Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine – April 2007

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March 2007

Official CANECT 2007 Showguide

- Page 78

Evolution of land reclamation in Alberta Sizing stormwater treatment systems Alternatives for CSO control Arsenic in groundwater Spring Conference Previews



Ergo - the Greeks had a word for it Editorial comment by Tom Davey

10 How old computers pose environmental and security risks 14 Brownfields – goldmines or landmines? It’s entirely up to you 16 Functioning EMS, a vital part of response to trends in legislation 18 It's in the trash – multi-family waste composition study tells all 20 Our aging water and wastewater systems need new investment and management 22 Equipment upgrade cuts maintenance over 75% 24 Entrapped air flotation process treats food plant wastewater 26 Expenditure on filtration system results in fast payback 28 How to check out check valves 32 Wind power increases 27% 33 Environmental engineering has lost a major player 34 Water For People using innovative positioning technologies 36 BC wastewater plant upgrade for enhanced phosphorus removal 38 Cover Story - Evolution of land reclamation in Alberta 41 Getting buy-in from staff for a laboratory quality system 42 New technology for in situ treatment of hydrocarbons, salts and metals 44 Hybrid willows provide renewable energy 46 Germany leads in “green power” technologies 48 Arsenic in groundwater – sources, effects and occurrences in Canada 54 Particle size matters when sizing stormwater treatment systems 56 A healthy beginning for the Wawa Water Treatment Plant 58 Centrifugal sand filtration boosts energy efficiency 60 High-rate retention treatment facility for CSO control 64 Jet aerators save money and reduce operating digester volume 66 Spring Conference Previews 70 Using oxygen releasing compounds for treatment 98 In search of someone to be the Minister of the Environment

ISSN-0835-605X March 2007 Vol. 20 No. 1 Issued March 2007 ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.

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DEPARTMENTS Environmental News . . 98-104 Classifieds . . . . . . . . . . . 98, 99 Product Showcase . . . . . 72-77 Professional Cards . . . 100-104 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

2007 CANECT Show Guide Registration Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Floor Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84, 85 Exhibitor listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86-94

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Comment by Tom Davey

Ergo - the Greeks had a word for it ons ago I first heard the word ergonomics at a Canadian Science Writers meeting. It was not then a word in common currency but seemed to perfectly combine the twin disciplines of industry and economics, ergon being the Greek word for work as a prefix to the word economics, a discipline long known as the dismal science. It was so named following Malthus’ famed prediction that the world’s increasing populations would, inevitably, lead to mass starvation. It is ironic that it is obesity, the polar opposite of starvation, that has become the curse of most advanced countries.This is thanks to agricultural engineering which provided a quantum leap in crop production along with irrigation projects and botanical research which yielded an abundance of inexpensive foods. But the explosive advances in engineering technology brought new dangers along with benefits. For example, increasingly serious accidents resulted as high powered cars evolved. On the other hand, technology, by way of seatbelts and air bags, has dramatically reduced injury and death rates. In industry, increased threats have been created when operators made mistakes, perhaps accelerated by poor nomenclature. Indeed the tragedy of Chernobyl was suspected to have been triggered by operational mistakes - not just design flaws - which might have been avoided by operators. My introduction to ergonomics was a painful one. As a young man I worked as a lathe operator in a motor engineering company but the lathes and I were ill suited to each other. Small capstan lathes, in particular, required operators to bend over for hours as they performed repetitive and monotonous work. Over time, many veteran operators, especially taller ones, developed bad posture from constantly bending over their machines. The medical term for this is kyphosis, another Greek word.



One day I saw a striking poster from a safety committee which graphically depicted the situation. Under a headline which showed a large drawing of a capstan lathe, it had the outline of what it termed the ideal size for a perfect lathe operator. The drawing showed a short, squat man about four feet tall, yet with very long arms! That engineering company is long gone but even before its demise it was working to resolve ergonomic problems for its employees! It is now common in factories and office buildings to colour code pipes to differentiate between the different types of fuel, water and wiring. It is interesting to note that not long ago, the traditional gray or light blue coveralls of workers were almost perfect camouflage at night, exposing them to the dangers of night time traffic. Today, workers installing or repairing infrastructure on our roads, now have bright, reflective coveralls. This simple colour coding, plus reflective warning signage, undoubtedly has saved many lives and prevented injuries. But poor ergonomic designs and graphics have probably led to many unnecessary tragedies. One striking

example emerged during investigations of military aircraft crashes during landings many years ago. Investigators had blamed some landing crashes on “pilot error.” Later research found that two control knobs on some planes were located close together. One was similar to the one controlling the landing gear. It was thought that this proximity of control knobs, especially during darkness or bad weather, may have resulted in pilots selecting the wrong handle during landings. The ergonomic solution was to change the knob on one control handle into the shape of a simple triangle, so pilots would immediately know which handle controlled the landing gear or other vital function. This simple change, I believe, almost immediately cut down on some landing accidents - so, ergo, the Greeks really did have a word for it. Tom Davey was President of the Canadian Science Writers Association when he first heard the word ergonomics. Contact: tom@esemag.com

The Greeks also have stunning architecture. March 2007 | 7

Environmental Science & Engineering Editor TOM DAVEY E-mail: tom@esemag.com (No attachments please) Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Design & Production CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick Stanley Mason, P.Eng. British Columbia Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to chris@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $4.50 GST), All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag. com

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Reader Feedback Hi Tom, Re: “Walkerton Rebounds with World Class Training and Research Facilities” September 2006 Issue Thank you for a great article, I am receiving great comments. Regards, Dr. Saad Jasim, P.Eng. Chief Executive Officer Walkerton Clean Water Centre Dear Tom: Re: “The Real Truth About Drinking Water” January 2007 Issue The word ‘sediment’ in that ad (as in “free of sediment”) has always bugged me. I spent a dozen years working as a water treatment plant operator (class 3 plant), and having anyone equate drinking water with anything ‘toilet’ is silly. Even with a disclaimer. I’m glad I’m not the only one who took offence at Brita’s ignorance. Thanks again Tom. Your column is the first place I go to in ES&E. Regards, Jayson Ford, C.Tech Saskatchewan Watershed Authority

Erratum Notice Paracel Laboratories On page 92 of ES&E’s January 2007 issue, the website shown for Paracel Laboratories Inc., was incorrect.

Hello Tom, Re: “Tackling Non-Point Source Pollution in Alberta” November 2006 Issue Just wanted to thank you for your help with my Alberta story in the November issue – it looks fantastic. I look forward to working with you again in the future. Cheers, Sean McNeely, Imbrium Systems


Re: “New compost facility converts wastewater biosolids to valuable soil amendments” Page 20, January 2007 issue The caption for the photo should have read, “Aerial view of the Kelowna-Vernon compost facility”.

Indachem Inc. On page 103 of ES&E’s January 2007 issue, the website shown for Indachem Inc., was missing. Below is the company’s full listing, showing their website address.

Below is the company’s Directory listing, showing the correct website address.

PARACEL LABORATORIES LTD. 300-2319 St Laurent Blvd Ottawa ON K1G 4J8 (613) 731-9577 Fax: (613) 731-9064 E-mail: drobertson@paracellabs.com Web site: www.paracellabs.com Contact: Dale Robertson, Lab Director Paracel Laboratories is a full-service environmental laboratory located in Ottawa. We offer the following analytical services: organic, inorganic, mold and fungi, bacteria and allergens. We support a broad spectrum of projects for professional clients from across Canada, including major environmental consultants, all levels of government and industrial manufacturers.

INDACHEM INC. 1040 Martin Grove Road Unit 3 Toronto ON M9W 4W4 (416) 743-3751 Fax: (416)743-2038 E-mail: ballen@keddco.com or rao@keddco.com Web site: www.Indachem.com Contact: Brian G. Allen, Manager, Max Rao, Sales Engineer USF/Stranco ”PolyBlend” dry/liquid polymer feed systems; “Strantrol HRR” chlorination/dechlorination controllers; ”Water Champ” gas/liquid chemical induction and mixing systems; ABEL high pressure pumps; ADI International H2S & arsenic removal; Cornell non-clog centrifugal pumps; Halogen emergency valve actuators; Muddy River oil/water separators and DAF; NuTech odour control technology; Westfalia centrifuges.

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by Dennis Maslo

hat is to be done with your firm's computers when they are no longer of use to you? In active use, sitting atop a desk or in a server room, computers are environmentally benign, while providing information storage and processing capacity critical to professionals and businesses. When not in use, their function is often reduced to simply taking up space, or, worse, getting in the way of a firm’s IT and office managers. Unfortunately, the potential consequences of disposing of computers at their (deemed) end of life is far more complex. If disposed of in an uncontrolled manner, computer equipment poses both information security and environmental risks. This is true regardless of the working condition of the equipment. Environmental risks Computers house a significant proportion of the periodic table of elements. If mixed with soil or water, in a landfill for example, those elements will become chemically active and react to generate toxic compounds that contaminate soils and leach into ground water supplies. According to government fiqures, Canadians sent 157,000 tonnes of e-waste (succinctly defined as any item with an electrical cord attached) to landfill in 2002. Only 9,000 tonnes beyond this figure were disposed of through recycling. It is estimated that by 2010 e-waste needing disposal will reach 206,000 tonnes.


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These statistics are based on reported figures. They do not include illegal exports to countries with more lax environmental policies and practices, and other unacceptable (illegal or unethical) means of disposal. The reality of ewaste is much more massive. In response to the environmental threat posed by the landfilling of ewaste and other ill-conceived disposal methods, a number of e-waste management firms have formed to “steward” these products at their end-of-life. Although these organizations selfdescribe as environmentally conscious recyclers, not all demonstrate track records that merit the title. Thus, some responsibility for the appropriate handling of e-waste lies with firms and professionals when they select an e-waste manager. Firms and professionals can effectively pre-screen recyclers, at a minimum, with a few simple questions regarding the processes they employ and their outlets for equipment and materials: • How is the equipment processed? • Where are end-products and residual materials sent? The optimal answers to these questions include themes of locally oriented processing (minimizing or eliminating negative forms of off-shoring), an emphasis on reuse over shredding/conventional recycling, the presence of a well-refined environmental management system, and complete (100 per cent) diversion of equipment from landfill.

A distinguishing feature of some of the more serious e-waste management firms is their expertise in information technology. This expertise means that they can often repair, refurbish or upgrade equipment and extend its useful life. In the course of doing so they can reuse and redistribute functioning equipment that conventional recyclers would merely shred into a kind of electronic mulch. E-waste firms specializing in reuse and refurbishing separate truly obsolete and irreparable technology from that which remains useful. The former is sent to metal and plastic refiners to be reformed as raw material for new manufacturing, while the latter is reconditioned or upgraded to once again be used by consumers or organizations. Besides avoiding becoming toxic waste in a landfill, refurbished equipment is made accessible to a much broader cross-section of Canadian society through secondary markets and donation to charities and not-for-profits, thus helping to bridge the digital divide. This may be one of those rare win-win examples often touted in contemporary business schools. Information security But environmental considerations form only one-half of the equation of safely disposing of your firm's old equipment; the other half is the security of the data stored on that equipment. The issue of security grows out of the value of your data to others, i.e., percontinued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


sons or organizations into whose hands you would never want your important data to fall. Your computer systems contain a wealth of sensitive data - valuable client lists, private information regarding the personal and professional lives of your clients, and your firm's own proprietary information. Such information can be manipulated by a variety of competing interests to the disadvantage of your firm, and your clients, and so it must be carefully guarded – both when your hardware is in active use, and equally upon retirement. So, how safe from unauthorized

access is the data on those computer systems being sent for recycling? There is in fact an interesting paradox around the issue of data security and integrity. When a file has been lost, or corrupted, it often seems that nothing in the world can bring it back! (unless a data recovery specialist is on hand, or a backup solution in place). On the other hand, when a firm disposes of computers, unless the appropriate precautions have been taken, the data on such systems is as accessible to unauthorized eyes, as it once was in your office. Some e-waste processors, regardless of how well they have grappled with the

environmental impacts of their activities, have neither the necessary technical knowledge nor the required processes to adequately address essential matters of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), client confidentiality, and privacy in general. A number of methods of varying sophistication and thoroughness are available to diligent e-waste managers (and the clients they serve) to ensure that private or sensitive data never becomes accessible to unwelcome guests. These methods cater to a range of information security sensitivities.

DYNASAND® Continuous Backwash Sand Filter For over 19 years, both municipalities and industry have chosen Parkson's DynaSand Filter over all other filters. It's a clear favourite due to its lack of moving parts, ability to handle plant upsets, and low levels of operator attention and maintenance required. Parkson has the process know-how and experienced staff to support your filtration needs. We're the leader in continuous-cleaning sand filtration technology, with over 4,000 installations throughout North America. Call us.

www.parkson.com • Canada@parkson.com Tel 514-636-8712 • Fax 514-636-9718 205-1000 St-Jean • Pointe-Claire, QC H9R 5P1 An Axel Johnson Company

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

E-Waste Data destruction techniques can be classed in a hierarchy according to their sophistication and thoroughness: Class 1 Security (Low) • Applying mechanical means, such as a hammer, repeatedly; • Degaussing (also known as demagnetizing). Class 2 Security (Medium) • Puncturing with a drill bit or nail; • Mechanical shredding of disks. Class 3 Security (High) • Melting and refining of disks; • 3-35 passes of the disk with disk sanitation software. Class 1 processes are easily susceptible to omissions, or inadequate damage, requiring additional diligence in verifying data destruction, as well as having a strong potential for leaving significant tracts of data undamaged. In general, while these methods can be effective they should not be given serious consideration for systematic data destruction programs for reasons relating to the difficulty with which they can be consistently and reliably applied. Class 2 processes render the data irrecoverable without the investment of significant data recovery facilities, and then only with a limited chance of par-

tial data recovery. On a case-by-case basis, costs of data recovery per disk would begin in the range of several thousands of dollars and rapidly accelerate upwards as the level of damage increases. That being said, the likelihood of useful data recovery is variable, but limited. Where the cost of a security breach (reputational, monetary, etc.) exceeds the cost of potential data recovery Class 2 processes should be considered an intermediary step towards Class 3 processing; a number of third-party service providers can complete this class of processing at your facility or theirs. Class 3 processes are in line with the practices of the RCMP and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD 5220.22M). Melting provides an unequivocal finality which will speak to those with a zero tolerance policy for risk and a desire for tangible/observable destruction - though observation at a smelting facility will be out of reach for most and would be attained by a third-party, likely via outsourcing of Class 2 processing. Use of disk sanitation software is similarly final in that the entire disk is overwritten with arbitrary values; this

process can be executed by third-party specialists visiting your site, or at their facility and offers the advantages of greater data-owner oversight and reliability of processing. Such a hierarchy clearly provides competent e-waste management firms and their clients with a range of appropriate options when handling end-oflife equipment. Most importantly, it allows your firm, as an informed client, to decide on a destruction technique equal to the importance of your data. The key to ensuring the informatically and environmentally sound management of your e-waste is to diligently pre-screen your e-waste management company. Where expertise and capacity permit, it is often quite reasonable to conduct information destruction inhouse. For recycling and higher levels of information destruction, select a firm that can demonstrate, in person if necessary, how the information is destroyed, and that the equipment is not ending up as toxic waste in landfills, domestic or off-shore. Dennis Maslo is with Computation Ltd. Contact: dmaslo@computation.to

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Process Products and Instrumentation - SOLUTIONS www.esemag.com

March 2007 | 13


Brownfields – goldmines or landmines? It’s entirely up to you By Dec Doran n today’s real estate market, environmental concerns have dramatically changed the way in which contaminated industrial and commercial properties are purchased, sold and leased. Concerns about current and historic soil and groundwater contamination problems on Brownfield sites have created, in the minds of some prospective purchasers what may be described as environmental paranoia. Some prospective purchasers believe that buying or developing contaminated Brownfield sites are high risk ventures. Even minor contamination with little or no environmental adverse effects can ruin an otherwise sound real estate deal. The financial risks associated with purchasing these sites will increase significantly if the contamination has migrated off-site and impacted neighbouring properties. Current Brownfields legislation does not protect prospective purchasers from lawsuits and liability for cleaning up off-site contamination. Some heavily contaminated Brownfield sites have been removed from the marketplace due to regulatory, economic and liability concerns related to past and present contamination problems. Depending on the levels and the extent of the contamination, obtaining reasonable financing and insurance can also present a number of problems on these sites. Some lending institutions are particularly concerned about the potential financial risks and environmental exposures associated with foreclosing on contaminated properties. Legal fees, expensive litigation, the costs of hiring an environmental consultant to carry out what may be an expensive environmental site assessment, and the costs of cleaning up a contaminated site can all add to the overall financial risks for banks and lending institutions. To avoid these risks, some lending institutions and private investors are simply not providing mortgages on contaminated properties. Depending on the location, the type and the extent of the contamination, in some cases, the clean-up costs can exceed the value of the property. Few prospective purchasers are willing to buy contaminated properties “as-is” where there is any risk that the clean-up costs could exceed the value of the property or interfere with the redevelopment of the site. Inheriting contaminated Brownfield properties or receiving contaminated Brownfield sites as gifts can also lead to unexpected financial problems for the new owners, even if the new owners did not cause the contamination. Under current legislation, as soon as the new owner takes possession of a contaminated property, they may also assume liability for cleaning up any on-site and off-site contamination. What might appear to be a valuable real estate asset can quickly turn into a major financial liability if the purchaser fails to take some precautionary measures. To avoid problems when purchasing contaminated Brownfield sites, and to minimize the potential for financial surprises, purchasers should conduct proper due diligence as a condition of purchasing the property. The cardinal rule for the


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Brownfields purchaser is to have a clear understanding of the location of the contamination, the different types of contamination, the levels and the extent of the contamination, including any offsite contamination. Once a detailed profile is completed, the next step is to look at all of the available remedial options for controlling the clean-up costs. In most cases, alternative remedial technologies are available and all remedial options should be considered before implementing any remedial action plan. For example, the levels of contamination may not be significant but the location of the contamination may be a critical factor in determining the overall clean-up costs. If the contamination is located under footings or support walls of a multistory building, or access to the contamination is difficult, extensive underpinning may be required if the contaminated soils are excavated. Alternative technologies are available in these situations and alternative remediation options should always be considered. If the main source of the contamination is under a cement floor and the building is occupied or equipment cannot be moved to access the contamination under the building, removing the concrete floor to excavate the contaminated soils could disrupt normal business activities and result in indoor air quality problems for employees. Several alternative remedial options are available and they should be considered.

Few prospective purchasers are willing to buy contaminated properties “as-is” where there is any risk that the clean-up costs could exceed the value of the property or interfere with the redevelopment of the site. Timelines for cleaning up contaminated sites are likely to be one of the most critical factors in determining the overall clean-up costs. For contaminated soils, the most common procedure is to excavate the soils and transport them off-site for disposal (dig and dump method). Unless there is some urgency to complete the soil remediation, the use of alternative technologies, or a combination of soil remediation technologies, can reduce the overall clean-up costs anywhere from 25% to 50%. If the groundwater is contaminated (potable and nonpotable), depending on the type and the levels of the contamination, expensive “pump and treat” systems could be in operation on the site for years. In most cases, simply combining other groundwater remediation technologies with a pump and treat system could reduce the overall clean-up cost by as much as 50% and reduce the timelines to complete the site remediation by up to one third. The most critical due diligence factors for purchasing contaminated Brownfield sites are the selection of an experienced and competent contractor/environmental consultant with the proper insurance. Selecting the wrong contractor or environmental consultant could quickly turn a goldmine into a landmine. It has happened to others. It could happen to you. The only thing more expensive than hiring an expert in site remediation is hiring an amateur. Dec Doran is president of Complete Environmental Solutions Ltd, Richmond Hill, Ontario. Contact: oilspill@sympatico.ca www.esemag.com

March 2007 | 15


Functioning EMS a vital part of response to trends in legislation By James Hartshorn, M.Sc., MBA, CEA

ntario’s proposed new spills legislation is a symptom of a new, tougher attitude towards planned and unapproved, and unplanned mishaps, which affect the environment. It is symptomatic of an increasingly command and control attitude being adopted by federal, provincial and municipal regulators in response to a number of high profile environmental mishaps. This is forcing companies to take a closer look at their environmental practices. The legislation, which has been published in draft for public review and comment, is promulgated under the Environmental Enforcement Statute Law Amendment Act and applies to all MISA-regulated industries in the Province. It is an absolute liability law, which introduces immediate and substantial penalties on polluters depending on the gravity of the spill. There is a component of the penalty that applies if it can be shown that there was a monetary benefit to the polluter resulting from the release. This might include, for example, a planned release to avoid having to transport a waste contaminated liquid to an off-site facility for processing. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment, which had put a January 12, 2007, deadline on its request for public comment, plans to have the final legislation effective on May 1, 2007. So where does a company’s environmental management system (EMS) come into play? Despite the absolute liability it places on the polluter, this legislation is one of the first in Canada to encourage the adoption of a formal EMS. The saving grace of the legislation is that it holds that, if a company can demonstrate that it was duly diligent in its efforts at preventing spills, through an effectively implemented


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EMS, the assessment for the “gravity” portion of the fine may be substantially reduced. Clearly, the legislators believe that an effectively implemented EMS is a tool that can substantially mitigate the likelihood and consequence of a spill event. Members of many industries agree, and have invested significant human and financial resources in applying standards such as ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 to their environmental and health and safety management systems. The core elements of these international standards are compatible with the

management system. Only then can the company be deemed to have exercised “all reasonable precautions.” Going beyond a minimalist approach to implementation, the development and implementation of an EMS to a standard such as that defined by ISO 14001 is strategic. It can be used as a management tool to help identify and research new technologies that may ‘leapfrog’ more traditional and less sustainable technologies. It is most effective when fully integrated with quality, health and safety systems and used as a navigational tool to support decision-making. It can be used

Clearly, the legislators believe that an effectively implemented EMS is a tool that can substantially mitigate the likelihood and consequence of a spill event. management systems’ expectations of the proposed new Environmental Penalties legislation. An effective spills plan adopts many of the key elements of these standards, specifically the need to: • Identify hazards and risks • Assign responsibilities • Define human and other resources • Recognize limitations • Promote training and awareness • Prescribe key activities and actions • Schedule drills and inspections • Require analysis and reporting Even for companies that have developed a sound EMS, experience indicates, that in some cases, EMS documents sit in forbidding-looking binders on a shelf, unread and largely ignored. Key systems’ documentation is necessarily dynamic, to keep up with frequentlychanging procedures, work instructions, objectives and responsibilities. The mitigating elements of the proposed Environmental Penalties regulations are not satisfied by a “been there, done that” approach to environmental management. Effective implementation is key. It holds that the EMS must be an integral part of the company’s business

to help organizations steer through the maze of financial and non-financial indicators available to measure business performance. Going one step further, the EMS can support progress toward sustainable development. It provides a general framework for action, and is flexible enough to allow for the incorporation of ‘beyond compliance’ and ‘beyond environmental’ initiatives. It can help engage and manage relations with neighbouring communities, regulators, shareholders and other stakeholders. Engaging these stakeholders and informing them of your efforts to mitigate the potential for spills events – in other words enhancing transparency of your environmental management activities – will go a long way towards protecting goodwill and your company’s “social licence to operate” in the event of a significant spill event. James Hartshorn is an environmental management consultant with Golder Associates Ltd. Contact: jhartshorn@golder.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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By Maura Walker

orting people's garbage is nothing if not entertaining. In the past we've found great big bags of trimmings from grow ops, mink stoles, and we can always anticipate things like sharps and chemicals. But in our recent study of multi-family waste for the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) what emerged from the trash ranged from the


18 | March 2007

mundane (food scraps, plastic wrap, etc.) to the downright disturbing: what would someone in an apartment be doing with a goat's head? The flesh-covered skull weighed in at 14.8 kg, and was promptly recorded in the "anomalous" category! As the percentage of multi-family residences in the GVRD rises to unprecedented levels - 60% of housing stock by 2015 - information on the waste

management characteristics of this sector is becoming increasingly important. Because private haulers generally service apartment and condominium buildings and their garbage is combined with waste from businesses such as offices, shops and restaurants, garbage and recycling habits of apartment dwellers have been difficult to monitor. Although there are recycling pro-

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Solid Waste grams in place at all apartments and condos in the GVRD, without a waste composition study it was impossible to tell how well the system was functioning. As part of the preparation process for their waste management plan, the GVRD engaged Gartner Lee to do a large-scale waste management audit to determine the composition and amount of the solid waste and recyclable material generated by an average multi-family residential unit. Gathering this baseline information helps to determine how well the current recycling programs are operating and where the opportunities for future waste diversion will be. The study consisted of a waste and recycling composition analysis of 100 buildings and a telephone survey. While many previous multi-family studies in North America looked at up to 10 buildings, the breadth of this study was unprecedented. The sorting team conducted the sampling and sorting over 25 days, sorting the samples into 12 primary categories and 104 secondary categories. Daily sample delivery schedules were timed to match the buildings' regular collection day to achieve maximum load size (without alerting the residents, whose habits may have changed in anticipation of sorting scrutiny). The greatest challenge in conducting this study was the grueling, sometimes gruesome sampling regime. Generally sorting crews can handle about five days of up "close and personal" with garbage. But twenty-five days of sifting through garbage in the winter is enough to finish off the most persevering of team members. Waste loads from selected buildings were brought to the sampling crew at designated sorting locations - which were covered, but not always heated. The enthusiastic young sorters we recruited from the Environmental Youth Alliance were committed to doing the job well. Even so, it was not a job for the faint of heart or weak of stomach. We lost one team member right off the bat, long before the goat's head surfaced. Other obstacles to effective sorting included power outages, sample pick up coordination nightmares, and even a fire at one of the transfer stations. The telephone survey revealed more about residents' attitudes and behaviours, particularly about recycling. In a single-family study, you can correlate garbage to a specific home, but in a multi-family situation, it is difficult to know how the building functions. We asked about infrastructure elements www.esemag.com

such as garburators and garbage chutes that might affect habits. We also asked whether the units were rental or condominiums, how residents obtain information about the recycling program, and whether there were problems with the current system. The survey results showed a surprisingly low number of residents interested in a compostable waste (e.g., food scraps, coffee grounds, old cut flowers) collection system. Public access to recycling containers at downtown buildings decreases the relative quantity of material in the recycling stream by allowing scavengers to access deposit-bearing containers. Other than that, the survey results showed minimal variation between rental and condo, suburban to downtown, and high-rise to low-rise behaviour. The study revealed no significant differences between the waste composition of any of the following: the geographic sub-regions of the GVRD; high-rises and low-rises; and condos and rental apartments. Interestingly, the presence of garburators in buildings did not seem to impact the quantity of organics in the waste stream. We also compared the multi-family waste composition to the single-family waste stream and found that multi-family buildings dispose of a higher percentage of diapers and animal litter but lower percentage of organic waste (likely reflective of folks with yards to rake). We estimated that each multi-family unit disposes of 511 kg per year of waste, or approximately 266 kg per person, similar to rates found in previous multi-family studies in North America, with Toronto averaging 215 kg and Seattle weighing in at 237 kg per capita per year. The total generation (waste disposed + waste recycled) is estimated to be 228,000 tonnes per year. The recycling rate was 19% (through the municipally-provided collection programs). The ongoing issue of waste disposal and the urgency of diversion make a forward thinking waste management plan crucial to the health of our cities. Gartner Lee was delighted to provide a piece of the decision-making puzzle to the GVRD. As for the sorting team, it's safe to say the experience was unforgettable. Maura Walker is a senior environmental planner with Gartner Lee. www.gartnerlee.com March 2007 | 19


