Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine – February 2007

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January 2007

2007 Guide to Consultants, Equipment Suppliers and Products Evaluating UV water disinfection systems New compost facility converts wastewater biosolids to valuable soil amendments Advanced phosphorus treatment for surface discharge The legal impact of Ontario’s new Clean Water Act GeoMelting away contaminated waste


The Tree design is a registered trademark of Julius Sämann Ltd. and is used with permission.


The real truth about drinking water quality Editorial comment by Tom Davey

18 Considerations when evaluating UV water disinfection systems 20 New compost facility converts wastewater biosolids to valuable soil amendments

22 24 26 28 30

Measuring fibre in sludge

32 34 36 38 44 42 49 53 58 61 62 64 66 68

The legal impact of Ontario’s new Clean Water Act

Municipality chooses innovative MBR solution Technology fuels new era of clean, low-cost energy Walkerton Clean Water Centre provides training to First Nations Advanced phosphorus treatment for surface discharge from a residential development

ISSN-0835-605X January 2007 Vol. 19 No. 6 Issued January, 2007 ES&E invites articles (approx. 2,000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration in our print and digital editions, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all text and graphic submissions without notice.

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Cover story – Hydropower is Manitoba’s ‘oil’ Information management and source protection GeoMelting away contaminated waste Plant your old cell phone cover and grow a sunflower Marching to the beat of a compost drum Understanding Legionella’s ability to survive in drinking water systems Using the hydrostatic technique for water level measurement Reusable, recyclable, remarkable - steel’s three R’s Pinch valve technology used to regulate and divert stormwater flow Using compost biofilters for stormwater runoff treatment Submersible pumps used in plant upgrade Electromagnetic water counters for the municipal water market Ontario companies must prepare for new worker safety and spills legislation

72 Direct push screen-point sampling vs conventional monitoring wells 74 Waste to Energy company offers holistic approach to environmental health 120 Bypass operation allows municipality to fix problems while maintaining services

122 Region of Waterloo uses MV drives for potential savings

DEPARTMENTS Environmental News . . . . . . . 8 Classifieds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Product Showcase . . . . . . . . 76 Professional Cards . . . . . . . . 88 Ad Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

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2007 Guide to Consultants, Equipment Suppliers and Products Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Equipment Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111




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Relying on patented, field proven sensor technology and complemented by ‘smarter’ electronic packages, Mil-Ram simplifies use, reduces maintenance and lowers the total cost of ownership. Mil-Ram has demonstrated application expertise by providing cost effective solutions in solving the most difficult toxic gas detection problems. Mil-Ram is ahead of the pack in providing value, safety, security and peace of mind.

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Comment by Tom Davey

The real truth about drinking water quality In wartime, truth is so important it must sometimes be accompanied by a bodyguard of lies. - Winston Churchill. efining truth has provided generations of academic philosophers, historians and linguists with tenure. Ironically, society now seems tolerant about economic or political data being 'massaged' by spin doctors. Indeed, putting spin on data has long been deemed acceptable and perhaps now is permanently part of our lexicon. However, some recent advertising spin has received hostile reception following television ads run by Brita, a domestic water treatment appliance company. The commercials show a woman approaching the kitchen faucet to the background noise of a flushing toilet, which she apparently has just used. Such television commercials with this subliminal link of a flushing toilet with drinking water - have been vigorously condemned as unacceptable by water treatment professionals in British Columbia. The Greater Vancouver Regional District was particularly militant when it urged penalties against Brita Canada, for its advertisements. The GVRD had also complained vigorously about the advertising campaign linking tap water to toilet water some months ago, and their initiative was backed by medical health officers. The Canadian Water and Wastewater Association also joined the fray, calling the commericals a “continuing deplorable situation.” CWWA went on to express “deep dissatisfaction” over the ads. Complaints to Advertising Standards Canada resulted in Brita adding a disclaimer to the ads noting that municipal water is treated to a drinking water standard. That’s not good enough for the GVRD directors who remain obdurately offended by the ads. They



have joined with the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association in asking the regulatory body to reopen the case. “The Brita ads were distasteful; the company is misleading viewers into thinking tap water is unsafe,” said Burnaby Mayor Derek Corrigan. But Brita is not alone. The work of environmental professionals has been either contemptuously ignored or misinterpreted by many other sources, for years. I include many news media reports and certain claims by activists. Unlike environmental professionals, many activist groups are not governed by strict codes of ethics or professional or regulatory standards. Those in charge of designing, constructing and maintaining our water systems - that is the real experts - have long been ignored; the raw water they treat and deliver to consumers, over countless kilometres of various types of pipe has been vastly undervalued and underappreciated for generations. We must include analytical chemists as fellow professionals in water treatment.

During a recent Ontario ministerial press conference, various expenditures on diverse provincial infrastructure projects and annual budgets were expertly projected on PowerPoint for reporters. The Infrastructure Ministry proudly displayed various mega-million budgets, including highways, bridges and other components of Ontario’s multi billion-dollar annual spending on Infrastructure. But environmental spending – so basic to public health and scientific research – was crushed between the other more high-profile government imperatives. Almost inadvertently, it seemed, environmental infrastructure spending was squeezed – squashed might be more appropriate – between the fiscal colossi of highways, bridges, power generation, hospitals, schools and other worthy projects. When the spending projections were displayed on Powerpoint the environmental budget was but a fiscal midget amid these other mega-billion Infrastructure sectors. tom@esemag.com

Book Review by Malcom Watts John Gartner, is a retired hydro-geologist with great literary instincts. He was one of the founders of Gartner Lee, a consulting firm with over 200 employees across Canada; he was also adjunct Professor of Earth Sciences at the University of Waterloo until retiring in 2000, and a past chair of the Canadian Geotechnical Society – Engineering Geology division. Gartner’s novel, Gem Greed, was inspired by the Bre-X debacle. The author has woven a wonderful tale involving Canadian diamonds, international intrigue, and realistic characters. Gem Greed is not about blood diamonds, although that was what I initially expected. Rather, it concerns a group of well organized thieves attempting, in the manner of the Bre-X crew, to salt an overseas diamond claim with Canadian diamonds in order to manipulate the North American stock market. The plot is well constructed, prose is crisp and clear and the dialogue well done. If any criticism is to be made it is with the

plethora of characters that sometimes make keeping them straight akin to sorting out the cast of War and Peace. But it is a quick and compelling read which could easily have been longer, although my personal view is that stories such as this, that move at a steady clip, keep readers interested. And we are. The style of the book is somewhat like a Clive Cussler novel, with smart and knowledgeable good guys outwitting clever bad guys. The story bounces around the world and keeps moving. I loved the tension of the story, reaching its climax on a Pacific island where an erupting volcano gobbles up one of the crooks. To order Gem Greed by John Gartner – Epic Press 2006 ISBN 1-55452-080-0 visit www.gemgreed.ca Malcolm Watts is a freelance writer, novelist and editor. www.authorsden.com/malcolmwatts

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Environmental News Environmental Science & Engineering Editor TOM DAVEY E-mail: tom@esemag.com (No attachments please) Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Design & Production CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com Publisher STEVE DAVEY E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick Stanley Mason, P.Eng. British Columbia Marie Meunier John Meunier Inc., Québec Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to chris@esemag.com. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 (plus $4.50 GST), All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag. com

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Public input sought on innovative new “Energy from Waste” proposals The Ontario government is seeking public input on two proposals to use waste to generate energy in Durham Region. Dongara Pellet Factory Inc. and Arbour Power propose to team up to process non-recyclable municipal waste, turning it into pellets which would then be used as an alternative fuel source. The ministry will carefully review and consider all comments received before making a decision on the proposals. If granted approval, Dongara and Arbour Power would be subject to the ministry’s strict standards for air, waste and wastewater emissions. Earlier, the ministry gave approval to Plasco Trail Road Inc. of Ottawa to construct and operate a pilot plasma gasification facility to power electricity generators. Alternative proposals such as these support new waste management technologies and energy production that will keep more waste out of landfill and put it to beneficial use. The proposals have been posted on the Environmental Registry for a comment period of 45 days.

Ontario proposes new rules for managing waste more effectively The Ontario government is moving forward on its promise to improve the environmental assessment process and encourage innovative waste solutions. The proposed new rules would apply equally to public and private sector waste proposals. Previously, private sector landfills and other waste projects had to be specifically designated by regulation as subject to the requirements of the Environmental Assessment Act. This will make the process clear, consistent and transparent for municipalities, the private waste industry and the public. These proposed changes will: • Support waste diversion efforts by exempting composting and recycling facilities from the environmental assessment process if accepting under 1,000 tonnes of waste per day. • Encourage innovative technologies by streamlining the EA process for pilot projects which have demonstrated they are environmentally-friendly and can meet the ministry’s stringent air emissions standards.

• Help small rural and northern Ontario municipalities manage their waste better by allowing landfill expansions of between 40,000 and 100,000 cubic metres to go through an environmental screening process. • Deliver faster decisions for proponents building environmentally-sound, state-of-the-art medium sized landfills and thermal facilities generating energy. These projects could see time savings of 12 to 18 months. Large landfills and thermal facilities without an energy component would remain subject to an individual environmental assessment. Waste projects will continue to require approval under the Environmental Protection Act and other legislation. Any project with potential emissions must meet the ministry’s stringent air emission standards. In addition, thermal or energy-from-waste facilities will need to meet the stringent standards laid out in the ministry’s combustion and air pollution control guideline.

Imperial Oil fined $375,000 for fuel leak Imperial Oil Limited has been fined $375,000, plus a victim fine surcharge, after pleading guilty to a violation of the Environmental Protection Act (EPA). One of Imperial Oil’s sale locations is the Odessa Service Station, located at 3745 Highway 401 East in Odessa, Ontario. As part of normal operations, an Inventory Control Record is maintained to track gasoline tank volumes on a daily basis and to identify any variances that might occur. The Court heard that, beginning in February 2003, the Inventory Control Record began showing variances that exceeded the company’s threshold for investigation. On February 3, 2004, a fuel line leak was discovered at the station, and was reported immediately to the Ministry of the Environment (MOE). Approximately 62,000 litres of fuel had discharged into the environment, resulting in the contamination of ground water supplying certain homes that were in close proximity to the station. Following an investigation conducted by the MOE’s Investigations and Enforcement Branch, Imperial Oil Limited was charged. It pleaded guilty to one count of percontinued overleaf...

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Environmental News mitting the discharge of fuel into the natural environment, contrary to section 14(1) of the EPA. The Court was told that Imperial Oil Limited cooperated with the MOE subsequent to the discovery of the leak, and throughout the investigation. Monitoring of the groundwater continues in the vicinity of the service station, and results indicate that the groundwater quality is improving.

Canada's federal government improves protection against hazardous chemicals Prime Minister Stephen Harper, along with Rona Ambrose, Minister of the Environment, and Tony Clement, Minister of Health, unveiled Canada's new Chemicals Management Plan in December. The plan takes immediate action to regulate chemicals that are harmful to human health or the environment. Prime Minister Harper said the plan is part of the government's comprehensive environmental agenda, which includes the Clean Air Act, support for public transit and action on renewable

fuels. "The Chemicals Management Plan we are unveiling will make Canada a world leader in assessing and regulating chemicals that are used in thousands of industrial and consumer products," said the Prime Minister. "It includes realistic and enforceable measures that will improve our environment and protect the health and safety of Canadians." "Since 1994, new chemicals have not been manufactured in Canada or imported here without undergoing a scientific risk assessment," Minister Ambrose explained. "Now that same rigorous assessment will be applied to 'legacy chemicals' that were introduced between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 1986." "Canada was the first country to complete categorization of 23,000 legacy chemicals last September," added Minister Clement. "It will be the first, now, to take action. "Moving forward, we will improve product labelling programs as well as deal with imported products which use chemical substances that are prohibited here in Canada," Minister Clement indicated. Canada's New Government intends to commit $300 million over four years to implement the Chemicals Management

Plan. To provide Canadians with the latest information about hazardous chemicals, the Government is also launching a new Web portal that can be found at http://www.chemicalsubstances.gc.ca.

Information to be gathered on living organisms used for wastewater treatment

The New Substances Program of Environment Canada and Health Canada has initiated the screening assessment of living organisms in commerce (i.e. on the Domestic Substances List (DSL)) as required under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 (CEPA 1999). The New Substances Program is seeking the collaboration of Canadian Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA) members to better understand the use, manufacture and/or importation of these living organisms in the wastewater sector. A study will be conducted in order to determine which of these living organisms are used for wastewater treatment, composting, drain cleaning or other activities of the CWWA members. What is the Domestic Substances List (DSL)? The DSL is a compilation of all known substances, chemicals and living organisms, that were in Canadian commerce between 1984 and 1986 or that were added to the DSL following new substances notification and risk assessment in accordance with CEPA 1999. There are currently 44 living organisms on the DSL which are all microorganisms. One is a complex microbial culture and 43 are microbial strains. Many of the micro-organisms listed on the DSL can potentially be used for wastewater treatment. Living organisms on the DSL will be evaluated according to their ability to survive within the aquatic and/or terrestrial environments, their invasiveness as well as their ability to elicit pathogenicity and/or toxicity to humans and to aquatic and terrestrial organisms (invertebrates and vertebrates). continued overleaf...

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Environmental News Town of Richmond Hill achieves a first

The Town of Richmond Hill has received an ISO 14001 certification, becoming the first municipality in Ontario to have its entire Engineering & Public Works Department registered to the International Organization for Standardization ISO 14001 standard. ISO 14001 is an internationally recognized standard of excellence for environmental management systems. Organizations which achieve registration status know how to improve environmental performance, minimize harmful effects on the environment, comply with environmental regulations and legislation and continuously improve upon their practices. In short, the ISO 14001 standard provides the Town with the framework for how to

12 | January 2007

manage the environmental aspects of its business activities more efficiently. The certification is the result of more than two years of hard work and dedication by staff. This is a significant achievement as many other municipalities, including York Region, Peel Region, Durham Region, City of Hamilton and City of Ottawa, have chosen to certify specific facilities or systems to the ISO 14001 standard, but Richmond Hill is the first in Ontario to ensure the programs of its entire Department meet the ISO 14001 standard.

Action on mercury unveiled Canada's government will require vehicle manufacturers and steel mills to implement pollution prevention plans to ensure mercury switches are removed from automobiles before the vehicles are recycled. Recovering switches is an effective and relatively inexpensive way to significantly reduce mercury emissions. This action is expected to prevent the release of as much as ten tonnes of mercury into the environment, especially into the air, over the next ten years.

New pesticide regulations to protect Canadians Canada's federal government is taking the next step in its Chemical Management Plan by announcing two new regulations to govern pesticide use. Effective April 26, 2007, pesticide companies are required to report to Health Canada all the adverse effects associated with their products. Effective January 1, 2007, pesticide companies are required to begin collecting pesticide sales data to report to Health Canada on an annual basis. The two new Regulations include: 1) Under the Incident Reporting Regulations, pesticide companies will be required to report adverse effects associated with their products to Health Canada. This will be complemented by a voluntary reporting mechanism for the Canadian public, the medical and research community, and government and non-government organizations. 2) The Sales Information Reporting Regulations require companies to report pesticide sales data to Health Canada on an annual basis. This information will contribute to Health Canada’s ability to assess health and environmental risks,

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Environmental News particularly during the re-evaluation of older pesticides, allowing more effective pesticide regulation. All incident reports, and an annual report containing compiled sales data will be posted on Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency Web site with confidential information removed. This will allow Health Canada to monitor impacts to health and the environment, while greatly enhancing the transparency of the federal pesticide regulatory system.

Wastewater upgrade allows Maple Leaf expansion Manitoba will issue environmental licences to allow Maple Leaf Foods to expand hog processing at its Brandon plant after a company commitment to abide by stringent new wastewater standards. Maple Leaf will make an investment of $10 million in wastewater treatment upgrades to on-site treatment and Brandon’s industrial treatment facility. The upgrades will ensure compliance with the Clean Environment Commission’s recommendations on nutrient limits. Maple Leaf has committed to com-


ply with a 15:1 nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio by the end of 2007. Phosphorus concentrations will be reduced by more than 90 per cent and nitrogen concentrations will have declined by 85 per cent. Last November, Manitoba unveiled the third phase of its water protection plan, an aggressive action plan designed to curb the impact of people, communities and industry on Manitoba’s lakes and rivers. The plan’s third phase combines strict new regulations, strengthened fines and inspection, and support for research, technology and producers. The first two phases of the plan focused on strengthening manure management planning, improving municipal land-use planning, increasing water testing and consolidating water resources and services within Manitoba Water Stewardship, Canada’s first department entirely devoted to water.

New WHO report tackles fluoride in drinking-water Millions of people are exposed to excessive amounts of fluoride through drinking water contaminated from natural geological sources. As a result, many suffer conditions ranging from mild

dental fluorosis to crippling skeletal fluorosis. Clinical dental fluorosis is characterized by staining and pitting of the teeth. In more severe cases, all the enamel may be damaged. In skeletal fluorosis, fluoride accumulates in the bone progressively over many years, leading to stiffness and pain in the joints. In severe cases, it can cause changes to bone structure, calcification of ligaments, and crippling effects. The World Health Organization (WHO) publication, Fluoride in Drinking-Water addresses this urgent need, providing the latest scientific evidence on the occurrence of fluoride, its health effects, methods to reduce excess levels, and analysis techniques. Guidance is particularly needed because fluoride is found in all natural waters at some concentration. Low concentrations are good for teeth, but excessive concentrations can lead to debilitating disease. In China alone, more than 10 million people are estimated to suffer from skeletal fluorosis. While the global prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis is not entirely clear, it is known that water is normally continued overleaf...

January 2007 | 13

Environmental News the major source of fluoride exposure, with exposure from diet and from burning high fluoride coal also major contributors in some settings. Fluoride occurs at elevated concentrations in many areas of the world including Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean and southern Asia. One of the best known high fluoride areas extends from Turkey through Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, India, northern Thailand and China. However, there are many other areas with water sources that contain high fluoride levels and which pose a risk to those drinking the water, notably parts of the rift valley in Africa. Many of these areas are arid and alternative sources of water are not available. This suffering caused by high levels of fluoride can be prevented. Although removal of excessive fluoride from drinking water may be difficult and expensive, low-cost solutions that can be applied at a local level do exist. Methods outlined in the monograph include: use of crushed clay pots, bone charcoal, contact precipitation, or use of activated alumina (absorptive filter). It is important that local authorities consider the causes of fluorosis carefully and choose the best and most appropri-

ate means of dealing with excess fluoride exposure taking into account the local conditions and sensitivities.

$300,000 committed for biogas research on Manitoba hog farms A new program will provide $300,000 to support the construction and feasibility assessment of anaerobic digesters at three Manitoba hog operations. Evaluating how well this process works in the Manitoba climate will provide valuable insight to hog producers while potentially creating a new source of bio-energy. The digester process could also help with nutrient management in the wastewater stream plus odour control and pathogen reduction. A $100,000 funding package will be offered over two fiscal years to each of the three hog operations, with the first payment available in the 2006-07 fiscal year. An anaerobic digester system at Cook Feeders in Teulon is in place and undergoing the finishing stages. Two others, at Topeaka Farms in Grunthal and Riverbend Colony near Carberry, are presently in the design phase. The provincial contribution will help

fund the testing of each system to determine the overall environmental, technical and economic feasibility of different anaerobic digestion processes for various types of hog operations in Manitoba.

New aerial surveillance to protect Canada’s waters A newly equipped Transport Canada Dash 8 pollution surveillance aircraft was launched in St. John’s, Newfoundland, in December. The installation of the Maritime Surveillance System 6000 (MSS 6000) represents an investment of $4.6 million. The MSS 6000 enables Transport Canada to track and identify polluters and obtain prosecution information in all weather conditions on a 24-hour basis; this is a capability that was not previously availabe in Canada.Transport Canada is anticipating that in the future, on an annual basis, 25 – 30% of the pollution patrols will be conducted during hours of darkness. This will greatly increase the productivity of the program. The new system is a perfect supplement to the existing Radarsat system,

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Hydraulic diaphragm dosing The DMH 250 series of pumps is available in PVC, PVDF, polypropylene, stainless steel and Hastelloy C wetted components. Capacity range from (1 to 300 gallons per hour), pressure range up to 3000 PSI. All models are fitted with a PTFE diaphragm with the AMS diaphragm protection system and internal relief valve for pump protection.

Parts per million dissolved oxygen systems The Royce Model 9200 Continuous DO analyzer provides the ultimate level of monitoring accuracy and aeration control. The analyzer is provided standard with two isolated current outputs and four relays and is available in dual channel. Used with the Model 96A DO sensor, the Model 9200 has become the benchmark analyzer for the DO monitoring & blower control market in the 21st century.

Process Products and Instrumentation - SOLUTIONS 14 | January 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Environmental News which is a satellite observation system that can be used in the detection of oil spilled on the ocean’s surface. www.marinepollution.gc.ca

Construction begins at one of U.K.’s largest tertiary treatment plants

Construction has recently begun on one of the largest tertiary wastewater treatment plants in the United Kingdom. The plant, to be built at Severn Trent Water’s Strongford Sewage Treatment Works, will use Severn Trent Services’ TETRA® NSAF (Nitrifying Submerged Aerated Filter) technology to reduce the ammonia in the plant’s effluent from 15 mg/l to 3 mg/l. The facility is scheduled for completion in the fall of 2008.


Technology comprises an up-flow, fixed film biological reactor, which generates minimal additional solids requiring post-treatment handling and disposal. Its effectiveness in ammonia removal has been demonstrated at several plant installations throughout the United Kingdom over the past 10 years. A new process has been developed to control the very large Strongford plant and will provide significant savings in electricity costs over a conventional NSAF plant. The total plant area for the Strongford NSAF will be 1,400m2, which will accommodate a flow to the plant of 10,000m3/hr. The Strongford facility will be constructed using 10 rectangular concrete cells, each measuring six metres wide and 22.75 metres in length.

American Concrete Pipe Association turns 100 Concrete pipe producers and their industrial partners are celebrating the centenary of the American Concrete Pipe Association through 2007. The year-long commemoration of the men, women and technology that built the

concrete pipe industry begins with an official kickoff at the annual conference of the ACPA on March 12 at the RitzCarlton, Amelia Island in Florida. The founders of the American Concrete Pipe Association held their first conference in 1907 as the Interstate Cement Tile Manufacturers Association. The decisions taken by the cement tile manufacturers over a century ago, led to the growth of a very sucessful industry. www.concrete-pipe.org

Awareness Week puts spotlight on ground water Ground water professionals are all too familiar with the public’s lack of knowledge about ground water and wells. For most people, ground water is out of sight and out of mind. To help educate the public the National Ground Water Association (NGWA) annually sponsors National Ground Water Awareness Week. This is an opportunity for professionals and the public alike to get involved in promoting stewardship of ground water and wells. continued overleaf...

January 2007 | 15

Environmental News An important goal of National Ground Water Awareness Week, which is being held this year, March 11-17, 2007, is to help well owners learn how to become good stewards of their water well systems. And a part of good stewardship is regularly testing well water to make sure it’s safe. Protecting ground water means both wise use and keeping contamination away, yet the public knows little about either. And in cases where contamination is naturally occurring, water treatment may be the best option. There is much that professionals can do to help promote ground water and wells. Visit www.ngwa.org or www.wellowner.org, and click on the “Awareness Week” page. Then click on “How You Can Help.” Here, you will find resources for educators, ground water professionals and the public. Also, NGWA has an educational Web site for children K-12 called Ground Water Adventurers (www.groundwateradventurers.org), Ground Water Adventurers makes an adventure out of exploring the world of ground water with brain ticklers, puzzles, cool experiments and more.

World’s largest brick manufacturing plant fueled by landfill gas Landfill gas is being used to fuel the new Jenkins Brick manufacturing facility in St. Clair County, Alabama, This is Jenkins’ second plant to utilize landfill gas as a fuel. CH2M HILL provided environmental consulting and landfill/natural gas design for this US $56 million project, which will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 62,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide annually. CH2M HILL was involved with the William M. Jordan, Jr. Plant from the earliest planning stages. The firm evaluated 301 landfills in the Landfill Methane Outreach Program and was able to narrow the list down to 13 sites where more detailed evaluations were conducted. Evaluations were based on a number of factors, including: natural gas availability, permitting issues, stormwater construction, site runoff, wastewater disposal, and water availability. Based on detailed evaluations, the Star Ridge Landfill in Moody, Alabama, was selected as the most appropriate site for the brick manufacturing facility.

Using landfill gas will satisfy 40 percent of the plant’s initial energy needs; this percentage will increase to 100 percent over the next 10 years as the landfill grows. Corporation Stop with Built-in Cleaning Metcon’s Chemlance Corporation Stop with built-in cleaning, allows you to effortlessly clear away precipitate build-up on the injection tip, without any interruption to the system. Simply twist the cleaning knob all the way in and out, and the blockage is removed in seconds, with no need to shutdown, depressurize, disassemble, clean, repressurize, etc. Metcon Corporation Stops are constructed of PVC material with built in check valve and Viton® gasket seals for optimum chemical resistance.


16 | January 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Drinking Water

Considerations when evaluating UV water disinfection systems

By Craig Bonneville, P.Eng.

one million people in 45 communities in the Alberta Capital Region. When the UV system was installed at the Edmonton E.L. Smith WTP in the Fall of 2001, the reactors were the largest size available anywhere. Space availability, reactor size, redundancy, hydraulics, ease of operation and maintenance capabilities were important considerations in the design process. Three 1200-mm UV reactors were installed in a new building downstream of the filters. Each reactor has six 20 kW medium pressure lamps and the reactor was validated for flows between 20 and 150 MLD. One of the biggest challenges in operating the UV treatment facilities was the lack of regulatory standards or guidelines and no other installations of similar size in North America. The draft US EPA UV guidance manual was published in October 2001, however, design of the E.L. Smith UV facility was complete and construction had already started. EPCOR based operating and maintenance procedures on the pilot test mentioned previously, research papers and a National Water Research Institute (NWRI) report entitled “Ultraviolet Disinfection – Guideline for Drinking Water and Reuse”. An accepted validation protocol had not yet been instituted, so the UV reactors at E.L. Smith were not validated until 2004. It should be noted that a facility does not neces-

sarily need to validate their reactors if the installation of the UV system is consistent with the conditions under which the purchased reactor was validated. Another issue faced as an early adopter of UV technology was that the initial lamp sleeve wiper system and the lamp bulbs did not meet performance expectations. Since these initial challenges, there have been many engineering and procedural improvements that have resulted in a system that is easy to operate, with very little corrective or preventative maintenance required. The sleeve cleaning system has been strengthened and now results in even cleaning and no lamp breakage. Even with average treated water hardness of 165 mg/L as CaCO3, biannual inspections of the lamps’ protective sleeves show little to no deposition. Most importantly, the lamps have been improved to a point where they last well beyond their guaranteed maximum life of 3000 hours. In fact, the lamps are now lasting up to 6000 hours, with little decrease in lamp output. Some of the lessons learned improving the UV system at E.L. Smith WTP helped guide the selection of a new line of UV reactors installed at the Rossdale WTP in 2004. Nine of the 900-mm reactors were added and they each held 3-10 kW bulbs. The installation at E.L. Smith was relatively standard, in that the reactors were housed in a new facil-

UV system at the Edmonton E.L.Smith WTP.

ater treatment disinfection technologies are continually evolving and it can be difficult to determine the best choice for an individual facility. In the late 1990s, research demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) disinfection was effective at inactivating Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvuum at doses much lower than previous studies had shown. Since then, the number of utilities in Canada and the U.S. that are designing or operating UV disinfection systems has increased rapidly. Water utilities are beginning to understand the operational and financial advantages provided by UV, especially when used as a primary disinfectant against bacteria and protozoa. EPCOR was early in adopting UV technology and its experience in piloting, designing, building, operating and maintaining UV treatment systems for drinking water has enabled it to assist regulators and municipalities. EPCOR has been working with UV treatment since early 2000 when it conducted a nine month pilot study to gain experience in the operation and maintenance of UV systems, as well as to confirm the chosen reactor’s performance. Special attention was directed towards lamp sleeve fouling, lamp life, sensor accuracy, as well as operation and maintenance procedures and performance. Since the pilot study was completed, EPCOR has installed a UV system at the water treatment facility it operates in Canmore, Alberta, as well as its Edmonton water treatment plants. The two Edmonton facilities supply an average of 350 MLD of drinking water to


18 | January 2007

UV reactor installation. Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Drinking Water ity and there was a reasonable length of straight pipe both upstream and downstream of the reactors. However, due to space limitations at the Rossdale WTP site, the UV reactors had to be retrofitted to the existing filter effluent piping. This unique design resulted in very little head loss through the system, no effect on filter operation (in fact, this retrofit allowed the filters to be operated by gravity flow or as a siphon) and a successful validation test. The installation of the reactors on the Rossdale filter effluent piping had many operating advantages over the installation at E.L. Smith. The bulbs in the reactors at Rossdale have variable power, so that all of the bulbs are always on and modulate to achieve the desired dose (at E.L. Smith, the reactors have three banks of two bulbs and dose is adjusted by turning banks of bulbs on and off). By having each Rossdale UV reactor paired up with a filter that has filter-towaste capabilities, the chance of having non-UV treated water passing to the clearwell is negligible. Also, the reactors can be turned on during the filterto-waste cycle which allows plenty of time for them to warm up. In the event that the reactors shutdown unexpectedly, or for some reason are not meeting their required dose, the filter can simply go to waste. At E.L. Smith, a reactor shutdown can cause the whole plant to go to waste. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to determine a suitable piping layout that would allow nearly plug-flow hydraulics through the reactor, which is very important for achieving an even dose distribution. Because on-site validation could not be carried out at the water treatment plant site, the reactor and piping had to be shipped to an off-site facility in Portland, Oregon, to be validated by a third party. The validation results agreed very closely with the CFD and irradiance modeling that EPCOR had performed on the reactors. EPCOR is planning to expand its UV installation at E.L. Smith in 2007. The next generation reactor will be more similar in design to the one installed at Rossdale rather than the initial model installed at E.L. Smith in 2001. Experience has shown that it is worthwhile for larger facilities to undertake pilot testing of various reactor models as well as perform computerized hydraulic and irradiance modelling www.esemag.com

before a reactor is selected. For smaller utilities, it may be more efficient if the UV system is designed so that an "off the shelf", validated reactor can be installed. Small utilities can draw on the designers’ experience and discussions with the reactor manufacturers to choose the best system. UV water disinfection technology has evolved quickly over the last five years and is becoming a popular choice for many water utilities. In addition, Alberta Environment's new Standards and Guidelines for Municipal

Waterworks (2006) now gives full credit for Giardia and Cryptosporidium inactivation to validated UV reactors. Overall, EPCOR's experience with UV disinfection has been positive and it will continue using it as an additional barrier in its multi-barrier approach to the treatment and provision of quality tap water. Craig Bonneville is with EPCOR Water Services. Contact: cbonneville@epcor.ca

