Nov/Dec 2014 www.esemag.com
New wastewater plant for Tottenham Mobile pilot plant aids small water systems ISO 14001 being revised Greywater recycling systems can cut freshwater use by 30%
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Contents ISSN-0835-605X • Nov/Dec 2014 Vol. 27 No. 6 • Issued November 2014 Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Assistant Editor PETER DAVEY Email: email@example.com Founding Editor
Sales Director PENNY DAVEY Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Email: email@example.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Email: email@example.com Design and Production EINAR RICE
Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar, Brinjac Engineering, PA Gary Burrows, City of London Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch
In Memoriam - Tom Davey
10 Mobile water treatment pilot plant helps determine best process 14 New wastewater treatment plant will allow Tottenham to expand
DEPARTMENTS Environmental News . 70-74 Product Showcase . . . 64-69 Professional Cards . . . 70-74 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
18 District water metering project cuts water loss rates 20 High quality welding is essential to product quality and longevity 24 Unraveling solutions to overwhelmed sewers 26 Environmental standard ISO 14001 being revised 29 Greywater recycling systems can cut freshwater use by 30% 30 Improving community-WWTP relationships 32 Kingston installs watertight maintenance holes
Bill DeAngelis, Associated Engineering William Fernandes, Region of Peel Eric MacDonald, Cole Engineering Group Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine, Environment Canada Tony Petrucci, Stantec, Markham Cordell Samuels, Region of Durham Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.
34 How can we accelerate municipal project delivery? 38 Consultants must respond to climate change impacts 42 Genomics and the evolution of environmental consulting 45 Personal knowledge management is win/win for consultants 49 The future is bright for the environmental service industry
Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com
52 New STI standard for underground steel tanks 54 London EFW plant generates almost 25,000 megawatt-hours annually ll 55 World’s first standard for collapsible fuel tanks released 56 Solar mixers help Pagosa Springs restore its potable water system 57 Laundering facility comes clean with secondary containment tanks 58 Alternative spill response training strategies are vital 61 Oil skimming technology helps firms meet regulations and recover lost product 62 Precast concrete structures used for massive Toronto stormwater retention tank
Thomas Peter Davey June 8, 1930 - November 25, 2014 It is with great sadness that I announce the passing of Tom Davey, dear husband, father, grandfather and Founding Editor of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. Editorial comments were Tom’s forte, so it is fitting that his Memoriam appear where his musings did for so many years. Working in a family business, I had the rare privilege of getting to know my dad more closely than most sons can and to see his professional impact. We worked together, cottaged together and shared a passion for swimming, automobiles and motorcycles. It is heartwarming to know that Tom lived long enough to see his grandson Peter become part of the journalistic fraternity, when he joined ES&E as assistant editor, and his other grandson Mark, graduate as a chemical engineer.
om Davey was born in 1930 in Lancashire, a depressed area in northern England. The family was far from poor as Tom’s mother owned a very prosperous business and his father was a highly paid coal miner. Tom initially showed little inclination for scholarship, but he learned to sight-read music easily. By the age of 16, he was earning money playing the accordion in a band. As a teenager, he also competed in Lancashire swim meets as a water polo player. Leaving school at 14, which was typical in that era, he was apprenticed to become a plumber and property repairer. At 21, Tom was drafted into the Royal Air Force and spent his National Service years as a military policeman and dog handler. Upon leaving the RAF, he ran into a series of jobs, including that of a lathe operator at Leyland Motors. While he found it fascinating to make one complex component on a capstan lathe, he found it boring beyond measure to make several thousand. He then responded to an invitation to try for a place at Plater Hall, a college in
6 | November/December 2014
Tom, Penny and Steve at an annual 5S Society lunch.
Oxford. There were no exams, but applicants had to write a series of essays. The college liked his essays – asked for more – then sent someone down to interview him. The town council also gave him an interview and said they would look favorably on giving him a grant for a three year live-in course at the college. But with almost a year to wait, Tom got restless and decided on the spur of the moment to emigrate alone to Canada. He had a tough time getting any work, but his RAF police training came in useful. The newly formed Metropolitan Toronto Police accepted him after he passed the exams.
Tom with his Metro Toronto Police Harley Davidson.
His first job was in Traffic Division and life seemed perfect for a 26-year old. He was riding a Harley Davidson, armed with a revolver and earning nearly $5,000 a year, at a time when new homes in Metro Toronto could be had for $10,500.
Tom and Sandra (née Turner) were married in Mimico in 1959. By then, Tom had sold some of his articles and Sandra encouraged him to take a journalism course at the University of Toronto. This was the most profound learning experience of his life. The young family returned to England for a while, where I was born in 1961. Tom had a great job as a feature writer in London’s famed Fleet Street and life was good for three years. Then the family decided to try Australia. They disembarked at Melbourne, where Tom got a job as a senior newspaper reporter. Later, he transferred to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s international desk, called Radio Australia. The work was very rigorous, often requiring 4 a.m. to noon shifts or midnight to 8 a.m. It was great training though. The editors had to develop a deep understanding of politics, current affairs, geography and economics. However, the environment was seldom in the news in those days. Their daughter, Penny (ES&E’s Sales Director) was born in Melbourne in 1964. But, when a job opening became available in Tasmania, the ABC shipped the whole family – lock, stock and babies – by sea across the Bass Strait. Here Tom worked on both radio and TV projects. The ABC generously continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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paid for him to go to the University of Tasmania one day a week. Tom wrote for the university paper, joined the arts faculty debating team, and swam centre forward for the varsity water polo team. They might well have stayed in Australia, but Sandra’s father became seriously ill, so they made the decision to return to England in 1967. After six months in England, Sandra’s father died, so they decided to return to Toronto. After a brief stint on newspapers, Tom got a job as editor of Water and Pollution Control Magazine in 1968 and Canadian Consulting Engineer in 1971. Later, Tom became publications and science editor at the University of Toronto’s Institute for Environmental Studies before founding Davcom in 1974. Davcom edited magazines for Southam Publications, newsletters and reports for the federal government, the U of T, and such clients as CIDA, Gore & Storrie Ltd. and Proctor and Redfern Ltd. During this time, Tom also lectured at McGill, Trent and Queen’s Universities, U of T, Humber College and other learning institutions. He was a speaker at a World Health Organization meeting in Rome, Italy, the keynote speaker at the Sixth National Conference on Drinking Water in B.C. and many other conferences. He served as president of the Canadian Science Writers Association. He also won many writing awards in the U.S. and Canada. Tom and I launched Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine in January 1988. Daughter Penny joined the firm later that year. Wife Sandra is still an editor at ES&E. Tom Davey, throughout his distinguished career of over 50 years, demonstrated exceptional leadership in the championing of environmental issues in the water environment industry in Ontario and across Canada. His work has traversed a broad spectrum of writing and presentations to both environmental professionals, and lay audiences, often translating complex technical environmental issues for the public without the loss of scientific accuracy. Tom won some 30 awards for his writing on environmental issues. Three prestigious international awards of note were bestowed upon Tom in recognition of his contributions to increased knowledge of, concern for, and commitment to the environment, namely: • In 1980, Tom became the first Ca8 | November/December 2014
Peter Laughton, then President of R.V. Anderson Associates with Sandra and Tom.
Tom (centre) receives his AWWA Award.
nadian to be awarded the J.H. Neal award from the American Business Press for a series of articles on U.S. environmental policies. In 1980, the WPCF (now the Water Environment Federation) awarded Tom its Harry E. Schlenz Medal - the first Canadian to be so honoured. In 1982, Tom won a second J.H. Neal award. In 1992, Tom received the Canadian Government’s top Environmental Achievement Award in the field of “Outstanding Communications for Environmental Awareness.” This award was recognized by a personal letter of congratulations from Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, stating that “you have contributed in a significant way to protecting, conserving and rehabilitating the environment.” In 2002, Tom won an Award of Merit from the American Water Works Association. In 2010, Tom received the first Geoff Scott Memorial Award from the Water Environment Association of Ontario.
In addition to countless magazine and newspaper articles, he authored three books: Recollections, a history of water pollution control in Ontario, All the Views Fit to Print and For Whom The Polls Tell, both environmental anthologies. Tom Davey was well known, highly respected and a credit to his profession. He was extremely proud to have conceived and help launch the Aurora Writers Group, which continues to this day. Tom retired from ES&E in 2008 and was later made a Lifetime Member of the Water Environment Association of Ontario in recognition of his contributions. He is survived by his wife Sandra, daughter Penny, son Steve (Colleen) and grandsons, Peter and Mark Davey. Steve Davey is Editor of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. Email: email@example.com (Psst. Dad, as one journalist to another -30-)
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
March/April 2014 | 9
Mobile water treatment pilot plant helps determine best process By George Thorpe
The new RES’EAU WaterNET mobile plant tested raw water at Lytton First Nation, Nickeyeah Indian Reserve, B.C. Left to Right: Irfan Gehlen (Kerr Wood Leidal), Lytton operators Warren Brown and Jim Brown, Ted Molyneux (AANDC), Madjid Mohseni (UBC/RES’EAU) and George Thorpe (BI Pure Water).
etermining and validating the best water treatment technologies to meet the unique needs of small, rural and First Nations communities (SRCs) has gone mobile, thanks to a public-private consortium. RES’EAU-WaterNET is a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Strategic Network founded in 2008; it is based at the University of British Columbia (UBC). This year, RES’EAU WaterNET and its partners have launched the mobile water treatment pilot plant (MWTPP), which contains a range of water treatment systems. The pilot plant is at the forefront of RES’EAU WaterNET’s Community Circle approach to innovation, a model that takes research out of the laboratory and into the real world. It allows the incorporation of stakeholders’ experience and insight at the earliest stages of the problem-solving process. Network investigators work closely with communities to understand the limitations and constraints they face and identify research priorities. The ultimate goal is to
10 | November/December 2014
produce novel, integrated solutions that are effective for the community. The Living Lab consists of a 6.4 metre-long dual-axle cargo trailer, transformed into a flexible water treatment pilot plant. It contains a wide range of water treatment systems, including various types of filtration (a self-cleaning filter, bag filter and cartridge filters), an ion exchange unit, an activated carbon unit, and both conventional and vacuum UV systems for disinfection. It can also chlorinate the treated water to check for disinfection residuals. The MWTPP was designed to evaluate the various treatment processes, individually or in combination, at different SRCs. It uses the community’s raw water as its water source. Flexibility in the design is accomplished by installing bypass piping around each of the treatment technologies. The Lytton First Nation, Nickeyeah Reserve, British Columbia, recently underwent comprehensive water system upgrades. These included the construction of a new water intake, water treatment plant and reservoir. Prior consultations were held with the community’s
personnel regarding the existing treatment system, and the future system’s operation. As part of the consultations, it was also brought to light that residents disliked the unstable chlorine residual that resulted from changes in organic content of the source water. “It is important for the success of the project to have sufficient community input during the design phase,” said Jim Brown, maintenance manager and operation supervisor at Lytton First Nation. Brown organized the community input and fully collaborated with the RES’EAU team at various stages of the project. “We require a cost-effective system that can handle our source water challenges, and one that can be operated reliably using the resources we have in the community,” he further stated. The MWTPP was first deployed in Lytton First Nation earlier this summer. It served three purposes: to investigate different water treatment technologies; to gather data for the design of Nickeyeah Reserves’s new water treatment plant; and to provide training to the water operators in Lytton First Nation. continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Research is underway to determine how ultraviolet irradiation (vacuum UV) can be utilized with low flow rates to remove organics like tannins, disinfection byproduct precursors and chemicals of emerging concerns that are becoming more common in many water supplies.
The results of the experimental runs were used to design the new treatment plant, which employs several types of filtration, UV for primary disinfection and chlorine for secondary disinfection. The operators were exposed to the operation and maintenance of the systems
in the MWTPP and trained to keep the system running at peak efficiency. John Bergese was the research engineer and project coordinator for the operation of the plant at Lytton First Nation. He was assisted by UBC engineering students. “Taking the research
from a laboratory to the field was inspiring. It is a great tool for conducting research, and to train students and community operators. They get to sense what it feels like being in the laboratory while being in the real world,” he said. The MWTPP will also investigate various water research topics. The parallel installation of a conventional UV lamp with a vacuum UV lamp will compare UV and VUV irradiations with small flows (<15 l/min), for the removal of organics, disinfection byproduct precursors, and chemicals of emerging concern that are becoming more common in many water supplies. A chemical metering tank installed before the lamps allows for the dosing of emerging contaminants or microbiological contaminants for the specified research questions. Partners who collaborated on the development of the mobile water treatment pilot plant were: UBC, the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies (PWSI), IC-IMPACTS Networks of Centres of Excellence, Trojan Technologies and BI Pure Water Inc. RESEAU also worked closely with Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC). George Thorpe, P.Eng., is with BI Pure Water (Canada) Inc. Email: email@example.com
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Smart Water Network
by Manuel Parra
Executive summary Each time a utility gathers, treats, and distributess water— every time a pump starts, a tank is filled, d, or a tap is opened — data is being generated and distributed. This paper addresses the issue of how ow that massive amount of data converts into meaningful ul information and is then shared with appropriate stakeholders. Such a “smart” water network saves es water, reduces labour costs, aids in compliance and security, and ensures superior customer service..
New wastewater treatment plant will allow Town of Tottenham to expand By Heather Brewer, Ben Samuell, George Godin and Emil Rafanan
new wastewater treatment facility capable of achieving an effluent yearly average phosphorus concentration of 0.07 mg/l, is being built by the Town of New Tecumseth to serve the community of Tottenham. This effluent concentration is considered to be the current limit of technology in wastewater treatment, as achievable by two-stage tertiary treatment. Project history New Tecumseth in southwestern Ontario, is an amalgamated municipality including the towns of Alliston, Tottenham and Beeton, as well as the surrounding rural area of Tecumseth Township. In 2010, the Town completed an Addendum to the 2005 Class Environmental Assessment, to review the preferred alternative for wastewater servicing. The 2010 Addendum identified replacement of the existing Tottenham wastewater treatment plant with a new limit of technology treatment facility, discharging to Beeton Creek. Recognizing that the allowable phosphorus loading limit for this receiver would require a concentration less than achievable by a limit of technology facility, a non-point source control program has been accepted by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment to reduce loading from other sources. This is to achieve no net increase in overall phosphorus loading to the receiver. Non-point source load reductions include a mix of urban stormwater system retrofits and rural best management practices.
The wastewater treatment facility The new Tottenham WWTP is designed for an annual average flow capacity of 4,082 m3/day, providing adequate capacity for growth in Tottenham to at least 2031. The new treatment facilities are located in what was one of four pre-existing lagoons. This allows the plant to be completed before the majority of the existing facilities are 14 | November/December 2014
A rendering of the new Tottenham wastewater treatment plant.
decommissioned. The new facility includes: • Screening (6 mm) and vortex grit removal in a headworks building. • Extended aeration process, consisting of bioreactors with fine pore diffusers and secondary clarification. • Two-stage tertiary treatment using ballasted clarification (complete with 6 mm perforated plate tertiary screening) and shallow-bed sand filtration. This is all located in a new administration/ tertiary building. • Chemical addition for enhanced phosphorus removal and pH control. • UV disinfection. • Aerobic digestion for sludge stabilization. • Odour control system. • Biosolids utilization on agricultural land. Infrastructure from the existing facility, which will be reused, includes two lagoons for temporary storage of flows exceeding peak day tertiary treatment design capacity, a lagoon for biosolids storage during winter periods, and the existing outfall to Beeton Creek. Design effluent objectives and limits for the new Tottenham WWTP are provided in Table 1. In particular, effective
nitrification and phosphorus removal are required to meet the stringent effluent objectives and compliance criteria as defined by the Water Quality Impact Assessment. Effluent requirements include: a seasonal average total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) compliance concentration as low as 0.5 mg/l (May 1 to September 30), a monthly average total phosphorus (TP) concentration of 0.1 mg/l, with an annual average TP load requirement of 0.28 kg/day. This is equivalent to a concentration of 0.07 mg/l, at the annual average flow of 4,082 m3/ day. The definition and use of seasonal monthly average effluent concentration and yearly average load requirements is a beneficial compliance structure. This allows some variability in monthly average concentration up to 0.1 mg/l, so long as the yearly average load can be achieved. Non-point source load reductions It was determined that the phosphorus loading to Beeton Creek from the Tottenham WWTP should not exceed 65 kg/year. However, it will produce continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Wastewater Treatment Efﬂuent Concentration Objective (mg/l)
Efﬂuent Concentration Limit (mg/l)
Efﬂuent Load Limit (kg/day)
Five day Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Total Suspended Solids
0.1 (Monthly average)
0.28 (Annual average)
November 1 to March 31
April 1 to April 30
May 1 to September 30
October 1 to October 31
Total Phosphorus Total Ammonia-Nitrogen
Table 1. Effluent objectives and limits for the new Tottenham WWTP.