Our aging water and wastewater systems need new investment and management ash-strapped governments all across Canada need to encourage private investment in water and wastewater systems if the nation wants to better protect public health and the environment, urges a new study by The Fraser Institute. While the exact number of Canadian communities with substandard water and wastewater systems is unknown, problems across the country have been well documented, says the report, Water and Wastewater Treatment in Canada: Tapping into Private-Sector Capital, Expertise, and Efficiencies. Names such as Walkerton, North Battleford and Kashechewan represent the most serious failures of drinking water delivery systems, while significant amounts of wastewater on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts are discharged into receiving waters with little if any treatment. The report points out that the failure of Canadian water systems is due prima-


20 | March 2007

rily to the age of the systems, a growing population that exceeds the capacity of the systems, poor management and illtrained staff, lax regulation, and a lack of capital and operating funds. “For many years, local governments have refused to raise water prices to sustainable levels, thereby starving their water systems of much needed capital for upgrades,” said Elizabeth Brubaker, Executive Director of Environment Probe and author of the report. “Clearly we can’t count on the status quo to meet the challenges facing our water systems. Governments need to consider the benefits provided by private investment and private expertise.” Brubaker said the estimated cost for maintaining, refurbishing, and expanding Canada’s water and wastewater infrastructure in the coming decades could be as much as $90 billion, an investment the public sector has been unable or unwilling to provide. By encouraging private investment,

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Infrastructure public funds would be freed for other purposes. Financial risks would be transferred from the public to the private sector, and private capital has historically been used more efficiently than public capital. Although Canada has limited experience with privately-funded water infrastructure, there is clear evidence of success. Moncton, New Brunswick, saw immediate benefits from private involvement when it contracted USF Canada to finance, design, build, and operate a stateof-the-art water filtration plant in 1998. That plant was built for at least 25 per cent less than the city had planned to spend. Walkerton and the surrounding municipality of Brockton recently concluded a service agreement with Veolia Water Canada. The fixed-fee contract, renewable after five years at the municipality’s discretion, includes operations, maintenance, and management of the municipality’s three drinking-water systems and its wastewater treatment plant. The report also suggests the federal government can play a significant role in facilitating private-sector involvement by encouraging private operation or oversight of Canada’s worst run water

facilities, those on First Nation reserves. Across Canada, the federal government can educate decision-makers and the public about the benefits of private involvement, and help develop models for the effective economic regulation of water and wastewater services. It can also enforce existing health and environmental standards, prompting municipalities to seek assistance from those with greater expertise and ensuring that those providing that expertise perform satisfactorily. Although people often associate privatization with deregulation, or a loss of control, the privatization of water utilities does not in any way imply deregulation. On the contrary, it goes hand-inhand with a new focus on regulation, Brubaker said. “A private owner or operator is inherently more accountable – to provincial regulators, the public, municipal governments or the market. The optimal model for success is private financing and operation with public regulation.� Contact: ElizabethBrubaker@nextcity.com



March 2007 | 21

Wastewater Treatment

Equipment upgrade cuts maintenance over 75% ublic works and operations management at a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Merritt, British Columbia, report a reduction of routine maintenance time for screenings processing equipment by over 75% through the installation of a design upgrade. The upgrade, an Auger Monster®, aided in restoring optimal BOD levels along with other benefits realized upon installation. The original version was installed in 1999 after the plant lost district landfill privileges, and its performance had begun to slip due to wear. Joe Matias, the Plant’s Senior Operator, elaborated about the time savings and process improvement. “Our routine maintenance of the screenings processing equipment is much easier,” he reported. “It now only takes a half-hour to an hour, while before, it required at least half a day. With the grinder blades now mounted on the unit instead of on its supporting frame below the sewage level, we no longer have to re-direct raw sewage while we pump down the channel to get to the blades.” “Meanwhile,” he continued, “we’ve returned to the 150-250 mg/l BOD levels we need to optimize plant operation, which we had begun to lose, among other benefits, when the original grinding unit showed signs of wear after


about five years of service in a plant that does not have a grit remover. “With the new design featuring stainless steel in place of standard steel and plastic components, we are expecting much longer service life at a high performance level, while pursuing the installation of a separate grit remover that will help further extend the life of the unit, along with other equipment in

“We had a 150 mm microscreen process to remove biosolids during the primary treatment stage which we trucked to the city’s permitted landfill,” he said. “We joined the regional district landfill when the city decommissioned their site in 1996. Then they shut down their septage lagoon in 1998, and no longer took screenings with biological (fecal) content. So we had to put some-

Our routine maintenance of the screenings processing equipment is much easier. It now only takes a half-hour to an hour, while before, it required at least half a day. the plant. We’re now back to filling a bag of processed screenings about the size of a 45 gallon (170 l) drum within two weeks, for easy disposal.” The 1.5 mgd (250 m3/h) plant was originally commissioned in 1963 as a secondary treatment plant with tertiary treatment via ferrous chloride-induced phosphorous extraction. The plant has been through six size upgrades - the latest completed in 2000. It currently serves about 3,500 connections, about 95% residential, and the remainder includes saw mills, planer mills and light industrial sites. The plant’s former senior operator, Ed Morris, who retired in 2003, recalled the original installation of the JWC screenings processing equipment, and the benefits it provided.

thing into the plant to remove the screenings. “I had already been interested in the JWC equipment, which I had seen in provincial seminars and trade magazines,” he continued, “since we were getting less than 100 mg/l for BOD. It’s a lot harder to maintain a plant like ours at those levels. We also considered a cutter pump, but had limitations in considering that among other alternatives, because we really couldn’t house any other kind of equipment with our piped-in process laid out on a 60’ x 200’ (18m x 60m) footprint. “Once installed, we saw immediate results through improved biomass and were able to undertake a six-month optimization of our entire process. “With BOD now ranging from 150-

Processed screenings are conveyed up the Auger to a trash receptacle. 22 | March 2007

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Wastewater Treatment 250 mg/l, typically at 200 mg/l, we started running more smoothly, and were less subject to stress or upset to the biological process. “Input surges from rain or melt were now less of a problem, and we experienced less clogging of pumps and other equipment by textile, plastic, and rubber solid waste, now being taken care of by the grinder part of the Auger Monster. It also enabled us to get rid of the microscreen, and a press we had for dewatering screenings.” The Auger Monster, manufactured by JWC Environmental in Costa Mesa, California, incorporates a lifting spiral with patented Muffin Monster® grinding technology. Combining the benefits of fine screening with the high-flow capability of bar screens, the Auger Monster removes ground solids from the wastewater stream. As solids are conveyed and washed, soft organics pass through the Auger’s perforated screen and are returned to the channel. The remaining solids are washed, dewatered and compacted. The Auger Monster removes ground solids from the wastewater stream.


Contact: jwce@jwce.com

March 2007 | 23

Wastewater Treatment

Entrapped air flotation process treats food plant wastewater

By Joe Ward

General Mills facility in Wellston, Ohio, the world’s largest producer of frozen pizzas.

Entrapped Air Flotation sludge raft.

uring the summer of 2004, a challenge confronted Darin Davis, the Environmental Manager of the General Mills facility in Wellston, Ohio. He needed to figure out a way to turn 90 million gallons of murky pond water into clear water with no more than the 8 mg/l of suspended solids (TSS) level required by the city’s publicly-owned treatment works (POTW). The company needed to drain the entire 33-acre lagoon to make it possible to remove the sludge and land apply it. However, they wanted to avoid trucking the water, because of the high cost and the potential environmental impact. Treating the lagoon water in the plant’s wastewater treatment system was not an option. General Mills has a permit to discharge 700,000 gallons per day of treated wastewater into the creek, but nearly all of this capacity is utilized for the Wellston plant’s manufacturing operations. Two options remained: trucking the water away or discharging the water into the city’s POTW. The POTW required that total suspended solids (TSS) not exceed 8 mg/l, and yet the TSS in the lagoon water typically measured in excess of 200 mg/l. The readings could fluctuate to double that value after spring runoff or during high-algae growth periods in the summer months. Davis and his team approached GE Water & Process Technologies whose engineers proposed using Entrapped Air Flotation (EAF), a relatively new technology. EAF improves upon conventional Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF), a


24 | March 2007

nearly-century-old wastewater treatment method widely used in a host of industrial applications primarily for liquids, solids, and oils separation. Conventional DAF uses pressurized gas to separate solids and oil from a water stream. Entrapped Air Flotation does not rely on pressurized air, but rather air introduced under atmospheric conditions, and in conjunction with treatment chemistry, allows precipitated contaminants to entrap the air bubble and facilitate separation from the bulk water. To optimize performance, the engineers conducted laboratory tests on water samples from the lagoon, using a wide variety of chemical formulations. As a result of this testing, GE Water & Process Technologies recommended the application of KlarAid™ IC1187, an inorganic coagulant, and PolyFloc™ AE1138, a high molecular weight flocculant. “The EAF system proved to be an excellent solution,” said Charles Camp, Supervisor of Wastewater Treatment Plant, Wellston General Mills. “Despite the highly variable and difficult-to-treat feedwater, we maintained an average flowrate of about 300,000 gallons per day, right through the cold winter, and we never exceeded the stringent TSS

standards set by the POTW.” One of the many challenges presented by this project was the lack of potable water at the site. Unfiltered water from the lagoon was employed as “drive water” in the EAF process. Despite concerns that the unfiltered water would be harmful to pumps and other components, the EAF systems performed without failure. Davis calculates that General Mills saved approximately $5 million by avoiding the expense of trucking the lagoon water. “We also saved another $150,000, because the water removal project was completed three months ahead of schedule,” Davis said. “It turned out that we needed this additional time for the sludge removal operation, because we ended up removing double the amount of sludge from the bottom of the lagoon compared to our original estimates.” The lagoon has been drained, and all of the sludge has been used to enhance the soil of the surrounding farmland and former strip mines in the area. In short, the project was a great success. Joe Ward is with GE Infrastructure Water & Process Technologies Contact: Joseph.ward@ge.com

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Expenditure on filtration system results in payback measured in days t is likely that the light bulbs in your home or office came from one glass plant located in central Kentucky. Nearly 10% of all the glass bulbs used to make incandescent light bulbs in the world are manufactured at this one location. In addition to these bulbs they make borosilicate hard glass for spotlight lenses and reflectors, and lead glass parts used in the manufacture of fluorescent tubes. Glass plants use enormous amounts of water in their processes. This facility had tried recycling water in the past but ran into great difficulties. Heat exchangers would plug, cooling jackets would clog with debris, and instruments used to detect the level of molten glass in furnaces would overheat when cooling water lines choked off. Production decreased, wastage increased and labor costs ran rampant. The expedient answer was to use potable water passing through the facility just one time then release it to the environment through a permitted discharge. However, when this route was


26 | March 2007

Two Orival Model ORG-060-LS automatic filters.

taken, purchased water consumption immediately doubled. Nearly a quarter of a million dollars (US) a year was being spent on water alone. Resident engineers began focusing on the problem. After evaluating a number of alternatives, Tom Broderick, Maintenance Manager, decided to install automatic self-cleaning screen filters in the pump house to remove sediments and suspended solids from the detention pond near their offsite dis-

charge. This filtered recycle water was then sent back to the plant at flow rates varying from 800 to 1800 (US) gpm for use in cooling vacuum pumps and other on-site uses. Because the two vertical turbine pumps took up so much space in the pump house and forklift access to periodically pull these pumps was necessary, most styles of filter could not fit into the available space. Broderick chose two Orival Model ORG-060-LS automatic filters for the job since they were vertical in orientation and used little flow for the selfcleaning process. The vice president of Orival personally inspected the installation, making a few efficiency adjustments to the controls. The company’s water bill has decreased by $10,000 per month since installing the new filters. They are ready to install filters in another application to cut municipal water consumption even more. Contact: filters@orival.com

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How to check out check valves By Mike Shorts, MBA, M.Sc. heck valves are probably the most misunderstood valves ever invented. Mention check valves to most plant personnel, the typical response is “they don’t work.” In fact, some personnel may well have taken out the internals or repiped the system to avoid check valves. This article will explore the basics of check valves, how they work, what types there are, how to select and install them, how to solve their problems, and, finally, why they are not always the cause of the problem. Simply put, a check valve allows flow in one direction and automatically prevents back flow (reverse flow) when fluid in the line reverses direction. They are one of the few self-automated valves that do not require assistance to open and close. Unlike other valves, they continue to work even if the plant facility loses air, electricity, or the human being that might manually cycle them. Check valves are found everywhere, including some homes. If you have a sump pump in the basement, a check valve is probably in the discharge line of the pump. Outside the home they are found in virtually every industry where a pump is located. Like other valves, check valves are used with a variety of media: liquids, air, other gases, steam, condensate, and in some cases, liquids with fines or slurries. Applications include pump and compressor discharge, header lines, vacuum breakers, steam lines, condensate lines, chemical feed pumps, cooling towers, loading racks, nitrogen purge lines, boilers, HVAC systems, utilities, pressure pumps, sump pumps, wash-down stations, and injection lines. How they operate Check valves are flow-sensitive and rely on the line fluid to open and close. The internal disc allows flow to pass forward, which opens the valve. The disc begins closing the valve as forward flow decreases or is reversed, depending on the design. Construction is normally simple with only a few components such as the body, seat, disc, and cover. Depending on design, there may be other items such as a stem, hinge pin, disc arm, spring, ball, elastomers, and bearings.


28 | March 2007

Size matters: two different check valves at a compressor station.

An example of an in-line check valve. This valve is also known as a nozzle check or silent check valve.

Internal sealing of the check valve disc and seat relies on fluid back-pressure as opposed to the mechanical force used for on/off valves. Because of this, allowable seat leakage rates are greater for check valves than with on/off valves. Metal sealing surfaces generally will allow some leakage while elastomers such as Buna-N and Viton provide bubble-tight shutoff (zero leakage). Because of this, elastomers should be considered for air/gas media, where chemically compatible, and low-pressure sealing. So what is the ideal check valve? Regardless of type or style of valve, the longest trouble-free service will come from valves sized for the application, not the line size, whereby the disc is stable against the internal stop in the open position or fully closed. When these conditions are met, no fluttering of the disc will occur, resulting in premature failure. Unfortunately, many check valves are selected in the same way on/off valves are selected - based on line size and the desire for the largest Cv (the number of US gallons of water at 60ºF) available. This ignores the fact that,

unlike on/off valves, the flow conditions determine the internal performance of the check valve since its disc is always in the flow stream. As mentioned previously, unlike on/off valves, check valve internals are flow-sensitive. If there is not enough flow, disc movement occurs inside the valve, since the disc is always in the flow path. This results in wear, potential for failure, and a higher pressure drop than calculated. Whenever a metal part rubs against another metal part, wear is a result, which leads to eventual failure of the component. A component failure can result in the valve not performing its function, which in the case of a check valve, is to prevent reverse flow. In extreme cases, failure could result in the component or components escaping into the line, causing failure or nonperformance of other valves or equipment in the line. Typically, pressure drop is calculated based on the check valve being 100% open as with on/off valves. However, if the flow is not sufficient to achieve full opening and the check valve is only partially open, the pressure drop will be greater than calculated since the flow passage is restricted by the disc being in the flow path. In this situation, a large rated Cv actually becomes detrimental to the check valve (unlike with on/off valves), resulting in fluttering of the disc and eventual failure. Such is not the case with some other valves. With a gate valve, for example, if the valve is fully open, the wedge is out of the flow path and the flow through the valve does not affect the continued overleaf...

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Valves performance of the wedge whether that flow is low, medium, or high. Types There are many types of check valves in use today. Some of the more popular types include: ball; dual plate or double-door; spring assisted in-line or nozzle or silent; piston or lift; and swing checks. As with other types of valves, specialty check valves can be found for special applications. While no one type of valve is good for all applications, each has its advantages. Take time to contact the manufacturer to assist in selection of the best check valve, especially if you are incurring problems with whatever type of check valve is currently installed. Selection Among the many factors to consider when selecting a check valve are material compatibility with the medium; valve rating (ANSI); line size; application data - flow, design/operating conditions; installation - horizontal, vertical flow up or down; end connection; envelope dimensions, especially if replacing an existing valve to avoid pipe modifications; leakage requirements; and spe-


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cial requirements such as oxygen cleaning, NSF, NACE, CE Mark, etc. Problem solving When replacing a check valve it helps to ask the following simple questions: • Why am I replacing this valve? • What is the problem? Sometimes we get so busy or absorbed in other things, we forget that the cause can help with the solution. Common check valve problems include noise (water hammer), vibration, reverse flow, sticking, leakage, missing internals, component wear, or damage. However, it is worth mentioning that normally the real cause is the wrong style check valve for the application. In such cases, the problem is the application, not the check valve. Two of the most common problems with check valves are reverse flow and water hammer. In both situations, a fast-closing valve is desired. Reverse flow can be costly, especially if it occurs at the discharge of a pump and the pump spins backwards. The cost to repair or replace the pump, plus the plant downtime, far exceeds the cost of installing the right check valve in the first place. With water hammer, you need a faster-closing check valve to prevent pressure surges and the resulting shock waves that occur when the disc slams into the seat, sending noise, vibration, and hammering sounds that can rupture pipelines and damage equipment and pipe supports. If the internals are missing or exhibiting wear, two factors may be occurring. First, if the check valve selected does not have enough flow passing through to keep it against its stop, a valve with a lower Cv is needed to prevent the moving/fluttering of the internals. Second, if the check valve is used at the discharge of a reciprocating air or gas compressor, a valve with a damped design or dashpot to handle high-frequency cycling is needed. Sticking can occur when scale or dirt is trapped between the disc and body bore. Leakage can happen from damage to the seat or disc or simple trash in the line. An elastomer is needed to provide zero leakage. Installation This sounds simple, but when installing check valves, point the flow arrow in the direction of the flow to allow the valve to perform its function. The flow arrow can be found on the body or tag. Make sure the valve type

will work in the installed position. For example, not all check valves will work in a vertical line with flow down, nor will conventional or 90-degree piston check valves perform in a vertical line without a spring to push the disc back into the flow path. The disc in some check valves extends into the pipeline when the valves are fully open. This could interfere with the performance of another valve bolted directly to the check valve. If possible, install the check valve a minimum of five pipe diameters downstream of any fitting that could cause turbulence. Notice, I said “if possible.” After all, how many check valves have you seen bolted to the discharge of a pump? Many! A good source of reference for installing check and other styles of valves is MSS SP-92 “Valve Users Guide,” published by the Manufacturers Standardization Society. How are check valves like doors? Lastly, check valves can be compared to doors, like the door to your office or home. Typically, you open your office door at the start of the day and close it at the end, which is similar to what happens when a pump is cycled on and off. However, if someone stands at your door and constantly cycles it open and closed, what could happen? In most cases, the hinge pins would fail, since they are the weak link in the operation of your door. Check valves face a similar situation. Pins, stems, springs, or other components that are constantly cycled can fail. That is why it is important to properly select check valves for their possible applications. A check valve with a high Cv in a low flow application is doomed from the start. In a short period of time it will fail, no matter what extraneous engineering feats were used to “make it tougher”. Unfortunately, the installed check valve is blamed for the failure, when in reality the culprit was the application. It is always best to review the application and service conditions with the manufacturer before purchasing a check valve to make sure the correct style is selected and avoid replacing a problem with another problem. Mike Shorts is General Manager, Durabla Canada Ltd. Contact: mike.shorts@sympatico.ca

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Alternative Energy

Wind power increases 27%

Canadians are also embracing wind and solar power technology. The City of Barrie in Ontario recently installed this stand-alone, lighting and security device. It uses a combination of solar and innovative wind technologies to generate and store electrical energy. For more information email thomas.cleland@hybridynepower.ca

ind power generating capacity increased by 27 percent in 2006 and is expected to increase an additional 26 percent in 2007, indicating wind is now a mainstream option for new power generation, according to a market forecast released by the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). Wind’s exponential growth reflects the nation’s increasing demand for clean, safe and domestic energy, and continues to attract both private and public sources of capital. “iPods, flat screen televisions and other highly sought after technologies are creating a demand for electricity that is beginning to eclipse our current supply. Wind is a proven, cost-effective source of energy that also alleviates global warming and enhances our nation’s energy security,” said AWEA Executive Director Randall Swisher. The U.S. wind energy industry installed 2,454 megawatts (MW) of new generating capacity in 2006, an investment of approximately $4 billion, making wind one of the largest sources


32 | March 2007

of new power generation in the US – second only to natural gas – for the second year in a row. New wind farms boosted cumulative installed wind energy capacity by 27 percent to 11,603 MW, well above the 10,000-MW milestone reached in August 2006. One megawatt of wind power produces enough electricity to serve 250 to 300 homes on average each day. US wind energy facilities currently installed will produce an estimated 31 billion kilowatt-hours annually or enough electricity to serve 2.9 million American homes. This clean source of electricity will displace approximately 23 million tons of carbon dioxide – the leading greenhouse gas – each year, which would otherwise be emitted by traditional energy sources such as coal, natural gas, oil and other sources. Wind power has also attracted the support of state and federal government legislatures. The US Congress recently extended the federal production tax credit (PTC) through December 2008 to further expand the number of wind farms. Based on the success of the PTC to date, AWEA is calling for extending the provision an additional five years. The industry outlook also finds: • Texas accounted for nearly a third of the new wind power installed in 2006, taking over the lead from California in cumulative installed capacity. Texas hosts the world’s single largest operating wind farm, the 735-MW Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center, located in Nolan and Taylor counties. • Much of the new wind equipment in 2006 was produced in new manufacturing facilities in Iowa, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania. Additional announcements are expected in 2007. Investment in manufacturing capability signals confidence in the market and lays the groundwork for expanded growth capability. • New utility-scale turbines were installed in a total of 20 states across the country, from Maine to New Mexico to Alaska. • The top five states in new installations were Texas (774 MW), Washington (428 MW), California (212 MW), New York (185 MW) and Minnesota (150 MW). For more information, visit www.awea.org

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

In Memoriam

Environmental engineering has lost a major player George was President of the then Pollution Control Association of Ontario (now the Water Environment Association of Ontario) when my wife Sandra was secretary-treasurer. During this time George was also President of Gore & Storrie Ltd. Despite this demanding role, George also took his elected PCAO role seriously, phoning Sandra every morning for updates on

such things as seminar or conference registrations. So regular were his morning calls that Sandra would say, “that will be George calling.” Needless to say George was always generous with his energy and time and, above all, a pleasure to work with. Tom Davey

eorge Byron Crawford, P. Eng., former President and Chairman of the Board of Gore & Storrie Limited, died on January 22, 2007. George was the beloved husband of Ruth Virtue for 61 years. George Crawford was raised in Bowmanville, Ontario. He graduated from the University of Toronto in Civil Engineering in 1944. After service with the Royal Canadian Engineers, he joined Gore & Storrie Consulting Engineers in 1945 and rose to become President in 1975. George was proud to be an environmental engineer, working across Canada throughout his career and especially on the development of the Main Toronto wastewater treatment plant at Ashbridges Bay. He received many awards and honours, was inducted into the University of Toronto Engineering Alumni Hall of Distinction, and was only the second Canadian to be made an Honourary Member of the Water Environment Federation. George was a member of several associations and clubs, including the ‘Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovellers’ and the Canadian Association of Mayflower Descendents. He was a founder of the Leaside Curling Club, and long-time volunteer and supporter of the Northlea United Church. He was a man of integrity, civility, responsibility, and service to the community. He loved canoeing, camping, sailing and bird watching, and he enjoyed them most when joined by his family. One of George’s significant ideas which typified his service and generosity to both consulting and engineering was his idea to document ‘A Perspective on the Development of Consulting Engineering in Canada.’ Sandra and I were privileged to work on his project.



March 2007 | 33

Water & Sanitation

Water For People using innovative positioning technologies to monitor international development efforts ater For People recently launched a pilot monitoring and evaluation program to assess the functionality and long-term viability of its water and sanitation projects. It used a methodology developed by Weston Solutions, Inc.® (West Chester, Pennsylvania) and GPS receivers and related software from Trimble (Sunnyvale, California) and ESRI (Redlands, California). Like most international development organizations, Water For People has been focused on completing projects to meet the need. And like so many organizations, monitoring and evaluation of previously installed projects had been relegated to back-burner status. But one of Water For People’s primary goals is system sustainability, and that means checking back to ensure that past projects are functioning as planned. Founded in 1991, Water For People has funded and supported the development of more than 700 water and sanitation projects worldwide. With a carefully developed research methodology using GPS hardware and mobile GIS software, the organization was recently able to launch its first structured monitoring and evaluation program to assess the success of past efforts.


