreasers. At one time, they were even used to remove caffeine from coffee. Chlorinated solvents were first synthesized chemically in the 1930s, but it took almost 50 years before the adverse health effects were recognized. Prior to the establishment of environmental regulations in the late 1970s, the compounds were simply dumped in open pits, based on the misunderstood notion that they would simply degrade in the presence of sunlight. The reality is that chlorinated solvents are heavy and generally insoluble compounds that sink well below the water table. Yet they are sufficiently soluble to contaminate potable water in sub-surface aquifers. Today, for the most part, chlorinated solvents are safely recovered and recycled. But the legacy of decades of improper disposal methods is an enormous clean-up challenge. Prior to the advent of bio-augmentation, one of the most common methods of groundwater remediation was “pump and treat” technology. According to Dr. continued overleaf...

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Site Remediation Edwards, bio-augmentation is less than half the cost, can work quite a bit faster, and requires far less energy, resulting in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, KB-1 is capable of destroying contaminants, whereas “pump and treat” merely moves them from one medium to another. The origins of Dr. Edwards’ bio-augmentation technique date back to 1989, when Cornell University research indicated that PCE and TCE could be completely dechlorinated to non-toxic ethene in anaerobic digester sludge. A short time later, Dr. Edwards and colleagues located an Ontario site, where large amounts of ethene were detected. Researchers uncovered a microbial culture, capable of rapidly degraded TCE, that would ultimately become KB-1. When KB-1 was first enriched in the lab, the precise identity of the dechlorinating microorganisms was unknown. Several different microbes have since been identified that derive energy for growth from dechlorination, but most are unable to fully dechlorinate PCE and TCE. Further research showed that full dechlorination is unique to a group

of anaerobic microbes, called Dehalococcoides, initially identified in 1997. Dehalococcoides are unusually tiny anaerobic bacteria, about 500 nanometres in diameter, much smaller than E. coli. They grow by consuming hydrogen - an electron donor that is their only energy source - and breathing chlorinated solvents, which serve as electron acceptors. As the electron acceptors are reduced, the chlorine atoms are replaced by hydrogen atoms, thereby converting chlorinated solvents into non-toxic ethene, also more commonly known as ethylene. The researchers discovered that KB1 harbours at least two distinct strains of Dehalococcoides. Regardless of the strains, they confirmed that the rate of dechlorination is significantly faster in mixed cultures than it is in pure cultures. Indeed, in the mixed culture of KB-1, the dechlorinating microbes will double every one to three days. In 2008, KB-1 successfully completed the New Substances Notification (NSN) approval process under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. In fact, KB-1 is the first and only mixed culture to date approved for use

by Environment Canada under NSN. As Dr. Edwards notes, Canada’s climactic and geological conditions are quite different from those in the United States and Europe, where KB-1 has been applied successfully for more than five years. She says the unique nature of every contaminated site is probably the biggest challenge confronting those who design and engineer bio-remediation solutions. Each site requires a customized approach because of differing characteristics related to the flow of groundwater, the presence of possible inhibitors, the heterogeneous mix of aquifer materials (rock, gravel, sand and clay), and the nature, amount, and distribution of toxic compounds. “You must have good characterization of the site. If you don’t know exactly what you are dealing with, how are you supposed to clean it up?”, she asks. Effective characterization, Dr. Edwards adds, also aids in determining which sites should be cleaned up first. For more information, E-mail: elizabeth.edwards@utoronto.ca

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Maude Barlow to address 2009 OWWA/OMWA annual conference

Maude Barlow

he 2009 Ontario Water Works Association/Ontario Municipal Water Association joint annual conference and tradeshow will be held at the Toronto Congress Centre, May 3 - 6. Keynote session speakers include the Ontario Minister of the Environment, John Gerretsen, and Maude Barlow, Senior Advisor on Water to the Presi-



dent of the UN General Assembly. Insight into managing today’s challenges will be offered by Lou Di Gironimo, General Manager of Toronto Water. Technical sessions will cover treatment, distribution, university research, management, young professionals, public affairs, small systems, source water protection, water efficiency, climate change, groundwater treatment, EA and master plans, and metering issues. The Pipe Tapping Demonstration returns this year with teams from Ottawa and Toronto. The winning utility will be eligible for the AWWA ACE 2009 competition in San Diego this June. Also returning is the Water Taste competition. A “Water For People” fund-raising golf tournament and a tour of the Lakeview Water Treatment Facility are also featured events. This year, operators can take advantage of the special reduced rate offered

John Gerretson

at the conference for the Mandatory Course for Drinking Water Operators and Water Quality Analysts. The Young Professionals will again be holding a Water Cup Challenge and a fun event of networking. The event also features a 100 booth tradeshow, organized by the Ontario Water Works Equipment Association; it is open Sunday evening, May 3, and May 4 and 5. For more information, visit www.owwa.ca, call (416) 231-1555, or E-mail: waterinfo@owwa.ca

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Wastewater Treatment

Economical wastewater lagoon aeration system By Jan Korzeniowski mall municipalities predominantly use conventional lagoons (stabilization ponds) for municipal wastewater treatment. Many industrial operations, including food processing and pulp and paper production, also use lagoons for process and sanitary wastewater treatment. With adequate design and retention time, lagoons provide acceptable wastewater treatment with a substantial reduction of nutrients and bacteria. The operating costs of conventional lagoons are low and the treatment process is suitable for varying wastewater flow rates and biological loading. However, there are several essential drawbacks with this treatment process. In the Canadian environment, with long periods of low temperatures, conventional lagoons have to provide a lengthy residence time for the wastewater to accomplish adequate treatment. As a result, large areas of land are required to accommodate the lagoons. The location of the lagoons is sensitive in relation to urban and industrial developments, recreational facilities and transportation corridors due to a potential smell. The selection of land is also critical, as the local near-surface hydrogeological conditions will have a direct and profound impact on the lagoon construction costs. A low groundwater table and high ground elevation not subject to surface water flooding are essential conditions for the lagoon site location. The local soil quality also has a direct impact on the lagoon construction costs. Good-quality local clay can be used as a liner to accomplish a watertight structure that will meet environmental requirements for wastewater seepage control. Importing clay will increase the construction costs. Other options for construction of a watertight structure are synthetic liners or bentonite, soil/cement mixture, concrete or asphalt liners. These are all usually more expensive than a local and imported clay liner. The size and location of the land required are often the most critical factors


66 | March 2009

for lagoon development. In Alberta, a typical piece of land is governed by the wastewater retention capacity, which requires a minimum of four days for anaerobic cells (two minimum), 60 days for a facultative cell and 12 months for a storage cell. This results in tens of acres of land needed for a lagoon for a village or small town, and hundreds of acres for a town with a population of a few thousand people. The treatment efficiency of activated lagoons is related to the lagoon hydraulic retention time; to obtain high treatment efficiency, the hydraulic retention time must be long. That requires a large quan-

tity of air supply to keep the wastewater solids in suspension and to provide enough oxygen supply for adequate biological treatment activity in the lagoon. Efficient and less costly lagoon aeration can be provided with a novel aeration system and treatment process that operates as an activated sludge treatment process with activated sludge recycle, and that can be designed as a secondary or tertiary treatment process. The wastewater aeration is primarily accomplished outside a wastewater lagoon, although some aeration is continued inside the lagoon or in an aeration tank. The wastewater aeration is pro-

Figure 1: Wastewater aeration system schematic.

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Wastewater Treatment vided by a circulation pump and an air aspirator-mixer that has a high-efficiency air supply and oxygen transfer to the wastewater. The pump is a standard wastewater effluent pump. A non-clog wastewater pump is not required. The air aspiratormixer is a venturi-type device with preand post-spiral mixers. The basic components of the aeration system are shown in Figure 1; they include a circulation pump, an air aspirator-mixer and an aeration tank. Wastewater flows by gravity to the aeration tank and to the circulation pump. The circulation pump supplies the influent wastewater to the air aspirator-mixer under a pressure usually between 15 and 30 psi. A vacuum condition is developed in the air aspirator, which allows air to flow into the device and mix with the wastewater. The pre- and post-spiral mixers promote the air and wastewater mixing and transfer of oxygen into the wastewater. The influent wastewater is usually settled raw wastewater or a mixture of settled raw wastewater and aerated wastewater or activated sludge, or both


recycled from the treatment process of which the aeration system is a major component. The aeration system can provide a continuous aeration, an intermittent aeration and a continuous mixing, and a continuous mixing without aeration of the wastewater, which result in a continuous aerobic, intermittent aerobic and anoxic, and continuous anoxic condition respectively. Also, wastewater prior to aeration can be supplied to the upper part of the aeration tank as a source of carbon for denitrification. The aeration system, with proper process controls, can provide BOD removal, and nitrification and denitrification processes in a single tank. This aeration process can be applied to the aeration of existing lagoons to increase their capacity several times or to new lagoons with very small land area requirements for a continuous or intermittent discharge of treated wastewater to the environment. Simple improvements can be carried out to increase an existing lagoon’s capacity. A single-cell lagoon can be provided with recirculation pipes that will

supply settled wastewater to the aeration system and discharge aerated wastewater back to the lagoon. Proper location of the supply and discharge pipes in the lagoon will ensure a recycle of activated sludge from the lagoon to the aeration system. Thus, the treatment process can operate as an activated sludge process with a sludge recycle. An additional aeration tank can be provided with the aeration system to enhance the treatment efficiency. This is primarily desirable in cold climates. The flow of the wastewater from the lagoon to the aeration system can be by gravity, to minimize the complexity and cost of the aeration system. The lagoon will have three different operating zones: primary settling zone, aeration and sludge recycle zone, and secondary settling zone. Many existing lagoons are provided with anaerobic, facultative and storage cells. The proposed aeration treatment system can be installed in the facultative cell. In an existing lagoon consisting of two cells, one cell can be partitioned to create a primary settling cell, a clarificontinued overleaf...

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Wastewater Treatment cation cell, an activated sludge return cell and a storage cell. The other existing cell can be kept in operation after the aeration system is installed as a second storage cell, or closed and reclaimed. This arrangement offers good control of the treatment processes involved: primary settling, activated sludge recycle and clarification. The first storage cell can be used for future expansion of the aeration system and the second storage cell will allow for flexibility in an intermittent discharge of the treated wastewater to the environment, if this is necessary or beneficial. An additional aeration tank can be provided with the aeration system to enhance the treatment efficiency. This is primarily desirable in cold climates. In another alternative for the aeration system, one existing lagoon cell is partitioned into a primary settling cell, a clarification cell and a storage cell. Also, the aeration system is provided with an aeration tank and a partial settling tank for recycle of activated sludge to the aeration system. With this system, high efficiency and control can be accomplished over the BOD removal, and

Big Trout Lake lagoon.

nitrification and partial denitrification are also possible. The wastewater flow through the treatment process is primarily by gravity, except the aeration part through the air aspirator-mixers, which provides the system with simplicity, reliability and low capital and operating costs. Future expansion of the system can be accomplished by construction of second primary settling and clarification cells in the storage cell.