an annual TP loading of 104 kg/year, which is 39 kg/year too high. So, one condition in the Environmental Compliance Approval (ECA) for the new WWTP is the implementation of a TP offset program within five years of issuance of the approval. The offset program is designed to achieve an equivalent annual reduction of TP loading into Beeton Creek and the broader Innisfil Creek sub-watershed. Urban stormwater management phosphorus offsets are credited on a 2:1 ratio, while rural best management phosphorus offsets are credited on a 4:1 ratio. The phosphorus load offset potential from improving existing stormwater management facilities in the Beeton Creek watershed, was estimated at approximately 30 kg/year. The potential phosphorus loading reduction associated with rural “tier 1 projects”, such as improved manure storage facilities for farms located within the watershed, was estimated to be 70 to 135 kg/year. This assumes a 50% uptake by eligible farms under a directed outreach and funding program. As a result, these urban and rural non-point source controls should together achieve a phosphorus credit of 33 to 49 kg/year when the applicable credit ratios are applied. The instrument for implementation of the farming best management prac16 | November/December 2014
Headworks and administration-tertiary buildings under construction, Oct. 2014.
tices for offset opportunities is referenced under the Town’s Bylaw 2013018 that enacts an agreement with the Nottawasaga Valley Conservation Authority (NVCA). Under the Conservation Authorities Act, the NVCA has a broad mandate to manage the natural resources of the watershed in which it has jurisdiction. This includes protecting and restoring the health of local watercourses. Under the ECA for the new Tottenham WWTP, the Town is initially required to
submit yearly status and progress reports on the TP offset program. After two consecutive years with TP offset credits not less than 39 kg/year, reporting frequency will drop to three years. Heather Brewer, Ben Samuell and George Godin are with ConestogaRovers & Associates Limited (A GHD Company). Emil Rafanan is with XCG Consultants Limited. For more information, contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Reducing non-revenue water through district metered areas By Simon Wick and Pat Harrell
he White House Utility District (WHUD) is one of the largest water and sewer utilities in Tennessee, serving approximately 90,000 customers with 30,000 connections, across a 1,550-km2 area. White House has some 1,600 km of distribution mains and 21 storage facilities. It produces on average 53,000 m3/ day and had a reported 30% non-revenue water (NRW). In late 2013, the District started to seriously look at how to reduce the level of NRW. Due to the large geographical size and mix of pipework material, they decided that planning and implementing district metered areas (DMAs) would be the most efficient way to reduce NRW. Principles of a DMA The key principle behind DMA management is the use of flow data to determine the level of leakage within a defined area of the water distribution network. Establishing DMAs, which have been used in Europe for decades, enables current levels of leakage to be determined in any one part of a system. Consequently, leak location activities can be prioritized. By monitoring flows in DMAs, it is possible to identify existing and new bursts, so that leakage can be main-
Example of the acoustic loggers deployment map.
leakage control program is implemented. DMA management should, therefore, be considered to reduce, monitor, and subsequently maintain low leakage levels in a water distribution network. Fundamental to DMA management is the correct analysis of flow data, in order to determine whether there is excess leakage, and identify the presence of new leaks. The extent of leakage can be gauged by assessing the 24-hour flow pattern of a
DMA management should, therefore, be considered to reduce, monitor, and subsequently maintain low leakage levels in a water distribution network. tained at the optimum level for that area. Data received from each DMA is used to compare one part of any system against another. Historical data of any given DMA is used to compare current flow with previous days. This data allows a utility to react quickly to areas with high leakage, and confirm and repair leaks as soon as they happen. Levels of leakage will continue to rise as time elapses, unless an ongoing 18 | November/December 2014
network. A limited variation between the minimum and peak flow, particularly in a network with little industrial night use, is indicative of a leaky network. However, this approach does not allow the leakage level to be directly quantified. Leakage is most accurately determined when customer consumption is at a minimum during the night, and is referred to as the minimum night flow (MNF). In addition to daily data
and trends, a water balance check can be executed each month to gauge the actual NRW in any given DMA. WHUD considered various DMA flow meter options, and decided that the HydrINS 2 single point electrometric insertion meter, from Hydreka, offered the flexibility and data needed to focus on their NRW reduction and control program. Implementation In early 2014, WHUD tested this technology to ensure it met their requirements. In spring 2014 they invested in a further 25 DMA meters, which would remotely send daily data, flow and pressure information to their headquarters. This data is analyzed on a daily basis to maximize the benefits of DMA management to the utility. In conjunction with the meter installations, WHUD invested in leak detection equipment, acoustic noise loggers and a ground microphone, for in-house use. This enabled them to be reactive and focus leak detection efforts on DMAs with high usage/flow. This practice ensures they are as efficient as possible
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Overview of Phase 1 DMA plan.
The Hydreka HydrINS 2 meter.
in targeting leakage, as they are able to concentrate on high priority areas first. It also allows the volume of NRW (including leakage) in any one DMA to be calculated. All data is manually inputted into a GIS, including the acoustic noise logging data for increased awareness, tracking and acoustic foot printing. WHUD continues to use this data
from their zone and DMA’s meters to prioritize their proactive leak detection efforts. Their objective is to have the distribution system 100% covered by DMAs in two years. In addition, they plan to expand on their proactive leak detection surveys and evaluate solutions to ensure the analytical process for the DMA data is as automatic and as fast as
possible. This will enable them to reach their target of less than 15% non-revenue water. Simon Wick is with Matchpoint Water Asset Management. Pat Harrell is with the White House Utility District. Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
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November/December 2014 | 19
Welding: What’s really happening behind the mask? By J. Craig Martin
ention welding and the most common picture that appears in a person’s imagination is of the solitary welder behind a mask with a bright bluish, whitish light shining brilliantly around them. But what’s really happening behind all those arcs and sparks? Welding is a ubiquitous operation in the manufacture and construction of everything from consumer goods to vehicles and bridges to processing plants. Yet, despite its wide range of application, few understand what is really going on “behind the mask.” Welding is one of the most flexible and adaptive joining technologies that exist today. It can join materials from less than one millimetre in thickness up to hundreds of millimetres thick and can be used to join steel, aluminum, copper and almost anything you can think of. The science of welding touches on a wide range of disciplines, electrical, metallurgical, thermodynamics and more. Suffice it to say, welding can be complex and requires real expertise to ensure it is done both correctly and safely. Like many industries, the use of standards to control the operation of welding is critical. Canada enjoys a long history of world-class standards in the discipline of welding, and our excellent track record in safe welded infrastructure is due in large part to these standards. Canada has two distinct sets of standards as it relates to welding: % For boilers, pressure vessels and pressure piping, the normal standard that is used is the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) B51 “Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.” This is an adoption of American Society of Mechanical Engineers Section IX “Welding and brazing qualifications.” % For structures, machinery and other non-pressure applications, the CSA “W” series of standards is normally used. The most common CSA welding standard in use in this area
20 | November/December 2014
Canada enjoys a long history of world-class welding standards.
is CSA W47.1 “Certification of companies for fusion welding of steel.” Although similar in some ways, the two sets of standards are very different. They have been developed for very different types of products that have very different performance expectations once in service. It is critical for owners, engineers and other specifiers to understand what standard(s) is applicable for the project at hand. It is not a matter of one standard being better than the other; rather it is selecting the right standard for the right product and service conditions. Welding in the pressure vessel/ piping area is normally regulated at a provincial level by government agencies such as the Alberta Boiler Safety Association or the Technical Standards & Safety Authority. Although the base standards noted previously are the same across Canada, each agency may have a slightly different approach as to how the standards are implemented. Non-pressure standards, on the other hand, are the same all across Canada. There are several CSA standards that
may be used, the choice typically dependent on the material being welded. The Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) is the national certification body that oversees the application of these standards. As noted previously, the most common CSA welding standard used in Canada is CSA W47.1 “Certification of companies for fusion welding of steel.” This standard applies to a wide range of applications: structures, buildings, bridges, machinery, equipment, cranes, tanks, non-pressure piping and antenna towers, to name a few. CSA W47.1 is a company certification standard and is intended to provide assurance that the company has all the components in place to produce a sound weld. The standard is based on the understanding that there are three key components that must be in place to ensure a sound, high quality weld: 1. Competent people making the welds (the welders). 2. A proven recipe for making the welds (the welding procedure). continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Manufacturing 3. Competent shop floor and engineering staff (the welding supervisor/engineer). All these components are of great importance and a welding company cannot claim to be certified to CSA W47.1 unless all three are shown to be in place. A great weld results from more than just the skill of the welder. Although this is an important element, the welder must also know what they are welding and how to weld it. This is where the welding procedure comes into play. Training, supervisory and engineering personnel must also control the entire welding operation. There is risk of a poor quality weld if any one of these elements is missing. An additional method to ensure high quality and safe welds is the concept of an independent third party to confirm that those welding companies that choose to become certified do, in fact, meet the key requirements of the certification standard. This is where the CWB comes in. When the first CSA W47.1 standard was introduced in 1947, the industry agreed that a single body should be
formed to administer the standard. The objective was to create a level playing field by ensuring consistent application of the stated requirements. This would in turn help guarantee that welded structures were of high quality and safe. In response, the CWB was formed as a non-government, not-for-profit, industry funded organization, acting as an independent certification body for the welding industry. Its primary mandate, however, is the protection of public safety. Since its creation, the CWB has expanded its role within industry, managing multiple CSA welding standards for fabricators, inspectors and welding consumables. Today, there are over 6,500 companies certified by the CWB in over 20 countries around the world. To prove competence in the practical application of welding, individual welders must undergo regular testing. This is normally done every two years and welders are examined on each welding process, welding position and joint configuration for which they wish to be qualified. All testing is witnessed by the
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22 | November/December 2014
CWB and documents of certification are issued. For welders to know what they are welding and how to weld it, a procedure must be created by the company. This lists all the variables that may impact the final quality of the weld. The material grade, the filler metal, the welding parameters, the required preheat and many other variables must be defined in what is essentially a recipe for making the weld. These procedures are created by the welding supervisor and/or engineer and then independently reviewed by the CWB for compliance to applicable standards. Certification is not a one-time event. All organizations that are certified to CSA W47.1 must continually comply with the requirements of certification, ensuring that new welders are proven to be competent and that new welding procedures are developed for new projects that they undertake. In addition, the CWB continually monitors the activities of certified companies providing on-site audits of the welding operation at least every six months. As a not-for-profit certification body, costs to industry are kept low, with the typical Canadian fabricator’s certification fees set at less than $2,500 annually. Certification brings many benefits to both the welding industry, and the specifiers, owners and end users. The welding industry has realized cost savings as they leverage certification to manage quality issues and reduce rework and client complaints. For the end user, specifying certification can help reduce risk of poor quality or failure. For some product types, certification is mandatory under regulatory requirements or product safety standards. Buildings, bridges, cranes, platforms, railings and stairways are some of the product types where certification is mandatory for the welded fabricator. Where certification is not mandatory, many owners choose to require certification by their suppliers or subcontractors as an extra assurance for quality and risk reduction. J. Craig Martin is with the Canadian Welding Bureau. Email: email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Unraveling solutions to overwhelmed sewer systems By Peter Davey
f people got a good sniff of a ragged wastewater pump and had to untangle a snarled mess of entwined fabric, pumping stations might get a break from the onslaught of “flushable” wipes and products clogging their systems. Yet, there is not much preventing people from using the toilet as a waste disposal unit. While some personal hygiene companies have started to change their marketing and product instructions, there is no definition of what is “flushable.” “You can write flushable on anything,” said Robert Haller, executive director of the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA). “Anything that disappears when you pull the handle can be called flushable.” The Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry defines a flushable product as one that will pass through toilets and drainage pipes without adversely impacting plumbing or wastewater infrastructure and operations. According to Joe Gemin, an engineer with AECOM, the problem is that once these fabrics are in the sewerage system, or worse, spun inside a pump, they intertwine to form a rope-like mass. This can result in a stalled pump or a sewage backup. The CWWA has been working for some time, trying to push through regulations governing the labeling and disposal of wipes. However, the demand for these products is huge and growing. It is estimated that sales of disposable wipes is growing at 5% a year in North America and will reach $2.5 billion in 2016. Haller estimates that municipalities in Canada face $250 million in costs related to removing garbage from sewerage systems, adding that this estimate is “on the low end.” Making matters worse, consumer habits and efficient fixtures have reduced water consumption. This means that wastewater volume is becoming smaller, while the solids content is re-
24 | November/December 2014
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maining the same or increasing. Sometimes weekly unclogging of pumps, screens and private drains is now just part of the job for operators and treatment plants.
Municipalities in Canada face $250 million in costs related to removing garbage from sewerage systems. “Everyone is impacted by this, even if they don’t know it,” said Barry Orr, spokesperson for the Municipal Enforcement Sewer Use Group (MESUG). “If beaches were covered with wipes and feminine hygiene products, there would be an outcry.”
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Municipalities have a tougher time rousing public awareness and action, compared to other growing concerns such as micro plastics or medicines. At a recent community event discussing micro plastics in the Great Lakes, some 100 people filled the presentation room in Toronto and spoke loudly about protecting waterways. “Unplugging a pump or grinder doesn’t carry the same weight as environmental concerns over personal care products (cleansers using micro plastics) or medicine,” said Haller. Indeed an image of a seabird, its stomach full of plastic drew an emotional response from the crowd in Toronto. An intertwined pile of pump debris may not do the same. Fabric manufacturers have published
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater a guidance document for flushable is reached, the pump set is stopped. wipes and a proposed ISO commitAt this point the inflow check valve tee has been launched to provide opens again automatically, allowing a definition on what is “flushable” the next flow of wastewater to enter and/or “dispersible.” the system. On the treatment side, wastewater According to KSB, the system equipment manufacturers have inis well suited for remote mountain troduced new technologies to move communities that use a lot of lift wastewater without clogging pumps. stations to transport a small amount of sewage. As the pumps in the According to KSB Pumps, there AmaDS3 system are isolated from are two basic methods to transport wastewater containing solids. One solids carried in wastewater, they way is to use pumps with a large can use higher efficiency impellers enough free passage, so that the and enjoy a longer service life with solids will not clog up the pump. A common sight for wastewater operators, a less maintenance. Another is to keep the solids away pump clogged with garbage. The system is being used in Eufrom the pump or to reduce the size rope, in such countries as Germany, of the solids. Slovenia, Poland, Italy and DenRaw wastewater first flows into a This summer, KSB celebrated 25 years separator where a grate separates solids mark. It is ideal for any pumping station working in Canada with a media open from liquids. The solids-free wastewater struggling with garbage and debris. house. During the event KSB introduced then runs into a collecting tank where the AmaDS3 (dry solids separation) sys- it remains until a pre-set water level is Peter Davey is the assistant editor of tem to overcome clogged sewage pumps. reached. When the system is activated, Environmental Science & Engineering Interestingly, the system was described to the collecting tank is pumped out to the Magazine. Email: email@example.com the event attendees as a “reverse toilet,” discharge pipe, carrying away the solids emulating the main entrance point for the contained by the grate. Once the miniFor more information, visit: problem it aims to address. www.ksb.com mum water level in the collecting tank
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November/December 2014 | 25
Revision is underway for ISO 14001 By Anne Marie Pizzitelli and Katie Bird
SO 14001, the world’s most popular standard for environmental management, is now under review, with an updated version due in early 2015. Over 250,000 organizations are certified to ISO 14001 and while it continues to be as relevant as ever, the revision will take into consideration a number of issues to ensure organizations are able to grow in a sustainable way. What are the benefits of ISO 14001? ISO 14001 enables companies to: • Reduce waste and energy use through better environmental management. • Improve efficiency and cut the cost of running a business. • Expand business opportunities by demonstrating compliance. • Meet legal obligations to win greater stakeholder and customer trust. • Prepare for the changing business landscape confidently. Why is ISO 14001 being revised? All ISO standards are reviewed every five years to establish if a revision is required to keep it current and relevant for the marketplace. The future ISO 14001:2015 will respond to the latest trends and ensure compatibility with other management system standards such as ISO 9001. What will be the main changes to the standard? The new version will include a requirement to understand the organization’s context in order to better manage risk. More emphasis will be placed on leaders within organizations to promote environmental management. In addition, there will be a shift towards improving environmental performance rather than improving the management system. Two significant actions The revision has been written using the new high level structure which is common to all new management systems standards. This will allow easy integration when implementing more than
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one management system. The second action comes from the “Future Challenges for Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Study Group”, which evaluated the potential implications of evolving stakeholder expectations and new developments in environmental management systems. The study group analyzed 11 key themes along with the obstacles and opportunities to increase uptake of ISO 14001 in small organizations. This will allow them to control environmental impacts in the supply chain, engage stakeholders and communicate externally. Recommendations The initial Berlin meeting of ISO/ Technical Committee (TC) 207 summarized the ISO standards development process for working group members; they are responsible for the revision process. It established a timeline and code of conduct, reviewed details in the two key reports forming the basis for the revision and provided guidelines on writing standards. In total, the Future Challenges Study
Group tabled 25 recommendations for consideration in the new revision of ISO 14001: 1. When considering new requirements in a revised version of ISO 14001, one should remember that the EMS standard is a tool to improve environmental management. So, new requirements should not be set in such a way that they only reflect “best in class” levels that could dissuade or exclude entry level organizations. The use of “maturity matrixes” should be considered to show how requirements could be applied in an increasingly comprehensive manner. 2. An organization should retain the responsibility to align its ISO 14001 processes with its environmental and business priorities. 3. Strengthen focus on subjects such as transparency and accountability in environmental management issues and performance, and value chain influence and responsibility. 4. Express environmental management more clearly as contributing
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Certification to sustainable development which is the key pillar of social responsibility. 5. Broaden/clarify the concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;prevention of pollution.â&#x20AC;? 6. Consider addressing other environmental principles from ISO 26000 (social responsibility), Clause 6.5. 7. Consider aligning language between ISO 26000 and ISO 14001. 8. Clarify the ISO 14001 requirements for improving environmental performance. 9. Strengthen performance evaluation as part of ISO 14001 4.5.1; consider how performance evaluation is addressed in ISO 14031 (environmental performance evaluation), ISO 50001 (energy management), and in the EMAS III (EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme) and Global Reporting Initiative. 10. Communicate the approach to and mechanism of achieving legal compliance in ISO 14001. 11. Address the concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;demonstration of the commitment to legal compliance.â&#x20AC;? 12. Consider including the concept of
demonstrating knowledge and understanding of the organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s compliance status. Emphasize the strategic considerations, benefits and opportunities of environmental management for organizations in the introduction and requirements sections. Strengthen on a strategic level, the relationship between environmental management and the core business of an organization, which are its products and services and interaction with stakeholders, clients and suppliers. Use the Joint Technical Coordination Groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identical text on â&#x20AC;&#x153;context of the organizationâ&#x20AC;? to strengthen the link between environmental management and the organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s overall strategy. Consider the implications of new business management models in applying ISO 14001. Draft clear and unambiguous ISO 14001 requirements. Provide clearer guidance in Annex A to avoid misinterpretation of the requirements.
