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Using polymer cement coatings to protect water and wastewater plants Nunavut struggles with water shortage and supply issues Using satellite technology to evaluate lake water quality Preventing sludge bridging during pumping improves operations

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CONTENTS

April 2018 • Vol. 31 No. 2 • ISSN-0835-605X

COMING IN OUR JUNE 2018 ISSUE This issue will offer our 40,000 readers across Canada a strong and diverse range of articles. EDITORIAL FOCUS Storage Tanks, Containment Systems & Spill Management Hazardous Waste

20

14 ARTICLES

BONUS CONVENTION CIRCULATION AT: • American Water Works Association (ACE)

6

The evolution of “environmental evangelists” —Editorial comment

10

Nunavut communities struggle with water shortage and supply issues

14

Polymer cement based coatings protect water and wastewater assets —Cover story

18

Real-time data and analysis cuts sewer cleaning costs

20

Choosing the right valve coating depends on its application

24

New pumping system solves wastewater pump station clogging problems

26

Bridging prevention during sludge pumping prevents operational problems

28

New ultrasonic flow meters make biogas measuring easier

30

Evaluating the effectiveness of chemical precipitation for mining wastewater

34

Why different light sources are needed for water quality turbidimeters

36

Reliable gate valve operation depends on sound utility operations

38

Secondary clarifier design includes using proven features from yesteryear

42

NS resort utilizes on-site distributed wastewater disposal systems

45

Quick action needed to get remote community’s water plant back in operation

46

Using satellite technology to evaluate lake water quality

50

Modular and packaged MSBR plants chosen for small scale treatment systems

DEPARTMENTS

54

Muskoka using cloud based software to track operator training and certification

56

Halifax generating power from its watermain pressure reducing valve stations

66

Polish police using drones to find air polluters

59 62 62 66

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4  |  April 2018

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Sustainable Ecosystems EDITORIAL COMMENT BY STEVE DAVEY

Soil retaining system helps urban trees reach EVOLUTION OF ‘THE ENVIRONMENTAL EVANGELISTS’ maturity By Eric Keshavarzi

TG

his year marks 30 years of Environmental & Engineering reen Science infrastructure and susMagazine. As part of tainability goalsour are anniverof insary reflections, are revisiting and and creasing weimportance, exploring important topics, technologies achieving them requires techand events that have Canada’s nical knowledge and impacted training in varied water, wastewater and environmental fields. Integration of soil and trees into protection industries. urban areas substantially improves susIn our April issue, founding tainability and helps1988 alleviate some of our editor, Tom Davey took issue with the most pressing ecological challenges. inaccurate claims of some These include air and waterenvironmental quality, rising protest groups and journalists, whom he temperatures, flooding and erosion from described as “environmental evangelists”. daily rainfall events. In comment, Tominalso discussed Thehis West Don Lands, Toronto, Onthe growing use of bottled water. I think tario, is a community that is people fohe would be dismayed know that since cused, family friendly,toenvironmentally 1988 bottled consumption sustainable andwater beautifully designed has for ballooned in Canada, with salesGOLD reachliving. It has a Stage 1 LEED ND ing $2.5 billion (2.5the billion in 2016, certification under pilotlitres) program esaccording to Euromonitor International. tablished by the U.S. Green Building Council. *** One notable sustainable component, Tom in Davey wrote:ofNot since streets, Johann utilized the design the area’s Gutenberg invented movable type in is a soil retaining system called Silva 1450 has so much gibberish about enviCells™. Typical urban trees in the city ronmental been published by core die aftermatters approximately seven years. some protest groups. All too frequently, However, Silva Cells help extend their theirspans, dire thus warnings are combined with life promoting the growth of a nauseating air of moral superiority. mature street trees. Indeed, somethe protesters are the had environAlthough City of Toronto premental equivalents of certain television viously used Silva Cells as part of a evangelists. management Both species warn of impendstormwater pilot program in ing catastrophes – then solicit donations The Queensway, their use as part of site

to continue the good work. Politicians compound the problem. Too often they respond to complex environmental situations with sensational statements which owe more to electoral opportunism than to honest attempts to solve problems. Invariably, they find a willing ally in the news media. A newspaper columnist recently epitomized the misconceptions which plague the environmental engineering fraternity. The columnist wrote: “For many years, environmentalists have been sounding alarms about the gradual destruction of the environment but governments refused to act, largely because voters were not sufficiently concerned. Now people realize Installation of Silva Cells in Mill Street. that no one can escape the harmful effects of industrial wastes and pollution. development is new. In fact, the West Don “Toxicstreets wastesare arethe in the and Lands firstfood in achain Toronto in our drinking water. It is a sad commensubdivision to be designed with this systary on the state of the environment tem installed under parking lay-bys that and in the country with the most fresh water, sidewalks. theMill sale Street of bottled is subdivision becoming a was water the first thriving industry. ” street in Toronto to be designed to include less retaining than ninety words,As this thisInsoil system. theauthor lead managed to make major errors of fact, as engineering consultant, R.V.Anderson well as misinterpretations, which Associates coordinated all plans andcannot specbe allowed to pass unchallenged: ifications with the landscape architect. 1) Canada is notSilva the country About Cells with the most fresh water. The USSR and Brazil Silva Cells are a plastic/fiberglass have flows which greatly exceed structure of columns and beamsthis thatcounsuptry's estimated 100,000 cubic metres per port paving above un-compacted planting

second. Russia's Lake Baikal, for example, contains as much fresh water as all of the Great Lakes combined. 2) The author employs a spurious Catch 22 argument when he links the soaring sales of bottled water with the actual state of Canadian fresh water sources. Many people have been stampeded into buying bottled water because of inflammatory statements by single issue pressure groups – not because of the condition of the waters. If a false fire alarm sounds in a theatre, the rapid exodus is due to the alarmist; it is not a reflection on the performers. The waterworks industry is only too well aware that our raw water sources contain a variety of toxins and it is making range of space treatsoil. Theprogress structure on hasa92% void ment processes. But the people who seek and is a stable surface for the installation refuge in bottled waters might be starof vehicle loaded-pavements. tledWhen if theyproperly could read analytical data on installed, they can the various brands. achieve an AASHTO H-20 load rating. Arsenic,Highway lead, Bridge copper,Design sulphates Canadian Code and magnesium are only a few of apthe loading can also be achieved through compounds which have been found in propriate design. This is the required load many bottled waters, sometimes at levels rating for structures such as underground exceeding those the untreated vaults, covers andofgrates in areas ofwater trafin Lake Ontario. fic including sidewalks and parking lots. so, transfers trace substances TheBut, cell even structure the force toin a bottled waters are usually well base layer below the structure. below the limits our drinking water standards. Soilinwithin the cells remains at low continued overleaf… compaction rates, thereby creating ideal

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EDITORIAL COMMENT BY STEVE DAVEY

EDITOR AND PUBLISHER STEVE DAVEY steve@esemag.com MANAGING EDITOR PETER DAVEY peter@esemag.com SALES DIRECTOR PENNY DAVEY penny@esemag.com SALES REPRESENTATIVE DENISE SIMPSON denise@esemag.com ACCOUNTING SANDRA DAVEY sandra@esemag.com CIRCULATION MANAGER DARLANN PASSFIELD darlann@esemag.com DESIGN & PRODUCTION MIGUEL AGAWIN production@esemag.com

TECHNICAL ADVISORY BOARD Archis Ambulkar, Jones and Henry Engineers, Ltd. Gary Burrows, City of London Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill De Angelis, City of Toronto Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems William Fernandes, City of Toronto Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Tony Petrucci, Stantec, Markham

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be emailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30 Aurora, Ontario  L4G 3V6 Tel: (905)727-4666 Website: www.esemag.com

A Supporting Publication of

8  |  April 2018

3) The third misconception is the inference that it was the modern (as of 1988) “environmentalists” who first issued warnings to indifferent governments who refused to act. The facts are otherwise. It is generally recognized that the citizens' environment movement began in 1969 with the birth of Pollution Probe at the University of Toronto. Pollution Probe spawned dozens of likeminded groups across Canada and unquestionably focussed attention on serious areas of environmental neglect, performing a valuable public service. To paraphrase Voltaire, if they did not exist, it would be necessary to invent them. The noun “environmentalists” crept into the media lexicon at this time and reporters eagerly sought them out as “authoritative” sources, regardless of competence or relevance. It was a perfect match; a press with an insatiable appetite for sensationalism, mating with an eloquent protest movement brimming with moral indignation. Many of their warnings were justifiable, often being based on engineering and scientific studies from professionals in the health and engineering fields. But some of the apocalyptic warnings – many on drinking water – were based on anecdotal evidence rather than the scientific methodology accepted throughout the world. Professional advice – based on long training, education and experience in engineering and science – was largely ignored in favour of those groups who orchestrated politicians and the media with great dexterity. But even as the protest movements were taking their first strident steps, the Ontario government was already in the midst of a water and wastewater treatment construction surge which was unparalleled anywhere in the world. Prodded by such engineering giants as Dr. Albert Edward Berry, billions of dollars were spent on environmental projects in Ontario over the past three decades. Similar projects got underway in the west, thanks to some dedicated engineers who founded the Western

Canada Water & Sewage Conference, well before the era of protest. In Quebec, the Association Quebecoise des Techniques de I'Eau, was founded when public and political interest in the ecology was scant. But major environmental activism from engineering professionals had begun several generations earlier, when deaths from typhoid, cholera and other water-borne diseases were commonplace. As such afflictions were often confined to the poorer districts, authorities were sometimes callously indifferent to sanitary engineering proposals. Some Canadian cities had the dubious distinction of having higher infant mortality rates than major European cities. Tangible remedial action came about only through the strenuous efforts of engineers, such as Thomas and Samuel Keefer, Willis Chipman, Dr. Albert Edward Berry, and Winnipeg's Bill Hurst, often in opposition to the vested interests of the day. Some pioneering consulting engineers, too, played a significant role in developing treatment systems which had a major effect on public health. Some of today's self-annointed environmentalists might do well to study this record. They might discover the ecological wheel they think they invented was, in fact, gaining momentum around the turn of the century. It was a wheel built by engineers and scientists, not articulate but technically illiterate protesters. *** Editors Note: As readers will have no doubt observed, Tom Davey was an ardent supporter of Canada’s water and wastewater associations. So it is fitting that his insights from 30 years ago appear in this issue, which will be distributed at many of their Spring events. Steve Davey is editor and publisher of ES&E Magazine. Email: steve@esemag.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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WATER

Potable water filtration treatment facility in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, with storage reservoir and smaller water treatment residuals reservoir.

Nunavut communities struggle with water shortage and supply issues By Ken Johnson

T

he mean annual temperatures in Nunavut range from just below minus 10°C in the extreme southeast, to near minus 20°C in the far north. It does not have a significant summer season, and during the cool, brief summer, the ice-filled waters limit the surface temperature to minus 10°C. In July, the warmest month, temperatures are prevented from rising much above 7°C. In spite of the presence of the Arctic Ocean, Nunavut is one of the driest regions in the world, with a scant 50 mm of precipitation falling in the northern region and 375 mm in the southern region. In general, 50% – 80% of the yearly precipitation falls as snow. Surface water covers approximately 7.5% of the territory.

10  |  April 2018

Lakes and rivers that provide a seasonal WATER SUPPLY AND DELIVERY Nunavut is the largest of the three water supply are used to fill long-term territories of the Canadian north, with storage reservoirs. Nine Nunavut commu20% of Canada’s land mass and only nities have engineered storage reservoirs 30,000 people. Its 25 communities range that have sufficient water stored for up in size from Grise Fiord with 140 people, to a year. An allowance for ice formain the far north, to Iqaluit, with 7,000 tion must be considered when these are people in the south. Eleven of the 25 designed. Proximity of water to the commucommunities have over 1,000 people, and all of the communities except one nity itself presents another challenge (Baker Lake) are coastal. Surface water because of the cost of building, operprovides drinking water to all, because ating, and maintaining roads and pipepermafrost does not accommodate any lines. At nearly $1 million per kilometre for a road and a pipeline in some groundwater resources. Community water supplies make use locations, the economics places distant of lakes and rivers, and provide either piped water sources beyond the reach of year-round or seasonal water supply. most communities. Add to this cost the Surface ice up to two metres thick can potential for pipeline freezing, and the damage piping in lakes if it is placed too severe operating conditions in blizzards, shallow, and can damage piping in rivers, and closer becomes a lot better. particularly during spring break-up. continued overleaf… Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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WATER water heating. In pipe systems where circulation and heating is limited, freeze protection is achieved by “bleeding” the water system into the sewer system. This may amount to water use that is two to three times what would normally be anticipated. An example of the capital cost of a piped system is the replacement of the piped system in Resolute, which was tendered several years ago. The lowest tender received for the project was $44.4 million, which put the project budget approximately $18 million (70%) over the pre-tender construction estimate of $26 million. Resolute has a population of 250 people, so the cost per person for the system replacement was nearly $180,000. An example of the operation and maintenance costs of a water and sewer system are the costs in the community of Grise Fiord, which is the northernmost community in Canada. The annual cost was over $2,200 per person in 2002, or 6.4 cents per litre for water and sewer Top: Buried installation of insulated High Density Polyurethane (4.5 cents per litre for water only). Over(HDPE) water line in Resolute, Nunavut. Above: Twelve month all water use was 5,680,000 litres, or 95 water supply reservoir in Chesterfield Inlet, Nunavut excavated litres per capita per day. into bedrock. Above-right: Pump out trucked sewage collection In comparison to the cost of water from in house sewage tank in Repulse Bay, Nunavut. Right: in this community, the cost of water is Buried, insulated High Density Polyurethane (HDPE) water and a mere 0.12 cents per litre in Edmonsewer lines between manholes in Rankin Inlet, Nunavut. ton, Alberta. A quick mathematical comparison places water costs in Grise Drinking water is disinfected in thawed sufficiently to excavate. Fiord a whopping 40 times more expenFire protection is also a unique chal- sive. Added to these financial challenges Nunavut before delivery. However, more substantial treatment using filtration tech- lenge in Nunavut, because of the reli- are the technical ones of designing, nologies is being introduced into commu- ance on a trucked water level of service constructing, operating and maintaining nities to provide multi-barrier protection in most communities to fight any fires. northern water and sewer infrastructure. against contamination. Water treatment Fire losses are disproportionately higher improvements are encouraged by public than southern regions largely because of EXTREME WATER ISSUES AND THE health officials, and may ultimately be this. One simple fire protection measure FUTURE OF NUNAVUT WATER mandated by public health regulations. used is a 12 metre separation distance As challenging as “normal” water Water delivery and sewage collection between buildings. supply is in Nunavut, there are several in most Nunavut communities is by examples of extreme water use issues. trucked services. Large trucks distribute THE COST OF NUNAVUT WATER In Grise Fiord, the stream that fills the The cost of northern water, for both water reservoirs on an annual basis dried water and collect sewage. Each home has potable water and sewage storage tanks. capital cost and operation and mainte- up during one filling season, and the There are three communities in nance, is a function of labour and mate- community ran out of drinking water Nunavut with piped water and sewer rials, which are influenced by geographic before the reservoir could be refilled in systems, namely Iqaluit, Rankin Inlet, isolation, the extreme cold climate, and the spring. The community resorted to and Resolute. These piped systems are permafrost geology. harvesting icebergs, chopping and placWater and sewer systems have oper- ing the ice into the reservoir to maintain unique and expensive to build, because of the cost of labour and materials. The ating challenges associated with the the water supply. construction season for buried water and potential freezing of the piping due to The communities of Kugluktuk and sewer systems is generally limited to three heat loss, which is counteracted with Kugaaruk are experiencing issues with months of the year when the ground has pipe insulation, water circulation, and saltwater intrusion into their river water 12  |  April 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


supply systems because tidal action is creating a salt water wedge that advances up the river to the point of the water supply intake. In the community of Sanikiluaq, saltwater intrusion is also occurring, with the ocean making its way into the lake that supplies the community. Most northern communities also have limited capacity for dealing with water, whether it be financial, administrative or human resources. This limited capacity is being stretched by increasing regulatory demands. Another factor is increasing sophistication in water and wastewater treatment technology. Climate change is also emerging as an issue for water supply in Nunavut. The water supply issues in Grise Fiord, Kugluktuk, Kugaaruk and Sanikiluaq may not be conclusively caused by climate change, but the warming of the Arctic is making problems worse. Ken Johnson is with Stantec. Email: ken.johnson@stantec.com

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April 2018  |  13


CORROSION

Gemite offers several systems for waterproofing and protection of concrete structures in wastewater treatment facilities.

