Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) | August 2018

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AUGUST 2018 www.esemag.com


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August 2018 • Vol. 31 No. 4 • ISSN-0835-605X

COMING IN OUR OCTOBER 2018 ISSUE This issue will offer our 40,000 readers across Canada a strong and diverse range of articles.




Water & Wastewater Plant Efficiency


FEATURED TOPICS • Wastewater treatment and collection systems

Golden years await one generation, while golden opportunities await the next

10 BC town chooses MBBR-DAF system for its wastewater plant upgrade

• Stormwater management

12 Private side standards for sanitary and stormwater sewer infrastructure are woefully inadequate

• Disinfection and filtration

• Drinking water supply, treatment and distribution

16 Developments in textile filtration enable high quality and compact WW treatment 18 Implementing vortex grit removal the right way


24 Seamless integration of all water system devices necessary in a digital environment

• Water Environment Federation (WEFTEC)

26 Water treatment plant improves quality without increasing its footprint

• Eastern Ontario Water Works Association

28 Digital water management key to a circular economy 30 Safeguarding Ontario’s drinking water – Special Feature

• Canadian Waste & Recycling Expo

34 Canadian schools work to prepare a new generation of water industry professionals

• National Drinking Water Conference

38 Upgrading sewage pumping stations can be challenging

• South Central Ontario Water Works Association

40 Tests show crosslinked rotomolded polyethylene storage tanks highly resistant to rupture

• Northern Territories Water and Waste Association

42 Protecting fire hydrants from damage and improper use 44 New approaches allow accurate liquid level measurement through plastic coatings

• World Water-Tech North America – Toronto

45 Influent channel at Edmonton’s Gold Bar WWTP successfully repaired



8 59 62 62 66

50 Associations 54 Government 56 Education, Research & Training

Letters Product Showcase Environmental News Professional Cards Ad Index

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Golden years await one generation, while golden opportunities await the next


aving served as president more than one-third of of the Water Environment workers are 50-plus years of Association of Ontario age. More than half of those and the Ontario Polworkers are expected to retire lution Control Equipment within a decade, equivalent to Association, as well as editor some 1,150 employees. of ES&E Magazine, it has been Of greater concern is that my pleasure to work with only 23% of the water and scores of dedicated, knowlwastewater sector workforce edgeable and professional is between 19 and 35 years of men and women in the water, age, compared to 33% of the wastewater and environmengeneral population of B.C. tal protection industries. As While filling vacant posiis the way of things, many tions will be a challenge for have passed away, retired, employers, it means ample or are in the final stretch employment opportunities of their careers, pondering for those about to enter the what’s next. workforce, as well as school A frequent comment I age children, who will be hear from people is how fast wanting to do so in the not so their career seemed to have distant future. flown by, especially the later This issue features an phase. I recall my first day of article commissioned by employment at Water & Pollu- Steve Davey (left) appeared in Southam Business ES&E (page 34) which outtion Control Magazine in 1982 lines how organizations, Publications’ 1985 annual report. Being included in corporate initiatives is a great motivator for young employees. as a nervous 21-year-old. At post-secondary schools and the human resources office, I industry associations are was presented with the usual working to prepare a new genbasic information on job performance expectations, eration of water professionals. office etiquette, dress code, etc. Yes, this was the shirt Associations, such as the Atlantic Canada Water and and tie era. Wastewater Association and the Water Environment I was also advised as to the date when I could retire – Association of Ontario, are ramping up committees for April 2, 2026 – and details on the firm’s pension plan. I young professionals to ease them into networking, with thought to myself: “That’s 44 years from now which is opportunities to gain valuable wisdom from those who two times longer than I have been alive.” So I paid little may be on the verge of retirement. attention to the retirement part of the orientation and Careers in the water, wastewater and environmental focused on tackling the new job. However, it’s now 2018, protection sectors are rewarding and well paid. Let’s and the retirement date shown to me so long ago is now just hope that this momentum to attract new talent cononly eight years away. If only I had paid more attention tinues, or we will be facing a scenario like Ann Rand’s to those Freedom 55 TV ads! classic novel “Atlas Shrugged”, According to the Water Environment Federation, it’s where there are not enough techprojected that some 37% of water utility workers and nical people on hand to keep our 31% of wastewater utility workers will retire within the world functioning. next decade. Steve Davey is editor and A 2015 water and wastewater sector profile by the publisher of ES&E Magazine. British Columbia Water and Waste Association shows Email: steve@esemag.com that some 3,320 new employees are needed within the next 10 years to offset retirements, attrition and sector growth. The profile reveals a portrait of a sector where

6  |  August 2018

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TECHNICAL ADVISORY BOARD Archis Ambulkar, Jones and Henry Engineers, Ltd. Gary Burrows, City of London Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill De Angelis, City of Toronto Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems William Fernandes, City of Toronto Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Tony Petrucci, Stantec, Markham

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be emailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30 Aurora, Ontario  L4G 3V6 Tel: (905)727-4666 Website: www.esemag.com

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8  |  August 2018

Selecting piping products An important resource that can aid in selecting piping products that will not contribute harmful levels of chemical contaminants to drinking water was left out of one of your recent articles (Specifying piping materials for water infrastructure systems, June 2018). That resource is NSF/ANSI Standard 61: Drinking Water System Components – Health Effects (NSF 61). Eleven provinces and territories in Canada and 49 U.S. states require products used in public drinking water systems to be certified to NSF 61. This standard contains test protocols to measure the concentration of chemicals leaching from materials into drinking water. Products that fail the test do not receive certification and therefore cannot be sold in the provinces and states that require certification to NSF 61. It is important to understand that NSF 61 covers any and all chemical contaminants (regulated and non-regulated) that are contributed to drinking water. The standard establishes total allowable concentrations for contaminants, which are derived using risk assessment criteria in Annex A of NSF 61. These are derived assuming daily exposure to the chemicals over a lifetime. Total allowable concentrations have been established for over 2000 chemicals. Many organizations, including CSA, IAPMO, ICC-ES, NSF, WQA, and UL, are accredited by the Standards Council of Canada and the American National Standards Institute to certify products to NSF/ANSI 61. Together, these organizations have certified tens of thousands of products. One material type is not “safer” than another. Testing and certification applies to specific products produced at specific manufacturing facilities – not generic material types. The organizations certifying materials to NSF 61 have years of data showing products of the same material type may leach different chemicals. Organizations that certify products to NSF 61 publish Listings of certified products on their websites.

Users and specifiers should consult these Listings to ensure piping products are compliant with NSF 61, and will not add harmful levels of chemicals to drinking water. David Purkiss, Vice President, NSF International Water Systems, Michigan Fluoridating drinking water I do find it interesting that the author opted to make reference to individual research within small areas (Why do we continue unquestioningly to artificially fluoridate our drinking water, June 2018). He also selected one physician from England versus the study that Public Health England does yearly comparing similar socioeconomic areas that fluoridate to those that do not. The areas that do fluoridate have better overall health and a lower admittance of children into hospitals versus those that do not. This is an important factor when looking at why it started. It was not for “pretty teeth” but for improved oral hygiene and ultimately improved health. While I agree overall accumulation needs to be looked at, simply being selective with research being brought forward and not also including reference to research being completed with large populations that is reproduced year after year cannot be overlooked. First the opposition was that fluoride caused Alzheimer’s. That has since been proven incorrect. The claim of fluoride causing cancer is proven at large doses, but so can chlorine. So the total concentration required, in addition to the amount of water that one would need to consume daily should be provided with those claims. We have a responsibility as practitioners within the water and wastewater industry to ensure, promote and instil confidence in the public that our drinking water is safe to consume. Gillian Harris, Manager of Environmental Services, Town of Lincoln, Ontario

Letters and comments are welcome. Send them to: editor@esemag.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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BC town chooses MBBR‑DAF system for its wastewater plant upgrade


adysmith, British Columbia, on the western coast of Canada, is home to nearly 8,000 people and has a history of coal mining, forestry, rail and marine industry. An existing primary plant provided treatment to the town’s wastewater before discharging to Ladysmith Harbour. The town needed an upgraded wastewater treatment system that would minimize its biological and separation footprint, while also meeting the new lower proposed effluent limits of 15 mg/L for both BOD and TSS on an average monthly basis. World Water Works’ Ideal MBBR-DAF technology was selected for the upgrade. It combines moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) technology and dissolved air flotation (DAF) technology to provide high removal rates of BOD and TSS. The MBBR reactor degrades organic matter, resulting in BOD removal, and the DAF component separates biomass and solids from the water. This dual system allowed the town to have the highest possible removal rates of BOD and TSS, with the lowest possible plant footprint.

The system combines moving bed biofilm reactor technology and dissolved air flotation technology.

Another bonus to the MBBR system is its adaptability for system upgrades. World Water Works’ phased approach meant the system was up and running efficiently with improvements that met the community’s immediate needs, but left room for the town to add denitrification and nitrification processes, should they choose to in the future. The new 10 MLD system is designed to service a population of 17,000 and will treat the town’s wastewater for at least the next 20 years. The Ideal MBBRDAF system provided advanced secondary treatment for the existing wastewa-

ter treatment plant. The system drastically reduced BOD and TSS amounts released into Ladysmith Harbour. With these improvements, the Town of Ladysmith was able to minimize its ecological footprint and, during the system’s performance test, met an average of 8 mg/L BOD and 11 mg/L TSS. World Water Works completed work on Ladysmith’s Ideal MBBR-DAF system in the summer of 2016. For more information, visit www.worldwaterworks.com

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Private side standards for sanitary and stormwater sewer infrastructure are woefully inadequate By Barbara Robinson


nacceptable amounts of inflow and infiltration (I/I) in new construction have been identified as a significant issue, particularly with the advent of more frequent and more intense rainfall events. As it can account for 50% of total I&I, proper construction of the sanitary sewer lateral on the private side (defined as the “sanitary building sewer” in Canadian building codes) is an important factor in this issue. The building code governs the construction of sewers on the private side. There are a few pressing areas in which the Ontario Building Code (OBC) is not sufficiently protective of I/I. Sources of I/I on the public side, however, are extensively studied and well understood, if still occurring. The collection of new subdivision flow monitoring data since 2015, and ongoing detailed surveys of municipal staff and stakeholders has allowed the identification of many significant contributing factors that need to be addressed in the development process. Hundreds of building inspectors, building plumbing inspectors and chief building officials have been consulted over the course of this work. A variety of new subdivision construction sites were visited and construction, inspection and testing procedures were observed first hand by shadowing building inspectors. An important part of this project was to share information with building departments and educate them on I/I issues.

Proper bedding and backfill of plastic pipe is essential to its integrity and lifespan. Pictured is an example of a stormwater lateral pipe not properly bedded.

Then, backfill continues to 300 mm above the crown of the pipe, again compacted to 95% dry density. The embedment material for flexible pipe must be Granular A,B, or unshrinkable fill. Proper bedding and backfill of plastic pipe is essential to the integrity and lifespan of sewers. Plastic pipe is now being used almost exclusively on both the public and private sides in new subdivisions. Unlike concrete pipe, plastic pipe gets its structural integrity from the soil around BEDDING AND BACKFILL OF PRIVATE SIDE LATERAL it (plastic pipe is embedded, not bedded). Installation of pipe is covered exten- As such, proper bedding and embedPOTENTIAL I/I SOURCES ON THE PRIVATE SIDE sively in Ontario’s Public Standards and ment procedures are vital for the success Of extreme importance is the fact that Specifications (OPSS and OPSD), which of plastic sewers. The OBC, by contrast, provides a sinthe Acceptable Solutions in the OBC are are used by 95% of municipalities. It is preceded by Objectives related to Health also referenced in Ontario Sewer Design gle sentence in the code with reference & Sanitation, and Functional Statements, Guidelines. As described in OPSS 401, to an Appendix. It is not prescriptive – “a which are more detailed and lay out the the embedment shall be placed as per the base that is firm and continuous” is vague. goals of the Code. Several of the Func- bedding and backfill. Bedding needs to There is some clarification provided in an tional Statements in the Code relate be placed in uniform lifts not more than Appendix, but Appendices are not legally directly to I/I, including the need to limit 300 mm in thickness and compacted to part of the Code. continued overleaf… excessive demand on downstream infra- 95% dry density. 12  |  August 2018

structure, and to minimize injury as a result of contact with sewage. There are many areas where Acceptable Solutions in the OBC differ markedly from public side requirements and are not protective against I/I, including bedding and backfill, jointing, and connection of the sewer at property line. Construction practices are also a factor in the success of private side pipe construction.

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INFRASTRUCTURE JOINTING OF PRIVATE SIDE LATERAL Ontario Design Guidelines are very clear with respect to joints. The types of joints selected and the materials used should be designed to minimize infiltration and to prevent the entrance of roots throughout the life of the system. OPSS 1841 requires that PVC pipe, including sanitary laterals, have gasketed, bell and spigot joints. This is presumably based on years of engineering study of pipe strength, quality and performance (as enshrined in OPSS Standards). Indeed, many municipalities are now requiring the stronger SDR28, rather than the required SDR35 pipe, for the public side lateral. By contrast, the OBC permits a thinwalled, glued pipe to be installed on the private side (per CAN/CSA-B182.1). This pipe is fragile and since rigid, glued joints result in a single unit from the house to the property line, it is much more prone to breakage than the thicker-walled, gasketed pipe installed for the public side lateral. The potential for I/I increases, and the lifespan of the pipe decreases. CONNECTION OF LATERAL AT PROPERTY LINE Inspection of the lateral connection at property line is essential to ensuring that I/I does not occur. Since the sanitary sewer system on the public side, including laterals to property line, are constructed, buried and tested before building permits are issued, the inspection of this connection falls to building departments. At this point in the development process, engineering groups are not typically involved. The OBC does not explicitly require the inspection of this connection. It does have “prescribed notices” which specify when the chief building official must be notified that the drainage systems are ready for inspection and testing. It does not specifically include or exclude the connection at property line. However, many jurisdictions across Ontario are not currently performing this inspection. The connection of the sanitary lateral at property line is a major source of I/I in existing systems. This is likely because of differential settlement due to the timing of the installation of the pipes on each side of the property line, as well as the disparate pipe types used and the need to 14  |  August 2018

connect them with appropriate fittings. PRIVATE SIDE STORMWATER INFRASTRUCTURE Another issue of note pertains to the installation and inspection of stormwater infrastructure on the private side. Currently, only about 50% of building departments in Ontario are inspecting storm infrastructure, although I believe the OBC requires that it be performed. I am working with building officials to clarify this issue. Some contractors and others in the field have advised that they feel it doesn’t matter if storm pipes leak, as they carry clean water anyway. Thus, stormwater piping is sometimes installed with much less care than sanitary piping. This represents a significant risk, because stormwater sewers are sized to convey a design storm rate of flow, not a design storm flow, plus groundwater I/I. As well, if stormwater infrastructure is adjacent to sanitary infrastructure on the private side, any exfiltration could end up in the sanitary sewer, as stormwater piping is typically located higher. CONCLUSIONS Incorrectly or inadequately laid pipe on the private side has many mechanisms by which I/I can be introduced into the sewer system. Firstly, gaps at joints, due to either inadequate jointing or inadequate bedding, can introduce I/I over the long term. Secondly, if there are gaps, the bedding will slowly degrade. As the fines migrate into the pipe, the remaining bedding is likely to shift, increasing the gaps and allowing larger and larger soil particles into the pipe and increase shifting of the pipe. Inadequately laid pipe can be a direct contributor to flooding. The insurance industry in Canada indicates that the majority of payments associated with basement flooding are related to private side issues. It is presumed that the average house will last 70 – 100 years. However, there is currently no messaging to homebuyers that their private side laterals have a finite design life and need periodic replacement. It does not appear to me that the thin-walled pipe being installed currently has a design life of 70 – 100 years. Nor does it appear that we are adhering

to the Functional Statements in the OBC, when allowing installation of pipe which is prone to I/I. Permitting glued joints introduces the risk of user error during construction. Many contractors and building inspectors pointed out that there are a variety of solvent cement types, depending on the materials being connected, and that sometimes one is substituted for another for expediency. This may partially explain the frequency with which connections are found to be leaking. Fully half of the length of an entire sewer system exists on the private side and falls under the jurisdiction of the Ontario Building Code. The engineering industry has generally had very little contact with building departments, and in most jurisdictions, engineering/development staff advise that they have never sat down with building department staff to discuss I/I issues and their importance. Compared to the cost to treat one litre per second of I/I for one year of $80,000 (@ $2.75/m3), improvements to the building code are an investment well worth making. Inflow and infiltration from the private side costs the same as it does from the public side. Barbara Robinson is with Norton Engineering Inc. Email: nortonengineeringinc@gmail.com The author gratefully acknowledges the funding of this project by the Regions of Peel, Halton, York and Waterloo, the Cities of London, Windsor, and Cambridge, the Town of Orangeville, and the Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction (ICLR). In addition, contributions from professionals from both the engineering and building communities have been invaluable.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


developments in textile filtration enable high quality, compact wastewater treatment By Simon Vincent


extile filters, also known as disc filters, have been used in wastewater treatment for over two decades. They were originally designed to replace sand filters. Their advantages include: a significantly reduced footprint, decreased costs, and a simple solution to retrofit existing infrastructure. Original municipal applications focused on tertiary wastewater effluent filtration to meet quality goals for sensitive receiving waters (especially with respect to phosphorus). Significant technological advancements have been made to improve operation and maintenance, and treatment performance (e.g., by introducing finer screening “cloth”). These advancements, in combination with the ability to achieve very low levels of total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS), have made textile filters the technology of choice for tertiary treatment. Textile filters are now applied in a wide range of wastewater sources (municipal, industrial, food & beverage, mining) to discharge to infiltration basins and for reuse applications to achieve reuse quality grades at a lower cost.

Diagram of a textile, or disc filter.

inlet, a high level switch initiates a backwash cycle, which rotates the filter discs in order to expose clean filter media to the water flow path. This cycle also allows the dirty filter media to be cleaned by high pressure spray nozzles. Filtered water stored in the tank is pumped to feed the series of spray nozzles strategically installed on moving arms of the backwash THE TECHNOLOGY system. This serves to clean the entire surHydrotech Discfilters utilize filter cloth face of the filter media, while limiting the mounted on filter panels. These panels use of filtered water in the process. stem from a central drum where inlet An outlet weir is used to maintain the water enters the unit for treatment. Water water level according to the volume of filis filtered inside-out from the centre tube tered water needed to carry out the backto the open base of the filter discs. Hence, wash cycle. Filtered water for discharge, water passes through the polyester cloth or reuse, flows over the weir of the tank before reaching the filtered water collec- and out of the unit. tion tank. Solids and particles in the inlet water BENEFITS AND ADVANTAGES are retained by the filter media on the The Hydrotech Discfilter presents sevinside of the filter panels. Retained sol- eral advantages over conventional filtraids and particles build up on the filter tion. It has a smaller footprint as the units media, causing the headloss across the are compact and allow plant retrofit and filter to increase. This headloss results upgrade in existing buildings. It comes in an increased water level at the inlet of as a stainless steel and aluminum conthe unit. struction in a frame or tank format, to be At a predetermined water level at the installed in an existing concrete channel 16  |  August 2018

or as complete new equipment. All piping and connections are at the front (inlet) and back (outlet) of the unit, allowing for installation at a higher elevation and saving on excavation and concrete costs. Installation is simple and minimal, as the unit is delivered fully assembled. The inside-out flow path retains solids on the inside of the discs, resulting in a clean operating environment. The basin does not need to be drained for components’ maintenance. All components, including filter media, are accessible from the walkway. A chemical spray bar is present for in-place cleaning. These filters can also be implemented in different locations of the treatment plant, such as a clarifier’s polishing stage (primary or secondary), in combined sewage overflow systems, or as a primary solids capturing stage for primary filtration. They can also serve many industries and aquaculture installations, with filter openings offered up to a size of 1,000 µm. CASE STUDY A case study was performed at pilotscale with the Hydrotech Discfilter

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

installed as a tertiary filtration stage (fed by a secondary clarifier effluent). The objective was to achieve an effluent water quality of TSS below 5 mg/L and TP below 0.25 mg P/L. To reduce soluble phosphorus, a ferric based coagulant was dosed upstream of the secondary clarifier. Optimized coagulant dosage allowed for TP and TSS removal in the secondary clarifier. Hence, the Discfilter acted as a polishing stage for TSS and TP reduction without additional chemicals. A higher filtration velocity can, therefore, be applied to the filter. Three different operating periods were tested during the pilot trial: first at nominal velocity, second at maximum filtration velocity, and finally, at high TSS and TP influent concentrations. This last test was done by dosing secondary sludge into the feed water. During all three operating conditions, final filtered effluent concentrations were consistently below 5 mg/L TSS and 0.25 mg P/L of TP. Operating at a peak influent TSS of 48 mg/L, it was able to achieve the same performance during the last testing period. Hence, these filters are robust to variation in influent water quality. Coagulant dosage upstream of the clarifier remained constant, therefore limiting and normalizing operational expenses. Where effluent turbidity is regulated for a reuse application, or additional phosphorus removal is needed, coagulation and flocculation can take place upstream

of the Hydrotech Discfilter. Contact time for each chemical conditioning will determine the removal efficiency, as well as filtration velocity. To reduce coliforms, disinfection using chlorine can be done in the filtered water tank for indirect water reuse. The different and Waste Wateroptions products plus NMac configura4.65 x 4.65.pdf 1

tions offer a wide range of possibility for tertiary sewage treatment and reclaimed water production. Simon Vincent is with Veolia Water Technologies Canada Inc. Email: simon.vincent@veolia.com 1/24/2018 7:37:09 AM

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WASTEWATER ADVANTAGES OF VORTEX GRIT REMOVAL One of the key advantages of vortex grit systems is that they have a compact footprint. This is very appealing for treatment facilities that are looking to increase capacity or improve removal within an existing system, but have limited footprint available to increase the surface area available for grit removal. Most mechanically induced vortex systems have low headloss requirements, which can be beneficial when trying to incorporate these systems into an existing hydraulic profile. Impact on the hydraulic profile is a critical consideration when evaluating the addition of a new grit removal technology into an existing facility with minimal modifications. As an example, most existing detritors are shallow (i.e., 1 m deep), so if this system is to be replaced with a new technology, then there may be limited available hydraulic gradeline for the new system.

