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June 2016 www.esemag.com

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Contents Page 10

June 2016 Vol. 29 No. 3 • Issued June 2016 • ISSN-0835-605X

Page 26

DEPARTMENTS

FEATURES 6

Product Showcase. . . . . . . . . . . Environmental News. . . . . . . . . Professional Cards. . . . . . . . . . . Ad Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lessons in water awareness from a B.C. classroom

10 How vulnerable are water utilities to traditional and cyber threats? 14 New craft brewery wastewater system saves costs and frees up municipal capacity

66 69 69 74

16 How flow meter calibration helped Coquitlam provide clean water 18 Wastewater treatment challenges in Canada’s North 20 Perth WTP saves over $6 million in backwashing costs 22 System planning helps water utilities meet future challenges 26 What can you do to determine and manage grit costs?

Page 50

31 Mixer helps solve sewage lift station wet wipe problem 32 Biochar offers many environmental benefits

COMING IN OUR

34 Caustic dilution system saves money and improves safety

AUG. 2016 ISSUE

36 Sharing Canadian drinking water expertise internationally 39 Educating students on water and wastewater

This issue will offer our 47,000 readers across Canada a strong and diverse range of articles, plus special sections on:

40 Guest comment: How projects can go awry 42 Improving lead monitoring programs in schools

Climate Change and Infrastructure Design

44 The new breed of professional surveyors in the 21st century 46 Aeration system piping benefits from mechanical couplings

FEATURED TOPICS: Wastewater treatment and collection systems • Stormwater management • Drinking water supply, treatment and distribution systems • Disinfection and filtration

SPECIAL SECTION

50 Water and wastewater operations improved by tank covers

SPECIAL SECTION: Annual Government, Association, University and College Directory

52 Understanding Canada’s various secondary containment guidelines

BONUS CIRCULATION AT:

Storage Tanks, Containment & Spills

58 Fibreglass tanks increasingly used for water storage

• Western Canada Water • Georgian Bay Water Works Association •  Western Ontario Water Works Association

60 Proper foundation design ensures long-term fuel storage tank performance at Vancouver Airport

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56 Georgetown WWTP covers its grit tanks to help address odour concerns

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62 A practical secondary containment system for oil spills and leaks

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64 Preventing spills by coating secondary containment areas

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63 Organic industrial spill absorbents offer enhanced performance and safety

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The Global Water Crisis 1.8 billion people lack access to clean water

Hygienic practices such as washing hands with soap can reduce the risk of diarrhea by at least 35%

2.5 billion people—more than a third of the world’s population —lack access to a toilet

More than 3.4 million people each year die from water related diseases—that’s nearly the population of LA

Women and children spend 200 million hours a day collecting water

Nearly 90% of global cases of diarrhea are estimated to be attributable to unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene

WHERE WATER FOR PEOPLE COMES IN Our goal is simple: Water for Everyone Forever We’re taking big steps to solve the world’s water crisis—permanently. We want complete water coverage for every family, every school, and every clinic. And we’re teaming up with Everyone to make this difference last Forever. Water For People brings together local entrepreneurs, civil society, governments, and communities to establish creative, collaborative solutions that allow people to build and maintain their own reliable and safe water systems. We’re not just addressing the symptoms of the problem, but preventing it from happening again in the future. The road to permanent water coverage for Everyone Forever is challenging. If we invest more now to create sustainable and replicable water and sanitation infrastructure, we can achieve incredible outcomes—more children are in school, more individuals are employed, more families are healthy and thriving, and more communities are collaborating and growing. From there, the impact continues to ripple out on a national and global scale.

GUATEMALA HONDURAS NICARAGUA BOLIVIA PERU UGANDA RWANDA MALAWI INDIA waterforpeople.org


Editorial Comment by Peter Davey

Editor and Publisher STEVE DAVEY Email: steve@esemag.com Managing Editor PETER DAVEY Email: peter@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY Email: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Email: denise@esemag.com Accounting SANDRA DAVEY Email: sandra@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD Email: darlann@esemag.com Production EINAR RICE Email: production@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Archis Ambulkar, Jones and Henry Engineers, Ltd. Gary Burrows, City of London Jim Bishop, Consulting Chemist, Ontario Patrick Coleman, Black & Veatch Bill De Angelis, City of Toronto Mohammed Elenany, Urban Systems William Fernandes, Region of Peel Marie Meunier, John Meunier Inc., Québec Tony Petrucci, Stantec, Markham

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada’s municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be emailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

6 | June 2016

Shock and Aww! - Lessons in public awareness from a B.C. classroom

I

n Nelson B.C., a group of school children set out on a no holds barred competition to bring toilet talk to their community. Their goal was two-fold, to raise awareness about their town’s drinking water source, and to encourage residents to install toilet tank bags. Wildflower School was one of six schools that participated in the Student Action Competition held Students from Wildflower School in Nelson, British by the Safe Drinking Wa- Columbia, participating in a water awareness ter Foundation earlier this outreach event as part of the Student Action year. In classrooms across Competition. Canada, 225 students procookies to every Canadian. duced videos, presentaBoth the Wildflower students and tions and pamphlets to raise awareness Girl Guides use effective selling methabout water issues and reduce their ods to get their message across. They community’s water use. set up booths in public hot spots, use I had the pleasure of being one of interesting displays to catch attention the judges for the competition and was and leverage their cute factor with lots impressed with the students’ energy and of smiles. Anyone who has opened the the results they achieved. door to Girl Guides will admit that it’s During the competition, 12,881 litres next to impossible to close that door of water were saved per day and 150 without shelling out five or ten bucks. water saving devices were installed. The Wildflower group, in a move of Students reached out to a total of 1,654 pure genius, set up their booth, commembers of their communities, educating them on where their water comes plete with a model toilet, outside of the from, the stresses that their watershed local grocery store. It’s hard to think of anything more curious than a loud faces and ways to reduce water use. The students of Wildflower School group of school kids milling around a won the competition’s elementary toilet, handing out pamphlets and inflatschool category. As a result of their able bags. Not only did they hook residents in outreach program, 100% of participatwith their pitch, they demonstrated how ing residents now know where Nelson to install the toilet bags on the spot. obtains its drinking water and what This meant people were more likely to stresses that source faces. Additionally, install the toilet bag and do it right the 150 water saving toilet tank bags were first time. distributed and 2,250 litres of water per The class even managed to reach day was saved. Ottawa, receiving a letter from Prime In many ways, the Wildflower Minister Justin Trudeau in response to School’s success is similar to another their questions about the environment hugely popular public campaign – Girl and climate change. That recognition Guide cookies. According to Girlwill go a long way to making this group Guides.ca, 2,800,000 boxes of cookies continued overleaf... will be sold this fall, enough to give two Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Editorial Comment by Peter Davey

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feel empowered and highlights the “Action” part of the competition. Municipalities and utilities use public outreach campaigns to address many environmental and infrastructure challenges at the source. In many cases, controlling contamination at the source is less expensive and technically demanding than removing contamination downstream. In water and wastewater treatment, it seems that a Pandora’s box is opened each time wet wipes or left over drugs are flushed down the toilet. An effortless action of disposal requires an expensive action of removal. An example of a good outreach campaign is the City of London’s One Cup program that encourages A letter from Prime Minister Justin Trudeau residents to use biodegradable cups sent to the Wildflower School students in for disposing of left over kitchen March 2016. grease and fat. Sewer outreach workers hand that were thought to have been discreetout the cups at community events along side working toilets that demon- ly flushed away. Not only would municipalities restrate how flushable wipes can clog duce their pump station call-outs and pipes and pumps. The cups are printed disposal costs, the surge in package dewith messages and pictures that explain liveries would be a welcome shot in the how fats, oils and grease damage and arm for struggling Canada Post. disrupt sewage infrastructure. Whether by “shock” or “aww”, pubThe program has been successlic awareness and engagement camful in the neighborhoods where it was paigns are integral to protecting our launched and is spreading to other muenvironment, infrastructure and health. nicipalities across Canada. Like the school groups that parYet, to really boost community participated in the Safe Drinking Water ticipation in source control, “shock” Foundation’s competition, awareness may be an alternative to “aww.” To bring campaigns should be commended for the problem closer to home, municipalitheir real-world achievements. Municties could try using the “Return to Sendipalities and utilities that commission er” method. In this plan, households that use outreach initiatives should share suctheir toilets and drains like trash cans cessful ideas. After all, it’s a lot easier to deal with would have their flushed away wipes, the evils inside Pandora’s box if they are grease and pharmaceutical compounds never set loose. returned to them in a convenient all-inFor more information about the Safe one bundle. According to the operators Drinking Water Foundation and the I’ve talked to, lift-station pumps do an work they do, visit: www.safewater.org. excellent job of combining the waste into a smelly, soaked and entwined mass. Peter Davey is the Imagine the shock factor of opening managing and online up a surprise package only to find it coneditor of Environmental tains last week’s bacon grease and some Science & Engineering no longer sanitary wet wipes. Or perMagazine. Email: haps receiving a barrel of greyish water peter@esemag.com laced with a cocktail of expired drugs Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Security

How vulnerable are water utilities to traditional and cyber threats? By Görrel Espelund

I

n recent years, cyber attacks against critical infrastructure, such as water utilities, have been on the increase globally. However, growing awareness doesn’t necessarily translate into the implementation of better security protocols and safer systems. And, in the developing world, water distributors also face a range of other challenges to maintaining safe water distribution. When discussing cyber crimes, focus is often on security breaches in the private sector, especially retail and banking. But according to several studies conducted in the last few years, cyber attacks on vital infrastructure such as electrical grids and water distribution systems have escalated. In a blog in The Huffington Post Business Section, Michael Deane, Executive Director of the National Association of Water Companies in the U.S., explains how the evolution of computer-based management systems has, on the one hand, improved the reliability and quality of water services, but on the other has increased the possibility of targeted or accidental cyber events that could lead to disruption in the water supply. He concludes: “In the drinking water and wastewater sectors, a cyber attack could hone in on four different threat vectors: chemical contamination, biological contamination, physical disruption and interference with the highly specialized computer systems controlling essential infrastructure, known as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. A successful attack resulting in consequences in any of these areas could cause major damage, resulting in long periods of operational downtime, financial losses and most importantly, a threat to public safety.” According to Deane, the awareness of possible cyber attacks is steadily growing. Since 2013, November has been designated as “Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience Month” with the aim of recognizing the impor-

10 | June 2016

tance of protecting critical infrastructure in the U.S. Even so, last year the U.S. Department of Homeland Security received 159 reports involving “vulnerabilities in control systems’ components”. Most of the vulnerabilities involved systems used in the energy sector, but water utilities and wastewater are also considered at high risk of cyber attacks, according to Water Online. But cyber attacks on vital infrastructure are not a phenomenon occurring in the U.S. alone. The Ponemon Institute, a research centre that specializes in data protection and information security policy, released a study in 2014 in which two thirds of 599 IT security executives in 13 different countries admitted to having had “at least one security compromise that led to the loss of confidential information or disruption of operations” in the previous year. However, there is a large discrepancy between being aware of the risk and protecting the systems from it. Dr. Renier van Heerden, Principal Engineer and Researcher at the CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research) in Pretoria, South Africa, points out that, because the risk of cyber

attacks on a country’s infrastructure is still considered fairly low, companies have yet to take the threat seriously enough to start investing in safer systems. “Companies’ main concern is uptime, to keep the systems running without disruption. To achieve this, they’d like robust and dependable systems. Unfortunately that runs contrary to security,” he says. The reason behind this is simple: if you add a layer of security to systems such as SCADA used to control dams, power plants and water treatment facilities, it increases the risk of small configuration faults – which, in turn, can cause major problems or lead to down-time. Firewalls and encryption, the most commonly used industrial cyber security programmes, are complex systems, and their configurations can be difficult to understand and verify. “So we find that we have two competing mechanisms. Traditionally, because the world wasn’t so interconnected, the openness and the robustness of the systems used to be more important than security. “But with the technology changing and the world being more interconnectcontinued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Security ed, security has become more important. “Companies – state-owned or private – look at the history when they make risk analyses. And up to now it hasn’t been worth it to invest in that extra security measure. In my opinion, it’s a mistake,” van Heerden says. The most infamous cyber attack on physical infrastructure is the Stuxnet malware. It is believed to have been built jointly by the U.S. and Israeli governments to sabotage Iran’s nuclear programme in 2007/2008. It then accidentally spread in 2010 and became widely known. Malware such as Stuxnet, BlackEnergy and Havex are specifically designed to target industrial control systems, and attacks on vital industries and infrastructure are frequently reported in various Internet and computer magazines. However, when it comes to the developing world, things look a bit different. Neil Macleod, former head of eThekwini Water and Sanitation, Durban South Africa, points out that no matter how secure you try to make your system, it is only as good as your last password and the integrity of your staff. “You have to be sure that you have a staff of happy workers and that they comply with the very rigorous security protocols in place. Compared to developed countries the issues are slightly different in the developing world.

“Richer countries have more computer-based solutions and therefore they are more vulnerable to these kinds of attacks. In developing countries we tend to have teams on every site. “We do our work with limited computer-based systems, limited remote operations and a lot of onsite operations,” says Macleod.

No matter how secure you try to make your system, it is only as good as your last password and the integrity of your staff. eThekwini Water and Sanitation received the 2014 Stockholm Industry Water Award as a recognition of its work to provide, within a few years, 1.3 million people in greater Durban (eThekwini) with piped water and 700,000 people with access to toilets. It is only large cities like Cape Town, Johannesburg and Durban that have started to move towards a computer-based management of operations, which also makes them more prone to cyber attacks. But, Macleod is not worried.

”People can start hacking into the systems of the big cities and cause interruption to the service for a few hours before we notice what is going on. “On the sewage side, there is a possibility that hackers could mess up the dosage [of chemicals] and then the river will be polluted, which is unacceptable, but recoverable. In the case of water purification plants, however, the impact could be more severe in terms of public health in that the water may not be safe to drink if the disinfection or coagulation processes are affected,” says Macleod. “The biggest problem for developing countries, where the level of IT and computer-based technology is pretty low, is not cyber attacks but poverty. Poor people who try to tap into the water utilities illegally do most of the damage caused to our systems. Another big problem causing disruption is theft of the metals, valves or copper cables. “That is a constant scourge that we, and most developing countries, face. The people sell the goods to be able to buy bread, but the value of the metal is many times less than the cost of the repairs,” says Macleod. Article reprinted with permission from Water Front Magazine, published by Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI). www.siwi.org

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12 | June 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Industrial Wastewater

New craft brewery wastewater treatment system saves surcharge costs and frees up municipal capacity By Andrew Amiri, Neil Sosebee and Derek Davy

O

ver 4,500 licensed craft brewers are revitalizing small towns across North America, with revenues estimated at more than CDN$30 billion per year. As one of the fastest growing sectors of the food and beverage industry, small breweries are supporting local economies, creating jobs and contributing to tourism. At the same time, their wastewater is creating a challenge for aging wastewater treatment infrastructure. It is common for craft breweries to create five to ten times more wastewater than the beer they package and sell. The impact of this on a wastewater treatment plant can be equivalent to 10,000 - 20,000 people. For most small towns, the municipal plant is not designed to handle that much load. Municipalities are faced with the difficult decision of supporting growth in a local business or imposing fines to cover the cost of treating this high strength wastewater. In 2015, the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, through the Bloom Centre for Sustainability, engaged Econse Water Purification Systems to design a wastewater treatment system that could meet the specific needs of the craft brewing industry. After pilot testing at four craft breweries in Ontario, Econse introduced their Brü Clean System at the recent Ontario Centres of Excellence – OCE Discovery conference in Toronto. Brü Clean is a modular, chemical-free system designed for easy installation and maintenance, making wastewater management simple and efficient for craft breweries. It overcomes a variety of challenges in this sector, such as: • Extremely limited space in production facilities to install treatment equipment. • Limited knowledge/experience of wastewater treatment and water reuse by brewery staff. • Limited experience with best practices in water conservation and wastewater management.

14 | June 2016

Econse has developed a specialized wastewater treatment process for breweries, which utilizes a PeCOD analyzer to determine BOD levels.

• High operating costs due to chemicals, energy consumption and the need for highly skilled operators. • High water-to-beer ratio. • High capital expense. The Brü Clean System removes solids, yeasts, phosphorus and nitrogen from the wastewater stream by integrating several processes. An equalization tank balances out extreme spikes in pH, suspended solids, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from brewing and cleaning operations. This provides reasonably consistent water for treatment in a proprietary multi-treatment module (MTM). The chemical-free MTM eliminates >95% of suspended solids and removes up to 60% of dissolved BOD and nutrients. After processing in the MTM, the wastewater moves into the bio polishing unit, which combines aerobic and anaerobic biological digestion in a compact, above-ground process. Treated water can then be safely discharged or collected for reuse in the facility.

The chemical-free solution helps cut rising fees for water and wastewater, reducing the added cost of treatment chemicals and improving water consumption and environmental impact. It also helps municipal wastewater treatment facilities from being over-burdened by brewery wastes. One of the most difficult challenges that Econse had to overcome in designing the system was the wide variation in wastewater throughout the craft brewing production cycle. This variation is evident in the BOD, which ranged between 3,300-48,000 ppm. Since the standard lab test for BOD takes five days, the wastewater is long gone by the time results are returned. In addition, the presence of yeast and certain chemicals in the wastewater can cause false and inconsistent results. Instead of relying on the standard BOD lab test, Econse began using a PeCOD® chemical oxygen demand (COD)

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Industrial Wastewater

REGULATION (mg/l)

Average Before Treatment

Average After Treatment

Percent Reduction (%)

BOD

300

6900

99

98-99%

TKN

100

190

23

88%

TP

10

93

2.6

97%

TSS

350

5400

35

99%

pH

6 to 8

5.4

7

Balanced

Average treatment results of the Econse process.

analyzer by MANTECH. It has recently been approved by the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change (MOECC) as a green and fast method for measuring COD. The MOECC Method E3515, based on the PeCOD technology, is now used for COD analysis by the MOECC Laboratory Services Branch. It generates results in 15 minutes through the use of UV activated TiO2 (titanium dioxide) oxidation and an internal electrode, by directly measuring electron transfer. Econse found very good correlation between PeCOD

COD readings and BOD lab tests. The speed of the PeCOD COD method made it a valuable tool in designing the Brü Clean System and optimizing wastewater management in the breweries. It has allowed Econse to develop a system of best practices for brewery personnel to follow, which has actually helped reduce the amount of wastewater for treatment by up to 75%. This directly translates to a smaller footprint and less equipment for the brewery. Econse now offers a specialized lab package, just for craft brewers, which in-

cludes the PeCOD as a core piece of technology. Brewers are finding this new technology to be an indispensable window into their operation, which helps them to maintain compliance with municipal wastewater discharge requirements. Andrew Amiri, Neil Sosebee and Derek Davy are with Econse Water Purification Systems. For more information on the Brü Clean System, visit www.brucleansystem.com For more information on PeCOD analysers, visit www.mantech-inc.com

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June 2016 | 15


Measurement

How flow calibration helped Coquitlam provide cleaner drinking water By Richard Lowrie

T

he Coquitlam watershed and its water treatment facilities provide approximately 370 million litres of potable water, or about one-third of the total water supply delivered to Metro Vancouver, British Columbia. In 2000, as part of Metro Vancouver’s Drinking Water Treatment Program, the water disinfection process was upgraded to include ozonation as the primary disinfectant. Prior to this, only chlorination was utilized. In 2011, construction started on the Coquitlam Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection Facility, which was brought on line in 2014. It improves disinfection and helps meet the requirements under Health Canada’s Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. The $110 million project came in under budget and on time. Source water is a combination of rainwater and snowmelt that is stored in the Coquitlam reservoir. In order to protect water quality, this mountainous watershed is closed to public access. From the beginning, the project was designed to have a minimal impact on the environment and the disinfection plant was designed with a small footprint. Electromagnetic flow meters (EMF) had initially been selected to measure flow through the UV treatment chambers, in order to ensure proper dwell time for disinfection. Upon further investigation, it was discovered that, in the spring and early summer, source water is mainly snow runoff which is too low in conductivity for EMF technology. At these very low conductivity levels, water measurement becomes difficult with an EMF due to the high amounts of noise generated by the water on the electrodes. With conductivity this low, ultrasonic flow meters rather than EMFs became the flow measurement technology of choice. The electromagnetic flow meters adapted easily to the plant footprint. However, ultrasonic flow meters need roughly twice the amount of available upstream straight pipe to achieve the specified accuracies. Despite this technical constraint, the customer still required

16 | June 2016

The Coquitlam Water Treatment Facility was completed in 2014.