Polymer cement based coatings to waterproof and protect concrete in potable and wastewater treatment facilities By Ivan Razl

W

aterproofing, erosion protection and, to some extent, improvement of chemical resistance are the main reasons for the application of waterproofing/protective systems to reinforced concrete structures in potable water treatment facilities. In wastewater treatment, the waterproofing is equally important, but the chemical protection of reinforced concrete structures is essential in areas where concrete is exposed to sulfuric acid microbiologically generated from hydrogen sulfide. The hydrogen sulfide, created by anaerobic oxidation of sulfates present in waste14  |  April 2018

water, escapes to the air above the wastewater and is then oxidized, forming sulfuric acid on the surface of the concrete. It is the acid formation which causes severe concrete deterioration in pumping (lift) stations, manholes, sewers and digesters. Traditionally, polymer-based coatings such as epoxy, vinyl esters and other polymers have been used for waterproofing and protection of both potable water and wastewater treatment facilities. While polymers exhibit a very good chemical resistance, they have a number of disadvantages when applied to concrete which is continuously exposed to water, often

resulting in failures through de-bonding from the concrete substrate. There are a number of reasons why polymer coatings applied to concrete will fail, but the main problem is the presence of moisture within concrete. Even when using surface moisture compatible polymer coatings, such as special epoxy, the water vapour impermeability (the lack of breathability) may result in their de-bonding from the concrete. Similarly, if water gets at the concrete/ polymer coating interface from the outside, (e.g., from the surrounding continued overleaf…

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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CORROSION groundwater), the capillary pressures created at that interface may cause de-bonding. Water can also penetrate from the inside (the storage side) into the concrete/polymer coating interface through pinholes and microcracks. It is often wrongly assumed that polymer coating de-bonding is caused by water vapour pressure. The actual vapour pressures are too small to cause this, and it is often the capillary pressures of the water at the interface that cause the de-bonding. To avoid this, the concrete must be completely dry to a depth of 2 – 3 cm. When applying the polymer coatings in closed tanks or in new construction, this is difficult to achieve, expensive and requires several days of forced drying to assure safe application. Obtaining continuity of the polymer coating is also difficult, especially in repair and restoration projects. A smooth and even surface is required for a pinhole and microcrack free substrate, and the application of a thin cement layer is often needed to prepare an eroded or chemi-

cally damaged surface. Failing to provide the coating continuity, results in water penetration to the coating/concrete interface and subsequent de-bonding. A much better solution for protection of concrete structures in potable or wastewater treatment environments is to use polymer modified cement coatings based on Portland or aluminate cements. The high level of polymer modification provides excellent chemical resistance and flexibility, while the cement content makes these coatings “breathable”, allowing the water vapour to evaporate and the release of possible capillary pressures at the interface. Polymer modified cement materials can be applied to water saturated concrete, even when moisture is present on the surface. Gemite’s polymer modified Portland cement Cem-Kote Flex ST has been used in waterproofing and protection of reinforced concrete in potable water and also in open structure, wastewater treatment facilities, in restoration and new construction for over 25 years.

In combination with additional reinforcement, Cem-Kote Flex ST is also suitable for waterproofing concrete structures exposed to ozone treatment. Gemite’s polymer modified aluminate cement based Cem-Kote Flex CR is used in closed structures, where high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide are expected, e.g., roofed clarifiers, digesters, pumping stations, sewers and manholes. The synergy between polymer modifier and aluminate cement composition provides an excellent resistance to microbiologically induced corrosion. The chemical resistance of polymer modified calcium aluminate cement coating to microbiologically formed sulfuric acid has been extensively tested in a test chamber which has a high hydrogen sulfide environment (25 – 50 ppm) and a pH of the concrete surface of less than one. Both materials are easy to apply, and need only water to clean tools and equipment. They don’t contain volatile organic compounds, do not smell, and have none of the health hazards present

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


in polymer coating systems. Cem-Kote Flex ST and CR are two component materials, consisting of dry bagged powders, and a waterborne liquid additive supplied in a plastic container. The two components are mixed on site, using a conventional electric paddle mixer or mortar mixer, and applied in two coats by brushing or spraying to a total applied thickness of 1.6 – 2 mm. In new construction, high pressure water is sufficient to clean the existing concrete. Any existing smaller “bug-holes” are coated over during application, but the larger ones are pre-filled with the Gem-Plast TC repair mortar. Drying shrinkage cracks are treated with Reinforcing Fabric HD which provides waterproofing even if the crack bridging capacity of flexible Cem-Kote Flex ST/CR is exceeded. Several types of equipment, including peristaltic and positive displacement pumps, may be used for the spraying of these materials, providing a highly efficient, easy and fast application When there are very rough surfaces, the deteriorated concrete is removed and the surface cleaned using high pressure water. Portland cement based Gem-Plast TC, suitable for hand or spray application, is applied in thicknesses up to 12 mm to repair deteriorated surfaces. A leveling layer is required to repair the surface and provide a smooth surface to minimize pinholes in the application of Cem-Kote Flex ST/CR. Wastewater facilities, manholes and sewer systems also contain metal parts that require corrosion protection. The corrosion protective polymer barrier systems can be very difficult to apply in the repair of these structures, since they require very clean and dry surfaces to function. The barrier systems are also very sensitive to pinholes, where the rate of corrosion is very high. Gemite has been successfully using a cement-based corrosion protective coating, Fibre-Prime, which does not require a very clean surface and only removal of rust is sufficient. It is completely insensitive to moisture, even to surface moisture present on the metal parts. For additional protection to microbiologically caused corrosion by sulfuric acid, Cem-Kote Flex CR may be applied over Fibre-Prime. The advantages of Fibre-Prime are also very important for corrosion protection of exposed reinforcing steel in the restoration of reinforced concrete structures. In cases of very high hydrogen sulfide concentration (more than 50 ppm), or of chemical storage tanks and secondary containment structures which require high chemical resistance, Gemite offers a system combining polymer-cement and epoxy. It uses Cem-Kote Barrier Cote 100 as a vapour retarder and two coats of 100% solids epoxy, Gem-Cote EP 100. The use of Cem-Kote Barrier 100 as water vapour retarder allows an application of non-breathable epoxy coating over concrete that may exhibit high water vapour transfer from behind the tank walls, (e.g., concrete tanks below grade) or slabs.

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April 2018  |  17


WASTEWATER

Using real-time data and analysis can cut sewer cleaning costs By Greg Quist

T

he conventional approach to preventing sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) has been to apply significant resources to the problem through high frequency cleaning (HFC) programs that target locations identified as high risk. Although well-managed HFC programs can be helpful in lowering the incidences of SSOs, they can come at a high cost in terms of staff, equipment and wear on pipes. Typically, sites are grouped into monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, halfyearly or annual cleaning schedules. These cleaning frequencies usually remain fixed, but utilities will sometimes change the assigned frequency of a given site. The methods for making this determination are typically based on field data received when the cleanings occur. Despite the common use of HFC programs, overflows still occur, as the utility has no visibility of the sites between cleanings. Even with more frequent inspections, it is extremely difficult to determine if there is a progressive change occurring. Inspections provide only a single snapshot and do not provide the requisite trend information to determine what is happening day-today. Thus, collection systems are “blind spots” for most wastewater utilities. To prevent overflows at HFC sites, a good collections manager, lacking knowledge between cleanings, will tend to overclean. This can increase pipeline wear and shorten the lifetime of underground assets. It is expensive and labour-intensive to inspect every time prior to cleaning. Therefore, the site is cleaned irrespective of the necessity to do so. Recent pilot studies using remote real-time monitoring and sophisticated data analysis have verified that technology allied to intelligent analysis software provides lower costs and ongoing SSO protection. In one case, high frequency cleaning requirements were reduced by 18  |  April 2018

Real-time monitoring enables users to prioritize cleaning based on empirical data, days or even weeks ahead of any potential spills.

Recent pilot studies have verified that technology allied to intelligent analysis software provides lower costs and ongoing SSO protection. 94% when using real-time data to indicate when cleaning was needed. There were no spills from blockages, giving the utility confidence to roll out this approach of monitoring and cleaning only when the system recommended across their whole network. Monitoring gives operators continuous collection system condition feedback where they can see subtle changes occurring with sewer flows. Gaining system visibility enables much better maintenance practices because realtime monitoring can determine when to clean, as opposed to blindly following a preplanned schedule and then reacting to emergencies. Remote sensing technology used in concert with trend analysis tools

enables users to clearly see anomalies or changes from the norm. By combining real-time remote monitoring, robust satellite-based communications, secure networks and extensive analytical software, the process of “listening to your sewer” can predict and avoid spills, free up personnel and equipment, extend the lifetime of equipment and pipes and, in the end, help lower rates for ratepayers. Greg Quist is with SmartCover Systems, who have installed over 3,500 monitoring systems across North America. They are represented in Canada by Link Utility Technologies. For more information, email: matthew@linkut.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


WATER & WASTEWATER

Choosing the right valve coating depends on its application

A

s the water and wastewater industry pushes further and further to lower environmental impacts, increase the life span of equipment, and reduce in-plant maintenance, it is important, when specifying valves, to consider the features that will help contribute to this goal. Cast and ductile iron are the most common materials used for body castings used for the AWWA valves installed predominantly in the water/wastewater marketplace. While both cast and ductile iron have mechanical properties well suited for this use, these valve components require additional corrosion protection to ensure a long life cycle. AWWA standards for various valve types (butterfly, gate, check, etc.) have evolved over the years to include general requirements with respect to corrosion protection. For example, since 2010, AWWA butterfly valves for buried applications are required to have their interior and exterior surfaces shop coated with Fusion bonded epoxy coating on valve castings. an epoxy coating (AWWA C504-4.4, 2015) conforming to AWWA C550, which is the standard that provides minimum These standards state where the coatings are required, minirequirements for protective interior coatings for valves and mum coating thicknesses, and what methods can be used to hydrants. test and confirm proper coating application. What these stan-

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dards do not cover is the selection of the type of the epoxy coating. This is left up to the purchaser who is responsible for providing a coating specification for the valve they are intending to use. The difficult part for the purchaser is finding and compiling information to evaluate the available coatings and making an informed decision on which type they require for their application. The two most common protective epoxy coatings are two-part epoxy and fusion bonded epoxy. Most people are familiar with two-part epoxy as many of these products are available in the local hardware store. Two-part epoxies must be mixed together before use. Each component is thoroughly stirred and then combined and mixed until uniform. Once mixed, their pot-life begins. This is defined as the amount of time it takes for an initial mixed viscosity to double. Typically, once this time expires, the product needs to be thinned for further application. This pot-life is outlined in Table 1. This coating is most commonly applied at room temperature in the factory, so careful consideration must be given to ensuring appropriate amounts are batched so as not to exceed the pot-life when applying. Curing dry-time for handling is typically 7 – 10 hours, but immersion of the coated casting may require 5 – 10 days of cure time, depending on the thickness of coating applied. Two-part epoxies can be applied using a brush, roller, airless or conventional spray, with care taken to vent vapours to ensure the removal of solvents.

Fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) is a thermoset polymer coating. Its application requires a pre-heating process where the casting is placed in an oven set at 204°C for a specified time and is monitored with a thermometer until the part reaches the required pre-heat temperature, which is typically 177 °C. The castings are then moved to the spray location, where they are wired to a slight electrostatic charge. The epoxy, which comes in powder form, has an opposite charge, and is sprayed onto the casting. The pre-heated casting melts the powder, transforming it into a liquid form. The liquid FBE film flows onto the surface that it is applied to and becomes a solid coating by chemical cross-linking. The castings are then returned to the oven for post curing for approximately 20 minutes. Once the curing takes place, the chemical cross-linking reaction is irreversible. Application of further heating will not “melt” or disrupt the coating. In addition to the method of application, the quality of any epoxy coating is a function of the substrate preparation, as well as the coating thickness applied to the material. After either coating process, all parts are visually examined to ensure adequate coverage and the film thickness is measured at random locations. AWWA C550 requires the coating thickness to be a minimum average of 6 mil. Both two-part and fusion bonded coatings are typically applied with a thickness that exceeds continued overleaf…

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WATER & WASTEWATER this minimum standard. AWWA C550 also references holiday TABLE 1: Pot-life for a common two-part epoxy used to coat valve castings. spark testing, which is a non-destructive test method applied on protective coatings to detect unacceptable discontinuities, Temperature (°F/°C) Pot-Life (Hrs.) such as pinholes and voids. To ensure proper coverage, end users and consultants can specify this testing to determine that 20/-7 the coating is without holidays or voids. While the initial set-up to apply a fusion bonded epoxy coating may be more complex than simply mixing two compo32/0 nents together and spraying them onto a substrate, once the equipment is in place in a manufacturing facility, the coating 40/4 7 application process can be streamlined and controlled. This application control and repeatability allows manufacturers to 50/10 6 produce valves with more consistently applied coatings. After evaluating the application differences for the two 60/16 5 coatings, the next logical comparison would be their physical and performance properties. As mentioned earlier, the main 70/21 4 reason for using these coatings is to increase corrosion resistance. Both two-part and fusion bonded epoxy provide the same corrosion resistance, as demonstrated by their perfor80/27 3 mance during a salt spray test, which is a standardized, industry accepted, test method to check corrosion resistance of 90/32 2 surface coatings. The two products start to differ in their performance when 90/32 2 comparing their relative adhesion strength and abrasion resistance. As these coatings are used as a physical barrier to prevent corrosion of the casting, it is essential that the coating Source: AMERCOAT 370 Data Sheet.