34 | March 2007

“Very few organizations have any kind of monitoring program to assess past project successes. By doing so and by developing a system that will be accessible to the public at large, Water For People is showing its commitment to openness, transparency and accountability for its actions overseas,” says Ned Breslin, Water For People’s Director of International Programs. From idea to reality in two months The pilot study started with a casual conversation in June 2006 between Ned Breslin, and Patrick G. McCann,

President and CEO of Weston and a Water For People board member. Ned was trying to design a monitoring and evaluation program that would include the collection of field data, the integration of photo records, the mapping of sites, a survey component, and the ability to post the data on the Internet in real-time. As the discussion progressed, it became clear to McCann that his company was perfectly suited to take on the project. “Weston is good at collecting field data in an automated format,” says Pete

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water & Sanitation Virag, Technology Initiatives Group Leader for the company and the lead in developing the Water For People project. “The Water For People monitoring project is no different from the work we do for our clients on a daily basis. We go into the field, collect data electronically on tablet PCs or PDAs, take digital photos, associate photos with the data and synchronize data to a central database where we manage that data and view and access the data spatially via the Web using ESRI’s ArcIMS.” Virag, with the assistance of his team, designed the survey methodology. Utilizing Weston’s AuditFast® system, they were able to have the field data tool and Web interface completed in a couple of weeks. He worked closely with Water For People staff to assess what should be measured, and how to best capture the data. They developed a series of survey questions and helped the organization acquire the software and hardware to make the project a reality. Into the field To collect data, Water For People used seven Trimble GeoXT™ handheld rugged GPS receivers, ESRI ArcPad software for mobile GIS and field mapping applications as well as Trimble GPScorrect for ArcPad. Trimble’s GPSAnalyst is being used to help with the post-processing of the data collected. Water For People conducted the pilot study in Honduras in late August. A team of staff and volunteers spent two weeks visiting 33 previously completed project sites supported by Water For People. The goal was to assess the functionality of each of these water systems. Is the system working? Is the water source protected and providing potable water in line with national government standards? Are systems in place to address technical problems as they emerge? Field data were collected from each site location using the rugged GPS receivers and tablet PCs and photos of each project were included as part of the record. A survey was conducted gathering information about functionality, access, and use that can be compared across communities, regions, and eventually countries. And finally, the results were posted on the Internet. Every night after collecting volumes of data from each of the sites, it was uploaded for display on the Internet. The data was later extrapolated and used to create reports relating to the viability of Water For People’s work in a number www.esemag.com

of areas, including system functionality, water quality, use of chlorination and other factors. The design and implementation of the pilot program was performed by Water For People staff and an all-volunteer team of supporters. Monitoring past work The pilot monitoring and evaluation program is giving Water For People its first structured look at the long-term success of its prior work and will no doubt provide insight into areas for improvement. Moving forward, the program will rely heavily on volunteers, who will conduct the majority of the field work. Based on the success of the pilot program, plans are already in the works to roll out the full-scale monitoring and evaluation program in all five Water For People program countries in 2007. Each in-country coordinator will be equipped with a GeoXT unit to conduct ongoing surveys. The information collected will be made available to all via www.waterforpeople.org. Any interested party will be able to access any project online and review the system as well as get a broader look at program effectiveness for an area, region or country. Although the hours were long and the work intense, the pilot study was completed on schedule. Results and lessons learned The results of the pilot study were encouraging. Virtually all of the water systems that had been installed over the past 10 years were still functioning. And members of each community were engaged in ensuring ongoing operations. It means that Water For People’s work is indeed sustainable and continues to serve people as it was intended. “I was a bit surprised that these systems are still functioning after 10 years,” confides Virag. “It shows that a little bit of effort and engineering can go a long way.” There were some issues uncovered as well, including some water quality concerns and inadequate treatment at some of the sites. But that was the idea. The pilot study was successful and will give Water For People the opportunity to fix problems and help the organization fine-tune its model to ensure the delivery of safe drinking water and improved sanitation for the long-term. www.waterforpeople.org

March 2007 | 35

Wastewater Treatment

BC wastewater plant upgrade for enhanced phosphorus removal By Al Gibb, Harlan G. Kelly, Roger Warren, Dale McTaggart, Hart Frese

Salmon Arm Water Pollution Control Centre.

he City of Salmon Arm discharges treated domestic wastewater from the Water Pollution Control Centre (WPCC) to Shuswap Lake, British Columbia, which provides pristine aquatic habitat as well as recreational and tourism opportunities for the community. A key parameter in the treated discharge is phosphorus, which contributes to algae blooms in the lake. Shuswap Lake at Salmon Arm supports numerous species of flora and fauna (some of which have been designated endangered or at risk), as well as numerous species of aquatic and shoreside vegetation that provide critical wildlife habitat. The rare Western Grebe colony at Salmon Arm is one of three active breeding colonies in B.C. The recent Stage IIIB upgrade to the Salmon Arm WPCC was completed in 2005, on time and under budget. Stage IIIB was designed to improve the quality of the plant discharge, and to increase the capacity of all plant processes to serve a population of 15,000 people. The upgrade solutions were consistent with the following four tenets of the Natural Step™ process: a) reduce concentrations of pollutants; b) preferentially use natural systems to avoid increase in synthetic waste products; c) reuse and recover resources for beneficial improvement to the environment; and d) develop partner-


36 | March 2007

ships to secure societal goals and improve the welfare of all others. The liquid treatment process at the Salmon Arm WPCC is unique, since it represents innovative design with the use of trickling filters as part of the main enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) train; this allows removal of phosphorus biologically without the need for the addition of chemicals. The autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) process at Salmon Arm incorporates the innovative Turborator aspirator mixer technology, which provides effective mixing and aeration with low energy consumption. These technologies have small footprints and low energy use compared to other liquid treatment sludge digestion technologies. The Stage IIIB upgrade included the addition of effluent filtration to remove residual suspended solids in the form of two Aqua Aerobics disk filters (first application in Western Canada) and a Wedico Ideal Horizons ultraviolet (UV) light process, which replaced the former chlorine disinfection system. The disk filters have a footprint less than one-half that required for an equivalent granular media (sand) filter. Environmental sustainability The Salmon Arm WPCC Stage IIIB upgrade provides the community with the most highly sophisticated advanced treatment facility in the Columbia

Shuswap Region, to secure not only the protection of Shuswap Lake but also to provide reclamation and recycling opportunities for the treated wastewater as well as for the solid byproducts of treatment. The enhanced quality of the WPCC discharge will benefit the sensitive aquatic habitat in and around Salmon Arm Bay over the long term. For the 12 months of operation following the upgrade, the effluent average concentration of total phosphorus was 0.38 mg/L, and the dissolved phosphorus (orthophosphate) average concentration was less than 0.08 mg P/L; this represents a reduction of phosphorus loading to the lake by about 75%. Additional process optimization in 2006 has reduced effluent concentrations even further (recent measurements show plant effluent concentrations of about 2 mg/L suspended solids, 4 mg/L five-day biochemical oxygen demand, and 0.2 mg /L total phosphorus. A portion of the disinfected plant effluent is stored in a clear well for use as reclaimed water in the plant nonpotable water system, reducing plant potable water demand by 75%. The ATAD process produces a Class A biosolids product that is used for local topsoil manufacture. Economic sustainability The Salmon Arm WPCC achieves advanced wastewater treatment at an operating cost of less than $0.28/m3 of wastewater treated. The Stage IIIB Upgrade cost was $7.36 million, of which $2.85 million was provided by a Federal Provincial Infrastructure grant. The balance was funded through asset management revenue (reserves) and manageable debt. The cost of the facility was held to the original budget through the use of a phased construction process that balanced need and cost to secure construction of the appropriate works. This type of design-led project management represents an improvement over more conventional single contract design bid or design-build solutions. Odour control The Stage IIIB odour collection and treatment solutions included two compact trains for collection and treatment of foul air to meet site space constraints.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Treatment Figure 1 – Autothermophilic Aerobic Digestion-ATAD.

Figure 2 – Biological Nutrient Removal Facility Schematic.

plete mix reactors to provide a stable Class A pasteurized product. The biosolids product is used as a growing medium additive. (Figure 1) Biological nutrient removal facility The subject of numerous papers and recognized in engineering design textbooks, the enhanced biological nutrient removal facility at Salmon Arm includes activated sludge tanks and trickling filters. It provides sustainable phosphorus and nitrogen reduction entirely through biological means. The filtered final effluent is disinfected and available for reuse and assimilation in the natural environment. (Figure 2) Dayton & Knight Ltd. recently received two awards for the project: Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of B.C. 2006 Environmental Award for Environmental Design, Construction and Monitoring; Consulting Engineers of B.C. 2006 Award of Merit. Harlan Kelly, P.Eng., Al Gibb, Ph.D.,P.Eng. and Roger Warren are with Dayton & Knight Ltd. Dale McTaggart, P.Eng. and Hart Frese are with the City of Salmon Arm. Contact: hkelly@dayton-knight.com

Train A, which is a wet chemical scrubber, treats foul air from the headworks, from above open weirs in the liquid treatment train, and from the trickling filter and solids handling facilities. In Train B, foul air is collected from the ATAD and the dewatering plant, and is oxidized in a multistage treatment process before being dispersed to the atmosphere through a high velocity dilution fan on the roof of the odour treatment building. Community response regarding odours associated with the WPCC has been very positive since the upgrade. The addition of the multi-stage treatment process for treating foul air from the ATAD has virtually eliminated the strongest source of nuisance odour at the WPCC. This benefits the nearby residential development and downtown area, as well as improving working conditions for WPCC staff. Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) The City of Salmon Arm ATAD digestion facility was one of North America’s first full-scale autothermal thermophilic digestion processes. It treats combined waste biological and primary solids in a series of batch/comwww.esemag.com

Is your Lab QMS working for you? Or are you working for it? How can you get real benefits from your QMS with less trauma? Your people need more than just motivation from you. They need to understand how. CAEAL Training - helping you attain laboratory quality with simpler solutions. Speak to an author of ISO/IEC 17025. Visit www.caeal.ca or call 613-233-5300 for multiple methods of training for: • Laboratory accreditation and ISO/IEC 17025 • Root Cause Analysis (NEW !!) • Internal calibration / traceability for analytical labs • Internal auditing of a laboratory quality system • Quality manual template (REVISED!!) • “Care and Feeding” of a laboratory QMS • Laboratory Leadership (COMING SOON!!) • Helping laboratory clients understand uncertainty

Simpler Approaches & Better Understanding Producing solutions from within the laboratory team. March 2007 | 37

Site Remediation

By Pippa Wysong

ith Alberta facing an unprecedented boom in industrial activities in the mining, oil and gas sectors, industry and government have developed new and better ways to return disturbed land to a reusable state that is environmentally sustainable. Indeed, Alberta is a leader in finding ways to turn land that has been used for industrial purposes back into something else that's productive – whether for farmland, recreational, or other uses. Alberta was even the first province in Canada to legislate land reclamation. Companies and government alike "are looking for environmentally responsible and cost–effective ways to leave the land with as little damage as possible," said Terry Macyk, a soil scientist and scientist with the Alberta Research Council (ARC). Over the years, ARC has worked on numerous reclamation projects with corporate partners such as McIntyre


38 | March 2007

Mines Ltd., Grand Cache Coal, Luscar Ltd., Syncrude Canada Ltd., and many more. Land reclamation got its start in the mid-1960s. Being a new concept at the time, efforts were more cosmetic than true reclamation. Back then, companies were required to do a general site cleanup, and basically level the disturbed land so it could be worked later. Since then, the science of reclamation has advanced to the point several universities in North America offer courses on it. Reclamation is now looked at as being a piece of the puzzle in the bigger picture of integrated land management, which looks at sustainable resource development of all uses of the land as part of a long-term plan. Armed with expertise in soil and plant science, along with a farming background, Macyk started his career in reclamation in 1971 in Grande Cache, an area with vast deposits of coal not far from the popular Willmore Wilderness

Park in Alberta’s Rocky Mountains. "At the time there was no precedent for what was wanted or even possible. We improvised and learned along the way," said Macyk. Regulations pertaining to reclamation were minimal at the time, something that has changed over the ensuing decades. Today, many of Alberta's provincial guidelines and protocols relating to land reclamation have Macyk's fingerprint on them. His work led to a change in regulations pertaining to how soil replacement and revegetation is done on land affected by coal cleaning waste disposal. He was also chair of the Soil Quality Criteria Working group which contributed to guidelines used by the Alberta government to measure the success of land reclamation projects. Several protocols for soil reconstruction and revegetation techniques he helped create are now being used in parts of the United States as well. Land reclamation is a complex, long-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Site Remediation term process that involves several players working together. It is not simply placing topsoil onto a site and hoping native plants will grow back. Reclamation entails soil handling and revegetation strategies, and taking into account groundwater conditions, and the effects and vagaries of the weather. For a reclamation project to be successful it needs to start before mining or drilling operations commence. Environmental impact studies must be done, and soil must be analyzed to determine what should be saved for later use. What was the land like before mining or drilling started? What vegetation and trees grew there, what wildlife roamed the area, and how did water flow? When operations are finished, how will the soil reconstruction, re-seeding and re-planting be done? Trials need to be performed to determine the most effective soil replacement techniques and what vegetation will grow the best in a landscape that has been altered by industrial use. Follow-up studies are done years later to see how well native plants are returning to the area and the types of ecosites that are becoming established. “The fact that we’ve been doing this for a long time means we’ve been able


When operations are finished, how will the soil reconstruction, re-seeding and re-planting be done?

to develop a good long-term data set that is standing the test of time,” said Macyk. “Companies draw on our experience to help them develop and implement the needed processes for successful reclamation.” "No two sites are the same. A land reclamation process that works in the sub-alpine region of Grande Cache won't work in the oil sands near Fort McMurray, or in the Plains region," Macyk said.

There are basic reclamation principles that are applicable to all sites; however, the processes used are site-specific and depend on the type of industrial activity, the geography of the region, microclimate conditions, and more. In a province with at least ten different ecological zones, with elevations ranging from 170 to 4,000 metres above sea level, it can be a challenge. ARC works on reclamation projects in the Plains, Mountains and continued overleaf...

March 2007 | 39

Site Remediation Foothills and Boreal regions of Alberta involving coal and oil sands, mining and conventional oil and gas. Land reclamation research has led to other useful discoveries too. Studies spearheaded by ARC showed that pulp mill sludge, a waste product previously disposed by the pulp and paper industry, can be applied to the soil to improve soil quality and plant growth for use in agriculture, forestry and reclamation. By using sludge in this way, the need to

increase photosynthesis and carbon storage. It is part of the effort to contribute to the environmental friendliness of the work by helping reduce green house gases in the atmosphere. Macyk is quick to point out that Alberta’s success in land reclamation is due to efforts of many individuals from both industry and government who worked tirelessly towards advancing the art and science of reclamation of drastically disturbed lands. A high degree of

A high degree of science rigor, coupled with great foresight, helps regulators make effective, practical management and policy decisions. construct new landfill sites at pulping mills is reduced, saving the companies millions of dollars in capital costs. Another area of research is focusing on the carbon storage properties of reclaimed land. "The idea here is to store as much carbon in the reclaimed land rather than release carbon from these soils to the atmosphere," Macyk said. This is done by promoting vegetation establishment and growth to

40 | March 2007

science rigor, coupled with great foresight, helps regulators make effective, practical management and policy decisions. This is what has propelled Alberta to the forefront in land reclamation practices. Reclaimed land in Grande Cache Tucked away in the scenic foothills of the Alberta Rockies is a piece of land that underwent a dramatic change. Back in 1972 it was a barren landscape of pits

and spoil dumps associated with coal mining operations. Now this same area, just north of Grande Cache which has a diverse cover of trees and native grasses, is a favoured grazing spot for bighorn sheep, and blends in with the vast natural landscape Alberta is known for. When there is a big operation such as surface coal mining where millions of metric tonnes of material have been removed, you can't get the area to look exactly the way it did before. In the case of Grande Cache, bighorn sheep were known to graze on the site prior to mining activities. There were concerns mining would scare the bighorn off and they'd never come back. But once the vegetation took hold as part of the reclamation process, it actually attracted more of them because it gave them the habitat they wanted. In both Alberta and British Columbia several former mines that underwent land reclamation are now havens for bighorn sheep and other wildlife. They illustrate the success of well-planned and executed reclamation. For more information visit www.arc.ab.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Getting buy-in from staff for a laboratory quality system n my work training laboratories on the implementation of laboratory quality systems using ISO/IEC 17025 I often hear the following words, or a variation on the same theme: “How do I get people to actually do all this stuff?” This sentiment is usually expressed by someone working within the quality assurance/quality control section within the laboratory, or a manager responsible for the operation of the laboratory and maintaining the quality system. Their frustration is real and it is based on not reaping the obvious benefits of a good quality system. They perceive that the problem lies with the staff possibly not “doing their job”: • Staff are not behaving the way they (the frustrated person) believe staff should behave. • Staff are not making good use of the quality system. • Staff are demonstrating some resistance to the work needed to maintain a good quality system. What the frustrated person may not appreciate is this - the responsibility for selling the idea to staff, about the necessity and benefits of a quality system, belongs to the person with the idea. Normally this would be the leadership of the laboratory. After all, aren’t they the ones who insisted on introducing a quality system in the first place? But sometimes the laboratory leadership is not that confident in their own responsibilities or they have not had the training needed to learn this aspect of their managerial role. When this is the case, the task of “selling the idea” may be passed on to the people who shepherd the quality system. The challenge with this solution is that the quality folks may be just as ill-equipped as their manager in providing the needed motivation to staff. If so, no one is winning. The real solution to the problem is finding some method of getting staff to really believe in the value of a quality system, and its necessity to the operations of the laboratory. There are some key ingredients to such a method. These include tying the quality system to the success of the lab, not just to generate revenues. Staff will work more effectively for their own individual and team success than for the financial success of the owners or shareholders of the lab.



Laboratory leadership should also encourage ideas and solutions to be debated by the staff who will be asked to implement them. Giving guidance before the discussion is much better than killing a staff idea after it is presented for approval. These are just two examples of the emotional risk taken by good leaders, but having laboratory staff work a qual-

By Ned Gravel ity system that provides real benefits to the laboratory is worth it. Laboratory staff that see their success will perpetuate it on their own. Our job is to help them see it. J.E.J. (Ned) Gravel, P.Eng., CA-LS, is with Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories. Contact: ngravel@caeal.ca

March 2007 | 41


New technology for in situ treatment of hydrocarbons, salts and metals Figure 1. Positive and negative fields.

lectrokinetic remediation is a process in which a low-voltage DC electric field is applied across a section of contaminated low permeability soil in order to move and extract contaminants. This type of remediation has the ability to treat soils contaminated with metals, nitrates, chlorides, sulfates and salts. Groundwater pumping or soil washing are impractical as low permeability limits soil/water contact. Salt contamination in low permeable soils such as clay is a challenging remediation problem. High salt concentrations are toxic to vegetation, creating environmental and aesthetic impacts. There are two principles of electrokinetics involved when the electric field is created: electromigration and electroosmosis. Electromigration involves the movement of ions towards their respective


Table 1. Soil sample results. 42 | March 2007

electrodes. When an electric field is created the NaCl molecules (salt) are separated into Na+ (sodium) and Cl(chloride) ions. The electric field pulls the free Na+ ions in the direction of the negative electrode and the free Cl- ions in the direction of the positive electrode. This creates a basic plume at the negative electrode and an acidic plume at the positive electrode. Ion movement is very important when treating soils contaminated with salts. Electroosmosis is the uniform movement of water and contaminants from the anode (positive electrode) to the cathode (negative electrode). Since clay soil typically has a negative surface charge, there are more cations (positive charges) than anions (negative charges) in the pore water. These extra cations, lined up along the pore walls and moving toward the cathode, drag the pore water along, causing a net pore water

flow to the cathode. This process can effectively dewater a section of soil as well as carry contamination into an extraction area. In order for electrokinetic remediation to be effective, the anode must be kept wet at all times. This in turn flushes the water through the contamination area from the anode to the cathode, carrying contaminants with it. There are three conditions monitored in this technology: pH, temperature, and gases produced. The pH of the two plumes and the temperature of the soil are controlled by a flushing method. If the pH gets out of the optimal range or the temperature gets too high, the system will be shut down and be flushed with fresh water until the pH and temperature meet the parameters set. Chlorine gas and hydrogen gas are also monitored in the contamination area. If harmful gases are detected, they

Table 2. Water sample results. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Remediation Figure 2. NaCI concentration of soil. 1400 1200 1000 500 600 400 200 0

0 days

9 days

35 days

50 days

will be controlled by a Soil Vapor Extraction system. Sets of electrodes, which also serve the purpose of injection/extraction wells, can be installed into the contamination area in a vertical or horizontal position. The combination of electrode and injection/extraction well allows for a simple and effective method for breaking the salt bonds and moving the ions within the soil, as well as extracting the contaminants out of the soil. Direct current power supplies are utilized in order to control the amper-

age or voltage supplied to the system. They can supply a constant current at minimal amperage and voltage depending on the electric conductivity of the soil. Recent pilot studies have shown excellent results. The results from an experiment done on one cubic metre of packed clay saturated with ten thousand parts per million (ppm) of salt (NaCl) are shown in Figure 2. Soil sample results in Table 1 show that the salt molecules are separating into their ions and migrating towards

their respective electrodes of opposite charge. Water sample results extracted from the negative and positive electrodes along with a sample of tap water being injected into the electrode are shown in Table 2. For more information on the In Situ Electrokinetic Salt Remediation System (patent pending) contact Sean Frisky, Ground Effects Environmental Services Inc., e-mail sfrisky@groundeffects.org

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March 2007 | 43

Renewable Energy

Hybrid willows provide renewable energy for greenhouse growers in Petrolia istory was made again in Petrolia, the birthplace of the world’s oil industry, as the first high biomass hybrid willows were planted to heat greenhouse ranges, promising independence for one grower from the fuel that made this area famous. With yields of over 90 GJ/acre/yr, (Gigajoules per acre per year) at $6-8/GJ at today’s prices, the wood to energy crop can provide a level of independence from fossil fuel use, not to mention lower costs overall. Like other greenhouse growers in search of heating alternatives in the face of rising energy prices, Jack and Christine Graydanus, of Enniskillen Pepper Company, installed a biomass burner system which currently uses oat hull pellets to heat their 6 acre greenhouse range. The company installed test plots this spring of fast-growing hybrid willows as a fuel source in a nearby field which will determine the production rate per acre, and provide a chipped product for experimentation in the existing burner system. The wood has a high btu content (over 18 GJ per ton), and dries fairly quickly compared to denser hardwoods. The system of growing high biomass hybrid willows that can be repeatedly harvested in three-year rotations over a 25 year period is known as short rotation intensive coppice (SRIC). While new to Ontario, SRIC is widely practiced in Sweden, where hybrid willow is planted for energy and for the treatment of municipal solid waste, which is applied as a fertilizer. Over 40,000 acres are currently in production in


44 | March 2007

Sweden, which has well-developed growing and harvesting technologies. Hybrid willows are bred for high biomass production. Currently, LandSaga Biogeographical in New Hamburg, Ontario, is the only commercial supplier of hybrid willows in Canada. Hybrid willows are typically planted in mid April and May, using 25 cm long “cuttings” which are sections of tree stem up to 2 cm in diameter. Planted with only two buds above ground in formal rows on disked land, cuttings take advantage of early moisture and develop roots and shoots instantly. Some varieties can expect to see two metres of growth in one year. Once established, the plantation can be harvested repeatedly, with one to three metres of regrowth in one season after harvest. All first year growth is removed after the first fall to encourage the willows to produce multiple stems in place of the one. The first harvest for biomass fuel at Enniskillen Pepper Company will occur in 2008 and every three years after for the next 25 years or longer. Once the plantation is established, there are no major operating expenses other than harvesting. Weed management in the first two seasons is critical, but otherwise, no other inputs are necessary. However, willows will show increased growth with nutrient enhancement. Experiments are now being set up

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Renewable Energy Cheryl Hendrickson in front of three year old hybrid willows. One ton of wood has a heating value equivalent to 2.4 barrels of oil. Typical yields are 3-4 tons/acre/year.

to determine the extent of growth enhancement with poultry manure topdressing. Other plantations of hybrid willows have been installed experimentally or as demonstrations in Ontario and Quebec, and more recently the Prairie Provinces. But heated greenhouses, high energy costs and adjacent agricultural land in this region of Ontario provides the perfect agronomic and economic conditions for this type of energy crop to realize its potential. According to the 2001 Census, Canada has 1836 ha of greenhouses, 50 percent of which are located in Ontario and increasing yearly. Heating all of the greenhouses in Ontario with willow biomass alone could replace dependence on over 37 million GJ of fossil fuel energy per year. Biomass plantations also have value in providing carbon credits for achieving the Kyoto protocol for greenhouse gas emittors, as the root systems are permanent carbon sinks. Although some farmers are reluctant to plant trees in a field, the high value of the crop for heating purposes starts to make it very attractive. Contact Cheryl Hendrickson, President, LandSaga Biogeographical. hendrickson@landsaga.com


March 2007 | 45

Renewable Energy

Germany leads in “green power” technologies By Paul Gipe erman farmers, homeowners, and industrialists set a world record for the development of renewable energy in 2006. Using the country’s pioneering electricity feed law, they invested more than US$10 billion in new sources of renewable energy last year, including wind turbines, solar panels, and biogas power plants. Germany’s feed law permits homeowners and farmers to connect their solar power systems to the grid and pays them a fair price for their electricity. This simple system has led the country to world leadership in wind, solar, and biogas electricity generation. It operates more wind generation, more solar systems, and more biogas plants than any other country. Renewable sources of energy installed through Germany’s feed law produce about 50 terawatt-hours (TWh or billion kilowatt-hours) of electricity per year, or nearly 10% of German elec-


46 | March 2007

tricity consumption. Hermann Scheer, the architect of the feed law, began a North American book tour February 15 in San Francisco. Scheer, a member of the German parliament and an outspoken advocate of solar energy, is the author of Energy Autonomy: The Economic, Social, and Technological Case for Renewable Energy. He argues that the threats from climate change and the global race for the planet’s remaining fossil fuels are so great that there is “no time to waste” in turning toward renewable sources of energy as Germany has done. Wind power In 2006, Germany remained one of the world’s largest markets for wind turbines, installing nearly 2,200 MW from Bavaria to the Danish border. It not only was the world’s second largest market for wind energy, behind only the US, but also continued to lead the world with a total installed wind-generating capacity of 20,600 MW. With only one-

fourth of the US’s population and only one-twentieth of its land area, it operates 1.8 times more wind generating capacity than that of the entire lower 48 states. It currently provides about 6% of its electricity from wind energy alone. German heavy industry employs 70,000 in the wind energy sector, and last year Germans invested more than US$4.5 billion in new wind turbines. Solar photovoltaics Strong demand for solar cells from farmers and homeowners resulted in another record year for the installation of solar photovoltaic systems in the country. Germany installed an astounding 100,000 solar systems in 2006, representing 750 MW of solar-electric generation. This follows on the back-toback record-setting years of 2005 (750 MW), and 2004 (600 MW). Germans invested nearly US$5 billion in new solar photovoltaic systems and, in doing so, employed nearly 35,000 in the burgeoning solar industry.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Renewable Energy

The solar boom is not solely limited to solar photovoltaics, the perennial favorite of environmentalists, but also to the more pedestrian solar domestic hot water systems.