19. Maintain the applicability of ISO 14001 to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). For example, by drafting simple and understandable requirements. 20. Consider the information given in the European Committee for Standardizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Guide 17, guidance for writing standards, taking into account micro and SMEsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs. 21. Address life cycle thinking and the value chain perspectives more clearly in the identification and evaluation of environmental aspects related to products and services. 22. Include clear requirements and guidance on environmental strategy, design and development, purchasing, marketing and sales activities, in alignment with organizational priorities. 23. Introduce a more systematic approach to identifying, consulting and communicating with stakeholders on environmental issues, based on the Joint Technical Coordination Groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s text. continued overleaf...
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November/December 2014 | 27
Certification 24. Introduce a requirement to establish an external communication strategy, including communication objectives, identification of relevant interested parties, and a description of what and when to communicate. 25. Provide guidance to external interested parties in the Annex on information related to the environmental aspects of products and services.
new standard and gain consensus from all countries involved. Following due process, any changes deemed necessary by the international technical committee will be released as a Final Draft International Standard (FDIS). This represents the final contents of the proposed standard, and usually only minor changes are made after this stage. Current ISO forecasts indicate that the ISO FDIS 14001 will be released in March/April 2015 and the final standard in the fall of 2015. ISO 14001:2004 is still valid and
Where are we in the revision process? Recent meetings have resolved comments and questions submitted during the revision process and have included them in The first publicly available version of the the ISO 14001 Draft proposed changes to ISO 14001 has been International Standard. Major changes to the on sale since July 2014. Anyone with document include a expertise or experience to offer can more proactive commitment to protect comment on the revision. the environment from harm and degradation, as well as re- companies will still benefit from imquirements to illustrate visible involve- plementing and certifying against it. ment, support and commitment from top Certification to ISO 14001:2004 will be management. The first publicly available allowed for a period of time following version of the proposed changes to ISO the publication of the new version of the 14001 has been on sale since July 2014. standard. Anyone with expertise or experience to offer can comment on the revision. Anne Marie Pizzitelli is with BSI Group. Next steps Katie Bird is with the ISO. Email: The committee has been meeting email@example.com, over the course of 2014 to develop the firstname.lastname@example.org
28 | November/December 2014
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Household greywater recycling system can cut water consumption by 30% By Mark Sales *UH\WHU +20( :LWK ':+5
*UH\ZDWHU 7LHG LQWR Âľ :DVWH 6WDFN
Figure 2: The system can be tied into existing fresh air vent lines.
Figure 1: Diagram of a home greywater recycling installation.
any people are surprised to learn that toilets are the single greatest users of water within a home, typically accounting for 30% of total consumption. It really does not make sense to flush toilets with clean drinking water. This is significant for many reasons. Water rates are increasing throughout North America an average of 9-10% annually. Many municipalities face water infrastructure pressures relating to the supply and treatment of water, including rising energy costs. In addition, residential and commercial development is ever increasing in water stressed areas. For these reasons, the need for water reuse solutions has never been greater. A greywater recycling system can recover and treat shower and bath water so that it can be reused for flushing toilets. This can reduce per household fresh water consumption by 30%. For residential builders, the first step is to â&#x20AC;&#x153;greywater readyâ&#x20AC;? the homes, which is a fairly simple process. It is important that the system be installed beforeÂ the drywall goes up so that the pipes can be routed properly (Figure 1). www.esemag.com
Isolate shower/bath drains Usable greywater needs to be isolated in the system. Kitchen greywater must be avoided completely. Laundry greywater can be used, but only if it is treated by a filtration system before it enters the recycling system. Shower and bath drains must be isolated and tied together with 2â&#x20AC;?Â ABS pipingÂ in the main floor ceiling. This pipe runs to the mechanical room where the recycling system is located. This isolates the greywater for recycling to the toilets. Install toilet supply lines After the greywater is processed in the recycling unit, it must run to the toilets. As the water is non-potable, all lines must be purple PEX or labeled with marking tape that reads â&#x20AC;&#x153;non-potable water â&#x20AC;&#x201C; do not drink.â&#x20AC;? One Â˝â&#x20AC;? to Âžâ&#x20AC;? pipe is plumbed from the unit, as a riser, before branching off to the toilets. Install overflow and vent lines An overflow line must be installed into the sanitary pipe system. The overflow also has a bypass to the sanitary drain, in case the system is overloaded. This will prevent excess greywater
from backing up to showers/baths. The system also needs a vent pipe that connects to the same drainage line. The system needs to be vented like any other plumbing fixture. It can be tied to the most convenient fresh air vent in the mechanical room (Figure 2). Additional considerations If a manual bypass is chosen, a backflow preventer will be required. It is a fairly simple process, but the system must be installed before the drywall goesÂ up. The process of â&#x20AC;&#x153;greywater readyingâ&#x20AC;? is not only straightforward, it is inexpensive. Greyter Water Systems has worked with many production builders across North America, and the cost to â&#x20AC;&#x153;greywater readyâ&#x20AC;? a home is generally between $400 and $600. It takes no more than a few hours of work and, once the plumbing is done, the opportunity for significant water savings exists for years. It is a great way for homeowners to save and there is an immediate payback for developers building in regions where various water conservation pressures exist. For example, by installing the infrastructure for recycled water systems within new commercial and residential buildings, municipalities will often provide incentives for developers such as expedited permits. Mark Sales is with Greyter Water Systems. Email: email@example.com November/December 2014 | 29
Technology helps to improve community-WWTP relationships
By T.R. Gregg
he relationship between a wastewater treatment plant and the community it serves is a delicate one. A positive climate, where public complaints are few, benefits are obvious and costs can be contained, is ideal. A negatively charged climate can make navigating municipal red tape all the more challenging. Future improvements can run into approval snags if negativity sways the thinking of municipal government and public works boards that approve them. With this in mind, it is obvious that shepherding this relationship is critical. The right technologies can help wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to position themselves in key areas visible to politicians, board members and residents. There are three ways that WWTPs impact theŝƌ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐ͗ • Cost of providing services. • Expelling odiferous gases. • Producing end products. Cost of providing services Cost reduction factors generated by technology use in the WWTP, range from labour costs to component rebuilds. Cardston WWTP in Alberta, and Oostburg WWTP in Wisconsin are experiencing this in their budgets’ bottom line. Cardston has seen a reduction in man hours necessary for maintenance and management. Huber’s screw press helps the team to eliminate operational maintenance during and after shift hours and manual labour costs in handling cleaner, lighter, dryer, safer sludge. Because of the Huber fine screens that Oostburg uses, the WWTP has reduced the workload on downstream components so much, that rebuilds to these components are required far less often. Since each rebuild can cost several thousand dollars, this benefit has become a significant budget bonus. Disposal and haul-off costs are easy to see and track at the Isle LaPlume WWTP in LaCrosse, Wisconsin. In grit disposal alone, the plant reduced its costs by 79% by using Huber’s grit washer. Cleaner, dryer, safer grit is dis-
30 | November/December 2014
Cardston, Alberta, WWTP screw press.
posed of more easily and cheaply. These savings help the plant to keep public use rates from rising. Huber’s belt dryer in the WWTP in Mooresville, North Carolina, has reduced sludge handling costs, including tipping and hazard fees at the landfill. Producing an end product that is only 3% water was such a drastic reduction from their previous end product, that the plant’s yearly cost of sludge handling was reduced by $200,000. In North Las Vegas, Huber’s fine screens are the final barrier between damaging contaminants and the delicate membrane strands in the plant’s membrane bioreactor. The impact of damage here could reach up to a million dollars or more for catastrophic repair and replacement. Expelling odiferous gases Odour is a huge problem when it comes to the perception of residents who live in smelling distance of the WWTP or just drive close enough to smell it once in a while. While a completely odour-free WWTP is near impossible, the offensive gases that waft from the plant site can be reduced. A step in the right direction here can go a long way with the residents who may have previously complained.
Grit washer in Isle La Plume WWTP.
The Cardston WWTP in Alberta saw its impact on the community improve after putting Huber’s screw press in place. The close-knit community in the plant’s service area had some issues with odours and had always endured them because the free fertilizer provided to farmers was a tremendous help in preparing their barley fields. This wasn’t a trade-off that the plant wanted to sustain. In fact, one of the central goals was to improve the plant’s relationship with the community. One of the ways this could be done, was by reducing the offensive odours the plant produced. The odour wasn’t just evident at the plant. It traveled to the farms where the fertilizer was being used. Before implementing the screw press, supernatant was loaded with biosolids returning to the plant. This overloaded the rotating biological contactors and caused odour. Because of the screw press’ de-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Mooresville WWTP dryer unit.
North Las Vegas WWTP.
watering efficiency, supernatant recycled back to the wastewater plant for treatment is clear and free from odour. For the Isle La Plume WWTP in LaCrosse, odours were a major problem and organics were the source. By using Huber’s grit washer technology, the cleansing process became easy. It is incorporated into the processing of the flow so that everything remains streamlined and efficient.
uct grit is described now as “sandbox grade.” Washing produces cleaner grit because the odiferous organics are gone. This makes it safe to send to the landfill and has a tremendous impact on plant compliance and public perception. Since putting Huber’s belt dryer in place, the Mooresville plant has eliminated any issues or surcharges with disposing of their sludge. The Class A end product is quite desirable for use and the plant is putting plans in place to begin to package and market it. That will offset even more of its operating costs. Hill Canyon WWTP in California, has boosted its green efforts through us-
End product improvements The financial impact of unsafe, dirty and heavy end products is significant. Isle la Plume WWTP’s end prod-
ing Huber’s screening technology. Contaminants are cleared out at the headworks. This has had a tremendous effect on the entire process, from improved aesthetics, reduced wear and tear on downstream processes and cleaner biosolids for recycling. North Las Vegas was already producing an impressively “clean” permeate. But the Huber fine screens have upped the ante. Public challenges prove that the permeate is an order of magnitude cleaner that what most cities have for drinking water. The permeate is often selected over bottled water. Summary Wastewater treatment plant operating costs, odiferous gases and end products, could be described as the three legs that hold up the stool on which the community relationship sits. Investment in a single technology can impact all three “legs” positively. T.R. Gregg is with Huber Technology. For more information, visit: www.huber-technology.com
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November/December 2014 | 31
Kingston installs watertight maintenance holes, reduces I&I By Angus W. Stocking
Crews placing the Lifespan frame in Kingston, Ontario.
ingston, sometimes called the “Limestone City,” is one of Ontario’s oldest cities. The local sewer infrastructure has kept up with the times but according to Joe M. Lewis, manager of water and wastewater operations, the City faces the same inflow and infiltration (I&I) challenges as any municipality. One such problem is ponding water. “We have an area right at the foot of Beverley Street where storms will cause ponding of several inches on top of three maintenance holes,” said Lewis. “‘Lake Beverley’ can be in place for several hours, so we knew we had to do something.” Also, near creek crossings, maintenance holes can be submerged for weeks, and sometimes beaver activity will result in covered lids. While pick holes found in most maintenance lids may seem insignificant, standing water over these holes is a problem. They are a major source of unwanted inflow and can seriously impact treatment capacity. Studies in Moncton, New Brunswick, showed that just two 25 mm² holes in a lid covered by 50 mm of water, will let in about 500 ml of water per second. If standing water is as deep as 150 mm, which is often the case for “Lake Beverley,” the rate of inflow doubles and allows 3.6 m³ of water to flow into the sewer every hour. Treatment capacity is closely monitored in Kingston. The City recently installed 14 watertight frame and cover systems on Beverley Street and elsewhere. The Lifespan System®, made by Hamilton Kent, consists of a watertight frame and lid that is easy to install and eliminates inflow through the top of maintenance holes. Lewis said the frames and lids might become the new stan-
32 | November/December 2014
dard in Kingston. Replacing utility frames and manholes is “low hanging fruit” compared to more costly sewer line rehabilitation projects, according to Lewis. Given the costs of wastewater treatment, addressing unnecessary inflow is nearly always a good investment. Only a small percentage of utility lids and frames need to be addressed. “As a rule of thumb, only 10% of the sanitary covers in a system are regularly under standing water,” Hamilton Kent’s Dan Léger points out. “These are responsible for 80-90% of all the inflow that comes in through the top of maintenance holes. Replacing these will make a huge difference in reducing inflow and infiltration.” Light and watertight Lifespan System components are made of a rigid high-performance rubber that is long-lasting and lightweight. The rubber frame weighs just 25 kg compared to 90 kg for its cast iron counterpart. This lightness and ease of installation, makes it possible to rehabilitate maintenance holes quickly. Hybrid Construction Group, Kingston’s contractor for the rehabilitation work, was able to replace 10 of the original cast iron frames and covers in just three days. The replacement process consists of excavation, removal of old concrete leveling rings and brick and cast iron frame components, and replacement with Lifespan components. These are first dry-stacked for fit and slope adjustment, then marked and drilled before being secured with stainless steel bolts and sealed with butyl sealant. The result is a permanently watertight cover from the concrete chimney up. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Ponding water forms “Lake Beverley,” which is several inches deep.
I&I reduction is Kingston’s primary reason for installing the new Lifespan Systems, but Lewis said: “We’ll install more of these, even in situations with no standing water.” His reasons include: • Ergonomics. “Lugging around heavy lids and grade rings is dangerous. Anything we can do to reduce injuries is worth it for us.” • Adaptability. “Lifespan’s tapered grade rings make it easy to exactly match road surfaces, which is a good thing given the amount of snowplowing we do. The components also do well in freeze/thaw regions because they don’t
Butyl sealant is applied to form a waterproof cover from the concrete chimney up.
crack, and don’t allow water into joints.” • Toughness. “Watertight composite lids are strong and bolted down. This has two advantages. First, Kingston has a few lids that routinely pop off in heavy storms, and bolted lids will stay put, keeping the public safe. Second, bolted down composite lids should discourage the thieves who sometimes steal iron lids for the few dollars they bring at the recycling yard.” Angus W. Stocking, L.S., is a licensed land surveyor. For more information, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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November/December 2014 | 33
Each year, ES&E invites experts and leaders in environmental consulting to share their opinions, experiences and values with our readers. We continue to be honoured every year with erudite responses from some of our leading consulting engineers. Their opinions are based on many years of collective experience in maintaining high standards, while keeping up with the diversity and complexities of environmental engineering and managerial leadership.
How can we accelerate municipal project delivery?
omething often mentioned by our municipal clients is how they have huge capital plans to deliver but are challenged to do so. Consultants face the same issues, impediments and challenges. There are three groups that must engage and coalesce into a single entity in order to meet delivery expectations: the client, the consultant and the contractor. There are parallels in each of our operations that contribute to project delivery delays. Answering a few questions should clarify the situation and identify a way forward: What’s the problem? Whose problem is it? How can we resolve it to speed up project delivery? What’s the problem? Industry feedback suggests several reasons for failing to meet project delivery expectations. These include: too few staff; organizational silos; shortage of experienced engineers and managers; having unrealistic timelines and project scopes imposed; setting unrealistic timelines for delivery; and lack of (and application of) rigorous project controls to ensure success. Consultants have often achieved limited success in addressing and resolving these issues. Looking to other sectors
34 | November/December 2014
By Bill De Angelis
for parallels to our own situations can sometimes uncover things we may overlook, or identify and quantify factors that can help the consulting and municipal capital delivery process. An interesting take on overall project delivery is described by Mankins and Steele in the Spring 2013 Harvard Business Review OnPoint journal article, entitled “Turning Great Strategy into Great Performance.” They looked at the average performance loss in a group of financial companies. Research showed that, on average, most companies’ strategies delivered only 63% of their expected financial value. It begged the question of whether they needed better execution, or better strategy. The 37% performance loss was attributed to a group of factors that included: • 7.5% Inadequate or unavailable resources. • 5.2% Poorly communicated strategy. • 4.5% Actions required to execute not clearly defined. • 4.1% Unclear accountabilities for execution. • 3.7% Organizational silos and culture blocking execution. • 3.0% Inadequate performance monitoring. • 3.0% Inadequate consequences of
• • • •
rewards for failure or success. 2.6% Poor senior leadership. 1.9% Uncommitted leadership. 0.7% Unapproved strategy. 0.7% Other obstacles (including inadequate skills and capabilities).