‘Grit’ refers to a wide range of heavy, abrasive material ranging from rocks and sand down to large organic particles. Its impact on downstream processes can include accumulation in aeration tanks or anaerobic digesters, and premature equipment wear.

Implementing vortex grit removal the right way By Michael Blain, Paula Steel and Ed Salenieks


istorically, grit removal has not received the same attention as other processes in water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs). However, this has been changing in recent years. Operators of WRRFs have put substantial effort into optimizing settling, aeration, and anaerobic digestion processes, but these activities can have a diminished impact if troublesome debris, like grit, travel past the headworks to the downstream processes. The impacts of this debris on the downstream process can include accumulation of grit in aeration tanks or anaerobic digesters, and premature wear on downstream equipment. Several types of grit removal systems can be implemented at WWRFs. Traditionally, horizontal flow grit chambers, detritors and aerated grit tanks have been utilized. Vortex grit chambers have recently become a popular choice in new and retrofit projects.

18  |  August 2018

There are two types of vortex systems: mechanically induced vortex systems, and multi-tray systems. In general, both systems add rotational forces to enhance the gravity forces acting on grit particles to improve separating them from wastewater. They have a smaller footprint and achieve removal efficiencies similar to, or better than, other types of systems. In mechanically induced vortex systems, the tank inlet is configured to induce a swirl or vortex and an impeller is used to augment this circular flow pattern. In multi-tray units, no impeller is used. Instead, the configuration of the tank inlet allows for the development of a vortex flow pattern and even distribution to the stacked conical trays. Both systems settle grit to the bottom of the tank and periodically remove it, typically by pumping, for further dewatering prior to disposal.

VORTEX GRIT REMOVAL CHALLENGES Despite the advantages of vortex grit removal, during the design of these systems, it can be challenging to ensure that the desired grit removal performance is achievable. Vortex systems are largely proprietary, and as a result the design must be conducted largely based on the advice provided by equipment vendors. It is important to note that often grit removal performances identified for these units are based on ideal conditions (i.e., sand settling in clean water), which can be very different from actual grit in wastewater. Even standard references, such as the Ontario Ministry of the Environment Conservation and Parks Design Guidelines or the Water Environment Federation (WEF) Manual of Practice No. 8 have little design guidance related to these units. Instead, they recommend that a designer develop their design and target removal efficiencies through conversations with equipment vendors. As a result, it is difficult for designers and owners to verify that the system which is being specified is in fact appropriate for the application. This is further compounded by the wide variability in grit quantities and continued overleaf…

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

WASTEWATER characteristics between facilities and even at the same facility, due to seasonal or diurnal fluctuations in flow. A thorough understanding of the fundamentals of grit removal, and how recent advances in the field can be applied to the design of new and retrofit systems, is necessary for effective technology selection and design of a vortex grit removal system. GRIT REMOVAL AND CHARACTERIZATION The term “grit” refers to a wide range of heavy, abrasive material ranging from rocks and sand down to large organic particles. The design of grit removal systems is usually based on the settling rate of uniform, spherical sand particles with a specific gravity of 2.65. However, since grit is comprised of a wide range of non-uniform, irregularly shaped particles, which can also be coated in organics, fats, oils or grease, this results in particles that can have a range of specific gravities. Consequently, grit found in wastewater does not settle like the ideal sand particle in clean water. Further complicating matters is that grit composition varies at each site, and the characteristics at a specific site can change over time (i.e., seasonal, wet weather events, etc.). In a typical gravity-fed sewer, large grit particles with a diameter greater than 225 microns have the potential to settle out in the sewer system under normal flow conditions, and can be flushed into the WRRF during wet weather events. The composition and quantity of grit can vary greatly between plants and even at the same plant over the course of a day or year. Due to the variability of grit, it is important to characterize the grit coming into a WRRF to inform the design and technology selection. However, there are no standard methods for grit sampling as there are for other wastewater constituents, which has led to inconsistent characterization of grit when sampling is undertaken. In 2016, WEF published Guidelines for Grit Sampling and Characterization, which outlined methods for grit identification and treatment, including a comprehensive appraisal of these methods to help increase understanding of the implications of each method and assist 20  |  August 2018

Figure 1. An example of a particle distribution graph. Grit sampling data allows for an informed decision regarding technology selection and anticipated target removal rates.

the overall grit composition due to seasonal fluctuations. As a result, sampling can be very expensive and involve multiple days of work on site and in a laboGrit Particle Sizes Removal ratory. This leads to it rarely being conducted as part of design assignments. 50 Mesh (300 µm) 95% When this characterization work is not done, design must be based on “typical” 70 Mesh (210 µm) 85% grit properties. Vendor grit removal criteria, such as 100 Mesh (150 µm) 65% shown in Table 1, are typically based on the settling of sand particles with a specific gravity of 2.65 in clean water tests. in the proper design and optimization of This does not capture the site-specific issues, such as grit particles with lower grit removal systems. In a typical sampling trial, wastewater specific gravities, or the influence of will be taken from the inlet of the grit organic matter which further reduces channel over a period of several days. settleability. In these cases, the actual grit After this, it can be analyzed to deter- removal at a facility would be lower than mine the particle size distribution, and the ideal removals specified settling tests carried out to determine the sand equivalent size (SES). The SES SURFACE OVERFLOW RATE A number of studies have been underof a particle is the equivalent size of a uniform particle with a specific gravity taken on vortex grit systems over the of 2.65, and can be used to account for last 10 years into the mechanism of grit the non-ideal shape and densities of real removal in WRRFs, as well as methods to improve grit removal. Overall, these grit particles. (See Figure 1) Regardless of the sampling method studies have suggested that the design used, the variability in grit at a facility parameter which has the greatest impact means that multiple days are recom- on grit removal efficiency is the surface mended for a given sampling trial. But, overflow rate (SOR), which is the flow this can have limited representation on continued overleaf… Table 1. Typical removal criteria for vortex grit systems.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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WASTEWATER divided by surface area. Recent studies have suggested that the dominant mechanism of grit particle removal in vortex chambers could largely be attributed to gravity settling. This means that to achieve higher grit removal efficiencies, particularly at a facility with small grit particles, a larger surface area is required to allow for this type of setting. DESIGN BASED ON CURRENT BEST PRACTICES With all the uncertainty regarding grit removal, and the high cost of characterizing grit at a particular site in order to inform a design, it can become challenging for a designer to verify that the design of a vortex system is appropriate, beyond relying solely on the manufacturers. However, a designer can have confidence that a vortex system will perform as well as possible given the site-specific constraints which are encountered, if the following current best practices are considered. Due to the potential for large grit loadings during wet weather events, sizing vortex grit removal systems for peak flows can allow them to remove grit even when faced with these high loadings. This will allow the unit to operate at a lower SOR at average daily flows, which promotes effective grit removal. In most retrofit applications, vortex units are installed at grade, with suction pumps situated on top of the vortex. There are two options for pumping types in these situations: vacuum or self-priming centrifugal pumps, or airlift pumps. Airlift pumps can be effective options for vortex grit systems with a diameter less than 2 m. However, when these are used on a very large vortex grit tank (i.e., 5 m), they may not generate sufficient lift to effectively remove grit that has collected at the bottom of the vortex chamber. This results in low grit production and therefore removal. In these situations, it is necessary to use centrifugal pumps. Depending on the budget available, if a vortex system can be constructed so that the bottom of the vortex unit is accessible in a building, then it would be recommended to use centrifugal pumps with the suction located at the base of the units. After removal from the vortex chamber, grit must be dewatered and washed 22  |  August 2018

In a mechanically induced vortex chamber, an impeller is used to augment the circular flow pattern.

to produce a dry grit suitable for disposal and maximize the return of organics back to the treatment process. Installation of grit concentrators on top of the grit classifier can reduce the flow of grit slurry into the classifier, and reduce the risk of hydraulic overloading of the classifier. Installation of concentrators is commonly done, but is not present at all facilities. It is also recommended to discuss the angle of hydrocyclone installation with vendors, as this varies between different products and can have a significant impact on concentrator performance.

would be preferable, due to its ability to achieve high removals of particles down to 150 µm. However, not all facilities have sufficient hydraulic profile for such a system. Multi-tray vortex systems require up to 1 m of hydraulic head, which is not available in many retrofit applications. When the implementation of a multi-tray system is not possible at facilities where there is a large proportion of small particles, then it may be beneficial to install a larger vortex system to increase surface area. If the footprint available is also DESIGN BASED ON SAMPLING extremely limited, sampling will have The above best practices can allow less impact on the design, but can perdesigners to incorporate recent advances mit designers and owners to have a realin the field of grit removal into future istic expectation of what grit removal upgrades when there is limited informa- efficiencies are achievable in the water tion available. However, if grit sampling resource recovery facility, prior to condata is available, this offers the oppor- struction. tunity to make an informed decision regarding technology selection, tank Michael Blain, Paula Steel and size, and anticipated target removal rates. Ed Salenieks are with Associated When conducting grit sampling with Engineering. For more information, the purposes of informing a design, the email: blainm@ae.ca particle size distribution can influence which technology is selected. If there are a high percentage of small particles, then a larger surface area could be required to remove these particles. This would suggest that a multi-tray vortex system Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Seamless integration of all devices necessary in a digital environment


n the context of Industry 4.0, sensors and control systems are becoming the ears and the heartbeat of processes across all industries. Advancements of digital protocol in process automation are also allowing a smoother implementation of these basic measuring instruments in the field. Seamless integration of basic functionality devices is necessary in a digital environment. Quite often, these entry-level instruments are not considered because of their lack of compatibility with the rest of the instrumentation moving towards digital protocols. For a long time, instrumentation manufacturers refrained from implementing digital communication into their basic sensors, for cost optimization. Developed by a consortium of industrial manufacturing companies, IO-Link is a digital protocol that offers huge improvements in the implementation of basic sen-

sors in the field. Time and cost of project implementation can be reduced significantly thanks to this open protocol. It is a point-to-point technology that enables diagnostics and tracking capabilities from sensors and actuators. Each IO-Link device is connected to an IO-Link master, which acts as a gateway to a fieldbus such as Ethernet/IP. Since IO-Link is not a fieldbus dependent system, it can be added to existing control systems at minimum cost. Other advantages of the IO-Link technology include the automatic transfer of parameters after a device replacement, as well as low wiring effort compared to conventional wiring. In confined spaces where direct wired communication can be critical, some instruments even feature wireless communication capabilities such as Bluetooth. This allows for commissioning devices, as

well as reading process values and accessing diagnostic information remotely. Manufacturers like Endress+Hauser have implemented Bluetooth capabilities into flow and level sensors, accessible via a smartphone app. PLUG-AND-PLAY FLOW METERS FOR UTILITIES Flow meters represent a large share of instrument costs in the field across all industries. Due to their high accuracy and advanced functionalities, process automation professionals tend to install them on process critical lines only, mainly because of their high price. Utility flows (monitoring of cooling lines or process water, for instance) often don’t get measured, even though they can deliver significant information to field operation personnel. Smart plug-and-play flow meters, that measure and monitor flow and temperature of conductive liquids, can be cost-efficient. In addition to their high-accuracy flow sensors, Endress+Hauser have devel-

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24  |  August 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

oped a compact flow meter with intuitive operation, thanks to a wide display, offering Bluetooth and IO-Link compatibility. The Picomag combines a sensor and transmitter in the same housing, with a 40 mm TFT colour display showing flow, totalizer and temperature readings, as well as warning and alarm messages. Outputs include 4-20mA, pulse, switch and 2-10V. A Bluetooth wireless interface allows direct access to process and diagnostics data, and enables the user to configure the measuring device on the fly. The device can be operated and configured on Android and iOS devices via the free SmartBlue App. It is possible to carry out wireless configuration or data retrieval over a distance of 10 m, even at installation sites which are difficult to access. Errors occurring during operations are displayed via diagnostic symbols, in accordance with NAMUR recommendation NE 107 (same standardized message as per the high-end flow instruments available on the market). The screen rotates automatically, depending on the installa-

Picomag is designed for applications where the focus is on high repeatability.

(±0.2% o.f.s.) and thus reliable measured values (i.e., for correctly measuring water flows (maximum 750 L/min) or for minimizing energy costs in utility applications. It is suitable for process temperatures between –10°C to +70°C, as well as for process pressures up to 16 bar. The instruments themselves are one thing, but customers are also expecting a seamless experience when purchasing these fit-for-purpose types of device. Having the ability to order online at any time and get fast delivery for these instruments is important, since basic instruments don’t require a vast amount of consultation before being purchased. To better serve these new demands from the process automation industry, manufacturers such as Endress+Hauser have adapted their model to offer an online platform, with pre-configurable instruments available in stock for faster delivery.

tion position (horizontal, vertical), guaranteeing optimal readability at any time. Configuration parameters can be called up and monitored by simply knocking on the device. Due to its compact design, Picomag can be installed into any pipe up to 50 mm in diameter, even in confined spaces. For this purpose, there are various process connection adapters available, such as NPT-thread, R-thread, internal thread, tri-clamp or Victaulic. Picomag is designed for applications For more information, email: where the focus is on high repeatability info@ca.endress.com

Waterra HS-2 Oil/Water Interface Sensors and WS-2 Water Level Sensors are advanced products that utilize the most recent electronic technology. Their tough polyethylene reels protect the stainless steel tape from damage and dirt while their lightweight and slim profile make them very portable. Our sophisticated HS-2 ultrasonic sensors are more sensitive in a broader range of hydrocarbon products than conventional optical systems and they produce the quickest interface detection available. Innovative design features, compactness, portability and reliability — all at a competitive price. • extremely low power consumption

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August 2018  |  25

WATER membranes offer several significant benefits over conventional water treatment technologies, including: lower energy costs; lower life cycle and maintenance costs; smaller footprint and related construction costs; and, simplistic system design. As concerns over energy efficiency increase, ultrafiltration technology be­comes more appealing, since the systems can process more water using less energy than other traditional systems.

Lake Manatee Water Treatment Plant.

Florida WTP increases drinking water quality without increasing its footprint By Jenn Watt


anatee County, Florida is home to 43 parks, two golf courses and miles of beautiful beaches. The Lake Manatee Water Treatment Plant processes 317,975 m3/day of drinking water and serves 350,000 residents. It uses the multiple barrier approach to ensure the safety of the water. This includes source protection, optimized particle removal at the purification plant, and appropriate disinfection. Drinking water is a blend of purified groundwater and purified surface water. In 2017, an average of 61,096 m3/d of deep groundwater and 92,591 m3/d of surface water was used. The groundwater is drawn from seven 366-m deep wells. This water is then pumped through a 91.4-cm pipe approximately 21 kilometres to the water treatment plant. Surface water is taken from a reservoir. Water supplies are protected through purchasing land in the watershed area. 26  |  August 2018

There are about 35,000 acres that are publicly owned. Additionally, the quality of the drinking water is protected through maintaining the filtration technologies employed by the plant’s three treatment trains. They operate two for treating surface water at a capacity of 204,412 m3/ day, and one for treating groundwater at a capacity of 113,562 m3/d. The multimedia filters in the surface water trains were approaching the end of their useful life so treatment options were evaluated and it was decided to upgrade to an immersed ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system. After issuing a bid, SUEZ– Water Technologies & Solutions was chosen as the membrane system supplier to upgrade their treatment system. BENEFITS OF SUBMERGED HOLLOW-FIBRE MEMBRANES With a compact design and high-filtration capability, hollow-fibre, ultrafiltration

A COMPREHENSIVE UF SYSTEM DESIGN Taking into consideration the anticipated raw water quality, SUEZ developed a state-of-the-art immersed UF membrane system for the surface water trains at the water treatment plant. The solution includes 12 membrane trains of ZeeWeed* 1000 UF membranes, with a two-stack design, to be retrofitted into existing sand filter basins. The ZeeWeed 1000 hollow-fibre design increases filtration surface area and therefore capacity, while remaining in the same plant footprint. ZeeWeed membrane construction centres around the microscopic pores on the polymer membrane surface which form a physical barrier to contaminants, preventing passage through to the treated water. The small pore size of the UF strands, typically 0.02 microns, ensures that particulate matter, including Cryptosporidium cysts, Giardia cysts, bacteria, suspended solids or other contaminants of concern, will not pass into the treated water stream. To clean the membranes, a regular backwash of the system dislodges the collected contaminants from the membrane surface and routine flushing discharges the concentrated water. Thousands of individual hollow fibres comprise one ZeeWeed 1000 module. The ZeeWeed modules comprise cassettes, and the cassettes create trains. With 12 trains, the Lake Manatee Water Treatment Plant will be one of the world’s largest retrofits of a sand filter to a membrane filtration system, capable of processing 204,412 m3/day. The system is expected to meet all of Manatee County’s design criteria. To save *Trademark of SUEZ may be registered in one or more countries.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

on permeate pumping costs, SUEZ is also incorporating a partial siphon operating mode. When the transmembrane pressure is less than approximately 6.5 pounds per square inch (psi), the permeate pumps, which pull the water through the membranes, will be bypassed and the UF system will operate in siphon mode. In this mode, gravity acts as the driving force, due to the elevation difference between the membrane basins and the blend chamber. The blend chamber is where permeate will be blended with filtered water from the groundwater train. The blended stream will be treated for disinfection and stabilization and then sent to storage in clearwells before being distributed to the residents. In a separate project, the plant implemented biological roughing filter (BRF) treatment ahead of the surface water treatment trains to replace existing powered activated carbon (PAC) for taste and odour control. To provide additional SUEZ’s ZeeWeed 1000 immersed UF membranes will be used to upgrade the sand filter basins that flexibility, the existing PAC system was take water from the settling basins at the Manatee County drinking water treatment plant. retained to be used in tandem with the BRF system, if needed. The water fed into SUEZ’s UF membranes will first be subjected to existing coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation, then screened to protect the membrane. Sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide will be added for pH adjustment. Quality goals for the membrane feed water quality are: true colour < 10 U.S.F. S.F Fabrication’s Hatch Safety Grate System is available in a variety S.F. ariety of configurations platinum-cobalt units (PCU); turbidity < to meet virtually ually any application. The system allows for routine maintenance of pumps uall 2 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU); and equipment when closed and may act as an additional barrier er when open. It allows pH of 6.2. ngs without exposing themselves to people to move freely lly around the hatch opening dangerous fall-through. Highly efficient performance is only possible with robust support, enabled by All Hatch Safety ety Grates feature: • Tamp Tamper-res r istant 316 SS hinges res quality ancillary equipment. At the Lake and nd hardw har are Manatee Water Treatment Plant, this • Powder-coated Po aluminum grates to equipment includes backwash storage resist corrosion res and pumping, clean-in-place (CIP) tanks • Hold old open devices to lock the grates and pumps, an ion exchange system to in their full upright and open position soften water for the CIP system, air com• Ca Can be ret r rofitted into existing pressors, and an electrical room. access openings The full SUEZ–Water Technologies & Solutions membrane system is designed Our experienced team provides a quick turnaround on quotes, for 96.3% recovery at design capacity, drawings and deliveries. Call us today 1.800.668.4533 with backwash water recycled within the or email us at sales@engineeredpump.com plant and spent chemical solution disposed to the sewer after neutralization.