Ultrasonic flow meters installed prior to the UV disinfection process.

the optimal flow accuracy within the reduced straight inlet section, to ensure adequate dwell time for UV disinfection. To achieve the desired accuracy within the reduced straight run, the decision was made to calibrate the meters in the designed piping configuration. This was duplicated at the KROHNE calibration facility in Dordrecht, Netherlands. All flow meters were calibrated utilizing this special piping configuration, and

the required accuracy was achieved and guaranteed by the manufacturer. KROHNE’s multi-beam liquid ultrasonic flow meter has the ability to adjust each beam’s weighing factor to make up for flow profile abnormalities, allowing it to tune out abnormal flow profiles. Richard Lowrie is with KROHNE. For more information, email: r.lowrie@krohne.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


POTABLE WATER MIXING/ICE PREVENTION

POTABLE WATER/THM REMOVAL

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WASTEWATER MIXING/BASINS AND LAGOONS

LAKES AND RAW WATER

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Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater treatment challenges By Arlen Foster in Canada’s North

T

he Village of Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, owned and operated the only mechanical wastewater treatment plant in the territory and was experiencing significant difficulties meeting environmental discharge requirements. This issue stemmed from a long history of struggles with the plant, dating back to its original inception. The Village contracted Stantec Consulting Ltd.’s Yellowknife office to investigate and help solve issues it was having at its wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Project history Some 25 years ago, a rotating drum screening system was designed as primary treatment to upgrade a raw sewage outfall to the Mackenzie River. As the sewage was macerated by the raw water lift pumps, the rotating drum screen was only able to remove the largest solids and the facility was unable to meet effluent quality requirements. In 2001, the drum screens were removed and the building converted to a Proteus System that consisted of physical/chemical treatment using alum, followed by sand filtration, a biofilter and UV disinfection. Due to construction deficiencies, the system was never commissioned to follow the original design philosophy. It was originally designed to have multi-media rapid sand filters; however, a single media continuous backwash type was supplied and installed. Therefore, operators were unable to operate the sand filter as intended and the filters were reported to have the sand washed out overnight. The sand filters were removed from the treatment process in 2003. Consequently, without the sand filtration, the biofilter failed as it was overloaded with solids from the primary treatment. Due to the ongoing struggles in meeting the water license, the Village received an Inspector’s Directive from Environment Canada (EC) to address all the problems or receive financial penalties. The Stantec team began working

18 | June 2016

The Village of Fort Simpson is located at the confluence of the Mackenzie and Liard Rivers in the Northwest Territories.

Sequencing batch reactor PLC: Control and operational information for the entire WWTP is displayed, allowing the operator to identify and address any problems.

with the Village and reached initial compliance with the Directive by providing an engineering and assessment report on the current WWTP. The engineering report provided preliminary design options for upgrades to the WWTP.

Plant upgrades Choosing the treatment process was constrained by various factors, including local construction, operation and maintenance availability, as well as financial limitations. However, one of the

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Wastewater Treatment biggest challenges was determining the necessary upgrades to the mechanical and electrical components within the existing building. The new treatment process system had to fit within the existing structure, in addition to all the ventilation, instrumentation and control components necessary to meet new code requirements. Several options were presented and through rigorous comparison and evaluation, a final treatment process was agreed upon. It consisted of a screening system, equalization storage, sequencing batch reactor (SBR), sludge press and UV disinfection. Mechanical system upgrades for the plant focused on providing sufficient heat and ventilation to the process spaces. The primary goal was to meet the ventilation requirements of NFPA 820: Standard for Fire Protection in Wastewater Treatment and Collection Facilities and CSA C22.1-12: Canadian Electrical Code (CEC). This ensures a safe work environment for operators and extends the service life of the process equipment by preventing the buildup of flammable, explosive and corrosive gases in the process spaces. Not only were high efficiency components chosen, but the controls of the heating and ventilation system were designed with variable speeds. Negatively pressured rooms were included to address hazardous ratings and reduced capital costs. A SCADA system, PLC and MCC were provided, with the main components located in the electrical/mechanical room. Here, they could be suitably “cut-off� in electrical terms from the remainder of the building. This meant that equipment located within the area did not have to be rated for hazardous locations. The instrumentation and controls of the plant were designed for full automation of the treatment process. Alarms were set with the local operators so that significant issues were brought to their attention immediately. Remote access was also included so that monitoring and general modifications to the process could be accomplished. This remote access was vital in providing the Village with expert technical support without incurring high travel costs and delays in receiving onsite assistance. www.esemag.com

The sludge pumps transfer waste activated sludge from the SBR reactor to the holding tank.

As with the process and building mechanical components, space saving wall or ceiling mounted electrical equipment was used as much as possible to maximize available areas of the building. The facility presented a challenge due to the corrosive atmosphere. So, particular attention was paid to the wiring methods and equipment being installed. The main area of the facility, as designated by the Canadian Electrical Code, is a hazardous location and also one where wet and corrosive vapours are present. All devices in the facility, other than the electrical/mechanical room, are rated for hazardous locations. Wiring systems within this area are of a type for wet and corrosive locations. Lighting is all fully gasketed and rated for wet locations. LED fixtures are used to lower the operational costs. Significant structural calculations and ingenuity were required to address the constraint of installing all the new components within the small existing structure. As such, parts of the main floor slab were removed to extend components from the basement to the ceiling. A combination of concrete slabs and steel beams were installed to properly support the new treatment system components and allow for modifications to the existing structure. Maintaining operation of the existing treatment system was of utmost impor-

tance. Therefore, staged construction was planned by Stantec and the WWTP operators. Further scheduling by the contractor, with input from the team, ensured that installation took place in the required time frames for existing infrastructure to be decommissioned. In spite of several emergency and unexpected situations, untreated wastewater was never discharged to the environment. Improved outcomes During construction, the project allowed all the building mechanical and electrical work to be completed by northern and local businesses, ensuring local employment. This ultimately put money back into the community. Once substantially completed in the fall of 2015, the WWTP was performing exceptionally well, meeting and surpassing all regulatory compliance limits set by the governing agencies. The EC Directive was thus removed with no financial penalties. Further, the automated process has allowed the Village to dedicate some of its operators’ hours to matters outside of the wastewater treatment plant itself something that was never possible with the old system. Arlen Foster is with Stantec Consulting. For more information, email: arlen.foster@stantec.com June 2016 | 19


Water Treatment

Perth water treatment plant saves over $6 million in solids dewatering costs

A

simple, effective dewatering solution will enable Perth, Ontario, to begin treating particle-laden process water from the coagulation tanks at its water treatment plant. It will also eliminate the discharge of solids to the Tay River and conserve capacity in the town’s sewage lagoons. The town will be using GeotubeŽ containers to collect and dewater solids onsite, and to produce high quality filtrate that can be discharged directly into the river. The solution designed and delivered by Bishop Water Technologies, will cost less than $1.25 million to fully implement. This is far less than the estimated $7 million to build a conventional treatment system. The Geotube system can reduce the amount of solids discharging into the river, from 2,000 mg/l per day to 4 mg/l. This will ensure that more than 300 dry metric tons of solids will be diverted from the Tay River each year. The dewatering solution works in three stages. As sludge is pumped into the tube, it is mixed with a polymer that separates solids from the liquid. Filtered effluent flows through a dual filament polypropylene fabric, keeping solids trapped inside the container. The filtrate is then directed to the Tay River. In partnership with Andrum Associates Inc. in Ottawa, Bishop Water Technologies began a design-build as the general contractor, project manager and equipment supplier. Maple Reinders was selected as the builder and work began in August 2014. Construction proceeded quickly, with the civil works, including mechanical, electrical, concrete, asphalt, piping and greenhouse installation, being completed by early December 2014. After a successful commissioning period, substantial completion was achieved on December 22, 2014. Residuals from the siphon discharge of the water treatment process are first sent to a holding tank four times per day. Operators of the plant are then able to process residuals through the polymer system and into a Geotube for

20 | June 2016

A greenhouse is used to house the system for winter operations, allowing the facility to operate year-round.

An automated PLC system ensures proper polymer dosage to match the flow rate of residuals into the Geotube.

dewatering. After being calibrated, an automated PLC system ensures proper polymer dosage to match the flow rate of residuals into the Geotube. A greenhouse is used to house the

system for winter operations, allowing the facility to operate year-round. For more information, email: info@bishopwater.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Sustainable EcosystemsSystems Water and Wastewater

Soil retaining system trees reach System planning helpshelps waterurban utilities maturity By Eric Keshavarzi meet future challenges

G O

reen infrastructure and susne of the major challenges tainability goals are of infacing water and wastecreasingthe importance, and water industry is thetechage achieving them requires of its and infrastructure. Much nical knowledge training in varied of the Integration vast network treatment fields. of of soilaging and trees into plants,areas pumping stations,improves storage facilurban substantially susities, and main and alleviate collection pipeofisour in tainability and helps some need ofpressing replacement or repair. most ecological challenges. Theinclude more air a utility plans ahead, the These and water quality, rising more likely itflooding will be able meet from these temperatures, and to erosion challenges. daily rainfall American events. Water utilizes a capital planning that is integratThe West Donprocess Lands, in Toronto, Oned with asset management program tario, is aitscommunity that is people foto prepare for friendly, the future. cused, family environmentally Its engineering and operations sustainable and beautifully designedteam for examines every facility and ND the GOLD associliving. It has a Stage 1 LEED ated water availability to develop capital certification under the pilot program esplans. These plansU.S. helpGreen chart Building a course tablished by the for how much investment is needed to Council. meet future infrastructure as well One notable sustainableneeds, component, as a 15-year outlookof that incorporates utilized in the design the area’s streets, estimates of population growth, is a soil retaining system called urbanSilva ization rates, andurban other trees factors. Cells™. Typical in the city company conducts seven a ComprecoreThe die after approximately years. hensive Planning Study (CPS) program However, Silva Cells help extend their to develop a master plan for water life spans, thus promoting theeach growth of and wastewater system. The plans recmature street trees. ommend capital improvements thatpreare Although the City of Toronto had necessary in order its subsidiaries viously used Silvafor Cells as part of to a continue tomanagement provide safe, adequate stormwater pilot programand in The Queensway, their use as part of site

Installation of Silva Cells in Mill Street.

development is new. In fact, the West Don Lands streets are the first in a Toronto subdivision to be designed with this system installed under parking lay-bys and reliable service to its customers. Amersidewalks. icanMill Water invests annually in its CPS Street was the first subdivision program, which is primarily street in Toronto to be designedconducted to include by in-house engineering this soil retaining system.staff. As Through the lead the studies, the company R.V analyzes sysengineering consultant, .Anderson tem capacity needs, asset condition and Associates coordinated all plans and specreliability, performance factors such ifications with the landscape architect. as regulatory About compliance, water quality Silva Cells andSilva efficiency. Cells are a plastic/fiberglass System needs are and structure of columns and identified, beams that support paving above un-compacted planting

soil. The structure has 92% void space and is a stable surface for the installation of vehicle loaded-pavements. When properly installed, they can project alternatives risks are achieve costs, an AASHTO H-20and load rating. assessed. By conducting comprehensive Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code studies and wastewater assets, loading of canwater also be achieved through apcompanies can have a clear and objecpropriate design. This is the required load tive view of needs and capital rating for structures suchpotential as underground project solutions. vaults, covers and grates in areas of trafmany during fic Planners including utilize sidewalks and tools parking lots. this work, including hydraulic models, The cell structure transfers the force to a GIS information base (geographic layer below the structure. systems), continued overleaf... Soil within the cells remains at low compaction rates, thereby creating ideal

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Water and Wastewater Systems system operating data and asset management software. The CPS process also provides an excellent opportunity for both internal and external stakeholder engagement. Internally, subject matter experts from various disciplines are brought to the table, including engineering, operations, water quality, rates, communications and customer service, to identify issues and potential solutions for the systems under study. This allows for a fully inclusive and collaborative process. Externally, the CPS process offers the opportunity to engage local planning commissions, regulatory agencies, fire departments and community/environmental groups on issues impacting or impacted by the water system. Planning criteria Assets in each system are evaluated for capacity, condition, performance and efficiency factors. Recommendations are then developed to ensure the company can continue to provide a reliable and

high quality water supply into the future. Customer and demand projections Water use projections are developed for every system and provide the basis for evaluating future system capacity needs. Projections of the total number of customers and the associated demands for each customer classification (i.e., residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) are developed for the water system over a 15-year planning horizon. Similar projections are made for wastewater systems. The projections are developed after a review of population trends, historical customer and usage data, and local planning commission forecasts. The effects of water conservation and other factors influencing declining usage are also considered. Water sources Rivers, lakes, streams, reservoirs, wells, seawater and reuse water are the various types of water sources in use across American Water. These supplies

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are routinely evaluated for their quantity and quality. Intake structures, pumps and motors, dams and other assets are examined for their capacity, condition, performance and efficiency of operation. When needed, upgrades to these facilities are planned, designed and implemented. Capacity levels are chosen to reliably meet the projected system demand, even in the event of failure/ malfunction of one unit of mechanical equipment. The quality of the source water and the watershed are also regularly monitored. Water treatment facilities Drinking water treatment plants are evaluated for their ability to produce high quality water that meets or surpasses water quality standards at all times. Treatment facilities are also examined for their capacity to meet current and future water demands. Individual components are examined for condition, performance and efficiency under varying operating conditions. Data on treatment chemicals, process units and power consumption is used in these analyses. Pumping, distribution, storage Water systems are designed to provide reliable water service that meets flow and pressure requirements under peak demand and fire flow conditions. Pipelines, storage tanks, booster pump stations and pressure reducing stations are all analyzed for capacity, condition, performance and efficiency. Water quality, fire flow delivery and local pressure limitations are also considered in the analysis of distribution system pipelines, where applicable. Interconnections and regionalization Interconnections between systems can enhance each system’s resiliency in the event of an emergency. Regionalization can also provide economies of scale, avoid duplication of facilities, and provide more effective service to customers. For example, water systems within a specific geographic area can regionalize to benefit from shared sources of supply, treatment facilities or distribution system facilities. Opportunities for interconnections and regionalization are evaluated to de-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Water and Wastewater Systems termine if a consolidated solution to water supply problems in a particular area is feasible. Resiliency System resilience is also considered during the CPS process. This evaluation includes examining how resilient the system is in the face of extreme weather events, natural hazards and malevolent threats. American Water also maintains business continuity and emergency response plans to increase preparedness to address “all hazard” scenarios, including climate variations and extreme weather events. The CPS process also has the added benefit of providing a strong foundation for communicating with regulators and local government officials about the need for enhanced resiliency in light of these hazards. The ability to provide continuous service during a power outage is an example of how planning efforts can lead to enhanced reliability. Evaluations include several factors such as the nature of the electrical service (i.e., service from one vs. two substations), the presence of any floating storage within a pressure zone, standby electrical generating capacity, and the availability of pumps which can be driven by diesel fuel or natural gas. The CPS studies have proven to be a valuable tool for assessing investments needed to make system upgrades and meet customer demands now and in the future. American Water emphasizes, however, that the conclusions from its risk assessment models and planning studies do not always result in a decision to build additional infrastructure. Often, an operational solution or well-scoped emergency plan could be a more cost-effective solution to a particular scenario. In many cases, a combination of solutions, ranging from capital to operational, provide the best resiliency against extreme events. Thus, consideration is given to other factors in determining the need for upgrades, such as equipment age, condition and historical performance, opportunities to improve efficiency through better technologies, and ability to meet future regulations and growth projections. It is often a combination of these www.esemag.com

primary drivers that triggers infrastructure upgrades. Considering trends In developing system plans, planning engineers review trends that can affect future water and wastewater services. This includes increased protection of water sources; more stringent water quality regulations of finished water; ad-

ditional regulation of treatment plant residuals; increased frequency of required water quality monitoring; increased water and energy conservation requirements; and more extensive environmental laws affecting new construction and source development. For more information, email: maureen.duffy@amwater.co

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June 2016 | 25


Wastewater Treatment

What can you do to determine and manage WWTP grit costs? By Keith Hutchings

A high-performance grit removal system can significantly reduce downstream plant operating costs.

G

rit may seem a simple enough substance, but its impacts on wastewater treatment plant operation can be complex. So, how can asset managers or maintenance teams make reliable decisions about effective grit removal, especially when they lack accurate data that measures its impact? Often, they have simply relied on industry-standard guidelines for the design of their grit removal equipment. Finding accurate evidence of the cost of grit has always been a challenge for operators, especially when justifying installation of more advanced removal technologies that take out more and finer grit. The impact of grit and how it compromises processes like aeration and anaerobic digestion is often lost in the regularity of annual maintenance and repair budgets to downstream equipment.