Each of the above factors contributes a small percentage to overall performance loss, but, collectively, they impede the ability of an organization to effectively deliver projects. Not surprisingly, they are often cited in our business as reasons behind the ability to effectively deliver, or not deliver, on capital programs. Whose problem is it? The same weaknesses can permeate public and private sector entities as well, with the same impacts on programs and delivery. Being able to achieve a firm or owner’s business strategies requires a re-think around how we plan and deliver work. Key elements related to creating less complex plans, setting expectations during planning, forecasting resource requirements in advance, clearly identifying priorities, monitoring performance, and motivation and development of staff were all raised by Mankins and Steele, and are echoed in other sectors.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Impediments to project delivery in the public sector can include: politics, internal team, approvals processes, external pressures, contract language, shifting of risk and procurement. These can influence a project’s timing, as well as direction. Political needs sometimes determine how internal resources (budgets) are allocated, often to the detriment of a particular project. Beyond the capital program itself, the needs of various departments, all vying for a large piece of the same capital “pie,” can result in delay, deferral or cancellation of planned projects. Much of this is outside of the purview of the project managers and engineering divisions in our clients’ organizations. Approvals are an area where we see delays. The approvals environment is both loosening and tightening for project proponents. The Modernization of Approvals group in the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has moved towards self-approval of projects, under
the Environmental Compliance Approvals (ECA) banner. Similarly, the Municipal Class Environmental Assessment Study (MCEA) process is essentially proponent-driven, with the proponent (owner) scoping and driving the process. Beyond MOE and MCEA requirements, the sheer number of approvals from a variety of agencies, public interest groups, municipal departments, conservation agencies and various ministries is increasing. Timelines related to overall delivery are being both eroded and extended. The environmentally conscious and sensitive public that we work with now are more questioning than ever. They want to know what we are doing, why we are doing it, and what negative (or positive) environmental consequences might result from our work. This faction can and does lobby politicians, either directly or through the Municipal Class EA Part ll Order process. Councils themselves tend to be risk
intolerant. They want certainty around scope/schedule/budget before approving projects. The nature and structure of contracts and agreements can extend project development and delivery. Where they were once mainly technical in nature, there is now, by necessity, major input from legal, financial and purchasing departments. They focus on non-technical elements of execution, i.e., insurance, indemnification and allocation of risk. How can we speed up delivery? There are several keys to successful delivery that are neither complex nor mythical. Rather, they are founded on business principles, inclusion, common sense and clear goals. They require us as an industry to work closely with our clients. For each project or program, we need: achievable plans, partnering, colcontinued overleaf...
November/December 2014 | 35
laboration, communication and progress tracking. Most successful projects are realistic in scope, cost and schedule. Of course, ongoing rigorous tracking and documentation of progress must be done. Otherwise, there will be no baseline from which to gauge project and individual performance versus expectations. Contract delivery mechanisms can be adjusted to improve delivery timelines. Traditional design/bid/build contracts are used by many municipalities. We are, however, beginning to see contract approaches that are partly aimed at hastening delivery. Examples would include design/build, public-private partnerships, bundling, and the application of pre-approved consultant roster approaches. What may hasten adoption of alternate project delivery approaches is the availability of funding from Infrastructure Ontario, P3 Canada, and other provincial and federal agencies. Service level agreements are being
seen as a means of improving project delivery. They set out the conditions and obligations that each party to an agreement (client, engineer, contractor) must adhere to, and in essence agree to, prior to project commencement. These agreements establish key performance indicators and metrics against which each participant is measured. The challenge is to set realistic metrics.
Service level agreements are being seen as a means of improving project delivery. Prior notification of pending projects has been successful in expediting internal approvals. In the public sector, many internal entities have a role to fulfill, including: operations, engineering, planning, purchasing, legal, asset management, risk
management, committee and council. Particular attention needs to be paid by technical staff to proactively communicating project concepts, challenges and mitigation elements to procurement, legal and risk management groups that are not normally versed in technical concepts around design and execution. Prior notification of pending projects has been successful in expediting internal approvals. Setting up an internal project review panel with representation from all groups, meeting regularly to discuss upcoming projects and possible issues, is one means of improving project delivery. External delays can occur in procurement. The current construction environment in Ontario is seeing a shortfall in highly qualified contractors to meet the capital works demands of municipalities. In recognition of this, municipal project managers are discussing with their counterparts the timing of the release of large capital projects, to try to ensure strong contractor response.
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36 | November/December 2014
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Improving consultant and contractor selection processes is another way clients can reduce overall project timelines. Prequalification of consultants and contractors is one means of ensuring a selection of strong teams. Rigorous evaluations following project completion will raise the quality of the consultant and contractor pool for future client assignments. To help expedite the overall requirement to improve on project delivery timelines and efficiency, Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO) have begun to engage their members in discussions on this topic. They have also reached out to the larger project delivery community for discussion and input. They are currently working with Metrolinx and Infrastructure Ontario to formulate contract documents that will expedite project delivery of new infrastructure. As well, they have initiated discussions with RPWCO (Regional Public Works Commissioners of Ontario). CEO are looking to improve procure-
ment processes through a review of: request for proposal (RFP) structures; evaluation criteria; alternative procurement models; contract terms and conditions; and consultant performance and evaluation: a) RFP Structure Elements • Development of draft RFPs and circulation to key consultants for comments and suggestions. • Further development of objective, measurable criteria for proposal evaluation. • Consultant selection on the basis of a technical RFP submission, followed by negotiation of fees within an approved funding envelope. Also, working in collaboration to adjust scope, timelines and payment terms to meet project requirements. b) Contract Terms and Conditions • Ensuring a balanced risk allocation between consultants and proponents. • Reviewing indemnification clauses. • Insurance types and limits.
• Review of holdback provisions in the context of the Construction Lien Act. Ultimately, the entire project delivery community of client, engineer and contractor share the same goals. We all want to deliver high quality engineering projects at fair prices, in a timely fashion. It is going to be a busy time in the Ontario market as we accelerate efforts to replace, upgrade and build new vertical and horizontal infrastructure. Accelerating project delivery requires the same level of commitment from all parties, to clarity in scoping, strong project management and controls, development of internal efficiencies, collaboration and partnership, and, above all, clear communication, strategy and leadership. Bill De Angelis, P.Eng., MBA, is Vice President, Associated Engineering. Email: email@example.com
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November/December 2014 | 37
Consultants must respond to climate change impacts on infrastructure design
By Roger Rempel and Joel Nodelman
limate change impacts are being observed in every region of Canada, with increased frequency and intensity of hurricane events in the Atlantic region, ice storms in Ontario and Québec, more tornadoes in the Prairies, severe flooding events in Toronto and southern Alberta, shorter ice road seasons in the North, and increased intensity and frequency of “Pineapple Express” extreme precipitation events on the Pacific coast. Canadian engineers designing critical infrastructure are faced with a growing challenge. We must design, build and operate infrastructure systems that are resilient to the environments where they are intended to operate, while satisfying our obligation as engineers to protect the public’s health and safety. The public often takes for granted that our systems will function as designed for the operating environments they were intended for. Meanwhile, changing climate conditions in Canada are challenging these systems on an ongoing and growing basis. These systems can fail, with the potential for economic disruption and loss of life. The engineering profession must identify ways to address our evolving understanding of the hazards presented by a shifting climate. We must also provide tools to professional engineering practitioners to ensure safe and reliable infrastructure system designs. Issues with existing codes and standards Most of the infrastructure that exists today was designed using values derived from historical climate data. This practice is based upon the premise that the average and extreme conditions of past
38 | November/December 2014
Climate resilient systems training.
decades will also hold throughout the decades to come. As long as our climate remains stable, defining the “envelope” for a design’s operating environment using historical climate data, is an approach that has worked reasonably well. Given a stable, consistent climate, we could design for known conditions over an expected service life. We could be confident that our design would be resilient enough to function properly in that intended operating environment. Engineers have applied this approach because it allowed consideration of climate design values for flooding, rainfall, temperature and others, over different return periods and historical extremes for a given location.
But, how valid can this approach be when our climate begins to shift and move away from these historical ranges? Could we be leaving unattended risk “on the table” within the gap between historical and future climate conditions? If the vast majority of our engineering codes and standards do not yet include consideration of a shifting climate that no longer adheres to historical patterns, then who must manage the risks induced by this wider range of conditions? The answer is professional engineers. Engineers Canada, the national organization representing regulatory associations that license the engineering profession across Canada, recognize that effects of a changing climate will require infrastruc-
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ture designs to be revisited to improve safety and protection for Canadians. Engineers Canada worked with Natural Resources Canada to develop partnerships with municipal and provincial government owners of public infrastructure. The Public Infrastructure Engineering Vulnerability Committee (PIEVC) and a best practices framework for detailed assessment of climate vulnerability of public infrastructure, known as the PIEVC Protocol, were both established. The PIEVC Protocol has been applied to over 25 public infrastructure projects across Canada and has been adapted for use in international applications by other governments. Results from these studies have been categorized by type of infrastructure in a database of climate-related infrastructure vulnerabilities, maintained by Engineers Canada. This database will be used for the review and adjustment processes for infrastructure codes, standards and related instruments. Given that reviewing and revising these codes is a time-consuming process, can the engineering profession wait
until code revisions are completed before tackling the problem of climate change impacts on engineering design? The legal profession is starting to weigh in on this question: â&#x20AC;&#x153;â&#x20AC;Śgiven knowledge of climate change effects in a geographic area as a
It follows that, if infrastructure is not adapted to be resilient in the face of new conditions imposed by climate change, then property damage and threats to public safety are likely to occur. result of the proliferation of climate-related information and projection models, if the â&#x20AC;&#x153;standard practiceâ&#x20AC;? at the time of designing a specific type of infrastructure project is to ignore potential
climate-change effects (despite widely available evidence), the standard practice itself may be negligent. Adhering to a deficient standard would be a breach of a design professionalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s standard of care to an injured person.â&#x20AC;? Patricia Koval, Climate Change Risk: Is Liability Lurking For Professional Engineers? Engineering Dimensions, PEO 2013. From the perspective of Engineers Canada and the legal community, we cannot wait to act. We have a significant understanding now of both the probable effects of climate change and its impacts on various infrastructure sectors. We know many Canadian regions will likely face increased intensity and frequencies in precipitation, in addition to other extreme events. We also know that permafrost degradation will accelerate in the north. It follows that, if infrastructure is not adapted to be resilient in the face of new conditions imposed by climate change, continued overleaf...
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then property damage and threats to public safety are likely to occur. Engineers Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s position is that their professional code of ethics requires engineers to be involved in addressing the impacts of changing climate on infrastructure design and operations because it affects public safety and the public interest. Engineers, directors and asset managers also face the reality of increasing legal actions for alleged actions or omissions, with all of these cases related to climate change in some measure. Integrating climate change vulnerability assessment As applied scientists, engineers already know how to design in situations where there is uncertainty. Engineering builds upon assumptions, which are themselves vulnerable to uncertainties. Further, the modelling and assessment of uncertainty is unavoidable in any decision made during the planning and design of an engineering system.
40 | November/December 2014
The projected future operating environment conditions resulting from climate change also bring uncertainties. Some projected changes are reported with high certainty; for other parameters, the projections are less confident. This need not hold you back from assessing your designs for climate vulnerabilities that could result in damage, disruption and community impacts. Just as a process engineer conducts a hazards and operability analysis (HAZOP) on an industrial process design, infrastructure designers should include a cli-
mate vulnerability assessment in their design process. This should focus specifically on the impacts of projected climate change and future severe weather events. A number of frameworks and tools have been established for this purpose, with some tailored to assess requirements for specific infrastructure categories such as transportation networks, water resources and others. One such tool is the PIEVC Protocol (www.PIEVC.ca). These climate vulnerability assessments are important. First, they identify
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
the nature and severity of climate risks to infrastructure components. With this knowledge, the engineer can identify areas that are the most vulnerable to climate. The range of vulnerabilities can then be prioritized based upon performance criteria that are critical for the infrastructure and the community that it serves. Prioritization allows for a systematic and targeted risk-reduction approach. This provides infrastructure asset owners with the understanding they need to make adaptations to improve climate resiliency for their assets. Climate vulnerability assessment, when applied using an established framework such as PIEVC, provides a structured, documented approach. This not only informs adjustments in design, operations and maintenance, but provides the structured evidence of due diligence that climate impacts were considered and assessed in the design process. A current lack of engineering codes and standards incorporating climate change will likely not excuse the en-
gineer from liabilities from reasonably foreseeable impacts of climate change on infrastructure designs. In conducting a climate vulnerability assessment on their designs, professional engineers
Climate change is not an issue to be feared and avoided; it is a challenge to meet head-on in the finest traditions of our profession. not only protect the public interest and the publicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s safety, they can also limit their exposure to legal liabilities related to the effects of climate change on infrastructure. Conclusion The engineering profession has
thrived because of its ability to respond with solutions for evolving issues. As leaders in innovation, engineers naturally serve as agents of technical advancement and change. Climate change is simply another in a long line of challenges that continue to test the profession. We have been successful in the past because of our technical training, combined with our reputation for innovation and logical problem solving. Climate change is not an issue to be feared and avoided; it is a challenge to meet head-on in the finest traditions of our profession. Roger Rempel, FEC, P.Eng., is with Stantec Consulting Inc. Joel Nodelman, P.Eng., is with Nodelcorp Consulting Inc. They are faculty instructors for Climate Resilient Systems Training. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
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November/December 2014 | 41
The evolution of environmental consulting By Brian Yates
hose of us in the consulting workplace of the early 1990s, before widespread access to the Internet and email, will have a sense of how fundamentally our industry will be affected by the coming biological revolution. Over the next decade the environmental consulting industry will be transformed by advances in the biological sciences. These will be driven by the torrent of inexpensive genomic information and applications that will become available as a result of plummeting sequencing costs and advanced information technologies. Genomic tools will deepen our understanding of the effects of toxics, biodiversity, ecological trends, and will cut the costs of environmental monitoring. Just as Internet access today is an essential element of environmental consulting, in a decade or so it will be nearly unimaginable to undertake environmental analysis without reference to genome sciences. If the 20th century was that of the computer, the 21st century will be that of biology. Genomics is the study of the complete genome of an organism, (i.e., information encoded in the DNA), as well as proteomics (the study of the proteins encoded by a genome), metabolomics (the study of the metabolite pool), bioinformatics (information technology to support genomic analyses) and related areas of research (collectively known as genome sciences). These technologies are used to understand the genetic blueprint of an organism and how it interacts with the environment. Advances in DNA technology Mutually reinforcing advances in informatics and sequencing methods have resulted in paradigm shifting changes in the accessibility of genomic technologies to researchers. Every two minutes, the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute sequences as many base pairs as all researchers worldwide completed 42 | November/December 2014
Figure 1. Dramatic drops in genome sequencing costs.
from 1982 to 1987. Sequencing the first human genome cost approximately $300 million to complete by 2000. In 2007, James Watson’s genome was sequenced for approximately $1 million. Now, in 2014, estimates are closer to $5,000, and the “$1000 genome” is in sight. Figure 1, produced by the National Human Genome Research Institute, illustrates the dramatic reduction in the costs associated with sequencing a human sized genome. The white line represents Moore’s law, the doubling of computer instructions per second per dollar every 18 months. The blue line indicates the cost of sequencing a human sized genome over time. The majority of effort in the genomic sciences is directed toward health-related research. However, these advances have led to increased applications in other sectors, including environmental management and risk assessment. Environmental genomics is the application of genomics-based approaches to address environmental issues and prob-
lems, such as: • Advancing aquatic, terrestrial, and wildlife toxicology (toxicogenomics), which is enhancing environmental risk assessment, risk management, hazard identification, and environmental effects monitoring. • Supporting wildlife management through the use of genetic data in the research, decision-making, and enforcement (wildlife conservation genetics, wildlife disease diagnostics, wildlife forensics). • Developing biotechnology solutions to potentially realize environmental goals, including the use of biofuels, bioremediation of contaminated sites, and carbon sequestration. The application of genome sciences to environmental toxicology is particularly promising for those chemicals or complex mixtures that are persistently discharged into both terrestrial and aquatic environments at low concentrations. Recent technological advances now make it possible to develop molecular profiles
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
to identify the effects of chemical substances on living organisms, or in the environment. Subsequently, knowledge gained on gene identification, structure and expression can be applied to environmental protection and management. Toxicogenomics Toxicogenomics identifies the activity of a particular toxin or chemical substance on living tissue, based on a profile of the known effects of the substance on genetic material. Many of the standard toxicological approaches to assessing potential deleteriousness of chemicals on aquatic organisms, rely on whole-animal responses (e.g., mortality, reproduction, growth), and associated endpoints (e.g., lethal concentrations). While these methods have worked well for identifying chemicals of concern, they are insufficient for elucidating the pathways of chemical toxicity and a broad spectrum of sub-lethal effects. The time required to undertake new testing will be prohibitive, without innovations in testing methods. Genomic tools offer a high throughput and lower cost
opportunity to address the information needs of regulators and risk assessors. International efforts to sequence the genomes of a range of key species will enable cross species comparisons of the impact of chemicals and other environmental stressors. The Daphnia Genom-
If the 20th century was that of the computer, the 21st century will be that of biology. ics Consortium and the International Collaboration to Sequence the Atlantic Salmon Genome (ICSASG) are examples of such efforts. Toxicogenomics offers the ability to increase the sensitivity of analytical tools and determine effects at the level of gene and protein expression. It has great potential for application to risk assessment and toxicology. Potential toxicogenomics applications include:
• Determining the effect of environmental stressors on organisms and ecosystems, and predicting the effect of environmental changes. • Monitoring the environment, emerging chemicals of concern and industrial effluents to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements (e.g., toxins are within thresholds). Also, identifying potential new environmental stressors through integration with environmental effects monitoring programs. Genomics based monitoring can augment existing whole animal tests with information related to sub lethal effects that might impact on an organism’s ability to survive in the long term (e.g. its ability to eat, escape predators or fight infection. These include: • Evaluating synergistic and cumulative effects of pollutants on organisms and within the environment. • Moving from time-consuming whole continued overleaf...