January 2007 | 19


New compost facility converts wastewater biosolids to valuable soil amendments By Dave Forgie and Arash Masbough he British Columbia. Okanagan cities of Kelowna and Vernon have long taken leadership roles in treating wastewater from their communities. Both cities operate advanced wastewater treatment plants incorporating biological nutrient removal (BNR) and create high quality effluent. The Kelowna Wastewater Treatment Plant discharges effluent to Okanagan Lake; the high quality of the effluent helps to preserve the quality of the lake. Effluent from the Vernon Water Reclamation Centre is stored during the winter, then, from late April to early October, is used for irrigating golf courses, orchards, a forestry centre, nursery and agricultural land. Typically, plants similar in size to Kelowna and Vernon use anaerobic processes to stabilize their sludge (biosolids). However, BNR plants do not typically use anaerobic processes to stabilize sludge because the bacteria used in wastewater treatment to remove and store the phosphorus can release the phosphorus under anaerobic conditions. Since 1995, the City of Kelowna has composted sludge from its wastewater treatment plant. The Kelowna biosolids composting operation has been producing a product that meets British Columbia’s Organic Matter Recycling Regulation “Class A” requirements. Rich in nutrients such as phosphorus, this product is trademarked and marketted commercially as “Ogogrow”, a soil conditioner, for landscaping, orchards, gardens, and potting soil. Growing populations in both Kelowna and Vernon have driven the need to expand the cities’ sludge stabilization operations. The cities decided to collaborate on the design and construction of a larger composting facility to meet their joint needs. Associated Engineering was selected to provide concept development, pre-design, process selection, design, equipment procurement, tendering, permit acquisition, construction contract management, and post construction services for


20 | January 2007

The Kelowna Wastewater Treatment Plant discharges effluent to Okanagan Lake. Photo courtesy Maple Reinders Inc.

the new composting facility. The City of Kelowna decided to relocate the biosolids composting operation to a parcel of land located south of Vernon. The new facility had to be designed to accommodate current and projected biosolids production from the Kelowna, Vernon, Westbank, and District of Lake Country’s wastewater treatment plants, and from the Regional District of North Okanagan’s Septage Facilities. In addition, operational criteria for the new facility included the following: • An aeration floor that could be easily loaded, unloaded, and maintained. • No obstructions around the compost piles for the front end loaders. • Automatic process control and data logging to meet regulatory requirements. • Readily expandable to keep up with the on-going growth. The City of Kelowna had previously used the Aerated Static Pile (ASP) composting process successfully. So, the cities decided to base the new composting facility’s process on this. The advanced ASP process, provided by Engineered Compost Systems (ECS) has positive and negative aeration, enabling raw biosolids to be converted to Class A compost in 80 days, compared to the conventional ASP process that required a total of 120 days. In addition to the composting area, the project also included an administra-

tion building with office, laboratory, control room, sludge receiving and mix buildings, amendment and processed material storage areas, and leachate and surface runoff control and pumping. Stormwater and leachate from the facility are collected in a detention pond. Solids are removed and treated effluent is pumped to the City of Vernon’s reclaimed water reservoir. Recycled effluent is used as process water on site. The project was separated into three construction contracts and one equipment procurement contract. This allowed the design to advance with construction activities. The project, from concept development to construction completion, was delivered in 18 months. The facility capital cost of $7.4 million was shared between Kelowna and Vernon, based on existing biosolids production from each city. Maple Reinders Inc. was the contractor for the main construction contract. The cities of Kelowna and Vernon recently received the Union of British Columbia Municipalities (UBCM) Community Award of Excellence in the Leadership and Innovation (Large Community) category for this project. Dave Forgie, Ph.D., P. Eng., Senior Environmental Engineer, and Arash Masbough, M.A.Sc., P. Eng., Environmental Engineer, are with Associated Engineering. Contact: mahl@ae.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Measuring fibre in sludge

he fibre content in sewage is increasing, partly due to changes in diet and to the disposal of sanitary products into the sewer. The impact on sewage treatment plants is threefold: a more fibrous sludge is easier to dewater, more difficult to pump, and harder to granulate in a sludge drier. To assess these issues, the water industry needed a method of measuring fibre that worked with sewage sludge. There are two types of methods thought applicable: (1) passing a dilute sample through a sieve and then measuring the volatile solids retained on the sieve, and (2) digesting a sample to free proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, and measuring the volatile residue. The industry soon realized that the fibre result reported depended on the method used


and methods from other industries had to be modified before they produced reliable results for sewage sludges. Measurement of fibre is important in the agriculture and the pulp and paper industries. The first approach taken by the water industry was to modify the draft standard for the measurement of coarse solids and fibres on a 60 to 70 μm sieve. This standard was probably withdrawn because the results were not replicable on a single sample. Some researchers tried “cleaning the sample” and classifying it using a Bauer-McNett Classifier (T 233 cm-95). In the end, however, these sieve-based methods proved indicative but not replicable. This was partly due to the presence of fat, oil and grease in the samples which were partially retained on the sieve (depending on the method used to wash the sieve residue). The industry then began to look at the characterization of fibre in animal feed and wastes. The Hennerberg-Stohmann method for measuring dietary fibre in animal feed has been in use in one way or another since the 1890s. The UK

By Patrick Coleman, Ph.D, P. Eng.

water industry sponsored a research program to develop a replicable method for measuring fibre in sewage sludge (1997) that looked at this and other methods. Leeds University (UK) and Aqua Enviro Limited conducted the research. A proprietary method was developed and has been adopted by the UK water industry. The method is a variant of the US Department of Agriculture Neutral Detergent Method. This new method has been compared with other enzymicgravimetric methods which use stronger solutions to extract proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The neutral detergent method gives a higher fibre concentration because it is a less aggressive extraction method. One of the first significant papers to look at the impact of fibre on dewatering was published by M. Hashimoto and M. Horoaka in 1990. They measured fibre in two ways. Fibre A (which we refer to as the Fibre Index) is the volatile suspended solids captured on a stainless steel fabric mesh with 0.149 mm openings. The second method, Fibre B, used the Henneberg-Stohmann

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater method which measured the residue left after the sample was treated with an acid and then an alkali. This latter method is referred to as being enzymatic-gravimetric and is meant to measure the dietary fibre in the food at the entrance to the large intestine. In both cases, the higher the fibre content in the sludge, the greater the rigidity of the cake, leading to a drier cake. They also confirmed that the higher the fibre, the more viscous the sludge. This relationship between fibre and dewaterablity was confirmed in a later study by Salzer et al (1994). The first significant paper that looked at the impact of fibre on sludge driers was published by Paul Lowe, Michael Brown and Kathleen Hudson in 1994. At the time, there appeared to be limited experience world-wide in the application of thermal drying technology to processing raw undigested sludge. A number of continental European drier manufacturers experienced problems with their equipment when they started drying the more fibrous UK sludge. This limited experience has shown that the products from raw sludge processing have a much lower bulk density than those from digested sludge. The

apparent reason for this phenomenon is the high concentration of fibres in the raw undigested sludge. Different sludges show varying degrees of fibre concentration with a decrease in fibre content as the proportion of secondary sludge increases. The relationship between the bulk density of the product and the fibre content shows that as the fibre content increases the bulk density of the product falls. The fibre content in this study was measured by filtering a diluted sample through a 180 μm mesh. Mariana V. González, Manocher Asaadi and Sabeha Ouki (2005) looked at the relationship between fibre, lipids and proteins and anaerobic digestion. They observed that the higher the fibre and lipid concentration, the higher the gas production. In this case, they measured fibre using an enzymic-gravimetric procedure. The sample was digested using a mix of glacial acetic acid, nitric acid and trichloroacetic acid. The impact of fibre on wastewater treatment is better understood now because of the work done by the above researchers. A fibrous sludge thickens faster, creating problems in gravity thickeners and primary clarifier hoppers. However, once transported to a

centrifuge or dewatering belt, a fibrous sludge produces a drier cake. A fibrous sludge is more viscous, calling into question correction factors used when sizing sludge pumps or sizing the torque on a gravity thickener rake. Primary sludge tends to be more fibrous than waste activated sludge, creating a link between fibre and increased gas production. A fibrous sludge is more difficult to handle in a sludge drier because it tends not to granulate as well as a conventional sludge. This said, it is difficult to compare fibre concentrations unless they are determined by similar test methods. Methods using a sieve are not replicable. The preferred approach is to use a variant of the USDA Neutral Detergent Method. Because the fibre concentration reported varies with the method used, it is best to compare your sludge with sludges from other treatment plants that used the same fibre measurement technique. Patrick Coleman is the Wastewater Discipline Lead in Associated Engineering’s Toronto office. References are available, Email: colemanp@ae.ca

BIOLAC® Wastewater Treatment System The Biolac System is an innovative activated sludge process using a long sludge age process to create an extremely stable, easily operated system. The capabilities of this unique technology far exceed ordinary extended aeration treatment. The Biolac System offers high BOD removal, complete nitrification and the formation of a very stable waste sludge. The Biolac System’s design ensures the lowest-cost construction and guarantees operational simplicity. With in-ground basin construction, the Biolac System’s various components combine to produce excellent quality effluent at the lowest total plant cost possible.

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January 2007 | 23

Wastewater Treatment

Delaware municipality chooses innovative wastewater solution he Town of Millsboro, Delaware, has selected an advanced solution from Parkson Corporation as a key part of its wastewater treatment plant upgrade. Parkson’s DynaLift™ Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) System will be used to help expand the Town of Millsboro’s wastewater treatment capacity from 0.6 to 1.15 US MGD. The MBR technology is a flexible, out-of-basin membrane system that uses ultrafiltration tubular membranes with a simple biological wastewater treatment plant to provide high-quality effluent for beneficial reuse. After evaluating numerous technologies, CABE Associates, Inc., the design engineer for the project, recommended that the Town of Millsboro select Parkson’s DynaLift System for its ability to meet the most stringent current and future permit requirements and also because it would fit onto the existing plant site. Both submerged and external membrane bioreactor configurations were carefully evaluated for the project. “Town of Millsboro selected the DynaLift System based on several factors.” says Lee Beetschen, President, CABE Associates, Inc. These included easy accessibility and maintenance of the external membrane systems, the low operating cost as a result of the innovative airlift design, the use of rugged tubular membranes, and the simple, safe and automatic membrane cleaning.


Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) System.

In addition to grit removal, flow equalization and sludge dewatering, the upgrade will include: • A new headworks building with two new Parkson Rotomesh, internally fed, fine-mesh drum screens. • Screenings dewatering using a Parkson shaftless screw conveyor and dewatering press. • New anoxic/oxic biological tanks utilizing high-efficiency, ultrafine bubble Parkson HiOX aeration panels. • A new membrane building with external DynaLift membrane skids. • A plant-wide Parkson integrated control and SCADA system. For more information, visit www.parkson.com

1.866.611.5016 www.grundfos.ca/ese Town of Millsboro’s wastewater treatment plant. 24 | January 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Energy & Air Pollution Abatement

Technology fuels new era of clean, low-cost energy

The system will not only save the mill more than $1.5 million in annual fuel costs, but will also improve local air quality.

olko Industries Ltd. and Nexterra Energy Corp. have successfully completed their new gasification project at Tolko’s Heffley Creek plywood mill near Kamloops, British Columbia. The new “syngas” plant converts wood residue into low-cost, clean, thermal energy, replacing high-cost natural gas and moving this mill closer to energy self-sufficiency. The system will not only save the mill more than $1.5 million in annual fuel costs, but will also improve local air quality and reduce Tolko’s greenhouse gas emissions by 12,000 tonnes per year. This is equivalent to taking almost 3,000 cars off the road. “This project is a great example of


the innovative use of biomass for energy production – a concept we are addressing in the development of a new bioenergy strategy,” said Richard Neufeld, BC Minister of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. “In the

Wood Products Research Institute, said: “Despite progress toward energy selfsufficiency, the industry still consumes billions of dollars of fossil fuel. Switching from natural gas to syngas, using Nexterra's gasification technolo-

The system will not only save the mill more than $1.5 million in annual fuel costs, but will also improve local air quality and reduce Tolko’s greenhouse gas emissions by 12,000 tonnes per year. future, bioenergy will help meet our electricity needs, help create jobs and develop economic opportunities, while also helping to protect our health and environment.” Jim Dangerfield, Vice-President, Western Region, for Forintek, Canada’s

gy, has the potential for widespread application in the forest industry to reduce reliance on fossil fuels, cut costs and improve competitiveness." In 2005, Tolko partnered with Nexterra to develop the 38 MMBtu/hr gasification system that converts 13,000 bone dry tonnes per year of wood residue into a clean burning, renewable biofuel called syngas. The syngas generated will displace approximately 235,000 GJ (gigajoules) per year of natural gas previously used at the mill to dry veneer and to produce hot water for log conditioning. This is equivalent to the amount of natural gas required to heat approximately 1,900 residential homes in BC. This project has received financial support and encouragement from the federal and provincial governments including Natural Resources Canada, TEAM (Technology Early Action Measures – a federal inter-departmental technology investment program) and Ethanol BC. For more information, visit www.nexterra.ca

26 | January 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Environmental News Earth Tech’s Stevens honored with an achievement award Gerald Stevens of EarthTech, Inc., was honored by the Water Environment Federation (WEF) with an achievement award in October. Stevens serves as a process design and operations specialist in the Kelowna, British Columbia, office of Earth Tech. WEF’s Morgan Operational Solutions Medal recognizes valuable contributions to the study and solution of operational problems faced by water environment professionals. Stevens was recognized for his work in the areas of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. He helped lead the way in the implementation of these techniques in wastewater treatment projects throughout North America, southeast Asia, Australia and Europe. During the past 25 years, Stevens has managed and provided process consultation and operator training programs on projects that have designed, built, and operated wastewater treatment facilities, including a challenging facility inside Canada’s Banff National Park that was designed to “approach zero environmental impact.”

property in the vicinity. Where the owner fails to take adequate steps to eliminate the nuisance the court can order the business to stay closed for up to two years. Justice Bryant found that the Town had received over 1,000 complaints over the past two years and that the odours were so unpleasant as to constitute an adverse effect and a public nuisance. The decision is significant for both businesses and municipalities. Although the defendant was working with MOE

to obtain approvals for new equipment and processes, Justice Bryant was not satisfied with the progress. Businesses (and municipal operations) that are subject to nuisance complaints from neighbours will need to show efforts to abate. Odour and noise generators need to identify and oppose incompatible land development proposals within their impact zones. www.willmsshier.com

Pump most slurries, hard solids, sludge, trash and even dry sand . . . without adding water ! Abrasives • Drilling Mud Waste • Cuttings • Sumps Hazardous Waste • Tank Bottom Sludge • Tunneling Underwater Cleanup • Hydrocarbons • Snakepits Digesters • Lagoons • Tailings & Muck • X-P Zones Pump Aggressive Slurries

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Significant legal decision Willms & Shier lawyers, Marc McAree and Vivienne Ball, represented the Town of Newmarket, Ontario, in winning a significant legal judgment in the fall. The decision ensures the reduction of composting odours that had distressed Newmarket workers and residents for two years. Ontario Superior Court Justice Bryant found that the defendant company, Halton Recycling, had caused a public nuisance by emitting odours that caused extensive disturbance for its neighbours. Justice Bryant ordered Halton Recycling to shut down its composting operations if it failed to implement its proposed plan to eliminate off-site odours within 90 days. The shut-down order would last for nine months. The nine-day hearing resulted in the first court decision under section 433 of the Municipal Act, 2001. The provision allows a municipality to apply to the court for an order closing a business. The court must make a finding that a public nuisance has had detrimental impact on the use and enjoyment of www.esemag.com

SUPAVAC® Pneumatic Displacement Transfer Pumps Automatically functions either as a self-priming pump (“Hg) or high-lift vacuum (cfm), as the material or operation demands. Advanced vacuum recovery and pressure discharge patented technology. No rotating parts. No moving parts in contact with flow. Models to >50 m3/h, solids passing to >3”, recovery from up to 200 feet horizontal and 75 feet vertical, discharge to 2,900 feet. Available for rental and purchase anywhere in Canada. For the full story, go to www.SupavacCanada.com or contact us at (866) 735-9005 or info@SupavacCanada.com

A World of Solutions January 2007 | 27


Walkerton Clean Water Centre provides training to First Nations communities By Dr. Saad Y. Jasim, P.Eng. he Walkerton Clean Water Centre in Ontario was established to develop and deliver appropriate technical training and curriculum, and to coordinate training delivered by other organizations. It aims to consistently maintain the quality of the training, to ensure its accessibility and availability to owners, operators and operating authorities of drinking water systems, including training programs to fulfill Justice O’Connor’s Recommendations. The Walkerton Inquiry recommended that training be made available to First Nations. Recommendation 92 stated that: “The provincial government should actively offer, on a cost recovery basis, its training facilities and curriculum to First Nations water system operators”. In response the Centre provided an “Operator in Training Course” in December, 2005. The cost of training, accommodation, and traveling was cov-


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Training ered by the Ministry of Environment and the Centre. The Centre is currently involved in discussions with the Ontario First Nations Technical Services Corporation, to investigate the needs of the operators of these systems. The Centre would provide curricula for courses to develop and improve the capability of First Nations operators. The Centre would have its Technology Demonstration Facility in Walkerton, available to First Nations operators, which is a unique opportunity for operators to have hands-on training on a state of the art pilot plant operated with advanced technologies. The Centre’s Mobile Pilot Unit, would provide on-site hands-on training to them. This approach would help First Nations operators, to deliver safe drinking water to their communities. The program would be delivered on a cost recovery basis. The Walkerton Clean Water Centre started providing training to First Nations operators, who are using ozone in their water treatment processes. A one day training on ozone operations, including case studies on water quality and disinfection calculation, was delivered at no cost to First Nations communities, or the Ontario First Nations Technical Services Corporation. Ojibways of Pic River First Nations, Aundeck-Omni-Kaning (Ojibways of Sucker Creek First Nation), and

Sheguiandah First Nation took part in the training. The Walkerton Clean Water Centre and Health Canada, First Nations and Inuit Branch, have worked together to provide training to First Nations operators and, as a result, WCWC hosted 25 attendees on November 15 and 16, 2006, for two days of training. Participants took the Preventing Waterborne Illnesses Course, the MOE’s mandatory one-day renewal course for operators in Ontario, on the first day. On the second day, they com-

pleted the Centre’s Water Quality Sampling and Monitoring Course which included hands-on training in the Technology Demonstration Facility. The group was made up of operators, community health representatives and Health Canada staff, and participants came from southern and eastern regions of the province, from Parry Sound to London and east to Ottawa. Dr. Saad Y. Jasim, P.Eng. is CEO, Walkerton Clean Water Centre Email: SJasim@wcwc.ca

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January 2007 | 29


Advanced phosphorus treatment for surface discharge from a residential development By Naomi Barratt and Christopher Hauschild

Figure 1. Process Flow Diagram of the Village Walk wastewater treatment plant.

he installation of what is claimed to be the first fully operational wastewater treatment plant in Canada to achieve total phosphorus effluent at or below 0.03 mg/L enabled the land developer to construct a retirement community in Manotick, a suburb of the City of Ottawa. Manotick is located on the Rideau River, a watercourse threatened by phosphorus loadings. Manotick is not serviced with a sewage pipeline and the City required the construction of an onsite wastewater treatment plant to treat the domestic wastes as a condition of property development. Several past attempts had been made to develop the property, all of which had failed due to stringent effluent requirements and treatment plant size. Following extensive review, the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) issued a certificate of approval for the facility, specifying a tertiary


quality discharge standard. The requirement for phosphorus was for a discharge limit of 0.04 mg/L and design objective of 0.03 mg/L. Additional requirements included producing a wastewater treatment plant that was quiet, odour-free and able to blend into the surrounding development. Seprotech was approved by the City of Ottawa to build the first ever plant of this type in Canada. The developer selected the RotodiskÂŽ system, incorporating the proprietary advanced phosphorus removal design known as P-03 with a design of 150 m3/day average daily flow to handle the development requirement and the possibility of expansion. Since the system design incorporates primary settling, the entire plant is contained within a building, eliminating the need for holding ponds and lagoons. Due to the containerized approach, there are no fumes or odours. Noise is not an issue because aeration is achieved by rotating the RBC media

Table 1. Monthly average total phosphorus concentration at the wastewater treatment plant.

30 | January 2007

and its bacteriological biofilms in and out of wastewater with only a 5 hp motor. Aerators are not used, reducing noise and electrical bills. Seprotech worked closely with the developer’s and city engineers to design a state of the art wastewater treatment plant. The treatment process is summarized as shown in Figure 1. Treatment process Wastewater is pumped from an equalization tank to the primary settling tank (PST) located within the plant structure. The PST removes readily settleable solids and floating material and thus reduces the suspended solids content of the wastewater. The wastewater flows by gravity to the four-stage Rotorzone of the RBC. The first two stages of the Rotorzone remove most of the soluble and some the insoluble BOD using several hundred species of naturally cultivated microorganisms, which form a film on the surface of each disc. As the

The system is integrated into the community, does not make noise and is odour-free, allowing homes to be built only a few metres away from the plant.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater discs rotate, the inactive film of microorganisms sloughs off and a new active film is regenerated in a continuing cycle. A portion of the microorganisms slough off and the remaining BOD converts into carbon dioxide as it is used in the metabolism of the bacteria. The third and fourth stages of the Rotorzone are for nitrification – the bacteriological conversion of ammonia nitrogen to nitrates. In the nitrification reaction, (NH4+ + 2HCO3 + 2O2 → NO3- + 2CO2 + 3H2O), ammonia is oxidized first to nitrite and then to nitrate by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter. Primary removal of phosphorus is accomplished through dosing of Poly Aluminium Silicate Sulphate (PASS) injected in the third stage of the RBC. With PASS, aluminum ions react


with phosphate ions causing the precipitation of aluminum phosphate. Sodium bicarbonate is needed to support bacterial nitrification reactions. The wastewater flows into the final settling tank (FST). Following the FST, the wastewater flows through two Parkson's DynaSand® filters arranged in series. One filter is sufficient to reduce phosphorus to 0.03 mg/L. However, a second filter provides added security. PASS is injected at the inlet of the filters when filter feed pumps are running. Proper pH control with PASS allows the precipitated particles to coagulate and flocculate such that a physical barrier can retain them effectively. Proper pH correction after the filter is maintained with sodium bicarbonate.

Following advanced filtration, the effluent is passed through an Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system. The wastewater is then discharged to the Rideau River. Since this is believed to be the first application of phosphorus removal to this level anywhere in Canada, the Ontario MOE applied an extremely rigorous level of review. The system was fully validated and certified for operation in January 2005 and has been providing consistent and stable operations since that time as demonstrated in Table 1. Naomi Barratt and Christopher Hauschild are with Vicinia Corporation. Contact: haus@vicinia.ca

January 2007 | 31

Legal Affairs

Clean Water Act, 2005 - regulations coming 2007-2008 atershed-based source protection will have significant impacts on land development, industrial activities, water-taking and municipalities. The planning process is going to take several years, and is going to involve a lot of hard bargaining and compromise amongst the many stakeholders. Willms & Shier lawyers believe that prudent stakeholders should get involved early in the process to ensure that their rights are protected in the assessments and Source Protection Plans. Ontario’s Clean Water Act, 2005 received Royal Assent on October 18, 2006. The legislation establishes Ontario’s watershed-based drinkingwater source protection regime. However, regulations are required for implementation. In the meantime, the Ontario Ministry of Environment continues to eke out funding to offset potential compliance costs. MOE is considering 16 different “topic areas” for regulations, to be released in four separate waves over the next 18 months. The First Wave: Four regulations would take effect in late March or early April of 2007. They will establish or alter the boundaries of source protection areas; combine areas to make


32 | January 2007

The legislation establishes Ontario’s watershed-based drinking-water source protection regime.

source protection regions; cover the composition and terms of reference for the multi-stakeholder source protection committees; and address imminent health hazard notification. The MOE began consultations on these regulations with key stakeholders, including municipalities, health units and conservation authorities, in late 2006. A wide-ranging discussion paper, designed to stimulate debate, was posted on the EBR Registry in November. The Second Wave: Draft regulations to be posted in September or October of 2007 will address the preparation of source water assessment reports; risk assessments and interim risk management plans; certification and training; and the Ontario Drinking Water Stewardship Fund. The Third Wave: These regulations will set the ground rules for Source Protection Plans. MOE intends to release a discussion paper in May 2007, followed by a draft regulation in early 2008. MOE plans extensive consultations on the planning process. The Fourth Wave: Draft regulations would be published in July or August of 2008 to cover “everything left over.”

This includes provincial assumption of planning responsibilities in certain circumstances, dealing with conflicts, and general operational matters and undertaking water budgets. A new advisory panel, with 11 members from agricultural groups, municipalities, NGOs, and conservation authorities, will provide feedback on funding administration and allocation. The province has promised additional funding as the planning process proceeds. Funding remains a concern MOE insists that “neither local taxpayers nor industry will bear the burden of source water protection planning costs.” (Does MOE think provincial revenue comes from somewhere else?) In September, the province allocated $5 million so that farmers and small rural businesses could take “early action to protect drinking water.” Another $2 million is earmarked for education. This money is in addition to the $120 million set aside from 2004 through 2008 for assessing watersheds and undertaking water budgets. For more information, visit www.willmsshier.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Cover Story

Hydropower is Manitoba's ‘oil’

anitoba is becoming recognized nationally and internationally as a leader in developing clean energy sources including ethanol, biodiesel, wind power and geothermal, but virtually all the province’s electricity is generated by hydropower, with 5,000 megawatts (MW) of installed capacity. In 2005, Manitoba was Canada’s largest exporter of electricity to the US, accounting for 50% of net electricity exports to our southern neighbour. With only one-half of the province’s 10,000 MW of acceptable hydropower potential capacity developed, hydropower has been characterized as “Manitoba’s oil.” While the appropriateness of comparisons to Alberta’s booming energy sector and its forecast $100 billion oil sands investment can be debated, the fact is northern Manitoba offers exciting potential for new investment in lowimpact hydropower resources to help Manitoba and its neighbours meet their growing demand for electricity. “We are planning for the continued development of Manitoba’s abundant hydropower resources, in a way that reduces impacts on the environment and creates opportunity for local people to share in the benefits of development,” says Bob Brennan, President and CEO of Manitoba Hydro. “In doing so, we will help the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, and at the same time provide economic benefits to Aboriginal people and other Canadians.”


