Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 2005

Page 1


aving'aeration power cos

^ting metering challenge

ural communities


erta water treatment

nt maihtains production dur installation

New process luccessful for radioactive waste site clean-u .





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FEATURES En vjran/naninJ 07

Wacky, scare and breakthrough - a costly media trio Editorial comment by Tom Davey


Louisiana struggles with Katrina and Rita's environmental havoc - Report from WEFTEC


Taking the bite out of infrastructure costs at Ontario's "Big Apple"


Saving aeration power costs


Meeting metering challenges in rural communities

Efj^lfwas'jnn MAGAZINE

ISSN-0835-605X November 2005 Vol. 18 No.5

Issued November, 2005 fSiSf invites articles (approx. 1000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste

treatment and other environmental protection topics, if you are interested in submitting an article for consideration, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit ail submissions without notice.


Alberta water treatment plant maintains production during UV installation


Concrete pipeline designers transitioning to Standard Installations


fw Pondering the future of the water industry Design-Build - does this method work well in the public sector?

Consulting engineering needs

iStorage Tanks

innovation from our leaders

Leadership and sustainability changing the context of consulting engineering

Successful staffing - the "oxygen" of any consulting enterprise

Tanks used as integral part of NB Power wastewater system

PAGES 38-47 Dump trailer liners used In decommissioned

foundry clean-up project 48

Controlling Legionella with chlorine dioxide

Internal tank valve chamber prevents spills and freeze up


New drinking water system earns EPA status as a multi-barrier purifier

Secondary containment lining system for fuel storage tanks


Melting process successful for radioactive waste site clean-up

The dangers that lurk in tank farms


Separator prevents oil contaminating a power plant stormwater system


SBR system chosen for large Chinese pulp & paper mill


A supercomputing solution for air quality permitting

4 I November 2005

The costs of not preparing a spill prevention, containment and countermeasures plan PAGES 25-37

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Editorial By Tom Davey

Wacky,scare and breakthrough - a costly media trio

Eons ago, on a second trip to Australia, I



astounding interview take place when a reporter con fronted an eminent scientist. Ambush

might be a better word. Some of the top environmental scientists on the Planet

had gathered in the Sydney Opera House to present and debate their learned findings among their global peers. One scientist had noted that the water quality of Sydney Harbour had improved over the years."So much so", he quipped, "even the sharks have come back."

Almost immediately after his pres entation, a TV journalist confronted the eminent scientist with a 14-year-old schoolgirl in tow, neatly dressed in the usual attractive Australian school uni

form. It emerged that she had written an essay on the environment, which had won a national award. Questioned by the reporter, the scientist reiterated he had not said the harbour water quality was perfect,just that it had improved as defined by scientific instruments and analyses. The girl, egged on by the reporter, said that fish did not live there anymore.

Like their athletes, many Australian reporters have world class impudence, generously laced with an aggressive attitude. This reporter retorted: "Come now Doctor, this girl has just won a prestigious award for her environmental essay. How can you say the water has improved?" The scientist, now clearly flustered, found it hard to explain the complexities of bioassays and analyses of toxins to an abrasive interviewer. I watched astounded as this farce

unfolded. It was absurd. An essay, writ ten by a 14 year old - too young even to take her driving examination - was now being used as a weapon against a scientist who had written scores of

peer-reviewed papers on the environ mental sciences, 1 was reminded of this incident when 1 read an article in The

Guardian, a paper noted for its erudi tion and in-depth articles, as well as its gutsy coverage. It has spawned The Guardian Weekly which contains a selection of articles, culled from the

daily Guardian, then transmitted elec-

vrVI'vv. esemag.com

Tom was a 'Rapporteur' at the International Association of Water Pollution Research meeting in the Sydney Opera House where this photo was taken in 1974. In an earlier visit he had worked for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation as a reporter and editor.

tronically and printed in Montreal for Canadian distribution.

breakthrough trio which were so humorously defined by his colleague.

In a recent article, Ben Goldacre

But Canada has its own brand of

notes that science stories usually fall into three categories: wacky, scare and breakthrough articles. He noted that one university PR department in London, until recently, had never employed a single science graduate.

wacky, scare and breakthrough stories

This is not uncommon, he writes.

Science is done by scientists, then press releases are written by non scien tists who then run it by non scientist bosses, who then send it to journalists without a scientific education who

find it difficult to convey complicated ideas to lay audiences. Finally it is edited by a whole team of people who don't understand it. The Guardian, I believe, must be excluded from this

litany of incompetence. Flashback

When Toronto hosted an interna

tional conference on Global Warming over a decade ago I met Tim Radford of The Guardian who covered the con

ference. His articles have always been easy-to-read distillations of complex issues and devoid of hyperbole. 1 later met Tim at The Guardian headquar ters in London. Tim has won at least three British national awards for his

science writing; none of these awards, I'm sure, fell into the wacky, scare and

on environmental issues which has

been extremely costly to both taxpay ers and the environment. Proposals to harness the thermal properties in waste solvents which were contaminated by a small percentage of PCBs were aban doned following media hysteria. The temperatures required to make cement are approximately double that of normal incineration processes. Many rotary cement kilns are over 50 metres long, rotating at about three rev olutions per minute so the wastes have a long residence time in the incinera tion process. Both residence times and the high temperatures of the cement kiln process ensure destruction of toxic waste while adding the economic val ues of free fuel. Federal Government studies found the residence times and

temperatures in the studies were approximately double that necessary to safely dispose of PCBs and other liquid wastes.

But concerns about air pollution have tainted any incineration of wastes. Ironically it has resulted in Toronto using some 150 diesel trucks to travel, daily, to Detroit, Michigan, to continued overleaf...

November 2005 I 7


8e Engineering Editor


Editorial By Tom Davey dispose ofToronto's garbage in landfill where it must be noted, the resultant

E-mail: tom@esemag.com (No attachments please)

methane emissions are oblivious to

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sanclra@esemag.com

trips and idling time on visits to trans

Sales Director


political boundaries. The long highway fer stations must be added to this

E-mail: penny@esemag.com

absurdity. One Ontario Minister of the

Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com

Environment once stated: "Toronto must look after its own wastes." It would take a satirist to have envisioned

Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virglnia@esemag.com Design & Production CHRIS MAC DONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com Publisher


E-mail: steve@0semag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontan'o Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, HHaniloba

an expensive farce such as the Detroit fiasco.

Then too, incineration technology has evolved so that biosolids could be

processed so that they would burn autogenously, investing the process with thermal properties which could be used to provide energy in the waste treatment process, again transforming a problem into an asset. Both these methods were tested

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2MHiLL, Ontario

Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine

ADi Systems Inc., New Brunswick

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R. V. Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

well over two decades ago, yet aban doned in the face of fierce opposition.

cement. Municipal garbage, too, might be destroyed this way economically using kiln technology in an acceptable manner.

The decision to abdicate the dual benefits of PCB and biosolids inciner

ation technology must have cost hun dreds of millions of dollars with, iron ically, negative impacts on the environ ment and government budgets which continue to this day.