Germany now operates more solarelectric generating capacity (2,500 MW) than the installed wind-generating capacity of Britain, Italy, France, or the Netherlands. Analysts estimate that solar cells now generate about 2 TWh of electricity per year, or nearly onehalf of one percent of German electric-


ity consumption. If 2006 followed the pattern of previous years, nearly onehalf of all solar PV systems were installed by farmers. Solar heated hot water The solar boom is not solely limited to solar photovoltaics, the perennial favorite of environmentalists, but also to

the more pedestrian solar domestic hot water systems. In 2006, Germans installed 140,000 solar hot water systems or 1,050 MW of solar thermal capacity. Altogether, there is the equivalent of 6,300 MW of solar hot water heating in Germany today. Often overlooked in preference for the sexier solar photovoltaics, solar thermal systems generate the equivalent of 4.3 TWh per year. The solar hot water market employs 18,000 and earns gross revenues of US$1.5 billion per year. Biogas Germany employs 8,000 in the onfarm biogas industry. Manure-fired power plants generate nearly 5 TWh per year of electricity, or about one percent of consumption. Biogas is mostly methane, a powerful greenhouse gas that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere from dairies and pig farms. Renewable sources of energy provided a total of 71.5 TWh in 2006 or nearly 11.5% of German electricity consumption. The total includes conventional hydro-electric generation installed prior to introduction of feed laws. www.hermannscheer.de

March 2007 | 47

The source, effects and occurrences of arsenic in groundwater in Canada By Suchit Kaila

rsenic is a naturally occurring element in the Earth’s crust and is the twelfth most abundant element in the human body. The word arsenic is derived from the Greek word arsenikon meaning potent. Arsenic has been known to mankind as a poison for many years and was historically used for political assassinations. One of the earliest cases of arsenic poisoning was Brittannicus who was killed by Nero for the Roman throne. Arsenic is believed to be responsible for the deaths of Claudius, Napoleon and Pope Pius III. Until recently arsenic was also used as a rat poison in many countries. Arsenic is found in the water in three valence states: elemental arsenic As (0), arsenite As (III) and arsenate As (V). Elemental arsenic is the least toxic and arsine gas is considered the most acutely toxic. Arsenic is usually found as oxides in water with two different oxidation states, trivalent arsenic oxide As4O6 and pentavalent arsenic oxide As4O10. As (V) is usually found in surface water and occasionally in groundwater. As (III) is found in groundwater sources and is more toxic than As (V) since it is more soluble.


48 | March 2007

Arsenic is a known toxin to human beings even at low concentrations. Chronic effects of arsenic due to prolonged low-level exposure have been studied and reported and are a matter of ongoing study. Skin pigmentation, keratoses and skin cancers were found by Tseng in Taiwan in 1966 and high incidences of lung, bladder and other cancers were found in Taiwan by Dr. Chien-Jen Chen in 1986 and by Dr. Allan Smith in Chile in 1993 among people who drank from arsenic-contaminated wells. However, arsenic contamination in groundwater (> 50 ppb) was first reported in 1978 in the region of West Bengal, India. The first cases of arsenic poisoning in this region were diagnosed in 1983. Thereafter, arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh was confirmed in 1993. These findings resulted in lowering the regulatory limit of arsenic from 50 ppb to 10 ppb in drinking water by the World Health Organization in 1996. It has been reported that after several years of exposure to arsenic at low levels, various skin lesions appear. These are manifested by dark spots (hyper-pigmentation), white spots

(hypo-pigmentation) and keratoses of the feet and hands. Skin cancer is expected after exposure for a dozen years. 10% of all exposed for a period of 20 to 30 years have developed cancers of the lung, kidney, liver and bladder (Wilson, 2006). Health effects of arsenic on humans can be acute or sub-acute effects (which are typically reversible) and chronic effects such as cancer and diseases of the vascular system. Chronic poisoning occurs by drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a long period of time. USEPA has reported health hazard information for arsenic, which states that acute effects of inorganic arsenic can be caused by oral doses of approximately 600 Îźg/kg body weight per day (Îźg/kg/d) or higher in humans. This level of exposure has resulted in death. Oral exposure to lower levels of inorganic arsenic has resulted in effects on the gastrointestinal tract (nausea, vomiting), central nervous system (CNS) (headaches, weakness, delirium), cardiovascular system (hypo-tension, shock), liver, kidney, and blood (anemia, leukopenia). Chronic or long-term oral expocontinued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Mercoid offers a complete line of submersible level transmitters. The SBLT2 is a slim bullet nose design perfect for clean water applications while the PBLT2 is made with a nonclogging diaphragm for sludge and slurries. Both units are constructed of 316 SS bodies and feature .25% accuracy. The PBLT2 also features a stand off plate so that it can be dropped into a lift station without suspending it on the cable.

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March 2007 | 49

Water Quality

Arsenic is also released into the environment due to processing and combustion of coal contaminated with arsenic.

sure to inorganic arsenic in humans has resulted in gastrointestinal effects, anemia, peripheral neuropathy, skin lesions, hyper-pigmentation, gangrene of the extremities, vascular lesions, and liver or kidney damage. Arsenic can also cause reproductive or developmental effects and ingested inorganic arsenic can cross the placenta in humans, exposing the fetus to the

50 | March 2007

chemical. USEPA states that ingestion of inorganic arsenic in humans can enhance the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, bladder, liver, and lung cancer. Inorganic arsenic has been classified as a group A human carcinogen by USEPA (USEPA, 2000). Arsenic is introduced into water through natural sources and human

activities. The primary natural sources of arsenic are weathering of rocks, possible geothermal activity and volcanic activity. Industrial sources of arsenic include non-ferrous mining and smelting operations, refining operations, use of wood preservatives, contaminated pesticide manufacturing sites and past use of pesticides containing arsenic. Arsenic was also used as a poison for killing rats, insects and weeds. These activities and natural sources have caused contaminated river sediments, groundwater wells and surface waters (Wang and Mulligan, 2006). Elevated levels of arsenic concentrations in the Canadian environment can be attributed to factors such as the release from natural weathering and erosion processes of arsenic-bearing rocks and soils and anthropogenic activities. Anthropogenic activities include historic and recent gold- and base-metal processing, the use of arsenical pesticides and wood preservatives, thermal and coal-fired power generation and the disposal of domestic and industrial waste materials. In Canada, the roasting of arsenious gold ores is the main reason for production of arsenic trioxide, and arsenic is

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water Quality used also in metallurgical applications and in the manufacture of wood preservatives. Arsenic concentrations of up to 1570 ppb have been reported in surface and groundwater in Canada. Canadians are exposed to arsenic mainly through drinking water or food (Wang and Mulligan, 2006). Elevated levels of arsenic in natural water sources in Canada can be attributed mainly to activities such as nonferrous metal mining and smelting, fossil fuel processing and combustion, wood preserving, pesticide production and application, and disposal and incineration of municipal and industrial waste. Mine tailings and effluents contain high concentrations of arsenic and have been a major cause of environmental contamination. Annual total fluvial input of arsenic to the Moira Lake in Ontario has been reported to be approximately 3.5 tonnes due to local mining and mineral processing. Elevated background arsenic levels of 0.037 mg/L have been reported in Mitchell Brook near Halifax, Nova Scotia. It is estimated that around Giant Mine in Yellowknife, NWT, about 220 million tonnes of highly toxic arsenic trioxide were buried underground which threatens ground and surface water for kilometres around the area. Mine tailings from mines in Murdochville, Val d’Or and MontWright in Quebec, Musselwhite and Marathon in Ontario, and Bathurst in New Brunswick, were analyzed by Wang and Mulligan, who found that the highest arsenic concentrations reached 2,200 mg/kg in tailings from a leadzinc mine at Bathurst. In Yellowknife both historical and recently deposited tailings had high arsenic concentrations of up to 25,000 mg/kg in Con Mine tailings, 4,800 mg/kg in Giant Mine tailings, and 12,500 mg/kg in the historical Negus tailings. Total arsenic concentrations in the mine tailings and their associated pore fluids from the Rabbit Lake in-pit tailings management facility (RLITMF) in northern Saskatchewan ranged from 56–9,871 mg/kg and 0.00024–0.14 mg/L respectively. Arsenic concentrations in five monitoring wells installed within the tailings body from RLITMF ranged from 9.6 to 71 mg/L (Wang and Mulligan, 2006). Other main sources of arsenic in Canada include base-metal refinery facilities as well as thermal and power generating stations. Canadian basewww.esemag.com

metal smelters and refineries were estimated to have released about 15 tonnes/year of arsenic as liquid, 310 tonnes/year into the atmosphere, and 770 tonnes/year as solid waste. In the vicinity of these sources, high arsenic concentrations have been detected. Near a copper-zinc smelter in Manitoba arsenic concentrations in surface peats of up to 280 mg/kg have been reported as compared to an average background concentration of 4 mg/kg (Wang and Mulligan, 2006). Application of arsenical wood

preservatives is another important source of arsenic and annual arsenical wood preservative sales in Canada from 1984 to 1988 ranged between 650 and 1,300 tonnes. Leaching of preservative components from treated wood has been a source of arsenic contamination. Arsenic contamination around the wood preservative sites can be caused by raw material handling, spills, deposition of sludge and dripping from freshly impregnated wood or due to continued overleaf...

March 2007 | 51

Water Quality leaching from impregnated wood piles at these sites by rain water. Arsenic levels of 262 mg arsenic/kg have been reported in the sediments downstream from an arsenical wood preservation facility near Elmsdale, Nova Scotia. Health Canada has reported that the use of arsenic-containing wood preservative for non-industrial use has stopped since December 31, 2003; this was a voluntary step by the wood treatment industry in Canada (Wang and Mulligan, 2006). Arsenic is also released into the environment due to processing and combustion of coal contaminated with arsenic. High arsenic concentrations of 2 to 157 mg/kg have been reported in soil near a steel plant and coke ovens in Sydney, Nova Scotia. Another nonpoint anthropogenic source of arsenic is arsenical pesticides, which were extensively used in orchards in Canada until the introduction of DDT in 1947. This has resulted in arsenic accumulation in treated orchard soil and adjacent sites. It has been reported that accumulation of 9.8–124 mg arsenic/kg in the top soils (0–15 cm) from 25 Annapolis Valley orchards is due to the use of arsenical pesticides. The arsenic con-

centrations in the top 5 cm soil at a site in Niagara, Ontario, and in the adjacent untreated site (500 m apart) were 71.6 and 47.3 mg/kg respectively due to the application of lead arsenate as a spray, while the provincial average is 7 mg/kg (Wang and Mulligan, 2006). Arsenic contamination in water sources has been reported in many countries including Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Ghana, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Japan, Mexico, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, UK, USA and Vietnam. Many new cases are likely to be discovered as an increasing number of countries are now reporting localized groundwater arsenic problems. Until recently, routine testing of water by laboratories did not include arsenic in many countries and, therefore, many arsenic-rich sources are still unidentified (BGS, 2001). To avoid the toxic effects of arsenic, the current regulatory limit on arsenic in water has been set at 10 ppb by WHO, USEPA, EU, Germany and Japan (Wilson, 2006). Canada has also set its interim maximum acceptable concentration level to 25 ppb but it is

proposed to lower the limit to 5 ppb. Public consultations have been concluded for this and a final guideline technical document is in preparation (GCDWQ, 2006). The present 10 ppb standard is perhaps the first in which USEPA has explicitly compared costs and benefits and has given a value of $6.1 million per calculated life saved. There is no one solution for all places and communities. Conventional treatment processes such as precipitation, coagulation and filtration techniques, adsorptive media techniques, and membrane techniques, are neither cost-effective nor affordable by the people in developing nations and, therefore, the limit for arsenic in these countries is still at 50 ppb (Wilson, 2006). Finding a low-cost and environmentally friendly technique to remove arsenic is, therefore of considerable importance. Ongoing research suggests that the alternative filtration and adsorptive medias such as zero-valent iron filings mixed with sand, ironoxide-coated sand or sponge, hardened paste of Portland cement, activated seawater-neutralized red mud, chitosan and hydrotalcite, can provide efficient and low-cost arsenic removal alternatives. Biological processes such as phytoremediation, biosorption and biological oxidation can provide cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions for arsenic removal from water. In fact, biological oxidation has started gaining attention for arsenic removal from water on a commercial scale and the process avoids use of chemical reagents for arsenite oxidation while providing high arsenic removal efficiencies. An overview and discussion of the existing arsenic removal technologies and future trends based upon recent research developments will be provided in the later issues of the magazine. Note: The information in this article is not an independent finding or opinion of the author but is based upon the collection and review of the published material on the subject as referenced. Suchit Kaila, M.Eng., E.I.T. is a Process Engineer with Stantec in Edmonton. E-mail: suchit.kaila@stantec.com

52 | March 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

The Tree design is a registered trademark of Julius Sämann Ltd. and is used with permission.

Stormwater Management

Particle size matters when sizing stormwater treatment systems unicipalities across Canada are now beginning to give stormwater pollution the much-needed attention it deserves. Media searches reveal articles from coast to coast, reporting how cities and regions are developing stormwater management plans, establishing stormwater boards, or adopting stricter regulations for future development. A growing number of cities are now adding a fact sheet to their web sites, educating users about the harmful effects of polluted stormwater, as well as offering homeowners tips for reducing runoff in their neighborhood. Over the last five years, British Columbia’s Ministry of the Environment has developed an extensive stormwater planning guidebook to be followed by all regions and municipalities for any kind of urban or rural development. With stormwater pollution squarely on the map, this increased attention has accelerated the installation of stormwater treatment systems, particularly in urban developments. However, when designing and sizing a proprietary treatment device, some municipalities appear to be ignoring a crucial piece of data that has a significant impact on effectively stopping pollutants from reaching natural waterways – Particle Size Distribution (PSD). A defined PSD identifies all sediment particle sizes found in a stormwater runoff sample, including diameters, content and concentration. It’s a blueprint of exactly what is barreling down the pavement during each rainfall. When sizing a stormwater treatment device, PSD can be the most critical design parameter. It determines the size of the actual structure and what the unit is targeted to remove. However, when assessing and sizing treatment devices, PSD is rarely raised, let alone considered. Instead, stormwater treatment devices are often sized by their ability to meet a water quality objective defined by the removal of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) which can be defined as the dry mass of solids retained on a 1μm filter. Many regulating authorities are content with achieving a standard water quality objective of removing 80% of TSS. But the question is, 80% of what?

By Sean McNeely


54 | March 2007

Larger particles in stormwater runoff settle out, but smaller particles remain suspended in stormwater runoff and travel greater distances.

The answer is 80% of whatever solids are trapped by this filter, regardless of particle size. The breakdown of that 80% in terms of gravel, sand, clay and silts is anyone’s guess. Exactly what is being stopped and what is allowed to pass is unknown, though it is likely the bulk of particles trapped are the largest. By not using a defined PSD in sizing stormwater treatment devices, inadequate systems may be implemented, capturing larger coarser particles, but letting smaller particles pass completely untreated. And yet it is the smaller particles that are the most harmful to natural waterways. Letting these smaller particles pass is the equivalent of exposing our rivers and waterways to secondhand smoke, with their ability to pollute clear water. In December 2005, The Center for Research in Water Resources (CRWR)

at the University of Texas in Austin, released a report titled, Particle Size Distribution of Highway Runoff and Modification through Stormwater Treatment. The report’s message – we should all be far more concerned with smaller particles than the larger ones. Why are finer particles such as clays and silts so dangerous as opposed to sands and gravel? They have the most surface area by mass, which allows them to carry more pollutants (heavy metals, hydrocarbons, nutrients, etc.) found in stormwater runoff. As the CRWR noted, “The concentration of metal, zinc for example, in terms of total per cent of stormwater solid mass, increased as the particle size decreased.” As well, smaller particles were found to carry higher concentrations of copper, phosphorus and nitrogen. Add to this, how much further finer

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Stormwater Management particles travel. “Larger particles in stormwater runoff settle out, but smaller particles remain suspended in stormwater runoff and travel greater distances,” reads the report. All of these characteristics led the CRWR to conclude: “Treatment systems must be able to effectively remove fine particles in runoff to significantly reduce the pollutant loads.” This is certainly not news to Barry Bohn, the Principal of Watertech Engineering Research and Health Inc. and a former engineer with the City of Calgary. Having conducted PSD tests for the City of Calgary, Bohn encourages jurisdictions across the country to consider examining just what their stormwater treatment devices are capturing and removing. They might be surprised at the results. “Take a very good look at what your PSD is, do some monitoring, collect some samples,” urged Bohn. “It’s not a one size fits all thing anymore.” While conducting studies on BMP separation devices for the City of Calgary, Bohn was involved in a series of tests to see if the city’s stormwater treatment devices installed around the metropolitan area were effective in stopping stormwater pollutants. In one constructed area, the PSD was not what he expected. “When we were looking at the influent samples and the effluent samples, we weren’t finding a lot of big particles, we were finding a lot of silt-range particles and a lot of claysized particles,” said Bohn. “The assumptions we had made about particle size distribution and these larger particles just wasn’t holding.” He chalked up the findings as unique to that particular site and then conducted similar tests at a large parking lot and assumed he would find very different results. “Low and behold, we found exactly the same thing,” said Bohn. “In Calgary and around southern Alberta we have a lot of these silty clay type materials,” continued Bohn. “When you expose them, they are easily erodable - a couple of raindrops hit them and they’re mobilized right away.” That mobility sends finer particles from stormwater right into the receiving stream where they may affect fish, cause algae blooms due to excess nutrients associated with particles (such as phosphorus), or carry hydrocarbons which may contaminate water bodies. Because of these destructive effects, it’s the smallest particle in a PSD that www.esemag.com

should dictate a stormwater treatment system’s size for effective stormwater management. Merely being satisfied by the amount of material being treated in terms of mass, or even in terms of stopping an average particle size, provides a false sense of security. However, finances are a factor here - a stormwater treatment system designed to remove larger particles like gravel and coarse sand is smaller and less expensive than a system designed to remove fine silts and clays. To capture finer particles in stormwater runoff, the key element is time – providing the necessary area and time for smaller, finer particles to settle. Because of this time factor, some current vortex stormwater treatment devices that rely on velocity for separation may not be effective. As fine particles enter and circulate in such units, there simply isn’t enough time for them to settle. While some larger particles are allowed to settle under the forces of gravity, smaller particles essentially go for a spin, remain in suspension, and can exit these systems virtually untouched. Stormwater treatment devices that use only gravity settling as their mechanism for separation and maximize

retention time are arguably the most effective option. Capable of capturing and containing a wide range of particle sizes, devices that use gravity create a calm treatment environment, allowing stormwater to slow down. This gives fine silts and clays the necessary space and time to settle. However, determining just how much space and time is needed is not easy. To take the guesswork out of accurately sizing and designing a stormwater treatment device, continuous modeling software tools like US EPA’s SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) are required. SWMM simulates local up-to-date rainfall and also identifies a wide selection of particle sizes (including fine particles), helping the user to design the best suited system for a particular site. And that’s the philosophy behind responsible stormwater management – each site is unique, with a specific PSD that needs to be identified as it represents the starting point in treating stormwater runoff. Sean McNeely is with Monteco Ltd. Contact: Mark.Smith2@hanson.biz.

March 2007 | 55

Potable Water

A healthy beginning for the Wawa Water Treatment Plant by Brian Sahley and Bruce McMullan

The architectural design makes the facility an attractive addition to Wawa’s downtown core. The simplicity of the process layout makes it a “beautiful facility to work in”.

oil Advisory – most of us recognize this term as an emergency response. For the people of Wawa, it was a way of life for three years while a new water treatment plant (WTP) was designed and constructed. Late in 2006, the elation of the 3,400 people in this small mining heritage town in Northern Ontario could be heard far and wide when the main gate valve was turned and safe, clean, membrane–filtered water entered the municipal system. The journey began in May 2003 with the completion of the Wawa Water System Upgrading Class EA, Environmental Study Report (part of a Schedule C, Class EA). Study conclusions included: • Converting the existing WTP to a low lift pumping station (PS). • Construction of a new WTP. • Installation of a watermain from Wawa to the Michipicoten River Village elevated water tank. Following the study, in September 2003, the Township of Michipicoten retained KMK Consultants Limited to complete the design and construction of the new plant. Based on first principles, KMK conducted a water quality assessment of Wawa Lake and then held a comprehensive process/technology review and workshop with the municipality. This exercise was conducted so that the


56 | March 2007

options could be fully explored, forming the basis for an informed decision on the best process solution considering all the various technical and cost merits. Membrane filtration was selected as the preferred alternative based on higher levels of treatment and anticipated future regulations. KMK proceeded to pre-select the preferred membrane vendor and then to conduct confirmatory pilot testing with the pre-selected vendor. In the meantime, the design for a new 6 ML/d plant, including a 3 ML reservoir, was fasttracked and completed in 98 working days. The design included the refurbishment of the previous WTP to a low lift PS, raw watermain, microscreening, pressure membranes, chemicals area, high lift pumps, electrical, laboratory, control room, offices and workshop all in one integrated structure situated in a small, confined site in the downtown core. PALL Corporation was selected as the preferred membrane vendor. Pilot testing of its ARIA AP4 microfiltration membrane system confirmed the necessary requirements for design criteria and performance. The system has a rating of > 4 Cryptosporidium and Giardia log removal. As part of the pilot testing, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was added up to 50 mg/L. Provision for future PAC addition was incorporated into the final

design that is based on three skid mounted units. The Pall ARIA AP4 system uses the proprietary Microza membrane system in unitized modules for ease of maintenance, servicing and efficient treatment of the water. “We have yet to fail an I.T. test which would indicate to me that no broken fibres have occurred (i.e., no visible signs),” says Mark McRae, Water and Sewer Lead Hand. Turbidity used to be an issue for the previous WTP. “We have seen such an improvement in turbidity levels with the membrane filtration process from the previous PS which had no filtration”, says Bill Lamon, Director of Infrastructure Services. The WTP should not have a problem achieving less than 0.1 NTU, 99% of the time. The beauty of this new facility lies within the design - the simplicity of the process, ease of operations and maintenance, and the compact footprint. The simplicity of the process begins with 610 mm diameter intake pipe from Wawa Lake. The old WTP was converted into a low lift pumping station with three new pumps (two duty and one stand-by). These pumps convey the water to the membrane system where it is ‘pushed’ through thousands of tiny tubes with a diameter less than that of a grain of salt, removing harmful microorganisms and parasites. The filtered water is then treated with chlorine for primary disinfection and retained in chlorine contact chambers (CT cells) to provide adequate disinfection contact time. The high lift pumps convey treated water to the municipal distribution system which is a closed distribution system and operates on pressure only. Membrane wastewater is discharged to two wastewater equalization tanks, with

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Potable Water the wastewater discharged either to the sanitary sewer (and eventually to the aerated lagoon) or to the stormwater sewer (and eventually to Wawa Lake). Since implementation, staff members have had very few alarms. Previously, Wawa had no reserve of potable water with the old pumping station, so call-outs were fairly common. This new plant enables staff to determine the quantity of water in reserve. Accessibility and maintenance requirements were key considerations during the design phase. The WTP plant design and layout integrates independent filtration paths to allow for ease of maintenance and operation. This reduces future operation costs and allows for continuity of service while maintenance is being completed. The system is fully automated with complete SCADA programming and an on-line CT SCADA tool; each control panel is linked into a main control centre allowing for easy operation and monitoring. The WTP has a standby diesel power generator to maintain service in the event of a power failure. This ensures a steady, stable delivery of water to its customers and additional emergency protection for the Township. The compact footprint required less land and saved on building costs, as well as allowing the new plant to be built on a site that allows the maximum use of existing infrastructure and connections to the operating water distribution system and includes space for an additional skid to be added in the future. The key to the compact footprint is what’s below the plant base slab: reservoir cells, CT cells and high lift wet wells. This provides several advantages including: • Separate CT cells are hydraulically separated from the reservoir cells by outlet weirs. • Concrete baffle walls constructed in the CT and reservoir cells increase the baffling factors and help prevent short circuiting. • The tank walls form the foundation for the upper building. • The membrane filtrate water is discharged to tanks below ground so additional backpressure is not required on the filtrate header, thus reducing low lift pumping costs. • Temperature differential currents are reduced within the tank since the ground acts as an insulator. • Vertical turbine pumps installed within the high lift wet wells maintain consistency with the existing low lift pumps and high lift pumps. www.esemag.com

• All hatches are kept within the building footprint, providing additional security. With the connection and commissioning of the 150 mm feeder main to supply the elevated water tank, this plant also services the Michipicoten River Village, four kilometres south of Wawa. Flow is controlled by a valve on the WTP that opens and closes based on the elevated tank’s water elevations. The WTP also has a bulk water filling station to service the many lodges in the surrounding area.

The Public Works Department for the Township of Michipicoten owns and operates this facility, which has the capacity to produce 5,782 m3 (5,782,000 litres) of fresh, clean, potable water every day and brings about a sense of pride in the community. Brian Sahley, P.Eng., is with KMK Consultants, and Bruce McMullan is Manager of KMK’s Cobalt Office. www.kmk.ca

A New Level of Thinking A new energy is flowing at DELCAN Water. We have always been at the forefront of providing government and corporate clients in Canada and around the world with the highest level of engineering expertise and services. Now, DELCAN Water offers even broader capabilities with the establishment of DELCAN IWS (Intelligent Water Systems), which offers leading edge design and implementation of automation, network and information management systems;




DELCAN Water’s established reputation for engineering services. DELCAN Water also benefits from even greater global resources with our new alliance to DELCAN Water (DHV Netherlands). DHV is an international leader in water technologies having provided integrated solutions to over 1,000 plants worldwide. Contact us today and learn more about how you can benefit from the new ideas that are flowing at DELCAN Water. O T T A W A



DELCAN Water 625 Cochrane Drive, Suite 500, Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R 9R9 Tel: 905.943.0500 Fax: 905.943.0400 water@delcan.com




March 2007 | 57


Centrifugal sand filtration boosts energy efficiency Photo by Tom Davey

for Toronto’s deep lake water chilling system

The deep water cooling project under construction in 2004.

y removing particulates down to 0.45 microns from the downtown Toronto chilled water loop, an automated centrifugal sand filtration system protects pipes and heat exchangers, increasing cooling system efficiency and saving megawatts.


