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FEATURES En vjran/naninJ 07
Wacky, scare and breakthrough - a costly media trio Editorial comment by Tom Davey
Louisiana struggles with Katrina and Rita's environmental havoc - Report from WEFTEC
Taking the bite out of infrastructure costs at Ontario's "Big Apple"
Saving aeration power costs
Meeting metering challenges in rural communities
ISSN-0835-605X November 2005 Vol. 18 No.5
Issued November, 2005 fSiSf invites articles (approx. 1000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste
treatment and other environmental protection topics, if you are interested in submitting an article for consideration, please contact Steve Davey at firstname.lastname@example.org. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit ail submissions without notice.
Alberta water treatment plant maintains production during UV installation
Concrete pipeline designers transitioning to Standard Installations
fw Pondering the future of the water industry Design-Build - does this method work well in the public sector?
Consulting engineering needs
innovation from our leaders
Leadership and sustainability changing the context of consulting engineering
Successful staffing - the "oxygen" of any consulting enterprise
Tanks used as integral part of NB Power wastewater system
PAGES 38-47 Dump trailer liners used In decommissioned
foundry clean-up project 48
Controlling Legionella with chlorine dioxide
Internal tank valve chamber prevents spills and freeze up
New drinking water system earns EPA status as a multi-barrier purifier
Secondary containment lining system for fuel storage tanks
Melting process successful for radioactive waste site clean-up
The dangers that lurk in tank farms
Separator prevents oil contaminating a power plant stormwater system
SBR system chosen for large Chinese pulp & paper mill
A supercomputing solution for air quality permitting
4 I November 2005
The costs of not preparing a spill prevention, containment and countermeasures plan PAGES 25-37
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Editorial By Tom Davey
Wacky,scare and breakthrough - a costly media trio
Eons ago, on a second trip to Australia, I
astounding interview take place when a reporter con fronted an eminent scientist. Ambush
might be a better word. Some of the top environmental scientists on the Planet
had gathered in the Sydney Opera House to present and debate their learned findings among their global peers. One scientist had noted that the water quality of Sydney Harbour had improved over the years."So much so", he quipped, "even the sharks have come back."
Almost immediately after his pres entation, a TV journalist confronted the eminent scientist with a 14-year-old schoolgirl in tow, neatly dressed in the usual attractive Australian school uni
form. It emerged that she had written an essay on the environment, which had won a national award. Questioned by the reporter, the scientist reiterated he had not said the harbour water quality was perfect,just that it had improved as defined by scientific instruments and analyses. The girl, egged on by the reporter, said that fish did not live there anymore.
Like their athletes, many Australian reporters have world class impudence, generously laced with an aggressive attitude. This reporter retorted: "Come now Doctor, this girl has just won a prestigious award for her environmental essay. How can you say the water has improved?" The scientist, now clearly flustered, found it hard to explain the complexities of bioassays and analyses of toxins to an abrasive interviewer. I watched astounded as this farce
unfolded. It was absurd. An essay, writ ten by a 14 year old - too young even to take her driving examination - was now being used as a weapon against a scientist who had written scores of
peer-reviewed papers on the environ mental sciences, 1 was reminded of this incident when 1 read an article in The
Guardian, a paper noted for its erudi tion and in-depth articles, as well as its gutsy coverage. It has spawned The Guardian Weekly which contains a selection of articles, culled from the
daily Guardian, then transmitted elec-
Tom was a 'Rapporteur' at the International Association of Water Pollution Research meeting in the Sydney Opera House where this photo was taken in 1974. In an earlier visit he had worked for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation as a reporter and editor.
tronically and printed in Montreal for Canadian distribution.
breakthrough trio which were so humorously defined by his colleague.
In a recent article, Ben Goldacre
But Canada has its own brand of
notes that science stories usually fall into three categories: wacky, scare and breakthrough articles. He noted that one university PR department in London, until recently, had never employed a single science graduate.
wacky, scare and breakthrough stories
This is not uncommon, he writes.
Science is done by scientists, then press releases are written by non scien tists who then run it by non scientist bosses, who then send it to journalists without a scientific education who
find it difficult to convey complicated ideas to lay audiences. Finally it is edited by a whole team of people who don't understand it. The Guardian, I believe, must be excluded from this
litany of incompetence. Flashback
When Toronto hosted an interna
tional conference on Global Warming over a decade ago I met Tim Radford of The Guardian who covered the con
ference. His articles have always been easy-to-read distillations of complex issues and devoid of hyperbole. 1 later met Tim at The Guardian headquar ters in London. Tim has won at least three British national awards for his
science writing; none of these awards, I'm sure, fell into the wacky, scare and
on environmental issues which has
been extremely costly to both taxpay ers and the environment. Proposals to harness the thermal properties in waste solvents which were contaminated by a small percentage of PCBs were aban doned following media hysteria. The temperatures required to make cement are approximately double that of normal incineration processes. Many rotary cement kilns are over 50 metres long, rotating at about three rev olutions per minute so the wastes have a long residence time in the incinera tion process. Both residence times and the high temperatures of the cement kiln process ensure destruction of toxic waste while adding the economic val ues of free fuel. Federal Government studies found the residence times and
temperatures in the studies were approximately double that necessary to safely dispose of PCBs and other liquid wastes.
But concerns about air pollution have tainted any incineration of wastes. Ironically it has resulted in Toronto using some 150 diesel trucks to travel, daily, to Detroit, Michigan, to continued overleaf...
November 2005 I 7
8e Engineering Editor
Editorial By Tom Davey dispose ofToronto's garbage in landfill where it must be noted, the resultant
E-mail: email@example.com (No attachments please)
methane emissions are oblivious to
Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
trips and idling time on visits to trans
political boundaries. The long highway fer stations must be added to this
absurdity. One Ontario Minister of the
Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: email@example.com
Environment once stated: "Toronto must look after its own wastes." It would take a satirist to have envisioned
Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Design & Production CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: email@example.com Publisher
Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontan'o Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, HHaniloba
an expensive farce such as the Detroit fiasco.
Then too, incineration technology has evolved so that biosolids could be
processed so that they would burn autogenously, investing the process with thermal properties which could be used to provide energy in the waste treatment process, again transforming a problem into an asset. Both these methods were tested
George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2MHiLL, Ontario
Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine
ADi Systems Inc., New Brunswick
Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R. V. Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario Stanley Mason, P.Eng.
well over two decades ago, yet aban doned in the face of fierce opposition.
cement. Municipal garbage, too, might be destroyed this way economically using kiln technology in an acceptable manner.
The decision to abdicate the dual benefits of PCB and biosolids inciner
ation technology must have cost hun dreds of millions of dollars with, iron ically, negative impacts on the environ ment and government budgets which continue to this day.
The result. Cement manufacturers use
imported coal to make cement while the sludge deposition on land arouses fierce opposition from the same groups who fought sludge incineration and the use of PCB contaminated sol vents in the safe manufacture of
British Columbia Marie Meunier
John Meunier Inc., Quebec
Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science &
Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.
Readers Include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors.
Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. fSiSf cannot be respon sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial mat
ter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles In this magazine are intended to provide infor mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
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8 I November 2005
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Passing the performance test
"\ like smart operation and efficiency and the Jet Aeration System
from Flygt delivers more of both than
any other similar system I've ever seen." Clayton MacMurtry, Director of Public Works. Town of Middleton, Nova Scotia
Clayton MacMurtry is a gentleman farmer who enjoys spending time tending his cows, horses and three champion bulls. "I'm real proud of those bulls", he says.
"The government inspects them for reproduction so I say they're performance tested." Middleton's treatment plant was also performance tested but that was 35 years ago. It came as no surprise, then, that one of the two brush units supplying oxygen and
flow in the race-track-style oxidation ditch recently tailed. Clayton considered replacing the brush but realized he would be no further ahead in dealing with a number of ditticult maintenance and safety issues. Flygt's Jet Aeration System turned out to be the solution. The state-of-the-art system uses two NS 3152 MT pumps with a 117-150 ejector kit. The oxygen transfer rate, ease of maintenance and quiet operation made the system an obvious choice. It even generated less spray than the old brush aerators - a real plus. "I love the Jet Aerator," says Clayton.
Flygt Find out more about the Flygt Jet Aerator at www.flygt.ca
ITT Industries Engineered for life
Droughts in India -floods in New Orleans among topics at WEFTEC 2005
Atthe recent Water Environment Federation
Washington, DC, a Stockholm Water Prize winner outlined
realistic drinking water treatment solu tions for Third World countries. Ms. Sunita Narain and the New Delhi based Centre for Science and Environment
(CSE), a non-governmental organization, shared the 2005 Stockholm Water Prize
for their efforts to fight top-down bureau cratic control of resources. A major goal was to empower women in water manage ment issues and rejuvenate traditional rainwater harvesting. She emphasized that it was manage ment, not scarcity of water, that is often the problem in many parts ofthe world. CSE is working to promote rainwater harvesting as a solution to water scarci ty. This involves storing rain in millions of storage systems - in tanks, ponds, step-wells and even rooftops - and to use it to recharge groundwater reserves for irrigation and drinking water needs.
A flooded wastewater treatment facility In St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana.
floodwater quickly diluted into the
She went on to say that, in India, water systems need to be designed to hold the monsoon rains, which are only 100 hours per year. On average one
The Department also tested the toxicity of the floodwater throughout September, using aquatic toxicity tests.
hectare of land receives 1 million litres
productivity of rain-fed and marginal ized lands. Water can turn a large part ofthe country's currently parched lands into productive lands, reduce poverty
of rainfall per year. In fact, as far back as 5,000 years ago, Indian settlements had rainwater retention systems which essentially "harvested" flood waters. WEF also organized a special ses sion on the environmental impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Backed up with startling images ofthe destruction,
and increase incomes where it is need
Karen Gautreaux from the Louisiana
ed the most. CSE has shown through its advocacy that localized water manage ment is a cost-effective approach and more importantly that local water man
Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) presented some staggering sta tistics. As a result of some 75 square miles of land being flooded for weeks, approximately 350,000 automobiles and 66,000 boats have to be scrapped.
"Catch water where it falls!" she stated.
According to the CSE, the world faces a critical challenge to improve the
agement can only be done through community participation. The work of CSE has highlighted that water cannot become everybody's business until there are fundamental
changes in the ways we do business with water. Policy will have to recog nize that water management, which
As well, some 22 million tones of
debris have to be disposed of. Albert Hindrichs, also of the Louisiana DEQ, outlined how Lake Pontchartrain is recovering from the floodwaters of Hurricanes Katrina and
involves communities and households,
Rita. The DEQ has sampled the water
has to become the biggest cooperative enterprise in the world. CSE believes that the prevalent mindset that water management is the exclusive responsi bility of government must give way to participative and local management. Ms. Narain told delegates that, in India, drought is a permanent condi tion. Increasingly the country has turned to groundwater for new water supplies and there are now over 22 mil
in Lake Pontchartrain as well as the
lion well owners. What is most alarm-
10 I November 2005
into the lake was approximately 4 per cent of the total volume of the lake, the
ing, she said, is that groundwater tables are not being recharged and in many cases are dropping alarmingly each
The tests showed that all fish and 10 of 12 invertebrate test animals were able
to survive in 100 percent pumped-out floodwater. Toxicity tests involve the exposure of aquatic animals to a series of concentrations of floodwater for 48
hours. High survival rates are an indi cation of the absence of pollutants. Based upon the large number of samples from the lake and floodwaters and because of the toxicity tests results, the DEQ does not foresee any issues with the fish, crabs, shrimp or any other animals that inhabit the lake.
WEFTEC.05 drew 18,132 water
quality professionals from around the world. The conference featured 111
technical sessions, 25 workshops, 11 interactive facility tours and 876 exhibiting companies using over 214,000 square feet of floor space. WEFTEC 2006 will be held in Dallas
Texas, October 21-25.
By Steve Davey, Publisher
floodwaters that were pumped into the lake from the flooded areas of New
Orleans. The Department was encour aged by the results because the only contamination of concern was bacteria related to the waste that was in the
floodwaters. As the water was pumped into the lake, bacteria levels declined, diminishing to levels similar to those of unaffected areas. Because the volume
of water pumped out of the city back Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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Wastewater Treatment I
Taking the bite out of infrastructure costs at Ontario's"Big Appie" By Duane Smith
plus to existing users on private servic es, only to face the possibility of hav ing to turn down new higher assess ment developments that might come along in the future. This was precisely the dilemma
faced by Cramahe Township during an expansion of its Colborne Industrial Park, located adjacent to Highway 401 between Kingston and Toronto and notable for the "Big Apple" area land mark. Current tenants of this Industrial
Park include CCC Plastics, a manufac
turing facility, a PetroCanada gas sta tion and car wash, a transformer man
ufacturing facility, a greenhouse, a dairy and other fuel, transport and dis tribution companies. Expansion plans and a second busi ness park were in jeopardy because adequate sewer servicing was not in place. The existing septic systems had experienced failures and were already
Municipalities aiming to
attract higher assessment
uses and new businesses
to a community often face difficulty in providing water and wastewater services to a new
expanding industrial park. Without these services expansion plans can get derailed and new commercial/industri
al businesses are less likely to take up occupancy.
considered to be an environmental risk
Providing full services to an indus trial park typically requires the munic ipality to commit to a large initial cap ital investment in an environment
where slow growth may occur. In addi tion, municipalities will have to assess any limitations to their existing surplus sewer capacity at their wastewater treatment plant. Where capacity is lim ited, municipalities have to consider whether it is prudent to give up the sur
due to a high water table and its prox imity to a natural wetland. The Township wanted to attract new busi nesses to the area and was determined
to succeed, even though only a small number of businesses required sewers at the time.
The Township explored using con ventional sewers, but costs were an
issue. The Township did not have the financial ability to fully assume the cost of expansion. High costs were
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12 I November 2005
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater Treatment partly driven by the fact that conven tional sewer installation required that the roads would be substantially replaced as part of the construction program. Affordability and business operating continuity then became an issue with both the municipality and
low-flow SBS system was the reduced initial capital and lower ongoing oper ating costs. An additional benefit of the SBS system is that it can be installed using horizontal drilling methods, resulting in substantially reduced disruption to existing business
the business owners.
activities and road surfaces.
In addition to the capital chal lenges, the project would commit near ly all the remaining surplus capacity of the Township's sewage treatment plant to the industrial park, thereby limiting future growth opportunities. The design allowance for infiltration by employing a conventional sewage col lection system in the servicing plan had a major impact on the ability ofthe downstream infrastructure to accept both the existing development and future development. The combination of these two factors, capital constraints and limited sewage treatment capacity, led the municipality to seek other options for servicing. After exploring alternative solu tions, the township selected the SBSâ„˘ system, a small bore sewer technology developed by Clearford Industries Inc. of Ottawa, Ontario. Effluent in Clearford's SBS (Small Bore Sewer) system is discharged to a network of small diameter (about 10 to 15 cm) HOPE pipes and transported to a conventional sewer outlet. Piping is pressure tested and completely sealed, preventing groundwater infiltration into the system and reducing the over
Clearford was awarded a designbuild contract for under $400,000, about 40% less than the original esti
all volume of waste transmitted ulti
mately to the treatment works. An onsite clarifier at each building collects solids and provides primary treatment of the sewage prior to entering the col lection system. The clarifier has been designed for a recommended 7-10 years cleanout cycle for the settled solids and also serves to stabilize flows
to reduce system peaking factors. Combined efficiencies of the sealed
system, stabilized flows and solid sep aration allow system owners the flexi bility to reduce the size of their down stream collection works and realize
cost and operating efficiencies not available to them by employing histor ical wastewater collection solutions.
The system helped the Township to solve its challenge of providing serv iced industrial land within tight finan cial constraints and within the limits of
available capacity at its wastewater treatment plant. The key benefit of the
Under the design-build arrange ment, Clearford became the single source of accountability for the proj ect. It was constructed over the winter
months, with spring installation of the tanks. A one year warranty was includ
sign up for a Free trial
ed in the contract. Clearford worked
with all of the occupants of the indus trial park to determine their water usage and service requirements and designed the system to ensure that all of their expressed requirements would be met.
Since the installation, Clearford has engaged PCL Constructors as its national supply partner for construction and project management services. The partnership will combine Clearford's wastewater design capabilities with PCL's bid and build expertise to provide municipalities and developers with fixed price solutions and strong guar antees for their sewage and water requirements. Small bore sewers have also been
effectively installed in areas where septic tanks are failing in communi ties, infrastructure needs upgrading, or municipalities are in need of develop ment or are near capacity with their wastewater treatment plants. The small bore sewer system in the Colborne Industrial Park is the first installation of this kind in Canada for a
eommercial/light industrial applica tion. With the system initially commis sioned in 2004, the park is now enter ing into a new phase of development. Private developers also have an interest in the technology because it allows for increased housing densities in areas that would otherwise have
large lot sizes due to septic leach field requirements. Diiane Smith is Research Directorfor Clearford Industries. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Canada November 2005 1 13
Saving power costs in the activated
sludge process By Mike Rousey
Power consumption is one of
the largest expenses in operat
amounts of wasted electric
ing a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the activat
ity. DO levels that are too low will not support the bacteria necessary to treat incoming wastes. Inadequate DO concen tration, in effect, can result in the plant vio lating effluent limits established in its NPDES per
ed sludge process, power consumption can cost thousands of dollars.
Activated sludge process a balancing act Solids present in the primary clarifier effluent are particles too fine to "settle out." Yet, (US) Environmental Protection Agency regulations require removal of these organic wastes to pre
vent pollution that can cause disease, fish kills, and algae blooms. The acti vated sludge process removes these suspended particles by converting them to settleable solids. It uses a
mixed culture of microorganisms including bacteria, protozoans, and rotifers to break down organic wastes into inorganic wastes. However, the WWTP activated sludge process speeds up this natural course by con trolling the environment. Aeration blowers supply oxygen critical to the survival of the bacteria in
the activated sludge process. However, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels that are too high can result in pin flock in clarifiers, severe sludge bulking in some
mit. Problems with common control methods
Operators at most US WWTPs use a handheld DO meter and set activated
sludge process blowers at a constant speed. This set method of control does not allow for process adjustments. For example, when oxygen demand decreases during winter nights due to falling temperatures, this method does not compensate for the decreased need for aeration and wastes power. Conversely, a large oxygen demand during periods of industrial discharge can deplete DO - and wipe out the entire activated sludge process - if the process does not automatically increase aeration. Operators using handheld DO meters achieve only hit-
Revolutianarij Self-Priming Wasfei/vater Pump
or-miss readings that are insuificient for optimizing plant operation and energy usage.