Asking the right questions The following questions should be considered objectively: • Do you ever have to replace pumps and valves due to abrasion wear? Have you had to invest in special abrasion resistant materials to reduce wear? • Do you ever have to clean out pipes and channels because of accumulating debris at dwell points or in long, low velocity flows? How much time does this take? 26 | June 2016

• Has the flow rate through your treatment plant diminished since it was commissioned? Do you know by how much compared to the design flow? How is this affecting your plant’s efficiency? How efficient are your essential processes such as aeration and anaerobic digestion? Has their efficiency been reduced, and if so, by how much? • Has your power consumption for moving water around the plant gone up? Is this because the pumps used in mixing, aeration, sludge pumping, feeding digesters and tanks have become less efficient? Has your power consumption to aerobically treat your flow increased? • Have you invested in extensive alternative redundancy so you can take parts of your process off-line for cleaning and maintenance? Or have you tankered sludge or other liquids for treatment off site when your sludge treatment processes need maintenance? Are costs being assigned properly? It is highly likely you answered “Yes” to many of these questions, and all of these answers could be a consequence of grit. The problem is that O&M engineers often consider that each of the costs belong to separate ongoing O&M budgets, continued overleaf... Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Wastewater Treatment assigned to different parts of the plant. Surely, if there were a single common cause of these separate costs, and removal of this factor would minimize each of these costs, a significant total savings opportunity would open up for the entire plant? That single common factor is likely the load of grit and sediment that is carried in surface water into sewers before passing through inlet screens and insufficient grit removal equipment. Plants may often be only removing a small percentage of the total grit carried in raw water. Are design criteria correct? Based on decades-old guidelines, conventional grit removal designs usually target 95% removal of grit particles of 200 micron or greater. The conventional standard has assumed all grit is spherical silica sand, with a diameter of 212 micron, and a specific gravity of 2.65. Hydro International’s experience of working with more than 400 treatment plants over more than 30 years shows that the majority of grit carried in surface water flow is, in fact, smaller than 200 microns in diameter.

Savings made over 25 years using Advanced Grit Management®technology

US$

Grit tank / channel cleansing Refurbishment of primary clarifier Digester cleanout Pump wear / maintenance Centrifuge wear Aeration basin cleanout Total savings

1,703,775 2,628,300 1,192,400 1,115,575 405,650 155,775 7,108,550

Table 1.

The way grit settles in wastewater is complex, governed by a number of factors, including size, specific gravity, shape and tendency for agglomeration. A range of materials, including soil and organic matter that are relatively light and carried along easily in storm flows, settle out when the flow rate and velocity diminish, e.g., in tanks and basins. Most grit is smaller and lighter than the standard against which conventional equipment is designed.

Calculating pay back Many treatment plants are already experiencing the process and O&M efficiencies gained by targeting to remove 95% of all grit 75 microns and greater from raw incoming waters after mechanical screening. For others, the good news is that savings can easily be calculated and used to justify upgrading equipment. It may take less time than you think to recover the investment in improved operation and en-

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Wastewater Treatment ergy use. Sample calculations of the cost of grit at an average treatment plant, using actual costs, show the extent of the mismatch, and how much it can add up to. Studies made by sampling the inlet channels at wastewater treatment plants have shown that conventional grit removal of particles 200 microns and above may remove only 13% of the particle load on wet days, when 70% of grit arriving at the plant occurs. On dry days, when the particle load is low anyway, it may only remove 43%. The rest of the grit from 200 micron down to 70 micron and below is allowed through. This gives an overall removal efficiency of only 22% of the overall grit load arriving at the plant. If a conventional grit system removes around 2,000 tons per year, the total actual grit load (100%) arriving is 9,090 tons a year. As a result, 7,090 tons of grit a year (78%) is finding its way into downstream processes. If an Advanced Grit Management® (AGM) system was installed to remove 90% of the same total grit load, it would be possible to catch 8,181 tons per year.

The “Cost of Grit Calculator” from Hydro International.

As a result, 6,081 tons would not have to be cleaned out of downstream processes. Operating efficiency would be improved. Equipment abrasion wear could be reduced by up to seven times. Clearing out digesters and aeration tanks

would be needed less often. If currently needed every five to ten years, this could be extended to 20 years or more. Lower downtime means less plant disruption. Processes would also have more capacity because there would be less buildup in tanks, less blanketing of biological processes and clogging of aeration nozzles. Minimizing energy consumption is a major concern for all wastewater treatment plants, especially for those with aeration systems, which can consume up to 65% of the net power demand of a typical activated sludge plant. Energy studies at wastewater treatment plants also indicate that for every 1% of grit, 1% extra electricity is required, to compensate for less efficient processes and to pump the extra grit around. Using mechanically induced vortex (MIV) grit separation technology as an example and based on typical average efficiency of removal for all grit with particle sizes of 106 micron and larger, savings from major cost centres can be quantified on an annual basis averaged over 25 years. (See Table 1.) continued overleaf...

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June 2016 | 29


Wastewater Treatment Current typical annual costs using MIV grit removal technology are US$350,468. Typical annual savings using AGM grit removal technology are US$284,342. This means that operating costs could be an average of just US$66,126 annually, a saving of better than 80%. Cost-benefit analysis for a high performance grit removal system indicates that, over a range of populations from 25,000 to 500,000, payback would be between

four to eight years. If existing grit removal technology in any one plant is more than 10 or 15 years old, payback on high performance grit removal could be almost immediate once the existing deposits and damage have been addressed. This is due to the immediate reduction in operating, maintenance and running costs. Calculating the cost of grit Manufacturers of grit removal tech-

nology now have more experience at collating and comparing operating data. Easy access to digital platforms also provides opportunities to share this data with other professionals worldwide. Hydro International’s “Cost of Grit Calculator” is available for anyone to use and is based on operating data from working with treatment plants across the world. Where operational costs are not readily available, grit impacts and potential savings can be swiftly assessed using the calculator. It is also very useful for trying out “what if” calculations, all based on actual profiles of plants across a wide range of locations with varying climatic and environmental conditions. Advancing grit removal performance The calculator is based on the principles of Advanced Grit Management, a robust approach to the problem of removal of grit from raw wastewater at the inlet to the treatment plant. Proven in a very wide range of locations, environments and climates, its science is based on a thorough understanding of grit content and behaviour, and high performance engineering.

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Justifying an investment Making a case for improved grit removal in a treatment plant may not be as challenging as first thought. By sharing and comparing operating data from plants worldwide, broad conclusions can be drawn that can help move an investment argument forward. Every plant is different and there is, of course, no substitute for a detailed site assessment of real-world grit concentration and behaviour, and actual sampling of incoming effluent prior to a detailed plant design. However, there can be no doubt that poor grit removal is a major source of avoidable process inefficiency, operating, maintenance and replacement costs, as well as contributing to unnecessary energy usage. This conclusion alone should be sufficient to prompt any operator to begin investigating the opportunity that grit removal presents to make O&M savings. Keith Hutchings is with Hydro International. For more information, email: enquiries@hydro-int.com, or visit www.advancedgritmanagement.com Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Wastewater Operations

Mixer helps solve sewage lift station wet wipe problem

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et wipes are a handy commodity in households, hospitals, healthcare centres, schools and every place else where people need a quick tidy up. But if flushed, they can form large knotted balls of material that clog lift station pumps and interfere with the level controls. Curtis Rooth, a sewer department foreman, was keenly aware of the problem. Normally, his lift station pumps fill to about three metres of wastewater, start the “on” cycle and pump the wastewater. The pumps shut off when levels return to about one metre. But one of the neighbourhood lift stations would not always evacuate collected water. An expensive solution was to send a repair crew and vacuum truck to clear the offending debris from the floor and the pumps. Seeking a less costly solution, Rooth observed that wipes and other non-flushable material collected during the lift station’s “off” cycle and combined with grease to form a large knotted clump. Making matters worse, the clump would dislodge and move the liquid level transducer, resulting in a bad water-level signal and poor pump control. Rooth suspected the clumps formed at the grinder pump’s inlet, which sometimes prevented enough water from entering the pump. This caused it to cavitate, which could shorten the pump’s life. Rooth’s initial idea was to try an electric submersible mixer with fan-like blades. However, the wet wipes collected and stuck on the blades during the “off” period, causing an excessive load on the motor and heavy vibration when running. Another concern was how to safely install the electric mixer without it accidentally cutting electrical wires. Then, he tried the GridBee AP500 mixer from Medora Corporation. Since the unit is air-powered, there are no issues with electrical safety or mechanical rotating components. The installation also does not require fastening the mixer to the wall or the floor. The unit is simply lowered with a chain, either all www.esemag.com

The wet well remains clean without extra maintenance.

The AP500 air-powered mixer being lowered into the wet well.

the way to the bottom of the wet well, or suspended from the chain slightly above the bottom. The AP500 mixer creates an upward, mixing flow from the bottom of the lift station. A non-clogging diffuser and a flow-concentrating outlet effectively scour the floor area of debris and send a

30 cm diameter stream of water upward. This flow keeps the wet wipes from forming clumps, allowing the wipes and any grease that has been broken up, to easily pass through the pump. For more information, visit www.medoraco.com June 2016 | 31


Sustainability

Biochar offers many environmental benefits By Mike Shiralian

How biochar is made, and its potential feedstocks. Infograph courtesy of the Alberta Biochar Initiative

Biochar is carbon rich charcoal produced through thermal pyrolysis. Photo by Oregon Department of Forestry via Flickr.

B

iochar has many applications in helping with climate change, food security, renewable energy and waste management. It is carbon rich charcoal produced through thermal pyrolysis (300oC-700oC) of biomass, under little or zero oxygen conditions. The process also produces a mixture of organic gaseous (syngas) and liquid fraction called “wood vinegar” as byproducts. Feedstocks to make biochar are abundant and include carbon waste

32 | June 2016

streams from agriculture, forestry, urban sources, farm wastes, livestock remains, human, food and other compostable wastes. These are all low-value materials with limited uses and high disposal costs. Biochar has a tremendous porous and surface structure, which provides great habitant for micro-organisms, increases bioavailability, and creates a reservoir for water, nutrients and, in certain applications, pollutants. Using it as a soil additive increases plant growth

rates. This, in turn, provides an effective sink for sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide. Other benefits include: • Less risk of reduced crop yield during dry seasons; • Reduce the need for chemical fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus; • Help retain nitrogen and sulfurs in soil, which also reduces emissions; • Facilitate reestablishment of vegetation on sterile ground; • Inhibit the growth of molds or mildews; • Odour control; • Filter out contaminants from shallow soil water; • Remove heavy metals and acids from abandoned mine ponds; • Bind toxins and prevent their leaching into surface and ground water. Currently, a variety of biochar derivatives are being produced, with different properties depending on the feedstock, pyrolysis condition, residence time and additives added. Standardization and classification of biochar types are required if it is to be marketed for public use. Such regulatory initiatives are already underway through many local and international organizations such as the International Biochar Initiative, Biochar Ontario and the Canadian Biochar Initiative. In December 2015, the Canadian federal government approved commercialization of biochar in Alberta, based on a request by the Alberta Biochar Initiative. Widespread benefits Biochar is one of the few climate mitigation and soil enhancement technologies that is relatively inexpensive, widely applicable and quickly scalable. Also, there is a need for small municipalities to recycle their increasing amounts of sewage biosolids and organic wastes in a sustainable way. The technology has advanced so that any municipality could build its own pyrolyzer kiln (or microwave oven) and start converting wastes into biochar. Mike Shiralian, PhD., is an independent biochar science consultant. Email: mikex0123@gmail.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Water Reuse

Plants irrigated with treated wastewater pass on trace drug contaminants By Peter Davey

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new study, by a multidisciplinary team of researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Hadassah Medical Center, shows that eating vegetables and fruits grown in soils irrigated with reclaimed wastewater exposes consumers to minute quantities of carbamazepine. This is an anti-epileptic drug commonly detected in wastewater effluents. Fresh water scarcity worldwide has led to increased use of reclaimed wastewater, as an alternative source for crop irrigation. But, the ubiquity of pharmaceuticals in treated effluents has raised concerns over the potential exposure for consumers to drug contaminants via treated wastewater. The study was a randomized control study that exposed two groups of volunteers to two kinds of food baskets, according to Professor Ora Paltiel, Director of the Hebrew University-Hadassah Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, who led the research. The first group consumed a basket of fruits and vegetables irrigated with reclaimed wastewater; the second group consumed fruits and vegetables irrigated with fresh water. Both groups drank bottled water throughout the study to neutralize any contamination from drinking water. Results Following seven days of consuming reclaimed water-irrigated produce, all members of the first group exhibited quantifiable levels of carbamazepine; while in the second group the distribution remained unchanged from baseline. Levels of carbamazepine excretion were markedly higher in the first group versus the second. These results demonstrated a “proof of concept” and came as a surprise to the research team. “We had no idea what the results of this study were going to be because it was a proof of concept,” said Professor Paltiel, in an interview with ES&E Magazine. “The fact that every single person in the treated wastewater group, after a week, had measurable and quantifiable www.esemag.com

Research showed that healthy individuals who consumed reclaimed wastewater-irrigated produce excreted carbamazepine in their urine. Image courtesy of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

levels of carbamazepine in their urine was a ‘wow’ phenomenon.” Interestingly, the researchers found that green leafy vegetables, such as lettuce and parsley, had the highest concentration of carbamazepine as the leaves are what took it up the most. Water recycling expert, Dr. Bahman Sheikh, was also shocked by the results of the study as it was thought the osmotic root system of plants would block large molecules from entering the produce. However, he emphasized that the detected levels of carbamazepine pose no threat to public health. “There is no need to worry about this whatsoever,” said Dr. Sheikh, in an interview with ES&E Magazine. “You would have to live two hundred years to get one prescribed dosage of carbamazepine, and if you did that, you would still be safe.” The highest levels of carbamazepine detected in the volunteers were 50,000 times smaller than what would be detected if a person took two pills of the drug, according to Professor Paltiel. Furthermore, carbamazepine is considered a safe drug, with people taking it for years. “We don’t know if that has any medical effect at all,” said Professor Paltiel. “But that is not the point in environmental science. The point is if people are being exposed to something involuntary. Another question in environmental epidemiol-

ogy is: ‘What else is there that we don’t know about?’ PCPs, pesticides and other chemicals may also be persistent. The fact that one or two of them aren’t broken down means that concept exists and there is a potential exposure.” Further research Professor Paltiel said that from a regulatory point of view, this study, if confirmed, and others like it may cause regulators to think about which type of vegetables or produce should be grown in which degree of purified water. For instance, treatment with reverse osmosis will remove persistent contaminants, but is much more expensive. “Maybe lettuce should only be grown in fresh water or wastewater that has undergone RO and shouldn’t be grown in recycled wastewater with a lower degree of purity,” said Professor Paltiel. Further research will be done looking into groups that might be at increased risk from residual pharmaceuticals passed on by vegetables and fruit. These include pregnant women, children and people who consume a lot of vegetables, such as vegans and vegetarians. The research article was published in Environmental Science & Technology. To read the full article, visit: pubs.acs.org Peter Davey is the managing and online editor of ES&E Magazine. Email: peter@esemag.com June 2016 | 33


Water Treatment

Automated caustic dilution system saves WTP money and increases safety By Mark Nelson

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ike buying orange juice and detergent, water treatment chemicals are usually less expensive to purchase in higher concentrations. Unfortunately, feeding high strength chemicals into process water can create problems for operators. These include extremely low feed rates, chemical off-gassing, hard process water, and safety or regulatory concerns in handling high strength chemicals.

Safety and maintenance concerns One northwestern city in North America needed a pH control system for their main water treatment plant (WTP). Having designed caustic feed systems in the past, RH2 Engineers knew that chemical suppliers typically deliver caustic in the range of 25% – 49% strength chemical. Although it is far more cost-effective to purchase this chemical in these higher strengths, there were safety concerns about operating and servicing a chemical feed system with high strength caustic. In addition, RH2 Engineers felt that high strength caustic could cause feeding problems because it freezes at temperatures below 13oC. Also, scaling could be an issue at the process injection point due to the hardness of the process water. It was therefore decided to feed low strength caustic in the range of 5% – 10%. Buy chemicals, not water In order to feed low strength caustic, the city had three choices. It could purchase low strength caustic, which is mostly water. It could manually dilute high strength caustic when it arrived onsite. Or, it could use an automated chemical dilution system to reduce the caustic strength onsite. The first option was quickly disregarded when the city realized that purchasing pre-diluted chemical would be far too costly due to the transportation costs. In addition, many chemical companies are reluctant to dilute raw caustic because of the exothermic reaction that takes place when mixing caustic and water. 34 | June 2016

Weight-based batching systems are extremely reliable and accurate.

Manual dilution was disregarded because it was labour-intensive and could potentially produce inconsistent results. It would also expose operators to the dangers of high strength caustic. It was therefore decided to go with an automated dilution system. Weight-based batching system Having used weighing systems to monitor chemical tanks in the past, RH2 Engineers knew that a weight-based system would be extremely accurate and reliable. They contacted Force Flow Inc. to provide a weighing system and controller that would allow caustic and water to be automatically batched into a dilution tank by weight. Among the most important design criteria were: • The ability to accommodate different starting and ending solution strengths; • System accountability through inventory control and process alarms; • Accuracy and consistency of the diluted chemical strength; • Safety and redundancy in the event that the dilution system should fail.

Any strength at the touch of a button With prior experience in designing dilution systems, Force Flow was able to accommodate all of the city’s needs through some minor changes to existing hardware and software. Force Flow’s Merlin Dilution Controller automatically calculates the necessary amounts of water and caustic, based on the chosen beginning and ending chemical strengths. The system was designed for the operator to easily accommodate different beginning caustic strengths at will. If the city changes chemical suppliers or if their current supplier changes the strength delivered, they can easily accommodate this at the touch of a button. Additionally, it is just as easy to change the diluted strength of the caustic. If process conditions change or if the city needs to fine-tune what strength is easiest to feed to their water stream, they can do so again at the touch of a button. Another benefit of this flexibility is that metering pumps can be operated in their “optimum” range simply by adjusting chemical strength.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Water Treatment Inventory control and process alarms Because the city has to track its caustic usage and compare it to their water flow, detailed accounting of chemical usage was extremely important. By tracking nine different variables such as chemical usage, feed rates and remaining chemical quantities, the dilution controller is able to give a full accounting of the chemical feed and dilution process. Also, by tracking throughput and using timers to track the dilution process, six different process alarms give operators early warning of potential problems with their caustic feed system. Remote monitoring of chemical feed rates and remaining chemical supplies is accomplished through 4-20 ma signals. Redundancy Because the plant is the main source of the city’s water supply, RH2 Engineers wanted a fully redundant and failsafe system that would allow continuous operation in the event that a failure

Effective processes for Screening, Grit, and Sludge Industry leading patented technology

lers were installed. An auto-switchover valve was used to alternate between each of the two systems. If one bank is down for maintenance, the system can be diverted to the working system until repairs can be made.

