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July 2008

Guide to government, associations and academic institutions Water supply fluoridation becoming less popular Generating electricity from biosolids Ensuring the performance of decentralized wastewater systems New technology developed for remediating groundwater www.esemag.com


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Contents ISSN-0835-605X July • 2008 Vol. 21 No. 3 Issued July 2008

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ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.

FEATURES 7 8 10 12 14 16 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 38 42 44 45 46 48 51 52 54 58 60 74

Can tiny ‘whiskers’ devastate hi-tech equipment? - Editorial comment by Tom Davey Ontario’s Chief Drinking Water Inspector releases new report Stormwater project at Ottawa Airport addresses water quality and risk management issues Dairy farmer awarded $1.7 million for groundwater contamination Feeding sodium hypochloride using innovative drinking water disinfection technology Ukraine biosolids incineration project generates electricity while solving disposal problems Richmond BC WWTP upgrades to high-output UV system Blue Mountain Resort hosts 2008 WEAO annual conference Ontario Environment Minister opens annual OWWA/OMWA conference Water reuse facility allows golf course and 900 home subdivision project to proceed Environmental solutions critical to oil sands future Corporate environmental responsibility adds value to the bottom line Ensuring proper performance of decentralized wastewater systems Canadian water providers ceasing artificial fluoridation Thirty year old analog flow meters replaced in water pumping station BC university seeks neutrality in the war against carbon emissions York University studies decline in bee population New in situ process removes salt from contaminated groundwater Environmental monitoring a big factor in resource company planning Mexican food processing plant chooses Canadian portable wastewater treatment system Brownfield site goes green with BioOil production plant Saskatoon rehabilitates its South Downtown riverbank area Water For People Canada chapters conduct numerous fundraising activities CANECT 2008 featured over 60 presenters BC hopes its new Climate Action Plan will dramatically reduce GHG emissions

ES&E’s Annual Guide To Government Agencies & Associations

DEPARTMENTS

Associations ................................................................... 64 Colleges and Universities ............................................. 69 Government Agencies .................................................. 70

Product Showcase . . . . . 75-79 Environmental News . . . 80-90 Professional Cards . . . . . 82-88 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89


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Comment by Tom Davey

Can tiny `whiskers’devastate hi-tech equipment? ccording to Newton’s second law of motion, there is a reaction to every action. While reducing the undeniably toxic lead from solder seems an intelligent move, environmental problems are reported from the implementation of a European Union move to ban or reduce lead in manufacturing. While tin whiskers, microscopic growths of the metal from soldering points on circuit boards, may seem primitive, fragile things, yet they have left a trail of expensive wreckage amid a surprisingly wide range of hi-tech equipment and industries. On April 17, 2005, the Millstone nuclear plant in Connecticut shut down when a circuit board monitoring a steam pressure line shortcircuited. In 2006, a huge batch of Swatch watches were recalled at an estimated cost of $1bn. In these and many other cases, tin whiskers were blamed. These are not the only times these mysterious growths have caused electronics failures. In 1998 a Galaxy IV communications satellite sputtered out after just five years; engineers diagnosed its failure as due to “whiskers”. The US military also blamed them for malfunctioning F-15 radar systems and misguided Phoenix and Patriot missiles. In 1986 the US Food and Drug Administration recalled a number of pacemakers because of whiskers. One suggested solution to “whiskering” is to add lead into the solder, as was common in the 1950s. Colin Hughes, a physicist who worked on the first British nuclear bomb, notes that whiskering problems never came up during his career. But now, by legal mandate, the lead is gone and a serious problem from whiskers is back – causing havoc in diverse hi-tech industries. Lead has been banned from solder in the European Union since 2006 under a 2003 Reduction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) di-

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rective. This gave manufacturers three years to phase it out. The logic seemed reasonable. Removing lead from gasoline has brought clear environmental and health benefits. Removing it from solder, the 37% lead, 63% tin alloy used to join metal objects in everything from plumbing to circuit boards, seemed the obvious next step to prevent leaching into groundwater from landfills.

But without lead to tame it, tin behaves oddly on circuit boards. Apparently, when left alone, tin plating, such as cadmium and zinc, may spontaneously generate microscopic shreds of metal – about one to five microns in diameter. If they grow far enough to touch another current-carrying location, they may cause circuits to short and then wreck equipment. The cause is becoming clearer. Steve Jones of Circatex, in South Shields, England, says: “I believe the mechanism of whisker formation is now understood: it is due to compressive stress – caused by, say, diffusion of copper into the tin being built up in the tin layer

breaking through the tin oxide barrier layer (to the air).” “I still use lead-tin solder – it works better,” says John Ketterson, a solid state physicist at Northwestern University in Illinois. He notes the trade-offs of ‘cost, materials, strength of the solder and all that’ during a mandated changeover, and that manufacturers ‘have to get an experience base’ with new processes. This means unwitting consumers bear the cost of experimental burdens. So are products the public are using affected by tin whiskers? Many customers dismiss the costs of failed devices as isolated cases while the true culprit could be microscopic whiskers inside their machines. But was it sensible to go leadfree? Earlier obsolescence from equipment which develop whiskers means more discarded devices. Some critics also argue that substitutes are more toxic and energy intensive, or that lead doesn’t leach from circuit boards because it doesn’t migrate as lead in paint or gasoline does. The National Electronics Manufacturing Centre for Excellence, sponsored by the US Navy, did find that modifying the temperatures at which soldered items are stored diminishes whiskering, but nevertheless recommended “the use of lead in conflict with future industrial practice.” After its expensive recall, Swatch gained a permanent exemption from the RoHS directive for its exports to the EU. Perhaps a reliable lead-free soldering process will be conjured up one day, although experts doubt it. Companies such as IBM and National Instruments say they are achieving RoHS-compliant techniques even for exempt products. But this debate among professionals seems to be ongoing. Tom Davey is the editor of Environmental Science & Engineering. 7 | July 2008


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Environmental Science & Engineering Editor TOM DAVEY E-mail: tom@esemag.com (No attachments please) Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Circulation Manager DARLANN PASSFIELD E-mail: darlann@esemag.com Production Manager CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Peter J. Paine Environment Canada Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to steve@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Undeliverable copies, advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $3.75 GST).

8 | July 2008

Ontario’s Chief Drinking Water Inspector releases new report ntario’s Chief Drinking Water Inspector, Keith West, has presented his annual report for April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007 to Environment Minister John Gerretsen. The report looks at the overall performance of Ontario’s drinking water systems. It has information on the ministry’s inspections of municipal residential drinking water systems and licensed drinking water testing laboratories. It also has information on private systems serving residences, schools, health and social care facilities and children’s camps. Key results for 2006-2007 Some 99.83 per cent of water quality tests submitted by municipal residential drinking water systems met Ontario drinking water standards. Some 99.49 per cent of water quality tests submitted by systems serving designated facilities met Ontario drinking water standards. Over 102,000 microbiological and chemical tests were conducted at these systems. Some 99.40 per cent of water quality tests submitted by non-municipal yearround residential systems met Ontario drinking water standards. These systems serve private subdivisions, condominium or townhouse complexes, apartment buildings, mobile home parks, as well as year round cottage developments and trailer parks. Microbiological and chemical testing Ontario has stringent, health-based standards for microbiological, chemical and radiological contaminants to protect drinking water quality. As bacterial contamination can pose severe health hazards, Ontario has adopted zero tolerance standards. For example, tests for E. coli must demonstrate that their presence is undetectable. Ontario’s standards for chemical contaminants are set at levels where no adverse effects are observed, with an additional margin of safety factored in. Inspections The ministry inspected all 707 municipal residential drinking water systems in the province. Inspectors assessed systems against about 140 regulatory requirements, all tailored to the type of drinking water system being inspected.

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The inspection takes into account local factors such as the drinking water source, the type of system and whether the inspection is detailed or focused. The ministry took mandatory action within 14 days of finding a deficiency at a municipal system. It issued 23 orders to 20 municipal residential drinking water systems. An order does not necessarily mean that drinking water is unsafe. Orders are also used to correct situations where there was no direct threat to human health. Examples include the need to improve administrative procedures or to prevent a possible drinking water issue. The ministry inspected all 57 licensed drinking water testing laboratories in Ontario at least twice in 2006-07. About half the inspections were unannounced. Ten of the inspections responded to public complaints or concerns of ministry staff. Rating municipal operations For the second year, the report provides inspection ratings for municipal residential drinking water systems. Inspection ratings are a tool designed to indicate how well the operation of a system is doing against Ontario’s inspection framework. The rating offers a snapshot of a system’s operation at the time of inspection. Overall, the operational performance of municipal residential drinking water systems is very good. The majority, 92 per cent, of inspection ratings were 90 per cent or better. A lower inspection rating does not mean the drinking water from the system is unsafe. It shows areas where the operation of a system can improve. The ministry works with owners and operators of systems that score lower ratings to make sure they know what they need to do to achieve full compliance. The inspection ratings help track yearly progress toward the goal of 100 per cent compliance for all systems in the province. This year the number of municipal residential drinking water systems demonstrating 100 per cent compliance increased by seven per cent over 2005-06. Forty per cent of the ratings were 100 per cent.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Stormwater Management

The Ottawa Airport expansion – water quality and risk management By Mark Adamaley he recent expansion of the Ottawa Airport entailed the conversion of parking areas into apron areas and the subsequent development of a new storm sewer. As part of these developments, the Ottawa McDonald-Cartier International Airport Authority sought to achieve stormwater quality treatment and emergency risk management, capable of containing any oil or jet fuel spills of up to 30,000 litres to prevent any contamination of local storm sewers or surrounding water bodies. In response to the challenge, Maurice Best, P.Eng., and Roger Quesnel, CET, of Ainley Graham and Associates, considered several solutions before settling on a unique design which involved the application of an Armtec Vortechs Oil Grit Separator and Armtec Motorized Gate Valves. The Vortechs system is a hydrodynamic separator that enhances gravitational separation of target pollutants from stormwater. Stormwater enters the unit at a tangent to a swirl chamber, which generates a gentle swirling motion and causes suspended particles to settle out of solution. Stormwater flows then proceed to the second treatment chamber where oil, grease and floating debris are separated from the water by means of an obstructing baffle wall and the relatively low specific gravity properties of the pollutants. Subsequently, treated stormwater

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Main section of Vortechs PC1319 being set in place over base slab.

nal by-pass manhole structures to regulate flows. The installation of the system was conducted by R.W Tomlinson Limited and Graydex Ottawa Inc., and was supervised by Armtec technical sales personnel.

The unit arrived on the project site in five pre-cast sections, with a total weight of 26,900 kg, and took less than eight hours to be assembled. flows then exit the unit via flow control devices and the outlet pipe. Based on the design specifications, Armtec proposed the Vortechs pre-cast model PC 1319, which fulfills the prescribed quality treatment and spill capture volume during a 10-year return storm event. The Vortechs was designed in an off-line configuration with exter10 | July 2008

The unit arrived on the project site in five pre-cast sections, with a total weight of 26,900 kg, and took less than eight hours to be assembled. Subsequently, the remotely operated motorized gate valves were installed at the downstream end of the Vortechs, ensuring that, in the case of a contaminant spill, the valves could be shut and the

spill contained within the unit. The Vortechs system provided several benefits for the construction process. By virtue of the unit’s standard height of 7.2 feet and unique horizontal shape, the excavation profile was relatively shallow and created cost savings for the contractor. In addition, the installation process was relatively easy as the depth of the structure was only 0.9 metres below the pipe invert, compared to the 9.0 metres depth of some other products. Furthermore, the maintenance procedure requires the removal of silt and water from the swirl chamber only and not the entire structure. Therefore, there is less volume for vacuum trucks to remove and, thus, long-term cost savings for the Airport Authority. Mark Adamaley is with Armtec. E-mail: madamaley@armtec.com

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Legal Affairs

Ontario dairy farmer awarded $1.7 million for groundwater contamination By Marc McAree and Barry Spiegel erendsen v. Ontario1 is a recent and significant decision of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice. It is one illustration of the expanding environmental liability of governments. Courts are finding that governments whose operations cause contamination have a duty to disclose risks and remedy harm, or pay the consequences. On January 18, 2008, the Court ordered the Province to pay compensation of $1.7 million to the Berendsen family for damages arising from asphalt-related contamination of the family’s dairy farm. The action was launched 14 years ago in 1994 and included a challenge to the Berendsens’ right to bring the action that went to the Supreme Court of Canada in 2001. The case arose as a result of actions taken almost four decades ago. In the 1960s, waste concrete and asphalt from highway reconstruction was buried on a farm by an independent contractor hired by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO). Waste was buried close to a stream running through the property. Although the owner of the farm consented to burial of the waste, he was never informed that it was anything other than inert material. He subsequently sold to a new owner, without bothering to disclose the buried waste. That owner subsequently sold to the Berendsens. The plaintiffs, the Berendsens, were successful dairy farmers in Europe. They moved to Ontario and purchased the farm in 1981. At the time of purchase, they were not informed about buried waste. The plaintiffs claimed that soon after they began their farming operations, they began to experience a number of operational problems including cattle and chicken deaths, deformed calves and low milk production. In 1989, the Berendsens learned of the waste buried on their farm. Concerned about the health of and milk production from their cattle, they sought

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The Berendsens argued that they were owed a duty of care because the Province should have known that careless disposal of waste roadbed material beside a water course on a farm might cause damage to the occupants of the land including the deteriorated health of cattle.

the advice of dairy specialists at the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF). A Ministry of Agriculture dairy specialist along with the Berendsens’ veterinarian wrote to the MOE summarizing their investigations and concluded that the water situation was adversely affecting the health of the Berendsens’ cattle. In other words, the cows were so reluctant to drink the contaminated water that their productivity and health were significantly affected. At this point, the MOE began testing the water on the Berendsens’ farm and constructed an underground water tank on the farm and paid for the supply of fresh water. When the cows had a supply of fresh water they became much healthier and milk production came more into line with normal expectations. Testing by the MOE identified some contaminants in the subsurface groundwater. However, the MOE found that concentrations did not exceed Ontario

Drinking Water Objectives. At that point, the Ministry stopped paying for the supply of water to the farm. The health and productivity of the cattle declined again. The Berendsens hired a consultant, who did more detailed testing and found additional contaminants in the water including dioxins, furans, PCBs, PAHs and chlorinated hydrocarbons. By 1993, the environmental and agricultural consultants had concluded that the contaminants from the waste concrete and asphalt were responsible for the cattle’s problems. Eventually the Berendsens abandoned the property and moved to a farm with clean water, where they successfully re-established their dairy operation. Meanwhile, the Berendsens launched their lawsuit in 1994. Ontario vigorously defended, arguing that it was a public

Berendsen v. Ontario, 2008 CanLII 1416 (ON S.C.). Appeal filed by the Province of Ontario February 15, 2008. MacQueen v. Ispat Sidbec Inc., 2007 NSCA 33, [2007] 144(Q.L.) (N.S.C.A.), leave to appeal to S.C.C. denied [2007] S.C.C.A. No. 25 (QL).

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Legal Affairs authority, acting under a statutory duty to fix highways, and was protected by the Public Authorities Protection Act’s six month limitation period (no longer in effect). In 2001, the Supreme Court of Canada held that the MTO could not use the Public Authorities Protection Act. It could not claim protection for the acts of its highway contractors. The burying of the waste asphalt beside the stream on the farm was not work that was required by the statute – it was an operational decision made at the discretion of MTO, and was not protected. The Supreme Court sent the case to be tried, and the trial took place in 2006. On January 18, 2008, Superior Court Judge Seppi awarded the Berendsens $1.7 million dollars in damages, including significant damages for business losses. The Province argued that because the water that it tested did not exceed the Ontario Drinking Water Objectives, the Province did not owe a duty of care to the Berendsens. The Berendsens argued that they were owed a duty of care because the Province should have known that careless disposal of waste roadbed material beside a water

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course on a farm might cause damage to the occupants of the land including the deteriorated health of cattle. Moreover, they argued that the Crown, having caused, and knowing of the contamination of their water and the harm to their animals and business, had a duty to fix the problem. Superior Court Justice Seppi held that: 1. There were no considerations that would negate the Crown’s liability in this case; 2. The Crown employees knew or should have known that the harmful chemicals in roadbed materials buried near water on a dairy farm were likely to cause harmful effects on the users of that water, even if the deposit of roadbed materials as fill on farms was normal practice in the 1960s; 3. The Crown, having caused the contamination, had a duty to use its statutory powers of investigation and remediation in the Environmental Protection Act and Ontario Water Resources Act to investigate and remediate.

As it now stands, the decision in Berendsen v. Ontario suggests that provincial and municipal governments have a duty to disclose knowledge of potential health impacts from operations, and to take action to prevent further contamination and to remediate. Some legal observers see similarities with the Sydney Tar Ponds application for a class action. In January 2007, the Supreme Court of Canada cleared the way for Nova Scotia residents to sue the federal government and the government of Nova Scotia for failure to warn of environmental threats to health, and to remediate. On February 15, 2008, the Province of Ontario filed a Notice of Appeal, asking the Court of Appeal to dismiss the Berendsens’ claim, or to order a new trial. Only time will tell whether the courts are going to expand the liability of governments for environmental claims. Marc McAree and Barry Spiegel are with Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP. For more information, E-mail: BSpiegel@willmsshier.com

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Disinfection

Feeding sodium hypochloride using innovative drinking water disinfection technology ater disinfection is the most critical process in the treatment of water and wastewater. The world’s most universal and reliable means of water and wastewater disinfection is chlorination. Two fundamental methods include gas chlorination (Cl2) and liquid chlorination (NaOCl), otherwise known as sodium hypochlorite. Chlorination was introduced as a commercial water purifier in 1908 and has since been acknowledged as the optimum method for water disinfection due to its ability to provide residual protection throughout the water distribution system. As a result of safety concerns with handling gaseous chlorine, the application of Cl2 continues to decline while liquid chlorination and other alternative yet more recent technologies such as UV (ultraviolet light) and Ozone (O3) strive to be more promising and possibly safer means of disinfecting water and wastewater. Yet, liquid chlorination water disinfection has been proven to be the most effective, economical, and reliable application for treating water globally for over 50 years. Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in various processes for disinfecting and bleaching. Also referred to as NaOCl, bleach, hypo, or chlorine, it is typically supplied and dispensed in 5-20% concentrations by weight, with the higher concentrations being progressively less

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Each issue of ES&E is now available on-line!

Visit www.esemag.com to download this issue, or any past issues you may have missed. 14 | July 2008

stable. It is subject to degradation within the piping and pump systems as it releases oxygen gas and results in crystallization of the residual. If the gas or vapour is allowed to build up within the piping and reagent head in sufficient volume, a typical reciprocating piston metering pump, used for accurately feeding chlorine to the process, will not function properly as gas in the pump head is compressed. This minimizes the discharge check valve’s ability to open upon discharge stroke of the pump. Consequently, this effect could require that the pump be reprimed for operation. Reciprocating piston metering pumps or diaphragm metering pumps have been historically preferred in the dispensing of sodium hypochlorite because of their ability to accurately dose chemicals into a process stream with great precision and repeatability at a constant pressure. Additionally, the diaphragm metering pump is sealless and leak proof by design, with negligible maintenance and simple commissioning. Traditionally, the diaphragm metering pump industry has promoted the use of degas valves on the discharge port of the pump which diverts gas back to the suction supply source of the bleach. This method has been widely accepted and successful in many applications. However, the small diameter ports in the valve system tend to plug and require continuous flushing or cleaning through human intervention since the system is open to the atmosphere on the discharge side of the orifice. Additionally, an external bypass piping system and degas valve assembly require additional costs and maintenance while presenting more opportunities for undesired chlorine leak paths. Description of technology Pulsafeeder, a Unit of IDEX Corporation, in Rochester, New York, has developed a technology that provides a simple and intuitive pressurized flushing system integral to the pump head, specifically designed for metering sodium hypochlorite solutions with great accuracy and repeatability.

The Pulsar HypoPump.

The Pulsar HypoPump® was explicitly designed to meter the full range of concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and its vapours associated with heat and degradation of composition. It features a patented design that allows pressurized process fluid to cyclically flush vapours and liquids through the pump’s discharge check system while maintaining high performance and chemical dosing accuracy. The design is integral to the pump head and eliminates the need for bypass systems including piping, valves, fittings, and instrumentation. Most notably, this system is closed-looped and not open to the atmosphere at any point, therefore eliminating crystallization of the sodium hypochlorite. The distinctive design also enhances self-priming capabilities since the pump system automatically evacuates entrained air in the piping system and pump head. The HypoPump has been installed in hundreds of significantly troublesome installations throughout the world. For more information, contact instrumentation@johnmeunier.com

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Energy from Waste

Ukraine biosolids incineration project generates electricity while solving disposal problems aste is the ideal fuel. It is better than free. You don’t have to buy it. People pay you to take it. It has a negative value. Combine that benefit with another. The vast majority of wastes are combustible. They burn and that heat value can be harnessed and converted into electricity with a highly efficient and clean-burning rotary cascading bed combustor that eliminates pathogens. Put up a power plant that charges collection fees for the refuse which it burns, and charges for electricity which it produces, and you have the ideal situation. The heat produced by a combustor is used to generate steam which is used to drive a turbine in order to produce electricity. The typical amount of net energy that can be produced per ton of municipal waste is about 0.67 MWh of electricity. Thus, about 600 tons per day of waste will produce about 17 MW of electrical power each day through combustion. Waste-to-energy technologies reduce or eliminate waste that is tradi-

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tionally streamed to a "greenhouse gas" emitting landfill, or mine waste materials from existing landfills. Producing electricity from wastes directly through combustion eliminates the intermediate step of producing a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels, and eliminates the need to contain potent greenhouse gas emitting fuels. Today, because all new Waste-toEnergy (WtE) plants in countries that belong to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development must meet strict emission standards, modern WtE plants have dramatically changed over the years. While older plants neither recovered energy nor materials, most modern WtE plants reduce the volume of the original waste by 95-96%, depending upon composition and degree of recovery of materials. Now the technology exists to bring that to near 100%. A model WtE plant An innovative WtE system is being set up in the Ukraine. Odessa is the fourth largest city in the Ukraine, with

a population of a little over one million. The city is a major seaport on the Black Sea and the largest port in Ukraine. After the government finalizes the authorization and financial arrangements, it will be home to a plant that will cleanly and efficiently convert sewage sludge into electricity. For many years, the people of the Ukraine have used sewage sludge for agricultural fertilization. The high level of contaminants, however, has required them to seek a more environmentallyacceptable solution to this disposal problem. At the same time, as their economy develops, their energy supply has become substantially more costly and less available. They now have discovered an opportunity to combine these two substantial problems into one comprehensive solution. In the Ukrainian program, sewage sludge will be used as the basic biomass fuel powering an electrical generation plant. At the heart of the system is a clean-burning Rotary Cascading Bed Combustor (RCBC) linked to a boiler Odessa, the fourth largest city in the Ukraine is a major seaport on the Black Sea and the largest port in the Ukraine.

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Energy from Waste and electricity-generating steam turbine. The RCBC acts like a clothes dryer. It spins fast enough to keep the fuel cascading for maximum combustion. The technology is being commercialized by Quality Recycling Equipment of Hendersonville, North Carolina. The system will burn over 50,000 tons of de-watered sewage sludge per operating year, and it will generate 33,507,000 kWh of electricity per individual location. The only supplemental fuel required will be for start-up, or when there is a heat value shortfall. Eleven Ukrainian locations are planned – one in conjunction with each major sewage processing module. Infox and Millington Solutions, Ltd, along with the Ukrainian government, have agreed with RCBC Associates, as part of a pilot program, to cooperate in testing and monitoring the sewage sludge to electrical energy systems under US emissions and operational standards. The Ukrainian pilot program will also use a smaller 1.5 mW turbine generator and a 10,000 pounds per hour combustor. The RCBC has been in development

www.esemag.com

Phased material recovery facility.

since 1981. It has progressed from a bench scale model in 1982, an incinerator version in 1983 – 1984, a 5,000 pounds per hour combustor/boiler, to a 10,000 pounds per hour combustor/boiler installed and tested for over 2,000 operational hours as part of the Northeast Tennessee Regional Integrated Energy Waste Management/Waste Utilization

Program in 1990 – 1992. Operation and fuel preparation While the RCBC combustor accepts a wide range of fuels, the Ukrainian plant will only use dewatered sludge as fuel. The fuels are fluidized mechanically in a three-dimensional pattern inside of the rotating drum. In-feed continued overleaf...