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The second cell of the existing lagoon can be used as an additional storage cell to allow for more flexible intermittent discharge of the treated wastewater to the environment, if necessary. In a modification of this system, anaerobic and anoxic tanks are added upstream of the aeration system for removal of phosphorous and nitrogen. The aeration tank can provide BOD removal and nitrification, and partial denitrification, and the anaerobic tank can provide phosphorous removal. The denitrification process is completed in the anoxic tank. The aeration system ensures good control over the aeration and mixing of the wastewater in the aeration tank with control of the air supply volume and flow rate, without affecting the wastewater mixing efficiency due to the use of the circulation pump. Also, the system provides for a supply of wastewater as a carbon course to the upper part of the aeration tank. Such operation facilitates conditions for adequate aeration to accomplish BOD removal and nitrification in the lower part of the aeration tank and partial denitrification in the upper part. Additional treatment processes are available for further treatment of the wastewater for land irrigation and industrial processes, and even for domestic use for flushing toilets, if allowed by future regulations. Jan Korzeniowski is with J.K. Engineering Ltd. E-mail: jkeng@telus.net

68 | March 2009

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Penticton to host 2009 BCWWA annual conference and tradeshow

he British Columbia Water and Waste Association’s 2009 annual conference and tradeshow will be held at the Penticton Trade & Convention Centre, April 25 - 29. Maude Barlow, Senior Advisor on Water to the President of the UN General Assembly, will present the keynote address. Technical session topics include:



drinking water supply and treatment and distribution, small drinking water systems, drinking water disinfection, drinking water system management, water conservation, water sustainability, cross connection control, wastewater collection and treatment, wastewater management and reuse, small wastewater systems, decentralized wastewater systems, organic

residuals processing and recycling, stormwater management, drought management, municipal operations, asset management, security issues, emerging technologies, operations, analytical technologies, service delivery, governance and funding, Water For People projects and programs. This year the conference will include technical tours of the Summerland Water Treatment Plant, the Thirsk Dam, and the Westbank Irrigation District. Also there will be a Water For People wine tour. The event also offers a number of competitions for operations personnel, including large pump tear down, small pump tear down, and a “Top Ops” knowledge contest. There will also be a tradeshow. For more information, visit www.bcwwa.org, call (604) 433-4389, or 1 (877) 433-4389.

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Emergency Response

Proper training and planning essential for cyanide spill and release response By Cliff Holland yanide is a systemic poison that targets organ systems sensitive to low oxygen levels, such as the central nervous system (brain), cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels), as well as the pulmonary system (lungs). Depending on the dose-response relationship, an acute effect can cause permanent damage due to the lack of oxygen. These facts may conjure up fears that cyanide is going to ‘get you’! And, it may get you, if you don’t understand its complexity, as well as respect its physical and chemical properties. The International Cyanide Management Code was developed to help reduce the potential exposure of workers and communities to harmful concentrations of cyanide, to limit releases of cyanide to the environment, and to enhance response capability in the event of an exposure, spill, or release. The Code addresses the gold mining industry’s process production, transportation, storage and use of cyanide. It also focuses on accident prevention, training, emergency response and exercising procedures and plans. By contrast, several decades ago, high schools that taught metal-work had open boxes of sodium cyanide for students to use when they were working on projects that required case hardened steel! The three golden rules for responding to cyanide exposure, spill or release are: • Never assume. • Suit-up for toxicity. • Work clean. Many Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN), Haz-Mat, and Industrial Emergency Response teams are trained on cyanide. However, it is often without actually using cyanide, to demonstrate its chemical properties, reactions, and how to modify conditions, or how to stop the off gassing of hydrogen cyanide gas. Responders, who have made a split-second decision, that has made a difference, realize the value of this knowledge, expe-


72 | March 2009

How to identify contamination on crusted snow. Photo courtesy Goldcorp, Musselwhite Mine, Ontario.

rience and hands-on training. They also realize, through exercising emergency response plans, that an organization must be co-ordinated to handle a cyanide event. Where time is critical, they must deploy responders and medical personnel, as well as being prepared with supplies and equipment. Being able to smell cyanide is not a reliable indicator for identifying the level of danger. Some people report that they can smell or get a slight taste in their mouth, when exposed to low concentrations of cyanide; others do not smell the cyanide. Therefore, it is important to realize that people who are demonstrating non-traditional behaviour may be affected by the toxic properties of cyanide. Signs of serious poisoning include cold, clammy, heavily sweating skin, redness of the skin, and a grey/blue discoloration of the skin, which may occur as the cyanide is impairing the body’s ability to take in oxygen. Cyanide does not have an odour in the solid state, but, if ingested or if it comes in contact with other bodily fluids such as perspiration, it becomes a systemic poison. The severity of impact to the body is based on the dose response relationship and time taken to decontaminate, administer an antidote and oxygen at the scene. Medical help is required to monitor the patient and provide the sodium ni-

trite antidote intravenously. Medical personnel must be protected, because casualties who become sick to their stomach will bring up bodily fluids that may be reacting with ingested cyanide that will be releasing highly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. Cyanide, when wet, becomes water reactive and toxic when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed. Cyanide, at a neutral pH, releases hydrogen cyanide, which is a poisonous liquid below 25.6ºC and a poisonous gas above 25.6ºC. Acute exposures can be rapidly fatal. Understand the risks and hazards, and assume nothing, protect your entry routes to the body and stay clean. These facts can be scary to responders who do not have first-hand experience with cyanide. They should be of concern to people who decide to rush in to help others without training and proper protection. Responders must understand and respect the complexities of what they are working with. When you have a strong corrosive-basic substance, you add a corrosive-acid to neutralize the base to a pH of 7. However, deciding to add an acid to neutralize cyanide would create much off gassing of poisonous hydrogen cyanide and result in an adverse condition. To reduce or stop the generation of hydrogen cyanide, a stronger base (not acid), such as a hydroxide, can be used to make the pH value of the continued on page 96...

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ACG Technology’s package treatment system offers performance and durability. It provides sewage treatment within a small footprint. Aeration, mixing and settling can be accomplished in compact, easily transported ISO containers, ideal for remote locations. Provides flexibility of adding future parallel units, an economical means of meeting the needs of any growing sewage loads. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

Coalescing oil/water separators

Anaerobic membrane bioreactor

ACG Technology’s coalescing oil/ water separators are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP and polypropylene construction. Standard systems include air operated diaphragm pump, air filter and floating skimmer. Adjustable weir and skimmer height provides optimal oil removal and minimal disposal volume. Standard range is 1 to 50 GPM. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com

ADI’s latest innovation in industrial wastewater treatment and waste-toenergy is the anaerobic membrane bioreactor, or AnMBR. This membranebased, high-rate anaerobic treatment system provides superior treatment of wastes in a small-footprint, easy-tooperate package. Tel: 800-561-2831, Fax: 506-452-7308 E-mail: systems@adi.ca Web: www.adisystemsinc.com

ACG Technology

ADI Systems

Shaft power monitor

Pumps in action

Stormwater solutions

Drive your process and your bottom line! The Emotron M20 shaft power monitor protects machines and processes against destructive overload and underload conditions. There are currently over 500,000 M20s protecting applications the world over. For more information, contact Emotron’s authorized Eastern Canadian distributor, Aquateck. Tel: 877-633-0999, Fax: 514-633-9374 E-mail: jmarotta@aquateck-e.com Web: www.aquateck.com

PeriFlo ChemTuff pumps solve problems with troublesome diaphragm metering pumps feeding potassium permanganate. Undissolved crystalline potassium permanganate causes repeated clogging of pump ball check assemblies and backpressure valves, resulting in excessive fouling, extensive downtime, and complex and costly maintenance. The solution – ChemTuff Peristaltic Pumps!!! Tel: 877-633-0999, Fax: 514-633-9374 E-mail: jmarotta@aquateck-e.com Web: www.aquateck.com

Armtec provides a wide range of CONTECH stormwater quality management systems throughout Canada. Products include VORTECHS hydrodynamic separation systems and VORTFILTER filtration systems. These systems are among the best for capturing suspended solids, oils, grit and trash from stormwater runoff. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com




Concrete arch bridges

Armtec provides BEBO concrete arch bridges in Québec, Ontario and Western Canada. Based on technology developed in Switzerland, BEBO arches are an economical alternative to cast-inplace concrete or structural steel bridges. They are available in a range of shapes with spans up to 31m. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com Armtec


On-site portable analyzers The Gasmet Dx series analyzers are designed for mobility and they can be used in a variety of different measurements. Gasmet Dx-4000 analyzers are typically used in stack emissions monitoring, catalytic process control and in a variety of different applications where multiple gas compounds need to be accurately monitored on-site. Tel: (888) 965-4700 E-mail: info@avensys.com Web: www.avensyssolutions.com Avensys

Product & Service Showcase

Package Treatment System

Remove solids and sediment

The Polychem Weda system is a selfdriven, fully submerged system using wing-mounted shredder pumps that provide superior pumping capacity to thoroughly remove solids and sediment from the bottom of rectangular or circular clarifier basins without clogging. Tel: 705-725-9377, Fax: 705-725-8279 E-mail: info@cmeti.com Web: www.cmeti.com C&M Environmental Technologies March 2009 | 73



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MBR technology The WesTech ClearLogic™ MBR, featuring Alfa Laval Hollow Sheet™ membrane technology, offers clear advantages to the MBR process, including ultra-low trans-membrane pressure, even flux distribution across the membrane and full chemical circulation during clean-in-place (CIP) operation. Tel: 705-725-9377, Fax: 705-725-8279 E-mail: info@cmeti.com Web: www.cmeti.com C&M Environmental Technologies

P roduct & Service Showcase

Lightweight plastic ventilator

Pelsue has introduced the new 1325p Axial Ventilator with Airpac 15' or 25' hose canister. This rugged ventilator is perfect for confined space entry ventilation and is available in 12 VDC or 115 VAC. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Safety Equipment

Underground stormwater management

Using large diameter corrugated steel pipe under parking areas and playgrounds is a cost-effective way to meet reduced runoff and environmental restrictions while allowing revenue producing services, recreation and commercial development. Design software is available, FREE. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca. Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

74 | March 2009

Area velocity flow meter

Grease removal system

The Sigma 910AV measures average velocity directly without the need for time-consuming flow profiling, significantly reducing the cost of installation and operation. This meter will log level and velocity data for more than 60 days without changing a battery.

Highland Tank provides you with the strongest and most reliable grease interceptors in the industry - the best alternative to a grease trap. Highland interceptors are designed to remove animal and vegetable-based fats, oil, and grease (FOG) from wastewater discharged from food service establishments.