The safe solution.

Jennifer Watt, P.Eng, is with SUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions. Email: jenn.watt@suez.com www.esemag.com

1635 Industrial Ave. • Port Coquitlam, BC V3C 6M9 Phone: 604.552.7900 • Fax: 604.552.7901 sales@engineeredpump.com • www.engineeredpump.com

August 2018  |  27


Digital water Management key to a circular economy


ircular economy approaches in the water sector were the focus at Blue Tech Forum 2018, held recently in Vancouver, British Columbia. Ralph Exton, chief marketing officer, SUEZ–Water Technologies & Solutions, led a roundtable dedicated to digital water at BlueTech Forum and outlined the importance of the topic. He said that “digital technologies are key enablers of the circular economy. Gone are the days of linear thinking about water where the only thing you cared about was that water came into the plant, was cleaned to the specified standard and pushed out again.” Paul O’Callaghan, chief executive, BlueTech Research, believes that data technologies are key to improving the processes even outside of the water industry. “What we are seeing now is joined-up thinking. Digital is making each individual part smarter, whether that’s ultrafiltration, membrane cleaning cycles or coagulant dosing in sludge dewatering. “As a result the system is becoming smarter too. And not just the water system; in an industrial setting it makes the entire manufacturing process more efficient.” Emilio Tenuta, vice president, corporate sustainability at Ecolab, agrees that digital technologies deliver the timely change to industry. “Water is a finite resource and conservation alone isn’t

to the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, and water is a key component. But, it is often not considered in discussions about the circular economy. InSight, an asset performance management (APM) solution from SUEZ, collects and analyses data from throughout the water treatment process. In addition to monitoring activities that can help prevent water loss, APM technologies like InSight provide enhanced visibility into an entire operation and help uncover new ways to save water and Emilio Tenuta, of Ecolab, says water energy. This lessens the environmental conservation alone is not enough. impact of a plant and enables the adoption of a circular economy approach. Ecolab has pioneered remote monitorgoing to get us where we need to go. We have to develop technologies with smart ing and control systems, such as its 3D sensors and devices that allow us to Trasar technology, which continuously monitor and continually control systems responds to water and system stresses to so we can drive performance, optimize help industry manage the quality chalcosts and manage water in a way that lenges of different water sources. For increases local resiliency.” example, in working with a Microsoft Tenuta adds that “digital approaches data centre in San Antonio, Texas, Nalco are key to closing the 40% freshwater Water’s 3D Trasar technology enabled supply-demand gap in the world. Smart the site to reliably use recycled water, technologies enable rapid evaluation and avoiding the use of 220 million litres of analysis of billions of data points per year freshwater. that could not be measured previously.” Data science company Microbe Detectives has advanced the technolRECOGNIZING OPPORTUNITIES ogy by using DNA sequencing to expose Luckily, there is a US$4.5 trillion oppor- water quality information that has not tunity in the circular economy, according previously been readily available. The

Knowledge. Expertise. Resources. Engineering the future.


28  |  August 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

company’s microbial analysis technique comes directly from the human genome project and presents an extraordinary specialization for water and wastewater applications. “We’re disrupting the whole landscape,” says chief executive John Tillotson, who presented the company’s technology in the innovation showcase at BlueTech Forum. “We’re combining DNA and computational technology with deep expertise in water to digitise microbial dark matter in water systems, 99% of which is not measurable with current standard test methods. This is a huge leap. “Our DNA database is specialised for water microbiomes. When we do the sequencing, we are comparing the data that gets generated to known information in our database to see where we have a positive match for thousands of microbes in a single test.” The technology can bring numerous benefits to water processing and analytics, with optimization of anaerobic digestion and biological nutrient removal of wastewater being current areas of research, and rapid identification of potentially lethal pathogens like Legionella in drinking water to be researched in the near future. In a historically underexplored market, circular economy opportunities are everywhere and the numerous digital technologies entering the market can help capture them. For more information, visit www.bluetechresearch.com

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August 2018  |  29


Safeguarding Ontario’s drinking water Since 2004, the Walkerton Clean Water Centre has provided high-quality training and support to the owners, operators, and operating authorities of Ontario’s drinking water systems.


In May 2000, the small Southern Ontario town of Walkerton suffered a tragedy that would usher in a comprehensive drinking water regime. E. coli contamination sickened nearly half the town and resulted in the unfortunate deaths of seven people. In response to an inquiry led by Justice O’Connor, the Ontario government introduced strict regulations governing drinking water system owners and operators. To ensure these owners and operators would be educated and supported, the Walkerton Clean Water Centre (WCWC) was established in 2004. The WCWC provides training on behalf of Ontario’s Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks, and administers the mandatory operator training courses prescribed. It also offers a variety of specialty courses that reinforce mandatory 30  |  August 2018

training. All 54 (currently offered) courses are continually updated and new courses are developed based on client feedback, consultation with experts and developments in the industry. OPERATOR TRAINING AND SUPPORT A lot has changed in the years since the Walkerton tragedy and the establishment of regulations that govern drinking water system owners and operators. “There has been a significant increase in the competence of operators, post-Ontario regulations,” says Brian Jobb, Manager of the WCWC’s Training Institute. “We have among the best trained operators in the world, with the average operator absolutely head and shoulders above where they were 15 – 20 years ago.”

The main reason for this improvement is due to the mandatory training that operators must complete to become, and remain, certified. And while the WCWC is not the only training provider in Ontario, it is one that sets a standard of excellence. “Because we are an agency of the Ministry we provide the highest level of training,” says Carl Kuhnke, who joined the WCWC as Chief Executive Officer last year. According to Kuhnke, there are a number of contributing factors that set the WCWC apart. “One of the ways that we ensure our curriculum is current and state-of-theart, is that we have both a Training Advisory Committee and a Research Advisory Committee that are made up of subject matter experts from across the province,” says Kuhnke. The WCWC’s expertise extends beyond its advisory committees. With 32 staff and a number of contracted trainers, the WCWC is able to meet the numerous challenges presented in real-world and hands-on training. “Our goal is not to teach students how to pass an exam, but to be good operators and do the right thing,” says Jobb. “There is a lot more to being a competent operator than just passing an exam.” Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


With over 54 courses and modules, the WCWC offers comprehensive training for operators and system owners. It even offers a Standard of Care course for municipal councillors, which some municipalities have made mandatory. The WCWC also hosts special training events including our Maintenancefest hands-on training event. Visit www.wcwc.ca/registration to view the upcoming schedule. A new addition to the trainer team is Stephanie Meades, a certified public health inspector who joined the WCWC as a small systems specialist in 2017. With her experience on the other side of the table as an inspector, Stephanie is able to directly respond to operator and client questions during training and bridge the gap between two different regulations in the province that are administered by two different ministries. In 2016, the WCWC introduced a helpline to respond to technical calls and provide information to address questions related to drinking water treatment processes, equipment, operational requirements and environmental factors. Email: helpline@wcwc.ca. PROVINCE-WIDE MANDATE Ontario is a massive province, well over 1 million square kilometres in size. Despite the challenge of geography, the WCWC is tasked with providing training to operators no matter how far or how remote. “As an agency of the province, our training needs to be available and accessible to all operators, owners and authorities in Ontario,” explains Corinne Louther, the WCWC’s Manager of Training Operations. This means that the WCWC will provide training in northern and remote communities where it may not be feasible for other training providers due to logistics or cost. This is essential for First Nations and remote communities that face many obstacles when it comes to operator training. For instance, they may not be able to afford the travel costs to send their operators to training, nor can they afford the loss of an operator for the time the training takes. www.esemag.com



People trained since the WCWC opened


Courses/modules offered


Drinking water treatment technologies


Trainers – staff and contract

FIRST NATIONS TRAINING There are many similarities between communities with small drinking water systems and First Nations communities. Both can face the same challenges in staffing, budgetary constraints and logistics. However, a key difference is that First Nations don’t fall under provincial regulations (they are governed by Indigenous Services Canada), which means that drinking water operators do not have to be certified. “Part of our job is to serve First Nations communities that choose to offer drinking water comparable to that under Ontario regulations, even though they are not required to,” says Kuhnke. By becoming certified, operators will be better able to handle modern, advanced treatment plants and technologies.

To bring effective and achievable training to First Nations communities, the WCWC has developed a Memorandum of Understanding with two First Nations organizations: the Ontario First Nations Technical Services Corporation (OFNTSC) and Keewaytinook Okimakanak (KO), which is a tribal council in Northwestern Ontario, part of the Northern Chiefs Council. These two organizations meet monthly with the WCWC to plan relevant training for communities that are choosing to follow provincial certification. FIRST NATIONS INITIATIVE First Nations training has always been part of the WCWC’s core training group. But, with $1.85 million in provincial funding in 2016, the WCWC continued overleaf… August 2018  |  31


started a special community-based initiative in partnership with OFNTSC and KO. The initiative identifies and prioritizes communities, focusing first and foremost on long-term drinking water advisories. It also works with communities not under drinking water advisories to ensure their operators receive training. Courses are delivered right in First Nations communities. “Under the initiative, we charge nothing for the training courses and we reimburse all travel expenses incurred, eliminating the financial hurdle,” explains Kuhnke. “This also extends to people interested in becoming water operators, such as young persons interested in pursuing this career path.” Also under the initiative, content of the Entry-Level operator course remains the same, but adjustments have been made to suit the needs of First Nations students, including delivery by First Nations trainers. “What we have done for First Nations communities is change the delivery format and presentation style, as well as a cultural angle,” says Louther. “This reflects the input of our First Nations partners in building the curriculum.” The WCWC has seen measurable success in the initiative, as evidenced by a high completion rate and excellent feedback. Two new courses are under development for managers and leaders. For more information, visit: www.wcwc.ca/firstnationszone. RESEARCH AND PILOT TESTING Visitors to the WCWC will immediately be drawn to the wide array of water treatment technologies found in the WCWC’s Technology Demonstration Facility. From conventional treatment to membrane filtration, ion exchange and adsorption, the WCWC contains a variety of treatment technologies as well as a full-sized laboratory. The facility’s variety of equipment and well-qualified technical staff make it a great training opportunity for operators and students, according to Dr. Souleymane Ndiongue, P.Eng., Manager 32  |  August 2018

thing operators can do with full-scale equipment, since they are limited to standard operating procedures.” Results are also shared with other operators and added to the ever-growing Drinking Water Resource Library (DWRL), a recently launched tool to answer operator questions 24/7. The DWRL is a free online resource that answers operator’s drinking water questions with a simple keyword search. To try the DWRL, visit: www.wcwc.ca/en/resources E HANDS ON TRAINING


First Nations Entry-Level course students in action.

of Research and Technology. In fact, students of 16 Ontario colleges that have water and environmental science programs, are offered visits to the WCWC for hands-on experience and real-world training. The facility’s research skill and variety of equipment also make it a valuable pilot-testing resource. Communities are able to bring their raw water to the WCWC’s on-site 40,000-litre tank to test how different water technologies are able to treat it. The WCWC is also capable of bringing pilot equipment to communities that are too far away to truck water in. Indeed, it has delivered pilot equipment and staff as far away as a community in Northern Ontario, nearly 1,000 km from Walkerton. The WCWC recently completed three pilot testing projects for the following communities: Shelburne for arsenic removal from water; the Township of Hamilton for manganese; and Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation for iron, manganese and disinfection by-products. Currently there are six pilot projects underway across the province. These projects include the removals of iron, ammonia, and natural organic matter to control disinfection by-products. “On-site pilot testing is great for training since we are able to run several scenarios with operators for them to see what works and what doesn’t,” says Dr. Ndiongue. “This is not some-

With evolving legislation, technology and a changing climate, the WCWC must be able to respond to the training needs of operators. For example, the most recent version of the mandatory certificate renewal course for operators references climate change and prompts operators to think about resiliency and responses to extreme weather. “Advancements in technology require today’s operators to be well versed in new areas such as social media, GIS software and increasing digital interfaces with equipment,” says Jobb. Thanks to the Government of Ontario and the Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks, the Walkerton Clean Water Centre is well equipped to proactively train drinking water operators. “With our broad research and technical staff, and highly qualified and experienced trainers and managers, we know what is going on across the province,” says Kuhnke. “This allows us to stay in touch with operator and system needs, and as long as we can do that we can provide a tremendous advantage to operators and the communities they serve.” Contact the Walkerton Clean Water Centre to learn how they can help you and your community. Carl Kuhnke, Chief Executive Officer, ckuhnke@wcwc.ca For more information, visit: www.wcwc.ca or email: inquiry@wcwc.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Providing Education and Support to the Drinking Water Industry in Ontario Visit www.wcwc.ca. Like us on Facebook.


To offset retirement, attrition and sector growth, the BC Water and Waste Association says 3,320 new water and wastewater employees will be needed within the next 10 years. Photo credit OCWA

With many water professionals set to retire, Canadian schools work to prepare a new generation By David Nesseth


t was 2016 when the Ontario Clean Water Agency felt the true extent of a serious long-term issue that it knew loomed on the horizon. That year, the national census found that there were two people about to retire from the workforce for every one poised to join it. Baby boomers had pushed the retiree growth rate to its highest in 70 years, with many cashing in on 2016 changes to Ontario’s pension coverage. It was also the first time in Canada that the number of seniors surpassed the number of children. “That year, in 2016, we had a particularly high number of retirements,” recalls Dan Dunn, manager of training for the Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA), who has been with the Crown agency since its inception in 1993. Not only had the OCWA lost employees, they lost particularly valuable ones in the form 34  |  August 2018

of experienced Class III and IV water facility operators, a shortage that is fairly equal across the agency’s 10 regional offices in Ontario. “It’s a big thing on our item list,” says Dunn. “When we looked internally, we knew back around 2014 to 2015 there would be a 10-year hit where we’d be losing a lot of operators.” According to the Water Environment Federation, which has global membership that includes five Canadian water and wastewater associations, it’s projected that some 37% of water utility workers and 31% of wastewater utility workers will retire within the next decade. In British Columbia, as of early July, there was a wide range of water and wastewater job opportunities posted in the “Find a Job” section of the BC Water and Waste Association (BCWWA) website. Ten positions were posted, ranging

from plant and lead hand operators, to Class II and III wastewater treatment operators, foremen, superintendents, and even an opening as the public works and utilities director for the northeastern City of Fort John, which serves more than 20,000 residents. According to a 2015 water and wastewater sector profile by the BCWWA, some 3,320 new employees are needed within the next 10 years to offset retirements, attrition and sector growth. The profile reveals a portrait of a sector where more than one-third of workers are 50-plus years of age. More than half of those workers are expected to retire within a decade, equivalent to some 1,150 employees. Of greater concern, perhaps, is the profile’s finding that only 23% of the water and wastewater sector workforce is between 19 and 35 years of age, compared to 33% of the general population of B.C. “While employers might not fully understand the magnitude and impacts of upcoming retirements and turnover in the water sector over the next five years,” the BCWWA profile states, “they report that they are in various stages of preparing for this change through succession planning and workforce development of junior staff.” To fight back against a tough 2016, the OCWA launched a new corporate co-op program that same year, funding 18 placements in operations and two in engineering. Remarkably, 80% of these placements have resulted in full-time employment with the OCWA. Colleges started fighting back too. As as result, many environmental programs began integrating exams for operator-in-training (OIT) licencing so that graduates could leave school with the ability to get right to work and, as is the case at some schools, more easily obtain a Class I licence. “That allows us to hire them and they can physically put their hands on equipment,” says Dunn. “Without that licensing, they’re not allowed to touch anything. A lot of the colleges have added this option within the last five or six years. They knew they had to do this in order to meet a certain demand.” At a school like the Lindsay campus of

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Fleming College in Ontario, students not only have the opportunity to write their OIT exam, but also their Class I exam. According to Ken MacDonnell, advanced water systems operation and management program co-ordinator, the licencing integration has been a key factor in driving enrolment to the post-graduate course that began in 2014 with just 19 students. In 2018, program enrolment jumped to 90 students across two intakes for the year. “It’s just one less hurdle they have to deal with when they’re getting into the workforce,” MacDonnell says of the licencing integration. “It’s an advantage if they can get it.” Both MacDonnell and Dunn say that they’ve even seen foreign student intake grow for many college programs almost annually, which has been a boon for a sector that needs the able bodies and minds, wherever they can be found. “We’ve certainly seen a big push with the foreign students, especially from India, as they want to gain some knowledge about how our water and wastewater

Average water sector salaries by occupation for public and private sector employers. Courtesy of BCWWA

works, and get some valuable experiMacDonnell says the average age of ence,” says MacDonnell. “I worked in the students in his program is about 24 to municipal sector, and we hired a lot of 25, with most having previous education people in the ‘90s who are due to retire in environmental technology. He’s even right now, which leaves a big demand for seen about six students come through operators,” he adds. continued overleaf…



August 2018  |  35

WATER & WASTEWATER the program who already have engineering degrees, but want more specialized, hands-on training as they look to enter the water and wastewater sector. “A lot of them have a keen interest already to be working in an industry that will be helping the environment, especially on the wastewater side,” says MacDonnell, who was himself a Class IV operator and manager for the City of Timmins for some 14 years. Preceding a co-op that can run as long as 16 weeks, the Fleming program has two 13-week semesters, which also involve field trips to a variety of water treatment and wastewater treatment operations. MacDonnell estimates that about 95% of program graduates have found employment in their field. The school has a strong relationship with agencies such as OCWA, and often works closely with Ontario areas like Peel and York Region. Even the program’s webpage notes, “Employment in this sector is expected to increase due to upcoming retirements, environmental factors and changes in legislation.” OWCA, meanwhile, has a series of scholarships, two of which cater to advancing more women and Indigenous people into the sector. In BC, the BCWWA says that women account for just 12.9% of the sector’s jobs. In many water facilities, women find themselves without any female colleagues. “Colleges are becoming aware that there is opportunity in this field,” says Dunn. “All I hear about teachers and nurses is the backlog in the system. In our sector, if you get the schooling and have the right attitude, there’s no reason you can’t get a job.” Dunn has been busy at post-secondary career fairs trying to catch the eye of environmental students. Even at the grade eight level, OCWA uses its One Water program to start an early education about water literacy and the role of the water and wastewater sectors. OCWA even has a section on its website where visitors can meet some of its younger employees. It shares information about their education, what they like about the job, and even includes their salary range. That way, says Dunn, it acts as a form of marketing and transparency for the sector. Employees share how their jobs keep both their minds 36  |  August 2018

and bodies active, and how they get to use their degree every day to keep drinking water safe. Salaries range from about $50,000 to $67,000 across jobs that range from process and compliance technicians to operators. In the sector’s occupational groups on a National Household Survey by Statistics Canada, salaries for managers, supervisors, operators and technical sup-

port can range from $40,000 per year to $130,000. See page 50 for ES&E’s guide to industry associations, academic institutions and training centres. David Nesseth is a writer with Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. Email: editor@esemag.com

2018 WCW 70thAnnual Conference & Exhibition

September 18 to 21, 2018 RBC Convention Centre Winnipeg Conference Hotel: Delta Winnipeg Join us for the 70thAnniversary of the Western Canada Water Annual Conference and Exhibition Look for more information on registration, presenting a paper, speakers, workshops, tours, and entertainment at:


Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Upgrading sewage pumping stations can be challenging By Syed Q. Raza


sewage pumping station contains pumps and appurtenant piping, valves, supporting mechanical and electrical equipment, and can be designed and installed in several different configurations. Key components include wet/dry wells and electrical/control rooms. The wet well in a pumping station receives and temporarily stores wastewater for the purpose of pumping it to the treatment plant. The dry well houses raw sewage pumps and some controls and electrical power distribution equipment. This area is designed to be completely and permanently isolated from wastewater or wastewater-derived atmospheres. The electrical/control room is usu-

facility. To make matters more complicated, dry wells are found directly connected with the control/electrical areas which become classified as Class I Div. 2, as per the current codes. Generally, this issue arises during the design of the pumping station upgrade and means that the existing building has to be brought up to code. As the circumally above grade and contains the electri- stance of each location can be unique, cal power distribution equipment, pump designers use different methods to address motor starters and any control equipment. them. The dry well of a sewage pumping station that pumps wastewater from a DECLASSIFICATION sanitary or combined sewer system, is THROUGH VENTILATION This approach uses declassification of classified as Class I Division 2 location as per National Fire Protection Asso- the Class I Div. 2 rated area by increased ciation (NFPA) 820 Table 4.2.2 Row 17 ventilation as per NFPA Table 4.2.2 Row Line b, or, Class I Zone 2 as per Ontario 17 line a. This requires six continuous air Electrical Safety Code (OESC), when the changes per hour and there are several continuous ventilation is less than six air important requirements: • The six air changes per hour should changes per hour. Many existing dry well installations provide 100% fresh air. do not conform to the requirements of • Electrical power distribution system Class I Div. 2 locations, and unclassified should have provision to accept power equipment can be found throughout the from an alternate power source, in case

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

of failure of primary (utility) power. • There should be provision to alarm in case of power failure. • OESC section 22-708-5 requires that, in case of failure of ventilation, interlocks should be provided to de-energize all electrical equipment not approved for Class I location. Once the above requirements are met, unclassified equipment can be used. Though this option requires comparatively less capital cost, over time the increased energy cost for ventilation and heating can easily become significantly higher than the initial saving.

the purchase of Class I Zone 2 rated electrical equipment, including starters, would require substantially high capital cost. Furthermore, designers should consider the additional space requirement due to the comparatively larger size of the electrical equipment rated for hazardous areas. Another aspect is the comparatively high cost and complexity of the maintenance of electrical equipment installed in hazardous areas.

ing installation for creation of a separate room for the electrical/control equipment. Another factor is the planning to keep the existing facility functional during construction.