34 | January 2007

Three new northern hydropower generating stations, entailing a potential investment exceeding $10 billion (including transmission), would add over 2,000 MW of generating capacity and bring over two decades of major project construction to the province’s north, ultimately increasing Manitoba’s hydropower generating capacity by 40%. These investments would be a major driver in the Manitoba economy and provide surplus power for export until required for domestic needs, meanwhile earning important profits to reduce cost burdens to domestic ratepayers. The most advanced of the new projects is the $1.3 billion 200 MW Wuskwatim generating station on the Burntwood River, which is being developed through an innovative partnership between Manitoba Hydro and the Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation (NCN), with NCN having the opportunity to have up to 33% equity ownership. NCN has been an active partner in the planning, community consultations and environmental studies for Wuskwatim, looking to ensure the project design delivers the greatest possible benefits with the least possible impact to the area’s land and water. Cree traditional knowledge has been an important factor in the examination of potential environmental impacts, ensuring the special relationship the Cree have with the land and waterways is taken into account. With NCN’s participation, the design for the

By Glenn Schneider

Wuskwatim station was modified to limit flooding to less than one-half square kilometre. Under the partnership, NCN benefits from training, jobs in project construction and business opportunities including over $100 million in direct negotiated contracts for such services as construction of an access road to the dam site. The Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development has quantified Wuskwatim’s global environmental benefits. The total lifecycle global warming-related emissions from Wuskwatim were determined to be 290 times less than coal and 130 times less than even the most efficient natural gas generation technology. Four other First Nations – Tataskweyak, War Lake, York Factory and Fox Lake – are engaged with Manitoba Hydro in joint planning, environmental studies and discussion of potential business arrangements for the Keeyask generating station. Located between Split Lake and Gillam on the Nelson River, Keeyask would produce 620 MW of power and is projected to cost $3.75 billion. Earliest inservice date would be 2017. More recently, Manitoba Hydro has initiated discussions with a number of northern Aboriginal communities to examine ways they may participate in development of the Conawapa generating station. Located some 800 kilometres north of Winnipeg on the Nelson River about 90 kilometres downstream of the town of Gillam, Conawapa would

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Cover Story also be designed to produce minimal flooding – approximately five square kilometres. Conawapa will add some 1,250 MW to Manitoba Hydro’s generating system. Costs are projected to be in the neighbourhood of $6 billion, including transmission facilities. Construction would require approximately 8.5 years, with an earliest possible in-service date of 2019. Development of new transmission is required to meet reliability requirements in Manitoba. Further development of northern generating capacity will also add to the need for new transmission in Manitoba as well as interconnections to export markets. In particular, east-west transmission capacity must be augmented for the full benefits of Manitoba’s expanded hydropower production to be shared with other Canadian provinces. For example, Manitoba’s undeveloped hydropower resources have been identified as potentially playing a role in meeting a portion of a projected 25,000 MW supply/demand gap in Ontario. However, Manitoba’s current east-west transmission linkages constrain exports, with transmission capacity to Ontario and Saskatchewan limited to 200 MW and 375 MW, respectively. In contrast, transmission capability to the US, developed over 40 years of trade with neighbouring states, is 2,250 MW. Clearly, improved east-west transmission would strengthen the national power grid and improve Canada’s energy reliability and security of supply. Bringing hydropower projects from potential to reality is not without its challenges. Complex regulatory frameworks have resulted in lengthy and cumbersome approval timeframes for hydropower projects compared to other energy generation approved, contrasted to months for natural gas generation and weeks for wind power projects. Policy incentives such as emission reduction credits for new clean hydropower facilities and increased focus on global environmental benefits of hydropower will be increasingly important considerations in future project approvals. The challenge is to ensure economic, environmental, social and technical implications are carefully considered and potential negative implications avoided, mitigated or compensated to the fullest extent feasible so www.esemag.com

that society can realize the benefits of clean, renewable hydropower. Discussions to ensure that potentially impacted peoples fully understand proposed projects and their potential impacts and benefits and have the opportunity to share in project benefits, can be complex and cannot be rushed. This is particularly important when trust must be rebuilt with parties who have been impacted by earlier projects. Finally, project scale and cost dictate that there be confidence in securing

markets before a decision is made to proceed. In spite of these challenges, strong forces are at work for continued expansion of hydropower generation in Manitoba. Glenn Schneider is with Manitoba Hydro This article was adapted from Canada West Foundation’s magazine Dialogues

January 2007 | 35

Drinking Water

Information management and source protection: a meta database-driven approach By Lukas Calmbach and Alge Merry he production of locally-developed, science-based assessment reports is a key focus of the proposed legislation to protect drinking water sources in Ontario. Within the context of source protection, Justice Dennis R. O’Connor recommended “a source protection system that includes a strong planning component on an ecologically meaningful scale – that is, at the watershed scale”. Ontario source water protection is not restricted to monitoring compliance of source water to regulatory guidelines but includes a long-term water supply strategy as a key element. Every municipality must determine whether the current supply will meet future needs regarding quantity and quality or if more water supplies are needed. These elements, which are in line with most modern environmental protection systems, require close collaboration between staff of various government organizations and between specialists such as experts for groundwater, surface water and agriculture. This multi-expert collaboration not only poses a significant challenge for communication among the various stakeholders, it also heavily impacts data management. Reliable long-term predictions require the consolidation of huge amounts of data from various sources, which are typically stored by different organizations in different formats and quality. It is also required that results provided from different jurisdictional areas and watersheds are compatible and fulfill a common level of quality. These challenges were recognized by the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) which recently provided guidelines on how to develop assessment reports comprised of a number of deliverables (texts, maps, tables), each of which requires different data sources. Guidance from the Province is of paramount importance to ensure that common methodologies will be applied, and comparable results will be generated;


36 | January 2007

opened and viewed through the database record, making data discovery very efficient. The user can append meta data to each data source to describe the quality of the data and other information about the data. The different data sources can subsequently be linked to the multiple source water deliverables. For each deliverable, the user can track the percentage of the task that is completed and data gaps can be documented. This workflow can iteratively be completed as deliverables are completed and additional data sources Every municipality must determine become available. At any whether the current supply will time the user can easily genmeet future needs regarding erate a report of summarizquantity and quality ing data gaps and data qualor if more water supplies are ity issues. This makes it needed. easy to track progress and to complete source protection deliverables efficiently. Using standard database technology, the system is used to define which data files are required for which deliverable and vice versa. The use of meta information managed in a tool greatly simplifies the planning and creation of deliverables required for source protection. This approach has recently been applied, and was demonstrated to be an excellent approach to data organization and documenselection of the most appropriate files tation related to source protection planfrom the flood of available information. ning. Furthermore the use of meta data To tackle this problem, an innova- greatly facilitated the design and impletive, database-driven approach has been mentation of the primary data repositodeveloped by Waterloo Hydrogeologic. ries as well as the linkage to standard This approach is being applied through data interpretation and analysis packthe implementation of a Meta ages such as HydroGeo Analyst, Information System. This system con- AquaChem, and AquiferTest Pro. Through linkages to analysis tools, tains the deliverables described in the MOE guidance documents, with infor- Conservation Authorities and other water mation about each deliverable including management agencies can efficiently the different potential data sources maintain and utilize their data to make the right source protection decisions. required for its implementation. The information system guides users Lukas Calmbach and Alge Merry are through the workflow. First, the user with Waterloo Hydrogeologic, Inc., establishes an inventory of relevant data A Schlumberger Company sources for source water protection. All Email: lcalmbach@slb.com, files that may reside on the user's comamerry@slb.com puter or on a network computer may be however, this does not necessarily resolve the question of which data is the best to use to achieve the required outcomes. The various Conservation Authorities responsible for completing the assessment reports possess a large amount of data in various formats, of different quality and from various sources. In most cases, the biggest challenge for developing the required deliverables is not the lack of data, but the

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Hazardous Waste

GeoMelting away contaminated waste By Leo Thompson cross the world, governments and nuclear power developers require long-term storage solutions for both existing and future waste products. As plans for new nuclear power stations gain momentum, one of the principal hurdles in securing public and regulatory acceptance is to define a safe and effective strategy for disposing of this waste. One strategy that has demonstrated favourable results for most types of radioactive wastes is the GeoMeltÂŽ process that uses an electric current to convert contaminated soil and waste into a stable, glass-like product. The resulting material is much stronger than concrete, leach resistant, and can be stored safely for tens of thousands of years. Since its inception in the early 1990s, GeoMelt has proven itself in a succession of pilot projects and fullscale applications for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DoE), and for clients in Japan, Australia and Belgium. The US EPA evaluated the GeoMelt process in the mid 1990s for the treatment of PCBs. The comprehensive evaluation resulted in the EPA issuing a National Toxic Substance Control Act Permit to the process for remediation of sites with PCB-contaminated soils at concentrations up to 17,860 parts per million. For the treatment of other chlo-


rinated organic wastes, it was selected in Australia as the preferred technology for remediation of hexachlorobenzene wastes. The GeoMelt process has even supplied a rare positive demonstration of the law of unintended consequences; its byproduct from the treatment of many organic compounds is claimed to be so stable and safe that it is being evaluated for use as aggregate for road beds, breakwaters, and even roofing tiles. The GeoMelt process is deceptively simple: graphite electrodes are inserted into the soil-bound contaminated materials and a flow of electric current is applied to start the melting process. As the molten zone grows, it incorporates hazardous inorganic elements, while the high processing temperatures destroy organic components. Typical operating temperatures range from 1,400 to 2,000 degrees Celsius. Power consumption is modest, ranging from 500 kilowatt/hours to 800 kilowatt/hours per ton processed for most applications – about half the energy required to incinerate equivalent volumes and comparable to the power consumed by a modern big-city hotel. When electric power is shut off, the molten mass cools and ultimately solidifies into a vitreous and crystalline rock-like monolith. In the case of organic wastes, destruction efficiencies range from

90% to 99.99% with the balance being treated by an off-gas treatment system. No organics can survive in the molten mass because of the extremely high processing temperatures. This means the resultant glass product can be safely used for construction aggregate – or any other civil-engineering application. However, the vitreous monolith cannot be similarly recycled if it contains radioactive wastes; it must, instead, be stored. But its dense leach-proof structure immobilizes the dangerous substances for millennia. A plant can be built on-site to vitrify large quantities of waste right in the ground while portable equipment can handle small in situ jobs. Waste material can also be delivered to off-site processing plants and melted and then trucked away for storage. The GeoMelt process generates some gases, mostly carbon dioxide and traces of hydrocarbons, which are drawn off and treated separately. The secondary wastes generated by this treatment, such as used filters and protective clothing, can be loaded back into subsequent batches for processing. Some years ago, the EPA selected the process for remediation of the Wasatch Chemical Site Remediation project near Salt Lake City, Utah. The Wasatch facility had been used for packaging and distribution of acids, continued overleaf...

The GeoMelt process is deceptively simple. 38 | January 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine






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Hazardous Waste

Typical operating temperatures range from 1,400 to 2,000 degrees Celsius.

caustics, organic solvents, and a variety of agricultural chemicals from 1957 to 1990. During those years, contaminated process liquids were transferred to a concrete evaporation pond filled with engineered layers of clay, gravel and sand, and measuring 38 metres square by 1.5 metres deep. Inevitably, contaminants leached out of the pond and in 1987, the EPA added Wasatch to its

40 | January 2007

National Priorities List. The remediation project began with excavation of contaminated soil and miscellaneous hazardous debris in areas surrounding the pond – including a metal garden shed. All of the excavated materials were put into the pond, which was then covered with a layer of clean soil. The pond’s depth now stood at 2.5 metres and total volume was

5,440 metric tons of soil and debris. A series of 37 melts were applied over a six-month period in a systematic 6x6 grid, eventually converting the entire pond into a single vitreous monolith. Tests applied to glass product established that it was near or below the detection limits for all contaminants, and significantly below the regulatory limits established for the site. The glass monolith also easily passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test. A decade later, GeoMelt was to prove its mettle on a problem of different – and far more massive – proportions. AMEC was selected to apply the process to the world’s largest environmental clean-up project: the massive U.S. nuclear weapons site in Hanford, Washington. The contract calls for the process to treat up to 750,000 litres of radioactive and chemical waste stored at Hanford, whose 13 reactors produced plutonium for the U.S. nuclear weapons program over five decades. The contract followed successful tests at Hanford in 2003. Hanford’s roots go back to 1943, when a sparsely populated area of Washington State was evacuated and the Manhattan Project moved in to pro-

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Hazardous Waste duce plutonium for atomic bombs. The site was chosen for its remote location, the abundant water supply from the Columbia River necessary to cool nuclear reactors, and ample electricity from the new Grand Coulee Dam. After the war, Hanford assumed a growing importance in the arms race between the U.S. and the Soviet Union and by 1964, it boasted nine plutonium production reactors, all operating on the banks of the Columbia. But in an era of few environmental regulations, eight of the nine reactors ran raw river water through their radioactive cores and released contamination directly back into the Columbia. Plutonium production continued through the 1970s and 1980s, though at a reduced pace, and stopped permanently after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. But the gargantuan problem of cleaning up and storing the nuclear waste from nearly 50 years of weapons production lives on. Over 200 million litres of radioactive and chemical waste are stored in 177 underground tanks, built from the 1940s through the 1980s and designed to last just 20 years. Current estimates are that 3.8 million litres of radioactive


waste have leaked from 67 of those tanks, contaminating the groundwater and threatening the Columbia River. It is this tank waste that the new GeoMelt treatment plant is to process as part of a full-scale demonstration project to confirm its effectiveness. If the demonstration project is successful, it will be one of the principal tools to treat this waste over the next 20 years. For this project, the GeoMelt process mixes the waste with soil (or other “glass-formers�) and melts it within huge refractory lined steel boxes. The application of an electric current to the electrodes embedded in the mixture produces intense heat which melts the mixture. After cooling, the container of vitrified waste is to be stored on the Hanford site in a secure disposal area. The design of the fullscale pilot plant was successfully completed in 2006. Additional testing is planned in 2007 to validate certain aspects of the design before starting construction of the pilot-plant. Trials are also under way in Belgium to solve a unique problem: for generations, Belgian farmers working their fields have occasionally come across unexploded chemical artillery shells

from World War One. Traditionally, Belgium has disposed of these shells in controlled explosions, trapping the resultant gases and treating them separately. But the Belgian government has been looking for a more sophisticated solution, and it commissioned a pilot project now under way to dispose of such shells using GeoMelt. The idea is to place the shells that have been collected into a refractory lined container buried in the ground, cover the shells with soil, and process them with GeoMelt. In trials using mock weapons, the challenge has been to deal with the unstable explosives in the shells. That challenge has been overcome and actual trials with explosives have been successfully completed. New work has started to evaluate recycling markets for the glass product. Widespread adoption of the vitreous substance in places which currently use such substances as marble or granite could help ease the demand for quarries which tear up the landscape. Leo Thompson is Technology Director with AMEC E-mail: leo.thompson@amec.com

January 2007 | 41

Biosolids Management

Marching to the beat of a compost drum By Michael Morris omposting is a practical way to transform waste and wastewater into a value added product. By combining waste streams in a formula and allowing efficient aeration, we can achieve effective aerobic composting. When we have attained the correct carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, moisture content and struc-



ture (air pockets allowing the windrow to breath), and given the compost access to the correct microbial combinations, we can turn the organic waste into humus colloids. These are the smallest of soil particles that have been processed by microbes and are absorbed by the plant quite easily. Humus is often referred to as the ideal


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42 | January 2007

plant food. When applied to land this material can act as a natural filtration process, protecting our water supply. Just about any organic by-products in the right combination can be composted. Waste products that can be composted include biosolids, grey water, food scraps, cardboard, paper, yard waste, wood by-products, vegetable trimmings, or other green matter. Feedlots facing land base issues can compost manure, old hay, straw, corn stover and mortalities. Industries can save on tipping fees for food by-products destined for landfill when they choose to compost. There are different methods of composting aerobically. Our preferred method is windrow turning. For those who are not familiar with the term, windrows are long columns of organic compostable material. We find this method to be the fastest, most versatile and efficient, producing the highest quality compost when applied with a formula. Accurate estimates are that this method is 400 times more efficient than a bucket loader. With our Advanced Biological Compost (ABC)™ method we use a carbon base of about 22� after fluffing with the turner. Ideally we run the base on a 3-degree slope, running the windrow with the slope. Then manure, green waste, biosolids or other nitrogen-based material are layered with carbon-based waste, clay and a pulverized rock powder that contains a broad spectrum of trace minerals. Ingredients will vary for different operations according to what is available. The carbon base absorbs any liquids and, during the first few times the windrow is turned, the drum of the turner should be lowered several inches so that everything is consistently mixed within the first two weeks. Some have complained, saying the carbon base takes too long, while others insist the additional aeration saves time with less turning later. When the right formula is calculated and appropriate turning done, odour is not an issue at all. One looks at turning 10 to 15 times over a 6 to 8 week period determined by temperature and moisture. The first two weeks are the most important during the breakdown cycle and this time

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Biosolids Management

Manure, green waste, biosolids or other nitrogen-based material are layered with carbon-based waste, clay and a pulverized rock powder.

requires the most turning, maybe 4 to 8 times. The temperature should peak at 149 degrees F so weed and tomato seeds germinate and die and phytotoxins and pathogens are destroyed. The C/N ratio can determine the pile’s ability to heat up. Excessive nitrogen will cause the pile to heat too much while excessive carbon will slow and limit the heating process. Build up and stabilization During build up and stabilization less turning is required but it is important to reach the right temperature and consistency during the breakdown cycle. The Sittler windrow turners require little maintenance. Occasional greasing is suggested. Low PTO speed (900 ft per hour) uses less fuel and ensures a loose stacking of the material as opposed to a dense mass. The drum brings everything from the outside in and from the bottom to the top, forming a peaked windrow with a chimney effect. This machine is very efficient at cleaning up all the material right down to the base of the windrow. Oxygen enters through the bottom and CO2 is released out the top. The blades of the drum have been recently redesigned so they may be reversed. They are made of hardened steel to avoid flailing. As the tractor needs to ride as close to the windrow as possible to help keep the windrow in position, Sittlers use a swing cylinder. Side scrapers help keep the form of the windrow and save time on clean up. Moisture content of the windrow should be 50 - 60 % in order for the microbes to flourish and so that the pile heats up properly. Sittler has designed a water injection system with a removable folding tow bar that may attach to a water wagon, or a hose may be connected to a reservoir that feeds the windrow water system appropriately. This may also be used to inoculate the windrow or to add wastewater or other compostable liquids. As a safety feature and to produce higher quality compost we suggest using a cover we refer to as fleece. Windrow composting is a fast and efficient method for converting waste streams into an additional revenue source from by-products. Michael Morris is with Global Repair. Email: sales@globalrepair.ca www.esemag.com

Eco Solutions

Green growth from wired waste By Angela Singleton, London Press Service illions of computers, printers, TVs and cell phones are upgraded by consumers every year, leaving mountains of “techno junk”. With about 900,000 tonnes of electronic waste sent to landfill sites in the United Kingdom alone, the European Union (EU) is set to introduce two laws to reduce this problem as part of the EU directive on Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment (WEEE). First, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive will target electronic gadgets and goods before they go on sale, cutting down on six toxic chemicals in favour of safer alternatives. Hazardous items from waste, such as batteries and liquid crystal displays will be taken out, because they cause pollution via leachates. The second law tackles products at the end of their lives. Under the WEEE directive, the company that made or imported an electrical item will have to pay to recycle it safely, or arrange for it to be reused. This means that the race is on for scientists and manufacturers to design a whole range of greener gadgets. One of the major hurdles preventing more widespread recycling and re-use of electronic products is that they are time-consuming, and, therefore, expensive to take apart. This problem is being addressed by research scientist Habib Hussein, of Active Fasteners at Brunel University’s Runnymede Campus, Surrey. He is engineering materials to create electronic products that will take themselves apart for easy recycling. The process is known as “automatic disassembly”, a revolutionary technique for creating self-dismantling products that have reached the end of their lives. He has designed a new kind of fastener that can hold a cell phone firmly together, until the owner wants it to let go. These fasteners are made with “smart” materials - metals and plastics that change shape when triggered, allowing the phone to dismantle itself for recycling. “Active disassembly components are more expensive than traditional fastenings, so there needs to be a


44 | January 2007

cost benefit somewhere within the product lifecycle for manufacturers to use them,” said Habib Hussein. “We are working to make active fasteners with cheaper, more easily available materials,” he says. Despite the fact that Dr Kerry Kirwan has invented biodegradable mobile cell phones are designed phone covers that contain sunflower seeds. At the end to last around 10 years, of the phone’s life, the cover can be buried in soil and consumers in the UK as it decomposes, a sunflower grows in its place. only keep theirs for an average of 18 months. Almost unbeliev- biodegrading plastic releases the sunably, 1,712 new cell phones are bought flower seed from its casing and provides every hour. it with nutrients to help it grow. MicroTim Cooper, at Sheffield Hallam organisms in the soil get to work on the University, is conducting research to try plastics straight away. Within two weeks to find out why consumers have no loy- the seed has started to sprout and the alty to their phones. He said: “You can plastic should all be gone within a make products that won’t break for month. “The great thing about this plasyears but that doesn’t mean we will want tic is that it doesn’t biodegrade in a norto keep them for so long. If we want to mal working environment - it has to design things that will really last for a have very special conditions to start the long time, we need to understand exact- process,” explained Dr Kirwan. ly why we get fed up of them.” Cell phone manufacturers are also He has asked product designers and looking at tackling the problem of creatmanufacturers to team up with social ing greener gadgets. Scientists at the scientists who understand why we global Japanese technology group NEC choose to throw things away. Together have developed the world’s first cell they plan to design better products that phone for sale with a biodegradable consumers will want to keep for longer. cover. The cover is made out of plant “Certainly if phones felt stylish and materials from corn and kenaf (a relabeautiful, like jewellery, rather than tive of the cotton and hibiscus plants). merely fashionable, we might be more During the process, corn is turned into a likely to keep them for longer,” said bio-plastic and kenaf fibres are added to Cooper. make the plastic stronger, tougher and Meanwhile, green product designer more heat resistant. This means the Dr Kerry Kirwan, from the Warwick cover will not start to break down durManufacturing Group, has invented a ing its everyday use, only when it is cell phone cover containing a seed that buried. will biodegrade and grow into a sunScientists hope to use plant-based flower. Working with Gloucestershire- plastics more often in future products based plastics manufacturer PVAXX such as in cars and even kitchen utenResearch, Dr Kirwan has created the sils. Other interesting concepts include phone covers from a mixture of plastics lithium sulphide batteries that break and minerals. When thrown away, they down on the compost heap when dead; break down into natural materials and, and a circuit board made from soya therefore, do not harm the environment. beans and chicken feathers, and another He said: “Our idea was that incorporat- from lasagne. ing a seed gives people a reason to separate the plastic parts, saving recyclers For more information, contact money, time and effort.” info@activefasteners.co.uk, If the phone cover is planted, the p.j.dunn@warwick.ac.uk Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

CANECT ‘07 The 15th Annual


April 16 & 17, 2007 at Metro Toronto Convention Centre Since 1992, CANECT has been Canada’s leading environmental management and compliance training opportunity! This year featuring

10 practical, proven and relevant one-day professional

development courses designed specifically to meet the needs of Canadian owners, directors, managers, supervisors, lawyers and engineers with environmental compliance responsibilities. Registrants at a CANECT 2006 course

2007 Compliance Courses include:

The Honourable Laurel Broten, Minister of Environment, Ontario and MPP for EtobicokeLakeshore is scheduled to address delegates on April 16.

Environmental Regulation & Compliance Dealing with Industrial Air Emissions Integrating Environment, Safety and Quality Management Systems

Risk-based Environmental Auditing

Waste Management and Waste Diversion

Water & Wastewater Compliance

Plus: CANECT is one of Canada’s largest environmental and EH&S tradeshows - this year conveniently co-located with IAPA’s “Health & Safety 2007 ” to provide over exhibits and displays featuring the latest in environmental, industrial hygiene and related technologies.


Enforcement: Dealing with Inspectors, Investigators and Prosecutors

Bill 133, Spills Management & Compliance

Brownfields: The New Rules

Dealing with Noise, Odour, Dust (NOD)

Spaces are limited. Register now for Canada’s leading annual environmental compliance event »

Day 1 - April 16 Day 2 - April 17

Program: Day 1: » Bonus: All CANECT registrants can attend a FREE 8am keynote address given by Craig Kielberger recognized for his work in support of the rights of children by John Paul II and Queen Elizabeth II. His story of active citizenship inspires us all to act to improve the world around us.

Program: Day 2: » Bonus: All CANECT registrants can attend a FREE 8a.m. presentation by keynote speaker Chris Gardner "whose ‘Pursuit of Happiness’ story of overcoming obstacles to achieve success is now being told in the hit movie starring Will Smith.

A1 Environmental Regulation and Compliance, 2007 CANECT’s essential annual introductory and update course - presented this year in association with leading environmental lawyers from Bennett Jones LLP-has established its reputation as Canadian industry’s chosen source for cutting-edge environmental regulation, compliance and due diligence training.


Almost any leak, spill or approvals violation can trigger an MOE IEB investigation. Where it goes from there depends very much on how well prepared you are. This new course gives insight into proven proactive strategies to minimize negative outcomes for individuals and organizations.

B1 Dealing with Industrial Air Emissions - 1 This course, presented by RWDI AIR and Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP, is constantly being refined to deliver Canada’s most up-to-date guide to complying with the tough, new provincial and federal air emissions rules.






Registration information

Industrial Water and Wastewater Regulation & Compliance This course provides municipalities, MISAregulated industries and others with proven compliance strategies to deal with regulations and approvals covering water, water-taking, source water protection and Bill 133 amendments to OWRA.

Industrial Brownfields: Working with the new rules This course provides registrants with a practical and proven introduction and update on complying with brownfields regulations; Records of Site Condition and the site assessment process, remediation and development-related issues.

Integration of Environment, Safety and Quality Management Systems This new one-day course offered by senior management systems specialists from Jacques Whitford, will be of interest to all organizations seeking to implement or refine an effective management framework to deal with complex, and often inter-related issues of Environment, Safety and Quality.

Dealing with Industrial Solid Waste & Waste Diversion An essential annual update on current issues in waste management and an industry guide to meeting the new regulatory and practical challenges of waste manifesting, waste diversion and product stewardship.

Dealing with Air Emissions – 2 Noise, Odour, Dust, (NODs) The way you handle the thorny issues of environmental noise, odour and dust in the plant and in the community can impact Ministry relations and even affect future approvals. This course offers hands-on solutions to common Air emission and NODs issues. Bring your questions!

C1 Risk-based Environmental Auditing A new CANECT course offered by CEAs from Jacques Whitford introduces the advantages of risk-based environmental auditing – the “risk-based” approach balances the limited time and resources companies have for auditing with the need to generate key information upon which to improve both compliance and performance.

Regulatory Enforcement: Dealing with Inspectors, Investigators & Prosecutors


Bill 133, Spills Management and Compliance New Spill Reporting, Contingency Planning and Environmental Penalties regulations are coming, along with a new zero tolerance approach to spills. Learn about your new compliance responsibilities under these new regulations and how to pro-actively manage your organization’s spill contingency planning and response. Materials include FREE manual & posters.

Canadian Environmental Conference 2007 Priority Registration Form Please use a separate registration form for each delegate - Photocopy as needed HOW TO REGISTER: Once you have decided on which courses you and your colleagues want to attend, simply complete and send in the adjacent Registration Form. Alternatively, you can register and pay on-line at www.canect.net


Reserve a place for me and my colleagues* at CANECT

(at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, South Building, 222 Bremner Blvd [east of the CN Tower]

My name is:

(please print) ...........................................................................................................................................



Street address:


Legend: At-a-glance guide to courses Program for Day 1, April 16 A1






Regulation & Dealing with Risk-based Air EnvironCompliance Emissions mental 2007 and Reg. Auditing Update 419




Industrial Waste & Waste Diversion

Dealing with Brownfields : The new rules

Town:..................................................................................... Prov:............... Post Code:........................................ My phone# is: (

) ...................................... My fax # is: (

) ..............................................

My email address is: .................................................................................................................................................

Program for Day 2, April 17 A2










Enforcement Reg. 419 Integrating Manageand Noise and ment Investigations Odour Dust Systems (NOD)

Water & Spills, Bill Wastewater 133 Regulation Management & & Compliance Compliance

I am signing up for the following course(s):

.................................. + .................................

(Identify course selection by letter and number eg. A1 + B2 etc. [see legend opposite]) * IMPORTANT: When registering multiple registrations, fill-in a separate Registration Form for each delegate – (photocopy this form as needed). Fax or mail-in all forms together to be sure to qualify for discounts (see below). For 4 or more registrations, please call (905)727-4666, Ext.#23

COURSE FEE FOR SINGLE REGISTRATION: • Single day registration = $565 + GST per person (includes: keynote speaker; luncheon voucher, + course materials) • Two day registration = $790 + GST per person (includes: keynote speaker; luncheon voucher, + course materials) Register for both days and attend the second day for just $225 It’s by far your most cost-effective option!

DISCOUNTS FOR MULTIPLE REGISTRATIONS: Make this an inclusive event by bringing your entire team. CANECT offers deep discounts on multiple registrations. For details on registering more than 4 registrants, call Stephanie Bellows at (905)727-4666.

ALL REGISTRATION FEES INCLUDE: • FREE hand-out materials, workbooks and proceedings • FREE PASS to attend both tradeshows • Free access to keynote speakers and recreational events • Complimentary coffee breaks and luncheon voucher • Certificate of Attendance on completion of course CANCELLATIONS POLICY: Refunds will be given for cancellations received in writing by April 3, 2007. Refunds cannot be given after this time. Delegate substitution is permitted at all times. Please note, if you register for the session and do not attend, you are liable for the full registration fee. ACCOMMODATION AND HOTELS: Room blocks at special discounted rates are available at the following hotels: Intercontinental Toronto Centre:1-800-422-7969; Holiday Inn on King 1-800-263-6364; The Fairmont Royal York 1-800-441-1414; Renaissance at Skydome 1-800-237-1512; Novotel Hotel (416)3678900. Room blocks quickly fill up. Register early. Indicate that you are a CANECT delegate in association with IAPA’s Health & Safety 2007 to ensure your special discounts. Complimentary shuttle bus service will be provided daily between your hotel and the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. PROGRAM CHANGES: N.B. The organizers reserve the right to change the program content and to substitute speakers without further notice. Should circumstances require it, the organizers also reserve the right to relocate and reschedule this event within a six-month period of the scheduled date and assume no liability for these changes.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: For general inquiries, phone Stephanie Bellows, Environmental Science & Engineering at (905)727-4666.

Payment options

1. A cheque (payable to Envirogate Event Management Inc.) will be mailed in: J Single day, single person course registration...................................... = $ 565 J Two-day, single person course registration ........................................ = $ 790 Plus J Second person single - day registration J Second person two - day registration

@ 7% off = $525 @ 7% off = $735

Plus J Third person single - day registration J Third person two - day registration

@ 12% off = $497 @ 12% off = $695

+ = $ .................. = $ ..................


+ = $ .................. = $ .................. + = $ ________

+ 6% GST


$ _______


$ _______

2. I wish to pay for the above by: J MASTERCARD J VISA (Check one) Signature:.......................................................................Phone: ( ) .............................. Name (on card):...................................................................................................................... Card #...................................................................... .......................... Expiry:............./.........

Fax completed form(s) to:(416)780-0290 or 888-780-0663 Make Cheques Payable to: Envirogate Event Management Inc. GST # 83595 8141 RT0001

Mail forms with payment to: CANECT ‘07 c/o Microspec Registration Services, 2700 Dufferin Street, Unit #26, Toronto, ON, Canada M6B 4J3 Phone: 866-268-1475 or 416-780-1554 (Registration status only) To register and pay online visit


Dear Colleague: Previous registrant to environmental compliance courses know that the Annual Canadian Environmental Conference & Tradeshow (CANECT) is the key event for Canadian businesses and professionals who need to keep up-to-date with environmental and EH&S affairs. With more federal and provincial environmental regulations affecting your responsibilities being passed than ever before -and with increasing environmental challenges raising levels of concern around the globe -- 2007 is poised to become the “Year of the Environment.” Make sure you and your colleagues are playing your part by registering now for CANECT ‘07 -- this year featuring a fresh new lineup of essential environmental compliance courses. There simply is no more convenient or cost-effective way to: ensure you and your staff receive necessary environmental training; up-date your own environmental management skills; see the latest in environmental solutions and technologies; and

demonstrate your organization’s commitment to environmental due diligence all at one major environmental event. We urge you to REGISTER TODAY. Hotel blocks at preferential rates quickly fill up, and spaces at our more popular courses are limited. Don’t be disappointed. Use the form on page 47, or register online by visiting www.canect.net We look forward to seeing you at CANECT – where Canada’s community of environmental managers and practitioners meet.

Drinking Water

Legionella interaction with amoeba in drinking water systems By Gary Palmateer, M.Sc. he ability of Legionella bacteria to survive in municipal water distribution systems, in cooling towers, and in other cooling water devices (i.e., evaporators and other heat exchangers) is very closely associated with its interaction with the amoeba, a protozoa. Legionella pneumophila is known to cause Legionnaires’ Disease (a type of pneumonia) and Pontiac Fever (a gastroenteritis disease with flu-like symptoms) that continue to infect people worldwide. Legionnaires’ Disease is often under-reported in North America and in Europe (McCoy, 2005; Infuso et al., 1998). The success of Legionella spp. in surviving water disinfection, which is usually chlorination, as well as a broad range of biocides used in various water cooling systems, is strongly suspected to be due to the interaction of Legionella spp. and amoeba (Harb et al., 2000; Atlas, 1999). In fact,



Figure 1. Legionella engulfed by amoeba.

Legionella pneumophila has been shown to be an intracellular pathogen that grows in hosts such as the protozoan amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis and others (Gao and Kwaik, 2000; Donlan et al., 2005). Legionella spp. have also been shown

to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments, including surface and ground waters. The transmission to humans occurs when aerosolized water droplets, generated from cooling towers, sinks, shower heads, fountains and misting devices for produce in grocery stores, continued overleaf...