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Energy from Waste materials are mixed, lifted, dropped, milled, and recirculated as they are moved laterally, in both directions, along the length of the fluidization drum as they are concurrently combusted. The rotating unit cascades and stirs the fuel, combining it with a sorbant such as limestone at about one pound per ton. The sorbant continually reacts with sulfur and HCI to form calcium sulfates and chlorides, which are removed as non-hazardous ash. The entire process results in a clean and efficient burn, leaving harmless byproducts. The resulting fly ash, at less than 1%, is inert, and can be combined with organic waste to produce marketable compost. Emissions are lower than those of liquid petroleum gas, putting them well within EPA standards. Keeping the combustion temperature below 1400 degrees minimizes the production of oxides and nitrogen. The

Cross-section of the RCBC.

heat produced by the unit creates steam pressure which spins a 4.5/5.0-megawatt condensing turbine generator, which is fed out to the power grid. The chemical reactions take place at temperatures high enough to destroy pathogens, but low enough to greatly retard the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Unique internal and external fuels recycling systems foster high sorbant contact with combustion gases and extend fuel dwell times, assuring clean and complete combustion of waste fuels. The sewage sludge discharged from the municipal sewer processing plant contains between 80 – 96% water. In preparation for burning, the sludge is drained in a dewatering module to a maximum of 15% water content by weight. The water that will not be used as fuel is returned for purification. Dry sewage sludge is an excellent fuel for the RCBC because of its high combustibility. Dewatered sludge and bed materials 18 | July 2008

are stored to compensate for infeed downtime or variances in heat values, or the operating schedules of the sewer plant, the dewatering module, and the RCBC. The production and emission parameters are continually monitored, and the fuel and sorbant flows are varied as necessary. In this way, the temperature, steam, and emissions are kept within the prescribed parameters. If a red line limit exceeds three minutes, fuel feed is stopped, and the operation is shut down. Municipal solid waste as supplement Another use to which the RCBC will be put, is in the county of Harvey, Kansas. In this application, the fuel source for the RCBC will be derived from municipal solid waste (MSW). Quality Recycling, Inc. is helping the county set up a materials recovery facility (MRF) that will be tied into the RCBC for fuel preparation and the recovery of recyclable and/or marketable materials. This application is an environmentally-responsible solution to several more major environmental problems. When waste is landfilled, one ton of MSW produces approximately 62 m³ methane via the anaerobic decomposition of the biodegradable part of the waste. In some countries, large amounts of landfill gas are collected through rigorous containment methods. But the costs and energies that must be devoted to such methods are prohibitive. Another notorious problem with landfills is leachate. Older landfills were not set up with safeguards to reasonably prevent seepage into the groundwater. Even modern lined landfills can be plagued by inadequate containment of toxic contaminants. These plastic liners that are spread out at the base of the landfill can be punctured, torn, or otherwise compromised, and have a limited lifespan. MRFs typically remove and classify papers, plastics, metals, and other marketable recyclables, and bale or otherwise package them for resale. MRFs make an excellent line for RCBC fuel preparation, because they optimize the economic value derived from the incoming waste stream, while preparing the RCBC fuel. Not only does a MRF/RCBC combi-

nation eliminate the need for landfills, but it opens up a whole new field of possibilities for the mining of old landfills, many of which are severe contaminators. MSW can be freshly collected or mined from old or troublesome landfills. Other fuels that can be cleanly burned by the RCBC include "dirty" or high sulfur bituminous coal, anthracite coal waste, carpet and carpet scrap, wood wastes, tires and rubber wastes, auto "fluff" from car shredding plants, oils, solvents, coal wastes, tar, industrial sludge, and movie film. Add standard fossil fuels and biofuels to the list, and the RCBC's versatility is even more impressive. About the only thing an RCBC won't burn is metal. Some toxic wastes have also been shown to be rendered harmless by RCBC combustion. Combustion has particularly strong benefits for the treatment of certain waste types in niche areas such as clinical wastes and certain hazardous wastes, where pathogens and toxins can be destroyed by high temperatures. Examples include chemical multi-product plants with diverse toxic or very toxic wastewater streams, which cannot be routed to a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Sewage as renewable energy Perhaps the most exciting thing about RCBC technology is that it expands the definition of "renewable energy" sources to include problem wastes - many of which have a negative value. Negative value fuels change the whole equation for power generation, because they allow power plants to earn revenues from disposal fees as well as from consumers of electricity. It has become unnecessary to pay for fuels in order to generate electricity. There will always be an adequate supply of garbage. It isn’t necessary to create biofuels from scratch in order to generate power. You can destroy waste while creating energy. Trash is renewable. Waste is renewable. Sewage is renewable. You can take that to the bank. For more information, contact John Kosanke, Quality Recycling Equipment, Inc. E-mail: john@qualityrecycling.com

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Laboratories AGAT Laboratories is pleased to announce the move of our environmental division to the newly renovated 50,000 sq ft facility.

This state of the art facility is built by scientists, for scientists and conveniently located at 5835 Coopers Avenue. AGAT's new facility in Mississauga compliments our national presence including full service laboratories in Calgary, Montreal, Grande Prairie and Dartmouth. ? Largest network of depots in Canada ? Custom bottle orders at no additional charge to our client ? WebEARTH. The industry's most advanced online data management system ? Dedicated Client Project Managers ? 24 hour drop off / supply pickup ? Comprehensive Technical Seminar Series

We invite you to tour the New Coopers Facility in Mississauga Reach your AGAT Business Development Representative at 905-712-5100 and discover how we offer Service Beyond Analysis.

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ES&E Magazine welcomes Peter Paine to its Technical Advisory Board

On behalf of Environmental Science & Engineering magazine, I am pleased to announce that Peter J. Paine will be joining the Technical Advisory Board of ESE. Peter is a graduate from the University of Ottawa with B.A.Sc. and M.Eng degrees in Civil Engineering. His technical expertise is in industrial wastewater treatment and his primary research (at university) involved the biological treatment of base metal mine wastewaters. After graduating with his M.Eng in 1978, Peter worked briefly under contract for the National Capital Commission in Ottawa. After this, Peter worked in consulting in Edmonton before returning to Ottawa to join Environment Canada in 1981 as a program engineer. Some of the diverse files and industrial sectors he has been involved with at Environment Canada are: cyanide destruction from gold mine wastewaters; coal beneficiation technologies for inorganic sulphur removal (from coal) for power generation; the mercury cell chlor-alkali industry (chlorine and caustic production) and control of mercury from this sector; volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions from the plastics processing industry; the metal finishing industry (MFI) and participation in the multi stakeholder (government and industry) MFI Pollution Prevention program; the contribution of solvents to overall VOC emissions in Canada and VOC reduction strategies from general solvent use; and the proper use and handling of additives in the plastics processing industry. Peter is also a guest lecturer at the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa.

Steve Davey, Publisher

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Disinfection

Richmond BC WWTP upgrades to high-output UV system

Aquionics UV disinfection system at the Richmond wastewater treatment plant.

he existing low pressure UV disinfection system at a wastewater treatment plant in Richmond, British Columbia, has been replaced with a high output medium pressure UV system from Aquionics. The WWTP serves the Riverport Sports and Entertainment Complex and surrounding residential areas in southern Richmond. The facility decided to switch to medium pressure UV because cleaning the low pressure system was very difficult. Each of the two low pressure units contained 24 lamps – automatic wiping is not an option with that number of lamps, so cleaning had to be done either manually or with chemicals. This is an extremely time-consuming process that required the entire system to be shut down. The two Aquionics units, however, each contain just two medium pressure lamps, each of which is fitted with an automatic wiper that keeps the quartz

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sleeves clean during normal operation. There is no need to shut down the system for manual or chemical cleaning and no danger of damaging the lamps or exposure to wastewater. The units are installed after a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and can treat a combined flow of up to 600 gallons per minute (2271 litres per minute) of wastewater from the adjacent sports complex and residential areas. The disinfected wastewater is discharged into the Fraser River. Each of the UV units is fitted with a monitor which measures actual UV intensity and dose from the two lamps, providing real time information which can be downloaded for record keeping. Operating the UV system is simple and, when lamps need replacing, it can easily be carried out by on-site staff. For further information, contact Peter Wang, e-mail: peterw@aquionics.com

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CONFERENCE REPORT Blue Mountain Resort hosts 2008 WEAO annual conference Photo Report by Steve Davey, Publisher

s keynote speaker at the Water Environment Association of Ontario’s 2008 conference, Dr. Jamie Benidickson, from the University of Ottawa, expanded on the material in his book, The Culture of Flushing: A Social and Legal History of Sewage. He pointed out that the first major modern wastewater treatment system was authorized by the British Parliament in 1858 for the City of London, following the introduction of Thomas Crapper’s patented water closets and the construction of a massive sewage collection system. Prior to that, Londoners had employed the Conservatory Method. Outhouse contents were simply collected and then transported to nearby farms for direct land application. Ultimately, water closets and sewerage systems were more convenient than the Conservatory Method, but this new approach to sanitation had unintended consequences, which became quite apparent during “The Big Stink”. This was the unflattering term given to the Thames River, which quickly became little more than an open sewer and a terrible health hazard. Having already invested heavily in building London’s sewer system, the British government had no choice but to authorize the construction of wastewater treatment plants. Dr Benidickson also commented on several modern issues, pointing out that in 1990 only 32% of the Sub Saharan population had access to basic sanitation. However by 2007, due largely to population increases, still only 37% had access to basic sanitation. Turning to Canada, he noted that animal waste is a major issue, due to the massive volume of biosolids generated. Another issue is safe drinking water for First Nations Communities with 85 systems still considered at risk Dr Benidickson said that climate change is also affecting the wastewater industry in several ways. As an example, he cited the increasing economic and environmental benefit of capturing and using biogas (methane), a potent greenhouse gas, to generate electricity. He also said he found it ironic that in London, England, climate change-induced water shortages have resulted in a proposed de-salination plant, which will use massive amounts of energy to operate. A “Catch 22” situation indeed! The 2008 Water Environment Association of Ontario’s annual conference was held May 25-27, 2008, at Blue Mountain. Their 2009 conference will be held in Toronto in April.

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Top: Tom Davey (right), ES&E’s Editor and Co-Founder, receives an honorary WEAO membership in recognition of his 40th year of involvement with WEAO and the wastewater industry. Middle: Penny Davey, ES&E’s Sales Manager, was inducted into WEAO’s 5S Society in recognition of her long-term volunteering commitment by Peter Takaoka, WEAO president (left) and Water for People Canada President, Tony Petrucci. Bottom: Dr. Jamie Benidickson, keynote speaker. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Conference Report

Ontario’s Minister of the Environment addresses OWWA/OMWA Conference ohn Gerretsen, Ontario’s Minister of the Environment, addressed the recent conference of the Ontario Water Works Association and the Ontario Municipal Water Association. The conference was held in London in April. Following are excerpts from his speech to delegates: “Drinking water protection involves almost everything we do at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, and our work begins long before water enters plants, pipes and taps. With the Clean Water Act, we’ve taken a huge step forward by making the responsibility to protect drinking water sources a legal requirement. Nineteen local source protection committees are now working closely with their municipal partners to engage communities in protecting the sources of their drinking water. To that end we committed $120 million for communities and their partners so they can get the work done that’s required under the Act. “We are providing more than $23 million for additional technical work by both municipalities and conservation authorities to support source protection planning. Our government also established the Ontario Drinking Water Stewardship Program. Under this program, $7 million was invested in early action, education and outreach and special projects as part of a four-year $28 million commitment to encourage early action.

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“I know that people in London and throughout this Ontario region are especially concerned about lead in drinking water. Testing required by our regulations has shown this to be a provincewide issue. “We have developed a workable Lead Action Plan that strongly protects human health. In June 2007, a new regulation became law, governing flushing and lead testing requirements for schools, private schools, and day nurseries. Special attention was paid to reducing the potential for lead intake by pregnant women and children. Our plan requires annual testing at day nurseries built before 1990 and at all schools, and private schools and semi-annual testing of taps in homes and businesses served by municipal and private residential systems. We developed these requirements based on advice we received from technical experts in lead in drinking water from across North America. We also received advice from Ontario’s Drinking Water Advisory Council. “Our testing requirements are intended to identify situations that need to be corrected when Ontario’s drinking water standard for lead of 10 micrograms per litre is exceeded. As part of the plan, municipalities must also account for the cost of lead service pipe replacement in the financial plans we are requiring for their water systems as

At the AGM of the Ontario Water Works Equipment Association, Terry Lang of Canada Pipe Company (left) receives an award for 10 years on the Board of Directors from Tom Orpana, Neptune Technology Group, OWWEA President. Incoming President, Mike O’Brien, Cleartech Industries, is on the right. 24 | July 2008

John Gerretsen

part of the municipal license in 2010. “I believe Ontario’s Lead Action Plan is a good one, but there is always room for improvement - and it is getting a lot of useful feedback from stakeholders. For example, there are concerns about costs and staff time required for sampling and testing. We are working with both the Ontario Water Works Association and the Ontario Municipal Water Association to address these concerns. “The strong relationship between us was also a valuable asset as we designed and now are implementing the new licensing program for municipal residential drinking water systems. This group played a big role in the development of the program; your efforts helped give Ontario Canada’s first Drinking Water Quality Management Standard to support a quality management approach to operating municipal systems. “The new licensing requirements for owners of municipal drinking water systems, as well as a standard of care for municipal officials, will help municipalities manage and operate their water systems to the highest possible standard. Some of the key benefits of the program are that it clearly states that everyone within the owner and operating authority’s organization, from the mayor to the operator, has a role to play in the provision of safe drinking water. The owner of the system (mayors and councillors) will be required to provide a written endorsement and commitment to the management system. “Quality management is the responsibility of the people who manage the drinking water system, not a ministry program dictating how the system must be managed. Knowledgeable staff within the organization will develop

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Conference Report practices that make sense for their drinking water system. And the independent auditor confirms that these practices are being followed — you plan what to do and do what you plan. The quality management system allows organizations to store and update knowledge gained over the years from all staff and ensures that this information is available for everyone. “The program requires that information is reviewed every year, which ensures that practices are kept current and relevant; information will be kept in one central document, which is accessible to everyone. It also ensures that tasks are not duplicated and that staff are doing things relevant for their specific drinking

per cent by 2020. We’re also focusing on adapting to the climate change-related effects that are already with us. “To ensure that we are guided by innovative thinking and practical advice to meet this challenge, we have created an Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation. We have asked this panel to come up with practical public policy options that can help us prepare for the effects of climate change on our people and communities. “Climate change adaptation is also in-

cluded in two very important Great Lakes agreements that we’ve recently signed. Ontario worked hard to make sure that explicit climate change adaptation commitments were included in the 2007 Canada-Ontario Agreement respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. “The Great Lakes Charter Annex, signed by Ontario, Quebec and the eight Great Lakes states, will help our waterways adapt to climate change by banning large-scale transfers out of the Great Lakes Basin.”

Blair Slessor, Denso North America, (left) receives an award for six years’ service on the OWWEA Board from Mike O’Brien, Cleartech Industries.

water system, not just tasks that have always been done. It also provides an opportunity for owners to promote their effective management of the drinking water system to the public, which in turn leads to an increase in public confidence. “In addition to the safeguards outlined, we have stringent drinking water standards, rigorous inspections of drinking water systems and labs and more drinking water inspectors. There are tougher penalties for endangering water, and greater transparency and accountability through the Chief Drinking Water Inspector’s annual reports. Of course, this work is increasingly taking into account the earth’s changing climate which is going to affect many things, from the quality of source water to the infrastructure that treats and distributes drinking water. “We recognize that climate change is already here. We have set ambitious targets for greenhouse gas reductions: 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2014, 15 www.esemag.com

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Water reuse facility allows golf course and 900 home By Jeffrey McIntyre subdivision project to proceed

he many challenges faced by the water industry include everything from higher water demand and inadequate water resource supplies, to aging infrastructure and climate change. In order to illustrate the critical need for better water management, an appreciation of the challenges is required. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has estimated the 20year needs for water infrastructure investment in the US at $277 billion for drinking water systems and $388 billion for wastewater systems. The goal of meeting demand is certainly attainable and is a daily preoccupation of the water industry. Focusing on delivering viable services to various communities, the industry has developed a set of innovative solutions to supply water to growing populations in arid regions. Water reuse is one solution. Increasing the amount of reclaimed water for agriculture and commercial consumers will significantly ease the strain on rivers, lakes, and aquifers that provide us with clean and safe drinking water. Until the safety and value of reclaimed wastewater is understood, people will balk at the idea of using it. However, the idea is not a novel one. All of our water (including drinking) was at one point used for, or emitted by, some-

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thing else and is part of a general cycle of rain, ground filtering and evaporation. Golf courses require significant volumes of water for irrigation. Many golf course owners are turning to water reclamation as an alternative source for irrigation water. The Ballantrae Golf & Country Club in Ballantrae, Ontario, 30 minutes north of Toronto, was approved for the development of 900 residential homes and has an 18-hole championship golf course on a 418-acre parcel of land. Facility design was accomplished in the winter of 1999. Construction was completed in May 2, 2000. The treatment facility is a 1.0 megalitre/day sewage plant that contains full biological and tertiary treatment for a 'green field' development. For a facility that is designed to treat 1045 m3/day sewage, with capability to expand to 1568 m3/day, the Certificate of Approval stipulates stringent effluent requirements for effluent nitrogen. Designed, operated and maintained by American Water Canada, the system relies on sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology because of its inherent process flexibility. American Water Canada handled all aspects of the wastewater treatment system, including design, installation oversight and project management, as well as ongoing maintenance and operations.

Process There is no receiving stream for the sewage plant, and provincial regulatory authorities require a high level of treatment in order to permit discharge to subsurface. The wastewater is treated through a process that includes complete secondary and tertiary treatment with low lift pumping, vortex grit removal, dual sequencing batch reactors, continuous backwash tertiary filters, and ultraviolet disinfection. Submersible sewage pumps pump the sewage through in-line grinders to a forced vortex grit system. After grit is removed, sewage flows to the main SBR tanks for biological treatment and settling. SBR technology permits biological aeration, and clarification in the same tank. It also permits aeration cycles and non-aerated cycles to be field adjusted for optimal treatment. The SBR tanks employ jet aeration, to achieve high oxygen transfer efficiencies. Two SBR tanks are utilized, with provision to add a third in the future. Decant or settled effluent collects in a tank and is pumped to continuous backwash sand filters. The SBR tanks also are used for phosphorus removal, and alum is added to achieve this. Excess sludge generated in the SBR tanks is wasted to an aerated sludge holding tank. The sludge is hauled to a local sewage plant for final processing.

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Wastewater Effluent is pumped to continuous backwash gravity sand filters to remove particulate matter prior to discharge through an ultraviolet disinfection system. Effluent then flows to one of two effluent holding ponds, before being pumped to an irrigation system in the summer, or into the ground in the winter. Results American Water Canada worked with Schickedanz Bros. Limited, the developer, to complete the second privately-owned and operated wastewater treatment facility in Ontario. In addition, the project was fast tracked to meet the developer's challenging scheduling requirements and detailed design was completed in two months. This facility has enabled the Golf and County Club to independently operate in a location not readily serviced by municipal utilities and to provide the grounds with much needed components for growth and development. The Ballantrae Golf & Country Club is a bluebrint for the future that has already won an outstanding planning award from the Ontario Professional Planners Institute, for taking new directions in innovative planning development and design. Additionally, the community has won the Most Out-

nants are removed via a membrane process. Furthermore, these technologies are continuously being streamlined, becoming more cost-effective and energy-efficient. In the United States, where the average household of four uses 350 gallons of top quality water a day and the per capita use is 341 billion gallons a day, there is a significant amount of water that can be reclaimed. Water supply management is an issue that affects us all. It seems that water, for many people, has become a

resource that is taken for granted. Research has proven that rampant, excessive use of the water supply will eventually lead to a crisis. From today forward, careful planning and conservation that focuses on long-term stability will be necessary to ensure that successful water management is a reality for everyone. Jeffrey McIntyre is Vice President of American Water Canada Corp. E-mail: jmcintyre@amwater.com

Clean solutions in your process automation.

standing (Adult) Lifestyle Project awards from the Urban Development Institute as well as the Ontario Home Builders Association. Reclaimed water need not only be confined to wastewater; highly saline sources, such as ocean or deep groundwater, can also be treated. The process of water reuse can involve desalination, where the salt content is removed, or membrane filtration, where contami-

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Safeguarding the natural basis of our existence is something which concerns us all. Endress+Hauser supports its customers in tackling this challenge by providing excellent devices, innovative services and intelligent automation solutions. In this way we ensure processes which are safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective. This benefits people and also protects the environment. Count on us for practical solutions for all your water and wastewater measurement challenges. Endress+Hauser Canada Ltd 1075 Sutton Drive Burlington, Ontario L7L 5Z8

Tel: (905) 681-9292 1-800-668-3199 Fax: (905) 681-3766 info@ca.endress.com www.ca.endress.com

27 | July 2008


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Energy

Environmental solutions are critical to oil sands future

ontinuing work on finding solutions to environmental issues is key to the future of Canada’s oil sands, according to the winner of the Global Energy International Prize. Dr. Clement Bowman received a medal from Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, in recognition of “the development of highly efficient technologies and utilities for extracting oil from oil shale and oil sands, thus contributing to the energy saving problem of humanity.” He is co-winner of the $1.3 million prize with Eduard Volkov and will provide permanent scholarships in chemical engineering at the University of Toronto and University of Alberta in the field of energy and the environment. On his return to Canada from June 7 award ceremonies in St. Petersburg, Russia, Dr. Bowman said there was a high degree of interest in Russia in environmental efforts related to continuing oil sands development in Canada. “A critical factor considered by the award committee was the leadership provided by the Canadian Academy of Engineering (CAE) in addressing the need for sustainable hydrogen and the recovery and storage of carbon dioxide,” Bowman said. Bowman said building a positive global image of Canada’s oil sands development will be a continuing challenge. “We have to keep working on the environmental aspects of its develop-

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ment and clearly demonstrate to the world that we are committed to cleaning up any problems associated with it.” In an interview with the English-language news channel Russia Today, Bowman commented that, with global oil prices currently exceeding $120 per barrel, recovery of oil from the oil sands was very economical at $30 per barrel.

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev (right) and Dr. Clement W. Bowman. (AP Photo/Dmitry Lovetsky)

The oil sands currently produce about 40% of Canada’s oil. As vice-president of Esso Petroleum Canada, Dr. Bowman led the Esso Research Centre which is part of the Exxon global energy network. As a former president of the Alberta Research Council, he established consortia with international oil companies to explore research approaches in oil sands that had breakthrough potential.

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Management

Corporate environmental responsibility: Adding value to the bottom line By Scott Freiburger and Janet McKenzie orporate environmental responsibility adds value to a company’s bottom line. This may differ depending on sector, size and culture. Manufacturingbased businesses confront a wide range of environmental challenges, while small or service-sector businesses face a narrow range. Businesses of all sizes and sectors have improved environmental performance and realized a wide range of benefits from reducing waste to maximizing resource efficiency and improving product design. In general, there are many costs of doing business, no matter the size or sector. When it comes to protecting the environment, a company needs to ask the question: "What is the cost of not protecting the environment?" For example, it could spend $1 on implementing environmental practices that could prevent a spill from occurring, while the same company would spend $100 to clean up and/or mitigate the spill. A spill can carry a variety of cost perspectives, ranging from the short-term clean-up cost and long-term diminished produc-

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tivity, to the long-term effects to the community in terms of health issues and property values. In this situation, implementing environmental practices is seen as an investment rather than a cost. For many companies, environmental stewardship is moving from government "push" to "business-led". As this change is occurring, proactive companies are finding more instances where environmental improvement initiatives, beyond those which are required by laws and regulations, create significant business value and competitive advantage. Forward-thinking business leaders recognize that the adoption of environmental management approaches is both valuable and necessary to sustain a business. Increased regulation, government policy and customer expectations are all forcing businesses to address the impact their activities have on the environment. Pressure to implement environmental management systems (EMS) has manifested itself in many industry sectors. For example, large corporations such as Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Honda, Toyota Motor Manufacturing,

and Xerox are requiring their suppliers to obtain ISO 14001 registration and driving considerable interest in environmental management systems. Whether you're in the automotive, manufacturing, retail or a service industry, managing issues such as waste minimization, water quality and conservation, energy efficiency, air quality, pollution prevention, spill management and regulatory compliance can all help improve the bottom line. Companies are increasingly investigating environmental management systems, either because their customers demand it or because it promises to offer opportunities for improvement. But what are the real benefits of an environmental management system? Many companies began environmental management certification efforts in the mid-1990s due to increased global competition, customer awareness, and the potential benefits both in terms of bottom-line performance and operational efficiency. Businesses have been able to achieve cost-savings by fundamentally examining the design and production of existing and new products. Such a program provides businesses with information about more environmentally preferable processes or technologies that have the potential to result in big cost savings through waste reduction, energy efficient operations and reduced water usage. ISO 14001 specifies the structure of an environmental management information system, commonly called an environmental management system or EMS, which builds on and adds to existing environmental efforts such as regulatory compliance, training, record keeping, emergency planning, and preparedness. An EMS integrates environmental considerations into and throughout all of an organization's activities, products, and services based on established business principles, allowing operations managers to address and continually improve environmental concerns based on the "plan, do, check, act" philosophy. To put things into perspective, a business that adopts and/or implements

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Management environmental management practices will have a strong understanding of its environmental impacts and will be in a good position to prevent potential negative environmental impacts. A business that has a limited understanding of its environmental affairs may be exposed to risk in the form of unanticipated environmental events (i.e. spill) and their associated costs. Growing evidence suggests that good economic performance is compatible with good environmental performance. For example, firms in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (companies that incorporate environmental and societal concerns into their long-term economic investment strategies) outperformed the 2,500 largest capitalized companies that make up the Dow Jones Global Index (with cumulative gains in nominal market value of 85 percent compared with 57 percent) between 1993 and 2003. The positive correlation between environmental and economic performance is especially apparent in industrial sectors with substantial exposure to environmental risk. This evidence challenges the tradi-

A company could spend $1 on implementing environmental practices that could prevent a spill from occurring, while the same company would spend $100 to clean up and/or mitigate the spill. tional notion that complying with environmental regulations saps profitability and suggests that going “beyond compliance” can result in a competitive advantage. For example, firms with better environmental records may be more attractive to investors due to reduced compliance costs and a lower risk of future liabilities (Hopkins and Johansson, 2004). Businesses must start viewing environmental activity as a profit rather than a cost and move from reactive to proactive management. A business that is able to implement an effective environmental management system may be able to reduce environmental waste and natural resource use, while at the same time improve the economic bottom line.

Scott Freiburger and Janet McKenzie are with Eco2 Systems Inc., consultants in environmental management. E-mail: scott@eco2systems.com or janet@eco2systems.com

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Wastewater

Ensuring proper performance of decentralized wastewater systems By Dennis F. Hallahan and Brian M. Davis he need for new approaches for wastewater management in conjunction with an increased emphasis on environmental sustainability is challenging scientists, engineers, regulators, and product manufacturers to develop innovative ways of testing and applying new technologies for decentralized wastewater management. Another catalyst is a barrage of new health codes that regulate decentralized wastewater system design and installation. Growing awareness of nutrient loadings to the environment from nitrogen and phosphorus, aquifer protection, and the value of water as a resource have come to the forefront. These codes continue to be amended to preserve and protect public health and natural resources. Each year, decentralized wastewater treatment systems discharge billions of

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gallons of wastewater. Homeowners, regulators, and the community at large depend on these systems to do one specific thing for them – work. In fact, everyone involved with these systems, from the homeowner to those at the state or provincial level, use and depend on these systems to perform for periods of 20-30 years or more, with routine maintenance and inspection, little cost, and preferably, no expensive repairs or replacement. In addition to meeting treatment design goals, these systems must maintain their structural integrity and storage capacity in order to perform for the long term. Companies that manufacture integral components for these systems (e.g., tanks, distribution boxes, leachfield chambers, piping) design and engineer each component to last for many years to ensure optimal performance and structural integrity.