The result. Cement manufacturers use

imported coal to make cement while the sludge deposition on land arouses fierce opposition from the same groups who fought sludge incineration and the use of PCB contaminated sol vents in the safe manufacture of


British Columbia Marie Meunier

John Meunier Inc., Quebec

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science &

Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.

Readers Include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors.

Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. fSiSf cannot be respon sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial mat

ter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles In this magazine are intended to provide infor mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to cliris@esemag.com.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Passing the performance test

(^'4» -V

4 afi#=a


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"\ like smart operation and efficiency and the Jet Aeration System

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any other similar system I've ever seen." Clayton MacMurtry, Director of Public Works. Town of Middleton, Nova Scotia

Clayton MacMurtry is a gentleman farmer who enjoys spending time tending his cows, horses and three champion bulls. "I'm real proud of those bulls", he says.

"The government inspects them for reproduction so I say they're performance tested." Middleton's treatment plant was also performance tested but that was 35 years ago. It came as no surprise, then, that one of the two brush units supplying oxygen and

flow in the race-track-style oxidation ditch recently tailed. Clayton considered replacing the brush but realized he would be no further ahead in dealing with a number of ditticult maintenance and safety issues. Flygt's Jet Aeration System turned out to be the solution. The state-of-the-art system uses two NS 3152 MT pumps with a 117-150 ejector kit. The oxygen transfer rate, ease of maintenance and quiet operation made the system an obvious choice. It even generated less spray than the old brush aerators - a real plus. "I love the Jet Aerator," says Clayton.

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Conference Report

Droughts in India -floods in New Orleans among topics at WEFTEC 2005

Atthe recent Water Environment Federation



Washington, DC, a Stockholm Water Prize winner outlined

realistic drinking water treatment solu tions for Third World countries. Ms. Sunita Narain and the New Delhi based Centre for Science and Environment

(CSE), a non-governmental organization, shared the 2005 Stockholm Water Prize

for their efforts to fight top-down bureau cratic control of resources. A major goal was to empower women in water manage ment issues and rejuvenate traditional rainwater harvesting. She emphasized that it was manage ment, not scarcity of water, that is often the problem in many parts ofthe world. CSE is working to promote rainwater harvesting as a solution to water scarci ty. This involves storing rain in millions of storage systems - in tanks, ponds, step-wells and even rooftops - and to use it to recharge groundwater reserves for irrigation and drinking water needs.

A flooded wastewater treatment facility In St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana.

floodwater quickly diluted into the



She went on to say that, in India, water systems need to be designed to hold the monsoon rains, which are only 100 hours per year. On average one

The Department also tested the toxicity of the floodwater throughout September, using aquatic toxicity tests.

hectare of land receives 1 million litres

productivity of rain-fed and marginal ized lands. Water can turn a large part ofthe country's currently parched lands into productive lands, reduce poverty

of rainfall per year. In fact, as far back as 5,000 years ago, Indian settlements had rainwater retention systems which essentially "harvested" flood waters. WEF also organized a special ses sion on the environmental impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Backed up with startling images ofthe destruction,

and increase incomes where it is need

Karen Gautreaux from the Louisiana

ed the most. CSE has shown through its advocacy that localized water manage ment is a cost-effective approach and more importantly that local water man

Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) presented some staggering sta tistics. As a result of some 75 square miles of land being flooded for weeks, approximately 350,000 automobiles and 66,000 boats have to be scrapped.

"Catch water where it falls!" she stated.

According to the CSE, the world faces a critical challenge to improve the

agement can only be done through community participation. The work of CSE has highlighted that water cannot become everybody's business until there are fundamental

changes in the ways we do business with water. Policy will have to recog nize that water management, which

As well, some 22 million tones of

debris have to be disposed of. Albert Hindrichs, also of the Louisiana DEQ, outlined how Lake Pontchartrain is recovering from the floodwaters of Hurricanes Katrina and

involves communities and households,

Rita. The DEQ has sampled the water

has to become the biggest cooperative enterprise in the world. CSE believes that the prevalent mindset that water management is the exclusive responsi bility of government must give way to participative and local management. Ms. Narain told delegates that, in India, drought is a permanent condi tion. Increasingly the country has turned to groundwater for new water supplies and there are now over 22 mil

in Lake Pontchartrain as well as the

lion well owners. What is most alarm-

10 I November 2005

into the lake was approximately 4 per cent of the total volume of the lake, the

ing, she said, is that groundwater tables are not being recharged and in many cases are dropping alarmingly each

The tests showed that all fish and 10 of 12 invertebrate test animals were able

to survive in 100 percent pumped-out floodwater. Toxicity tests involve the exposure of aquatic animals to a series of concentrations of floodwater for 48

hours. High survival rates are an indi cation of the absence of pollutants. Based upon the large number of samples from the lake and floodwaters and because of the toxicity tests results, the DEQ does not foresee any issues with the fish, crabs, shrimp or any other animals that inhabit the lake.

WEFTEC.05 drew 18,132 water

quality professionals from around the world. The conference featured 111

technical sessions, 25 workshops, 11 interactive facility tours and 876 exhibiting companies using over 214,000 square feet of floor space. WEFTEC 2006 will be held in Dallas

Texas, October 21-25.

By Steve Davey, Publisher

floodwaters that were pumped into the lake from the flooded areas of New

Orleans. The Department was encour aged by the results because the only contamination of concern was bacteria related to the waste that was in the

floodwaters. As the water was pumped into the lake, bacteria levels declined, diminishing to levels similar to those of unaffected areas. Because the volume

of water pumped out of the city back Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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November 2005 1 11

Wastewater Treatment I

Taking the bite out of infrastructure costs at Ontario's"Big Appie" By Duane Smith

plus to existing users on private servic es, only to face the possibility of hav ing to turn down new higher assess ment developments that might come along in the future. This was precisely the dilemma

faced by Cramahe Township during an expansion of its Colborne Industrial Park, located adjacent to Highway 401 between Kingston and Toronto and notable for the "Big Apple" area land mark. Current tenants of this Industrial

Park include CCC Plastics, a manufac

turing facility, a PetroCanada gas sta tion and car wash, a transformer man

ufacturing facility, a greenhouse, a dairy and other fuel, transport and dis tribution companies. Expansion plans and a second busi ness park were in jeopardy because adequate sewer servicing was not in place. The existing septic systems had experienced failures and were already


Municipalities aiming to

attract higher assessment

uses and new businesses

to a community often face difficulty in providing water and wastewater services to a new


expanding industrial park. Without these services expansion plans can get derailed and new commercial/industri

al businesses are less likely to take up occupancy.

considered to be an environmental risk

Providing full services to an indus trial park typically requires the munic ipality to commit to a large initial cap ital investment in an environment

where slow growth may occur. In addi tion, municipalities will have to assess any limitations to their existing surplus sewer capacity at their wastewater treatment plant. Where capacity is lim ited, municipalities have to consider whether it is prudent to give up the sur

due to a high water table and its prox imity to a natural wetland. The Township wanted to attract new busi nesses to the area and was determined

to succeed, even though only a small number of businesses required sewers at the time.