Tel: 905-829-0030, Fax: 905-829-4701 E-mail: support@can-am.net Web: www.can-am.net

Tel: 905-829-0030, Fax: 905-829-4701 E-mail: support@can-am.net Web: www.can-am.net

Can-Am Instruments

Can-Am Instruments

New stainless steel pumps Grindex’s new stainless steel pump line combines the integrity of years of tested design with the ingenuity and durability of new technology. Inox pumps can be used in applications that would destroy their aluminum predecessors. Their stainless steel construction enables them to endure pH values from 2 – 10, making them ideal for extreme environments with highly acidic or alkaline contents. Tel: 705-431-8585, Fax: 705-431-2772 E-mail: PB@claessenpumps.com Web: www.claessenpumps.com Claessen Pumps

New calibration facility

Endress+Hauser Flowtec AG in Switzerland, the company’s new calibration facility, sets standards worldwide. The facility produces measurements that deviate no more than ±0.015 percent from the reference value – equivalent to about the contents of one champagne glass in one thousand litres of water. Endress+Hauser operates in accordance with internationally accepted standards for the accreditation of its products. Web: www.ca.endress.com Endress + Hauser

Gravity pipe design Canadian Durability Guideline for Corrugated Steel Pipe Culverts. Your location in Canada may affect the long-term performance of your infrastructure. Understanding your local environment helps you to select the steel material best suited to your site, for optimum durability and value. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Reconfigured blower Gardner Denver Centrifugal Products Group offers a Site Audit program designed to evaluate your centrifugal blower system and determine if it is optimal for your process. If your process requirements or system design have changed, a reconfigured blower could mean efficiency improvements and cost savings. Tel: 770-632-5000, Fax: 770-631-0765 E-mail: blowersolutions@ gardnerdenver.com Web: www.gardnerdenverproducts.com Gardner Denver Engineered Products

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The SXBlue II-L GPS is a compact, realtime receiver that delivers true sub-meter performance every second to your application. Its integrated lightweight design makes it the ideal choice for a variety of industry applications including GIS, forestry, mining, utilities, agriculture, survey and environmental, at a price you can afford. Tel: 800-463-4363, Fax: 514-354-6948 E-mail: info@geneq.com Web: www.geneq.com Geneq

Water reservoir & tank mixer

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in bio-solids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com Web: www.greatario.com

PAX Mixer is a very innovative, simple mixer designed to mix water storage reservoirs and standpipes. It offers superior mixing performance with little energy consumption, easy installation, low capital cost. It eliminates stagnation and stratification, minimizes residual loss, prevents nitrification. Tel: 905-660-9775, Fax: 905-660-9744 E-mail: michael@h2flow.com Web: www.h2flow.com

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

H2Flow Tanks & Systems

Mini water level indicator

Level and temperature meter

Web-based monitoring system

The little dipper is a small, back pack sized water level indicator used for measuring the depth of water in wells, boreholes and standpipes. It will signal water with a bright LED light and solid buzzer tone, allowing the user to make water level measurements accurate to 1/100th ft or to each millimetre. It signals when contact is made with water; the water shorts the probe tip and body to complete a circuit. Tel: 800-331-2032, Fax: 905-634-9657 E-mail: info@heroninstruments.com Web: www.heroninstruments.com

The Conductivity Plus Level and Temperature Meter enables accurate measurements of conductivity, water level and temperature in wells, boreholes, stand pipes and open bodies of water. It can be used to profile conductivity and temperature to depths of 1,000ft (300m).

The HOBO U30/Wi-Fi Remote Monitoring System is a web-based monitoring system that provides real-time, remote access to energy and environmental data over any Wi-Fi network. HOBOlink™ is a new web-enabled software platform that can be used to access current and historical data, set alarm notifications and relay activations, and control the system from their computer. The HOBO U30/Wi-Fi provides around-the-clock monitoring of various types of renewable energy systems.

Heron Instruments

Heron Instruments

Tel: 800-331-2032, Fax: 905-634-9657 E-mail: info@heroninstruments.com Web: www.heroninstruments.com

Web: www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientific

Water hammer

Chopper pumps

Klorigen on-site generators are a viable alternative to pressurized chlorine gas cylinders and bulk sodium hypochlorite. They produce sodium hypochlorite at a 10 - 12 % concentration, with capacities ranging from 50 to 20,000 lbs of equivalent chlorine per day. Tel: 905-286-4846, Fax: 905-286-5805 E-mail: instrumentation@ johnmeunier.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com

Water hammer can occur in large-scale piping systems when fluid flows are suddenly interrupted, e.g. due to rapid valve closing/opening or pump stops. Effects can range from annoying noises to significant damage to pipes, pumps and valves. KSB’s free-of-charge brochure shows how effective surge-control measures help to avoid this phenomenon. Tel: 905-568-9200 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca

John Meunier

KSB Pumps

Landia chopper pumps solve the toughest problems when pumping difficult-to-handle liquids with high solid contents. Chop and reduce solids particle size while pumping with our special knife system. Eliminate clogging problems and prevent costly breakdowns. Landia chopper pumps are operating in: raw unscreened effluents, food industry effluents, paper mills, slurries and sludges, and much more. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: epsl@telus.net Landia

Sodium hypochlorite generator


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Product & Service Showcase

Sub-meter mapping receiver



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Geomembrane GeoFlex Geomembrane is a unique blend of virgin polymers and additives that have been optimized to deliver flexibility, elongation, cold temperature resistance, longterm UV stability, and advanced chemical resistance. Layfield’s GeoFlex will consistently perform to the highest standards available in the industry. Tel: 800-840-2884, Fax: 780-455-5218 E-mail: ese@layfieldgroup.com Web: www.layfieldgroup.com

P roduct & Service Showcase

Layfield Group

Sludge pumps

Mass flowmeter

Watson-Marlow Bredel positive displacement pumps are the perfect choice for hard sludge handling applications. With operating pressure to 232 psi and flow rates to 350 gpm, they save time and money by successfully handling the toughest applications. SPX hose pumps are the perfect choice for corrosives, abrasives, shear sensitive fluids, high viscosity fluids, high density fluids, large solids, and stringy material. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com Web: www.metconeng.com

The Gas Feeder system is comprised of a mass flowmeter specially designed to offer high accuracy control and measurement of gas. This unit has an integral valve which accepts a remote set point for flow control. A flow indicator provides indication of flow and has a needle valve for manual control. A two stage regulator provides a constant pressure regardless of inlet pressure fluctuations. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com Web: www.metconeng.com

Metcon Engineering

Metcon Engineering

Wireless-compatible transducer

Transducers ready in two days

Pressure Systems has added a wirelesscompatible model to its comprehensive waterMONITOR line of KPSI™ Transducers to be used for high accuracy measurement of water resources in environments where the transducer is permanently installed and used with wireless transmitters to broadcast data. Tel: 800-328-3665, Fax: 757-865-8744 E-mail: sales@pressuresystems.com Web: www.pressuresystems.com

Pressure Systems' highly reliable, hydrostatic and submersible 700, 705 and 750 KPSI™ Transducer models are now built and ready to ship in just two days, significantly reducing facility downtime associated with a transducer’s failure. Tel: 800-328-3665, Fax: 757-865-8744 E-mail: sales@pressuresystems.com Web: www.pressuresystems.com

Pressure Systems

Pressure Systems

Laboratory cylinder The 4000 ml ACCUDRAW cylinder, of high clarity polypropylene, offers easy-to-read blue graduations, large, nondrip pouring spout and removable base for easy storage and washing. Chemical and high temperature resistant, this cylinder meets all requirements of CFR 21 (FDA) section 177.1520 and ISO 6706 standards.

Site investigations

Tel: 800-776-6580, Fax: 905-333-8746 E-mail: primary@primaryfluid.com Web: primaryfluid.com

RMSS specializes in difficult access site investigations. Our equipment is easily broken down into helicopter, ATV and man portable packages so you can get your job done without huge mobilization costs. Soil sampling, monitoring wells, geo-technical testing, we go anywhere. Tel: 604-947-RMSS (7677) Fax: 604-947-9500 Web: www.rmsoil.com

Primary Fluid Systems

Rocky Mountain Soil Sampling

76 | March 2009

Glass calibration cylinders ACCUDRAW cylinders are ideal for the calibration of metering pumps, batch systems and for handling hazardous chemicals. Standard sizes from 100 20,000 ml; variety of end flanges and port connections available; acrylic outer shield; custom designs available. Tel: 800-776-6580, Fax: 905-333-8746 E-mail: primary@primaryfluid.com Web: primaryfluid.com Primary Fluid Systems

Municipal chemical injection

SAF-T-FLO has what operators need for safe and successful chemical injection. Our large inventory of high quality equipment and ability to solve your simple and complex problems means you get the right equipment for your specific needs. Tel: 800-957-2383, Fax: 714-632-3350 E-mail: info@saftflo.com Web: www.saftflo.com SAF-T-FLO Chemical Injection

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BTP plants

Filter cartridges

Sanitherm, a division of Peak Energy Services, has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, preplumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint! Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: saneng@sanitherm.com Web: www.sanitherm.com Sanitherm, a division of Peak Energy Services

Sapphire is the exclusive representative for the Resetilov Biological Treatment Process wastewater package plants in Canada. These BTP plants are extremely popular in Europe and can handle high flow volumes within a very small footprint. These plants produce exceptional effluent quality, are inexpensive and easy to operate. Tel: 403-537-8470, Fax: 403-537-8479 E-mail: info@sapphire-group.ca Web: www.sapphire-group.ca Sapphire Group

Heavy industrial gear units

Grit chamber

Levelogger Junior

The Smith & Loveless PISTA® Grit Chamber maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies over a wide range of daily flows because of its exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete particles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in downstream basins, channels, weirs and piping. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

The new LTC Levelogger Junior provides the low cost convenience of three measurement parameters in one probe. It combines a datalogger, memory for 16,000 sets of readings, 5-year battery, pressure transducer, and temperature and conductivity sensors, in a small waterproof housing. Tel: 905-873-2255, 800-661-2023 Fax: 905-873-1992, 800-516-9081 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web: www.solinst.com

The in-house development of SEWEurodrive’s new XSeries heavy industrial gear units is nearly unrivaled with its fine size graduation that covers the medium torque range from 43,000 to 129,000 ft-lb. The large number of pre-defined accessories offers a high degree of flexibility for adapting to a broad range of application situations, with a minimum of components at maximum utility. Tel: 905-791-1553, Fax: 905-791-2999 E-mail: marketing@sew-eurodrive.ca Web: www.sew-eurodrive.ca SEW-Eurodrive

Cleantech funding available If you have an innovative clean technology, Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC) wants to hear from you. The SD Tech Fund™ is open for Statements of Interest from February 25 to April 22, 2009. SDTC supports the development and demonstration of clean technologies by Canadian companies. Visit the funding section of our website for more information on how to apply. Tel.: (613) 234-6313 E-mail: applications@sdtc.ca Web: www.sdtc.ca Sustainable Development Technology Canada


Controlling contaminated groundwater Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wall for groundwater containment and control. It is a new design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills assisted in developing the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: info@waterloo-barrier.com Web: www. waterloo-barrier.com Waterloo Barrier

Absolute rated POLY-PLEAT cartridges meet or exceed the three-log (99.9%) removal requirements described in National Sanitation Foundation Standard 53 for cyst-sized particles. For this reason, POLY-PLEAT filter cartridges are ideal to control cryptosporidium, giardia cysts and other harmful microorganisms to help ensure cyst-free drinking water. Tel: 800-565-5278, Fax: 905-820-4015 E-mail: sales@service-filtration.com Web: www.service-filtration.com Service Filtration

Solinst Canada

Disposable bailers Waterra's Clear PVC EcoBailers are available in three sizes, 0.5" OD, 0.7" OD and 1.5" OD x 36" in length. These are high quality disposable bailers for quality sampling results. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: waterra@idirect.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

March 2009 | 77

Product & Service Showcase

Membrane bioreactor



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Official Show Guide For:

Canadian Environmental

The 17th Annual

Conference & Tradeshow

April 20 - 21, 2009


Metro Toronto Convention Centre - South Building o-organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, CANECT is the largest event of its kind in Canada, typically attracting some 2,000 tradeshow visitors and conference delegates. Conference delegates and tradeshow visitors are a high quality audience of senior people responsible for environmental engineering, regulations and compliance issues.