The ongoing debate: sewered versus unsewered The traditional centralized approach to water use and wastewater treatment involves extracting water from an aquifer or surface water body, treating it (in the case of surface waters), and sending it out through a potable water distribution system to homes and businesses. Then the water is used and delivered back through a collection system to a treatment plant for treatment, followed by discharge to a receiving water body (e.g., a river) where it is carried downstream. This treated and discharged water can add more pollutants to our already impaired waters; moreover, this treated water is not returned to aquifers. With a centralized approach, each home in a development that goes on the sewer line exhausts more of our water resources.

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Wastewater

Pressurized beds receive highly treated effluent. These systems are installed in golf course fairways.

A decentralized approach to wastewater treatment provides a sustainable water use model. We can extract groundwater, consume it, treat the wastewater on-site and return it to its point of origin to recharge the aquifer. New decentralized wastewater treatment technologies that use natural approaches are less landintensive, provide sustainable long-term treatment and are leading to better de-

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velopment practices. Due to the performance data now available that makes these systems increasingly popular with local health officials, the new on-site wastewater strategies and alternative methods of treatment are often the only solution for engineers and developers to obtain a code-compliant system. This is particularly true at sites with difficult soils and

tough terrain. The same scenario also applies to large recreational and commercial developments in environmentally sensitive areas where a combination of technologies must also be considered. Natural systems continue to gain ground The introduction of chamber technology over thirty years ago was a revolucontinued overleaf...

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Wastewater tionary step in increasing the effectiveness and acceptance of standard and advanced on-site systems. Since the first concrete “gallery” chamber systems or “ameration chambers” (USEPA, 1980) were recognized for on-site septic leachfield applications as more efficient than previous traditional stone and pipe systems, chambers have evolved dramatically in design. Several years of research and design culminated with the introduction of plastic chambers to the marketplace in 1987 and these chambers are now commonly used for on-site treatment in basic and advanced applications. Because the chamber is highly adaptable and effective for specialized system designs and treatment needs, it is now a key element in septic system leaching trenches and beds, sand filters, mound systems, evapotranspiration beds, community (cluster) systems, constructed wetlands, large-scale wastewater treatment plants, pretreatment devices, and toxic waste remediation. The benefits of chambers are becoming recognized by many disciplines to solve a number of decentralized wastewater treatment challenges. Com-

A series of these chamber beds were installed to provide a disposal area for a church camp on an island in Minnesota.

mercial and community systems have benefited with the increased storage capacity to meet peak flows, sand filter performance has been improved by better distribution coverage, and engineered wetland treatment systems reliability has been enhanced. Engineered wetlands are another natural wastewater treatment option that is

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Wastewater ations and maintenance cost savings vis-Ă -vis mechanical treatment systems, especially for systems that have to operate over long periods of time. Engineered wetland systems, through their complex assemblages of plants and natural bacteria, can provide a robust treatment system for both domestic wastewater and recalcitrant, difficult-todegrade synthetic compounds. Often, these two effective treatment approaches are used together in community system or cluster applications. The cluster wastewater system approach, employing engineered wetlands designed with subsurface chambers, is a viable alternative that allows for the preservation of community open space. These systems allow communities and developers to meet treatment requirements and economic goals. Cluster wastewater systems can easily be integrated into the landscape to preserve open space viewsheds. Community system To preserve open space and to protect the rural character of the community, Lake Elmo, Minnesota, refused to connect to the regional sewer. This conflicted with growth plans created by the regional planning agency, the Metropolitan Council, and a legal battle ensued that went all the way to the State of Minnesota Supreme Court. As a result, Lake Elmo was forced to accept regional sewer along the Interstate 94 corridor and limited use elsewhere. The remaining areas of the community, however, were able to retain their current wastewater systems. In 1995, a local developer, Robert Engstrom, proposed a development near the “Old Villageâ€?, the central area of Lake Elmo. His plan, called The Fields of St. Croix, was to mirror the Old Village with large tracts of open space surrounding a cluster of homes to be served by a decentralized water and sewer system. No ordinances were in existence to accommodate such a request and wastewater treatment was a concern. After months of work with the City and State, the development was able to proceed with the first state-permitted subsurface flow engineered wetland in Minnesota. This was the beginning of open space developments using decentralized wastewater technology within the community of Lake Elmo. There are now eight cluswww.esemag.com

ter treatment systems in the area, treating a combined flow in excess of 118,000 gallons per day. These systems employ both horizontal subsurface flow and vertical subsurface flow engineered wetland wastewater treatment systems. Subsurface infiltration chambers are used for treated wastewater disposal using infiltration beds and trenches. The chambers are engineered to increase the surface area available for infiltration of treated wastewater to the subsurface.

Performance testing and predictive tools increase in importance Testing infiltration chambers in the field is integral to obtaining accurate results regarding chamber performance characteristics. This in situ testing allows real-world conditions to be replicated including such factors as the impact of the weight of the soil on different infiltration chamber products. A 2004 field study by the Clemson continued overleaf...

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Wastewater University Department of Entomology, Soils, and Plant Sciences measured the in situ liquid storage capacities of chambers, multi-pipe systems, and synthetic aggregate bundles, as compared to a conventional, 36-inch wide, 14-inch high stone trench. The study showed substantial differences in storage capacity between manufactured drainfield products and the stone trench. Included in the study were plastic infiltration chambers (of many sizes) widely used in the US and Canada, stone and pipe trench, multi-pipe systems, and synthetic aggregate bundles. In the study, the Infiltrator chamber products tested provided a storage capacity that exceeded the storage capacity of a comparable width stone trench. ISI’s Standard chamber models, designed for installation in a 36-inch wide trench, provided more than two times the storage of a 36-inch wide stone trench at the inlet pipe invert height. ISI’s Equalizer® 36 chamber model, designed for installation in a 24-inch wide trench, provided a total storage capacity equal to a 36-inch wide stone trench at the inlet pipe invert height. The Equal-

izer 24 chamber is intended to be compared to a 2-foot wide stone trench and thus does not provide an “apples-toapples” comparison with the 3-foot wide trench products. The study results provide a practical tool for the designer to select a product that can address storage capacity design issues. When chambers are employed for the design, a larger safety factor during peak flow events is provided. It also can serve as a basis for regulators to determine minimum storage requirements and compliance. Computer modeling as a predictive tool The Hydrus numerical model developed by Jacques Whitford NAWE Inc., is used to determine the increase in water table elevation and to assess the potential for treated wastewater ponding and groundwater mounding in a treated wastewater distribution system. As with any model, results are a function of the degree to which site characterization has been performed. For example, soil heterogeneities that are not measured in the field, and, therefore, not entered into the model, can produce results which

may be different than those measured in the field. Site characterization is, therefore, of great importance in creating a model which best represents field conditions. One of the primary concerns of designers, regulators and operators is the potential for the treated wastewater distribution system to fail, defined by the ponding of treated wastewater at the land surface due to low permeability soils or the surfacing of the water table. Proper design of a subsurface distribution system involves a number of critical steps: the design flow must be known; the acceptable hydraulic (linear) water loading rate to the subsurface must be determined; the distribution pipes must be sized correctly in terms of length, diameter, orifice diameter, and orifice spacing; and pumps must be sized at the appropriate flow rate. The linear loading rate is determined through analysis of soils obtained from soil borings and test pits, with the soil being analyzed for redoximorphic features, color, texture, structure, and consistence. Mathematical (analytical) solutions to simplified infiltration and ground-

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Wastewater water flow equations amenable to spreadsheet programs are sometimes used to determine water table mounding beneath drainfields (Hantush, 1967; Finnemore, 1983). However, these solutions do not incorporate soil heterogeneity, are not amenable to estimating water flow in variably saturated soils, and can sometimes provide unreasonably high estimates of water table mounding. Soils beneath a drainfield are variably saturated and, therefore, require a numerical solution to solve the equation describing water flow under variably saturated conditions. A numerical solution is needed to solve the Richards equation (1938), in which hydraulic conductivity is a nonlinear function of water content. The use of the Richards equation (Equation 1) is critical in properly estimating ground-

Equation 1. Parameters: θ (water content, unitless); t (time); x (distance); K (hydraulic conductivity,); h (total head); z (vertical distance).

water mounding and treated wastewater ponding potential in the variably saturated zone beneath and downgradient from a drainfield. Hydrus (now in 3D) provides a Microsoft Windows-based modeling environment for analysis of water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media (Šimůnek et al., 2006). Hydrus Version 1 has been recently released as a major upgrade and extension of the Hydrus-2D/Meshgen-2D software package originally developed and released by the USDA Salinity Laboratory in cooperation with the International Groundwater Modeling Center, the University of California at Riverside, and PC-Progress, a Czech numerical modeling software development company. The software package includes computational finite element models for simulating the two- and three-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably saturated media. In an example a Hydrus model was constructed based on a site cross-section. The influx of treated wastewater

was shown to decrease the distance between the land surface and water table beneath the drainfield from approximately 11 ft to 0.66 ft. Conclusion As decentralized treatment technologies continue to grow in the market as the solution of choice and as these technologies continue to evolve, it will remain critical for those involved in using these valuable systems to become better educated regarding performance during product development and prior to installation. There must be a solid understanding of desirable long-term operation standards and the structural capacities to design systems accordingly. Engineers, contractors, regulators and homeowners all share the same goal – they want these systems to perform well for years to come.

Dennis Hallahan, P.E., is with Infiltrator Systems Inc. E-mail: dhallahan@infiltratorsystems.net. Brian M. Davis, Ph.D., is a Senior Design Engineer with Jacques Whitford. E-mail: brian.davis@jacqueswhitford.com

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Guest Comment

Canadian water providers ceasing artificial fluoridation

hen Dr. John Snow convinced the St. James Parish Board of Guardians in London, England, to remove the Broad Street pump handle, an epic public health victory was won. Through detailed and critical analysis, his demand helped arrest London’s cholera outbreak of 1854. On January 24, 2008, a delegation

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By Peter Van Caulart

from People for Safe Drinking Water (PFSDW) convinced Niagara Regional Council not to implement artificial fluoridation at its six regional water plants, and to pass bylaws to cease existing fluoridation schemes. The volunteer research collaborative presented compelling evidence regarding justification for discontinuing hydrofluosilicic acid (HFSA) use as a community

water-fluoridating agent. It was an unprecedented vote against the recommendations of Niagara’s MOH. In March 2008, Thunder Bay Council deferred any decision to consider water fluoridation at its new Bare Point drinking water treatment facility until a review of an Environmental Bill of Rights (EBR) petition regarding the addition of inorganic fluorides to drinking

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Guest Comment water has been completed. EBR Petition File No. 07EBR014.R will have the Ontario Ministry of the Environment reviewing the existing policies and regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Québec City Council voted on April 1, 2008, to discontinue fluoridating its drinking water. An interesting opinion was written on Page 38 in the March 2008 Chatelaine magazine over Québec City’s move to stop fluoridation. The question was: “Is it harmful?” The response was written by Dr. Hardy Limeback, head of preventive dentistry at the University of Toronto. Dr. Limeback feels we’re ingesting far too much fluoride. He explains that in areas where the water is fluoridated, adults consume two to four milligrams of fluoride per day, two-thirds of which comes from drinking tap water. New studies have linked overexposure to fluoride with thyroid problems, hip fractures and dental fluorosis. Health Canada requires warning labels on fluoridated toothpastes. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and

the American Dental Association caution against using fluoridated water for making infant formula. On April 14, 2008, Dryden residents voted 87% against drinking water fluoridation. This after a heated public relations battle that brought into the area two fluoride heavyweights: Dr. Peter Cooney, Chief Dental Officer for Canada, and the Fluoride Action Network’s Paul Connett, Ph D., who made separate presentations to the citizenry. So what’s happened regarding fluoride to bring about these changes? Artificial drinking water fluoridation has been a contentious issue for 63 years. Simply stated, the once common belief that fluoridated drinking water prevents tooth decay is false. “Fluoride’s caries-preventive properties initially were attributed to changes in enamel during tooth development because of the association between fluoride and cosmetic changes in enamel and a belief that fluoride incorporated into enamel during tooth development would result in a more acid-resistant mineral. However, laboratory and epidemio-

logic research suggests that fluoride prevents dental caries predominantly after eruption of the tooth into the mouth, and its actions primarily are topical for both adults and children.” Centers for Disease Control; MMWR Weekly Report. 1999;48:933-940. Government agencies like CDC, EPA, WHO and Health Canada all have information endorsing community water fluoridation (CWF) as a policy. But none have performed valid scientific primary research about the effects to the human body when HFSA is ingested. “Dentists are puzzled as to why fluoridation no longer appears to reduce dental expenses or decay. Perhaps it was poor historical studies failing to include confounders such as socioeconomic differences or delay in tooth eruption caused by fluoridation. In any case, after 60 years of fluoridation, evidence for the effectiveness of fluoridation cannot be demonstrated. Several studies have been done where fluoridation has been stopped and a cessation of fluoridation does not result in an incontinued overleaf...

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Guest Comment crease in dental decay.” Dr. Bill Osmunson, DDS, MPH, 2008. Calcium fluoride (CaF2), a natural mineral found in ground and surface waters, is not the same as the pharmaceutical grade sodium fluoride (NaF) used in dental treatments. These products are 20 times more toxic and must be prescribed and used under professional care. Toothpaste formulations carry warnings against swallowing, calling poison control centres and prohibitions for use by children. Why? Fluoride is poisonous. But drinking water treatment facilities don’t use NaF, they use inorganic silicofluorides, mainly in the form of HFSA. HFSA is a liquid industrial waste from the super phosphate fertilizer industry. An assay of HFSA will list trace co-contaminants of lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and radionuclides as supplemental constituents of the solution. These substances are present because they wash down in stack scrubbers used to prevent toxic fluoride emissions into the air. Raw HFSA is shipped directly to water treatment fa-

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cilities, unprocessed. HFSA has never been proven safe for human ingestion or effective at preventing dental decay. Why has this situation occurred? Simple, follow the money. There’s a cost saving to a multibillion-dollar industry by processing liquid industrial waste through human kidneys.

“If this stuff (silicofluorides) gets out into the air, it’s a pollutant; if it gets into the river, it’s a pollutant; if it gets into the lake, it’s a pollutant; but if it goes right straight into your drinking water system, it’s not a pollutant. That’s amazing!” SOURCE: Dr. Hirzy 2000 – USA Senior EPA Chemist.

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Guest Comment “In regard to the use of fluosilicic acid as a source of fluoride for fluoridation, this agency regards such use as an ideal environmental solution to a long-standing problem. By recovering by-product fluosilicic acid from fertilizer manufacturing, water and air pollution are minimized.” Rebecca Hamner 1983 US EPA. What’s the harm? Aren’t the contaminant concentrations of HFSA below the maximum acceptable concentration (MACs) for drinking water? No. The argument is that the contaminants are diluted into treated drinking water to levels below the MAC. By diluting high quality water with HFSA, the finished drinking water is degraded from its treated state. HFSA addition does nothing to enhance, purify or improve the quality of drinking water. So adding HFSA is adding known toxins into drinking water which is in direct violation of Ontario’s SDWA. Sections 20 (1) and (3) are clear about this prohibition and dilution is no defence. Section 166 indicates that the SDWA takes precedence over the Fluoridation Act. This information is the crucial authority for stopping fluoride addition to drinking water. Facility owners and overall responsible operators (OROs) have a duty of care to cease the practice until the safety for doing so is established. In light of the new information of health harm, relying on historical precedent is no excuse not to act now. What are the health effects of ingested fluoride on other body tissues? Fluoride is an enzymatic reactor. It reacts and interferes with various chemical functions of the body. Fluoride at levels of 5 mg/kg can be lethal, but low levels of fluoride over long periods of time will cause or contribute to serious long-term health damage. Some of the dental and medical risks raised by the NRC 2006 report, of fluoride from all sources including current levels in drinking water, included: tooth enamel damage, gum disease, arthriticlike pain, bone cancer, osteoporosis, bone fractures, thyroid suppression, kidney damage, reproductive problems, lower IQ and increased mental retardation, allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. Dose vs. concentration is another aspect that no longer holds up to scrutiny. www.esemag.com

The concentration range allowed for fluoride in Ontario is now 0.5-0.8mg/L. However, the Gallagan-Vermillion formula for establishing fluoride concentration states that colder areas require a higher concentration of “optimal fluoride”(the fluoride industry euphism). So, by the G-V formula, much of Canada should be fluoridating to levels above 1.1mg/L while Ontario mandates optimal concentrations that are 28% to 55% lower. Contrast the previous sentence with the Centers for Disease Controls’s fluoridation manual that states "...even a drop of 0.2mg/L below the optimum level can reduce dental benefits significantly." So what's the benefit? How can the dose be determined for different water consumers? Infants, athletes, outside workers, soldiers, diabetics and kidney patients each consume more water than normal, therefore they receive more mg of fluoride per kg. of body weight. “90+% of European Governments and Dental Associations have rejected, banned, or stopped fluoridation due to environmental, health, legal, or ethical

concerns. Only six countries in the world continue to fluoridate. Both the Nobel and Pasteur Institutes have rejected fluoridation.” Dr. Bill Osmunson, DDS, MPH, 2008 Lastly, only 1% of treated water is consumed for drinking; the remaining 99% carries the dissolved inorganic fluoride through the wastewater treatment process and straight back into the environment. A survey of annual drinking water reports of eastern Ontario communities shows the levels of fluoride in Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River increasing and double (0.24mg/L) what the provincial guideline is for the Lake (0.12mg/L). Evidence exists showing that aquatic organisms are harmed and fisheries are at risk. Find out the facts at fluoridealert.org or waterloowatch.com, and then, like Dr. Snow, act. Peter Van Caulart is Director, Environmental Training Institute, Ridgeville, Ontario. E-mail: etivc@iaw.on.ca

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Instrumentation

Analog flow meters replaced in California pumping plant he California Aqueduct collects water from the Sierra Mountains. The Edmonston Pumping Plant at the south end of the San Joaquin valley pumps more than two million acre feet of water annually over the Tehachapi Mountains for distribution into the Los Angeles and San Diego areas. Problem/issue/objective The plant operates 14 four-stage centrifugal pumps: 80,000 hp, Lift 1980 ft at 315 CFS. Each pump has its dedicated instrument panel with (nearly 30year old) analog meters monitoring temperature and flow. The “old” temperature gauges had multiple ranges, cap tube lengths (up to 50’) and bulb styles – causing a logistics issue. In addition, the time to replace one temperature gauge was in excess of four hours. The direct indicating flow gauges were DP flow meters with remote orifice plates. The gauges were used for

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Instrumentation Before

After

log meters with state-of-the-art technology instruments, which would also allow communication. The change-out schedule called for the replacement of three to four pump instrument panels per year. The program was launched towards the end of 2003; so far, a total of 16 panels have been replaced. System solution The Department chose Otek model HI-QTBS, a programmable intelligent controller with automatic tri-color (circular) bargraph/digital LED display, to replace both the temperature and flow gauges at each pump instrument panel. Each panel has a total of 17 instruments.

The HI-QTBS output feature allows transmission of serial data to a remote location, in this case the control room at ground level. The units installed here are Otek models HI-QTEK, either single or dual vertical bargraphs and digital display. Results Since the new instruments at the pump instrument panel (14 temperature and three flow) are basically the same, the logistics issue of multiple ranges, bulb styles, etc., no longer exists. One HI-QTBS instrument replaces six of the old-style analog meters. The frequent need for calibration has been eliminated. It is estimated that the time for replace-

ment (if necessary) of the new instruments is about one quarter of the time required for an old-style meter. The resolution/accuracy of the Otek instruments made it possible to cut back on the flow rates; thanks to the automatic tricolor feature of the HI-QTBS, the operator can easily see the temperature differential across all heat exchangers. The orifice plates for the flow meters were replaced with LF410 electromagnetic flowmeters, a 4-20mA output instrument. The Otek HI-QTBS meters were scaled to read in engineering units to reflect the true flow. Three relays in each device switch at Low, Permissive and High Flow. The tri-color display changes color at the set points thus giving a vivid indication of the status of the flow. Based on the reduced downtime alone, the payback on the first installation of Otek instruments was estimated at 12 months. For more information, contact Horst Hamann, E-mail: horst@otekcorp.com

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Environmental Research

Seeking neutrality in the war against carbon emissions

Royal Roads University sits within the Hatley Park National Historic Site.

t Royal Roads University, environmental sustainability is the core of the institution’s founding philosophy. For example, the university uses chemical-free cleaners and an award-winning irrigation system that taps an independent groundwater source. More than 70 per cent of campus garbage is diverted from the landfill through recycling and organics composting. Bicycling and carpooling are encouraged. The list goes on. So when a RRU professor challenged his students to a “carbon neutral residency,” it seemed a logical next step. Environmental economist Charles Krusekopf, an associate professor in the School of Environment and Sustainability, offered carbon-offset credits for $25 per tonne to his students in the Masters in Environmental and Management program, effectively using cash to zero greenhouse gas (GHG) output. Most of the 140 students’ measurable carbon contributions (estimated from online GHG calculators) came from airline flights. In RRU’s blended residency, distance-learning model, a typical graduate student would travel to Victoria three times for three-week residencies over two years. Round-trip travel from Toronto, for instance, contributes slightly less than

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one tonne of GHGs to the atmosphere. Krusekopf says the project isn’t about making money, but demonstrates how people can make actual reductions to carbon dioxide emissions. Tax-deductible carbon credit funds are held in the “RRU Sustainability Fund,” set up by Krusekopf and managed by the RRU Foundation. The foundation is matching contributions dollar for dollar, and the money will eventually subsidize energy efficiency and sustainability projects on campus, starting with small projects such as switching rooms to compact florescent lighting and installing light activation sensors. “We could probably reduce our energy by 10 per cent for a low cost. After that it gets progressively more expensive,” Krusekopf said. He cautions that greening the university is still in its early days. The $25 carbon credit price tag was picked from the air and isn’t yet based on any larger plan. A cohort of undergraduate science students is investigating RRU’s total carbon footprint, but results are not expected until later this year. For the first try at a carbon neutral residency, Krusekopf raised about $4,000, theoretically enough to cut 160 tonnes of GHGs. He says the environmental management learners met or ex-

ceeded their offsetting goals. Environmental management learner Ginny Stratton creates carbon neutral events and conferences in Vancouver through detailed sustainability measures – everything from ensuring non-toxic inks are used on chemical-free paper, to bio-diesel in vehicles to 100 per cent recycled coffee stir-sticks. Many expect Krusekopf’s project to push Royal Roads towards a carbon neutral campus within a decade, but it won’t be easy. The university sits within the Hatley Park National Historic Site and all 11 classroom and office buildings have heritage status, from either the Dunsmuir estate or the military college, making environmental retrofitting expensive and bureaucratically complicated. Becoming carbon neutral is a challenge, but RRU is probably in a much better position than other universities in Canada. Future buildings, such as the Robert Bateman Art and Environmental Education Centre, could go beyond platinum LEED to what is coined a “living building”. The university’s commitment to sustainability could make it a showcase campus. For more information, E-mail: Karla.Hitchcock@RoyalRoads.ca

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Ecosystems

Loss of pollinators may be serious threat to plants and people ne of the bumblebees that was most common in Southern Ontario when today’s baby boomers were teenagers has all but disappeared, a York University study has found. The study provides the first quantitative evidence of the decline of bumblebees in North America by comparing recent numbers with statistics gathered in the early 1970s in Ontario. It also tracks the dramatic decline of one species that is native to eastern Canada (including Ontario) and many US states. The article “Evidence for decline in eastern North American bumblebees, with special focus on Bombus affinis Cresson,” appears online in the journal Biodiversity and Conservation. Its findings are disturbing because the loss of any pollinating species can have cascading effects on native plants and crops, and on anything that relies on them. Lead author Sheila Colla, a PhD candidate in York University’s Department of Biology, studied the number and types of bumblebees at two sites in southern Ontario over three summers from 2004 to 2006, and compared them with baseline numbers from surveys at the same sites in the early 1970s. Colla slowly paced one kilometre across the sites at regular intervals, collecting all male and worker bumblebees as they foraged for pollen and nectar. There were fewer bumblebees overall at the two sites – in southern Guelph and the Town of Belwood – and half of the 14 species found in the 1970s were either missing or in decline. When Colla looked further afield and focused in on one species of bumblebee, she found the Bombus affinis had been nearly eliminated, not only in southern Ontario but throughout its native range. “I found only one of the Bombus affinis species – one single bumblebee – at Pinery Provincial Park on Lake Huron, and I had looked for it at 43 sites from Ontario to Georgia, and east to Boston,” said Colla. “This is alarming because it appears to have been almost eliminated, and in the early 1970s it was

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one of the top four bumblebee species in southern Ontario.” Each species has its own preferred flowers and its own season, says Colla. “Bombus affinis appears early in April, while other bee species make their first appearances in June. So if you knock one species out, there may be a few weeks where there are no bees pollinating some plant species.” Bees and bumblebees are vulnerable to extinction for many reasons – includ-

ing pesticide use and lack of habitat – but there have not been many extensive surveys in North America, despite their ecological and economic importance as pollinators. Colla’s results are similar to patterns observed in Europe where bumblebees have been more closely monitored and half of all bumblebee species have been shown to be in decline. E-mail: scolla@yorku.ca

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New in situ process removes salt from contaminated groundwater enturies ago “salting the earth” was used in war to punish neighbouring countries and to discipline landowners who went against the status quo. The practice involved sprinkling salt over the land, making it unusable for farming for generations. Today, salt contamination in soil and groundwater is a multi billiondollar environmental problem for other reasons, and a Canadian company has figured out how to solve it in situ. Ground Effects Environmental Services Inc. (GEE) is an environmental remediation company based in Regina, Saskatchewan. In 2003, GEE’s R&D division began testing a new treatment process the company calls the EK3 Electrokinetic System. EK3 removes salt contamination in situ from lowpermeable soils (such as clay) and groundwater using electrokinetics. The technology has made the transition from theory to practice with several pilot studies and projects already completed with promising results. Another overarching benefit to the technology is that it can effectively treat salt contamination onsite in large areas with little disturbance to the environment. Salt contamination is a problem for two reasons: 1. Almost every northern town, city and province or state uses salt to clear roadways of ice. The salt leeches from roadways and salt yards into the groundwater and soil. 2. Salt is a by-product of oil production. Oil-bearing formations can occur

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below a layer of salt-bearing rock. When tapping the reservoir, water is used in the drilling process to remove the cuttings from the well. This water, along with the groundwater, mixes with the existing salt. The newly-formed salt water is extracted along with the oil from the well. Ideally, the salty brine is separated and disposed of; however, sometimes it spills. GEE estimates that salt contamination is a billion-dollar problem in Alberta alone. According to the company’s research, each contaminated site will cost $0.5 - $2 million to clean up. There are tens of thousands of sites in Alberta alone. The EK3 process is fully automated and can be operated over the Internet from anywhere in the world. “The EK3 system doesn’t need personnel to run it; customers can change settings whenever they wish over the Web by means of user-friendly remote telemetry,” comments Sean Frisky, GEE’s founder and president. In addition, the system continuously monitors itself and changes its settings based on preset programming so that maximum efficiency is achieved. How does it work? EK3 uses electrokinetics to remediate the contaminated area. A low-voltage, direct current (DC) electric field is applied across a section of contaminated soil. The electric field causes the contaminants to be mobilized, concentrate at the electrodes and be ready for extraction. GEE employs three principles of electrokinetics to achieve remediation: electrochemical reduction/oxidization, electromigration and

electroosmosis. Electrochemical reduction/oxidation (Redox) is the chemical reaction in which atoms can have their oxidation number or oxidation state changed. This reaction changes the chemical make-up of the contaminants at the molecular level, readying them for electromigration and electroosmosis. Electromigration involves the movement of ions towards the respective electrodes. Cations (positively charged ions) begin to move toward the cathode (negative electrode) and anions (negatively charged ions) move toward the anode (positive electrode). The ion movement is important when treating soils contaminated with metals, nitrates, chlorides, sulfates and salts. Electroosmosis is the uniform movement of water and contaminants from the anode to the cathode. Since clay soil typically has a negative surface charge, there are more cations than anions in the pore water. These extra cations, lined up along the pore walls and moving toward the cathode, drag the pore water along causing a net pore water flow to the cathode. This process can effectively dewater a section of soil as well as carry contamination into an extraction area. Recent laboratory and pilot studies show excellent results. GEE took one cubic metre of packed clay saturated with ten thousand parts per million (ppm) of NaCl and applied the EK3 system to it. The results were beyond what the company had originally projected (Fig. 1 & 2).