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November/December 2014 | 43
animal to in-vitro testing to evaluate changes in biologic processes. • Investigating how emergent chemicals and materials (e.g., nanotechnology byproducts) may influence animals, plants and the environment. Nanotechnology, for example, encompasses many techniques used to manipulate materials at the scale of atoms and molecules. Substances at this scale are more reactive and noxious than at the micro- or macro-scale. Environmental microbiology Environmental microbiology can support major advances in evaluating and applying individual micro-organisms and complex microbial communities to existing environmental issues. This includes: • Improving the remediation and restoration of contaminated land and ocean sites (e.g., discarded munitions on the ocean floor). • Developing “green chemistry” (involving metabolic modeling and development of microbial expression systems) for industrial processes, to reduce and eliminate harmful emissions and byproducts from conventional chemical processing. • Developing microbial processes that can convert industrial waste, such as that from forestry, pulp and paper or food processing, fisheries and agriculture, into biofuels.
Biodiversity Genome sciences could be applied to various aspects of ecosystem monitoring, conservation and biodiversity management, including: • Genomic mapping of wild populations of land and water-based animals, resulting in the production of DNA chips. • Use in wildlife forensics to support conservation enforcement, including applications to trade in endangered species. • Incorporating genomics data into indicators of ecosystem health. • Measuring at the genomic level the stress in a population resulting from exposure to contaminants or other environmental stresses such as climate change. • Identifying biomarkers associated with resistance and adaptation to environmental stressors such as climate change. • Supporting ecosystem restoration. Bio-prospecting Genome sciences can potentially be applied to bio-prospecting, including the use of environmental microbiology to develop genomic approaches for discovery of novel enzymes and bioactive microbial products found in all environments. This includes such extremes as ocean hot vents and deep in-glacier ice. It can also provide tools to identify active compounds in industrial waste, such as pulp and paper effluent, or waste products, or in endemic flora, algae and fungi.
A path forward Environmental genomics research is underway in academic institutions, government labs, and private companies. It has reached a “tipping point” globally where these advances will allow the feasible integration of genome sciences with more traditional tools. What does this mean for the environmental consulting industry? Genomic sciences will disperse from university and government research institutions into real-world applications. We will need to invest and prepare ourselves to integrate them into our work, if we want to create more opportunities for our clients and ourselves. Taking steps now to modernize industry’s approaches to risk assessment, toxicology and conservation will pay long-term dividends in efficiency and cost-effectiveness. It will also yield benefits associated with more robust understanding of the underlying molecular biology of maintaining healthy ecosystems. We should form more partnerships with academia and government to ensure genomic tools are optimized for use in the private sector. In the coming years, genomics tools will become as ubiquitous to environmental consultants as information technology is today, and just as essential to how we do our work. Brian Yates is Vice President, Impact Assessment & Community Engagement, SNC-Lavalin. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sustainable Solutions Water and Wastewater Systems • Stormwater Treatment and Management • Modeling • Hydrogeology Hydrologic and Hydraulic Analysis • Environmental Planning • Distribution, Collection, Treatment
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44 | November/December 2014
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Personal knowledge management is a win/win concept for consulting firms By Pat Coleman w
est-selling author Seth Godin argues that the social contract between employers and their employees has changed (Godin, 2010). The new contract rewards talent, creativity and art more than it rewards obedience. The old social contract was paternal. The concept of loyalty made sense then because employers took care of lifetime workers and work was more routine (Williams R. B., 2011). This social contract failed when “leaders started to confuse profits with purpose, taking the low road to short-term gains at the expense of employees, customers, and ultimately, investors.” What these approaches miss, is that loyalty is still what drives financial success because knowledge and innovation flourish when there are established networks of mutually beneficial relationships within a company. Today’s social contract is a partnership. R. B. Williams argues in his article “Is Loyalty Dead?” that “employees expect to be treated fairly, to deliver professionally, and to have meaningful, challenging work. In return, employees owe the organization their willingness to participate in business growth, idea development, customer service and organizational transformation.” This change in the social contract has had a deep impact on engineering consulting firms. Who they employ and what projects they have carried out, determines what new work they can win. What they earn depends on how many of their employees’ hours they can sell and for what price. The challenge faced by consulting firms is how to match staffing levels to the demand for services. If the demand for services is cyclic, then firms may match the demand by adjusting staffing levels up and down. In a cost-sensitive market, firms may also try to maximize the hours that staff can be billed for. www.esemag.com
They may also pare back the staff that cannot be charged directly to the client but provide important administrative services. This approach means knowledge workers now spend up to 41% of their time on low value tasks (Birkinshaw & Cohen, September 2013). This leaves little time for management and innovation and can cause staff to leave the firm, taking with them their knowledge and personal networks.
The employee must anticipate what is needed to compete and acquire this knowledge before it is required. Many firms have reversed this trend by identifying and rewarding staff that invest their personal knowledge into their work. They learned that it is more cost-effective to maximize the time these staff spend doing high value tasks by delegating low value tasks to lower
paid staff. When it is time to reduce staff because of market conditions, they retain their “linchpins” and cut their commodity workers. This makes employees partners because they can flourish in profitable, well run and stable companies. They know they cannot be complacent because their satisfaction stems from doing creative and profitable work. This means the employee must be as adaptable as the employer to changes in the market if both are to succeed. The employer cannot afford to retain staff whose skills do not keep pace with their salary. With the change in the social contract to a partnership, it is no longer solely the employer’s responsibility to create a career path. The employee must anticipate what is needed to compete and acquire this knowledge before it is required. Personal knowledge management (PKM) is a collection of processes that a person uses to gather, classify, store, search, retrieve and share knowledge in their daily activities. These are the processes by which we make sense of continued overleaf... November/December 2014 | 45
information, observations and ideas (Glasbeek, 2013). It is a “bottom up” approach to building knowledge in a company that developed in an economy where individual workers need to be responsible for their own growth and learning. PKM is in contrast to knowledge management (KM) which is a “top down” corporate system. The two systems need to work in partnership so that both employee and employer earn a return when they invest their knowledge capital. The risk with the end of single career and lifetime employment, is that some individuals will not share their knowledge if they feel their jobs are threatened. Unless an organization rewards knowledge sharing, their culture will be poisoned by passive knowledge hoarding, hindering an organization’s ability to compete. David Shenk coined the phrase “data smog,” to refer to the idea that too much information can create a barrier in our
lives (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2014). This data smog is produced by the amount of information, the speed at which it comes to us from all directions, the need to make fast decisions, and the feeling of anxiety that we are making decisions without having all the information we need. Today, a typical person processes over six times the information they did 20 years ago. Syndromes such as “technostress” and “attention deficit office behaviour,” are common in the workplace. Many workers describe their experience as being constantly “fire fighting.” They live in a permanent state of crisis, without any spare capacity, or margin of error. The danger is that in this environment no one has time or the inclination to acquire or share knowledge. An equally dangerous outcome of information overload is decision paralysis. More uncertainty demands more knowledge, more knowledge increases complexity, more complexity demands more abstraction, more abstraction increases uncertainty (Gorman & Pau-
leen, 2011). The default position, unless altered by market forces, is to “just do what we did before.” This reduces what we do to a commodity and market forces ensure that there will always be someone somewhere who can do it cheaper. To navigate through this smog, we need to acquire a new set of competencies to filter and vet information. Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education defines information literacy as follows: “Information literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to ‘recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information.’ It is also increasingly important in the contemporary environment of rapid technological change and proliferating information resources. Because of the escalating complexity of this environment, individuals are faced with diverse, abundant information choices in their academic studies, in the workplace and in their personal lives. “Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. It is common to all disciplines, to all learning environments, and to all levels of education. It enables learners to master content and extend their investigations, become more self-directed, and assume greater control over their own learning. An information literate individual is able to: • Determine the extent of information needed. • Access the needed information effectively and efficiently. • Evaluate information and its sources critically. • Incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base. • Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose. • Understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally.” (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2014) It is a dangerous mistake to confuse information with knowledge, and knowledge with wisdom. Information is simply data. Once refined and processed, it becomes knowledge.
46 | November/December 2014
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Figure 1: Impact of PKM on the employer.
With experience, humility and reflection, knowledge morphs into wisdom. Knowledge is “a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information,” (Gorman & Pauleen, 2011). Personal knowledge only starts to become valuable to an individual and their employer when it results in a new skill, perspective or competency. One characteristic of a wise person is their ability to reflect on what they know. This is essential if a person is to manage what they know (Gorman & Pauleen, 2011). Such a person is able to: • Acknowledge the ambiguous, fragmented and contested nature of knowledge but does not prevent a determination of the understood “facts” of the matter. • Acknowledge that there are multiple perspectives to any phenomenon, each with their own vocabularies, theories and frames. • Understand as far as possible one’s own subject position individually and www.esemag.com
as a member of a community of practice, and that this will influence the perception of the object. This type of wisdom cannot be obtained by sitting in an office with the door closed. It can only be obtained by seeking it. For this reason, a personal knowledge management strategy is built on five components: 1. A strategy to anticipate, explore, find, connect, learn and act when acquiring knowledge. 2. A plan to identify what has to be learned and to obtain this learning to remain relevant in the job market. 3. The development of strong communication and interpersonal skills to create productive networks with others. 4. The acquisition of skills to use technology to acquire, manage and share knowledge. 5. The ability to reflect and forecast where your limited resources need to be focused. The social networking side of PKM is critical. It is important that an individual creates networks. It is only when
we know people that we will be able to scan/reinvent and vet/filter what we learn. A person who sits in their office and reads about sludge dryers will never be as knowledgeable as someone who has commissioned or operated a dryer. Knowledge is just information unless it is grounded in experience. We intuitively recognise this. Most of us would place more value on advice on parenting teenagers from someone with adult children than from someone whose children were still toddlers. It requires a critical thinker to discern reliability of an information source. A critical thinker is able to: analyze cause and effect; classify and sequence; compare and contrast; infer; evaluate; observe; predict; and rationalize. A critical thinker must remain open-minded, well-informed, logical, and clarification-seeking. There is a critical balance between knowing and learning as one leads to asking the right question and the other to receiving the correct answer (MindTools, 2014). The three things that keep a person continued overleaf... November/December 2014 | 47
on the right path to their knowledge goal are the people they know (relationships and networks), related information (information), and the tools/skills to manage their efforts (technology). For each goal, there will be a different balance between the three. However, all will play a role. James Dellow (Dellow, 2003) calls this the Personal Knowledge Mountain. He argues that when a person climbs a mountain, they rely on their team members, their knowledge and their equipment. The value of this analogy is to remind us what is important. We build our personal knowledge in a community that should extend past the borders of our employer and reach those who will challenge our complacency. We use technology to grow the tendrils of our network and to manage all that we gather. To fully understand the importance of staff assuming responsibility for their knowledge management, let us consider the key factors that measure the
“smartness” of an organization. These are: awareness of external information; dissemination of knowledge internally; effective decision hierarchy; organizational focus; and continuous innovation (Cheong & Tsui, 2011). An employee’s efforts to build their own personal knowledge can have a positive impact on each of these factors (Figure 1). Employees gather information from external sources through their personal networks. This information can be used by their employer to better market to and serve clients. Individuals vet and package information into a form that can be fed more effectively through the organization via formal and informal networks. When individuals understand what is at the core of their employer’s business, they can align their own information management to strengthen the company’s performance. When a company’s employees are continuously learning, this can create pockets of intense creativity and innovation within the organi-
zation that will enhance the company’s bottom line. Engineering consultants are feeling pressure from three areas. Management consultants argue they are better planners and program managers; contractors argue they are better designers; and software companies argue they can automate the design process. The danger is that clients come to view the core of what is left as a commodity, one that can be executed cheaper and equally as well offshore. To maintain their competitive edge, consultants must retain knowledge within their organization. Employers must reward and facilitate bottom-up knowledge management. They need to retain those who share knowledge and build the company’s agility and creativity. This will enable firms to be competitive in a market driven by both price and innovation. Patrick Coleman, P.Eng., is with Black & Veatch. Email: email@example.com
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Past, present and future of the eenvironmental service industry
By Kurt Hansen
n 1969, the United States enacted its federal Clean Air and Water Acts. Alberta did the same in 1971, as did many other Canadian jurisdictions, after pollution caught significant public attention during the 1960s. Shortly after, a few astute engineering consulting companies across Canada diversified and augmented their business with an environmental division. They started the service with internal expertise from the engineering disciplines of sanitary, geotechnical and water resource engineering. Early on, they recognized that non-engineering expertise was required. Hydrogeologists, soil, vegetation and atmospheric scientists were needed for the environmental impact sciences of groundwater contamination, mined land reclamation and air quality assessment. It was a frontier science back then. In the 1980s, hazardous and municipal waste, landfill and incineration management legislation became common. Legislation regarding waste minimization and corporate due diligence was introduced during the 1990s. Then, a few Canadian jurisdictions required “third party verification” of corporately filed compliance reports regarding greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and reductions. Other peripheral service needs of periodic “third-party auditing” of corporate environmental management systems (i.e., emission and ambient air quality monitoring, company sustainability programs and goals, waste management) have evolved. These legislative requirements have paved the way for the rapidly growing environmental service industry that has diversified to the point of no longer being a service that engineering companies excel in providing. Thousands of Canadian service companies now offer environmental assistance. Current business fabric The current environmental service industry falls mainly into the followwww.esemag.com
ing categories: proposed new industrial project development; existing operating industrial facilities; and government and institutions. The first category is the most significant for the environmental service field. Industrial clients simply do not have the in-house expertise and human resources to tackle this for new projects. It re-
Legislative requirements have paved the way for the rapidly growing environmental service industry that has diversified. quires such a variety of environmental expertise that they cannot justify hiring their own full time employees. The service industry has all of the specialists, and is up to date with regulatory requirements and permitting strategies. The second business category is the focus of many small and medium-sized environmental service companies that
wish to only focus on specific services, such as: • Air, water and soil sample collection, physical and chemical analyses, brief data interpretation and regulatory compliance report submissions. • Baseline monitoring and reporting (e.g., groundwater quality in potential future coal bed methane formations). • Environmental auditing of regulatory reporting compliance, environmental management systems, sustainability annual reports, GHG emission statement verification, etc. • Waste inventorying and dispositions and annual regulatory reporting. • Contaminated site cleanup, remediation and reclamation. The third business category is government and institutional assistance. While the travel may appeal to some, it is highly variable, requires long lead time and is not suited for those that wish to stay local. The future The main driver of future service requirements will be new or revised continued overleaf... November/December 2014 | 49
regulatory requirements. For environmental assessment and contaminated site cleanup, demand is directly related to the number of industry-proposed new or expanded facilities that are subject to mandatory environmental assessment submission. Market fluctuations will exist for industrial facility decommissioning, but will be stable in western Canada with its thousands of oil and gas well production sites. Future legislative changes could arbitrarily increase or decrease demand. For example, the demand for environmental assessment services dropped a couple of years ago due to revisions of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. This meant fewer types of project developments required mandatory environmental assessment, or less comprehensive assessment. Increased market demands are expected in certain sectors. For example, Alberta introduced the development of
airsheds for regional air quality monitoring during the mid-1990s. About 10 of them have since been established with a variety of air quality monitoring and data collection systems. Recent studies by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment suggest that other provinces may move towards coordinated airshed monitoring, compared to fragmented air quality monitoring by individual permit holders and provincial environmental departments. Another example is the recently established Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency. It is tasked with establishing a network of stations and systems in northern Alberta to monitor air, water, soil, etc. Specialist environmental contractors will be required for these new monitoring developments and similar demands may evolve in other provinces. The need for baseline groundwater quality monitoring occurred about 10 years ago because of coal bed methane developments. Future oil shale fracking
developments will increase the need even more. A new market for verification and inventorying of GHG emission compliance and baseline reports has developed in Alberta and British Columbia over the last 10 years. Legislation requires that lead verifiers be either a registered professional engineer or registered chartered accountant. Demand may increase if legislation lowers the facility emission threshold for mandatory reporting, or if other provinces introduce GHG emission control legislation. However, the market may also evaporate should any province transition into a flat type carbon tax on energy purchases. A rapidly growing engineering service demand will occur should the Federal government introduce a direct carbon tax or some indirect equivalent, which sets a clear future benchmark for energy users/ wasters. Engineers with specialized skills in energy efficiency gains such as waste heat use, building insulation or renewable energy, will be in great demand.