CANECT 2009 will again be co-located in the same hall with Health & Safety Canada, an annual tradeshow of the Industrial Accident Prevention Association (IAPA). This annual show attracts over 6,000 delegates, including those with EH&S and senior management responsibilities. (Visit www.iapa.ca for details) Combined, CANECT and Health & Safety Canada are expected to attract some 475 exhibiting companies and 8,000 tradeshow visitors. Tradeshow badges from either show will allow admission to both shows at no extra charge. To register for free tradeshow registration, please visit www.canect.net, or fill out and fax in the free pass that came with this copy of ES&E magazine.

Scheduled Session Topics

Environmental regulation and compliance Managing approvals and permits Proactive air emissions compliance Reducing carbon costs Environmental management standards and guidelines Managing inspectors and investigators Industrial waste and waste diversion Water and wastewater compliance Brownfields - the new rules Spills management and compliance

w w w . C A N E C T. n e t

If you would like to receive a printed CANECT conference program, please contact Darlann Passfield, Tel: 905-727-4666 (Ext 30), or Toll Free: 1-888-254-8769, Email: darlann@esemag.com. Conference details are also available at www.canect.net 78 | March 2009

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CANECT Wo rk s h o p s

Day 2 - April 21 Program: Day 2: Bonus: All CANECT registrants can attend a FREE 8 a.m. presentation by keynote speaker Tim Flannery, scientist and author of “The Weather Makers” an international best-seller on the global warming challenge which David Suzuki has called “One of the most important books of the century”

Day 1 - April 20 Program: Day 1: Bonus: All CANECT registrants can attend a FREE 8 a.m. keynote address given by Dr. Jill Bolte Taylor, neuroanatomist and author of “My Stroke of Insight.”Dr. Bolte Taylor has recently been named one of Time Magazine’s 100 Most Influential People. Her book is currently on the NY Times Bestseller list.





Industrial Brownfields: Working with the new rules This course provides registrants with a practical and proven introduction and update on complying with the new brownfields regulations; Records of Site Condition and the site assessment process, remediation and development-related issues.


Regulatory enforcement: Dealing with inspectors, investigators & prosecutors Almost any leak, spill or approvals violation can trigger an MOE IEB investigation. Where it goes from there depends very much on how well prepared you are. This proven course gives insight into proactive strategies to minimize negative outcomes for individuals and organizations.


Industrial water and wastewater regulation & compliance This course provides municipalities, MISA regulated industries and others with proven compliance strategies to deal with regulations and approvals covering water, water-taking, source water protection, Bill 133 amendments to OWRA, and proposed new model sewer-use bylaws.

Dealing with industrial Solid Waste & Waste Diversion An essential annual update on current issues in waste management and an industry guide to meeting the new regulatory and practical challenges of waste manifesting, waste diversion and product stewardship.

Reducing GHGs and cutting carbon costs Reducing GHG emissions is no longer just a matter of compliance, but of community responsibility. Attend this course to get to grips with practical steps you can take to reduce your organization’s carbon footprint. Get in touch with the drivers, the regulations and management tools that will help convert carbon reduction obligations into cost reduction opportunities.

Standards and guidelines for due diligence and environmental protection A new CANECT course offered by CEAs from Jacques Whitford illustrates how managers can use recognized Environmental Standards to improve an organization’s environmental performance and secure environmental due diligence.



Proactive Air Emissions Management This course, presented by RWDI AIR Inc. and Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP, delivers Canada’s most uptodate guide to complying with tough, new provincial and federal air emissions rules, and provides practical insights to avoid everyday complaints related to noise, odour and dust (NOD).

A2 Successful strategies for dealing with Approvals and Permits Understanding the permitting and Certificate of Approvals process is key to successful environmental management. In this course experienced professionals and MOE approvals branch staff provide proven strategies to obtain and maintain the approvals necessary to balance community and commercial needs.

Environmental Regulation and Compliance, 2009 CANECT’s essential annual introductory and update course - presented in association with leading environmental lawyers from Bennett Jones LLP - has established its reputation as Canadian industries’ chosen source for cutting-edge environmental regulation, compliance and due diligence training.




Spills and Emergency Response Management and Compliance New Spill Reporting, Contingency Planning and Environmental Penalties regulations are now in force - along with a new zero tolerance approach to spills. Learn about your compliance responsibilities under these regulations and how to pro-actively manage your organization’s spill contingency planning and response.

March 2009 | 79



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CANECT CANECT Exhibits ... Manufacturers, distributors, suppliers and companies from the following areas: Air pollution control Analytical laboratory Confined space entry Consulting engineering

• • • •

Containment Decontamination systems Emergency response Environmental auditing

• • • •

Filters Groundwater treatment Hazardous waste treatment Health & safety

• • • •

Instrumentation & control Legal services Liners/geotextiles Noise & vibration control



• • • •














































2131 2133











































































INN 2306

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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T ‘09 • • • •

Oil & water separation Pumps, pipes, valves, fittings Protection/safety equipment Recycling

• Residuals dewatering, disposal & handling equipment • Site & soil remediation

• • • •

Hours April 20

- 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

April 21

- 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

Software systems Spill control & containment Stormwater control Tanks & storage

• • • •

Transportation services Water treatment Wastewater treatment Waste disposal

Tradeshow Preview Please visit the CANECT 2009 VIRTUAL TRADESHOW at www.canect.net! Get a head start on your tradeshow visit by touring the "virtual booths" from participating exhibitors! In here, you will find company descriptions, product showcases with photos, audio and video files, "show special" coupons, and much, much more...

Check back often, as new exhibitors are added every day!

Still more booths this way

Last year the combined shows totalled more than 750 booths!

Act now to make sure your company, product or service is represented at CANECT in 2009! Reserve your booth space today!




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Canadian Environmental Conference & Tradeshow L i s t o f E x h i b i t o r s a s o f Ma r c h 1 7 , 2 0 0 9

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

Albarrie #2011 Barrie, ON 705-737-0551 Fx: 705-737-4044 E-mail: albarrie@albarrie.com Web site: www.albarrie.com Contact: Linda McFadden Products/Services to be displayed: Filtration products, baghouse accessories, filter bag cleaning, troubleshooting, maintenance, SorbWeb™ Plus Secondary Spill Containment Systems offers environmental risk management.

Adventus Group #2110 Mississauga, ON 905-273-5374 Fx: 905-273-4367 E-mail: julie.paule@adventusgroup.com Web site: www.adventusgroup.com Contact: Julie Paule Products/Services to be displayed: Daramend®, EHC®, EHC-O®, Aquablok+™, Remox® EC

ALS Laboratory Group #1935 Waterloo, ON 519-886-6910 Fx: 519-886-9047 E-mail: darlene.stastny@alsenviro.com Web site: www.alsglobal.com Contact: Darlene Hoogenes-Stastny Products/Services to be displayed: Laboratory analytical services.

ACG Technology Ltd. #2004 Woodbridge, ON 905-856-1414 Fx: 905-856-6401 E-mail: greg@acgtechnology.com Web site: www.acgtechnology.com Contact: Greg Jackson Products/Services to be displayed: Water, wastewater and stormwater treatment equipment.

AET Group Inc. #1809 Waterloo, ON 519-576-9723 Fx: 519-570-9589 E-mail: sfreiburger@aet-group.com Web site: www.aet-group.com Contact: Scott Freiburger Products/Services to be displayed: With over 35 years of experience, AET Group is a multi-disciplinary environmental consulting company that provides expertise in waste, ecology, building sciences, energy and environmental management. AGAT Laboratories #2016 Toronto, ON 905-712-5074 Fx: 905-712-5122 E-mail: swager@agatlabs.com Web site: www.agatlabs.com Contact: Camilla Swager Products/Services to be displayed: AGAT is a full service accredited laboratory, locations nation-wide, with diverse testing capabilities providing client focused “service beyond analysis”.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Air & Waste Management Association #2005 Pittsburgh, PA 412-904-6012 Fx: 412-232-3450 E-mail: mgoodman@awma.org Web site: www.awma.org Contact: Malissa Goodman Products/Services to be displayed: A&WMA is a nonprofit professional organization that provides training, information, and networking to more that 8,000 environmental professionals in 65 countries. Air Phaser Environmental Ltd. Surrey, BC 604-532-5856 Fx: 604-533-5607 E-mail: admin@airphaser.com Web site: www.airphaser.com Contact: Warren Zahar 82 | March 2009


Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Aqua Terre Solutions Inc. #1831 Toronto, ON 416-635-5882 Fx: 416-635-5353 E-mail: tkewen@aquaterre.ca Web site: www.aquaterre.ca Contact: Thom Kewen Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental assessment and remediation, risk management, air quality services, asbestos and designated substance surveys and abatement, regulatory compliance and permitting.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Avensys Inc. #2017 Toronto, ON 416-499-4421 Fx: 416-499-0816 E-mail: info@avensys.com Web site: www.avensys.com Contact: Peter Seto Products/Services to be displayed: Leading Canadian distributor of instrumentation and integrated solutions for the monitoring of industrial processes and environmental surveillance applications for air, water and soil in the Canadian marketplace.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E BakerCorp #1912 Hamilton, ON 905-545-4555 Fx: 905-545-9388 E-mail: marketing@bakercorp.com Web site: www.bakercorp.com Contact: Kevin Bailey Products/Services to be displayed: BakerCorp is the industry leader in containment, pump, filtration and shoring equipment rental solutions. With over 90 locations nationwide and international operations in Europe, Canada and Mexico. Bishop Water Technologies Eganville, ON 613-628-5266 Fx: 613-628-5978