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Groundwater Remediation EC#8 July 07 vs. EC#8 Nov 07 vs EC#8 Apr08 Electrical Conductivity vs. Depth Electrical Conductivity (mS/m)

Electrical Conductivity Nov 07 (mS/m) Electrical Conductivity July 07 (mS/m) Electrical Conductivity Apr 08 (mS/m)

Depth (m)

Fig. 1 NaCl Concentration of Soil.

These soil samples show that the salt molecules separated into their ions and migrated towards their respective electrodes of opposite charge. Cl (mg/L) went down from 1300 ppm to 49 ppm (with 200 ppm being the criteria or measurement of success). Na (mg/L) was reduced from 488 ppm to 38 ppm (again with 200 ppm being the criteria or measurement of success). Currently, two full-scale EK3 projects are underway. The results show there has been a decrease in the electrical conductivity of the soil, which correlates to the NaCl content of the soil. (Fig.2) Heavy metal and PCB applications GEE’s R&D division is continuing to research other applications for the EK3 technology. The latest lab testing involves applying the EK3 electrokinetic approach on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), trichloroethylene (TCEs), heavy metals and heavy end hydrocarbons in soil. Known for a long time as hard-toremediate contaminants, PCBs, TCEs, heavy metals and heavy end hydrocarbons are typically dealt with through ex situ remediation or “dig n’ dump” where the contaminated soil is excavated and transported elsewhere, sometimes to a facility where it is remediated, but more often to a landfill. In the case of PCBs and TCEs, high temperature treatments are applied offsite after removal in order to complete the remediation, often an expensive process. EK3’s in situ approach is different. In a process the company’s R&D division is terming “tetra phenomenon,” EK3 uses the biological, geological, www.esemag.com

Fig. 2 Electrical Conductivity of Soil.

chemical and electrical forces inherent in the environment to help it remediate, doing so in a way that’s environmentally sound, with little disturbance to the contaminated area. The four factors continually at work are chemical, biological, electrical and geological phenomena. Through intensive management of these elements, overcoming the challenges of contamination breakdown and extraction becomes straightforward. Chemistry The key to understanding what is occurring lies in the makeup of the contaminant itself as well as the potential chemical reactions occurring through the application of DC current. The EK3 technology not only has the ability to manage these chemical reactions, but it can also stimulate further beneficial reactions that assist in the extraction of the contaminant. Biology This little understood factor in site contamination actually plays a significant role in both the form of contaminant as well as extraction techniques. The key players within the phenomenon are the microscopic bacteria that, until recently, were thought not to survive in such a harsh environment. The bacteria have the ability to form tight matrices throughout the site of contamination, binding the contaminant tightly to the sand/silt particles. This contributes to the known difficulties in extraction. When the EK3 process breaks apart the biofilm surrounding each of the soil molecules, removal becomes much more viable.

Geology The type of geology where the contaminant is located can play a role in some remediation and extraction methodologies. The EK3 technology does not depend on a specific geological formation for success and is capable of performing well in all types of formations, including those with low permeability. Depth is also irrelevant to the technology success. Kinetics The application of direct current (DC) to the electrodes plays a significant role in EK3 technology. Through the combination of knowledge and management of the above three phenomena, DC is the driving force that makes EK3 effective. The current applied allows specific soil kinetic reactions to occur. These include electroosmosis, electromigration, electrophoresis and electrical resistive heating. In early testing at GEE’s R&D lab, EK3 is showing promising results in cleaning up these contaminants. The company continues this testing and anticipates releasing complete results by the end of 2008. Ground Effects Environmental recently won two awards for this technology at the Innovation Awards Gala of the Canadian Advanced Technology Alliance, which was held in Ottawa in June. The company won the 3M Canada Award for Excellence in Emerging Technology, and the Northern Light Award “Best of the Best”. For more information, E-mail: cprokop@groundeffects.org 47 | July 2008


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Monitoring

Environmental monitoring is a big factor in resource company planning

by Martin Jalkotzy

Resource roads can have a significant impact on wildlife populations, in part through allowing easier access for predators, four-footed and two-footed.

onitoring the ongoing environmental effects of resource development projects is climbing up on the priority lists of resource companies and the environmental professionals who advise them. However, more changes are needed if this planet’s resources are to be used in a way that allows economic activity to continue while also protecting the environment and meeting the needs of other stakeholders. This includes the improvement of methods for monitoring of environmental performance both during and after operations. Some of these changes are already occurring, so the needs of the environmental monitoring process are starting to influence the way environmental impact assessments and mitigation measures are carried out. Consider some of the factors involved. Environmental performance is becoming a much bigger part of resource companies’ considerations. Before public concern about the global environment became a major factor, resource companies were under relatively little pressure to manage their environ-

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mental impacts. In recent decades, public concern about wildlife habitat loss, water and air pollution, climate change and other factors has resulted in a host of new regulations in jurisdictions all over the world. As well as regulatory concern, there are financial pressures. The rise of socially-responsible investing through “green funds” and environmentally-related shareholder activism push publicly-listed companies toward higher environmental performance. The Equator Principles, a set of guidelines for banks and other lending institutions that expect good “sustainability” perform-

rising too. Internet-savvy non-governmental organizations can mount quick international pressure campaigns against companies whose actions they see as harmful to the environment, local communities and other stakeholders. A company’s “social licence to operate” is becoming as important as its government-issued permits. A company that has a reputation for environmental disregard, or for circumventing the wishes of the local population, will increasingly find it difficult to operate. This means that companies need to be seen not just to comply with the minimum regulations, but to be seen to go

It is not necessarily the case that the environmental professionals who compiled the baseline data did an inadequate job. It is just that their data-gathering was not done with the needs of the ongoing monitoring in mind. ance in their clients, have been signed by institutions doing some 85 percent of the world’s lending. Pressures from the general public are

the extra distance to stay on the right side of anyone or anything affected by the project. The regulatory process in many juris-

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Monitoring dictions has long required an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) before resource extraction begins. As a part of the permitting process, the company makes a commitment to keep environmental effects at an acceptable level during the lifetime of the mine or other project. This means that, if environmental parameters are exceeded (i.e. the sediment levels in a nearby watercourse are getting dangerously high, potentially affecting fish-spawning success) corrective action can be taken. The approvals process also includes a commitment to reclaim the affected area to an acceptable condition and to manage the ongoing effects. The best way to tell if the company is meeting its environmental obligations is through ongoing monitoring. This can include a wide range of measurements, including emissions to the air and water, noise levels and wildlife populations. In most cases, the company will hire an external environmental consulting firm to do this work. This is partly because few resource companies have enough of the right professionals on staff,

and partly because outsourcing the work to neutral third party professionals provides greater credibility to the findings. But as the environmental monitoring teams show up with sampling containers, measuring devices and laptops to do the work, they may find some strange gaps in the data they’ve been given. In many cases, the baseline data – the

The approvals process includes a commitment to reclaim the affected area to an acceptable condition. record of what was there before the company started its activities – is not congruent with what the team needs to do the monitoring. Without adequate baseline information giving a full picture of what was there originally, they cannot provide a full picture of any environmental or social impacts of the project. This means that their reports on those impacts will not be as effective as

they could be, in helping the company give evidence of its performance. It is not necessarily the case that the environmental professionals who compiled the baseline data did an inadequate job. It is just that their data-gathering was not done with the needs of the ongoing monitoring in mind. Why does this happen? The main reason is that, prior to the resource company’s receiving regulatory approval for its project, the focus of its senior executives is quite naturally on the need to receive that permit. Other matters, which might include the question of closure and reclamation many years in the future, may be seen as less of a burning priority. But as we’ve seen, environmental and social performance in the short and long term is becoming more and more important. This is particularly important for a junior resource company that wants to demonstrate the viability of its mine or other project in hopes of selling out to a major. In such a case, as many as possible of the environmental continued overleaf...

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Monitoring and social issues need to be at a “green� status, with no warning flags. The buyer will be willing to pay the most money for a problem-free acquisition. This means that environmental professionals conducting baseline studies have a responsibility to collect their data in a way that is congruent with the needs of long-term monitoring. For example, consider wildlife counts. The baseline study included in the EIA might have counts for some species, possibly the usual “flagship� top predators. However, it may not have data for species generally considered to be most indicative of the state of the habitat, or possibly the “umbrella species� whose habitat requirements also meet those of a wide range of other species. Or, there may be insufficient data on how species are using the habitat. For example, some species such as deer use forest edges for grazing, staying close enough to cover so that they can hide when danger threatens. Other species, such as the fisher, need forested territory that has plenty of logs and other forest litter, in which to hunt their small-

mammal prey. Some species need rocky outcrops as hiding spaces. In studying the uses wildlife make of their territory, it is important to consider

Effective monitoring of populations of wildlife, such as fishers, is important.

corridors such as those along waterways. Corridors allow animals to travel from one area to another, which is important for maintaining genetic diversity and avoiding “wink-out� when an area of natural habitat is too small to support a species. Corridors are also an important

factor in allowing wildlife species to reinvade reclaimed areas that have been disturbed by resource extraction. In establishing baseline data that can be used for monitoring, it is important to use all relevant current technology. This can include computer-based models that indicate high-value habitat for various species, while the land is still in its undisturbed state. Pointing to highvalue habitat may help guide resource extraction, possibly guiding tree-cutting, road construction and other disturbance away from areas of particular value. As resource extraction goes on and later as reclamation begins, updating the models can demonstrate to stakeholders how environmental concerns are being met. “Begin with the end in mind,� urges “Seven Habits� guru Stephen Covey. That applies to baseline environmental data collection as well. Martin Jalkotzy is a Senior Wildlife Ecologist in the Calgary office of Golder Associates Ltd. Contact: mjalkotzy@golder.com

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Environmental Engineers and Scientists

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Wastewater

Mexican food processing plant chooses Canadian portable wastewater treatment system By B. Donald Prazmowski

The installation at La Mexicana, a tortilla manufacturer in Hayward, California.

BF Inc., a small engineering and R&D corporation, has been working since 1990 on perfecting a promising Canadian wastewater treatment technology. After 14 years of development, in July 2004, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment carried out a technology assessment and granted Dry Biofilter (DBF Inc.), a certificate stating that: “The Ministry concurs that the process, if sized properly, can be an effective trickling filter technology for treating high strength wastewater from the food industry.” After building several plants in Canada, DBF Inc. began marketing this technology in the US, where it was invited to build a wastewater treatment plant in Hayward, California. The City of Hayward is located very close to the ‘St. Andréa’s Fault’ where quite recently there was a minor earthquake measuring 5.6 on the Richter Scale. The plant swayed but did not spill a drop. But the reason why DBF Inc. was invited to build this particular plant for “La Mexicana,” a tortilla manufacturer and baker who had a 25 ft x 35 ft area available, was simply the fact it could build a wastewater treatment plant in such a small space. After careful study, DBF Inc. concluded that this totally Canadian wastewater treatment technology, with a very small ‘footprint’, could do what it has been designed for and that is installation in urban areas.

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DBF Inc. used every square inch of the available space and built three – 32 ft tall ‘bioreactors’ and what was claimed to be the first ever, modular, vertically stacked ‘trickling” filter. The plant is working 24/7 and has been operating successfully for more than five years.

The DBF™ wastewater treatment system is a completely shop pre-fabricated, modular, road transportable wastewater treatment system and less expensive than site-assembled heavy equipment. A battery of bioreactors is normally connected in series and each is a totally independent, self-sustaining biological treatment unit. Each bioreactor can be isolated and bypassed for servicing, while the incomplete battery continues to operate normally. The complete system does not need to be shutdown for servicing as was the case with the La Mexicana plant. The efficiency of the process hinges on a rather complicated, carefully controlled dynamic where ‘old bacteria’ is separated from the young at an approximate ratio of 20% of old bacteria and 80% of young. B. Donald Prazmowski is President of Front Wave Inc. and the Dry Biofilter Inc. E-mail: dbf.inc@rogers.com

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Alternative Fuels

Brownfield site goes green with BioOil production plant here are many reasons why industry has increased its demand for alternative and renewable power or energy sources. A cleaner environment, need to save energy due to high oil prices, political pressure and changes in regulations, driven by increased environmental concerns, are just some of the reasons that encourage the search for energy alternatives to fossil fuels. Availability of inexpensive and abundant agricultural and forest residues (feedstock) in Canada makes the production of biofuels very feasible and attractive. There are three main advantages that can be identified for the use of biomass residue: abundant – low/negative value source; accessible – above ground reserves; and renewable – greenhouse gas neutral as a fuel. In addressing the demand for the production of biofuels, Dynamotive Energy Systems Corporation, which is based in Vancouver and specializes in the production of alternative energy, has developed and patented a unique process and technology to produce a type of biofuel produced from cellulosic biomass, known as BioOil®. What is BioOil? BioOil is a fuel that is used for industrial applications and is produced through a fast pyrolysis process using raw materials such as wood chips (sawdust) or cellulose-rich bagasse from sugar cane. Biomass residue usually has low energy density, making it inefficient to store and transport; low energy efficiency suitable only for use with boilers/steam turbines; a cost of disposal such as burning or transporting to landfills; a negative environmental impact if not treated due to methane emissions and groundwater pollution. If, however, this biomass is converted into BioOil, the following benefits are derived: increased energy density since BioOil is easier to store and transport; increased energy efficiency since it can be used in gas turbines/diesel engines; compatibility with existing fuel infrastructure; utilization, de-coupled from production;

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Feedstock BioOil Char Quench Liquid Recycled Gases

Burner

Feedstock

Cyclone/ Char Collection Quench System BioOil Pyrolysis Reactor BioOil Storage

BioOil production process.

greenhouse gas credits in the open market. In addition, the BioOil facility, unlike some ethanol production plants, does not depend on the use of food crops. BioOil is a free-flowing brown liquid that is neither a hydrocarbon nor oil. When burnt it produces 20 to 30% lower emission of nitrogen oxides when compared to conventional fuels and the emission of sulfur oxide gases is negligible. The combustion of BioOil is CO2 neutral. BioOil can be used as a replacement for #2 Diesel and #6 Bunker C heating oil or as input for the production of synthetic diesel. It can be used as base fuel for boilers, lumber/lime kilns, diesel and turbine engines. It can be used for the production of a fuel blend with ethanol, methanol and diesel in the creation of derivative fuels such as bio-methanol, syngas and synthetic diesel and to make specialty products or chemicals. Production process The fast pyrolysis process consists of flash vaporization or thermal decomposition of biomass at high temperatures in the absence of oxygen in approximately 2 seconds and 450 to 500 degrees Celsius. 100% of the biomass is converted or decomposed into usable elements and with no waste stream. The reactor products are cooled and approximately 70% of the biomass is converted into BioOil,

20% into char and 10% into non-condensable combustible gases which are recirculated as fuel for the pyrolysis reactor. The unit operations of the process are: • Pyrolysis reactor - deep fluidized bed of inert material; • Cyclone/char collector - where char is separated from the rest of the compounds and fragments; • Quench system - where the BioOil liquid settles for collection and cooled non-condensable, combustible gases are recycled to the reactor. Guelph’s BioOil production plant The Guelph, Ontario, BioOil plant which started operation in December 2007, was built on a 22 acre brownfield site. It is a 200 tonne per day plant and is the largest plant developed and built for commercial production in Canada When Dynamotive wanted to get the detailed engineering and construction of the plant expedited on a fast schedule it contracted consulting engineers Virtual EngineersTM , a Richmond Hill based firm, to provide the detailed engineering based on the basic engineers design from its partner firm TECNA S.A., an Argentinean firm that specializes in design and construction management of processing plants. Virtual added its local and compliance knowledge in preparing permit

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Alternative Fuels storage and feeding system consisting of a sawdust filter and storage silo as well as a pneumatic feedstock propulsor. In order to ensure the quality of the effluent, storm swales, complete with rip-rap to trap silt and a potential oil spillover, and containment dikes and a detention pond were designed and constructed. Berms to block noise and visibility were included in the network of roads and buildings. The stormwater detention pond for this large 22 acre site was designed to control effluent flow and quality. Obtaining the site services such as natural gas and firewater were particularly difficult due to the availability of water and high pressure gas. The plant required a sewage pumping station and forcemain due to the relative elevations and available sanitary sewers. For more information, contact R. Anthony Warner, E-mail: rawarner@vecollective.com

Dynamotive site in Guelph, Ontario.

drawings for site plan approval, building permits and construction working drawings. The process is fully automated from the control room where automation and/or logic controls originate including troubleshooting. The MCC/electrical room is rated at 600V, 3 phase, with a 2000A triple pole main breaker where approximately 50 motors are controlled. The plant uses an air-nitrogen system to provide nitrogen for purge and neutral environment. The system is housed in the air-nitrogen building on the west side of the plant. The process building constitutes the core of the plant’s modular design and is divided into different modules: the pyrolysis reactor with its fluidized bed and heating system, primary separation system, electrostatic separation system, non-condensable gases (NCG) compression module, char separation and cooling system, slurry system, the cooling system and the flare system. The wood preparation building is for the storage and processing of the woodchips into sawdust. There is a sawdust www.esemag.com

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Redevelopment

Saskatoon rehabilitates its South Downtown By Lalita Bharadwaj and Ray Machibroda riverbank area askatoon’s River Landing park development project has an extensive and fascinating history that extends over a 30-year period. The “River Landing” park development is part of a South Downtown Revitalization Project that was initiated in the 1970s when the City of Saskatoon secured core development funding from the Province of Saskatchewan to acquire land for the revitalization of Saskatoon’s South Downtown area. In 1978 the City commissioned a plan for the South Downtown that included a “South Downtown Concept” and supported the development of the South Saskatchewan River Bank, the site of the “River Landing” park development. Over the next 26 years, numerous development proposals and plans submitted by national, local and regional development firms were reviewed and debated. With public consultation, in June 2004, the “South

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Downtown Concept” was approved by City Council and the “River Landing” park development project was initiated. Preliminary studies were conducted at the site over a period of two years and included Phase I and II Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs), geotechnical investigations and a hazardous materials assessment. Information gathered from the initial ESAs revealed that inorganic materials (heavy metals), PHCs and PAHs, at concentrations exceeding the CCME (2006) Parkland/Residential (P/R) assessment criteria, were randomly distributed in soil fill. The soil fill materials, deposited sometime between 1956 and 1966, reportedly incorporated demolition debris, cinders and ash from a variety of sources including a former downtown rail yard and the power plant formerly located to the north of the site. Fill materials were utilized to increase the elevation of the site. Four major fill areas (i.e., Area Nos.

I through IV, inclusive) were identified on the basis of the ESAs. Chemical constituents measured in the soil fill included: heavy metals (i.e., arsenic, barium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium and/or zinc) and PAHs at concentrations exceeding the CCME (2006) P/R Criteria; and residual hydrocarbons (i.e., F2, F3 and F4) at concentrations exceeding the SENV (2006) Coarse Grained Residential Soil Criteria. Although contaminants were identified at grade, the contaminants exhibiting the highest concentrations were typically located at depths ranging from three to approximately five metres below grade. Exceptions to this were PHCs (i.e., F2, F3 and/or F4) which were detected at or near the ground surface. Even though only four major areas of soil fill were identified at the site, the randomness of the fill deposits suggested that other areas of impacted fill could exist. Further, the lack of infor-

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Redevelopment mation regarding past use of the site suggested that identification of these fill areas was unlikely without extensive, costly investigation. Although remediation of the site could have been accomplished by removing the impacted materials, it was recognized that accurate costs for this option could not be established since the volume of impacted soil was unknown. In light of the above, a site specific Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) was employed to determine whether existing chemical constituents at the site would adversely affect the health of potential “River Landing� park users. Risk assessment The HHRA process included the steps of hazard identification; receptor characterization; exposure assessment; dose/ response assessment; and risk characterization. The approach taken for each step is described in the subsequent sections. Hazard identification In the hazard identification step a selection process, based on human health considerations, was performed to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC) at the site. COPC were selected

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by review and comparison of concentrations of heavy metals, PAH and PHCs measured at the site to the CCME guidelines established to protect human health. Chemical constituents at concentrations exceeding the guidelines were selected for assessment, while

those below the guidelines were discarded. In order to provide a substantial safety margin, and an overestimation of potential risk, the maximum chemical concentrations measured at the site were used to assess the potential risks continued overleaf...

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Redevelopment associated with human exposure. Through review of animal and human toxicity data the range of toxic effects attributed to potential exposure to COPC, along with the chemical fate and behaviour of the COPC in the body and the soil, were discussed in the hazard identification step of the risk assessment. Receptor characterization The second step in the risk assessment process involved the characterization of potential human receptors. Human receptor characteristics such as soil ingestion/inhalation rates, weight, skin surface area, age and time spent outdoors were obtained from Richardson (1997), summarized and then subsequently utilized to calculate estimated daily intakes of COPC. Since the proposed use of the site is a recreational park, three categories of human receptors, namely children, adults and construction/utility workers, were identified for assessment. The durations of the infant (0 to 6 months), toddler (7 months to 4 years), and child (5 to 12 years) categories were summed such that a full exposure duration of 12 years was used to assess potential risk. For adults and construction workers, standard receptor characteristics (Health Canada) were used and these individuals were defined as persons 18 years and older. Exposure assessment The exposure assessment involved a description of the likelihood, magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure to COPC as well as the identification of the possible exposure routes. The most likely exposures were: long-term lowlevel exposure, and direct contact (i.e., ingestion, dermal absorption, inhalation of suspended particulate matter). The maximum contaminant concentrations of COPC identified at the site were used to estimate the magnitude of receptor exposure, or the exposure dose. The bioavailability of COPC, defined (in part) as the fraction of the exposure dose that absorbs into the body and reaches the blood stream of human receptors, was considered 100% in cases of oral and inhalatory exposure routes. The bioavailability factor of dermal absorption was applied for consideration of the dermal route of exposure. Realistic recreational exposure scenarios reflective of site-specific human 56 | July 2008

Cofferdams were used during bridge pier construction.

activity patterns at the site were applied to provide an overall evaluation of potential risk of exposure to COPC at the proposed development. It was assumed that an infant would visit the site 12 hours/week, for 32 weeks of the year (mid March to mid November), a toddler would visit the site 17 hours/week, 32 weeks of the year for 4.5 years and a child would visit the site 20 hours/week, 32 weeks of the year for 7 years. An exposure duration of 12 years was used to assess potential risk to children exposed to COPC at the site. For adults, it was assumed they would visit the site an average of 19.25 hours/week, 32 weeks of the year (mid March to mid November; when the ground is not likely to be frozen), over a lifetime of 70 years. Construction/utility workers were assumed to be at the site an average of 5 days/week, (40 hours/week), 28 weeks/year for 0.5 years (the duration of time assumed for site development). Dose response assessment The nature of the relationship between the received dose (estimated daily intake) and the probability of an adverse biological response was evaluated in the dose-response step. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) through each route of exposure were calculated individually for each COPC. EDIs are an approximation of the amount of COPC potentially absorbed into the body through each of the dermal (skin), oral (gastrointestinal) and respiratory (respiratory system) routes of exposure. EDIs were based on maximum measured COPC concentrations and calculated using standard mathematical

formulas commonly used in the risk assessment process and established by Health Canada. Toxicity benchmarks, defined as the amount of contaminant exposure that can occur without adverse health effects, were also identified in this step. Toxicity benchmarks are generally determined from exposure data obtained from controlled animal and human laboratory tests and/or epidemiological studies. The toxicity benchmarks used in this study were the most restrictive available published values from Health Canada and the USEPA. Toxicity benchmarks are expressed as either Reference Doses (RfD) and/or Slope Factors (SF). RfD are determined for threshold toxicants (non-carcinogenic) and SF are determined for nonthreshold toxicants (health effect is considered cancer or a heritable mutation). Toxicity benchmarks were applied with the calculated EDI to mathematical models to derive a risk factor for each COPC. The calculated risk factor for each COPC was ultimately used to characterize potential risk associated with exposure to COPC at the site. Risk characterization Risk characterization was the final step in the risk assessment process and involved a determination of a numerical estimation of risk, and the integration of all information gathered through hazard identification, dose response and exposure assessment to estimate human health risk associated with exposure to contaminants at the development site. Health risks were estimated numerically by comparing EDIs to acceptable toxicity benchmarks. Both EDI and toxicity benchmarks

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Redevelopment were applied to mathematical models for evaluating risk for both non-threshold (i.e., non-carcinogenic) and threshold (i.e., carcinogenic) toxicants. For threshold toxicants, a mathematical approach, the reference dose-hazard quotient methodology, was used to quantitatively assess the potential hazards presented by exposure. In this methodology, following the Health Canada and USEPA HHRA Guidelines, the human risk estimate was expressed as a Hazard Quotient (HQ). For threshold toxicants, calculated EDIs were expressed as a ratio of acceptable daily intakes or reference doses (RfD). A HQ of 0.2 for any threshold toxicant COPC was used to assess acceptable exposure from each individual pathway and was utilized as reference point. Thus, for threshold response contaminants, a HQ that was less than or equal to 0.2 indicated that the potential exposure was within the degree of exposure that was considered acceptable or “safe�. For carcinogenic contaminants, risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated intake by the appropriate slope

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factor (SF). The estimate corresponds to an incremental risk of an individual developing cancer over a lifetime as a result of exposure. The calculated risk was then compared to an acceptable benchmark. Target levels of acceptable cancer risk (acceptable benchmarks) vary depending on the regulatory agency, but are usually in the range of 1 in 100,000 (i.e., 1 extra cancer death per 100,000 people exposed to a contaminant over their lifetime) to 1 in 1,000,000 ( i.e., 1 extra cancer death per 1 million people exposed to a contaminant over their lifetime). A risk level of 1 x 10 -5, which is the benchmark level recommended by Health Canada, was used in the risk assessment for comparison to calculated risk values. Cancer risk levels that were less than 1 x 10-5 were viewed as acceptable. The HQs for all COPC were well below the target value for all receptors (i.e., 0.2). The risk level calculated for all non-threshold COPC also fell well below the target value (1.0 x 10-5) for carcinogenic effects. In other words, the overall assessment strongly suggested that there was no significant health risk

posed by non-carcinogenic and/or carcinogenic COPC at the proposed site. Summary The results of the human health risk assessment indicated that exposure to the maximum concentrations of COPC identified at the site would not result in adverse human health effects to park users. Further, the magnitude and distribution of COPCs at the site were such that extensive remediation was not required, and no significant restrictions on the proposed use of the site were recommended. Construction at the site commenced in 2007 following extensive public review, as well as regulatory approval and permitting by various agencies including Health Canada and Saskatchewan Environment.