January 2007 | 49

Drinking Water are inhaled. Human-to-human transmission does not occur (Fields, 1996). Legionella spp. do not multiply directly in the aquatic environment as many other gram-negative heterotrophic bacteria do, but rather they multiply intracellularly, within protozoa. Fifteen species of amoeba and two ciliated protozoa have been shown to allow the growth of Legionella spp. and to become environmental hosts for Legionella (Abu Kwaik et al., 1998). Amoeba naturally feed on bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and many other bacterial genera, by engulfing

50 | January 2007

them and creating a vacuole (a membrane bag of cytoplasm) around them into which they release the lytic enzymes used in digestion. Unlike most of the other bacteria, however, the Legionella spp., once engulfed by the naïve amoeba, do not die, but rather begin to replicate and to grow abundantly within this vacuole. The Legionella resist any attempt by the amoeba to try to digest them by simply avoiding the amoeba’s lytic enzymes. Two loci in the Legionella pneumophila chromosomal DNA, which consists of 23 genes, control the forma-

tion of the vacuole around the Legionella and the subsequent replication of the bacteria (Segal et al., 1998). As the Legionella replicate, the nutrients inside the vacuole (in the form of amino acids and sugars, etc.) are utilized for growth. When these nutrients begin to diminish, the growth rate of the Legionella slows. This nutrient-deficient environment then activates another set of genes in the Legionella that cause them to generate toxic enzymes, which make the Legionella cells more virulent. These toxic proteins are capable of damaging the cells of lung tissue in future hosts, which can result in the development of pneumonia. The final step in the sequence of events pertaining to the Legionella’s development within the vacuole of the amoeba is the secretion of enzymes that lyses or destroys the membrane of the vacuole, and subsequently, the membrane of the amoeba, thereby releasing hundreds of Legionella into the surrounding aquatic environment (Gao and Abu Kwaik, 2000). This process of infection (the immediate vacuole formation upon an amoeba’s engulfment of Legionella spp.) is termed phagocytosis. The vacuole, which contains nutrients for growth and replication of the Legionella spp., is called a phagosome. The prevalence of amoeba in surface waters, including water supplied to and treated in the distribution systems for municipal water, and the ubiquitous presence of Legionella spp. in aquatic environments in general, would suggest the presence of Legionellae in water distribution systems. Furthermore, the parasitic symbiosis between the Legionella and the amoeba would also suggest a reason for the lack of predictability of the efficacy of biocides and other disinfectants, such as ozone, ultraviolet light, and the halogen disinfectants: chlorine, bromine and iodine. Disinfection practices typically used to control bacterial growth in water distribution systems are generally ineffective in killing Legionella spp. once they are protected within the vacuole or phagosome of an amoeba. Thomas et al., 2004, reported that control of Legionella spp. in domestic water systems is going to have to have treatment strategies targeting free-living amoeba in biofilm. The chlorine levels presently recommended for municipal waters in Ontario are ineffective for this purpose under most circumstances. Cysts

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Drinking Water

Figure 2. Phagosome filled with Legionella pneumophila.

Figure 3. Pore formation in a phagosome of the macrophage.

of Acanthamoeba polyphaga that were infected with Legionella were found to protect it from at least 50 mg/L free chlorine (Kilvington and Price, 1990). It is known that the inhalation of aerosols containing Legionella results in infection and in the development of pneumonia, but the number of cells required to cause the pneumonia is not well documented. Animal studies have shown that the inhalation of as many as 105 to 106 cells per L of air is required to initiate infection (O’Brien and Bhopal, 1993). However, aerosol data from sites of possible inhalation near sources of aerosols, such as cooling towers, that caused infection reveal levels of less than 102 to 103 Legionellae cells per L of air. It is now believed that the involvement of amoeba is the reason for the paradoxical infectious dose of Legionella spp. Macrophage cells in human lung tissue are specialized cells that are part of the immune system of the body whose function is to engulf foreign particles entering the lungs. Macrophage cells phagocytize Legionella bacteria inhaled into the respiratory system in the same manner as amoeba. The Legionella spp. replicate in the vacuole or phagosome of the macrophage. The production of toxigenic proteins occurs at the point where the Legionella have utilized most of the nutrients available for growth. There is a difference, however, when comparing the exit mechanisms of the new virulent Legionella from the phagosomes in the amoeba and from within the human respiratory system. Unlike the process that occurs in an amoeba, where the entire amoeba is destroyed once the Legionella exit, in the human respiratory system a pore or hole forms in the phagosome of the macrophage, which becomes a departure route for the Legionella cells. The exiting Legionella immediately infect the inner tissue cells of the alveoli deep within the lungs. While the

Legionella were within the macro-phage, they were protected from the effect of antibiotics. This would explain why the use of erythromycin, which is known to be an effective antibiotic against Legionella pneumophila, may vary in effectiveness (Barker et al., 1995). If the Legionella have had enough time to replicate in the macrophages to reach a level where sufficient infected lung tissue cells exist, the control of the pneumonia (Legionnaire’s Disease) may be unachievable. The ability of amoeba to engulf bacteria for the purpose of acquiring food is a normal process, but the ability of pathogenic bacteria to survive the digestive process of the amoeba and to ultimately destroy the amoeba has only recently been found not to be exclusively the domain of the Legionella spp. Mycobacterium avium Complex, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Chlamydia spp., and Burkholderia cepacia, which also cause disease in humans, have been reported to be able to be phagocytized by amoeba and to defeat any attempt by the amoeba to digest them (Harb et al., 2000). Based on the current knowledge of the interaction of Legionella spp. with amoebae and macrophages, the disinfection strategies of water, regardless of usage, are going to have to be reconsidered because of the ability of these pathogenic bacteria to be phagocytized by amoeba, to replicate within the phagosome, and to escape the action of commonly used disinfectants. McCoy, 2005, reported that every day in the US eleven people die of Legionnaires’ Disease and that, even after hospitalization, another 57 recover but some are left with a life-long debility.


Gary Palmateer is with GAP EnviroMicrobial Services, a division of Conestoga Rovers & Associates E-mail: gpalmateer@craworld.com January 2007 | 51


Using the hydrostatic technique for water level measurement By Bob Schreitmueller ater level monitoring is vital in many municipal and environmental applications, ranging from flood control to the supply of drinking water. The measurement technique and instrumentation must be carefully selected to ensure that data collected is sufficiently accurate, and that the hardware operates reliably and with minimal maintenance. The hydrostatic measurement technique has proven to be one of the most trouble-free and cost-effective methods available. Although the sensing technology has been available for many years, manufacturing process enhancements have improved accuracy and reliability and the application of microprocessors has dramatically expanded data collection and communication options. Theory The mathematics used in determining water level by the measurement of hydrostatic pressure can be seen in the following examples: The density of water at 10˚C (50˚F) is 62.41 pounds per cubic foot. To convert this to pounds per square inch (psi), divide by the surface area in square inches:


52 | January 2007

62.41 lbs/ft3 ÷ 144 in2 = 0.4334 psi Using the same relationship, the height of a water column (WC) required to produce pressure of 1 psi can be determined: 1 lb/in2 x 1/0.4334 = 2.3073 ft. WC This also illustrates that the pressure exerted by a column of water (at a given

In production, boron atoms are ionimplanted into the crystal lattice of the silicon to create a four-arm Wheatstone bridge. The silicon is then back-etched to create a diaphragm in the correct orientation to the strain resistors. When pressure is applied, the diaphragm flexes and the associated strain is sensed by

Because of the expense and complexity involved with this scheme, many of today’s level transmitters are designed to automatically compensate for barometric pressure. specific gravity) is primarily dependent upon the height of the column and is independent of the size of the surface area. It is, however, dependent on one other factor: the barometric pressure acting on the surface of the liquid, which is discussed later. Sensing technology The technology utilized in a hydrostatic submersible level transmitter or transducer is a media-isolated piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor. Silicon is the base material of choice for, among other things, its elasticity and reasonable raw material and production costs.

the resistors, causing a bridge imbalance and an output proportional to the applied pressure. (Figure A.) For liquid level measurement, the sensor must be contained in a protective housing with a flexible diaphragm. The cavity behind the diaphragm is filled with a non-compressible fluid, usually silicone oil. Although simple in appearance, this package is a highly engineered ‘system’ of isolation. The diaphragm material, diameter, thickness and shape, the type of oil and how it is prepared, the sensor attachment technique, and many other parameters

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Instrumentation through which moisture can enter the transducer enclosure and compromise performance. The transducer manufacturer must take steps to ensure water vapor is purged (typically with dry nitrogen) during the production process, and provide a means to prevent entry of moisture in the field. A desiccant-filled vent filter should be attached to the vent tube at the installation’s electrical enclosure box. The desiccant contained in the vent filter is hygroscopic, meaning it will Figure A - Piezoresistive silicon sensor. absorb any water vapor contained in the must be optimized for various processes ranging from water well measurement to pump control in a sewage lift station. Millions of sensors with this packaging technique are in use throughout the world in demanding applications, ranging from oil exploration to aviation, where extreme temperature and pressure cycling occurs multiple times a day. Reliability in these environments virtually ensures trouble-free operation in the typical water level application. Barometric compensation The pressure sensed by a level transducer is the sum of the hydrostatic pressure generated by the liquid column plus the ambient barometric pressure acting on the surface of the liquid. In an uncompensated design, such as an absolute or sealed gage configuration, a change in local barometric pressure will cause a change in transducer output. For example, when calculated as a percentage of the full scale of 10 feet of water column, a change in barometric pressure of 0.1 inches of mercury will cause an error of greater than 1 percent. If error of this magnitude is not acceptable, then a separate measurement of barometric pressure using a second transducer located above ground must be made, and this number should then be subtracted from the pressure indication given by the submersible level transmitter. Because of the expense and complexity involved with this scheme, many of today’s level transmitters are designed to automatically compensate for barometric pressure. The simplest way to accomplish this is to vent the sensor to the ambient atmosphere. Thus, the same barometric pressure acts on opposite sides of the sensing diaphragm and the effect of changes is negated. Moisture prevention A vent tube provides a pathway www.esemag.com

air during the normal venting process. If the desiccant becomes saturated, the vent filter must be replaced in order to maintain dry conditions within the vent tube. Advancements have been made in vent filter technology, greatly increasing life of the desiccant, and reducing maintenance requirements. If the installation does not lend itself to periodic inspection and replacement of the vent filter, an aneroid bellows may be used instead. The bellows is fitted to the vent tube continued overleaf...

January 2007 | 53

Instrumentation in place of the desiccant-filled vent filter. Molded from flexible rubber, the bellows responds to changes in atmospheric pressure and transmits the change down the vent tube to the sensor. Because it is a closed system, the need for periodic maintenance is completely eliminated; however, some measurement accuracy is sacrificed. Electrical design and innovation Most level monitoring and control systems are configured to accept an output from the level transmitter of 420 mA (2 wire). Other level transducers are configured with an output of 0-5 VDC (3 wire), and there are some dataloggers that will only accept millivolt (4 wire) inputs. When 4-20 mA or 0-5 VDC is required, the transducer should have a signal conditioning circuit. This circuit typically: (1) regulates the incoming voltage and generates stable voltage(s) upon which the circuit operates, (2) provides precision sensor excitation, (3) contains an instrumentation amplifier that conditions the output of the sensor to the desired format, and (4) includes null and gain adjustments for the purpose of setting the zero pressure and full scale outputs. Manufacturing of today’s high accu-

54 | January 2007

Figure B - Microprocessor-controlled dataloggers.

racy transducers requires a complete pressure and temperature test system capable of generating precision test pressures and temperatures. This process enables high-end transducers to achieve full scale accuracy specifications of up to 0.01%. Advancements in software, microprocessor implementation, and the con-

tinuing trend toward miniaturization of electronic components have enabled designers to develop “smart� transducers with significantly more capability than basic analog transmitters. Multiple SDI-12 serial-digital interface transducers can be daisy-chained on one cable for use with a single datalogger. This configuration is particularly useful

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Instrumentation in environmental water monitoring as it adds the parameter of temperature to its measurement capability. Even more sophisticated units offer on-board datalogging and full remote configurability via RS-485 interface to a host computer or hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA), as shown in Figure B. Models are also available to meet the demanding requirements of the US Geological Survey Office of Surface Water (OSW) accuracy specification for stage monitoring. Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) based units provide unmatched sensor compensation over the entire operating range of the transducer and offer rerangeability in the field. Design for reliability As previously discussed, in order to withstand the rigors of a wide range of operating environments, submersible transducers must have an appropriate housing. The enclosure must ensure that the signal conditioning circuit is adequately protected from the media while venting the sensor reference to ambient barometric pressure. Precision-manufactured with orbitally welded 316 stainless steel or titanium, the housing is a critical factor in the transducer’s reliability.


Figure C - Standard and “wide mouth” size with elastomeric diaphragm.

Another factor is protection from lightning and other transient voltages. Whether deployed to monitor water level in a deep well, reservoir, stream bed or wet/clear well, submersible transmitters are in direct contact with an electrically conductive substance –

water. Therefore, any transient voltage that occurs in the ground is easily conducted to the transmitter enclosure. There are many reasons why a transient voltage can occur in the ground, the most common being lightning. Transducer installation reliability can be greatly enhanced with a twotiered approach to lightning protection. The transducer manufacturer should offer on-board circuitry protection and external line protection. When properly designed, this approach is so effective that a lifetime warranty can be offered. Application considerations A number of factors must be considered when specifying a transducer for a particular application. Housing material and diameter, desired level range and accuracy, electrical output and interface requirements, cable connection, and type of liquid to be measured must be considered. For example, level measurement in a sewage lift station requires a transducer diaphragm that will not fail due to fouling. Flush, elastomeric designs work particularly well for this application. (Figure C.) For less demanding applications, like level measurement in a potable water well, a cost-effective basic unit

January 2007 | 55

Instrumentation may be used. Depending on the physical location, however, it may be desirable to have a self-contained installation with solar power and wireless communication. Figure D shows a solarpowered, dual-well installation in which level measurement data is uploaded to an Internet site via wireless modem. In this case, a microprocessor-based transducer with on-board datalogging is used, providing real-time data without actually visiting the installation site. Data is uploaded to a host PC with software specifically designed to configure and manage the transducer. Supplying potable water to the world’s increasing population, monitoring and controlling of potential floodwaters, and understanding the environment present many challenges to government, scientific and municipal agencies. Fortunately, the technology available in today’s submersible transducers, software and wireless communications opens a wide range of water level monitoring and control capabilities.

Figure D - Self-contained dual well installation.

56 | January 2007

Bob Schreitmueller is with Pressure Systems Inc., Contact: bob.schreit@pressuresystems.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

1-800-988-2610 ABS Canada, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit #7, Mississauga, ON, L5T 1H3 Fax: 905-670-3709


Reusable, recyclable, remarkable By David J. Penny B.E.S. – steel’s three Rs n the world of sustainable development the greatest challenge is often to be seen as green. Steel is the most recycled material in the world. In North America we have been collecting and recycling steel scrap for over 150 years. Some 1,800 scrap processors, 12,000 auto dismantlers, as well as demolition and railway contractors manage to blend into a society that is searching for things that are green. Every year thousands of tonnes of steel beams, steel cladding, culvert pipe, railway rails and tie plates are salvaged from projects that have reached the end of their design service life. Many of these components remain in excellent condition and, after quality checks and reconditioning, are reused in new construction or added to for expansion and upgrade of the original facilities. The steel industry is Canada’s largest steel recycler, recovering and re-using over 8 million tonnes of steel scrap every year. This is done for economic


Sludge Pumps Watson-Marlow Bredel positive displacement pumps provided by Metcon are the perfect choice for hard sludge handling applications. With operating pressure to 232 psi and flow rates to 350 gpm, Watson-Marlow Bredel pumps save time and money by successfully handling the toughest applications. SPX hose pumps are the perfect choice for corrosives; abrasives; shear sensitive fluids, high viscosity fluids, high density fluids, large solids, and long stringy material.

reasons, as scrap is a valuable commodity and economics drive sustainability in the long run. Even though two out of every three kilograms of new steel are produced from “old” steel, the fact that buildings, appliances, bridges, stormwater detention systems and other infrastructure products have such long service lives makes it necessary to continue to mine ore to supplement the production of new steel. Once iron ore is extracted and refined into steel, its life never ends. This makes steel an ideal material to deploy in sustainable strategies for the construction industry. Today’s steel is produced using two technologies, both of which require “old” (recycled scrap) steel to make “new” steel. Canadian steel producers use basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF) technologies interchangeably to supply construction market end uses. The traditional BOF technology uses raw materials such as iron ore, coal and a component of recycled scrap to make new steel while the EAF technology uses nearly 100% recycled steel scrap as its feedstock. Both of these steel-making processes are used to supply construction products, where strength is the valued material characteristic. Steel possesses a unique material property unrivalled by other materials in that it is recycled both up and down the product value chain without degrading its strength and other chemical properties. Open loop recycling allows

(1) Post Consumer Content – is defined as scrap steel resulting from end of life consumer products (e.g. steel cans, steel auto bodies, steel building materials). (2) Post Industrial Content – is defined as scrap steel resulting from product manufacturing operations (e.g. turnings, stampings from auto part manufacturers). It does not include internally generated scrap from steel making operations such as the BOF and EAF. an old car to be melted down to produce a soup can, and then, as the new soup can is recycled, it is re-melted to produce new appliances, structural beams used in bridges or buildings, building products like culverts and roofing, and even new cars. Recycling in the steel industry is second nature and almost invisible to the average citizen. Perhaps this is why the green is hard to see. The total recycled content found in Canadian manufactured steel used for steel construction and building products is a minimum of 25% in the case of BOF and greater than 95% in the case of EAF. An audit conducted for the Canadian corrugated steel pipe industry measured the post consumer (1) content of culvert steel at 13.8%, the post industrial content (2) at 36.9%, for a total recycled content of 50.7%. All of these values represent industry–leading levels of recycled content. The fact that steel making is a “visible smoke stack industry” has affected its environmental perception. The Canadian steel industry has been active for many years in reducing the environmental impacts of its activities. Some

www.metconeng.com Recycling in action. Photos courtesy Stelco. 58 | January 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


of its achievements include a reduction of carbon dioxide (C02) emissions by more than 20% since 1990, surpassing the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. It has reduced sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 77% since 1990. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions have been reduced by 24% since 1990. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions have been reduced by 74% since 1993. Other achievements include energy efficiency improvements of 25.4% between 1990 and 2001 and a reduction in waste going to landfill of 52% between 1994 and 2002. The Canadian Green Building Council / LEED™ Canada (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) – a green building rating system to provide a framework for sustainable construction, may become the visual aid that allows us to see just how green steel is. It was developed to promote the architectural design and performance features of commercial buildings for “green and sustainable” attributes. The rating system places very high emphasis on site selection (brownfield vs. greenfield), site design (materials, density, drainage), site access (transport issues) and heat island effects. Products made from steel can be credited with a significant number of points for this category as well as in the categories of water efficiency, energy and the atmosphere, materials and resources, and innovation aspects of the rating system. Steel is a remarkable material that, when used wisely by qualified designers, can significantly reduce consumption of the world’s limited resources. David J. Penny, is with the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute E-mail: djpenny@cspi.ca www.esemag.com

January 2007 | 59

Energy from Waste

Strict conditions imposed for use of tires as fuel he Ontario Ministry of the Environment has announced it will impose strict conditions on Lafarge Canada’s project to replace about 30 per cent of the fuel it currently uses at its cement manufacturing plant in Bath, through a gradual phasing-in of used tires and other municipal wastes. In a pilot project, Lafarge will be allowed to burn these wastes under strictly controlled conditions in order to confirm that the process can safely meet Ontario’s stringent air emission standards. It will burn tires in gradually increasing amounts in three demonstration stages over a period of two years. Only if emissions levels meet the ministry’s standards can Lafarge then proceed to the next stage. The strict conditions set out in Lafarge’s air certificate of approval include: • Rigorous third party oversight – The demonstration phase of the project will include an independent third party technical review of the facility’s performance testing on behalf of a community liaison committee. Lafarge’s emissions results will also be reviewed by the ministry. • An open and transparent process – The company is required to continuously monitor emissions. Lafarge has also agreed to display its continuous monitoring in a public place. The community liaison committee will review the results. • Strict standard – The facility will have to meet strict air emission limits based on Ontario’s rigorous A7 air guideline. These standards are more stringent than either the European Union or the US Environmental Protection Act limits.


Lafarge will also have to achieve even lower limits for lead and cadmium. • Success criteria – If, as a result of the demonstration phase, Lafarge has demonstrated to the ministry’s satisfaction that the technology has met the required emissions standards at each level of testing, the Bath plant will be allowed to continue, subject to routine performance testing and continuous emission monitoring. • Under its waste certificate of approval, Lafarge has committed to ensuring that the wastes received at the site are either not recyclable due to their properties, or are surplus to the capacity of Ontario recycling markets. It must provide the ministry with an annual detailed assessment of the efforts it has taken to restrict the receipt and use of potentially recyclable material. Though no facility in Ontario currently uses tires as an alternative fuel, in a further development, Environment Minister Laurel Broten is also proposing to call a temporary halt to the burning of tires for a period of two years. This halt will give ministry scientists and experts the opportunity to ensure the environmental performance of facilities that convert tires to energy. If the results are not complete, the halt can be extended to three years. Alternative fuels, including tires, have been used for many years in safe, proven processes to make cement in Québec as well as such jurisdictions as Sweden, Germany, and California.

Delcan appoints Doug Langley, Executive Vice President Corporate Development and Andre Proulx, Vice President Water Division

Doug Langley will be responsible for developing and implementing the global corporate marketing and development plan at Delcan. Langley has 41 years of experience in the consulting industry, the majority of which have been at a senior management level. He was formerly the Water Division Vice President responsible for the development and growth of Delcan's water and wastewater engineering practice.

Andre Proulx will be responsible for leading and growing Delcan’s water engineering business. He has 23 years experience in both the public and private sectors and is a recognized leader in all aspects of drinking water issues, including planning, administration, water treatment, water distribution, infrastructure management, optimization, best management practices and benchmarking. Andre has been involved in many associations, including the Ontario Water Works Association, Canadian Water & Wastewater Association, the American Water Works Association and the Ontario Society of Professional Engineers. Delcan is an award winning, multi-disciplinary engineering, management and technology consulting firm that provides a full range of integrated systems and infrastructure solutions in Transportation, Information Technology and Water.

www.Delcan.com 60 | January 2007

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Stormwater Management

Pinch valves used to regulate and divert stormwater flow

The pinch valve vault.

tomers in any significant manner. The use of this technology is innovative for several reasons. First, using pinch valves to control flow within interceptors is a new use for this technology. Secondly, pinch valve technology allows the City to regulate the amount of flow diverted. Instead of diverting all or no flow, the City modulates the pinch valve to utilize the capacity of the diverted flow to an interceptor to use its full capacity. Excess water is allowed through the other interceptor by modulating the inflation pressure of the pinch valve. Operating in this manner, the City of Indianapolis makes full use of the capacity of the existing interceptor system. Performance and cost-effectiveness Innovative use of existing technology has proven its ability to modulate flow and consequently reduce the volume of overflows at 15 locations around the City. According to CDM, the City’s data modeling vendor, pinch valves at

McCarty and 10th Streets are reducing overflows at a combined rate of approximately 720 million gallons per year. Furthermore, according to Zbigniew Resiak, vice president and engineer at Triad Engineering Inc., installation of inflatable dams in live interceptors requires additional resources as compared to pinch valves. “It takes approximately two weeks of additional labor and dewatering, as well as equipment, material and construction methods to install inflatable dams as compared to pinch valves,” said Resiak. “We found them (pinch valves) to be very cost effective for the projects in Indianapolis, saving the City anywhere from $150,000 to $300,000,” he added. Conclusion Pinch valves have proven that they are an excellent, innovative solution to the control of wastewater flow and, consequently, the reduction of overflows for the City of Indianapolis. www.redvalve.com

here are a number of ways to eliminate combined sewer overflow problems. These include building a new wastewater treatment plant, expanding an existing plant, building a deep tunnel to capture stormwater, building flow equalization or retention basins to handle peak flows, or better utilizing the storage capacity of the existing collection system. The alternative that the City of Indianapolis investigated and eventually selected was better utilization of the storage capacity of the existing collection system. To accomplish this, the City selected a 72” pinch valve manufactured by Red Valve Company. The City selected this alternative for two reasons: • The pinch valve vault and control structures could be built around the existing live interceptor. • When the valve was delivered onsite, the contractor could cut a section of the existing interceptor away and slip the valve in place. This resulted in approximately 12 hours of bypass pumping during valve installation. The installation took place during evening hours and did not impact the local cus-



January 2007 | 61

Stormwater Management

Using compost biofilters for stormwater runoff treatment oil loss rates from construction sites can be 10 to 20 times that of agricultural lands (USEPA, 2000). For example, forest lands lose an average of 0.36 tonne ha-1 per year; agriculture loses an average of 5.5 tonne ha-1 per year while construction sites average 73.3 tonne ha-1 per year (GA SWCC, 2002). Runoff from construction sites often contains high concentrations of fine sediments that enter into nearby bodies of water. These sediment-laden runoff volumes can lead to adverse impacts on aquatic habitat and water quality. Sediment runoff originating from construction sites is a widely recognized problem which has conventionally been controlled using a variety of erosion and sediment control measures. Although these measures reduce the amount of sediment from entering the waterways, they generally do not meet the required guidelines and standards (US EPA, 2000; MOEE, 2004). Background The use of compost for erosion control is not a new idea and there have been several studies conducted to determine the effectiveness of these control measures (e.g. Faucette et al., 2006). There are currently three common methods for erosion control from construction sites, including: silt fences, hydro seeding and establishing vegetation. A silt fence is a sediment trapping practice utilizing a geotextile fence, topography and vegetation and has been used for erosion control on slopes and around the edges of construction sites


Fig. 1: Flume for flow rate testing. 62 | January 2007

By Bahram Gharabaghi, Ramesh Rudra, Ed McBean, Karen Finney, and Britt Faucette

for years (Tyler, 2001). Although these applications have been utilized frequently enough in the past that many regional regulations have incorporated them as a requirement, they often do not provide ample environmental protection. In many cases the runoff passing through silt fences exceeds the water quality standards for allowable concentrations of suspended sediments. Compost has been used in highway projects in order to control and treat stormwater runoff. Composted organics have been used effectively because of the high infiltration rate and the capacity to remove suspended sediments and sediment-bound contaminants in runoff from construction sites (Glanville, 2004). A sustainable, green technology has been developed that uses large volumes of compost material as engineered biofilters. Compost is filled in mesh tubes also known as “socks” (in various diameters, 8" to 24") that are filled with compost. Compost from Canadian landfills has not yet been tested for its effectiveness in stormwater runoff treatment since using compost as a biofilter for removal of suspended sediments and sediment-bound contaminants is a relatively new idea. In addition to assisting in sediment runoff control, these biofilters can also provide benefits to the agricultural sector by additionally recycling most of the raw organic wastes left after harvesting. Organic wastes found on farms do not breakdown fast enough to offer crops the required nutrients during their relatively short growing seasons in Canada. This new application for compost will be of significant environmental and economic benefit to the society. Objectives Test results are practically non-existent for compost from Canadian producers as a biofilter for stormwater runoff treatment. The long-term objectives of this research project, include: (1) to determine flow-through properties of the biofilter and to develop relationships for hydraulic design of the biofilter; (2) to determine the effectiveness of the biofilter in removal of contaminants from stormwater runoff; (3) to determine the longevity of the biofilters; (4) to develop design guidelines to

incorporate biofilters into best management practices for various site-specific applications; and (5) to develop a userfriendly design tool to facilitate the application of this new technology. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the biofilters in removing contaminants from stormwater runoff. First, the three certified compost materials were tested to quantify the differences between the products. Each compost sample was tested for particle size distribution, bulk density, and void ratio (USCC, 2004). Next, a set of flowthrough runs were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting (Fig. 1) and a numerical model was developed for hydraulic design of the system. The first cycle of field experiments was completed in the summer of 2006 at the Guelph Turf Grass Institute, University of Guelph, to evaluate sediment removal efficiency of the biofilters. A set of controlled field tests were conducted to determine the effect of compost material, mesh tube (sock) diameter size and number of socks on sediment removal efficiency and longevity of the biofilters (Fig. 2). The field tests performed to date have focused on suspended sediment removal efficiency. Laboratory analyses of the runoff samples consisted of suspended sediment removal and particle size distribution comparisons of inflow versus outflow. The experiments designed to test for phosphorus, metals and petroleum hydrocarbons will commence in April of 2007. Results The following preliminary results are based on the laboratory and field experiments conducted during the first cycle of experiments in summer 2006. The maximum flow-through rate without overtopping per unit width of the 8” new sock for the three compost materials (overs) tested was approximately 1.5 L/s. The flow-through capacity of the 12”, 18” and the 24” socks were approximately 50%, 200%, and 300% higher than the flow-through capacity of the 8” sock. As the sediments started to accumulate in the biofilter over time, the flow-through rate decreased. Further testing will be completed to

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Stormwater Management proper design, compost biofilters can filter out sediments and sedimentbound contaminants for large volumes of stormwater runoff. Hence, this technology demonstrates the application of compost for construction sites and highway runoff, and improves the sustainability of compost operations by identifying an effective and valuable

use for the compost. Bahram Gharabaghi, Ramesh Rudra, Ed McBean and Karen Finney are with the School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Britt Faucette is with Filtrexx International Contact: bgharaba@uoguelph.ca


Fig. 2: Example of field experiment setup for three sets of socks, with five socks in each set.

quantify this effect. The average sediment removal efficiency of the 8” socks for 5, 10, and 15 rolls was between (20% to 40%), (40% to 60%), and (60% to 80%), respectively. Larger diameter socks provided larger filter media and were more effective than the smaller diameter socks. The 18” sock was approximately twice as effective as the 8” mesh tube. The sediment removal efficiency of 5 rolls of the 18” sock dropped from 55% to 39% after 30 consecutive runs and, similarly, the efficiency of 5 rolls of the 8” sock dropped from 40% to 18% after 17 consecutive runs. Conclusion This study indicates that compost biofilters are effective measures for controlling sediments in stormwater runoff for construction sites. With




January 2007 | 63


Submersible pumps used in plant upgrade

anagement of the wastewater treatment plant for the City of Great Bend, Kansas, replaced old screw pumps with high-efficiency submersible pumps from ITT Flygt.


The 40-year-old treatment plant is just inside the Arkansas River Levee at the eastern boundary of the city. The wastewater collection system links 100 miles of lines and 18 lift stations with the facility. The facility uses crop fields at the municipal airport and private farm fields for the land application of most biosolids. Four of the older screw pumps were replaced with ITT Flygt Model 3201 submersible pumps equipped with variable frequency drives (VFD). The Flygt pumps are intended to deliver 3200 (US) GPM at the intake, versus the two located at the secondary process loop which are designed for 3400 GPM. A fifth pump was purchased as a reserve unit. The new pumps matched the project’s unique criteria: • First, the ITT Flygt Model 3201 submersible pumps are sealed units that can operate even in the often partially submerged conditions of the shallow wetwells and are fitted with impellers that perform the mission without cavi-

tating. • The pumps fit into the existing wetwell configurations without reconstruction. • The four pumps can deliver 10 MGD, a significant safety factor for the plant flow range from 2.5 MGD up to 7.3 MGD during a rain event. The pumps run on alternating schedules to ensure even wear. • Because of their smaller, 40 - HP rating, the ITT Flygt submersible pumps inherently require less energy than the former 75-HP screw pumps. The VFDs on the submersible pumps also enable them to operate at 55% in normal flow conditions during day periods, and run at only 10 % during the typically light flow rate experienced between 1 to 7 a.m. Process and equipment upgrades The Great Bend plant embodies numerous responses to the increasingly stringent series of federal and state environmental regulations. In the late 90s, the facility reacted quickly to modified permit requirements dictated by

Sanitherm Engineering is celebrating its 60th anniversary in 2006 and has developed a worldwide reputation for quality equipment and service. Our package plants are found in South Korea, Indonesia, Russia, Kazakhstan, the United Arab Emirates, Nigeria, Peru and throughout North America. We build, install and/or operate plants, and represent over 20 premier manufacturers in Canada, the USA, Japan, and Europe. We supply SaniBrane™ Membrane Bioreactors (MBR's), RBC and SBR package plants, static tube aeration, odour control, disinfection, air stripping towers and much more.