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CANECT Exhibitors E-mail: kevin@bishopaquatic.com Web site: www.bishopaquatic.com Contact: Kevin Bossy Products/Services to be displayed: Passive dewatering solutions and project implementation using Geotube® dewatering technology. Caduceon Environmental Laboratories #2111 Kingston, ON 613-544-2001 Fx: 613-544-2770 E-mail: dgilbert@caduceonlabs.com Web site: www.caduceonlabs.com Contact: Damien Gilbert Products/Services to be displayed: Full service environmental laboratories providing organic, inorganic, micro and mould analysis. Regular and rush analysis available. Client committed quality assured. Canadian Water Treatment #1913 Toronto, ON 416-444-5842 Fx: 416-444-1176 E-mail: lee@watertreatment.ca Web site: www.watertreatment.ca Contact: Lee Scarlett Products/Services to be displayed: Canadian Water Treatment and its sister publication ReNew Canada (ReNewCanada.net) will be handing out copies of their quality business magazines. Both are properties of Actual Media (actualmedia.ca) Can-Am Instruments #1904 Oakville, ON 905-829-0030 Fx: 905-829-4701 E-mail: reeves@can-am.net Web site: www.can-am.net Contact: Mark Reeves Products/Services to be displayed: Samplers & flow meters, oil/water separators, oil/water monitors. Century Group Inc. #1928 Sulphur, Louisiana 800-527-5232 Fx: 800-887-2153 E-mail: railroad@centurygrp.com Web site: www.centurygrp.com Contact: Rob Greenside Products/Services to be displayed: Century Group Inc. manufactures railroad spill containment systems for use at railroad tank car loading/unloading racks, locomotive fueling stations and railcar wash facilities. Claessen Pumps Limited #1804 Innisfil, ON 705-431-8585 Fx: 705-431-2772 E-mail: pb@claessenpumps.com Web site: www.claessenpumps.com Contact: Paul Brierton/Gord DeBruin Products/Services to be displayed: Grindex electric submersible pumps, Power Prime pumps.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E ChemiGreen Inc. #2105 Toronto, ON 416-273-8327 Fx: 416-987-5564 E-mail: sales@chemigreen.com Web site: www.chemigreen.com Contact: Shachar Parran Products/Services to be displayed: ChemiGreen develops revolutionary solutions to environmental hurdles. Chemiwww.esemag.com

Green’s WI-Plug system provides a solution for industrial chemical spill containment. It prevents the spill from entering the drainage system. ClearTech #2123 Mississauga, ON 905-612-0566 Fx: 905-612-0575 E-mail: orders@cleartech.ca Web site: www.cleartech.ca Contact: Mike O’Brien Products/Services to be displayed: Distributor of chemicals, instrumentation and equipment for the treatment of water and wastewater. Distributor of blowers and vacuums. Clemmer Steelcraft Technologies, Inc. #1826 Waterloo, ON 519-271-4751 Fx: 519-271-1092 E-mail: cwyatt@clemmersteelcraft.com Web site: www.clemmersteelcraft.com Contact: Chris Wyatt Products/Services to be displayed: Liquid storage tank with vacuum monitoring device, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, dry storage silos, mixers, dispersers. Cover-All Building Systems of Ontario #2135 Lucknow, ON 800-268-2768 Fx: 519-528-2890 E-mail: info@coverallbuildings.on.ca Web site: www.coverall.net Contact: Kelly Thomson Products/Services to be displayed: Cover-All Building Systems is the leading manufacturer of steel-framed membrane buildings. Pre-engineered Cover-All® buildings are available in clear-span widths up to 300 feet. Direct Separation Solutions #1915 Toronto, ON 647-343-6595 Fx: 647-345-6543 E-mail: info@directseparation.ca Web site: www.directseparation.ca Contact: Brent Cotter Products/Services to be displayed: Oil skimmers for groundwater remediation. Dust collection equipment and dry material handling valves. Drain-All Ltd. #2007 Ottawa, ON 613-733-1070 Fx: 613-741-3153 E-mail: stephen.huza@drainall.com Web site: www.drainall.com Contact: Stephen Huza Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental Services: liquid/solid hazardous waste removal/disposal; emergency spill response; confined space entry. Industrial wet/dry vacuuming, excavation, high pressure blasting. ECO Canada #2025 Calgary, AB 403-476-1960 Fx: 403-269-9544 E-mail: info@eco.ca Web site: www.eco.ca Contact: Elizabeth Watterworth Products/Services to be displayed: ECO Canada was established in 1992 as part of Canada’s sector council initiative. It provides services for participants of Canada’s environment sector including employers, practitioners, educators and students.

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CANECT Exhibitors E.M.R.P. Inc. #2108 Brantford, ON 519-751-3504 Fx: 519-751-3443 E-mail: johnt@emrp.ca Web site: www.emrp.ca Contact: John Theurer Products/Services to be displayed: Water treatment. Ground, process, produced and wastewater. Supplies carbon, organo clay, pressure vessels, treatment skids. Hydrocyclones and consumables. Environment Canada (Toronto office) #1813 Toronto, ON 416-739-4826 or 1-800-668-6767 Fx: 416-739-4776 E-mail: enviroinfo.ontario@ec.gc.ca Web site: www.ec.gc.ca Products/Services to be displayed: Government promotional material. Environmental Science #1924 & Engineering Magazine Aurora, ON 905-727-4666 Fx: 905-841-7271 E-mail: denise@esemag.com Web site: www.esemag.com Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. Filter Innovations Inc. #2130 Toronto, ON 416-490-7848 Fx: 416-490-0974 E-mail: inquiries@filterinnovations.com Web site: www.filterinnovations.com Contact: John Dragasevich Products/Services to be displayed: Water filtration products. Pump and treat groundwater treatment, oil/water separation, wastewater treatment. Activated carbon, bag filters, membranes, automatic backflushing filters. FLIR Systems Burlington, ON 905-637-5696 Fx: 905-639-5488 E-mail: shannon.gauvin@flir.com Web site: www.flir.ca Contact: Shannon Gauvin


H2Flow Equipment Inc. #1906 Concord, ON 905-660-9775 Fx: 905-660-9744 E-mail: info@h2flow.com Web site: www.h2flow.com Contact: Michael Albanese Products/Services to be displayed: Industrial wastewater treatment equipment: screens, strainers, DAFs, clarifiers, biological treatment, sludge presses, centrifuges, filters, UV, oil/water separators, conveyors, odour control.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E HazMat Management Magazine/Ecolog Group #2107 Toronto, ON 416-442-5600 Fx: 416-510-5133 E-mail: bobrien@hazmatmag.com Web site: www.hazmatmag.com Contact: Brad O’Brien Products/Services to be displayed: Hazmat Management & Solid Waste and Recycling magazines, ERIS (Environmental Risk Information Service), and EcoLog Legislative Databases are Canada’s source for environmental and health & safety news, legislation and risk information. Hybridyne Power Systems Group of Companies #1817 Newmarket, ON 866-230-3918 Fx: 866-230-3918 E-mail: info@hybridynepower.ca Web site: www.hybridynepower.ca Contact: Richard Leverton Products/Services to be displayed: The Hybridyne Group focus on Hybrid (wind & solar) renewable energy systems for industrial/commercial applications to multi mega-watt utility scale grid connected ‘Energy Parks’ using proprietary and patented Hybridyne Power Electronics technology. Imperial Coffee & Services #1903 Toronto, ON 416-638-7404 Fx: 416-638-7947 Web site: www.imperialcoffee.com Contact: Evan Glazer Products/Services to be displayed: Ontario’s leader in office coffee and drinking water.

Golder Associates Ltd. #1911 Mississauga, ON 905-567-4444 Fx: 905-567-6561 E-mail: solutions@golder.com Web site: www.golder.com Contact: Roxana Bahrami Products/Services to be displayed: At Golder Associates we strive to be the most respected global group specializing in ground engineering and environmental services.

Indicium Compliance Solutions #1829 St. Catharines, ON 877-751-4029 Fx: 877-938-8978 E-mail: info@indiciumcs.com Web site: www.indiciumcs.com Contact: Ryan Holierhoek Products/Services to be displayed: Diverse regulatory and compliance training programs, comprehensive audits and assessments. Cutting edge IT development and innovative dangerous goods packaging solutions.

Greenspoon Specialty Contracting #2014 Brampton, ON 905-458-1005 Fx: 905-458-4149 E-mail: acasey@greenspoon.net Web site: www.greenspoon.net Contact: Alan Casey Products/Services to be displayed: Greenspoon Specialty Contracting is recognized today as one of Canada’s premier demolition and environmental contractors. GSC professional services include: demolition/decommissioning, hazardous materials abatement and environmental remediation.

IPEX #1907 Mississauga, ON 800-463-9572 Fx: 905-403-1124 E-mail: jentuc@ipexinc.com Web site: www.ipexinc.com Contact: Jennifer Tuck Products/Services to be displayed: IPEX features Envirostream™ Stormwater Treatment Systems, an efficient and compact insert designed to filter stormwater at the source.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E 84 | March 2009

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CANECT Exhibitors Lakes Environmental Software #2103 Waterloo, ON 519-746-5995 Fax: 519-746-0793 E-mail: sales@weblakes.com Web site: www.weblakes.com Contact: Julie Swatson Products/Services to be displayed: Lakes Environmental supplies easy-to-use and sophisticated air dispersion modeling, emissions inventory and risk assessment software to industries, government agencies and academia. Lambert Peat Moss Inc. Riviere-Ouelle, QC 418-852-2885 Fx: 418-852-3352 E-mail: helenec@lambertpeatmoss.com Web site: www.lambertpeatmoss.com Contact: Jack Scholtens & Helene Chenard Products/Services to be displayed: Peat moss.


E-mail: info@oneia.ca Web site: www.oneia.ca Contact: Alex Gill Products/Services to be displayed: ONEIA is the business association representing the interests of the environment industry in Ontario with a membership of over 200 companies. Osprey Scientific Inc. #1814 Mississauga, ON 905-820-3122 Fx: 905-820-9667 E-mail: dpause@ospreyscientific.com Web site: www.enviromeasure.com Contact: David Pause Products/Services to be displayed: Monitoring and sampling solutions, soil and groundwater sampling devices, inorganic and organic test kits, water monitoring instruments and toxicity analysis.

Layfield Group #1917 Vaughan, ON 905-761-9123 Fx: 905-761-0035 E-mail: tor@layfieldgroup.com Web site: www.layfieldgroup.com Contact: Chris Ramuscak Products/Services to be displayed: Leading edge geosynthetic technologies and environmental solutions provider with over 30 years experience.