Lalita Bharadwaj is Assistant Professor, College of Nursing and Toxicology Group, University of Saskatchewan. Ray Machibroda is with P. Machibroda Engineering Ltd., Saskatoon. E-mail: r.machibroda@machibroda.com

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Water for People Canada chapters conduct numerous fundraising activities Highlights of Fall Fundraising 2007 The Atlantic Canada Water & Wastewater Association (ACWWA) Annual Conference was held in St. John’s, Newfoundland, in October 2007 and fundraising events included Meet n’ Greet - “Water Witches” by the City of St. John’s, which raised $1,142.00; a silent auction raised $1,266.00; a $379.00 donation from the City of St. John’s and proceeds from a summer regatta raised $829.00. Gala Dinner activities raised $1,384.00. Stantec Consulting once again hosted the 3rd Annual WFP Softball Tournament on September 28, 2007, in Kitchener, Ontario, and the OWWA WFPC Committee raised $4,500.00 from this fundraising activity. Fundraising efforts at the Water Environment Association of Ontario’s (WEAO) Annual Golf Tournament, held on September 20, raised over $1,300.00 from the sale of wristbands and raffle tickets. The Western Canada Water & Wastewater Association (WCWWA) Annual Conference saw a WFP booth in the centre of the tradeshow with a raffle and silent auction raising over $5,000.00. The British Columbia Water & Waste Association (BCWWA) Water For People Committee held their second annual golf tournament on September 27. Despite a cool and periodically misty Vancouver day, the tournament raised over $9,000.00. These activities help to provide the funding needed to carry out Water For People’s mission to help people in developing countries improve their quality of life, by supporting the development of locally sustainable drinking water resources, sanitation facilities, and health and hygiene education programs.

2008 BC Section Charity Golf Tournament The BC Section of Water For People Canada held its 2008 Charity Golf Tournament on June 17, 2008. This exciting event, in its third year, is becoming the premier amateur golf event for those individuals and companies involved within the water and wastewater sector in British Columbia. This year, the tournament raised almost $19,000.00 with the kind support and participation of the manufacturers, suppliers and consultants. The BC Section would like to recognize the following major donors for their generous support: • Tritech Group Ltd. • Sandwell Engineering Inc. • Stantec Consulting Ltd. • E.P. Engineered Pump Ltd. • Four Star Waterworks Ltd. • Pacific Liacon and Associates Inc. • Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. The BC Section Golf Committee includes: John Delver, Kerr Wood Leidal Associates, Leon Cake, Four Star Waterworks, Doug Neden, Metro Vancouver, Valerie Jenkinson, World Water & Wastewater Solutions, Judi Hyslop, retired, Virginia Cullen, BGC Engineering, Sarah Racine, student, Peter Thompson, Environment Canada.

OPCEA Golf Tournament The Ontario Pollution Equipment Association once again provided their annual golf tournament as a venue for fundraising 58 | July 2008

for Water for People Canada. Tony Petrucci, CH2M HILL and Water For People Canada President, and Barbara Robinson from Stantec were on hand to sell tickets to the 50/50 raffle that David Ohashi won. OPCEA generously matched the funds raised and a total of $2,310.00 was contributed towards Water for People Canada’s work.

Canadian Water Forum at ACE 2008 The annual Canadian Water Forum at ACE in Atlanta, was a wonderful evening for Canadians attending the conference to meet colleagues and friends from across the country. A silent auction and contributions that guests put into an authentic water jug raised $1,507.00. A special thank you to Judi Kraszewski, Water for People, Tony Petrucci, CH2M HILL, David Roy, The Pressure Pipe Inspection Company, and Penny Davey, from ES&E Magazine, for their efforts.

WEAO/OPCEA Conference and Tradeshow Fundraising efforts at the annual WEAO conference and OPCEA tradeshow raised almost $6,100.00 for Water for People Canada. There was a large raffle of items donated by suppliers and consultants, raffle tickets sold for the traditional Sick Kids Bear and donations were collected by OPCEA on the tradeshow floor. A special thank you to John Meunier Inc., Ken McKinnon, Carolyn Millman, Water for People Canada, David Kirkland, Kenaidan, and the rest of the WEAO WFP committee for a very successful effort. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Québec Section organizes special WFP activity for World Water Day The WFP Québec Section committee organized an activity for World Water Day on March 22 at the Montréal Biosphere. For the event, speakers from CIDA, the International Secretariat for Water, the Ottawa Law Faculty, the Biosphere and the World Water Corps were invited. Two workshops from Engineers Without Borders were also given during the day. The activity was a great opportunity to share information and opinions about the water situation in the world and for the committee to inform the public about Water for People's mission. About fifty people participated in the activity. In April, the committee organized a silent auction during the section's annual conference. Bidders had a lot of fun competing against each other for the donated gifts. This event was also an opportunity to sell WFPC promotional material. In total, these two activities raised close to $5,000.00. Thank you to all the committee members, and supporters.

The Québec committee includes; Manuel Moreau, Kemira, John Cigana, John Meunier inc., Carolyne Ky, DESSAU, Martine Lanoue, Réseau-environnement, Ara Markarian, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Murielle Vachon, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Kenza Jaidi, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Annie Carrière, École Polytechnique de Montréal.

OWWEA first Annual Water for People Canada Charity Golf Tournament The Ontario Water Works Equipment Association (OWWEA) held its inaugural Water for People Canada Charity Tournament in conjunction with the OWWA/OWMA Annual Conference on April 30, 2008. 75 golfers enjoyed a lovely day at the beautiful Forest City National Golf Club in London. Water for People Canada President Tony Petrucci was presented with a cheque for the $7500.00 raised at this year’s event. A special thanks to tournament co-chairs, Tom Orpana, OWWEA Past President, Neptune Technology Group, Rick Henry, OWWEA Vice President, Corix Water Products, Terry Lang of Canada Pipe Company and Matthew Nicolak of Metcon Engineering and the other OWWEA board members who helped with this successful event.

(Left) Tom Orpana, Neptune Technology Group, with tournament winners Larry Taylor, Emco Waterworks, Tim Torrens and Steve Fazekas, City of London, John Shurr, Clow Canada, (Right) Rick Henry, Corix Water Products.

(Left to right) Penny Davey, Water for People Canada Director, Environmental Science & Engineering, Terri Mand, Armtec Ltd., Tony Petrucci, CH2M HILL, Rick Henry, Corix Water Products.

Edited by Penny Davey, ES&E Magazine

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CANECT REPORT CANECT 2008 featured over 60 presenters he Canadian Environmental Conference and Tradeshow (CANECT) took place April 21-22, 2008, at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. The event featured over 60 presenters from Canada’s leading law firms, trainers, consultants and environmental managers and practitioners. It covered a wide range of environmental protection issues. One session discussed several new federal and provincial regulations which environmental professionals have to understand to make sure their companies remain compliant. Another key challenge for environmental and operations managers is to establish strategies and practices to meet stricter GHG and air emissions standards, and these topics were also covered. Ontario’s new Spill Reporting and Contingency Planning Regulations and Environmental Penalties Regulations formed an important focus of another CANECT course. These new provisions impose individual liability on corporate officers who fail to prevent spills or breaches of approval conditions. Mandatory minimum fines and environmental penalties of up to $100,000 per day will apply for companies and individuals convicted of discharge offences. Along with spills, Certificate of Approval (CofA) violations are one of the most common triggers of environmental investigations and inspections. A new course this year provided registrants with a fundamental introduction to strategies for effectively managing and updating environmental permits and Certificates of Approval and tips for communicating with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment to keep their organizations onside. Equally challenging are new assessment and remediation requirements dealing with the opportunities of dealing with contaminated land. Consultants, lawyers, company managers and developers were updated on how to ensure they are up to date with the new requirements and their implications. New waste regulations, coupled with ongoing product stewardship initiatives introduced under the Waste Diversion Act, formed the focus of another course. Along with increased enforcement of Ontario’s 3Rs regulations, they challenge industry, institutions and managers to take responsibility for waste or pay the price. Responding professionally to a call by MOE inspectors and investigators is vital if companies are to avoid the costly pitfalls that too often result from uncontrolled investigations. One CANECT course helped prepare delegates to respond to MOE inquiries. They learned how to manage records and reports in order to limit ‘fishing’ expeditions while being able to offer full cooperation. Another course discussed Canada’s new ‘post-Walkerton’ regulatory regime for water and wastewater which is now arguably the toughest in the world. Delegates were told that the new legislation of 2006/7 is only the beginning, with new Wastewater Effluent Regulations under a new federal Fisheries Act coming. Additionally, a new CCME Canada-wide municipal model sewer-use bylaw threatens to introduce the most stringent limits yet on industrial discharges. A verifiable Environmental Management System (EMS) is one of the key ways that organizations can prove their environmental due diligence. One CANECT session helped delegates ensure they have a system in place with which to confidently manage their organization’s current and future environmental responsibilities. Launched in 1992, CANECT attracts senior people responsible for environmental engineering, regulations and compliance issues. It was co-organized by Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine and Canadian Environmental Regulation and Compliance News. Golder Associates was one of the event sponsors.

T

CANECT 2009 will be held April 20 -21 at the same location as this year and it will again be co-located with the Health & Safety Canada show. For further information, please contact Denise Simpson, Tel: 905-727-4666, or visit www.canect.net 60 | July 2008


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ES&E’s Annual Guide To Government Agencies & Associations Associations ...................................................................64 Colleges and Universities .............................................69 Government Agencies ..................................................70

ES&E ’s Guide To Associations ABORIGINAL WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO 111 Peter Street, Suite #606 Toronto ON M5V 2H1 (416) 651-1443 Fax: (416) 651-1673 Web site: www.ofntsc.org/awwao Contact: Cindy Owl, Program Coordinator

Fenelon Falls ON K0M 1N0 (877) 512-3722 Web site: www.aesac.ca ASSOCIATION FOR PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING (APEA) PO Box 34022 RPO Scotia Square Halifax NS B3J 3S1 (902) 463-0114 Fax: (902) 466-5743

AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION (AWMA) One Gateway Center, 3rd Floor 420 Fort Duquesne Blvd Pittsburgh PA 15222-1435 USA (412) 232-3444 Fax: (412) 232-3450 Web site: www.awma.org

ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS OF CANADA (ACEC) 616-130 Albert St Ottawa ON K1P 5G4 (613) 236-0569 Fax: (613) 236-6193 Web site: www.acec.ca

ALBERTA WATER AND WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION (AWWOA) 11810 Kingsway Ave Edmonton AB T5G 0X5 (780) 454-7745 Fax: (780) 451-6451 Web site: www.awwoa.ab.ca

ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPALITIES OF ONTARIO 801-200 University Ave Toronto ON M5H 3C6 (416) 971-9856 Fax: (416) 971-6191 Web site: www.amo.on.ca

AMERICAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 1303 W Walnut Hill Lane Suite 305 Irving TX 75038-3008 USA (972) 506-7216 Fax: (972) 506-7682 E-mail: info@concrete-pipe.org Web site: www.concrete-pipe.org Contact: Matt Childs, President The American Concrete Pipe Association, established in 1907, is a non-profit organization comprised of manufacturers of concrete pipe and box culverts and providers of equipment, products and services related to the concrete pipe industry. AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA) 6666 W Quincy Ave Denver CO 80235 USA (303) 794-7711 Fax: (303) 347-0804 Web site: www.awwa.org ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSORS OF CANADA INC. P O Box 490

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ATLANTIC CANADA WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (ACWWA) PO Box 41002 Dartmouth NS B2Y 4P7 (902) 434-6002 Fax: (902) 435-7796 Web site: www.acwwa.ca BRITISH COLUMBIA GROUNDWATER ASSOCIATION 1708 197A St Langley BC V2Z 1K2 (604) 530-8934 Fax: (604) 530-8934 Web site: www.bcgwa.org BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER & WASTE ASSOCIATION (BCWWA) 221-8678 Greenall Ave Burnaby BC V5J 3M6 (604) 433-4389 Fax: (604) 433-9859 Web site: www.bcwwa.org Contact: Natalie Zigarlick, CEO BCWWA is a non-profit association dedicated to the safeguarding of public health and the environment through the sharing of skills, knowledge and experience in the water and wastewater industries. The British Columbia Water & Waste Association evolved into an organization supporting over 3,700 water and waste water professionals in BC and Yukon with training, educational opportunities, technology transfer, and networking opportunities.

ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPAL RECYCLING COORDINATORS 100-127 Wyndham St N Guelph ON N1H 4E9 (519) 823-1990 Fax: (519) 823-0084 Contact: Vivian De Giovanni, Executive Director Web site: www.amrc.ca

ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO LAND SURVEYORS (AOLS) 1043 McNicoll Ave Toronto ON M1W 3W6 (416) 491-9020 Fax: (416) 491-2576 E-mail: admin@aols.org Web site: www.aols.org Contact: Jim Statham, Executive Director Ontario land surveyors provide specialized services related to boundaries, land development and information management. The Association of Ontario Land Surveyors regulates the practice of professional land surveying and governs its members so that public interests may be served and protected.

CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL LABORATORIES (CAEAL) 310-1565 Carling Ave Ottawa ON K1Z 8R1 (613) 233-5300 Fax: (613) 233-5501 E-mail: rwilson@caeal.ca Web site: www.caeal.ca Contact: Rick Wilson, Chief Executive Officer Laboratory accreditation, proficiency testing, training.

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGIES 7885 Jock Trail Ottawa ON K0A 2Z0 (613) 222-6920 Fax: (613) 822-4987 Web site: www.renewables.ca Contact: Bill Eggertson, Executive Director CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF RECYCLING INDUSTRIES (CARI-ACIR) 1-682 Monarch Ave Ajax, ON L1S 4S2 (905) 426-9313 Fax: (905) 426-9314 Web site: www.cari-acir.org CANADIAN ASSOCIATION ON WATER QUALITY PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1 Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (905) 336-6291 Fax: (905) 336-4877 Web site: www.cawq.ca CANADIAN BROWNFIELDS NETWORK (CBN) c/o OCETA, 201A-2070 Hadwen Rd Mississauga ON L5K 2C9 (905) 822-4133 Fax: (905) 822-3558 Web site: www.canadianbrownfieldsnetwork.ca CANADIAN CENTRE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (CCOHS) 135 Hunter St E Hamilton ON L8N 1M5 (905) 572-2981 Fax: (905) 572-2206 Contact: Eleanor Westwood, Manager,

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Communications Web site: www.ccohs.ca CANADIAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 205 Miller Dr Georgetown ON L7G 6G4 (905) 877-5369 Fax: (905) 877-5369 Contact: A. Grant Lee, Manager Web site: www.ccpa.com CANADIAN COPPER & BRASS DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION 49 The Donway West, Suite 415 Don Mills, ON M3C 3M9 (416) 391-5599 Fax: (416) 391-3823 Web site: www.coppercanada.ca CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING ASSOCIATION 262-610 Ford Dr Oakville ON L6J 7W4 (905) 845-9595 Fax: (905) 248-3255 Web site: www.ceaa-acve.ca CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL CERTIFICATION APPROVALS BOARD (CECAB) 200-308 11 Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 (403) 233-7484 Fax: (403) 264-6240 Web site: www.cecab.org CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ASSOCIATION 301-130 Spadina Ave

Associations Toronto ON M5V 2L4 (416) 960-2284 Fax: (416) 960-9392 Web site: www.cela.ca CANADIAN GENERAL STANDARDS BOARD 6B1-11 Laurier St Place du Portage Gatineau QC K1A 1G6 (800) 665-2472 Fax: (819) 956-5740 Contact: James Carleton, Planning and Information Officer Web site: www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca CANADIAN GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 1600 Bedford Highway Suite 100 – 409 Bedford NS B4A 1E8 (902) 845-1885 Fax: (902) 845-1886 Web site: www.cgwa.org CANADIAN INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND POLICY (CIELAP) 305-130 Spadina Ave Toronto ON M5V 2L4 (416) 923-3529 Fax: (416) 923-5949 Web site: www.cielap.org CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION 100-5060 Spectrum Way Mississauga ON L4W 5N6 (416) 747-4000 Fax: (416) 747-2473 Web site: www.csa.ca

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Associations CANADIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION 11-1010 Polytek Rd Ottawa ON K1J 9H9 (613) 747-0524 Fax: (613) 747-0523 Contact: T. Duncan Ellison, Executive Director Web site: www.cwwa.ca CANADIAN WATER NETWORK 200 University Ave W Waterloo ON N2L 3G1 (519) 888-4567 Fax: (519) 883-7574 Contact: David Cotter, Director of Communications Web site: www.cwn-rce.ca CANADIAN WATER QUALITY ASSOCIATION 330-295 The West Mall Toronto ON M9C 4Z4 (866) 383-7617 Fax: (416) 695-2945 Contact: Kevin Wong, Executive Director Web site: www.cwqa.com CANADIAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 900-280 Albert St Ottawa ON K1P 5G8 (613) 237-9363 Fax: (613) 594-5190 Web site: www.cwra.org CANADIAN WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION 810-170 Laurier Ave W Ottawa ON K1P 5V5 (613) 234-8716, (800) 922-6932 Fax: (613) 234-5642 Web site: www.canwea.ca CEMENT ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 703-1500 Don Mills Rd Toronto ON M3B 3K4 (416) 449-3708 Fax: (416) 449-9755 Contact: Rico Fung, Director Engineering Web site: www.cement.ca/cement.nsf COMPOSTING COUNCIL OF CANADA 16 Northumberland St Toronto ON M6H 1P7 (416) 535-0240 Fax: (416) 536-9892 Web site: www.compost.org

CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE INSTITUTE 652 Bishop St. N. Unit 2A Cambridge ON N3H 4V6 (866) 295-2416 or (519) 650-8080 Fax: (519) 650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web site: www.cspi.ca Contact: Dave Penny, Marketing Manager The Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute is a Canadian association of manufacturers of corrugated steel pipe and material suppliers. With production facilities and technically trained sales staff in communities

66 | July 2008

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations throughout Canada, we work with designers, owners and contractors to create flexible and versatile solutions to meet drainage and unique construction requirements. Through CSPI, we share our vast resource of knowledge and experience in order to bring to you the greatest value for today's dollar. CSA INTERNATIONAL 178 Rexdale Blvd Toronto ON M9W 1R3 (416) 747-4000 Fax: (416) 747-4149 Web site: www.csa-international.org DUCTILE IRON PIPE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION 245 Riverchase Parkway E Suite O Birmingham AL 35244 USA (205) 402-8700 Fax: (205) 402-8730 Web site: www.dipra.org ECO CANADA 200-308 11 Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 0Y2 (403) 233-0748 Fax: (403) 269-9544 Contact: Grant Trump, President/CEO Web site: www.eco.ca ECO HEAT CANADA 7885 Jock Trail Ottawa ON K0A 2Z0 (613) 222-6920 Fax: (613) 822-4987 Contact: Bill Eggertson, Coordinator Web site: www.ecoheatsolutions.com INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET ASSOCIATION PO Box 28154 Scottsdale AZ 85255 USA (480) 544-0105 Fax: (480) 473-9068 Contact: Paul Overbeck, Executive Director Web site: www.iuva.org INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SCIENCES (ISEIS) 413-4246 Albert St Regina SK S4S 3R9 (306) 337-2306 Fax: (306) 584-5356 Web site: www.iseis.org MANITOBA ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION INC. (MEIA) 301-35 King St Winnipeg MB R3B 1H4 (204) 783-7090 Fax: (204) 783-6501 Web site: www.meia.mb.ca MANITOBA WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 1600, 202-9 Saskatchewan Ave W Portage La Prairie MB R1N 3P1 (204) 239-6868 Fax: (204) 239-6872 Contact: Iva Last, Executive Director Web site: www.mwwa.net MARITIME PROVINCES WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (MPWWA) 32 Lindy Lane French Lake NB E2V 4M3 (506) 357-3204 Fax: (506) 357-6038 Web site: www.mpwwa.ca

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION 2-6355 Kennedy Rd Mississauga ON L5T 2L5 (905) 795-2555 Fax: (905) 795-2660 Web site: www.municipalengineers.on.ca MUNICIPAL WASTE INTEGRATION NETWORK Box 1116, 704 Glen Morris Rd. W. Ayr, ON N0B 1E0 (519) 620-9654 Fax: (519) 620-9678 Contact: Maryanne E. Hill, Executive Director Web site: www.mwin.org NATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION PO Box 3214 Stn Main Winnipeg MB R3C 4E7 (204) 956-5888 Fax: (204) 956-5819 Web site: www.neca.ca NATIONAL GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 601 Dempsey Rd Westerville OH 43081 USA (614) 898-7791 Fax: (614) 898-7786 Contact: Cliff Treyens, Public Awareness Director Web site: www.ngwa.org NEBB CANADA 8094 Esquesing Line Milton ON L9T 2X9 (905) 693-9090 Fax: (905) 693-8282 Contact: Carrie Clark, Chapter Coordinator Web site: www.nebb.ca NEW BRUNSWICK ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (NBEIA) PO Box 637 Stn A Fredericton NB E3B 5B3 (506) 455-0212 Fax: (506) 452-0213 Web site: www.nbeia.nb.ca NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (NEIA) 101-90 O’Leary Ave Parsons Building St. John’s NL A1B 2C7 (709) 772-3333 Fax: (709) 772-3213 Web site: www.neia.org NORTH AMERICAN HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3030 W. 81st Ave Westminster CO 80031-4111 USA (303) 433-4446, Fax: (303) 458-0002 Web site: www.nahmma.org NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION 161 Brock St E Thunder Bay ON P7E 4H1 (807) 626-0155 Fax: (807) 626-8163 Contact: Ken Tamiwa, Executive Director Web site: www.noma.on.ca OCETA 201a-2070 Hadwen Rd Mississauga, ON L5K 2C9

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations (905) 822-4133 Fax: (905) 822-3558 Web site: www.oceta.on.ca ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF CERTIFIED ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS AND TECHNOLOGISTS (OACETT) 404-10 Four Seasons Pl Etobicoke ON M9B 6H7 (416) 621-9621 Fax: (416) 621-8694 Web site: www.oacett.org ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF SEWAGE INDUSTRY SERVICES PO Box 190 Havelock ON K0L 1Z0 (705) 778-1265 Fax: (705) 778-1269 Contact: Don Kelloway, Executive Director Web site: www.oasisontario.on.ca. ONTARIO BACKFLOW PREVENTION ASSOCIATION PO Box 265 Campbellville ON L0P 1B0 (416) 249-2837 Fax: (905) 854-0180 Contact: Claire Andrews, Secretary/ Treasurer Web site: www.obpaonline.com ONTARIO COALITION FOR SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE 6355 Kennedy Rd, Unit #2 Mississauga, ON L5T 2L5 (905) 795-2555 Fax: (905) 795-2660 E-mail: ocsi@ogra.org Web site: www.ogra.org

ONTARIO CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 5045 South Service Rd, 1st Floor Burlington, ON L7L 5Y7 (905) 631-9696 Fax: (905) 631-1905 E-mail: info@ocpa.com Web site: www.ocpa.com Since 1957, the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association (OCPA) has been promoting the high standards of business practice and the product quality of its members. OCPA provides technical information & seminars and tours of manufacturing facilities to specifiers, regulators, contractors and educators. Producers of concrete pipe, maintenance holes, box culverts and box sewers, and precast concrete specialty products joined to form the Association.