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22  |  April 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


maintain a high degree of surface adhesion. Adhesion strength of a typical two-part epoxy is reported to be around 1000 psi, while the adhesion strength of fusion bonded epoxy has been demonstrated to be around 2900 psi. Abrasion resistance is another important property to consider as these coatings are used on the interior of the valves. Common water and wastewater applications subject valve interiors to flows of high velocities and pressures, sometimes with fluids that contain grit and solids. As these applications will cause wear on the interior of the valve over time, it’s critical to provide the valve with a coating that best resists these conditions. Both two-part and fusion bonded epoxies have been tested using the Taber Abraser Standard Test for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings, outlined in ASTM D4060. The results demonstrate that, under the same load and cycle conditions, fusion bonded epoxy is over six times more resistant to abrasion that two-part epoxy. A final property that can sometimes be overlooked is the coating’s ability to resist internal buildup of sludge or debris commonly found in water and wastewater applications. To compare the performance of the various coatings, a case study was performed at a treatment plant. Three 50.8 mm AWWA C512 combination air valves, each with different coatings, were installed on similar sized sewage lines which see the same flows and pressures over the same time. The valves were coated as follows: one with two-part epoxy, one with fusion bonded

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epoxy, and the third was left with an uncoated interior, as a control. The valves were installed for a period of three years and periodically checked to ensure proper performance. After three years in service, the valves were inspected. All exteriors still displayed the two-part, fusion bonded epoxy of standard primer from the factory and did not exhibit excessive corrosion. Each valve was then disassembled and inspected internally. The buildup of sludge was measured on all internal components. The valve coated with fusion bonded epoxy had over five times less volume of sludge buildup when compared with the two-part epoxy. These results make sense when you qualitatively observe the two coatings applied to a valve body. Fusion bonded epoxy coating forms a smooth, low friction surface, while two-part epoxy is observed to have a rougher finish. While end users and engineers rely on applicable AWWA standards to form the basis for many valve specifications, it is important to understand that these are set forth as a minimum guideline. Based on the properties discussed in this article, it is easy to see why fusion bonded epoxy is commonly specified as an interior and exterior coating in water and wastewater applications. For more information, contact Mike Di Lallo, Syntec Process Equipment. Email: miked@syntecpe.com

April 2018  |  23


WASTEWATER

New pumping system solves wastewater pump station clogging problems

O

ne Midwestern city is responsible for the operation and maintenance of two wastewater treatment facilities, servicing a population of 40,000, that treat an average of 16.5 million litres per day. The city also has 27 sanitary stations and three stormwater stations, which use over 65 pumps, some of which were installed in the late 1980s. Each of these stations is subject to routine inspections to ensure their proper operation and maintenance. A comprehensive review of each operating system is conducted to assure uninterrupted operation. As part of the minor capital improvement process, lift stations are renovated and updated prior to the equipment reaching the end of its service life. Updated technology is installed to maximize efficiency and prevent system failures. The city was faced with occasional blockage problems at one of its lift stations, due to flows containing flushable wipes and miscellaneous debris. They contacted Xylem, who recommended Concertor, which combines a fully integrated control system with IE4 motor efficiency, Adaptive N-hydraulics, and intelligent functionalities.

significantly smaller footprint. The Concertor system was installed and began operation in July 2015. During installation, the city would not allow modification to the existing control panel. The existing motor starter and pump protection had to remain in place in the event the old pump had to be reinstalled. Concertor does not require these items to operate, so slight modifications were required to make it work with the existing station controls. Regardless, installation was smooth and it took only a few hours to install the pump and control. Flygt’s engineering group sized the new system based on information provided. The new Flygt Concertor pump ready for Since installation, inspections have installation in a lift station. revealed very little sediment and grit buildup. Also, varying start levels have By integrating a control system that prevented grease ring buildup in the can automatically adapt to the chang- station, a great benefit. Staff previously performed station ing wastewater environment, an optimal level of performance is delivered, clean out every three to four months. while significantly reducing total cost The new system did not require clean of ownership. The built-in intelligence out for eight months and it has elimimakes it quicker and easier to set up and nated all clogging issues. operate functions that would otherwise require a very sophisticated monitoring For more information, visit: and control system, all achieved with a www.xyleminc.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


The next evolution in decanter

centrifuge technology

Flottweg will unveil its new dewatering machine at the IFAT 2018 and WEF Residuals & Biosolids shows. Recuvanes®, double cone scroll, deep pond design and Simp-Drive® are just a few of the Flottweg innovations installed in more than 11,000 decanters worldwide. The Xelletor System is the next evolution. The new Xelletor System: • Increases your throughput up to 15% • Reduces the volume of biosolids by as much as 10% due to drier cake • Saves up to 20% in energy and polymer consumption Flottweg would like to invite you to visit us at IFAT 2018 in Munich May 14–18 or WEF Residuals & Biosolids in Phoenix May 15 –18 to experience the new Xelletor System firsthand.

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WASTEWATER

Bridging prevention during sludge pumping Solves several operational problems

B

ridging is a stubborn issue in sewage sludge handling applications that occurs when thick and dry dewatered sludge cakes together. Once sludge sticks together, bridges between the side walls form as sludge falls into the hopper of a pump and starts to stick to the side walls above the pump auger. These bridges can prevent additional sludge from falling into the pump by blocking off the opening, thereby ceasing pump operation. As sludge piles up on top of the bridge, it backs up the process until eventually it overflows out of the hopper or triggers an alarm. When this happens, this stage of the plant must shut down until a maintenance crew can break down the bridge over the pump auger, clean up any overflowed sludge, reset alarms, and pump the overflow sludge manually until the sludge feed is back within normal operating parameters. Depending on the plant setup and failure modes, delays to plant operations can last anywhere from an hour to a day. An even more troubling issue caused by sludge bridging occurs if the pump continues to run without any sludge feeding into it. Its stator will heat up and, if the pump is not switched off in time, it can be destroyed. Stator damage causes the entire pump to fail, requiring repairs and extensive plant downtime. Typically, plants have safeguards in place in order to avoid dry running and resultant pump damage, although occasionally these safeguards are not sufficient and damage occurs anyway. With the growing need to remove more water from sludge cake for efficient sludge handling, the percentage of solids in it is increasingly high. This higher percentage of solids, however, causes sludge to be stickier and harder to convey, therefore exacerbating bridging. A number of pump companies incorporate bridge-breaking technology into their sludge handling systems. The traditional type of bridge-breaking technology 26  |  April 2018

Top: A NETZSCH NM BP.  Bottom: A NETZSCH NM BF with aBP-Module.

uses single or dual paddle wheels, resting above the pump auger. While somewhat effective, bridging can still form above the paddles, or between them and the pump auger. As the paddles are in the direct flow path of the sludge, they can collect a buildup of hair, rags, or other materials that can get wrapped around the shafts, which requires routine maintenance. Another common anti-bridging technology present in pump systems is vibrators. These devices vibrate the walls and the sludge media so as to prevent sludge buildup. However, vibrators decrease in efficacy as solids percentage and sludge stickiness increases. The aBP-Module , designed and patented by NETZSCH for sludge handling, creates the effect of a moving wall with the use of spoked wheels. By having the wheels rotate into the auger feed zone, bridges do not have enough time to form. If they do form, they are carried along to the auger by the wheels, thus breaking the bridge as it engages the auger. The spoked wheels continually change

®

the wall dynamics and keep it free from bridging. Moreover, the wheels are very close to the sides so as not to interfere with the sludge flow into the pump. As the wheels are to the sides and not in the product flow path, there is no buildup of sludge, hair, rags, or other materials The aBP-Module® is typically used for sludges with solids content ranging from roughly 20% – 40% and uses one quarter of the power needed by traditional technologies, according to NETZSCH. It requires zero maintenance due to buildup or bridging, and lessens the chance of the pump running dry. It is compatible with all of NETZSCH’s open hopper pump models and can be adapted to hoppers of all sizes. For very large hoppers, the wheels can be doubled or tripled as needed. For more information, visit www.netzsch.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


WASTEWATER

New ultrasonic flow meters make biogas measurements manageable

I

ncreased interest in renewable energies has caused a boom in the construction of biogas plants. Traditionally, biogas in these plants is a product of the fermentation of sludge from wastewater treatment plants and landfills. Nowadays, other bio feedstock, such as waste from cattle farming and other agricultural operations, is also used to produce biogas. This gas is generally used in combined heat and power plants to directly generate electricity and heat using a gas engine. More and more, biogas is reworked to grid quality to supply into the gas grid. When it comes to using biogas, the methane content (CH4) is crucial. Operating gas engines in a combined heat and power plant smoothly and efficiently can only be guaranteed when there is biogas with a minimum methane content. The plant operator must therefore be familiar with the composition and quantity of the biogas used. This is especially true when biogas deliveries to gas grid operators are used in custody transfer applications. Since the methane content of biogas can vary greatly, plant operators rely on continuous and reliable

information. This is what creates a great challenge for many operators.

sudden temperature drops can occur when new sludge is fed into the fermentation tank. Flow measurement technology has tried to meet these special measurement requirements with the help of different measuring methods. Thermal mass flow meters are still the most commonly used measuring devices in the biogas industry. Ultrasonic flow meters have always been particularly well suited to biogas applications, as they provide a full transit without loss of pressure or any negative effect on the flow and they can cover a wide measuring range. Much has been learned in measuring technology from the experience with biogas applications. KROHNE have developed a new generation of ultrasonic flow meters that specifically target the high requirements of biogas applications.

DIFFICULT MEASURING PARAMETERS Depending on the bio feedstock and process, biogas contains only about 50% – 70% methane. The remaining portion is made up of 30% – 50% carbon dioxide (CO2) and smaller amounts of oxygen (O2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and nitrogen (N2). In addition, biogas can contain up to 5% – 6% free liquid water, since it is saturated with water during fermentation. This gets into the pipeline following cooling down and leaving the fermentation tank. When dissolved in water, H2S creates a corrosive solution in the pipeline. In addition to high moisture, resistance to corrosion must also be taken into consideration when selecting a measuring device. Bacteria can also be deposited in the flow meter during biogas measurement. For more information, email: Temperatures can range from slightly r.lowrie@krohne.com above ambient levels up to 50°C. Pressure is typically 50 to 60 mbar. However, process conditions can vary greatly. For example, when measurement is done directly after fermentation,

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REMEDIATION

Evaluating the effectiveness of chemical precipitation for mining wastewater By Lynda Smithard

T

o support the Environmental Assessment (EA) of a new gold mine project in British Columbia, McCue Engineering Contractors completed the preliminary design of a mine water treatment plant, using a water profile modeled for a future open pit sump. The water profile was complex and the treatment plan specified by the mine included heavy metals removal by chemical precipitation.

necessary, to a suitable pH for discharge to the creek. The preliminary chemical treatment program consisted of pH adjustment and metal hydroxide precipitation, metal hydroxide precipitation or sulphide precipitation, coagulation, flocculation and pH neutralization. Subsequent bench-scale tests helped determine whether the two-stage chemical treatment process should include hydroxide precipitation optimized at PRELIMINARY TREATMENT The preliminary treatment process for two target pH ranges or a hydroxide the mine-affected water consisted of a precipitation stage followed by sulphide two-stage metals precipitation, coagula- precipitation. Plant effluent quality was tion, and flocculation chemical program, predicted largely based on published followed by settling in ponds for solids theoretical heavy metal solubility data. removal. Following the second settling pond, the water would be buffered, as

30  |  April 2018

DATA GAPS SPECIFIC TO CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN Regarding theoretical end points of chemical programs, no information was available for: • Aluminum, cobalt and manganese, single stage hydroxide process, at pH = 10.5 – 11.5 • Cobalt and manganese, two-stage hydroxide process, at pH = 8 – 9 / 10.5 – 11.5 • Cobalt, two-stage hydroxide/sulphide process, at pH = 8 – 9 / 10.5 – 11.5 • No or negligible estimated removal for antimony, chromium and copper for all three processes. The regulatory agencies reviewing the EA and other project stakeholders, continued overleaf…

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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REMEDIATION

Nine leachate water samples were mixed together to make one homogenized sample.

including local First Nations, requested more, site-specific information to address the uncertainty as to what could be achieved with water treatment and what impact the treated water would have on the local environment. To address uncertainty with the treatment process and improve the inputs for the impact assessment model, McCue created a synthetic water sample from field leachate samples and laboratory-grade salts to match the modeled plant inlet water profile. The synthetic water sample was used to develop and validate a chemical water treatment process at a benchscale and provide effluent quality data for impact assessment modeling. The benchscale test program also provided valuable data to advance the design of the mine water treatment plant from preliminary to detailed. SYNTHETIC WATER SAMPLE Four iterations of synthetic water samples were prepared to fit the pit sump water treatment plant inlet water profile. Nine leachate water samples were mixed together to make one homogenized sample at McCue’s facility. Once homogenized, samples were collected for analyses of total metals, dissolved metals, TSS, anions and nutrients. Based on the analytical results, McCue diluted the homogenized leachate water sample using deionized water at a ratio of 1:4. Concentrations of dissolved anti32  |  April 2018

mony, arsenic, barium, chromium and iron were then increased or spiked using laboratory-grade metal salts. BENCH-SCALE TEST PROGRAM The bench-scale test program had the primary objective of selecting a chemical program by testing the efficacy of single stage hydroxide precipitation, two-stage hydroxide precipitation and two-stage hydroxide/sulphide precipitation process. Each also incorporated a coagulant. Performance of each metal precipitation process was evaluated by comparing the target dissolved metal concentrations in last-stage supernatant water samples of each test, against the end of pipe treatment targets. COMPARISON TO LITERATURE FINDINGS Bench testing results demonstrated better metal removal rates and lower dissolved metals concentrations than the preliminary “Theoretical and Predicted End Points” and included the removal of antimony, chromium and copper. FULL-SCALE WTP PERFORMANCE A few months after the bench test, McCue had the opportunity to validate the chemical precipitation process with a full-scale water treatment system at a metals contaminated site in Metro Vancouver, B.C. The site required temporary treatment of water contaminated with

copper and zinc during the excavation phase of a major infrastructure project. McCue successfully removed heavy metals from contaminated groundwater to meet both provincial and federal surface water quality standards for a marine discharge. Strict standards, particularly for copper and zinc, the presence of salts (from seawater intrusion), and construction activities in the excavation made the water treatment project technically challenging. The bench tests performed were modeled on the metals precipitation tests previously completed for the gold mine project. Following the bench-scale test program, McCue rapidly deployed a fullscale metals precipitation plant at the Port project site. Results from the full-scale water treatment plant operation indicated better performance than at a bench-scale. Furthermore, they proved that metals precipitation is a viable method for reducing heavy metals, including copper. The chemical program selectively removed heavy metal ions, while permitting sodium and chloride ions to pass through and be discharged to the marine environment, resulting in a significant cost saving for the property owner and a significant reduction in carbon footprint by reducing the quantity of waste disposal required. Results from McCue’s bench-scale tests and the subsequent full-scale water treatment plant have contributed to the body of knowledge for heavy metals precipitation treatment performance for antimony, chromium and copper. Previously, literature indicated that no or negligible removal could be achieved for these parameters using chemical precipitation. This work fills in many data gaps in the theoretical end points for water treatment by metals precipitation. It has provided valuable data on metals precipitation performance that could benefit EA work at other mine sites globally. Lynda Smithard, P.Eng., is with McCue Engineering Contractors. Space limitations precluded the publication of detailed chemical preand post-treatment analysis tables. For more information, visit: www.mccuecontracting.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