The Township explored using con ventional sewers, but costs were an

issue. The Township did not have the financial ability to fully assume the cost of expansion. High costs were


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Treatment partly driven by the fact that conven tional sewer installation required that the roads would be substantially replaced as part of the construction program. Affordability and business operating continuity then became an issue with both the municipality and

low-flow SBS system was the reduced initial capital and lower ongoing oper ating costs. An additional benefit of the SBS system is that it can be installed using horizontal drilling methods, resulting in substantially reduced disruption to existing business

the business owners.

activities and road surfaces.

In addition to the capital chal lenges, the project would commit near ly all the remaining surplus capacity of the Township's sewage treatment plant to the industrial park, thereby limiting future growth opportunities. The design allowance for infiltration by employing a conventional sewage col lection system in the servicing plan had a major impact on the ability ofthe downstream infrastructure to accept both the existing development and future development. The combination of these two factors, capital constraints and limited sewage treatment capacity, led the municipality to seek other options for servicing. After exploring alternative solu tions, the township selected the SBS™ system, a small bore sewer technology developed by Clearford Industries Inc. of Ottawa, Ontario. Effluent in Clearford's SBS (Small Bore Sewer) system is discharged to a network of small diameter (about 10 to 15 cm) HOPE pipes and transported to a conventional sewer outlet. Piping is pressure tested and completely sealed, preventing groundwater infiltration into the system and reducing the over

Clearford was awarded a designbuild contract for under $400,000, about 40% less than the original esti

all volume of waste transmitted ulti

mately to the treatment works. An onsite clarifier at each building collects solids and provides primary treatment of the sewage prior to entering the col lection system. The clarifier has been designed for a recommended 7-10 years cleanout cycle for the settled solids and also serves to stabilize flows

to reduce system peaking factors. Combined efficiencies of the sealed

system, stabilized flows and solid sep aration allow system owners the flexi bility to reduce the size of their down stream collection works and realize

cost and operating efficiencies not available to them by employing histor ical wastewater collection solutions.

The system helped the Township to solve its challenge of providing serv iced industrial land within tight finan cial constraints and within the limits of

available capacity at its wastewater treatment plant. The key benefit of the



Under the design-build arrange ment, Clearford became the single source of accountability for the proj ect. It was constructed over the winter

months, with spring installation of the tanks. A one year warranty was includ

sign up for a Free trial

ed in the contract. Clearford worked


with all of the occupants of the indus trial park to determine their water usage and service requirements and designed the system to ensure that all of their expressed requirements would be met.

Since the installation, Clearford has engaged PCL Constructors as its national supply partner for construction and project management services. The partnership will combine Clearford's wastewater design capabilities with PCL's bid and build expertise to provide municipalities and developers with fixed price solutions and strong guar antees for their sewage and water requirements. Small bore sewers have also been

effectively installed in areas where septic tanks are failing in communi ties, infrastructure needs upgrading, or municipalities are in need of develop ment or are near capacity with their wastewater treatment plants. The small bore sewer system in the Colborne Industrial Park is the first installation of this kind in Canada for a

eommercial/light industrial applica tion. With the system initially commis sioned in 2004, the park is now enter ing into a new phase of development. Private developers also have an interest in the technology because it allows for increased housing densities in areas that would otherwise have

large lot sizes due to septic leach field requirements. Diiane Smith is Research Directorfor Clearford Industries. Contact: dsmith@clearford.com

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Canada November 2005 1 13

Wastewater Treatment

Saving power costs in the activated

sludge process By Mike Rousey

Power consumption is one of




the largest expenses in operat

amounts of wasted electric

ing a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the activat

ity. DO levels that are too low will not support the bacteria necessary to treat incoming wastes. Inadequate DO concen tration, in effect, can result in the plant vio lating effluent limits established in its NPDES per

ed sludge process, power consumption can cost thousands of dollars.

Activated sludge process a balancing act Solids present in the primary clarifier effluent are particles too fine to "settle out." Yet, (US) Environmental Protection Agency regulations require removal of these organic wastes to pre

vent pollution that can cause disease, fish kills, and algae blooms. The acti vated sludge process removes these suspended particles by converting them to settleable solids. It uses a

mixed culture of microorganisms including bacteria, protozoans, and rotifers to break down organic wastes into inorganic wastes. However, the WWTP activated sludge process speeds up this natural course by con trolling the environment. Aeration blowers supply oxygen critical to the survival of the bacteria in

the activated sludge process. However, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels that are too high can result in pin flock in clarifiers, severe sludge bulking in some

mit. Problems with common control methods

Operators at most US WWTPs use a handheld DO meter and set activated

sludge process blowers at a constant speed. This set method of control does not allow for process adjustments. For example, when oxygen demand decreases during winter nights due to falling temperatures, this method does not compensate for the decreased need for aeration and wastes power. Conversely, a large oxygen demand during periods of industrial discharge can deplete DO - and wipe out the entire activated sludge process - if the process does not automatically increase aeration. Operators using handheld DO meters achieve only hit-

Revolutianarij Self-Priming Wasfei/vater Pump

or-miss readings that are insuificient for optimizing plant operation and energy usage.

Potential power savings with automation

WWTPs can decrease power con

sumption in the activated sludge process. Energy-efficient motors and variable frequency drives (VFD) used with on-line dissolved oxygen analyz ers - installed and maintained properly - will contain energy costs. For example, the Hach SCI00 Analyzer with an EDO Probe can be configured to send a 4-20 mA signal to a VFD or be used in conjunction with a plant PLC or SCADA. The control system automatically increases or decreases aeration blower speed in response to the measured DO levels in the aeration basin. A 1998 study by the Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities demonstrated the use of this

equipment in the activated sludge process reduced energy costs as much as 25%.

In summary, an on-line dissolved oxygen analyzer when used with the plant's energy-efficient motors, variable frequency drives, and plant SCADA or PLC systems, adjusts aeration operation automatically in response to varying process conditions.

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


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Advanced water meter reading technology results In rural efficiency

The Rural Municipality of

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Macdonald, Manitoba, faced challenges that are similar to those faced by many rural

communities across Canada. The six

villages that make up Macdonald cover 25 by 18 miles, a distance that is com parable to the City of Winnipeg. With limited resources, Macdonald was faced with managing 1,750 water meter accounts over this massive area. Of

these accounts, 1,100 are urban, 650 are rural, located outside of the com munities, and their overall meter popu lation continues to grow.

every quarter. Accuracy and reliability were of great concern. Of the 1,750 accounts required to call in their readings, only some 60% responded; estimate bills were as high as 40%. Readings were

tion that would improve water meter reading efficiencies over this widely distributed area. The existing water meter infrastructure was onerous as

mates determined where needed, fol

90% of the water meters required

lowed by printing the bills. This entire process took up three weeks of time and it put tremendous demands on municipal persoimel. The Municipality had one person assigned to utility work. During this peak time, three or more other municipal per sonnel had to interrupt their duties to assist, which included answering time consuming customer calls. During the

inside access to the home to obtain a

reading. The remaining 10% of the meter population had remotes installed outside the residence. Due to the rural

setting, inefficiencies in collecting the reading data forced the Municipality to abandon the idea of implementing a completely remote system. Macdonald was forced to resort to a

system whereby all 1,750 accounts were required to telephone in their meter reading to the Municipality



calls required further work such

called in to a dedicated answer

ing machine with the majori ty coming in during the few days prior to the due date.^ Three to four days were ded icated to listening and record ing readings. All ofthis data then had to be entered electronically, esti