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
A small market for the development and annual internal corporate reporting of sustainability has developed during the past 20 years. It has been created by large corporations and public institutions that feel compelled to report to their shareholders about their environmental and sustainable resource use performance. This market may grow, with new legislative requirements for facilities or commercial operations that are not currently required to report anything annually under a permit, or the Canadian National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) requirements. Required skills and business strategies Engineers and other scientists (and their employers) that wish to succeed in the environmental service market have to consider the following educational requirements and human qualities: • Strong project management skills such as efficiently using Microsoft Project, or equivalent, software to manage proj-
ect task schedule and budget revisions. • Strong applied science skills in fluid dynamics, chemistry, biology, earth sciences and statistics, including specialty software for predictive modelling of air, surface water and groundwater quality. Database software skills also matter when it comes to analyzing collected environmental baseline field data. Geomatic software skills are useful, although this task is usually delegated to a project team specialist. • A personal engineering skill to “level down” intricate engineering project details to the level of the simple project facts required by a variety of environmental scientists. • A personal knack for business development. Project work will not come in continuously unless one makes it a habit to meet with existing and potential clients. In today’s Internet and electronic newsletter world, bid lists are a relic of the past. You have to seek out prospective clients and convince them that your company is qualified
to service the specific client needs. Summary The environmental service industry has grown and matured tremendously over the past 40 years. It is no longer a service that is exclusively offered by consulting engineering companies. Numerous other specialist service companies have entered and secured a good portion of the market. The market will grow in the future depending on new legislative requirements and ongoing steady economic activity. Engineers, with the right skills, will always be required in this service sector because of their project management and applied science skills. Kurt Hansen, M.Sc., P. Eng., is an environmental consultant assisting industry, government and institutional clients across Canada and overseas. Email: email@example.com
November/December 2014 | 51
A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E’s semi-annual look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.
New STI standard for underground steel tanks
he Steel Tank Institute (STI) recently published SP131, “Standard for inspection, repair and modification of shop-fabricated underground tanks for storage of flammable and combustible liquids.” SP131 was developed in response to requests from several agencies, responsible for ensuring the safety of the public and the environment from spills of hazardous flammable and combustible liquids. STI standards are widely recognized in the steel tank fabrication industry and many regulations and agencies reference them directly in their rules. Most existing steel underground storage tanks are constructed to STI standards, so agencies came to STI for development of SP131. A group of regulators, tank manufacturers, contractors, and other stakeholders were invited to form a committee to develop SP131. They spent over a year meeting, drafting, and re-drafting the document, ensuring it fairly addresses the needs and concerns of agencies, regulators, and the industry. The scope of SP131 states that: “This standard covers the inspection, repair, and modification of an atmos-
52 | November/December 2014
pheric-type, shop-fabricated, carbon and/or stainless steel underground storage tank. It applies to tanks storing stable liquids at atmospheric pressure. It covers tanks built to a nationally recognized standard for underground storage tanks... This standard applies to tanks that are installed and also to tanks that have been temporarily removed to achieve a repair...”
SP 131 covers all steel underground tanks built in accordance with a U.S. national standard. Tanks built to the Underwriters’ Laboratories of Canada standards are covered in its scope. Acceptance of the standard is dependent on local regulations. For more information, visit www.steeltank.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Wet anaerobic digestion allows EFW plant to generate almost 25,000 megawatts annually
arvest Power’s Energy Garden in London, Ontario turns organic materials into clean, renewable energy and fertilizers. Through advanced digestion technology, naturally-occurring micro-organisms produce renewable biogas energy from food scraps, grease, and other organic waste materials. The remaining digestate is turned into organic fertilizer granules. The Energy From Waste facility uses a wet anaerobic digestion technology to turn 65,000 tonnes of mixed organic materials into 2.85 megawatts per hour of electricity and 5,200 tonnes of fertilizers. This cost-effective processing option helps the community lower costs, meet recycling targets, provide renewable energy and return nutrients to local farms and fields. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems designed and constructed the anaerobic digester and other process tanks. Having the technology to provide various types of storage tanks with specific roof applications to handle the different stages of the digestion process was important to Harvest Power. Greatario manufactured and built nine tanks utilized at Harvest’s Energy Garden in London. In the design stage, Harvest anticipated 20-25 waste delivery trucks per week, or 120,000 tonnes of waste, would be processed each year. Construction of multiple tanks began in 2011. Reception and storage tanks Organic materials entering the system are ground up and de-contaminated. They are then separated into regular organics (food waste) and higher strength organics (fats, oils and greases) which are stored in separate tanks: • 7.68 m x 5.87 m (68,000 USG) Aquastore glass-fused-to-steel tank with a glass knuckle roof. Knuckle roofs tend to be used for smaller diameter tanks. • 4.26 m x 7.27 m (26,300 USG) Aquastore glass-fused-to-steel tank
54 | November/December 2014
Externally supported roof of the digester.
with a glass knuckle roof. • 13.64 m x 11.45 m (431,000 USG) Aquastore glass-fused-to-steel tank with a Temcor aluminum dome. Digesters A custom recipe of organics is transferred to the hydrolysis tank for pre-digestion. The organic slurry is then fed to two complete mix, mesophilic anaerobic digesters: • 11.09 m x 11.46 m (269,000 USG) combination epoxy and glass zone tank, with an externally supported roof (ESR). The ESR is often used when medium to high pressure or vacuum designs limits are expected. They are also preferred for heavy load conditions. • 20.46 m x 18.44 m (1,523,000 USG) hybrid epoxy/glass zone tank, insulated and clad with an externally supported roof. Digestate storage tank The digestate remaining from the anaerobic digestion process is dewatered to produce a fertilizer product. Greatario’s bolted tanks easily adapt for hy-
brid tank designs, allowing for different coating systems for the gas and liquid zones of the digester: • 18.76 m x 8.7 m (610,000 USG) hybrid epoxy/glass zone tank with a gas holder membrane roof. Pre-aeration tank The pre-aeration tank is used to pretreat the liquid effluent that comes from the solid/liquid separation of the digestate: • 24.73m x 7.27m (844,600 USG) epoxy tank designed for a dome roof. • 5.11m x 7.27m (38,000 USG) Aquastore glass-fused-to-steel tank with a glass knuckle roof. Greatario provides complete storage solutions for anaerobic digesters. Tanks can be designed with different coating systems for the gas and liquid zones of the digester. Multiple cover options are designed for digester applications, including externally supported roofs, pressure domes and membrane roofs. For more information, visit www.greatario.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
World’s first standard for collapsible fuel tanks released
he Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has released the first edition of the CAN/ CSA B-837 collapsible fabric storage tanks (bladders) regulation. This represents the world’s first standard for collapsible bladder fuel storage tanks or pillow tanks. For years, regulators, operators and manufacturers in Canada had no credible reference document that detailed the minimum requirements for the use of these storage bladders. This new standard provides industry with a reliable source of information to ensure that the use of collapsible fuel bladder tanks meets the challenges of the harsh Arctic conditions which is where they are typically deployed. Paul Reichard, manager of SEI Industries’ remote site and environmental division, was a participating member and vice-chair of the CSA committee that prepared the new standard. SEI’s participation first began in 2008 when Federal environmental regulations in Canada changed. They accidentally excluded collapsible fabric fuel tanks from the regulations, making it difficult for major clients like the Department of National Defence and mineral exploration companies to use bladders. Once Environment Canada learned of the mistake, they set out to fix the problem by developing a national standard to recognize bladders as a safe, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly method of temporary fuel storage in remote sites. The CSA took over the development work with regulators and end users across Canada, as well as manufacturers around the world. “Now that the standard is official, the next step is certification and we’re currently working through that process,” said Reichard. “Without regulation, the fuel bladder can get a bad rap. Companies will sell an inferior product or military surplus tanks that have passed their shelf life. These bladders can leak or rupture and make all bladders look bad.” By 2015, SEI hopes to offer its Arctic King tank as the first bladder certified by an accredited third party. Al-
ready, there is global interest. SEI has been in discussions with regulators and military customers that are looking for a high-quality product and one that is rec-
ognized by a credible third party. For more information, visit www.sei-ind.com
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COMPLETE STORAGE SYSTEMS
Photo: Harvest Power's anaerobic digesters in London, ON.
www.greatario.com 519-469-8169 firstname.lastname@example.org November/December 2014 | 55
Solar mixers help Pagosa Springs restore its potable water system
ocated in the high desert plateau of southwestern Colorado, Pagosa Springs is famous for its geothermal hot springs, which draw visitors worldwide to soak in the mineral-rich water. The Ute people called the sulphur springs “Pah-gosah,” meaning, “healing waters.” Now, the town’s potable water system is also being healed. After first combating blue-green algae in the raw water reservoir and then thermal stratification in the storage tanks, Art Holloman, water superintendent for the Pagosa Area Water and Sanitation District (PAWSD), learned that SolarBee® mixers, with their long-distance circulation technology can solve both types of problems. Mixers can also reduce operating costs, restore water quality and help with accurate water sampling data. The District relies on a series of raw water reservoirs for its potable water. The 130-acre Hatcher Reservoir had a history of blue-green algae blooms that caused taste and odour problems. Treating it with copper sulfate and activated carbon filters was costly, according to Holloman. After consulting with Medora Corporation’s engineers and limnologists,
SolarBee mixers help reduce the cost of chemically treating the reservoir and solve thermal stratification problems in the tanks.
on the improvements to Hatcher Reservoir more units were installed in four more supply system lakes. Thermal stratification in storage tanks PAWSD serves 12,000 residents through an 11-tank potable water storage and distribution system covering almost 200 km2. Representative sampling for
“We have reduced copper sulfate treatments by 70%, and the taste and odour problems have disappeared,” said Holloman. PAWSD installed two SolarBee 10000 v12 solar-powered units near the water treatment plant intake for partial-lake treatment. To clear up the entire lake, the District added three more units. The blooms soon disappeared, as did concentrations of source water total organic carbon (TOC). “We have reduced copper sulfate treatments by 70%, and the taste and odour problems have disappeared,” said Holloman. In addition, TOC levels have decreased by about 1 to 2 mg/l. Based 56 | November/December 2014
total chlorine monitoring was unreliable due to thermal stratification and uneven water-age, problems typical of unmixed tanks. Three tanks were targeted for improvement because stratification had created variable water-age problems, including an increased risk of disinfection byproduct (DBP) violations. SolarBee mixers installed in each tank eliminated stratification. Results in one tank were so successful it enabled the District to acquire contact time credits from the Colorado State Health De-
partment to meet the microscopic particulate analysis requirement. The other two tanks have shown consistent chlorine residuals and lower DBP concentrations. Presently, 20 mixers are being used in the District’s lakes and tanks. Long-distance mixing Medora Corporation’s long-distance circulation and mixing technology pulls dense water from the level of the intake, which is typically near the thermocline in an open reservoir, or at the floor in a potable water storage tank. This dense water is transported upwards and sent across the surface in thin, horizontal layers. In raw water reservoirs, the constant horizontal and vertical movement sufficiently disrupts large-celled blue-green algae and allows beneficial small-celled algae to predominate. This restores the food chain and returns the reservoir to a healthy state. In potable water storage tanks, the flow pattern effectively scrubs the floor and sides of the entire tank, constantly replacing disinfectant and killing bacteria in critical areas. For more information, visit www.medoraco.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
glass-fused-to-steel construction method had a significant advantage. The Permastore modular bolted construction provided fast and relatively low cost installation of the double walled tank. As the inner and outer tanks were delivered to the site in sections, the 100 m3 tank could be built in place. Due to the incredibly tight space constraints at the facility, it was determined that the volume of the outer tank shell could hold 110% of the volume of the inner tank. The tank could not be made high enough to guarantee that the horizontal trajectory of a potential leak from the inner tank at the top water level would be confined within the secondary wall of the equalization tank. However, this is unlikely to happen due to the design and construction of these tanks. Additionally, the client had requested a roof be built between the two tanks, based on the design of a similar containment system at another of their facilities. This was to prevent any snow/rain water from accumulating between the two tanks. Installation went smoothly and no leaks from the inner tank have been recorded. In the unlikely event of a leak, an effective system is in place for spill containment of wastewater. For more information, Email: email@example.com
Laundering facility comes clean with secondary containment tanks
n industrial laundering facility in Ontario required equalization and storage of wastewater from their operation, prior to discharging it to the municipal sewer system. Engineering staff and the facility constructor reviewed different tank types and determined that a built on site H2Flow Permastore glass-fused-to-steel tank was the preferred option. This type of tank combines the strength and flexibility of steel with the corrosion resistance of glass. It is cost-effective for many applications and its long life span, rapid erection and tight site constraints made it a great option for this project. Even though there is no regulatory requirement for secondary containment of wastewater at this facility, the owners determined that they would like the wastewater tank to be double walled. This was a decision based primarily on due diligence and compliance management, and was in keeping with the overall company policy on bulk liquid storage. There was an issue of space, however. This is where the
November/December 2014 | 57
Alternative spill response training strategies are vital By Cliff Holland
re Canadian businesses and industries continuing to be too complacent about their abilities to handle environmental spill emergencies, despite the growing number of incidents occuring around them? It seems many are satisfied to put their faith in environmental plans that meet federal and provincial requirements and in responders who have extensive classroom and textbook training. What they either don’t understand, or simply ignore, is that some of the recognized training standards concentrate on basic health and safety, but do not provide response capability. The training does not deal with site-specific and product-specific training and response strategies that demonstrate response capability when it comes to ASIA-R – Approach, Secure, Identify, Assess and Respond. We expect Canadian companies to be prepared to protect the health of people and the environment in times of environmental emergencies. That is the point of the Environmental Emergency (E2) requirements under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. An E2 plan must document ways to prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from environmental emergencies caused by toxic or other hazardous substances. A plan that provides a broad framework for response, permits flexibility in applying alternative strategies to deal with hazardous substances, and is regularly exercised by trained responders, will meet the E2 requirements. Yet, do companies go far enough in exercising their emergency response plans and developing their response capabilities? Planners and responders may get a false sense of preparedness if they have not conducted an in-depth analysis. This involves the “what if” of an environmental emergency to determine if supplies, equipment and train-
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Kayaks have proven to be an adaptable spill response tool. Maneuverable in water, they can also be used as sleds during the winter.
ing, along with appropriate response procedures and strategies, are adequate. While emergency exercises can be full scale, operational or process specific, they must deal with an organization’s greatest liabilities, the range of impacts for both minor and major events and any time-critical factors involved. Today, there are still private and government organizations that believe their planning is adequate and are determined to stick to their plans. They may not realize, or want to admit, who has the ultimate responsibility for their regulatory compliance in the event of a release of chemicals into the environment. Or who the “go-to-jail” person is! Many federal and provincial environmental officers have field experience and hands-on training in countermeasures. This allows them to be excellent judges of the effectiveness of responders and their response actions. To train responders to implement their emergency response plans, companies often turn to the standards of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). These spell
out how business and industry must train and prepare for incidents involving spills and releases of hazardous products. The OSHA standard for training is commonly called HAZWOPER, for hazardous waste operations and emergency response. Companies can adopt U.S. HAZWOPER training for their own operations. This will give them response crews capable of a complete range of response and remediation activities. But the training that works in a multi-chemical manufacturing environment, close to support equipment, experienced emergency response services and competent response contractors, may not be much use in other circumstances. Response efforts can be defeated, or hampered by lengthy decision-making processes to define and implement a crisis action plan that fits within the company’s emergency plan. Therefore, companies must have an emergency response plan that is flexible. In a crisis, skilled and trained responders need to have the authority and necessary resources to take immediate
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Spills action without waiting for a command centre and structure to be set up. In effect, the actions of the first responders drive the plan and how it unfolds. Responders must have skills and training that is product-specific and site-specific to develop strategic alternatives, rather than having to follow a hard line of practices and procedures. I’ve worked in the waste management field since the late 1970s and saw the industry become more sophisticated. In 1989, Spill Management was launched to provide custom response training for a wide range of clients, with exercises that range from cleaning up high risk and small laboratory spills, to dealing with large industrial process spills to land and water. In mining, forestry or pipeline operations, emergency responders may have to cope with difficult access to the scene, debris, heavy vegetation, high and fast flowing waters. They need to improvise response measures to obtain road access, establish points of entry
or find the right conditions for ideal boom deployment. Weather conditions, including snow or rain, temperatures, wind direction and velocity, and the amount of daylight, have to be taken into consideration. It all has to be done quickly and efficiently, to reduce the incident’s impact.
clean up and collect spilled material and store and dispose of it. Today, you are taking a very serious risk if you depend only on textbook training, a checklist approach for preparedness and the belief that “it” will never happen. Even a small spill can interfere with, or kill, living organisms
Any training exercise needs to examine the roles and responsibilities of response team members as laid out in the emergency response plan, the provisions for incident command and control, and the entire structure that will be available. In order to put alternative strategies in place, responders must know the properties of response materials. On waterways, they may need to decide on the type of boom to use, whether it is simply to contain spilled oil, or to absorb it as well. They also need to know how to deploy booms and to securely anchor them. They must have a plan to
and result in a conviction. Recognizing this means training for today’s environmental reality. Any training exercise needs to examine the roles and responsibilities of response team members as laid out in the emergency response plan, the provisions for incident command and control, and continued overleaf...