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64 | January 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater the Kansas Department of Health & Environment (KDHE). The modifications went into the plant’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The permit now mandates additional wastewater treatment to reduce ammonia levels before discharge into the Arkansas River. This led to major changes in the infrastructure that supports not only the more advanced treatment process but also the KDHE 503 mandates controlling land disposal of the plant biosolids. Charlie Suchy, Superintendent WPC Collections, cites several major examples these changes have had on the plant infrastructure in recent years. These include a stripped clarifier, used now only as an emergency diversion basin, the sludge drying beds, the abandoned trickling filters and four RBCs that were important elements of the former treatment process. Instead, the plant now operates with the activated sludge treatment process and a more advanced biosolids processing method. Nearly (US) $6 million in upgrades occurred at the plant in recent years, including an EIMCO Carousel system and structural modifications. The walls of two clarifiers were heightened enough to nearly double their capacity to 450,000 gallons each. A 500,000gallon post aeration basin also was built to support the more complex biological process and a 1.28-MG raceway structure for the UV disinfection system with 320 tubes. A new SCADA system provides remote alarm monitoring and has eliminated a third shift of on-site personnel. A professionally staffed lab monitors the quality of both the land-applied biosolids and the effluent discharged into the Arkansas River. Starting in 1993, the issuance of 40 CFR Part 503 imposed major changes on the quality and disposal protocol of biosolids. To use surface application, the plant must achieve a volatile solids reduction of 38%. Another change occurred at the gravity belt thickener used to process the sludge. The initial attempts to increase the solids content, and thereby reduce the number of daily loads hauled from the plant, proved more challenging than expected. The 5% sought would not flow efficiently due to the high pressure and the distance from the digesters. The Water Pollution Control (WPC) department has since resolved the operational problem by replacing two sludge pumps with progressive www.esemag.com

cavity pumps that can handle processed sludge with up to 6% solids. WPC land applies the sludge using a 3000-gallon tank truck fitted with a spreader attachment or a “Big A� Model 3500 with a 2000-gallon tank and 10-ft. spray boom. Under normal conditions, the plant dispatches 15,000 gallons per day, five days a week. The improved sludge has cut the number of hauls from seven to three loads per day. WPC strives to maintain a 20-day

capacity in the plant digester. Environmental rule changes and rising operating costs have driven most of the improvements. Great Bend is a small community of just 15,000 residents but has a wastewater treatment facility that rivals the quality of those in much larger municipalities. For more information, visit www.flygt.com

January 2007 | 65

Drinking Water

The advantages of electromagnetic water counters By Hans Windgassen echnology used to meter the distribution of municipal water has been mature and relatively slow to change. In fact, the most prevalent method of measurement, the turbine flowmeter, is based upon the 18th century design of Reinhard Woltman and has been commercially available for more than one hundred years. Over the past decades, a wide variety of mechanical bulk water flowmeters have been developed, using turbine rotors and positive displacement designs. Electromagnetic water counters New magmeters are designed to have all the advantages of mechanical flowmeters, namely, simplicity of operation. The fundamental benefit of electromagnetic water counters is that they are simple and reliable. They have no moving parts and nothing protrudes into the smooth, measuring tube. Water simply flows through a magnetic field, thereby generating a voltage proportional to flow that is sensed by two sidemounted stainless steel electrodes. This signal is then fed to an electronic converter and finally displayed as volume and flow rate. The electromagnetic water counters are streamlined versions of the more sophisticated electromagnetic flowmeters that have been widely used for nearly fifty years in some of the most demanding industrial processing and custody-transfer applications. The chemical, paper, and mining industries use magmeters because of their ability to provide highly-accurate flow measurement of difficult fluids despite turbulent flow and the presence of bubbles, suspended solids and abrasive material.


66 | January 2007

Water distribution applications require a much simpler, and lower cost, meter. Service workers in the field need to be able to read and maintain meters and repair them when necessary. The importance of simple construction and operation is evident at the annual Meter Madness competition at the American Water Works Association, where water utility employees from across the country compete to assemble a mechanical water meter from a bucket of parts. The winning time is usually less than 30 seconds. Newly designed electromagnetic water counters are even simpler than their mechanical counterparts. No maintenance is required, except to replace the batteries, every 10 years or so, a process as easy as replacing the batteries of a flashlight. The display has the same look and feel as a conventional water meter register, with an LCD readout replicating the appearance of the classic mechanical odometer. Unlike traditional magmeters used for industrial applications, there is nothing to program and no user interface to learn. 10-year battery life Previously, the most important factor inhibiting the deployment of electro-

magnetic bulk water meters was the electrical power requirements. Unlike mechanical meters which are powered by the water flow, magmeters require an electrical power source. For most applications, the geographic location of the site makes connecting the meter to the power grid too expensive and complex. DC-powered devices have been available, but until recently, battery life was limited to 3-5 years, an unacceptably short interval. Two developments have occurred which have resolved concerns about battery power. First of all, automated meter reading, already widespread in the electricity sector, has grown among water utilities and irrigation systems, as water is increasingly viewed as a scarce and costly resource that needs to be tracked more carefully. In contrast to the long-standing resistance to mixing water and electricity, today batterypowered AMR transmitters are commonly connected to mechanical water meter registers. The second development is the significant extension of battery life. A breakthrough came in 2005, when Krohne developed the Waterflux electromagnetic bulk water meter with a battery life of 10 years, at a high sampling rate. Now an electromagnetic water meter is finally available that has a longer battery life than most, if not all, AMR devices. (For the Waterflux, an optional integrated AMR transmitter uses a separate battery.) New magmeters technology reduces electricity consumption by 99.98% compared to conventional electromagnetic flowmeters. Krohne accomplished this feat with a patented

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Drinking Water technology that sends electrical current through coils in opposite directions. Lower cost-of-ownership The paradox of the electronic age is that solid-state technological innovations that replace mechanical approaches can often provide better performance and higher reliability, and they can do so at a better price. The simplicity and elegance of the electromagnetic water counter gives this new technology a price advantage, which rises with increasing nominal diameter. The purchase price of the meter is only one factor in evaluating the total cost-of-ownership. Maintenance costs are reduced and installation is simplified. There is no need to purchase, install and maintain filters and strainers. Because magmeters do not cause pressure drop, it is no longer necessary for commercial installations to install expensive bypass systems for firefighting hydrants. Magmeters are easy to install in pits and tight locations, because they require much shorter straight runs upstream from the meter, at only 3 diameters, compared to 10-25 diameters of straight runs required by some other meters. Magmeters obviate the

need for any radial vane elements or other external flow straighteners. Magmeters also have a number of additional advantages, including the ability to measure bi-directional flow and the ability to continually perform self-diagnosis and automatically report improper functioning, as well as to send alarms when high flow might indicate leakage in the distribution system. Future Outlook Mechanical water meters are not going away. Water utilities will continue

to rely on mechanical meters, especially for 1” and smaller diameter installations. But electromagnetic flowmeters now provide a good option for mediumand high-volume water customers, irrigation systems, and problematic applications, such as water with suspended particles. Hans Windgassen is the Senior Product Manager for the EMF instrument range of KROHNE. E-mail: info@krohne.com

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www.cecab.org January 2007 | 67

Spill Management

Ontario companies must prepare for new worker safety and spills legislation By Cliff Holland onfusion over new definitions for confined space entry became evident at a recent Community Awareness & Emergency Response (CAER) meeting held at Newalta’s North American Emergency Response Centre, in Stoney Creek, Ontario. At the meeting, members from Hamilton’s major industries, service providers, industrial engineers and consultants compared notes, rationalized approaches and identified key findings, as follows: a) Government is not able to provide clarity for definitions of words such as immediate. b) It is true that each confined space must have a separate Hazard Assessment. c) It is false that the owners can waive their liability by contracting outside services to do their confined space work. Peter Van Caulart, from the Environmental Training Institute, states that: “Confined space violations are easy for inspectors to catch! Many employers want to use ‘off-the-shelfplans’ rather than go through the process of dealing with their own situation”. He added: “I suspect that many will get pinched by the Ontario Ministry of Labour, because not having a plan is an easy violation for inspectors to catch.” The ratcheting up of Ontario’s regulations will make non-confor-


68 | January 2007

mances more visible and tangible to an investigator. Safety Officers and Project Managers say that it is harder to find trained and competent companies who can prove the competency levels of the workers that come on site to do confined space work, spills response and site remediation. Emergency and contracted personnel may not have the competency level of the industrial workforce who deal with these situations day in and day out. Therefore, companies being affected by recent changes to labour, environmental and the newly proposed Environmental Penalty (EP) regulations will require employee training and action plans, to handle their regulatory compliance. Another panellist, Erika Kadar, of TSM Engineered Services, said that not being practised and prepared for handling on-site occurrences will cause companies to lose time in gaining control of their spills and releases. Lost time will translate into wider contamination and larger environmental penalties. Investment, commitment and training workshops must be site-specific and address specific response techniques, management of the site, action plans, assessment and clean-up strategies. Van Caulart, who worked for the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE), warns that legal counsel should

be retained to ensure individuals who talk to investigators are not saying too much, or too little. The wrong time to decide what to say and to seek legal advice is when the investigator is on site. On May 1, 2007, new Environmental Penalty Regulations under the Ontario Environmental Protection Act, (EPA) and the Ontario Water Resources Act, (OWRA) will come into effect. Along with the changes come new definitions, legal interpretations and questions of how to best handle various situations. The Bill 133 Spills Management & Compliance Conference, co-organized by ES&E Magazine last November in Toronto, helped set the stage for this new reality of managing environmental issues. The conference featured a series of informative presentations on the legal framework for spills, environmental emergencies, reporting thresholds and how the new legislation is changing the legal playing field. • Gary Zikovitz, from the Ontario Ministry of Environment, explained to delegates what happens when a spill is reported to the Spills Action Centre (SAC) and what happens under provincial and federal legislation. • Vivienne Ball, Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP, covered the framework and aspects of current provincial and federal legislations. She highlighted the legal framework for spill reporting, the tightening changes to environmental legislation, and the growing need for emergency action plans. • Janet Bobechko, Blaney McMurtry LLP, dealt with legal responsibilities for environmental management, the importance of an Environmental Management System (EMS), and changes to the legal playing field. • Rosalind Cooper, who is with Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP, talked about the importance of Bill 133, the Environmental Statute Law Amendment Act, 2004, stricter reporting thresholds, and preparing management and staff for interviews with Ministry of Environment investigators and inspectors. Public outcry over spills into the St. Clair River in 2003 and 2004 have forced amendments that have already

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Spill Management brought about ‘absolute liability’ and ‘set dollar values for fines’. The Ontario MOE has set guidelines, limits, issued certificates of approvals, standards for regulatory compliance and is now being held accountable by the public to police environmental compliance. Responsibility for contraventions to the Acts are being squarely set on the shoulders of individuals, owners, operators, directors, officers and those responsible and accountable for spills and releases. It affects all who own, could cause or are in control of hazardous or non hazardous substances that could impact the environment. • Ryan Wheeler and Paul Parete, from Environment Canada, remind people during regulatory compliance workshops, that small spills into a water body, such as overfilling the fuel tank of a small watercraft, or discharging dirty bilge water, are reportable spills under provincial and federal legislation and must be cleaned up. Not reporting ‘forthwith’ or cleaning up such spills immediately is an offence. Legally, even one drop of gasoline spilled into the water is a reportable spill and must be cleaned up. Adding a second contaminant/deleterious sub-


stance (e.g. soap) to the water /fuel spill to make the original spill disappear is also a contravention of provincial and federal environmental legislation. The three-tier penalty structure previously contained in the EPA and the

before the courts. If they have no ‘due diligence’ defence, they can face new mandatory minimum fines of $5,000 on first conviction, $10,000 on the second conviction and $20,000 for each subsequent Tier 2 offence. Maximum

Responsibility for contraventions to the Acts are being squarely set on the shoulders of individuals, owners, operators, directors, officers and those responsible and accountable for spills and releases. OWRA has been replaced by a two-tier system. General offences fall under Tier 1, while some specific and more serious offences are placed in Tier 2. Tier 1 offences include failure to follow conditions of a Certificate of Approval, but do not include the exceedance of limits. Under Tier 1, maximum fines for corporations will be $250,000 per day, and $500,000 per day for a subsequent conviction. Vivienne Ball, Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP, emphasised for Tier 2 offences, (private) individuals and owner/operators of small, unincorporated businesses, such as marinas and directors /officers of major corporations, can now find themselves

Tier 2 fines for individuals are $4 million for first conviction and $6 milllion for second and subsequent convictions. Not reporting and cleaning up is a serious offence! Corporate fines for Tier 2 offences carry higher mandatory minimum fines of $25,000 on first conviction, $50,000 on second conviction and $100,000 on each subsequent conviction. Maximum Tier 2 fines are $6 million on first conviction and $10 million on second and subsequent convictions. Certain major industries may face additional challenges with the new Environmental Penalties (EP) Regulations proposed to take effect May 1, continued overleaf...

January 2007 | 69

Spill Management

Legally, even one drop of gasoline spilled into the water is a reportable spill and must be cleaned up.

2007. Penalties up to $100,000 per day could be levied with immediate payment expected. Management by objective programs such as an Environmental Management System (EMS) will contribute to discounted penalties (up to 5% of the “gravity” amount of the penalty). Given the potential exposure to EPs, prudent companies will review their EMS to ensure that it will be effective in anticipating and preventing spills. It will be far more economical to avoid receiving an EP than to argue for the small discount afforded to an EMS that has

failed to prevent the spill. It is wise for all companies to have an EMS in place that meets their needs. ISO 14000 is a guide that can be used for registered and non registered EMS and emergency plans. However, for those companies being affected by the Environmental Penalty Regulations, the ISO 14000 standard will be augmented by requirements under a proposed Spill Prevention and Contingency Plans Regulation that will come into force at the same time as the EP regulations. The practical portion of the Bill 133 Spills Management & Compliance

Conference identified levels of emergency preparedness as follows: a) Orientation: basic training, theory. b) Drills: hands on, practical, meets conditions of site. c) Administration: planning strategies, table top exercises. d) Functional: multi component, realistic to condition and industrial vulnerability. e) Full Scale: interaction of trades, on site disciplines, agencies and external resources. In summary, it is vital to be prepared for the new reality. Constantly exercise your plans and procedures and train your staff to deal with your specific needs. Cliff Holland is with Spill Management Inc. and was a speaker at the Bill 133 Spills Management & Compliance Conference held in Toronto in November 2006. Mr Holland will be a speaker at the Canadian Environmental Conference and Tradeshow, April 16 -17, 2007, in Toronto. He will be speaking about industry-specific EMS /ER preparedness, planning, training & response capability and can be reached by email at: contact@spillmanagement.ca

SURPLUS BROWN BEAR HYDROSTATIC TOOL CARRIER SALE REQUEST FOR QUOTATION RFQ 07-1530 The Muskegon County Board of Commissioners invites your quotation on the sale of a model 500 Brown Bear Hydrostatic Tool Carrier from Muskegon County Wastewater Management System. This 2000 machine has a model 3950 aerator attachment on it with smooth paddles (for turning sludge at our wastewater treatment plant). It has 428 engine hours on it, it is in very good condition, and has been part of a thorough maintenance program. The Brown Bear has been stored indoors when not in use and is being sold as-is. The equipment for sale is a model 500, series B (S/N 500-016), with paddle/aerator model PA3950, series 12RPP2TA1521XA (S/N PA3950-015). There are some spare paddles and bolts, a parts book and shop manuals. Component Summary: • Engine - caterpillar 3306TA rated at 300 horsepower • Transmission - 3 speed hydrostatic power shift • Axles - planetary drive with 30,000 pounds nominal load rating, a NO-SPIN rear differential, a fixed front axle, and a rear axle capable of 15 degrees of oscillation • Brakes - disc • Steering - hydrostatic power with 2 cylinders to turn the rear axle • Electrical - 12 volt system • Hydraulics - close looped for the machine drive and implement; open centered for steering and auxiliary systems. • Tires - 30.5 x 32 • Air Conditioning The equipment is being sold in “as-is” and “where-is” condition and the County makes no warranty toward this. The equipment may be inspected by contacting Mr. Forest McCauley at (231) 724-3458. Equipment may be seen between 7:00 A.M. and 3:00 P.M., Monday through Friday at the Wastewater site. Quote request forms are available in the Muskegon County Purchasing Office, Central Services Building, 141 East Apple Avenue, Muskegon, MI 49442 or the Muskegon County Purchasing website at www.co.muskegon.mi.us/fina-nceandmgt/pur_cs.htm. Offers are due in the Purchasing Office, no later than 3:00 P.M., prevailing time, Friday, May 4, 2007. The County reserves the right to close the quotation process at any time and to accept any offer it deems acceptable. No late bids will be accepted. The Board reserves the right to accept or reject any or all bids, reserves the right to waive formalities and to take such action as it deems necessary in the best interest of the County of Muskegon. The County of Muskegon operates on an equal opportunity/affirmative action basis in its bidding policy (Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964, Equal Opportunity Clause, Executive Order 11246, Chapter 60, Subpart A, 60-I.4, Revised Order No. 4). Bidding is open to all interested parties, in compliance with national, state and local laws. Mr. Lynn Zatalokin Purchasing Manager

70 | January 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Direct push screen-point sampling vs conventional monitoring wells

By David Millard, CET

he Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) issued a Director’s Order to the owner of an industrial facility which identified the need for additional investigation and groundwater study in a residential area downgradient of a known chemical plume on the property. The Order described numerous investigative activities, including sampling and chemical analyses of shallow groundwater and residential indoor air for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including trichloroethylene (TCE) and associated degradation products. All data from these studies and the data interpretation were required within a 30-day period. It was unknown whether or not VOCs existed in the residential areas and whether or not indoor air quality was affected by the possible presence of these compounds. The Order specified specific separation distances between monitoring


dynaBLEND® polymer makedown units Fluid Dynamics, Inc. introduces the L Series dynaBLEND® polymer blending and activation system. The dynaBLEND® units feature the patented HydroACTION® nonmechanical, high-energy polymer mixing chamber, with a choice of diaphragm metering or progressing cavity pumps. Control options range from simple manual systems to fully instrumented PLC-based units with an unlimited variety of inputs and outputs. Standard units are available to provide activated polymer solution from 30 gph through 21,000 gph. Custom units also available. Fluid Dynamics, Inc. Boulder, CO Tel: 303-530-7300 or 888-530-7300 E-mail: info@dynablend.com www.dynablend.com

72 | January 2007

The open tool before installation into the ground.

wells within and outside of any VOC plume identified plus identified generally where investigations were required. The challenge that existed was to establish the VOC plume presence quickly and focus indoor air monitoring within the areas where VOCs exceeded groundwater criteria for TCE and related degradation products. Project participants suggested starting up to 10 blocks south of the known plume; eventually investigative efforts started five blocks south which proved to be the extent of the VOC plume from the source areas. To quickly establish the extent of the VOC plume, ALTECH suggested the use of a direct push driven screen-point sampling tool that allows groundwater sample collection without the installation of a permanent well. Once the sample is collected the screen point tool is removed and the borehole sealed; no well or permanent instrumentation is

left in the ground. The MOE was informed of this investigative approach and requested that, if the owner wished to employ this direct push technique, ultimately groundwater samples would be required from permanent wells to support the final data and assessments required. The consultant/owner decided to employ both techniques (direct push screen-point samples and permanent monitoring wells) to quickly determine the plume extent and provide the necessary data. The project was completed using the screen point tool to “pre-screen” areas for compliance with groundwater standards; then, where required, permanent wells were installed and sampled. This approach allowed quick data collection to establish the plume boundaries in a short time period. At the conclusion of the project a number of areas evaluated had both

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Sampling data from the screen-point tool and a permanent monitoring well installed in essentially the same location but at a later date. Over all, statistical analysis demonstrated that the two sample collection techniques in this setting for these analytes yield similar results in groundwater. The benefits of the direct push screen-point sampling techniques include: • multiple samples can be collected in a day; • essentially no investigative derived wastes; • low cost per sample; • no instrumentation left behind (when required); • no well tag required, no future well maintenance necessary; and • minimal disturbance of land surface, plus easy mobilization/demobilization of direct push drill equipment into the areas of concern. Sample collection from the screenpoint area can be performed using disposable poly tubing and a mini-check ball, disposable or cleanable mini-bailers, peristaltic pumps or mini-bladder pumps.

All users of this technique must be aware that fine sediments/silts will likely be present depending upon the formation materials and sample collection technique employed. It is possible to pre-purge in advance of sample collection but this may not eliminate fine grained particles. The presence of these materials may influence/bias the sample results depending upon the analytes of concern. The investigator must evaluate these technical issues when selecting this technique as an investigative tool. This sample technique has also been performed in deep settings where samples from 80 feet and upward have been collected for VOC screening purposes. Multiple samples at different intervals from the bottom of the borehole up are possible using this tool. Summary The direct push screen-point sampling technique is becoming more and more acceptable and utilized in Ontario for site characterization purposes (prescreening technique), for due diligence works during property assessments prior to land/facility transfer, and to evaluate remediation progress.

Series 7000 mechanical diaphragm metering pumps

David Millard is with ALTECH Drilling & Investigative Services Ltd. Waterloo, Ontario. The company operates a number of direct push units in Ontario and Michigan, plus an array of larger environmental drills. Email: dmillard@altechworld.com

The assembled tool in preparation for driving by the direct push percussion drill unit.

Neptune’s Series 7000 mechanically actuated diaphragm metering pumps handle viscosities in excess of 5,000 cps and pump chemicals that off-gas (sodium hypochlorite) without binding. All models provide suction lift to 20 feet. Maximum capacities range from 15 gph to 300 gph with adjustable 10:1 turndown by micrometer dial; variable speed option allows automated flow control. Liquid ends are available in PVC, Kynar, and 316SS. Neptune Chemical Pump Co., Inc. Lansdale, PA Tel: 888-3NEPTUNE or 215-699-8700 E-Mail: pump@neptune1.com www.neptune1.com


January 2007 | 73

Toxic Waste Treatment

Waste - Energy company offers holistic approach to environmental health e often hear about Big Oil, but the increasing cost of energy has turned a number of small, resource recovery companies into what can be described as Little Oil. These are companies for whom the traditional definition of Waste-to-Energy doesn’t adequately reflect their philosophy. They believe that any organic product, any hydrocarbon impacted waste, any plastic or resin, any oil-based paint or any polymer-based consumer product is a recoverable resource from which oil can be squeezed. In essence, they believe not in Waste-to-Energy, but that Waste-is-Energy.


Phase Separation Solutions is one of these companies, offering a proprietary process that is said to be as effective at the removal of PCBs and dioxins from soil, as it is at the extraction of reusable oil from waste paint. In 2002, a group of senior environment industry leaders decided to combine their extensive national and international experience to address the complacency that has dominated waste management in Canada for some time. They undertook to adapt an indirectly heated, closed loop thermal system with which they had been working since the early ‘90s around the world to accommodate a myriad of other waste streams.

• ANTHRACITE • QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL • CARBON • GARNET ILMENITE • REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax: (519) 751-0617 E-mail: swildey@anthrafilter.net • Web: www.anthrafilter.net

The Canadian Environmental Markets Association (CEMA) is an industry association dedicated to supporting the growth of environmental markets and to enhancing emission reduction efforts in Canada.

Canadian Environmental Markets Association info-ca@EnvironmentalMarkets.org Ca.EnvironmentalMarkets.org 416.736.0836

74 | January 2007

The transformed hydrocarbons are drawn off and re-condensed into an oil product chemically similar to No 2. Fuel Oil.

The system was originally designed to extract Persistent Organic Pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans, and even the notorious Agent Orange from soil. The system was successfully used for the remediation of the 2000 Olympic Games site in Sydney, Australia. The result is a proprietary application called the Pyrolytic Desorption Depolymerization Process or PDDP™ . The facility had to be constructed to the highest of standards, as it was designed and permitted to safely manage some of the most onerous compounds ever manufactured. The facility operates under a strict set of procedures and protocols with respect to waste approval, inventory tracking, storage security, health and safety, and environmental protection. These are all closely monitored by the Saskatchewan Ministry of the Environment. The heart of the facility is in the application of a thermal system used on high profile projects in 10 countries on five continents over the last 14 years to Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Toxic Waste Treatment

Lastly, of course, are the treated solids, which resemble traditional incinerator ash.

treat hundreds of thousands of tonnes of material. As designed, the facility can receive a wide variety of waste material. In the case of pharmaceuticals, it can readily accommodate products from national pharmacy chains, reverse logistics suppliers, waste brokers, and pharmaceutical manufacturers themselves. This waste stream is described as consisting of three categories, including personal consumer products, over-the-counter treatments and prescription medications. In Canada, it is estimated that over 10,000 tonnes of hazardous pharmaceuticals are disposed of annually, with the amount of non-hazardous waste five times that. At Phase Separation Solutions, all received material is stored in a secure segregation area, under 24-hour video surveillance. A client’s waste is preapproved. Hazardous materials are transported via Federal Waste Manifest documentation and assigned a unique identifier upon receipt, ensuring proper tracking through to destruction. Assured destruction is guaranteed with a Certificate of Destruction. Next, the material is introduced into the closed system, via airlock, at rates of up to 50 tonnes per day, where it is indirectly heated to a temperature of up to 500 oC for 20 – 60 minutes. At the temperatures described, three distinct, but integrated, processes are being used: desorption, depolymerization and pyrolization. This means, all hydrocarbons from the packaging, and organic compounds from the ingredients themselves are vaporized and converted from complex polymers to short chain hydrocarbons, essentially reversing the polymerization process and converting plastic back to oil. In the process, what is referred to as synthesis gas is generated. Created durwww.esemag.com

ing the depolymerization process it consists of non-condensable hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases. This gas stream is treated with activated carbon to remove any particulate and then used as a fuel for the system. With certain waste streams, it is even possible to produce sufficient energy, in the form of synthetic gas, that the process can not only be self sustaining, but also generate surplus usable fuel gas. This is in addition to the recovered oil product. The transformed hydrocarbons are drawn off and re-condensed into an oil product chemically similar to No 2. Fuel Oil, or common diesel, which is easily and readily saleable. According to the US EPA, pharmaceutical waste is comprised of up to 49% packaging, most of which is plastic. In the experience of Phase Separation Solutions, this translates to an average of 10% of the original volume convertible to oil. At an annual treatment capacity of 40,000 cubic metres. The company can potentially recover up to 4 million litres of oil from pharmaceutical waste alone. This would traditionally have been incinerated or landfilled. That 4 million litres, according to the US-based National Oilheat Alliance, represents the heating needs of 1200 North American homes.

A similar capacity for 20,000 cubic metres of waste oil-based paint translates to enough recovered oil to heat over 3300 homes. Lastly, of course, are the treated solids. Resembling, in every way, traditional incinerator ash, they are removed and contained for analysis prior to removal to a licensed landfill. On average, while ensuring complete product destruction, optimal resource recovery and zero emissions, Phase Separation Solutions achieves a consistent volume reduction of greater than 90%. That means that the 40,000 cubic metres of waste treated results in a savings of 34,000 cubic metres of landfill space. That is the equivalent of a football field buried 3 metres deep. The traditional waste management methods of incineration and landfilling continue to be just as effective as they have always been. However, the alternative now available in Canada allows all generators of hydrocarbon-based products, pharmaceutical and consumer product waste, the opportunity to significantly reduce their overall corporate ecological footprint while continuing to preserve the bottom line. For more information, E-mail: sclarke@phaseparation.com

“Anti-Surge/Anti-Shock” Air Release/Vacuum Break Valves for Sewage & Water Industry-first 10-year warranty!


762 Upper James St., Suite 250 Hamilton, Ontario L9C 3A2 Phone: 905-777-9494 Fax: 905-777-8678 www.hydrologic.ca info@hydrologic.ca

January 2007 | 75

Membrane systems

PIPEPAC® software

AMS PowerProbe® 9500-VTR

The MaxFlux membrane system, with its advanced technology offers significant savings. - High flux rate uses new generation membrane technology. - Removes bacteria, virus, oil emulsions and suspended solids. - Removes trace organics through carbon adsorption or reverse osmosis. - Saves money by reducing disposal costs and recovering process fluids. Tel: 905-856-1414, Fax: 905-856-6401 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com

Widely used interactive software for selecting the right material for buried infrastructure systems. Determine the real cost of materials you specify over the design life of the project through three independent programs. Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682 E-mail: khunter@concrete-pipe.org Web: www. concrete-pipe.org

For the most maneuverable track system there isn’t another direct push model like the 9500-VTR. Rugged rubber tracks keep the VTR moving when soil conditions get soft, wet or muddy. Tel: 800-635-7330 Web: www.ams-samplers.com

ACG Technology

Product & Service Showcase

Bridge-Plate® corrugated steel solution

Armtec’s deep-corrugated structural steel plate (Bridge-Plate) can provide one of the most cost-effective and rapid solutions to short-span bridging needs. BridgePlate was developed with the benefit of 70 years’ experience in providing soilsteel bridging solutions. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: tmand@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com Armtec

Phoenix Panel System

• Upgrades and optimizes all types of filters • Removal of existing underdrain not required • Eliminates the need for filter gravel • Improves backwash distribution • Longer filter runs and lower turbidity effuent Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI 76 | January 2007

American Concrete Pipe Association

AMS, Inc.

Corrugated steel pipe

Methane detector

For almost 100 years, Armtec has been providing the construction industry with Corrugated Steel Pipe (CSP) products, delivering low cost engineered solutions to customers throughout Canada. CSP is an economical and durable choice for storm sewers, storm water detention systems, culverts, bridges and other construction projects. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: tmand@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com

The Crowcon laser methane detector is specifically designed to detect methane gas in a landfill environment using a tunable laser. Main features: portable laser methane detector gun, sensitivity 100 PPM/Meter – 10,000 PPM/Meter, laser range 450 feet, ultra-fast response time, LCD display, PC interface and data logging, battery powered, rugged and reliable. Tel: 888-965-4700 E-mail: info@avensys.com Web: www.avensys.com


Avensys Inc.