Macdonald wanted to find a solu

and esti

mate ques

as billing adjust ments. This post billing process would easily require two weeks




In moving forward with a solution, Macdonald had several issues to address: older

meters were losing revenue due to decreasing accuracy; and new housing growth was on the rise causing person nel resources to be stretched. All of these factors created the need to inves

minimum of 15% of the accounts called

tigate solutions to improve reading efficiencies and improve data integrity. In the summer of 2004, Macdonald moved ahead to implement Neptune Technology Group's R900 Radio Frequency Automatic Meter Reading

the Municipality with reading, billing

continued oveiieaf...

month after the bills were sent out, a

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Water Meters (RF AMR) Solution. RF AMR tech nology was the optimum solution to achieve the Municipality's goals. Neptune offered a single-source solu tion including supply and installation of the automatic meter reading system (R900 meter interface units, water meters, and PC9800 handheld comput ers), system implementation, and turnkey project management. The project was overseen by Neptune's Service Division. All 1,750 meters were equipped with an R900 radio frequency meter interface unit

(RF MIU). In addition 900 of the meters were replaced due to accuracy and migration issues. The Municipality selected a walk-by sys tem using Neptune's PC9800 handheld system to read the meters. The R900 MIU transmits a radio frequency read ing, which is automatically collected by the DAP9800 handheld computer. Benefits and Results

The investment in RF AMR tech

nology has dramatically reduced the number of hours required to read the meters. A large portion of the readings

can now be collected by the meter read er from street level without having to exit the vehicle. Macdonald now enjoys a read success rate of greater than 99%. For example, during their last read

cycle, all hut one read was collected in one pass! During any reading cycle a Utility can factor in temporary obsta cles, such as vehicles, as a cause for not achieving 100%. According to Tom Raine, C.A.O. for Macdonald, there has been an enormous improvement in hilling efficiencies with the implemen tation of RF AMR.

The previous hilling cycle took approximately 5 weeks which included the time to collect and process the read ings, the actual hilling process, and customer calls. Today, a single meter

"LooH, <X.t <\.|| it c(vn Aot

reader can obtain all of the urban reads

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from 380 hours to 40 hours.

The Municipality has achieved its goals of increasing meter reading effi ciencies and improving data integrity. Utility personnel now have more time to focus on other productive services. A key benefit resulting from increased data integrity is the Municipality's abil ity to conduct water audits, pinpoint leaks, and control unaccounted for water. As water treatment costs will

continue to increase, the Municipality can now use the reading data to audit water production more closely against overall usage. All of these benefits allow the

Municipality to provide proactive, accurate, and timely services to its water customers.

Darlene McNichol is with

1075 Sutton Drive 905-681-9292

in one day and all of the rural reads in 3-4 days. With the rapid downloading of the meter readings from the DAP9800 handheld systems, in a sin gle day the Municipality can import the readings and print the bills for distribu tion. Post hilling calls have declined dramatically with only 12 general inquiry calls during the last cycle. The utility is pleased to report that not a sin gle hilling adjustment was required. Overall, the reading and hilling cycle is now 89% more efficient with a reduction in resource hours required

Endress+Hauser im-^! f

Neptune Technology Group, e-mail: dmcnichol@neptunetg.com

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Drinking Water

Alberta water treatment plant maintained production during UV installation

TheCity ofLethbridge,Alberta

operates a 150 million litre per day water treatment plant, which supplies 77,000 resi dents, as well as commercial, industri




A, r

al, institutional and agricultural sec tors. To address growing concerns regarding drinking water quality, Alberta Environment established more

stringent standards, including 4 log (99.99%) inactivation of Giardia, protists common in raw water supplies. The City was faced with significant and expensive chemical disinfection upgrades to meet this standard, and sought a more economical solution. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection for waterborne cysts such as Giardia and Cryptosporidiim offered a solution. Not only would UV allow the City to

defer an intermediate 3 log inactiva tion requirement, saving $500,000, but the City would also be able to reduce the projected capital budget for 4 log inactivation from $20 million to $5 million.

The stringent regulatory deadline challenged the design team of Associated Engineering, CH2M HILL, and the City stakeholders to meet an aggressive implementation schedule. To meet the deadline, the City decided to manage construction, thus expedit

ing implementation. This approach allowed the City to start construction

'-'a *■


mi Ultraviolet disinfection system. tors due to potential interference with

during construction, but none of these

To maintain drinking water produc tion, the City needed to keep the water treatment plant clearwell on-line dur

was deemed feasible. An innovative tie-in detail was

ing the construction tie-in. The City and the design team explored a number

meet the capacity, plus a minimum 50% redundancy requirement. Chemical injection points for chlorine were installed upstream and downstream of the reactors. Fluoride and ammonia

injection points were installed down stream ofthe reactors for induction with

a hydraulic mixer. As an added benefit,

developed that allowed the plant to remain on-line during construction. continued overleaf...

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two months earlier than a conventional

design-bid-build project. Long deliv ery items were pre-ordered, including the UV reactors, large diameter butter fly valves, and magnetic flow meters. The UV disinfection facility was designed for 150 million litres per day to match the plant capacity. Five, 600 millimetre diameter Trojan UVSwift reactors with a capacity of 50 million litres per day each were installed to

of options for bypassing the clearwell

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UV disinfection allowed the City to maintain chloramination in the distribu

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to be kept downstream of the UV reacwww.esema^.com


For detailed specifications, please see: www.hoskln.ca/water-level-logger.pdf

Hoskin Scientific Ltd* www.hoskin.ca November 2005 \ 19

Drinking Water -Inlet Header

Piping layout for ultraviolet reactors.

Main Inlet Isolation Valve

Branch Isolation Valves UV Reactors Flow Meters Branch Control Valves

Main Discharge

Discharge Header

Isolation Valve

Drawing Provided By; C&A Industies Inc.

Lethbridge, AB

against the wall that allowed a coring

The live tie-in involved pre-drilling 50 mm diameter pilot holes through the clearwell walls to guide divers from

diameter hole from the outside into

the inside. Divers then attached 900

this annulus. Once the cores were com

mm diameter top hats over each pilot hole. These top hats were raised blind flanges, gasketted around the edge and

ers to the clearwell were installed

bolted to the inside of the clearwell

wall. Isolation valves on the pilot holes were then opened to relieve the pres sure behind the top hats; the pressure from the water inside the clearwell

effectively sealed the top hats to the wall.

The top hats formed an armulus

machine to drill a 750 millimetre

pleted, the outlet and inlet piping head grouted in place, and a cast-in-place concrete thrust structure was poured to hold the header in position. The top hats were then removed from the

million, was completed $900,000 under budget. "The City of Lethbridge is very pleased with our new facility", reports Doug Kaupp, the City's Water Utility Manager. "It (the UV facility) has operated flawlessly for the first year and has served to reassure the commu

nity that our drinking water is of the highest quality."

inside of the clearwell.