Pack-A-Cone c/o Mindspace Inc. #1918 Markham, ON 905-284-1000 Fx: 905-284-1082 E-mail: info@packacone.com Web site: www.packacone.com Contact: Cory Tse Products/Services to be displayed: Pack-A-Cone is the original collapsible pylon! Available in a range of sizes and they all collapse down to just 2� (5cm)!

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

Pollutech Group of Companies Inc. #2013 Sarnia/Oakville, ON 519-339-8787 Fx: 519-336-6965 E-mail: info@pollutechgroup.com Web site: www.pollutechgroup.com Contact: Tim Moran or Greg Brown Products/Services to be displayed: Wholly Canadian owned, providing independent environmental consulting and toxicity testing services, nationally and internationally from facilities in Sarnia and Oakville.

Magnus Chemicals Ltd. #2012 Whitby, ON 905-434-5571 Fx: 905-434-7252 E-mail: jgoldsbrough@magnus.ca Web site: www.magnus.ca Contact: Jim Goldsbrough Products/Services to be displayed: Smart Sponge is a polymer technology that is chemically selective to hydrocarbons. It fully encapsulates recovered oil and prevents it from leaching. Medteq Solutions #2023 Guelph, ON 519-822-0118 Fx: 519-822-5080 E-mail: nelson@medteqsolutions.ca Web site: www.medteqsolutions.ca Contact: Nikki DeVeer Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental online continuing education and general safety courses complete with extensive web based due diligence reporting and tracking systems. OHE Consultants #1828 Mississauga, ON 905-278-7000 Fx: 905-278-0090 E-mail: kshea@oheconsultants.com Web site: www.oheconsultants.com Contact: Kelly Shea Products/Services to be displayed: OHE provides consulting engineering services specializing in occupational & environmental hygiene, environmental assessments & remediation, asbestos and building hazardous materials management & control and indoor air quality investigations. Ontario Environment Industry Association Toronto, ON 416-531-7884



Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Pollution Equipment News/Rimbach Publishing #2113 Pittsburgh, PA 412-364-5366 Fx: 412-369-9720 E-mail: info@rimbach.com Web site: www.rimbach.com Contact: Karen Galante Products/Services to be displayed: Publications: Pollution Equipment News & Industrial Hygiene News. Polystar Inc. #1905 Twinsburg, OH 330-963-5100 E-mail: robnightwine@polystarcontainment.com Web site: www.polystarcontainment.com Contact: Rob Nightwine Products/Services to be displayed: Secondary containment products for hazardous material transportation by truck or rail. Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants #1815 Vancouver, BC 888-888-1395 E-mail: information@pggroup.com Web site: www.pggroup.com Products/Services to be displayed: Practical management methods for contaminated sites, air quality and land development environmental issues.

continued overleaf...

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CANECT Exhibitors Power Plant Supply Company #2117 Scarborough, ON 416-752-3339 Fx: 416-752-7637 E-mail: steve@powerplantsupplyco.com Web site: www.powerplantsupplyco.com Contact: Stephen Riesberry Products/Services to be displayed: Magnadrive energy saving permanent magnetic couplings. Powerblanket heating blankets for thawing, curing concrete, drum heaters & propane tank heaters. Rhino Marking and Protection systems, signs & post markers. Quantum Murray LP #1816 Stoney Creek, ON 905-388-4444 Fx: 905-643-3106 E-mail: mjasper@qmlp.ca Web site: www.echelonresponse.com Contact: Mark Jasper Products/Services to be displayed: Training, emergency spill response, confined space rescue, regulatory consulting, demolition, remediation, waste management, abatement. Rain for Rent #1812 New York 800-742-7246 Fx: 585-226-8285 E-mail: info@rainforrent.com Web site: www.rainforrent.com Contact: Dan Palmeri Products/Services to be displayed: Pumps, pipes, tanks, filtration systems.

Contact: Alan Archibald Products/Services to be displayed: Celebrating our 28th anniversary. We offer our customers a portable and costeffective solution to their environmental and geotechnical needs. Solinst Canada Ltd. #2008 Georgetown, ON 905-873-2255 Fx: 905-873-1992 E-mail: instruments@solinst.com Web site: www.solinst.com Contact: Jason Redwood Products/Services to be displayed: Solinst Canada Ltd. manufactures high quality groundwater and surface water monitoring instrumentation including leveloggers, telemetry, water level meters and multilevel systems.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Spill Management Inc. #2104 Stoney Creek, ON 905-578-9666 Fx: 905-578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Web site: www.spillmanagement.ca Contact: Ruth Holland Products/Services to be displayed: Response training for chemical spills using hands on workshops and classroom instruction, testing emergency plans, assess spills equipment and supplies.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

Rice Earth Sciences #2003 Vaughan, ON 905-760-0170 Fx: 905-760-0171 E-mail: info@riceeng.com Web site: www.riceeng.com Contact: Mike Kleespies Products/Services to be displayed: Rice provides a complete line of environmental supplies and rentals to service the needs of groundwater contractors, consultants, industry, and government.

St. Lawrence County Industrial #1807 Development Agency Canton, NY 315-379-9806 Fx: 315-386-2573 E-mail: bnorton@slcida.com Web site: www.slcida.com Contact: Brian Norton Products/Services to be displayed: St. Lawrence County – The U.S. market starts here! Your best location for an expansion within the U.S. marketplace.

RWDI Air Inc. #1923 Guelph, ON 519-823-1311 Fx: 519-823-1316 E-mail: info@rwdiair.com Web site: www.rwdiair.com Contact: Elaine Farrow Products/Services to be displayed: Air quality, noise & vibration, hazard and risk environmental consulting services.

StormTrap #1827 Morris, IL 877-867-6872 Fx: 815-416-1100 E-mail: dgross@stormtrap.com Web site: www.stormtrap.com Contact: Dean Gross Products/Services to be displayed: StormTrap provides precast stormwater management solutions for specific needs ranging from detention and retention applications to water quality, reuse or harvesting uses.

SiREM #2112 Guelph, ON 519-822-2265 Fx: 519-822-3151 E-mail: pdennis@siremlab.com Web site: www.siremlab.com Contact: Phil Dennis Products/Services to be displayed: Gene-Trac® testing to quantify dechlorinating microbes. Treatability studies, to assess remedial options. KB-1® for bioaugmentation of PCE/TCE sites. Sonic Soil Sampling Inc. Concord, ON 905-660-0501 Fx: 905-660-7143 E-mail: sonic@sonicsoil.com Web site: www.sonicsoil.com

86 | March 2009


Team Hazco Environmental Services #2306-2309 Hamilton, ON 905-383-5550 Fx: 905-574-0492 E-mail: pkuiack@teamhazco.com Web site: www.teamhazco.com Contact: Peter Kuiack Products/Services to be displayed: 24/7 emergency response, training, confined space standby rescue, product sales, waste services, site remediation, environmental technologies, demolition/decommissioning, environmental construction.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

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CANECT Exhibitors Thermo-Kinetics Company Ltd. #1803 Mississauga, ON 800-268-0967 Fx: 905-670-8530 E-mail: inquiries@thermo-kinetics.com Web site: www.thermo-kinetics.com Contact: Jeff Lockhart Products/Services to be displayed: Temperature, level, flow, pressure, analytical instrumentation, process recorders and controllers, wireless transmitters, pressure and temperature gauges, gas detectors. Transformer Protector Corporation #1808 Humble, TX 281-358-9900 Fx: 281-358-1911 E-mail: marketing@transproco.com or sales@transproco.com Web site: www.transproco.com Contact: Rick Lee, Jerry Basore Products/Services to be displayed: The Transformer Protector can be installed on existing or new transformers and is the only product on the market that can prevent explosions from happening when a short circuit occurs inside your transformer. TS Environmental Services #1824 Mississauga, ON 905-238-0362 Fx: 905-238-0361 E-mail: info@tsenvironmental.com Web site: www.tsenvironmental.com Contact: Tony Samson Products/Services to be displayed: Asbestos management, PCB management & disposal, hazardous waste disposal, indoor air quality, health & safety services. X-Treme Energy Group Inc. #1936 Innisfail, AB 403-227-8120 Fx: 403-227-4073 E-mail: tsmethurst@xeg.ca Web site: www.protecstorage.ca Contact: Tony Smethurst Products/Services to be displayed: ULC and FM approved hazardous materials storage facilities, emergency showers, bulk & cylinder storage buildings.

SAVE THE DATE 2ndAnnual Ontario Water Works Equipment Association Water for People Canada

Charity Golf Tournament Held in conjunction with the OWWA / OMWA 's Joint Annual Conference

Wednesday May 6th, 2009 Royal Woodbine Golf Club, Toronto, Ontario 7:30 am • Registration & Breakfast 9:00 am • Shot Gun Start • BBQ Lunch to follow Golf & Lunch • $175 Includes: Green fees, golf cart, driving range & practice greens, continental breakfast, BBQ lunch, one complimentary gift. Best ball format Sponsorship: Corporate, Breakfast, Lunch and Hole sponsorships available. For inquiries regarding registration, sponsorship, or general information, contact:

Enjoy a wonderful day of golf and support a very worthwhile water industry charity!

Mike OʼBrien ClearTech Industries Inc. Tel: 905-612-0566 Fax: 905-612-0575 E-mail: mobrien@cleartech.ca

For more information and registration package please visit


Water For People Canada is a charitable nonprofit international humanitarian organization dedicated to the development and delivery of clean, safe water and sanitation solutions in developing nations. Canadian water industry professionals established Water For People - Canada in 1995. Our vision is a world where all people have access to safe drinking water and sanitation, a world where no one suffers or dies from a water- or sanitationrelated disease. We believe in the dignity of all people and that access to safe drinking water and effective sanitation are basic human rights.


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NEWS Smith & Loveless appoint Frank J. Rebori as president S&L Chairman Robert L. Rebori recently announced the promotion of Frank J. Rebori as the new president of Smith & Loveless Inc. As well as serving as vice president, Frank Rebori had served as a member of the Board of Directors of RLR, Inc., Smith & Loveless, Inc., Bio-Microbics, and Kalsep UK, Limited. He was also the Corporate Legal Council of RLR Inc. Prior to joining Smith & Loveless, Inc. in October 1999, he was an attorney with two law firms in Kansas City, Mo.