WATER TREATMENT

Why different light sources are needed for process turbidimeters By Michael J. Sadar

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urbidity is simply based on the scatter of an incident light beam by materials that are contained within a fluid matrix. There are two basic types of light scatter to consider. Mie scatter is caused by the scattering of light off particles that are at least as big, or bigger, as the wavelength(s) that make

34  |  April 2018

up the incident light beam. The scattering is non-uniform around the particle and is disproportionally in the forward direction (versus the 90° direction). Smaller particles, whose size is approximately 0.10 the wavelength of the incident light, will scatter more symmetrically. This is known as Rayleigh scatter-

ing. It is Rayleigh scattering that occurs when light scatters off the air molecules in our atmosphere that causes the sky to appear blue. Rayleigh scattering is more dependent on wavelength. A general rule with Rayleigh scattering is that shorter wavelengths are more effectively scattered relative to longer wavelengths of light. This means that a turbidimeter with a longer wavelength of incident light will read slightly lower (because it is less sensitive) than a turbidimeter with a shorter wavelength of incident light. So what does all this light scatter mean? When looking at real-world samples, they are composed of particles that are a mix in sizes. This size mixture will generate light scatter in all directions, including the regulatory scatter angle of 90° (for turbidimeter compliance). The detection angle of 90° is sensitive to both Mie and Rayleigh particle scatter for turbidimeters that use light in the 400-900 nm range. When a calibration is performed, any differences in light scatter between instrument types are further normalized by the calibration standard. The important characteristic of the turbidity calibrant is that it is composed of particles that cause both Mie and Rayleigh scatter. Formazin turbidity standards (or stabilized versions of formazin) contain a broad range of particles that cover both Mie and Rayleigh scatter principles and help to normalize the detector response, regardless of the

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wavelength of incident light used. Thus, the detector angle, detector view area, and the use of a turbidity calibrant that causes both Mie and Rayleigh scatter will normalize the effects of light scatter from these different light sources.

turbidimeters can impact the measurement floor of the instrument. It is important to understand the intended application and its respective measurement goals prior to selection of the turbidimeter. Michael J. Sadar is with Tintometer

Inc. They are represented in Canada by COLOUR Colour in samples can be caused by Cleartech. www.cleartech.ca dissolved materials or by particles if they are capable of absorbing light. If the incident light beam contains wavelengths that are absorbed by these components in a sample, the quantity of light available to be scattered decreases. This THE will cause a negative interference in the turbidity response.

STRAY LIGHT Stray Light is defined as light that reaches the scattered light detector in a turbidimeter that is not caused by particle scattering in the sample. Stray light is a positive interference. This can be caused by internal reflections of incident light after it passes through the view volume of the turbidimeter’s sample chamber. Light that is not columnated (it diverges) after it leaves its source can often miss an internal light trap (if designed into a turbidimeter) and eventually reflect back into the detector. Light that is polychromatic (has many different wavelengths) will more readily diverge from parallelism than will a light source that is monochromatic (typically is composed of one wavelength). Thus, a white light source will have more stray light than a single wavelength light source. Stray light is very difficult to quantify because there is always some true light scatter in the purist of samples. What can be performed is to compare measurements between technologies on a sample stream of essentially particle-free water. Particle-free water can be prepared through the filtration of tap water that is passed through a series of sub-micron filters to remove virtually all the insoluble and some soluble materials. CONCLUSIONS When measuring very low turbidity levels, the selection of the turbidimeter can have an impact on the reporting results. Aside from regulatory design requirements, the spectral output of the www.esemag.com

This article is excerpted from a whitepaper recently produced by Tintometer about the performances of its PTV Series of process turbidimeters, which use three different incident light sources. These different light sources are needed to meet different regulatory requirements. Download the full whitepaper at: www.esemag.com/water/ process-turbidimeters

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April 2018  |  35


WATER

Reliable gate valve operation depends on sound utility operations

V

alves are arguably the most critical components of a water system. They are necessary for supplying water for residential and commercial use, allowing operators to control flow and isolate sections of pipeline systems for maintenance and repair, or to isolate pressure zones. They may seem simple, but valves come in all shapes and sizes, containing complex components tailored for different uses. Of all the various types, gate valves are the most common within water distribution systems. When fully open, they provide almost unrestricted flow because the gates are pulled fully up into the bonnet. However, when improperly selected, installed or maintained, they are prone to failure, which can have significant health, cost and convenience repercussions for both the utility and the public. Fortunately, future issues can be avoided if the following considerations are made during the decision-making and specification process and during installation and maintenance of the gate valves. These considerations are applicable for metal-seated gate valves adhering to AWWA Standard C500, as well resilient wedge (RW) gate valves adhering to C509 (cast iron/ductile iron) or C515 (ductile iron). They are classified in linear fashion to denote tasks recommended before, during, and after installation. BEFORE INSTALLATION The first step is to have a robust performance specification that covers epoxy linings and coatings, stainless steel fasteners, grade of rubber, type of seals (e.g., flat gaskets or O-rings), torque requirements, gear ratio, etc. Be specific not just on AWWA Standards, but also on NSF/ FM/UL certifications and approvals to ensure quality materials in accordance with the specific application, and any unique conditions such as corrosive soil or high-temperature water. It is also important to defend gate valves against corrosion and debris by specifying not only an NSF-approved epoxy system, 36  |  April 2018

Cut-off gate valves being used, while utility workers fix a broken water main.

cient and easy manual operation of the valves is critical. To avoid damage to the valves, it is important to ensure that no outside debris is allowed into the pipeline during installation or repair of the valve by municipal staff, contractors, or even by kids throwing rocks into an open pipeline. Proper oversight and careful execution are the keys to preventing this from happening. There is often natural sediment in the pipeline; however, that is unavoidable. If the debris accumulates in the bottom and solidifies, it will create an obstruction in the travel of the wedge of the valve and make it harder to operate, requiring more torque and causing the actuators to break. To make sure the debris doesn’t solidify, exercise valves on a regular cycle. Using a larger size valve box concrete vault for access to the stem can save DURING INSTALLATION Gate valve installation in the verti- considerable time, effort and money cal (stem) position is always preferred. later by allowing for stem change outs Installing on a horizontal line with the without excavation. Some gate valves open left and some stem and wedge vertical, especially for larger valves, allows gravity to do some open right. Ideally, all the gate valves in of the work. Also, allowing room for effi- a distribution system will open the same

but the thickness needed as well. Whether via liquid or fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE), the interior coating should conform to AWWA C550, while the industry standard for exterior coating (not governed by C550) is 8 – 12 mils. Quality components should also be specified to keep out debris. Debris leads to corrosion, which ultimately leads to galling or binding. When this happens, the valve may barely move or even not at all. Providing proper stem covers, dirt seals (also known as wiper rings), O-rings and gaskets are the most important ways to help keep out debris. It is often overlooked or taken for granted that the right product is on-site. Therefore, it is a good idea to be sure that the documentation for the gate valve matches the specifications, prior to it being installed.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


way, but at a minimum you want to know consult this documentation to uncover which ones might be backward (i.e., the underlying issues and create a better opposite the majority). During installa- specification. tion, note the colour of the operating nut; Sometimes it becomes necessary to a red nut indicates that the valve opens break through asphalt to reach the valve to the right, while a black nut indicates box because it was paved over during that it opens to the left. road resurfacing. To avoid this, the valve box needs to be raised to grade for continAFTER INSTALLATION ued accessibility. This should be a contracValve cycling is exercise for valves, so it tor requirement per the repaving contract. is prudent to open and close each one to not only verify operation, but to ensure that they remain running smoothly by clearing out debris. Once per year is acceptable, and twice per year even better. However, short-staffed operations may find any cycling program difficult to schedule. Some utilities may, therefore, outsource the task to contractors. AWWA M44 Distribution Valves is a valuable field manual, offering updated information on valve selection and installation, as well as the importance of location, condition and frequency of operation. Documenting all issues will help with future decisions. If a valve fails, note the year of the valve, the manufacturer, the type of failure, etc. At review time, staff can leverage that knowledge and

CONCLUSION With continuous diligence, before, during, and after installation, aided by the above recommendations, utilities can make sure their gate valves operate as required and for a long time. For more information, email: more-info@muellercanada.com

Introducing the newest enhancement to our flagship measurement solution! Master Meter’s Octave Ultrasonic Commercial & Industrial Meter is now available with floating flanges. This new design creates value for utility department crews by significantly reducing the overall weight of the product, greatly increasing installation agility, while decreasing the speed of install. The decreased weight provides the additional benefit of a reduced transportation-related carbon footprint. The stainless-steel Octave continues to provide best-in-class measurement performance and an ultra-wide turndown ratio to ensure that every drop is recorded. The Octave – precise measurement using the Sound of Science . Master Meter Canada Inc.

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T: 866-761-1535 W: www.mastermeter.com www.esemag.com

April 2018  |  37


WASTEWATER

State-of-the-art secondary clarifier design includes proven features from yesteryear By J. Fitzpatrick, J. Barnard, A. Chan, P. Coleman and B. Moghadam

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he third edition of Leonard Metcalf and Harrison Eddy’s American Sewerage Practice, Volume III, Disposal of Sewage was published in 1935. In it, the authors said that: “In the activated sludge process, the design of satisfactory means of introducing influent into final-sedimentation tanks and removing effluent from them offer special problems. It is essential to prevent the setting up of currents that will carry light flocculent activated sludge out with the effluent in undesirable quantities.” It is as large of a mistake now, as it was then, to assume that secondary clarifiers in an activated sludge process are simple settling tanks like primary clarifiers. After all, the basins and equipment used in these two different processes look very similar in many cases. However, the two applications have four subtle but significant differences, as shown in Table 1. These differences result in four phenomena that affect the performance of secondary clarifiers. The energy of the flow into

the clarifier creates turbulence that can disturb the settling conditions and creates a “density waterfall” that interferes with the removal of sludge from the clarifier. The flow then travels across the top of the sludge blanket, creating a sheer force that lifts solids out of the blanket into the flow leaving the clarifier. The current splits near the peripheral wall of the clarifier, creating an upwards current that lifts solids into the final effluent and an inward and downward flowing current of slightly denser sludge that transports solids to the return activated sludge hopper (a moving sludge blanket). Secondary clarifiers can fail in one of three ways. Firstly, currents created by the flow leaving the clarifier lift solids into the final effluent. In simple terms, the rate of the upward flow exceeds the rate at which the particles settle. Secondly, the sludge removal mechanism cannot adequately remove the mass of solids entering the clarifier at the rate at which it is entering. There-

fore, the sludge blanket rises and “burps” solids into the final effluent. The blanket then returns to its former level. Currents in the clarifier or the nature of the solids (e.g., bulking sludge or failure to thicken) can prevent the clarifier from achieving this mass balance. Finally, the flow into the clarifier will vary over the day or during a storm event. For example, at the start of a wet weather event, flow will increase the mass of solids being sent to the clarifier. The sludge blanket will rise and fall to store these solids. The clarifier must feed these solids back to the system in a less dramatic way than it received them to avoid creating a recirculating “sludge wave”. If the blanket starts to rise to the bottom of the flocculation well baffle, short-circuiting may take place where the less dense mixed liquor is drawn down to the sludge hopper, increasing the mass of solids in the final effluent. If the blanket continues to rise, the clarifier continued overleaf…

TABLE 1: Four ways that secondary clarifiers differ from primary clarifiers.

Primary Clarifier

Secondary Clarifier

Performance

Remove 50% to 60% of the incoming solids

Remove >99.5% of the incoming solids

Inlet solids

A primary clarifier settles raw sewage particles at an inlet concentration less than 400 mg/L.

A secondary clarifier settles flocs consisting of bacteria, organic material and extracellular polymers between 2000 to 4000 mg/L.

Type of settling

The particles in a primary clarifier initially settle as discrete particles that begin to coalesce or flocculate while settling increasing the particle mass and the rate at which the particles settle.

The concentration of particles in a secondary clarifier is high enough that the settling rate is hindered by neighboring particles, creating a sludge water interface (sludge blanket). Settling continues to the point where the sludge blanket is compressed under the weight of the sludge above.

Sludge removal

The primary clarifier sludge removal flow rate is very low (<3% of the inlet flow rate) and is intermittent. The primary sludge pump may come on to empty 75% of a large hopper or to run until sludge concentration drops to less than 2% solids. The pump will run more often delivering thinner sludge if the primary sludge is being thickened separately.

The secondary clarifier sludge removal flow rate is high (>35% of the inlet flow rate) and is continuous. The return activated sludge concentration is typically less than 1% solids (5000 – 8000 mg/L).

38  |  April 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


RELIABILITY

WHEN IT’S NEEDED MOST. 350psi A-2361 Resilient Wedge Gate Valve: Easy to Open. Easy to Close. Tough to Replicate. Utilities are concerned with the safe operation and stopping ability of their vehicles. Without properly selected, installed and maintained brakes, the risk of life and property loss greatly increases. Gate valves in water distribution systems are no different; only the most reliable gate valves should be used. That’s why water utilities prefer Mueller’s 350psi A-2361 all-ductile iron resilient wedge gate valve. This triple-listed gate valve is AIS-compliant, easy to handle, and has a pressure-assist wedge geometry. These unique features combine to assure a rapid seal when it’s needed most. Dual purpose lifting lugs • Improved site safety; aligns valve box and eliminates adaptor §

Internal components interchangeable with installed A-2300 series valves • No additional inventory required 350psi AWWA/UL/FM working pressure • Meets the increasing demands of higher water main pressures T-head bolt retention • Eliminates the need for anti-rotation bolts Pressure-assist wedge geometry • Less torque required to seal

For more information about Mueller or to learn more about the 350psi ductile iron gate valve, call 705.719.9965, email:moreinfo@muellercanada.com or visit www.muellercanada.com

Copyright © 2018 Mueller Canada, LTD All Rights Reserved. The trademarks, logos and service marks displayed in this document herein are the property of Mueller Co., LLC, its affiliates or other third parties. Products above marked with a section symbol ( § ) are subject to patents or patent applications. For details, visit www.mwppat.com. These products are intended for use in potable water applications. Please contact your Mueller Sales or Customer Service Representative concerning any other application(s).