Construction was completed and the plant commissioned by December 2003, meeting the regulatory deadline. The project, originally estimated at $5

Contact: Lianna Mah, P.Eng. who is with Associated Engineering Limited e-mail: aetoday@ae.ca


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

^ Environmental Newsj The 2006 Canadian Environmental

Conference and Tradeshow(CANECT) May 1-2,2006, Metro Toronto Convention Centre The Canadian Environmental Conference and Tradeshow

(CANECT) will be held May 1-2, 2006 at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. CANECT includes 10 workshops and a tradeshow. Now in its 14th year, CANECT typically attracts some 2,000 senior people responsible for environmental engi neering, regulations and compliance issues. CANECT 2006 will be co-located with Health & Safety

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Prevention Association(lAPA)that attracts over 6,000 delegates. The close relationship between occupational health and safe ty inside the factory gates and environmental health and safety beyond corporate boundaries has long been recognized. By colocating CANECT 2006 with Health & Safety Canada 2006, exhibitors and attendees will have an exceptional opportunity to efficiently be part of the largest total gathering of all those who specify, or who influence the specification of environmental products and services.

Combined, the two shows are expected to attract some 500 exhibiting companies and 8,000 tradeshow visitors. Tradeshow badges from either show will allow attendees to have admission to both shows.

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November 2005 \ 21

Infrastructure Research

Concrete pipeline designers transitioning to Standard Installations

by Paul Smeltzer,P.Eng.

There are two options for designers of concrete pipe drainage systems to ensure that the pipe functions as a

conduit and a structure. The Indirect

Design method determines the required strength ofthe pipe and then a class of pipe is selected that meets that load requirement based on a given bedding design. Using this method, the pipe manufacturer selects the reinforc ing steel required in the pipe. Direct Design, otherwise referred to as Standard Installations Direct Design (SIDD), is the design of pipe in the installed condition.

The magnitude and distribution of the loads are determined and the phys ical properties necessary to support those loads are calculated. In some

extreme cases the particular class of

pipe determined by the Indirect Design method may not be suitable. For exam ple, the pipe may be required to meet strengths above the highest standard (i.e. MOD) classification listed in tables, or a more exacting design may be appropriate. In such situations, designers can use the Direct Design


method to consider flexure, shear, radial tension and crack control, there

by directly determining the reinforce ment required to meet the specific project criteria. In the Indirect Design method, the earth pressures and their distribution around the pipe and the resulting moments, thrusts, and shears in the pipe are not calculated. Instead, proce dures developed by Anson Marston and Merlin G. Spangler in the 1910s to 1930s are used to calculate bedding

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Process Products and Instrumentation - SOLUTIONS 22 I November 2005

Environmenlal Science & Engineering Magazine

Infrastructure Research factors for the pipe, which relate the in situ load to the pipe to the load applied in a three-edge bearing test. Many of the design practices currently in use are based on the pioneering research completed by these two men. The Indirect Design method was the only standard industry practice through the 1900s, until research by Dr. Frank J. Heger and Dr. Timothy J. McGrath in the 1970s and early 1980s led to improvements in understanding the structural behaviour of buried pipe

Marston and Spangler's development of the Indirect Method With help from Professor A.N. Talbot of the University of Illinois and a theory for pressures in grain bins published by Janssen, Marston pro posed the following equation for cal culating the earth load on a pipe in a

pipe, (lbs/ft.), Cd the coefficient for calculating earth load in trenches, w the unit weight of earth (Ibs/cu. ft.), Bd the width of trench at top of pipe (ft.). The value of Cd is dependent on K, the

narrow trench.

soil friction.

ratio of lateral to vertical earth pres sure as determined by Rankine's equa tion, and by the coefficient of internal This formula means that the earth

w, = C, W B] Where We represents earth load on

load on the pipe in narrow trenches is continued overleaf...

in its installed condition. The finite

analysis known as soil pipe interaction design and analysis (SPIDA), identi fied conservatism

in the



Spangler work. Trial installations carried out in


Ohio from 1985 to 1990 led to devel

opment of the four distinct Standard Installations

of SIDD. In


Standard Installations were adopted by the American Society for Civil Engineers (ASCE) as Specification \5-93-Standard Practice for Direct Design of Buried Precast Concrete Pipe Using Standard Installations. It was adopted later in the 1996 (16th)

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ed into the new Canadian National

Bridge Design Code CAN/CSA S0600. Now, the standards are being accepted by several Canadian munici palities. In 2000 the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association and its partners, the


IarnniMmti 7 acrQ/zte

National Research Council of Canada,

the Ministry of Transportation and the City of Ottawa, commenced a research project on the design and installation of concrete pipe using ASCE 15-93. This research included a literature

ii cws@kinetico.com

review of the work to date and a

demonstration site in the City of Ottawa, which is a 1350 mm circular culvert installation. The site instru mentation was monitored until fall 2003. The NRC has now distributed a

draft final report to the project partners for review and comment, which is

expected to be made public in 2005. www.esemag.com

November 2005 j 23

Infrastructure Research independent of the size of the pipe, depending only on unit weight of earth backfill over the pipe, w, the width of the trench at the top ofthe pipe, Bd, the ratio of the height of fill over the pipe to the width of the trench H/Brf and the

coefficients of friction of the fill soil,

p, and between the fill soil and the side of the trench, p'. After publishing his classic work, The Theory of Loads on Pipes in Ditches and Tests of Cement and Clay Drain Tile and Sewer Pipe, Marston and his co-workers focused on sup porting strength of pipe in trenches as it is affected by bedding conditions, and investigated methods for deter mining supportive strengths using lab oratory tests.

Marston defined four beddings from the lowest to the highest quality; 1. Impermissible (Class D). Hard flat bottom assumed.

2. Ordinary (Class C). Bottom support over a shaped arc of60 to 90 degrees is assumed with soil placed with ordinary care to give the equivalent of 90 degrees of bottom support.

3. First Class (Class B). Bottom support over a shaped arc of at least 90 degrees with the pipe surrounded by thoroughly compacted soil to at least 15 degrees above the springline. 4. Concrete Cradle (Class A) Concrete placed around the lower part of the pipe. Various designs are used for

installations, the settlement ratio is the

extent of concrete.

In the late 1920s and 1930s, pipe research at the Iowa Experimental Station concentrated on developing a method for determining the supporting strength of buried rigid culverts in embankment installations, termed pro jecting culverts. The results of the research were given in a comprehensive paper in 1933 by Merlin G. Spangler entitled. The Supporting Strength of Rigid Pipe Culverts. Spangler presented three bedding configurations and the concept of a bedding factor to relate the supporting strength of the buried pipe to the strength obtained in a three-edge bearing test. Spangler's theory postulated that the bedding factor for a particular pipeline and, consequently, the sup-

Marston then developed the follow ing formula for loads on embankment conduits:

The coefficient Cc is a function of

the soil friction, the Rankine lateral soil

pressure coefficient, and the ratio offill height to pipe outside diameter. It is also a function of the projection ratio, and the settlement ratio. The projection ratio is the ratio of the vertical height of the top of the conduit above the embankment subgrade to the conduit outside pipe diameter. Be . When a con duit is placed in a sub-trench with its top below the general embankment grade, it is said to have a negative pro jection ratio. For positive projecting

difference between the settlement of the

subgrade and projection height of the adjacent soil prism and the settlement of the crown itself (change in vertical diameter plus pipe settlement) to the compression of the adjacent soil in the projection height.

continued on page 66...