Potential power savings with automation
WWTPs can decrease power con
sumption in the activated sludge process. Energy-efficient motors and variable frequency drives (VFD) used with on-line dissolved oxygen analyz ers - installed and maintained properly - will contain energy costs. For example, the Hach SCI00 Analyzer with an EDO Probe can be configured to send a 4-20 mA signal to a VFD or be used in conjunction with a plant PLC or SCADA. The control system automatically increases or decreases aeration blower speed in response to the measured DO levels in the aeration basin. A 1998 study by the Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities demonstrated the use of this
equipment in the activated sludge process reduced energy costs as much as 25%.
In summary, an on-line dissolved oxygen analyzer when used with the plant's energy-efficient motors, variable frequency drives, and plant SCADA or PLC systems, adjusts aeration operation automatically in response to varying process conditions.
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Corrugated Steel Pipe protects against the uncertainties oftomorrow
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Advanced water meter reading technology results In rural efficiency
The Rural Municipality of
By Darlene McNichol
Macdonald, Manitoba, faced challenges that are similar to those faced by many rural
communities across Canada. The six
villages that make up Macdonald cover 25 by 18 miles, a distance that is com parable to the City of Winnipeg. With limited resources, Macdonald was faced with managing 1,750 water meter accounts over this massive area. Of
these accounts, 1,100 are urban, 650 are rural, located outside of the com munities, and their overall meter popu lation continues to grow.
every quarter. Accuracy and reliability were of great concern. Of the 1,750 accounts required to call in their readings, only some 60% responded; estimate bills were as high as 40%. Readings were
tion that would improve water meter reading efficiencies over this widely distributed area. The existing water meter infrastructure was onerous as
mates determined where needed, fol
90% of the water meters required
lowed by printing the bills. This entire process took up three weeks of time and it put tremendous demands on municipal persoimel. The Municipality had one person assigned to utility work. During this peak time, three or more other municipal per sonnel had to interrupt their duties to assist, which included answering time consuming customer calls. During the
inside access to the home to obtain a
reading. The remaining 10% of the meter population had remotes installed outside the residence. Due to the rural
setting, inefficiencies in collecting the reading data forced the Municipality to abandon the idea of implementing a completely remote system. Macdonald was forced to resort to a
system whereby all 1,750 accounts were required to telephone in their meter reading to the Municipality
calls required further work such
called in to a dedicated answer
ing machine with the majori ty coming in during the few days prior to the due date.^ Three to four days were ded icated to listening and record ing readings. All ofthis data then had to be entered electronically, esti
Macdonald wanted to find a solu
as billing adjust ments. This post billing process would easily require two weeks
In moving forward with a solution, Macdonald had several issues to address: older
meters were losing revenue due to decreasing accuracy; and new housing growth was on the rise causing person nel resources to be stretched. All of these factors created the need to inves
minimum of 15% of the accounts called
tigate solutions to improve reading efficiencies and improve data integrity. In the summer of 2004, Macdonald moved ahead to implement Neptune Technology Group's R900 Radio Frequency Automatic Meter Reading
the Municipality with reading, billing
month after the bills were sent out, a
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Water Meters (RF AMR) Solution. RF AMR tech nology was the optimum solution to achieve the Municipality's goals. Neptune offered a single-source solu tion including supply and installation of the automatic meter reading system (R900 meter interface units, water meters, and PC9800 handheld comput ers), system implementation, and turnkey project management. The project was overseen by Neptune's Service Division. All 1,750 meters were equipped with an R900 radio frequency meter interface unit
(RF MIU). In addition 900 of the meters were replaced due to accuracy and migration issues. The Municipality selected a walk-by sys tem using Neptune's PC9800 handheld system to read the meters. The R900 MIU transmits a radio frequency read ing, which is automatically collected by the DAP9800 handheld computer. Benefits and Results
The investment in RF AMR tech
nology has dramatically reduced the number of hours required to read the meters. A large portion of the readings
can now be collected by the meter read er from street level without having to exit the vehicle. Macdonald now enjoys a read success rate of greater than 99%. For example, during their last read
cycle, all hut one read was collected in one pass! During any reading cycle a Utility can factor in temporary obsta cles, such as vehicles, as a cause for not achieving 100%. According to Tom Raine, C.A.O. for Macdonald, there has been an enormous improvement in hilling efficiencies with the implemen tation of RF AMR.
The previous hilling cycle took approximately 5 weeks which included the time to collect and process the read ings, the actual hilling process, and customer calls. Today, a single meter
"LooH, <X.t <\.|| it c(vn Aot
reader can obtain all of the urban reads
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from 380 hours to 40 hours.
The Municipality has achieved its goals of increasing meter reading effi ciencies and improving data integrity. Utility personnel now have more time to focus on other productive services. A key benefit resulting from increased data integrity is the Municipality's abil ity to conduct water audits, pinpoint leaks, and control unaccounted for water. As water treatment costs will
continue to increase, the Municipality can now use the reading data to audit water production more closely against overall usage. All of these benefits allow the
Municipality to provide proactive, accurate, and timely services to its water customers.
Darlene McNichol is with
1075 Sutton Drive 905-681-9292
in one day and all of the rural reads in 3-4 days. With the rapid downloading of the meter readings from the DAP9800 handheld systems, in a sin gle day the Municipality can import the readings and print the bills for distribu tion. Post hilling calls have declined dramatically with only 12 general inquiry calls during the last cycle. The utility is pleased to report that not a sin gle hilling adjustment was required. Overall, the reading and hilling cycle is now 89% more efficient with a reduction in resource hours required
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Alberta water treatment plant maintained production during UV installation
operates a 150 million litre per day water treatment plant, which supplies 77,000 resi dents, as well as commercial, industri
al, institutional and agricultural sec tors. To address growing concerns regarding drinking water quality, Alberta Environment established more
stringent standards, including 4 log (99.99%) inactivation of Giardia, protists common in raw water supplies. The City was faced with significant and expensive chemical disinfection upgrades to meet this standard, and sought a more economical solution. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection for waterborne cysts such as Giardia and Cryptosporidiim offered a solution. Not only would UV allow the City to
defer an intermediate 3 log inactiva tion requirement, saving $500,000, but the City would also be able to reduce the projected capital budget for 4 log inactivation from $20 million to $5 million.
The stringent regulatory deadline challenged the design team of Associated Engineering, CH2M HILL, and the City stakeholders to meet an aggressive implementation schedule. To meet the deadline, the City decided to manage construction, thus expedit
ing implementation. This approach allowed the City to start construction
mi Ultraviolet disinfection system. tors due to potential interference with
during construction, but none of these
To maintain drinking water produc tion, the City needed to keep the water treatment plant clearwell on-line dur
was deemed feasible. An innovative tie-in detail was
ing the construction tie-in. The City and the design team explored a number
meet the capacity, plus a minimum 50% redundancy requirement. Chemical injection points for chlorine were installed upstream and downstream of the reactors. Fluoride and ammonia
injection points were installed down stream ofthe reactors for induction with
a hydraulic mixer. As an added benefit,
developed that allowed the plant to remain on-line during construction. continued overleaf...
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two months earlier than a conventional
design-bid-build project. Long deliv ery items were pre-ordered, including the UV reactors, large diameter butter fly valves, and magnetic flow meters. The UV disinfection facility was designed for 150 million litres per day to match the plant capacity. Five, 600 millimetre diameter Trojan UVSwift reactors with a capacity of 50 million litres per day each were installed to
of options for bypassing the clearwell
the UV transmittance.
Features • Low Cost
0 - see +.37 (@ 20 -C) 3 Pressure Ranges Available:
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• Durable ceramic pressure sensor • Multiple-rate sampling
• HOBOware™ software provides easy conversion to accurate water level readings, fully compensated for barometric pressure*, temperature and water density ^second barometric sensor required
UV disinfection allowed the City to maintain chloramination in the distribu
tion system, which was a consumer preference over free chlorination. Ammonia used for chloramination had
to be kept downstream of the UV reacwww.esema^.com
For detailed specifications, please see: www.hoskln.ca/water-level-logger.pdf
Hoskin Scientific Ltd* www.hoskin.ca November 2005 \ 19
Drinking Water -Inlet Header
Piping layout for ultraviolet reactors.
Main Inlet Isolation Valve
Branch Isolation Valves UV Reactors Flow Meters Branch Control Valves
Drawing Provided By; C&A Industies Inc.
against the wall that allowed a coring
The live tie-in involved pre-drilling 50 mm diameter pilot holes through the clearwell walls to guide divers from
diameter hole from the outside into
the inside. Divers then attached 900
this annulus. Once the cores were com
mm diameter top hats over each pilot hole. These top hats were raised blind flanges, gasketted around the edge and
ers to the clearwell were installed
bolted to the inside of the clearwell
wall. Isolation valves on the pilot holes were then opened to relieve the pres sure behind the top hats; the pressure from the water inside the clearwell
effectively sealed the top hats to the wall.
The top hats formed an armulus
machine to drill a 750 millimetre
pleted, the outlet and inlet piping head grouted in place, and a cast-in-place concrete thrust structure was poured to hold the header in position. The top hats were then removed from the
million, was completed $900,000 under budget. "The City of Lethbridge is very pleased with our new facility", reports Doug Kaupp, the City's Water Utility Manager. "It (the UV facility) has operated flawlessly for the first year and has served to reassure the commu
nity that our drinking water is of the highest quality."
inside of the clearwell.
Construction was completed and the plant commissioned by December 2003, meeting the regulatory deadline. The project, originally estimated at $5
Contact: Lianna Mah, P.Eng. who is with Associated Engineering Limited e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
^ Environmental Newsj The 2006 Canadian Environmental
Conference and Tradeshow(CANECT) May 1-2,2006, Metro Toronto Convention Centre The Canadian Environmental Conference and Tradeshow
(CANECT) will be held May 1-2, 2006 at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. CANECT includes 10 workshops and a tradeshow. Now in its 14th year, CANECT typically attracts some 2,000 senior people responsible for environmental engi neering, regulations and compliance issues. CANECT 2006 will be co-located with Health & Safety
There's Only One Original, Complete & Patented
Canada, an annual tradeshow of the Industrial Accident
Prevention Association(lAPA)that attracts over 6,000 delegates. The close relationship between occupational health and safe ty inside the factory gates and environmental health and safety beyond corporate boundaries has long been recognized. By colocating CANECT 2006 with Health & Safety Canada 2006, exhibitors and attendees will have an exceptional opportunity to efficiently be part of the largest total gathering of all those who specify, or who influence the specification of environmental products and services.
Combined, the two shows are expected to attract some 500 exhibiting companies and 8,000 tradeshow visitors. Tradeshow badges from either show will allow attendees to have admission to both shows.
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For further information please contact Denise Simpson, Show Manager, Tel: 905-727-4666 or Toll Free: 1-888-254-8769
(Ext.21) Email: email@example.com. Or visit www.canect.net
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pumps • fffters • tubing • www.waterra.com • bailers • water level sensors www.esemag.com
November 2005 \ 21
Concrete pipeline designers transitioning to Standard Installations
by Paul Smeltzer,P.Eng.
There are two options for designers of concrete pipe drainage systems to ensure that the pipe functions as a
conduit and a structure. The Indirect
Design method determines the required strength ofthe pipe and then a class of pipe is selected that meets that load requirement based on a given bedding design. Using this method, the pipe manufacturer selects the reinforc ing steel required in the pipe. Direct Design, otherwise referred to as Standard Installations Direct Design (SIDD), is the design of pipe in the installed condition.
The magnitude and distribution of the loads are determined and the phys ical properties necessary to support those loads are calculated. In some
extreme cases the particular class of
pipe determined by the Indirect Design method may not be suitable. For exam ple, the pipe may be required to meet strengths above the highest standard (i.e. MOD) classification listed in tables, or a more exacting design may be appropriate. In such situations, designers can use the Direct Design
method to consider flexure, shear, radial tension and crack control, there
by directly determining the reinforce ment required to meet the specific project criteria. In the Indirect Design method, the earth pressures and their distribution around the pipe and the resulting moments, thrusts, and shears in the pipe are not calculated. Instead, proce dures developed by Anson Marston and Merlin G. Spangler in the 1910s to 1930s are used to calculate bedding
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Process Products and Instrumentation - SOLUTIONS 22 I November 2005
Environmenlal Science & Engineering Magazine
Infrastructure Research factors for the pipe, which relate the in situ load to the pipe to the load applied in a three-edge bearing test. Many of the design practices currently in use are based on the pioneering research completed by these two men. The Indirect Design method was the only standard industry practice through the 1900s, until research by Dr. Frank J. Heger and Dr. Timothy J. McGrath in the 1970s and early 1980s led to improvements in understanding the structural behaviour of buried pipe
Marston and Spangler's development of the Indirect Method With help from Professor A.N. Talbot of the University of Illinois and a theory for pressures in grain bins published by Janssen, Marston pro posed the following equation for cal culating the earth load on a pipe in a
pipe, (lbs/ft.), Cd the coefficient for calculating earth load in trenches, w the unit weight of earth (Ibs/cu. ft.), Bd the width of trench at top of pipe (ft.). The value of Cd is dependent on K, the
ratio of lateral to vertical earth pres sure as determined by Rankine's equa tion, and by the coefficient of internal This formula means that the earth
w, = C, W B] Where We represents earth load on
load on the pipe in narrow trenches is continued overleaf...
in its installed condition. The finite
analysis known as soil pipe interaction design and analysis (SPIDA), identi fied conservatism
Spangler work. Trial installations carried out in
Ohio from 1985 to 1990 led to devel
opment of the four distinct Standard Installations
of SIDD. In
Standard Installations were adopted by the American Society for Civil Engineers (ASCE) as Specification \5-93-Standard Practice for Direct Design of Buried Precast Concrete Pipe Using Standard Installations. It was adopted later in the 1996 (16th)
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ed into the new Canadian National
Bridge Design Code CAN/CSA S0600. Now, the standards are being accepted by several Canadian munici palities. In 2000 the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association and its partners, the
IarnniMmti 7 acrQ/zte
National Research Council of Canada,
the Ministry of Transportation and the City of Ottawa, commenced a research project on the design and installation of concrete pipe using ASCE 15-93. This research included a literature
review of the work to date and a
demonstration site in the City of Ottawa, which is a 1350 mm circular culvert installation. The site instru mentation was monitored until fall 2003. The NRC has now distributed a
draft final report to the project partners for review and comment, which is
expected to be made public in 2005. www.esemag.com
November 2005 j 23
Infrastructure Research independent of the size of the pipe, depending only on unit weight of earth backfill over the pipe, w, the width of the trench at the top ofthe pipe, Bd, the ratio of the height of fill over the pipe to the width of the trench H/Brf and the
coefficients of friction of the fill soil,
p, and between the fill soil and the side of the trench, p'. After publishing his classic work, The Theory of Loads on Pipes in Ditches and Tests of Cement and Clay Drain Tile and Sewer Pipe, Marston and his co-workers focused on sup porting strength of pipe in trenches as it is affected by bedding conditions, and investigated methods for deter mining supportive strengths using lab oratory tests.
Marston defined four beddings from the lowest to the highest quality; 1. Impermissible (Class D). Hard flat bottom assumed.
2. Ordinary (Class C). Bottom support over a shaped arc of60 to 90 degrees is assumed with soil placed with ordinary care to give the equivalent of 90 degrees of bottom support.
3. First Class (Class B). Bottom support over a shaped arc of at least 90 degrees with the pipe surrounded by thoroughly compacted soil to at least 15 degrees above the springline. 4. Concrete Cradle (Class A) Concrete placed around the lower part of the pipe. Various designs are used for
installations, the settlement ratio is the
extent of concrete.
In the late 1920s and 1930s, pipe research at the Iowa Experimental Station concentrated on developing a method for determining the supporting strength of buried rigid culverts in embankment installations, termed pro jecting culverts. The results of the research were given in a comprehensive paper in 1933 by Merlin G. Spangler entitled. The Supporting Strength of Rigid Pipe Culverts. Spangler presented three bedding configurations and the concept of a bedding factor to relate the supporting strength of the buried pipe to the strength obtained in a three-edge bearing test. Spangler's theory postulated that the bedding factor for a particular pipeline and, consequently, the sup-
Marston then developed the follow ing formula for loads on embankment conduits:
The coefficient Cc is a function of
the soil friction, the Rankine lateral soil
pressure coefficient, and the ratio offill height to pipe outside diameter. It is also a function of the projection ratio, and the settlement ratio. The projection ratio is the ratio of the vertical height of the top of the conduit above the embankment subgrade to the conduit outside pipe diameter. Be . When a con duit is placed in a sub-trench with its top below the general embankment grade, it is said to have a negative pro jection ratio. For positive projecting
difference between the settlement of the
subgrade and projection height of the adjacent soil prism and the settlement of the crown itself (change in vertical diameter plus pipe settlement) to the compression of the adjacent soil in the projection height.
continued on page 66...
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
'Spills A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E's semi-annual
look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.
First time... tanks on the move
In 2003, New Brunswick Power, located in Coleson Cove south west of Saint John, worked with Greatario
Engineered Storage Systems,from Innerkip, Ontario, to come up with an environmentally friendly solution to holding their wastewater.
The tanks that were built are an integral part of a treat ment system which was designed to process wastewater from both the power house and the flue gas desulphurization
plant of an Orimulsion-fired generating station. Each tank was required to possess a corrosion resistant layer on the interior surface. Also, the agitated tanks were fitted with internal baffles and top mounted mixers. The tanks were then interconnected with platform walkways, pipe support and steel agitator platforms. With the new process, they are now able to stabilize the water to allow for a safe release into
the environment. Greatario designed and installed the com plete tank and walkway package. The amount of storage needed was 1800 m^, as well as treatment of wastewater and processed water, so four tanks at 28' dia. x 28' high were designed and erected at a nearby warehouse, and then transported by tractor and float to the site. This is the first time Greatario has ever built off site, and then transported the bolted tank to its location. This decision was made
so that they could avoid weather issues while building in March, and so that crews could work around the
clock to complete the job faster. Contact: Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Web: www.greatario.com
November 2005 I 25
Dump trailer liners used in ^Spills decommissioned foundry clean-up project
By Glenn Stokes
Asolution was required for an
asbestos contaminated soil
clean-up and transportation project in Sarnia, Ontario, to make way for a cloverleaf(on and off ramps) for Highway 402 which was scheduled to be constructed through the former Holmes Foundry site. The task was to come up with a containment system for the contami nants found on site to prevent them from becoming airborne during trans portation to the landfill. The system also had to offer a barrier, as the soil was wetted prior to excavation in order to minimize dust. Therefore, water
runoff was a concern plus any rain that the liner might be exposed to up until the point where it was backfilled and capped. The lining system would also remain in the landfill so it was impor tant that the liner had enough structur al integrity that it would remain intact
as it was deployed off of the back of the dump trailer. Holmes Foundry had been in exis tence for some 80 years up until 1988.