WASTEWATER experiences thickening failure. the 1935 Edition of the Manual of Sewage There are three changes that can be Equipment are still important today: made in clarifier internals to eliminate • Central, decelerated feed, causing heavithese effects. These include an energy est particles to settle close to the sludge dissipating inlet, a feedwell floor baffle, hopper or peripheral effluent launder wall baffles. • Gentle subsurface diffusion, assuring quiescent radial flow without turbulence ENERGY DISSIPATING INLETS or plunging Two of the benefits listed in an adverMany clarifiers built at this time and tisement for the Dorr “Sifeed” Clarifier in even later with similar inlets are in

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40  |  April 2018

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service today. Some outperform clarifiers using newer technology. An analysis of what is happening in these clarifiers raised a number of questions about the depth of the floc well and whether the sludge blanket near the sludge hopper needs to be protected. For example, the side outlet low energy (SOLE) design by Dr. James Barnard for a shallow clarifier does not use a flocculation baffle. This clarifier sustained loadings up to 7.6 kg/m2 per hour (37.3 ppd/ft2). The clarifiers with the inlet designed in 1938 for the Stickney WRF sustained similar loadings. In the Stickney case, the outlet pipe flares open, creating some turbulent flow which breaks momentum energy, allowing some flocculation. Openings through the bridge support structure are larger than that of the pipe so there is no restriction in flow. Energy-dissipating inlets (EDI) have become standard practice in secondary clarifier design in North America. A decrease in inlet velocity results from vertical slots in the inlet pipe. A variety of EDI styles have been developed over the years. Impinging exit ports offer some advantage to more conventional tangential ports. FEEDWELL FLOOR BAFFLE The feedwell floor baffle was originally proposed in the 1970s by Dr. Ross McKinney from the University of Kansas and has become standard practice in Germany, with some in Britain. Recent computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling and full-scale trials by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago have confirmed the baffle’s ability to reduce density currents in the region where the sludge is withdrawn from the clarifier. This simple baffle also protects the sludge blanket from scour and is most effective for clarifiers equipped with scraping sludge collectors with small sludge hoppers. For best effect, the operator must either control the sludge blanket to just touch the horizontal plate, or adjust the depth of the plate and flocculation skirt based on the sludge blanket level. EFFLUENT LAUNDERS AND PERIPHERAL BAFFLES Inward projecting peripheral effluent

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


launders and baffles have become standard practice in clarifier designs to help minimize solids carryover from “wall creep” and related hydrodynamics near basin sidewalls. The baffle comes in various forms, depending on whether it is integrated with the underside of an interior launder (e.g., McKinney Lincoln Baffle) or is retrofitted onto the sidewall of an existing clarifier with exterior launder (e.g., Stamford baffle). CONCLUSIONS Black & Veatch recently included these design features for two wastewater plant retrofit projects. Although many of these features were originally developed for circular geometry, the same concepts have also been applied to rectangular geometry as well. The incorporation of these features optimizes the performance of secondary clarifiers, particularly when they are pushed to the upper end of their loading range by peak wet weather flows. From these modifications and exist-

Secondary clarifier phenomena that impact clarifier performance.

ing clarifiers, Black & Veatch concluded that the inlet design philosophy for circular, rectangular, “squircle” (square circular clarifiers) and multi – “squircle” tanks is similar. They also feel that mixed liquor should be fed into the clarifier at the lowest point the sludge blanket allows and that the SOLE, Chicago, UK and German inlet designs, which feature a vertical inlet pipe without an EDI, stim-

ulate flocculation and avoid floc breakup. The final conclusion is that the McKinney floor baffle inlet is a better approach than the current North American design approach with an EDI, especially for shallow clarifiers. J. Fitzpatrick, J. Barnard, A. Chan, P. Coleman and B. Moghadam are with Black & Veatch. For more information, email: ColemanPF@BV.com

The fully portable PowerPack PP1 is a single operator inertial pump actuator that is powerful enough to lift water from depths of over 60m* and yet is so compact and lightweight at 13kg, that it fits onto a backpack frame — providing outstanding pumping performance and a big boost to your field sampling program. • incorporates clamps for High Flow and Standard Flow tubing sizes & enables more sustained & deeper pumping than is possible by manual operation • fully adjustable — will adapt to almost any size casing or protective well casing • perfect for purging & sampling 2" diameter monitoring wells up to 150200 feet deep or when developing monitoring wells • eliminates the fatigue that can be experienced on large monitoring programs • can be used with flush grade well completions *using Standard Inertial Pump tubing and valves

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April 2018  |  41


WASTEWATER

Nova Scotia resort utilizes on-site distributed wastewater disposal systems By Allison Blodig

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orest Lakes Country Club is a four-season resort community under construction in Ardoise, just outside Halifax, Nova Scotia. The development will ultimately include 2,700 single-family, townhouse and multi-unit residential units, the only Nicklaus Design championship golf course in Atlantic Canada, and a village centre with commercial and retail operations. Several of the resort’s neighborhoods will be adjacent to the golf course. The Forest Lakes village centre will be accessible from all areas of the resort and will include retail shops, cafes, hotels, restaurants, a family entertainment centre, and a spa and wellness centre for residents and non-residents. Additionally, three lakes, a boathouse, walking trails and a horse riding area will all appeal to those looking to live in a natural setting, with the traditional housing, services and amenities typical of a modern municipal community development. The Ardoise area’s topography includes wetlands, rocky areas and a variety of

42  |  April 2018

soils, with no centralized municipal sewer or wastewater treatment infrastructure. In developing the Forest Lakes project, Terra Firma Development Corporation embraced a low impact strategy that would retain the rural nature of the area, while providing a wide range of housing units and recreational opportunities. The resort site development plans,

including the wastewater collection, treatment and disposal approach, had to minimize environmental impact, while facilitating the growth of the development over time.

SUSTAINABLE BUILDING FOCUS The homes at Forest Lakes incorporate the latest in sustainable building prac-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


tices to reduce energy and water consumption. The developer is a member of the Canada Green Building Council. Due to the overall size of the resort community and the wide range of developments at the site, traditional on-site wastewater treatment was not a viable option for most of the community. Minimum lot sizes for individual dispersal fields would have greatly impacted lot sizing and layout and reduced valuable and developable area that might otherwise be available for housing units, green spaces and resort facilities. Instead, the developer chose cluster-type configurations with large green spaces between and around homes and recreational areas. This enabled planned residential and recreational development, while also protecting environmentally sensitive areas. It simplified the provision of essential water, sewer and other utility services. Large open spaces in the clustered neighbourhood development also provided better opportunities for locating dispersal areas to minimize any possibility of adverse environmental impact. The Nicklaus Design golf course incorporates the wide-ranging topography of the area, including forests, lakes, ponds, rock outcroppings and natural wetlands. Its design aims to enhance the surrounding environment and minimize environmental impacts by incorporating sustainable landscaping principles to maximize

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The initial neighborhood system, serving 50 single family and semi-detached homes, is designed to treat a peak flow of 51,200 litres per day of residential sanitary wastewater.

the use of recycled or reclaimed water for irrigation.

hood wastewater treatment systems. The initial neighborhood system, serving 50 single family and semi-detached WASTEWATER TREATMENT homes, is designed to treat a peak flow of SYSTEM SPECIFICS 51,200 litres per day of residential sanitary Each neighbourhood at Forest Lakes wastewater. It includes a watertight septic utilizes a decentralized wastewater collec- tank effluent pump (STEP) pressurized tion, treatment and disposal system. A key effluent sewer collection system that delivdesign consideration for these systems ers primary effluent via small-diameter was that they work reliably in the northern, mainlines to an AdvanTex AX100 secmaritime climate typical of Nova Scotia. ondary wastewater treatment plant . WSP Canada’s project engineers worked Treated effluent from the AX100 syswith Orenco Systems , Inc. and Infiltrator tem is directed into the dispersal system distributor, Atlantic Purification Systems dosing tank where it is pumped, on a Ltd., to design several of the neighborcontinued overleaf…

®

®

April 2018  |  43


WASTEWATER

timed and intermittent basis using pressurized micro-dosing, to a multi-celled, soil dispersal system that incorporates Infiltrator Quick4 Plus Standard Chamber laterals in an area bed arrangement. The area beds provide on-site secondary effluent dispersal and treatment in two cells, each with five zones. A hydraulic distributing valve at the head of each cell automatically and sequentially directs the pumped flow to the appropriate zone. The AdvanTex AX100 and Infiltrator treatment systems were selected because of the low operation and maintenance requirement of these passive treatment processes. Infiltrator and Orenco manufacture components that are pre-engineered, robust, and designed to be readily accessible for inspection, maintenance, removal and/or repair as required. The dispersal field, for example, incorporates cleanouts and pressure testing components to facilitate periodic inspection and monitoring of system conditions. AdvanTex AX100 packed-bed textile filters are passive filtration and biological treatment systems, with high loading rates resulting in a footprint that is several times smaller than traditional sub-surface contour beds or sand filter treatment options. The modular nature of the AX100 textile filters allows developers to defer infrastructure costs by minimizing initial system size and adding modular treatment capacity to accommodate build out as the development grows. The Infiltrator chambers simplify large bed construction,

while providing savings on traditional materials and associated transportation costs. The chamber beds provide improved maintenance access and additional storage compared to traditional methods. The open bottom chamber system design preserves the infiltrative capabilities of the soils, which is especially helpful on larger sites where construction traffic is common. To minimize impact on usable and buildable areas of the resort, most system tankage, treatment filters, the control building, and ancillary equipment for each neighborhood are in the distributed treatment plant area. The dispersal fields are located directly adjacent to the treatment plant. A small control building houses electrical power distribution and system control panel, the flow meter, and associated miscellaneous maintenance equipment. This facilitates safe and easy access to electrical and controls equipment during all weather conditions. The system is controlled by an Orenco TCOM real-time remote telemetry panel that is capable of 24/7 monitoring and data logging of key equipment and plant conditions. It can email alarm notifications to operators and provide real-time remote control and adjustment by the operator from any Windows-based PC with an internet connection. Allison Blodig, REHS, is with Infiltrator Water Technologies. Email: ablodig@infiltratorwater.com

Thompson’S NEW $36.5M WWTP Construction is underway for the City of Thompson. Manitoba’s new $36.5-million centralized wastewater treatment facility, featuring a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process. The city currently has a wastewater system built in the early 1960s, and operates a primary plant that treats 70% of the City’s flows. An aerated lagoon handles the remaining 30%. With that system beyond its life cycle, the City undertook significant financial and environmental analysis to find the best fit for a new one. Following startup and commissioning of the new centralized plant, existing facilities, including the lagoon, will be decommissioned. The new facility will handle all wastewater generated by the City, up to a projected population of 15,000. Stantec Consulting Ltd. said that, with proper water conservation and maintenance of the sewer collection system to reduce inflow and infiltration in the future, the City will be able to improve the strength of the raw wastewater, which will ultimately favour better denitrification. It is anticipated that the effluent total nitrogen will vary from 15 mg/L to 25 mg/L. New force mains and lift station upgrades are also taking place. The total estimated cost of the project is $36.5 million, with $12.1 million coming from the New Building Canada Fund’s Provincial-Territorial Infrastructure Component-National and Regional Projects, $12.1 million coming from the Government of Manitoba, and the City of Thompson covering the remaining amount.

44  |  April 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


WATER

Quick action needed to get remote mining community’s water plant back in operation By George Micevski

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mining community of some 1,800 people lies off the northwestern shore of Hudson Bay in Nunavut. It sits at the end of a freshwater lake, from which it draws water to be treated at a local plant. In September 2016, the systems in the water treatment plant began to fail. The computer operating program crashed and every system in the plant stopped working. There was no information transmitting to turn on the pumps or open required valves. The original supplier of the control panel was unable to address the situation. As a short-term measure, the system was operated manually, but this was not sustainable. Tulsar Canada was contracted to fix the problem. Within 24 hours, a team of engineers from Tulsar’s southern Ontario base was on-site to debug the system and assess the extent of the problem. They found that the original control panel was a mess. Much of its original wiring had been changed in an effort to address previous problems over the years. But, it was apparent that none of these tasks were completed by someone familiar with the workings of the panel. Most of the re-wiring was done to bypass the panel’s instructions. This resulted in a conduit being sheared off and wearing against nearby wires, causing short circuits. Most of the input wiring was disabled, essentially rendering the control panel useless. Using both parts on-hand and some that were brought in with the team of engineers, Tulsar rewired the system to original specifications and reprogrammed the operating system to get it up and running again. The operating system was updated to allow the system to self-recover in the event of a future crash. Using a special code to instruct the processor to restart itself should a www.esemag.com

Baker Lake is a mining community in Nunavut that draws all of its potable water from a nearby lake.

similar fault occur, the computer was taught to clear any bugs in the system and continue to run the water plant safely and smoothly. The team also identified other potential problems that needed to be addressed and provided the community with a list of spare parts to be kept on hand to ensure proper maintenance could be done to keep the plant operational. Tulsar’s team also installed a remote modem in the control panel, enabling engineers anywhere with a cell phone connection to be able to address problems that may arise. This will eliminate the significant costs of flying in someone to deal with them on-site each time.

their work, the main system in the plant and its back up were operational. Detailed instructions were created, outlining what was required to ensure the secondary back up was repaired and operating. The system once again operates without oversight, but is now equipped with more than 50 alarms that will alert workers to required repairs or system failures. George Micevski is with Tulsar Canada. For more information, email: info@tulsar.com

RESULTS Within two hours of arrival, the community’s water treatment plant was once again automated and working. By the time Tulsar’s team had completed April 2018  |  45


WATER opportunities were revealed. It appears that processed satellite images can display valuable information regarding: • Estimates of macrophyte biomass, as well as across its delimitated areas of interest. • Monitoring growth of aquatic vegetation, in particular in plant infested areas. • Mapping algae and suspended particulates in the water body. • Surface temperature mapping of the water, as well as of the frozen surfaces. • Snow and ice patterns across the frozen lake. • Monitoring the thawing process of the frozen lake.

Analyses of satellite data will be supported by extensive field campaigns, including sampling water quality parameters.

Using satellite technology to evaluate lake water quality By Daniel Spitzer, Jesse C. Vermaire and Michael Yee

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odern satellite earth observation (EO) technologies that include high resolution multispectral imagery, as well as easy access to the collected data, are becoming highly attractive for applications dealing with periodic monitoring of aquatic environments. The water quality of many Canadian lakes is tested each year. Along with the conventional way of sampling the water, we can now use satellite technologies to look at them. Optical and infrared satellite remote sensing of aquatic environments is a discipline that has been well established for several decades. Referring to various U.S. and European satellite sensors (e.g., OLI/Landsat 8, NAOMI/SPOT 7 and MSI/Sentinel-2), vast amounts of relevant historical and near real-time satellite data are available at European and U.S. satellite data repositories (Copernicus, USGS, NASA). 46  |  April 2018

Extensive reviews of these technologies, retrieval algorithms and applications have been published. It has also been previously demonstrated that optical remote sensing technologies can provide quantitative information regarding water temperature, water quality, aquatic vegetation biomass, and ice formation and thawing processes. In the past few years, A-MAPS Environmental, Carleton University and Rideau Valley Conservation Authority have gained substantial knowledge and modelling skills regarding manipulation and analyses of EO satellite data with respect to aquatic environments. Software modules dealing with water quality and vegetation mapping were developed and tested during several previous studies across Ontario lakes. During a recent study dealing with the aquatic processes in Wolfe Lake, Ontario, several interesting EO applicability

AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING Proliferation of milfoils, in particular of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) poses a serious environmental problem for aquatic habitat in North America. Eurasian watermilfoil is an invasive aquatic plant native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, which spread rapidly in North America during the 1970s. It is now one of the most widely distributed invasive aquatic plants on the continent. The dense plant beds formed by it reduce biodiversity by competing aggressively with native plants and reduce oxygen concentrations in the water. Thick mats of Eurasian watermilfoil can also hinder recreational activities, such as swimming, boating and fishing. Furthermore, dense stands can create stagnant water, which is an ideal habitat for mosquitoes. From a climate change point of view, one should consider that lakes and ponds are a large source of atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Emissions from lakes are thought to be controlled primarily by temperature and secondarily by the availability of labile organic carbon. Aquatic plants provide in situ carbon sources to lakes and, therefore, can potentially impact rates of methane production. Globally, lakes emit 8-48 Tg CH4 yr-1 to the atmosphere. Methane is produced by organic carbon decomposed by methanogenic bacteria in anoxic environments. Dense vegetation in lakes can produce plentiful sediment substrate for decomposition. Sediment creates favorable

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


conditions for anoxic reactions, leading to increased methane release. Reduction of the invasive bottom vegetation can substantially contribute to the reduction of fugitive methane emissions. During the Wolfe Lake study, A-MAPS Environmental scientists developed multispectral algorithms that enable retrieval of information regarding the distribution of lake vegetation (mostly milfoils). These are based on modeling the reflectance spectra of clear water, phytoplankton and the lake bottom, as well as of the water column and atmospheric transmission processes. By using the retrieval algorithms, bottom vegetation density distribution maps of emergent and submergent macrophytes (lake weeds), abundant in lake shore areas, can be derived. These and other results of satellite based aquatic vegetation mapping over a period of six years clearly indicate that the multispectral, high resolution satellite imagery can be successfully applied for estimates of the total biomass changes in Ontario lakes.

www.esemag.com

Water temperature patterns in Wolfe Lake on a hot summer day in 2013. The temperature scale in the Centigrade units is displayed at the right-hand side. Thermal infrared bands of the satellite sensor were applied for the mapping.