ONTARIO ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (ONEIA) 2395 Speakman Dr Mississauga ON L5K 1B3 (416) 531-7884 Fax: (905) 855-0406 E-mail: info@oneia.ca Web site: www.oneia.ca Contact: Alex Gill, Executive Director

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ONEIA is the business association representing the interests of Ontario’s environment industry – working together to promote environmental businesses to industry and government. With over 200 product and service companies, members provide market-driven solutions for society’s most pressing environmental problems. ONTARIO GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION 48 Front St E Strathroy ON N7G 1Y6 (519) 245-7194 Fax: (519) 245-7196 Contact: Earl Morwood, Executive Director Web site: www.ogwa.ca ONTARIO MUNICIPAL WATER ASSOCIATION 43 Chelsea Cres Belleville ON K8N 4Z5 (613) 966-1100, (888) 231-1115 Fax: (613) 966-3024 Contact: Douglas Parker, Executive Director Web site: www.omwa.org ONTARIO ONSITE WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION PO Box 831 Stn Main Cobourg ON K9A 4S3 (905) 372-2722 Web site: www.oowa.org

ONTARIO POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION (OPCEA) PO Box 137 Midhurst ON L0L 1X0 (705) 725-0917 Fax: (705) 725-1068 Web site: www.opcea.com Contact: Kelly Madden, Executive Administrator Our association is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting member companies in the promotion of their equipment and services to the pollution control market sector of Ontario. Originally founded in 1970 under the name Ontario Sanitation Equipment Association, the OPCEA has since grown to over 140 member companies whose fields encompass a broad spectrum of equipment and services for the air and water pollution control marketplace. ONTARIO SEWER & WATERMAIN CONSTRUCTION ASSOCIATION 300-5045 Orbitor Dr Building 12 Mississauga ON L4W 4Y4 (905) 629-7766 Fax: (905) 629-0587 Web site: www.oswca.org ONTARIO SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 502-4950 Yonge St Toronto ON M2N 6K1 (416) 223-9961 Fax: (416) 223-9963 Web site: www.ospe.on.ca.

Associations ONTARIO WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 3-2005 Clark Blvd Brampton ON L6T 5P8 (905) 791-9500 Fax: (905) 791-9514 Web site: www.owma.org ONTARIO WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (OWWA) 1092 Islington Ave, Ste #200 Toronto ON M8Z 4R9 (416) 231-1555 Fax: (416) 231-1556 Web site: www.owwa.com

ONTARIO WATER WORKS EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION Website: www.owwea.ca The Ontario Water Works Equipment Association (OWWEA) is an organization that represents its membership within the waterworks industry of Ontario. Membership consists of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, agents and contractors dedicated to serving the Ontario municipal market. PLASTICS PIPE INSTITUTE 105 Decker Court, Suite 825 Irving, TX 75062 USA (469) 499-1044 Fax: (469) 499-1063 Web site: www.plasticpipe.org PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS ONTARIO 1000-25 Sheppard Ave W Toronto ON M2N 6S9 (416) 224-1100 Fax: (416) 224-8168 Web site: www.peo.on.ca PULP AND PAPER TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 1070-740 rue Notre-Dame O Montreal QC H3C 3X6 (514) 392-0265 Fax: (514) 392-0369 Web site: www.paptac.a RESEAU ENVIRONNEMENT 220-911 rue Jean-Talon E Montreal QC H2R 1V5 (514) 270-7110 Fax: (514) 270-7154 Web site: www.reseau-environnement.com SASKATCHEWAN ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRY AND MANAGERS ASSOCIATION (SEIMA) 2025 11th Ave, Ste #113 Regina, SK S4P 0K6 (306) 543-1567 Fax: (306) 543-1568 Web site: www.seima.sk.ca SASKATCHEWAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (SWWA) 46 Windfield Rd Regina SK S4V 0E7 (306) 761-1278 Fax: (306) 761-1279 Web site: www.swwa.sk.ca

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations

Associations SOLAR ENERGY SOCIETY OF CANADA INC. McLaughlin Hall 406 Queen’s University Kingston ON K7L 3N6 (613) 533-2657 Fax: (613) 533-6550 Web site: www.solarenergycanada.org

charity, Water For People. Canadian water industry professionals established Water for People-Canada in 1995, to support and promote the mission of Water for People in Canada among the public and the water community.

SOLAR NOVA SCOTIA (SOCIETY) 83 Old Scotts Rd McGraths Cove NS B3Z 3V2 (902) 852-4758 Fax: (902) 852-3789 Contact: Don Roscoe, Treasurer Web site: www.solarns.ca

WESTERN CANADA WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION (WCWWA) P.O.Box 1708 Cochrane, AB T4C 1B6 (403) 283-2003 Fax: (403) 283-2007 Web site: www.wcwwa.ca

SOLID WASTE ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA (SWANA) 1100 Wayne Ave Suite 700 Silver Spring MD 20910 USA (800) 467-9262 Fax: (301) 589-7068 Web site: www.swana.org THE GREEN BUILDING INITIATIVE 2104 SE Morrison Portland, OR 97214 USA (877) 424-4241 Fax: (503) 961-8991 Contact: Kevin Stover, Commercial Program Consultant Web site: www.thegbi.org WATER AND WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (WWEMA) PO Box 17402 Washington DC 20041 USA (703) 444-1777 Fax: (703) 444-1779 Web site: www.wwema.org

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WATER ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO (WEAO) PO Box 176 Stn Main Milton ON L9T 4N9 (416) 410-6933 Fax: (416) 410-1626 Contact: Julie A. Vincent, Executive Administrator Web site: www.weao.org WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION 601 Wythe St Alexandria VA 22314-1994 USA (703) 684-2400 Fax: (703) 684-2492 Web site: www.wef.org

WATER FOR PEOPLE-CANADA 6666 West Quincy Ave Denver, CO 80235 USA (303) 734-3490 Fax: (303) 734-3499 E-mail: infowaterforpeople.org Web site: www.waterforpeople.org Water For People-Canada is a charitable nonprofit international humanitarian organization dedicated to the development and delivery of clean, safe water and sanitation solutions in developing nations. It is the Canadian equivalent of the U.S. based

68 | July 2008

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ES&E’S AT A GLANCE GUIDE TO CANADIAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES The following institutions offer diploma and degree programs in these areas: Environmental biology, Environmental control, Environmental technician, Environmental engineering/technology, Environmental health and science, Environmental studies, Environmental toxicology, Environmental health engineering.

Alberta Concordia University College of Alberta King's University College Lethbridge College Mount Royal College Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, The Red Deer College Southern Alberta Institute of Technology University of Alberta University of Calgary University of Lethbridge

Edmonton Edmonton Lethbridge Calgary Edmonton Red Deer Calgary Edmonton Calgary Lethbridge

AB AB AB AB AB AB AB AB AB AB

Burnaby Burnaby Courtenay Victoria Castlegar Kamloops Langley Prince George

BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC

Britsh Columbia alive Academy of Natural Health British Columbia Institute of Technology North Island College Royal Roads University Selkirk College Thompson Rivers University - Kamloops Trinity Western University University of Northern British Columbia

Holland College Winnipeg Winnipeg

MB MB

New Brunswick Collège communautaire du Nouveau-Brunswick Campbellton Mount Allison University Sackville New Brunswick Community College Fredericton

NB NB NB

Newfoundland Memorial University of Newfoundland

St. John's

NL

Wolfville Halifax Truro Halifax

NS NS NS NS

Nova Scotia Acadia University Dalhousie University Nova Scotia Agricultural College Saint Mary's University

Ontario Brock University Cambrian College Collège Boréal Confederation College Durham College Fleming College Humber Institute of Technology

Orillia Thunder Bay Sarnia Sudbury Belleville Niagara Ancaster Toronto Guelph Ottawa Waterloo London Windsor Waterloo Toronto Sault Ste. Marie Oakville Kingston Peterborough Mississauga Toronto Toronto Ottawa Toronto

ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON

Charlottetown

PE

Sherbrooke Montréal Montréal Saint-Félicien Mirabel Montréal Sherbrooke Chicoutimi Montréal Rimouski Trois-Rivières Québec City Québec City Québec City

QC QC QC QC QC QC QC QC QC QC QC QC QC QC

Regina Air Ronge Moose Jaw Prince Albert Saskatoon Saskatoon Regina Regina Saskatoon

SK SK SK SK SK SK SK SK SK

Prince Edward Island

Manitoba University of Manitoba University of Winnipeg

Lakehead University - Orillia Lakehead University - Thunder Bay Lambton College Laurentian University/Université Laurentienne Loyalist College Niagara College Canada (Niagara-on-the-Lake) Redeemer University College Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology University of Guelph University of Ottawa/Université d'Ottawa University of Waterloo University of Western Ontario University of Windsor Wilfrid Laurier University Ryerson University Sault College Sheridan College St. Lawrence College Trent University University of Toronto - Mississauga University of Toronto - Scarborough University of Toronto - Toronto Willis College of Business and Technology York University

St. Catharines Sudbury Sudbury Thunder Bay Oshawa Peterborough Toronto

ON ON ON ON ON ON ON

Quebec Bishop's University Concordia University McGill University Cégep de St-Félicien Centre de formation agricole de Mirabel Université de Montréal Université de Sherbrooke Université du Québec à Chicoutimi Université du Québec à Montréal Université du Québec à Rimouski Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières Université du Québec Université du Québec Télé-université Université Laval

Saskatchewan First Nations University of Canada Northlands College Institute of Applied Science and Technology Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science Institute of Applied Science and Technology St. Thomas More College Luther College University University of Regina University of Saskatchewan

*This list is intended as a quick reference only. Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine makes no claim to the accuracy or completeness of this list.

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Government

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations

ES&E ’s Guide to Provincial and Federal Government Environmental Agencies Alberta Alberta Infrastructure & Transportation Fl3-6950 113 St NW,Edmonton,AB, T6H 5V7,Tel:780-422-7434 Alberta Capital Region Wastewater Comm. 23262 Township Road 540,Fort Saskatchewan,AB,T8L 3Z6, Tel:780-467-8655 Alberta Community Development 404-4911 51 St,Red Deer,AB, T4N 6V4,Tel:403-755-6102 Alberta Environment PO Box 563,Swan Hills,AB, T0G 2C0,Tel:780-333-4288 Alberta Environment PO Box 1540,Pincher Creek,AB, T0K 1W0,Tel:403-627-5544 Alberta Environment 930-1009 2 Ave N,Vulcan,AB, T0L 2B0,Tel:403-485-2293 Alberta Environment 2223 Hawthorne Ave NE,Medicine Hat,AB,T1C 1W6,Tel:403-502-1093

Key Government Web Sites Alberta www.gov.ab.ca

British Columbia www.gov.bc.ca

Government of Canada www.gc.ca

Manitoba www.gov.mb.ca

New Brunswick www.gnb.ca

Newfoundland and Labrador www.gov.nl.ca

Northwest Territories www.gov.nt.ca

Nova Scotia www.gov.ns.ca

Nunavut www.gov.nu.ca

Ontario www.gov.on.ca

Prince Edward Island www.gov.pe.ca

Québec www.gouv.qc.ca

Saskatchewan www.gov.sk.ca

Yukon Territory www.gov.yk.ca

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Alberta Environment 535 30 St N,Env Monitor/Eval,Lethbridge,AB, T1H 5G4,Tel:403-381-5978 Alberta Environment Fl2-200 5 Ave S,Water Mgmt Ops, Lethbridge,AB,T1J 4L1,Tel:403-381-5966 Alberta Environment 2938 11 St NE,Monitoring Prog Del,Calgary AB,T2E 7L7,Tel:403-297-5917 Alberta Environment 4912 Viceroy Pl NW,Calgary,AB, T3A 0V1,Tel:403-297-7884 Alberta Environment 111-4999 98 Ave NW,Mun Approvals, Edmonton,AB,T6B 2X3,Tel:780-427-9574 Alberta Environment Fl3-9915 Franklin Ave,Compliance/ Monitoring,Fort McMurray,AB,T9H 2K4, Tel:780-743-7414 Alberta Environmental Appeals Board Fl3-10011 109 St NW,Peace Hills Trust Tower,Edmonton,AB,T5J 3S8, Tel:780-427-6207 Government of Alberta,Environmental Natural Resources 201-800 Railway Ave,Canmore,AB, T1W 1P1,Tel:403-678-5508 Government of Alberta Fl2-5226 53 Ave,Water Management, High Prairie,AB,T0G 1E0,Tel:780-523-6512 Government of Alberta Fl2-10106 100 Ave,Compliance,High Level,AB,T0H 1Z0,Tel:780-926-5263/2731 Government of Alberta 9915 108 St NW,Alberta Environment, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2G8,Tel:780-427-2391 Government of Alberta 9820 106 St NW,Env Strategies, Edmonton,AB,T5K 2J6,Tel:780-427-9288 Government of Alberta 4816 89 St NW,Water Monitoring, Edmonton,AB,T6E 5K1,Tel:780-422-3798 Government of Alberta 4946 89 St NW,Air Monitoring, Edmonton,AB,T6E 5K1,Tel:780-427-7888 Government of Alberta PO Box 8001 Stn Main,Spruce Grove,AB,T7X 4C7,Tel:780-960-8611 Government of Alberta PO Box 900 Stn Main,Approvals,Peace River,AB,T8S 1T4,Tel:780-624-6502 Government of Alberta 10320 99 St,Approvals,Grande Prairie,AB,T8V 6J4,Tel:780-833-4351 Government of Alberta 810 14 Ave,Wainwright,AB,T9W 1R2,Tel:780-842-7538

British Columbia BC Ministry of Environment 3824 Albrecht Rd,Naramata,BC,V0H 1N0,Tel:250-490-8247

Dept Fisheries and Oceans 401 Burrard St,Vancouver,BC,V6C 3S5, Tel:604-469-1216 Environment Canada 1833 14th Ave W,Vancouver,BC,V6J 2J8, Tel:604-924-2541 Fisheries and Oceans Canada 3690 Massey Dr,Prince George,BC,V2N 2S8, Tel:250-561-5905 Government of Canada 3015 Ord Rd,Kamloops,BC,V2B 8A9, Tel:250-554-5220 Ministry of Environment 3726 Alfred Ave,Bag 5000,Smithers,BC, V0J 2N0,Tel:250-847-7547 Ministry of Environment 205 Industrial Road G,Water Stewardship Kootenay East,Cranbrook,BC,V1C 7G5, Tel:250-489-8540 Ministry of Environment 400-10003 110 Ave,Env Mgmt Section, Fort St John,BC,V1J 6M7,Tel:250-787-3391 Ministry of Environment 4607 23rd St,Env Quality Section,Vernon, BC,V1T 4K7,Tel:250-371-6308 Ministry of Environment 102 Industrial Pl,Env Mgmt Section, Penticton,BC,V2A 7C8,Tel:250-490-8208 Ministry of Environment 1259 Dalhousie Dr,Allocation,Kamloops, BC,V2C 5Z5,Tel:250-371-6206 Ministry of Environment 300-640 Borland St,Water Stewardship Cariboo,Williams Lake,BC,V2G 4T1, Tel:250-398-4255 Ministry of Environment 325-1011 4th Ave,Enforcement Program, Prince George,BC,V2L 3H9, Tel:250-565-6135 Ministry of Environment 200-10428 153 St,Water Allocation,Surrey, BC,V3R 1E1,Tel:604-582-5218 Ministry of Environment Fl2-836 Yates St,Env Assessment Office, Victoria,BC,V8W 1L8,Tel:250-356-7475 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9047,Stn Prov Govt,Victoria,BC, V8W 9E2,Tel:250-387-1187 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9339,Stn Prov Govt,Env Stewardship Div,Victoria,BC, V8W 9M1,Tel:250-356-0121 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9340,Stn Prov Govt,Water Use Planning/Utilities,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel:250-952-6805 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9341,Stn Prov Govt,Air Protection Section,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel:250-356-0634 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9342,Stn Prov Govt,Env Mgmt Branch,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M1, Tel:250-387-9971

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Ministry of Environment PO Box 9362,Stn Prov Govt,Water Stewardship Div,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M2, Tel:250-356-0293 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9369,Stn Prov Govt,Regional Operations,Victoria,BC,V8W 9M3, Tel:250-398-4549 Ministry of Environment PO Box 9334 Stn Prov Govt,Regional Ops Branch,Victoria,BC,V8W 9N3, Tel:250-356-8174 Ministry of Environment, 1355 Lyall St,Victoria,BC,V9A 5H7, Tel:250-356-5005 Ministry of Environment 3373 Joyce Pl,Victoria,BC,V9C 2G6, Tel:250-387-9513 Ministry of Environment 2080a Labieux Rd,Nanaimo,BC,V9T 6J9, Tel:250-751-3186

Manitoba Department of Conservation PO Box 301,Snow Lake,MB,R0B 1M0, Tel:204-358-2521 Department of Conservation P.O. Box 52,59 Elizabeth Dr,Thompson, MB,R8N 1X4,Tel:204-677-6703 Government of Canada RR 4 Stn Main,Dauphin,MB,R7N 2T7, Tel:204-638-8225 Government of Manitoba 1007 Century St,Infrastructure/Ops, Winnipeg,MB,R3H 0W4,Tel:204-467-4722 Government of Manitoba 200 Saulteaux Cres,Env Stewardship Div,Winnipeg,MB,R3J 3W3, Tel:204-945-7107 Manitoba Clean Environment Commission 305-155 Carlton St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 3H8, Tel:204-945-5293 Manitoba Conservation PO Box 900,Carberry,MB,R0K 0H0, Tel:204-827-8855 Manitoba Conservation 160-123 Main St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 1A5, Tel:204-945-7073 Manitoba Conservation PO Box 2019 Stn Main,Steinbach,MB, R5G 1N6,Tel:204-346-6066 Manitoba Conservation Parks 143 Main St,Flin Flon,MB,R8A 1K2, Tel:204-687-1653 Manitoba Department of Conservation PO Box 231,Riverton,MB,R0C 2R0, Tel:204-378-5422 Manitoba Floodway Authority 200-155 Carlton St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 3H8, Tel:204-945-1282 Manitoba Infrastructure & Transportation 730-215 Garry St,Winnipeg,MB,R3C 3Z1, Tel:204-642-6069 Manitoba Water Services Board PO Box 3,Stephenfield,MB,R0G 2R0, Tel:204-745-8735

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Manitoba Water Services Board PO Box 22080,Rpo Brand.Downtown, Brandon,MB,R7A 6Y9,Tel:204-726-6073 Manitoba Water Stewardship 25 Tupper St N,Portage,La Prairie,MB, R1N 3K1,Tel:204-239-3186 Office of Drinking Water PO Box 497,Austin,MB,R0H 0C0, Tel:204-637-3366 Province of Manitoba Water Stewardship 68 Silver Birch Dr,Brandon,MB,R7B 1A9, Tel:204-726-6563 Public Works & Govt Services Canada 865 Brock St,Winnipeg,MB,R3N 0Z7, Tel:204-983-5549

New Brunswick Ministry of Natural Resources 80 Pleasant St,Miramichi,NB,E1V 1X7, Tel:506-627-4049 Ministry of Natural Resources 2570 Route 180,South Tetagouche,NB, E2A 7B8,Tel:506-547-2075 Ministry of Natural Resources 3732 Route 102,Island View,NB,E3E 1G3, Tel:506-444-4888 Ministry of Natural Resources 25 Rue Guy,Edmundston,NB,E3V 3K5, Tel:506-735-2040 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn LCD 1,Moncton,NB, E1C 8R3,Tel:506-856-2374 NB Environment and Local Government 316 Dalton Ave,Miramichi,NB,E1V 3N9, Tel:506-778-6032 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Bathurst,NB, E2A 3Z9,Tel:506-547-2092 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Saint John,NB, E2L 4Y9,Tel:506-658-2558 NB Environment and Local Government 12 McGloin St,Inorganic Chemistry, Fredericton,NB,E3A 5T8,Tel:506-453-2477 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 6000 Stn A,Air Sciences Section, Fredericton,NB,E3B 5H1,Tel:506-444-2644 NB Environment and Local Government PO Box 5001 Stn Main,Grand-Sault/Grand Falls,NB,E3Z 1G1,Tel:506-473-7744

Newfoundland and Labrador Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities PO Box 21040,Rpo Macdonald Drive, St.John’s,NL,A1B 5B2,Tel:709-726-1133 Department of Environment and Conservation, Policy & Planning,P.O. Box 8700,St.John’s, NL, A1B 4J6,Tel:709-729-0027 Department of Environment and Conservation, Pollution Prevention,P.O. Box 8700,

Government St.John’s, NL, A1B 4J6,Tel:709-729-2556 Department of Environment and Conservation, Pollution Prevention (Corner Brook),P.O. Box 2006,89 West Valley Road,Corner Brook, NL,A2H 6J8,Tel:709-637-2528 Department of Environment and Conservation Pollution Prevention (Stephenville) 35 Alabama Drive,Stephenville,NL,A2N 2K9, Tel:709-643-6114 Department of Environment and Conservation Environmental Assessment P.O. Box 8700,St.John’s,NL,A1B 4J6, Tel:709-729-4211 Department of Environment and Conservation Environmental Assessment P.O. Box 2006,3rd Floor,Noton Building, Corner Brook,NL,A2H 6J8,Tel:709-637-2375 Department of Environment and Conservation Water Resources Management Division,Confederation Building,4th Floor,West Block,PO Box 8700, St.John’s,NL,A1B 4J6,Tel:709-729-2563 Department of Environment and Conservation, Water Resources Management Division,Provincial Building, 3 Cromer Avenue,Grand Falls-Windsor,NL, A2A 1W9, Tel:709-292-4220 Department of Environment and Conservation Water Resources Management Division,3rd Floor,Noton Bldg,133 Riverside Dr, PO Box 2006,Corner Brook,NL, A2H 6J8, Tel:709-637-2542 Green Bay Waste Authority Inc 160 Roberts Arm Rd,South Brook Gb,NL,A0J 1S0,Tel:709-657-2233

Nova Scotia Environment Canada Fl5-45 Alderney Dr,Queen Square, Dartmouth,NS,B2Y 2N6,Tel:902-426-9137 Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources PO Box 698,Stn Central,Halifax,NS,B3J 2T9, Tel:902-424-5935 Nova Scotia Dept.of Transportation & Public Works PO Box 186,Stn Central,Halifax,NS, B3J 2N2,Tel:902-424-5875 Nova Scotia Environment 205-219 Main St,Antigonish,NS,B2G 2C1, Tel:902-863-7389 Nova Scotia Environment 224-1595 Bedford Hwy,Bedford,NS, B4A 3Y4,Tel:902-424-2560 Nova Scotia Environment 295 Charlotte St,PO Box 714,Sydney, NS,B1P 6H7,Tel:902-563-2100 Nova Scotia Environment PO Box 442,5151 Terminal Road, Halifax,NS,B3J 2P8,Tel:902-424-3600

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Government Nova Scotia Environment 136 Exhibition St,2nd Floor,Kentville,NS, B4N 4E5,Tel:902-679-4367 Nova Scotia Environment PO Box 697 Stn Central,Air Quality Branch, Halifax,NS,B3J 2T8,Tel:902-424-2177 Nova Scotia Environment 12-218 Macsween St,Port Hawkesbury, NS,B9A 2J9,Tel:902-625-0791 Sydney Tar Ponds Agency PO Box 1028 Stn A,Sydney,NS,B1P 6J7, Tel:902-567-1035

Northwest Territories and Nunavut Dept Municipal & Community Affairs 600-5201 50 Ave,Yellowknife,NT,X1A 3S9, Tel:867-669-2377 GNWT Environment & Natural Resources PO Box 1320 Stn Main,Enr FB,Yellowknife, NT,X1A 2L9,Tel:867-920-3387 GNWT Public Works & Services PO Box 240,Fort Simpson,NT,X0E 0N0, Tel:867-695-7247 Public Utilities Board Of Northwest Territories 203-62 Woodland Dr,SS99,Hay River,NT,X0E 1G1,Tel:867-874-3944 Community and Government Services PO Box 200,Cambridge Bay,NU,X0B 0C0, Tel:867-983-4156 Department of Environment, PO Box 1000 Station 1360,Iqaluit,NU, X0A 0H0,Tel:867-975-7731 Department of Environment PO Box 2226,Iqaluit,NU,X0A 0H0, Tel:867-975-7733 Govt of Nunavut Public Works PO Box 002,Rankin Inlet,NU,X0C 0G0, Tel:867-645-8176

Ontario Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency Fl22-160 Elgin St,Place Bell Canada, Ottawa,ON,K2P 2P7,Tel:613-957-0039 Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission 280 Slater St,Ottawa,ON,K1P 5S9, Tel:613-995-2768 Environment Canada 930 Carling Ave,Env/Eng Services,Ottawa, ON,K1A 0C5,Tel:519-457-1470 Environment Canada 335 River Rd,Env Assess/Fed Progs,Ottawa, ON,K1A 0H3,Tel:416-739-4788 Environment Canada 49 Camelot Dr,Nepean,ON,K1A 0H3, Tel:613-952-8679 Environment Canada 59 Northface Cres,Investigation Section, Brampton,ON,L6R 2X9,Tel:416-739-5857 Environment Canada 3-845 Harrington Crt,Burlington,ON, L7N 3P3,Tel:905-333-0203 Environment Canada PO Box 5050 Stn LCD 1,Aquatic Ecosystem

72 | July 2008

Guide to Government Agencies & Associations Protection,Burlington,ON,L7R 4A6, Tel:905-336-4927 Environment Canada 4905 Dufferin St,Air Quality Research, North York,ON,M3H 5T4,Tel:416-739-4836 Environmental Commissioner of Ontario 605-1075 Bay St,Toronto,ON,M5S 2B1, Tel:416-325-0363 Environmental Protection Review Canada Fl1-240 Sparks St,Ottawa,ON,K1A 1A1, Tel:613-947-4060 Environmental Review Tribunal 1700-2300 Yonge St,Toronto,ON,M4P 1E4, Tel:416-314-4600 Ministry of Environment Fl1-113 Amelia St,Cornwall,ON,K6H 3P1, Tel:613-933-7402 Ministry of Environment PO Box 22032,RPO Cataraqui,Kingston, ON,K7M 8S5,Tel:613-540-6850 Ministry of Environment 1259 Gardiners Rd,Kingston,ON,K7P 3J6, Tel:613-540-6888 Ministry of Environment 345 College St E,Belleville,ON,K8N 5S7, Tel:613-962-3641 Ministry of Environment 300 Water St,PO Box 7000,Peterborough, ON,K9J 8M5,Tel:705-755-4328 Ministry of Environment 300-4145 North Service Rd,Burlington, ON,L7L 6A3,Tel:905-319-1389 Ministry of Environment Fl12-119 King St W,Air/Pesticides/Env Planning,Hamilton,ON,L8P 4Y7, Tel:905-521-7551 Ministry of Environment Fl9-5775 Yonge St,Water Resources, North York,ON,M2M 4J1,Tel:416-325-6966 Ministry of Environment Fl12-2 St Clair Ave W,Air and Noise,Toronto, ON,M4V 1L5,Tel:416-211-4621 Ministry of Environment Fl14-135 St Clair Ave W,Dep Minister’s Office,Toronto,ON,M4V 1P5, Tel:416-314-4463 Ministry of Environment 125 Resources Rd,Air Modelling/ Emissions,Etobicoke,ON,M9P 3V6, Tel:416-235-6230 Ministry of Environment 8728 Iona Rd,Iona Station,ON,N0L 1P0, Tel:519-873-5092 Ministry of Environment 1222 Ramsey Lake Rd,Air Quality Monitoring,Sudbury,ON,P3E 6J7, Tel:705-929-1080 Ministry of Environment Fl3-289 Bay St,Sault Ste Marie,ON, P6A 1W7,Tel:705-942-6306 Ministry of Environment PO Box 5150 Stn Main,Kenora,ON,P9N 3X9, Tel:807-468-2720 Ministry of Natural Resources 300 Water St,Great Lakes Branch, Peterborough,ON,K9J 3C7, Tel:705-755-2902