During that time it saw several differ ent types of businesses including a foundry and two different insulation plants. At some point during the histo ry of this site it became contaminated, amongst others, with silica quartz and asbestos. The concern today is that by disrupting the soil there is a possibility of allowing the asbestos to become air borne, causing a possible health risk. In order for Dallas Haul Inc. to
comply with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment regulations in trans porting asbestos from this site to a local landfill, Dallas was required to utilize a lining system that was capable of attaining compliance for a Certificate of Approval. The lining solution came from HQN Industrial
Deployment of the form fitted liner Is a one or two person job.
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Using the liner's integrated drawstring to encapsulate the contaminated waste.
Fabrics, coincidentally, also located in Sarnia, Ontario. The liner chosen was a 6 mil reinforced polyethylene material with a drawstring seamed into the top hem. The liners supplied were 38 feet long X 96 inches wide x 144 inches high. This size configuration fits the box perfectly at the bottom with the liner pushed into the corners so that splits in the seam do not occur during loading of the contaminated soil into the box. The side walls are constructed
much higher than the box so that there is space for the liner to fold over the top of the box and be securely fas tened, with bungee cords, which keeps the liner in place during high winds. The lining material itself is quite impermeable, particularly with all seams being double folded and stitched. It is also a particularly strong yet inexpensive liner which is ideal for
was charged with the job of cinching up and tying off the drawstring, there by encapsulating the waste. The poten tial contaminants were further protect ed from the environment by washing off the truck tires prior to leaving the job site and a cover was pulled back over the top of the truck. In the event of inclement weather, HQN was on standby with custom manufactured raincaps and mesh covers. As there are a wide variety of con taminants and hazardous wastes along
cars, luggers, dumpsters and dump trailer sizes, there are many liner and raincap materials and sizes to choose from which makes this system quite versatile.
Glenn Stokes is with
HQN Industrial Fabrics. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
with various sizes of roll off boxes, rail
Fiberglass borage tanks... more than twice the life of other
a one-time usage product. During deployment, the liner allows the entire load to come away from the trailer even during the winter months in a
tank ZCL Waste Water, Septic & Sewage Holding Tank Systems
frozen state. Liners reduce wash-out
costs, freezing, leaking, dust problems and are quite effective at keeping odors from penetrating into the steel. This can be a major problem as odor can effectively contaminate a box beyond usage for other applications. Therefore, liners and caps extend con tainer life while reducing maintenance
the reliable, long-term solution to increasingly stringent regulations. Watertight & structurally sound. ZCL tanks are constructed from
fiberglass that simply will never rust.
ZCL Oil/Water Separator Tanks provide high performance solutions for reducing oil and fuel in run-off
water streams. No moving parts and only minimal maintenance is required thanks to corrosion free internal and external components.
So far during this clean-up, Dallas
Ideal for bulk fuel plants, truck stops, repair shops and parking lots.
Haul has used over 300 liners, with further excavation still to come. By
using a fleet of trucks, Dallas is able to have one truck filled while the next
truck in the queue prepares the liner (one person job, takes 15-20 min utes). Intimate contact with the con taminated wetted soil was the responsi bility of one person, in full safety gear, including a.full respirator. This person www.esemag.com
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anada's #1 Selling Fiberglass Tanks November 2005|27
Enviro Vault offers internal
chamber for valves,heaters,and
Several years ago, a trucker
looked at a tank in the Alberta
Oilfields and thought, "there
must be a simple way to utilize the tank itselfto solve the problems the
operators face on a daily basis." The solution to this problem was the Enviro Vault. This simple, patented system has been used in thousands of tanks
ever since and is fast becoming the standard in oilfield tank design. This
system addresses requirements seen in all tanks regardless of the material of construction, contents, or valve con
figuration. These requirements may include:
By locating the valves inside the Vault, they are kept warm, preventing any Issues caused by freezing.
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28 I November 2005
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typically located on the external sur face of the tank and are subject to dam age from contact. They are also locat ed in the ambient environment, which in Canada means the very real possi bility they will freeze, perhaps even split from ice formation or be damaged if forced open. External boxes have been used but often create transporta tion issues and offer little if any secure spill containment. By locating the valves inside the Vault, they are kept warm, preventing any issues caused by freezing. The heat can be provided by one of two meth ods. The first is to install a heater inside the Vault. This is most often
accomplished by the use of a catalytic heater, fuelled by either propane or natural gas. As these heaters are designed for hazardous locations, they are completely safe for all installa tions. The second method is accom
plished if the tank contains warm fluid already. The Vault is heated by the fluid surrounding it, thereby providing Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
a warm environment for the valves. By keeping the valves inside and warm, the owner saves on the cost of thawing valves if required, as well as standby costs for truckers that encounter frozen valves.
The use of a Vault negates the necessity of entering the area at all. The large doors facilitate the access to
all internals without having to physi
The same method of heat transfer
ic heater, or an electric heater rated for
be trapped inside a building. The use of a Vault also provides the advantage of keeping all the valves at ground level, thus eliminating the need to
quality prior to opening the Vault, or a
climb ladders to access valves.
fixed ambient detector can be installed inside. Even ifthere were to be an inci
With more focus on environmental
dent, the operator would fall away
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the area classification. This allows the
operator to provide an adequate amount of heat to prevent the contents from freezing, while at the same time providing heat for any appurtenances that may be installed inside the Vault. Many times the operator is looking to just provide freeze proofing for the contents. The options to accomplish this are very limited and many of them are ineffectual. Tube tracing is expen
from the tank into fresh air, rather than
cally enter the hazardous area. If required, a portable gas detector with a probe can be used to check the air
Keep your tank's contents from freezing
ence, namely the Vault being surround ed by fluid, can be used to transfer heat into the fluid. This is accomplished by the use of the afore-mentioned catalyt
breathing apparatus. They may also require a second person to act as a backup in case of an equipment fail
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sive and transfers little heat. Internal
coils require much maintenance, are
very expensive, and necessitate entry into a confined space. The use of a firetube burner assembly is also expensive, requires tanks' modifica tion, and is a high maintenance item. It also releases a large amount of "Greenhouse" gases, something to consider in these days of the Kyoto Accord. The use of a Vault is relatively inexpensive and provides many addi tional advantages. Safety for personnel Safety is a major concern for all operators. Confined space entry is one issue that should be avoided at all
costs. Some manufacturers provide an insulated "shack" that is affixed to the
Store and use flammable liquids and other hazmats safely. These models feature bi directional (inside-out & outside-in) 2hour and 4-hour fire-rated designs for maximum safety and protection.
containers. Standard models available. P-SERIES PALLET STORAGE CUSTOM STRUCTURES
These structures offer multiple-tiered storage and convenient access for simplified material handling and containment. Standard models provide storage from 4 to 36 pallets of materials
side of the tank. This provides an area to house the valves, etc. The use of this
type of installation requires that the operator physically enter the building to perform any functions such as gaug ing, maintenance, etc. If there is a pos sibility of dangerous gases being pres ent, they may be required to don safe ty equipment such as a self-contained www.esema2.com
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Phone: (800) 344-6539 Fax: (831) 637-7405 www.safetystorage.com email@example.com
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November 2005 \ 29
Storage Tanks ent
Spills concerns these days, spill containment is a high priority for all operators. Whether we are talking about a 5000 barrel (800 cubic metre) oil tank, or a small chemical tank, a spill is a major concern. The cost of losing the product is minor compared to the cost of clean ing up a spill. Reclamation costs can easily run into the hundreds of thou sands of dollars depending on the vol ume and makeup of the fluid lost. No operator wants to see their name in the headlines when it is to describe an environmental disaster.
Many spills originate with the valves. These provide the interface or
sor could be mounted inside the Vault
connection with trucks, other lines,
so that an alarm could be sounded if it
the customer's specifications regarding number and placement of valves, loca
etc. They must be opened and closed on a constant basis resulting in wear. Over time, this can result in a leaking valve. Another possibility is human error; perhaps the operator did not close it fully. Connecting and discon necting a truck line can result in a small amount of fluid being spilled on the ground. While this loss might be
detected liquid at a certain level. A pipe is situated at the bottom of the
tion of heater, etc. It can be installed in
Vault chamber to facilitate solids
the integrity of the containment system If the operator is looking at retro fitting an existing tank, he has two options. First is a weld-in model that is similar to the type of Vault that would come in a new tank. This would, of course, require that the tank be emp
cleanout if required. Sample ports can be located in the Vault as well so that there is no chance for contamination. The use of the heat from the fluid sur
rounding the Vault, or the heater mounted inside the Vault ensures that
tied of all fluid and be safe for hot work.
The cost of losing the product is minor compared to the cost of cleaning up a spill. Reclamation costs can easily run into the hundreds of thousands of dollars depending on the volume and makeup of the fluid lost. minor, over time you end up with con taminated soil that must be reclaimed.
The valve could have an ice plug in it that does not allow it to be fully closed. Once the ice plug melts, you have a spill.
Another popular option that has been proven to be very cost-effective is the "bolt-in" model. It is, as its name
everything is nice and warm so that no freezing can occur. Use of the Vault eliminates the cost and requirement for field-installed add-ons. Vault equipped tanks are "field ready" when shipped from the manufacturer.
wall of the tank where they are prone to being hit and causing a rupture that
Another issue that is becoming more prevalent as the cause of spills is vandalism. All Vaults have the ability
could result in the loss of all of the
to be locked so that access to the
fluid contained in the tank. Even
valves is impossible. This will prevent someone from intentionally opening a
Most valves are located on the outer
something as simple as an operator tripping on a valve handle could result in the loss of product and money as well as putting the safety of that oper ator at risk.
The use of an Enviro Vault can pre vent these issues from happening. By housing the valves in an internal cham ber they are protected from all of the scenarios mentioned above. Any spills from a leaking valve or the loss from a hose connection are contained within
the Vault. If required, a fluid level sen30 I November 2005
a double walled tank and still maintain
valve to create an environmental disas ter.
The use of an Enviro Vault has been
made very easy, either by installing it in a new tank, or retrofitting an exist ing tank. Many tank manufacturers have been licensed to install this
patented product. A Vault equipped tank requires no additional set-up upon delivery, and requires no special truck ing procedures. It can be designed to
implies, bolted into an existing tank in place of a manway door. The Vault can be equipped with valves, heater, etc., just as in a weld-in unit. It can be coat ed to the customer's specifications and comes complete with hinged door and any other options required. The bolt pattern will be identical to the door it is replacing whether round, square, or rectangular. It can be installed in steel, fibreglass, or plastic tanks without requiring the cleaning of the tank. It is only necessary to lower the fluid level below the door being replaced. Installation then is only a matter of removing the door, sliding in the Vault, and then replacing the bolts. This can be accomplished with a minimum of equipment and in a very short period of time.
Contact: Marty Schlager, VP and General Manager ofEnviro Vault Ltd, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
ecoSep below grade oil/water separators
Chemical tank cleaning
Water systems and services
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Tank surfaces in contact with water will
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accumulate organic and inorganic deposits over time. These deposits can cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBFs, and increased HFC
numbers. Heavy deposits lead to increased corrosion and reduce the life
time of surface coatings. NSF approved Floran products have been developed for convenient and efficient one step chemi
Cost-effective and safe, this highly effi cient below grade oil/water separator provides maximum protection against oil spill contamination. The spill stays on site, where it belongs. Check out all the benefits of ecoSep...the clear choice
cal cleaning of water tank and filter sur
for clean water.
faces. Tel: 800-387-7503 Web: www.cleartech.ca
Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519-763-1982
bution and transmission piping in compliance with AWWA and NACE Standards. Tel: 905-677-2700 Fax: 905-677-2432
E-mail: Ontario@corrpro.ca Web: www.corrpro.ca Corrpro
E-mail: sales@concastpipe. com Web: www.concastpipe.com Con Cast Pipe
systems and maintenance services for the cathodic protection of water stor age tanks, treatment clarifiers, distri
Mi Tank solutions
Diverse Flastic Tanks offer a fiill range of product designs, including closed or
JfitlMiiriSiSI JetMix ^ Vortex Mixing System can be
\â€”V-^ used in bio-
open top ver tical tanks in
flat or cone
tainment tanks and a complete line of
important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption;
"UN" approved intennediate bulk con
expensive tank cleanout and scheduled
tainers (IBCs). They distribute the
maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the
Snyder Industries line of tanks which
have many advantages for bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks.
With the widest selection of sizes up to 22,000 gallons. Tel: 905-607-5189, Fax: 905-607-9835 E-mail: tanks@ plastictanks.ca Web: www.plastictanks. ca Diverse Plastic Tanks
Floating silt curtain
Stay ahead of the regulators with Layfield's Floating Silt Curtain (FSC). It is designed to contain soil fines and other harmful particulates from enter
ing aquatic environments during
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stream, river and shoreline construc tion. Layfield's FSC is: modular, in stock and custom sizes, cost-effective, light weight and easy to install. Tel: 604-448-2710, Fax: 604-275-7867 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.geomembranes.com Layfield Geosynthetics
Water Enviromnent Federation.
Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.greatario.com.
Custom-designed structures offer a costeffective way to isolate a hazardous process, protect outside equipment from
weather, theft and vandalism, and quick ly add workspace to existing facilities. Wide range of sizes and configurations available. Contact Safety Storage to leam more!
Tel:(800)344-6539 Fax:(831)637-7405 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.safetystorage.com
Spill Management offers On-Site SiteSpecific,All-risk and All-hazard Response Training for chemical spills using work shops with hands-on training, classroom instiuction. Emergency Response Flanning
ZCL coalescing separators provide sub stantially higher design flows than grav ity separators having the same footprint. An enhanced MFakÂŽ design removes oil droplets as small as 20 microns!
and Incident Command. Other services
Effluent oil concentrations are reduced
also include Emergency Response Equipment, and Supplies Assessments
to as low as 10 parts per million. ZCL oil/water separators are manufactured with premium-grade fibreglass rein forced plastic. They have no moving parts and require minimal maintenance.
using video. To leam more: Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.spillmanagement.ca
Tel: 800-661-8265, Fax: 780-466-6126 Web: www.zcl.com
ZCL Composites Inc.
November 2005 131
SPOUT DUST BAGS
HQN's Spout Dust Bags are ideal for preventing dusting during load ing, transport and dumping while reducing worker exposure. Our bags are manufactured to the shape of lugger roll off containers and to meet government and landfill regu lations. Product construction allows
for air displacement plus tie off spouts make it ideal for use with steel and incinerator dust as well as
dust collector discharge. HQN also manufactures: dewa-
Secondary containment lining system for fuel storage hen underground tanks need to be replaced but
ant materials, it provides long-term rust-proof, corrosion-ffee service.
• The new structure will not be affect
removal and replacement very costly and difficult, then owners can retrofit their tanks with a new, cost-effective, corrosion resistant, sec ondary contained lining system. This is a manufactured on-site, internal fiberglass system that allows one to upgrade in-service steel or fiberglass single wall tanks to a sec
ed by the future corrosion of the origi
ondary contained lining system. The surrounding area and equipment are left undisturbed as the tank retrofit is
tering bags, bladder bags, temporary
completed without removing the tanks
berms, geomembrane liner installa
from the ground. A brand new second
tion, oil boom repair and offers tarp-
• Proven compatibility with all existing petroleum products, alcohol blended fuels and a variety of chemicals. • Fiberglass gives proven permeation protection, corrosion and chemical resistance and structural performance. • The new lining system does not depend on the structure of an existing tank for structural integrity. Benefits of the system are: • Converts single wall steel or fiber glass tanks to a secondary contained lining system. • Minimizes site disruption and down
ary contained fiberglass lining system is manufactured on site by trained and
Web Site: www.hqnfabrics.com
The new Lifeliner lining system gives more than twice the protection of a single wall tank. Two new corrosion resistant layers are applied using a three dimensional glass fabric, cured
• Eliminates costly excavation and replacement of existing tanks. • Conforms to existing steel and fiber glass tanks. • Capable of monitoring the tanks' integrity using hydrostatic, air pres sure, vacuum, or dry sensor monitor ing of annular space. • 30 year warranty guarantees longterm protection. • Provides future access with newly installed manway. Optional collar and
H.Q.N. INDUSTRIAL FABRICS
PVC liner is approved for potable water
with a thermosetting resin, using a pro prietary curing system, to create an interstitial space "sandwich" laminate. The primary layer contains the product. The annular space between the new irmer and outer layers provides continuous leak detection. If there
were a breach of the primary layer, the product would be contained by the sec ondary layer and prevent a leak to the
turbine enclosure will allow easier
• Manufactured on site by trained and certified installers ensuring quality workmanship. Typical applications Applications for the Lifeliner lining system include:
This open-top flexible PVC (bagtype) liner does not adhere to the sur
face ofthe tank and is not affected by expansion and contraction or dam aged when the concrete cracks. These liners are custom fabricated
Unlike some other tank lining approaches, this system is custom manufactured on site with the fiber
glass layers bonded to the existing walls of each tank. This eliminates dif ferential forces within the converted
quick and easy. Kentain's NSF-61 (food grade) liners are not only ideal for potable and demineralized water, vinegar and juices, but also suitable
tanks. The independent structural integrity of the new system enables installation within an in-service, steel or fiberglass tank. To ensure the integrity ofthe system, an air tightness test of 35KPa is applied to the intersti tial space. The Lifeliner system has several advantages:
for chemical storage tanks containing
• Manufactured in accordance with
acids and alkaloid solutions. P - 519-576-0994 F- 519-576-0919
ULC/ORD-C-58.4( Double contain
and shipped to the job site in one piece, ready for installation. In most cases, little tank preparation is required. Protective
installed between the tank wall sur face and the liner. Installation is
E-mail - email@example.com
• Retail service stations.
• Fleet fuelling locations. • Bulk plants with underground tanks. • Office buildings. • Chemical plants. The new system conforms to govermuent guidelines for secondary con tainment.
Contact: Richard Murphy ofZCL Composites Inc.
ment fibre reinforced plastic linings for flammable and combustible liquid
Web site - www.kentain.com
• Manufactured with corrosion resist
32 I November 2005
access to the piping and its mainte
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
The dangers that lurk In tank farms
Try this one minute quiz on
By Barry Jasper and Dave Hill
tank farm dangers: • Do you have a process that defines and identifies confined spaces in your facility? Yes or No • Have you completed a documented risk assessment of each of these
spaces? Yes or No • Do you insist that your personnel measure for possible contaminants, in every extremity of the space to be entered? Yes or No • Are the instruments used for atmos
pheric sampling, calibrated monthly, and functionally bump tested, prior to each day's use? Yes or No • Is it practical, and are you able, to complete a non-entry rescue, from all your confined spaces? Yes or No • If not, do you have a trained rescue team, to remove any worker in a space, who experiences difficulties? Yes or No If you answered no to any of these questions, you could be out of compli
and/or 213 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and with its proposed successor, the Harmonized Confined Space Regulation, which will apply to all sectors, including the construction and agricultural industries. A
should include all of the potential haz ards within the space, the means of neutralizing these hazards, and a list of all equipment required by the entrant and attendant, to safely make the entry. All of the following items need to be taken into consideration, and form part of the entry plan: • Isolation, lock-out and tag-out of all mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment. • Control of any sources of ignition. • Movement of materials.