$110M in new water and wastewater projects announced for BC The Federal and BC governments recently announced an investment of over $110 million for 41 infrastructure projects to help smaller communities throughout British Columbia meet their pressing infrastructure needs, help stimulate the economy and support continued economic growth. Under the Building Canada Fund, the City of Kamloops will receive $14.2 million to upgrade and update its existing wastewater treatment plant to provide tertiary treatment and nutrient management. The project, valued at $21.3 million, benefits the 85,000 people served by the treatment plant, as well as residents of surrounding rural areas who rely on the plant for their sewage disposal. The upgrades will reduce greenhouse gas emissions through methane capture, allow for the reuse of reclaimed wastewater effluent and composted sludge, and increase effluent quality for the protection of the Thompson River. Also, under a Building Canada Fund grant, the Town of Creston’s sewage treatment plant will undergo a $3.14 million upgrade. The existing treatment plant, which is over 30 years old, serves almost the entire population of 5,000, and its major employers. However, it has reached its capacity, and is unable to meet future growth demands. 88 | March 2009

In addition to conserving energy, implementing integrated resource management technologies and conserving water, the new treatment plant will improve the level of wastewater treatment and protect the Kootenay River. Another $6 million Building Canada Fund grant will mean that close to 1,000 West Kelowna households will be connected to municipal sewer services. This multi-phase project includes extending a municipal sewer to approximately 960 households in West Kelowna, which has taken over sewer services from the Regional District of Central Okanagan. Existing on-site septic systems are reaching the end of their useful lives, and untreated effluent is likely impacting drinking water and sensitive spawning areas.

on the positive potential of reuse for creating a more sustainable water supply. The program explores the many applications and benefits of water reuse for both potable and non-potable usage. The video explains how reuse mimics the nature's hydrologic cycle, along with treatment cost savings, and the environmental benefits of water reuse. Current successful water reuse programs in California, Texas and Florida are highlighted. The CINE is an International Award that recognizes distinguished excellence and the highest production standards for film and video. Since the award’s founding in 1957, recognizable winners include Steven Spielberg, George Lucas, Charles Guggenheim, and documentarians, Stanley Nelson and Ken Burns.

AWWA honored with CINE Award

Associated Engineering selected as one of Canada’s 50 Best Managed Companies

The American Water Works Association has been selected to receive the prestigious CINE Award for the DVD "Water Reuse for a Sustainable Future." This DVD is designed for water providers who want to inform communities, water boards, mayors, governors, etc.

Canadian consulting engineering firm, Associated Engineering has been selected as one of Canada’s 50 Best Managed Companies. In selecting Associated Engineering for this award, sponsors of

Project unearths wartime shells during construction Black & Veatch, a global engineering, consulting and construction company, provided design and construction supervision services for a recently completed South East Water pipeline project in mid-Sussex, in the south of England. Among the challenges facing project engineers was the presence of unexploded ordnance in an area used for military training during World War I and II. During the Preliminary Environmental Assessment, it was noted the water main would be laid in the military training areas. A number of wartime shells were found along the pipeline route and safely removed so the vital pipeline could be built.

The pipeline route was an area used for military training during the First and Some of the wartime shells Second World Wars. unearthed during construction.

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NEWS the Canada’s 50 Best Managed program, Deloitte, CIBC Commercial Banking, National Post, and Queen’s School of Business, recognized the company’s high level of business performance, sustained growth and innovation. Since its beginnings in the 1940s, Associated Engineering has been an employee-owned company; today about 25% of its staff share in the ownership of the firm. In the past five years, the company has more than doubled in size to over 650 staff in 14 offices across Canada. The award also recognizes the company’s commitment to their staff through training, development, wellness, as well as their community giving program. In 2008, contributions to their communities and development totalled over $400,000. The company also has a strong commitment to the environment, and, as part of their Carbon Neutral Program, has implemented initiatives towards becoming carbon neutral.

PEI sets up online contaminated site registry Realtors, property assessors and potential buyers can now get information about contaminated properties on Prince Edward Island through an online registry launched by the Department of Environment, Energy and Forestry. Users of the registry will be able to search for a particular property according to its parcel identification number (PID). If a property is included on the registry, information available on the website will include the date of registration and the boundaries of the areas within the property that are considered to be contaminated. A property may be listed as contaminated if: • Analysis of soil and groundwater on the property indicates it is contaminated in excess of acceptable clean-up criteria. • Environmental or human health risk management measures have been implemented for the property. • There is a known site where contamination exists, such as properties formerly used as solid waste landfills. continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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NEWS More than 500 properties on the Island have been identified as active or former solid waste landfills. The search and information are available free of cost. MARKHAM, ONTARIO 905-747-8506 weknowwater@bv.com www.bv.com

Get a clear view of:

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Ontario bans over 250 pesticides for cosmetic use Ontario’s new cosmetic pesticides ban, which takes effect April 22, 2009, only allows the use of certain lower-risk pesticides for controlling weeds and pests in lawns and gardens. The ban prohibits the sale and use of pesticides for cosmetic purposes on lawns, gardens, parks and school yards, and includes many herbicides, fungicides and insecticides. Over 250 products will be banned for sale, and more than 80 pesticide ingredients will be banned for cosmetic uses. There are exceptions for public health, or safety reasons, such as fighting West Nile Virus, killing stinging insects like wasps, or controlling poison ivy and other plants poisonous to the touch. Other exceptions include agriculture and forestry. The ban takes the place of existing municipal pesticide bylaws, establishing one clear set of easy-to-understand rules, and providing certainty for businesses operating in different areas of the province.

Ecojustice report says green infrastructure can prevent sewage contamination from CSOs An investigative report released recently by Ecojustice (formerly Sierra Legal Defence Fund) highlights innovative green solutions that could stop billions of litres of raw sewage from fouling the Great Lakes each year. Green Cities, Great Lakes: The Green Infrastructure Report reveals that at least 89 Ontario municipalities have combined sewer systems, which frequently cause overflows of untreated sewage into local waterways during wet weather. The report also provides practical examples of green infrastructure techniques used in various cities, including Toronto, St. Catharines and London, Ontario, which reduce the frequency and severity of water contamination from combined systems. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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NEWS Ecojustice researcher and report coauthor, Liat Podolsky says that “some cities are starting to mitigate the impact of CSOs by adopting green infrastructure solutions which mimic natural systems and reduce the volume of water entering the sewer during storms.” While Canadian cities grapple with the estimated $30 billion needed to immediately replace and upgrade antiquated water and wastewater infrastructure, the report calls for an approach that focuses on preventing water from entering our wastewater systems in the first place. It provides several case studies and practical examples of communities that have already invested in green infrastructure, such as green roofs, engineered and natural wetlands and forests, downspout disconnections, and permeable pavements.

Alberta commits $2 billion for large-scale carbon capture and storage projects The Alberta government has introduced new legislation that provides legal authority to administer the $2 billion in provincial funding for carbon capture and storage (CCS) announced by Premier Ed Stelmach in July 2008. The Carbon Capture and Storage Funding Act, Bill 14, will enable the province to administer funding to support three to five large-scale carbon capture and storage projects. It is expected that these projects will reduce CO2 emissions by five million tonnes annually by 2015.

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Endress+Hauser sets up new company in Qatar The Persian Gulf region is experiencing enormous growth. Both foreign and local financiers have invested enormous sums in the oil and gas industry, as well as in infrastructure projects. Qatar is also profiting from the boom in the region. “In order to be able to serve our installed base and the market of the emirate even better, we have decided to found our own subsidiary in Qatar”, says Klaus Endress, CEO of the Endress+Hauser Group. continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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NEWS Environmental protection order issued to northern Alberta company The Alberta government has issued an environmental protection order against Ward Chemical Incorporated, operator of a brine extraction, holding, and distributing facility near Calling Lake, for exceeding regulatory guidelines for chlorides in groundwater. In 2006, groundwater monitoring at the facility showed high levels of chlorides and other contaminants, which exceeded provincial and federal guidelines. In May 2007, further investigation identified possible high chloride contamination within the groundwater onsite and visible impact on vegetation off-site. Potential sources of the contamination included the brine storage pond, above ground tank storage area and surface run-off from the site of the facility. Alberta Environment met with Ward Chemical representatives in May 2007 and again in September 2008 to discuss a delineation plan and improved operational activities to address the contamination. Ward Chemical has not met Alberta Environment’s expectations to correct the situation. Under the order, Ward Chemical is required to submit an operational plan for the brine storage pond and the above ground storage tanks, and a delineation plan for the remediation of both on- and off-site contamination.







92 | March 2009

Eighteen more chemicals included in Canada’s Chemical Management Plan Leona Aglukkaq, Canada’s Minister of Health, and Environment Minister, Jim Prentice have announced the release of the draft assessments and risk management scopes for 18 chemical substances included in Batch 4 of the Chemicals Management Plan. Of the 18 substances that were assessed in this batch, four may be of concern to human health (butane and isobutane containing more than 0.1% 1,3-butadiene; dimethyl sulfate; and diethyl sulfate) and one may be harmful to the environment (benzenamine). The remaining 13 substances do not pose a risk to human health. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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NEWS Out of these 13 substances, five could harm the environment, if they were widely used. As a result, Significant New Activity provisions are being proposed to manage the risks associated with these five substances. These provisions will prevent these substances from being used in the future without undergoing a new series of assessments.

Irving Pulp & Paper pleads guilty to discharging black liquor

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Canadian Environment Minister, Jim Prentice was met by a group of protesting polar bears as he arrived at the White House to meet with EPA Administrator, Lisa Jackson and Energy Secretary, Steven Chu in March. The mounting controversy over Alberta’s tar sands has followed Minister Prentice to Washington, leading some to question whether Canadian diplomacy in the US will be defined by this single issue. The protests came a day after Minister Prentice was forced to address a fresh round of criticism of Canada's tar sands by prominent US environmentalists and media celebrities, including Robert Kennedy, Jr. Native Canadian groups shouted, “Stop tar sands now!” outside the office of Senator John Kerry where Minister Prentice was meeting to discuss climate and energy issues. continued overleaf... www.esemag.com





Canadian Environment Minister dogged by protesters

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NEWS Activism against the tar sands has hit a critical mass following President Obama's trip to Canada earlier in the month, combined with recent coverage by the National Geographic and a full-page USA Today ad, condemning the tar sands, commissioned by the environmental group ForestEthics and the Mikisew Cree and Athabasca Fort Chipewyan First Nations.

SDTC awards clean technology funding Sixteen new projects, that develop and demonstrate emerging clean technologies, have been awarded $53 million by Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC). This funding addresses

multiple sectors of the Canadian economy, including: • Clean energy production using a process that will facilitate the complex production of lignocellulosic ethanol, while reducing the amount of energy required. This process will be integrated into an existing ethanol facility on a precommercial, pilot scale using the nonfood residuals from harvested corn as feedstock. • Converting forest waste into a more usable bio-carbon for energy production and using sophisticated processes to create a biolatex binder for paperboard manufacturing, which is potentially superior to the petrochemical alternative. • A disruption nano-technology plat-

form for delivery of agricultural chemicals in food production. • An energy-efficient building technology, that has the potential to cut home heating costs by 10% while simultaneously improving indoor air quality. For more information, visit www.sdtc.ca.