CONCLUSIONS At some locations, declassification through ventilation could be the right solution, especially if the facility is to be decommissioned or completely replaced in the near future. In this case, the initial PHYSICALLY ISOLATE THE ELECTRICAL high cost of installing new equipment or AREA FROM THE DRY WELL isolating the electrical area from the dry The third approach requires physical well would not be justifiable. isolation of the electrical/control room In general, physically isolating the from the dry well. In this method, a sep- electrical area from the dry well is found INSTALL NEW CLASS 1 ZONE 2 EQUIPMENT arate room is created within the exist- to be the most feasible method, as it This approach requires replacing all ing facility, to install unclassified electri- allows the use of unclassified electrical unclassified equipment in the dry well, cal power distribution equipment, pump equipment and is the most cost-effective pump and electrical/control areas with starter, PLC panels, etc. All other existing solution in the long term. Class I Div. 2 rated equipment. Existing unclassified equipment in the dry well is structural components are retained, and replaced with equipment rated for Class I Syed Q. Raza, P.Eng., is with R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. Email: the electrical/control area will stay con- Div. 2 locations. The critical point in this method is sraza@rvanderson.com nected to the dry well. One important consideration is that to reclaim sufficient space in the exist-


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August 2018  |  39


The crosslinked polyethylene tank did not fail or develop any cracks, during the 5 metre drop test.

Tests show crosslinked rotomolded polyethylene tanks highly resistant to rupturing


olyethylene is a diverse polymer material used in many products and applications. This diversity is due to the material’s ability to be produced with a wide range of properties and characteristics, such as impact strength (toughness), chemical resistance, design flexibility, and overall mechanical strength. Such diversity provides engineers and designers greater flexibility in selecting the proper polyethylene resin grade for the intended application. This also requires them to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses, or limitations, of each of the commercially available polyethylene resin grades. Failure to truly understand the materials’ physical properties can result in premature failure of the designed product and, in a worst-case scenario, catastrophic failure. There is a strong correlation between a material’s toughness and its resistance to rupture. In fact, the more resistant a polyethylene resin grade is to rupture, 40  |  August 2018

the tougher it is considered to be. Rupture is defined as failure due to tensile stresses that are orders of magnitude higher than the yield stress of the material. In thick polyethylene products such as pipes and tanks, the failure mode due to rupture is in the form of crack initiation and subsequent propagation through the thickness. Factors such as density (crystallinity), temperature and the presence of residual stress or stress concentrators such as notches and defects all influence the rupture resistance of polyethylene. In general, linear polyethylene resin grades that are high in density are less resistant to rupture than those lower in density. However, high density linear polyethylene resin grades are “notch sensitive”. That is, they are unable to deform or yield upon impact, and thus cannot resist crack propagation once it is initiated. Unfortunately, in the area of rotomolded storage tanks, the presence of notches is unavoidable. Whether they

are at the surface of the rotomolded article (such as a surface scratch), or within the material’s thickness, notches can develop during de-molding, handling, transportation, loading, and unloading of the rotationally molded storage tanks. These notches can and will ultimately grow to form cracks that will propagate throughout the material’s cross section. In the case of linear polyethylene resin grades, the resulting stresses experienced during filling and discharging of the stored liquid, and the natural expansion and contraction of the polyethylene material, will accelerate this propagation and lead to the “un-zipping” (catastrophic failure) of the rotomolded tank. The problem of notch sensitivity in rotationally molded storage tanks can be eliminated by using crosslinked polyethylene resin. In this material, molecular chains that make up the polymer are chemically bonded together, or bridged, to form a continuous three-dimensional structure. This allows the impact energy to be dissipated throughout the infinite chain of molecules, or three-dimensional structure. In the case of linear polyethylene, however, the impact energy is always localized and thus the generated stresses are higher. In addition to enhancing the overall mechanical properties of polyethylene, these “bridges” or “cross links” act as crack arrestors and do not allow the polyethylene material to unzip due to crack propagation. Because un-zipping of the polymer chains can lead to catastrophic failure in linear polyethylene resins, Poly Processing Company conducted a comparative study on rupture resistance and notch sensitivity of both crosslinked and linear high density polyethylene. Rotomolded tanks, from both materials, were subjected to high impact and over-pressurization to study their rupture behaviour and the effect of notch sensitivity on crack propagation. This study and all associated tests were witnessed and supervised by an outside engineer. Two sets of rotomolded polyethylene tanks having a storage capacity of 11,400 litres were used in this comparative study. Each set consisted of two tanks, one made from crosslinked polyethylene and the other from linear polyethylene.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

DROP TEST The first test in this comparative study was the drop test. Each tank in the first set was filled with 3,200 kg of water and lifted with a crane, one at a time, to a height of 5 m. This height is comparable to that used in the testing of polyethylene drums used for fuel storage. Once the rotomolded tank reached the desired height it was released and allowed to free-fall onto the concrete surface below. The linear tank failed catastrophically. The associated crack propagation appeared to be consistent with the un-zipping characteristic found in linear polyethylene resin grades. The crosslinked polyethylene tank did not fail or develop any cracks. The same crosslinked polyethylene tank was then refilled with 5,000 kg of water. That’s over 15 times its weight when empty. It was then dropped from the same height, again with no damage. The tank still containing 5,000 kg of water was dropped a third time, but from 15 m. There was no damage.

PRESSURIZATION TO FAILURE TEST Each tank in the second set was completely filled with water and, using a 5.5 hp heavy duty water pump, was pressurized until failure or rupture. The manway opening was completely sealed and the pump was connected to the tank through a standard 50 mm diameter pipe fitting. This technique simulates the normal filling characteristics of a tanker truck loading a bulk storage tank in the field. The pressure inside the tank was measured using a standard dial gauge. The linear polyethylene tank failed after pressure inside it reached 9 psi. The failure of the tank was the result of multiple fracture lines, or cracks. The smooth fractured surfaces indicate a brittle failure. The crosslinked polyethylene tank failed after reaching internal pressure of 10 psi. But, unlike the linear tank, only a 150 mm lesion was formed on the dome of the tank due to the pressurization. This clearly demonstrates the excellent resistance of crosslinked polyethylene to crack propagation or un-zipping. Further anal-

ysis of this lesion revealed that it developed at one of the top corners of the stiffening gussets found on the dome, which is a stress riser location. Also, this lesion exhibited a ductile failure mode due to the presence of elongated plastic strands. CONCLUSION This comparative study demonstrates the higher resistance of crosslinked polyethylene to rupture and catastrophic failure in high impact and over-pressurization conditions. It also demonstrates the ability of crosslinked polyethylene to resist crack propagation or un-zipping. Complete video footage of the drop test and pressurization test can be found at www. polyprocessing.com/technical-resources/ video-library For more information, email: mlampson@polyprocessing.com

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August 2018  |  41

WATER lunch bag incident happened in a new development where the landscape was barren. A construction worker probably just put his lunch in the only available shade he could find, which happened to be inside a stack of pipe that was about to be installed.”

Protecting fire hydrants from damage and improper use


s one of the few above-ground fixtures in fire system infrastructure, fire hydrants are some of the more vulnerable elements in the system. “Hydrants are probably the main reason for the troubleshooting calls we receive,” says Andy Singer of Mueller Water Products. Individuals who operate fire hydrants can have a wide range of understanding and experience with them. Water distribution utility crews typically perform routine maintenance and repairs. However, not every employee has the same degree of experience with inspecting, flushing, or checking pressure. Fire departments operate hydrants to fight fires, partner with utilities for flushing programs, and conduct flow-rate testing for fire suppression purposes. Some firefighters may be unaware of the forces at play and how a fire hydrant functions as part of a water distribution system. This could lead to mistakes such as closing a valve too quickly and possibly causing damage due to water hammer in the system. Contractors with bulk water trucks, street cleaners, and even private citizens may also access a public hydrant, often42  |  August 2018

times without the consent or knowledge of the water utility. “With so many people touching them, inevitably some are not going to be know­ ledgeable and well-trained,” says Singer. “New employees or volunteers don’t always know where the pitfalls are, and that’s one reason we get so many troubleshooting calls on hydrants.” CATCHING DEBRIS Because hydrants are installed on lateral lines that come out of a water main, they are inherently dead-end piping runs. This makes them magnets for debris that get into the system during initial installation or as a result of water main repairs. Leaks are typically caused by a piece of debris getting trapped in the main valve. One of Singer’s more unusual experiences came early in his career, and it involved a pair of blue jeans.“How they got there, I don’t know. But they certainly were mangled around the main valve,” he says. A similar experience came when he found someone’s fully stocked lunch bag inside a leaking hydrant. “You’ll often find debris, typically sticks and stones, in areas of new construction,” Singer relates. “The

PROPER CARE AND MAINTENANCE One of the most “creative” lubricating solutions Singer has experienced is the use of used motor oil in the bonnet of a hydrant. He cautions against that practice for two reasons. Firstly, a non-FDA compliant or NSF 61 listed lubricant may compromise the safety of a potable water distribution system. Secondly even among food-grade lubricants, only the manufacturer-recommended lubricant should be used to protect O-rings, seals and other components from breakdowns caused by incompatible chemistries. On another aspect of lubrication, Singer explains that the valve on a hydrant should be fully opened and fully closed every time the hydrant is used, whether that is for firefighting, flushing, or testing. Doing so is really a preventive maintenance activity because it forces the oil to re-coat all the moving parts in the bonnet. Another reason for the fully open/fully close rule is that hydrants are not designed to be throttled (operated partly open). Running them that way increases the risk that debris can get stuck between the main valve and seat ring, cut the main valve, and cause a leak . Another incident Singer witnessed was the case of a newly installed hydrant being seized up when it was time to be commissioned. “This was a school construction pro­ ject where hydrants were installed about a year before construction was complete, so the utility contractor turned off the isolation valves once all hydrants were installed and tested,” Singer explains. “It turns out that a landscaping contractor was using this particular hydrant to fill a tank truck, until the isolation valve was turned off. They must have used a scaffold pole on the end of a wrench trying to get water from that off-line hydrant, because once we disassembled it, the shaft looked like one of those spiral licorice sticks your kids eat.” An even more common occurrence of forcing things, according to Singer, is

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

overtightening the operating nut, with the mentality that “if tight is good, then tighter must be better”. However, compression-style fire hydrants are seated by the water pressure exerted on the main valve, not how much you tighten the operating nut. Compression-style fire hydrants should be left in the “freewheeling position,” which is accomplished by closing the operating nut until it is “snug,” then backing it off a quarter turn. “In recent years, many major manufacturers have updated to two-part epoxy coatings vs. alkyd enamels to provide much better outdoor performance,” says Singer. Because those new coatings are so much more durable, painting schedules, as well as painting practices, should be updated to take advantage of that long-lasting life. “Utilities repaint hydrants for a variety of reasons,” Singer explains. “Sometimes they do it to colour-code according to flow rate so firefighters can know what to expect when they arrive at a fire scene.” The National Fire Protection Association

(Left) Activating the operating nut from fully closed to fully opened ensures complete lubrication of all moving parts. (Right) Open and close valves completely. Partial opening increases the potential for debris to get trapped at the valve seal. Mueller Company, LLC

(NFPA) Standard 291 recommends that bonnets and caps be colour-coded to signify the “available flow” of the hydrant in gallons per minute (GPM), calculated at 20 psi/1.5 bar residual pressure. That colour code is light blue for 5,675 L/min and above, green 3,875 – 5,675 L/min orange 1,985 – 3,785 L/min, and red for less than 1,985 L/min.

Whatever the reason for painting, Singer advises that workers take the extra few minutes to do the necessary prep work of roughing up the surface in order to ensure that the new paint adheres well, instead of flaking off after a year. For more information, visit www.muellerwaterproducts.com

Waterra has expanded its product line of PES Inline Disposable Micro Filters. Our line now includes pore sizes of 0.2 micron, 0.45 micron, 1 micron and 5 micron. These capsule filters are available in two size formats — a 300 cm2 surface area version and a 600 cm2 surface area version for higher turbidity samples.


August 2018  |  43


New approaches allow accurate water level measurement through plastic coatings


ew approaches in electronics have made it possible to detect water levels through plastic coatings. This allows reliable, simple, accurate and cost-effective liquid level monitoring for point level or continuous level measurement. Digital radio frequency (RF) energy is transmitted and received through plastic coatings. The relatively high dielectric of water as compared to air is used to locate the air/water interface. The electronics are encapsulated and protected from the solution. Point level requirements, such as alarms or control points, are measured with a probe to +/- 3 mm accuracy. The continuous level gauge software resolution is 9 mm. Operating temperatures of the probes or sensors are from 0°C – 60°C.

POINT LEVEL MEASUREMENT WITH PROBES Probe electronics are encapsulated in epoxy, and transmit and receive pins are covered with vinyl. Stainless steel tubing protects the epoxy from mechanical damage. Two conductor PVC or Hypalon jacketed cable supplies 12V DC power and serial communications between the probe and the display. These materials give excellent chemical resistance. The factory calibration is set to require 9 mm depth of water between the pins to cause a change of state of the probe. A probe is suspended in the vessel at the point a high or low level is to be detected. It can be mounted in a stilling well for protection from mechanical damage. Or, it can be mounted in the side of a vessel, such as a plastic tank, through a 25 mm diameter waterproof gland. Probes can be installed in locations that are not possible to monitor with traditional methods. Self-diagnostics are an important feature that is allowed for by the two wire serial communication. The display software not only continuously monitors the water level, it tests that all components 44  |  August 2018

Probe detects water level.

Gauge sensor stands in the water measuring water depth.

Probe display with tricolor LED and audio monitors water level and system operation.

Gauge display readout in feet or metres or percentage.

of the system are connected and are per- the indoor display. The gauge display is easily programmed forming correctly. A probe display uses a with the on screen menu to read in feet tricolor LED and an audio alarm. or metres or percentage of the length of the sensor. The LED displays error codes CONTINUOUS LEVEL MEASUREMENT GAUGE if the self-diagnostics indicate a compoA gauge system includes a 40 mm PVC nent of the system is not operating corpipe sensor powered by a digital LED rectly. High and low level alarms are easdisplay. The sensor stands in the vessel. It ily programmed within the range of the can be mounted in a stilling well for pro- sensor. The audio alarm may be silenced tection from mechanical damage. Sensor and will auto-reset when the error length matches the depth of the water to condition is corrected. It may be probe measured. Sensor lengths range from grammed "off " for control applications. Two models offer four dry contact 3 m – 5 m. Pre-calibrated electronics and weight to counter buoyancy are sealed in relays for control applications. These the PVC pipe. Two or three conductor relays can be programmed to operate Hypalon jacketed cable, depending upon equipment within the range of the senthe length of the sensor, carries the 12V sor. One model offers analog and digiDC power and two wire serial commu- tal output, 1-5V DC and RS232 serial, to nications between the sensor electronics interface with PLCs or computers. and the display. A junction box is supplied to terminate the sensor cable to the For more information, visit customer supplied cable connecting to www.aquaticsentry.com Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Sustainable Ecosystems


Soil retaining system helps urban trees reach Influent at Edmonton’s Gold Bar maturity Bychannel Eric Keshavarzi

WWTP successfully repaired


reen infrastructure and sustainability goals are of inBy Daryl Prefontaine creasing importance, and achieving them requires technical knowledge and training in varied environmental conditions inside wastewater treat- the maintenance and operation of these facilities recognize fields.arsh Integration of soil and trees into ment plants (WWTPs) can cause urban areas substantially improves sus-significant deterioration that long-term, reliable methods for the repair and protecand damage the reinforced structures. In most tion of the concrete structures are an important investment tainability and helpstoalleviate some ofconcrete our municipalities and jurisdictions, the reality is that the exist- to ensure that their plants continue to meet current treatment most pressing ecological challenges. ing sewer pipe network flows to only one location. There are no capacities and to accommodate expanding future needs. These include air and water quality, rising alternative sewage transport or treatment infrastructures availIt is generally necessary that a WWTP remain in operation temperatures, flooding and erosion from able as a secondary backup in the event of the collapse or failure during maintenance or repairs. The challenge of temporarily daily rainfall events. of aThe critical structural component. isolating and diverting influent flow can, therefore, add to the West Don Lands, in Toronto, OnAs a result, plant managers and personnel responsible for difficulty and cost of an already complex repair scenario. Ensurtario, is a community that is people foing the safety of personnel accessing the hazardous environment cused, family friendly, environmentally inside the enclosed channels and tanks adds further complexity. sustainable and beautifully designed for Installation of Silva Cells in Mill Street. Providing a resilient, long-term structural protection living. It has a Stage 1 LEED ND GOLD assembly can be significantly cost-effective thespace long certification under the pilot program es- development is new. In fact, the West Don soil. Themore structure has 92%over void life cycle of a plant, in comparison to lower initial cost meatablished by the U.S. Green Building Lands streets are the first in a Toronto and is a stable surface for the installation sureswith that this will sysrequireofmore frequent repairs or re-application Council. subdivision to be designed vehicle loaded-pavements. in the future. One notable sustainable component, tem installed under parking lay-bys and When properly installed, they can utilized in the design of the area’s streets, sidewalks. achieve an AASHTO H-20 load rating. PROGRAM AT GOLD BAR WWTP is a soil retaining system called Silva Mill Street was theREPAIR first subdivision Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code Three influent channels are located at achieved the Goldthrough Bar WasteCells™. Typical urban trees in the city street in Toronto to be designed to include loading can also be apwater Treatment Plant in Edmonton, Alberta. These include the core die after approximately seven years. this soil retaining system. As the lead propriate design. This is the required load original influent channel (constructed in 1955), and Channel However, Silva Cells help extend their engineering consultant, R.V.Anderson rating for structures such as underground 2 and subsequently around life spans, thus promoting the growth of Associates coordinatedNos. all plans and3,specvaults,constructed covers and grates in 1979 areas to of meet trafthe plant’s increasing demand requirements. mature street trees. ifications with the landscape architect. fic including sidewalks and parking lots. Influent Channel No. consists of transfers a reinforced concrete Although the City of Toronto had preAbout Silva Cells The2cell structure the force to a rectangular tunnel more than 90 m long, with interior viously used Silva Cells as part of a Silva Cells are a plastic/fiberglass base layer below the structure. widths Ensuring the safety of personnel the enclosed channels adds to and varying approximately 2.13 mthe – 3.05 and interior stormwater management pilotin program in influent structure of columns beamsfrom that supSoil within cells m, remains at low the complexity of an already challenging project. continued overleaf… The Queensway, their use as part of site port paving above un-compacted planting compaction rates, thereby creating ideal



Extend Structure Life, Reduce Maintenance & Repair Costs • for industrial steelwork, pipework & road surfaces • above & below ground pipe, valves, fittings & steel • offshore marine piling protection • road, bridge, airport & asphalt applications A member of Winn & Coales International.