A fully redundant and fail-safe system allows continuous operation in the event that a failure occurs.

occurred. Thus, two separate dilution systems, each with separate control-

Conclusion The city’s concerns about operator contact with high strength caustic, and potential maintenance problems due to scaling and crystallization, were alleviated through feeding a low strength caustic solution. By devising an automated onsite chemical dilution system, the city was able to avoid the cost of purchasing pre-diluted chemical, and eliminate the labour and safety concerns that manual dilution would demand. It was also able to integrate inventory control and process alarms to make their system safe and reliable. Mark Nelson is with Force Flow Inc. Email: mark@forceflow.com

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Public Awareness

Sharing Canadian drinking water expertise internationally By John Presta

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he everyday management of water and wastewater services brings its challenges into a director’s office. These can range from unexpected emergencies, to successful project completions, to enhanced service delivery. Earlier this year, I received a request to go to South Korea to give presentations on water supply operations. The request was from the Busan Water Authority, located in the Metropolitan City of Busan, South Korea. They were looking for international experience from a water utility that operates water treatment plants in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. In the Regional Municipality of Durham, Ontario, there are two nuclear plants operated by Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and five water supply plants that supply the urban communities on the north shore of Lake Ontario. Busan Water Authority’s newest water treatment plant is located approximately 11.3 kilometres from a nuclear power plant in the community of Gijang-gun.

Background Busan is the second largest city in South Korea, with a population of approximately 3.6 million, and is located on the southeastern tip of the Korean peninsula. The Busan Water Authority is responsible for providing drinking water services. Busan covers approximately 770 square kilometres and its water distribution system includes 8,526 kilometres of watermains, 72 storage facilities and 144 pumping stations. There are six water treatment plants that are owned and operated by the Authority. The main source of water is the Nakdong River, which flows southerly towards Busan. The river water can vary in quality during the year. Therefore, advanced water treatment is used, which includes pre-chlorination, pre-ozonation, clarification, sand filtration, ozonation, granular activated carbon and post chlorination (disinfection). Water sustainability strategy South Korea was designated as a water-stressed country by United Nations experts, based on future water demands. Busan started planning for diversifica-

tion of water resources so that their current water source, the Nakdong River, could continue to supply water into the future. Their strategy involved the use of the sea as a water source and building a desalination plant. This was planned for the Gijang community in Busan, and would service a population of approximately 150,000. Their current water source is 30 kilometres away. Development of the latest technology would create a water centre of excellence to attract people and industry from around the world. Domestic technology would be used for the research and development plan associated with South Korea’s first desalination water plant. Implementation of the Busan water sustainability strategy would provide an alternative and secure water source for the community and reduce the current stress on the Nakdong River. Implementation of the plan for the Gijang desalination plant began in 2009 with a memorandum of understanding. Construction was completed in 2014, with final testing in 2015. This water plant project was a joint venture between the South Korean and City of Busan governments, with private sector

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Public Awareness investment from Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction. The project budget was CAD$200 million. The Gijang plant draws water from the adjacent sea through an intake approximately 330 metres from shore. Treatment includes a unique dissolved air flotation with ball filter system as a first step. The plant was designed to include a research component for the desalination process, with two distinct treatment process trains. Both treatment trains include a reverse osmosis process for salt water treatment. One includes ultrafiltration and a “turbo booster” for energy recovery. The second includes dual media filters and a “dual work exchanger” for energy recovery. Public perception challenges The Busan Water Authority faced another challenge with the Gijang desalination plant. Community opposition grew with concerns about the proximity of the new water plant to a nuclear plant located approximately 11.3 kilometres to the north. The 2011 accident

www.esemag.com

Darlington nuclear generating station on the north shore of Lake Ontario. Busan Water Authority was looking to hear from water utilities with experience operating in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Photo courtesy of Ontario Power Generation.

in Fukushima, Japan, raised concerns about potential radioactive contamination in the sea and the potential of a similar accident occurring near the water plant. Public education efforts included presentations, promotional material and the supply of bottled water from the Gijang water treatment plant. Although

their efforts were extensive, the Busan Water Authority decided that it would organize two lectures from academics and those with international water experience. The two special lectures were organized for March 2 and 3, 2016. They were advertised regularly, and approximately 40,000 flyers delivered to continued overleaf...

June 2016 | 37


Public Awareness residents. The presentation about the Regional Municipality of Durham’s experience with water supply management in Ontario included: • Ontario’s Drinking Water Safety Net and associated water legislation. • Water quality testing of Lake Ontario associated with the operation of OPG’s nuclear generation plants. • Source protection spill modelling as part of the Lake Ontario Collaborative under the Clean Water Act. • Emergency management network. • Local advisory committees related to health and community issues associated with OPG’s nuclear plants. Local media interviewed me about the Gijang desalination plant, water supply in Ontario, and health related reports. When there is a controversial infrastructure project, certain media may not report the correct information. I had to address this in one of my presentations. In my experience, very vocal opponents and “Internet experts”

38 | June 2016

will advocate misinformation to distract from scientific theory and the facts. This challenge is likely experienced globally by public water professionals, with attempts being made to sensationalize specific infrastructure projects.

In my experience, very vocal opponents and ‘Internet experts’ will advocate misinformation to distract from scientific theory and the facts Summary The opportunity to share Ontario’s drinking water management system with the Busan Water Authority and their stakeholders was a great experience. The Authority has a strong team of water professionals who are passionate about supplying safe drinking wa-

ter to their community, by developing a sustainability strategy to implement the latest technology. The public, staff and attendees at the presentations were appreciative of Ontario’s drinking water management system, which works cooperatively with major stakeholders within the industry. The Busan Water Quality Institute (a division within the utility) hopes to develop a memorandum of understanding with the Regional Municipality of Durham in order to develop a partnership to share water quality and treatment information. As water professionals, we must continue communicating the facts and knowledge. We must not be distracted by information and theories which have not been peer-reviewed or substantially backed by science, whether it is within Canada or abroad. John Presta, P.Eng. MPA, is Director of Environmental Services, Works Department, with the Regional Municipality of Durham. Email: john.presta@durham.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Public Education

Educating students on water and wastewater

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rade eight students from Wasaga Beach’s Noel Chabanel Catholic School and Belleville’s Susanna Moodie Elementary School recently participated in the Ontario Clean Water Agency’s (OCWA) OneWater™ Education Program (the Program). They were visited by an OCWA operator who led them in a series of activities. This included mimicking a real-life flocculation experiment by adding coagulant to river water in a test jar and vigorously shaking the solution. This was followed by gently stirring the mixture to watch the particles clump together and settle at the bottom. This “floc” demo is just one of the hands-on experiments OCWA’s water operators are bringing into classrooms across Ontario as part of the OneWater rollout. The Program, piloted last year in eight schools across Ontario, teaches students about how water and wastewater is treated in their local community. It also educates future generations on the value of water and how to be good environmental stewards. This school year, the Program takes place in 16 of OCWA’s client communities. Approximately 1,000 students will participate in this Program, which is aligned primarily with the provincial curriculum for grade eight science and technology. It also supports curriculum expectations for students in grades six and seven. OCWA is a provincial agency that operates and maintains over 800 water and wastewater facilities. Its operators have been going into classrooms and conducting school tours of OCWA-run facilities for over 20 years. In 2014, OCWA decided to strengthen and formalize its water education program. Working with a team of curriculum developers, teachers and water operators from across Ontario, OCWA developed materials to help grade six, seven and eight teachers meet the provincially mandated expectations that focus on water-related issues. From there, the OCWA OneWater Education Program was born. www.esemag.com

The Program consists of three elements. Part One (“before”) has the teacher guide the class through several water-based inquiries that set the stage for a visit by an OCWA operator. Part Two (“during”) involves an OCWA operator visiting the classroom to conduct hands-on demonstrations of how water and wastewater are treated and how every household can practice responsible water use. Part Three (“after”) is a leave behind activity booklet for students to investigate how they treat their own water at home. Teachers guide the class through this follow-up activity, helping students discuss what they learned as a result of the entire Program. Results Since launching the pilots last year, the feedback from teachers and students has been extremely positive. A survey conducted by the teachers in 2015-2016 had 89% of students indicating they felt they knew more about their local water system and how it works than they did before going through the Program. As well, 82% of the students said that, after the classroom visit by the OCWA operator, they were better informed about what should and should

By Amy Lane

not be put down the toilets or drains. The teachers were equally positive about the Program, unanimously reporting that it was supportive of their curriculum expectations. The Program creates obvious benefits for OCWA employees. For them, it provides an opportunity to get into their local communities and share their extensive water knowledge. They are pleased to be able to teach good water use habits that will have a lasting impact on source water protection and the environment. As the Program continues to expand to client communities across Ontario, OCWA has created a companion module that focuses on the impact of climate change on the Great Lakes. “Changing Great Lakes” empowers youth to take the lead in adaptation strategies that need to be implemented for the safety, security and sustainability of their communities. The module was developed to meet the expectations of Ontario’s 2013 geography curriculum, and uses an inquiry-based approach to help students formulate questions, gather and organize evidence, and then interpret and analyze their data before drawing conclusions. Six experts in various areas of climate change are featured throughout the module, telling their individual stories about their connection to the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes module is currently in the pilot stage, rolling out in limited Ontario communities in the current school year. OCWA expects that this extension of the larger Program will be available to teachers in all OCWA’s client communities during the 2016/2017 school year. The module also helps support some of the key strategies from Ontario’s Great Lakes Protection Act, which passed in November 2015. Amy Lane is with the Ontario Clean Water Agency. Email: alane@ocwa.com To see the OneWater video, visit: www.esemag.com/onewater June 2016 | 39


Guest Comment

“FrankenSpec” - how projects can go awry By TR Gregg

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t is becoming increasingly important in the municipal wastewater treatment industry to produce processes that keep pace with ever-expanding treatment goals and infrastructure needs. A few years ago, our company had the opportunity to work closely with an engineering firm on the design of the headworks portion of a large plant upgrade. Our extensive experience with all the major components that made up the working parts of the screening and grit design, made it possible for us to provide support that would result in a holistic, well-functioning design. Additionally, we could develop specifications for the project that would accurately describe performance expectations, as well as the important machine descriptions that would ensure that correct technologies were employed. As the design neared completion and was advertised for tender, the specifications came under tremendous fire from late-arriving competing technologies that wanted to participate on various components of the design. Under pressure, the design engineering firm was instructed to “open up” the specifications. The logic used for this decision was based on the competing vendor’s assertion that they did not have all of the components and felt that this was the reason that they were

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40 | June 2016

not allowed to participate. Assurances were made that their offering met the intent of the design. The tragic culmination of this project was the selection of mismatched technologies that did not function well together. This resulted in extreme embarrassment to the engineering firm, and loss of time and money for the construction group. Plant operations also had to make do with a substandard installation. How did this happen? It is tempting to just shrug our shoulders and point to the inherent pitfalls of the municipal DesignBid-Build project fulfillment approach. It was not that long ago that a competent technology provider and a design engineering

“The bitterness of poor quality remains long after the sweetness of low price is forgotten.” - Benjamin Franklin firm were able to work effectively in this environment. What changed? The “Great Recession” forced many organizations to jettison all but the most essential functions just to survive. Districts and municipalities were forced into circumstances that prevented true cost-of-ownership considerations. These were supplanted by low capital dollar concessions. Engineering firms cut staff, severely curtailed non-billable hours for studying new solutions, and looked to boilerplate designs as a way to create a lean organization. Construction companies took greater risks to get the work. Technology providers cut back on technical support and service. Another key influence comes from the Internet itself. With the sheer proliferation of information available at our fingertips, the need to develop working collaborative relationships in person has become less obvious. Studies conducted by SiriusDecisions show that “67% of the buyer’s journey is now done digitally.” Their research shows that online searches are executives’ first course of action. The danger of this is the possible loss of collaboration. It becomes easier to misinterpret and/or misapply solutions. While it is understandable how these forces have shaped decision-making in recent times, a paradigm shift needs to unfold to raise the level of excellence that can be attained. Benjamin Franklin said it well: “The bitterness of poor quality remains long after the sweetness of low price is forgotten.” By attributing the proper value to application knowledge, demonstrated experience, established technology life cycle support, and consideration of whole-life-value, the groundwork can then be laid for competent collaboration. The challenge is how one puts a monetary value on competence or experience. The temptation is to dismiss this as unknowable. However, considering the scenario at the beginning of this article, the cost effect of ignoring the value of these attributes is very real. While a majority of the work continues to go forward as a Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Guest Comment classic Design-Bid-Build, these emerging conditions have created fertile ground for other project delivery methods to take root. Delivery methods such as DesignBuild-Operate (DBO), Construction Management at Risk (CM@Risk), and Public-Private-Partnerships (P3) are more readily open to collaboration and to take advantage of true-cost-of-ownership strategies.

None of these approaches are “bullet proof.” There are both successes and failures. However, true collaboration with partners that have proven experience, along with a consistent track record of

success, will advance the industry. TR Gregg is Director of Business Development & Marketing at Huber Technology. Email: trgregg@hhusa.net

Knowledge from the different disciplines can be used to achieve both cost-effective designs and optimized performance. These entities see the value of forming partnerships with groups formerly held at arm’s length, such as manufacturers, consultants, and contractors. Knowledge from the different disciplines can be used to achieve both cost-effective designs and optimized performance. Risks can more readily be mitigated, allowing for comparatively efficient project fulfillment. There is a keen interest by the private equity sector to invest in water and energy infrastructure. These groups are looking for stable investments such as municipal water and wastewater operations. They capitalize on these collaborations and form partnerships based on return on investment over decades.

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June 2016 | 41


Drinking Water Safety

Analyzer improves water fountain lead monitoring program in schools

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s recent lead contamination issues have shown, effective monitoring of water is essential. Most water treatment works have effective systems in place for removing lead to below safe levels. However, as events in Flint, Michigan, and Hong Kong have revealed, the lead contamination didn’t occur in the treatment works but entered the water as it travelled to users’ homes. This occurred through lead distribution pipes in Flint and high lead content soldering in Hong Kong. While the source of lead may be different, the root causes are the same: cutting corners to cut costs. The examples of Flint and Hong Kong highlight the need for comprehensive monitoring of drinking water at the point of use, along with effective strategies when action is needed. School Lead Monitoring Program The United States’ School Lead Monitoring Program was developed from the EPA’s recommendation for schools to routinely test their drinking water, with a focus on lead levels in drinking water fountains. Based on these recommendations, an independent water utility in the southern U.S. provided services for sampling, training, certified analysis and reporting for 15% of school facilities annually. As each facility was allocated resources for the testing of only two fountains, selections were based on frequency of use, location and make/model. Sample preparation, initial analysis, reporting and follow up analysis would take three to five weeks to complete, resulting in long delays to any remedial action. Organizing an effective system to enable consistent laboratory based testing required significant amounts of time to coordinate. In addition, as most schools have between six to 40 drinking water fountains, and only two could be selected, there was the challenge of trying to prioritize which ones should be sampled. Further facility and fountain

42 | June 2016

The SA1100 Scanning Analyzer delivers U.S. EPA-approved field measurement of lead and copper in a robust, portable instrument.

evaluation was often recommended, creating additional pressure on already limited resources. It soon became apparent that the existing lead monitoring program needed to increase the number of fountains sampled and the frequency of sampling. Also, the time taken to produce analytical test data needed to be cut, allowing effective and timely remediation action

to be taken. During 2013, the water utility purchased two Palintest SA1100 scanning analyzers for use in the School Lead Monitoring Program. The SA1100 is a portable scanning voltammetry instrument, certified by the EPA as an acceptable method to use in lead field analysis, with a lower limit of detection of 2 μg/ litre. Independent comparative analysis

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Drinking Water Safety demonstrated excellent correlation of test results between the SA1100 and laboratory based instrumentation. Each test using the SA1100 scanning analyzer takes approximately three minutes and costs considerably less that a test conducted by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The simplicity of the Palintest instrument made for easy integration into the testing program. The reduced cost per test allowed three times the number of sample analyses on drinking water fountains in the school facilities for the same cost. If any fountain exceeded the lead warning concentration of 10Îźg/litre, additional samples would be taken and assessed for confirmation of elevated lead levels. In the meantime, the fountain would be immediately removed from service, thereby removing the risk and allowing for swift corrective actions. Conclusions The ability to increase the number of fountains to be tested and the testing of common areas during the same time

period, with immediate data capture, increases the quality and quantity of analytical information available to the water utility. As a consequence, vulnerable areas were easier to identify, enabling more effective planning of remedial strategies and maintenance routines. Ultimately, a reduction in the quantity of lead passed to children through drinking water could be realized. The water utility continues to monitor 15% of schools annually. But rather than selecting only two fountains per school, all common area water fountains in elementary schools and one classroom fountain will be assessed, targeting those most at risk from the effects of lead poisoning. In middle and high schools, the sample plan includes all fountains in gyms, cafeterias and one per floor throughout the rest of the school building. For more information, visit www.palintest.com

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June 2016 | 43


Surveying

The new breed of professional surveyors in the 21ST century By Brian Kerr

Today’s surveyors use complex tools such as LIDAR-equipped UAVs. Photo courtesy of RME Geomatics.

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n survey offices across North America, young graduate professional surveyors are viewing the geographic landscape on computer monitors, compiling data from satellite photography and many other sources. From this, they are creating mapping for a diverse group of clients, whose requirements are infinitely varied. They are using highly intelligent software to interpret and analyze this geographic data, and linking it to their clients’ databases. They are creating maps, tables and graphs which provide a “big picture” perspective that their clients can use to solve problems. Consider a telecom company looking to densify or extend their network of cell towers to provide a more reliable service to their customers. They will need the following: • Locational data on the existing network. • An illustration of the power and reach of the cellular signals from each existing tower. • A land use map that shows them vacant parcels where they can site new towers. • An illustration of zoning data on those parcels to ensure a municipality will permit that construction.

44 | June 2016

• Legal surveys to acquire title to, or lease the new parcels.