Water For People shortlisted for sustainability prize Water For People has been shortlisted for the US $1M Rio Tinto Prize for Sustainability 2008. This Prize is open to all not-for-profit, civil society and nongovernment organisations working to advance the goals of economic, environmental and social sustainability. David Anderson, former Minister of the Environment for Canada and Director of the Guelph Institute for the Environment, chaired the international adjudication panel that selected the ten shortlisted organisations. Rio Tinto is a leading international mining group headquartered in the UK. The Prize for Sustainability will be announced in June.

WCWC receives MOE’s 2008 Emerald Award

www.trg.ca Experience, Innovation, Diversity, Teamwork & Commitment

94 | March 2009


Back row L to R: The Honourable John Gerretsen, Minister of the Environment and Gail Beggs, Deputy Minister, MOE, presented the award to Maurice Oduor, Dr. Souleymane Ndiongue, Front row (L to R) Linda Thompson, Dr. Saad Jasim, and Dr. Housseini Coulibaly. The Walkerton Clean Water Centre has received an award at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment’s Emerald Awards ceremony, which was held in March. The Centre received the award for better training and information for

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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NEWS the water treatment professionals of today and tomorrow. This “Innovation” category recognizes new and creative ways of doing business. It may involve tools, processes, practices, research or policies that significantly helped to improve the Ministry’s operations or help meet its goals.

and a Presidential Proclamation signed by John F. Kennedy in 1962. In 2008, the Ontario Public Works Association was the recipient of the APWA’s President’s Award for Chapter Excellence (PACE Award), and was selected by the APWA as the host for the 2014 Congress and Exposition.

AET Group recognized for environmental excellence

ADI-MBR technology chosen by snack food producer Golden Flake Snack Foods Inc. has awarded ADI Systems Inc. a multimillion dollar contract for a complete designbuild ADI-MBR (membrane bioreactor) system to treat wastewater from its Birm-

ingham, Alabama, production facility. The Birmingham plant, a 350,000 ft2 facility, is the largest of three Golden Flake production plants in the southeastern US. The new 400,000 gpd ADI-MBR facility will allow Golden Flake to directdischarge its treated effluent to a small stream located adjacent to the plant, eliminating significant POTW surcharges. The treated effluent will also serve to enhance the downstream environment by increasing the water flow within the small watercourse, beneficially impacting the local ecosystem. Design of the new ADI-MBR facility is already underway, and the plant is scheduled to be operational later this year.

(left) Scott Freibuger and Larry Freiburger, of AET Group (right), with Murry Costello, Union Gas (centre). AET Group Inc. has been awarded the Greater Kitchener Waterloo Chamber of Commerce 2009 Business Excellence – Environment Award. Each year, the Environment Award is given to a company that has proven its full awareness of environmental issues, both locally in the community as well as on a global scale. This award honours organizations that have an outstanding commitment to the sustainable development of environmental solutions through activities, programs, stewardship, education and innovation.

Tel: (905) 823-7965 Fax: (905) 823-7932 www.pcbdisposal.com

• Hazardous Site Clean-up & Remediation • Decommissioning and Demolition • Asbestos and Mould Abatement • Contaminated Soil Removal • On-site Water Treatment

Celebrate NPWW with local public works professionals The Ontario Public Works Association and its members will be celebrating National Public Works Week, May 17 to 23. Instituted as a public education campaign by the American Public Works Association (APWA) in 1960, NPWW calls attention to the importance of public works in community life. The Week seeks to enhance the prestige of the often–unsung heroes of our society – the professionals who serve the public good every day. Some special highlights of NPWW include a US Senate resolution affirming the first National Public Works Week in 1960, letters of acknowledgment from Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and Lyndon Johnson,


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Businesses and investors warned about growing water scarcity con’t from page 8... • Agriculture: Reduced water availability is already impacting food commodity prices, as shown by last year's sharp increase in global rice prices, triggered by a drought-induced collapse of rice production in Australia. Roughly 70 percent of the water used globally is for agriculture, with as much as 90 percent in developing countries where populations are growing fastest. The report also identified specific water-related risks for apparel, biotechnology/pharmaceutical, forest products and metals/mining firms. The report also highlights the intensifying conflict between energy use and water availability. With increasing frequency, choosing one of these resources means undermining the other – the other usually being water. For example, the billions of dollars spent to expand corn-based ethanol production in the US and oil sands development in Canada have helped ensure increased fuel supplies, but at the expense of significant water impacts and greenhouse gas emissions that could ultimately limit these ventures in the future.

Despite these looming challenges, the report concludes that businesses and investors are largely unaware of water-related risks or how climate change will likely exacerbate them. Weak corporate disclosure on potential risk exposure and response strategies is especially glaring. To evaluate and effectively address water risks, companies should take the following actions: • Measure the company’s water footprint (i.e., water use and wastewater discharge) throughout its entire value chain, including suppliers and product use. • Assess physical, regulatory and reputational risks associated with its water footprint, and seek to align the evaluation with the company’s energy and climate risk assessments. • Engage key stakeholders (e.g., local communities, nongovernmental organizations, government bodies, suppliers, and employees) as a part of water risk assessment, long-term planning and implementation activities. • Integrate water issues into strategic business planning and governance structures. • Disclose and communicate water performance and associated risks. For more information, visit www.ceres.org 96 | March 2009




Proper training and planning essential for cyanide spill and release response con’t from page 72... base above 12 to stop the reaction. This should be practiced in controlled training exercises. Plan ahead to decide which reagent could be used effectively to raise the pH value, as well as how much is required. Responders who choose to use caustic soda should remember that it can destroy nerve endings and dissolve body protein. During the addition of a stronger base, if an exothermic reaction should occur, the release of hydrogen cyanide might escalate and become a runaway reaction. Cyanide, which is a reducing agent, can react violently with a strong oxidizing agent, such as sodium chlorate, and become a potential fire or explosion hazard. The reaction between an oxidizer and a reducing agent is sometimes referred to as a redox reaction. Redox reactions can be mild and unassuming, or can create adverse conditions that may generate heat, fire or an explosion. Therefore, you should work with trace-amount sized samples, to determine potential reactions. Concentrated cyanide can be destroyed with a mild oxidizing reagent that creates a mild oxidizing-reaction. Never assume the mild reagent is going to guarantee a safe reaction. How much you add, and how fast you add a reagent, can determine success or failure. CBRN and waste management personnel who work with contaminated cyanide cannot be sure of what other properties are present, so they should work with small samples to verify reactivity and results. In a redox reaction, cyanide is destroyed with the transfer of oxygen and electrons. The cyanide has been eliminated when starch paper or the redox meter indicates oxidizing properties are present. Oxidation may take some time to complete the reaction and, therefore, if the oxidizing reading does not appear, or if it is lost, it means unreacted cyanide exists and more oxidizing reagent may be required to complete the chemical reaction. As part of hands-on training, sodium cyanide can be oxidized and a lab test used to verify that the solution has been reduced to 10 ppm free cyanide remaining. It is important not to carry out any reactions unless appropriately protected against spillage or eruption and guided by an experienced person. For example, during the destruction of cyanide by oxidation, reactions have generated enough energy to cause the contents to erupt and spray to the height of a 5 metre ceiling. When signs of cyanide poisoning are observed, time is critical. A cyanide exposure can become fatal rapidly. Get to the person or have them come out. Ensure the airways are open, apply an amyl nitrite ampoule, and supply the casualty with oxygen. Accessing medical help and planning for safe decontamination are key factors. Dilution with water is an option, but water will make cyanide react to form highly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. Never assume, suit-up for toxicity, and work clean! Cliff Holland is President of Spill Management, E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca. Mr Holland will be speaking at CANECT 2009 (See page 78 for details) Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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.info@terrasan.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.terrasan.com TESTMARK Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 . . . . . .sylvia.rennie@testmark.ca . . . . . . . . . . .www.testmark.ca Troy-Ontor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 . . . . . .troy-ontor@troy-ontor.ca Water for People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.waterforpeople.org Waterloo Biofilter Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 . . . . . .info@waterloo-biofilter.com . . . . . . . . . .www.waterloo-biofilter.com Waterra Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 . . . . . .sales@waterra.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.waterra.com WEFTEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.weftec.org XCG Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 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Guest Comment

Why we must effectively manage infrastructure deficits By Rui De Carvalho, P.Eng.

A water treatment plant in Mozambique.

any developing countries face enormous challenges when improving their water supply infrastructure. The task of meeting even minimum service standards is a result, in part, of decades of neglect in investment. While there is no comparison between the situation in some developing countries and the state of Canada’s infrastructure, the deplorable service conditions in many countries are a real extrapolation of the potential outcome of neglect. The water and sanitation deficit in the developing world is affected by any number of factors including: • Rapid population growth often aggravated by migration to urban areas due to civil conflicts. • Ineffective public sector and poor governance. • Prolonged periods of neglect and lack of investment. • Short gap measures that lack sustainability. • Difficult economic environments with extremely low GDP per capita. • Extreme climatic conditions (droughts, floods) and other natural disasters. More that 1 billion people in the world now lack clean water and over 2.5 billion lack basic sanitation. According to 2004 World Health Organization figures, “access for all regulated in-house


98 | March 2009

piped water supply with quality monitoring and in-house sewage collection with partial treatment would require a total investment of US $136.5 billion per year to 2015.” This ranges from $55 to $125 per person per year. While the magnitude of these investments is huge, the challenges extend beyond access to financing. The level of bureaucracy and lack of local institutional capacity to develop, manage and deliver projects becomes a greater difficulty. This in no way implies that these countries do not have technically qualified individuals; they do. The challenge is that their numbers are few and their capacity is at times stifled by the bureaucracy under which they operate. To overcome these tremendous challenges, financing institutions and donor countries are combining efforts to develop capacity at both the national and regional levels. There is a recognition that the know-how and business sense of public institutions are a severe limitation to the expansion and improvement of service. Progressive countries such as Mozambique are engaging the private sector to leverage the capacity of local utilities. While donor and central government investments build core service infrastructure, the government recognizes that an appropriate tariff structure must address the real cost of service delivery. Improved service capacity is essential to

increase efficiency. This occurs through the reduction of unaccounted-for water (commercial losses – water consumed and not paid, and technical losses – leaks) and an increase in the number of customers in order to spread the fixed costs and increase the commercial viability of the service utility. The reality of water and sanitation servicing in Canada is obviously very different. We have abundant water resources, manageable population densities, high GDP per capita, strong institutions, and access to a high calibre of human resources and technology. Our infrastructure is actually very good! However, we cannot take these conditions for granted and certainly cannot accept a continued increase in the documented service infrastructure deficit. Economic and environmental sustainability needs to be addressed and revenues must balance the cost of services. Water supply and sanitation servicing are a consumer commodity and municipalities and water utilities should consider a commercial approach to service delivery. Strategic engagement of the private sector can play a positive role in improving the delivery of these services. Rui De Carvalho is Senior Vice-President of R.J. Burnside & Associates Limited. E-mail: rui.decarvalho@rjburnside.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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