26 | May 2013 www.esemag.com

www.densona.com Toronto • Edmonton Denso North America Inc. 90 Ironside Cres. Unit 12 Toronto, ON M1X 1M3 Tel: 416.291.3435 Fax: 416.291.0898

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine August 2018  |  45

WASTEWATER height varying from approximately 1.98 m – 3.28 m. The channel structure is entirely below grade, with 305 mm side walls, a 381 mm floor slab foundation, and a roof slab varying from 305 mm – 381 mm in thickness. Portions of the roof structure include 305 mm wide reinforced concrete beams where the channel roof structure also forms the main floor of a process building. A partial height weir wall in a portion of the channel provides emergency overflow capacity into an adjacent diversion channel. Several expansion joints were provided along the length of the buried channel structure, and a fiberglass-lined venturi flume is located in one zone to aid in the measurement of wastewater flow rates. The channel construction includes Overlay reinforcement on the Influent Channel No. 2's overflow weir. an isolation gate and roof access hatches in localized areas. being released from the wastewater. In addition to the structural concrete INFLUENT CHANNEL DAMAGE During an interior inspection of Influ- deterioration, the inspection revealed Influent channels transport raw waste- ent Channel No. 2 in 2014, after approxi- that expansion joint seals were missing water from the plant outskirts to the mately 35 years of service and H2S expo- or damaged, and thus no longer effecgrit tanks, screen chambers, and initial sure, between 32 mm – 76 mm of deteri- tive. Metal gratings and handrails were pre-treatment areas. Thus, they are often orated and unsound concrete was iden- severely corroded above the wastewater exposed to the harshest and most cor- tified on many interior surfaces during flow level. rosive environments within a WWTP’s hammer-sounding of the channel walls, concrete infrastructure. Raw influent columns and roof members. The extent REPAIR OBJECTIVES and partially treated wastewater typically of deterioration varied from the roof to Planning and design of a repair and contain relatively high concentrations of the low water level, up to the full inte- protection program was undertaken hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas, which forms rior height of the channel walls in some upon completion of the structural consulfuric acid when in the presence of locations. dition assessment, with the following moisture, oxygen and bacteria. The sulfuSignificant erosion and loss of con- objectives and criteria identified by the ric acid then attacks the concrete, expos- crete wall thickness had occurred in project team: ing the concrete matrix and underlying many locations, often to the depth of the • Repair and restore deteriorated and aggregate, and eventually the embedded reinforcing steel. Similarly, the concrete damaged portions of the concrete influent reinforcing steel. cover on the underside of the roof slabs channel structure, to achieve the load-carTypically, concrete deterioration due had deteriorated and exposed the lower rying capacities required in the original to H2S environmental exposure has been mat of reinforcing steel in many loca- design. observed to be most severe within the tions. Beam stirrups and bottom layer • Provide increased structural strength enclosed portions of WWTP structures, reinforcement steel were also exposed in localized areas, where necessary, to such as buried channels, and covered and heavily corroded, with visible loss meet current loading and usage requiregrit and clarifier tanks. This deteriora- of cross-sectional area. ments at the facility. Influent Channel No. 2’s original con- • Incorporate enhancements, where tion is generally concentrated in the zone between the water level and the under- struction details showed approximately 38 cost-effective, to improve the overall mm – 51 mm of concrete cover over the structural durability and to minimize side of the roof enclosure above. Rates of concrete deterioration and embedded steel reinforcing steel. There- the vulnerability of smaller-dimension microbial corrosion vary, depending on fore, the severe extent of concrete cover structural members, such as beams and the concentrations of sulfides in the waste- loss, the resulting reduction in concrete columns, to sulfuric acid attack and water, flow rate and level of turbulence, member thickness, and loss of reinforcing cross-sectional loss. and the subsequent rate of H2S release. steel cross-sectional area were considered • Incorporate a protective coating or Hydraulic conditions that result in splash- to be of structural concern in the affected liner assembly to provide long-term proing, misting, or flow constrictions often areas. This caused a significant reduction tection for the concrete channel strucresult in an increased amount of H2S gas in load-carrying capacity. ture against the harsh environmental 46  |  August 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

H2S exposure and resulting sulfuric acid attack. As a project criterion, the plant maintenance team identified that the protective measures must minimize the need for future re-coating, re-application or repair requirements. • Improve the degree of leakage resistance and protection of the expansion joint assemblies to H2S attack, impact from submerged debris, and cleaning operations. • Maximize the remaining service life of the concrete infrastructure. REHABILITATION STRATEGIES Based upon the identified project criteria and objectives, a structural repair and protection program was developed and undertaken in 2015 that included the following measures. Channel debris and deteriorated and unsound concrete was removed. The substrate surface was then cleaned and prepared to a CSP 5 concrete surface profile, in accordance with ICRI Guideline 310.2R, prior to the placement of new


reinforcement and concrete overlay materials. A cast-in-place, bonded, reinforced concrete overlay was installed to the affected portions of the channel’s interior roof and wall surfaces. A minimum overlay thickness of 114 mm was provided at the underside of roof slabs, and to designated portions of sidewall surfaces, to no less than 406 mm below the lowest water level. In much of the channel length, the entire wall height was covered with the new overlay system to improve constructability and detailing. The overlay thickness was designed to provide the 51 mm concrete cover required by ACI 350, plus provide sufficient depth for installation of hooked steel dowels and reinforcing bars. A highly durable, sulfate resistant, self-consolidating concrete mix was specified to provide the low shrinkage, low permeability, pumpable concrete necessary for the overlay construction and subsequent environmental exposure. The relatively thin roof beams were eliminated, and additional reinforcement

incorporated into the overlay thickness at those locations. Elimination of the beams reduced trapped pockets of H2S gases occurring at the underside of the roof slab between the underhanging beams, and eliminated the inherent vulnerability of the small beam members to sulfuric acid attack. A proprietary high density polyethylene (HDPE) protective liner assembly was cast into the surface of the new concrete overlays. Although originally intended for new construction, the protective liner material was identified as having suitable rehabilitation capabilities, a service life significantly in excess of that provided by typical surface applied-coating materials for the H2S exposure, and the acid and microbial attack typical inside WWTP influent channels. The protective liner consists of a 3 mm thickness of HDPE with integral rows of 13 mm anchor studs that provide mechanical interlock and bond to the concrete substrate. The smooth exterior surface of continued overleaf…

August 2018  |  47

WASTEWATER the liner provides improved flow rates for the wastewater influent, compensating for the reduction in hydraulic flow capacity due to the thickness of the new concrete overlay. Expansion joints were replaced with a multi-layer assembly, consisting of a compressible closed-cell foam backer adhered within the joint gap, a flexible sealant, and a watertight polyolefin gland adhered to the substrate. To protect the expansion joint assembly against damage, a neoprene gasket and proprietary rubber-encapsulated metal cover plate assembly was provided at areas that were vulnerable to impact from stones and debris. In accordance with plant requirements, only materials and components that met the requirements of ACI 350 and NSF/ ANSI Standard 61, suitable for potable Field welding of the HDPE liner was done with an extruded welding rod of the same HDPE material. water contact and submerged exposure, were used in the construction of the ment penetrations, and other non-typical project included daily tensile testing of structural repair and protective measures locations were developed and refined in a welded liner splice samples, plus tension for the project. collaborative basis between the engineers and shear pull-testing of representative and contractor, throughout the design samples of the installed hooked reinDESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and construction phases of the project. forcement dowels. CHALLENGES Construction of the bonded overlay The structural design of the new con- and HDPE protective liner assembly also CONCLUSIONS crete overlays was intended to provide provided some challenges for the conThe repair and protection of concrete fully composite behaviour between the tractor. It was necessary to ensure that infrastructure in harsh environmental undamaged portions of the existing struc- formwork and bracing systems intro- exposures can pose challenges for the ture and the new concrete overlay, through duced the fewest possible number of required restoration techniques and material bonding and sufficient reinforce- penetrations through the protective liner, protection measures. However, through ment dowelling at the shear interface. The to minimize liner patching requirements appropriate pre-assessment of the existrecently-developed ACI 562-13 Repair before returning the channel back into ing infrastructure and an understanding of the exposure conditions and facility Code Requirements provided valuable service. Additionally, the lack of formwork tie- usage requirements, it is possible to sucguidance for the design, bond interaction, and required transfer of forces between backs into the concrete substrate also cessfully adapt and advance established the existing concrete channel and the introduced the challenge of ensuring that concrete rehabilitation and protection the layer of HDPE liner did not wrinkle principles in order to maximize the lonrepair overlay system. Other considerations and require- or warp during placement of the self-con- gevity and resiliency of existing WWTP concrete structures. ments for design of the concrete overlays solidating concrete overlay materials. The HDPE liner is produced in long In an existing wastewater influent in this application were identified in ACI 350, including concrete cover, reinforce- rolls, which requires that all edges be channel, with significant deterioration field-welded to provide the final water- and loss of concrete thickness at the roof ment ratio, and spacing requirements. Integration of the new HDPE protec- tight assembly after removal of the con- and wall members, the construction of a tive liner into the outer surface of the struction formwork materials. Field weld- new bonded concrete overlay with inteconcrete overlay provided some design ing was performed using an extruded gral HDPE protective liner assembly was challenges. Although manufacturer’s rec- welding rod of the same HDPE material successfully achieved. This restored and ommendations and guidelines were avail- along the length of the liner’s prepared enhanced the channel’s load-carrying able for typical splices, corners and tran- edge joints. High voltage spark testing capacity, and provided appropriate longsitions, it was necessary to develop details was performed along all field welds to term protection against harsh environfor many of the project-specific require- ensure that a watertight liner assembly mental exposures in the future. ments. Details for HDPE liner transitions was provided. In addition to the spark testing and Daryl Prefontaine, P.Eng, is a into the existing fiberglass venturi flumes, the new stainless steel expansion joint visual inspections of the installed pro- Principal at RJC Engineers. Email: nosings, the piping and process equip- tective liner, testing requirements for the dprefontaine@rjc.ca 48  |  August 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine




ASSOCIATIONS ABORIGINAL WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO PO Box 2001, RP0, Riverview Postal Outlet, Dryden ON  P8N 0A1 Sara Campbell info@awwao.org T: 807‑216‑8085  F: 807‑223‑1222 www.awwao.org The Aboriginal Water and Wastewater Association of Ontario’s (AWWAO) goal is to attain assurance that First Nations water and wastewater treatment plant operators are confident, efficient and effective in managing the purification of the water and the treatment of wastewater in their community. AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION Koppers Building, 2100-436 Seventh Ave, Pittsburgh PA 15219 Stephanie Glyptis sglyptis@awma.org T: 412‑232‑3444  F: 412‑232‑3450 www.awma.org ALBERTA ONSITE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 21115 – 108 Ave NW, Edmonton AB T5S 1X3 Chic Shaw dhshaw@aowma.com T: 877‑689‑8118  F: 780‑486‑7414 www.aowma.com ALBERTA WATER & WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION 10806 – 119 St, Edmonton AB T5H 3P2 Dan Rites drites@awwoa.ca T: 780‑454‑7745 Ext. 226  F: 780‑454‑7748 www.awwoa.ca

50  |  August 2018

AMERICAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 350 – 8445 Freeport Parkway, Irving TX 75063 Russell Tripp rtripp@concrete-pipe.org T: 972‑506‑7216  F: 972‑506‑7682 www.concrete-pipe.org AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS Fl23 – 120 Wall St, New York NY 10005-4020 June Wispelwey junew@aiche.org T: 203‑702‑7660  F: 203‑775‑5177 www.aiche.org AMERICAN PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION 1400 – 1200 Main St, Kansas City MO 64105‑2100 Scott Grayson sgrayson@apwa.net T: 816‑595‑5209  F: 816‑472‑1610 www.apwa.net The American Public Works Association serves professionals in all aspects of public works. With a worldwide membership of 30,000, APWA includes personnel from local, county, state/province, and federal agencies, as well as the private sector that supply products and services to those professionals. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 1801 Alexander Bell Dr, Reston VA 20191 Thomas W. Smith board@asce.org T: 703‑295‑6300 www.asce.org

AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION 6666 W Quincy Ave, Denver CO 80235-3098 David LaFrance dlafrance@awwa.org T: 303‑794‑7711  F: 303‑347‑0804 www.awwa.org The American Water Works Association is an international, nonprofit, scientific and educational society dedicated to providing total water solutions assuring the effective management of water. Founded in 1881, the Association is the largest organization of water supply professionals in the world.

ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO LAND SURVEYORS 1043 McNicoll Ave, Toronto ON M1W 3W6 Blain Martin blain@aols.org T: 416‑491‑9020 Ext. 27  F: 416‑491‑2576 www.aols.org

ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSORS OF CANADA INC. PO Box 490, Fenelon Falls ON K0M 1N0 Erik Luzak erik@aesac.ca T: 877‑512‑3722 www.aesac.ca

ATLANTIC CANADA WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 28141, Dartmouth NS B2W 6E2 Clara Shea contact@acwwa.ca T: 902‑434‑6002  F: 902‑435‑7796 www.acwwa.ca The Atlantic Canada Water & Wastewater Association (ACWWA) is a section of the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and a Member Association of Water Environment Federation (WEF). With more than 500 water and wastewater professionals from Atlantic Canada, the ACWWA provides training and information that keeps members current in the rapidly advancing water and wastewater profession.

ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERING COMPANIES CANADA 420 – 130 Albert St, Ottawa ON K1P 5G4 John Gamble jgamble@acec.ca T: 613‑236‑0569  F: 613‑236‑6193 www.acec.ca ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPALITIES OF ONTARIO 801 – 200 University Ave, Toronto ON M5H 3C6 Pat Vanini pvanini@amo.on.ca T: 416‑971‑9856 Ext. 316  F: 416‑971‑6191 www.amo.on.ca

ASSOCIATION OF POWER PRODUCERS OF ONTARIO 1602 – 25 Adelaide St E, Toronto ON M5C 3A1 David Butters david.butters@appro.org T: 416‑322‑6549  F: 416‑481‑5785 www.appro.org

AUDITING ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 9 Forest Rd, Whitby ON  L1N 3N7 Todd Hall admin@auditingcanada.com T: 866‑582‑9595 www.auditingcanada.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


BLOOM CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABILITY 213 – 1540 Cornwall Rd, Oakville ON L6J 7W5 Jeannie Freeborn jfreeborn@bloomcentre.com T: 905‑842‑1115 Ext. 221  F: 905‑842‑1119 www.bloomcentre.com

CANADIAN BROWNFIELDS NETWORK 2800-14th Ave Suite 210, Markham ON L3R 0E4 Alison Nash info@canadianbrownfieldsnetwork.ca T: 416‑491‑2886  F: 416‑491‑1670 www.canadianbrownfieldsnetwork.ca

CANADIAN SOCIETY FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING 521 – 300 rue St-Sacrement, Montreal QC  H2Y 1X4 Susan Tighe sltighe@uwaterloo.ca T: 514‑933‑2634  F: 514‑933‑3504 www.csce.ca

CANADIAN CENTRE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY 135 Hunter St East, Hamilton ON L8N 1M5 Gareth Jones clientservices@ccohs.ca T: 905‑572‑2981 Ext. 4537  F: 905‑572‑4500 www.ccohs.ca CANADIAN CONCRETE PIPE & PRECAST ASSOCIATION 200 – 447 Frederick St, Kitchener ON N2H 2P4 Gerry Mulhern gerry.mulhern@ccppa.ca T: 519‑489‑4488  F: 519‑578‑6060 www.ccpp.ca

CANADIAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION 11 – 1010 Polytek St., Ottawa ON K1J 9H9 Robert Haller rhaller@cwwa.ca T: 613‑747‑0524  F: 613‑747‑0523 www.cwwa.ca CWWA is a non-profit national body representing the common interests of Canada’s public sector municipal water and wastewater services and their private sector suppliers and partners. CWWA is recognized by the federal government and national bodies as the national voice of this public service sector.

CANADIAN COPPER & BRASS DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION 210 – 65 Overlea Blvd, Toronto ON M4H 1P1 Stephen Knapp library@copperalliance.ca T: 416‑391‑5599  F: 416‑391‑3823 www.coppercanada.ca

CANADIAN WATER NETWORK (UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO) 200 University Ave W, Waterloo ON N2L 3G1 Bernadette Conant bconant@cwn-rce.ca T: 519‑888‑4567 Ext. 36171 www.cwn-rce.ca

CANADIAN COUNCIL OF INDEPENDENT LABORATORIES (CCIL) PO Box 41027, Ottawa ON  K1G 5K9 Francine Fortier-ThéBerge ccil@magma.ca T: 613‑746‑3919  F: 613‑746‑4324 www.ccil.com

CANADIAN WATER QUALITY ASSOCIATION 504 – 295 The West Mall, Toronto ON M9C 4Z4 Anne Baliva a.baliva@cwqa.com T: 416‑695‑3068  F: 416‑695‑2945 www.cwqa.com

CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCERS 2100-350 – 7 Ave SW, Calgary AB T2P 3N9 Jeff Gaulin jeff.gaulin@capp.ca T: 403‑267‑1100  F: 403‑261‑4622 www.capp.ca

CANADIAN GENERAL STANDARDS BOARD 6B1 – 11 Laurier St, Place Du Portage III Gatineau QC  K1A 1G6 Jacqeline Jodoin jacqeline.jodoin@tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca T: 819‑956‑0383  F: 819‑956‑5740 www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca

CANADIAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 320 – 176 Gloucester St, Ottawa ON K2P 0A6 Sean Douglas executivedirector@cwra.org T: 613‑237‑9363  F: 613‑594‑5190 www.cwra.org

CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF RECYCLING INDUSTRIES PO Box 67094 Westbro, Ottawa ON K2A 4E4 Tracy Shaw tracy@cari-acir.org T: 613‑728‑6946  F: 705‑835‑6196 www.cari-acir.org

CANADIAN NETWORK OF ASSET MANAGERS Bay 3, 4905 – 102 Ave SE, Calgary, AB T2C 2X7 Doug Cutts execdir@cnam.ca T: 403‑244‑7821 www.cnam.ca

CANADIAN ASSOCIATION ON WATER QUALITY PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 Mike Lywood mike.lywood@amecfw.com T: 289‑780‑0378 www.cawq.ca

CANADIAN PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION 700 – 45 O’Connor St, Ottawa ON K1P 1A4 Scott Grayson sgrayson@apwa.net T: 202‑408‑9541  F: 202‑408‑9542 www.cpwa.net

BRITISH COLUMBIA ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 504 – 999 Canada Place, Vancouver BC V6C 3E1 Brian White info@bceia.com T: 604‑683‑2751  F: 604‑677‑5960 www.bceia.com BRITISH COLUMBIA GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 1334 Riverside Rd, Abbotsford BC V2S 8J2 Ron Nelson secretary@bcgwa.org T: 604‑530‑8934  F: 604‑630‑8846 www.bcgwa.org BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION 247 – 4299 Canada Way, Burnaby BC V5G 4Y2 Carlie Hucul chucul@bcwwa.org T: 604‑433‑4389  F: 604‑433‑9859 www.bcwwa.org CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABORATORY ACCREDITATION INC. 102 – 2934 Baseline Rd, Ottawa ON K2H 1B2 Andrew Adams aadams@cala.ca T: 613‑233‑5300  F: 613‑233‑5501 www.cala.ca


CANADIAN WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION 400 – 240 Bank St, Ottawa ON K2P 1X4 Tracy Walden tracywalden@canwea.ca T: 613‑234‑8716  F: 613‑234‑5642 www.canwea.ca CANADIAN WOOD WASTE RECYCLING BUSINESS GROUP 5003 - 54A Avenue, Stony Plain AB T7Z 1B7 Jim Donaldson jdonaldson@ cdnwoodwasterecycling.ca T: 780‑963‑7117 www.cdnwoodwasterecycling.ca