Ministry of Natural Resources 1450 7th Ave E,Upper Great Lakes Mgmt,Owen Sound,ON,N4K 2Z1, Tel:519-371-5924 Ministry of Natural Resources 400-70 Foster Dr,Science/Information Branch,Sault Ste Marie,ON,P6A 6V5, Tel:705-945-6703 Ministry of Natural Resources 221e-435 James St S,Upper Great Lakes Mgmt,Thunder Bay,ON,P7E 6S7, Tel:807-475-1375 National Round Table On The Environment 200-344 Slater St,Ottawa,ON,K1R 7Y3, Tel:613-943-0394 National Water Research Institute 867 Lakeshore Rd,Burlington,ON,L7R 4A6, Tel:905-336-4605 Walkerton Clean Water Centre 220 Trillium Court,Building Three,P.O. Box 160,Walkerton,Ontario N0G 2V0,Tel: 519881-2003,Toll Free:1-866-515-0550,Fax: 519-881-4947 Email: inquiry@wcwc.ca Website: www.wcwc.ca

Prince Edward Island Environment Energy and Forestry, Watershed Management Section,PO Box 2000 Stn Central,Charlottetown,PE, C1A 7N8,Tel:902-368-5000 Environment Energy and Forestry, Energy and Minerals,4th Floor Jones Building,PO Box 2000,Charlottetown,PE, C1A 7N8,Tel:902-894-0288 Environment Energy and Forestry, Forests, Fish and Wildlife,Frank Gaudet Tree Nursery,Box 2000,183 Upton Rd., Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368 4700 Environment Energy and Forestry, Pollution Prevention, Jones Building, 4th Floor,11 Kent Street, PO Box 2000, Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-5024 Environment Energy and Forestry, Water Management, Jones Building, 4th Floor,11 Kent Street, PO Box 2000, Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-5028 Environment Energy and Forestry, Investigation and Enforcement,PO Box 2000,Charlottetown,PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-4808 Fisheries, Aquaculture and Rural Development, Jones Building, 5th Floor,11 Kent Street, PO Box 2000,Charlottetown, PE,C1A 7N8, Tel:902-368-6330

Quebec Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec 4e-945 Av Wolfe,Quebec,QC,G1V 5B3, Tel:418-650-5115 Centre d’excellence de Montreal en Rehab Sites

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Guide to Government Agencies & Associations 3705 rue Saint-Patrick,Montreal,QC, H4E 1A1,Tel:514-872-4323 Environment Canada 105 rue McGill,Montreal,QC,H2Y 2E7, Tel:514-283-4252 Environment Canada 710-351 boul Saint-Joseph,Gatineau, QC,J8Y 3Z5,Tel:819-953-6161 Environment Canada 351 St Joseph Blvd,Gatineau,QC,K1A 0H3, Tel:519-956-9305 MAMR-Direction des Infrastructures 2e-10 rue Pierre-Olivier-Chauveau,Quebec, QC,G1R 4J3,Tel:418-691-2005 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 212 avenue Belzile,Rimouski,QC,G5L 3C3, Tel:418-727-3511 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 124-1re avenue ouest,Sainte-Anne-desMonts,QC,G4V 1C5,Tel:418-763-3301 Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 3950 boulevard Harvey, 4e étage,Saguenay, QC, G7X 8L6, Tel: 418-695-7883 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs 365-55e rue ouest,QC,G1H 7M7, Tel:418-644-8844 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 675 route Cameron,Bureau 200, Sainte-Marie,QC,G6E 3V7,Tel:418-386-8000 Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs 100,rue Laviolette,1er étage, Trois-Rivières,QC,G9A 5S9, Tel:819-371-6581 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 1579 boulevard Louis-Fréchette,Nicolet, QC,J3T 2A5,Tel:819-293-4122 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 770 rue Goretti,Sherbrooke,QC,J1E 3H4, Tel:819-820-3882 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 201 Place Charles-Le Moyne,2e étage, Longueuil,QC,J4K 2T5,Tel:450-928-7607 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 5199 rue Sherbrooke est,Bureau 3860, Montréal,QC,H1T 3X9,Tel:514-873-3636 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 850 boulevardVanier,Laval,QC,H7C 2M7, Tel:450-661-2008 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 100 boulevard Industriel,Repentigny,QC, J6A 4X6,Tel:450-654-4355 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 300 rue Sicard,bureau 80,Sainte-Thérèse, QC,J7E 3X5,Tel:450-433-2220

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Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 98 rue Lois,Gatineau,QC,J8Y 3R7, Tel:819-772-3434 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 180 boulevard Rideau,1er étage, Rouyn-Noranda,QC J9X 1N9, Tel:819-763-3333 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 818 boulevard Laure RC,Sept-Îles,QC, G4R 1Y8,Tel:418-964-8888 Ministère du Développement durable,de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 20 boulevard Comeau,Baie-Comeau,QC, G4Z 3A8,Tel:418-294-8888 Public Works & Govt Services 6b1-11 rue Laurier,General Standards Board,Gatineau,QC,K1A 1G6, Tel:819-956-1236 Recyc-Quebec, 200-7171 rue Jean-Talon E,Anjou,QC, H1M 3N2,Tel:514-352-5002 St. Lawrence Seaway 9200 boul Marie-Victorin,Brossard,QC, J4R 2G7,Tel:450-672-4115

Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Environment & Resource Mgmt, PO Box 1672 Stn Main,North Battleford,SK,S9A 3W2,Tel:306-446-7683 Saskatchewan Environment B21-3085 Albert St,Env Prot Branch,Regina,SK,S4S 0B1, Tel:306-787-0465 Saskatchewan Environment 107-3410 Park St,Regina,SK,S4V 2M8, Tel:306-787-8253 Saskatchewan Environment 206-110 Ominica St W,Moose Jaw,SK, S6H 6V2,Tel:306-694-3586 Saskatchewan Environment 102-112 Research Dr,Saskatoon,SK, S7N 3R3,Tel:306-933-6514 Saskatchewan Environment 108-1146 102nd St,North Battleford,SK, S9A 1E9,Tel:306-446-7987 Saskatchewan Research Council 422 Downey Rd,Saskatoon,SK,S7N 4N1, Tel:306-933-5663 Saskatchewan Water PO Box 1449,Martensville,SK,S0K 2T0, Tel:306-229-2593 Saskatchewan Water PO Box 281,Wakaw,SK,S0K 4P0, Tel:306-233-5645 Saskatchewan Watershed Authority PO Box 2133, 201 1st Ave E,Nipawin, SK,S0E 1E0,Tel:306-862-1754 Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 420-2365 Albert St,Regina,SK,S4P 4K1, Tel:306-787-0913 Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 330-350 3rd Ave N,Saskatoon,SK,S7K 6G7, Tel:306-933-7434

Government Saskwater PO Box 3003 Stn Main,Prince Albert,SK, S6V 6G1,Tel:306-953-2250

Yukon Territories Energy, Mines & Resources PO Box 2703,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2C6, Tel:867-667-3136 Environment Canada Env Protection 91782 Alaska Hwy,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 5X7, Tel:867-667-3400 Government of Canada PWGSC 105-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5, Tel:867-667-3946 Government of Yukon PO Box 39,Mayo,YT,Y0B 1M0, Tel:867-996-2852 Government of Yukon 9010 Quartz Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2Z5, Tel:867-667-5187 Govt of Yukon Env Health Services 2 Hospital Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 3H8, Tel:867-667-8391 Indian & Northern Affairs Canada 415-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5, Tel:867-667-3809 YTG Water Resources 202-419 Range Rd,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 3V1, Tel:867-667-3102 Yukon Government 310-300 Main St,Whitehorse,YT,Y1A 2B5, Tel:867-667-3223 Yukon Government PO Box 2703 Stn Main,Whitehorse,YT, Y1A 2C6,Tel:867-667-5425

Each issue of ES&E is now available on-line!

Visit www.esemag.com to download this issue, or any past issues you may have missed.

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Climate Change

BC hopes its new Climate Action Plan will dramatically reduce GHG emissions ritish Columbia’s Climate Action Plan outlines comprehensive strategies and initiatives that will help it reach its greenhouse gas emission reduction target by 33 per cent by 2020. It provides information on the many ways British Columbians can reduce energy consumption and save money while reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. The plan commits a total of $28.5 million over three years to a variety of pollution reduction initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through programs such as the new LiveSmart BC home retrofit incentives, which are designed to reward smart choices that save energy, water, fuel, time and money. It also outlines how British Columbia’s business sector can capitalize on an emerging and rapidly growing global green economy. The plan, which contains GHG emissions modeling by M.K. Jaccard and Associates Inc., uses conservative esti-

B

74 | July 2008

BC Premier Gordon Campbell (second from right) helped announce the province's new bioenergy strategy, which is part of its Climate Action Plan.

mates to outline how emissions will be reduced in each of the province’s major sectors. For example, the modeling is based on the price of oil averaging US $85 a barrel through 2020, a forecast that is significantly below the current price of oil. It is also based on the assumption that the revenue-neutral carbon tax does not increase beyond 2012, and assumes the use of existing and

available technologies. The plan addresses climate action in four key areas: entrenching greenhouse gas reduction targets in law; taking targeted action in all sectors of the BC economy; taking steps to help British Columbians adapt to the realities of climate change and educating and engaging British Columbians on climate action. The plan’s wide range of initiatives include $1.8 billion in innovative tax cuts funded by the revenue-neutral carbon tax, a new carbon emission cap and trade system and investments in emerging green technologies. The plan also includes the expansion of Citizens’ Conservation Councils to help build a network of grassroots climate actions in communities across the province. It describes province-wide actions that have been taken to date, along with strategies specific to seven sectors. For more information, visit www.gov.bc.ca.

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Hands-off approach to monitoring

Flo-Dar Radar Velocity Flowmeter operates above the flow and could save thousands a year at each site. It eliminates fouled sensors and the risk and expense of confined space entry. Provides highly accurate flow measurements under a wide range of flows and site conditions. Recipient of the prestigious Water Environment Federation Innovative Technology Award. Call to schedule a FREE demonstration. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com

Marsh-McBirney, a Hach Company brand, now offers Data Delivery Services (DDS) to provide users with a truly ‘hands-off’ approach to sewer flow monitoring - all from the comfort of their office. Current DDS customers are seeing significant savings as well as freeing their personnel for other tasks. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com

Tel: 416-491-9020, Fax: 416-491-2576 E-mail: admin@aols.org Web: www.aols.org

ACG Technology

ACG Technology

Association of Ontario Land Surveyors

Concrete arch bridges

Armtec provides BEBO concrete arch bridges in Québec, Ontario and Western Canada. Based on technology developed in Switzerland, BEBO arches are an economical alternative to cast-inplace concrete or structural steel bridges. They are available in a range of shapes with spans up to 31m. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com Armtec

Phoenix Underdrain System

• Optimizes vertical and horizontal pressure filters • Low profile, filtered water pick-up lateral orifice is <25 mm • Manufactured from corrosion resistant stainless steel • Custom hydraulic distribution • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution. Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI www.esemag.com

Stormwater solutions

Phoenix Panel System

Armtec provides a wide range of CONTECH stormwater quality management systems throughout Canada. Products include VORTECHS hydrodynamic separation systems and VORTFILTER filtration systems. These systems are among the best for capturing suspended solids, oils, grit and trash from stormwater runoff. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Removal of existing underdrain not required • Eliminates the need for filter gravel • Improves backwash distribution • Longer filter runs and lower turbidity effluent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com

Armtec

AWI

Manhole barrier New “All in One” manhole barrier with built-in tripod from Pelsue is small, lightweight yet offers the 5000 lb rating for fall arrest. It can be used with man-rated winches and/or self retracting lifelines. It was designed to fit inside most Pelsue one piece pop-up tents for inclement weather. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Safety

New stainless steel pumps Grindex’s new stainless steel pump line combines the integrity of years of tested design with the ingenuity and durability of new technology. Inox pumps can be used in applications that would destroy their aluminum predecessors. Their stainless steel construction enables them to endure pH values from 2 – 10, making them ideal for extreme environments with highly acidic or alkaline contents. They are ideal for use in copper mines, coal power plants, saltwater fish farms, shipyards, etc. Tel: 705-431-8585, Fax: 705-431-2772 E-mail: PB@claessenpumps.com Web: www.claessenpumps.com Claessen Pumps 75 | July 2008

Product & Service Showcase

“Above the flow” flowmeter


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Engineering Textbook The Handbook of Steel Drainage & Highway Construction Products has been reprinted and is once again available (January 2007). There are minor changes to the 2002 version. Most significant are design examples for large soil steel structures that illustrate procedures using Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC). Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Product & Service Showcase

One-pass trenches

DeWind provides one-pass installation of gravel filled trenches with simultaneous installation of horizontal HDPE screens near trench bottom; also, trenches for groundwater collection, free-product recovery, or air-sparging applications. Dewatering is generally not required. Depths to 35 feet building up to 57 feet in key trenches. Tel: 616-875-7580, Fax: 616-875-7334 E-mail: dewind@iserv.net Web: dewinddewatering.com DeWind Dewatering & Trenching

Underground stormwater detention

Stormwater management using large diameter corrugated steel pipe under parking areas is a cost-effective way to meet reduced runoff and environmental restrictions while allowing revenue producing services and commercial development. Comprehensive design software is available, FREE. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca. Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

One-Pass trenching

Life cycle management

With DeWind's One-Pass trencher technology, deep environmental horizontal collection trenches, reactive barriers, and slurry walls are installed in a single pass directly into contaminated water and soil. There is no need to dewater or remediate. Tel: 616-875-7580, Fax: 616-875-7334 E-mail: dewind@iserv.net Web: dewinddewatering.com

W@MTM - Life Cycle Management is an open and flexible information platform with on-site tools and services supporting you along your plant's life cycle. From engineering, procurement, commissioning through operation, maintenance and replacement of individual components, W@M provides up-to-date and complete information, including products of other instrument suppliers. Tel: 1-800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444 E-mail: info@ca.endress.com Web: www.ca.endress.com

DeWind Dewatering & Trenching

Endress + Hauser

Genuine parts Quick Ship program

SCADA-based monitoring

Gardner Denver offers Quick Ship programs for many common bearing and seal kits. Only genuine Gardner Denver parts can reliably meet the performance standards of the original blower design. This program ensures superior factory parts and fast delivery. Tel: 770-632-5000, Fax: 770-486-5629 E-mail: blowersolutions@gardnerdenver.com Website: www.gardnerdenver.com Gardner Denver Engineered Products Division

Glentel provides integrated MSAT and VSAT solutions for real-time mission critical communications and data management. SCADA solutions allow for monitoring and controlling vital water flows, and sending data from and control signals to PLCs, meters, valve and pump controls.

76 | July 2008

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Tel: 1-800-GLENTEL Web: www.Glentel.com Glentel Inc.

Sewer bypass pumping Sewer bypass pumping and applications requiring sound attenuation are ideal for GormanRupp Prime Aire model PA6C604045T-ESP. It offers flows to 2,750 USGPM, heads to 200 feet, 3-inch solids handling capability, sound attenuation and an environmental containment base.This pump has the ability to run dry indefinitely with no pump damage and is standard fitted for automatic float controlled operation. Tel: 519-631-2870, Fax: 519-631-4624 E-mail: grcanada@grcanada.com Web: www.grcanada.com Gorman-Rupp

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Technical Product Guide

Get the Right Mix

The Ultra V Series pump is a revolutionary solids handling, self-priming centrifugal pump, available in 3”, 4” and 6” discharge sizes. When system requirements exceed its basic, single stage performance range, it can be configured with a second stage, the UltraMate which increases maximum pressure up to 300 percent, and is simply mounted directly to the discharge of the basic model through an innovative transition chamber. Tel: 519-631-2870, Fax: 519-631-4624 E-mail: grcanada@grcanada.com Web: www.grcanada.com

The Grundfos Alldos DDI range was designed for accurate and precise dosing demands. Offering models with Flow Monitor makes this an all-in-one dosing solution. This product is closely examined and illustrated in this 39 page Product Guide. To receive your FREE copy, please email dmayorga@grundfos.com. Tel: 1-800-644-9599, Fax. 1-800-265-9862 Web: www.grundfosalldos.com

Grundfos is a global leader in pumps and pumping solutions and offers a complete range of metering pumps to provide you with “The Right Mix” of water treatment products. To request your FREE copy of this full colour 15 page brochure, please email dmayorga @grundfos.com. Tel: 1-800-644-9599, Fax. 1-800-265-9862 Web: www.grundfosalldos.com

Gorman-Rupp

Remote logging system

The dipperWave system is a state of the art local wireless remote downloading system for the Heron dipperLog groundwater data loggers. You can download and change the logger parameters from as far away as 1 km without even approaching the well. This system will download a dipperLog with a full set of 32000 data points in approximately five minutes. Tel: 800-331-2032, Fax: 905-634-9657 E-mail: info@heroninstruments.com Web: www.heroninstruments.com Heron Instruments

Tertiary filtration

The Hydrotech Discfilter is ideal for tertiary filtration (phosphorous removal) and wastewater reuse. It can be installed in existing basins and requires less footprint than other technologies. It consistently produces quality effluent with a simplified control system. Tel: 514-334-7230, Fax: 514-334-5070 E-mail: nmourad@johnmeunier.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com John Meunier www.esemag.com

Grundfos

Groundwater data logger The Heron dipperLog is the answer to your long-term groundwater level monitoring program. The dipperLog measures and records groundwater levels and temperatures over long periods of time. It is a high resolution, accurate (0.05% F.S.) datalogger available at an extremely economical price. Tel: 800-331-2032, Fax: 905-634-9657 E-mail: info@heroninstruments.com Web: www.heroninstruments.com Heron Instruments

Grundfos

HOBO water level logger

The HOBO Water Level Logger is a highaccuracy, pressure-based water level recording device that combines researchgrade accuracy and durability with a price tag that is roughly half the cost of most comparable solutions. Available from Hoskin Scientific Ltd. www.hoskin.ca Hoskin Scientific

Hollow fibre membranes

Extra-large mixers

Norit X-Flow Membranes offer high performance treatment for drinking water and tertiary treatment. XFlow's hollow fibre membrane is available in two configurations: XIGA™- Multiple membranes (up to 4) installed in horizontal membrane housings; Aquaflex-Single membranes installed in vertical membrane housings. Tel: 514-334-7230, Fax: 514-334-5070 E-mail: nmourad@johnmeunier.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com

Amaprop mixers for wastewater treatment come with extralarge, smooth-running propellers. The glass-fibre, reinforced epoxy resin propellers (diameter: 1.2 - 2.5 m) are virtually unbreakable. The large-dimension mixers can operate in activated sludge at depths of up to 30 m and at temperatures up to 40° C. Tel: 905-568-9200, Fax: 905-568-3740 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca

John Meunier

KSB Pumps 77 | July 2008

Product & Service Showcase

Solids handling pumps


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Recycling solution

Mixers

Green Machine Collection Depot™ is the solution for effective consumer recycling. With convenient storefront placements, Green Machine dispenses instant lamp and battery coupons after consumers dispose of old lamps and batteries. Cross-marketing options are available.

Neptune Mixer Company’s new Series HGL (430 RPM) mixers allow easy integration with standard intermediate bulk-containers or poly tote bins by use of an optional 2” 316SS bulkhead fitting. The HGL Mixer features a short shaft and a folding propeller that are constructed of 316SS and capable of fitting through a 2-inch opening. Tel: 888-3NEPTUNE, Fax: 800-255-4017 E-mail: pump@neptune1.com Web: www.neptune1.com

Tel: 630-778-6000, Cell: 630-470-2810 E-mail: john@marjonenvironmental.com Web: www.marjonenvironmental.com MarJon Environmental Investments

Product & Service Showcase

Granular media filters The DynaSand® continuous backwash, upflow, deep bed, granular media filters handle high levels of suspended solids, and may eliminate the need for pre-sedimentation or flotation. They have few moving parts, easily handle plant upsets, and require little operator attention and maintenance. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: canada@parkson.com Web: www.parkson.com

Neptune Mixer Company

Calibration cylinders ACCUDRAW Calibration Cylinders have been developed for the accurate calibration of metering pumps. Standard features include: • Translucent • Chemical and break resistant • Threaded or socket • PVC size 100 – 20000 ml • POLY sizes 100 – 4000 ml • PVC has dual scale USGPH and ml Tel: 905-333-8743, Fax: 905-333-8746 E-mail: primary@primaryfluid.com Web: www.primaryfluid.com Primary Fluid Systems

Parkson

Metering pumps

Hydraulically-actuated pumps

Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Microprocessor controls are easy to use, with backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment.

ProMinent’s ProMus hydraulicallyactuated pumps deliver reliable results in the harshest of environments, in accordance with API 675 standards. They have a capacity of 2.3 L/h (0.61 gph) at 241.3 bar (3500 psi) up to 384.2 L/h (101.5 gph) at 11 bar (160 psi).

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls 78 | July 2008

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls

Wastewater treatment

The Biolac® Wastewater Treatment System is an innovative activated sludge process using a long sludge age process to create an extremely stable, easily operated system. It offers high BOD removal, complete nitrification and the formation of a very stable waste sludge. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: canada@parkson.com Web: www.parkson.com Parkson

Injection quills PFS Injection Quills have been developed to allow chemical injection into the centre stream of the flow. Standard features include: • 6 materials of construction • Two standard sizes • Pressure to 3000 PSIG • Threaded or socket • Custom materials and sizes available. Tel: 905-333-8743, Fax: 905-333-8746 E-mail: primary@primaryfluid.com Web: www.primaryfluid.com Primary Fluid Systems

Underwater sampling RMSS offers an innovative solution for underwater sampling. Our Rossfelder Vibracorer uses contra-rotating dualeccentrics and highfrequency vibrations of 8,000 VPM, to core into the seabed. Optimum penetration is in the unconsolidated sediments of a marine environment, especially silts and clays. Tel: 604-947-RMSS (7677), Fax: 604-947-9500 Web: www.rmsoil.com Rocky Mountain Soil Sampling Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Sanitherm, a division of Wellco Energy Services, has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, preplumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint! Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: saneng@sanitherm.com Web: www.sanitherm.com Sanitherm, a division of Peak Energy Services

Grit chamber The Smith & Loveless PISTA® Grit Chamber maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies over a wide range of daily flows because of its exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete particles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in downstream basins, channels, weirs and piping. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

Trickling filters

Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, modular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759 E-mail: wbs@waterloo-biofilter.com Web: www. waterloo-biofilter.com Waterloo Biofilter www.esemag.com

Water treatment Siemens provides innovative water technologies: • Vantage® NF/RO Filtration Systems • TRIDENT® HSC and Trident® HS Packaged Water Treatment Systems • MEMCOR® Membrane Filtration Systems • CenTROL® Filter Systems • MULTIBLOCK® FilterUnderdrains Tel: 800-525-0658 or 724-772-1402 E-mail: information.water@siemens.com Web: www.siemens.com/drinking_water Siemens Water Technologies

Simple, cost-efficient and quiet dosing

Water treatmment Siemens also offers these technologies: • MULTICRETE® II Filter Underdrains • CONTRAFAST® Clarifier • GFH® Arsenic Removal Media • Barrier® M and Barrier® A UV Disinfection Units • OSEC® On-site Hypochlorite Generation System Tel: 800-525-0658 or 724-772-1402 E-mail: information.water@siemens.com Web: www.siemens.com/drinking_water

Siemens Water Technologies

Join pipe to 144 inches

Although it appears to be a solenoid pump, the Grundfos DMI is actually motor driven. Whichever model you choose, you get a sturdy, costefficient pump based on a well-proven synchronous motor design. The DMI range can handle feed rates from 0.3 to 18 l/h and pressures up to 232 psi (16 bar). Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-293-9774 E-mail: sales@spdsales.com Web: www.spdsales.com

Depend-O-Lok is the new standard for joining pipe to 144”. Engineered for restrained and unrestrained systems, Depend-O-Lok allows angular deflection and pipeline thermal expansion/contraction while maintaining seal integrity. Specify in systems to 600 PSI for strength, reliability and ease of maintenance. Tel: 905-884-7444 E-mail: viccanada@victaulic.com Web: www.victaulic.com

SPD Sales

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Disposable bailers

In-line filters

Waterra's Clear PVC EcoBailers are available in three sizes, 0.5" OD, 0.7" OD and 1.5" OD x 36" in length. These are high quality disposable bailers for quality sampling results.

Waterra now manufactures a 0.2 micron Inline Disposable Filter, the CAP300X2, which features 300 square centimetres of the same high quality PES media providing a fast and efficient, economical option for specialized filtering requirements.

Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: waterra@idirect.com Web: www.waterra.com

Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: waterra@idirect.com Web: www.waterra.com

Waterra Pumps

Waterra Pumps 79 | July 2008

Product & Service Showcase

Membrane bioreactor


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NEWS House of Commons adopts NDP leader Jack Layton’s Kyoto-Plus bill With the recent passage of NDP Leader Jack Layton’s private member’s bill, The Climate Change Accountability Act (Bill C-377), Canada’s House of Commons has become the first elected chamber in the world to adopt science-based targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80 per cent, from 1990 levels, by 2050. “This is a world first,” said Mr. Layton. “Our legislation sets tough but achievable targets that will ensure Canada does its share to avoid the dangerous two-degree increase in average global temperature that scientists warn us about.” To ensure Canada meets long-term pollution reduction targets, short- and medium-term targets are also enshrined in the law. The bill sets an interim target of 25 per cent reduction in greenhouse gases by 2020 and requires progress reports from the government every five years. “These are targets endorsed by world leaders, enshrined in legislation,” said Mr. Layton.