This new breed of professional surveyors is young, energetic, university educated and interested in the endless possibilities afforded by new technologies of both data capture and data analysis. On a grand scale, provincial and federal governments are responsible for the management and orderly development of natural resources. Water resources, forestry, mining, soils, threatened species, wetland protection, wildlife management, agriculture, coastlines and environmental protection, all fall under the management umbrella of government. Approving the building of roads, railways, mines, solar and wind developments, hydroelectric dams, bridges, airports, military bases and harbours, also falls under the regulatory authority of government. On a local scale, municipalities oversee approvals for land development, sub-

divisions, building construction, streets, subways and light rail, water and sewage plants, arterial roads, bridge crossings and cellular towers. Utility companies are charged with establishing and maintaining thousands of kilometres of expensive wires, pipes and rights-of-way. As development proceeds, we place greater and greater pressure on the natural environment. To both manage our built environment and sustain the natural environment, we rely on information in rapidly increasing amounts. Linking this information to geographic locations provides the big picture of both the location and scale of the issues being considered. Geographic locations are provided in the form of mapping information, linked to information and data, to form useful policies and devise solutions. Not your parents’ survey profession My father began his career as a draftsman’s apprentice with the Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland in 1936, where his first job every day was to make ink. In 1936, China Ink was made by grinding, with a mortar and pestle, bits of a solid bar of black ink about the size of a domino. This was then mixed with water until it reached just the right density and colour to be used for drafting.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Surveying In 1973, when I became a professional surveyor, I looked very much like those surveyors who are, even today, portrayed in pictures: standing behind a theodolite, wearing jeans and muddy boots, waving to somebody holding a stick, and swatting a fly, while trying to make legible pencil notes in a fieldbook. In the 21st century, professional surveyors are far more likely to be found developing a Geographic Information System for a client, or using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data to map topography for a proposed wind turbine generating project. Or, they are creating a detailed survey plan of a complex freeway interchange from aerial data they acquired using an unmanned aerial vehicle/drone or helicopter. This new breed of professional surveyors is young, energetic, university educated and interested in the endless possibilities afforded by new technologies of both data capture and data analysis. They want to find creative solutions to satisfy the insatiable appetite of the modern world for information, which helps government and private clients make practical, informed choices.

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They want to be able to work on projects anywhere in the world, and are concerned with the natural environment, with the extinction of species, with the exhausting of finite resources. They are comfortable in the digital age, and are quick to embrace technological innovation. They become surveyors in a modern environment where university courses and qualifying exams are more tailored to their individual interests. They can work in many types of organizations, particularly those with a mandate for managing large amounts of infrastructure, or employing cutting edge remote data capture technologies, such as LIDAR and unmanned aerial systems, ground penetrating radar or submarine mapping. Professional surveyors retain their mandate and expertise in establishing boundaries. They are the recognized experts in dealing with the often difficult task of applying boundary and property law to boundary locations, easements and leasehold rights. The new breed of surveyors is able to draw upon newer technologies to allow clients to understand and visualize the many factors affecting the development

or maintenance of their properties. Looking ahead In previous centuries, surveyors were well-known people like George Washington and David Thompson, who, with their vision and energy, opened vast territories that became countries. In the 20th century, progress was dominated by technological change. Surveyors moved from 18th century telescopes and iron chains, to high-precision optical instruments and electronic distance measuring equipment. The new science of aerial mapping was born with the advent of the airplane. Satellites provided accurate locational information anywhere on earth for the first time. The 21st century is seeing a remarkable change in focus. The new breed of professional surveyors views the planet on a global scale, a system of infinitely complex interrelationships between natural and manmade activities Brian Kerr, O.L.S., C.L.S., is a freelance copywriter and licensed Canada and Ontario Land Surveyor. Email: beewillikerrs@yahoo.ca

June 2016 | 45


Wastewater Treatment

How WWTP aeration systems benefit from mechanical pipe coupling construction By Bradd Ripley and Andrew Cowburn

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ir leaks in wastewater aeration systems commonly occur at flanges as a result of pipe spool misalignment during construction. This occurs because of the methodology used to construct many aeration systems. Systems are typically constructed of light-wall stainless steel pipe. Welding sections of pipe together onsite, would require pickling and passivation in situ to prevent corrosion at the weld, so spool pieces are prefabricated in a shop environment then joined with flanges in the field. If there’s misalignment of the flange faces or bolt holes, the spool pieces should be sent back to the fabrication shop for rework. Instead, they’re often forced together to keep the project on schedule. Engineers also need a method for accommodating the significant thermal expansion and contraction that’s characteristic of aeration systems. Stainless steel corrugated bellows, bolted sleeve type couplings, or bolted split-sleeve couplings are typically specified for this application, as rigid welded and flanged joints can’t accommodate such movement. The result is a piping system with at least three different types of joints. Engineers can simplify aeration system design and prevent issues such as project delays or air leaks by using mechanical couplings. When used at each joint in the system, grooved and bolted split-sleeve mechanical couplings compress the project schedule by eliminating the need for welding, and accommodating thermal expansion and contraction. They take up misalignment that might occur between piping or equipment, eliminating forced fit up and minimizing the possibility of air leaks. Mechanical couplings for aeration piping In a grooved pipe joint, a grooved mechanical coupling is used to join standard, off-the-shelf pipe that contains grooves in its pipe-ends. The grooves are formed in a process known

46 | June 2016

Mechanical couplings can help minimize or eliminate air leaks in aeration systems, which cuts energy costs.

as roll grooving. A small portion of the pipe wall is radially displaced as the pipe is compressed and rotated. No metal is removed from the pipe in this process. The resulting groove around the circumference of the pipe is recessed on the outside and indented on the inside. There are three components of a grooved coupling: an elastomeric gasket, metallic housing segments (typically stainless steel in aeration applications), and nuts/bolts. The typical operating temperatures of aeration systems necessitate a high-performance gasket material. Materials such as EPDM or silicone offer temperature resistance up to 250°C. To create a joint, the gasket is positioned on one pipe-end. A second pipeend is brought into alignment with the first, and the gasket is then centred on the joint. The housing segments are placed over the gasket so the key sections of the housing engage the grooves in the pipeends. The bolts and nuts are then inserted and tightened with a socket or impact

wrench until the housing bolt pads meet metal-to-metal. In the installed state, the coupling housing encases the gasket and engages the grooves around the circumference of the pipe to create a leak-tight seal in a self-restrained pipe joint. Grooved mechanical couplings are available in rigid and flexible designs. Rigid couplings mechanically resist linear and angular movement of the pipe at the joint, while flexible couplings permit a controlled amount of linear and angular pipe movement. In a flexible grooved coupling, the dimensions of the coupling key are narrower than the groove in the pipe, providing room for the coupling key to move within the pipe groove. Additionally, the width of the flexible coupling housing allows for pipe-end separation, leaving room for controlled linear and angular movement. The flexible coupling remains a self-restrained joint, and the pressure-responsive gasket design provides positive sealing even during piping system movement. Movement

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Wastewater Treatment capabilities vary by coupling manufacturer, style and size, but a range of 3-6 mm of linear movement and 1 degree of angular deflection are typical for 100 mm and larger couplings. A pipe joint utilizing a bolted splitsleeve coupling can take on several different profiles, depending on the type of coupling selected. Bolted split-sleeve couplings are used to join standard pipe with or without restraint rings welded onto the pipe-ends. There are several components of a bolted split-sleeve coupling: a one- or two-piece coupling body, O-ring gaskets, sealing plates, and studs, nuts and washers. To create a joint, the O-rings are positioned on each pipe-end and the pipeends are aligned. The coupling body is then centered on the joint so that the O-rings are seated in the arches of the body, and the restraint rings, if present, are properly engaged. A sealing plate is inserted between the coupling body and O-rings at each opening. A closure tool is used to bring the closure plates of the coupling body together so that the

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Bolted split-sleeve couplings for aeration systems can be specified as restrained or non-restrained, depending on the type of expansion, angular deflection or axial movement anticipated.

hardware can be inserted and tightened. The joint is complete when the coupling body is in full contact with the restraint rings and pipe around its circumference. Bolted split-sleeve couplings are available in a variety of restrained and non-restrained styles. Those most com-

monly specified for aeration systems include non-restrained flexible couplings, restrained flexible couplings and non-restrained flexible expansion couplings. Non-restrained flexible couplings enable angular deflection and limited continued overleaf...

June 2016 | 47


Wastewater Treatment amounts of axial movement at the joint. These couplings, which create a flexible pipe connection but are not designed or intended to provide pipe-end restraint, are typically used for field joint connections in anchored systems. Restrained flexible couplings are typically used for field joining in non-anchored systems, as they create a fully restrained pipe joint through the use of restraint rings on each pipeend. Restrained flexible couplings can accommodate limited amounts of axial movement and deflection. Typically used to accommodate inline thermal expansion and contraction, non-restrained flexible expansion couplings permit axial movement of up to several centimetres per coupling. One or two restraint rings on one of the pipeends keep the coupling in place on the “fixed” side of the joint while allowing the pipe to move axially within the coupling on the “expansion” side of the joint. Non-restrained flexible expansion couplings are not designed to accommodate angular deflection at the joint.

Mechanical grooved couplings can be used to join standard pipe and accommodate rigid or flexible connections.

So, they should be used to accommodate axial pipe movement only. Grooved and bolted split-sleeve couplings may both be used in a single aeration system, or the designer may specify just one type. The selection will depend

on pipe size, pipe wall thickness and support method. Aeration system piping design Designing aeration system piping with grooved couplings and bolted split-

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Wastewater Treatment sleeve couplings is similar to using the weld/flange construction methodology. Once the system has been routed, thermal expansion and contraction must be considered. Thermal movement can be accommodated at each joint in the system using the linear movement capabilities of flexible mechanical couplings, at system changes in direction using the angular deflection capabilities of the couplings, or both through the construction of a free-floating system. To accommodate thermal movement at each joint, the system should be anchored at the end of each straight run of pipe. Every other pipe length should be guided to direct the movement into the couplings and prevent deflection at the joints. To compute the number of flexible pipe couplings required to accommodate the expected expansion or contraction, divide the anticipated change in length of the piping by the linear movement capability, including any design factor, of the type and size of coupling to be installed. To accommodate thermal expansion and contraction at system changes in direction, the movement must be directed into the bends, using properly placed anchors and guides. Using rigid couplings on the straight pipe runs and flexible grooved or bolted split-sleeve couplings at the bends will naturally guide movement into the directional change, but all flexible couplings are also an option. The length of pipe between couplings at the bends must be long enough to accommodate movement without over-deflecting the joints. To compute the required pipe length, divide the anticipated amount of thermal movement by the coupling’s deflection-from-centerline capability, taking into account any required design factors. In a free-floating system, the piping is permitted to expand and contract freely without anchors or guides, as long as the movement does not stress branch connections, joints, bends or equipment. Branches and offsets must be sufficiently long to accommodate the anticipated movement of the pipe while not exceeding the maximum angular deflection of the coupling. A free-floating system uses a flexible grooved coupling or bolted split-sleeve coupling at each joint to allow this

movement. This means the effects of pressure thrusts must be accounted for in the system design. Conclusion Designing aeration system piping with mechanical couplings at each joint results in a system that’s more easily fabricated, constructed and maintained. The ability of grooved couplings and bolted split-sleeve couplings to join the

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pipe while handling thermal movement and misalignment solves some of the issues of the traditional weld/flange fabrication method, notably instances of air leaks that lead to higher costs. Ultimately, the municipality benefits from a more reliable and efficient system.

June 2016 | 49


Spills SPECIAL SECTION

Storage Tanks, Containment & Spills

The geodesic aluminum cover with sidewalls at the Amherstburg Area Water Treatment Plant.

Water and wastewater operations improved by tank covers By Pat Logan

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any existing water and wastewater tanks have been operating for years and operators are now dealing with the difficult challenge of maintaining them. Operating efficiency of tanks with defective roofs is often compromised, maintenance costs are incurred and odour problems can develop.

Amherstburg WTP In 2014, the town of Amherstburg, in southwestern Ontario, received a report from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment about the clarifier in their 45 year old water treatment plant. The report identified the need for a cover on 50 | June 2016

the existing concrete tank, as it should no longer be left open to the elements. When left open, clarifiers are prone to algae growth in the summer and freezing in the winter. Covering this clarifier would help reduce operational challenges with changing seasons and provide more protection and security, while reducing odours. The project was approved in the 2015 capital budget and the ‘Request for Proposal and Tender’ process began. A tender was issued to procure and install an aluminum geodesic dome and skirt wall for the clarifier. Assembly, installation and commissioning of the aluminum geodesic dome clarifier cover system, ensuring clear-

ance above the existing clarifier truss structure and the central mechanism, doors to the central mechanism, translucent panels for interior illumination, inspection hatch and ventilation were included in the tender. The entire dome structure including the skirt wall was to be designed to sustain temperature and weather loads. Greatario was awarded the contract in 2015. Construction began in the spring of 2016. The dome, measuring 19.81 m, was assembled adjacent to the tank, then lifted by crane onto the clarifier tank. It weighs approximately 6,800 kg and is largely made of aluminum. This offers many advantages, including corrosion

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Spills resistance, lightweight, structurally safe, operator friendly, modular and low maintenance costs. The side panels were installed in place in April 2016. With three translucent skylights and aluminum sidewalls, there is easy access to the inside of the clarifier for operators. They enter the tank several times per day and are able to perform maintenance and testing safely and efficiently. Preston WWTP The existing fibreglass reinforced plastic clarifier covers at the Preston wastewater treatment plant, in the Region of Waterloo, were old and odour emissions were becoming an ongoing problem. Recognizing this, the Region issued an RFP to select an equipment supplier to design, fabricate, configure, deliver, supervise, inspect and certify the installation of new covers. Each 15.24 m diameter cover would be installed onto the existing primary clarifiers. Greatario was awarded the contract in the fall of 2015, with construction in the spring of 2016. The roof was designed to be clearspanning and self-supporting. The entire structure was designed as a watertight system under all design load and temperature conditions. Only one clarifier could be off-line at any given time during the construction process. Each clarifier was required to have four access hatches around the perimeter and two fresh air intake vents. The aluminum covers and truss supports were designed to expand and contract. A camber was designed into the flat cover to allow for drainage of rain and snow. Lightweight aluminum trusses were assembled from manufactured components and then raised in place by cranes and placed on the walls of the storage tanks. Aluminum panels were installed, along with access hatches for treatment process observation. Air vents were also incorporated into the cover system. The project was completed in May, with all four clarifier covers now installed. Oxford County WWTP Another common cover is the externally supported roof. A request was made by Oxford County to design and build an externally supported roof (ESR) to be installed on existing conwww.esemag.com

Geodesic aluminum domes covering sludge storage tanks at the Highland Creek wastewater treatment plant.

crete wastewater tanks built in the 1940s and expanded in the 1970s. These were experiencing wear and weathering to the welded and painted roofs. The unique construction included expanding the digester in height by installing two rows of glass-fused-to-steel panels between the concrete tanks and the 14.08m ESRs.

An externally supported roof is used when moderate to high pressure or vacuum design limits are anticipated. The ESR is used when moderate to high pressure or vacuum design limits are anticipated. It is also preferred when there are heavy load conditions expected from mixers and/or other ancillary equipment installed on the cover. Highland Creek WWTP Geodesic aluminum domes were the choice for Toronto’s Highland Creek wastewater treatment plant tank upgrades in 2014. This project included the installation of four 27.1 m aluminum domes to cover existing concrete sludge storage tanks. This project was unique in that one of the sludge tanks was used as a building site and each of the dome roof frames was constructed on this

tank. Once the dome was constructed it was then moved to another sludge tank. Once each of the domes was positioned on the related sludge tank, all walkways, flashing, vents, flanged fittings, etc., were completed. The advantage of this building technique is that it allowed for the tanks to be operational during the build and construction could be completed onsite within the small site footprint. For over 30 years, Greatario has been involved in the design, manufacture and construction of custom aluminum covers and structures for environmental, municipal and other industrial applications. The advantages of aluminum are: • Great for odour control. • Corrosion resistant – All aluminum structure is corrosion resistant, maximizing product life cycle. • Structurally safe – Constructed with a slip resistant surface for personnel safety. • Low profile design – Less air volume to be contained and treated. • Removable panels – Interlocking male-to-female joints between panels allow for easy removal of any or all panels with no special tools needed. • Lightweight – No heavy machinery necessary to remove panels. • Ease of installation – Easily constructed of lightweight material. Pat Logan is with Greatario Engineered Storage Systems. Email: plogan@greatario.com June 2016 | 51


Spills

Understanding Canada’s various secondary containment guidelines

By Nancy Argyle taining Petroleum and Allied Petroleum Products. Section 3.9.2(1) reads that “a secondary containment impermeable barrier shall be designed, built and approved in conformance with ORD-C58.9-1997.” In January 2013, a Note to Reader was added to the CCME Code of Practice, stating that ULC had published the First Edition of CAN/ULC-S668, which complements current referenced standards within the CCME Code. The Note to Reader also stated that ULC had already withdrawn ORD-C58.9-1997, effective March 31, 2009. Compliance with section 3.9.2(1) of the CCME Code of Practice is required as per regulations SOR/2008-197 (Storage Tank Systems for Petroleum Products and Allied Petroleum Products Regulations) made under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999.

SEI’s Insta-Berm is a fully collapsible, portable berm made from chemical resistant materials.

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here is a new Canadian standard that impacts many industries, including mining, exploration, construction and military operations. CAN/ULC-S668-12 replaces a previously recognized document (ORD-C58.9-1997) for liners used for secondary containment of aboveground flammable and combustible liquid tanks. Although the regulation mainly applies to federal and aboriginal lands (including federal airports, railways, ports and any operation by a Crown corporation), a number of provincial regulations and codes, by extension, incorporate the new CAN/ULC-S668 standard as well. Paul Reichard, manager of SEI Industries Ltd. Remote Site/Environmental Division, says: “This standard and the use of certified products that meet it are a significant step forward in protecting the environment from fuel spills across Canada. It is basically for the fabric used to make secondary containment so it enables manufacturers to produce different shapes and sizes of secondary containment to meet a customer’s specific needs.”

52 | June 2016

SEI is the first company to produce shop-fabricated Intertek-certified berms that meet the requirements of the CAN/ ULC-S668-12 standard. What is CAN/ULC-S668-12? The CAN/ULC-S668 standard sets forth minimum requirements for the material properties and performance of liners used for secondary containment under and around the area of tanks installed aboveground for the storage of flammable and combustible liquids. A “tank” is defined as a closed container with a capacity of more than 230 litres that is designed to be installed in a fixed location. A transfer area means the area around the connection point between a delivery truck, railcar, aircraft or vessel and a storage tank system in which the tanks have an aggregate capacity of more than 2,500 litres. CAN/ULC-S668 replaces ORDC58.9-1997, a standard listed under section 3.9.2(1) of the CCME Environmental Code of Practice for Aboveground and Underground Storage Tank Systems Con-

When and where must this standard be met? As per the “Storage Tank Systems for Petroleum Products and Allied Petroleum Products Regulations,” CAN/ ULC-S668-12 must be met on the secondary containment of any storage tank system located in Canada in which petroleum products or allied petroleum products are stored and: • That is operated by a federal department, board or agency, or belongs to Her Majesty in right of Canada. • That is operated by or belongs to a federal work or undertaking that is: a port authority set out in the schedule to the Canadian Marine Act; an airport within the meaning of the Aeronautics Act; or, a railway. • That is located on federal land or aboriginal land; or • That is operated by a Crown corporation. When do these regulations not apply? • Storage tank systems located in a building that provides secondary concontinued overleaf...