CEMENT ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 1105 – 350 Sparks St,Ottawa ON K1R 7S8 Michael McSweeney mmcsweeney@cement.ca T: 613‑236‑9471 Ext.206 www.cement.ca CENTRE FOR ADVANCEMENT OF TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1 Dr. Mark Knight maknight@uwaterloo.ca T: 519‑888‑4567 Ext. 36919 www.cattevents.ca CHEMISTRY INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 805 – 350 Sparks St, Ottawa ON K1R 7S8 Nancy Marchi nmarchi@canadianchemistry.ca T: 613‑237‑6215  F: 613‑237‑4061 www.canadianchemistry.ca COMPOST COUNCIL OF CANADA 16 Northumberland St, Toronto ON M6H 1P7 Susan Antler santler@compost.org T: 416‑535‑0240  F: 416‑536‑9892 www.compost.org CONSERVATION COUNCIL OF ONTARIO C/O Cariporter Inc. PO Box 73021, 465 Yonge St, Toronto ON  M4Y 2W5 Chris Winter info@weconserve.ca T: 416‑533‑1635 www.conserveontario.ca CONSULTING ENGINEERS OF ONTARIO 405 – 10 Four Seasons Pl, Toronto ON M9B 6H7 Bruce Matthews bgmatthews@ceo.on.ca T: 416‑620‑1400 Ext. 224  F: 416‑620‑5803 www.ceo.on.ca CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE INSTITUTE 2A – 652 Bishop St N, Cambridge ON N3H 4V6 Ray Wilcock rjwilcock@cspi.ca T: 519‑591‑1260  F: 519‑650‑8081 www.cspi.ca COUNCIL OF THE ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS OF ONTARIO 101 – 40 Sheppard Ave W, Toronto ON M2N 6K9 Scott Clark sclark@peo.on.ca T: 416‑224‑1100 www.peo.on.ca

August 2018  |  51


CSA GROUP 178 Rexdale Blvd, Toronto ON M9W 1R3 T: 416‑747‑4000 www.csagroup.org DUCTILE IRON PIPE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION PO Box 19306, Birmingham AL 35219 Patrick J. Hogan info@dipra.org T: 205‑718‑4218 www.dipra.org ECO CANADA 200-308 – 11th Ave SE, Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 Kevin Nilsen info@eco.ca T: 403‑233‑0748  F: 403‑269‑9544 www.eco.ca ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES ASSOCIATION OF ALBERTA 102 – 2528 Ellwood Dr SW, Edmonton AB  T6X 0A9 Peter Olmsted info@essa.org T: 780‑429‑6363 www.esaa.org ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES ASSOCIATION MARITIMES 502 – 5657 Spring Garden Rd, PO Box 142, Halifax NS  B3J 3R4 Tara Oak contact@esamaritimes.ca www.csamaritimes.ca T: 902‑463‑3538  F: 902‑425‑2441 GEORGIAN BAY ASSOCIATION 18 Fenwick Ave, Toronto ON M4V 2J8 Rupert Kindersley rkindersley@georgianbay.ca T: 416‑219‑4248 www.georgianbay.ca INTERNATIONAL OZONE ASSOCIATION PO Box 97075, Las Vegas NV 89193 info3zone@ioa-pag.org T: 480‑529‑3787  F: 480‑533‑3080 www.ioa-pag.org INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SCIENCES 413 – 4246 Albert St, Regina SK S4S 3R9 Gordon Huang gordon.huang@uregina.ca T: 306‑337‑2306  F: 306‑337‑2305 www.iseis.org INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET ASSOCIATION 207 – 6935 Wisconsin Ave, Bethesda MD 20815 Oliver Lawal info@iuva.org T: 240‑437‑4615  F: 240‑209‑2340 www.iuva.org

52  |  August 2018

MANITOBA ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION 100 – 62 Albert St, Winnipeg MB R3B 1E9 T: 204‑783‑7090  F: 204‑783‑6501 www.meia.mb.ca MANITOBA WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 1600, 215 – 9 Saskatchewan Ave W Portage La Prairie MB  R1N 3P1 Iva Last mwwaoffice@shaw.ca T: 204‑239‑6868  F: 204‑239‑6872 www.mwwa.net MARITIME PROVINCES WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 28142, Dartmouth NS B2W 6E2 Clara Shea contact@mpwwa.ca T: 902‑434‑8874  F: 902‑434‑8859 www.mpwwa.ca MUNICIPAL ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION 22 – 1525 Cornwall Rd, Oakville ON L6J 0B2 Alan Korell alan.korell@municipalengineers. on.ca T: 289‑291‑6472  F: 289‑291‑6477 www.municipalengineers.on.ca MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION PO Box 1894, 11B Suffolk St E, Guelph ON  N1H 7A1 Dr. Trevor Barton trevor@municipalwaste.ca T: 519‑823‑1990  F: 519‑823‑0084 www.municipalwaste.ca NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CLEAN WATER AGENCIES 1816 Jefferson Place NW, Washington DC 20036-2505 Raymond J. Marshall info@nacwa.org T: 202‑833‑2672  F: 888‑267‑9505 www.nacwa.org NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL BALANCING BUREAU 8575 Grovemont Circle, Gaithersburg MD 20877 Jim Whorton jwhorton@vircocon.com T: 301‑977‑3698  F: 301‑977‑9589 www.nebb.org NATIONAL GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 601 Dempsey Rd, Westerville OH 43081 Terry Morse tmorse@ngwa.org T: 614‑898‑7791  F: 614‑898‑7786 www.ngwa.org

NEWFOUNDLAND & LABRADOR ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 207 – 90 O’Leary Ave, St John’s NL A1B 2C7 Kieran Hanley kieran@neia.org T: 709‑237‑8190 www.neia.org NORTH AMERICAN HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 700 – 12011 Tejon St, Westminster CO 80234 Victoria L. Hodge victoria@nahmma.org T: 303‑451‑5945  F: 303‑458‑0002 www.nahmma.org NORTHERN TERRITORIES WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION 201 – 4817 49th St, Yellowknife NT X1A 3S7 Crystal Sabel info@ntwwa.com T: 867‑873‑4325  F: 867‑669‑2167 www.ntwwa.com NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION PO Box 10308, Thunder Bay ON P7B 6T8 Kristen Oliver admin@noma.on.ca T: 807‑683‑6662 www.noma.on.ca ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF CERTIFIED ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS & TECHNOLOGISTS 404 – 10 Four Seasons Place, Etobicoke ON  M9B 6H7 David Thomson dthomson@oacett.org T: 416‑621‑9621 Ext. 251 F: 416‑621‑8694 www.oacett.org ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF SEWAGE INDUSTRY SERVICES PO Box 184, Bethany ON  L0A 1A0 Mark Brosowski info@oasisontario.on.ca T: 877‑202‑0082 www.oasisontario.on.ca ONTARIO COALITION FOR SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE Sam Sidawi executivedirector@on-csi.ca T: 905‑546‑2424 Ext. 4479 www.on-csi.ca ONTARIO CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION Fl2 – 447 Frederick St, Kitchener ON N2H 2P4 Gerrard Mulhern gerry.mulhern@ocpa.com T: 519‑489‑4488  F: 519‑578‑6060 www.ocpa.com

ONTARIO ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 410 – 215 Spadina Ave, Toronto ON M5T 2C7 Alex Gill agill@oneia.ca T: 416‑531‑7884  F: 416‑644‑0116 www.oneia.ca ONTARIO ENVIRONMENT NETWORK PO Box 192, Georgetown ON L7G 4T1 oen@oen.ca T: 905‑925‑9217 www.oen.ca ONTARIO GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 48 Front St E, Strathroy ON N7G 1Y6 KC Craig Stainton executivedirector@ogwa.ca T: 519‑245‑7194  F: 519‑245‑7196 www.ogwa.ca ONTARIO MUNICIPAL WATER ASSOCIATION 2593 Tenth Concession, Collingwood ON L9Y 3Y9 Ed Houghton ehoughton@omwa.org T: 705‑443‑8472  F: 705‑443‑4263 www.omwa.org ONTARIO ONSITE WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 2336, 198 Sophia St, Peterborough ON  K9J 7Y8 Anne Egan anne.egan@oowa.org T: 855‑905‑6692  F: 705‑742‑7907 www.oowa.org ONTARIO POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION (OPCEA) 6517 Mississauga Rd, Unit C, Mississauga ON  L5N 1A6 Heather Tyrrell opcea@opcea.com T: 416‑307‑2185 www.opcea.com Our association is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting member companies in the promotion of their equipment and services to the pollution control market sector of Ontario. Originally founded in 1970, the OPCEA has since grown to over 180 member companies whose fields encompass a broad spectrum of equipment and services for the air and water pollution control marketplace. ONTARIO PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION 22 – 1525 Cornwall Rd, Oakville ON L6J 0B2 Brian Barber info@opwa.ca T: 647‑726‑0167  F: 289‑291‑6477 www.opwa.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ONTARIO RURAL WASTEWATER CENTRE University Of Guelph, School Of Engineering, Guelph ON  N1G 2W1 Katherine Rentsch krentsch@uoguelph.ca T: 519‑824‑4120  F: 519‑836‑0227 www.orwc.uoguelph.ca

PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS ONTARIO 101 – 40 Sheppard Ave W, Toronto ON M2N 6K9 Gerard McDonald gmcdonald@peo.on.ca T: 416‑224‑1100 www.peo.on.ca

ONTARIO SEWER & WATERMAIN CONSTRUCTION ASSOCIATION 300 – 5045 Orbitor Dr, Unit 12, Mississauga ON  L4W 4Y4 Giovanni Cautillo giovanni.cautillo@oswca.org T: 905‑629‑7766  F: 905‑629‑0587 www.oswca.org

PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 102 – 211 Columbia St, Vancouver BC V6A 2R5 Ashifa Dhanani info@pwabc.ca T: 604‑880‑8585 www.pwabc.ca

ONTARIO SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 502 – 4950 Yonge St, Toronto ON M2N 6K1 Sandro Perruzza sperruzza@ospe.on.ca T: 416‑223‑9961  F: 416‑223‑9963 www.ospe.on.ca

PULP & PAPER TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 1070 – 740 Notre-Dame St W, Montreal QC  H3C 3X6 Greg Hay ghay@paptac.ca T: 514‑392‑0265  F: 514‑392‑0369 www.paptac.ca

ONTARIO WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3 – 2005 Clark Blvd, Brampton ON L6T 5P8 Gord White gwhite@owma.org T: 905‑791‑9500  F: 905‑791‑9514 www.owma.org

RÉSEAU ENVIRONNEMENT 750 – 255 Boul Cremazie Est, Montreal QC  H2M 1L5 Maelle Beurier eau@reseau-environnement.com T: 514‑270‑7110  F: 514‑874‑1272 www.reseau-environnement.com

ONTARIO WATERPOWER ASSOCIATION 264 – 380 Armour Rd, Peterborough ON  K9H 7L7 Kaitlyn Leigh kleigh@owa.ca T: 866‑743‑1500 www.owa.ca

SASKATCHEWAN ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY & MANAGERS ASSOCIATION PO Box 22009 RPO Wildwood, Saskatoon SK  S7H 5P1 Patrick Legg info@seima.sk.ca T: 844‑801‑6233 www.seima.sk.ca

ONTARIO WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION 100 – 922 The East Mall Dr, Toronto ON M9B 6K1 Michelle Grenier mgrenier@owwa.ca T: 416‑231‑1555  F: 416‑231‑1556 www.owwa.ca

SASKATCHEWAN ONSITE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 449 Haviland Cr, Saskatoon SK S7L 5B3 Lesley Desjardin info@sowma.ca T: 306‑988‑2102  F: 855‑420‑6336 www.sowma.ca

ONTARIO WATERWORKS EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION www.owwea.ca The Ontario Water Works Equipment Association (OWWEA) is an organization that represents its membership within the waterworks industry of Ontario. Membership consists of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, agents and contractors, dedicated to serving the Ontario municipal market. PLASTICS PIPE INSTITUTE 825 – 105 Decker Court, Irving TX 75062 Tony Radoszewski tonyr@plasticpipe.org T: 469‑499‑1046  F: 469‑499‑1063 www.plasticpipe.org


SASKATCHEWAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 7831 Stn Main, Saskatoon SK S7K 4R5 Tim Cox info@sasktel.net T: 306‑668‑1278 www.swwa.ca SOLID WASTE ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA 650 – 1100 Wayne Ave, Silver Spring MD 20910 Sara Bixby sbixby@swana.org T: 800‑467‑9262  F: 301‑589‑7068 www.swana.org

STEEL TANK INSTITUTE/STEEL PLATE FABRICATORS ASSOCIATION 944 Donata Ct, Lake Zurich IL 60047 Katie Bruce nzak@steeltank.com T: 847‑438‑8265  F: 847‑438‑8766 www.steeltank.com THE GREEN BUILDING INITIATIVE 7805 SW 40th Ave, PO Box 80010, Portland OR 97219 Vicki Worden info@thegbi.org T: 503‑274‑0448 www.thegbi.org WATER RESEARCH FOUNDATION 6666 West Quincy Ave, Denver CO 80235‑3098 Rob Renner rrenner@waterrf.org T: 303‑347‑6100  F: 303‑730‑0851 www.waterrf.org WATER & WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION, INC. 304 – 540 Fort Evans Rd, Leesburg VA 20176‑3379 Vanessa Leiby vanessa@wwema.org T: 703‑444‑1777 www.wwema.org WATER ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO 6517 Mississauga Rd Unit C, Mississauga ON  L5N 1A6 Heather Tyrrell heather@weao.org T: 416‑410‑6933  F: 416‑410‑1626 www.weao.org WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION 601 Wythe St, Alexandria VA 22314‑1994 Eileen O’Neill eoneill@wef.org T: 800‑666‑0206  F: 703‑684‑2400 www.wef.org The Water Environment Federation is a not-for-profit association that provides technical education and training for thousands of water quality professionals who clean water and return it safely to the environment. WEF members have proudly protected public health, served their local communities, and supported clean water worldwide since 1928.

dedicated to the development and delivery of clean, safe water and sanitation solutions in developing nations.

WATER SUPPLY ASSOCIATION OF B.C. PO Box 22022, Penticton BC V2A 8L1 Toby Pike pike@sekid.ca T: 250‑497‑4200 www.wsabc.ca WESTERN CANADA ONSITE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 21115 – 108 Ave NW, Edmonton AB T5S 1X3 Lesley Desjardins ldesjardins@wcowma-bc.com T: 780‑489‑7471  F: 780‑486‑7414 www.wcowma.com WESTERN CANADA WATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 1708, 240 River Ave, Cochrane AB  T4C 1B6 Audrey Arisman aarisman@wcwwa.ca T: 877‑283‑2003  F: 877‑283‑2007 www.wcwwa.ca WCW was founded in 1948 to promote the exchange of knowledge of water treatment, sewage treatment, distribution of water and collection of sewage for towns and cities in Western Canada. Today, WCW is a collaboration of seven Constituent Organizations representing over 5,500 diverse and skilled members who work in water across Western Canada.

WATER FOR PEOPLE – CANADA 400 – 245 Consumers Rd, Toronto ON M2J 1R3 Joan Conyers jconyers@waterforpeople.org T: 416‑499‑4042  F: 416‑499‑4687 www.waterforpeople.org Water For People – Canada is a charitable nonprofit international humanitarian organization,

August 2018  |  53



KEY GOVERNMENT WEBSITES: Government of Canada www.canada.ca Environment & Climate Change Canada www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change Health Canada www.canada.ca/en/health-canada Natural Resources Canada www.nrcan.gc.ca National Research Council of Canada www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca


Monitoring, Assessment & Stewardship T: 250-354-6333

Ministry of Environment & Parks 208 Legislature Bldg, 10800-97 Ave, Edmonton, AB  T5K 2B6 T: 780-427-2391

Environmental Sustainability & Strategic Policy PO Box 9339, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9M1 T: 250-387-9997


Information Centre Main Floor-9820-106 St, Oxbridge Pl, Edmonton, AB  T5K 2J6 T: 877-310-3773 24-Hour Environmental Emergencies Hotline T: 800-222-6514

BRITISH COLUMBIA www2.gov.bc.ca

Ministry of Environment & Climate Change – Communications & Public Engagement PO Box 9047, Stn Prov Govt, Parliament Bldgs, Rm 153, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 T: 250-387-1187 Environmental Emergencies (Toll Free) T: 800-663-3456 Report Pollution T: 877-952-7277 (RAPP) Environmental Appeal Board PO Box 9425, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9V1 T: 250-387-3464 Environmental Assessment Office PO Box 9426, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V9W 9V1 T: 250-356-7479 Climate Change Division PO Box 9339, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9M1 T: 250-356-250-356-7479

54  |  August 2018

Environmental Emergencies & Land Remediation Branch PO Box 9342, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9M1 T: 250-387-4441 Environmental Standards Branch PO Box 9341, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9M1 T: 778-698-4886

Water Services Board 2010 Currie Blvd Unit 1A, Brandon, MB R7B 4E7 T: 204-726-6096 Round Table for Sustainable Development (MRT) 200 Saulteaux Cres, PO Box 38, Winnipeg, MB  R3J 3W3 T: 204-945-4391 Manitoba Water Council 200 Saulteaux Cres, PO Box 38, Winnipeg, MB  R3J 3W3 T: 204-945-1008 Environmental Emergency 24-Hour Service T: 204-944-4888

NEW BRUNSWICK www2.gnb.ca

Ministry of Environment Head Office Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-2690

Office of Drinking Water Branch 1007 Century St, Winnipeg, MB  R3H 0W4 T: 204-945-5762

Ministry of Environment 600-5102 – 50th Ave, PO Box 1320, Yellowknife, NT  X1A 2L9 T: 867-767-9055 Ext. 53001 24-Hour Spill Report Line T: 867-920-8130

Water & Air Quality Section Floor 2-Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-457-4844

Ministry of Environment 1104A-Inuksugait Plaza, PO Box 1000, Stn 1320, Iqaluit, NU  X0A 0H0 T: 867-975-7700


Conservation Agreements Board 200 Saulteaux Cres, PO Box 24 Winnipeg, MB  R3J 3W3 T: 204-945-7775



Climate Change Secretariat Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-457-4844

Clean Environment Commission 305-155 Carlton St, Winnipeg, MB  R3C 3H8 T: 204-945-0594

Environmental Spill Emergencies 24-Hour Service T: 709-772-2083

Environmental Emergency 24-Hour Service T: 800-565-1633

Assessment & Planning Appeal Board City Centre, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-2126

Ministry of Environment & Sustainable Development Public Information & Inquiries 200 Saulteaux Cres, PO Box 22, Winnipeg, MB  R3J 3W3 T: 204-945-6784, 800-214-6497

Environmental Protection Operations Directorate 6 Bruce St, Mount Pearl, NL A1N 4T3 F: 709-772-5097


Water Strategies & Conservation PO Box 9362, Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC  V8W 9M2 T: 250-356-2791


Water Resources Management Div. Floor 4 – Confederation Bldg West, PO Box 8700, St. John’s, NL A1B 4J6 T: 709-729-5743

Drinking Water Source Protection Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-457-4846 Policy & Planning Division Marysville Pl, PO Box 6000, Fredericton, NB  E3B 5H1 T: 506-453-3700



24-Hour Spill Response Line T: 867-920-8130

NOVA SCOTIA www.novascotia.ca

Ministry of the Environment 1903 Barrington St, Ste 2085, PO Box 442, Halifax NS  B3J 2P8 1894 Barrington St, Ste 1800, PO Box 442, Halifax, NS  B3J 2P8 T: 902-424-3600 Emergency After Hours T: 800-565-1633 Environmental Monitoring & Compliance T: 902-424-2547, 877-936-8476




Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Environment – Environment & Conservation Head Office: Floor 4 – West Block, Confederation Bldg, PO Box 8700, St.John’s, NL  A1B 4J6 T: 709-729-5677

Ministry of Environment, Conservation & Parks Floor 11-Ferguson Block, 77 Wellesley St W, Toronto, ON  M7A 2T5 T: 416-325-4000

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


4905 Dufferin St, North York, ON M3H 5T4 T: 416-739-4826

Spill Reporting 416-325-3000, 800-268-6060 Public Information Centre Floor 2-Macdonald Block, 900 Bay St, Toronto, ON  M7A 1N3 T: 416-325-4000, 800-565-4923 Corporate Management Division Floor 14-135 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1P5 T: 416-314-8001 Advisory Council on Drinking Water Quality & Testing Standards Floor 9-40 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1M2 T: 416-212-7779 Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) Floor 17-1 Yonge St, Toronto, ON  M5E 1E5 T: 416-775-0500, 800-667-6292 Pesticides Advisory Committee Floor 7-40 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1M2 T: 416-314-9230 Walkerton Clean Water Centre 20 Ontario Rd, PO Box 160, Walkerton, ON  N0G 2V0 T: 519-881-2003, 866-515-0550 Water Policy Branch Floor 3-40 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1M2 T: 416-326-0461 Environmental Assessment & Permissions Branch Floor 1-135 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1P5 T: 416-314-8001 Environmental Sciences & Standards Division Floor 14-135 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1P5 T: 416-314-6358 Environmental Monitoring & Reporting Branch West Wing, Floor 1-125 Resources Rd, Toronto, ON  M9P 3V6 T: 416-235-6300 Laboratory Services Branch 125 Resources Rd, Toronto, ON  M9P 3V6 T: 416-235-5743 Standards Development Branch Floor 7-40 St. Clair Ave W, Foster Bldg Toronto, ON  M4V 1M2 T: 416-327-5519 Climate Change & Environmental Policy Division Floor 11-77 Wellesley St W, Toronto, ON  M7A 2T5 T: 416-314-6338