Phoenix Underdrain System

Confined space entry

• Optimizes vertical and horizontal pressure filters • Low profile, filtered water pick-up lateral orifice is <25 mm • Manufactured from corrosion resistant stainless steel • Custom hydraulic distribution • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution. Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com Web: www.awifilter.com AWI

Canadian Safety Equipment introduces the new Lifeguard manrated confined space entry retrieval system from Pelsue. The Lifeguard is a manhole guard and retrieval system in one. Lightweight and compact, the Lifeguard system is comprised of two components, the lower manhole guard and the upper assembly. Together they only weigh 48 lbs. It is compliant to OSHA and ANSI and has a 5:1 safety factor. Tel: 800-265-0182, Fax: 905-272-1866 E-mail: info@cdnsafety.com Web: www.cdnsafety.com Canadian Safety Equipment Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ChemFlare connections solve failure problems on PVC threaded/solvent welds on sodium hypochlorite dosing panels. For ball, relief valves and dosing pumps. Easy to install, disassemble and adds no dead volume. Chemline offers entire system including Teflon PFA flare fittings and tubing. Tel: 905-889-7890, Fax: 905-889-8553 E-mail: info@chemline.com Web: www.chemline.com Chemline Plastics

Vibration level switch Flowline’s new vibration level switch is a great choice for dirty liquids including those with coating, scaling or foaming characteristics. For optimum performance and proactive maintenance, the sensor automatically adjusts for coating build-up on the forks, and if necessary, will output a preventative maintenance alarm. The submersible sensor is universally mounted through the wall or inside the tank. Tel: 905-829-2000 Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: info@daviscontrols.com Web: www.daviscontrols.com Davis Controls

The environmentally friendly multi-purpose EXCAVATOR is ideal for: • Laying of waterlines, pipelines and submarine work • Preventive ice breaking • Operation "Flooding" on rivers, lakes, etc. • Underwater vegetation control for seaweed, etc. Toll Free: 1-888-356-0111 Web: www.ecotec.ca ECO Technologies www.esemag.com

Reusable, recyclable, remarkable Every year thousands of tonnes of steel is salvaged, recycled and reused in new construction. Steel is the most recycled material in the world. It is easily regenerated, without losing its remarkable qualities. An old car is melted down to produce soup cans, bridge beams and corrugated culverts. Steel recycling is second nature and almost invisible to the average citizen. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: djpenny@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Gas detection with no false alarms Mil-Ram is a leading innovator in the area of gas sensor development, manufacture and integration. Mil-Ram’s unique patented electrochemical sensor technology specifically eliminates zero drift and associated false alarms. The Mil-Ram sensors provide enhanced chemical selectivity to further ensure the elimination of nuisance alarms related to common coexisting gases (CO, CO2, LEL, etc). Tel: 905-829-2000 Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: info@daviscontrols.com Web: www.daviscontrols.com Davis Controls

Underground detention

Stormwater management using large diameter corrugated steel pipe under parking areas, is a cost-effective way to meet reduced runoff and environmental restrictions while allowing revenue producing services and commercial development. Comprehensive design software is available, FREE. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Denso Petrolatum Tapes Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898 E-mail: blair@densona.com Web: www.densona.com Denso

Solid handling pumps

Engineered pumping systems

Gorman Rupp has introduced a new solids handling, self-priming centrifugal pump the Ultra V™, which has higher pressure, higher flow, greater efficiency and time saving maintenance features. The Ultra V Series of pumps, which is available in a variety of sizes, achieves up to 60 percent increased pressure and up to 40 percent increased flow over self-priming centrifugal solids handling pumps of the same size. Tel: 519-631-2870, Fax: 519-631-4624 E-mail: grcanada@grcanada.com Web: www.grcanada.com Gorman Rupp

Gorman-Rupp offers an extensive line of above ground and below ground selfpriming pumping systems as well as a full line of solids-handling submersible pumping systems. These include pumps, motors, controls, piping and accessories, housed in a corrosive-resistant fiberglass enclosure that can be installed easily at the job site. Tel: 519-631-2870, Fax: 519-631-4624 E-mail: grcanada@grcanada.com Web: www.grcanada.com Gorman Rupp January 2007 | 77

Product & Service Showcase

Connections for sodium hypochlorite dosing panels

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157 E-mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com Web: www.greatario.com. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

New pump and flow monitor

Only from Grundfos, the all new DDI Pump with Plus3 and State of the Art Flow Monitor - through unique, state of the art technology you can now protect your pump from air entrapment and overpressure while enjoying virtually continuous dosing. Tel: 905-829-9533, Fax: 905-829-9512 E-mail: tellul@grundfos.com Web: www.grundfos.com/dosing Grundfos Canada

Product & Service Showcase

Water quality treatment The Stormceptor® is a patented water quality treatment structure for storm drain systems. Stormceptor removes free oil and suspended solids from stormwater, preventing spills and non-point source pollution from entering downstream lakes and rivers. Hanson Pipe & Precast is the exclusive manufacturer of the precast concrete Stormceptor System in Ontario. Tel: 888-888-3222, Fax: 519-621-8233 E-mail: mark.smith2@hanson.biz Web: www.hansonpipeandprecast.com Hanson Pipe and Precast

HOBO water level logger

The HOBO Water Level Logger is a high-accuracy, pressure-based water level recording device that combines research-grade accuracy and durability with a price tag that is roughly half the cost of most comparable solutions. Available from Hoskin Scientific Ltd. www.hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific 78 | January 2007

Water level meter The Heron dipper-t water level meter has all the upgrades at one low cost. Yellow, easy to read accurate (ASME Standard) heavy duty polyethylene jacketed tape with stainless steel conductors. A full depth rated, easy clean stainless steel and Teflon® environmental probe. Strong, flexible link attaches cascade-proof 5/8 inch (16mm) dia. probe to the tape, providing tape protection at this vital junction. Tape guide and carry case included. Tel: 800-331-2032, Fax: 905-634-9657 E-mail: info@heroninstruments.com Web: www.heroninstruments.com Heron Instruments

Solar powered circulator SolarBee is a solar powered high flow circulator. It does not require any infrastructure changes and provides a non-turbulent mixing action of up to 10,000 gpm. In potable water tanks, the SolarBee helps in eliminating dead zones, loss of residual chlorine, thermal stratifications and ice build up. Other applications include freshwater lakes, stormwater and wastewater systems. At H2O Logics Inc. we bring you solutions. Free evaluation for any applications. Tel: 866-417-9935 E-mail: mp@h2ologics.com Web: www.h2ologics.com H2O Logics

Water monitoring

The dipper-log measures and records the water level and temperature at preset intervals in wells and open bodies of water. It stores the readings allowing them to be downloaded at a convenient time. The compact design of the dipperlog is ideal for monitoring surface water and deep water wells. The dipper-log is launched and then installed in the well with a simple wire line or a direct read cable. Tel: 800-331-2032, Fax: 905-634-9657 E-mail: info@heroninstruments.com Web: www.heroninstruments.com Heron Instruments

Engineered HDPE pipe

Electronic nose system

Exclusively from Ideal Pipe, the Challenger line of engineered HDPE pipe meets and exceeds all requirements for storm sewer, culvert and drainage applications. Challenger 3000 gasketed smoothwall pipe is CSA-approved with excellent environmental stability and flow characteristics for lasting reliability. Tel: 800-265-7098, Fax: 519-641-2542 E-mail: ideal@netrover.com Web: www.idealpipe.ca

OdoWatch™ is the world’s first fullyautomated electronic nose system that provides a real-time odour plume display for instant impact assessment. A must for the 24/7 monitoring of odours at any wastewater treatment plant. Tel: 905-868-9683, Fax: 905-868-9870 E-mail: ontario@johnmeunier.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com

Ideal Pipe

John Meunier Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

The Channel Monster XD wastewater grinder is built to handle big solids. The XD has larger shafts, bigger cutters and heavy duty screening drums to shred large flows of wood, rocks, rags, needles, plastics and trash. The grinder turns material into small particles that flow easily through pumps and pipes. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-833-8858 E-mail: jwce@jwce.com Web: www.JWCE.com JWC Environmental

Simplify your responsibility Minotaur offers all the Stormceptor servicing you need to be compliant with regulatory authorities. • Proactive supervision • Site inspections • Field reports • Certificates of Inspection • Small spill removal • Large spill pump out • Lab analysis of particulates and oils • Consultation Tel: 888-648-6828, Fax: 519-647-3198 E-mail: service@minotaurltd.com Web: www.minotaurltd.com Minotaur Guardian Service

Sigma series metering pumps Feature-rich and dependable Sigma series metering pumps from ProMinent help keep your chemical feed under control. Sigma pumps operate in capacities of up to 1000 LPH and pressures up to 174 psi. Easy-to-use microprocessor control with a backlit LCD for rapid and reliable adjustment. Tel: 888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226 E-mail: sales@prominent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls www.esemag.com

Chopper pumps Landia chopper pumps solve the toughest problems when pumping difficult-to-handle liquids with high solid contents. Chop and reduce solids particle size while pumping with our special knife system. Eliminate clogging problems and prevent costly breakdowns. Landia chopper pumps are operating in: raw unscreened effluents, food industry effluents, paper mills, slurries and sludges, and much more. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: epsl@telus.net Landia

New Pipe Pac version 3 now available

Pipe Pac version 3, has arrived. For more information or to obtain a copy of the Pipe Pac version 3, contact the OCPA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905 E-mail: sal.iannello@ocpa.com Web: www.ocpa.com Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

Package Water and Wastewater Plants

We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment Plants worldwide. The Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is economical, easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: saneng@sanitherm.com Web: www.sanitherm.com Sanitherm Engineering

Wireless RF drive-by system The DIALOG 3G®DS Wireless RF Drive-By System, the newest AMR innovation from Master Meter, features proven technology that gives you the added edge in the pit, above ground and inside set environments; huge-capacity; field programmable; Data Logging capability of 4,000 reads; leak, tamper and backflow detection; no external wires or antennas; easy installation; and self activation. Tel: 817-842-8000, Fax: 817-842-8100 E-mail: jclauret@mastermeter.com Web: www.mastermeter.com Master Meter Canada

Granular media filter DynaSand® continuous backwash, upflow, deep bed, granular media filters handle high levels of suspended solids, and may eliminate the need for pre-sedimentation or flotation. They have few moving parts, easily handle plant upsets, and require little operator attention and maintenance. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: canada@parkson.com Web: www.parkson.com Parkson

Telescoping conveyors For transporting sludge and screened material, Serpentix exclusively offers “Puratek” telescoping conveyors that extend and contract to uniformly fill trucks and containers. Add a pivoting base and the conveyor will automatically fill multiple trucks or bins that are positioned in any array. Tel: 800-466-7979, Fax: 303-430-7337 E-mail: sales@serpentix.com Web: www.serpentix.com Serpentix January 2007 | 79

Product & Service Showcase

Wastewater grinder

Stormceptor® System

The Smith & Loveless PISTA® Grit Chamber maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies over a wide range of daily flows because of its exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete particles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in downstream basins, channels, weirs and piping. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173 E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com Web: www.smithandloveless.com

Environmental solutions that promote sustainability Stantec provides professional services in: Water Resources Management, Environmental Litigation Support, Ecotoxicity Testing, Site Assessment/Remediation, Regulatory Compliance Services, Environmental Risk and Impact Assessment, Occupational Health & Safety, Toxic Mould, Indoor Air Quality. Tel: 905-817-2092, Fax: 905-858-4426 E-mail: dmcinnis@stantec.com Web: www.stantec.com

Stormceptor removes more pollutants from stormwater than any other separator – maintaining continuous positive treatment of total suspended solids (TSS), regardless of flow rate. Patented scour prevention technology ensures pollutants are captured and contained during all rainfall events, even extreme storms.

Smith & Loveless

Stantec Consulting Ltd.

Imbrium Systems

Product & Service Showcase

Grit chamber

Environmental Business Strategy 3 – Day Workshop Visit www.tplchome.com

The Professional Learning Center

Join pipe to 144” Depend-OLok: the new standard for joining pipe to 144". Engineered for restrained and unrestrained systems, Depend-O-Lok allows angular deflection and pipeline thermal expansion/contraction while maintaining seal integrity. Specify in systems to 600 PSI for strength, reliability and ease of maintenance. Tel: 905-884-7444 E-mail: viccanada@victaulic.com Web: www.victaulic.com Victaulic

80 | January 2007

Tel: 800-565-4801 E-mail: info@stormceptor. com Web: www.imbriumsystems.com

Introducing the PneuMax II

Hatch safety net

This pre-assembled integral system, from a blower technology industry leader, offers features for environmental applications including: • Noise enclosure • Quiet operation • Automatic tensioning • Compact footprint • Easy access • Front gauges • Power ventilation • Front lubrication access • Splash lube both ends • Optional equipment/controls Web: www.vacuum.tuthill.com

The lightweight Hatch Safety Net is designed to be permanently installed and easily retractable in floor and roof openings where the risk of fall through is present. When closed, the net system allows people to move freely around confined space openings without fear of falling into the opening. It also allows visibility of inspections and accessibility for limited maintenance and float adjustments. When entry/exit is required, the net can be easily unhooked on all but one side of the opening. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901 E-mail: epsl@telus.net

Tuthill Vacuum

USF Fabrication

Portable activator

Secondary lining system

The New Waterra PowerLift-3 is a powerful portable actuator with the durability of the Waterra Power Pump-2's mechanism and the light weight of the Hydrolift-II's motor, gear and control.

When underground tanks need to be replaced but site conditions make replacement costly and difficult, then retrofit your tanks with a new corrosion resistant secondary contained lining system. The new system is a unique installed on-site internal fiberglass system that allows you to upgrade in-service steel or fiberglass single wall tanks to a secondary contained lining system. Tel: 800-661-8265, Fax: 780-466-6126 Web: www.zcl.com.

Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704 E-mail: waterra@idirect.com Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps

ZCL Composites Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ES&E’s 19th Annual Directory & Equipment Specifiers’ Guide

Environmental Consultants and Testing Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Equipment and Service Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Products & Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

ES&E’s Guide to Environmental Consultants and Testing Laboratories NOTE: This guide is intended as a service for ES&E readers only. No claims are made that it is a comprehensive review. ES&E relies on information supplied by companies who returned questionnaires. A.A. BOSCARIOL AND ASSOCIATES LIMITED 214-2825 Lauzon Pky Windsor ON N8T 3H5 (519) 966-4006 Fax: (519) 974-1017 Contact: Aldo Boscariol, P.Eng. ABACUS ENGINEERING & PLANNING SERVICES INC PO Box 956 Stayner ON L0M 1S0 ABRAM CONSULTING SERVICES LTD. 217 Industrial Rd F Cranbrook BC V1C 6N4 (250) 489-8188 Fax: (250) 489-3416 Contact: Sean Abram, President ACCURASSAY LABORATORIES 2-1070 Lithium Dr Thunder Bay ON P7B 6G3 ACCUTEST LABORATORIES LTD 8-146 Colonnade Rd Ottawa ON K2E 7Y1 (613) 727-5692 Fax: (613) 727-5222 Contact: Robert Walker, Client Services Manager ACRES INTERNATIONAL LIMITED 1235 North Service Rd W Oakville ON L6M 2W2 ACTIVATION LABORATORIES LTD. 1336 Sandhill Dr., Ancaster ON L9G 4V5 ADI GROUP PO Box 1688 Stn A Sydney NS B1P 6R7 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING EFFICIENCY SYSTEMS 118 Fiff Ave, Unit 6 Kitchener ON N2B 1N3 (519) 342-0257 Fax: (519) 342-0258 Contact: Chris Purtle, Partner

AET CONSULTANTS INC. 3-504 133 Weber St. N. Waterloo, ON N2J 3G9


(519) 576-9723 Fax: (519) 570-9589 E-mail: scott@aetconsultants.com Web: www.aetconsultants.com Contact: Scott Freiburger, Principal Environmental consultants, technologists, scientists, ecologists and building science specialists providing sustainable, environmental and waste solutions to all levels of government and the private industry. Services include waste composition studies, waste audits and analysis, MRF optimization, waste management systems, municipal waste studies, surveys and analytical studies, regulatory compliance, environmental management, LEED design and facilitation, energy feasibility studies, green construction, and project management.

AGAT LABORATORIES LIMITED 5623 McAdam Rd Mississauga ON L4Z 1N9 (800) 856-6261, (905) 501-9998 Fax: (905) 501-0589 E-mail: beckman@agatlabs.com Contact: Oscar Beckman, Manager Business Development Our Environmental Science Division is part of an established, full-service laboratory network, with facilities in Alberta and Ontario. With our experience and modern instrumentation and technology, we provide our clients with a level of service and quality that sets the standard in the industry.

AGL Marketing Limited provides marketing services to engineers, surveyors, contractors, concrete pipe producers, and industry associations. The business was established by Grant Lee, a professional marketer and land use planner with over 25 years experience in the infrastructure field. A.I. ENGINEERING SERVICES 4458 Bathurst St Toronto ON M3M 3S2 (416) 398-5746 Fax: (416) 398-9363 Contact: Aron Itkin, President AIRZONE ONE LTD 222 Matheson Blvd E Mississauga ON L4Z 1X1 (905) 890-6957 Fax: (905) 890-8629 Contact: Franco DiGiovanni, Senior Air Quality Modeller AIMS ENVIRONMENTAL 111-1020 Denison St., Markham, ON L3R 3W5 (905) 474-0058 Fax: (905) 474-0601 Contact: M. Jagani, Principal, Project Manager AINLEY GROUP 2724 Fenton Rd Gloucester ON K1T 3T7 AIR EARTH & WATER ENV CONSULTANTS LTD 423 Ireland Rd Simcoe ON N3Y 5J1 ALAMOSA CONSULTANTS 26 Joseph St. Tillsonburg ON N4G 1H8 (519) 688-1825 Fax: (519) 688-6384 Contact: Project Manager AL D DRIVER CONSULTING 269 Rockingham Ct Cobourg ON K9A 5W3 (905) 372-0121 Fax: (905) 372-0181 Contact: Al Driver, President

AGL MARKETING LIMITED 205 Miller Dr Halton Hills (Georgetown) ON L7G 6G4 (905) 877-5369 Fax: (905) 702-0819 E-mail: glee@aglmarketing.com Web site: www.aglmarketing.com Contact: Grant Lee, President

ALDWORTH ENGINEERING INC. 85 Curlew Dr North York ON M3A 2P8 (416) 446-6300 Fax: (416) 446-6303 Contact: G. Aldworth, President

continued overleaf... January 2007 | 81


Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories

ALLMAX SOFTWARE, INC. 911 South Main St Kenton OH 43326 USA (800) 670-1867 Fax: (419) 673-8864 E-mail: sales@allmaxsoftware.com Web site: www.allmaxsoftware.com Contact: Steve White, Operations Manager AllMax Software provides user-friendly data management software for water, wastewater, biosolids, pretreatment and maintenance applications. Operator 10® can be set up for single, multi-user or client server, for any plant or facility, designed to simplify reporting, provide maximum flexibility and standardize company data. Our Antero™ maintenance software helps increase productivity and eliminate downtime. ALL-TECH ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES 18-99 Rocky Lake Dr Bedford NS B4A 2T3 ALS CHEMEX 212 Brookbank Ave North Vancouver BC V7J 2C1 ALS ENVIRONMENTAL 1988 Triumph St Vancouver BC V5L 1K5

ALTECH ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD. 12 Banigan Drive, Toronto, ON M4H 1E9 Toll-free: (800) 323-4937, (416) 467-5555 Fax: (416) 467-9824 E-mail: info@altech-group.com Website: www.altech-group.com Contact: Brian A. Bobbie, President ALTECH provides integrated solutions for business and the environment, through environmental and energy engineering & science consulting and technology design. Serving private and public sector clients across Canada and internationally, ALTECH’s focus is on practical, cost-effective, and turn-key solutions to address energy, air, water, wastewater and sub-surface issues for industry. AMEC EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL 4385 Boban Dr Nanaimo BC V9T 5V9 (250) 758-1887 Fax: (250) 758-1899 Contact: Dixie Ann Simon, Manager, Vancouver Island AME-MATERIALS ENGINEERING 6-117 Ringwood Dr Stouffville ON L4A 8C1 (905) 640-7772 Fax: (905) 640-8512 Contact: Sebastian Nicholas, Project Engineer

Get a clear view of:

“Specialists in non-intrusive ground investigations” Tel: 905.458.1883 Fax: 905.792.1884 E-mail: clearview@geophysics.ca Web: www.geophysics.ca

82 | January 2007

• UST's, buried metal, debris & fill • Former excavations & structures • Leachate plumes • Voids and fractures • Stratigraphy • Pipes and utilities

AMERICAN WATER SERVICES CANADA 2-95 Huntingwood Ave Dundas ON L9H 7M9 ANDRE SIMARD AND ASSOCIATES 204-2500 Jean-Perrin St Quebec QC G2C 1X1 (418) 845-8885 Fax: (418) 845-5559 Contact: Andre Simard, President ANGUS ENVIRONMENTAL LTD 1127 Leslie St North York ON M3C 2J6 AQUA DATA INC 194 Wright Ave Dartmouth NS B3B 1R6

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories AQUAGENIE 1125 de Meulles Saint-Bruno QC J3V 3A4 (450) 461-1647 Fax: (450) 461-0585 Contact: Philippe Soreau, P.Eng. President

BIOGENIE S.R.D.C. INC. 1140 Levis St Montreal QC J6W 5S6 (450) 961-3535 Fax: (450) 961-0220 Contact: Carole Barbeau, General Manager

BROWN ASSOCIATES LIMITED 109 Vanderhoof Ave Toronto ON M4G 2H7 (416) 424-3355 Fax: (416) 424-3350 Contact: Bruce A. Brown, Principal

AQUA TERRE SOLUTIONS INC 1100 Sheppard Ave W North York ON M3K 2B4

BK SHORT ENGINEERING 2221 Dockside Way Nanaimo BC V9R 6T8 Contact: Brian Short, President

AQUAFOR BEECH LIMITED 920 Princess St Kingston ON K7L 1H1

BLACK & VEATCH CANADA COMPANY 220 Advance Blvd Brampton ON L6T 4J5 (905) 459-6360 Fax: (905) 459-7869 Contact: Sean Partington, Engineering Manager

BSEI MUNICIPAL CONSULTING ENGINEERS Centre Eight Ten 110-7777 10th Street NE Calgary AB T2E 8X2 (403) 247-2001 Fax: (403) 247-2013 Contact: Richard Geleta, President

ARK ENVIROTECH INC. 102 1439-17th Ave SE Calgary AB T2G 1J9 (403) 355-3655 Fax: (403) 355-3658 Contact: George Neely, President ASI GROUP LTD 250 Martindale PO Box 2205 St Catharines ON L2R 6P9

ASSOCIATED ENGINEERING 800-304 The East Mall Toronto ON M9B 6E2 (416) 622-9502 Fax: (416) 622-6249 E-mail: deangelisb@ae.ca Web: www.ae.ca Contact: Bill DeAngelis, VP & GM Associated Engineering provides consulting engineering, project management, and asset management services in the water, infrastructure, environmental, and transportation sectors. Our services include planning, studies, design, construction, training, and operational assistance. Recognized as an industry leader, we received the Canadian Consulting Engineers Schreyer Award for the Gold Bar Water Reuse Facility.

BM ROSS & ASSOCIATES LTD PO Box 1179 206 Industrial Dr Mount Forest ON N0G 2L0

BURNHAM ENGINEERING INC 12 Woodland Cres RR 1 Barrie ON L4M 4Y8 BURNSIDE DEVELOPMENT SERVICES 200-170 Steelwell Rd Brampton ON L6T 5T3

continued overleaf...

Solutions Without Boundaries

ATCO NOISE MANAGEMENT LTD 1243 McKnight Blvd Calgary AB T2E 5T1 AURORA CORROSION CONTROL 3773-19th St. N.E Calgary AB T2E 6S8 (403) 291-4495 Fax: (403) 250-5872 Contact: General Manager AVALON CONSULTING PROFESSIONALS OF ONTARIO LLC 48 Jarvis St Fort Erie ON L2A 2S4 (905) 991-1681 Fax: (905) 991-1682 Contact: Sean Dunsmore, P.Eng, Senior Civil Engineer AXOR EXPERTS-CONSEILS INC 1950 Sherbrooke St W Montreal QC H3H 1E7 (514) 846-4000 Fax: (514) 846-4005 Contact: Marc-Andre Desjardins, VP Environment

CH2M HI LL is a full - ser vic e project- deliver y f ir m with an unwaver ing c ommitment to f inancially responsible applic ations of the pr inciples of sust ainable development. We wor k with clients to c ome up with new ways of balancing our social, ec onomic, and natural environments.

AXYS GROUP LTD PO Box 2219 Stn Main Sidney BC V8L 3S8 BACON DONALDSON & ASSOCIATES LTD 12271 Horseshoe Way Richmond BC V7A 4V4

We tur n problems into oppor tunities.

BCA THE CLEARWATER GROUP 100-20329 Logan Ave Langley BC V3A 4L8 BECQUEREL LABORATORIES INC. 4-6790 Kitimat Rd Mississauga ON L5N 5L9 (905) 826-3080 Fax: (905) 826-4151 Contact: Steven Simpson, President BEL-MK ENGINEERING LTD 101-389 Queensway Ave Kelowna BC V1Y 8E6 (250) 869-1334 Fax: (250) 869-1364 Contact: Erica Woolley, Office Administrator


w w w. c h 2 m h i l l c a n a d a . c o m


January 2007 | 83

Consultants C3 ENVIRONMENTAL LIMITED 350 Woolwich St S Breslau ON N0B 1M0 CADUCEON ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES 285 Dalton Ave Kingston ON K7K 6Z1 (613) 544-2001 Fax: (613) 544-2770 Contact: Damien Gilbert, Marketing Director

Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories CAMPBELL ENVIRONMENTAL 139 Watson’s Lane Dundas ON L9H 6K9 (905) 627-1415 Fax: (905) 627-1471 Contact: Herb Campbell CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITORS INC. 35 Lakeshore Blvd RR 1 Gilford ON L0L 1R0 (705) 456-3318 Contact: John Sciberras, President CANSPECT CORPORATION 121-301 Moodie Dr Nepean ON K2H 9C4 (613) 596-0033 Fax: (905) 596-0433 Contact: T. Dirbi, President

CAEAL INC. 310-1565 Carling Ave Ottawa ON K1Z 8R1 (613) 233-5300 Fax: (613) 233-5501 E-mail: rwilson@caeal.ca Web site: www.caeal.ca Contact: R. Wilson, Executive Director Laboratory accreditation, proficiency testing and training services. Full international recognition worldwide through APLAC and ILAC. CALDER ENGINEERING LTD. 13226 Coleraine Drive Caledon ON L7E 3B2 (905) 857-7600 Fax: (905) 857-5900 Contact: Robert Whyte, Project Manager

CANTEST LABORATORIES LTD 4606 Canada Way Burnaby BC V5G 1K5 CANTOX ENVIRONMENTAL INC 506-5121 Sackville St Halifax NS B3J 1K1 CANTOX ENVIRONMENTAL INC 130-1900 Minnesota Crt Mississauga ON L5N 3C9 CARROLL AND ASSOCIATES LTD. 73 Brahms Bay Winnipeg MB R2G 1C5 (204) 661-2288 Fax: (204) 661-2289

CBCL LIMITED PO Box 606 Stn Central Halifax NS B3J 2R7 C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. 201-115 Hurontario St Collingwood ON L9Y 2L9 (705) 444-2565 Fax: (705) 444-2327 Contact: Charlie Tatham, President

CH2M HILL 255 Consumers Rd Toronto ON M2J 5B6 (416) 499-9000 Fax: (416) 499-4687 E-mail:ch2mhillcanada@ch2m.com Web site: www.ch2mhillcanada.com Contacts: Lynda Story, Marketing Assistant; Dave Umbach, Marketing and Communications Specialist CH2M HILL is a global leader in full-service engineering, construction, and operations for water, energy, environmental, transportation, communications, and industrial projects. CH2M HILL is dedicated to partnering with clients to deliver innovative, practical and sustainable solutions to our clients from 200 offices worldwide.


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Water & Wastewater Systems Process Optimization Stormwater Management Environment Planning Value Engineering Project Financing & Procurement Intelligent Water Systems (IWS)

625 Cochrane Drive, Suite 500 Markham, Ontario, L3R 9R9 T: 905.943.0500 F: 905.943.0400


ISO 9001/2000

CHEMICAL EMISSION MANAGEMENT SERVICES 5211 Preservation Circle Mississauga ON L5M 7T3 (905) 820-6126 Fax: (905) 820-1245 E-mail: tkhan@cems-group.com Web site: www.cems-group.com Contact: Tahir Khan, Ph.D, Vice President CEMS is the developer and owner of MPRI – a unique software for compiling emission inventory for the manufacturing industry. Services include: Air emission management inclusive of regulatory compliance; Ambient, stack, indoor/workplace Air Quality testing/management; Ventilation; P2 planning and implementation; Phases I,II,III Site Assessment; 3R Waste Audit and Waste Reduction Plan; Industrial Waste Water management and City by-Law compliance; ISO 9001: 4000 EMS. CHEM SOLV PO Box 608, 20848 Dalton Rd Sutton ON L0E 1R0 (905) 722-6035 Fax: (905) 722-5195 Contact: Peter Robertson, Chemist CHISHOLM FLEMING & ASSOCIATES 301-817 Renfrew Dr Markham ON L3R 9S8 (905) 474-1458 Fax: (905) 474-1910 Contact: R. G. Chisholm, Director CHURCH & TROUGHT INC 106-885 Don Mills Rd North York ON M3C 1V9


Providing environmental science, socio-economics, planning and engineering solutions for over 30 years

British Columbia | Alberta | Yukon | Northwest Territories | Ontario | Quebec | Nova Scotia | Qatar 84 | January 2007

CLAMEX ENVIRONNEMENT INC CP44 Succ Bureau-Chef Pintendre QC G6C 1R8 CLEARVIEW GEOPHYSICS INC. 12 Twisted Oak St Brampton ON L6R 1T1 (905) 458-1883 Fax: (905) 792-1884 Contact: Joe Mihelcic, President/ Geophysicist

CLUNAS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING 15 Robert St Weston ON M9N 2J6 (416) 414-7656 Fax: (416) 245-1986 E-mail: david.clunas@rogers.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories Contact: David Clunas Services: Site Assessments; Sewer Use Bylaws; Regulatory compliance with Bylaws, Regulations and Acts; Sampling; Spill Prevention and Management Plans; ISO 14000; Storm Water Assessment; Pollution Prevention Plans and Updates; NPRI Submissions; Hauled Sewage/Waste Programs; Industrial Waste Water Assessment and Treatment; Policy and Program Development; and MOE Certificates of Approval. COCHRANE ENGINEERING LTD 600-5 Donald St. Winnipeg MB R3L 2T4 (204) 477-6650 Fax: (204) 474-2864 Contact: Ross Webster, Manager, Environment Group

(519) 688-1000 Fax: (519) 842-3235 Contact: John D. Wiebe, President DALY ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING 20 Lyall Ave Toronto ON M4E 1V9 (416) 691- 4068 Fax: (416) 691-1738 Contact: Paul Daly DANGON DESIGN SERVICES CO. 46 Elmartin Dr Scarborough ON M1W 3C5 (416) 490-0600 Fax: (416) 490-0255 Contact: Dannig Zhu, Owner DAYTON & KNIGHT LTD 210-889 Harbourside Dr North Vancouver BC V7P 3S1 (604) 990-4800 Fax: (604) 990-4805 Contact: Sean Brophy, P.Eng, President


DELCAN WATER IWS 500-625 Cochrane Dr Markham, ON L3R 9R9 (905) 943-0500 Fax: (905) 943-0400 E-mail: water@delcan.com Web site: www.delcan.net Contact: Jackie Willick, Division Administrator André Proulx, Vice President, Water Division

continued overleaf...