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Spills tainment equivalent to a maximum hydraulic conductivity of 1 x 10-6 cm/s, on a continuous basis. • Systems containing unprocessed petroleum products resulting from or used during oil or natural gas exploration. • Systems that have aboveground tanks in which the aggregate capacity of the tanks is 2,500 litres or less and the systems are connected to a heating appliance or emergency generator. • Systems regulated under the National Energy Board Act or the Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act. Provincial requirements In addition to the federal regulations, a number of provincial regulations and codes also incorporate the CCME Code requirements and, by extension, the CAN/ULC-S668 standard. British Columbia – There are currently no specific provincial regulations to govern petroleum storage tanks. The National Fire Code of Canada specifies that any combustible or flammable prod-

uct must be contained by a dike system. Alberta – Storage tank systems are regulated through the Alberta Fire Code. Secondary containment is required for all aboveground storage tanks in Alberta. Saskatchewan – Operators shall provide an appropriate secondary containment system for aboveground storage tanks with an internal volume equal to or greater than 5,000 litres for any of the following products: • Refined Product: Refined chemical product such as acids, amine, base, diesel, gasoline, glycol, methanol and solvents. • Produced Products: Upstream oil and gas products (unrefined), byproducts, wastes and materials contaminated with produced products. They include, but are not limited to, crude oil, condensate, drilling fluids, drilling waste, frac fluids, frac sands, liquid petroleum gas, oily byproduct, produced water, produced sand and any other material contaminated with produced products.

(Saskatchewan Upstream Petroleum Industry Storage Standards, 2015) Manitoba – Aboveground tanks must have approved secondary containment as per Technical Bulletin PSF-003 Regulatory Requirements for Aboveground Storage Tanks and Storage Tank Systems. In addition, Manitoba’s Storage & Handling of Petroleum Products and Allied Petroleum Regulations (MR 188 2001) were amended in 2011. The current version incorporates by reference the requirements of the CCME Environmental Code of Practice for Aboveground and Underground Storage Tank Systems Containing Petroleum and Allied Petroleum Products. Ontario – As per Ontario Fire Code, the membrane of a secondary containment shall conform to ULC/ORD-C58.9, “Secondary Containment Liners for Underground and Aboveground Flammable and Combustible Liquid Tanks”. This reference is obsolete as ULC has already withdrawn ORD-C58.9 and replaced it

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54 | June 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Spills with CAN/ULC-S668-12.Ontario Liquid Fuels Handling Code is currently being amended and the new version, which is expected to be released in 2016, formally refers to CAN/ULC-S668-12. Quebec – An aboveground tank installed after the coming into force of the Act respecting petroleum products and equipment  shall be equipped with a dike to form a diked area around the aboveground tank or tank farm holding 5,000 litres or more. Newfoundland and Labrador – Aboveground storage tank systems in Newfoundland and Labrador are regulated through the Storage and Handling of Gasoline and Associated Products Regulations. According to the regulations, aboveground storage tanks shall be surrounded by a dike. Nova Scotia – Nova Scotia’s Petroleum Management Regulations do not contain any specific requirements for secondary containment. Nova Scotia Standards for Construction and Installation for Petroleum

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Storage Tank Systems state that all aboveground storage systems shall have secondary containment. Since the document was last amended in 2005, it refers to ULC/ORD-C58.9, which was withdrawn in 2009 and replaced with CAN/ ULC-S668 in 2012. New Brunswick – Single-walled storage tanks must be installed in an impervious secondary containment with a minimum holding capacity of 110%. Petroleum Product Storage and Handling Regulation NB Reg. 87-97 requires that the area surrounding a storage tank or group of storage tanks shall be designed to accommodate accidental spillage by surrounding the storage tank or tanks with a dike. Prince Edward Island – No person shall install an aboveground storage tank with a capacity of 2,300 litres or greater without a secondary containment system. Nunavut – No information on secondary containment requirements found. Northwest Territories – No informa-

tion on secondary containment requirements found. Yukon – Yukon Storage Tanks Regulations require the issuance of a permit from the Minister for the construction, installation and operation of aboveground and underground storage tank systems. The regulations also require the Minister to take into account the CCME Environmental Code of Practice for Aboveground and Underground Storage Tank Systems Containing Petroleum and Allied Petroleum Products when considering an application for a permit. Nancy Argyle is an experienced disaster communicator. For more information, visit www.sei-ind.com (Disclaimer: The information provided is SEI’s interpretation of the legislative, regulatory and policy framework. This article should not be used as a legal advice. SEI recommends that operators confirm local requirements with the authority having jurisdiction.)

June 2016 | 55


Spills

Georgetown’s WWTP covers its grit tanks to help address odour concerns By Brent Howe

T

he Georgetown Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) provides industrial and municipal wastewater treatment for Georgetown, Ontario. It treats approximately 17,500 m3 of wastewater per day and is sized to accommodate the needs of a local dairy processing facility, which is the largest industrial contributor of wastewater. Built in 1960, expanded in 1978, and again in 1989/90, the plant was originally located in a remote area. However, in the mid-1990s, houses were built less than 100 metres from the plant’s property line. Though consultants were hired to conduct dispersion modeling and analyze weather patterns to determine if odours would impact the homes closest to the plant, it didn’t take long before new residents complained about odours. The WWTP is located in a valley, and odour studies have found that the area experiences occasional environmental conditions causing temperature inversions that keep air from dispersing. This results in a concentration of background odours that can flow down the valley and up the hill toward the neighbours. When complaints first arose, the plant started compiling odour information, to document trends and help staff and their advisors work toward solving the problem. Some years, the plant would receive zero complaints, but in other years they recorded up to 35 odour objections. “We want to be a good neighbour in our community, so we encourage the public to contact us when there is an issue. We’re proud of the work we do and we take odour control very seriously,” says Wendy Derjugin, plant operations supervisor. The number of odour complaints led management to take action. They wanted to better understand odour sources, which included the plant’s headworks and aeration, primary and grit tanks. Armed with that information, the plant could work toward addressing the problem by targeting identified odour sources. Plant management added various odour control technologies, including oxidizers, vaporizers, misters, ozone and car-

56 | June 2016

Residents live less than 100 metres from the wastewater plant’s property line.

bon systems. They replaced open grating over channels with solid aluminum, and experimented with different ventilation approaches. Septic haulers were required to dump at an upstream location rather than at the plant. Sludge truck loading area odours were captured and treated in a carbon system. Operational adjustments were also made by taking some tanks out of service during low flows, and this continued on an ongoing basis to reduce odours. All plant activities, regardless of scope, take into account the potential risk for odour generation and are planned accordingly. In 2010, the construction of a new digester complex offered an opportunity to improve odour control, with the addition of a new truck loading facility and an improved carbon capture and treatment system. Management made a public commitment to reduce odours, and efforts were made to enlist the participation of neighbours to help identify odours. More odour experts were hired. H2S monitors were placed around the plant to measure odours and try to identify sources. But variability in odours, wind, temperature and flows, combined with the valley’s topography, made it challenging to definitively identify them. “The tough part about odours is that

they are both transient and subjective. It’s difficult to pinpoint the problem and even more difficult to correct it once and for all,” says Derjugin. To honour the commitment made to neighbours, the plant focused on what it could do with its grit tanks, which were identified as a significant source of odours. The plant was utilizing a neutralizing system, that was somewhat effective, but it could not eliminate all the fugitive emissions. Proximity to the neighbours, changing loading conditions, weather conditions, and the valley effect still allowed nuisance odours. Ongoing chemical costs were expensive, but complaints did not stop. This left some members of the community thinking that the plant was doing nothing to address the odour issue. This was an incorrect impression and was very frustrating for plant staff. The grit tanks were the perfect place to test if covering them would reliably control odours. “We can’t chase odours in the wind. A cover made logical sense. We were convinced that capturing and treating odours was the way to go,” says Derjugin. The tanks have a screw conveyor at the bottom that occasionally must be serviced, so access to tank internals was an im-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Spills portant consideration when selecting the cover system. WWTP staff investigated different cover options and recommended retractable structurally supported covers from Geomembrane Technologies Inc. (GTI). They consist of a high-strength, UV-protected, coated fabric, tensioned over a low-profile aluminum arched frame that spans the tank opening. These were custom designed to meet specific plant requirements, including: spanning the two 2.5 m x 10 m grit tanks to allow easier removal of the screw conveyors; addition of inspection hatches; and accommodation of penetrations for valves, gates, drains, and aeration pipes. Foul air from below the covers and inside the grit building is withdrawn and treated in a carbon system. The covers easily retract, meeting the plant’s access requirements. The GTI covers and the accompanying odour treatment system on the grit tanks were the Georgetown WWTP’s first capital project entirely dedicated to odour control. The success of the project has plant management convinced that it is making continued progress towards

The covers easily retract to allow workers access to equipment.

addressing odour issues and improving relationship with nearby residents. The plant is now considering ways to tackle headworks odours. Odour assessments are still routinely conducted at the Georgetown WWTP. Plant personnel regularly check portable units along the plant perimeter that mea-

sure odours every few minutes. Odour control monitoring has become integrated into the plant’s daily operations process and compliance responsibilities. Brent Howe is with Geomembrane Technologies Inc. For more information, email: covers@gticovers.com

RETHINK OIL CONTAINMENT BE IN CONTROL Engineered Secondary Oil Containment Allows water to pass through, seals on contact with oil. MORE EFFICIENT. MORE SUSTAINABLE

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June 2016 | 57


Spills

Fibreglass tanks increasingly used for water storage By Kristi Peterson

H

istorically, fibreglass underground storage tanks have been used in the petroleum industry to safely store motor fuels and other petroleum products. Designers of water storage projects can also select fibreglass water tanks, to be installed above or below grade. Whether used in aboveground or underground water tank applications, fibreglass offers strong, yet lightweight

As one measure of their structurally strong design, most fibreglass underground tanks are designed for H-20 loading conditions, making them ideal for installation in parking lots and high-traffic locations. They have a long history of use in applications where watertight design integrity is critical. Installation steps and costs are minimized by the lightweight nature of fiberglass, since expensive heavy-lifting equipment generally is not necessary. This is also an important consideration when tank installation sites are difficult to access. Fibreglass tanks can be designed for dual-purpose use, such as fire protection and potable water storage. They can be ordered with a National Sanitation Foundation listing for potable applications. structural design, easy installation, corrosion-resistance and competitive pricing. It is easily customizable to meet the needs of the many different applications and is field repairable if damaged. As a material, fibre reinforced thermoset resin composites (fibreglass or FRP) have been used for decades in highly corrosive environments, not just for storage tanks, but also piping and in air equipment such as ducts and exhaust stacks.

Canadian applications Fibreglass storage tanks have been utilized in stand-alone and supplemental water supply applications for many years. A campground on Price Edward Island selected a fibreglass storage tank because it provided a watertight tank alternative that could be engineered to fit the wastewater application. The engineers for the project also noted that installation of a

Wastewater and Water Cover Solutions GTI covers: • Regulate temperature • Control odours • Reduce algae growth • Collect and store biogas Cover and Liner Systems

58 | June 2016

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Spills

fibreglass storage tank could be quicker and simpler compared to other products. In addition, the 80,000-litre fibreglass tank allowed for minimal disruption in campground operations.

A college in Cambridge, Ontario, selected a fibreglass storage tank for a rainwater harvesting application at a student housing project. The municipality stipulated that no rainwater could run off the

site into the sewer system. In addition, the project presented a number of challenges, including unusual soil conditions, location from the road, and a tight installation site. As a result, a 25,000-litre fibreglass storage tank was selected. In Calgary, Alberta, a power converter station installed seven three-metre diameter tanks to be used as part of the project’s fire suppression system. Increasingly strict fire codes often require dedicated standby sources of water be available to firefighters to either supplement or replace a primary water source that is either unreliable or too distant. The tank system is designed to hold nearly a million litres of water for emergency fire suppression, to be pumped through almost a kilometre of IPEX pipe. The system feeds eight separate hydrants through a fire loop. In addition, separate tanks will be used for a potable water holding system and a septic holding tank. Kristi Peterson is with ZCL Composites Inc. Email: kristi.peterson@xerxes.com

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June 2016 | 59


Spills

Proper foundation design ensures long-term fuel storage tank performance at Vancouver Airport By Nelson Beaton, Jeff Scott, Samuel Briet and Hubert Guimont

T

he Vancouver Airport Fuel Facilities Corporation is constructing a second jet fuel tank farm, at the Vancouver International Airport in Richmond, British Columbia, which is within the estuary of the Fraser River. The project consists of developing an approximately six acre parcel of land, located adjacent to the north runway and close to the existing jet fuel tank farm in the northeast corner of Richmond Sea Island. Phase 1 of the development will accommodate four new fuel tanks, each measuring an approximate 31 metres diameter and 15 metres height, as well as relatively small and lightly loaded ancillary structures along the eastern edge of the tank farm site. Consideration was given to allow for the expansion of two additional fuel tanks to be constructed as Phase 2 at a future date. Design requirements Sea Island has a typical Fraser River Delta soil profile, characterized by saturated alluvial deposits. These deposits are considered to be young from a geological perspective. The Delta is located in a zone considered to have a high level of seismic hazard. Seismic design in the area is based on the 2006 British Columbia Building Code, which accepted the 2005 National Building Code of Canada seismic design guidelines. Based on results of a site-specific ground response analysis, the risk of liquefaction of the loose to compact sandy soil was considered very high under the design seismic event. In order to reduce the potentially severe negative impacts of earthquake-induced soil liquefaction on the proposed fuel tank foundations, it was recommended that ground improvement measures be implemented in the area within the tank farm footprint. These should extend to the surface of the marine silt, +/- 17 metres below the existing ground surface elevation. 60 | June 2016

Vancouver Airport Jet Fuel Tank Farm #2 site location.

Ground improvement solution Vibro replacement (VR) stone column installation using wet top-feed methods was selected as the most efficient and cost-effective ground improvement technique to treat the interbedded and clean

For storage tanks, ground improvement technologies can often offer the quickest and most economical means of mitigating poor/marginal ground conditions. sandy soil units. Preloading the tank foundation areas was not considered viable due to constraints related to the tight project schedule, as well as cost. Instead, the 2.5 metre highly compressible upper silt layer was stripped from the site and replaced with clean granular fill, prior to the ground improvement work. This

would reduce future foundation settlement resulting from the consolidation of this shallow clayey soil unit. The ground improvement treatment envelope covered a total area of 11,200 m2. Stone column installation was required from the initial site grade of elev. +1.0 m to elev. -16.0 m, a full treatment depth of 17.0 metres. Grid spacing, stone column installation methodology and stone backfill quantities were determined based on extensive experience with electric V23 Vibroflot equipment in granular soils. The uniform stone column layout had compaction points arranged in an equilateral triangular grid pattern. Execution An initial trial area was required to demonstrate the effectiveness of the VR program in meeting cone penetration test (CPT) performance specifications. The trial area formed part of the final work and consisted of 23 compaction points. Three CPT soundings were carried out upon completion of the trial area to confirm that the improvement achieved by

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Spills the proposed VR methodologies was generally achieving the specified criteria. Stone column installation was carried out utilizing two Vibro compaction rigs. The project site was, of course, located adjacent to an operating airport, +/100 metres north of the primary runway. Airport regulations imposed height restrictions on the tank farm construction activities during designated periods to satisfy flight airspace regulations. Accordingly, one Vibro rig was set up with a shorter boom length and was employed solely on the southern quarter of the densification area closest to the active runway. In addition, special signal lighting and flagging were required on the Vibro rigs as part of flight safety protocol measures. Environmental considerations played an important role in the construction of Jet Fuel Tank Farm #2. An extensive Environmental Control Plan was developed and enforced to ensure the “wet-method” vibro replacement operations were continuously monitored for signs of potentially contaminated soils. This was necessary in order to meet strict air and water quality guidelines. The Sea Island location allowed for the densification stone to be efficiently transported by barge to a nearby riverside bulk head, loaded by conveyor into tandem trucks and hauled a short distance to the site. This approach restricted idling times between transfers and minimized the output of atmospheric emissions

treatment. CPT performance specification is dependent on the fines content of the soil. It stipulated that the CPT resistance at any test location shall not be less than 90% of the specified resistance, and the thickness of any zone less than the specified resistance shall not exceed 300 mm.

Special signal lighting and flagging were required on the Vibro rigs as part of flight safety protocol measures.

from both marine tug boats and onshore haul equipment. The densification work was completed in seven weeks. Quality control and results Like the trial area testing, field verification testing was conducted using the electric CPTs which were carried out in the centroid of the stone column pattern, and pushed to 1 m below the depth of VR

Conclusions There are a wide variety of time-tested soil reinforcement and ground improvement technologies that can be utilized to treat loose and soft soils below heavily loaded storage tanks. Whether the tank foundation soils are susceptible to liquefaction under the design seismic event or excessive total/ differential settlements, there are ground improvement techniques to mitigate such foundation design concerns. For storage tanks, ground improvement technologies can often offer the quickest and most economical means of mitigating poor/marginal ground conditions, compared to installing piles, removing and replacing soft ground or relocating the tanks to less desirable locations. Successful achievement of the specified foundation design requirements ensures satisfactory long-term storage tank performance. Nelson Beaton, Jeff Scott, Samuel Briet and Hubert Guimont are with Geopac Inc. For more information, visit: www.geopac.ca

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June 2016 | 61


Spills tors, does not require power to operate, and is virtually maintenance free.

SorbWeb Plus can be installed in new or retrofit applications.

Practical secondary containment system for oil spills and leaks By Carla Smiderle

T

he Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) requires that facilities that store large quantities of petroleum products, such as electrical transformers, must have a plan in place to contain a spill. These regulations have created a growing need for practical and effective solutions that help facility owners meet the requirements and protect the environment in the unlikely event that a transformer leaks oil. Albarrie’s SorbWeb™ Plus secondary oil containment system provides continuous protection against oil spills and leaks associated with transformers, capacitors, storage tank facilities and other oil-filled equipment. In its passive state, the system allows water to move freely through its bottom “Smart Barrier” and pass through without accumulating. However, when hydrocarbons come in contact with the “Smart Barrier”,  it congeals and turns into an impermeable membrane, which prevents them from escaping the containment area.