Operations Division Floor 8-135 St Clair Ave W, Toronto, ON  M4V 1P5 T: 416-314-6378 Environmental Commissioner of Ontario (ECO) 605-1075 Bay St, Toronto, ON  M5S 2B1 T: 416-325-3377, 800-701-6454 Environmental Review Tribunal 1500-655 Bay St, Toronto, ON M5G 1E5 T: 416-212-6349

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND www.princeedwardisland.ca

Ministry of the Environment Floor 4 – Jones Bldg, 11 Kent St, PO Box 2000, Charlottetown, PE  C1A 7N8 T: 902-368-5044, 866-368-5044 Ministry of the Environment Floor 4-Shaw Bldg S, 95 Rochford St, PO Box 2000, Charlottetown, PE  C1A 7N8 T: 902-368-5024 Environmental Emergencies T: 800-565-1633

Bureau d’audiences publiques sur l’environnement (BAPE)/ Environmental Public Hearing Board Edifice Lomer-Gouin, 575 rue Jacques-Parizeau, bureau 2.10, Quebec, QC  G1R 6A6 T: 418-643-7447 Kativik Environmental Quality Commission (KEQC) & Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee (KEAC) PO Box 930, Kuujjuaq, QC  J0M 1C0 T: 819-964-2961 Ext. 2287 Societe des etablissements en plein air du Quebec (SEPAQ) 3321 Chemin du Parc, Orford, QC J1X 7A2 T: 819-843-9855 Societe quebecoise de recuperation et de recyclage (RECYC-QUEBEC) – Head Office 300, rue St-Paul, bureau 411, Quebec, QC  G1K 7R1 T: 418-643-0394

SASKATCHEWAN www.gov.sk.ca

Ministry of the Environment & Stewardship 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK  S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-2584, 800-567-4224


Environmental Emergency 24 hour Service T: 800-667-7525

Ministere du Developpement durable, de l’Environnement, et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques Èdifice Marie-Guyart, 675, boul Rene-Levesque Est, 30 etage, Quebec, QC  G1R 5V7 T: 418-521-3861

Environmental Assessment Floor 4 – 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK  S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-7603


Urgence Environnementale T: 866-694-5454 Expertise de climat & partenariats 675, boul Rene-Levesque Est, 6 etage, Quebec, QC  G1R 5V7 T: 418-521-3868 Bureau de coordination du developpement durable 675, boul Rene-Levesque est, 30 etage, Quebec, QC  G1R 5V7 T: 418-521-3848 De l’ecologie et du developpement durable T: 418-521-3861 Branche de politique de l’eau T: 418-521-3885 Direction de l'évaluation environnementale pour les projets Eau et Industriel T: 418-521-3933

Environmental Protection Floor 5-3211 Albert St, Regina, SK S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-2947 Resource Management & Compliance Division Floor 5 – 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK  S4S 5W6 T: 306-787-2947



Environment Yukon 10 Burns Rd, PO Box 2703, Whitehorse, YT  Y1A 2C6 T: 800-661-0408 Ext. 5652 24-Hour Yukon Spill Report Centre T: 867-667-7244 – Collect calls accepted Climate Change Secretariat T: 867-456-5544, 800-661-0408 Ext. 5544 Environmental Programs Branch 10 Burns Rd, PO Box 2703, Whitehorse, YT  Y1A 2C6 T: 867-667-5683, 800-661-0408 Ext. 5683 Water Resources Branch 10 Burns Rd, PO Box 2703, Whitehorse, YT  Y1A 2C6 T: 867-667-3171, 800-661-0408 Ext. 3171 Yukon Fish & Wildlife Management Board PO Box 31104, Whitehorse, YT  Y1A 5P7 T: 867-667-5715, 800-661-0408 Ext. 5715 Conservation Services Branch 10 Burns Rd, Whitehorse, YT  Y1A 4Y9 T: 867-667-8005 Yukon Parks Branch Bldg 1271, 9029 Quartz Rd, Whitehorse, YT  Y1A 4P9 T: 867-667-5648, 800-661-0408 Ext. 5648 Yukon Environmental & Socio-Economic Assessment Board (YESAB) 200-309 Strickland St, Whitehorse, YT  Y1A 2J9 T: 866-322-4040

SaskWater – Head Office 200-111 Fairford St E, Moose Jaw, SK  S6H 1C8 T: 888-230-1111 SaskWater – Saskatoon 5-1925 1st Avenue N, Saskatoon, SK  S7K 6W1 T: 306-933-111 SaskWater – Prince Albert Floor 11-800 Central Ave (McIntosh Mall), Prince Albert, SK  S6V 6G1 T: 306-953-2250

Centre d’expertise hydrique du Quebec T: 418-521-3866

August 2018  |  55


COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES, RESEARCH CENTRES & TRAINING The following institutions offer post-secondary education in fields relating to water, wastewater, environmental protection and environmental remediation. Also included in this guide are research centres affiliated with Canadian universities and training companies.

COLLEGES ɗɗALBERTA Keyano College Fort McMurray www.keyano.ca Lakeland College Vermillion, Lloydminster www.lakelandcollege.ca Lethbridge College Lethbridge www.lethbridgecollege.ca Medicine Hat College Medicine Hat www.mhc.ab.ca Northern Alberta Institute of Technology Edmonton www.nait.ca Northern Lakes College Slave Lake www.northernlakescollege.ca Portage College Lac la Biche www.portagecollege.ca Southern Alberta Institute of Technology Calgary www.sait.ca

ɗɗBRITISH COLUMBIA British Columbia Institute of Technology Burnaby www.bcit.ca Camosun College Victoria www.camosun.ca College of New Caledonia Prince George www.cnc.bc.ca Douglas College New Westminster www.douglascollege.ca Okanagan College Kelowna www.okanagan.bc.ca

ɗɗMANITOBA Assiniboine College Brandon www.assiniboine.net Red River College Winnipeg www.rrc.ca

56  |  August 2018

ɗɗNEW BRUNSWICK New Brunswick Community College Miramichi www.nbcc.ca Université de Moncton Moncton www.umoncton.ca

ɗɗNEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR College of the North Atlantic Corner Brook www.cna.nl.ca

ɗɗNOVA SCOTIA Nova Scotia Community College Various www.nscc.ca

ɗɗNUNAVUT Nunavut Arctic College Various www.arcticcollege.ca

ɗɗONTARIO Algonquin College Ottawa www.algonquincollege.com Cambrian College Sudbury www.cambriancollege.ca Canadore College North Bay www.canadorecollege.ca Centennial College Toronto www.centennialcollege.ca Collège Boréal Sudbury www.collegeboreal.ca Conestoga College Kitchener www.conestogac.on.ca Confederation College Thunder Bay www.confederationcollege.ca Durham College Oshawa www.durhamcollege.ca Fleming College Lindsay www.flemingcollege.ca

Georgian College Barrie www.georgiancollege.ca

Saskatchewan Polytechnic Various www.saskpolytech.ca

Loyalist College Belleville www.loyalistcollege.com


Mohawk College Hamilton www.mohawkcollege.ca Niagara College Canada Niagara www.niagaracollege.ca Northern College Various www.northernc.on.ca

UNIVERSITIES ɗɗALBERTA Concordia University of Edmonton Edmonton www.concordia.ab.ca

Sault College Sault Ste. Marie www.saultcollege.ca

Mount Royal University Calgary www.mtroyal.ca

Seneca College Toronto www.senecacollege.ca Sheridan College Oakville www.sheridancollege.ca St. Lawrence College Cornwall www.stlawrencecollege.ca

ɗɗPRINCE EDWARD ISLAND Holland College Charlottetown www.hollandcollege.com

ɗɗQUEBEC Collège Shawinigan Shawinigan www.collegeshawinigan.ca Cégep de Saint-Félicien Saint-Félicien www.cegepstfe.ca John Abbott College Montreal www.johnabbott.qc.ca Vanier College Montreal www.vaniercollege.qc.ca

ɗɗSASKATCHEWAN Lakeland College Lloydminster www.lakelandcollege.ca Luther College Regina www.luthercollege.edu

Yukon College Whitehorse www.yukoncollege.yk.ca

The King’s University Edmonton www.kingsu.ca University of Alberta Edmonton www.ualberta.ca University of Calgary Calgary www.ucalgary.ca University of Lethbridge Lethbridge www.uleth.ca

ɗɗBRITISH COLUMBIA Kwantlen Polytechnic University Langley www.kpu.ca Royal Roads University Victoria www.royalroads.ca Simon Fraser University Vancouver www.sfu.ca Thompson Rivers University Kamloops www.tru.ca Trinity Western University Langley www.twu.ca University of British Columbia Vancouver, Okanagan www.ubc.ca University of Northern British Columbia Prince George www.unbc.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Ryerson University Toronto www.ryerson.ca

University of British Columbia

Vancouver, B.C. 604-827-4136 apscpp@apsc.ubc.ca mel.ubc.ca The Master of Engineering Leadership (MEL) degree is for practicing professionals who want to excel in their careers. Offered by the Faculty of Applied Science, in collaboration with the Sauder School of Business, candidates will broaden their technical perspectives and acquire new business and leadership skills. The dynamic combination of cross-disciplinary engineering instruction and personal leadership development is built around several one-year sector-specific program options.

University of Victoria Victoria www.uvic.ca

Dalhousie University Halifax www.dal.ca


Saint Mary’s University Halifax www.smu.ca

Brandon University Brandon www.brandonu.ca Canadian Mennonite University Winnipeg www.cmu.ca University of Manitoba Winnipeg www.umanitoba.ca

St. Francis Xavier University Antigonish www.stfx.ca University of King’s College Halifax www.ukings.ca


University of Winnipeg Winnipeg www.uwinnipeg.ca

Brock University St. Catharines www.brocku.ca


Carleton University Ottawa www.carleton.ca

Mount Allison University Sackville www.mta.ca St. Thomas University Fredericton www.stu.ca University of New Brunswick Fredericton www.unb.ca

ɗɗNEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John’s www.mun.ca

ɗɗNOVA SCOTIA Acadia University Wolfville www.acadiau.ca Cape Breton University Sydney www.cbu.ca


Lakehead University Thunder Bay www.lakeheadu.ca Laurentian University Sudbury www.laurentian.ca McMaster University Hamilton www.mcmaster.ca Nipissing University North Bay www.nipissingu.ca Queen’s University Kingston www.queensu.ca Redeemer University College Ancaster www.redeemer.ca Royal Military College of Canada Kingston www.rmc-cmr.ca

Trent University Peterborough www.trentu.ca University of Guelph Guelph www.uoguelph.ca University of Ontario Institute of Technology Oshawa www.uoit.ca University of Ottawa Ottawa www.uottawa.ca University of Toronto Toronto www.utoronto.ca University of Waterloo Waterloo www.uwaterloo.ca University of Windsor Windsor www.uwindsor.ca Western University London www.uwo.ca Wilfrid Laurier University Waterloo www.wlu.ca

Université du Québec Various www.uquebec.ca Université Laval Québec City www.ulaval.ca

ɗɗSASKATCHEWAN First Nations University of Canada Regina www.fnuniv.ca University of Regina Regina www.uregina.ca University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon www.usask.ca

ɗɗUSA American Public University System Online www.apus.edu University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin www.wisc.edu

R&D CENTRES Advancing Canadian Wastewater Assets University of Calgary www.ucalgary.ca/acwa

York University Toronto www.yorku.ca

Brace Centre for Water Resources Management McGill University www.mcgill.ca/brace


Canadian Rivers Institute University of New Brunswick www.canadianriversinstitute.com

University of Prince Edward Island Charlottetown www.upei.ca

ɗɗQUEBEC Bishop’s University Sherbrooke www.ubishops.ca Concordia University Montréal www.concordia.ca Polytechnique Montréal Montréal www.polymtl.ca McGill University Montréal www.mcgill.ca Université de Montréal Montréal www.umontreal.ca Université de Sherbrooke Sherbrooke www.usherbrooke.ca

Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies University of Waterloo www.cattevents.ca Centre for Environmental Engineering Research and Education University of Calgary www.schulich.ucalgary.ca/ceere Centre for Water Resources Studies Dalhousie University www.centreforwaterresourcesstudies. dal.ca Environmental Careers Organization Canada www.eco.ca Global Institute for Water Security University of Saskatchewan www.usask.ca/water Global Water Institute Carleton University www.carleton.ca/gwi Ontario Rural Wastewater Centre University of Guelph www.uoguelph.ca/orwc

August 2018  |  57


Pacific Water Research Centre Simon Fraser University www.sfu.ca/pwrc Pulp and Paper Centre University of British Columbia www.ppc.ubc.ca Research and Technology Institute Walkerton Clean Water Centre www.wcwc.ca Ryerson Urban Water Ryerson University www.ryerson.ca/water Southern Ontario Water Consortium www.sowc.ca The Beaty Water Research Centre Queens University, Royal Military College of Canada www.waterresearchcentre.ca The Centre for Advancement of Water and Wastewater Technologies Fleming College www.cawt.ca Water & Climate Impacts Research Centre University of Victoria www.uvic.ca/research/centres/wcirc Water Institute University of Waterloo www.uwaterloo.ca/water-institute

TRAINING PROVIDERS Alberta Water & Wastewater Operators Association Alberta www.awwoa.ca ATAP Infrastructure Management Saskatchewan www.atap.ca

58  |  August 2018

Atlantic Canada Water and Wastewater Association Atlantic Provinces www.acwwa.ca BC Water & Waste Association British Columbia www.bcwwa.org Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation Canada www.cala.ca Cole Training & Operations Ontario www.coletraining.ca Colleges and Institutes Canada Canada www.collegesinstitutes.ca

TEAM-1 Academy Inc. Oakville, ON 905-827-0007 info@team1academy.com www.team1academy com Get trained by the experts. TEAM-1 Academy Inc. is an industry leader for the last 20 years, providing our services to renewable energy, Fortune 500 companies, industry, construction, health care, utilities, fire services, police, EMS, military, government and numerous others.

Keewaytinook Centre for Excellence Ontario www.watertraining.ca Manitoba Water and Wastewater Association Manitoba www.mwwa.net Ontario Clean Water Agency Ontario www.ocwa.com Saskatchewan Polytechnic Saskatchewan www.saskpolytech.ca Spill Management Inc. Ontario www.spillmanagement.ca Team-1 Academy Ontario www.team1academy.com Walkerton Clean Water Centre Ontario www.wcwc.ca

Walkerton Clean Water Centre Walkerton, ON Tel: 519-881-2003 or 866-515-0550 Fax: 519-881-4947 inquiry@wcwc.ca www.wcwc.ca The Walkerton Clean Water Centre (WCWC) is an agency of the Government of Ontario, established in 2004, to ensure clean and safe drinking water for the entire province. WCWC coordinates and provides education, training and information to drinking water system owners, operators and operating authorities, and the public, in order to safeguard Ontario’s drinking water. Through partnerships, WCWC also provides training for the 133 First Nations communities in Ontario.

Waste Water Nova Scotia Society Nova Scotia www.wwns.ca

World Water Operator Training Company Ontario www.wwotc.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

PRODUCT & SERVICE SHOWCASE T: 416-291-3435 E: sales@densona-ca.com W: www.densona.com

Electromagnetic insertion flow meter The AVI-MAG is Flow-Tronic’s hot tap full profile electromagnetic insertion flow meter. Installed under pressure without the need to interrupt water supply, the specific design of its multi-electrode sensor compensates for variable flow profiles and provides high accuracy. Easily deployed and removed for inspection, cleaning or calibration, the AVI-MAG is a low-cost and proven flow monitoring device. T: 905-856-1414 F: 905-856-6401 E: sales@acgtechnology.com W: www.acgtechnology.com

ACG – Envirocan

Radar area/velocity flow meter The Flow-Tronic Phoenix system is a new non-contact Radar area/ velocity flow meter, specially designed for river, irrigation canal and large channel monitoring applications. The advanced beam angle of 32 degrees allows a full velocity spectrum measurement and provides highly accurate flow measurement. Level can be monitored with an ultrasonic sensor or a Radar sensor. T: 905-856-1414 F: 905-856-6401 E: sales@acgtechnology.com W: www.acgtechnology.com

ACG – Envirocan

Ultrasonic Flow Meters


Sonic-Pro Hybrid Ultrasonic flow meters have non-invasive clamp-on transducers to work with both clean and dirty fluids, with a high capacity flow velocity range up to 9 metres per second. Additional features include: user selectable Doppler or Transit Time operation; can be factory configured; www.esemag.com

Denso North America

portable, rugged carrying case; housing is NEMA 4X (IP 66) wash down.

Plug-and-play Flow Meter

T:714-893-8529 F:714-894-9492 E: sales@blue-white.com W: www.blue-white.com

Blue-White Industries

Peristaltic Metering Pump


The ProSeries-M M-4 handles the most demanding water and wastewater treatment environments. The M-4 has feed rates from .0028 to 158.5 GPH/.01 to 600 LPH and pressures to 125PSI/8.6 Bar. The M-4 is equipped with Blue-White’s patented Tube Failure Detection System (US Patents 7,001,153 and 7,284,964). This system will detect pump failure due to a wide range of conductive materials and will automatically shut off.


The new Picomag from Endress+Hauser is a simple, reliable and maintenance-free plug-and-play flow meter for utilities in a pocket-sized format. Picomag offers customers easy commissioning with Bluetooth, using its SmartBlue App, as well as seamless system integration thanks to IO-Link technology. T: 905-681-9292 F: 905-681-9444 E: info@ca.endress.com W: www.e-direct.endress.com/ca/ picomag

Endress+Hauser Canada

Flow Measurement

T:714-893-8529 F:714-894-9492 E: sales@blue-white.com W: www.blue-white.com

Blue-White Industries

Block water from accessing assets

Proline 300/500 flow measurement technology provides continuous on-board diagnostics and meter verification with Heartbeat Technology , and fast commissioning and intuitive operation via display, web server and WLAN. It offers maximum flexibility with configurable I/O.

Road erosion, premature concrete failure or water ingress into wastewater systems? Denso’s 12" LT tape has been proven for nearly a century to block T: 905-681-9292 water from accessing assets. It won’t F: 905-681-9444 harden or crack and is the perfect soluE: info@ca.endress.com tion to protect concrete and prevent I&I. W: www.ca.endress.com/ Applied in minutes, requiring minimal proline300500 surface preparation, no mixing or Endress+Hauser Canada curing, it can be buried immediately.

August 2018  |  59

PRODUCT & SERVICE SHOWCASE Vertical Downhole Inspection Camera The dipper-See Examiner is a robust and cost-effective vertical downhole inspection camera. Designed with portability in mind, and to work in the harshest environments, this self-contained unit is ideal for viewing in wells, drains, vertical shafts, open bodies of water, boreholes and narrow tubes over 25mm (1") in diameter. It also provides: a versatile positioning arm; HD display screen; HD detachable See-120 camera probe; recordable video/audio; built in hanger - hands-free viewing while in the field. E: salesb@hoskin.ca, Burlington, ON E: salesv@hoskin.ca, Burnaby, BC E: salesm@hoskin.ca, Montreal, QC W: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

New pH and Temperature Logger

E: salesv@hoskin.ca, Burnaby, BC E: salesm@hoskin.ca, Montreal, QC W: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

Drum Screen

The HUBER Drum Screen LIQUID provides reliable fine screening with maximum separation efficiency for the maximum retention of fibres and hair. Special sealing between the channel and the front-end screen basket opening prevents unscreened wastewater from passing through the screen basket. A cost-efficient solution, the LIQUID also provides high throughput capacities and maximum operating reliability. T: 704-990-2053 E: huber@hhusa.net W: www.huber-technology.com

Huber Technology

Stormwater Treatment


The new low-cost HOBO MX2501 pH and temperature logger is designed for long-term monitoring of pH in estuaries, lakes, streams, rivers and oceans. It communicates wirelessly via Bluetooth Low Energy to the HOBOmobile app on your phone or tablet, making logger setup, calibration, and data offload quick and easy, with no need for extra equipment or complicated calibration procedures. Compact and rugged, it provides a water detection feature for longer battery life, user-replaceable battery, pH electrode, and anti-biofouling copper guard.