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

c TruIcs

'Spills A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E's semi-annual

look at tanks, containment systems and spill management.

First time... tanks on the move

In 2003, New Brunswick Power, located in Coleson Cove south west of Saint John, worked with Greatario

Engineered Storage Systems,from Innerkip, Ontario, to come up with an environmentally friendly solution to holding their wastewater.

The tanks that were built are an integral part of a treat ment system which was designed to process wastewater from both the power house and the flue gas desulphurization

plant of an Orimulsion-fired generating station. Each tank was required to possess a corrosion resistant layer on the interior surface. Also, the agitated tanks were fitted with internal baffles and top mounted mixers. The tanks were then interconnected with platform walkways, pipe support and steel agitator platforms. With the new process, they are now able to stabilize the water to allow for a safe release into

the environment. Greatario designed and installed the com plete tank and walkway package. The amount of storage needed was 1800 m^, as well as treatment of wastewater and processed water, so four tanks at 28' dia. x 28' high were designed and erected at a nearby warehouse, and then transported by tractor and float to the site. This is the first time Greatario has ever built off site, and then transported the bolted tank to its location. This decision was made

so that they could avoid weather issues while building in March, and so that crews could work around the

clock to complete the job faster. Contact: Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Web: www.greatario.com


November 2005 I 25

Storage Tanks

Dump trailer liners used in ^Spills decommissioned foundry clean-up project


By Glenn Stokes

Asolution was required for an

asbestos contaminated soil

clean-up and transportation project in Sarnia, Ontario, to make way for a cloverleaf(on and off ramps) for Highway 402 which was scheduled to be constructed through the former Holmes Foundry site. The task was to come up with a containment system for the contami nants found on site to prevent them from becoming airborne during trans portation to the landfill. The system also had to offer a barrier, as the soil was wetted prior to excavation in order to minimize dust. Therefore, water

runoff was a concern plus any rain that the liner might be exposed to up until the point where it was backfilled and capped. The lining system would also remain in the landfill so it was impor tant that the liner had enough structur al integrity that it would remain intact

as it was deployed off of the back of the dump trailer. Holmes Foundry had been in exis tence for some 80 years up until 1988.

During that time it saw several differ ent types of businesses including a foundry and two different insulation plants. At some point during the histo ry of this site it became contaminated, amongst others, with silica quartz and asbestos. The concern today is that by disrupting the soil there is a possibility of allowing the asbestos to become air borne, causing a possible health risk. In order for Dallas Haul Inc. to

comply with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment regulations in trans porting asbestos from this site to a local landfill, Dallas was required to utilize a lining system that was capable of attaining compliance for a Certificate of Approval. The lining solution came from HQN Industrial

Deployment of the form fitted liner Is a one or two person job.

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26 I November 2005

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



Using the liner's integrated drawstring to encapsulate the contaminated waste.

Fabrics, coincidentally, also located in Sarnia, Ontario. The liner chosen was a 6 mil reinforced polyethylene material with a drawstring seamed into the top hem. The liners supplied were 38 feet long X 96 inches wide x 144 inches high. This size configuration fits the box perfectly at the bottom with the liner pushed into the corners so that splits in the seam do not occur during loading of the contaminated soil into the box. The side walls are constructed

much higher than the box so that there is space for the liner to fold over the top of the box and be securely fas tened, with bungee cords, which keeps the liner in place during high winds. The lining material itself is quite impermeable, particularly with all seams being double folded and stitched. It is also a particularly strong yet inexpensive liner which is ideal for

was charged with the job of cinching up and tying off the drawstring, there by encapsulating the waste. The poten tial contaminants were further protect ed from the environment by washing off the truck tires prior to leaving the job site and a cover was pulled back over the top of the truck. In the event of inclement weather, HQN was on standby with custom manufactured raincaps and mesh covers. As there are a wide variety of con taminants and hazardous wastes along

cars, luggers, dumpsters and dump trailer sizes, there are many liner and raincap materials and sizes to choose from which makes this system quite versatile.

Glenn Stokes is with

HQN Industrial Fabrics. Contact: gstokes@hqnfabrics.com

with various sizes of roll off boxes, rail

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a one-time usage product. During deployment, the liner allows the entire load to come away from the trailer even during the winter months in a

tank ZCL Waste Water, Septic & Sewage Holding Tank Systems

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costs, freezing, leaking, dust problems and are quite effective at keeping odors from penetrating into the steel. This can be a major problem as odor can effectively contaminate a box beyond usage for other applications. Therefore, liners and caps extend con tainer life while reducing maintenance

the reliable, long-term solution to increasingly stringent regulations. Watertight & structurally sound. ZCL tanks are constructed from

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So far during this clean-up, Dallas

Ideal for bulk fuel plants, truck stops, repair shops and parking lots.

Haul has used over 300 liners, with further excavation still to come. By

using a fleet of trucks, Dallas is able to have one truck filled while the next

truck in the queue prepares the liner (one person job, takes 15-20 min utes). Intimate contact with the con taminated wetted soil was the responsi bility of one person, in full safety gear, including a.full respirator. This person www.esemag.com

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Oilfields and thought, "there

must be a simple way to utilize the tank itselfto solve the problems the

operators face on a daily basis." The solution to this problem was the Enviro Vault. This simple, patented system has been used in thousands of tanks

ever since and is fast becoming the standard in oilfield tank design. This

system addresses requirements seen in all tanks regardless of the material of construction, contents, or valve con

figuration. These requirements may include:

By locating the valves inside the Vault, they are kept warm, preventing any Issues caused by freezing.


For Temporary Storage of liquids

• Keeping valves from freezing. • Transferring heat into the fluid to pre vent the contents from freezing. • Providing a safe system to protect personnel. • Providing spill containment for valves.

• Ease of installation, including retro fits.

Keep your valves warm

Perhaps the most common cause of - Safe, affordable enclosed storage

tank related spills could be traced to the valves that are required to facilitate the transfer of fluid. These valves are

- Capacity - up to 53,000 gallons - Self-contained

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- Meets all highway safety standards

- Fully galvanized tandem axle trailer


28 I November 2005

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typically located on the external sur face of the tank and are subject to dam age from contact. They are also locat ed in the ambient environment, which in Canada means the very real possi bility they will freeze, perhaps even split from ice formation or be damaged if forced open. External boxes have been used but often create transporta tion issues and offer little if any secure spill containment. By locating the valves inside the Vault, they are kept warm, preventing any issues caused by freezing. The heat can be provided by one of two meth ods. The first is to install a heater inside the Vault. This is most often

accomplished by the use of a catalytic heater, fuelled by either propane or natural gas. As these heaters are designed for hazardous locations, they are completely safe for all installa tions. The second method is accom

plished if the tank contains warm fluid already. The Vault is heated by the fluid surrounding it, thereby providing Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

a warm environment for the valves. By keeping the valves inside and warm, the owner saves on the cost of thawing valves if required, as well as standby costs for truckers that encounter frozen valves.