62 | June 2016

SorbWeb Plus is a gravity-based subterranean secondary oil spill containment system that surrounds oil-filled equipment with geosynthetic materials. It effectively traps oil from catastrophic

SorbWeb is a smart system that allows water from rainfall and/or snowmelt to drain through a containment area without accumulating, while retaining any leaked oil. oil spills and leaks. System components include a synthetic impermeable liner, an absorbent or adsorbent filter layer, and a retention layer of smart oil-absorbing fabric that seals on contact with hydrocarbons. The system eliminates the need for sumps and pumps or oil water separa-

Testing the system Albarrie developed the system, in partnership with Kinetrics. This involved various types of evaluations, including: extensive lab testing; performance testing in a test pit; effectiveness of the system in the presence of an oil spill; independent lab analysis of test pit soil after spill; driveability capabilities; oil burn testing; and performance during severe weather. SorbWeb Plus is an engineered secondary oil spill containment system using electrical utility best practices to contain rainfall events and deluge and transformer oil volume. Other benefits include: • Unique flexible design to fit equipment arrangement and complex geometry; • Minimum site intrusion and disturbance required for installation; • Passive secondary oil containment and leak management system; • Low maintenance costs; • 24/7 protection in the event of a spill or leak; • Optimized remediation costs; • No mechanical parts or electrical control systems required; • Can be installed in new or retrofit applications; • The perimeter can be concrete or an earthen berm (earthen berm containments are designed for driveability, allowing close access for maintenance vehicles). The SorbWeb Plus system is being chosen by organizations throughout North America. It is a smart system that allows water from rainfall and/or snowmelt to drain through a containment area without accumulating, while retaining any leaked oil. The system is optimized to reduce the costs involved in replacing its most important elements. The extent of the remediation and associated cost is limited to the quantity of oil released and the response time of the remediation. Carla Smiderle is with Albarrie Geocomposites. Email: carla_smiderle@albarrie.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Spills

Organic industrial spill absorbents offer enhanced performance and safety

O

rganic absorbents include products made from coconut husks, newspaper, sawdust, cellulose fibre, cotton, wood pellets, etc. They don’t pose the threats that can be prevalent in silica-based absorbents or “kitty litter.” Unlike oldschool absorbents, newer organic products are largely dust-free, non-carcinogenic and safe to inhale. Some are safe enough that workers can clean their hands with them and tools can just be wiped off. Products include loose absorbents, booms and socks. The environmental benefits of organic/natural absorbents go beyond safe air quality. Ideally, these products should be recyclable, leave a small carbon footprint and be made of renewable resources. For instance, SpillFix® is made of coir, a natural and renewable resource that is free from chemicals, toxins and dust. It is a byproduct from coconut husk processing. The coir is washed, heat treated, screened and graded to a unique absorbent specification before being packaged. Safe disposal is an important criterion for an absorbent. It should be landfill-safe and recyclable. It is an added plus if spent absorbent product containing hydrocarbon spills can be used as a fuel source for creating energy and can be incinerated, leaving zero residue. Organic absorbents should be inert, biologically stable and free of harmful micro-organisms. Some natural solutions actually absorb spills. This makes them more efficient, requiring less product to get the job done. In some cases, this can amount to using 80% less product. And while traditional absorbents are used once, then disposed of, there are some natural alternatives that can be used over and over again. That’s a significant savings, not only in the amount of product purchased, but in the cost of disposal. Because many natural products are more absorbent, the method of cleanup is changing. “The best way to clean www.esemag.com

Some natural products actually absorb the hydrocarbons in spills, encapsulating and trapping them, making cleanup faster and more efficient than traditional absorbents.

up a spill is to apply the organic absorbent around the perimeter which stops it from spreading,” says Joe Davids, of the Galuku Group (North America). “It is then swept with a stiff broom, removing the entire oil spill from the floor surface. This is repeated a few times until the spill is completely gone.” Traditional absorbents are poured on a spill and it can take hours to blot the

Organic absorbents should be inert, biologically stable and free of harmful micro-organisms. liquid, rendering the worksite unusable and potentially dangerous. Kitty litter sometimes lies around a workplace, creating hazardous areas that workers will walk over. This means they will be tracking dust and crystalline silica everywhere. Organic absorbents can be faster, some taking up to 85% less time to clean up a spill compared with clay-

based absorbents. Another hazard created by traditional absorbents is damage to floors and equipment. Some cause divots and grooves on floors and work surfaces, creating unsafe conditions that require repair. Kitty litter can damage machinery and equipment when it gets caught in engines and gears, requiring expensive repairs or replacements. Most organic solutions don’t cause any damage. Organic products are generally significantly lighter in weight than kitty litter and other older products. In addition to lower transportation and disposal fees, their weight makes it safer for workers, who no longer have to lift 50 lb bags. Since kitty litter must be shoveled after it collects the spilled liquid, this means more heavy lifting for employees. Lighter absorbents create a safer workplace with fewer injuries, and that means less liability for companies. For more information, visit www.galuku.com June 2016 | 63


Spills

Preventing spills by coating secondary containment areas with crack bridging technology By Marina Silva

S

econdary containment areas are typically constructed using concrete, because it is cost-effective and provides good structural strength. However, due to its porosity, concrete can be easily permeated and has poor chemical resistance, making it susceptible to deterioration through chemical attack. In addition, concrete is highly prone to cracking due to substrate movement and freeze/thaw cycles. Barrier coatings As concrete does not offer chemical resistance, an additional barrier on top is needed to prevent potential spillages from permeating the secondary containment area. Over the years, there have been trials of a variety of solutions, from bitumen-based paints to epoxy resin-based systems. The right solution depends on the type of media stored within the tank, size of the containment area, expected traffic and weather conditions, and others. With extremely aggressive chemicals, such as concentrated mineral acids, alkali, amines and alcohols, solvent-free epoxy novolac resin-based coatings are typically specified. The chemical reaction between the base and solidifier creates an almost impenetrable “physical barrier.” Once hardened and cured, these epoxy systems become completely liquid-impermeable and have excellent resistance to immersion and exposure to a wide range of oil and chemical spillages. The rigidity of these coatings, however, also makes them inflexible and not best suited for areas with heavy traffic, or in cases where the underlying concrete develops cracks. Concrete can develop cracks from excessive loading, thermal expansion/ contraction or during freeze/thaw cycles which lead to the concrete’s movement and settlement. A rigid coating can crack with the concrete, thus terminating chemical protection in case of a spill.

64 | June 2016

Applying Belzona 4361 to the inside of an acid tank.

A bund protected with Belzona 4361.

New material development Recent advancements in polymer technology have resulted in the development of a hybrid epoxy coating,

which combines high cross-linking with rubbery domains in the polymer chain. This gives the coating a desired degree of flexibility.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Spills Chemical

Belzona 4361 length of resistance

93% Sulphuric Acid 37% Hydrochloric Acid 43% Phosphoric Acid 25% Phosphoric Acid 10% Acetic Acid 2% Acetic Acid 25% Ammonia Ethyl Acetate Ethanolamine Oil, Petrol and Diesel Ethanol Methanol

52 weeks and beyond 52 weeks and beyond 4 weeks 39 weeks 1 week 52 weeks and beyond 4 weeks 52 weeks and beyond 1 week 52 weeks and beyond 52 weeks and beyond 17 weeks

Table 1. Chemical resistance of Belzona 4361.

Belzona 4361 incorporates these features and has been tested for elongation, in accordance with ASTM D412. When cured at 20°C, its residual elongation was recorded at 20%, which would be sufficient to bridge a typical crack. To ensure the coating maintains its flexibility at low temperatures, a mandrel bend test in accordance with ASTM D552 was also performed. It passed at temperatures down to 0°C. Crack-bridging tests are first performed by creating a crack within the concrete and ensuring the coating remains intact. This is followed by chemical resistance testing where the chemical is positioned onto the test coating so that the crack in the concrete is directly underneath. Signs of chemical attack are visually observed, in particular to see if the chemical reagent attacks the test coating severely enough to penetrate through the crack due to the reduction in film thickness over it. To replicate real life exposure or aging, coated test blocks are stored in damp sand and placed outdoors. After six months and two years respectively of aging exposure, crack-bridging and chemical resistance, tests are repeated. Belzona 4361 passed the crack-bridging and chemical resistance tests after six months of aging exposure, which will be repeated again to complete the two year’s testing. Chemical resistance was tested by coating rods and immersing them in www.esemag.com

specified chemicals for a period of up to 12 months. Results for some of the

chemicals tested are shown in Table 1. Belzona 4361 is suitable to resist aggressive chemicals, as protection is only required to last until the leaked chemical can be recovered from the bund. Best practice reports in some countries do not specify a universal length of time that the coating needs to resist the spilled chemical. Some state 72 hours as an acceptable length of protection. Solid epoxy materials adhere well not only to concrete, but can be successfully used to protect a metal substrate from chemicals. Added flexibility of the coating expands and contracts with the underlying metal substrate. Utilizing coatings that provide chemical resistance, as well as crack-bridging ability, is crucial to both comply with relevant standards and to guarantee lasting protection from spills. Marina Silva is with Belzona Polymerics Ltd. Email: msilva@belzona.com (References are available upon request)

You can make it possible for a classroom or an entire school full of students to be able to conduct authentic hands-on water tests by sponsoring a Safe Drinking Water Foundation (SDWF) kit for a teacher near you. Since 2001, SDWF has sent water testing kits to over 2,500 different schools across Canada. Every year, SDWF distributes more than 700 educational kits to teachers. However, that still leaves many teachers on the waiting list for sponsored kits, hoping their students will have the opportunity to learn valuable information in a hands-on manner! As little as $85 can put accurate water testing materials in the hands of 30 elementary students. Donors can choose where they would like their sponsored kits sent. There is probably a teacher in your community who is waiting for a sponsored kit! The SDWF is a registered Canadian charity and issues official donation receipts for income tax purposes for all donations of $20 or more. Please visit www.safewater.org for more information. To sponsor a kit for a teacher near you, phone them at 1-306-934-0389 or e-mail them at info@safewater.org. June 2016 | 65


Product & Service Showcase Direct Push Drilling

The AMS PowerProbe 9410-VTR may be mid-size, but it packs the same powerful punch you’ve come to expect from AMS PowerProbes. It’s track-mounted and compact, which gives you multiple options in small areas. The hydraulic system is load sensitive which creates better fuel economy and operating efficiency. The front blade tool tote with sample prep tray allows sample processing in the field and added tool storage, so you can take almost everything you need from drill location to drill location.

T: 208-226-2017, 800-635-7330             F: 208-226-7280 E: ams@ams-samplers.com W: www.ams-samplers.com

AMS

Mercury Detection

The Jerome® J505 by Arizona Instrument packs advanced mercury detection capability into a lightweight, easy-to-use package. The only handheld analyzer that uses cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy, the J505 can detect mercury at levels as low as 0.05µg/m3, which meets and exceeds OSHA, NIOSH and ACGIH action levels, so you know when the area is safe and clean.

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Diaphragm Metering Injector Pump

Blue-White’s ChemPro® M diaphragm metering injector pump is designed for use in municipal water and wastewater treatment systems. It’s well suited for injection of aggressive and/or viscous chemicals. Equipped with a variable speed DC motor, it offers smooth, quiet chemical dosing with no hard pulses. A full stroke every time prevents vapour lock. The Chem-Pro display indicates output in several optional measurement units, including ml/min and GPM.

T: 714-893-8529 F: 714-894-9492 E: sales@blue-white.com W: www.blue-white.com

FLEXFLO® peristaltic pumps offer a design which is both self-priming and valve-less (cannot vapour lock or lose prime). Peristaltic design is well suited for abrasive, thick, and gaseous fluids that can foul conventional metering pumps. Exclusive TFD system (Patented Tube Failure Detection) keeps both operators and pump rooms safe from spills. If non-compatible chemical is detected in the head, the pump will automatically shut off, and will not restart until that chemical has been removed.

Granular Media Filtration

Blue-White Industries

T: 403-255-7377 E: info@awifilter.com W: www.awifilter.com

AWI

Corrosion Prevention for Water Operators

Water operators – if you are suffering seized bolts and failing fittings in the ground or a chamber, consider the permanent, cost-effective solution provided by the Denso Petrolatum Corrosion Prevention System. Developed in the 1920s, this system has been proven effective for almost 100 years. Contact Denso for information or a demonstration on how you can save time and money in maintenance and repairs.

T: 416-559-7459 E: stuart@densona-ca.com W: www.densona.com

Denso 66 | June 2016

T: 416-559-7459 E: stuart@densona-ca.com W: www.densona.com

Traveling Water Screen

New Pump Head Design

Arizona Instrument

Wastewater operators - If you work in wet wells, you can attest to the highly corrosive nature of that environment. Instead of the high cost of stainless or re-coating, the Denso Petrolatum Corrosion Prevention System offers a cost-effective, permanent solution for protecting valves, fittings and pipe. Contact Denso to learn about the system, which has been proven effective for nearly a century.

Denso

Blue-White Industries

T: 714-893-8529 F: 714-894-9492 E: sales@blue-white.com W: www.blue-white.com

AWI’s innovative filter optimization products include the Phoenix Underdrain and Panel Systems. These custom-engineered solutions guarantee uniform backwash water flow distribution, ensuring sustainable filter performance and long-service life of your media bed. With AWI’s site-specific approach to filter optimization, you can expect improved filter performance and the training and technical support to maintain your filters in optimum condition.

Corrosion Prevention for Wastewater Operators

Evoqua Water Technologies has a newly-patented fine mesh traveling water screen. The mesh of this screen is so fine it even saves fish larvae from impingement. The screen is designed as a seasonal insert which can be overlayed on any existing screens, quickly and inexpensively.

T: 800-207-9490 E: screening@evoqua.com W: www.evoqua.com/intake

Evoqua Water Technologies

Spill Containment Scale

The SpillSafe™ Drum Scale from Force Flow accurately monitors the amount of chemical used and the quantity remaining, while also providing security against uncontained chemical spills. The SpillSafe can detect a leak, provide early warning to the operator, and complies with local regulations by containing 120% of the drum capacity by deploying a polyethylene bladder bag.

T: 800- 893-6723, 925-686-6700 W: www.forceflow.com

Force Flow

Squeeze the costs out of sludge dewatering!

With the AMCON Volute Sludge Press by H2Flow, you can benefit from the lowest operating cost device with high dryness performance. It provides the lowest energy consumption, easy operation, low RPMs, no vibrations, low wash water

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Product & Service Showcase consumption, and a compact, modular design. For municipal and industrial sludges, give us a call and arrange for an onsite pilot trial.

T: 888-575-8642 W: www.h2flow.com

H2Flow Equipment Inc.

Chlorine Emergency Shutoff

The Gemini® Emergency Shutoff System adds a new level of safety to your gas chlorine feed system. Designed specifically for dual 150 lb chlorine cylinder applications, the Gemini System, with its two Terminator® actuators, stops a chlorine leak within seconds of detection by automatically closing the cylinder valves. All Fire Codes recognize it as an acceptable alternative to a scrubber.

T: 949-261-5030 W: www.halogenvalve.com

Halogen Valve Systems

Multi-Rake Bar Screens

Kusters Water ProTechtor TM multi-rake screens can be used in nearly any screening application. The multiple rake design, lubrication free lower bearings, automatic jam reversing and individually replaceable bars provide very reliable, low maintenance operation. Materials of construction include 304 or 316 SS. All ProTechtor products are manufactured in the U.S. at our ISO 9001:2008 certified facility in Spartanburg, South Carolina, and include a 3-year warranty.

T: 800-264-7005 E: jim.weidler@kusterszima.com W: www.kusterswater.com

Kusters Water

Maintenance-Free Mixing

The GridBee® AP500 air-powered mixer helps keep solids such as wipes in suspension as sheets instead of clumps and prevents lift station pumps from clogging. The mixer reduces H2S odours, corrosion and grease build-up. It is designed to fit through a 12-inch hatch and mix depths from 2 to 100 feet. Find out how to reduce maintenance costs for wet wells, lift stations and wastewater basins at your facility.

T: 866-437-8076 E: solutions@medoraco.com W: www.medoraco.com

Medora Corporation www.esemag.com

Air-Powered Mixers

New GridBee® GS-A Air-Powered Mixers from Medora Corporation actively mix your potable water tank, from floor to surface, no matter the water depth, 24/7 year-round, for consistent disinfectant residuals, even temperature profiles and uniform water age. There are no moving parts in the tank; no tank entry is needed for installation; and they are serviceable from ground level. Find out how active mixing is affordable for your operation.

T: 866-437-8076 E: solutions@medoraco.com W: www.medoraco.com

Medora Corporation

Underground Structure Protection

Protect underground structures from the effects of sub-zero temperatures. For round and square structures, to many standards such as York, Peel, and Halton Regions, better call Paul at MSU Mississauga Ltd. 1-800-2685336 x 28 to learn more. And check us out on the web at www.msumississauga.com

T: 800-268-5336 F: 888-220-2213 W: www.msumississauga.com

MSU Mississauga Ltd.

Adjustable Pipe Supports

MSU Mississauga offers Adjustable Stainless Steel Pipe Supports to suit a variety of pipe diameters and a range of heights. They are available in both 304 and 316 stainless steel, and come complete with all necessary hardware. Call Paul at 1-800268-5336 x 28 to learn more. And check us out on the web at www.msumississauga.com

T: 800-268-5336 F: 888-220-2213 W: www.msumississauga.com

MSU Mississauga Ltd.

Firewater Reservoir Tanks

Firewater reservoir tanks by Newmarket Precast Concrete offer insurance companies, businesses and homeowners, peace of mind, knowing that, should a fire emergency arise, firewater is readily available on-

site. Local fire departments can easily access onsite firewater, possibly saving property, and more importantly, human life. Engineers trust the quality and ease of design when specifying Newmarket Precast fire water reservoir tanks. Many sizes and design options are available.

W: www.newmarketprecast.com

Newmarket Precast

Metering Pump

The gamma/ X Metering Pump introduces new technology for continuous and very low flow dosing situations. Intuitive features and programming help ensure ease-of-use and optimal chemical metering results. Discover more at gammax.prominent.ca

T: 888-709-9933 F: 519-836-5226 E: sales@prominent.ca      W: www.prominent.ca      

ProMinent Fluid Controls

Awarding those making an impact

Sherwin-Williams Protective & Marine Coatings announces its first annual Sherwin-Williams Impact Award to recognize water and wastewater project excellence on any new, restored, or rehabilitated North American water-related structure completed with Sherwin-Williams coating and lining materials in 2015. Applications are being accepted May 1 to July 31, 2016.

W: sherwin-williams.com/impactaward

Sherwin-Williams Protective & Marine Coatings

New to Canada

Victaulic is offering its BERMAD hydraulic control and air valves to Canada. These are designed for water supply, wastewater, recycled water and leakage prevention applications. They are configured for pressure reduction, sustainment and relief, surge anticipation, pump, flow and burst control.

T: 610-559-3300     W: www.victaulic.com

Victaulic

continued overleaf... June 2016 | 67


Product & Service Showcase Knife Gate Valve

The Victaulic Series 795 Knife Gate Valve is ideal for fluid lines containing solids or abrasive materials common in wastewater treatment, hydroelectric power generation, mining and other industrial settings with applications such as lines for slurry and tailings or cyclones. It alleviates a longstanding industry pain point: the time-consuming, labour-intensive process of removing the entire valve from the pipeline to facilitate maintenance, rebuilding and repair.