November/December 2014 | 59
Spills the entire structure that will be available to support on-site response measures. That includes the possibility of needing outside resources, the availability of those resources and what happens if outside help is called in. I can think of one situation where a chemical company called 911 because of a small chemical fire. The fire department responded and assumed control of the scene. They refused to allow plant workers to go behind the plant to shut off the flow from a chemical storage tank that was feeding the flames. While the fire department was assessing the risks and hazards, determining the appropriate response action, and ensuring the safety of staff members and a gathering crowd, the plant burned down. It was never rebuilt. The company had workers who possessed the knowledge and ability to help bring the situation under control. However, its response to the emergency was to evacuate and call the fire department. It cost them everything.
Equipment You can’t always count on having everything you would like to have, when operating in more remote areas. To overcome this, supplies must be able to be used in a number of different ways. This includes improvising spill control measures that allow for various weather, terrain and access conditions. Spill Management, for instance, has added three kayaks to its spill response training equipment. The kayaks were recently used in site-specific training sessions for both a pipeline company and mining company in northern Ontario. The ease of using a kayak means that booms could be quickly placed to contain a spill and make recovery easier. If a company has to position booms on water or move supplies to a spill site over water, kayaks can be an ideal alternative to larger boats. They are much easier to move to a site in a pickup truck or an all-terrain vehicle, are very maneuverable in water and can have a number of other uses.
Summary Alternative training strategies are extremely valuable. They allow responders to choose effective ways to respond to an incident, rather than being tied to rigid policies and procedures. By teaching effective and immediate response countermeasures, costs and the impact to people, property and the environment are reduced. Effective training includes alternative strategies that meet or exceed the ISO 14000 Environmental Management System emergency preparedness and program development criteria. There are many operations across our country in environmentally sensitive areas that need plans specifically for the chemicals, products and conditions they are dealing with. They also need to be prepared to deal with all risks and all hazard situations in a timely and effective manner. Cliff Holland is Environmental Director of Spill Management Inc. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Environmental | Food | Mineral | Petroleum
60 | November/December 2014
GREATARIO is the market leader for the sale and construction of liquid storage solutions for municipal and industrial markets in eastern Canada. Continuing company growth has created an opportunity for a technical sales person based in Ontario. The focus of the position will be to develop, grow and maintain relationships with municipal and industrial customers. Previous technical sales experience in the municipal and industrial water and wastewater markets is preferred. Providing application guidance and technical expertise to our existing customer base is an asset. The ability to develop multi-level and diverse market business for all of Greatario’s engineered products and solutions by calling on end users, engineering firms, manufacturers and contractors is required. If you are driven by exceeding customer expectations, innovative solutions and dynamic opportunities, we urge you to submit your resume to: email@example.com. indicating the job title. We offer a competitive base salary with unlimited potential for the right person. Vehicle plan and benefits included.
www.greatario.com 519-469-8169 Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Oil skimming technology helps firms meet regulations and recover lost product By Nigel J. Bennett
ver the past 15 years, environmental standards for the discharge of refinery effluent back into the environment have become extremely stringent and are currently at 15 ppm. This can put a lot of pressure on oil companies to comply. Industrial wastewater found in the internal collection sewers and basins of oil refineries contains petroleum byproducts and raw crude oil. Installing oil skimming technology helps recover these valuable products, returning them to the refining process. Besides the financial return, there is a positive benefit to the environment by reducing the amount of hydrocarbons in the effluent. In 2008, Chevron approached AquaGuard to design a custom solution to replace the outdated and inefficient pipe weir skimming system at a refineryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s API separation basins. Chevron was looking to upgrade their system to fully meet all effluent discharge requirements. In order to cut down the amount of chemicals used in the secondary processing stage, the skimming system would need to remove most of the surface hydrocarbons in the primary separation ponds. This would reduce the amount of carry over hydrocarbons into the secondary treatment ponds. Aqua-Guard proposed installing oil skimming systems equipped with RBS TRITONâ&#x201E;˘ skimming technology. This recovers up to 98% of the surface oil, thereby increasing efficiency of the primary separation stage by almost 99%. To withstand the highly corrosive API environment, industrial skimmers must be constructed of stainless steel. The system relies on adhesion of oil to the surface of a rotating stainless steel disc. As the disc rotates through the oil/ water surface, oil adheres to the disc and is removed by a scraper. Recovered product is collected in a common sump and pumped back into the refinery system for use. Discs can be interchanged with either drums or brushes, for rewww.esemag.com
An Aqua-Guard oil skimming system in operation at a refinery.
covering various types of oil. Since the site had an adequate air power source, the unit is 100% pneumatically powered, from the oil skim-
Since 2008, the system has run trouble free for over 50,000 hours. The skimmers are serviced only twice a year, primarily for maintenance purposes. The estimated maximum hydrocarbon recovery of these systems is 870,000 m3. mer head and the rotating stainless steel disc recovery system, to the double diaphragm pump used to recover the product. The fully automated floating oil-skimming systems were installed in the primary separation ponds. Each skimmer is capable of recovering up to 63 m3/hour of surface hydrocarbons. They were paired with two externally mounted pneumatic pumps, each capable of 20 m3/hour. To adapt to fluctuating basin levels, reduce
wastewater circulation and maximize oil recovery, the skimmers needed to be self-adjusting. Since 2008, the system has run trouble free for over 50,000 hours. The skimmers are serviced only twice a year, primarily for maintenance purposes. The estimated maximum hydrocarbon recovery of these systems is 870,000 m3. Shell oil refineries in Asia and other national oil companies in Latin America now also employ this patented oil skimming technology in their industrial processes to help optimize their refining. Aqua-Guard recently launched and supplied a new RBS TRITON 100 industrial oil skimming system capable of recovering over 100 m3/hour. These systems have been specifically designed for export to countries where higher amounts of oil are present in their primary separation ponds and require higher recovery rates from skimming systems. Nigel J. Bennett is with Aqua-Guard Spill Response. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org November/December 2014 | 61
A 300-tonne crane installs the first precast concrete unit on the completed base slab of the stormwater retention tank.
Precast concrete structures used for massive Toronto stormwater retention tank By Adam Polski
onstructing massive precast concrete structures with CON/SPANÂŽ provides choices for design engineers and assembly options for contractors. The Denison Road Storm Water Retention Tank in Toronto (Georgetown South Project) by Metrolinx (GO Transit) is one of many applications of CON/SPAN. It is not a new application, but the size and installation method used make the application noteworthy. Design and construction of the retention tank was needed for the treatment and disposal of stormwater run-off from a total catchment area of 4.86 hectares. The structure was also required to provide enhanced water quality protection and discharge via an existing storm sewer network for all storm events up to and including a 100-year return storm. Design of the system resulted in a 4,000 m3 underground stormwater retention tank comprised of 62 precast concrete units measuring 9,755 mm wide by 2,740 mm high. Some pieces were specially designed skewed end units for bends,
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while other pieces were narrower at the beginning and end of the structure. All were designed to S6.1S1-10 - Supplement #1 to S6.1-06, Commentary on CAN/CSA-S6-06, Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code and CSA A23.4-09 (R2014) Precast Concrete - Materials and Construction. Pre-project planning started in 2011 with the concept for the CON/SPAN option, which would require a cast-in-place foundation and channel. The units were produced and shipped from the Guelph, Ontario facility of Con Cast Pipe. Another reason for selecting a precast concrete retention system was the complexity of the tank location. It sits directly underneath the Denison Road GO Transit grade separation and a metre below Denison Road, where it passes under the railway overpass. The structure had to be constructed in a short period within an established neighbourhood and roadway right-of-way where it was difficult to make use of heavy equipment. Cambridge Riggingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 300-tonne mobile boom crane was used to install CON/SPAN units to the grade Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
The remote controlled, diesel powered crawler slowly descends the ramp toward the overpass.
CON/SPAN unit maneuvered into position to rest on the neoprene-padded footing.
After setting the precast unit, the crawler returns to receive the next unit.
Installation of the CON/SPAN units on the poured-inplace channel took 10 days.
separation. However, a Goldhofer crawler was needed to install them under the rail overpass. Using precast concrete units saved time, limited the impact of construction on the neighbourhood and commuters, and helped the contractor meet the construction schedule. Upon completion of the foundation, Dufferin Construction, a division of Holcim (Canada) Inc., constructed castin-place bulkheads at each end, connected catch basins into the CON/SPAN structure, and constructed a cast-in-place maintenance-hole base on top. This allowed the precast riser sections to be installed to the finished grade of Denison Road. Stormwater would be pumped from the tank to an oil/sediment control structure for treatment, and then discharged into the nearby storm sewer system. Cambridge Rigging and Engineering in Motion were responsible for planning and executing the installation of all of the precast sections. Construction of the tank began with excavation for a pouredin-place channel that would also serve as the base of the structure. Footings for the CON/SPAN units were poured in place. The first unit was set on June 24, 2014, using the mobile crane. As installation approached the grade separation, Cambridge Rigging switched from the boom crane to the crawler to install the precast units. The process involved a precast unit being carefully centred on the crawler by the crane and tied securely. Then it was rotated on the crawler 60 degrees so it fit between the footings. The remote controlled, diesel powered crawler then began its slow pace toward the overpass. A Kevlar strap www.esemag.com
joined the crawler to a front-end loader that served as both an anchor and safety vehicle to slow downhill movement. When the crawler arrived to deliver its payload, it was maneuvered into position to gently place the CON/SPAN unit into the footing to rest on a neoprene strip that aided waterproofing, while shimming the legs. The final CON/SPAN unit was placed on July 3, 2014, completing the 10-day installation. Construction of the retention tank was only one component of this complex project. Metrolinx retained R.V. Anderson Associates Limited to carry out detailed design and provide services during construction for a new railway grade separation for improved rail service and for the Union Stationâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Pearson Airport Rail Link. The project included two reinforced concrete railway bridges, tieback retaining wall system, and the new precast stormwater retention tank. G.D. Jewell Engineering Inc. was the structural designer of the CON/SPAN system and prepared the general arrangement drawing from the R.V. Anderson/Morrison Hershfield design. When completed, the public will see the Denison Road grade separation that accommodates a rail system for commuters and travellers to and from Lester B. Pearson International Airport, a pedestrian underpass, and improved road pavement. What wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be visible is a modern underground precast concrete stormwater retention and treatment system designed to last for generations. Adam Polski, C.E.T. is with Con Cast Pipe. Email:email@example.com November/December 2014 | 63
Storage/Containment & Spills Product Showcase
Small double wall tanks
Small double wall tanks, from 20 to 405 gallons, provide primary and secondary containment for hazardous and corrosive chemicals in one unit. Linear polyethylene tanks are certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 61, and high-density crosslink resin tanks for chemical storage. ISO 9001:2008 Certified. Web: www.assmann-usa.com
H2FLOW SBR The H2FLOW SBR consists of FLUIDYNE Sequencing Batch Reactor internals integrated into a glass-fusedto-steel tank. It features jet aeration headers that never require replacement, and a solidsexcluding fixed decanter which has been proven in many installations. Tel: 905-660-9775 Web: www.h2flow.com
The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensure that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.greatario.com
Assmann Corporation of America
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems
Emergency spill response
Secondary Containment Solutions
Practical Hands-on Progressive Formats
24/7 Emergency Tel: 877-850-3120 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.kgservice.ca
Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.spillmanagement.ca
Tank Connection (TC) was selected to design, manufacture and install a turnkey package of Bolted RTP (rolled, tapered panel) liquid storage tanks with secondary containment and aluminum domes. TC’s RTP tanks and aluminum geodesic domes represent innovation in design, unmatched quality and performance. Tel: 620-423-3010 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.tankconnection.com
Tank Connection Afﬁliate Group
KG Services specialize in emergency roadside spill response in Ontario. All of their staff is licensed, insured and fully trained. Service is available 24/7, 365 days a year.
TEAM-1 Academy Inc. is North America’s leader in HazMat, Confined Space and Working at Heights Training which can be facilitated at your location or one of our centers. We conduct training for many enforcement agencies, and for industry and construction. Tel: 905-827-0007 Fax: 905-827-0049 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.team1academy.com TEAM-1 Academy
64 | November/December 2014
Westeel’s C-Ring Containment Systems are ideal for petrochemical, frac water storage, oil and gas, fertilizer, hazardous material, and agricultural applications. All systems are made with high-strength (50-ksi) steel and have heavy-duty G115 galvanizing, meeting the stringent requirements of ISO 9001. Tel: 888-674-8265, 204-233-7133 Fax: 888-463-6012 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.westeel.com
Wise Environmental Solutions Inc. specializes in: frac, mini mixer, 4 motor mixer, open top, poly and double wall tank rentals, as well as vacuum, dewatering and environmental roll-off boxes. We pride ourselves on safety and offer competitive transportation and disposal rates. Tel: 519-860-5589 or 519-542-6667 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.wiseenv.com
Wise Environmental Solutions
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
The legendary Muffin Monster sewage grinder has the power to tear through the toughest solids, including wipes, rags, plastics, leaves, branches, clothing and debris, to protect pumps from clogging. The Muffin Monster easily installs in gravity fed sewer channels or inline sewer lines. Tel: 905-856-1414 Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology
Phoenix Panel System
• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Installs directly over existing underdrain system • Eliminates the need for base gravel layers • Improves backwash flow distribution • Provides longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI
Septage receiving automation The Honey Monster Septage Receiving system, Model SRS-XE, is an all-in-one unit that allows the cleaner handling of septage truck waste by reducing and separating unwanted trash such as rocks, wipes, rags, clothing, plastics and other debris. Tel: 905-856-1414 Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology
Phoenix Underdrain System
• Optimizes all types of filters • Extremely low profile; lowest available • Manufactured from corrosion-resistant stainless steel • Variable custom orifice sizing • Custom hydraulic design • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution • Rapid, low-cost installation Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.awifilter.com AWI
Take your expertise to the next level with American Public University (APU). APU offers more than 190 degree and certificate programs including Environmental Science, Environmental Policy & Management, and more – completely online. Tel: 877-777-9081 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.StudyatAPU.com/ESE American Public University
End connections ChemFlare™ connections solve failure problems on PVC threaded/ solvent welds on sodium hypochlorite dosing panels. For use with ball, relief valves and dosing pumps, they are easy to install, disassemble and do not add dead volume. Chemline offers an entire system, including PFA flare fittings and tubing. Tel: 905-889-7890, Fax: 905-889-8553 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.chemline.com Chemline Plastics
Stop water infiltration
Sensor management tool
Water infiltration problems? Many municipalities are now enjoying the benefits, ease and cost savings in using Denso 12” petrolatum tape to wrap chamber exteriors to arrest the problem of water ingress. Contact Denso to help solve your chamber issues.
The Proline Promag 400 flowmeter offers HistoRom secure automated device back-up, Heartbeat technology for continuous self-diagnostics and device verification, and certified corrosion protection for use underground or under water without modifications.
The Memobase Plus CYZ71D helps you save time and money with one simple calibration and documentation tool. You can work safely in a clean, controlled environment and eliminate human error with electronic record keeping. Create true sensor life cycle management.
Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.densona.com
Tel: 800-668-3199, 905-681-9292 Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.ca.endress.com/5L4C
Tel: 800-668-3199, 905-681-9292 Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.ca.endress.com/CYZ71D
Product & Service Showcase
Prevent pump ragging
November/December 2014 | 65
Fluid Metering has published a new catalogue of precision dispensers and metering pumps for laboratory, industrial, process and OEM applications. FMI products feature unique piston-type positive displacement units with no valves, low-dead volume, 1% accuracy, a ceramic/fluorocarbon fluid path, and a range from 500 nanoliters per dispense up to 4,600 ml/min continuous metering. Tel: 800-223-3388 Web: www.fmipump.com
The Model F-10300 process centrifuge is specifically designed for process control sampling applications to determine solids concentration in percent volume. The centrifuge test gives rapid results: six or more sludge samples can be run in 15 minutes in a lab centrifuge. The data obtained has been proven to be more than adequate for process control. Tel: 514-354-2511, Fax: 514-354-6948 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.geneq.com
Product & Service Showcase
DAF pilot unit
For difficult wastewater problems, dissolved air flotation (DAF) may be the right choice. Try out the H2FLOW DAF unit to see if the results make sense to clarify your water. The skid-mounted unit, complete with accessories, is designed to treat 80 Lpm. A flatbed trailer is optional. Tel: 905-660-9775 Web: www.h2flow.com H2Flow Equipment
Advanced MBR screen
Huber has introduced the Rotamat® perforated plate screen RPPS STAR. Utilizing a patented pleated perforated plate increases throughput by 25%. This allows a smaller footprint, which results in reduced capital cost for screen and structure. Tel: 704-990-2055, Fax: 704-949-1020 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.Huberforum.net/RPPS Huber Technology
66 | November/December 2014
Process mixing system The HYDRAULIX mixing systems feature a unique double nozzle design which allows for even energy distribution. This process optimizes solids suspension and contact to promote efficiency in a wide range of wastewater and bio-fuels applications. E: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.greatario.com
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems
The HOBO U26-001 Dissolved Oxygen Logger features: monitoring with 0.2 mg/L accuracy; optical DO sensor technology; optical USB interface; and, easy-to-replace DO sensor cap. Software corrects for measurement drift from fouling. Tel: 604-872-7894 Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.hoskin.ca
Water level logger
U20L, the new low cost HOBO Water Level Logger, measures water level, barometric pressure, pressure (absolute), and temperature. Its self-contained, nonvented design enables easy deployment for use in wells, streams, lakes, wetlands and tidal areas. It has a durable ceramic pressure sensor. Tel: 604-872-7894 Fax: 604-872-0281 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientiﬁc
Vertical screen technology
Huber Technology invented the RoK4 vertical confined space screen technology to physically screen out debris in confined spaces such as pump stations, wet wells, etc. Three diameters are available with machine lengths as high as ~40’. Over 700 units have been installed worldwide. Tel: 704-990-2055 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.Huberforum.net
This Jellyfish® Filter was suspended from a parking deck platform, conserving valuable space within a 31 story high-rise residential tower in downtown Vancouver. The membrane-based Jellyfish Filter was selected based on stormwater pollutant removal performance, compact and lightweight footprint, ease of maintenance, and credit towards LEED certification. Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.imbriumsystems.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Double containment and leak detection
Stormceptor® MAX, licensed and manufactured by Lécuyer in Québec, was installed along Autoroute 40 to treat roadway runoff. The MAX is customized per site, and designed using the standard model Stormceptor principles. Its proven performance has been verified by ETV. Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.imbriumsystems.com
At IPEX, we understand the complexity of design and installation for demanding double containment applications. Our double containment systems include GuardianTM PVC and CPVC, Clear-GuardTM PVC, Drain-GuardTM PVC, EncaseTM PP, CustomGuard® FRP and metal systems, and Centra-GuardTM leak detection. Tel: 866-473-9462 Web: www.ipexinc.com
Low-maintenance submersible pumps KSB’s Amarex N submersible pumps are designed to minimize total cost of ownership over their full life cycle. Leakproof cable entries, one-piece housing, high-efficiency motors and available non-clogging impellers all contribute to low-cost, trouble-free service in the most demanding operating environments. Tel: 905-568-9200, Fax: 905-568-3740 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.ksbcanada.com KSB Canada
Screw press The ACAT screw press is now available in North America exclusively through Kusters Water, a division of Kusters Zima Corporation. It is an efficient and reliable way of dewatering sludge. The slow rotational speed, low maintenance, noise level and energy consumption are significant advantages over other technologies. Tel: 864-576-0660 Web: www.kusterswater.com Kusters Water
Primary element flumes
Octave® offers the latest in ultrasonic metering technology and is an excellent alternative to mechanical compound, single-jet, and turbine meters with no moving parts. Octave excels at maintaining sustained accuracy for the life of the meter while providing smart AMR capabilities. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.mastermeter.com
MONITARIO builds flumes. It designs, fabricates, installs and certifies accuracy and has for over 25 years. The CAD/ CAM process has simplified the task. Installations are easier and faster with crucial dimensions maintained. Accuracy is guaranteed. Tel: 519-748-8024 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.monitario.com
MONITARIO Technical Services
Process piping systems
IPEX offers Xirtec®140 (PVC) and Corzan® (CPVC), a complete system of pipe, valves and fittings to meet the temperature, pressure and size requirements of piping systems used in chemical processes and other industrial applications. This is a long service, low maintenance alternative to common and exotic metal systems. Tel: 866-473-9462 Web: www.ipexinc.com IPEX
Interpreter register Master Meter’s Interpreter Register System, based on proven Dialog® 3G technology, is a universal AMR upgrade that replaces the existing register on almost any brand of meter in minutes, without service interruption. It delivers AMR technology without wires or connections. Tel: 514-795-1535 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.mastermeter.com
Product & Service Showcase
New website and e-catalogue
MSU Mississauga Ltd. is excited to announce the launch of its new website and e-catalogue. Check out this useful and informative site at www.msumississauga.com Tel: 800-268-5336, Fax: 888-220-2213 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.msumississauga.com MSU Mississauga
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Access hatches MSU MG Safety Hatches are the “open and shut case” for access hatches. They are manufactured to CSA standards right here in Canada by Canadian Welding Bureau certified welders. Web: www.msumississauga.com
Product & Service Showcase
Filtration systems Orival, Inc. has supplied thousands of water conserving automatic self-cleaning filtration systems, removing suspended solids, to a wide variety of global customers for nearly 30 years. Sizes range from ¾” to 24”, with filtration degrees down to 5 microns. Tel: 201-568-3311, Fax: 201-568-1916 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.orival.com Orival Water Filters
Borger rotary lobe pumps Available in 17 models and 5 casing sizes, nobody offers a wider range of applications. Simple, Rugged and Powerful Pumps. All wetted parts can be removed in-place, without removing piping, coupling, motor or pump.
Thousands of Ontario businesses are reducing capital costs for energy efficiency projects, shortening payback periods and lowering operating costs with the help of saveONenergy incentives. Get started on your next project.
Munro Span® Precast Bridges preserve natural streambeds and wildlife habitats while installing faster and lasting longer. They come in spans up to 16 m, with high quality, test fitted modules for set-in-place construction of bridges, and with skewed sections, wingwalls, headwalls, endwalls and footings. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.munroltd.com/span Munro
E-mail: saveonenergy@ powerauthority.on.ca Web: saveonenergy.ca/business Ontario Power Authority
Water quality meters
Mixing and aeration systems
Horiba LAQUAtwin meters provide a quick and reliable measurement for pH, conductivity, sodium, potassium, nitrate, calcium, and salt, with only a single drop to the highly-sensitive, flat sensor technology. You can carry out water quality testing and sample in situ without the need for labware. Tel: 1-800-560-4402, Fax: 1-877-820-9667 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.ospreyscientific.com Osprey Scientiﬁc
Free chlorine measurement ProMinent’s new CBR sensor, developed for accurate free chlorine measurement in water up to a 9.5 pH, installs easily and directly connects to ProMinent’s controllers. This complements the company’s sensors for measuring parameters in drinking water and wastewater treatment.
Tel: (905) 864-9311 Web: www.proaquasales.com
Tel: 888-709-9933 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.prominent.ca
ProMinent Fluid Controls
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Get incentives for energy efficient upgrades
The Invent Hyperclassic® mixer uses a high efficiency hyperboloid-shaped mixer body near the bottom of the tank, with a dry location, top mounted drive. Low energy, highly effective mixing of floc tanks, anoxic zones, storage tanks, etc. Thousands of these highly efficient mixers have been installed worldwide. Tel: (905) 864-9311 Web: www.proaquasales.com Pro Aqua
Diaphragm metering pump The Delta® pump offers an option for chemicals that off-gas (like bleach, peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide). It senses when gas enters the dosing head and purges it to continue pumping without interruption. The Delta prevents air locked pumps. Tel: 888-709-9933 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.prominent.ca
ProMinent Fluid Controls
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Everyone claims to be number one, offering the best, but we know only the customers can determine that. We understand that downtime hurts. Let us simplify your choice for complete drive automation. Our goals are to keep your uptime up and your downtime down. Make it SEW. Tel: 905-791-1553 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.sewcan.ca SEW Eurodrive
PVC or polyethylene The Waterra Clear PVC Eco-Bailer and Weighted Polyethylene EcoBailer are both eco-friendly products. A better weight distribution allows these bailers to sink straighter and the efficient valve design makes them the fastest sinking bailers available. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps
Peristaltic pumps The Pegasus Alexis® Peristaltic Pump from Waterra is a self contained sampling station that includes all the best features of these devices. Packaged in the rugged Pelican™ 1430 case and incorporating its own power supply and charger, this pump will keep you sampling in the field all day long. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps
Grit removal system
PISTA®Works™ is a packaged all in one headworks and grit removal scheme, offering a compact footprint and speedy/ efficient installation. The system features a fully automated control system, an integrated screening system for solids retention, a PISTA® Grit Concentrator, a PISTA® TURBO™ Grit Washer and a PISTA® 360™ Grit Chamber. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless
Flexible multilevel monitoring The Solinst CMT Multilevel System provides site assessors with detailed groundwater data from up to seven discrete zones in one well. CMT systems are inexpensive and easy to install. Their flexibility allows port locations and monitoring strategy to be finalized on site. Tel: 905-873-2255, Fax: 905-873-1992 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.solinst.com Solinst Canada
Multi parameter probe The AP-2000 AQUAPROBE™ portable multiparameter probe gives you a choice! Supplied with five standard parameters (Optical DO, EC, pH, ORP & Temp), it also allows customization and includes an ion selective electrode socket and an optical sensors electrode socket. A wide range of electrodes are available. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps
Chemical-free water treatment
The WSP-12V-5 Tornado® pump is capable of pumping up to 100 feet from ground level by simply connecting it to a 12 volt battery. Its reliable design is suitable for continuous sampling and purging of groundwater wells.
Product & Service Showcase
Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps
Amalgam UV lamps
WEDECO Ozone Generators from Xylem eliminate pollutants, coloured substances, odours and micro-organisms without creating harmful byproducts. They are compact in design to reduce overall footprint, and provide reduced energy consumption per unit of ozone production. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca
Xylem’s WEDECO ECORAY® ultraviolet lamps offer significant savings in operation and life cycle costs. The UV lamps incorporate a new long-life coating and improved overall stability and performance. An innovative gas and amalgam mixture in the lamp utilizes up to 80 percent less mercury. Corresponding electronic ballast cards have been fine-tuned to the specific requirements of ECORAY lamp aging characteristics. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-697-0602 Web: www.xylemwatersolutions.com/ca
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ES&E NEWS oe, Ontario. The technology, which was featured in ES&E’s May 2013 issue, uses stabilized hydrogen peroxide as an alternative to chlorine-based water disinfection methods. For all projects, visit: clean50.com/ top15-projects-2015
WEFTEC 2014 sets new record Over 1,000 exhibitors filled the nearly mile long exhibition hall in New Orleans during WEFTEC 2014. A trolley service ran during the show, ferrying attendees and delegates around the 300,000 ft2. Author and professor, Luke Williams, from the Berkley Center for Entrepreneurship & Innovation at New York University, gave the keynote speech at the opening general session. He encouraged water professionals to adopt a nonconventional approach to innovation leadership, embracing what seem to be counterintuitive solutions to problems. Attendees were encouraged to learn from the past but focus on the future during the Great Water Cities Session. Featuring opening remarks from EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy, the panel of water leaders from France, New Zealand, and New York shared examples of how their cities are coping with natural disasters, extreme weather events, and future growth. Co-located with WEFTEC was the Stormwater Congress, which covered pressing stormwater issues in four concurrent sessions and featured over 70 speakers. Teams competing in the Operations Challenge came from across North America, with two teams from Ontario, the OCWA Jets and the Sludge Hammers representing Canada. Team Terminal Velocity from the Virginia Water Environment Association placed first in Division I, continuing their winning streak with a fifth consecutive title. Next year’s show will be held in Chicago, Illinois. www.wef.org
Canada a global mining leader During the 2014 Northwind Mining Invitational Forum, the Canadian government highlighted its national and continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
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ES&E NEWS tools and innovative technologies that the research uncovered to help water utilities across Australia manage odour and corrosion issues within sewer systems. It was conducted in conjunction with an ongoing Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) ventilation research program, and remains the largest, worldwide research project focused on sewer corrosion and odour. The project has helped utilities save hundreds of millions of dollars by maximizing the service life of sewer networks in a proactive approach, by providing utilities with a better understanding of in-sewer processes that lead to sewer corrosion and odour issues.
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Package Water Treatment Plants/Gravity/Pressure/Membrane/Ion Exchange/GAC
Canada to invest millions in fisheries water infrastructure The Government of Canada is providing $34.2 million over five years to upgrade and renew salmon hatcheries and spawning channels operated by the federal government under the Salmonid Enhancement Program. This funding includes $13.8 million to refurbish crucial water supply and delivery systems at all 16 major salmon hatcheries and many spawning channels, and $20.4 million to modernize and refurbish aging infrastructure at Bella Coolaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Snootli Creek Hatchery, which serves the British Columbia central coast. The investments will renew infrastructure that is, in many cases, 30 years old. The work includes redeveloping wells and installing new wells; repairing and replacing water pumps; improving water and energy efficiency; repairing and replacing water valves, pipes and water intake structures; and upgrading monitoring systems. A reliable supply of high-quality water is a critical element to the successful production of salmon at hatcheries and spawning channels. news.gc.ca
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Support for tidal power generation After a successful feasibility study, tidal power company Water Wall Turbine has been selected to receive an additional $1.5 million in funding through the Clean Energy Fund. continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
November/December 2014 | 73
ACG Technology ................................. 75 American Public University ................. 33 Associated Engineering ........................ 5 CALA ..................................................... 60 Chemline Plastics ................................ 50 CIMA Canada ....................................... 48 Denso .................................................. 12 Endress + Hauser ................................ 11 Engineered Pump................................. 22 Envirocan ........................................... 75 Greatario ........................................ 55, 60 H2Flow ................................................ 48 Hoskin Scientific ............................ 35, 51 Huber Technology .................................. 9 Hydro International .............................. 40 Indachem Inc. ...................................... 17 KG Services .......................................... 76 KSB Pumps .......................................... 41 Kusters Water ...................................... 37 Mantech .............................................. 28 Master Meter ........................................ 3 MSU Mississauga ................................ 21 Osprey Scientific.................................. 27 Parsons ................................................ 44 Pro Aqua............................................... 15 ProMinent............................................... 2
The Dent Island Tidal Power Generation Project involves an anchored floating structure with a large slow-turning turbine producing an expected 500-kW. The scalable technology is almost twice as efficient at energy extraction, compared to a conventional propeller turbine. According to Water Wall Turbine, a single unit can extract up to 10 mW from fast currents. Under the ecoENERGY Innovation Initiative, the Government of Canada has already invested $300,000 to help with the engineering and design requirements of the project. Water Wall Turbine said it will be first launching the turbine in Vancouver in early 2015.
Waterfront Toronto to be North America’s largest green building undertaking At four times the size of Monaco, the $4.4 billion, 1,977-acre, 40,000-residence Toronto waterfront revitalization project is intended to position the city and province of Ontario as world leaders in creating sustainable communities. “Ontario has Canada’s greatest concentration of environmental and cleantechnology companies,” says Sean Dyke, director, Southwestern Ontario Marketing Alliance, and chair of OCTA. According to the 2014 Canadian Clean Technology Industry Report, 35 per cent of clean-tech companies in Canada are located in Ontario. It also generates 37
per cent of Canada’s GDP and is home to nearly 50 per cent of all employees in high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries. Waterfront Toronto’s Minimum Green Building Requirements mandate high performance buildings and technologies. They include criteria such as on-site energy generation, water conservation, electric vehicle infrastructure and bicycle storage and parking.
Endress+Hauser and SPD Sales announce partnership SPD Sales Ltd. will now promote Endress+Hauser products and services within the municipal water/wastewater market in southern Ontario. This agreement builds on the success both companies have experienced in this market and will draw on synergies inherent between the two. The partnership will provide enhanced coverage, proven technologies and combined capabilities. Endress+Hauser is the largest independent manufacturer of instrumentation in the world, with global manufacturing facilities and over 12,000 associates. SPD Sales Ltd. predominantly serves southern Ontario. Customers outside this region can continue to contact Endress+Hauser for eastern Ontario sales, and Synergy Controls for northern Ontario sales. www.ca.endress.com
Schneider Electric................................ 13 SEW-Eurodrive ..................................... 27 Smith & Loveless ................................. 39 Spill Management ................................ 53 Stantec ................................................. 43 Tank Connection .................................. 59 URS Canada ......................................... 46 USF Fabrication.................................... 22 VL Motion Systems Inc. ....................... 28 Waterloo Biofilter Systems .................. 50 Waterra Pumps .................. 19, 25, 31, 36 XCG Consultants .................................. 43 Xylem ..................................................... 7
74 | November/December 2014
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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