WATER QUALITY MAPPING enable retrieval of information regardSimilarly to satellite monitoring and ing the distribution of aquatic dissolved mapping the macrophyte-biomass, multi- and particulate organic matter. These are spectral algorithms were developed that continued overleafâ&#x20AC;Ś

April 2018â&#x20AC;&#x201A; |â&#x20AC;&#x201A; 47


WATER based on modeling the reflectance spectra of clear water, phytoplankton, inorganic particulate matter and dissolved organic matter, as well as of the water column and atmospheric transmission processes. Amounts of phytoplankton, inorganic particulate matter and dissolved organic matter are the major constituents defining water quality. By using the retrieval

algorithms developed, concentration maps of water quality parameters, listed above, can be derived. WATER TEMPERATURE Accurate satellite-based detection of the surface temperature of large water bodies is a proven technology. Periodic monitoring of the temperature patterns across Canadian lakes can contribute

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to studies on dispersion and transport of pollutants discharged from on-shore sources. Specific algorithms were also developed for mapping frozen lake surfaces as well as for detection of surface temperatures. An interesting application of satellite observations over frozen lakes concerns monitoring the thawing process of surface ice. By analyzing multitemporal thermal imagery, the date when the average surface temperature becomes above or below the melting point (0°C) can be estimated with a better than two days accuracy. UPCOMING PROJECTS New initiatives are planned by A-MAPS Environmental and its partners to develop innovative methodologies for lake vegetation management and remedial actions. In situ measurements, high-resolution spectral satellite observations and digital underwater photography will be employed. Standard water sampling techniques and equipment will be applied. In situ measurements of water clarity, nutrient concentrations and bottom vegetation density will be performed during a joint measuring campaign by volunteers from the Wolfe Lake (Westport) Association and Carleton University. Data on water quality and bottom vegetation density will be statistically analyzed in order to specify factors affecting Eurasian watermilfoil proliferation. The effectiveness of currently applied bottom vegetation reduction methods, bottom mats and laminar flow aeration will be evaluated at localized small areas. Results of the study will be presented through an interactive software application, with a graphical user interface enabling quantitative assessments in terms of graphical and numerical displays and statistical analyses. Findings, conclusions and recommendations resulting from the project will be reported and presented to organizations dealing with aquatic environment care and management. Ultimately, these initiatives aim at the development of innovative methodology, based on EO data, supported by user-friendly software applications that will enable effective control of milfoil Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


infestations, which are harmful to natural aquatic habitat. Analyses of satellite data will be supported by extensive field campaigns, including sampling water quality parameters, total plant biomass and percent volume inhabited, as well as monitoring bottom vegetation growth through image processing of digital underwater photography. A sub-goal of the sampling initiatives will be to evaluate and to quantify various methodologies leading to effective control of the invasive aquatic vegetation. Periodic satellite based mapping of weed infested areas will be used to guide the sampling procedures. Large public-sector organizations, such as Rideau Valley Conservation Authority, Federation of the Ontario Cottagers’ Associations, Wolfe Lake (Westport) Association and Watersheds Canada, as well as academic institutions (Carleton University, Ottawa) have recently committed extensive in-kind support. Of particular importance is the inter-

est in the outcomes of the project by Rideau Valley Conservation Authority. Its mission is to understand, manage, protect, restore and enhance the Rideau watershed through science, stewardship, education, policy and leadership. Obviously, monitoring and regulatory tasks of the Conservation Authority will benefit from having access to new geospatial information, including processed satellite earth observation imagery. Enhancement of the quantity and quality of information on the proliferation of aquatic plants also is of key importance to large community organizations such as Watersheds Canada and the Federation of Ontario Cottagers’ Associations, that are actively engaged in the protection of the lake habitat in Canada. These organizations appear to be keen to apply to their activities the new knowledge provided by these innovative earth observation technologies.

from the EarthExplorer website of the US Geological Survey (https://earthexplorer. usgs.gov/). The underwater camera acquisition was kindly funded by the Ontario Federation of Cottagers’ Associations. References are available on request. Daniel Spitzer is with A-MAPS Environmental Inc. Email: dspitzer@amapsenv.com. Jesse Vermaire is with Carleton University. Email: JesseVermaire@cunet.carleton.ca Michael Yee is with the Rideau Valley Conservation Authority. Email: michael.yee@rvca.ca

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The satellite data were downloaded

Waterra HS-2 Oil/Water Interface Sensors and WS-2 Water Level Sensors are advanced products that utilize the most recent electronic technology. Their tough polyethylene reels protect the stainless steel tape from damage and dirt while their lightweight and slim profile make them very portable. Our sophisticated HS-2 ultrasonic sensors are more sensitive in a broader range of hydrocarbon products than conventional optical systems and they produce the quickest interface detection available. Innovative design features, compactness, portability and reliability — all at a competitive price. • extremely low power consumption

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April 2018  |  49


WATER & WASTEWATER

Modular and packaged MSBR plants chosen for small scale treatment systems By Irene Hassas

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any small towns, remote communities and new developments are not connected to municipal grids. Topography, geographic isolation, climate, attracting and retaining system operators, and limited financial resources, are some of the barriers communities face when considering water and wastewater infrastructure. In the past few decades, decentralized water and wastewater treatment plants have been addressing some of the barriers such as capital and O&M costs by providing long-term and cost-effective solutions for communities. In some cases, reuse of treated wastewater has made these communities more sustainable, promoted business development and created job opportunities. Distributed and decentralized systems are often used to treat water and wastewater in small towns and communities and can be designed to treat flows as low as 0.002 MGD or as high as 0.5 MGD. These systems can be constructed on-site, or be provided as pre-manufactured treatment facilities, also known as

50  |  April 2018

Aslan’s SBR (ASL-MSBR) installed at Lebovic Golf & Country Club and Community.

modular packaged plants. To address the concerns of small communities, Aslan Technologies has designed an integrated modular and modified sequencing batch reactor

(ASL-MSBR) to eliminate some of the complexities and operational challenges of existing solutions. ASL-MSBR is a variation of the activated sludge process where all clarification and biological

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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treatment stages occur in a single tank. Separate tanks are not required for aera- tion and sedimentation steps. Based on the wastewater flow charac-  teristics, ASL-MSBR systems can consist of two or more reactor tanks that are  operated in parallel, or of one equalization tank and one reactor tank, allowing  continuous influent flow.   In either configuration, the influent flow first goes through a screening process   before entering the MSBR. Waste is then treated in a series of batch phases within  the MSBR to achieve the desired effluent criteria. Sludge that is generated from the  MSBR moves on to digestion and eventually to solids handling, disposal or benefi-  cial reuse. Treated effluent then moves to   disinfection, if required. An equalization tank is typically needed before the disinfection unit;  otherwise, a sizable filter may be necessary to accommodate the large flow of   water entering the disinfection system.   In addition, ASL-MSBR typically has no primary or secondary clarifiers as   settling takes place in the process.

rates the “One Water” approach. It is an emerging new concept that reduces the burden on water sources and infrastructure by encouraging greater conservation, and discovery of new sources, and improving safe reuse of treated water. The One Water approach provides a way to reduce operating costs, while investing in more cost-effective infrastructure. This helps communities to tackle competing infrastructure demands, increasing regulatory standards, and challenges resulting from severe climate impacts and flooding. Communities are encouraged to unlock the full value of One Water through partnerships with different stakeholders such as industry, governments and conservation authorities. By working together, great achievements can be made, including flood and erosion protection, environmental land use planning, ecosystem regeneration, and improved water quality and quantity, including reducing phosphorus discharge.

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS A small community has been recently developed by Lebovic Homes in Aurora, THE ‘ONE WATER’ APPROACH Ontario, consisting of over 70 luxury When designing and planning  homes surrounded by an 18-hole chamASL-MSBR treatment plants, in addition pionship golf course with associated to considering geographical challenges   amenities and a club house. and land use planning, Aslan incorpocontinued overleaf… www.esemag.com

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continued overleaf… April 2018  |  51


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Water management is one of the greatest challenges of golf courses’ sustainability programs as large quantities of fresh water are essential for obtaining high quality turf, which maximizes playability. Golf courses also have challenges with varying levels of water usage. There is steady water usage in the summer, but little to no flow in the winter. There may also be brief periods of peak flow when an event is held. THE SOLUTION To address these issues, two separate water and wastewater integrated and automated packaged plants were successfully designed, programmed, installed, and commissioned. The drinking water treatment plant includes a series of media filtration and chlorine injection systems to treat groundwater to regulatory levels. A complete MSBR packaged plant was customized and built to treat up to 170,000 L of wastewater per day. The plant is composed of a raw wastewater pumping station, an ASL-MSBR, UV disinfection, an automated sampling system, an aerated sludge holding tank, and a generator auxiliary power system. Waste sludge is further digested in the storage tank and effluent water is reused to irrigate the golf course. To manage and handle varying water usage and flow rates, equalization tanks are included in the treatment plants. COST MANAGEMENT AND WASTEWATER REUSE AT RESORTS The JW Marriott Resort is located in the heart of the Muskoka Lakes, in Ontario. The luxury resort, which features a year-round indoor-outdoor pool and spa, required drinking water and wastewater treatment plants. Innovative design and treatment solutions were necessary due to challenges with the site location and rock outcroppings. The system also had to provide potable water for fire flows. This introduced other constraints to the design, due to the high cost of blasting and trying not to put in clear wells. Aslan manufactured and installed a potable water system for flows ranging from 40 LPM up to 5,700 LPM, while eliminating the need for clear wells and associated contact times. It consists of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Aslan’s containerized modified sequencing batch reactor.

a series of filtration and disinfection trains. The wastewater treatment plant selected was a ASL-MSBR packaged   plant. Both potable water (ASL-PWTS) and wastewater treatment (ASL-MSBR)   plants were designed, built, and installed for the 221-unit hotel/residential condo  minium and the 500+ guest ballroom   and conference facility. Potable water is drawn from Lake   Rosseau and the treated wastewater is directed to a green side pond where it will ultimately flow back into Lake Rosseau.  Another recent development is a   community consisting of over 40 heritage-inspired cottages on Lake Rosseau   and a pool pavilion. The community will be open year round for the enjoy  ment of both summer and winter activities. Decentralized drinking water and   wastewater treatment solutions were required to complete development of the   community.   Once again, two packaged plants were designed for the treatment of drinking   water and wastewater. Strategic planning was required when designing the plants   due to the resort’s location and topography. The slightly sloping property is   located on Canadian Shield bedrock. Water is drawn from Lake Rosseau   via a pumping station for the resort’s drinking water. This time, it was deter  mined that an ASL-UF ultrafiltration membrane plant was needed. Membrane   systems have reduced footprints, are www.esemag.com

simple to scale up, have a higher flexibility, are capable of treating a broad range of water quality, and offer a high level of automation. The ASL-UF system with an accompanying clean-in-place (CIP) system and a UV disinfection system treat the incoming water. An ASL-MSBR packaged plant was selected to treat the wastewater. This plant consists of a modified sequencing batch reactor, sand filters and a sludge digester. CONSISTENTLY POSITIVE RESULTS Modular and packaged plant solutions allow communities to take a phased approach to the implementation of treatment systems, thereby ensuring cost control of their investments, while consistently meeting health, safety, and environmental regulations and limits. Irene Hassas is with Aslan Technologies Inc. Email: ihassas@ASLANTech.ca

A reliable supply of compressed air is  critical  to  ensure  process  continuity.  Incorporating  Atlas  Copco’s  proven  screw  technology  and  long  standing  internal engineering practices, the ZS  Screw  Blowers  Series  guarantees  exceptional  energy  efficiency  and  reliability.         

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COMMITTED TO SUSTAINABLE  PRODUCTIVITY  We  stand  by  our  responsibilities  towards  our  customers,  towards  the  environment  and  the  people  around  us. We make performance stand the  test  of  time.  This  is  what  we  call  –  Sustainable Productivity.  For  more  information  in  regards  to  our  Blowers  or  Low  pressure  compressors,  please  contact  Mrs.  Marie‐Josee  (MJ)  Quessy  at  514.464.7095  or  via  email  at  marie‐ josee.quessy@ca.atlascopco.com 

April 2018  |  53


WATER & WASTEWATER

Muskoka using cloud based software system to track operator training and certification By Marcus Firman and Sipo Ching

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n 2016, the District of Muskoka in Ontario set out to modernize its training and certification tracking system with a focus on a holistic management tool to enhance its existing Drinking Water Quality Management System in the long-term. The project started with an internal review and need analysis. The District identified key areas of the modernization project as: process automation, partner ecosystem, and business analytics. After an extensive search, Compliance365.com, a cloud-based services platform, was selected to replace the legacy training system. A key challenge was the labour-intensive and error prone process of managing operator training and compliance with the regulatory requirements for licence renewal and upgrade. With 300 on-thejob and continuing education training events conducted annually, the District had to handle over 1,500 training records and paper course certificates. Training records were maintained in various databases and spreadsheets. Paper certifi-

With 300 on-the-job and continuing education training events conducted annually, the District had to handle over 1,500 training records and paper course certificates.

With the new Compliance system, all cates and documentation were scattered in file cabinets or individual’s emails stakeholders can now quickly access and computers. Manual compilation of training records, certificates and docutraining achievement was cumbersome, mentation from one central database. time-consuming and error prone. Trainers and participants are notified by

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54  |  April 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


email with course schedules, details and materials. The trainer enters attendance and uploads course certificates and docu  mentation electronically. Training hours are then automatically accredited to the   participants. It has streamlined the training process and eliminated the manual   tasks associated with paper records.

partners from private and public sectors will benefit from major cost saving and operational efficiency gains.