• Ventilation techniques and purging, use of positive and negative pressure. • Explosive and flammable atmos pheres.
ance with the Canada Labour Code,
• Means of communication between
and in Ontario, with Regulation 851
the entering team and the outside
ENVIRO LINER® THE ORIGINAL ENGINEERED CONTAINMENT SOLUTION
• Methods of overcoming the inherent difficulties of limited access and egress.
• Choice of personal protective equip ment.
• Selection of safety equipment. • Consideration of the regulations regarding fall arrest if the distance from the entrance to the floor of the
vessel is greater than 10 feet, or if the entrance is above grade. • Atmospheric testing, choosing the continued overleaf...
ENVIRO LINER® IS ONLY MANUFACTURED BY LAYFIELO. DON'T BE FOOLED BY SUBSTITUTES!
IF IT DOES NOT SAY ENVIRO LINER® - IT'S NOT!
Enviro Liner® is a specially formulated suite of high performance geomembranes designed to provide outstanding durability, flexibility, chemical resistance, and long term UV stability. Enviro Liner® is an economical choice for environmental applications including the containment of water and waste water, secondary containment, landfill caps and a multitude of other containment applications. Enviro Liner® is manufactured in North America by Layfield using a specialized blend of polymer technology. Contact us for further information on the performance advantages of our Enviro Liner® series. ENVIRO LINER® 6000 I ENVIRO LINER® 4000 I ENVIRO LINER® 2000 so 9001:2000
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November 2005 133
Containment right meter for the job, and the correct atmospheric survey test points to cover the space and all the possible contami nants.
• Emergency equipment and emer gency response procedures, Entry and Non-Entry rescue provisions. • Warning signs and barricades. • Schedule of frequency of communi cation checks for normal entries; plus
TYPE 1 - No atmospheric hazards exist, and written documentation con firming this fact is contained in the permanent record. TYPE 2 - An atmospheric hazard existed but was made safe tluough
someone skilled in CPR is available.
TYPE 3 - A hazardous atmosphere
and even fewer have current training.
This year there were two incidents involving road tankers in tanker clean ing facilities. In one instance the clean ing staff survived; in the other, the res
maintain a safe atmosphere have been implemented. An attendant is posted, arrangements made for rescue, and
supplied air, or in protective suits in high temperatures.
• Spaces should be divided into four categories, using the following criteria, and records kept of all personnel train ing, to ensure that the entry team has the knowledge to deal with the class of entry to be made. Summary of types of confined spaces
Each step in the type of confined space entry reflects the escalation in the associated risks or hazards of the
entry; therefore the level of protection also escalates.
assistance, vehicle extrication, water
rescue, high angle rescue, and ice res cue, fewer people are trained in this specialty. Very few fire departments have equipment for confined space rescue,
ventilation. Measures necessary to
Additional measures are required such as suitable respiratory protection, safe ty harnesses and rope as well as other required personal protective equip
reduction factors for entries made with
their staff in structural fire fighting,
then in a number of specialized fields. Since, in practice, the number of con fined space incident calls they receive is far lower than those for paramedic
TYPE 4 - A flammable or explosive atmosphere exists. Therefore the fol lowing limitations apply: • Entry for inspection, concentrations < 50 % EEL
cue turned into a confined space recovery. Why is that? Put very simply, the math was not on their side:
• If an individual is deprived of oxygen in a confined space, clinical death occurs after three minutes, biological
• Cold work < 10 % EEL
death after six minutes.
• Hot work 0 % EEE
• The average response time for a full time fire department is four minutes, for a part time department probably
Where EEE is the lower explosive limit of the contaminant.
Is 911 your main line of defence? Can you rely on it? Sadly the answer is in the negative for all the following reasons. Fire departments train each of
AQUASTORE TANKS 11
DEljillllOE Builder of the Year Award
double that. • Add to that the time needed to reach
the space, then the time to do risk assessment and the clock is running faster than the feet can get there. • If you have teams entering spaces without rescue plans in place, your 911 call will probably only put in place a body recovery response. • Don't for a second dismiss the possi bility of a problem, because your tank age doesn't contain any potential for finding exotic chemicals. • Remember last year's Vancouver barge incident, where three workers and a firefighter went down, and only one survived. There were no contami
nants involved, the barge was simply
rusting so aggressively, that the oxy gen levels were depleted to such low levels that life was unsustainable.
• Don't for a second dismiss the possi bility of a problem, because your crew has atmospheric metering capabilities. • Ninety per cent of confined space incidents result from using the wrong
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Tel;(519)469-8169 Fax:(519)469-8157 www.greatarlo.oom
meter for the job, meters that have become inaccurate, or atmospheric surveys that are flawed or not main tained continuously. Co}itact:Bany Jasper and Dave Hill are with Echelon Response & Training Inc., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
34 I November 2005
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Secondary Oil Containment Technology
Effectively contains oil spills from oil filled equipment & transformers Reliable technology from an industry leader Robust, flexible technology for different containment configurations Practical system requiring minimal maintenance
Toll Free: 866.269.8275
November 2005 \ 35
The cost of doing nothing! By Merrill Bishop,Trans Environmental Systems Inc.
Many chemical companies have been encouraged by
and bureaucratic vague ness in their regulations into thinking that Spill Prevention, Containment and Countermeasures (SPCC) will not be focused on them for many years to come.
The latest rewrite of 40 CFR 112 in
"enhanced" version came out in 2004
only for it, too, to be deferred because of
litigation from some special interest groups. Now, the new implementation date is on the horizon for February. 2006, with the requirement for both spill containment equipment and training to be in place by August of 2006 for older corporations. Many corporate managers are think ing: "Why prepare SPCC plans when
the EPA is sadly understaffed, over worked, and prob ably doesn't even know we exist. We could sure use the
capital funds better to improve produc tion or develop that next product." This attitude prevalent among many chemical company top managements is very similar to that of a surprised deer "frozen" in the headlights of an on coming car. The deer recognizes that something "dangerous" is coming, but their "what to do process" has become the "analysis paralysis" which soon makes the deer a "road kill". Since EPA
enforcement headlights may eventually get to the contact point, many compa nies prefer to analyze: "How soon do we have to comply?" or "How long can we put them off before we actually have to do something?"
months of indecisive discussion and NO ACTION.
There are many internal political angles that have to be bridged but fol lowing are some of the 'value' items that should be examined:
1. Don'tjust look at the initial cost of the equipment. What will be the reoccurring costs over the life of the opera-
••• ANNOUNCEMENT •••
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Ltd., is pleased to announce the appointment of Jeff C. Rodger, as Engineered Product Representative. "Jeff will play a key role in servicing
our Ontario customers as well as devel
Products and Services
Tank Coating Appiications Magnesium & Zinc Anodes Shrink Sleeve & Tape Coatings Thermoweld Equipment Pipe Locating Sales/Repair Water Leak Detection
Water Line Repair Materials Pipeline Integrity Internal Corrosion Monitoring Ultrasonic Testing(Metal Loss)
Ontario Office 3-7895 Tranmere Drive
Many corporations appoint commit tees to develop the direction for the SPCC. These groups unfortunately get caught in the "analysis paralysis" of waiting just a little longer so some new equipment can be reviewed, or some idea seen in a magazine can be fath omed by local managers. These end-toend delays soon add up to months and
CORRPRO CANADA IMC
oping new markets for the company" said Steve Gregory, Viee-President. "We are extremely fortunate to have someone with Jeffs background and expertise come on board."
His education includes a diploma in Construction Engineering Teehnology Management, from Fanshawe College in London. Jeff joins Greatario with 12 years of work experience in servicing goverrunent, consultant and industry needs both in Canada and overseas. He has travelled to over 32 coun
tries and contributed to numerous projects in many fields including: water, environmental, infrastructure, trans portation, power, mining and industry. Greatario has been engaged in the designing, construction and servicing of storage systems in municipalities and industries for 20 years. Greatario works with consulting engineering firms and their clients, to supply systems that service their needs both today and into the future.
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems www.greatario.com nounsfTORt' Tanks &DomM
36 I November 2005
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
tion? Purchasing cheap, open railroad track spill containment pans may save a bundle in the initial purchase but how much is the additional oil-water filter
equipment going to cost and then there is the labor to pump out the oily, tainted rainwater after each storm and then its
disposal? 2. Will this procedure or equipment become obsolete in a matter of months
after we purchase it? Can it be used in a different way at another plant or loca tion on the facility site? A large, open concrete slab for containment of tanker
truck loading or unloading is expen sive. But to avoid collection of rainwa
ter 24/7 365 you'll consider building a canopy over it to the tune of about $50,000. Next the local Fire Marshall tells you you cannot do that unless you add a deluge fire suppression system to the canopied loading area. If your mas ter plan changes, or other new products alter the plant's mission, what do you do with this expensive containment that now may be on the wrong side of the facility? 3. Will this same equipment be more expensive in a short time or will it be cheaper? Companies who chose to not pur chase steel track pans back in 2003 thought they were saving money by not investing at that time. In 2004, due to international plate steel prices soaring, the cost of these containments nearly doubled. Putting off the inevitable for a year cost them dearly. The prices for 2005 have leveled off some but with
company? Would this bad press just draw even more "extreme greenies" into the fray when you attempted future building plans or needed community support for your operations? What would be the cost of delaying comply ing with the SPCC? While your 'best way" analysis is being conducted, what is happening in the meantime at the facility? Are small releases on concrete slabs being washed "off" with hundreds of gallons of water into a holding tank? Are empty tote tanks or drums being left out on an uncovered storage slab or loading dock? What happens to the rainwater that lands on these used containers? Do
"minor" releases of bulk powders get cleaned up immediately or do your work floor shifts each wait for the
^Spills What risk are you willing to take? How long will your management "stand in the middle of the road"? Hoping that maybe the SPCC regulation will be postponed yet again? Rainwater run off from your plant will still be migrating your chemicals off site and down the local drainage ditch. Do you wait until the EPA just happens to analyze a water sample down gradient from your plant and correlates the chemicals to those
you reported? By then you're "road kill"!
"other shift" to sweep it up? Yes, there is a cost to doing nothing!
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the demands from China and India, the
price of good quality steel containment is not going to go down. 4. How long will it take to get your employees trained in Spill Control? Review your key employee list and then figure how long you can spare a certain person to attend training and get certified as an instructor. By delaying the expenditure on training, what have you saved? Will a last minute rush to get persons trained cost a whole lot more than just working it into the
containment to control the situation?
Would the bad public image influence your customers to not do business with you? What would be the cost to employee morale if they went home and their neighbors and associates chided them on being part of a careless
5. What would be the cost to your company if a major spill got loose and contaminated the local area and the
newspapers and press reported your negligence in not having proper spill
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November 2005 I 37
Invisible value from the Invisible Profession For over a decade ES&E's Consultants' Forum has
received wide acceptance among all sectors of our readership. Municipal engineers, analytical chemists, government agencies and technical people in the industrial sector, all rely on the experience and skills of consulting engineers. ES&E invited consultants to submit their opinions on any topic and some leading consultants have contributed. Some other
submissions from consultants will be published in subsequent issues.
Pondering the future of the water Industry By Douglas Langiey,Vice President,Delcan Water
Forty years ago the Province of Ontario
world leader in water and
wastewater technology. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Ontario Water Resources Commission (OWRC), under the able stewardship of Chief Engineer Dr. Albert Berry, achieved international recognition as an innova tor and a class leader in water technol
ogy. The OWRC practiced what Dr. Berry preached and grew to become one of the leading environmental agen cies in the world.
38 I November 2005
In those days OWRC invested sig nificantly in research and develop ment. Proposals were solicited from both the private and public sectors and it was common for consulting firms to team with universities and compete for the R&D money. Successful scientists were invited to present their research at the annual Ministry of Environment (MOE) R&D conference. The OWRC was disestablished in 1972 and its functions were rolled into the new MOE.
Unfortunately today's politicians fail to understand the importance of innovation and the resulting benefit to our standard of living. MOE aban
doned R&D support and now water treatment tiugedies such as Walkerton and
Many of our international competi tors have an advantage as their coun tries recognize the strategic impor tance of R&D. For example, the STOWA program in the Netherlands finances water research projects by collecting a small surcharge levied on commercial and residential water bills.
Public and private parties are invited to submit unsolicited proposals for financing and Canadian companies lacking domestic R&D support turn to STOWA. It is likely that they would
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
have received support from MOE in the good old days. Canadian consulting engineering companies are successful internation
ally. World Bank reports consistently show that Canadian engineering firms win their share of international proj-
the best in class. It is widely accepted that this competitive edge is the out come of strategic investment in research and development. Very few Canadian consulting engineering firms have purchased US companies. Why have many large
'OruJi'^ ents. General Electric and Siemens,
two of the largest companies in the world, have become major water industry investors and Home Depot has recently entered the water busi
Water industry consolidation continues unabated.
Made in Canada is becoming rare. Water industry ownership is becoming global as large conglomerates gobble up the independents. ects. Our international competitive edge may be attributed to an under-val
American firms acquired some of Canada's oldest, most respected engi
ued Canadian dollar and our neutral
neering practices? The Canadian con
geopolitical reputation. Will we win
tion assignments in China where only
sulting engineering industry is price driven, the opposite of the US quality based selection process. This differ
15% of the population receives waste-
ence creates higher value in US com
water treatment? What about Mexico
panies and Canadian engineering firms become acquisition candidates. We need people like Dr. Berry to lead the drive to quality based selection in
our share offuture international sanita
where only 30% of the population receives treatment? Do we have the
water technologies to address major water shortages forecasted in the US
unless Canada re-establishes its com
mitment to innovation. It is not too late for Canada to make a renewed com
mitment to water technology through research and development. Canada is blessed with an abun
dance of fresh water. Although we may not deserve our green reputation, we can use our reputation to advantage by unabashedly branding "made in Canada". However, more than any thing else, we require a new commit ment to water research in Canada. Is
MOE up to the challenge?
Water industry consolidation con
Winning this water business will require Canadian firms to be more competitive. We need to offer technol ogy that is made in Canada and that is
water companies will continue to be acquired by large international firms
ness. What does this mean? Canadian
tinues unabated. Made in Canada is
becoming rare. Water industry owner ship is becoming global as large con glomerates gobble up the independ
Associated Engineering is a Canadian, employeeowned consulting engineering company. We provide engineering, project management, and asset management services in the water,
'environmentalj infrastructure, and transportation sectors. Our people are our
Contact: Douglas Langley e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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[-(yruJiiy Design-Build - does this method work well in the public sector? By Eric A.D. MacDonald,M.Sc.,P.Eng. Chairman and CEO MacViro Consultants Inc.
For the past decade and on a selective basis,the pub
The misconceptions and realities of these beliefs, which lic sector has employed the design/build (D/B) have been realizetd, are: method of project delivery in lieu of the convention • while schedule accelerations may or may not be achieved, al method. The main difference between the two the fixed costs belief has proved a misconception; delivery modes is that the contractor is 'given' the works at • while the capital cost may be lower, the quality ofthe prod the beginning of the design phase rather than with the con uct has led to much-reduced life spans and, consequently, rel ventional approach, whereby the contractor comes on board atively high operation and maintenance costs; at the end of the design phase. This difference is highly sig • the contractor (D/B entity) is frequently not sensitized to nificant to the success of the project, because the public sec political, public, environmental and agency issues/concerns; tor and the D/B contractor have different objectives, i.e. the • the quality of the end-product is frequently and visibly infe public sector client wants a project that has low life-cycle rior to the conventionally delivered project. costs while the D/B contractor wants a project that has low Some ten to fifteen years since the'arrival'of capital costs. Why then would the public sector client select the D/B privatization, it is quite reasonable to assume approach for their project? The answer is that the public sec that the PPP project delivery model may be tor believes that the D/B project delivery model gives an accelerated schedule, known up-front costs, no extras and the next preferred approach. reduced overall costs.
The conclusions that are now emerging are that the D/B method of project delivery is on a down-cycle for the follow ing reasons: 1. It is perhaps fair to conclude that although the D/B project delivery mode may apply to projects for the private sector, it does not work well for the public sector. 2. The public needs are best addressed through the conven tional approach, where the design consultant is much more sensitive to the 'soft' but critical considerations of a project. 3. If a D/B project delivery mode is to be selected, it must include up-front comprehensive data so that the D/B contrac tor can fairly price the works and thereby obviate fiiture claims.
Providing professional services in: Water Wastev/cter Process
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4. A 'partnering' concept is critical, considering the initial data transfer is rarely complete. Accordingly, the working relationship with the contractor must be one of close co-oper ation rather than one of antagonism. 5. The Expression of Interest must fully define the subse quent Request for Proposal requirements, including a com prehensive risk-sharing matrix. In summary, and with the D/B project delivery mode in decline, what is now increasingly appearing on the project
delivery scene is perhaps the 3Ps, i.e. public-private partner ships, a model that depends on co-operation and equitable risk sharing. Accordingly, it appears that there continues to be a
need for the private sector to be involved with public sector works.
Some ten to fifteen years since the 'arrival' of privatiza tion, it is quite reasonable to assume that the PPP project delivery model may be the next preferred approach.
Offices tfiroughoul Nortfi America and tfie Caribbean
40 I November 2005
Visit us at stanteccom
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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trOi'lU^ty Consulting engineering needs innovation from our leaders By Rui De Carvalho M.Eng.,P.Eng.,President,RJ.Burnside & Associates
isten in on a conversation
industry. The diagnostics appear to be
between leaders of Ontario
consulting engineering firms these days and you will quick-
relatively easy to articulate. However, for an industry that makes a business of convincing clients that we are prob-
ly hear of the problems facing our
lem solvers, we certainly appear rather
challenged in coming up with appro priate solutions to our own issues. This doesn't mean that Ontario con
sulting engineering is in a mess, far from it. Canadian (and Ontario) con sulting engineering firms are still rec ognized as world leaders in technical and professional excellence; but will this continue? How often does the
national press, or any media for that matter, contact the Consulting Engineers of Ontario or the Association of Consulting Engineers of Canada for an informed input on the contemporary issues relating to infra structure or the environment? This
Harmony. iVIutuai Benefits. Synergy.
doesn't happen as often as it should. While our profile, in my opinion, is not where it should be, we are likely to hear more excuses than proactive solu tions. We often appear to be on the defensive, especially when trying to explain our net worth to clients who question our fees and the value that we bring to their projects. Other profes sionals appear to have a much easier ride.
Relationships form the basis of life, be if in nature or in the business
worid. At CH2M HiLL, we believe in the relationships we have formed with our clients. These relationships are built on trust, creativity, and finding soiutions. We work together to arrive at a common place.