Enwave Energy Corporation recently enhanced its deep water lake cooling capabilities with the installation of an advanced, high-efficiency filtration system into its 10-mile recirculation water loop. The chilled water system, which cools the air of over 30 buildings in the financial district of downtown Toronto

has improved performance and energy conservation due to the removal of suspended impurities in the water as well as some of the related biological organisms that would otherwise compromise system efficiency. In service since 2004, the cooling system uses 39.2º F cold water (4º C) from 272 ft. (83 metres) below Lake Ontario’s surface to create a chilled water loop that provides an alternative to conventional air conditioning for cooling the downtown core of Canada’s largest city, making it a leader in sustainable energy. Three intake pipes draw permanently cold water offshore to the city's John Street Pumping Station. Heat exchangers enable an energy transfer between the cold lake water and the Enwave closed chilled water supply loop. This cold energy of the 2.5 million gallon subterranean loop has the capacity to cool 34.5 million sq. ft. of office space, eliminating ozone-depleting refrigerants (CFCs and HCFCs) and removing 79,000 tons of carbon dioxide Series 7000 mechanical diaphragm metering pumps

Neptune’s Series 7000 mechanically actuated diaphragm metering pumps handle viscosities in excess of 5,000 cps and pump chemicals that off-gas (sodium hypochlorite) without binding. All models provide suction lift to 20 feet. Maximum capacities range from 15 gph to 300 gph with adjustable 10:1 turndown by micrometer dial; variable speed option allows automated flow control. Liquid ends are available in PVC, Kynar, and 316SS. Neptune Chemical Pump Co., Inc. Lansdale, PA Tel: 888-3NEPTUNE or 215-699-8700 E-Mail: pump@neptune1.com www.neptune1.com

58 | March 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Filtration from the air - the equivalent of taking 15,800 cars off the road. The system will also save customers millions of dollars in electric power usage, providing price stability in a volatile energy market and reducing building owner exposure to peak electric power usage costs in morning hours when most conventional air conditioning systems are brought on line. Customer savings through Deep Lake Water Cooling were demonstrated after May 2006 when Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC), switched to the cooling system for its 1,320,000 sq. ft. Toronto office tower. HBC’s energy savings are projected at 3,571,200 million kilowatts per year, the equivalent of powering more than 350 homes. Enwave wanted to maintain water quality (in its chilled water loop) that meets potable water guidelines. They use chlorine for disinfection and bioactivity control. By removing suspended solids (via filtration) they anticipated savings in chemical treatment costs and a reduced potential for distribution system corrosion. Other projected savings include reduction in labour costs associated with cleaning water system equipment, reduced risk of unscheduled downtime, and reduced electric power costs that would be incurred with a less efficient system. “One of the keys to proving a healthy recirculating chilled water loop was to incorporate a water filtration system that would virtually eliminate suspended impurities,” says Steve Martile, Enwave project manager. “Our cold water interfaces with heat exchangers in the buildings we chill, so suspended impurities could eventually coat the heat exchanger plates, making them less efficient. The suspended matter could also provide nutrients for biological growth that could create the same problem, resulting in added chlorine disinfection treatment costs or damaging the plates and pipes in the system.” Due to the energy transfer occurring at Toronto’s John Street Pumping Station, removal of suspended water impurities in the range of 0.5 microns (potable water equivalency) was desirable. Enwave also recognized that continuous removal of suspended solids was a key factor in maintaining a clean chilled system. In February 2005 Enwave issued a request for proposals for a filtration system that would provide the needed 0.5-micron filtration capability while sustaining a continuous filtrate flow of 550 gallons per minute. XLB Water Solutions recommended a high-efficiency Vortisand® centrifugal sand filtration system manufactured by Sonitec.It uses a combination of in situ fine sand centrifugal separation combined with downflow sand filtration, which ensures greater filtration efficiency than some traditional sand filters. It filters particles down to 0.45 microns. Through laser particle tests, it was found that approximately 97.5% of the suspended solids in the water in the Enwave cold water loop was less than 5 microns, and approximately 86% less than 1 micron – at the time of sampling. After installation of the new filtration system was completed in September 2005, Enwave requested a 12-week evaluation of the Vortisand system’s performance. Throughout this period, XLB sampled the chilled water for laser particle testing. After the weekly tests were evaluated, it was determined that total particle count (all micron sizes) was reduced by 89.6 percent and total suspended solids (TSS) reduced by 96.5 percent. Toronto-based Enwave is a private corporation co-owned by the City of Toronto and the Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System (OMERS). Contact: info@sonitec.com www.esemag.com

Wastewater Treatment

High-rate retention treatment facility for combined sewer overflow control By Jian Li, Harold Horneck, Paul Drca and Kit Woods ombined sewer overflows with high concentrations of solids and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) are one of the major pollution sources to the Great Lakes. The Detroit River is one of the Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC) shared between the US and Canada on connecting river systems. An AOC is a location that has experienced environmental degradation. Canada and the United States governments have identified this AOC under the US-Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Since combined sewer overflow (CSO) is considered to be a major source of water quality impairment for the receiving waters, much attention has been directed to reducing the amount of pollutants discharged. In 1997, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) promulgated Procedure F-5-5 as a means of documenting its objectives for CSO control.


Atlantic Arch

Windsor, Ontario.

Procedure F-5-5 specifies that, during a seven-month period commencing within 15 days of April 1, 90% of wetweather flow is to be treated to primary treatment equivalency, which is defined as a seasonal average of at least 50%

removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and 30% removal of 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5). Furthermore, for satellite treatment facilities, the effluent TSS concentration should not exceed 90 mg/L for

In-Line Silent Check Valves to NSF 61

Economical hydraulic diaphragm pumps The Series 500-E “dia-PUMP” from Neptune Chemical Pump Co., Inc. offers all the performance advantages of a true hydraulic diaphragm pump. Economy is achieved by using a simplified liquid end for low- to medium-viscosity fluids such as disinfection chemicals and acids.

AIL has an ideal cost effective, lightweight solution to meet strict stream crossing codes without exceeding budgets. With the introduction of Atlantic Arch, companies are able to backfill, place, and transport to any remote location. Atlantic Arch’s corrugated steel construction makes it the strongest short-span bridge on the market. With its open bottom concept, Atlantic Arch allows for natural unobstructed stream and fish passage. For more environmentally friendly solutions visit www.ail.ca or call 1-877-245-7473. Atlantic Industries Limited

60 | March 2007

Durabla Canada Ltd. introduces the world’s first in-line silent check valves to be listed under the NSF Standard 61. The WLC® and GLC® model valves manufactured by DFT Inc. can accommodate applications from 1” to 24”. Standard valves have WCB bodies and 316SS internal components for years of worry free service. Both models offer in-line spring assisted closure that virtually eliminates water hammer. Contact us today to receive a customized flow performance data sheet specific to your application.

Durabla Canada Ltd. Belleville, ON Tel: 613-966-1442 E-mail: info@durlon.ca Web: www.dft-valves.com

Nine models offer maximum capacities from 0.8 gph to 30 gph. All models feature micrometer dial which allows manual adjustment over 10:1 turndown range. Maximum pressures to 1100 psi. Automatic control options include pneumatic or electric stroke length adjustment and variable speed drives. Cast Iron, 316SS, PVC and Kynar liquid ends are available. Neptune Chemical Pump Co., Inc. Lansdale, PA Tel: 888-3NEPTUNE or 215-699-8700 E-Mail: pump@neptune1.com Web: www.neptune1.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Treatment more than 50% of the time. The wastewater collection system reviewed for this study serves the riverfront drainage area within the City of Windsor boundaries. Combined sewers carry flow from the drainage area towards the Detroit River. Flow in the sewers is captured at interceptor chambers and directed to the riverfront interceptor sewer that flows to the Lou Romano Water Reclamation Plant (LRWRP). The interceptor chambers were generally designed to capture and divert 2.5 to 4 times dry weather flow (DWF) from the combined sewers to the riverfront interceptor sewer. During dry weather conditions all wastewater flow is directed to the LRWRP for treatment. During some storm events there is insufficient capacity to accommodate the total flow in the system with the result that flow volumes in excess of the capture capacity at the interceptor chambers are directed to the river as combined sewer overflows. In 1992, the City of Windsor addressed this issue by initiating the Windsor Riverfront Pollution Control Planning (PCP) Study, with participation and funding assistance from the Province of Ontario and from the Federal Government through the Great Lakes Cleanup Fund (now the Great Lakes Sustainability Fund). Stantec Consulting Ltd. was retained to investigate direct municipal discharges to the Detroit River from the riverfront area and to develop a pollution control strategy for the Windsor Riverfront District with the specific objective of reducing CSOs and total pollutant loadings to the Detroit River. Completed in 1999, the PCP Study identified CSOs to the Detroit River as a significant source of pollution and presented information on alternative solutions leading to the selection of a preferred solution, including the following main components: • Increased pumping capacity at the Caron Avenue Pumping Station. • Four new primary clarifiers at the Lou Romano Water Reclamation Plant to treat wet weather flows. • Three retention treatment basins (RTBs) satellite treatment facilities located east of Caron Avenue to capture and treat wet weather flows prior to discharge to the river. • Tunnel storage (or possibly RTBs) west of Caron Avenue. To date, expansion and upgrading of the Caron Avenue Pumping Station has been completed, and capacity expansion www.esemag.com

and upgrading of the LRWRP is underway. This article is focused on the third component of the CSO control program, the provision of RTB facilities. The study also recognized that research into high rate settling facilities is ongoing and recommended that the latest experience with this technology be considered before the selection of a preferred treatment system was finalized. RTBs are satellite treatment devices that can be used at local discharge points to treat CSOs. They are self-con-

tained units designed to provide the equivalent to primary treatment through the separation of solids from the flow at relatively high flow-through rates. During less intense storm events, the RTB captures and retains all flow, which is drained back to the interceptor sewer after the storm event has subsided. During more intense storms, when the storage capacity of the basin is exceeded, it acts as a flow through device providing primary treatment to the CSO prior to discharge to the river. The level continued overleaf...

March 2007 | 61

Wastewater Treatment of treatment varies with flow rates and pollutant characteristics. In 2000, the City of Windsor, with funding assistance from the MOE and from the Federal Government through the Great Lakes Sustainability Fund, initiated preparation of a Class Environmental Assessment (Class EA) and a functional design report as the next step in implementing the Riverfront CSO control program. Stantec Consulting evaluated alternative approaches and concepts leading to the selection of a preferred design for controlling CSOs from the riverfront drainage area east of Caron Avenue. The findings of the PCP Study were used to restate the need for this project and to revisit the process followed in selection of the preferred control option. Pure storage and conventional RTB options were evaluated for controlling CSOs from the riverfront drainage area east of Caron Avenue. For the pure storage option (i.e., no allowance for treatment, so 90% of all wet-weather flow must be stored and returned to the sewer system), the storage tank size requirement would be approximately 400,000 m3. For the conventional RTB option, three RTBs with a total volume of

30,000 m3 were identified in the PCP study. However, very limited space is available in Windsor’s downtown riverfront area to construct CSO control/treatment facilities, and, therefore, an effective and space-saving solution was required for CSO control. In parallel to the Class EA study, the City of Windsor also initiated a CSO Characterization and Treatability Study to develop a spacesaving and effective alternative for Windsor CSO control. Stantec undertook this study in partnership with the University of Windsor. This study was funded in part by the Province of Ontario and by the Federal Government through the Great Lakes Sustainability Fund. The CSO Characterization and Treatability Study, which was completed in 2005, indicated that the CSO contains a relatively high concentration of suspended material with poor settleability. The results of long column settling tests showed that it was necessary to add a coagulant aid to the CSO to enhance settling and achieve the required degree of suspended solids removal. It was, therefore, recommended that RTBs as described in the PCP Study, including

provision for chemical addition, should be used for CSO treatment/control along the Windsor riverfront. Field tests and computational fluid dynamical (CFD) modeling were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a RTB with polymer coagulation for CSO treatment at high hydraulic loading rates (up to 57 m3/m2·h). The testing also provided useful data for the determination of design parameters and criteria for the design of full-scale RTB facilities that will comply with the MOE Procedure F5-5. Pilot-scale tests were carried out to investigate design criteria for the RTBs. It was confirmed that polymer addition significantly improved settling characteristics of the suspended solids and provided good solids removal. This allows the RTB to be operated at significantly higher surface overflow rate (SOR), resulting in smaller RTB facilities. A CFD modeling tool was developed and used to scale up the pilot plant results to a full scale RTB. The model was calibrated and validated with data from the RTB pilot plant, and was applied to evaluate preliminary designs for a full-scale RTB. The Class EA report for the provi-

DOCUMENT # 2007-009P ENERGY OPTIMIZATION, SOUTH PEEL WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM The Region of Peel is a municipality situated in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario in Canada. The Regional water system serves approximately 1.1 million residents and is lake-based. Proposals are sought from vendors for an energy optimization system which will have the capabilities of reducing the total annual electrical consumption in the pumping of water throughout the system as well as reducing electricity costs through maximizing the use of storage reservoirs. SEALED PROPOSALS, clearly marked as to contents and on forms supplied by Region of Peel, will be received by Purchasing, First Floor, 10 Peel Centre Drive, Brampton, Ontario, L6T 4B9, on or before:

12:00 noon local time FRIDAY, JUNE 22, 2007 A copy of the Request for Proposal may be obtained from Purchasing, First Floor, 10 Peel Centre Drive, Brampton, Ontario, L6T 4B9, Telephone (905) 791-7800 ext. 4303, Fax (905) 791-3697. NOTE: Mandatory Site Visits are not required. Informal site visits will be held May 8, 9 and 10, 2007 The lowest or any proposal will not necessarily be accepted. The list of vendors who have requested a copy of the Request for Proposal may be viewed at Purchasing’s Web page: www.peelpurchasing.ca (then click ‘Bid Documents’) NOTICE The Region of Peel relies on this advertisement to notify you of this business opportunity and it is not obligated to notify past or present vendors, contractors, or service providers in any other manner. 62 | March 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Treatment sion of retention treatment basin facilities on the Windsor riverfront to control CSOs in the area east of Caron Avenue indicates that it is appropriate to design a high-rate RTB facility using a peak design SOR of 20 m3/m2·h, which is determined based on pilot-scale tests and CFD simulation results. In the PCP study, the RTB basin sizing was based on an assumed SOR of 3.3 m3/m2·h, which was equivalent to the design criteria for primary settling facilities with typical design SORs of 2.5 to 5 m3/m2·h. This means that the Windsor riverfront high-rate RTB facilities will need to be only approximately 15% of the size of RTB facilities sized using conventional design criteria for primary settling facilities, resulting in a significant reduction in potential impacts on the natural environment because of the smaller footprint as well as significant construction cost savings. Peak flow to the high-rate RTB facilities is 7.85 m3/s. The 7.85 m3/s figure, which was obtained by QUALHYMO simulations, is the required capture rate to achieve the 90% wet weather flow capture criteria. Two preliminary estimates were prepared for RTB facilities to treat a CSO flow of 7.85 m3/s from


the area east of Caron Avenue. One estimate is for a basin designed with a conventional SOR of 3.3 m3/m2·h and the second estimate is based on a design SOR of 20 m3/m2·h that was demonstrated during the pilot testing work and CFD modeling. The estimates indicate the order of magnitude savings with the 20 m3/m2·h design is between $25 and $35 million dollars. The high-rate RTB consists of 12 CSO retention cells, which are filled from an inlet channel via overflow weirs, evenly distributing influent into the cells. The RTB facilities have a storage capacity of approximately 9,900 m3 including 4,950 m3 in the new CSO collector sewer, and will contain influent flows for small CSO events, without discharging to the river. For larger CSO events, the RTB facilities provide the equivalent of primary treatment to CSO flows prior to discharge to the river. The draining and flushing of CSO collector sewers and RTB facilities will be interconnected and controlled with the Caron Avenue Pumping Station. The flow control gate remains closed at all times except during the draining and flushing period. Draining and flushing of the CSO

collector sewer and RTB facilities starts once a CSO event has ended. Flow in the riverfront interceptor sewer and the Caron Avenue Pumping Station will be monitored during the draining and flushing period. Draining will start and will continue as long as the monitoring system indicates there is adequate capacity in the downstream sewers and the Caron Avenue Pumping Station. The control system will regulate the flow control gate to match available capacity in the downstream system. It will prevent flow from exceeding the capacity of the downstream facilities. The construction of any proposed facilities along the riverfront must be consistent with City planning policies and, in particular, the implementation strategy and design guidelines set out in the Central Riverfront Implementation Plan (CRIP). Jian Li, Ph.D., P.Eng., PE, and Harold Horneck, P.Eng., are with Stantec Consulting Ltd., Paul Drca is Manager of Environmental Quality and Kit Woods, P.Eng., is Executive Director of Environmental Services with the City of Windsor. www.stantec.com

March 2007 | 63

Wastewater Treatment

Jet aerators saved money and reduced operating digester volume he Fraser River flows down the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Before it reaches Vancouver, it passes the Township of Langley, where a secondary treatment plant operated by the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) handles an average daily wastewater flow of approximately 9 MLD from a population of 28,000. The Challenge The current configuration of the Langley WWTP, which was expanded in 1998, was reconfigured as a trickling filter/activated sludge plant to handle a maximum flow of 17 MLD. It has two aerobic digester cells of equal size, operating in series. The digesters are rectangular with a volume of 1820 m3 each and handle sludge thickened to approximately 4 to 6%. A minimal amount of polymer is added. The flow was fed from drum thickeners through Digester No. 2 to digester No. 1. Digester No. 2 was continuously fed, whereas Digester No. 1 was batch operated. It should be noted that there is no primary sludge in this process. The digestion system was at its maximum capacity. In addition, the digesters had to be operated at reduced levels because of the overspray generated by the surface aerators. The overspray raised obvious health concerns forcing the operation of the digesters at lower levels to reduce the amount of overspray. During cold weather, the aerators were sometimes shut down due to icing conditions. The Solution Plant management needed to improve the operating conditions and had the following objectives in mind: Switch the surface aerators with submerged aerators to eliminate overspray and increase digester capacity by approximately 20%. The increase in capacity would be easy to achieve since the elimination of overspray would mean that the digesters could be filled to their design levels, an increase from their actual operating levels. Al Racine, a local ITT Flygt representative, proposed the installation of two ITT Flygt FgN117-74 Flo-Get (currently called Jet Aerators) units, each with a 20 HP N3152 pump. This would allow the plant personnel to familiarize


64 | March 2007

Three FgN 117-74 jet aerators were offered for evaluation by ITT Flygt.

themselves with the concept and operation of the Jet Aerator. Digester No. 1 was designated as the test cell. This permitted the plant personnel to see the jet aerator concept in operation. The quietness of operation and lack of overspray was especially noted.

The digesters had to be operated at reduced levels because of the overspray generated by the surface aerators. After seeing how the units worked, the plant personnel were ready to go to the next phase. Plant personnel wanted to try a set of jet aerators that would provide 500 l/s of air at 0.5 m from the digester floor. This would be the level at which the introduction of the air would be most beneficial for their operation. The plant personnel were impressed with the ease of installation as the units could be installed without draining the digester. This simplicity saved a considerable amount of time and money. After a 90 day evaluation period, the GVRD purchased the three 35 HP units. The use of these jet aerators has sig-

nificantly improved the process efficiency of the digesters at very reasonable cost. With these jet aerators, the plant has achieved the following: • The reduction of volatile matter exceeds regulatory requirements; • Eliminated overspray; • Reduced operating digester volume by 60% without affecting process; • Now able to run with only one digester in a continuous process; • Now operating digester at design level; • Deactivated one digester. Importantly the plant can now meet the Organic Matter Recycling Regulation with fecal coliform levels well below regulatory requirements: • Removed 5 surface aerators @ 40 HP each – total 200 HP; • Installed 3 jet aerators @ 35 HP each, usually running only one or two units at a time; • Net saving of 125 HP resulting in annual savings of approximately $40,000. During more than four years of operation, the plant has saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in operating costs. They have also avoided going through a costly redesign of the plant to meet current capacity and regulatory requirements. Contact: Raymond.Simond@itt.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

London to host 2007 WEAO/OPCEA annual symposium April 15-17 London Convention Centre he 2007 Water Environment Association of Ontario annual conference and tradeshow will be held April 15-17 at the London Convention Centre. This year’s keynote speaker will be Catherine Jefferson, the association’s new Executive Director. Technical sessions will cover collection systems, biological treatment, membrane bioreactors, primary and advanced treatment, odour control, public and government affairs and innovative municipal business management strategies, utility management, asset management, biosolids management, stormwater management, new technologies and research, watershed management and small community issues, and contaminants of emerging concern. Expanded floor space at the London Convention Centre will allow the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association’s tradeshow to be bigger than last year, featuring approximately 120 exhibitors.


66 | March 2007

Conference attendees can also see some of the best wastewater personnel in Ontario display their expertise during the 17th annual Operations Challenge Competition. Participants are required to compete in five events demonstrating their skills and knowledge against competitors from throughout the Province. The five events are Collection System, Laboratory, Process Control, Pump Maintenance and Safety. Operations Challenge delegates can test their knowledge of the wastewater industry as they participate or follow along and cheer as teams compete for top prizes and bragging rights in the 8th annual Totally Wasted Game Show (TWGS) that will take place following the Operations Challenge Competition. Fashioned after a popular TV game show, the TWGS quizzes contestants with questions comparable to those found on Provincial Certification Exams. The event also offers a tour of the City of London’s Adelaide Pollution Control Plant and a tour of Trojan Technologies R&D facilities. For more information, visit www.weao.org, call (416 )410-6933, or email julie.vincent@weao.org.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Penticton to host 2007 BCWWA annual conference and tradeshow Penticton Trade & Convention Centre April 21-25

he British Columbia Water and Waste Association’s Annual Conference & Trade Show will be held at the Penticton Trade & Convention Centre April 21-25. Technical session topics include: drinking water supply, treatment and distribution, small drinking water systems, drinking water disinfection, drinking water system management, water conservation, water sustainability, cross connection control, wastewater collection, treatment, management and reuse, small wastewater systems, decentralized wastewater systems, organic residuals processing and recycling, stormwater management, drought management, project management, municipal operations and management, asset management, security issues, emerging technologies operations, analytical technologies, service delivery, governance and funding, Water For People projects and programs. The association’s SCADA and IT Committee will hold a technical transfer program including an MSC exhibition on April 25. This year the conference will include three technical tours: 1. The District of Summerland is in the process of building a new Arch Dam and Spillway structure and related infrastructure at Thirsk Lake in the Trout Creek watershed to increase the storage capability. The construction of the 10-million dollar project will double the size of the Thirsk reservoir and increase the overall storage by 25%. 2. The Westside Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant is located in Westbank, British Columbia. The plant was constructed in 1988 using the Bardenpho process and was sized to handle 2.8 mega litres per day. In 1995, the plant went through its first major expansion, which added 5.6 mega litres per day for a total of 8.4 mega litres per day. Due to the area’s large population growth, the plant started its second major expansion. 3. Located in Westbank, British Columbia, the $18.6 million Powers Creek Water Treatment Plant and treated water reservoir are being constructed by Maple Reinders Inc. and will be operational in early 2007. The plant will use dissolved air flotation (DAF) and filtration to improve the drinking water safety and quality for the community of Westbank. The conference also offers a number of competitions for operations personnel, as well as a tradeshow.


For more information, visit www.bcwwa.org, call (604) 433-4389, or 1 (877)433-4389. www.esemag.com

March 2007 | 67

Blue Mountain to host 2007 OWWA/OMWA joint annual conference and tradeshow Blue Mountain Resort, Collingwood May 6-9 Honourable Laurel Broten, Ontario Minister of the Environment. Technical session topics will include: treatment, distribution, water efficiency, groundwater, small systems, management, source protection. On May 9, delegates can participate in a tour of Collingwood’s Raymond A. Barker Ultrafiltration Plant. Rated at 31.140 ML/d, it was the first municipal surface water direct filtration membrane plant to be commissioned in North America. The membranes are approaching 10 years old and still going strong. However, design engineering is currently underway for a proposed expansion that will ultimately triple the current rated capacity out of the same main building area. Delegates can also visit the Devils Glen Water Treatment Plant, which is a Non Municipal Year Round Residential Plant Georgian Bay, that utilizes enhanced coagulation membrane filtration. This Ontario is a fairly new plant and it illustrates what can be achieved in a relatively small space for small remote communities. The event also features a 100 booth tradeshow, which is he 2007 Ontario Waterworks Association/Ontario Municipal Water Association joint annual conference open May 6 and 7. and tradeshow will be held at Blue Mountain Resort, For more information, visit www.owwa.ca, near Collingwood, May 6-9. This year’s keynote sescall (905) 530-2200, or e-mail waterinfo@owwa.ca sion will feature Andrew Coyne of the National Post and the


68 | March 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Moncton to host international conference on biosolids sustainability June 24-27 Moncton, New Brunswick

his specialist conference on Wastewater Biosolids Sustainability is being organized by the International Water Association and is supported by several associations, including the Water Environment Federation, and will be held in Moncton, New Brunswick, June 24-27, 2007. It is the intent of the conference to bring the world’s leading experts to Moncton, in order to increase the knowledge base of all stakeholders and move the global environmental agenda forward. The conference “Big Picture” approach is intended to benefit operators, managers, administrators, scientists, researchers and other stakeholders from knowing the concerns and challenges of each other. The conference includes platform presentations, poster presentations, and keynote speakers covering all aspects of Wastewater Biosolids Sustainability. It will feature speakers from 34 countries, as well as from the United Nations, the World Bank and the World Health Organization. Key topics to be covered include: the global perspective, managerial, and public synergy stream, history, state of biosolids/sludge management and trends in various parts of the world, public perceptions, communications, consultation and education, regulatory aspects, litigation and charges, operational and planning considerations, future challenges and overall sustainable development approaches, case studies, NGOs, sludge characteristics, rheology, dewatering, pumping, conveying and storage, emerging pollutants and endocrine disruptors, etc., and impacts on biosolids, pre and post-treatment processes and treatment of reject waters, fate of hazardous and calcitrant compounds during sludge treatment, sludge treatment/hydrolysis to augment nutrient availability, sludge as a



resource (phosphorus recovery, etc.) and value-added processes, advanced treatment and emerging processes and innovations, odour control. The event also offers two technical tours: 1. The Greater Moncton Wastewater Treatment Facility services the communities of Moncton, Dieppe and Riverview with a modern 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically-assisted primary wastewater treatment plant located in Riverview. The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission, which was created in 1983, owns and operates the treatment facility as well as the 30 km of collector sewers and tunnels

and an impressive on site 10 storey deep pumping station. 2, The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission (GMSC) has developed an effective composting process using biosolids produced at its facility combined with various amendments. The composting process features the Gore™ cover system, and incorporates bottom aeration, temperature monitoring, oxygen monitoring and control as well as data logging. Even though the Gore™ cover system is now well proven around the world, GMSC has adapted the system to operate in the challenging conditions of cold climates, heavy snow, and windy conditions. The solution developed by the GMSC is unique, involving the installation of a network of pipes in the composting pad carrying a glycol solution to transfer heat. For more information visit, www.iwabiosolidsmoncton2007.ca, call (506) 387-7977 or email: gmscpcp@nbnet.nb.ca

March 2007 | 69

Groundwater Contamination

Using oxygen releasing compounds for rapid treatment of petroleum products By Kerry Bolanos-Shaw whimsical comment by the author Michael McClary compels one to realize that more intuitive processes can be overlooked when considering technology’s abilities to improve our natural environments. He said: "Irrigation of the land with seawater desalinated by fusion power is ancient. It's called rain." In situ treatment of contaminated groundwater may be one such intuitive approach worth more regular consideration these days. This field of environmental science has been well-proven to effectively address sites impacted with a wide range of COIs, such as petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, and BTEX, often at a fraction of the cost of more ubiquitous long-term methods such as "pump and treat". In addition, application of in situ treatment is non-invasive and causes minimal disruption of normal site operations; injections can be made through roads, parking lots and in many cases through base floors of existing buildings. Subsequent operations and maintenance (O&M) requirements for in situ applications are limited to periodic sampling for monitoring purposes, which is significantly less expensive than operating pump and treat systems. This article presents a recent case study from a project that employed an oxygen releasing compound for aerobic treatment of petroleum compounds. It also seeks to provide general information on how a typical in situ treatment


Figure 1. 70 | March 2007

project is conducted in North America, including cost information and some technical details. Case Study Groundwater was impacted by petroleum volatile organic carbons (PVOCs) at a site in Kenosha, Wisconsin, as a result of a leaking underground storage tank (LUST). The tank had been removed during the 1970s and the groundwater subsequently treated in 2004 using a then-common oxygen releasing compound. In early 2005, PVOCs were still detected at significant levels by STS Consultants, Ltd. In August of 2005, STS performed a second round of injections, this time using Adventus' oxygen slow-release product labeled EHC-O™. This technology was chosen for several reasons: (1) It contains >15% oxygen, thus at $5.29/lb, is a more cost-efficient source of controlled release oxygen than alternatives (Figure 1). (2) It releases between 80% and 90% of its content within 120 days. Independent data have shown that other oxygen release compounds exhibit the same release characteristics, regardless of their "advanced" status. (3) It is buffered and contains inorganic nutrients; these factors are critical to soil microbiology but are often disregarded during the formulation of other oxygen release compounds. (4) Its pH buffering component reduces self-encapsulation of the active ingredients.