BUSINESS ANALYTICS The Compliance system provides business analytics that allows non-technical users to perform data mining and create high impact visual dashboards. AUTOMATIC LICENCE The District can assemble data from variRENEWAL AND UPGRADE   ous sources and reveal insights. It helps Water and wastewater operator certi- management to make quantifiable and fication was a tedious paper based appli  informed decisions and drive continuous cation. However, the new system has fully improvement of the water operations.   automated licence renewal and upgrade The training dashboard provides visuapplications with consistency, account- alization of training expenditure and cat  egorization. Management can use filters ability and compliance. The Compliance engine validates the operator’s acquired to mine the data. It provides historical   information as well as trending of the training hours, operator-in-charge (OIC) and operating experience with the training spending.   renewal and upgrade requirements of the specific type and class of the licence.   CONCLUSION The successful roll-out of the CompliWith one click, the system auto-fills ance system has received accolades from licence application forms and gener  ates a submission package with all the all stakeholders. It not only replaced required reports and certificates. The   the legacy system, which was running District no longer struggles with lengthy on end-of-life technology, but also preparation and only spends a fraction   provides a solution platform that the of the time used before on preparing District can use to grow and expand its   operations. The industry trending cloud and filing renewal and upgrade applications to the Ontario Ministry of the based subscription model eliminates Environment and Climate Change.   the need for upfront capital investment, The Compliance system links the train- while offering flexibility and an afford  able growth path. Its all-inclusive annual ing and certification community. The District found significant efficiency gains subscription fee enables fast adoption,   through connecting with its business without having to internally manage the partners on the Compliance system plat  hardware, software and network procureform. It gives internal and external train- ment with associated setup time and ing providers the ability to record atten  costs. This model is best suited when dances and attach certificates electroni- under tight budget constraints. cally. It saves time and eliminates a series Moving forward, the rest of the water   of manual tasks, such as mailing, faxing, operations will be evaluated. The District scanning and duplicated data entry.   has the need and desire to continue the In addition to licensing requirements, modernization of its operations.   the Compliance system is being piloted with respect to water testing laboratories. Marcus Firman is with the District   Municipality of Muskoka. Sipo The District currently receives test results on spreadsheets, which are not the best Ching is with Compliance365   Inc. For more information, visit format for searching and data analysis. A pilot project is currently being under- www.compliance365.com   taken to allow laboratories to upload test results to the Compliance system. This   interacting path has created a win-win situation for both parties and allowed   the District to enhance its water monitoring and reporting capability. As the   system continues to expand and mature, www.esemag.com

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COMMITTED TO SUSTAINABLE  PRODUCTIVITY  We  stand  by  our  responsibilities  towards  our  customers,  towards  the  environment  and  the  people  around  us. We make performance stand the  test  of  time.  This  is  what  we  call  –  Sustainable Productivity.  For  more  information  in  regards  to  our  Blowers  or  Low  pressure  compressors,  please  contact  Mrs.  Marie‐Josee  (MJ)  Quessy  at  514.464.7095  or  via  email  at  marie‐ josee.quessy@ca.atlascopco.com 

April 2018  |  55


WATER WASTEWATER EFFICIENCY

In 2010, Halifax began considering energy recovery in place of traditional pressure reduction using pressure reducing valves. Photo: Glenn Euloth CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Halifax generating power from its watermain pressure reducing valve stations

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research project conducted by the Water Research Foundation investigated the installation of a hydrokinetic in-line energy recovery turbine-generator within a water distribution system to determine the system’s benefits and operational characteristics. The research focused on control methodologies, modes of failure and risk mitigation strategies, as well as the operational, hydraulic and water quality effects on the downstream water supply system. The use of hydrokinetic machines to recover energy from water and other liquid flow streams is well known and has been in use for almost two thousand years. Today’s modern hydrokinetic turbines are mainly used to generate large-scale hydro-electric power. In 2010,

56  |  April 2018

Halifax Water began considering energy recovery in place of traditional pressure reduction using pressure reducing valves (PRVs) or flow control valves (FCVs) within its water distribution system. This decision was, in part, due to the launch of a new provincial renewable energy initiative called the Community Feed-In Tariff (COMFIT) Program. It offered preferential energy rates to certain renewable energy generation projects, all in the interest of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Nova Scotia. Of the test sites identified in the Halifax water system, its Orchard Control Chamber was deemed to be the best one for initial research and development of a prototype energy recovery system. It was selected because of its relatively

stable but significant diurnal flows and level of pressure reduction. The project involved development, design, installation and commissioning of the Orchard in-line energy recovery turbine. It also included research into the operational characteristics, effects on water quality and the overall water distribution system. Control and risk mitigation strategies were also developed to protect the water distribution system from any harmful effects, such as pressure surges, etc. Implementation of renewable energy generation projects within a water or wastewater utility is becoming commonplace in today’s world of escalating energy prices. Other drivers include improving energy efficiency, reducing greenhouse

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


gas emissions, and reducing operating costs. The economics of these projects has improved steadily, with project revenues, return on investment, and payback all contributing positively to a utility’s bottom line. Integrating small energy recovery turbines into water distribution systems can work well within a utility’s infrastructure, provided a reasonable energy rate is available from the local electric utility. The Orchard project shows how new, existing, and older infrastructure can be easily utilized to capture otherwise wasted energy. Designing the Orchard turbine was a relatively simple process, while first ensuring that enough total dynamic head, flow, and utilization were available at the Orchard Control Chamber. Once the hydraulic performance of the system was confirmed, the civil, mechanical, electrical, and control system designs were completed. Installation and commissioning were straightforward, with most components being commonplace and familiar to water utility staff. Integration of the control and monitoring systems within the existing SCADA system was relatively simple, with no complex control requirements. Testing was undertaken to understand the turbine-generator’s operational characteristics, and to identify any potential problem areas related to upstream and downstream pressure or flow transients. Test scenarios included normal operating events such as non-emergency start up and shutdown. Others simulated emergency shutdown events, including those initiated by operators and the automatic control system. Some upstream and downstream pressure transients were expected and found, but measures were taken to minimize or eliminate these transients in order to protect the affected infrastructure. The turbine-generator, through its control system permissives and operating set points, was found to be easily adjustable in terms of mitigating the negative effects of www.esemag.com

pressure and flow transients. Through this testing, a better understanding of turbine-generator operation was gained, as was the understanding of how to deploy similar technology into much older, more tightly pressure-controlled regions of the water distribution system. To date, test results and operating data have shown no detrimental effects on the water distribution system, and the operation of the turbine has not resulted in any significant or detrimental pressure transients, hydraulic surges, nor impacted water quality. Based on these test results, installing an energy recovery turbine into a water distribution

system is readily achievable, provided turbine-generator controls and operating parameters are tightly controlled and adjusted to lessen or eliminate pressure and flow transients, based on the design constraints of the distribution system. Implementing an in-line energy recovery turbine project can be achieved by any water utility; however, it requires careful front-end planning and evaluation, diligent project execution, thorough system testing, and ongoing system monitoring and control. For more information, visit, www.waterrf.org

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PRODUCT & SERVICE SHOWCASE High Performance Mixer

Grooved End Piping System

State-of-the-art mixer HPCDI , a cost-effective solution to sludge build-up, creates a unique tornado + fireworks-like flow pattern. It suspends heavy solids with the force of tornado, consuming 10 – 27% of energy of conventional mixers. The fireworks-like dispersion eliminates dead zones and short-circuiting. It is ragging-free, providing a mixing system with minimal maintenance.

Chemline’s new Alfa Rapid grooved end piping system has mechanical connections using flexible pipe couplings. Grooved end dimensions are the same as “Victaulic”. Flexible pipe couplings 1-1/2" to 6" are made of polyamide (PAG) and SS bolts. Polypropylene grooved end pipe fittings are available 1-1/2" to 4". Ball valves have pipe coupling ends. An excellent alternative to conventional flanging; saves time, money, space.

T: 587-352-9652 E: tech@revolmixing.com W: www.revolmixing.com

T: 800-930-CHEM (2436) F: 905-889-8553 E: request@chemline.com W: www.chemline.com

Revolmix Processing Ltd. Represented in Ontario by ACG-Envirocan

Chemline Plastics

T: 905-856-1414 E: sales@envirocan.ca

ACG-Envirocan

Advanced Biological Treatment

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AquaNereda Aerobic Granular Sludge Technology is now available in Canada and the U.S., exclusively from Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Inc. This advanced biological treatment technology replicates the same effluent quality as a well-designed enhanced BNR facility but without the use of chemicals. The reduced footprint and low energy requirement of the AquaNereda process provide a competitive alternative for high performance plants.

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T: 815-654-2501 W: www.aqua-aerobic.com

Aqua-Aerobic Systems

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Block water from accessing assets Road erosion, premature concrete failure or water ingress into wastewater systems? Denso’s 12" LT tape has been proven for nearly a century to block water from accessing assets. It won’t harden or crack and is the perfect solution to protect concrete and prevent I&I. Applied in minutes, requiring minimal surface preparation, no mixing or curing, it can be buried immediately. T: 416-291-3435 E: sales@densona-ca.com W: www.densona.com

Denso North America

Plug-and-play Flow Meter The new Picomag from Endress+Hauser is a simple, reliable and maintenance-free plug-and-play flow meter for utilities in a pocket-sized format. Picomag offers customers easy commissioning with Bluetooth, using its SmartBlue App, as well as seamless system integration thanks to IO-Link technology.

T: 905-681-9292 F: 905-681-9444 E: info@ca.endress.com W: www.e-direct.endress.com/ca/ picomag

Endress+Hauser Canada

Flow Measurement

Proline 300/500 flow measurement technology provides continuous on-board diagnostics and meter verification with Heartbeat Technology , and fast commissioning and intuitive operation via display, web server and WLAN. It offers maximum flexibility with configurable I/O.

T: 905-681-9292 F: 905-681-9444 E: info@ca.endress.com W: www.ca.endress.com/ proline300500

Endress+Hauser Canada

Submersible + field instruments Sequoia Instruments’ submersible + field instruments measure particles and their properties, using Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry (LISST) technology. This includes: LISST-200X – submersible particle size distribution + concentration analyzer; LISST-ABS – measures suspended sediment concentration; and LISST-Holo2 – holographic particle imaging + size distribution. E: salesb@hoskin.ca, Burlington, ON E: salesv@hoskin.ca, Burnaby, BC E: salesm@hoskin.ca, Montreal, QC W: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

April 2018  |  59


PRODUCT & SERVICE SHOWCASE Fiberglass Flumes

that attach to particles, such as nutrients and metals. The Stormceptor EF has been verified through the ISO 14034 Environmental Management – Environmental Technology Verification (ETV). T: 800-565-4801 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com

Imbrium Systems

Hoskin Scientific offers a full line of standard fiberglass flumes, such as Parshall Flumes, Palmer Bowlus Flumes, H Flumes, Trapezoidal Flumes, along with countless custom structures used for open channel flow measurement. E: salesb@hoskin.ca, Burlington, ON E: salesv@hoskin.ca, Burnaby, BC E: salesm@hoskin.ca, Montreal, QC W: www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific

Confined Space Vertical Screen Oostburg’s Black River Falls facility is a lean operation, with limitations in space for screening technology and in the staff resources available to manage, maintain and report on the Village’s processes. Even though space was limited, Oostburg knew that putting a headworks screening solution in place would improve their operational efficiency. Oostburg found the perfect solution using the Huber Technology RoK4 confined space vertical screen. T: 704-949-1010 E: huber@hhusa.net W: www.huber-technology.com

Huber Technology

Oil grit separator The new Stormceptor EF is an oil grit separator (OGS)/ hydrodynamic separator that effectively targets sediment (TSS), free oils, gross pollutants and other pollutants

®

60  |  April 2018

Stormwater Modeling Tool

PCSWMM for Stormceptor is a continuous simulation modeling software that determines the most appropriate-sized Stormceptor for your site. Highlights include localized rainfall data from over 1,900 NOAA weather stations across North America and the ability to size multiple Stormceptor units within a single project. Visit www.imbriumsystems.com/launch-pcswmm. T: 800-565-4801 E: info@imbriumsystems.com W: www.imbriumsystems.com

Imbrium Systems

Full service-in-place pumps

®

NETZSCH’s NEMO progressing cavity pumps with FSIP (full service-in-place) provide full access to all rotating parts. Dismantle and install rotating parts again without removing the pump from the pipe assembly or having to disconnect wiring. Reduce installation and service time. The NEMO FSIP design is fully compatible with the existing NEMO pump BY and SY series for easy retrofitting.

®

T: 705-797-8426 F: 705-797-8427 E: info@netzsch.ca W: www.pumps.netzsch.com

NETZSCH Canada

Twin Shaft Grinder The new NETZSCH N.Mac Twin Shaft Grinder is designed to fragment a variety of materials in wastewater treatment, biogas and biomass plants, food, animal processing, and other waste and industrial applications. Available in channel and inline (flanged) housing construction; N.Mac can be installed into effluent channels or upstream from a pump. Modular assemblies and interchangeable components facilitate universal parts servicing.

T: 705-797-8426 F: 705-797-8427 E: info@netzsch.ca W: www.pumps.netzsch.com

NETZSCH Canada

Retrofit Baffle System The OPTIFLOW 270 Retrofit Baffle System retrofits into existing 270-degree vortex grit chambers to significantly improve removal efficiency. Grit removal systems designed to meet previous standards can be upgraded to remove 95% of grit down to 150 microns (100 mesh). This baffle is available not only for flat-floor vortex chambers but as a conversion system for sloped and cone-shaped chambers.

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T: 800-898-9122 F: 913-888-2173 E: answers@smithandloveless.com W: www.SmithandLoveless.com

Smith & Loveless

Quick Clean Check Valve

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The RapidJack Quick Clean Check Valve eliminates the need for time-consuming valve disassembly and interim piping realignment. Instead, quickly access Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


the entire valve by opening the top and pulling the arm assembly up and out. This simple process consists only of removing four bolts, detaching the spring, and lifting it free from the check valve body (approximately 15 minutes total). T: 800-898-9122 F: 913-888-2173 E: answers@smithandloveless.com W: www.SmithandLoveless.com

Smith & Loveless

Engineered metal doors USF Fabrication, Inc. manufacture a complete line of engineered metal doors for underground utility access. They have been fabricating solutions since 1916 with over 160,000 sq ft of manufacturing space. This allows them to offer the best lead times in the industry. Their friendly and knowledgeable staff is committed to providing customers with the right product for their application and shipping it when they need it. T: 604-552-7900 F: 604-552-7901 E: sales@engineeredpump.com

USF Fabrication

Accommodate Dynamic Movement The Style W257 dynamic movement joint from Victaulic is preassembled and reduces installation complexity for threaded rod installations of the AWWA M11 harness and C219 bolted sleeve-type joints. It can accommodate differential settlement and seismic movement in large-diameter piping systems. The joint is available in 14" to 78", DN350 to DN1950 sizes and is designed to be direct buried.