Join our team and learn what synergy is all about.
Responsible Solutions for a Sustainable FutureÂŽ
Over the almost 30 years that I have been in consulting, it seems that the industry has gone from the flagship employer where most engineering graduates wanted to develop their careers, to the one where you get out, if or when you can find something bet ter!
If we agree that there are issues here, I propose that leadership in our industry needs to step up to a higher level; and I don't mean within the industry associations but rather in our everyday practice outside ofthe formal associations. The type of leadership that may have been so successful in the glory years of consulting that I men tioned before is no longer appropriate in today's environment. We need to aspire to higher ideals than just sub scribing to the type of price cutting, win at all costs competition that plagues our industry. There was probably more coopera tion between the CIA and the KGB in
42 I November 2005
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
their time than exists among consult ing engineers! Oh, we hold golf tour naments and collaborate in any num ber of meaningless committees but when it comes down to it, if we can cut someone down, we do it, and we are even proud of our accomplishments in this regard. There are too few telephone calls that begin with, "Hey Joe, why don't we combine our efforts on this one and maximize the value to our firms and
our clients?" Why would we? Chances are the other guy will just go and "steal our client"! As if we really believe that we can actually own a client! We would rather do it all, the whole project, because we just love to "engineer" and are happy to pay at almost any cost. Our industry needs to adopt a best practices approach in all our activities. This requires us to develop and hold on to future leaders with new and innova
tive vision, who will in turn promote,
industry. Would you ever consider a scenario where two firms would enter into an
exchange program for two young grad uates to promote their development on a particular project experience? Likely not! Yet, can you imagine if this prac-
ical, and social issues where we are
Our industry needs to adopt a best practices approach in
that we provide value to society. We need leadership with vision; long term vision that goes beyond the next fiscal
have noble ideals and standards and
all our activities.This
requires us to develop and hold on to future leaders with new and innovative
vision, who will provide value in a manner that is sustainable to both our
clients and our industry.
as a top priority, providing value in a manner that is sustainable to both our
clients and our industry. This will require the recruitment of top gradu ates and providing them with an envi ronment where they are able to devel op to their full potential without feel ing the need to move on to another
most qualified to do so and thereby make the general public aware that we
tice was widespread? Watch out world, the Canadians are here to stay, and they are playing at the top of their game. Our projects need to demonstrate to the public the application of environ mental sustainability. We must speak out on environmental, technical, polit
I know very well that much ofthis is pie in the sky from a leader of a small firm who, even after completing a five year term as president, is still as naive as ever. Yet I am hopeful that new and innovative leaders can make significant
progress and advance our industry to higher levels of respect and sustainabil ity and possibly reverse some of the damage of the last decades. So contin ue to enjoy your dialogue with your colleagues. Let's move the yardsticks on this front, and hope that new leaders will realize some positive changes. As for me, well, I am going back to do engineering!
One Team. Infinite Solutions. Tom Hilditch, B.Sc.
Vice President, Environmental Management
We are pleased to announce the appointment of Tom Hilditch to the position of Vice President, Environmental Management, in his new role, Tom will continue to focus on growth and new markets for the Environmental Management practice area (EMPA)in Ontario and will also play an active role in developing Stantec's increasing emphasis on sector-based marketing. Tom joined Stantec through the ESG acquisition in May 2003 and has been instrumental in establishing Stantec as a clear leader in the environmental market in Ontario.
Reno Fiorante, P.Eng. Vice President, Environmental Infrastructure
We are pleased to announce the appointment of Reno Fiorante to the position of Vice President, Environmental Infrastructure. Reno will continue as the Regional Practice Area Leader for Environmental infrastructure in Canada West and also take on an expanded role as a Discipline Leader for our new Design Support initiative. Reno has been with Stantec since 1983, and has provided strong leadership in the areas of technical diversification and growth.
offices throughout North America and the Caribbean stantec.com
November 2005 \ 43
Leadership and sustainablllty changing the context of consulting engineering By Bill De Angelis,P.Eng.,MBA, Associated Engineering and
Michael De Angelis,B.A., B.Ed., M.Ed.,Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto
We face a multitude of
challenges in the con sulting engineering industry today, not the least of which are leadership, sustainability, context, succession and devel opment. We have tended to look with in, but seldom outside of our own
The leadership gap results in the degradation, over time, of the per formance of an organization and its ability to be competitive in its chosen markets. In the education sector, this hypothesis is confirmed by the threat to public education posed by the rise of third party institutions to instruct our children.
ranks for answers. The benefits of
looking externally for answers to issues affecting the consulting indus try, in effect changing our context, will become clear. Lessons learned in other fields and
sectors can influence leadership prac tice and development in the private sector. Many sectors are in the same situation, including public education and the private sector. Much research has been conducted in the education
sector around leadership and capacity building that can be applied to other industries. This article will look at some of those issues that are common
to public education and to consulting engineering, and will attempt to begin to develop a new paradigm to ensure our sustainability as engineering pro
An article in the December 2004
edition of Canadian Consulting Engineer brought forth the perspec
leaders to dominate organizations and impede (suppress) the development of colleagues and successors and thus hinder the development of cohesion within the leadership base. It seems that new leaders are required, but strong leaders can stymie the growth of an organization by not allowing the development of leaders at all levels. It has been suggested that the sign of true leadership is when a leader leaves behind more leaders than when he or
tives of four senior executives around
the current state of the consulting industry and marketplace. There was much talk of profitability and growth,
to leader identification and selection.
We have an inconsistent approach
but little mention of where the future
Many engineering organizations are touting their leaders today; some will
leaders of our industry would come
seek out charismatic leaders from the
marketplace, believing it is the key to growth and success. Charismatic lead ers have been negatively associated with sustainability. Other firms have taken the approach to promote from within, putting ill-prepared individuals into leadership roles. What all this suggests is that nei ther camp fully understands what con stitutes leading and leadership, and as such neither will be overly successful
George Comrie, in the March/April 2005 edition of Engineering Dimensions, touched on the topic of leadership succession. He stated that organizations "require mechanisms to develop leaders from within their common memberships, and to provide for succession of their governance structures". In the same breath, he spoke of the tendency for charismatic
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
in identifying it, attracting it or appointing it. Michael Fullan, in his book Leadership & Siistainability - System Thinkers in Action, described eight ele ments of sustainability in the educa tion and public service sectors that are just as applicable to the private sector. They are: 1. Public service with a moral purpose - commitment to increasing the level, value and quality of services provided. 2. Commitment to changing context at all levels - adjusting the entire struc ture and cultures within which we work.
3. Lateral capacity building through networks - development of deliberate strategies that allow transferring of knowledge across peers. 4. Intelligent accountability and verti cal relationships - encompassing both capacity building and accountability through development of collaborative networks.
5. Deep learning - that focuses on fos tering and harnessing the creativity, commitment and access to leading practices and continuous improve ment.
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8. The long lever of leadership - trans forming systems requires leadership at all levels, and the development of new leaders.
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By embracing these elements of sustainability in the consulting sector, we can transform our institutions in
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Lessons learned in other fields and
sectors influence leadership practice and development; they should be stud ied and selectively applied to the con sulting business to more quickly move us along the sustainability learning curve.
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C Engineering MAGAZINE
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Successful staffing - the"oxygen" of any consulting enterprise By George Zukovs,P.Eng.,President,XCG Consultants Ltd. factors ranging from retirement to departures for greener pastures. Some loss is inevitable. The best firms mini mize turnover.
The foundation of any consul
tancy is the talented and hard working people that are the principal asset of any firm. Successful leaders of consulting firms recognize that growth will require the continual infusion of quality staff. Particularly, where an enterprise has a strategy for expansion in new techno logical areas or markets remote from current geographic locations top notch staff are the essential ingredient. At the same time every consulting firm expe riences loss of people due to a host of
A simple example gives an idea of the energies required to grow an enter prise. Take a consulting organization of 100 people with a five year plan of year-over-year growth ofsay 7%.Factor in a staff turnover of 5% per year. This gives a new recruiting requirement to meet overall growth targets of twelve people or about one per month in the first year. A more aggressive growth strategy or staffing needs for a new branch would require even higher levels of recruitment.
Have you then wondered: "How will I meet my staffing needs?" There is no doubt that fostering the growth of an organization can be very challeng ing. Especially, if there is strong desire to see that growth occur "organically" rather than through merger and acqui sition. The small to mid-size consult
ing organization faces particular chal lenges. There is often less management and human resources expertise in such organizations and overall fewer nonproduction resources available. Nonetheless, a determined course of action is necessary for the firm to prosper and grow. Day to day consulting is a very demanding activity. Time resources are jealously guarded above all by senior managers. In this kind of environment it is sometimes difficult to extract a clear view of the issues and dimen
sions surrounding staffing. It evokes the old cliche of fighting the alligators and forgetting the goal was to drain the swamp. Often, senior consultants are better alligator wrestlers than swamp pumpers. Consequently, if growth-ori ented managers are to be successful they must reach out to understand the requirements and issues surrounding their staffing situation. The trend in meeting staffing goals
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is based on a systematic assessment, planning and implementation cycle with ongoing feedback to help with needed course corrections. In this
cycle it is especially important both to understand growth goals and to assess a firm's performance with respect to staff retention. If the present experi ence is poor, it is undoubtedly a better choice to develop programs to improve retention and set specific goals for that purpose rather than accelerate recruit ing. Once overall recruitment and reten
tion goals have been developed, specif ic enterprise level, office level and
effectively address the needs of staff for continued professional and career development also bring improved job satisfaction. Finally, programs aimed at easing the integration of new staff members through a peer level "buddy" system, for example, are also vital to help establish a positive career starting point. The leadership of any consulting enterprise must ensure an adequate supply of "oxygen" in order to flour ish. A new generation of tools and methods are emerging alongside timetested methods to supply this "oxygen"
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divisional recruitment and retention
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Controlling Leglonella with chlorine dioxide
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A recent Legionella outbreak in Toronto has caused 21 deaths, and
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Although traces of Legionella are present in many water services, water
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ing towers. Biofilm present in water pipework and tanks provides optimal growth area for the bacteria. Within the normal laboratory timescale of days, experiments with cul tures of naturally occurring L. pneu mophila serogroup 1 showed that over the temperature range 5-45°C the organism would only multiply in the temperature range 32-42°C in tap
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Disinfection Chlorine dioxide generation technologies
Chlorine dioxide can be obtained by either oxidizing chlorite or reducing chlorate. Most commercial generators use sodium chlorite (NaC102) as the common precursor to generate CIO2 from drinking water applications.
treatment, particularly to combat Legionella. The system works according to the hydrochloric acid/chlorite process. By combining diluted
Functional description Two pumps dose the components Bello ZonÂŽ acid and Bello ZonÂŽ chlo
rite into the reactor which is prefilled with a defined amount of water. After a
specific reaction time, the controller empties the content of the reactor into the storage tank. The controller feeds the required amount of dilution water
ProMinent's Legio Zon uses the direct
to the reactor and mixes it with a pre cise calculated amount of hydrochloric
acid system to produce CIO2. Many papers have shown the suc
cessful disinfection of Legionella bac
acid and sodium chlorite which is
teria with chlorine dioxide. Botzenhart
dosed through two dosing pumps. A
et al showed that L.pneumophila was susceptible to chlorine dioxide at high er temperatures and at higher pH. However, the pH effect on inactivation is less pronounced than observed with chlorine. Studies suggested that a com plete removal of Legionella in a hot water system at hospitals with a high
chlorine dioxide solution with a con
concentration of chlorine dioxide, SOSO mg/L, as a shock treatment for a
period of time followed by a residual maintaining at 3-5 mg/L, dramatically reduces the biofilm formation (Walker
centration of 2g/L is generated. This low concentration as compared to other procedures makes the system absolute ly safe to operate.
The finished CIO2 solution is trans
Legio Zon CIO2 Generator hydrochloric acid, diluted sodium chlo
ferred to a storage tank from which it is dosed through the third dosing pump. A preset concentration of chlorine dioxide, controlled via the signal from a water meter, is dosed to the water to be disinfected.
rite solution and water, this system first
et ah). Chlorine dioxide generator
tion (2g/L). This solution is temporarily
Thandar Aye is an Applications Specialist with ProMinent
Legio Zon, with a capacity up to 5g/hr, is designed for potable water
stored in the system and supplied to the water to be treated as required.
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
generates a 0.2% chlorine dioxide solu
;i; Water YSI
YSI 600 QS
HosKins Itemperature Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen
ORP Depth Resistivity
The 600 QS combines the compact 600R muitiparometer water quality sonde with the rugged, reliable 650 MDS display/data logger into one easy-to-use handheld measurement unit. Equipped with YSI's patended Rapid Pulse dissolved oxygen sensor, there is no need to circulate or manually stir to provide stable and accurate DO readings. Other parameters include temperature, conductivity, salinity, ORP, and depth. The 600 OS can be ordered with various coble
lengths making it suitable for taking spot measurements or doing vertical profiling. For product and pricing information or rental rates please contact; Your Canadian YSI Service Centre
November 2005 I 49
New drinking water system removes pathogens - earns EPA status as a multi-barrier purifier By Dave Krupinski
Two filtration companies
recently launched a drinking water system certified as a microbiological purifier for
Purefecta'Drinking Water Purifier
residential, health care facilities and
light commercial applications. The Purefecta''''^ Drinking Water Purifier removes bacteria, viruses and
protozoa. This multi-barrier drinking water system is available to consumers and meets the stringent U.S. EPA Guide Standard and Protocol for
Testing Microbiological Purifiers (OPP Task Force Report, 1987). The result is biopure (microbiologically purified) water, the highest quality drinking water available. Purefecta is the first product from a collaboration between Pall Corporation, a global provider of filtration, separation and purification technologies, and
umpd Distributors of:
Grindex Electric Submersible Pumps Durable, Reliable and Simply Smart. Whatever your pumping requirements are
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Power Prime Self-Priming Diesel Pumps We can offer you the best value with our exclusive Power Prime Pumps. Our user
friendly Power Prime Pumps are built to make your pumping job easier. Claessen Pumps Limited Known for our excellent and dependable service with a nationwide network of dealers.
Please contact us for a quote on your next pumping application.
For more information please contact us or visit our web site at
www.claessenpumps.com 50 I November 2005
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Drinking Water Kinetico Incorporated, a water treat
organic compounds. Finally, a 0.2
micron Pall bacteria filter removes
people die each year in the US from disease-causing microbes in water.
Purefecta features a seven-stage, multi-banier process that offers more
bacteria that may be present. Public concern about drinking
According to the Centers for Disease Control, the number of outbreaks of
certified contaminant removal than other
water quality and safety
diinking water systems including filter pitchers, countertop and faucet mounts, and under the sink systems. It is certified by the leading water quality product per formance agencies to remove greater than 99.99999 percent ofbacteria, greater than 99.999 percent of protozoa and greater than 99.99 percent of viruses from water. These agencies, specifically
Concerns over drinking water qual ity have been on the rise during the past decade. While municipal water
the EPA Guide Standard and Protocol for virus removal and exceeds the EPA stan
dard for bacteria and protozoa removal. Poliovirus, rotavirus, Oyptosporidiiim, Giardia, and Klebsiella terigena are among the long list ofpathogens Purefecta can remove. It is a multi-barrier drinking water purifier available to consumers that removes pathogens in addition to other commonly found water contaminants including toxic metals, such as lead, and volatile organic compounds(VOCs),such as chemicals and pesticides. Unique seven-stage protection process combines
many waterborne illnesses of the past, such as cholera and typhoid fever, out breaks of waterborne diseases still
occur. An estimated seven million peo ple become sick and more than 1,000
International (NSF), Underwriters Laboratory (UL), the Water Quality Association (WQA) and BioVir Laboratories, found that Purefecta meets
treatment has eliminated threats from
waterborne illnesses, although current ly underreported, is increasing. Even well operated, state-of-the-art treatment plants cannot ensure that drinking water is entirely free of microbial pathogens. System failures do occur and not all systems are func tioning at the level they should. A 1999 EPA report found that 55,000 US comcontiniied overleaf...
reverse osmosis(RO)technology with Pall's precise membrane technology that filters out microbiological con taminants. The membranes were origi nally developed to remove bacteria and
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ter of a human hair. An RO membrane
removes heavy metals such as lead, other compounds such as nitrates, and cysts, including Cryptosporidiiim. Contaminants are flushed to drain
while allowing water molecules to pass. Then a 0.02 micron Pall virus fil ter eliminates viruses that may be pres ent. Next, a non-corrosive self-circu
lating tank safely stores the water until needed. Upon demand, the water pass es from the tank through a carbon block post-filter that removes any remaining tastes, odours and volatile
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November 2005 I 51
Drinking Water munity water systems were in need of significant investment to install, upgrade or replace infrastructure to ensure the provision of safe drinking
water, which is unregulated and varies considerably, may not offer any more safeguards against pathogens than tap
water to their 243 million customers.
Some municipalities currently rely on water supplies without filtration or disinfection. And new pathogens, some of which are resistant to conven
tional treatment processes, continue to emerge. Even with optimum treatment, contamination can also occur in the
water distribution system, leaving the
consumer vulnerable. And bottled
pathogens, people with weakened immune systems are at the greatest risk of serious and even fatal illness.
Anywhere from 20 to 25 percent ofthe population in the U.S. and Canada is considered immune compromised and
the number is increasing as our society ages.
Current world events have also con tributed to new concerns about the
security of drinking water supplies. Recent FBI warnings about bioterrorist threats on our drinking water are raising questions about what federal and local actions are planned in the event of such an attack. Currently, there is no routine monitoring for sus pect agents and no treatment protocols for municipalities to follow in the event of a threat.
The market for home drinking water systems is growing rapidly in North America and worldwide. The
point-of-use water market is expected to reach more than $1.4 billion by 2007, according to the latest report by
Frost and Sullivan.
Dave Krupinski is managerfor Kinetico Residential Systems. For more information contact:
RON HALLETT, UV PURE FOUNDER
UV Pure Technologies' Hallett™ water purification systems with Crossfire Technology™ are an evolutionary leap in drinking water and
waste water treatment.
I THE MOST EFFECTIVE UV DOSE
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firstname.lastname@example.org call: 1.888.407.9997 www.uvpure.com
Representatives: » John Meunia, Ontario and Quebec 'Cyclops Process Equipment, New York State 'Associate Measurement Company, Northeastern US 'Marketing Affiliates, Ohio; 'Technical Design and Marketing, Pennsylvania
Pure, safe water.