T: 610-559-3300     W: www.victaulic.com

Water Level Indicator

Waterra WS-2 Water Level Sensors are advanced products that utilize the most recent electronic technology. The WS-2 features innovative design as well as compactness, portability and reliability — all at a competitive price. Available in imperial/metric and open/closed reel formats.

T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Victaulic

Waterra Pumps

High Performance Automation

Headspace Vapour Sampling

Waterra’s portable, electrically operated Hydrolift-2 inertial pump actuator will eliminate the fatigue that can be experienced on large monitoring programs and will result in a big boost to your field sampling program. The Hydrolift-2 gives you the power and endurance you need — without breaking a sweat.

T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Oil/Water Interface Sensor

Waterra HS-2 Oil/Water Interface Sensors utilize the most advanced technology available today for hydrocarbon product layer measurement. These sophisticated ultrasonic sensors are more sensitive in a broader range of hydrocarbon products than conventional optical systems. The HS-2 line includes innovative design features, compactness, portability and reliability — all at a competitive price. Available in imperial/metric and open/closed reel formats.

T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

The Waterra Vapour Sampling EcoPlug™ is a specialized well cap that uses a custom brass valve to allow you to extract a sample of the trapped headspace vapours. Pressure tested to 20 PSI, these well caps prevent the loss of well gases to the atmosphere. The Sample Port Adapter allows you to extract the sample without removing the cap from the well and can be attached to a peristaltic pump in order to draw out even more of the trapped headspace gases.

T: 905-238-5242 F: 905-238-5704 E: sales@waterra.com W: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

To promote your product, contact Penny at: 905-727-4666 x.26 penny@esemag.com

Storage Tanks, Containment & Spills Product & Service Showcase

Hexa-Cover

The patented Hexa-Cover® system can be used on all kinds of liquids. It is the ideal solution for eliminating: • Evaporation • Organic growth • Emission • Odour    The unique design makes the elements interlock by wind pressure and ensures that the Hexa-Cover tiles mechanically constitute a coherent cover. 

T: 519-469-8169, F: 519-469-8157 E: sales@greatario.com W: www.greatario.com

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Bladder tank

Ideally suited for extreme sub-zero conditions, the Arctic King bladder tank is the only tank in the world certified to the CAN/CSA-B837-14 standard. Carrying the ETL mark and constructed from a proprietary, high durability fabric unique to SEI Industries, it has excellent UV and hydrolysis resistance for a longer life expectancy. With its vent system, the Arctic King can easily handle deep snowfalls and it is deployable to -50° F (-46° C).

T: 604-946-3131       E: seisales@sei-ind.com         W: www.sei-ind.com/products/arctic-king

SEI Industries

Training you Remember... Experience you can use

or Denise at: 905-727-4666 x.21 denise@esemag.com T: 905-578-9666               F: 905-578-6644 E: contact@spillmanaagement.ca             W: www.spillmanagement.ca

Spill Management Inc. 68 | June 2016

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ES&E NEWS Chemicals of concern designated for the Great Lakes Canada’s Environment and Climate Change Minister, Catherine McKenna, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator, Gina McCarthy, have identified eight substances as chemicals of mutual concern under the Canada-U.S. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. These include hexabromocyclododecane, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate, long-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and short-chain chlorinated paraffins. Once a chemical has been designated, Canada and the United States develop and implement strategies to address the chemical, reporting every three years on its status.

Five decades of excellence in infrastructure planning & engineering

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Canada commits $490 million to deal with harmful chemicals

The Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) is Canada’s comprehensive and integrated strategy for identifying and taking action on potentially harmful substances. Catherine McKenna, Minister of Environment and Climate Change, and Jane Philpott, Minister of Health, announced that $491.8 million will be provided over the next five years to complete the next phase of the CMP, which helps reduce the risks posed by chemicals to Canadians and the environment. The Federal Government will assess the remaining 1,550  substances of the 4,300  chemicals identified as priorities under the CMP. This includes research, assessing substances, testing products, evaluating older pesticides, and developing new environmental rules for pharmaceutical products by 2020.

WeKnowWater@BV.com www.bv.com

Municipal Finance

Growth Management

Development Charges Asset Management Fiscal Policy Fees & Charges Water & Sewer Rates Long-Range Financial Planning

Land Needs Assessment Sustainability Planning Municipal Governance Fiscal & Economic Impact Forecasting & Demographics

416-593-5090 www.hemson.com

Toronto commissions new organic material processing facility Anaergia, W.S. Nicholls Construction, the Ontario Clean Water Agency and exp Services have been selected by the City of Toronto, to design, build, and operate its upgraded and expanded Dufferin Organics Processing Facility (DOPF). The original DOPF, which had been continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

June 2016 | 69


ES&E NEWS

Engineers and Environmental Consultants 1-800-265-9662 www.rjburnside.com

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Tap into water’s potential Design with community in mind stantec.com/water 14132 summalogoPMS 467.pdf

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“A leader in providing innovative automation solutions to our customers” We offer a complete range of products & services in the areas of: System Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Chemical Packages • Programmable Logic Controllers Celebrating • HMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services • Service

Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V 1J2 T: 905-678-3388 • F: 905-678-0444 • E: info@summaeng.com • www.summaeng.com

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of Customer Service

built to process 25,000 tonnes of organic material annually, from the City’s Green Bin Program, will be upgraded with new processes and expanded to a capacity of 55,000 tonnes per year. Design and other pre-construction activity have already begun, and commissioning and commencement of processing operations are scheduled for mid-2018. Anaergia will supply the expanded DOPF with all major processing equipment, including two organic material 12:10 PM preprocessing trains. Each of these will have a range of equipment, including the BIOREX system that will separate the organic material and the Organic Polishing System that will generate clean feedstock for anaerobic digestion. Anaergia will also supply a membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment system for centrate treatment. In addition to designing and supplying the major processing equipment for this facility, Anaergia will also operate and maintain it, in partnership with the Ontario Clean Water Agency. www.anaergia.com

AWWA supports recommendation for complete removal of lead service lines

xcg.com

Municipal Infrastructure Water Resources Site Assessment Solid Waste

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70 | June 2016

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Since 1990

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2016-02-01

The Board of the American Water Works Association recently voted unanimously to support recommendations from the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC) that strengthen the Lead and Copper Rule and ultimately lead to the complete removal of lead service lines. Key recommendations include: locate and replace all lead service lines completely, sharing responsibility for that replacement with customers; conduct additional monitoring and analysis of water quality parameters in order to better manage corrosion control; expand on current educational outreach to alert customers to the risks posed by lead and steps they can take to reduce those risks; and, analyze customer‐sam9:42 AM ples for lead upon request. “Communities have taken positive steps for more than two decades to reduce lead exposure from water and other sources,” AWWA CEO LaFrance said. “But there is clearly much more to be done. The Flint, Michigan crisis lays Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E NEWS bare a simple fact that as long as there are lead pipes in the ground or lead plumbing in homes, some risk remains. As a society, we should seize this moment of increased awareness about lead risks to develop solutions for getting the lead out.” Lead is unlike other potential contaminants in that it is rarely present in the water coming from treatment plants and water mains. It comes from lead service lines and home plumbing. As such, a utility should adjust water chemistry to protect against lead leaching into the water.

Swim pools and hot tubs contain potentially harmful compounds

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In a new study in the American AIR RELEASE/VACUUM BREAK Chemical Society’s Environmental VALVES FOR SEWAGE & WATER Science & Technology publication, sci“ANTI-SURGE /ANTI-SHOCK” entists have found that the more swim10-YEAR WARRANTY • ALL STAINLESS ming pools and hot tubs are used, the RGX RBX more potentially harmful compounds Acoustic Wave Management Experts they contain. Since 1922 Disinfectants such as chlorine kill Tier 1 Hydro-Pneumatic Surge and Pressure Control pathogens in hot tubs and swimming Systems in both Bladder and Air over Water Solutions pools, whether they are personal or pubReliant WQA lic facilities. But, these also react with WATER QUALITY AERATOR forlagoons Lagoons Aquaculture water quality aerator for and& aquaculture sweat, urine and other substances that WQA users add to the water. Studies water of swim-quality aerator for lagoons and agoon aster ™ aquaculture ming pools have identified many of the ✓ Coarse & fine bubble aeration • Course & fine bubble aeration • Only 4 hp moves ✓9 Tames MGDsludge buildup ✓ Eliminates thermal stratification resulting compounds, called disinfec• Tames sludge buildup • Handles up to 5 acres per seasonal unit turnover ✓ Eliminates ✓ Only moves 9 MGD • Eliminates thermal stratification • Efficient - Up to 15 lbs4Ohp2 /hr tion byproducts. Testing has shown that ✓ Handles up to 5 acres per unit • Low maintenance✓ & Simple! • Eliminates seasonal turnover Efficient: Up to 15 lbs O /hr they can cause genetic damage to cells ✓ Low maintenance & Simple! HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. in lab settings. 762 Upper St. James St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca Coarse & fine bubble aeration Other reports have found✓that some T: 905-777-9494 • F: 905-777-8678 • info@hydrologic.ca • www.hydrologic.ca Tames sludge buildup people who swim or work in ✓and around 762 Upper St. James Street, Suite 250, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L9C 3A2 ✓ Eliminates pools have higher rates of certain health thermal stratification ✓ Eliminates seasonal turnover problems, including respiratory symp✓ Only 4 hp moves 9 MGD toms and bladder cancer. Researchers ✓ Handles up to 5 acres per unit sampled water from public ✓ and privateUp to 15 lbs O2/hr Efficient: Low maintenance & Simple! hot tubs and pools, and after✓ both normal and intense use. HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL INC. They identified more than St. 100 dis-St., Suite 250, Hamilton, ON L9C 3A2 • Ph: 905-777-9494 • Fax: 905-777-8678 762 Upper James infection byproducts in the water and info@hydrologic.ca www.hydrologic.ca tested extracts of the samples for their potential to cause genetic damage to cells in the lab. On average, pool and hot tub samples were 2.4 and 4.1 times more mutagenic, respectively, than the original tap water used to fill them. Heavy use increased mutagenic potencies further. Researchers say that pool and hot tub operators could reduce disinfection byproducts by cleaning facilities and continued overleaf...

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June 2016 | 71


ES&E NEWS Continuous Clean Energy Power Plant We retrofit Transfer Stations by providing Baling & Bagging Greey EnWaste™ Equipment to Guarantee unit of Greey CTS Inc. Diversion of all Organic Waste from Landfill. email: greey.enwaste@rogers.com www.greeyenwaste.ca

Insitu Groundwater Contractors • • • • • P: 519-763-0700 F: 519-763-6684 • 48 Dawson Road Guelph, ON N1H 5V1

Dewatering systems Mobile groundwater treatment systems Well and pump installation and maintenance Pump, filter, generator rentals Sediment tank rentals Insitu groundwater remediation systems

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changing water more frequently. In addition, they could encourage swimmers to shower before sliding in and to use toilets when needed. www.acs.org

NS pulp company fined for effluent spill The Northern Pulp Nova Scotia Corporation has been ordered to pay $225,000 for a Fisheries Act offence that occurred in June 2014. The offence relates to a pipeline break that spilled over 47 million litres of untreated pulp and paper effluent into an area leading to the East River/Pictou Harbour. On June  11, 2014, Environment and Climate Change Canada enforcement officers inspected the site and collected samples near the pipeline break. Analysis of samples showed that the untreated effluent was deleterious to fish. On May  11, 2016, the Court rendered its final decision regarding the allocation of the total penalty, which will be directed to the Environmental Damages Fund (EDF) program. The Mi’kmaw Conservation Group, the Pictou County Rivers Association and the Pictou Landing First Nation will each receive $75,000 under the program to carry out fish and fish habitat projects in Pictou County. In 2015, the province of Nova Scotia set aside $50 million to clean up the waste treatment plant in Boat Harbour where effluent from Northern Pulp is piped for treatment. According to the CBC, the treatment facility is scheduled to close by 2020, with cleanup expected to take up to 10 years to complete. www.ec.gc.ca

Professors and Royal Society of Canada speak out against mega dam More than 250 university professors from across Canada, including legal scholars, political scientists, water scientists, and environmental scientists, have released a statement of concern regarding Site C, a hydroelectric dam on the Peace River in northeastern British Columbia. A letter supporting the concerns raised by this group has been issued by the President of the Royal Society of Canada. Site C is a 1,100 megawatt hydro72 | June 2016

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


ES&E NEWS electric generating station. The project received approval from the provincial government in December 2014 and construction began in the summer of 2015. The dam is estimated to be completed by 2024. The President of the Royal Society noted: “It is troubling that the Site C project is proceeding even though there

are outstanding court cases on First Nations treaty and Aboriginal rights issues which have not yet been resolved. Past projects often neglected or ignored Aboriginal peoples and their concerns, with adverse and lingering consequences. Those days are supposed to be over.” The statement of concern also noted that it was “particularly troubling that the

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assessment process did not comprehensively assess cumulative environmental effects and impacts.” The researchers found that the number and scope of significant adverse environmental effects arising from the Site C project are unprecedented in the history of environmental assessment in Canada. continued overleaf...

COMING IN THE AUGUST ISSUE CLIMATE CHANGE AND INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGN Communities and businesses across Canada are already dealing with the impact of climate change. This has meant increased rainfall and flooding in some areas, while others struggle with drought. Acute weather emergencies will cost millions of dollars to deal with and adaptation is essential.

Subscribe to ES&E’s e-Newsletter. www.esemag.com/subscribe ES&E READERS RATE THE MAGAZINE OF CONSIDERABLE VALUE:

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ES&E’s special section on climate change and infrastructure will look at ways to plan for, mitigate and recover from extreme weather events. It will also consider renewable energy, capand-trade, climate related risks and how industry may be affected.

For more information on this upcoming section, or to submit an article or case study, contact Steve Davey, Publisher, steve@esemag.com

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www.esemag.com June 2016 | 73


Advertiser INDEX

Company

Page

ACG Technology.................................... 75 Albarrie ................................................ 57 AMS....................................................... 25 Arizona Instrument............................... 24 Associated Engineering........................ 12 AWI........................................................ 21 Blue-White............................................ 11 Denso ................................................... 22 Endress + Hauser................................... 7 Envirocan ............................................ 75 Evoqua.................................................. 13 Geomembrane Technologies Inc.......... 58 Greatario .............................................. 61 GridBee ................................................. 17 H2Flow ................................................. 57 H2O Logics............................................ 17 Halogen Valve Systems........................ 43 Hoskin Scientific ............................ 38, 45 Huber Technology................................. 35 Hydro International............................... 37 Kusters Water....................................... 47 Mantech ............................................... 43 Master Meter ......................................... 3 Medora ................................................. 17 MSU Mississauga................................. 23 Newmarket Precast.............................. 28 Ontario Clean Water Agency................ 76 Parsons................................................. 36 Pro Aqua................................................. 9 ProMinent................................................ 8 SciCorp.................................................. 41 SEI Industries........................................ 59 Sherwin-Williams................................. 27 SolarBee................................................ 17 SorbWeb ............................................... 57 SPD Sales.............................................. 28 Spill Management................................. 53 Stantec.................................................. 40 Tank Connection................................... 55 Toronto Hydro..................................insert Victaulic................................................ 30 Walkerton Clean Water Centre............. 41 Waterra............................... 15, 29, 48, 54 WEFTEC................................................. 49

74 | June 2016

ES&E NEWS They called upon both federal and provincial governments to explain why the unprecedented imposition of these effects would be justified by Site C, whose electricity output is presently unnecessary and for which less expensive and less damaging alternatives exist. The researchers also concluded that there was a lack of evidence-based decision-making with scientific integrity. They expressed strong concern about the review process, noting that the project was entirely exempted from any review by the BC Utilities Commission, and that the regulatory review was limited to an environmental assessment Joint Review Panel, conducted over a compressed nine-month period by a three-person panel. www.sitecstatement.org

SK First Nation fined for environmental non-compliance The Kawacatoose First Nation pleaded guilty on October 20, 2015, in Saskatchewan Provincial Court for failing to comply with an environmental protection compliance order (EPCO) issued by an Environment and Climate Change Canada enforcement officer. The EPCO directed the First Nation to provide an emergency plan and inspection records, as well as to implement a product transfer area designed to contain spills at a gas station owned and operated by them. This is required by the Storage Tank Systems for Petroleum Products and Allied Petroleum Products Regulations, which are regulations made under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999). CEPA 1999 sets out mandatory minimum penalties aimed at promoting compliance. On April 13, 2016, the First Nation received a mandatory minimum fine of $100,000. news.gc.ca

BC company fined for untreated pulp and paper effluent spill Nanaimo Forest Products Ltd., in British Columbia, recently pled guilty to contravening subsection 36(3) of the Fisheries Act. It experienced a power outage on June  26,  2013, resulting in an estimated 3,700,000  litres of untreated effluent being spilled into Northumberland Channel for approximately

90 minutes. The power outage impacted the outfall pump house located on the foreshore of Northumberland Channel, which connects to the Strait of Georgia and the Pacific Ocean. As a result of the conviction, Nanaimo Forest Products Ltd. will be added to the Environmental Offenders Registry. The registry was created in 2009 and contains the names of corporations convicted of offences under certain federal environmental laws. www.ec.gc.ca

Increased vegetation in the Arctic region may counteract global warming A large amount of the Earth’s carbon and nitrogen is stored in arctic ecosystems where the ground is permanently frozen. Climate change causes such soil to heat up. Johannes Rousk, at Lund University, Sweden, together with colleagues from the University of Copenhagen, and the Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), have conducted field studies outside Abisko in the very north of Sweden, to see what happens to the decomposition of organic material as the climate gets warmer. “As the Arctic region becomes warmer, more shrubs start to grow, rather than moss which is difficult to break down. The shrubs have leaves and roots that are easy to break down and secrete sugar. What we have shown is that decomposition organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, are triggered to look for nutrient-rich organic materials that contain more nitrogen, while decomposition as a whole is reduced,” says Rousk. When the nutrient-rich material is decomposed, the nutrient-poor part of the organic material is enriched, probably causing the amount of carbon to increase. Current climate models do not consider the connection between increased shrub vegetation as a result of ongoing climate change, and soil becoming less nutritious. “It will be exciting to see how this will affect the soil carbon turnover in the long term. Perhaps our results will help complement future climate models,” says Rousk. “I suspect that it will have an inhibiting effect on global warming.” www.lunduniversity.lu.se

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 2016  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine's June 2016 issue. Featuring a wide range of articles covering water, wastewater and environmen...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 2016  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine's June 2016 issue. Featuring a wide range of articles covering water, wastewater and environmen...

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