At Kenosha, results from the spring 2005 sampling event indicated that groundwater was impacted with up to 2,300 ppb of PVOCs, including BTEX, naphthalene, MTBE and trimethylbenzene. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was measured at between 36 and 90 ppm. The groundwater table was approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) below ground surface (bgs) and the impacts extended down to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) bgs. The lithology of the targeted treatment depth consisted of silty clay with occasional trace gravel. The redox potential was +21 mV and the pH was 6.65. The treatment goal was to reduce the PVOC concentrations to below their respective groundwater quality standards in a timely manner to facilitate development of the site. In August 2005, a total of 450 lbs of EHC-O was introduced into nine injection points within the hot spot area from 5 to 15 ft bgs. The product was delivered to the site in dry powder form and mixed with water on site to create a slurry (20% solids) using a handheld drill with mixing attachment (slurries can be mixed using other methods, most commonly paddle mixers). The slurry was then injected using direct push technology (Geoprobe® grout system GS-1000 series). The injection points were spaced approximately 6 ft apart to cover an area of approximately 20 ft x 20 ft (6 m x 6 m). The concentrations of PVOCs in groundwater before and after product injection are presented in Figure 2. Four weeks following the injection, six out of eight constituents of concern had decreased to below the analytical detection limits. The concentrations of remaining PVOCs had also decreased significantly; the benzene concentration was reduced by >99% (from 750 to 1.4 ppb) and the MTBE concentration was reduced by 88% (from 240 to 29.0 ppb). A second sampling event conducted four months following the injections confirmed the downward trend; benzene had decreased to below the laboratory analytical detection limit and MTBE had decreased to 13 ppb. The injection was completed in one day. Four weeks following emplacement, the concentration of total PVOC had decreased by approximately 99% (from

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Groundwater Contamination

Figure 2.

Figure 3.

2,290 to 13.0 ppb), and the concentrations of all constituents were below the State of Wisconsin's groundwater environmental standard. The site was considered clean within four months of treatment, and a "no further action" letter was issued by the regulators on June 5, 2006, following only two sampling events. At $5.29/lb, the total product cost was $0.59/ft3 ($21/m3). In-situ groundwater treatment using EHC-O The technology deploys an integrated source of slowrelease oxygen, major-, minor-, and micro-nutrients, and a buffering agent. This combination of materials facilitates the aerobic bioremediation of soils, sediment or groundwater environments impacted by various organic and inorganic compounds. For organic constituents amenable to aerobic biodegradation processes (e.g., petroleum hydrocarbons, certain pesticides/herbicides), it significantly stimulates the catabolic activity of the indigenous microflora, thereby accelerating the rate of contaminant removal. The product is supplied as a powder which can be mixed with soil or slurried in locally available water. Installation techniques vary depending on the application. For example, the powder can be mixed with soil and placed at the bottom of an excavation where prior soil removal had been conducted. A slurry can be made and the mixture can be injected into the subsurface using techniques such as direct injection through Geoprobe rods or hydraulic fracturing. Treatment of groundwater at a typical site involves contracting a Geoprobe rig to drill holes into the subsurface and inject the slurried product into the contaminated zone. On average, a suitable Geoprobe rig with operators can be contracted for $2,500 - $3,500 per day, and between 8 and 12 injections can be completed per day. The product is shipped to the site in 50 gal drums, each containing ten 25 lb bags. In some cases, groundwater treatment may be achieved more cost-effectively by using O-Sox™, which are elongated material bags (or "socks") that are filled with product (Figure 3). The socks are placed into pre-existing wells on a site and can be easily removed, and replaced with a fresh sock if an extended treatment period is required (e.g., if a high concentration contamination source is expected to continue feeding a contamination plume for several years). The system reduces future costs since injection rigs are not required. Reusable stainless steel mesh canisters that enclose the socks permit quick and easy change-out.

In situ treatments continue to experience rapid growth in field-scale applications. As always, it remains the fiduciary responsibility of objective consultants, environmental engineers, hydrogeologists, and regulators to not only stay abreast of emerging technologies, but to also find ways to ensure the most natural and cost-efficient remedies are selected.


Kerry Bolanos-Shaw is with The Adventus Group, Mississauga. Contact: Kerry.Shaw@AdventusGroup.com

March 2007 | 71

HST Turbocompressor

Product & Service Showcase

ABS introduces the revolutionary HST Integral™ Turbocompressor. It is a rugged, money saving compressor designed for reliable, automatic operation at optimal efficiency and is maintenancefree. Because of the energy and maintenance savings from using the HST it can pay for itself in two years. Tel: 905-670-4677, Fax: 905-670-3709 E-mail: abscanada@absgroup.com Web: www.absgroup.com

Coalescing oil/water separators

Fast sure priming The new 4” vacassist trash pump from ABS can be used for sewer by pass, quarry pumping, flood control and general dewatering of construction sites. Dependable construction combined with heavy duty water cooled diesel power and a compressor that runs only when it’s needed is sure to save you money. Tel: 905-670-4677, Fax: 905-670-3709 E-mail: abscanada@absgroup.com Web: www.absgroup.com

ACG Technology’s coalescing oil/water separators are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, FRP and polypropylene construction. Standard systems include air operated diaphragm pump, air filter and floating skimmer. Adjustable weir and skimmer height provides optimal oil removal and minimal disposal volume. Standard range is 1 to 50 GPM. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

ABS Canada

ABS Canada

Package wastewater treatment

Stormwater detention software

ACG Technology’s package system is designed for plants needing to treat flows from 5-50 gallons per minute. Reduces installation costs and comes as complete system, including chemical feed and transfer pumps, mixers, and control panel. Economical batch wastewater treatment systems are also available for treatment of smaller or intermittent flows. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology

Oxygen Releasing Compound EHC-O Oxygen Releasing Compound is fieldproven technology stimulating aerobic biodegradation of organic COIs (petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, BTEX). Available as an O-Sox Canister Delivery System, it is available for 2" and 4" wells, and is easily implemented via reusable stainless steel canisters for quick change-out. Tel: 815-235-3503, Fax: 815-235-3506 E-mail: info@adventusgroup.com Web: www.adventusgroup.com Adventus Group 72 | March 2007

DASH (Detention and Sewer Hydraulics®) Software provides design engineers with a complete set of design tools to prepare, calculate and evaluate comprehensive storm water detention systems using concrete pipe. The program consists of 4 modules. Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682 E-mail: khunter@concrete-pipe.org Web: www.concrete-pipe.org

American Concrete Pipe Association

HYBAS™ wastewater treatment system Upgrade your activated sludge system within the existing tankage to maintain nitrification at higher flow rates or to increase a plant to meet new nitrification requirements. Proven and documented. We have well over 450 installations in 47 countries. Tel: 401-270-3898, Fax: 401-270-3908 E-mail: jmb@anoxkaldnes.com Web: www.anoxkaldnes.com Anox Kaldnes

Adventus provides remediation technologies for impacted soil, sediment, and groundwater. In-Situ Chemical Reduction allows you to treat a wide range of COIs. Our business model supports site owners, engineers, and consultants by providing unbiased design and selection of the most costeffective remediation strategies. Since 2003, Adventus has deployed field installations at over 300 sites. Tel: 815-235-3503, Fax: 815-235-3506 E-mail: info@adventusgroup.com Web: www.adventusgroup.com Adventus Group

Heated hydrocarbon analyser

Vig’s Model 20 is a microprocessor based, oven heated total hydrocarbon analyzer designed for high accuracy, sensitivity and stability. Also designed to continuously measure one point and is available in dual channel configuration. It utilizes a flame ionization detector (FID). Tel: 888-965-4700 E-mail: info@avensys.com Web: www.avensys.com Avensys Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Removal of existing underdrain not required • Eliminates the need for filter gravel • Improves backwash distribution • Longer filter runs and lower turbidity effuent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Reusable, recyclable, remarkable Every year thousands of tonnes of steel are salvaged, recycled and reused in new construction. Steel is the most recycled material in the world. It is easily regenerated, without losing its remarkable qualities. An old car is melted down to produce soup cans, bridge beams and corrugated culverts. Steel recycling is second nature and almost invisible to the average citizen. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: djpenny@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Industrial water analysis HACH is a leading supplier of industrial wastewater treatment equipment, chemicals and services. When combined with the sc100™ and sc1000™ series digital controllers, the HACH family of digital sensors provide reliable and accurate measurement of alkalinity, ammonia, chlorine, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, hardness, nitrate, organics, ORP, pH, phosphate, suspended solids, total organic carbon, turbidity. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: info@daviscontrols.com Web: www.daviscontrols.com Davis Controls www.esemag.com

Phoenix Underdrain System

• Optimizes vertical and horizontal pressure filters • Low profile, filtered water pick-up lateral orifice is <25 mm • Manufactured from corrosion resistant stainless steel • Custom hydraulic distribution • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution. Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Underground detention

Stormwater management using large diameter corrugated steel pipe under parking areas, is a cost-effective way to meet reduced runoff and environmental restrictions while allowing revenue producing services and commercial development. Comprehensive design software is available, FREE. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Confined space entry The new “Lifeguard” manrated confined space entry retrieval system from Pelsue is a manhole guard and retrieval system in one. The “Lifeguard” is compliant to OSHA and ANSI and has a 5:1 safety factor. The “Lifeguard” can be used with a man-rated winch or self retracting lifeline with retrieval. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1886 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Safety Equipment

Variable frequency drive Danfoss Water & Wastewater introduces the VLT® AQUA Drive, a technologically advanced variable frequency drive. It is easy to use and easy to install. Designed specifically for water and wastewater applications, it significantly improves system efficiency in applications such as water supply, treatment, distribution, pressure and level control, irrigation and wastewater applications such as pumps and blowers where speed, pressure and/or level control are critical. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: info@daviscontrols.com Web: www.daviscontrols.com Davis Controls

Denso Petrolatum Tapes Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Water quality meter Hanna Instruments has introduced its new multiparameter water quality meter. Rugged, reliable and waterproof, the HI 9828 combines the versatility of an easy-to-use, easy-to-read handheld unit with all the functionality of a multiparameter system. Featuring a waterproof, impact-resistant case, this meter simultaneously measures 13 parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, temperature, and ORP. Tel: 800-463-4363, Fax: 514-354-6948 E-mail: info@geneq.com Web: www.geneq.com Geneq March 2007 | 73

Product & Service Showcase

Phoenix Panel System

Product & Service Showcase

Solids handling pumps

Engineered pumping systems

Gorman Rupp has introduced a new solids handling, self-priming centrifugal pump the Ultra V™, which has higher pressure, higher flow, greater efficiency and time saving maintenance features. The Ultra V Series of pumps, which is available in a variety of sizes, achieves up to 60 percent increased pressure and up to 40 percent increased flow over self-priming centrifugal solids handling pumps of the same size. Tel: 519-631-2870, Fax: 519-631-4624 E-mail: grcanada@grcanada.com Web: www.grcanada.com Gorman Rupp

Gorman-Rupp offers an extensive line of above ground and below ground selfpriming pumping systems as well as a full line of solids-handling submersible pumping systems. These include pumps, motors, controls, piping and accessories, housed in a corrosive-resistant fiberglass enclosure that can be installed easily at the job site. Tel: 519-631-2870, Fax: 519-631-4624 E-mail: grcanada@grcanada.com Web: www.grcanada.com Gorman Rupp

Oil and grease separators

Solar Powered Circulator

For cost-efficient wastewater treatment, Green Turtle’s line of Proceptor oil, grease and solids separators ensure local regulatory requirements are met. Designed for commercial, institutional and industrial sites, Proceptor can help you reduce your business’ impact on municipal infrastructure and the environment. Tel: 877-966-9444 E-mail: info@greenturtletech.com Web: www.greenturtletech.com Green Turtle™ Group

Data logger

The dipper-log is a low cost data logger for continuously monitoring water levels and temperature in wells, boreholes and open bodies of water. Its small size allows the dipper-log to be used in well diameters as small as 3/4 of an inch (20mm). It is very easy to launch and even easier to download when used in conjunction with a bar-log barometric logger.. Tel: 1-800-331-2032 Web: www.heroninstruments.com Heron Instruments 74 | March 2007

SolarBee is a solarpowered circulator with a non-turbulent high flow mixing action of up to 10,000 GPM. In potable water tanks eliminates dead zones, loss of residual chlorine, thermal stratification, ice build up. In freshwater lakes, reservoirs and stormwater ponds eliminates blue-green algae, invasive aquatic weeds, taste and odor for drinking water, THM formation, ICR release (Mn, Fe, P, H2S). In wastewater reduces BOD, TSS, N, P, HP use, improves DO and reduces sludge buildup. Tel: 866-417-9935 E-mail: mp@h2ologics.com Web: www.h2ologics.com H2O Logics Inc.

Water level meter WATER TAPE is a tough economical water level meter in 100m(300ft) and 150m(500ft) lengths. Its low cost and durability make it an ideal choice for well drillers, pump installers and other severe service users. The WATER TAPE is designed and built with the same attention to quality and value as other Heron products. Call to order today. Tel: 1-800-331-2032 Web: www.heroninstruments.com Heron Instruments

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com Web: www.greatario.com. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Stormceptor® System Stormceptor removes more pollutants from stormwater, maintaining continuous positive treatment of total suspended solids (TSS), regardless of flow rate. Patented scour prevention technology ensures pollutants are captured and contained during all rainfall events, even extreme storms. Hanson Pipe & Precast, Ltd. is the exclusive manufacturer of the Stormceptor System in Ontario. Tel: 888-888-3222, Fax: 519-621-8233 E-mail: mark.smith2@hanson.biz Web: www.hansonpipeandprecast.com Hanson Pipe and Precast

HOBO water level logger

The HOBO Water Level Logger is a high-accuracy, pressure-based water level recording device that combines research-grade accuracy and durability with a price tag that is roughly half the cost of most comparable solutions. Available from Hoskin Scientific Ltd. www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Exclusively from Ideal Pipe, the Challenger line of engineered HDPE pipe meets and exceeds all requirements for storm sewer, culvert and drainage applications. Challenger 3000 gasketed smoothwall pipe is CSA-approved with excellent environmental stability and flow characteristics for lasting reliability. Tel: 800-265-7098, Fax: 519-641-2542 E-mail: ideal@netrover.com Web: www.idealpipe.ca Ideal Pipe

Electronic nose system

OdoWatch™ is the world’s first fullyautomated electronic nose system that provides a real-time odour plume display for instant impact assessment. A must for the 24/7 monitoring of odours at any wastewater treatment plant. Tel: 905-868-9683, Fax: 905-868-9870 E-mail: ontario@johnmeunier.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com John Meunier

Control unit for submersible pumps KSB’s new Control Plus system for submersible pumps features a user-friendly graphics display that provides operators with a clear picture of pump status and water levels. The controller also generates warnings when preventative or corrective maintenance is needed. When controlling two pumps (duplex mode), the system can provide automatic switchover and load sharing. Tel: 905-568-9200, Fax: 905-568-3740 E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca KSB Pumps

Bulk water fill station

Dual function aerator/mixer

Stormceptor monitoring

The SureFill is a fully automated stand-alone solution for the filling of bulk water hauling trucks. With SureFill Water Filling Stations the proper management, administration and control of water dispensing is made effortless. Each station encompasses a control panel & data logger, rate of flow control meter, backflow preventer and drain valve. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com Web: www.metconeng.com

Biological nutrient removal processes are now easier to regulate and more cost-effective, by combining mixing and aeration in a single unit with independent aeration control. The patented AIRE-O2 TRITON® Process Aerator/Mixer maximizes fine oxygen dispersion and mixing for greater oxygen transfer efficiencies. It offers dual function control of nitrification and denitrification in separate modes. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com Web: www.metconeng.com

Minotaur offers all the Stormceptor servicing you need to be compliant with regulatory authorities, including proactive supervision, siteinspections, field reports, certificates of inspection, small spill removal, large spill pump out, lab analysis of particulate & oils, consultation. Simplify your responsibility.

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Minotaur Guardian Service Limited

New Pipe Pac version 3 now available

Pipe Pac version 3, has arrived. For more information or to obtain a copy of the Pipe Pac version 3, contact the OCPA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905 E-mail: sal.iannello@ocpa.com Web: www.ocpa.com Ontario Concrete Pipe Association www.esemag.com

Water and wastewater operator training

Learning objectives are designed by operators for operators. The surge in course demand is a testament in itself to the popularity and value of our courses. The continuous introduction of new water and wastewater courses and increased accessibility speaks to our unrivaled commitment. Visit our Hamilton or Windsor hands-on centres or call today to inquire about our on-site capabilities. Tel: 866-622-6535 Web: www.owotc.com OWOTC

Tel: 888-648-6828, Fax: 519-647-3198 E-mail: service@minotaurltd.com Web: www.minotaurltd.com

Septage receiving station The user-friendly, maintenance-free Helisieve Plus® Septage Receiving Station pre-treats septage and protects downstream processes. This self-contained system removes troublesome solids and dewaters them for landfill. It's fast, easy and effective, and odors are contained in the stainless steel receiving tank. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: lott@parkson.com Web: www.parkson.com Parkson Corporation March 2007 | 75

Product & Service Showcase

Engineered HDPE pipe

Sigma series metering pumps Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Easy-to-use microprocessor control with a backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment.

Product & Service Showcase

Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls

Interlocking cover system

Stan-Deck’s interlocking cover system is designed for tanks of all shapes and sizes. Featuring the industry's highest load ratings, the all fiberglass FRP, modular construction provides a lightweight, easy to install, low maintenance cover solution to odor control or freeze up challenges.

New progressive cavity pump

Tel: 416-444-4484, Fax: 416-444-4485 E-mail: kszasz@protectolite.com Web: www.protectolite.com

Double your pump life with the innovative M Champ. Thinking outside the box has created this new Wastewater Market standard pump by incorporating a compact flexishaft design and an integral spare stator. Tel: 610-363-8010, Fax: 610-363-0971 E-mail: info@netzschusa.com Web: www.netzschusa.com


Rudi Kovacko & Associates

New grinder from Netzsch

The Sydney Tar Ponds

Membrane bioreactor

The NETZSCH MOvas solid grinding machine is used in a wide variety of industries where solids in the product interfere with process safety. The solids are sufficiently ground by the M-Ovas to prevent clogging of pipelines and of subsequent equipment. The MOvas offers easy and fast disassembly of cutting tips and cutting unit and self adjusting cutters. Tel: 610-363-8010, Fax: 610-363-0971 E-mail: info@netzschusa.com Web: www.netzschusa.com

The Sydney Tar Ponds project relies on Long Duration Foam to control emissions during excavation and storage of contaminated soil. Rusmar's foam has been widely used to control odors from Manufactured Gas Plant sites. Please call or visit our website for more information.

Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. has perfected containerizing their SaniBrane® MBR. The containerized SaniBrane® is portable, provides excellent effluent on start-up, is operator friendly and comes pre-wired, pre-plumbed and tested. The system for anywhere needing reliable waste treatment with a small footprint! Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: saneng@sanitherm.com Web: www.sanitherm.com

Rudi Kovacko & Associates

AquiferTest Pro

Schlumberger Water Services is pleased to announce the release of AquiferTest Pro version 4.1. This popular software package now incorporates several highdemand analysis methods along with increased functionality offering hydrogeologists the ability to expand the scope of pumping test and slug analysis. Tel: 519-746-1798, Fax: 519-885-5262 E-mail: sws-sales@slb.com Web: www.water.slb.c Schlumberger Water Services 76 | March 2007

Tel: 610-436-4314, 800-733-3626 Fax: 610-436-8436 Web: www.rusmarinc.com Rusmar Incorporated

Sanitherm Engineering

Telescoping conveyors

Filter cartridges

For transporting sludge and screened material, Serpentix exclusively offers “Puratek” telescoping conveyors that extend and contract to uniformly fill trucks and containers. Add a pivoting base and the conveyor will automatically fill multiple trucks or bins that are positioned in any array.

Absolute rated POLY-PLEAT cartridges meet or exceed the three-log (99.9%) removal requirements described in National Sanitation Foundation Standard 53 for cyst sized particles. For this reason, POLY-PLEAT filter cartridges are ideal to control cryptosporidium, giardia cysts and other harmful microorganisms to help ensure cyst-free drinking water. Tel: 800-565-5278 Fax: 905-820-4015 E-mail: sales@service-filtration.com Web: www.service-filtration.com

Tel: 800-466-7979, Fax: 303-430-7337 E-mail: sales@serpentix.com Web: www.serpentix.com Serpentix

Service Filtration Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Web-based alarm notification

Chemical dosing

The Smith & Loveless PISTA® Grit Chamber maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies over a wide range of daily flows because of its exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete particles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in downstream basins, channels, weirs and piping. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com

Monitor, report, and control your systems with AlarmAgent, RACO’s full-featured, web-based service. AlarmAgent is RACO’s newest wireless technology, bringing a state-of-the-art, and web-based interface to our complete line of alarm detection and notification products. Tel: 905-678-2882 Fax: 905-293-9774 E-mail: Sales@spdsales.com Web: www.spdsales.com SPD Sales

Superdose CW (compact wall mount) series consists of stepper motor driven pumps designed to offer an accurate and dependable dosing package with the standard dosing pump components suitable for water treatment systems. The small size of the skid (700 mm width x 1000 mm height) makes it easy to install and set up as it requires less space, operators can reach the pumps easily for set-up. Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-293-9774 E-mail: sales@spdsales.com Web: www.spdsales.com SPD Sales

Pump muck without adding water

Transfer drill cuttings & waste mud >1,600 feet

Smith & Loveless

Stormceptor® System Stormceptor removes more pollutants from stormwater, maintaining continuous positive treatment of total suspended solids (TSS), regardless of flow rate. Patented scour prevention technology ensures pollutants are captured and contained during all rainfall events, even extreme storms. Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: info@stormceptor. com Web: www.imbriumsystems.com

Imbrium Systems

Analytical testing

Testmark Laboratories Ltd. provides quality organic, inorganic, forensic, industrial and biological analytical testing services to the industrial, municipal and private sectors. Testmark is ISO ISO/IEC 17025 certified, accredited by SCC and CAEAL, and licensed by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Tel: 1-888-282-0422 Fax: 705-693-1124 E-mail: sylvia.rennie@testmark.ca Web: www.testmark.ca TESTMARK Laboratories www.esemag.com

Proven reliability for abrasive slurries; hydrocarbon and viscous sludge; hazardous waste; drilling mud waste and cuttings; dry sand and stones; effluent and x-p operation. Rent or purchase anywhere in Canada. Tel: 866-735-9005 E-mail: info@SupavacCanada.com Web: www.SupavacCanada.com

High reliability and extremely low maintenance are the experience with advanced vacuum recovery and pressure discharge technology with no rotating parts. Rent or purchase anywhere in Canada. Tel: 866-735-9005 E-mail: info@SupavacCanada.com Web: www.SupavacCanada.com

Supavac Canada

Supavac Canada

Greater capacity inline filters

Waterra's two Inline Disposable 0.45 Micron Filter options — the high turbidity FHT-45 and the NEW medium turbidity FMT-45 provide an economical alternative for lower turbidity sampling, when the highest possible capacity is not required. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: waterra@idirect.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

Secondary lining system

When underground tanks need to be replaced but site conditions make replacement costly and difficult, then retrofit your tanks with a new corrosion resistant secondary contained lining system. The new system is a unique installed on-site internal fiberglass system that allows you to upgrade in-service steel or fiberglass single wall tanks to a secondary contained lining system. Tel: 800-661-8265, Fax: 780-466-6126 Web: www.zcl.com ZCL Composites March 2007 | 77

Product & Service Showcase

Grit chamber

CANECT ‘07 Guide to the 15th Annual

Hours April 16 - 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.


- 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

& TRADESHOW April 16 & 17, 2007 at Metro Toronto Convention Centre Since 1992, CANECT has been Canada’s leading environmental management and compliance training opportunity! This year it features 10 practical, proven and relevant one-day professional development courses designed specifically to meet the needs of Canadian owners, directors, managers, supervisors, lawyers and engineers with environmental compliance responsibilities. Registrants at a CANECT 2006 course

The Honourable Laurel Broten, Minister of Environment, Ontario and MPP for Etobicoke-Lakeshore is scheduled to address delegates on April 16.