ES&E's 18th annual
Directory, along with a powerful lineup of articles, news and comments, will be directed to some
18,000 key environmental professionals across Canada, including those serving industries and municipalities. To reserve space,or for lurttier details, please contact us. Penny Davey Sales Manager E-mail: email@example.com Denise Simpson Sales Rep. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel:(905) 727-4666 • Fax:(905) 841-7271 Toll Free: 1-888-254-8769 www.esemag.com
52 I November 2005
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
AMEC's tests prove successful for radioactive waste clean-up
BE >THINK> INNOVATE >
By John Kageorge
Agroup of Canadian engi
neers and scientists from
AMEC have helped develop a promising solution for the world's largest environmental clean-up project. The Hanford Site in Washington State, perched on the bank of the Columbia River, has radioactive waste dating back to the Manhattan Project.
AMEC, which is an international proj ect management and technical services company, has just completed tests and received encouraging results that may impact this problem which began over half of a century ago. The nuclear reservation is in the dry desert climate of central Washington State. There are two targets for the clean-up on the nearly 600 square mile site. The first one is obviously the waste; it is estimated that there are 53 million gallons of it. The waste is stored in tanks, some of which are over 50 years old and designed as a tempo rary measure until better technology became available. The second target is the soil. Some ofthe tanks have leaked, causing the ground to become contam
inated by the radioactive material. The US Department of Energy is in the midst of a USD $2 billion per year
hardens, hazardous inorganic and radioactive contaminants are perma nently trapped in a glassy, solid mass that is 10 times stronger than concrete. In other words, GeoMelt melts radioactive soil into glass bricks, mak ing it inert. The process already has been used in projects on three continents to suc cessfully treat a wide range of contam inants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, pesticides, herbicides, mixed radioactive wastes and a variety of heavy metals. All
DosingpaQ: PRECISE METERING MADE EASY
Vancouver and Trail offices in British
Columbia led the first phase of tests using their GeoMelt technology. The BC team did over half of the design work, including all of the critical 3D modeling. They have since teamed up with a team of equal size in Hanford to conduct a second phase of tests. The demonstration project One ofAMEC's tests focused on the
called GeoMeltÂŽ. It uses electrodes to
radioactive waste stored in under
heat contaminated waste and soil at
ground tanks. The test associated with the vertical shafts was performed continued overleaf...
Cutaway view of the ICV container prior to processing.
and virtually all types of debris can be accommodated, including drums, scrap metal, concrete, boulders, asphalt, wood, tires and plastic. About 50 specialists from AMEC's
the site by 2035. A nuclear age solution AMEC has developed a process
temperatures that can reach 2,000 degrees Celsius. When the material
classes of contaminants can be treated
future underground treatment of buried vertical shafts containing nuclear waste. The other test is part of an on-going demonstration program supporting the eventual retrieval and treatment of millions of gallons of
effort to remove all nuclear waste on
As easy as
Cutaway view of the ICV container during the melting process.
Cutaway view of the ICV container following treatment, showing the resulting block of vitrified waste.
The Grundfos DosingpaQ consists of pump systems designed to offer an accurate and dependable dosing package with standard dosing pump components. Easy to install and set-up, DosingpaQ is the turnkey solution foryour chemical injection needs.
These are artist renderings of the GeoMelt in-Container Vitrificationâ„˘
November 2005 \ 53
Department of Energy. The test sup porting the tank waste program was performed under contract for the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection and its prime contrac tor at the Hanford site, CH2M-HILL Hanford Group, Inc. For the vertical shaft test, a mockup of the more than 140 underground waste-storage shafts at Hanford was
developed. The mock-up - like the
The GeoMelt melt surface when processing plutonium contaminated waste. The meit temperature is
approximately 1,550 degrees C.
actual Hanford shafts - consisted of
five bottomless and topless 55-gallon drums that were welded end-to-end
and buried. The mock-up was filled with simulated waste including steel, wood, concrete and soil and chemical simulants. It is anticipated that the actual Hanford shafts contain plutonium, uranium, cesium and other highly active waste, making excavation before treatment unsafe due to high dose rates and the possibility of spon
Photograph of a piece of GeoMeit vitrified product. This was made of soil from the Hanford site in South
Eastern Washington State.
taneous chemical reactions.
The vertical shaft test successfully melted the entire shaft in just seven days, resulting in a monolith that matched its predicted size. Further tÂŁ3v'
the treatment c; ; at the Hanford
he bulk vitrification process will include to 300,000 gallons of actual tank wastes e as part of a demonstration program.
The company is quite familiar with the nuclear sector, and this has proven
quite helpful to the GeoMelt project. AMEC is a leader in the field of
The second test also used simulated
waste and concerned the above-ground treatment of low activity radioactive tank waste in special refractory-lined containers. GeoMelt is under consider ation for the treatment of between 30
and 70 percent of Hanford's estimated 42 million gallons of low-activity tank waste.
Working on challenging environ mental problems is not new to AMEC. The Sydney Tar Ponds in New Scotia, which is Canada's biggest environmen tal clean-up project, will require 2,700 person-years of work and a decade of time to complete. The plan is to dig up and destroy the worst contaminants, using methods that have proved to be safe and effective on similar sites.
Remaining materials will be treated in place and then contained within an engineered containment system. The cleaned-up sites will be landscaped to fit their natural surroundings or future site use.
This is quite similar to the restora tion work AMEC is doing in connec tion with NASA. The company is cur 54 I November 2005
rently restoring the home of several endangered species and one of North America's largest sea turtle nesting grounds. Cape Canaveral. Decades of satellite, rocket, and shuttle launches have loaded the soil with lead, PCBs and other nasty elements. An eight day process In the bulk vitrification, the con
tainer and its liner system performed to expectations and a 42-metric-ton glass brick was produced in eight days. Basically, there are four steps: 1.Radioactive waste is liquefied, then oxidizers are added.
2.The mixture is poured into enormous containers that contain electrodes.
3.Using 5,000 amp current, the mix ture is heated to 2,000 degrees Celsius. 4.The material is cooled, creating a glass brick.
nuclear power in Europe. Earlier this year, AMEC acquired NNC Canada Limited, Nuclear Safety Solutions Limited and Monserco Limited. In
October, AMEC was awarded the proj ect management for the restoration of the Bruce Power nuclear facility, which will begin delivering power in 2009.
Next step, Los Alamos? AMEC's positive test results for both procedures, vertical shafts and bulk vitrification, are strong advances for this mammoth-size project. Both procedures will now move forward for further testing. The next test for the vertical shaft process will be on an actual shaft at either Hanford or the
The container is then sealed and
Los Alamos National Laboratory site in New Mexico. Further testing of the bulk vitrification process will include the treatment of up to 300,000 gallons
stored, with a life span of thousands of
of actual tank wastes at the Hanford
site as part of a demonstration pro
Nuclear familiarity Surprisingly, AMEC's environmen tal practice is not as well known as that of its project management and techni
.John Kageorge is with .AMEC E-mail:john.kageorge(W,amec.com
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Separator prevents oil contaminating a power plant stormwater system addition to removal of oil from normal stormwater and
plant wash runoff, the OWS unit also had to be designed to allow oil separation dur ing any possible worst case scenario, a 10 year storm. This worst case is defined as
possible equipment failure, with sub- sequent loss of oil
Removal of oil from water
before the water is discharged into a river or other body of water is an important envi ronmental goal. In order to accomplish this, a major hydropower producer in
in addition to the oil carried
by the stormwater runoff, during the storm. Therefore, the separator had to be
designed to handle its maximum rated flow of 1900 US gpm (432 mVhr) with an oil concentration of 4250 mg/L.
for 99.88% removal of all free oil.
After startup, the separator was test ed several times and the concentration of
oil in the water being discharged was routinely below detectable level. Compliance with EN 858-1 performance requirement was confirmed. Approximately six months after the separator was installed, a near worst case scenario took place. An oil spill occurred during a severe thunderstorm. As a result, the oil/water separator did indeed experience the full design load of 1900 US gpm water with 4250 mg/L of oil. Discharge into the dam sluice remained at nondetectable levels for the duration of the event.
HydroQuip consulted with Lantec
The power company is planning to
the southern United States contracted
Products and, as a result, the oil/water
with HydroQuip, Inc. for the supply of
retrofit several OWS units to HD Q-
separator was designed using HD QPACÂŽ as the coalescing media. This allowed for design of the separator to exceed the European Union's specifica tion for OWS units, EN 858-1, that calls
a state of the art oil/water separator (OWS).
The power plant had several goals, but the most important was that, in
PAC in the near future.
Contact: HydroQuip Inc. E-mail: email@example.com
SANITHERM ENGINEERING LIMITED Package Water and Wastewater
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We supply SaniBrane'''" Membrane Bioreactors (MBR's), RBC and SBR package plants, static tube aeration, odour control, disinfection, air stripping towers and much more.
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November 2005 \ 55
SBR system for large Chinese pulp & paper mill By Peter McCarthy,M.A.Sc.and Zhiping Qiu, M.Sc.E.,P.Eng.
In 2005, ADI Systems Inc. of Fredericton, New
completed commissioning for a large ADI-SBR wastewater treat ment system for Guangzhou Paper, one of China's largest pulp and paper mills. In North America, ADI Systems normally provides turnkey installa tions, but in China we typically supply a technology package, which for this project included: process design; detailed design of selected compo nents; design manual (to guide local detailed designers); ADI-ASD decanters; jet aeration system; instru mentation; control valves; DCS con
trol system; operator training; and commissioning. The paper mill is located in Guangzhou city centre on the shore of
Foundations for sludge thickener(foreground) and SBR basins (background).
the Pearl River in southern China. The
mill has chemi-thermomechanical pulp ing, sulfite pulping, groundwood pulp ing, and paper-making operations. Before installation of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system, approxi mately 5000 mVd of wastewater was pretreated in a high-rate aerobic system and low-strength wastewater was pre treated in two dissolved air flotation units.
New effluent regulations required the mill to install a secondary wastewater treatment system. The new dis charge limits for COD, BOD, and TSS are 200 mg/1, 30 mg/1, and 200 mg/1, respectively. The design wastewater characteris tics for the biological treatment plant are summarized in Table 1.
ADI's partners on this project
Wastewater Design Characteristics Parameter
6 to 9
56 I November 2005
included the mill, which provided proj ect and construction management, and the Changsha Design Institute that provided detail design. The new wastewater treatment sys tem includes the following major com ponents:
• influent equalization tank (6000 m'); • influent pumping system; • nutrient addition systems for nitrogen and phosphorus; • five SBRs (14,000 m', each); and • gravity WAS thickener. The ADI-SBR system is comprised of five on-grade, common wall, castin-place concrete basins. Each SBR tank is 31.5 m by 68 m and has a 7.5 m wall. The treatment plant was con structed using 12,000 tonnes of con crete and 1600 piles. The average depth of piles is 14 m with a pile diam eter of40 cm. The total weight of rein forcing steel used in the project was
required for biological treatment. Urea (dry) was selected for nitrogen, and 75% phosphoric acid was selected for phosphate. Urea was purchased in bags and dissolved and stored in fiber glass tanks. Phosphoric acid was trans ferred into the fiberglass storage tanks directly from tanker trucks. Each stor age tank is equipped with a level-indi cating transmitter. The daily chemical consumption is calculated based upon the liquid level change. Each basin is equipped with a sim ple influent distribution system, waste sludge collection manifold, and jet aer ation system, all of which are located on the basin floor. Each basin is also
decanters and instrumentation. The
instrumentation includes a pH/temperature sensor and analyzer, a dissolved oxygen sensor and analyzer, a level indicating transmitter, and a level
During the construction period, the concrete and steel prices increased substantially, and the contractor had to resolve the price escalation problems with the mill before resuming the con struction work. Therefore, there was a delay in the treatment plant construc tion schedule. However, pressure from the local government was so high that the mayor of Guangzhou promised the public that he would swim in the Pearl
Each SBR basin is equipped with a jet aeration system, with two jet aera tors running the length of each basin for oxygen supply and mixing. The jet aeration system has demonstrated that it has excellent efficiency in transfer ring oxygen from the air to the process water and is quite reliable in terms of
River in 2005!
maintenance. Each basin is connected
to one dedicated, multi-stage, centrifu gal blower. Energy consumption is minimized by a control valve on the suction side of the blower. As oxygen
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Wastewater Treatment very well, although the SBR influent COD and TSS are constantly above design conditions (the weekly average influent COD is frequently more than double the design value). The average effluent BOD for the past six months was 10 mg/1; however, the effluent COD was higher than discharge limit (due to the high influent values and the
non-biodegradable COD fraction typi cal of pulping wastewaters). The owner has been very satisfied with the SBR system performance due to the excel
lent BOD removal, low maintenance,
low operating costs, ease of operation, and its reliability. They are especially pleased with the system's capability to handle higher than design COD, BOD, and TSS concentrations.
Peter McCarthy, M.A.Sc. and Zhiping Qiii, M.Sc.E, P. Eng. are with ADI Systems Inc.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Sludge thickener (foreground) and SBR basins (background). demand increases or decreases, the
blower power draw and air flow is increased or decreased via the inlet control valve.
The control system is designed for flexible operation of the system. The DCS operator interface is intuitive and bilingual. The SBR cycle length is variable, and the system can be run with any number of basins on line. Individual event durations (Fill, Fill/Aerate, Aerate, Mix, Settle, and
Decant) are also adjustable. The sys tem can be operated using continuous flow to the SBR system, holding the Equalization Basin (EQB) level con
High solids Un-loading for Pump Stations
stant, or flow can be stored in the EQB for shorter Fill durations. The aeration
system can also be operated manually should the dissolved oxygen monitor ing system be out of service for main tenance. All setpoints are adjustable by the operator or supervisory staff. Two of ADI's process engineers were on-site for operator training and commissioning which got underway late in 2004. One ADI process engi
Heavy-duty, bigger steel cutters
• Larger screening drums •Sensing and auto-reversIng •Independent motor control • Grinds stormwater debris
• Protects pumps
neer spoke Mandarin; this helped with communications between ADI and the
mill staff. Although the Process
Operations Manual and other start-up materials were written in English, all screens on the interface with the DCS
were bilingual (Chinese and English). During the first six months, the
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influent flow had been close to design,
averaging approximately 60,000 mVd; however, the influent COD has consis
tently been higher than design (of 750 mg/1), frequently averaging over 1,500 mg/1. Results from the first six months
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November 2005 \ 57
A supercomputing solution for air quality permitting By Dr Ka-Hing Yau and Prof.Jesse LThe
A contour diagram of the ground level con centration of SO2 predicted by CALPUFF for a one-day simulation. Two distinct plumes emerge from the stack because the wind shifts its direction during the day.
requires considerable expertise and resources. Modelers performing these analyses may require external support on several fronts, from preparation of the input data to the execution of the model.
Aerial view of wind field overlays with the satellite map of Kuwait. The wind field Is developed by MM5 and CALMET(part of CALPUFF).
WM ■ ■
Canada has been enjoying
increasing activity in mining and exploration, particularly among the resource-rich provinces such as British Columbia and Alberta. However, these are also
home to vulnerable national parks and scenic areas.
In the US the national parks are often classified as Class 1 area under
Ivey-sor/SEB"^ GuaranteeilSite Semeiliatlon
1-800-24B-2744 • www.spttMt 58 I November 2005
the provision of Clean Air Act. Haze formation due to pollutants and acid rain are of particular concerns in national parks. New projects in the neighboring areas are subject to strin gent environmental impact assess ment. This usually involves regional studies of visibility analysis and depo
CALPUFF is a generalized nonsteady-state air quality system for reg ulatory use. It was originally devel oped by Earth Tech Inc. under a con tract with the California Air Resources
Board (CARB). The US EPA has pro posed the CALPUFF modeling system as a Guideline model for regulatory applications involving long distance transport and on a case-by-case basis for near-field applications where nonsteady-state effects are significant. The latter applies to situations where fac tors such as spatial variability in the meteorological fields, calm winds, fumigation, recirculation or stagna tion, and terrain or coastal effects are
important. As a case in point, we present our experience with a reputable client in Kuwait. The project is a typical air quality modeling exercise for a ther mal power plant facility. The client
sition of sulfuric or nitrous chemicals.
needs to use refined CALPUFF mod
In the US, regulators are suggesting more frequently that request applicants utilize CALPUFF to perform Class I area impact analyses, long range trans port of pollutants, visibility studies for BART, and impact evaluation of
eling in a manner similar to Class I area analysis. This assessment begins with first evaluating the impacts from
the existing sources. Subsequently, one must estimate the increase in pollution levels
sources close to the ocean.
Furthermore, various emission rate
These studies involve visibility analysis, shoreline fumigation, and calculation of the deposition of acidic species. CALPUFF is also a preferred long-range model in many Canadian provinces including B.C. and Alberta.
scenarios are inspected to assess air quality as the new power plant expands its output in subsequent stages and uses various grades of fuel quality. Each calculation must be performed over a 5-year period of meteorological
However, the execution of CALPUFF
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Air Quality Preparation of meteorological data
tational domain. A single straight 5-
puffs are non-interacting in the
is often the first hurdle for modelers.
year CALPUFF simulation of the client's project required 80 days of
CALPUFF model. Moreover, the
Many international users outside of the US (including Canada) often face par ticular difficulty in obtaining conven tional data for their home countries.
We needed to employ meteorological data generated by MM5, an advanced numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. The resources required for exe cuting the MM5 model are beyond the scope of this article. However, it suf fices to say that 10 to 100 times more expertise and computer resources are required compared with common regu latory models such as AERMOD or CALPUFF when used with normal
meteorological data. For the Kuwait project we executed the prognostic model over the entire country at a resolution of 12 km. To complete the preparation of model input, we also included satellite base maps, global terrain data, and land use data prepared by us with a resolution of 1 km.
The execution of the CALPUFF
model can be very slow because it has to trace numerous puffs in the compu
CPU time on a single high-end PC. The whole project, with various emis sions scenarios, would take 336 days for completion over a bank of 14 highend Xeon workstations in our compa ny. To avoid any delay in the project, we developed an effective computing solution. Lakes
offers a supercomputing service based on grid computing. The system distrib utes many small jobs running in the background of every computer and workstation available in the company. The straight CALPUFF execution was divided into a series of short monthly calculations for each single source. These small jobs were conveniently fed into the PC cluster. This resulted in
a quick turnaround and less distur bance to coworkers, who had con tributed their desktops for the comput ing pool. The partial impacts from each source were later added up to yield the total impact.
incremental impacts of the new sources were obtained right away. There was no need to repeat the calcu lations for the old sources. Further
simplification was obtained by group ing identical sources to eliminate duplication. In addition, scaling of source strength was employed to esti mate impact changes with respect to the fuel sulfur concentration. The latter
is an approximation as the chemical formulation in CALPUFF is nonlinear.
Nevertheless, it turned out to be an
excellent approximation for the area of concern. Lakes Environmental
eompleted all the necessary calcula tions in one month, instead of one year. Dr Ka-Hing Yaii is a Senior Scientist at Lakes Environmental
Contact: Kahing.Yau@weblakes.com Prof. Jesse L. The, is CEO of Lakes Environmental.