T: 905-884-7444 E: rhys.jardine@victaulic.com W: www.dynamicmovementjoint.com

Victaulic

www.esemag.com

Disposable Groundwater Filters — New Sizes Waterra has expanded its product range of PES inline disposable filters to now include pore sizes consisting of 0.2 micron, 0.45 micron, 1.2 micron and 5 micron. These capsule filters will be available in two size formats, a 300 cm2 surface area version and a 600 cm2 surface area version for higher turbidity samples. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

High Performance Submersible Pumps Waterra’s High Performance Submersible Pumps are designed specifically for well purging and sampling procedures. All of these pumps can greatly speed up the process of purging and sampling monitoring wells, especially if dedicated installations are used. These pumps are complete and ready to use. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Rugged and Reliable Peristaltic Pump The Spectra FieldPro is the most popular peristaltic pump that Waterra has sold. The FieldPro combines the MasterFlex EasyLoad II pump head with a powerful motor and power supply in a rugged aluminum case. It will work all day

on a full charge, and includes a 12 Ah AGM battery, smart charger and storage compartment — everything you need in a portable peristaltic pump. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Advanced and Portable Water Level Indicator Waterra’s WS-2 Water Level Sensors are advanced products that utilize advanced electronic technology. The WS-2 features an innovative design as well as compactness, portability and reliability — all at a competitive price. WS-2 tapes are available with Kynar (PVDF) or polyethylene jackets and graduated in imperial or metric units. T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Intelligent Pumping System Flygt Concertor is the world’s first wastewater pumping system with integrated intelligence. This new smart, interconnected wastewater pumping system from Xylem’s Flygt brand senses the operating conditions of its environment, adapts its performance in real time and provides feedback to pumping station operators. It is suitable for use with wastewater pumps in the range of up to 7.3 kilowatts (kW) and has a system design that combines IE4 motor efficiency, N-hydraulics, integrated power electronics and intelligent controls E : bridgett.rousselle@xyleminc.com W: www.xyleminc.com

Xylem

April 2018  |  61


ES&E NEWS nated through urine. Testing is expected to cost up to $600,000 per year, and could run as long as three years if testing quality meets the agency’s expectations. While the move to test wastewater for drugs is new to many people in Canada, it is not without precedent. Of particular note is a 2013 study by researchers from McGill University in Montreal, joined by researchers from Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario, who teamed up to test drug levels in the wastewater of their respective cities. Countries such as Australia have been spending millions of dollars for years on such testing programs. In 2008, the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health published a comprehensive study about the use of wastewater analysis for gauging drug use trends in countries such as Italy and the U.K.

As legislation is drafted to legalize cannabis in Canada for summer 2018, researchers at Statistics Canada are seeking a company that can analyze the wastewater of some 15 to 20 municipalities on a monthly basis to record data on cannabis consumption. Photo credit: Jdubsvideo, AdobeStock.

STATCAN SEEKS WW ANALYZER TO GAUGE CANNABIS USE

to record data on cannabis consumption. The analysis of THC metabolites found It isn’t new to test municipal wastewa- in urine within the wastewater would ter for nitrogen, phosphorus or chemical occur just prior to legalization and thereoxygen demand, but using wastewater to after for comparison, StatCan says. The gauge drug use among the public is a new main metabolite likely to be analyzed avenue for Canada’s top statistics agency. would be 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocanAs legislation is drafted to legalize nabinol-9-carboxylic acid (Delta-9-THCcannabis in Canada for summer 2018, COOH). THC drug tests typically yield a researchers at Statistics Canada (StatCan) positive result when the concentration have issued a tender seeking a company of cannabis in urine exceeds 50 ng/mL. that can analyze the wastewater of some Most researchers agree that about 15-20% 15 to 20 municipalities on a monthly basis of a Delta-9 THC dose ends up elimi-

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BC PLANT-BASED FOODS MANUFACTURER FINED

Garden Protein International Inc. (Gardein) has pleaded guilty in the Provincial Court of British Columbia to one count of depositing a deleterious substance in an area where it may enter fish-bearing water in violation of the Fisheries Act. According to Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), Gardein was ordered to pay a penalty of $285,000. Additionally, the company was ordered to install further infrastructure at its Richmond-based plant to prevent future spills. According to the CBC, this means an additional exterior trench drain must be installed to prevent any future discharges and pollution. In February 2016, ECCC enforcement officers launched an investigation after receiving a report that vegetable oil had been released into a ditch on the defendant’s property, which leads into the Fraser River. ECCC said that the inspection revealed a release of oil and that samples and analyses confirmed a violation. www.canada.ca

Edmonton, AB 780-455-4300 Consulting • Engineering • Construction • Operation

62  |  April 2018 Black&Veatch_ND.14_ProCard_TP.indd 1

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine 2014-11-12 10:29 AM


ES&E NEWS ES&E NEWS ers and will be in Puerto Rico for at least six more months. www.thompsonpump.com

PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IS A KEY PART OF SUCCESSFUL WATER SYSTEMS

THOMPSON PUMP HELPS HURRICANE BATTERED PUERTO RICO

Informing residents about local water issues and involving them in local water policies are the keys to building healthy and resilient city water systems, according to a recent study from Portland State University (PSU). Melissa Haeffner, a PSU environmental science professor and the study's principal investigator, said that residents who received communications from their local water bureaus or served on a city water system advisory board, or committee, had perspectives and concerns that were more aligned with those of political leaders and professional water managers. There is a gap that exists between residents, who are concerned about costs and water shortages, and water manag-

deployed in a similar manner shortly thereafter, allowing clean water for the community’s citizens for the first time Hurricane Maria decimated Puerto in weeks. Rico in September, 2017. Thompson Thompson Pump’s equipment and Pump was among the companies con- workers are still providing an integral tacted to place bids on a relief contract role in the recovery process with workfrom the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Thompson subsequently was given the go-ahead to send a team of workers to Puerto Rico to formulate a strategy to help save a large community living downstream from the Guajataca Dam. When the dam’s spillway failed, it caused an outpouring of water, resulting in major erosion that necessitated the evacuation of 70,000 area homes. During and immediately after the storm, there was a real fear they could lose the dam entirely. Ten complete systems consisting of pumps, suction and discharge lines, and elbows and fittings were needed to provide relief by lowering the dam’s water level, thus alleviating the possibility of major flooding. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers also tasked Thompson’s workers and equipment to provide drinking water for almost a quarter of a million people desperate for it. Within days of the equipment’s arrival in Puerto Rico, the first two pumps were used to reroute water from the Guajataca lake reservoir to a canal feeding three water treatment www.stantec.com/water plants. The remaining eight pumps were

continued overleaf…

Innovative, Fit-for-purpose Solutions

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April 2018  |  63


ES&E NEWS ers, who are concerned about aging water over water issues helped create municiinfrastructure, said the PSU study, which pal water systems that were effective and was published in the February 2018 issue sustainable. of Water Resources Research. Haeffner, Using interviews and surveys with who collaborated with researchers from mayors, city council members, public The Ohio State University and Utah State utilities staff and residents in northern University, concluded that bridging this Utah, Haeffner and her collaborators gap between residents and policymakers examined how these different particNOW AVAILABLE IN CANADA!

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ipants have varying perceptions and levels of knowledge about the key issues facing city water systems. “I believe it's just as important to study how human factors influence local water policy as it is to study the science of water quality or the costs of upgrading water infrastructure,” said Haeffner in a news release. “Today most research on city water systems focuses on these engineering or economic factors. My research examines how human behaviors impact local water policy.” www.pdx.edu

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Montreal, Maine and Atlantic CanAnoxic Basins Aeration ada Co. (MMA) was Basins found guilty in the Sludge Mixing Court Quebec of mixing unlawfully depositDrinkingof water storage tank Sewage pump station grease ing or permitting the deposit of crude cap busting & odor control HYDRO-PULSE BUBBLETRON Industrial Applications oil into Mégantic Lake and the ChauLarge Bubble Mixing Technology Large Air Bubble Mixing Technology Food processing applications, liquor blending &dière a wide River. range of mixing applications IDEAL MIXING FOR: Ideal mixing for: Innovative, air burst driven mixing On July 6, 2013, a MMA train carrying Anoxic Basins• Innovative, air-burst driven mixing •MostAnoxic, Aeration & Swing Tanks • Sludge Tanks energy-efficient mixing Aeration Basins in-basin moving parts HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC.of petroleum crude oil •No Drinking Sludge Mixing• Energy-efficient, up to 50% less power Easy installationwater storage tanks • Channel Mixing Applications 7.7 million litres 762in-basin Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 Drinking tank mixing• No • Sewage pump station grease cap busting & water odorstorage control moving parts Sewage pump station grease in 72 tank cars derailed in the centre of info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca • Industrial and Food Processing Applications…and more! cap busting & odor control• Easy installation Industrial Applications Lac-Mégantic, Quebec. According to the Food processing applications, liquor blending & a wide range of mixing applications Transportation Safety Board of Canada, HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. almost all of the 63 derailed tank cars 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca were damaged and breached, quickly AIR RELEASE/VACUUM BREAK releasing 6 million litres of petroleum VALVES FOR SEWAGE & WATER RGX RBX crude oil. The fire and blaze destroyed “ANTI-SURGE /ANTI-SHOCK” 10-YEAR WARRANTY • ALL STAINLESS most of the town's downtown core and left 47 people dead. Another 2,000 people were forced from their homes. According to Environment and Climate Change Canada, MMA was fined $1,000,000, which will be directed to the Environmental Damages Fund. The funds will be used to support projects focused on the Mégantic Lake and the Chaudière River, which were directly T: 905-777-9494 • F: 905-777-8678 • info@hydrologic.ca • www.hydrologic.ca impacted by the spill of crude oil. Most energy-efficient mixing No in-basin moving parts Easy installation

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AECOM RELEASES FIRST GLOBAL REPORT ON INFRASTRUCTURE

Examining the investment gap in infrastructure, resilient infrastructure and workforce needs, engineering and infrastructure firm AECOM has released a global research report titled The Future

64  |  April 2018

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E NEWS ES&E NEWS of Infrastructure, which contains survey data and opinions from more than 500 industry decision-makers across North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. Notable findings include: • Nearly 70% of respondents feel that the industry is not evolving fast enough to meet our changing needs. • 71% of respondents say a major cyberattack or citywide transport disruption is probable in the near future. • 90% of respondents believe innovative funding models are effective at bridging the funding gap. • 71% believe that many traditional approaches to project management do not fit the demands of today’s large, complex programs. Canada was mentioned several times in the report, with AECOM commenting on the evolved state of public-private partnerships (P3) in Canada and P3 organizations like Infrastructure Ontario and Partnerships BC. However, only 45% of Canadian respondents said they feel comfortable with the infrastructure industry's current innovation skill level. In contrast, German respondents place their industry's skill level at 80% and the U.S. places it at 66%.

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DRINKING WATER RESOURCE LIBRARY LAUNCHED

For over a year, the Walkerton Clean Water Centre has been developing an online portal of resources and piloting its content with clients and an advisory committee. This initiative is part of its strategy to enhance the transfer of knowledge to owners, operators and operating authorities of Ontario’s drinking water systems. The aim of this library is to provide easy access to trusted resources related to drinking water. The Drinking Water Resource Library consists of a catalog of documents, including reports, manuals, articles and videos, and features multiple search functions to ease the research of information. A user can enter keywords, apply filters to narrow down results or browse through collections that have been sorted into folders by topic. www.drinkingwaterresourcelibrary.ca

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April 2018  |  65


Advertiser INDEX

AIR POLLUTION

Get listed in ES&E Magazine’s

Consultants, Products & Services Guide Register your company at esemag.com/get-listed

COMPANY PAGE ACG Technology........................................67 Associated Engineering...........................50 Atlas Copco................................... 51, 53, 55 AWI.............................................................15 AWWA.........................................................58 Blue-White.................................................11 Canadian Water and Wastewater Association................................................42 Cancoppas.................................................31 Chemline Plastics.....................................43 Cole Engineering Group...........................44 Compliance365.........................................48 Crane Pumps & Systems..........................21 Denso ..........................................................6 Endress + Hauser........................................5 Engineered Pump.....................................13 Envirocan .................................................67 Festo..........................................................37 Flottweg....................................................25 Hoskin Scientific.......................................47 Huber Technology....................................17 HydroFlow Canada...................................24 Imbrium Systems.......................................2 Master Meter ..............................................3 Mueller.......................................................39 National Water & Wastewater Conference 2018.......................................42 NETZSCH Canada......................................52 Ontario Clean Water Agency....................68 Orival Water Filters...................................28 Parsons......................................................54 Pentair.......................................................57 Pro Aqua......................................................9 SanEcoTec ................................................16 Scentroid...................................................34 Sentrimax..................................................29 Smith & Loveless......................................27 SPD Sales...................................................20 Stantec......................................................20 SyLogix Consulting...................................48 Testmark...................................................23 USF Fabrication........................................13 Victaulic.....................................................35 Vissers Sales..............................................33 Walkerton Clean Water Centre................52 Waterra.................................... 13, 22, 41, 49 WEFTEC.....................................................40 WSP............................................................19 Xylem...........................................................7

66  |  April 2018

Special police units deploy the drone, monitoring for elevated levels of pollutants.

Polish police using drones to find air polluters

I

t is estimated that smog kills more than 47,000 people each year in Poland. Levels increase during the winter, due mostly to the burning of solid fuels for residential heating. On some winter days, a grey haze obscures the lights of Polish city skyscrapers and the air smells like burning plastic. Millions of Poles heat their homes with low-quality coal, scrap pieces of wood and even garbage, releasing not only smog but also dangerous chemicals. This is illegal under the new Polish law. The City of Katowice in southern Poland, with a population of 297,197, is a large coal and steel centre and one of the worst polluted cities in Europe. City police have begun fighting polluters using Scentroid DR1000 flying labs. While the DR1000 can be configured to detect hundreds of pollutants, for this application, particulate PM1-10, ethanol, formaldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen chloride are monitored. These chemicals provide evidence of burning of illegal material. Special police units deploy the drone in residential neighborhoods, monitoring for elevated levels of pollutants. It can cover a large area and, if pollutants are found, it is directed to take readings

from specific chimneys. All readings are displayed live to the operator, as well as the central station, where police inspectors can be dispatched for further investigation or to issue additional fines. The DR1000 is also used to grab a sample from the smoke stack, which can be sent to a laboratory as further evidence if needed. It is equipped with five sensors and is used for fast inspections and continuous monitoring of multiple chemicals. All investigators need to do is to fly the drone up to the stack height, and full information, including all sensor readings, humidity, temperature and GPS position, will be sent to the ground station and the cloud-based monitoring software automatically. The DR1000 flying laboratory can also provide continuous monitoring of PM 1, 2.5 and 10, using a laser scattered particulate counter. The technology is available in Canada through Scentroid. For more information, email: hesam.k@scentroid.com, or visit www.scentroid.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Trust. It flows from experience & commitment. Coming from Ontario, land of freshwater, perhaps our dedication to water quality and innovation shouldn’t be surprising. Over the past 25 years, the Ontario Clean Water Agency has earned a world-class reputation in the operation of clean water and wastewater facilities. Collaboration flows through everything we do. If you’d like to discuss your municipality’s needs, whatever the size, wherever you are, we look forward to talking with you. For sales enquiries call 1-800-667-6292 or visit www.ocwa.com. Follow us on Twitter. Like us on Facebook.

Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) April 2018  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s April 2018 issue. Continuing to celebrate ES&E Magazine’s 30th anniversary, this issue incl...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) April 2018  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s April 2018 issue. Continuing to celebrate ES&E Magazine’s 30th anniversary, this issue incl...

Profile for esemag