2007 Compliance Courses include: Environmental Regulation & Compliance Dealing with Industrial Air Emissions Integrating Environment, Safety and Quality Management Systems

Risk-based Environmental Auditing

Waste Management and Waste Diversion

Water & Wastewater Compliance

Plus: CANECT is one of Canada’s largest environmental and EH&S tradeshows - this year conveniently co-located with IAPA’s “Health & Safety 2007 ” to provide over exhibits and displays featuring the latest in environmental, industrial hygiene and related technologies.


Enforcement: Dealing with Inspectors, Investigators and Prosecutors

Bill 133, Spills Management & Compliance

Brownfields: The New Rules

Dealing with Noise, Odour, Dust (NOD)

Spaces are limited. Register now for Canada’s leading annual environmental compliance event .

March 2007 | 79

CANECT Workshops

C1 Risk-based Environmental Auditing A new CANECT course offered by CEAs from Jacques Whitford introduces the advantages of risk-based environmental auditing – the “risk-based” approach balances the limited time and resources companies have for auditing with the need to generate key information upon which to improve both compliance and performance.

Day 1 - April 16 Program: Day 1: » Bonus: All CANECT registrants can attend a FREE 8am keynote address given by Craig Kielberger recognized for his work in support of the rights of children by John Paul II and Queen Elizabeth II. His story of active citizenship inspires us all to act to improve the world around us.


An essential annual update on current issues in waste management and an industry guide to meeting the new regulatory and practical challenges of waste manifesting, waste diversion and product stewardship.

A1 Environmental Regulation and Compliance, 2007 CANECT’s essential annual introductory and update course - presented this year in association with leading environmental lawyers from Bennett Jones LLP-has established its reputation as Canadian industry’s chosen source for cutting-edge environmental regulation, compliance and due diligence training.

B1 Dealing with Industrial Air Emissions - 1 This course, presented by RWDI AIR and Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP, is constantly being refined to deliver Canada’s most up-to-date guide to complying with the tough, new provincial and federal air emissions rules.

80 | March 2007

Dealing with Industrial Solid Waste & Waste Diversion


Industrial Brownfields: Working with the new rules This course provides registrants with a practical and proven introduction and update on complying with brownfields regulations; Records of Site Condition and the site assessment process, remediation and development-related issues.


This new one-day course offered by senior management systems specialists from Jacques Whitford, will be of interest to all organizations seeking to implement or refine an effective management framework to deal with complex, and often inter-related issues of Environment, Safety and Quality.

Day 2 - April 17 Program: Day 2: » Bonus: All CANECT registrants can attend a FREE 8a.m. presentation by keynote speaker Chris Gardner "whose ‘Pursuit of Happiness’ story of overcoming obstacles to achieve success is now being told in the hit movie starring Will Smith.




Dealing with Air Emissions – 2 Noise, Odour, Dust, (NODs) The way you handle the thorny issues of environmental noise, odour and dust in the plant and in the community can impact Ministry relations and even affect future approvals. This course offers hands-on solutions to common Air emission and NODs issues. Bring your questions!

Industrial Water and Wastewater Regulation & Compliance This course provides municipalities, MISAregulated industries and others with proven compliance strategies to deal with regulations and approvals covering water, water-taking, source water protection and Bill 133 amendments to OWRA.

Regulatory Enforcement: Dealing with Inspectors, Investigators & Prosecutors Almost any leak, spill or approvals violation can trigger an MOE IEB investigation. Where it goes from there depends very much on how well prepared you are. This new course gives insight into proven proactive strategies to minimize negative outcomes for individuals and organizations.

Integration of Environment, Safety and Quality Management Systems


Bill 133, Spills Management and Compliance New Spill Reporting, Contingency Planning and Environmental Penalties regulations are coming, along with a new zero tolerance approach to spills. Learn about your new compliance responsibilities under these new regulations and how to pro-actively manage your organization’s spill contingency planning and response. Materials include FREE manual & posters.

Registration information See us at CANECT 2007

- Booth #1814

March 2007 | 81

Canadian Environmental Conference 2007 Priority Registration Form Please use a separate registration form for each delegate - Photocopy as needed HOW TO REGISTER: Once you have decided on which courses you and your colleagues want to attend, simply complete and send in the adjacent Registration Form. Alternatively, you can register and pay on-line at www.canect.net Legend: At-a-glance guide to courses Program for Day 1, April 16 A1






Regulation & Dealing with Risk-based Air EnvironCompliance Emissions mental 2007 and Reg. Auditing Update 419


Reserve a place for me and my colleagues* at CANECT

(at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, South Building, 222 Bremner Blvd [east of the CN Tower]

My name is:

(please print) ...........................................................................................................................................



Street address:





Industrial Waste & Waste Diversion

Dealing with Brownfields : The new rules

Town:..................................................................................... Prov:............... Post Code:........................................ My phone # is: (

) ...................................... My fax # is: (

) ..............................................

My email address is: .................................................................................................................................................

Program for Day 2, April 17 A2










Enforcement and Investigations Environmental Investigations

Reg. 419 Integrating Manageand Noise ment Odour Dust Systems (NOD)

Water & Spills, Bill Wastewater 133 Regulation Management & & Compliance Compliance

I am signing up for the following course(s):

.................................. + .................................

(Identify course selection by letter and number eg. A1 + B2 etc. [see legend opposite]) * IMPORTANT: When registering multiple registrations, fill-in a separate Registration Form for each delegate – (photocopy this form as needed). Fax or mail-in all forms together to be sure to qualify for discounts (see below). For 4 or more registrations, please call (905)727-4666, Ext.#23

COURSE FEE FOR SINGLE REGISTRATION: • Single day registration = $565 + GST per person (includes: keynote speaker; luncheon voucher, + course materials) • Two day registration = $790 + GST per person (includes: keynote speaker; luncheon voucher, + course materials) Register for both days and attend the second day for just $225 It’s by far your most cost-effective option!

DISCOUNTS FOR MULTIPLE REGISTRATIONS: Make this an inclusive event by bringing your entire team. CANECT offers deep discounts on multiple registrations. For details on registering more than 4 registrants, call Stephanie Bellows at (905)727-4666.

ALL REGISTRATION FEES INCLUDE: • FREE hand-out materials, workbooks and proceedings • FREE PASS to attend both tradeshows • Free access to keynote speakers and recreational events • Complimentary coffee breaks and luncheon voucher • Certificate of Attendance on completion of course CANCELLATIONS POLICY: Refunds will be given for cancellations received in writing by April 3, 2007. Refunds cannot be given after this time. Delegate substitution is permitted at all times. Please note, if you register for the session and do not attend, you are liable for the full registration fee. ACCOMMODATION AND HOTELS: Room blocks at special discounted rates are available at the following hotels: Intercontinental Toronto Centre:1-800-422-7969; Holiday Inn on King 1-800-263-6364; The Fairmont Royal York 1-800-441-1414; Renaissance at Skydome 1-800-237-1512; Novotel Hotel (416)3678900. Room blocks quickly fill up. Register early. Indicate that you are a CANECT delegate in association with IAPA’s Health & Safety 2007 to ensure your special discounts. Complimentary shuttle bus service will be provided daily between your hotel and the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. PROGRAM CHANGES: N.B. The organizers reserve the right to change the program content and to substitute speakers without further notice. Should circumstances require it, the organizers also reserve the right to relocate and reschedule this event within a six-month period of the scheduled date and assume no liability for these changes.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: For general inquiries, phone Stephanie Bellows, Environmental Science & Engineering at (905)727-4666.

82 | March 2007

Payment options

1. A cheque (payable to Envirogate Event Management Inc.) will be mailed in: J Single day, single person course registration...................................... = $ 565 J Two-day, single person course registration ........................................ = $ 790 Plus J Second person single - day registration J Second person two - day registration

@ 7% off = $525 @ 7% off = $735

Plus J Third person single - day registration J Third person two - day registration

@ 12% off = $497 @ 12% off = $695

+ = $ .................. = $ ..................


+ = $ .................. = $ .................. + = $ ________

+ 6% GST


$ _______


$ _______

2. I wish to pay for the above by: J MASTERCARD J VISA (Check one) Signature:.......................................................................Phone: ( ) .............................. Name (on card):...................................................................................................................... Card #...................................................................... .......................... Expiry:............./.........

Fax completed form(s) to:(416)780-0290 or 888-780-0663 Make Cheques Payable to: Envirogate Event Management Inc. GST # 83595 8141 RT0001

Mail forms with payment to: CANECT ‘07 c/o Microspec Registration Services, 2700 Dufferin Street, Unit #26, Toronto, ON, Canada M6B 4J3 Phone: 866-268-1475 or 416-780-1554 (Registration status only) To register and pay online visit


CANECT T Exhibits of CANECT ... Manufacturers, distributors, suppliers and companies from the following areas: • • • •

Air pollution control Analytical laboratory Confined space entry Consulting engineering


• • • •

Containment Decontamination systems Emergency response Environmental auditing

• • • •

Filters Groundwater treatment Hazardous waste treatment Health & safety

• • • •

Instrumentation & control Legal services Liners/geotextiles Noise & vibration control

CANECT 07 Restaurant and Delegate Lounge



Energy Pavilion

SPECIALLY-TARGETED SHOWCASE PAVILION 1. Environment & Energy Pavilion Book here if your organization is involved in: Alternative energy products Energy efficiency products and services Power generation Government incentives/services Industry associations


T ‘07 • • • •

Oil & water separation Pumps, pipes, valves, fittings Protection/safety equipment Recycling

• Residuals dewatering, disposal & handling equipment • Site & soil remediation

• • • •

Hours April 16 - 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

April 17 - 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

Software systems Spill control & containment Stormwater control Tanks & storage

• • • •

Transportation services Water treatment Wastewater treatment Waste disposal

Still more booths this way

Last year the combined shows totalled more than 750 booths!

Act now to make sure your company, product or service is represented at CANECT in 2007! Reserve your booth space today!

Canadian Environmental Conference & Tradeshow A3M Bio-Tek Solutions, Inc. #2006 Toronto, ON Ph: 416-876-3317 Fx: 416 467-8008 Products/Services to be displayed: Eco Bio Blocks (EBB), is a non-toxic natural water cleanser made of microbe, cement and porous stones.

List of Exhibitors as of March 15, 2007

Abuma Manufacturing Ltd. #1932 London, ON 519-659-6376 Fx: 519-659-9438 Products/Services to be displayed: Contract manufacturing showing capabilities of stainless steel fabrication for environmental clients. AC Environmental Services #2014 Edmonton, AB 780-217-7100 Fx: 780-401-3519 Products/Services to be displayed: JNJ – Industries Smart Bond polymers & spill clean-up products. ACG Technology Ltd. #1805 Woodbridge, ON 905-856-1414 Fx: 905-856-6401 Products/Services to be displayed: Industrial & municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment – flow monitoring equipment. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E ACI Instrumentation Limited Woodbridge, ON 905-265-0063 Fx: 905-265-0064

86 | March 2007


Products/Services to be displayed: Industrial process control and instrumentation devices; flow meters; level transmitters; pressure & temperature; liquid and gas detectors. The Adventus Group #2027 Mississauga, ON 905-273-5374 Fx: 905-273-4367 Products/Services to be displayed: EHC & EHC-O groundwater remediation products. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Albarrie #2104 Barrie, ON 705-737-3906 Fx: 705-737-9652 Products/Services to be displayed: Industrial filtration products and services. High efficiency cleaning service. Alberta Research Council Inc. #1828 Vegreville, AB 780-632-8409 Fx: 780-632-8385 Products/Services to be displayed: Waste technologies, industrial water & wastewater, air emissions. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E ALS Laboratory Group #2037 Vancouver, BC 604-253-4188 Fx: 604-255-4768 Products/Services to be displayed: Laboratory analytical services.

CANECT Exhibitors Anachemia Science #2033 Mississauga, ON 905-567-8292 Fx: 905-567-5939 Products/Services to be displayed: Hach equipment, ERA Chemicals. Aqua Terre Solutions Inc. #1931 Toronto, ON 416-635-5882 Fx: 416-635-5353 Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental consulting, laptop presentation. Armtec #1906 Guelph, ON 519-763-2360 Fx: 519-763-0437 Products/Services to be displayed: Manufacturer and supplier of corrugated steel products and corrugated HDPE pipe used in infrastructure and natural resource markets. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Ashtead Technology Rentals #1837 Mississauga, ON 905-607-9639 Fx: 905-607-8592 Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental monitoring, remote visual inspection and non-destructive testing rental equipment. Avensys Inc. #1824 Montreal, QC 514-428-6766 Fx: 514-428-8999 Products/Services to be displayed:ISCO samplers/flowmeters, gas detectors, multi component gas analyzers.

Baker Tanks #2118 Seal Beach, CA 562-430-6262 Fx: 562-430-6412 Products/Services to be displayed: Tanks & storage. Bennett Environmental #1912 Oakville, ON 905-339-1540 Fx: 905-339-0016 Products/Services to be displayed: Contaminated sites remediation. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E BSI Entropy #1904 Ottawa, ON Ph: 613-254-8478 Fx: 613-254-9631 Products/Services to be displayed: The Entropy System™, web-based software solution for risk, compliance, and performance management. Cadman Power Equipment Ltd. #2108 Courtland, ON 519-688-2222 Fx: 519-688-2100 Products/Services to be displayed: Portable temporary storage bags. Caduceon Environmental Laboratories #1836 Kingston, ON 613-544-2001 Fx: 613-544-2770 Products/Services to be displayed: Analytical services for environmental parameters.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

March 2007 | 87

CANECT Exhibitors Canadian Standards Association (CSA) #2111 Mississauga, ON 416-747-4372 Fx: 416-401-6289 Products/Services to be displayed: Climate Change Group Services and Clean Projects Greenhouse Gas Registry. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Can-Am Instruments #1831 Oakville, ON 905-829-0030 Fx: 905-829-4701 Products/Services to be displayed: Oil/water monitors, oil/water separators, mag meters, samplers, flow meters. Cansel Survey Equipment Inc. Burnaby, BC

604-205-7658 Fx: 604-299-1998 Products/Services to be displayed: Survey & mapping equipment. CAP Canada Distribution Inc. Montreal, QC 800-667-6643 Fx: 800-667-6641 Products/Services to be displayed: Absorbent.

Claessen Pumps Limited #1801/1900/1903 Innisfil, ON 705-431-8585 Fx: 705-431-2772 Products/Services to be displayed: Pumps.


Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

ECO JOB BOARD Canada's Largest Environmental Job Board


66,300 registered environmental job seekers Over 14,000 searchable resumes Averaging over 50,000 views to the job board per month


Over 1,200 job postings per year Over 4,500 registered employers Post an on-line resume to be searched by employers across Canada

Canadian Environmental Certification Approvals Board


Canadian Certified Environmental Practitioner

The Competitive Advantage Certification for environmental practitioners Find out more at:

www.cecab.org 88 | March 2007

Con Cast Pipe #2025 Guelph, ON 519-763-8655 Fx: 519-763-1982 Products/Services to be displayed: ecoStorm – gross particulate separator, ecoStop – spill control device, ecoSep – oil/water separator. Contact Canada #2115 Victoria, BC 250-708-0427 Fx: 250-708-0429 Products/Services to be displayed: Industry guides. EarthGuard Environmental Group Inc. #1905 Richmond Hill, ON 905-763-1212 Fx: 905-763-6789 Products/Services to be displayed: Ontario Regulation 419 consulting, training and software. Echelon Response & Training #1913 Stoney Creek, ON 905-971-5113 Fx: 905-643-3106 Products/Services to be displayed: Emergency spill response, confined space entry services. ECO Canada #2012 Calgary, AB 403-233-0748 Fx: 403-269-9544 Products/Services to be displayed: HR resources: ECO job board, wage-subsidy internships, certification for professionals, and the Environmental Employer of the Year Awards.


Enhances professional credibility and recognition for environmental expertise.


Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E EEM Inc. #1930 Montreal, QC 514-481-3401 Fx: 514-481-4679 Products/Services to be displayed: NIMONIK. Electro Rent Corporation #2023 Mississauga, ON 905-361-0943 Fx: 905-361-0232 Products/Services to be displayed: Test equipment rental services.

CANECT Exhibitors Elemental Controls #1827 – NITON Analyzers Mississauga, ON 905-282-9974 Fx: 905-282-9519 Products/Services to be displayed: NITON Field Portable XRF analzyers for lead and other heavy metals in paint, soil, dust and air. Also on display will be the Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments, providing hand-held, benchtop and on-line continuous hydrocarbon analysis in water and soils. ENABLON #1815 Courbevoie, France [33] 147-336465 Fx: [33] 147-910514 Products/Services to be displayed: Corporate responsibility and EHS management software solutions. ENKON Information Systems #1911 Victoria, BC 250-480-7103 Fx: 250-480-7141 Products/Services to be displayed: Web-based system for environmental and land asset information – software systems. Environment Canada #2013 Downsview, ON 416-739-5867 Fx: 416-739-4405 Products/Services to be displayed: Government materials. Environmental Analytical Systems #1832 Barry’s Bay, ON 613-756-0101 Fx: 613-756-0909 Products/Services to be displayed: IAO, Health & Safety, Environmental Instruments.

Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine Aurora, ON 905-727-4666 Fx: 905-841-7271 Products/Services: Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine has covered Canada’s multi-billion dollar a year environmental protection industry since 1988. ES&E’s expert articles are vitally important to some 19,000 readers responsible for the design, construction and operation of water treatment and distribution systems, sewerage systems, and industrial and hazardous waste management systems. Filter Innovations Inc. #1833 North York, ON 416-490-7848 Fx: 416-490-0974 Products/Services to be displayed: Groundwater remediation, ultra filtration, MBR, filter bags, activated carbon, self index filter. Fluorescent Lamp Recyclers #1927 Ayr, ON 519-740-3334 Fx: 519-740-2320 Products/Services to be displayed: Hazardous waste treatment services. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Franz Environmental Inc. #2035 Mississauga, ON 905-614-1978 Fx: 905-614-1981 Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental site assessment, risk assessment remediation, groundwater modeling, hydrogeology.

March 2007 | 89

CANECT Exhibitors Geneq Inc. #2031 Montreal, QC 514-354-2511 Fx: 514-354-6948 Products/Services to be displayed: Geneq sells a complete line of measuring and sampling equipment for air, water and soil. Golder Associates #2015 Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 905-567-4444 Fx: 905-567-6561 Products/Services to be displayed: An international group of companies that provides ground engineering and environmental consulting services in support of environmental, industrial, natural resources, health and civil engineering projects.

Hybridyne Power Systems #2119/2117 Newmarket, ON 905-853-8798 Fx: 905-853-3635 Products/Services to be displayed: Hybridyne-RHS will be demonstrating (for the first time in Canada ) the Kazekamome Remote Hybrid System, a light and security platform which is totally powered by wind and sunshine, and therefore needs no wiring or electricity and is immune to blackouts or other power failures. Integra Environmental Inc. #1804 Ancaster, ON 905-304-3713 Fx: 905-304-5742 Products/Services to be displayed: Air monitoring instrumentation and water treatment equipment.

Hanson Pipe & Precast Ltd. #1823 Cambridge, ON 519-622-7574 Fx: 519-621-8233 Products/Services to be displayed: Stormceptor/Minotaur Guardian Service.

Jurassic Activated Carbon Inc. #1909 North York, ON 416-297-8876 Fx: 416-297-9976 Products/Services to be displayed: Activated carbon.

HazMat Management Magazine #2007 Toronto, ON 416-510-6864 Fx: 416-510-5133 Products/Services to be displayed: HazMat Magazine, Solid Waste & Recycling Magazine, Environmental Legislation, Environmental Compliance Report, EHS Justice and ERIS.

Kentain Products Limited #2137 Kitchener, ON 519-576-0994 Fx: 519-576-0919 Products/Services to be displayed: Flexible PVC liners for chemical storage tanks.

Hulcher Services Inc. #1830 Rexdale, ON 416-675-0565 Fx: 416-675-0567 Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental emergency response, remediation, industrial services.

Bennett Environmental is: • A leading solution provider for remediating hazardous materials: • PCBs, Dioxins, Furans, Pesticides, PAHs, Creosote, Metals Reclamation • A final treatment and disposal solution which uses ‘fail-safe’ high temperature technology to ensure destruction with certainty • Rigorously audited by Canadian Governments, U.S. EPA, Centre for Disease Control, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, CHWMEG

Lakes Environmental Software #2005 Waterloo, ON N2L 3X2 519-746-5995 Fx: 519-746-0793 Products/Services to be displayed: Air dispersion modeling software.

Expert People. Better Decisions. At XCG Consultants, we are committed to our clients by delivering specialized technical expertise and solutions which are both practical and innovative. Partner with our experts on your next environmental project and bring the leadership and communication that is essential for successful completion.

• SO 14000 certified (Saint Ambroise facility)

Bennett Offers: • Convenience and liability protection Hassle-free, quick, easy approvals

Bennett Environmental Inc 1-800-386-1388 www.bennettenv.com

Contact us for Wastewater, Water Resources, Municipal Infrastructure, Drinking Water and many other environmental services.

www.xcg.com Environmental Engineers and Scientists Toronto | Kitchener | Kingston | Edmonton | Cincinnati

90 | March 2007

CANECT Exhibitors LADEN Steel Fabrication/a division of X-treme Energy Group Inc. #2123/2125/2127 Innisfail, AB 403-227-5400 Fx: 403-227-4073 Products/Services to be displayed: Manufacturers of PROTEC Storage Solutions. ULC listed and FM approved secure secondary containment. We also manufacture mobile emergency shower units built to ANSI standards. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Landmark Municipal Services #1916 Burlington, ON 905-319-7700 Fx: 905-319-7706 Products/Services to be displayed: Water and wastewater repairs, maintenance, upgrades, inspections. Layfield Geosynthetics & Industrial Fabrics #1835 Vaughan, ON 905-761-9123 Fx: 905-761-0035 Products/Services to be displayed: Geosynthetics, geotextiles, pond liners, secondary containment liners, erosion control products, geogrid. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E LEHDER Environmental Services #1822 Point Edward, ON 519-336-4101 Fx: 519-336-4311 Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental services.

Medi-Air/Tibbits #1935 Mississauga, ON 905-625-8884 Fx: 905-625-4848 Products/Services to be displayed: Air purification systems. Minotaur G.S. Limited #1823 Brantford, ON 519-647-3729 Fx: 519-647-3198 Products/Services to be displayed: Stormceptor inspection and monitoring service. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E multiVIEW Locates Inc. #1811 Mississauga, ON 905-629-8959 Fx: 905-629-7379 Products/Services to be displayed: Utility locating and mapping services; geophysical services. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Nelson Environmental Inc. #1910 Winnipeg, MB 204-949-7500 Fx: 204-237-0660 Products/Services to be displayed: Aeration, biofiltration, pond and tank covers. Surface water rehabilitation. NSF – ISR #2112 Ann Arbor, MI 734-769-8010 Fx: 734-827-7768 Products/Services to be displayed: Registrar services.

Maxxam Analytics Inc. #2106 Mississauga, ON 905-817-5733 Fx: 905-817-5777 Products/Services to be displayed: Analytical services, laboratory testing.

Feeling burdened by


environmental compliance requirements

You are required to have clean stormwater discharge. Let Minotaur's proactive supervision free you from the frustration of establishing and maintaining compliance, and give you peace of mind. Specializing in the Monitoring & Servicing of Stormceptor Units

Compliant. Cost-effective. Easy. www.minotaurltd.com service@minotaurltd.com 519 647-3729

March 2007 | 91

ONEIA #2006 Mississauga, ON 416-531-7884 Products/Services to be displayed: Member company brochures. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Osprey Scientific Inc. #1933 Mississauga, ON 905-820-3122 Fx: 905-820-9667 Products/Services to be displayed: Monitoring instrumentation – gas, groundwater, water quality, organic field testing, soil sampling, waste analysis. Petro Viron #2116 Guelph, ON 519-837-2281 Fx: 519-763-9371 Products/Services to be displayed: Wireless switch & tank level gauging, internet accessible and local alarm panels. Pollution Equipment News/Rimbach Publishing #1813 Pittsburgh, PA 412-364-5366 Fx: 412-369-9720 Products/Services to be displayed: Publications - Pollution Equipment News, and Industrial Hygiene News. PRO-TEC Storage Solutions/a division of X-treme Energy Group Inc. #2123/2125/2127 Innisfail, AB 403-227-5400 Fx: 403-227-4073 Products/Services to be displayed: Manufacturers of PROTEC Storage Solutions. ULC listed and FM approved secure secondary containment. We also manufacture mobile emergency shower units built to ANSI standards. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Phoenix Contact Ltd. Mississauga, ON 905-890-2820 Fx: 905-890-0180


Products/Services to be displayed: Electric connection and interface technology and industrial automation. Rain for Rent #1914 Bakersfield, CA 661-399-9124 Fx: 661-393-1542 Products/Services to be displayed: Pumps, pipe, tanks, filtration. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Rice Engineering and Operating Ltd. #2122 Vaughan, ON 905-760-0170 Fx: 905-760-0171 Products/Services to be displayed: Drilling completion supplies, sampling and monitoring equipment and remediation products. RM Products Ltd. #2004 Orillia, ON 705-326-5580 Fx: 705-527-1177 Products/Services to be displayed: RM fiberglass building. Royal Roads University #2008 Victoria, BC 250-391-2600 Fx: 250-391-2548 Products/Services to be displayed: Undergraduate & graduate programs. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E RWDI Air Inc. #2114 Guelph, ON 519-823-1311 Fx: 519-823-1316 Products/Services to be displayed: Engineering consulting services. SCL Instrumentation Inc. #2010 Richmond Hill, ON 905-770-7955 Fx: 905-770-5164 Products/Services to be displayed: Air quality monitoring instrumentation.

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Seacor Environmental Calgary, AB 403-259-7556 Fx: 403-263-7906 Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental consulting.


SEI Industries Ltd. #1808 Delta, BC 604-946-3131 Fx: 604-940-9566 Products/Services to be displayed: SEI Industries will be showcasing latest technology in secondary and hazmat containment, including Ride-Side vehicle berm, Drip Defender spill pad, RainDrain filtration system, HazMat collapsible tank, etc. SolGate Inc. Scarborough, ON 416-291-0700 Fx: 416-291-0700 Products/Services to be displayed: Photovoltaic solar panels.


Sonic Soil Sampling Inc. #1924 Concord, ON 905-660-0501 Fx: 905-660-7143 Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental drilling equipment. Spill Management Inc. Stoney Creek, ON 905-578-9666 Fx: 905-578-6644 Products/Services to be displayed: Training.


Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E SustaiNet Software Solutions Inc. Vancouver, BC 604-717-4327 Fx: 604-736-9531 Products/Services to be displayed: Software






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Team-1 Emergency Services #2100/2001/2002 Hamilton, ON 905-383-5550 Ext105 Fx: 905-574-0492 Products/Services to be displayed: Emergency spill and Hazmat response services. Numerous training courses offered also.

The Adventus Group Mississauga, ON 905-273-5375 Fx: 905-273-4367 Products/Services to be displayed: EHC & EHC-O groundwater remediation products.

Testmark Laboratories Ltd. #2126 Garson, ON 705-693-1121 Fx: 705-693-1124 Products/Services to be displayed: Tradeshow literature.

We Communications Inc. /ReNew Magazine Canada #2022 Toronto, ON 800-344-7055 Fx: 416-443-8886 Products/Services to be displayed: ReNew Canada Magazine, Canadian Water Treatment Magazine & creative design & marketing services.

Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E Walkerton Clean Water Centre #1922 Walkerton, ON 519-881-2003 Fx: 519-881-4947 Products/Services to be displayed: Water operator training & other training courses.


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WorleyParsons Komex #2124 Calgary, AB 403-247-9200 Fx: 403-247-4811 Products/Services to be displayed: Contaminated sites, geosciences, water resources, waste management, environmental & social impact, environmental management. XCG Consultants Ltd. #2136 Oakville, ON 905-829-8880 Fx: 905-829-8890 Products/Services to be displayed: Environmental consultants. Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E ZCL Composites Inc. #1814 Edmonton, AB 780-466-6648 Fx: 780-466-6126 Products/Services to be displayed: Water tanks and oil/water separators Please see our ad in this issue of ES&E

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94 | March 2007

Rain for Rent Visit us online at www.rainforrent.com, or call us at 800-742-7246.

POLLUTEC 2006 attracted over 67,000 visitors Minister Nelly Olin addressing the opening session.

This water well in the historic part of Lyon is hundreds of years old.

ollutec 2006, an international exhibition of environmental equipment, technologies and services, took place November 28 to December 1 in Lyon, France, and attracted 67,326 delegates. Brazil, the show’s Country of the Year, sent over 200 delegates, who presented their country’s environmental policies on renewables and biofuels. Other substantial delegations included one from Sweden, which was a major presence in both the Renewables Village and numerous forums, and one from the Czech Republic, which organized an eco-industry pavilion for the first time. Nelly Olin, France’s Minister of the Environment and Sustainable Development, addressed Pollutec attendees and emphasized the vital nature of innovation and the development of clean, low energy technologies in all areas of environmental protection.


At one of the round tables of the ADEME symposium on eco-technologies, Ségolène Royal, French Socialist presidential candidate, stressed the need to introduce a system of eco-taxes to further aid environmental research at a European level. Pollutec also included a conference organized by Green Cross International on decentralized co-operation in the water sector. During this event, a memorandum of co-operation with the Gaza Strip was

signed by Green Cross, Grand Lyon, the Rhône-Mediterranean-Corsican Water Agency and the French Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development. For information on Pollutec 2007, which will be held this November in Paris, visit www.pollutec.com Report by Penny Davey, Sales Manager, ES&E Magazine

Penny Davey at the exhibition. www.esemag.com

March 2007 | 95

Groundwater Monitoring

Monitoring groundwater resources for municipalities

3D visualization using HydroGeo Analyst.

he City of Guelph in southwestern Ontario, has a growing population of over 110,000 and relies on groundwater as their source of water. In April 2006, the City of Guelph Waterworks Department was approached to participate in a pilot study developed by Schlumberger Water Services. The study was intended to evaluate the effectiveness of Diver* dataloggers and to quantify the benefit of


96 | March 2007

electronic data collection solutions for environmental monitoring. Twenty Diver dataloggers were deployed, the majority being installed in and around the Arkell Spring Grounds. A Baro-Diver*, designed to measure barometric pressure, was deployed in the centre of the monitoring network allowing for the successful compensation of all Diver dataloggers within a twenty kilometre radius. A Mini-Diver*

was deployed to collect long-term linear measurements, and a Micro-Diver* was installed in wells that measured less than one inch in diameter. Finally, a CTD-Diver* and CeraDiver* were deployed in areas where downhole concentrations posed a possible risk to compromising the stainless steel housing of non-ceramic dataloggers (i.e., salinity, acidity etc.). In addition to the more robust housing, the CTD-Diver also logged temperature, pressure and electrical conductivity. The Arkell Spring Grounds supply up to 60 percent of the water for the City of Guelph and encompass an area of approximately 280 hectares. Groundwater monitoring in this area has typically been completed through manual readings; however, the fragile nature of the area has led to increased environmental monitoring requirements for mandatory compliance reporting, as well as qualitative and quantitative forecasting models. The primary data types collected during this pilot program were water level, temperature and barometric pressure. Equipment used for data acquisition included a laptop computer, an optical reading unit, a pocket PC, Pocket-Diver* and LoggerDataManager* software. The collected data were electronically captured and then compensated with barometric measurements for modeling at a later date with HydroGeo Analyst* software. Challenges In the past the City of Guelph gathered information from wells via manual measurements. Challenges associated with this method include: • finding cost-effective methods for obtaining groundwater measurements • compensating for barometric changes • obtaining accurate field measurements • recording seasonal variations in water levels due to rain events and pumping • maintaining data accuracy during user input • managing volumes of water level data • transferring data to a QA/QC system Solution Field trials were conducted over several months and changes of season. This was a valuable part of the study as it allowed the equipment and the method

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Groundwater Monitoring of deployment to be evaluated for extreme conditions. The data collected at each site were obtained over multihour intervals, at minimal cost, and were quickly and accurately transferred into other software applications. Water levels, groundwater temperatures and barometric pressures were recorded using the appropriate Divers. The data were transferred to a computer using the LoggerDataManager software. The barometric pressure data were used to adjust the water level data and the complete set of raw and compensated data were displayed in the resulting graphs. Results Deployment of the Diver dataloggers to the optimum monitoring locations presented some challenges due to the variation in subsurface lithology and proximity to pumping wells. Each Diver was positioned at a depth that corresponded to the seasonal variations of the aquifer with expected drawdown and drought conditions taken into consideration.

Significant resource time was spent on this segment of the pilot test. However, the results obtained by allocating the time to complete this setup properly were well worth the increased effort for the frequency of data captured by the Diver dataloggers. Overall the cost and time per unit was significantly less with the use of Diver dataloggers. This allowed for a better understanding of aquifer performance during the pilot test than would be provided by manual readings alone, such as rapid aquifer responses to

transient events. Data collected also had the benefit of reduced inefficiencies due to mechanical measurement issues, operator error and transcription errors. By applying the barometric pressure compensation to the raw electronic data using the LoggerDataManager software, a more meaningful, extensive and accurate set of observations was obtained. For more information contact sws-diver@slb.com

Programming Diver dataloggers for continuous monitoring using handheld PC. www.esemag.com

March 2007 | 97

NEWS Sanitation is greatest medical milestone since 1840 Sanitation has been voted the greatest medical milestone since 1840, according to the British Medical Journal. More than 11,000 people from around the world have voted in the BMJ's poll to find the greatest medical breakthrough since the journal began in 1840. Sanitation beat 15 other medical advances, including the discovery of antibiotics, the creation of the Pill, and the development of vaccines. Despite the strong field, sanitation was the undisputed winner with 1,795 votes. Antibiotics was a close second with 1,642 votes and anaesthesia took third place. Leading doctors and scientists championed each milestone. Speaking after

the results were announced, Professor Johan Mackenbach of Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, who championed sanitation, said: "I'm delighted that sanitation is recognised by so many people as such an important milestone. The general lesson which still holds is that passive protection against health hazards is often the best way to improve population health. “The original champions of the sanitary revolution were John Snow, who showed that cholera was spread by water, and Edwin Chadwick, who came up with the idea of sewage disposal and piping water into homes. Inadequate sanitation is still a major problem in the developing world. In 2001, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene accounted for over 1.5 million deaths from diarrhoeal disease in low and middle-

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income countries. Clearly, sanitation still plays a vital role in improving public health now and in the future." www.bma.org.uk

Global unification for Degremont Degremont, S.A., a global water treatment specialist and wholly owned subsidiary of SUEZ Environment, has announced the unification of its eight North American and European brands under the newly formed Degremont Technologies (SUEZ) umbrella. The companies – which include Ozonia North America and Infilco Degremont in the United States, Anderson Water Systems and Degremont Ltd. in Canada, and Aquasource, Innoplana, Ozonia, Schreiber Technology and Triogen in Europe and Asia – all have assumed the Degremont Technologies (SUEZ) name. Each operating unit will continue to serve its own customers while working together to offer a broader assortment of technologies and services. For more information, visit the websites of the Degremont Technologies companies in North America: Degremont Technologies-Infilco: www.infilcodegremont.com Ozonia North America: www.ozonia.com Anderson Water: www.andersonwatersystems.ca Degremont Ltd.: www.degremont.ca www.degremont-technologies.com

WEF commits to one voice for water The Water Environment Federation's (WEF) Board of Trustees voted unanimously on January 19, 2007, to approve a resolution to explore the benefits and opportunities of developing a single water association to represent water professionals and resources within North America. Intended to foster discussions with the American Water Works Association (AWWA), the resolution was not approved by AWWA’s Board of Directors the next day. "WEF strongly believes that ensuring one strong voice for water would better serve our members and our communities by strengthening clean water initiatives in protecting public health and the environment,” said WEF President Mohamed Dahab. “We are 98 | March 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

NEWS disappointed we have lost this opportunity with AWWA for now, but the Federation remains committed to moving forward to partner with water organizations in and outside North America to achieve this vision.” The WEF Board of Trustees believes the current divide between water supply and water quality pervades many aspects of the water community, leaving gaps in the protection of public health that other, less specialized groups will fill. In particular, the international community looks to North America for technical advances and leadership in water policy. www.wef.org

Ontario to ban burning of used oil in space heaters The Ontario government is seeking public input on a draft regulation that would ban the burning of used oil in space heaters. About 700 facilities throughout Ontario, such as auto repair centres and dealerships, burn the equivalent of 2.5 million oil changes for heat. Those in southern Ontario that now have approval to burn used oil will have until June 1, 2009, to divert their used oil rather than discharging it into the environment. No new approvals will be issued. The ban will add about 7 million litres of used oil to the 150 million litres that are currently rerefined at SafetyKleen. The company’s re-refinery reduces greenhouse gas emissions by almost 500,000 tonnes annually, the equivalent of taking 100,000 vehicles off the road each year. Rerefining the used oil will decrease the demand for non-renewable petroleum resources. The practice will be allowed to continue in northern Ontario since the north has limited options for disposing of waste oil. Northern Ontario is defined in the draft regulation as lying north and west of the Mattawa River, Lake Nipissing and the French River, or in the Territorial District of Manitoulin. www.ene.gov.on.ca

al that settled on a residential area. Imperial Oil owns and operates an oil refinery in Sarnia, Ontario. The facility uses a fluid catalytic cracking unit (also referred to as a fluidized catcracker) to produce a product which is used in the production of gasoline and other petroleum products. The Court heard that on August 7, 2002, following a process-upset and automatic safety shutdown of the catcracker, facility staff added 60 to 80 tons of catalyst to the unit that already contained a sufficient quantity of catalyst. Excess sand-like catalyst escaped from the unit and then the facility, and was carried by winds to Corunna - a residential area south of Sarnia. The Ontario MOE received calls from 73 residents of this area, complaining of particulate fall-out on their homes and vehicles.

Imperial Oil advised both the MOE and the public that its facility was the source of the catalyst fall-out. The company estimated that 65 to 77 tons of catalyst were discharged. Following an investigation conducted by the MOE’s Investigations and Enforcement Branch, a charge was laid. Imperial Oil was convicted of one count of discharging a contaminant into the natural environment that caused the loss of enjoyment and/or of normal use of property, contrary to section 14(1) of the EPA and was fined $100,000 for this offence. Imperial Oil advised at sentencing that it had paid approximately $1.2 million to assist residents in the cleanup of their vehicles and homes. www.ene.gov.on.ca continued overleaf...

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Imperial Oil Limited fined for contaminating homes and cars Imperial Oil Limited has been fined $100,000, plus a victim fine surcharge, after being convicted of discharging a significant quantity of sand-like materiwww.esemag.com

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NEWS New agreement for municipal works and infrastructure available Public works and infrastructure experts from both the public and private sectors have developed a new standardized agreement for professional services available for use by municipalities and consulting engineers. The document entitled “Agreement for Professional Consulting Services, 2006� is a template that is applicable to a wide range of professional services and can be adapted to specific client needs and project circumstances. It has been endorsed by both the Municipal Engineers Association and Consulting Engineers of Ontario and is expected to be widely used throughout the municipal sector. A task force of experts from both organizations has been developing the new agreement over the past year. The challenge was to protect the interests of municipalities and their ratepayers while being commercially fair and reasonable to engineering firms providing professional services. The agreement will be available from both the Municipal Engineers Association and Consulting Engineers of Ontario (www.ceo.on.ca).

Protecting water quality in Manitoba New regulations under the Drinking Water Safety Act will help protect and improve drinking water quality across Manitoba. These regulations establish clear water-quality standards, including bacterial and microbial levels, that are to be met by public and semi-public water systems. Other areas covered by the new regulations include the construction and alteration of water-supply facilities and protocols on reporting of laboratory results. The regulations address the terms and conditions for operating a water-supply system and define the responsibilities for water-system owners and operators, to ensure a supply of safe drinking water. The regulations also call for mandatory testing and record keeping for such water systems and also require water utilities serving 1,000 or more people to issue an annual report which will help ensure accountability to their customers and assist the public to better understand their local water systems. 100 | March 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Water and Wastewater Facility Operators Regulation were scheduled to take effect May 1, requiring water and wastewater facility owners to be properly classified and their operators certified. www.gov.mb.ca

Galore Creek mine project receives approval Vancouver-based NovaGold Canada Inc. has received a provincial environmental assessment certificate for its proposed Galore Creek copper-gold-silver mine project located about 150 km northwest of Stewart, following a comprehensive review led by B.C.’s Environmental Assessment Office (EAO). The project also triggered a comprehensive study review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA). The Environmental Assessment Office and federal agencies have harmonized the environmental assessment process and prepared a joint Assessment Report/federal Comprehensive Study Report for decision makers. The joint report concludes that no significant residual effects are anticipated from the perspective of provincial and federal government agencies as a result of the project. The provincial environmental assessment certificate contains 193 project-specific commitments that the proponent must implement throughout the various phases of the project. www.eao.gov.bc.ca

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Clostridium difficile found in York Region York Region health officials, north of Toronto, were alerted to the possibility of the Clostridium difficile bacterium in the area early in March. While medical experts noted that the bacterium - at the time of writing - had not resulted in any local fatalities, they warned of its potential dangers. Dr. Danny Chen, a specialist in infectious diseases at York Central Hospital, stressed that the bacterium should never be underestimated. “All cases are potentially dangerous; some strains can produce more toxins and be harder to treat,� he said. In Barrie, some 90 kilometres north of Toronto, some 39 cases of Clostridium difficile were reported and there were reports of four fatalities in Mississauga, west of Toronto. Concerns

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Mississauga, west of Toronto. Concerns intensified with the news that this bacterium had resulted in 2,000 fatilities in Quebec over the past three years. Local laboratory testing does not differentiate between C.difficile strains. The head of infection control at Toronto’s Mount Sinai Hospital, Dr. Allison McGeer, said strains of C.difficile have become stronger and more resistant to antibiotics. Although it is not clear why this bacterium had become more deadly, Dr. McGeer suggested that it could be a combination of broad-spectrum antibiotic usage, less attention to hospital cleanliness and the fact today’s hospitals treat much sicker patients.

Ontario government committed to safe drinking water The Ontario government is providing $35 million to help conservation authorities and municipalities protect local drinking water sources. The funding is helping communities to do the ground work needed to support the development of the source protection plans required by the new Clean Water Act. Conservation authorities will receive $16.5 million and municipal and conservation authority partnerships will receive $18.5 million in grants. The Clean Water Act received Royal Assent on October 19, 2006. It ensures that communities are able to protect their municipal drinking water supplies through developing collaborative, locally driven, science-based source protection plans.

Columbia water use plan to benefit fish and wildlife Changes that will benefit fish and wildlife habitat, shoreline conditions and recreational access have been approved for BC Hydro’s Columbia hydroelectric operations. The Columbia Water Use Plan was developed as part of BC Hydro’s water use planning process, with the participation of federal and provincial government agencies, First Nations, local communities and BC Hydro. Implementation of the plan will involve a considerable amount of work in the area, including improving reservoir access and revegetation along parts of the reservoir shorelines. This work, com102 | March 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

NEWS itoring studies, will benefit fish, wildlife, cultural and recreational values. The plan will be reviewed within 13 years. www.gov.bc.ca.

$1 million infrastructure investment to improve Lynn Lake's water Improved water quality is on the way for the Town of Lynn Lake with a $1 million upgrade to its water treatment system through the Canada-Manitoba Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund (MRIF) with funding from all three levels of government. The Canada-Manitoba Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund (MRIF) is investing a total of $120 million in communities across Manitoba. Key priorities are safer water, cleaner air and improved quality of life primarily in rural and northern communities. Eighty per cent of MRIF resources are earmarked for communities with a population under 250,000, including 198 municipalities and 50 unincorporated Northern Community Councils in rural and northern Manitoba. The remaining 20 per cent is for communities with a population over 250,000. www.infrastructure.gc.ca

Leaders in

Engineering & Environmental Science MacViro Consultants Inc. 600 Cochrane Drive, Suite 500, Markham, ON L3R 5K3 (905) 475-7270 • Fax: (905) 475-5994 reception@macviro.com www.macviro.com

Clean-up or coverup? The plan to treat toxic material from the Sydney tar ponds and bury it is being met with mixed reaction from residents. The federal and provincial governments have announced that the toxic sludge will be mixed with a concretelike substance and covered at a cost of $400 million. The material will not be incinerated, a concern of many residents who worried the emissions would pollute the air and create health problems. But the new plan is still a disappointment to Nela MacQueen, who can see the tar ponds site from her front window. "Fifteen years ago we were promised that the fish would be swimming in the tar pond, [that] it would be a clean-up, not a cover-up," she said. Government officials have come to Sydney twice in the past 20 years to announce the tar ponds clean-up, and some wonder how this latest plan differs from a $20-million proposal in the mid1990s to simply fill the tar ponds in with slag. An official with the Sydney Tar continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

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NEWS SENES Consultants Limited Specialist in Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Sciences Richmond Hill Ottawa Vancouver Yellowknife Kincardine

Celebrating Our 25th Anniversary SENES is pleased to announce that Mr. Yousry Hamdy, P.Eng. has joined the firm as Senior Water and Wastewater Specialist. Yousry has over 30 years experience in environmental projects and regulatory compliance with Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) regulations and Drinking Water Systems Regulations. In addition, Mr. Hamdy has considerable www.senes.ca (905) 764-9380 experience with surface water issues surrounding source water protection.

Ponds Agency says the new plan is a more elaborate and safer approach. "And look at the price," said agency CEO Frank Potter. "In 1995 it was about $20 million and we're talking $400 million." After years of debate and delays, officials say preliminary work is expected to begin this summer and capping of the site will start in 2008. www.cbc.ca

Federal action towards the safe management of chemicals

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104 | March 2007

• Hazardous Site Clean-up & Remediation • Decommissioning and Demolition • Asbestos and Mould Abatement • Contaminated Soil Removal • On-site Water Treatment

Tony Clement, Federal Minister of Health, and John Baird, Minister of the Environment, have announced the launch of the Challenge to Industry for the safe management of chemicals already underway with the Gazetting of the first list of 15 priority substances on February 3. As part of its Chemicals Management Plan, the federal government is challenging industry to provide the government with information about how they are safely managing 200 chemical substances. These substances were identified as high priorities for government action following the systematic categorization of legacy chemical substances, which was announced December 8, 2006. "The onus will be on industry to demonstrate that these chemicals are used in ways that do not pose a hazard to human health or the environment," explained Minister Clement. "We will use our regulatory powers to fill any gaps that may exist, and implement control measures for substances that are not being managed appropriately." Through the Challenge to Industry, the government will separate the 200 identified chemicals into batches of 1530 substances and publish the lists in the Canada Gazette every three months. Industry will be required to take action and provide information on any of these substances in their possession within four to six months. After the information has been gathered and reviewed, the Government will render its decision on the need for further action within six months. The process to address all of the 200 chemical substances will take three years. www.chemicalsubstances.gc.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ABB Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 ABS Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 ACG Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Adventus Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Alberta Research Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 American Concrete Pipe Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 American Water Works Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Insert AnoxKaldnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Anthrafilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 Aquablast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 Armtec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44, 45 Associated Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Atlantic Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Avensys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 AWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Backup-Power.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Baycor Fibre Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 Bennett Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 C&M Environmental Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 CAEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Canadian Environmental Markets Association . . . . . . . . .98 Canadian Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 Canadian Standards Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Cantest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 CH2M HILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Claessen Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 ConTech - PCB Containment Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Davis Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Degremont Technologies/Infilco . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19, 21, 23 Delcan Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Denso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Dorr-Oliver Eimco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Durabla Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Dwyer Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 ECO Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Fluorescent Lamp Recyclers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Gorman-Rupp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Greatario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Grundfos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Heron Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20, 52, 55, 58, 63 Hydro-Logic Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Ideal Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Imbrium Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 International Water Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 IPEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 ITT Flygt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Jagger Hims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 John Meunier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 KMK Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Laden Steel Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Landia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Metcon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Minotaur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 multiVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Napier Reid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Neptune Chemical Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58, 60 Ontario Concrete Pipe Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Orival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 OTEK Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Parkson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 ProMinent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 PRO-TEC Storage Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Protectolite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Rain for Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Region of Peel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Royal Roads University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Rudi Kovacko & Associates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Rusmar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Sanitherm Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Schlumberger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Serpentix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Smith & Loveless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 SPD Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Spill Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Stantec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Supavac Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 TESTMARK Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 USF Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Victaulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Water for People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Waterloo Barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Waterloo Biofilter Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Waterra Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Westfalia Separator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 XCG Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 ZCL Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81




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March 2007 | 105

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Guest Comment

In search of someone to be the Minister of the Environment he other day I wondered; what qualifications should a Minister of the Environment have? So I went to the Internet (the source of all current knowledge – isn’t it?). I followed a logical course and went straight to Google. After all Google is the best search engine on the Internet – isn’t it? A key word for my search was typed in. If you haven’t guessed - it was “environmental”. The Minister of the Environment should know something of “environmental issues”. The search results both impressed and baffled me. The first hit by Google was a site on the natural environment followed by a site for the Canadian Environmental Law Association. I could only determine at this point that lawyers had already taken their rightful place with respect to environmental issues very quickly. The third hit was a bit baffling – it was a weather site, finally followed by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. The top 12 hits included an Environmental Defense Group, the honourable Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine, the Ontario Environmental Network, the National Research Council, Zenon, and at number 11 – the US EPA or the US Environmental Protection Agency. Sorry, I forgot one – number 12 was environmental psychology. Now I was impressed – the Minister


By David Clunas

has to know all about the environment in this order; the natural environment, law associations, weather, provincial agencies, defence from threats, magazines like ESE, environmental group networks, research councils, filtration media, the US EPA and psychology. I have to pause at this point and tell you what I learned about environmental psychology. Environmental psychology as defined by the Environmental Design Research Association was: The advancement and dissemination of environmental design research, thereby improving understanding of the interrelationships between people, their built and natural surroundings and helping to create environments responsive to human needs”. Now I was overwhelmed at the base and range of knowledge any Minister of the Environment would need to have to be successful. The Minister would also need to understand and handle issues ranging from the impacts of uranium mining in the Arctic and the terrible trail of slow death by cancer of the miners and labourers handling the ore to the disposal and long term storage impacts of nuclear waste; the use of defoliants in war time situations and its lingering effects on innocent persons for years after; the trend to higher truck and SUV usage by consumers and its direct link to increased oil and gas consumption, eco-

nomic systems and excessive carbon loadings to the atmosphere which the Kyoto Protocol is trying to slow down; the link between the choice of oil as a base energy source to oil spills from tankers and ballast water transfers; and even the enormous energy demand to run the worldwide Internet system, its associated computers, printers. And let us not forget all the spam that some persons seem to want to send to the rest of us. So I decided to go back to the Internet and check out jobs on Workopolis with the key word of … you guessed it – “environmental”. The results were astonishing!! The jobs, in order, were calibration technician, field sales engineer, housekeeping manager for a hospital, an HVAC engineer for a engineering consulting firm, a bank accounts manager and a computer applications developer, followed by an environmental health and safety coordinator. Wow! All those professions are important to the environment!! Well, maybe the account manager and the computer applications developer are a mistake but that’s what the search showed. Now, I was ready to determine who could be the Minister of the Environment so I looked at the job descriptions that I found in my Workopolis search. I combined elements from three jobs – the housekeeping manager for the hospital who is to ensure “a clean safe hygienic environment and ensure the appropriate removal of waste”; the HVAC engineer who needs knowledge of the “infrastructure of industrial operation facilities”; and the computer applications designer who needs “expert analytical and design skills at a multiproduct/multi-environmental level”. If we could find just one good man or woman who could meet these required skills and truly understand the wide range of topics and issues that make up our environment, I guess only then will we have found the Best Person to be the Minister of the Environment. David Clunas is with Clunas Environmental Consulting. Contact: david.clunas@rogers.com

106 | March 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Effective Underground Storm Water Control,

In nature, rainfall is recognized as a life-giving asset.

When we develop a natural site the asset too often becomes a runoff liability for the developer and all parties downstream. Traditional storm water ponds and infrastructure require expensive land area and are often over-taxed by runoff accumulations from many areas upstream. Underground storm water detention, using economical corrugated steel pipe systems, permits developers to manage storm water on-site without sacrificing valuable land or flooding their neighbours.

For creative storm water management solutions contact a CSPI member in your neighbourhood. Members: Fabricators: Armtec, Atlantic Industries Ltd., Canada Culvert & Metal Products, FSI Culvert, E.S. Hubbell & Sons Ltd., Prairie Steel, Soleno Inc., SPIR-L-OK Industries, Steelcor Culvert, Westman Steel Industries. Steel Producers and Associates: Dofasco Inc., Stelco Inc., Sorevco, Ironside Design Manufacturing Inc., METAL KOTING, Noranda Inc., The Dow Chemical Company.

CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE INSTITUTE 652 Bishop St., Unit 2A Cambridge, Ontario N3H 4V6 Toll Free: (866) 295-2416 Fax: (519) 650-8081 Email us at: info@cspi.ca Visit our web site at www.cspi.ca