Stormwater Modeling Tool

The Jellyfish Filter is a stormwater treatment technology that removes a high level and a wide variety of stormwater pollutants. The Jellyfish Filter has been verified through the ISO 14034 Environmental Management – Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program and is the only stormwater filtration device in Canada to achieve this verification. T: 800-565-4801 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com

Imbrium Systems

PCSWMM for Stormceptor is a continuous simulation modeling software that determines the most appropriate-sized Stormceptor for your site. Highlights include localized rainfall data from over 1,900 NOAA weather stations across North America, and the ability to size multiple Stormceptor units within a single project. Visit www.imbriumsystems.com/launch-pcswmm. T: 800-565-4801 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com

Imbrium Systems

Introducing the newest enhancement to our flagship measurement solution! Master Meter’s Octave Ultrasonic Commercial & Industrial Meter is now available with floating flanges. This new design creates value for utility department crews by significantly reducing the overall weight of the product, greatly increasing installation agility, while decreasing the speed of install. The decreased weight provides the additional benefit of a reduced transportation-related carbon footprint. The stainless-steel Octave continues to provide best-in-class measurement performance and an ultra-wide turndown ratio to ensure that every drop is recorded. The Octave – precise measurement using the Sound of Science .

T: 866-761-1535 W: www.mastermeter.com

Master Meter Canada Inc.

E: salesb@hoskin.ca, Burlington, ON

60  |  August 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Automatic Self-Cleaning Filters

ORIVAL Automatic Self­-Cleaning Water Filters are simple to install. These fully automatic self-cleaning filters provide uninterrupted downstream flow, while cleaning themselves only when needed, based on a pressure differential between the inlet and outlet. They are simple, robust and efficient, while providing unparalleled performance. With models from ¾" to 24" and filtration degrees from 5 to 3,000 microns, Orival filters are available in many configurations and construction materials. T: 800-567-9767 E: filters@orival.com W: www.orival.com


Engineered metal doors USF Fabrication, Inc. manufacture a complete line of engineered metal doors for underground utility access. They have been fabricating solutions since 1916 with over 160,000 sq ft of manufacturing space. This allows them to offer the best lead times in the industry. Their friendly and knowledgeable staff is committed to providing customers with the right product for their application and shipping it when they need it.

T: 604-552-7900 F: 604-552-7901 E: sales@engineeredpump.com

USF Fabrication


Accommodate Dynamic Movement

The Style W257 dynamic movement joint from Victaulic is preassembled and reduces installation complexity for threaded rod installations of the AWWA M11 harness and C219 bolted sleeve-type joints. It can accommodate differential settlement and seismic movement in large-diameter piping systems. The joint is available in 14" to 78", DN350 to DN1950 sizes and is designed to be direct buried.

T: 905-884-7444 E: rhys.jardine@victaulic.com W: www.dynamicmovementjoint.com


Disposable Groundwater Filters Waterra has expanded its product range of PES Inline Disposable Filters to now include pore sizes: 0.2 micron, 0.45 micron, 1.2 micron and 5 micron. These capsule filters are available in two size formats: a 300 cm² surface area version and a 600 cm² surface area version for higher turbidity samples. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

HS-2 Oil/Water Interface Sensors Waterra HS-2 Oil/ Water Interface Sensors represent some of the most advanced technology available today for hydrocarbon product layer measurement. To define the product layer, these devices utilize a proprietary ultrasonic sensor which is more sensitive in a broader

range of hydrocarbon products than conventional optical systems. These quality sensors are now also available with Kynar (PVDF) jacketed tapes.

T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Rugged and Reliable Peristaltic Pump The Spectra FieldPro is the most popular peristaltic pump that Waterra has sold. The FieldPro combines the MasterFlex EasyLoad II pump head with a powerful motor and power supply in a rugged aluminum case. It will work all day on a full charge, and includes a 12 Ah AGM battery, smart charger and storage compartment — everything you need in a portable peristaltic pump. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Advanced and Portable Water Level Indicator Waterra’s WS-2 Water Level Sensors are advanced products that utilize advanced electronic technology. The WS-2 features an innovative design as well as compactness, portability and reliability — all at a competitive price. WS-2 tapes are available with Kynar (PVDF) or polyethylene jackets and graduated in imperial or metric units. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

August 2018  |  61


The Plant Engineering & Maintenance Association of Canada (PEMAC) has announced that it will be working with municipalities to improve infrastructure spending decisions through stronger asset management.

PEMAC said it was chosen by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) to provide asset management training. Training will be collaborative, ensuring elected officials and staff across a number of communities are working together and learning from one another.

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“PEMAC is pleased to offer the Asset Management Professional program to teams of professionals from municipalities across Canada,” said Cindy Snedden, executive director, PEMAC. “At a significantly discounted tuition, individuals will have access to an educational program that consists of six courses and leads to a professional designation.” According to Snedden, the program will provide the latest in strategic asset management thinking, while developing the capacity to engage others and build their knowledge and skill in key asset management subjects. These include risk management, knowledge management (enterprise database systems) and they will be introduced to tools for strategic decision-making at each stage of the asset life cycle. www.pemac.org

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62  |  August 2018


Ontario First Nations leaders will now have access to an information toolkit that allows them to assess climate change risks to their critical infrastructure, as 10:29 AM well as plan for expanded maintenance, repairs and replacement. The First Nations Public Infrastructure Engineering Vulnerability Committee Toolkit is offered by The Ontario First Nations Technical Services Corporation (OFNTSC) in conjunction with Engineers Canada and Stantec. It incorporates data from two databases, including Indigenous Services Canada’s Asset Condition Reporting System, and Integrated Capital Management System. The toolkit also makes accommodations for traditional and local knowledge in the data-gathering process. To date, three workshops on the toolkit have been delivered to First Nations and Tribal Councils. The workshops taught a basic understanding of asset management principles, explored how climate and climate change projection impacts community infrastructure, and demonstrated hands-on applications to conduct climate change risk assessments. Stantec senior associate Guy Félio is an infrastructure management specialist Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ES&E NEWS ES&E NEWS who has worked with First Nations in Ontario for a decade. “Many of these communities are working with a skeleton infrastructure, especially in northern Canada, which makes the need for a robust tool even more pressing,” says Félio. “Plus, the original (Public Infrastructure Engineering Vulnerability Committee) protocol is relatively complex, and it relies on some data that may not exist in First Nations communities. We needed to streamline it to make it simpler,” he added.

oil-eating microbes exist in a freshwater environment.

ads from store shelves took effect July 1. The recent ban, which was nearly two years in the making, prohibits the manufacture, import and sale of most toiletry PART ONE OF MICROPLASTICS products that contain microbeads. However, the legislation excludes BAN TAKES EFFECT In an effort to protect Canadian microbeads in natural health products waters from microplastics, a compre- and non-prescription drugs, which will hensive ban that removes most microbecontinued overleaf…











A pilot project within a freshwater oil spill remediation study is underway at the International Institute for Sustainable Development Experimental Lakes Area, near Kenora, Ontario. Scientists are attempting to move freshwater spill research, which is typically relegated to the lab, out into the field. As part of a three-stage study, scientists are deliberately spilling oil to determine the impacts of diluted bitumen on freshwater systems. They will attempt to fill in knowledge gaps that exist about these types of spills as well as the most effective cleanup methods. According to Experimental Lakes officials, the first stage of the study, which has already occurred, involved using three very small land-based “microcosm” tanks to examine the chemical and physical behaviour of diluted bitumen in freshwater. Bitumen is too thick to be transported in pipelines, so it is diluted with other, lighter oils to allow it to flow with ease. In the next phase of the study, researchers will cordon off small sections of a research lake to study the oil spill’s effect on organisms, such as insects, fish and amphibians. The final portion of the study involves examining the most effective methods of cleaning spilled oil from shorelines by using small, contained model spills in a research lake. Spills could be as small as 1.25 litres each and would be left for just three days before being cleaned up by professional oil-spill responders. Researchers also hope to discover if


Registration Opens April 17, 2018

91st Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition & Conference New Orleans Morial Convention Center New Orleans, Louisiana Conference: September 29 – October 3, 2018 Exhibition: October 1 – 3, 2018



August 2018  |  63


Insitu Groundwater Contractors • • • • • P: 519-763-0700 F: 519-763-6684 • 48 Dawson Road Guelph, ON N1H 5V1

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be banned July 1, 2019. Microbeads had been popular in toiletries for their exfoliating properties. Because they range in size from 10 micrometres to less than one millimetre, they can be a challenge for water treatment plant filtration, compromising wildlife habitat and food sources. According to the Canadian Wildlife Federation, a 2016 study found microplastics in every sample that was taken near shore areas along Lakes Erie and Ontario. With regards to microplastics used in laundry detergents, a 2018 study by ocean-protection group Ocean Wise found that Vancouver-area treatment plants were able to remove about 1.8 trillion plastic particles in wastewater each year, but 30 billion particles were still released into the ocean. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said in a joint communiqué at the end of the recent G7 summit that he and the leaders of France, Germany, Italy and the UK agreed to a plastics charter that would combat pollution created by single-use plastic items like bottles, cups and bags. “This is an important step towards achieving a life-cycle economy in which all plastics would be recycled and repurposed,” Trudeau told the summit.


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64  |  August 2018

The City of Saskatoon is facing a $1.5 million remediation bill to address the discovery of hydrocarbons found in at least two neighbourhood’s fire hydrants earlier this year. A report from the city’s Standing Policy Committee on Environment, Utilities and Corporate Services, is recommending that Stantec Consulting Ltd. develop and execute a remediation plan to address the hydrant contamination. It also notes that certain phases will undergo remediation this year, but that some work may carry over until 2019. Remediation plans could range from flushing the pipes with a cleaning solution to replacing the pipes.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


In November 2017, the federal government announced an investment of $1 million to monitor northern Ontario waterways for cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae. EDDEC Institute/Université de Montréal


Public health agencies across Canada have been working to educate the public about the proliferation of blue-green algae, otherwise known as cyanobacteria blooms, which can be toxic and highly resistant to treatment. Cyanobacteria, which can rapidly increase in late summer and early fall to form a large mass or scum called a bloom, can cause skin irritation, rash, sore throat, sore red eyes, swollen lips, fever, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, and has been linked to neurological conditions, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease. Last summer, cyanobacteria discovered in a popular Victoria-area lake in British Columbia was suspected in the deaths of several dogs. That same year, research by the University of Alberta indicated that the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin had been found in 246 water bodies in Canada. Blue-green algae can sometimes be spotted for its foamy pea soup-like appearance, and its more mature blooms can smell like rotten eggs. It often forms during hot, sunny weather in calm waters, and has become more prevalent in freshwater lakes over the last decade. According to B.C. officials, it is not a true algae but rather a photosynthetic bacteria. The toxic algae has also been prevalent in the Prairies, where much of the soil has naturally high levels of phosphorus. This contributed to Lake Winniwww.esemag.com

peg being named the “Threatened Lake of 2013” by the Global Nature Fund, largely as a result of the blue-green algae in its waters. Leaking septic tanks can also prove to be a source of phosphorus. In November 2017, the federal government announced an investment of $1 million to monitor northern Ontario waterways for cyanobacteria. The threeyear ‘Remote Sensing: Waterway Algae Identification’ project will help test the use of custom sensors and camera technology mounted on aircraft to produce real-time results on algae contamination in water bodies through waterway flyovers. Additionally, the ATRAPP Project – Algal Blooms, Treatment, Risk Assessment, Prediction and Prevention through Genomics, organized through the EDDEC Institute at Université de Montréal, began a $12.3-million research project into bluegreen algae in fall 2016. “It will allow us to define new biomarkers, to create a tool box combining chemistry and genomics to identify toxicity risks, and to facilitate prevention and treatment of bloom episodes as well as toxic sludge treatment,” project organizers explain. Alberta Health Services has recently issued seven cyanobacteria advisories, the most recent pertaining to Moose Lake in Bonnyville. In July, Toronto Public Health issued a warning over algae discovered along the waterfront in Etobicoke, at the mouth of Mimico Creek and Humber

Bay Park East. In the same month, warnings were also coming from the Saskatchewan Water Security Agency, which states that as much as 60% of all blue-green algae blooms contain toxins. “The blooms typically last up to three weeks and can be pushed around the lake or reservoir by the wind,” the agency stated in its public advisory. The Ontario government has released a factsheet for residents who want to learn more about cyanobacteria, which occurs naturally. It notes that the blooms can be particularly difficult to treat if they end up near a water supply. “Home treatment systems may not remove toxins and can get easily overwhelmed or clogged, so they should not be relied on,” the advisory warns. “Do not boil the water, or manually treat the water with chlorine or other disinfectants, as this could increase the toxin levels.” Irena Creed, an ecosystems scientist from the University of Saskatchewan, has written about potential connections between climate change and the rise of cyanobacteria. Additional research on the subject from the University of Bristol has found evidence that blooms of all kinds may be a kind of cooling mechanism for the planet. Cyanobacteria has also been found to deplete oxygen from the bottom of lakes, which can result in massive fish kills. continued overleaf…

August 2018  |  65

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Samson Cree First Nation’s largest federallyfunded infrastructure project to date for the community of 11,000 aims to end ongoing issues like sewer backups and drinking water contamination on the reserve.


Samson Cree Nation

COMPANY PAGE ACG Technology........................................67

Blue-White.................................................11 Cancoppas...................................................3 Crane Pumps & Systems..........................38 Denso ........................................................45 Endress + Hauser........................................5 Engineered Pump.....................................27 Envirocan .................................................67 Hoskin Scientific.......................................47 Huber Technology....................................29 Hydro International.................................23 Imbrium Systems.......................................2 Mueller ......................................................21 Myron L......................................................37 National Water & Wastewater Conference...........................58 NETZSCH Canada......................................17 Ontario Clean Water Agency....................68 Parsons......................................................28 Poly Processing........................................29 Pro Aqua......................................................9 RJC Engineers...........................................17 Siemens AG International..........................7 Smith & Loveless......................................19 SPD Sales...................................................24 Stantec......................................................24 Team-1 Academy......................................49 University of British Columbia................39 USF Fabrication........................................27 Walkerton Clean Water Centre................33 Waterra.................................... 25, 35, 41, 43 WEFTEC.....................................................63 Western Canada Water............................36 WSP............................................................15

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Construction is underway at Samson Cree First Nation, about 100 kilometres south of Edmonton, where the reserve is getting a new $32.5-million pumping system for wastewater treatment and collection at its existing plant, which has struggled to maintain capacity. Samson’s largest, federally-funded infrastructure project to date for the community of 11,000 aims to end ongoing issues like sewer backups and drinking water contamination on the reserve. Officials said Samson’s current septic system was designed to only serve about 2,000 residents. “We are very excited about this wastewater project as it will have positive effects on our Nation’s environment,” Samson Cree Nation Chief Vernon J. Saddleback told media at the groundbreaking. “Indigenous Services Canada's (ISC) financial commitment to the project and having Minister Philpott here at our sod-turning ceremony shows the commitment ISC has in maintaining their treaty relations with First Nations,” he added. Kathleen Swampy, a councillor with Samson Cree First Nation, told the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN) that cellars in local homes, as well as local infrastructure, would often be overwhelmed by raw sewage, leading to a series of illnesses in the community. Canada’s federal budget for 2016 provided $1.8 billion over five years to

As the federal government releases new funding for water and wastewater projects in Quebec, officials in neighboring New Brunswick have announced the completion of three of their own water and wastewater upgrades. The Ministry of Infrastructure and Communities announced an investment of nearly $157,000 under the Clean Water and Wastewater Fund for the sanitary sewer system extension on Route 271 and Avenue des Entreprises in SainteClotilde-de-Beauce, a tiny municipality of over 600 residents within the Chaudière-Appalaches region. The Government of Canada is also investing $94,500 in the sanitary sewer system extension project, rounded out by funding from the Government of Quebec that pushes the total investment to $189,000. In New Brunswick, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Communities announced the completion of three water and wastewater projects. Bathurst residents now benefit from improved water and wastewater infrastructure along Dumaresque Street, Murray Avenue and Bridge Street. The Town of Beresford replaced its aqueduct and sanitary systems on Maurice Street and Luc Street to provide residents with modern, efficient municipal services. In the Village of Pointe-Verte, the existing stormwater collection system was improved, thanks to a new stormwater sewer in the rue du Parc Ouest area. The Government of Canada contributed 50% of these project costs, more than $540,000. The provincial government provided 25%, more than $270,000, and the municipalities provided the balance of funding.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine





PRIMARY TREATMENT • Complete line of fine screening equipment • Self-cleaning perforated plate screens • FlexRake® front-raked fine screens • FlexRake® front-raked bar screens • FlexRake® Low Flow • Self-Cleaning trashracks • Muffin Monster® grinder (for sludge, scum, septage, screenings & wastewater) • Channel Monster® grinder for pump stations and sewage treatment plant headworks • Honey Monster® septage receiving station • Auger Monster® fine screen system • Monster® fine screen & band screen perforated plate fine screens with 2, 3 & 6mm perforations • Screenings washer/compactors • Rotating drum screens (down to 2mm perfs) • Raptor screenings washer press • Grit removal • Rotary drum screens SECONDARY TREATMENT • AquaNereda® Activated Granular Sludge Technology • Aqua-Jet® direct drive floating aerator • Aqua DDM mechanical floating mixer • Fine bubble aeration systems using membrane or ceramic diffusers with gas cleaning systems • Stainless steel coarse bubble aeration systems • Multi stage activated biological process (MSABP) • Two & three rotary lobe P/D blowers • Centrifugal multistage blowers • Hybrid screw/lobe compressors • Floating diversion curtains (for aerated lagoons, activated sludge systems & clear wells) • Subsurface jet aeration/mixing systems • Spiraflo & Spiravac peripheral feed clarifiers • Closed loop reactor oxidation ditch systems • Rotary brush aerators • High efficiency single stage integrally geared blowers • Direct drive turbo type blowers • Aeration system controls & instrumentation • Chain & flight clarifier systems & components (plastic, cast iron or stainless steel) • Half bridge, centre feed, circular clarifiers • Spiral blade clarifiers TERTIARY TREATMENT • AquaDisk® - cloth media tertiary filter • AquaDiamond® tertiary cloth media for traveling bridge filters • Filter Underdrain Systems HIGH EFFICIENCY MIXING TECHNOLOGY • High Performance Centrifugal Dispersing Impeller (HPCDI™) mixers

RPS Engineering ®

ADJUSTABLE SPEED DRIVES • Eddy current drives

TANK COVERS & DOMES • Aluminum geodesic domes • Flat aluminum and FRP tank covers • Aluminum channel and launder covers • Aluminum hatch covers DISINFECTION • UV disinfection systems • Package & custom ozone systems BIOSOLIDS PROCESSING/HANDLING • Sludge storage bins & live bottom dischargers • Rotary Drum Thickeners • Gravity Belt Thickeners • Belt filter presses & screw presses • Centrifuges for thickening & dewatering ODOUR CONTROL • Biofilters • Bioscrubbers • Carbon adsorbers • Chemical wet scrubbers • Ionized air BULK MATERIAL HANDLING • Shaftless & shafted screw conveyors • Screw pumps (open & closed designs) • Industrial grinders FLOWMETERS • Open channel flow metering (portable & permanent); wireless data transmission • Non-contact radar & submerged sensor area velocity flow metering (portable & permanent); wireless data transmission • Insertion mag flow meters with wireless data transmission • Data loggers with wireless data transmission INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • PCl Series DAF with corrugated plates • PWl Series DAF low profile, from 20·800 GPM • Pipe flocculators • Industrial wastewater treatment systems • Coalescing oil/water separators • Inclined plate clarifiers PACKAGE TREATMENT PLANTS • Package potable water treatment plants • Package sanitary wastewater treatment plants • Package industrial wastewater treatment plants • Package industrial process water treatment plants WATER TREATMENT • Pressure filtration systems (removal of iron & manganese, arsenic, fluoride, radium, uranium) • Filter Underdrain Systems


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Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association

CALL 905.856.1414 • 131 Whitmore Rd., Unit 7, Woodbridge, ON L4L 6E3 www.acgtechnology.com

Trust. It flows from experience & commitment. Coming from Ontario, land of freshwater, perhaps our dedication to water quality and innovation shouldn’t be surprising. Over the past 25 years, the Ontario Clean Water Agency has earned a world-class reputation in the operation of clean water and wastewater facilities. Collaboration flows through everything we do. If you’d like to discuss your municipality’s needs, whatever the size, wherever you are, we look forward to talking with you. For sales enquiries call 1-800-667-6292 or visit www.ocwa.com. Follow us on Twitter. Like us on Facebook.

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