The use of a Vault negates the necessity of entering the area at all. The large doors facilitate the access to

all internals without having to physi

The same method of heat transfer

ic heater, or an electric heater rated for

be trapped inside a building. The use of a Vault also provides the advantage of keeping all the valves at ground level, thus eliminating the need to

quality prior to opening the Vault, or a

climb ladders to access valves.

Spill containment

fixed ambient detector can be installed inside. Even ifthere were to be an inci

With more focus on environmental

dent, the operator would fall away

continued overleaf...

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the area classification. This allows the

operator to provide an adequate amount of heat to prevent the contents from freezing, while at the same time providing heat for any appurtenances that may be installed inside the Vault. Many times the operator is looking to just provide freeze proofing for the contents. The options to accomplish this are very limited and many of them are ineffectual. Tube tracing is expen

from the tank into fresh air, rather than

cally enter the hazardous area. If required, a portable gas detector with a probe can be used to check the air

Keep your tank's contents from freezing

ence, namely the Vault being surround ed by fluid, can be used to transfer heat into the fluid. This is accomplished by the use of the afore-mentioned catalyt

Storage Tanks

breathing apparatus. They may also require a second person to act as a backup in case of an equipment fail



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Our most popular line of hazmat storage buildings. Standard models provide up to 700 sq. ft. of floor space and numerous sizes accommodate small-to-large quantities. NON-COMBUSTIBLE STEEL LOCKERS

sive and transfers little heat. Internal

coils require much maintenance, are

very expensive, and necessitate entry into a confined space. The use of a firetube burner assembly is also expensive, requires tanks' modifica tion, and is a high maintenance item. It also releases a large amount of "Greenhouse" gases, something to consider in these days of the Kyoto Accord. The use of a Vault is relatively inexpensive and provides many addi tional advantages. Safety for personnel Safety is a major concern for all operators. Confined space entry is one issue that should be avoided at all

costs. Some manufacturers provide an insulated "shack" that is affixed to the

Store and use flammable liquids and other hazmats safely. These models feature bi directional (inside-out & outside-in) 2hour and 4-hour fire-rated designs for maximum safety and protection.

containers. Standard models available. P-SERIES PALLET STORAGE CUSTOM STRUCTURES

These structures offer multiple-tiered storage and convenient access for simplified material handling and containment. Standard models provide storage from 4 to 36 pallets of materials

side of the tank. This provides an area to house the valves, etc. The use of this

type of installation requires that the operator physically enter the building to perform any functions such as gaug ing, maintenance, etc. If there is a pos sibility of dangerous gases being pres ent, they may be required to don safe ty equipment such as a self-contained www.esema2.com

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November 2005 \ 29

Storage Tanks ent

Spills concerns these days, spill containment is a high priority for all operators. Whether we are talking about a 5000 barrel (800 cubic metre) oil tank, or a small chemical tank, a spill is a major concern. The cost of losing the product is minor compared to the cost of clean ing up a spill. Reclamation costs can easily run into the hundreds of thou sands of dollars depending on the vol ume and makeup of the fluid lost. No operator wants to see their name in the headlines when it is to describe an environmental disaster.

Many spills originate with the valves. These provide the interface or

sor could be mounted inside the Vault

connection with trucks, other lines,

so that an alarm could be sounded if it

the customer's specifications regarding number and placement of valves, loca

etc. They must be opened and closed on a constant basis resulting in wear. Over time, this can result in a leaking valve. Another possibility is human error; perhaps the operator did not close it fully. Connecting and discon necting a truck line can result in a small amount of fluid being spilled on the ground. While this loss might be

detected liquid at a certain level. A pipe is situated at the bottom of the

tion of heater, etc. It can be installed in

Vault chamber to facilitate solids

the integrity of the containment system If the operator is looking at retro fitting an existing tank, he has two options. First is a weld-in model that is similar to the type of Vault that would come in a new tank. This would, of course, require that the tank be emp

cleanout if required. Sample ports can be located in the Vault as well so that there is no chance for contamination. The use of the heat from the fluid sur

rounding the Vault, or the heater mounted inside the Vault ensures that

tied of all fluid and be safe for hot work.

The cost of losing the product is minor compared to the cost of cleaning up a spill. Reclamation costs can easily run into the hundreds of thousands of dollars depending on the volume and makeup of the fluid lost. minor, over time you end up with con taminated soil that must be reclaimed.

The valve could have an ice plug in it that does not allow it to be fully closed. Once the ice plug melts, you have a spill.

Another popular option that has been proven to be very cost-effective is the "bolt-in" model. It is, as its name

everything is nice and warm so that no freezing can occur. Use of the Vault eliminates the cost and requirement for field-installed add-ons. Vault equipped tanks are "field ready" when shipped from the manufacturer.

wall of the tank where they are prone to being hit and causing a rupture that

Another issue that is becoming more prevalent as the cause of spills is vandalism. All Vaults have the ability

could result in the loss of all of the

to be locked so that access to the

fluid contained in the tank. Even

valves is impossible. This will prevent someone from intentionally opening a

Most valves are located on the outer

something as simple as an operator tripping on a valve handle could result in the loss of product and money as well as putting the safety of that oper ator at risk.

The use of an Enviro Vault can pre vent these issues from happening. By housing the valves in an internal cham ber they are protected from all of the scenarios mentioned above. Any spills from a leaking valve or the loss from a hose connection are contained within

the Vault. If required, a fluid level sen30 I November 2005

a double walled tank and still maintain

valve to create an environmental disas ter.


The use of an Enviro Vault has been

made very easy, either by installing it in a new tank, or retrofitting an exist ing tank. Many tank manufacturers have been licensed to install this

patented product. A Vault equipped tank requires no additional set-up upon delivery, and requires no special truck ing procedures. It can be designed to

implies, bolted into an existing tank in place of a manway door. The Vault can be equipped with valves, heater, etc., just as in a weld-in unit. It can be coat ed to the customer's specifications and comes complete with hinged door and any other options required. The bolt pattern will be identical to the door it is replacing whether round, square, or rectangular. It can be installed in steel, fibreglass, or plastic tanks without requiring the cleaning of the tank. It is only necessary to lower the fluid level below the door being replaced. Installation then is only a matter of removing the door, sliding in the Vault, and then replacing the bolts. This can be accomplished with a minimum of equipment and in a very short period of time.

Contact: Marty Schlager, VP and General Manager ofEnviro Vault Ltd, E-mail: mschlager@envirovaidt.com

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ecoSep below grade oil/water separators

Chemical tank cleaning

Water systems and services



i N C

I Aii ets & in fra.