COLES ASSOCIATES LTD Founders’ Hall 6 Prince St PO Box 695 Charlottetown PEI C1A 7L3 (902) 368-2300 Fax: (902) 566-3768 Contact: Douglas Coles, Vice President COMCOR ENVIRONMENTAL LIMITED 320 Pinebush Road Cambridge ON N1T 1Z6 (519) 621-6669 Fax: (519) 621-9944 Contact: A.E. Magditsch, VicePresident/Engineer

A New Level of Thinking

COMPREHENSIVE PROCESS OPTIMIZATION, INC. 32-760 Brant St Burlington ON L7R 4B7 (905) 634-1143 Fax: (905) 634-4758 E-mail: cpo@cpoinc.on.ca Web site: www.cpoinc.on.ca Contact: David Chapman, President CPO Inc. provides services to support clients in optimizing the performance of their existing water and wastewater facilities to tap full capacity prior to upgrading or expansion. Optimization is based on U.S. EPA’s Composite Correction Program. Specific services include on-site evaluations, technical assistance, training, and optimization program implementation.

A new energy is flowing at DELCAN Water.

CONESTOGA-ROVERS & ASSOCIATES LIMITED 60 St. Peters Road Charlottetown, PEI C1A 5N5 (902) 368-8858 Fax:(902) 368-8625 Contact: Richard MacEwan, Branch Manager

Water Systems), which offers leading edge

CONSTRUCTION CONTROL INC. 70 Haist Ave Woodbridge ON L4L 5V4 (905) 856-5200 Fax: (905) 856-1455 Contact: Trevor Diseko, Project Manager (Env.)

DELCAN Water’s established reputation for

CONSULAIR 202-255 av St-Sacrement Quebec QC G1N 3X9 (418) 650-5960 Fax: (418) 688-9898 Contact: Louis Lawson, General Manager

with our new alliance to DELCAN Water

CONSULT GEO 84 Dalzell Place N.W. Calgary AB T3A 1H5 (403) 247-4902 Fax: (403) 247-4902 Contact: George McGeachie, Proprietor


CTT GROUP/ SAGEOS 3000 Boulle Ave Saint-Hyacinthe QC J2S 1H9 (877) 288-8378 Fax: (450) 778-3901 Contact: Eric Blond, Technical Director

you can benefit from the new ideas that are

CUMMING COCKBURN LIMITED 200-9133 Leslie St Richmond Hill ON L4B 4N1 CYRIL J. DEMEYERE LIMITED PO Box 606, 261 Broadway Tillsonburg ON N4G 4J1


We have always been at the forefront of providing government and corporate clients in Canada and around the world with the highest level of engineering expertise and services. Now, DELCAN Water offers even broader capabilities with the establishment of DELCAN IWS (Intelligent design and implementation of automation, network and information management systems;




engineering services. DELCAN Water also benefits from even greater global resources (DHV Netherlands). DHV is an international leader in water technologies having provided integrated solutions to over 1,000 plants

Contact us today and learn more about how flowing at DELCAN Water. O T T A W A



DELCAN Water 625 Cochrane Drive, Suite 500, Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R 9R9 Tel: 905.943.0500 Fax: 905.943.0400 water@delcan.com




January 2007 | 85


Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories

Engineering expertise for the entire water cycle including: strategic reports and environmental assessment, watershed planning, system modelling and plant optimization, preliminary, detailed design and contract administration, procurement, finance and Intelligent Water Systems (IWS). Delcan IWS features leading edge design and implementation of system automation, networking and information management systems. D.L. SERVICES P O Box 3014 Brighton ON K0K 1H0 (613) 475-4155 Fax: (613) 475-0758 Contact: Douglas LeBlanc, President DILLON CONSULTING LIMITED 235 Yorkland Blvd Suite 800 Toronto ON M2J 4Y8 (416) 229-4646 Fax: (416) 229-4692 Contact: Gary Komar, Partner DONALD OLYNYK, ACOUSTICAL ENGINEER 9224 90 St NW Edmonton AB T6C 3M1 (780) 465-4125 Fax: (780) 465-4169 Contact: Donald Olynyk, President DST CONSULTING ENGINEERS 605 Hewitson St Thunder Bay ON P7B 5V5 EARTHGUARD ENVIRONMENTAL GROUP INC 404-15 Wertheim Ct Richmond Hill ON L4B 3H7 (905) 763-1212 Fax: (905) 763-6789 Contact: Brian Ko, Director, IT Services EARTH TECH CANADA INC 105 Commerce Valley Dr W 7th Fl Markham ON L3T 7W3 (905) 886-7022 Fax:(905) 886-9494

Contact: Robert Johnston, Vice President, Canada East

EARTH TECH CANADA INC – CONTRACT OPERATIONS 17203 103 Ave NW Edmonton AB T5S 1J4 (780) 488-6800 Fax: (780) 488-2121 E-mail: ken.fossey@earthtech.ca Web site: www.earthtech.com Contact: Ken Fossey, Director of Business Development Earth Tech Canada Inc. is a leader in the environmental engineering, consulting, remediation and asset management industries. We provide a full spectrum of engineering, construction, operations and maintenance services to commercial, industrial and government clients. We serve municipal and industrial customers globally with their water supply, treatment, distribution, wastewater collection and treatment needs. ECL ENVIROWEST CONSULTANTS LTD. 130-3700 North Fraser Way Burnaby BC V5J 5H4 (604) 451-0505 Fax: (604) 451-0557 Contact: Ian Whyte, President

ECO2 SYSTEMS INC. 3-324 133 Weber St. N Waterloo, ON N2J 3G9

Altech Environmental Consulting Ltd. is pleased to announce the recent appointment of Mr. Michael Longland as Vice President, Operations. Michael joins Altech with over 25 years experience in environmental consulting and senior project management in Ontario. Mike is a Professional Engineer, a Certified Environmental Auditor and a Certified Environmental Assessor of Sites. “Mike is highly regarded in the industry and brings a very experienced project management ability and client focus to our operations,” said Brian Bobbie, President. Altech is also proud to announce the appointment of Mr. Lou Bacs as Manager of the Engineering and Audit Services Division. As a Professional Engineer and a Certified Energy Manager, Lou has nearly 30 years experience in environmental and plant engineering. Lou brings his expertise in energy engineering, industrial ventilation, water and wastewater, to lead a strong team of energy and environmental engineers and analysts, assisting clients internationally.

Lou Bacs

Altech is a full-service environmental, energy engineering and science consulting and technology firm. Altech provides cost-effective environmental compliance, risk management, OHS and energy demand management services and equipment to industry and public sector clients worldwide.

1-800-323-4937 86 | January 2007

EMERGEX PLANNING INC. 1202-700 Pender St W Vancouver BC V6C 1G8 (604) 688-0888 Fax: (604) 688-0188 Contact: Tully Waisman EMSL ANALYTICAL INC. 107 Haddon Ave., Westmont NJ 08108 USA ENGINEERING NORTHWEST LTD. 301-200 S Syndicate Ave Thunder Bay ON P7E 1C9 (807) 623-3449 Fax: (807) 623-5925 Contact: G. Buckrell, President ENVIROCON SERVICES 10 Audrey Ave London ON N6A 2Y9 (519) 433-1540 Fax: (519) 433-1540 Contact: Dick Frier, Owner ENVIRO MASTER HEALTH & SAFETY INNOVATORS 224 Ridgefield Cres Maple ON L6A 1J6 (905) 832-5588 Fax: (905) 832-9971 Contact: Luigi (Lou) Barbesin, General Manager


Michael Longland

(519) 576-5238 Fax: (519) 570-9589 Email: scott@eco2systems.com Website: www.eco2systems.com Contact: Scott Freiburger, Principal Eco2 Systems is an environmental consulting firm that provides a full range of consulting, auditing and training services. We provide specialized Environmental Health and Safety services relating to: Environmental Management Systems (ISO:14001); Regulatory Compliance Management; Occupational Health and Safety; Solid Waste Management.

ENVIROMEGA INC 4 University Ave E Guelph ON N1G 1M7

Concerned about your liabilities under the new Ontario Spills Bill? Ask Golder.

Focused on solutions that work. Specializing in environmental solutions and ground engineering, Golder gives you global reach and local presence on six continents. For over 45 years, Golder has built a rock-solid reputation on client service, innovative thinking and costeffective solutions that work. Global Issues. Local Solutions. Golder Associates Ltd. 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, Ontario L5N 5Z7 Phone: 905 567 4444 Fax: 905 567 6561 solutions@golder.com

www.golder.com Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Consultants ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS & ENGINEERS 5620 Dunbar St Vancouver BC V6N 1W7 (604) 542-2542 Contact: Grant Frame, President ENVIRONMENTAL DIAGNOSTICS INC. 111-616 71 Ave SE Calgary AB T2H 2R1 (403) 212-3888 Fax: (403) 258-0580 Contact: Jana Zverina, Principal ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS ONTARIO INC. 18 Parkview Ave RR 1 Oro Station ON L0L 2E0 (705) 715-1881 Fax: (705) 487-5600 Contact: Brian Emms, Senior Environmental Technologist ENVIRO-STEWARDS INC 1 Union St Elmira ON N3B 3J9 (519) 578-5100 Fax: (519) 669-5002 Contact: Bruce Taylor, President ENVIROTECH ASSOCIATES LTD 10028-27 Legend Crt Ancaster ON L9K 1P2 (905) 304-4666 Fax: (905) 304-1073 Contact: Henry Vens, Senior Exec. Consultant ENVIROTEST LABORATORIES 1-60 Northland Rd Waterloo ON N2V 2B8

GEO CANADA 7885 Jock Trail Ottawa ON K0A 2Z0 (613) 371-3372 Fax: (613) 882-4987 Contact: Bill Eggertson, Executive Director GEOGRAPHIC DYNAMIC CORP. 9762-54 Ave Edmonton AB T6E 0A9 (780) 436-1217 Fax: (780) 436-4348 Contact: John D. Beckingham, CEO GEOMATRIX CONSULTANTS G-420 Weber St N Waterloo ON N2L 4E7 (519) 886-7500 Fax: (519) 886-7419 Contact: Bill Malyk, Principal GEOSYNTEC CONSULTANTS 130 Research Lane Guelph ON N1G 5G3 (519) 822-2230 Fax: (519) 822-3151 Contact: Tom Krug, Associate GESTENV INC 6750 de l’Esplanade Suite 305 Montreal QC H2V 4M1 (514) 277-0812 Fax: (514) 277-0453 Contact: Yves Patenaude, President GIE ENVIRONMENT INC 60 rue saint-Jacques Montreal QC H2Y 1L5 (514) 849-5421 Fax: (514) 849-6985 Contact: Mahmoud Hejazi, Director

ENVIROVISION INC. 7-150 Jardin Dr Concord ON L4K 3P9 (905) 761-1783 Fax: (905) 761-6524 Contact: Catalin Ionescu, President ENVISION COMPLIANCE 1-124 Connie Cres Concord ON L4K 1L7 EOLETECH INC 217 Bruton St Beaconsfield QC H9W 1N1 (519) 697-6313 Contact: S. Quraeshi, President EPCOR 10065 Jasper Ave NW Edmonton AB T5J 3B1 EPEC CONSULTING (SASK) LTD. 1601A 4th Ave Regina SK S4R 8P9 (306) 757-8694 Fax: (306) 757-4202 Contact: J. W. (Jim) Campbell, P.Eng, Manager ESG INTERNATIONAL 361 Southgate Dr Guelph ON N1G 3M5

GIFFELS ASSOCIATES LIMITED 30 International Blvd Toronto ON M9W 5P3 (416) 798-5916 Fax: (416) 798-5559 E-mail: Scott.Forbes@giffels.com Web site: www.giffels.com Contact: Scott Forbes, Manager, Environmental Services Giffels Environmental provides the following services, Municipal Water and Wastewater Treatment, Industrial Wastewater Systems, Class Environmental Assessment, Stormwater Management Systems, Environmental Site Assessment, Remediation, Indoor Air Quality Services, Regulatory Approvals, Energy and Environmental Savings, Electrical Generation from biogas, natural gas, biogas upgrade to natural gas or solar powered hydrogen.

FRANZ ENVIRONMENTAL INC. 8177 Torbram Rd Brampton ON L6T 5C5 (905) 792-1093 Fax: (905) 792-9751 Contact: Thomas Franz, President

GILES ENVIRONMENTAL ENG 1744 Llandaff Pl Victoria BC V8N 4V1 (250) 477-2202 Fax: (250) 477-2202 Contact: George Giles, P.Eng.

FRONTLINE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INC. 650 Riverbend Dr Kitchener ON N2K 3S2 (519) 741-9011 Fax: (519) 741-9323 Contact: Peter Gray, P.Geo, Managing Partner/Sr. Hydrogeologist


GAMSBY AND MANNEROW LIMITED 210-255 Woodlawn Rd W Guelph ON N1H 8J1 GARTNER LEE LIMITED 300-300 Town Centre Blvd Markham ON L3R 5Z6 (905) 477-8400 Fax: (905) 477-1456 Contact: Suzanne Schofield, Sr Marketing Coordinator


GEMTEC LIMITED 191 Doak Rd Fredericton NB E3C 2E6 GENIVAR ONTARIO INC 500-600 Cochrane Dr Markham ON L3R 5K3 (905) 475-7270 Fax: (905) 475-5994 Contact: Anita Smith, Vice President

GOLDER ASSOCIATES (800) 414-8314 E-mail: solutions@golder.com

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Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories

Web site: www.golder.com Global Issues. Local Solutions. GREEN OAKS COMMUNICATIONS 84 Oak Ave Richmond Hill ON L4C 6R7 (905)889-1987 Fax:(905)889-1987 Contact: Vic Wilensky, President

HARGRAVE & COMPANY 61 Brooklyn Ave Toronto ON M4M 2X4 (416) 410-4188 Fax: (416) 466-5479 Toll Free: (877) 410-4188 Web site: www.Hargrave-Company.ca E-mail:BillHargrave@Hargrave-Company.ca Contact: William J. Hargrave, Principal Nationally recognized specialists in the planning, engineering and scientific services needed for drinking-water systems including water quality assessments, treatability evaluations, optimization programs, feasibility and predesign reports, facility designs, O&M manuals; computerize online interactive documents, plant troubleshooting, commissioning and staff training.

GREEN-TECH ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LTD. 300-512 King St E Toronto ON M5A 1M1 (416) 364-1760 Fax: (416) 253-8901 Contact: Tom Davis, P.Eng, President GREER GALLOWAY GROUP 1620 Wallbridge-Loyalist Rd Belleville ON K8N 4Z5 GROUPE CONSEIL GENIVAR INC 600-2525 Boul Daniel-Johnson Laval QC H7T 1S9

HATCH LTD 2800 Speakman Dr Mississaugua ON L5K 2R7 (905) 403-3733 Fax: (905) 855-8270 Contact: Tom Reid, Director-Marketing

GROUPE GLD INC 200-11505 1e Avenue Est Saint-Georges QC G57 1B8 (418) 228-8041 Fax: (418) 228-8045 Contact: Martin Lacombe, President GROUPE HBA EXPERTS-CONSEILS INC 5400 Boul des Galeries Quebec QC G2K 2B

HATCH MOTT MACDONALD 4342 Queen St. PO Box 1001 Niagara Falls ON L2E 6W1

Focused on the Special Needs of Industrial and Commercial Clients for More Than 20 Years

www.geomatrix.com For more information:

Specializing in:

420 Weber Street North, Unit G Waterloo, ON N2L 4E7 519.886.7500

From multi-billion dollar Fortune 100 companies to family-run Owner-Manager enterprises, Geomatrix serves industrial and commercial clients locally and around the world from our18 North American offices.

HAY AND COMPANY CONSULTANTS (A Division of EBA) 900-1066 Hastings St W Vancouver BC V6E 3X2 (604) 875-6391 Fax: (604) 875-8363 Contact: Adrian Chantler, P.Eng, Project Director HENDERSON PADDON AND ASSOCIATES 212-945 3rd Ave E Owen Sound ON N4K 2K8 HFP ACOUSTICAL CONSULTANTS CORP. 1140-10201 Southport Rd SW Calgary AB T2W 4X9 (403) 259-6600 Fax: (403) 259-6611 Contact: Leslie Frank, President HORNER ASSOCIATES LTD. 89 Queen St Truro NS B2N 2B2 (902) 895-1507 Fax: (902) 893-2152 Contact: M.G. Topley, P.Eng, President HUNTER AND ASSOCIATES 18-2285 Dunwin Dr Mississauga ON L5L 3S3 (905) 607-4120 Fax: (905) 607-1132 Contact: Garry T. Hunter, President HYDROMANTIS, INC. 1 James Street South, Suite 1601, Hamilton, Ontario, L8P 4R5 HY-GEO CONSULTING 1041 Laburnum Rd Victoria BC V8Z 2M9 (250) 658-1701 Fax:(250) 658-1701 Contact: Alan Kohut, Sr Hydrogeologist ICF CONSULTING CANADA INC 808-277 Wellington St W Toronto ON M5V 3E4 IMASAR ENGINEERING INC 2180 Steeles Ave W Concord ON L4K 2Z5 (905) 760-9039 Contact: Dr. Kam Elguindi, Ph.D, P.Eng, President/CEO INTEGRATED EXPLORATIONS 1-67 Watson Rd S., Guelph ON N1H 6H8 INTERNATIONAL WATER CONSULTANTS LTD P.O. Box 310 342 Bayview Dr Barrie ON L4M 4T5 (705) 733-0111 Fax: (705) 721-0138 Contact: Gary A. Kuehl, P.Geo, President INTERPLAN LTD 160 Banbury Rd Toronto ON M3B 2L8 (416) 447-9146 Fax: (416) 391-0593 Contact: George Kobayashi, Engineer

• • • • • •

Drinking Water Screening / Filtration Separation / Flotation Sludge Dewatering / Collection Biotreatment / Aeration • Centrifugal & PD Blowers Suppliers of Water And UV Disinfection • Industrial Treatment Wastewater Equipment • Oil / Water Separators H2FLOW EQUIPMENT INC., Concord, Ontario • Package Treatment Plants Tel: (905) 660-9775 Fax: (905) 660-9744 • Stormwater Treatment Email: info@h2flow.com Website: www.h2flow.com • Tanks & Tank Covers Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis, Inc. Consulting Engineers ! 420 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, N1T 2H9 Tel: (519) 624-7223 Fax: (519) 624-7224 ! 1685 1 James Street Ontario, L8P L8S 4R5 1G5 Main St.South, West,Suite Suite1601, 302,Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax: (905) 522-0031

88 | January 2007

E-mail: info@hydromantis.com Web: www.hydromantis.com

JACQUES WHITFORD LIMITED P.O. Box 38212 Dartmouth NS B3B 1X2 3 Spectacle Lake Dr Dartmouth NS B3B 1W8 (902) 468-7777 Fax: (902) 468-9009 E-mail: info@jacqueswhitford.com Web site: www.jacqueswhitford.com Contact: Dominic Nader, Communications Coordinator Since 1972 Jacques Whitford has translated expertise into exceptional solutions. With 45 offices across Canada, in the US, and internationally, we’re leaders in environmental, engineering, scientific, and planning disciplines, resolving challenges in natural and built environments. Specialties include hazardous waste, site, geotechnical, environmental, sustainability and compliance assessment, remediation and management.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories

Contact: Cheryl Tasker-Shaw, Marketing Manager

JAGGER HIMS LIMITED 301-1091 Gorham St Newmarket ON L3Y 7V1 (905) 853-3303 Fax: (905) 853-1759 E-mail: gbelcourt@jaggerhims.com Web site: www.jaggerhims.com Contact: Gale Belcourt, Project Coordinator JCSI ENVIRONMENTAL 2323 Lorne St Regina SK S4P 2N1 (306) 347-0144 Fax: (306) 359-3068 Contact: E. Jansson, President JD MOLLARD AND ASSOCIATES LTD 810-2002 Victoria Ave Regina SK S4P 0R7 (306) 352-8811 Fax: (306) 352-8820 Contact: J.D. Mollard, President

J.K. ENGINEERING LTD 320-7930 Bowness Rd NW Calgary AB T3B 0H3 (403) 247-1777 Fax: (403) 286-9895 E-mail: jkeng@telus.net Web site: www.jkeng.ca Contact: Jan Korzenlowski, President Engineering consulting since 1987. Water supply and treatment, sewage collection and treatment, groundwater development, monitoring, reclamation, environmental site assessment, design, tendering, construction supervision, and project management.

KLEINFELDT CONSULTANTS LIMITED 102-2400 Meadowpine Blvd Mississauga ON L5N 6S2 J.L. RICHARDS & ASSOCIATES LIMITED 864 Lady Ellen Pl Ottawa ON K1Z 5M2 (613) 728-3571 Fax: (613) 728-6012 Web site: www.jlrichards.ca Contact: Guy Cormier, Chief Civil Engineer Providing a wide range of environmental services including water and wastewater treatment, environmental assessment and planning, solid waste/leachate management, water resources and stormwater management, sewer and watermain condition assessment and rehabilitation, plant retrofits, energy management. Offices also in Kingston, Sudbury, North Bay and Timmins. JOHN EMERY GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING LIMITED 1-109 Woodbine Downs Blvd Toronto ON M9W 6Y1 (416) 213-1060 Fax: (416) 213-1070 Contact: Michael MacKay, Principal Geotechnical Engineer KERR WOOD LEIDAL ASSOCIATES LTD 200-4185A Still Creek Dr Burnaby BC V5C 6G9 KGS GROUP 3rd Floor-865 Waverley St Winnipeg MB R3T 5P4 (204) 896-1209 Fax: (204) 896-0754 Contact: Bert Smith, Principal KINETRICS INC 800 Kipling Ave Toronto ON M8Z 6C4 (416)207-6000 Fax: (416)207-6532



KLOHN CRIPPEN BERGER LTD 114-6815 8th St NE Calgary AB T2E 7H7

KMK CONSULTANTS LIMITED 220 Advance Blvd Brampton ON L6T 4J5 (905) 459-4780 Fax: (905) 459-7869 E-mail: kmk@kmk.ca Web site: www.kmk.ca Contact: Bob Fleeton, President KMK Consultants Limited is a team of professionals that provides integrated or individual consulting services in water and wastewater treatment, municipal engineering, infrastructure management, structural engineering and land development. From conception to completion, KMK has the resources to deliver a total solution. KNIGHT PIESOLD LTD 1400-750 Pender St W Vancouver BC V6C 2T8 LAKEFIELD RESEARCH LIMITED PO Box 43 185 Concession St Lakefield ON K0L 2H0

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Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories LAND, AIR & WATER ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS 225 Main St W Hamilton ON L8P 1J4 (905) 529-8364 Fax: (905) 529-8364 Contact: Ahmed Naderi, Senior Engineer

Bio-Environmental Specialists since 1977 LAB Division

TEC Division

• • • •

• • • •

Environmental Microbiology Biotreatment Optimization Fungi, Bacteria & Algae ID Contract R&D, UV Efficacy

Bioremediation Air & Water Biofilters Site Investigations Aquatic Spill Surveys

67 Watson Rd., Unit #1 Box 1385, Guelph, Ontario, N1H 6N8 Tel: (519) 822-2608 Fax: (519) 822-3076 E-mail: ieinc@istar.ca

LE GROUPE FORCES S.E.N.C 105-19 rue St. Charles-Borromée Jolliette QC J6E 4S8 (450) 756-8040 Fax: (450) 756-6559 Contact: Thierry Freire, ing., President LE GROUPE TEKNIKA 150 Rue Vimy N Sherbrooke QC J1J 3M7 LEHDER ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES 210-704 Mara St Point Edward ON N7V 1X4

LOTOWATER TECHNICAL SERVICES INC PO Box 451 92 Scott Ave Paris ON N3L 3T5 (800) 923-6923 Fax: (519) 442-7242 E-mail: bbeaton@lotowater.com Web site: www.lotowater.com Contact: Laurie Lotimer, Managing Director Lotowater Technical Services has served Ontario municipalities since 1989. Our staff of Professional Geoscientists and MOE Licensed Well Technicians specialize in innovative testing and rehabilitation of wells and the supply and maintenance of pumps. For information on services such as well performance testing, video inspections, permits to take water and hydrogeological investigations contact Bill Beaton, M.Sc., P.Eng, General Manager. LVM-FONDATEC INC 1200 boul St-Martin Ouest Bureau 300 Laval PQ H75 2E4 (514) 281-5173 Fax: (450) 668-5532 Contact: Guy Meunier, President MACVIRO CONSULTANTS INC 500-600 Cochrane Dr Markham ON L3R 5K3 MALROZ ENGINEERING INC 168 Montreal St Kingston ON K7K 3G4 MAPLE REINDERS GROUP 2660 Argentia Rd Mississauga ON L5N 5V4 (888) 416-2753 Fax: (905) 821-4822 Contact: John Haanstra, Vice President Environmental MARSH INSTRUMENTATION LTD 1-1016C Sutton Dr Burlington ON L7L 6B8 (800) 449-2719 Fax: (905) 332-1668 Contact: Ron Bake, CET, General Manager MARSHALL MACKLIN MONAGHAN LIMITED 80 Commerce Valley Dr E Thornhill ON L3T 7N4 (905) 882-1100 Fax: (905) 882-0055

Leaders in

MARY C. HALL 206 Russell Hill Rd Toronto ON M4V 2T2 (416) 967-5911 Fax: (416) 920-4851 Contact: Mary C. Hall, Lawyer

Engineering & Environmental Science MacViro Consultants Inc. 600 Cochrane Drive, Suite 500, Markham, ON L3R 5K3 (905) 475-7270 • Fax: (905) 475-5994 reception@macviro.com www.macviro.com

90 | January 2007

MASKWA ENGINEERING LTD. PO Box 4624, 925 Mackenzie Hwy Hay River NT X0E 1G3 (867) 874-2207 Fax: (867) 874-2763

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories E-mail: chris_maskwa@northwestel.net Contact: Chris Robinson, Manager Maskwa is an aboriginal owned company serving the North West Territories and northern Alberta. We provide municipal engineering, water and sewage treatment, quality control testing, environmental assessments, water resources, structural, electrical, building services, construction surveys, construction management, CADD/drafting service, GIS information system, and maintenance management. MAXXAM ANALYTICS INC. 6740 Campobello Rd Mississauga ON L5N 2L8 (905) 817-5700 Fax: (905) 817-5777 Contact: Leisha Newton, Marketing Project Manager MCCORMICK RANKIN CORPORATION 2655 North Sheridan Way Mississauga ON L5K 2P8 (905) 823-8500 Fax: (905) 823-8503 Contact: Ian Williams, Chair & CEO MCELHANNEY CONSULTING SERVICES 1633 First Ave Prince George BC V2L 2Y8 (250) 561-2229 Fax: (250) 563-1941 Contact: Ken Maddox, Manager



MGI LIMITED PO Box 8353 Stn A St John’s NL A1B 3N7 MIE CONSULTING ENGINEERS LTD 85 Don Valley Dr Toronto ON M4K 2J3 (416) 424-2675 Fax: (416) 424-2675 Contact: J. Jones President MITCHELL, POUND & BRADDOCK LTD 4 Church St S Richmond Hill ON L4C 1W2 (905) 883-1500 Fax: (905) 883-4551 Contact: Geoff Pound, P.Eng, Vice President

ISO 9001 : 2000 ISO 14001 Proudly Servicing The Area Since 1990 • Licensed for all Wastes Call Or Visit Our Website Today • Control Your Costs & TEL: 1-800-667-5217 Reduce Long Term Liability www.rpr-environmental.com • Full Control of Waste (Cradle to Grave Management) • On Site Employee Training & Technical Support


MORRISON HERSHFIELD LIMITED 600-235 Yorkland Blvd North York ON M2J 1T1 MPC CONSULTING LTD 23-2075 Henry Ave W Sidney BC V8L 1T2 (250) 655-8959 Contact: Paul Bulmer, President M-R-2-MCDONALD & ASSOCIATES PO Box 4823 Regina SK S4P 3Y4 (306) 584-7071 Fax: (306) 584-8666 Contact: Rodger McDonald, Principal Engineer NATECH ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES INC 109 Patterson Cross Rd Harvey Station NB E6K 1L9 (506) 366-1080 Fax: (506) 366-1090 Contact: Jochen Schroer, President NORTHERN LABORATORIES LTD. 251 Kailen Rd, Box 1035 Prince Rupert BC V8J 4B7 (250) 627-1906 Fax: (250) 627-8214 Contact: Charles Armstrong, Manager

SENES Consultants Limited Specialist in Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Sciences Richmond Hill Ottawa Vancouver Yellowknife Kincardine

Celebrating Our 25th Anniversary SENES is pleased to announce that Mr. Yousry Hamdy, P.Eng. has joined the firm as Senior Water and Wastewater Specialist. Yousry has over 30 years experience in environmental projects and regulatory compliance with Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) regulations and Drinking Water Systems Regulations. In addition, Mr. Hamdy has considerable www.senes.ca (905) 764-9380 experience with surface water issues surrounding source water protection.