The above method works because
WATERLOO Canadian Environmental
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Enhances professional credibility and recognition for environmental expertise.
• rapid, clean installation • long service life • superior hydraulic performance • minimal chemical diffusion •excellent QA/QC
Find out more at
P.O. Box 385, Rockwood, ON Canada NOB 2K0
Tel:(519) 856-1352 Fax:(519) 856-0759 vwvw.waterloo-barrier.com
November 2005 I 59
e Showcase Insertable magmeter The
Easy upgrade for nitrogen
removal in waste
McBirney Multi-Mag™ Insertable
Magmeter was designed to accurately
AnoxKaldnes, Inc's HYBAS™ treatment
the design life of the project through three independent programs.
process is a type of Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge IFAS process. This sys tem is especially suitable for nitrogen re moval in existing activated sludge sys tems. It can upgrade systems using exist ing tankage on site to meet new effluent ammonia or even total nitrogen limits. HYBAS increases aerobic sludge age without increasing the solids loading rate to the secondary clarifier.
Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682
Tel: 401-270-3898, Fax: 401-270-3908
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.concrete-pipe.org American Concrete Pipe Association
debris-free flow in difficult applications including low flows. An array of elec tromagnetic sensors are strategically located on the insertable probe that spans the entire pipe diameter. The probe detects and compensates for shifting flow profiles resulting in a bet ter than 1% accuracy specification. Tel:(905) 856-1414 Fax:(905)856-5601 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology Ltd.
Widely used interactive software for selecting the right material for buried infrastructure systems. Determine the real cost of materials you specify over
Rotary lobe pumps
SSP Pumps offers a broad range of rotary lobe pumps,and a range of disc pumps. The range of high-quality pumps is channelled exclusively through a selected worldwide distribution network, and directly from the company's production facility located in Eastbourne, England. Benefits to customers:
• • • •
Rotary Lobe Pump know how Application experience Reliability Comprehensive range
'Global excellence • Customer focus
• Right first time. Every time Tel: 514-633-0999, 1-800-633-0999 Fax: 514-633-9374
E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.aquateck.com Aquateck
Web: www.anoxkaldnes.com AnoxKaldnes Inc.
Corrugated steel pipe For almost 100 years, Armtec has been
providing the construction industry with
Armtec's deep-corrugated structural steel plate (Bridge-Plate) can provide one of the most cost-effective and rapid solutions to short-span bridging needs. BridgePlate was developed with the benefit of 70 years' experience in providing soilsteel bridging solutions. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: email@example.com
Corrugated Steel Pipe (CSP) prod ucts, deliver ing low cost engineered solutions to customers
throughout Canada. CSP is an economi cal and durable choice for stomi sewers, storm water detention systems, culverts, bridges and other construction projects. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.armtec.com
Phoenix Underdrain System
Storm sewer relines
An EMCOR Company
Corrugated Steel Pipe is an excellent mate
rial for relining
Comstock Canada Ltd.
• Optimizes vertical and horizontal pressure filters • Low profile, filtered water pick-up lateral orifice is < 25 mm • Manufactured from corrosionresistant stainless steel
• Custom hydraulic distribution • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution
Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: email@example.com
has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc tion services to the Canadian water and wastewater sectors for almost 100
years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs. Tel: 905-335-3333, Fax: 905-335-0304
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.comstockcanada.com
Web: Web: www.awifilter.com AWI Filter
60 I November 2005
Comstock Canada Ltd.
verts and stomi sewers. Round pipes from 300mm to 3600mm diameter can be
slipped inside of a failed structure and securely grouted in place. Pipe arch, arch, ellipse and box culvert shaped liners closely match original cross sections. The polymer coating is proven to resist acids, chlorides and other chemicals that are
destroying Canada's infrastructure. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081
E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
:ÂŤ1 Underground detention
Ultrasonic level transmitter
Drive solutions for water and wastewater
Flowline's general purpose two-wire ultrasonic transmit
ter provides noncontact level meas
storm Water Management using large diameter Corrugated Steel Pipe under Darking areas is a cost-effective way to
urement up to 32' or 10m and is ideally suited for challenging corrosive, coating or waste liquids. The transmitter is broad ly selected for atmospheric bulk storage, day tank, process vessel and waste sump applications. Media examples include ink
meet reduced runoff and environmental
and wastewater. The MiniMe'''" is offered
restrictions while allowing revenue pro ducing services and commercial devel opment. Comprehensive design softvare is available, FREE, fel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org iVeb: www.cspi.ca
in four measurement ranges up to 10m
( orrugated Steel Pipe Institute
with 1" and 2" transducers. Installation is
fast and simple with two-step target cali
nriFiri iiiiL For more than 30 years Danfoss has demonstrated leadership in water man agement with a host of measurable ben efits. For wastewater treatment the
VLT* drives ensure reduced energy consumption, improved throughput and a reduction in chemical usage. For water supply systems, the drives reduce water leakages, bursts and maintenance
Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: info@daviscontrols. com.
Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630
E-mail: info@daviscontrols. com
Davis Controls Ltd.
Davis Controls Ltd.
New optical oxygen sensor for the wastewater industry
Leak detection studies Flowmetrix
completes its product portfolio
approaches toward the development of proper leak detec tion strategies. Working together with 'key' person
Ifor water and wastewater appli cations with the
Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to pro vide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush, roller or spray.
optical oxygen sensor Oxymax W C0S61, the fluorescent method for oxygen measurement. Sensor pre
nel to understand the utilities water
dictive maintenance warns when maintenance
is required and can be calibrated directly in the medium. With no electrolyte to handle, no polarization time, no poisoning by H2S, the measuring point is easy and maintenance fiee.
network enables Flowmetrix to deliver
today's best management practices reducing your non-revenue water in the most cost-effective manner. Tel: Western office 416-779-1531
Tel: 800-668-3199,Fax: 905-681-9444
Eastern office 613-398-0296
E-mail: sales@densona. com
Denso North America Inc.
Flowmetrix Technical Services
Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0
Solid handling pumps
Engineered pumping systems
Metering dosing package
Gorman Rupp has
The all-new Grundfos
introduced a new
DosingpaQ digital dos ing metering packages
solids handling, self-priming cen trifugal pump - the Ultra VTM, which has higher pres sure, higher flow, greater efficiency and time saving maintenance features. The Ultra V Series of pumps, which is available in a variety of sizes, achieves up to 60 percent increased pressure and up to 40 percent increased flow over selfpriming centrifugal solids handling pumps of the same size. Tel:(519)631-2870, Fax:(519)631-4624 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.grcanada.com Gorman Rupp
consist of DME and
Gorman-Rupp offers an extensive line of above ground and below ground selfpriming pumping systems as well as a full line of solids-handling submersible pumping systems. These include pumps, motors, controls, piping and accessories, housed in a corrosive-resistant fiberglass enclosure that can be installed easily at the job site. Tel:(519)631-2870, Fax:(519)631-4624 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.grcanada.com Gorman Rupp
DMS pump systems designed to offer an accurate and dependable metering package with the standard Grundfos
digital dosing pump components. Applications include: water treatment systems; swimming pools, car wash systems; food and beverage, and pro cessing industries. Easy to install and set up, DosingpaQ is the turnkey solu tion for your metering needs. Tel: 905-829-9533, Fax: 905-829-9512
E-mail: email@example.com. Web: www.grundfos.com. Grundfos
November 2005| 61
j-rvice Showcase Hach increases lab efficiency Hach Compa ny's new DR 5000 Spectrophotometer and
Water level logger
Wind monitoring station Designed for a broad range of wind monitor ing applications, from wind power site evalua tion to crop spray deci
The HOBO Water Level Logger is a high-accuracy, pressure-based water level recording device that combines research-grade accuracy and durability. It provides 0.1% of full-scale accuracy with a 30' measurement range and better
sions and documenta
coded reagents for streamlined laborato ry analysis proviae automatic method detection and reagent blanking that are said to increase productivity and reduce errors. Coupled with the new Hach TNT Plus reagent vials, the DR 5000 Spectrophotometer automatically recognizes the text method, determines the reagent blank and yields 10-fold measurement and averaging. Tel: 970-663-1377, Fax: 970-962-6710 E-mail: sstephens@ hach.com
include plug-and-play operation, bat tery-powered operation and wireless
data retrieval. Web: www.hoskin.ca
tion, the HOBO® Wind
Monitoring Station accepts up to four wind speed and direction sen sors, making it ideal for wind profiling at multi ple heights, and reports average wind speeds, wind gusts, and wind
than 0.0r resolution. Unlike traditional
water level loggers, this water level log ger operates as a stand-alone unit. This simplifies deployment and maintenance. A second HOBO water level logger can be used for barometric compensation when required.
direction. Other features
Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www. hoskin.ca
Hoskin Scientific Ltd.
Hoskin Scientific Ltd.
Pressure pipe system
Eliminate sewer odour The Vortex Flow Insert eliminates sewer
odour and controls corrosion using a high-tech, low-maintenance design that has no moving parts. The device not only elimi
nates the need
Inland Aquatics is involved with both aquatic weed harvesting and dredging operations. Dredging works are available for storm pond maintenance, river, lake, marina works and thosejobs that start on land and move into the water.
E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.inlandaquatics.ca Inland Aquatics
TerraBrute™ is the first AWWA C900
PVC pressure pipe system specifically engineered for Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) and other trenchless applications. Now you can standardize on PVC tliroughout your potable water
and sewer infrastructure, whether you're using open-cut or trenchless methods.
pumps, for use in active dewatering. The new 60Hz models, which can handle up to 55 1/s and pump up to heads of 70 metres, can operate in pipes ranging between
but also costly chemical
injection systems. Applications include drop manholes or pumping stations with odorous discharges. Tel: 905-403-0264, Fax: 905-403-1124
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.ipexinc.com
E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.ipexinc.com
New 5100 and 5150
ITT Flygt has released a two
Tel: 905-403-0264, Fax: 905-403-1124
Slim line submersible pumps further
generation of slurry pumps. They are designed specifically to handle the most
300 and 500 mm in diam
abrasive slurries, in a wide spectrum of tough industrial envi
(SEB)® uses patented Ivey-soF mix
eter, with 3" and 4" hoses.
tures to desorb contaminants from
pumps have the latest ITT Flygt teclmology incorporated, ensur ing high efficiency, reliability and a long working life. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605 Web: www.ittflygt.ca
soils increasing their bioavailability. As a result, the duration for TPH,PAH
They are made from cast aluminum and have an outer casing of stainless steel. The multi-vane impellers are made from hardened high-chrome cast iron (HRC 60) in order to withstand tough and abrasive operating conditions. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605
Web: www.ittflygt.ca ITT Flygt 62 I November 2005
Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation
reduced by as much as 20 to 40% or more.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.sptt. net Ivey International Inc.
Environmental Science &Engineering Magazine
ft and Service Showcase Dosing system With
Septage receiving system their
unique construction the Tomal Volumetric Multiscrew Feeders are suitable as
metering devices for both granular and arch forming materials. Typical applica tions are in water treatment plants, pulp and paper, flue gas cleaning plants, chemical industry, and wherever you need safe discharge and accurate meter ing of solids. Tel.: 1-888-MEUNIER (638-6437) Fax:(905) 868-9683 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com John Meiinicr
compaction zone which provides significant dewatering of dis charged solids and increases dry solids content up to 40%.A pH and con ductivity sensing loop has also been added to the digital tracking and billing system, called MonsterTrack, and will shut the system off should discharge fall outside the acceptable range. The sys tem can unload a honey truck in 5 to 15 minutes at a flow rate of 136 m^/h. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-833-8858 E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
has three adsorptive media for ar senic
small and medium sized communal
systems. For infor mation on Kineti-
co's Ultrasorb-A, Ultrasorb-T or Ultrasorb-F media
please contact Ki netico. Tel: 800-432-1166
E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.kinetico.com Kinetico Canada Inc.
Waste receiving system
World's largest R/S Gate Valve
lAmaprop mixers for
Imixers can operate in activated sludge at depths of up to 30 m and at temperatures up to 40° C. They come with the most powerful motors (up to 6.4 kW) in this market segment. Tel: 905-568-9200 Fax: 905-568-3740
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.ksb.ca
Valve has been designed with sewage applications in mind - forcemains, pumping stations and treatment plants. The Seguro Valve has a resilient seal that ensures a 100% bidirectional bubble-tight seal, according to Neo Valve Additionally, the valve is designed in such a manner that sewage debris is prevented from collecting in the bonnet area. It is available in sizes up to 60", with 100% full bore design and hundreds of installations
fibre, reinforced epoxy resin propellers (diam eter: 1.2 - 2.5 m) are virtually unbreakable. The large-dimension
Jcome with extra-large, Ipellers. The
Systems to treat in dividual dwellings,
Web: www..lWCE.com JWC Environmental
The Floney Monster'''" septage receiv ing system now comes standard with a
Metcon's automated waste receiving and monitoring system is a pre-engineered system not only for screening, draining, washing, compacting and ssi physically treating septage waste but tt also provides automated analysis and logging of all waste arriving at a treat ment facility, thereby enabling valuable cost and time savings. in Canada since 1972. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520
E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.metconeng.com Metcon Sales & Engineering Ltd.
Tel: 1-888-515-8885, Fax: 905-624-8020
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.neovalves.com Neo Valves
New Pipe Pac version 3
Parkson's Geo-Reactor"' is an attached
Disinfection centre ler
growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result is
DO, increased contact
of the mixed
Pipe Pac version 3, has arrived. For more information or to obtain a copy of the Pipe Pac version 3, contact the OCPA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905 E-mail: paul.smeltzer@ ocpa.com Web: www.ocpa.com Ontario Concrete Pipe Association
liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the tank. Geo-Reactors offer efficient BOD
reduction and nitrification can easily be accomplished. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.parkson.com Parkson
The decentralised modular concept of ProMinent's new Dulcometer® disinfec
tion controller, with one single central unit, controls sensors, monitors and con
trols for up to 16 measurement loca tions. Includes a 1/4 VGA colour display and on-board datalogger. Easy to install and operate. Tel: 1-888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls
November 2005 I 63
owcase Package Water and
The Smith & Loveless PISTA* Grit Chamber
Complete chemical treatment package
maintains the highest
proven grit removal efficiencies
wide range of daily flows because of its
We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment
Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is economi cal, easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: email@example.com
exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete parti cles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in down stream basins, channels, weirs and pip ing. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available.
for remote sites housed in an insulated /
Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173
Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-293-9774
E-mail: sales@spdsales. com Web: www.spdsales.com
Sanitherm Engineering Ltd.
Smith & Loveless
UV Pure Technologies'
Hallett™ systems are an evolutionary leap in UV water purification.
Hallett 13 and 30 GPM
to 144". En
heated fiberglass building, including metering pumps, tanks, analyzers and data storage systems ready for field in stallation.
Join pipe to 144"
UV water purification
SPD Sales Limited could offer you a
complete chemical treatment package
Lok: the new
UV systems are NSF /
Waterloo Biofilters" are efficient, modu
ANSI 55 Class A certified. Patented Crossfire
Technology™ is selfcleaning and smart, fail-safe and virtually
lar trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and
maintenance free. Each
pend-O-Lok allows angular deflection
water retention. The self-contained mod
has intelligent, remote monitoring capability. Coming soon: the Hallett 150 GPM
and pipeline thermal expansion/con traction while maintaining seal integri ty. Specify in systems to 600 PSl for strength, reliability and ease of mainte
verified system, also with Crossfire Technology. Find out everything.
ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site.
Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759
UV Pure Technologies
Modular water treatment
systems Z - B O X TM
Packaged Plants are preengineered,
The New Waterra PowerLift-
3 is a powerful portable actua tor
ventional filtration and
tems that bring the proven large-plant per
sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular sys tem can be easily expanded in a "just in
Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704
(UF) membranes to small municipal or land development applications. These easi ly expandable plug-and-play systems offer superior quality water, reduced operating costs, smaller plant footprints, and reliable performance—at a price that is comparable to conventional systems.
Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.zenon.com
64 1 November 2005
treatment. The proven system replaces con combines clarification, aeration and
formance of ZeeWeed® ultrafiltration
MBR produces tertiary quality effluent and simplifies wastewater
durability of the Pump-2's mech anism and the light weight of the Hydrolift-ll's motor, gear and control.
available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d
ular design for communal use is now
ZENON Environmental Inc.
time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs. Proven in hun dreds of installations, ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial
applications of all sizes from < 10,000 GPD to> 10 MOD.
Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.zenon.com
ZENON Environmental Inc.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Innovative environmental protection solution Charges Resolved with an Alternative Measures Resolution Agreement The Attorney General of Canada (the "Crown") and McNally Construction Inc. recently signed an agreement
Another typical source of water is seepage from bedrock or soil that the tunnel is being constructed through. In this case, the tunnelling operations were taking place in a glacially
arising from an incident in Ontario involving the accidental
The dewatering system that was installed at the shaft involved the pumping of water from the tunnel into a settling
release of silt-laden water into a creek. This incident led to
the laying of charges against McNally Construction alleging the commission of offences under the Fisheries Act. The rel
evant sections of the Act prohibit the harmful alteration of fish habitat and the deposit of a deleterious substance. An Alternative Resolution to Prosecution
tank to ensure that sediments contained in the pumped water were removed before the water was discharged from the site. According to site drawings and plans, water from the settling tank at the shaft was to have been discharged into a west bound storm water system, but was in fact diverted into a
McNally Construction and the Crown have entered into
catch basin which was connected to an eastbound storm
an Alternative Measures Resolution Agreement which is an alternative to proceeding with a prosecution. This approach is generally reserved for those accused of less serious
water system that emptied into a tributary of the Little Rouge River, a known fish habitat.
offences and circumstances where it would be more benefi cial to have measures taken to restore the environment or
assure future compliance than to impose a fine or other form of sentencing. The terms of such an agreement may vary but will often require the accused to take measures to prevent a reoccur rence of the incident of concern. For example, the accused may be required to enhance its management system, install pollution control or monitoring equipment, or improve its employee and contractor training. In return, upon successful completion of all of the terms of the agreement, the charges against the accused are dismissed. However, should the accused not fulfill the terms of the agreement, the Crown will have the ability to resume the proceedings and pursue the prosecution. The prospect of successfully concluding such an agree ment with the Crown is fact-dependant. Factors considered by the Crown will likely include the environmental record and compliance history of the accused, the nature of the alleged offence, the degree of resulting harm, any corrective or preventative measures taken by the accused, and whether the accused was co-operative or attempted to conceal infor mation. McNally Construction's excellent track record with regard to environmental issues was one of the key factors that made this Alternative Measures Resolution Agreement an appropriate solution to address this particular case.