Newalta opens new haz-waste processing operation

At its Toronto facility, Newalta has created what it says is one of the most sophisticated labpack processing operations in North America. Using an automated process that improves safety and reduces the amount of operator exposure and physical handling required of labpack wastes, the operation can handle up to 25,000 labpacks per year and will serve customers throughout Ontario and Quebec. “Labpacks” are small quantities or containers of chemical waste, consolidated and specially packaged in drums, typically from the pharmaceutical industry, laboratories, research facilities, institutions and industrial businesses. The new “depacking” process in80 | July 2008

volves the use of two separate monitored reaction vessels for organic and inorganic waste, the inorganic portion of which is temperature-controlled. The operation also incorporates an automated crusher and plastics shredder to manage the original labpack waste containers, which provides a physical barrier to protect technicians from the reaction area. To minimize air emissions from collection vessels, process vapours are handled through either activated carbon absorbers or a two-stage scrubbing system. Process materials are reused or recycled whenever possible. Smaller portions of the waste material may be sent off-site for alternative safe disposal. www.newalta.com

Rick Wilson retiring as Executive Director of CAEAL

At the 2004 CAEAL AGM. Rick receives formal recognition of his leadership skills from his colleagues and team. Russ Calow (left) presents Rick (right) with a framed copy of the success stories poster, “The Essence of Leadership.”

Richard (Rick) Garth Wilson, PhD, will be retiring as Executive Director of the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories Inc. (CAEAL) this coming October. Rick was appointed the association’s Executive Director in August 1994. In 2001, he was called as a witness before the Walkerton Commission of Inquiry. In Part II of his report, Justice O’Connor praised CAEAL for its everyday achievements: “I heard evidence about the organization of the accreditation program and the types of review that CAEAL auditors carry out. I was impressed by the thoroughness of the verification process and the capacity to identify areas for improvement at individual laboratories. Although a quality assurance program adds time, effort, and cost to laboratory operations, the improvements in reliability,

validity, and record-keeping more than offset the increased expenditure. As such, drinking water testing should be performed only by accredited laboratories, as currently required under Ontario Regulation 459/00.” “For the nearly 200 people who work or volunteer for CAEAL, Rick has provided a workplace environment where we can attempt to do the right thing every day. And we have always had his permission to fail,” said Ned Gravel, CAEAL’s Manager of Quality and Training.

WEF weighs in on California biosolids litigation Recently, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) filed an amicus curiae (friend of the court) brief in the Kern County, California biosolids litigation. The brief was filed with the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and supports the position of three southern California public agencies that operate land application programs in Kern County and that are asking the Appeals Court to maintain a district court judge’s ruling that allows these programs to continue. WEF has a long-standing position in support of biosolids recycling, including support for land application. The outcome of the Kern County case has the potential to have a significant impact on biosolids programs in every state, not just the Ninth Circuit, because this will be the first appellate decision on whether biosolids bans are legal under the federal Constitution.

Hydro International acquires Eutek Systems Hydro International, a provider of stormwater, wastewater and combined sewer overflow products has purchased Eutek Systems Inc. Founded in the early 1970s, Portland, Oregon-based Eutek is a leading provider of high-performance equipment that removes fine grit, sugar sands, abrasives and fixed solids from wastewater streams. Hydro plans to maintain the Eutek brand and use the company’s Portland base as a platform to expand Hydro’s US wastewater business. www.hydro-international.biz

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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NEWS KSB Canada expands Alberta location Almost two years after opening an office in Alberta, KSB Pumps Inc. has moved into bigger premises to facilitate the company’s growth in that province. The new KSB field office is located in southern Calgary’s Midpark Court business center near Macleod Trail. It is close to major engineering and consulting companies. The office is headed by Morris Liu, Business Development Manager for Western Canada. www.ksbcanada.com

Edmonton to be site of world’s first industrial scale municipal waste-to-ethanol facility Edmonton will be home to the world’s first industrial scale facility to produce biofuels from municipal solid waste, having signed a 25-year agreement with GreenField Ethanol, Canada’s largest ethanol producer and Enerkem, a biofuels technology company. The $70 million biofuels facility will initially produce 36

million litres of biofuels per year and reduce Alberta’s carbon dioxide footprint by more than 6 million tonnes over the next 25 years - the equivalent of removing 12,000 cars off the road every year. The City of Edmonton and the Government of Alberta through the Alberta Energy Research Institute (AERI) are contributing $20 million to the facility. The City of Edmonton will also contribute $50 million to a related processing facility and research facility. AERI’s total contribution to all the components is $29 million. This new facility is said to be a first for both the biofuels and waste management industries, as is the agreement between a large urban centre and a biofuel producer to turn municipal waste into ethanol.

Mercury levels in BC salmon shown to be below guidelines A new study published in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry has found that levels of mercury and trace metals in both wild and farmed salmon from British Columbia are significantly below

health guidelines. Mercury levels tested in both farmed and wild salmon were well below consumption guidelines set by Health Canada. Maximum concentrations of other metals were also well below guidelines. Farmed salmon did not have significantly higher concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, copper, or cadmium than wild salmon. In fact, mercury concentrations in the flesh of wild salmon were threefold higher, probably because farmed fish have such rapid growth cycles, resulting in growth dilution. Compared to other foodstuffs, total mercury was found to be slightly higher in wild or farmed salmon than in chicken, beef, or pork but comparable to fruit, vegetables, honey, and eggs. Levels of other trace elements were lower in salmon than in other foodstuffs, and average dietary intake of mercury and trace metals from salmon remains low (0.05%–32%) compared to meat, poultry, fruit, and vegetables (68%–99%). To read the entire study, Mercury and Other Trace Elements in Farmed and Wild Salmon from British Columbia, Canada, visit: www.allenpress.com continued overleaf...

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NEWS Lafarge loses bid to stop hearing

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In a precedent-setting decision that will impact air, water and waste decisions throughout the province, the Ontario Divisional Court has ruled that a citizenled appeal of Lafarge Canada's plan to burn tires, plastics, bone meal and other waste in Bath, Ontario, will go forward. The Court rejected a last-ditch effort by the Ministry of the Environment and Lafarge to shut down an Environmental Review Tribunal hearing. Lake Ontario Waterkeeper & Gord Downie, Clean Air Bath, Loyalist Environmental Coalition, and members of The Tragically Hip won the right to appeal licences for air emissions and a waste site last year. The groups cited concerns about potential air pollution, water contamination, and human health impacts. The Ontario Divisional Court decided to hear the case after determining "the allegation that the tribunal erred in applying the test for leave is a matter of significant importance in this and other cases." The Court ruled in favour of Waterkeeper & Gord Downie and Loyalist Environmental Coalition on every issue. Its precedent-setting decision confirms the public's right to participate fully in environmental decision-making. It requires the Ministry of the Environment to consider the cumulative environmental effects of issuing an approval before doing so and to apply the precautionary principle to such decisions.

Research provides clarity on pathogen growth in dewatered biosolids The Water Environment Research Foundation has released a report on pathogens in anaerobically digested biosolids and the performance of various digester/dewatering combinations. The report is a follow-up to earlier testing that showed an increase of some indicator organisms immediately after dewatering at some facilities. The new work found no evidence of a corresponding increase of diseasecausing bacteria in most processes. Research looked especially at Salmonella, since it is the most reliably measured pathogenic bacteria in biosolids. WERF and its research partners iniEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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NEWS tially undertook this study in response to reports of increases in indicator organism counts following anaerobic digestion and dewatering at a few wastewater treatment facilities. The most recent research verified increases in indicator organisms following digestion and dewatering. But Salmonella was not found in biosolids following themophilic digestion, or dewatering by either centrifugation or filter pressing. Regrowth of Salmonella was observed in stored dewatered biosolids after Class B mesophilic digestion, a process which is not designed to destroy all pathogens. However, concentrations decreased over time when the biosolids were stored. The full results are available in the study report, Phase II and III: Evaluation of Bacterial Pathogen and Indicator Densities after Dewatering of Anaerobically Digested Biosolids. www.werf.org

Each issue of ES&E is now available on-line! Visit www.esemag.com to download this issue, or any past issues you may have missed.

Understanding the effects of carbon sequestration on groundwater The AWWA Research Foundation (AWWARF) has announced a new study to investigate the potential effect of underground carbon sequestration on groundwater resources. Currently undergoing examination as a method for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration entails separating carbon dioxide (CO2) from other emissions and injecting it into deep, underground natural storage areas such as oil and gas reservoirs, saline aquifers, or coal seams. The study will look specifically at the potential impacts that carbon sequestration may have on underground water sources. “Previous and ongoing research on carbon sequestration largely focuses on long-term efficiency for containing carbon emissions, without consideration of potential impacts on the water supply,” said Robert C. Renner, AWWARF executive director. “CO2 injected into underground formations could potentially leak into overlying water supplies, with associated implications for groundwater quality, or it may displace fresh water with saline water in aquifers. It’s very continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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NEWS Accurate and Innovative Laboratory Services Phone: 519-681-0571 Fax: 519-681-7150 Email: info@gapenviromic.com www.gapenviromic.com Internationally recognized laboratory – accredited under ISO/IEC 17025 Standard (CAEAL)

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important for carbon sequestration practitioners and regulators to consider potential impacts on groundwater supplies as the technology moves forward.” The need for the research is all the more urgent because the US EPA will propose regulations in the summer of 2008 for permitting full-scale carbon sequestration projects. Many industries that produce greenhouse gases view carbon sequestration as the leading technology for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Drinking water utilities may not yet be aware of the regulation’s current development or understand the potential implications of carbon sequestration for groundwater supplies. www.awwarf.org

Ontario bans cosmetic pesticide use

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A province-wide ban on the sale and use of pesticides is one step closer today with the passage of the Cosmetic Pesticides Ban Act by the Ontario legislature. Over the summer, the government will consult on the specifics of the ban, including: products to be banned from sale; ingredients to be banned from use; rules around exceptions for agriculture, forestry and golf courses, with conditions. The province will also develop rules for other exceptions, such as fighting West Nile virus, for example, and other health or safety issues. Once the ban is fully in place, it will take the place of existing municipal pesticide by-laws, bringing consistency across the province and protecting Ontarians regardless of where they live. The provincial law, unlike municipal by-laws, bans the sale of cosmetic pesticides, not just their use. It also sets out the rules for the transportation, storage and disposal of pesticides, requirements that municipal by-laws cannot control. The ban should take effect in spring 2009.

Lawn fertilizer restrictions for Manitoba Manitoba is the first province in Canada to enact legislation that restricts the application of lawn fertilizers containing phosphorus in residential areas, a key step in reducing the flow of excess nutriEnvironmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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NEWS ents into provincial waterways. Following public consultations last fall, the province will restrict the use of lawn fertilizer containing more than one per cent phosphorus by the beginning of 2009. Lawn fertilizers currently sold in Manitoba have phosphorus content as high as 20 per cent. Manitoba’s regulatory change to control fertilizer applications is modeled on similar regulations adopted by Minnesota in 2005. Minnesota’s controls resulted in a nearly 50 per cent reduction in phosphorus being applied in fertilizers to lawns in residential areas. As Manitoba soil already has high phosphorus concentrations, fertilizer containing phosphorus is in most instances not necessary to maintain a healthy lawn. Applications of fertilizers containing phosphorus would be permitted on a short-term basis for new lawns. Following the Minnesota model, the province will evaluate the effectiveness of the restrictions one year after their implementation. Introducing restrictions on lawn fertilizers containing phosphorus follows key recommendations of the Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board’s final report.

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Federal government releases new Chemicals Management Plan findings Tony Clement, Federal Minister of Health, and John Baird, Federal Minister of the Environment, have released preliminary findings for 16 chemical substances identified as high priorities for action under Batch 2 of the Chemicals Management Plan. Out of the 16 chemical substances, five are proposed "toxic" to the environment. Four of these chemicals are being considered for virtual elimination which aims to reduce the release of these chemicals to the smallest levels possible. In addition, five substances are being proposed as "not toxic" to the environment based on new information received from interested parties. The six remaining substances out of the 16 are proposed "toxic" to human health; however Canadians' exposure to these substances is very low. Potential toxicity to humans depends on the dose received and the continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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NEWS way a person is exposed to a chemical. The Government will work with industry to further reduce exposures to two of the six substances considered "toxic" to human health. While the remaining four substances can continue to be safely used without posing a risk to Canadians, the Government will apply special provisions so that these substances cannot be used in new ways that would increase exposure. www.chemicalsubstances.gc.ca

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Western provinces collaborate on water resource and conservation initiative Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba will cooperate to advance a Western Canadian water resource and conservation plan as a part of climate change adaptation. Saskatchewan Premier Brad Wall also called on his fellow premiers and territorial leaders to support an expanded national effort in the area of crop science research, as Canada continues to experience the effects of climate change. "Saskatchewan has historically led in crop science research, and with national support we need again to lead in this area in the future," he said. "Our growing season is now three weeks longer than it was in the 1960s, temperatures are warmer, and we need to invest in crop science.â&#x20AC;? In the forestry sector, Saskatchewan has asked for a national strategy on climate change adaptation, including managing research on the spread of the mountain pine beetle.

Pottersburg PCB storage site to be decommissioned In March 2008, the Ontario government announced funding for the safe destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the Pottersburg PCB storage facility as part of its commitment to reduce toxins. The Pottersburg site on Clarke Road in London is a closed, controlled, secure containment facility, owned and operated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE). The facility was initially created by Westinghouse Canada in 1984 by order of the MOE to contain PCBcontaminated material cleaned up from Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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NEWS their property. The containment site was later purchased by the MOE in 1985 to store PCB-contaminated soil originating from a number of other industrial properties, as well as sediments cleaned up from Pottersburg Creek and Walker Drain in London. There are 35,500 cubic metres (78,000 tonnes) currently stored on the site. The government says that timing of this clean-up is now ideal as there are safe and effective methods for permanently destroying PCBs, for significantly less cost than 10 years ago. There are no known health risks associated with the ongoing storage of the PCBs at this secured site. The facility consists of four containment cells lined with a non-permeable synthetic liner and about 24 inches of clay. The lined cells are surrounded by a sand/gravel leak detection zone contained within a secondary seal of clay. Removal and destruction of the PCB waste is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2009. The site’s return to industrial use standards is scheduled for completion by the end of 2010.

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Kitimat-Summit Lake pipeline project approved Pacific Trail Pipelines Limited Partnership has received an environmental assessment (EA) certificate for their $1.1 billion Kitimat-Summit Lake Pipeline project. BC Environment Minister Barry Penner and Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources Minister Richard Neufeld made their decision to grant the EA certificate, after considering a comprehensive review led by BC’s Environmental Assessment Office. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 463-kilometre, 91-centimetre diameter buried pipe between Kitimat and Summit Lake, including one new compressor station along the proposed system that will connect with the existing Pacific Northern Gas natural gas pipeline and convey natural gas from the proposed Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (KLNG) terminal to the Spectra Energy gas transmission system. Before the project may proceed, the proponent must also obtain the necessary provincial and federal permits and aucontinued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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NEWS thorizations. The provincial environmental assessment certificate contains numerous commitments that the proponent must implement throughout various stages of the project. Key commitments include: • Assess the erosion potential of soils and implement adequate erosion controls. • Mitigate potential loss or degradation of instream fish habitat. • Monitor water quality in the Morice Water Management Area. • Develop a hydrostatic test plan to manage discharge water quality, temperature and withdrawal volumes. • Mitigate potential effects to wildlife and wildlife habitat. • Manage public access into previously inaccessible areas.

NWT developing water strategy The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR), in collaboration with Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) NWT Regional office, is seeking input into the development of a

Northwest Territories (NWT) Water Resources Management Strategy to address the current and potential challenges to water resources management. “Wetlands, deltas and waterflows throughout northern Alberta and the southern Northwest Territories are changing, and the increased demand for energy and development requires that our concerns about water are heard and acted upon”, said ENR Minister Michael Miltenberger. “A Water Resources Management Strategy should help us ensure that development activities do not substantially alter waters that flow into, or through, the NWT in quality or quantity.” A discussion paper entitled Northern Voices, Northern Waters: Towards A Water Resources Management Strategy for the NWT presents a sense of what the future management of NWT waters could be. It sets out both the form of a future Water Resources Management Strategy and the kinds of actions that could be undertaken to develop and implement a strategy. NWT residents, Aboriginal governments and organizations, and interested stakeholders will all have the opportunity to contribute to the development of a strat-

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egy. An NWT Water Resources Management Strategy will incorporate traditional knowledge and recognize and respect Aboriginal and Treaty rights, land claim agreements and self-government agreements. Consultations with Aboriginal governments and interested stakeholders will continue into the fall of 2008 and a final strategy will be completed in March 2009.

BC develops water sustainability plan “More than 40 actions and targets in a new government-wide plan will help all sectors, communities and British Columbians keep the province’s water healthy and secure, now and in the future,” says Environment Minister Barry Penner. Living Water Smart is a blueprint for cultural, environmental, industrial, community and agricultural changes that will help safeguard the province’s water resources into the future. Drawing on a variety of policy measures, including planning, regulatory change, education, and incentives like economic instruments and rewards, the plan commits to new actions and builds on existing efforts to protect and keep BC’s water healthy and secure. BC’s economy and industry continue to grow, and its population is expected to increase by another 1.4 million people in the next 25 years. In some areas, like the Okanagan and Gulf Islands, seasonal water shortages are already challenging community water systems, and the fish and aquatic ecosystems that depend on these systems for survival. Climate change and its related effects, like the mountain pine beetle and changing water cycles, are also adding to the pressures on fresh waters. www.livingwatersmart.ca

Report identifies PEI’s potential energy efficiency A study on energy efficiency has the potential to save as much as $151 million annually by 2017 through changes to energy use in the residential and commercial/institutional sectors in Prince Edward Island. The study, performed by the Vermont Energy Investment Corporation on continued overleaf...

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E-mail

Website

ACG Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 . . . . . .sales@acgtechnology.com . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.acgtechnology.com AECOM Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 . . . . . .communications@uma.aecom.com . . . . . .www.aecom.com AGAT Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.agatlabs.com Armtec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32, 33 . . . . . .sales@armtec.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.armtec.com Associated Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . .mahl@ae.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ae.ca Association of Ontario Land Surveyors . . . . . . . . .65 . . . . . .admin@aols.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.aols.org AWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 . . . . . .info@awifilter.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.awifilter.com Backup-Power.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 . . . . . .info@backup-power.ca

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.backup-power.ca

CAEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 . . . . . .ngravel@caeal.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.caeal.ca/t_intro.html Canadian Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Waste & Recycling Expo . . . . . . . . . . . .68 . . . . . .arnie.gess@cwre.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cwre.ca CH2M HILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 . . . . . .ch2mhillcanada@ch2m.com . . . . . . . . . . .www.ch2mhillcanada.com Claessen Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 . . . . . .pb@claessenpumps.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.claessenpumps.com Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 . . . . . .info@cspi.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.cspi.ca Delcan Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 . . . . . .water@delcan.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.delcan.com

Advertiser INDEX

Company

Page 89

Denso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 . . . . . .sales@densona.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.densona.com Endress + Hauser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 . . . . . .info@ca.endress.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ca.endress.com Envirogate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61, 62, 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.envirogate.ca Geneq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 . . . . . .info@geneq.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.geneq.com Glentel Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.glentel.com Greatario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 . . . . . .bbaird@greatario.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.greatario.com Greenspoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.greenspoon.net Grundfos Alldos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.grundfos.ca/ESEF

Ad Index

Heron Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 . . . . . .info@heroninstruments.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.heroninstruments.com Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hoskin.ca/ysi600 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hoskin.ca/waterlevel Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hoskin.ca/weather IPEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . .marketing@ipexinc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ipexinc.com ITT Water & Wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ittwww.ca MarJon Environmental Investments . . . . . . . . . . .54 . . . . . .john@marjonenvironmental.com . . . . . . . .www.marjonenvironmental.com Master Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.mastermeter.com McNally Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 . . . . . .hamilton@mcnallycorp.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.mcnallycorp.com Mueller Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.muellercanada.com Parkson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 . . . . . .canada@parkson.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.parkson.com Primary Fluid Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . .primary@primaryfluid.com . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.primaryfluid.com ProMinent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . .sales@prominent.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.prominent.ca Rocky Mountain Soil Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 . . . . . .info@rmsoil.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.rmsoil.com Saf-T-Flo Chemical Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 . . . . . .info@saftflo.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.saftflo.com Sanitherm, a Division of Peak Energy Services . .34 . . . . . .saneng@sanitherm.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.sanitherm.com Serpentix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 . . . . . .sales@serpentix.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.serpentix.com Siemens Water Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 . . . . . .better.water@siemens.com . . . . . . . . . . . .www.siemens.com/hs Smith & Loveless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 . . . . . .answers@smithandloveless.com . . . . . . . .www.smithandloveless.com Stantec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 . . . . . .info@stantec.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.stantec.com Sustainable Development Technology Canada . . .42 . . . . . .z.tompa@sdtc.ca

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.sdtc.ca

Syntec Process Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . info@syntecpe.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.syntecpe.com Victaulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.victaulic.com Water for People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58, 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.waterforpeople.org Waterloo Barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 . . . . . .info@waterloo-barrier.com . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.waterloo-barrier.com Waterra Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 . . . . . .waterra@idirect.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.waterra.com WCWWA Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.wcwwa.ca XCG Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 . . . . . .jobs@xcg.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.xcg.com XCG Training & Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 . . . . . .dinar@xcg.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.xcgtraining.com York Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.york.ca

www.esemag.com

89 | July 2008

Use this information to contact our advertisers directly

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NEWS behalf of the government of Prince Edward Island, also identifies eight transportation strategies that it says could lead to annual savings of more than 40 million litres of fuel. It was released by the Office of Energy Efficiency. The study will be used as a blueprint to help government identify new programs and initiatives to help Islanders deal with the ever rising cost of energy and to help reduce our ecological footprint. www.gov.pe.ca/oee

Reducing stormwater damage to streams in urbanizing areas When an area is changing from rural to urban, city planners try to measure the impact of development on a whole host of "quality of life" factors. What will happen to traffic patterns? Will the community need new schools? Who will provide water and sewer services? With how much capacity? These are measurable questions. On the other hand, the pressure of urbanization on ecological factors has historically been tougher to gauge, and so researchers are developing objective and reliable measurements that cities can use in planning. Urbanization has a profound effect on fish and other aquatic life in rivers and streams. Stormwater runoff reacts differently when land use changes, and can make drastic changes to the aquatic environments of the newly urban streams. One solution is to find a system that city planners can use to measure, in advance, the impact of land changes on the health of the watershed. A group of researchers set out to develop a systematic approach that could evaluate the impacts of land use patterns and stormwater management strategies on the health of streams in developing areas. The research, funded and managed by the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF), resulted in a report entitled Protocols for Studying Wet Weather Impacts and Urbanization Patterns. The protocols, designed for urban stormwater management agencies, could prevent any severe ecological deterioration that threatens urban streams. The main protocol is an eight-step process that integrates data collection and analysis with mathematical modeling of runoff 90 | July 2008

from existing and planned urban development. The results determine how biologic health responds to the urbanization. In addition to the full protocol, the report also provides a simpler process that does not require extensive data collection. www.werf.org

Drinking water safety initiative unveiled Charlene Johnson, Minister of Environment and Conservation, and Dave Denine, Minister of Municipal Affairs, recently announced the Drinking Water Safety Initiative for Newfoundland and Labrador. The initiative will develop a comprehensive overview of drinking water quality issues in municipalities and communities in parts of the province, and develop a sustainable plan of action to deal with those issues. Building on the principles of the Multi-Barrier Strategic Action Plan, the Drinking Water Safety Initiative outlines several options to improve upon drinking water safety in the province and is based on a comprehensive evaluation of every public water supply in the province. A significant component of this initiative includes the installation of Potable Water Dispensing Units. These units are small scale water treatment plants from which the residents of small communities are provided high quality drinking water. To implement the Drinking Water Safety Initiative, $2.9 million has been allocated to the Department of Environment and Conservation over the next three years. In Budget 2008, $1.025 million was allocated, and $925,000 will be spent in each of the following two years. A further $6 million annually within the Department of Municipal Affairs will be targeted towards investment in infrastructure to provide clean, safe drinking water, including potable water dispensing systems.

Alberta recognizes companies for environmental excellence Companies that model environmental excellence in Alberta are being recognized through EnviroVista, a voluntary program among industry, municipal governments and the Alberta government to promote enhanced environmental per-

formance. This year, Alberta Newsprint Company in Whitecourt joins Alberta Envirofuels Inc. Isooctane Plant in Edmonton as an EnviroVista champion. Envirofuels Inc. was the first facility in Alberta to become an EnviroVista champion and is now in its second year of a 10-year commitment. Alberta Newsprint Company is a pulp and paper mill located in Whitecourt, and an EnviroVista leader since 2006. Alberta Newsprint started operating in 1990 and produces more than 269,000 metric tonnes of product each year. It is Albertaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first paper mill, and uses state-of-the-art environmental technology. The EnviroVista program has two participation categories - Leader and Champion. Leaders have at least five years of exemplary emissions performance, an audited environmental management system and no Alberta Environment enforcement action in the past five years. These criteria are required for each year that companies remain in the program. To become an EnviroVista champion, a facility has to meet the leader criteria and commit to further environmental enhancements under a 10-year stewardship agreement. Any industrial or municipal facility licensed under Alberta's Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act is eligible to apply for the EnviroVista program. www.environment.alberta.ca

Grundfos Canada announces two staff appointments Grundfos Canada Inc. recently announced two staff appointments. Milt Tillich, who has been with Grundfos for 11 years, has been appointed Canadian Director of Sales for Residential Markets. He has a background in the groundwater pump industry, and experience in the heating industry. Mr. Tillich is also an active board member of CAPM. Aubrey Hatch has been with Grundfos for 17 years and has been appointed Canadian Director of Sales for Engineered Products. He has extensive sales experience in the commercial HVAC and industrial sales markets. www,grundfos.com

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Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine – August 2008  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine – August 2008  

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