NORWEST LABS 1357 Dugald Rd Winnipeg MB R2J 0H3 NOVATECH CONSULTANTS INC 101-2415 Columbia St Vancouver BC V5Y 3E7 NWS INSPECTION INC 601-7620 Elbow Dr SW Calgary AB T2V 1K2 (403) 236-5982 Fax: (403) 236-7189 Contact: Doug Wade, Operations Manager O’CONNOR ASSOCIATES 200West-2150 Winston Park Dr Oakville ON

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Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories

www.trg.ca Experience, Innovation, Diversity, Teamwork & Commitment


L6H 5V1 (905) 829-3330 Fax: (905) 829-3404 Contact: Ron McKee, Regional Manager ODOTECH INC 301-3333 Queen Mary Rd Montreal QC H3V 2A2 (514) 340-5250 Fax: (514) 340-5211 Contact: Pierre Renyi, VP, Sales and Marketing OFFSHORE DESIGN ASSOCIATES LTD. 16438 Carr’s Landing Rd Lake Country BC V4V 1C3 (250) 766-1023 Contact: Dr. Derek Muggeridge, President ORTECH ENVIRONMENTAL INC 2395 Speakman Dr Mississauga ON L5K 1B3

Tel: (905) 823-7965 Fax: (905) 823-7932 www.pcbdisposal.com

• Hazardous Site Clean-up & Remediation • Decommissioning and Demolition • Asbestos and Mould Abatement • Contaminated Soil Removal • On-site Water Treatment

PARACEL LABORATORIES LTD. 300-2319 St Laurent Blvd Ottawa ON K1G 4J8 (613) 731-9577 Fax: (613) 731-9064 E-mail: drobertson@paracellabs.com Web site: www.parcellabs.com Contact: Dale Robertson, Lab Director Paracel Laboratories is a full-service environmental laboratory located in Ottawa. We offer the following analytical services: organic, inorganic, mold or fungi, bacteria and allergens. We support a broad spectrum of projects for professional clients from across Canada, including major environmental consultants, all levels of government and industrial manufacturers. PARISH GEOMORPHIC LTD. 207-10 Mountainview Rd S Georgetown ON L7G 4J9 (905) 877-9531 Fax: (905) 877-4143 Contact: John Parish, Director

Expert People. Better Decisions. • Municipal Infrastructure • Wastewater • Drinking Water • Water Reources

• Site Assessments • Remediation • Risk Assessments • Solid Waste

Toronto | Kitchener | Kingston | Edmonton | Cincinnati | www.xcg.com

PBR LABORATORIES INC. 9960 67 Ave NW Edmonton AB T6E 0P5 (780) 450-3957 Fax: (780) 450-3960 E-mail: pbr@pbr.ca Web site: www.pbr.ca Contact: Dr. Ram Mehta, President PBR is a bioanalytical research and testing laboratory (ISO 17025 accreditation) serving environmental, food-agriculture and chemical industries since 1984. We test food nutraceuticals and water for toxins, bacteria, viruses, Giardia and Crytosporidium and indoor air for mold contamination. Develop bioremediation cultures and evaluate products for efficacy, toxicity and carcinogenic potential. PEIL 379 Queen St S Kitchener ON N2G 1W6 (519) 745-9455 Fax: (519) 745-7647 Contact: Andy Kroess, Water Resources Engineer

Consulting Engineer

PETER J. LAUGHTON, P.ENG. CONSULTING ENGINEER ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SERVICES King City, Ontario, L7B 1E6 Canada +1.905.833.6738 Fax: +1.905.833.8497

92 | January 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories Email: p.laughton@pjlaughtonenv.com Services: feasibility studies, reports, strategic long range planning, environmental strategies, public participation, project management, design and construction advisory services, quality assurance reviews, operational assistance, audits and general advisory services in the environmental engineering field mainly related to wastewater pumping, conveyance, and treatment including sludge handling and biosolids. PETO MACCALLUM LTD 165 Cartwright Ave North York ON M6A 1V5 PETRO LABORATORIES INC. 1295 Matheson Blvd E Mississauga ON L4W 1R1 (905) 361-2388 Fax: (905) 361-2411 Contact: James Szeto, Lab Manager PHOENIX ENGINEERING INC 103 2710 3rd Avenue NE Calgary AB T2A 2L5 (866) 558-9463 Contact: Gerard Philpott, VP Engineering & Operations H. PICKARD & ASSOCIATES 304-181 Westmorland St Fredericton NB E3B 3L6 (506) 455-1574 Fax: (506) 454-4593 Contact: Hubert Pickard, Principal Consultant

RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CONSULTING 4 Automatic Rd Unit 101 Brampton ON L6S 6K9 (905) 459-0090 Fax: (905) 459-0096 Contact: Nicola Gonsalves

Consultants RON ROBINSON LTD 3075 Maplegrove Rd Bowmanville ON L1C 3K4 (905) 697-0400 Fax: (905) 697-0581 Contact: Ron Robinson, Vice President ROWAN WILLIAMS DAVIES & IRWIN INC 650 Woodlawn Rd W Guelph ON N1K 1B8

RJ BURNSIDE & ASSOCIATES LIMITED 3 Ronell Crescent Collingwood ON L9Y 4J6 (705) 446-0515 Fax: (705) 446-2399 Email: jeff_langlois@rjburnside.com Web site: www.rjburnside.com Contact: Jeff Langlois, MBA., P.Eng. From offices across Ontario, Burnside Engineers, Hydrologists and Environmental Scientists have over 35 years of experience providing comprehensive project management services to private and public sector clients in: Water & wastewater management, environmental assessment and planning, water supply & treatment, stormwater management, solid waste management & site remediation, GIS Applications and Satellite Remote Sensing.

RSG ENGINEERING INC. 202-3754 Richmond Rd Nepean ON K2H 5B9 (613) 721-0880 Fax: (613) 721-2096 Contact: Richard Goubko, President RSP INTERNATIONAL INC. 6 Simcoe St Caledon ON L7K 0A4 (519) 942-3407 Fax: (519) 942-3261 Contact: F.M. Lemieux

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PILDYSH TECHNOLOGIES INC 288-200 Rivercrest Dr SE Calgary AB T2C 2X5 (403) 720-6699 Fax: (403) 720-6699 Contact: Richard Bueble, Vice President PILOT PERFORMANCE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT INC. Box 68584, 25 Great Lakes Dr Brampton ON L6R 0J8 (905) 792-3130 Contact: Jayne Pilot, CEA, EMS (LA), CPEA PINCHIN ENVIRONMENTAL INC 2470 Milltower Crt Mississauga ON L5N 7W5 (905) 363-0678 Fax: (905) 363-0681 Contact: Robin Connelly, Mktg. Manager PROCYON CONSULTING INC. 238 Hickling Trail Barrie ON L4M 5W5 (705) 739-9738 Fax: (705) 739-8448 Contact: George Chamberlin, Principal PSC ANALYTICAL SERVICES 5555 North Service Rd Burlington ON L7L 5H7

QIKIQTAALUK ENVIRONMENTAL 580-3333 Queen Mary Montreal QC H3V 1A2 (514) 940-3332 Fax: (514) 940-3435 E-mail: psimon@qenv.ca Web site: www.qenv.ca Contact: Philippe Simon, President Environmental services: site assessment and remediation; environmental audits; emergency response plans; tendering and procurement; budget and progress control; and hazardous waste management. QUINTE-ECO CONSULTANTS INC. RR 7 Stn Main, PO Box 400 Belleville ON K8N 4Z7 (613) 967-2332 Fax: (613) 967-6680 Contact: Ron Carter, President RAL ENGINEERING LTD. 47-17665 Leslie St Newmarket ON L3Y 3E3 (905) 853-0626 Fax: (905) 853-8807 Contact: Elizabeth Lew, Manager


January 2007 | 93


Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories STABILIS 580-3333 Queen Mary Montreal QC H3V 1A2 (514) 940-1230 Fax: (514) 940-3435 Contact: Philippe Simon, President

Contact: David Lewis, P.Eng., Manager-Environmental Services

R.V. ANDERSON ASSOCIATES LIMITED 400-2001 Sheppard Ave E Toronto ON M2J 4Z8 (416) 497-8600 Fax: (416) 497-0342 E-mail: Toronto@rvanderson.com Web site: www.rvanderson.com Contact: Tamara Villagomez, Assistant to the President Environmental and infrastructure specialists: planning and management, design and construction, operations and optimization services for water and wastewater, transportation, urban development and telecommunication technologies. Branches: Welland, Ottawa, Sudbury, London, Moncton, Fredericton and Mumbai.

SIMCOE ENGINEERING GROUP LIMITED 10-1815 Ironstone Manor Pickering ON L1W 3W9 SIMO MANAGEMENT INC 1200 boul Saint-Martin W Laval QC H7S 2E4 (514) 281-6525 Fax: (450) 668-6756 Contact: Bernard Depeyre, General Manager

STANTEC 49 Frederick Street, Kitchener, ON N2H 6M7 (519) 579-4410 Fax: (519) 579-6733 E-mail: mjackson@stantec.com Web site: www.stantec.com Contact: Mark Jackson, Senior Vice President Focusing on the application of knowledge and technology for the development and management of sustainable solutions for air, water, and soil. Stantec provides professional services in water, wastewater, air quality, water resources, ecotoxicity, waste management, environmental site assessment, and remediation. Stantec = Sustainable Solutions

SNC-LAVALIN 455 Boul Rene-Levesque Montreal QC H2Z 1Z3 SOIL-MAT ENGINEERS & CONSULTANTS LTD. 130 Lancing Dr Hamilton ON L8W 3A1 (905) 318-7440 Fax: (905) 318-7455 Contact: John Monkman, Vice President

S2S ENVIRONMENTAL INC. 8150 Sheppard Ave E Toronto ON M1B 5K2 (416) 410-4333 Fax: (416) 208-2192 Contact: Saleem Dedhar, President

SOILTEST SERVICES LTD. 87-2220 Midland Ave Toronto ON M1P 3E6 (905) 644-2031 Fax: (416) 644-2032 Contact: Gordon Lo, President

SAIC CANADA 60 Queen St Suite 1516 Ottawa ON K1P 5Y7 (613) 991-2737 Fax: (613) 991-2737 Contact: Monique Punt

SOLINOV INC 100 Richelieu B 240 Saint-Jean-Sur-Richelieu QC J3B 6X3 (450) 348-5693 Fax: (450) 348-3607 Contact: Benoit Beaudoin, President

STEVENSON ENGINEERING LIMITED 3-1615 North Routledge Pk London ON N6H 5N5 (519) 474-0410 Fax: (519) 474-0283 Contact: R. C. Stevenson, President

SALBRO CONSULTING SERVICES 2302 22nd Street S Lethbridge AB T1K 2K2 (403) 320-9343 Fax: (403) 320-5721 Contact: Walter Browdowski, President

STIRLING ENGINEERING INC. PO Box 313 Ingleside ON K0C 1M0 (613) 362-7847 Fax: (613) 537-8523 Contact: Robert Wilson, President

SANDWELL ENGINEERING INC 620 Boul Rene-Levesque Montreal QC H3B 1N7

STORY ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES 770 Lakeshore Rd, PO Box 716 Haileybury ON P0J 1K0 (705) 672-3324 Fax: (705) 672-3324 Contact: Maria Story, Principal

SARAFINCHIN ASSOCIATES LIMITED 238 Galaxy Blvd Etobicoke ON M9W 5R8 SCHAEFFER & ASSOCIATES LTD 64 Jardin Dr Concord ON L4K 3P3 (905) 738-6100 Fax: (905) 738-6875 Contact: Zaven Sarkissian, Principal SCHLUMBERGER WATER SERVICES 101-460 Phillip St Waterloo ON N2L 5J2 (519) 746-1798 Fax: (519) 885-5262 Contact: Alge Merry, Services Division Manager; Benny Bian, Sales Manager SCHUR-TEK RESOURCES LTD. 50 Larkspur Cres St Albert AB T8N 2M5 (780) 458-2067 Fax: (780) 460-1909 Contact: Martin Schurek, Principal

SPILL MANAGEMENT INC. 45 Upper Mount Albion Rd Stoney Creek ON L8J 2R9 (905) 578-9666 Fax: (905) 578-6644 E-mail: contact@spillmanagement.ca Contact: R. Holland, General Manager Spill Management offers on-site site-specific, all-risk and all-hazard response training for chemical spills using hands-on training and classroom instruction as well as workshops in Emergency Response Planning and Incident Command. Other services include plans for emergency response, and environmental preparedness, as well as emergency response equipment and supplies assessments using video. SPRIET ASSOCIATES LONDON LTD 155 York St London ON N6A 1A8

SENDEX ENVIRONMENTAL CORP 417 Exeter Road London ON N6A 5K2 (519) 680-3868 Fax: (519) 680-3870 Contact: Marc Trudell, Principal SENES CONSULTANTS 121 Granton Dr Unit 12 Richmond Hill ON L4B 3N4 (905) 764-9380 Fax: (905) 764-9386 Contract: Yousry Hamdy, Senior Water & Wastewater Specialist SHAHEEN & PEAKER LTD 20 Meteor Dr Etobicoke ON M9W 1A5 (416) 213-1255 Fax: (416) 213-1260

94 | January 2007

SYSTEMS PLUS 1347 Gingerich Rd Baden ON N3A 3J7 (800) 604-3645 Fax: (519) 634-5708 Contact: Garry Ruttan, President T & E CONSULTANTS INC 2945 Haliday Cres Nanaimo BC V9T 1B2 (250) 751-0053 Fax: (250) 751-0063 Contact: Dan Hooper, P.Eng, President TECSULT INC 85 Rue Sainte-Catherine Montreal QC H2X 3P4

SCO-TERRA CONSULTING GROUP 458 Queens Ave London ON N6B 1X9 (519) 434-0278 Fax: (519) 434-6820 Contact: Richard J. Pellerin, Principal SEACOR ENVIRONMENTAL INC 9-6421 Applecross Rd Nanaimo BC V9V 1N1 (250) 390-5050 Fax: (250) 390-5042 Contact: Antal Bata, Manager

SUTCLIFFE RODY QUESNEL INC 9 Wellington St New Liskeard ON P0J 1P0 (705) 647-4311 Fax: (705) 647-3111 Contact: James Hawken, President

T HARRIS ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 242 Galaxy Blvd Etobicoke ON M9W 5R8 SRC ANALYTICAL LABORATORIES 422 Downey Rd Saskatoon, SK S7N 4N1 (306) 933-5663 Fax: (306) 933-7922 E-mail: analytical@src.sk.ca Website: www.src.sk.ca Contact: Brenda Stanek, Manager The SRC Analytical Laboratories provides testing services for organic, inorganic and radiochemical parameters for environmental monitoring, water quality, waste management, industrial hygiene and air quality, agricultural product testing, metals and alloys, paint, salts and others. We also provide testing for certification of biofuels including biodiesel and ethanol. SRM ASSOCIATES 41-110 Scotia Court Whitby ON L1N 8Y7 (905) 686-6402 Fax: (905) 432-7877 Contact: Jim Leppard, P.Eng, Sr. Project Manager

THEODOR STERLING ASSOCIATES LTD. 310-1122 Mainland St Vancouver BC V6B 5L1 (604) 681-2701 Fax: (604) 681-2702 Contact: Michael Glassco, Operations Manager

www.t Experie Diversi & Comm

THE THOMPSON ROSEMOUNT GROUP INC. 203-160 St David St S Fergus ON N1M 2L3 (519) 843-2552 Fax: (519) 843-2115 E-mail: jwspoon@trg.ca Web site: www.trg.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Guide to Environmental Consultants & Laboratories Contact: James Witherspoon, P.Eng. The Thompson Rosemount Group (TRG) is a multidiscipline consulting engineering firm with branches across Ontario (Cornwall, Kingston, Ottawa, Fergus) providing architectural, civil, electrical, environmental, mechanical and structural services to all sectors including: municipal water supply assessment and design; municipal sewage optimization and design; private water supply and sewage; facility commissioning services; hydrogeological studies. THURBER ENGINEERING LTD 200-9636 51st Ave NW Edmonton AB T6E 0S6 TODGHAM AND CASE ASSOCIATES INC PO Box 1326 Stn Main Chatham ON N7M 5R9 TOTTEN SIMS HUBICKI ASSOCIATES 1-300 Water St Whitby ON L1N 9J2 TOUCHIE ENGINEERING A DIV OF R.V. ANDERSON ASSOCIATES LIMITED 801-860 Main St Moncton NB E1C 1G2 (506) 857-8525 Fax: (506) 858-5972 Contact: Rodney Hopper, Regional Manager

(905) 882-4401 Fax: (905) 882-4399 E-mail: urs_markham@urscorp.com Web site: www.urscorp.com Contact: Paul Hudspith, Vice President Mark Lack, Principal-Environmental Services The Environmental Group of URS Canada Inc. specializes in Environmental Site Assessments, Clean-ups, Property Redevelopment (Brownfields), Due Diligence Audits, Site Decommissioning, Designated Substances Surveys, Air Monitoring, Permitting, and Environmental Management Systems. URS is a consulting engineering and professional geosciences firm providing multidisciplinary services for: Transportation, Municipal Infrastructure, Facilities, and Environment.

VENERUS INTERNATIONAL PURIFICATION INC RR#6 Guelph ON N1H 6J3 (519) 823-1252 Fax: (519) 823-2046 Contact: Angelo Venerus, Manager

TRITON CONSULTANTS LTD. 3530 43rd Ave W Vancouver BC V6N 3J9 (604) 263-3500 Fax: (604) 676-2252 Contact: Mike Tarbotton, President

TROW CONSULTING ENGINEERS LTD 1595 Clark Blvd Brampton ON L6T 4V1 TRY ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES INC. 8 Widdicombe Hill Toronto ON M9R 1B3 (416) 246-1107 Fax: (416) 246-1127 Contact: Robert Ostry, President TSM ENGINEERED SERVICES 2228 Carpenters Circle Oakville ON L6M 3C5 (905) 469-9949 Fax: (905) 469-9949 Contact: Erika Kadak, President TWD TECHNOLOGIES LTD 4-2180 Speers Rd Oakville ON L6L 2X8 (905) 338-3372 Fax: (905) 338-3379 Contact: Milt Tsiapalis, Principal UMA GROUP LTD 1700-1066 Hastings St W Vancouver BC V6E 3X2 URBAN & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 301-4701 Saint Clair Ave Niagara Falls ON L2E 3S9 (905) 371-9764 Fax: (905) 371-9763 Contact: David Schram, President URBAN SYSTEMS LTD 4459 14th Ave W Vancouver BC V6R 2Y2 URBAN SYSTEMS LTD 2353-13553 Commerce Pky Richmond BC V6V 3A1



WESTERN BIORESOURCES CONSULTING LTD 2248 Columbia Ave Castlegar BC V1N 2X1 (250) 365-2028 Fax: (250) 365-3607 Contact: Chris Bullock. President WPC SOLUTIONS INC. 335 Hampshire Crt NW Calgary AB T3A 4Y4 (403) 547-7281 Fax: (403) 547-8261 Contact: A. Warren Wilson, President WSH LABORATORIES LTD 3851 B-21 St N E Calgary AB T2E 6T5 (403) 250-9164 Fax: (403) 291-4597 Contact: Bill Wong, Manager

VDV CONSULTING INC. 386 Timlock Pl Waterloo ON N2K 3J2 (519) 725-9874 Fax: (519) 725-0842 Contact: Jackie Van de Valk, Principal

TRIHEDRAL ENGINEERING LTD 1160 Bedford Highway Bedford NS B4A 1C1 (902) 835-1575 Fax: (902) 835-0369

TRITON ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS LTD 8971 Beckwith Rd Richmond BC V6X 1V4 (604) 279-2093 Fax: (604) 279-2047 Contact: A. Clyde Mitchell, Executive Vice President


VERITEC CONSULTING INC. 12-1495 Bonhill Rd Mississauga ON L5T 1M2 (905) 696-9391 Fax: (905) 696-9395 E-mail: veritec@sympatico.ca Web site: www.veritec.ca Contact: Alain M. Lalonde, Principal Leaders in operations enhancement providing specialty services to the water and wastewater industry including water efficiency programs, system optimization, leakage.

XCG CONSULTANTS LTD. 300-2620 Bristol Circle Oakville ON L6H 6Z7 (905) 829-8880 Fax: (905) 829-8890 E-mail: gta@xcg.com Website: www.xcg.com Contact: Deborah Molloy, Marketing Coordinator Expert People. Better Decisions. XCG Consultants Ltd. is an environmental engineering firm that has earned a reputation for excellence. Our staff is committed to delivering innovative and practical solutions. XCG offers comprehensive services in water and wastewater treatment, infrastructure management, water resources, site assessment and remediation, risk assessment and solid waste. ZORIX CONSULTANTS INC 200-3425 Semenyk Crt Mississauga ON L5C 4P9

VICINIA CORPORATION 201-60 Collier St. Barrie ON L4M 1G8 (705) 792-5750 Fax: (705) 792-5751 Contact: Chris Hauschild, President

WALKERTON CLEAN WATER CENTRE PO Box 160 220 Trillium Court Walkerton ON N0G 2V0 (519) 881-2003 Fax: (519) 881-4947 E-mail: lcranston@wcwc.ca Web site: www.wcwc.ca Contact: Linda Cranston, Executive Assistant The Walkerton Clean Water Centre is a training facility that provides knowledge based training and comprehensive technology demonstration to owners, operators and operating authorities of Ontario water systems. WARDROP ENGINEERING INC. 1600-144 4 Ave SW Calgary AB T2P 3N4 (403) 514-6908 Fax: (403) 514-8086 Contact: Joel Nolin, General Manager WATERWORKS TECHNOLOGIES INC 2024 12th Avenue NW Calgary AB T2N 1J7 (403) 289-3198 Fax: (403) 289-3147 Contact: Renee Beaucage, Office Manager WESA (WATER AND EARTH SCIENCE ASSOCIATES LTD) PO Box 430 3108 Carp Rd Carp ON K0A 1L0 (613) 839-3053 Fax: (613) 839-5376 Contact: Robert Hillier, B.Sc, P.Geo, Office Manager/Hydrogeologist

January 2007 | 95

Wastewater Pumping

Bypass operation allows municipality to fix problems while maintaining services ampden Township, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is home to more than 25,000 residents and is a desirable location because of good schools and strong community services. To maintain the township’s core values, municipal leaders pay particular attention to infrastructure maintenance issues and fiscal responsibility. The township’s wastewater treatment facility is a modern plant fed by suburban transfer stations throughout the area. Pump station No. 8 is a wet well/dry well lift station outfitted with three dry pit submersible pumps. The site is also one of the busiest stations, pumping upwards of 2,500 US gallons of sewage per minute. By February 2005, constant wear and tear on the station’s continually working pumps necessitated replacement. Many municipalities only consider the initial purchase price and installation cost of wastewater pumping equipment. There are many other factors to be considered when deciding on the type of equipment to serve a wastewater pumping station. When considering the options, the township and partners took into consideration the total cost of owning wastewater pumps, which include: • Initial cost. • Installed cost. • Operating and maintenance costs. • Reliability and the opportunity to standardize. • Ability to obtain spare parts quickly. • Capability to unclog the pump easily. Gannett Fleming consulting engineers, an international consulting firm, was selected to present solutions to the township’s challenges. The engineering teams developed a blueprint of how to bring more efficiency to the station, specifying Gorman-Rupp pumps to meet the challenge. The principal problem with taking down pumps (in this scenario) is that the community’s wastewater does not stop for the maintenance process. Having a solution that continued township services during the renovation was critical. To maintain services while repairs took place, the team installed three Gorman-Rupp above ground pumps – two PA6C models and one


120 | January 2007

To maintain services while repairs took place, the team installed three Gorman-Rupp above ground pumps.

RP4G model to handle the sewage flow as the eight-inch pumps were being replaced. These pumps bypassed the pump station and forwarded, at peak, more than 5.2 million US gallons of wastewater per day to a treatment facility three miles away. "One pump will do the job,” says Scott Webb, President of Keystone Power & Pump, who supplied the rental pumps. "If needed, the second and third pumps can be used to handle excessive wastewater during a storm or a time of high usage.” All three electric pumps operate on a float system, meaning that, if the primary pump’s float reaches a certain level due to heavy rain or in the event of a mechanical failure, an alternative

pump kicks on. Although each pump is capable of pumping 2,500 gallons per minute (GPM), the main pipeline out of the station is a 16-inch line that transfers 2,500 GPM. Therefore, at peak times, when two pumps are operating, each is driving 1,250 GPM. Another bottom line benefit for township taxpayers is realized by utilizing electric pumps, which require less manpower to maintain than diesel devices and are also quieter, an important factor as the pumps are situated above ground and not far from residential areas. An efficient and reliable pumping system is dependent on the precise matching of the pumps, motors and controls. The design, engineering and manufacturing of the system must work together to ensure that the system meets requirements and performs reliably year after year. www.grcanada.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

American Concrete Pipe Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 ACG Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 ALTECH Environmental Consulting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Americana/Reseau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 AMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Anthrafilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Aquablast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Armtec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12, 13 Associated Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Avensys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Baycor Fibre Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 C&M Environmental Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 CAEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Canadian Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Canadian Environmental Markets Association . . . . . . . . .74 Canadian Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Cancoppas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Cantest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 CH2M HILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Chemline Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Con Cast Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 ConTech - PCB Containment Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 Davis Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Delcan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Delcan Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Denso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 ECO Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 ECO Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Fresh Creek Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Geneq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Golder Associates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Greatario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Grundfos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Grundfos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 H2Flow Tanks & Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Health & Safety Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Heron Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Hetek Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Hoskin Scientific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Hydro-Logic Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Ideal Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 International Water Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Imbrium Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 IPEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 John Meunier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 JWC Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 KMK Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 KSB Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Muskegon County Wastewater System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Napier Reid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Neptune Chemical Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Ontario Water Operators Training Centre . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Parkson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Pro Aqua + Shadrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 ProMinent Fluid Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Rudi Kovacko & Associates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Sanitherm Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Serpentix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Service Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Smith & Loveless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 SPD Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Spill Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Stantec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Supavac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Sustainable Development Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Syntec Process Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 The Professional Learning Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Tri-Phase Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Tuthill Vacuum & Blower Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Victaulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Viking Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Waterloo Barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Waterloo Biofilter Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Waterra Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Westfalia Separator Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 XCG Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 ZCL Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63



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.www.hoskin.ca/docs/water-level-logger.pdf . . . . . . .www.hoskin.ca/docs/weatherstation.pdf . . . . . . .info@hydrologic.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.hydrologic.ca . . . . . . .sales@idealpipe.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.idealpipe.ca . . . . . . .iws@iws.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . www.iws.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.imbriumsystems.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ipexinc.com . . . . . . .sales@johnmeunier.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.johnmeunier.com . . . . . . .envirocan@sympatico.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.jwce.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.kmk.ca . . . . . . .ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.ksb.ca . . . . . . .info@napier-reid.com . 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.www.spdsales.com . . . . . . .contact@spillmanagement.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.spillmanagement.ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.stantec.com . . . . . . .info@supavaccanada.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.supavaccanada.com . . . . . . .www.sdtc.ca/en/funding/advice/index.htm . . . . . . .info@syntecpe.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.syntecpe.com . . . . . . .dgdrone@yahoo.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.tplchome.com . . . . . . .catrache@pcbdisposal.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.pcbdisposal.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.vacuum.tuthill.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.victaulic.com . . . . . . .vpcmarketing@idexcorp.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .www.vikingpumpcanada.com . . . . . . .info@waterloo-barrier.com . . 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Pumping Systems

Region of Waterloo uses MV drives for potential savings

needs of the application and offered a variety of benefits including allowing all equipment to operate on the standby generators at site. Two new PowerFlex 7000 "A" Frame 1000 hp AC drives, use pulse The PowerFlex 7000 medium voltage drive uses the patented PowerCage with width modulated (PWM) rectifiers (also known as Active Front End rectiSGCT technology, for easy installation and maintenance. fiers or AFE) and integral isolation transformers. These transformers elimn southern Ontario, as in much of with a control valve had mechanical and inate excess cabling, save space in the North America, water reductions electrical issues. There was high wear control room due to a smaller footprint, and bans have become common- and tear on the equipment. The constant and reduce the need for civil engineerplace during summer months. speed control of the pump made regulat- ing. The population of the Regional ing the water pressure difficult. The 1700 hp motor was retro-fitted Municipality of Waterloo (RMoW), The current pumping station config- with a PowerFlex 7000 "B" Frame 1750 Ontario, has grown an average of 1.5% uration used an autotransformer for the hp drive with remote transformer and per year since 1991. In 2002, the popu- 1700 hp pump motor, which caused AFE rectifier. It generates near sinulation was approximately 470,000 and surging on start-up. The station was soidal waveforms (current & voltage) is estimated to grow to 558,000 by also impacted by voltage fluctuation. to help prevent the motor overheating 2016. In 2004, the RMoW supplied Additionally, the Region was looking and insulation stress. 176,100 households with an average of for current technology drives with a The medium voltage drive solution 157.9 million litres of water each day. small footprint, low harmonics, near has provided improved process control Twenty percent of this water comes unity power factor, and local support for over two years with over 99% availfrom the Hidden Valley High Lift Pump and service. ability and no component failures. Station, which pumps water from the Working with Eramosa Engineering, Power factor has also improved from reservoir, uphill more than 10 km, to of Guelph, Ontario, to find an efficient 95% to near unity 1.0 at varying flow the Mannheim water treatment plant. solution, the Region was able to rates. The Region wanted to update its sys- achieve its goals with medium voltage The Regional Municipality of tem to improve pump control and drives from Rockwell Automation. Waterloo effectively doubled its pumpachieve energy efficiency, maintain a Eramosa Engineering and Rockwell ing capability, to 16 million gallons per reliable backup system, and be able to Automation recommended replacing day, and provided redundancy within work with the 4160V distribution sys- the two 600V - 900 hp drive units and the pumping units by having the option tem. the 1700 hp across-the-line starter with to operate either the 1700 hp unit or the The existing configuration at the 4160V medium voltage VFDs, and re- two 900 hp units. Testing of the emerpump station used two 900 hp high lift using the existing motor and cabling gency generators established that the pumps and two 900 hp 600V low volt- system using Powerflex 7000’s unique Region could operate both systems on age variable frequency drives running sinusoidal waveform technology. the standby generators under the new in tandem, each capable of pumping The two existing 600V 900 hp configuration. 450 litres of water per second. The low motors were rewound to 4160V to As the population in the Region of voltage drives were obsolete and it was match the 4160V distribution system, Waterloo continues to increase, the increasingly difficult to find parts and to provide commonality of components Region has piping set up for a future service. in the VFDs, and to simplify the opera- installation of a pump motor and VFD. A third fixed speed 1700 hp pump, tion and maintenance of the station. controlled by an operating valve, ran at Allen-Bradley PowerFlex 7000 For more information, please visit 81% efficiency. The fixed speed pump medium voltage AC drives met the www.rockwellautomation.com


122 | January 2007

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Parting is such sweet happiness...

...when it comes to stormwater, thanks to Con Cast Pipe’s effective and cost-efficient ecoStorm stormwater treatment system. Third party testing at NWRI and MOE NETE reviewed, Con Cast Pipe’s ecoStorm also boasts 80% net Total Suspended Solids (TSS) removal, making it a clear choice for your stormwater treatment system.

Con Cast Pipe’s ecoStorm product removes floating pollutants, debris and contaminated solids from stormwater. It is engineered site specific for your application in order to exceed pollutant removal regulations in industrial, commercial and residential applications. ecoStorm benefits from efficient installation using standard precast components and low maintenance costs due to easy access for inspection or contaminant removal. Visit www.concastpipe.com to discover more regarding ecoStorm and other key water treatment products.





Licensed by Con Cast Pipe from Royal Environmental Systems Inc., A Division of Royal Enterprises America

Effective Underground Storm Water Control,

In nature, rainfall is recognized as a life-giving asset.

When we develop a natural site the asset too often becomes a runoff liability for the developer and all parties downstream. Traditional storm water ponds and infrastructure require expensive land area and are often over-taxed by runoff accumulations from many areas upstream. Underground storm water detention, using economical corrugated steel pipe systems, permits developers to manage storm water on-site without sacrificing valuable land or flooding their neighbours.

For creative storm water management solutions contact a CSPI member in your neighbourhood. Members: Fabricators: Armtec, Atlantic Industries Ltd., Canada Culvert & Metal Products, FSI Culvert, E.S. Hubbell & Sons Ltd., Prairie Steel, Soleno Inc., SPIR-L-OK Industries, Steelcor Culvert, Westman Steel Industries. Steel Producers and Associates: Dofasco Inc., Stelco Inc., Sorevco, Ironside Design Manufacturing Inc., METAL KOTING, Noranda Inc., The Dow Chemical Company.

CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE INSTITUTE 652 Bishop St., Unit 2A Cambridge, Ontario N3H 4V6 Toll Free: (866) 295-2416 Fax: (519) 650-8081 Email us at: info@cspi.ca Visit our web site at www.cspi.ca