On December 11 and 12, 2002, sediment laden waterflows were observed in the tributary. The source of the dis charge was traced back to the C4 shaft. Once the origin of the flow was identified, McNally Construction stopped the flow immediately and corrected the situation. Any resulting effect to the Little Rouge system was tran sitory, and no remediation of the tributary or the creek was required. The Terms of the Agreement As part of the Alternative Measures Resolution Agreement, McNally Construction has agreed to create a Standard Operating Procedure and Policy for the manage ment of Water Discharges from tunnels. The company also agreed to develop and deliver a training program related to the environmental issues associated with water discharges from tunnelling operations and the relevant environmental regulations, policies or guidelines for its employees and sub contractors. McNally Construction will also be making a voluntary payment of $10,000 to the Royal Botanical Gardens for the promotion of proper management and con trol of fisheries or fish habitat or the conservation and pro tection of fish or fish habitat.
The Department of Fisheries and Oceans will supervise and monitor compliance with the terms of the Agreement. McNally Construction also has quarterly reporting obliga tions to keep the Crown apprised of its progress in meeting the terms of the agreement.
Facts of the Case
In the course of the performance of a design/build trunk sewer contract for York Region, McNally Construction con structed an underground trunk sewer system which involved the implementation of an extensive dewatering system. McNally Construction retained the services of an environ
McNally Construction is a recognized leader in the tun nelling industry. Unfortunately, leadership in management systems, technology and safety is not a guarantee against unexpected occurrences. This incident demonstrates that vigilance in project man agement, supervision of contractors and service providers, and diligence in verification of drawings and calculation assumptions against on-scene actual circumstances is criti cal. While quality assurance and environmental compliance oversight are critical aspects of project management, they do not function as a guarantee against the unexpected. In order to achieve a high level of compliance assurance, employee training, current management systems, and fre quent verification of performance is critical.
mental consultant to ensure that all environmental laws and
requirements were complied with. The trunk sewer was constructed by tunnelling methods. Access to the tunnel was through a shaft at the corner of 9th Line and 16th Avenue (shaft C4) in the Town of Markham. Typically with tunnel construction, water is removed from the tunnel through shafts. In this case, water was being removed through shaft C4. The source of water is usually processed water, used for washing down equipment, and cooling water, used for cooling the tunnel boring machine.
Infrastructure Research ...continuedfrom page 24 porting strength of the buried pipe, is dependent on two installation charac teristics:
• Width and quality of contact between the pipe and bedding. • Magnitude of lateral pressure and the portion of the vertical height of the pipe over which it acts. For the embankment condition,
Spangler developed a general equation for the bedding factor, which partially included the effects of lateral pressure. For the trench condition, he estab
lished conservative fixed bedding fac tors, which neglected the effects of lat eral pressure, for each of B, C and D
beddings. The objective of Spangler's research was to determine the support ing strength of buried rigid pipe when subjected to the earth load predicted by Marston's theories of earth loads on
projecting culverts. Supporting strength was defined as the load that caused cracking, or later, as the load that caused a specified width of crack such as 0.01 inch. Based on rational
assumptions about pressure distribu tion and tests of pipe installations con structed with "ordinary bedding" and pipe subjected to three-edge bearing loads, he determined the ratio of the field earth load that cracks the pipe, to
the three-edge bearing load that cracks the pipe. He termed the ratio of the in situ load with a particular bedding and projection condition to the three-edge bearing load that produces the same invert moment, the "Load Factor" for that field condition. In current prac tice, this ratio is called the bedding factor, Bf.
Spangler based his development of load factors for relating the strength of a projecting conduit to the pipe's threeedge bearing strength by making rational assumptions about the distri bution of the earth pressure around the circumference of a buried pipe with various bedding and projection condi tions, and determining the moments at invert, crown, and springline by an elastic analysis of the pipe, as a ring with uniform stiffness.
Spangler's elastic analysis of a pipe ring resulted in the following equa tions for bedding factor, S/ where bed ding factor is defined as the ratio ofthe field load to the three-edge bearing load that produces equal bending
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moments at the invert of the pipe. 1.431 CORP.
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distribution of vertical reaction (type
of bedding), .v varies with the projec tion ratio, and q varies with the Rankine pressure coefficient and the
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formed the basis for American and
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Installations Direct Design (SIDD) Although developed for the Direct Design method, the Standard Installations simplify the Indirect Design
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Canadian standards and specifications for the selection of bedding, backfill and pipe strengths for over seven The evolution of Standard
66 I November 2005
Marston and Spangler and their coworkers, and subsequent theories have
BAYCOR FIBRE TECH INC. Brantford, Ontario
N - xq
In this equation, N varies with the
easier to construct and provide more realistic designs than Marston's B,C and D beddings. Development of bedding factors for Standard Installations follows
the concepts of reinforced concrete design theories. The basic definition of bedding factor is the ratio of maximum
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Infrastructure Research moment to the three-edge bearing test to the maximum moment in the buried con
dition, when the vertical loads under each condition are equal.
1. Determine earth load.
Spangler And Marston Method SAMM) provide an optimum range of soil-pipe interaction characteristics. For the high quality materials and high compaction of a Type 1 installation, a low strength pipe is required. Conversely, a Type 4 installation requires a higher strength pipe because it was developed for a condition of lit
2. Determine live load.
tle or no control over materials or com
indicated that for A, B, and C pipe wall thicknesses, there was negligible varia tion in the bedding factor due to pipe wall thickness or the concrete cover, c, over the reinforcement.
Bf = M.Test
bedding factor maximum moment
in pipe wall under three-edge bearing test load, inch-
The six-step Indirect Design proce dure for the selection of pipe strength is still appropriate.
3. Select Standard Installation.
paction. Following is a description of
4. Determine bedding factor.
the four Standard Installations:
5. Apply factor of safety. 6. Select pipe strength.
Type 1: Use of high quality backfill materials and high compaction
The four Standard Installations that
evolved from Marston and Spangler's research (commonly referred to as
in pipe wall under field loads, inch-
pounds. To evaluate the proper bedding fac tor relationship, the vertical load on the pipe for each condition must be equal, which occurs when the spring-
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line axial thrusts for both conditions
are equal. After considering the formu
lae for ^Tesi and
^FiM , the for
mula for SIDD bedding factors is INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD.
[o.318Af,,,]Y[D + /] Bf = [m^,]-[o.SS/A',,,]-[o.iaSA^^,Ac]
WELL AND PUMP MAINTENANCE
NFS = axial thrust at the springline under a three-edge bearing test load, Newtons per metre (pounds per foot). D = =1internal pipe diameter, mm (inches) = pipe wall thickness, mm t (inches) MF\ = moment at the invert under field loading,(Newtonmm)/m (inch-pounds) /ft. N F1 = axial thrust at the invert under field loads, Newtons
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per metre (pounds per foot) C
â€” thickness of concrete cover
over the inner reinforcement,
mm (inches) Using SIDD, bedding factors were determined for a range of pipe diame ters and depths of burial. These calcula tions are based on one-inch cover over
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Type 2: Similar materials as Type 1 with lower compaction values. Type 3: Lower grade backfill material with lower compaction values. Type 4: No bedding with little or no compaction of native backfill required (not recommended). The fundamental differences between SAMM and SIDD are:
• Although SAMM assumed that there is no lateral interaction between the pipe and the trench, SIDD shows (with finite analysis), that lateral pressure is taken
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• Although SAMM assumed that the bedding would be perfectly shaped when installed (not so in actual prac tice), the finite analysis of SIDD assumed that the middle third under the
pipe is neither shaped nor compacted (a common installation practice). In general, SAMM minimized the
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inherent strength of concrete pipe,
tion of concrete pipe strength classes in the selection of bedding types. The advantages of Standard Installations are; minimized need for
imported granular material, therefore a more economical installation; the inher
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native materials, and using appropriate construction and on-site quality control processes. The Direct Design method
provides flexibility in design and cost
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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
^ Environmental Newsr Parkson Corporation wins top Ag new product award
30 YEARS DREDGING
HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGES HIGH VOLUME PUMPING-HDFE PIPE
Parkson's Manure Sand Saver has been
(New)- Geo Tube dewatering
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Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds,
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tee comprised offarmers and agribusi ness professionals reviewed 136 nomi nations for the New Product award.
Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction,
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The Manure Sand Saver removes
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• • • •
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Mequipco to represent UV Pure Technologies
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UV Pure Technologies recently announced that Mequipco Ltd. has been appointed exclusive representa tive for their Western Canadian munic
ipal water projects. Mequipco Ltd. is a manufacturers' representative and equipment supplier. UV Pure Technologies Inc. develops and manufactures ultraviolet purifica tion systems for drinking water and wastewater. www.uvpure.com.
Gartner Lee Limited
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Planning & Engineering Solutions www.gartnerlee.com British Columbia I Alberta I Yukon I Northwest Territories i Ontario i Quebec
Contaminants found in Geomatrix Cansult:ants
sediment at mouth of river
Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists Environment Canada has detected ele vated levels of dioxins and furans in
the sediments at a site in the mouth of
the Trent River, in Quinte West. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment
• Design of WaterA/Vastewater/Air Treatment Systems•Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies • Environmental Management Systems(ISO 14000) ' Utility Minimization Audits (Energy, Water, M/asfesJ • Remedial Designs/Remedial Actions •Phase l/ll Environmental Site Assessments • Soil/Groundwater
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and Environment Canada have under
taken and plan to conduct further investigation to determine the signifi
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cance of the contaminants and their source.
The elevated levels were discovered
as part of Environment Canada's inves tigation of sediment quality under the Bay of Quinte Remedial Action Plan.
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ins and furans.
continued overleaf... www.ese in ag.com
November 2005 \ 69
\ Environmental Newsj
• Drinking Water • Screening / Filtration • Separation / Flotation • Sludge Dewatering / Collection X
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As a precaution, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment has taken samples from all the Bay of Quinte area water treatment plants. Dioxins and flirans have not been detected and are
having no impact on drinking water quality in these communities. Consumption advice for fish in this area is provided in the 2005-2006 Guide to Eating Ontario Sport Fish published by the Ministry of the Environment. For more information please visit www.ene.gov.on.ca
Consulting Engineers 420 Stieldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, N1T 2H9 Tel:(519)624-7223 Fax:(519)624-7224 E-maii: email@example.com Web: www.hydromantis.com
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Maple Leaf Foods Inc., carrying on business as Rothsay, has been fined a total of $682,500 after pleading guilty to charges under the Environmental Protection Act (EPA), Ontario Regulation 347 and the Ontario Water Resources Act(OWRA). Rothsay recycles animal and poul try by-products, including bones, trim, fat, and offal into a broad range of commercial tallow and protein prod ucts at its plant in the City of
2004, odours emanating from various sources at the company led to com plainants reporting nausea, loss of appetite, loss of sleep, terminated social events and inability to enjoy out door property. The court also heard that on three
occasions the company failed to pro vide to the Ministry shipping mani fests for the transportation of wastes generated at its plant, as required by regulations under the Environmental Protection Act. In addition, it further
failed to comply with its Certificate of Approval, Provincial Officer's Orders and Orders of the Environmental Review Tribunal in a number of
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70 I November 2005
respects relating to storm water stud ies, lagoon decommissioning, liquid levels in lagoons, sampling and analy sis of effluent, and maintenance of effluent quality.
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
^ Environmental Newsr Leaders in
Final amendments made to
management regulation Final
Nutrient Management Regulation (O.Reg. 267/03) were filed on September 29, 2005. Key changes to the regulation include: • Increasing the number of farms prac ticing nutrient management; •Maintaining priority standards for the protection of streams and wells; •Refining requirements for the approval and registration of strategies and plans; • Simplifying regulations and stream
lining the requirements for farmers by allowing more flexibility in the design of their nutrient management strategies and plans; •Applying the nutrient management regulation to smaller expanding farms; •Additional requirements for some
farms under the regulation that are within 100 m of a municipal well; and, •Requiring approved plans for farms applying non-agricultural source mate rial (eg. biosolids), with an exemption
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Further technical changes to the Regulation include: •Changes to some construction and siting requirements for small manure storages;
•A general prohibition for phased-in farms for agricultural source material application on slopes 25% or greater and removal of rate restrictions for
application of liquid agricultural source materials on lesser slopes; •An exemption to the prohibition on livestock access to water in outdoor
confinement areas for dugout ponds; •Record keeping requirement to retain a nutrient management strategy and nutrient management plan (if required) on the farm for compliance purposes; •Removal of requirements relating to load bearing surfaces in outdoor con finement areas; •Exclusion of the requirement to use NMAN software;
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continued overleaf... www.esemag.com
November 2005 \ 71
EnvironmentalNewsj application of agricultural source
A 4:7 Year
materials on saturated soils; •Taking away requirements for sam
Tradition of Excellence in Engineering
pling and analysis of soil and agricul tural source material; •Removal of requirements for mini mum distance separation from surface water based on slope, soil texture and application method, the P-Index and the N-Index; •Refined certification and licensing requirements for those who prepare plans and strategies;
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New standards for BC's
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Regulation came into full effect on Nov. 1, 2005, establishing standards to ensure wells are properly drilled,
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sealed, maintained and closed. Wells that are not properly constructed or closed pose a risk to drinking water quality. Private well owners need to be
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72 I November 2005
from the top of the well casing to the ground surface and grading to drain surface water away from the wellhead; and
•A well identification plate. Owners of existing wells must ensure a secure well cap, or well cap and cover, is installed by Oct. 31, continued overleaf...
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
Associated Engineering 11 Associated Engineering 39 Baycor Fibre Tech 66 Gadman Power Equipment 28 CAEAL 48 Canadian Environmental Certification Approvals Board ...59
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Environmental Newsj. 2007. A well cap prevents contami nants from getting into the well and reduces the danger of a child or animal falling into the well. If a well is not in use, the well owner is required to deac
2005, the company was processing sea cucumber. The plant's contaminated
which resulted in a reddish coloured
tion system for domestic class pesti cides (similar to the one used in Quebec), which separates products into two categories based on their potential risk to human health and the
tivate or close the well.
process water containing some solid fish wastes being released into the Saint-Simon River. The company's approval requires that when the plant is processing sea cucumbers, the con taminated process water must be
•A business selling higher risk (Category 2) domestic pesticides must be licensed, and the products sold through a dispensary system (behind the counter) by trained and certified
750,000 British Columbians get their drinking water from wells.
Water system upgrades coming to Riviere-Verte The Village of Riviere-Verte is getting improvements to its water system, thanks to a $2,135,809 project funded under the Canada - New Brunswick
Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund This project involves the installa tion of an ultra-violet (UV) disinfec tion unit, restarting the chlorination system, installation of a contact reser voir downstream of the chlorination
and UV systems, installation of system instrumentation, upgrade of the pump ing station, construction of a new 640 cubic metre reservoir, upgrading ofthe water intake and the installation of a
process water treatment system was
not functioning properly at the time,
screened in both a dissolved air flota
tion system and an ultraviolet system, neither of which were operational dur ing this period.
•For all landscape, structural, fumiga tion or soil fumigation applications of a non-domestic or Category 2 domes tic pesticide, advance notification must be provided to the owners of property within 25 metres of a treated area, and signs must be posted on
The company was also charged with a similar offence that occurred
between March 23 - 30, 2005. During
this period, the company was again processing sea cucumbers and the plant's contaminated process water treatment system was not operational. This had resulted in a reddish coloured
2004, will invest $99 million in com munities across New Brunswick over
five years. The governments of Canada and New Brunswick are each investing
$33 million. The remaining $33 mil lion will come from local governments whose projects win CNBMRIF sup port.
To date, four projects have been announced in New Brunswick under
the agreement, for total funding of $16,908,683.
•A protected zone, the width of the watercourse buffer zones, will be
established around any open body of
effluent being released into the Saint-
water as defined in the Pesticides
Simon River and a noticeable odour in
Control Act; and the application of a pesticide within this protected zone will be prohibited. •The Minister will request voluntary compliance with the establishment ofa protected zone of 10 metres from the boundary of all public areas such as schools, hospitals and parks; with the protected zone to be created through the efforts of both the agricultural community and the institutions
the area of the effluent pipe's outfall.
lift station to deal with wastewater.
Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund Agreement, signed on December 3,
PEI to change its Pesticides Control Act and Regulations The Government of Prince Edward
Island is moving forward with a com prehensive plan to amend provincial laws governing the handling and use of pestieides. Minister of Environment, Energy and Forestry, Jamie Ballem said pro posed changes to the Pesticides Control Act and regulations address all aspects of pesticides in Prince Edward Island, from transportation and storage requirements to the sale and applica tion of both domestic and non-domes
involved. Pesticides would not be
applied in the voluntary protected zones.
•The maximum allowable wind speed
for the application of a pesticide using ground application equipment will be reduced from 25 kilometres per hour
to 20 kilometres per hour; and aerial application of a pesticide will be
New Brunswick fish plant charged for effluent release
tic pesticide products. Last year, a report entitled Recommendations for the Regulation
A Saint-Simon area fish plant has
of Pesticides in Prince Edward Island,
Control Act or regulations will be
pleaded guilty to two charges under the Water Quality Regulation - Clean
was completed by the Environmental Advisory Council which is appointed
Environment Act. Pecheries G.E.M
under the Enviromnental Protection Act
increased to a minimum $1,000 and maximum $50,000 for individuals, and a minimum $5,000 and maximum
Ltee - G.E.M. Fisheries Ltd. was
to advise the Minister on issues of envi
$250,000 for a corporation.
charged by the Department of the
ronmental concern. The report, based
Environment and Local Government
with failing to comply with two condi tions of the company's Water Quality Approval to operate the fish process ing plant. Between Jan. 28 and Feb. 3,
Islanders, included 44 recommenda tions. Among the key amendments to
Pesticides Control Act Regulations will come into effect January 1, 2006 with further changes being phased in over the following year.
74 I November 2005
be phased in between 2006 and 2007: •The Province will adopt a classifica
banned. •Fines for violations of the Pesticides
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine
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and suspended solids, nitrate and many more, Hach has the most reliable, accurate and cost-effective process measurement solution you can use to ensure your next plant Inspection runs smoothly. And we'll support you and give personalized service every step of the way.
To find out more about our products and Canadian distributors call 970-669-3050, email firstname.lastname@example.org or visit www.hach.com.
Did you know that concrete pipe installations may cost less than polyethylene pipe? Get your calculator out. Polyethylene pipe may seem less expensive than concrete pipe, but add the additional cost of meeting Ontario installation standards—more compacted gravel—and you've got a pipe solution that costs about the same as concrete pipe, but doesn't deliver the same strength, dependability and longevity. And
should you encounter structural problems after the fact, the bottom line will have you seeing red. Do the math. Then specify the solution that's the most affordable after all—concrete pipe. For more information, visit www.ocpa.com for your copy of Just the Facts Ontario
O O C P A
Concrete Pipe Association The choice of a lifetime
5045 South Service Road, First Floor, Burlington, Ont. L7L 5Y7 (905)631-9696 Fax:(905)631-1905 www.ocpa.com