Tank surfaces in contact with water will

Corrpro provides complete turnkey

accumulate organic and inorganic deposits over time. These deposits can cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBFs, and increased HFC

numbers. Heavy deposits lead to increased corrosion and reduce the life

time of surface coatings. NSF approved Floran products have been developed for convenient and efficient one step chemi

Cost-effective and safe, this highly effi cient below grade oil/water separator provides maximum protection against oil spill contamination. The spill stays on site, where it belongs. Check out all the benefits of ecoSep...the clear choice

cal cleaning of water tank and filter sur

for clean water.

faces. Tel: 800-387-7503 Web: www.cleartech.ca

Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519-763-1982

bution and transmission piping in compliance with AWWA and NACE Standards. Tel: 905-677-2700 Fax: 905-677-2432

E-mail: Ontario@corrpro.ca Web: www.corrpro.ca Corrpro

E-mail: sales@concastpipe. com Web: www.concastpipe.com Con Cast Pipe

ClearTech Tiidustries

systems and maintenance services for the cathodic protection of water stor age tanks, treatment clarifiers, distri

Mi Tank solutions

Diverse Flastic Tanks offer a fiill range of product designs, including closed or

JfitlMiiriSiSI JetMix ^ Vortex Mixing System can be

\—V-^ used in bio-

open top ver tical tanks in


solids storage

flat or cone


bottom styles,




tainment tanks and a complete line of

important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption;

"UN" approved intennediate bulk con

expensive tank cleanout and scheduled

tainers (IBCs). They distribute the

maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the




Snyder Industries line of tanks which

have many advantages for bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks.

With the widest selection of sizes up to 22,000 gallons. Tel: 905-607-5189, Fax: 905-607-9835 E-mail: tanks@ plastictanks.ca Web: www.plastictanks. ca Diverse Plastic Tanks

Custom-designed structures

Floating silt curtain

Stay ahead of the regulators with Layfield's Floating Silt Curtain (FSC). It is designed to contain soil fines and other harmful particulates from enter

ing aquatic environments during

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

stream, river and shoreline construc tion. Layfield's FSC is: modular, in stock and custom sizes, cost-effective, light weight and easy to install. Tel: 604-448-2710, Fax: 604-275-7867 E-mail: emartin@layfieldgroup.com Web: www.geomembranes.com Layfield Geosynthetics

Specialist training

Oil/water separators

Water Enviromnent Federation.

Tel: 519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157

E-mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com Web: www.greatario.com.


Custom-designed structures offer a costeffective way to isolate a hazardous process, protect outside equipment from

weather, theft and vandalism, and quick ly add workspace to existing facilities. Wide range of sizes and configurations available. Contact Safety Storage to leam more!

Tel:(800)344-6539 Fax:(831)637-7405 E-mail: info@safetystorage.com Web: www.safetystorage.com

Spill Management offers On-Site SiteSpecific,All-risk and All-hazard Response Training for chemical spills using work shops with hands-on training, classroom instiuction. Emergency Response Flanning

ZCL coalescing separators provide sub stantially higher design flows than grav ity separators having the same footprint. An enhanced MFakÂŽ design removes oil droplets as small as 20 microns!

and Incident Command. Other services

Effluent oil concentrations are reduced

also include Emergency Response Equipment, and Supplies Assessments

to as low as 10 parts per million. ZCL oil/water separators are manufactured with premium-grade fibreglass rein forced plastic. They have no moving parts and require minimal maintenance.

using video. To leam more: Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905-578-6644 Email: spillman@on.aibn.com Website: www.spillmanagement.ca

Tel: 800-661-8265, Fax: 780-466-6126 Web: www.zcl.com

Safety Storage


Spill Management

ZCL Composites Inc.

November 2005 131


HQN's Spout Dust Bags are ideal for preventing dusting during load ing, transport and dumping while reducing worker exposure. Our bags are manufactured to the shape of lugger roll off containers and to meet government and landfill regu lations. Product construction allows

for air displacement plus tie off spouts make it ideal for use with steel and incinerator dust as well as

dust collector discharge. HQN also manufactures: dewa-

Secondary containment lining system for fuel storage hen underground tanks need to be replaced but

ant materials, it provides long-term rust-proof, corrosion-ffee service.



• The new structure will not be affect

removal and replacement very costly and difficult, then owners can retrofit their tanks with a new, cost-effective, corrosion resistant, sec ondary contained lining system. This is a manufactured on-site, internal fiberglass system that allows one to upgrade in-service steel or fiberglass single wall tanks to a sec

ed by the future corrosion of the origi



ondary contained lining system. The surrounding area and equipment are left undisturbed as the tank retrofit is

tering bags, bladder bags, temporary

completed without removing the tanks

berms, geomembrane liner installa

from the ground. A brand new second

tion, oil boom repair and offers tarp-

nal tank.

• Proven compatibility with all existing petroleum products, alcohol blended fuels and a variety of chemicals. • Fiberglass gives proven permeation protection, corrosion and chemical resistance and structural performance. • The new lining system does not depend on the structure of an existing tank for structural integrity. Benefits of the system are: • Converts single wall steel or fiber glass tanks to a secondary contained lining system. • Minimizes site disruption and down

Tel: 1-800-361-7068

ary contained fiberglass lining system is manufactured on site by trained and

Web Site: www.hqnfabrics.com

certified installers.


The new Lifeliner lining system gives more than twice the protection of a single wall tank. Two new corrosion resistant layers are applied using a three dimensional glass fabric, cured

• Eliminates costly excavation and replacement of existing tanks. • Conforms to existing steel and fiber glass tanks. • Capable of monitoring the tanks' integrity using hydrostatic, air pres sure, vacuum, or dry sensor monitor ing of annular space. • 30 year warranty guarantees longterm protection. • Provides future access with newly installed manway. Optional collar and

ing solutions.


PVC liner is approved for potable water

with a thermosetting resin, using a pro prietary curing system, to create an interstitial space "sandwich" laminate. The primary layer contains the product. The annular space between the new irmer and outer layers provides continuous leak detection. If there

were a breach of the primary layer, the product would be contained by the sec ondary layer and prevent a leak to the

turbine enclosure will allow easier


• Manufactured on site by trained and certified installers ensuring quality workmanship. Typical applications Applications for the Lifeliner lining system include:

Structural Integrity

This open-top flexible PVC (bagtype) liner does not adhere to the sur

face ofthe tank and is not affected by expansion and contraction or dam aged when the concrete cracks. These liners are custom fabricated

Unlike some other tank lining approaches, this system is custom manufactured on site with the fiber

glass layers bonded to the existing walls of each tank. This eliminates dif ferential forces within the converted

quick and easy. Kentain's NSF-61 (food grade) liners are not only ideal for potable and demineralized water, vinegar and juices, but also suitable

tanks. The independent structural integrity of the new system enables installation within an in-service, steel or fiberglass tank. To ensure the integrity ofthe system, an air tightness test of 35KPa is applied to the intersti tial space. The Lifeliner system has several advantages:

for chemical storage tanks containing

• Manufactured in accordance with

acids and alkaloid solutions. P - 519-576-0994 F- 519-576-0919

ULC/ORD-C-58.4( Double contain

and shipped to the job site in one piece, ready for installation. In most cases, little tank preparation is required. Protective

material is

installed between the tank wall sur face and the liner. Installation is

E-mail - glen@kentain.com


• Retail service stations.

• Fleet fuelling locations. • Bulk plants with underground tanks. • Office buildings. • Chemical plants. The new system conforms to govermuent guidelines for secondary con tainment.

Contact: Richard Murphy ofZCL Composites Inc.

e-inaiI: richard.murphy@zcl.com

ment fibre reinforced plastic linings for flammable and combustible liquid

Web site - www.kentain.com

storage tanks).

Kentain Products

• Manufactured with corrosion resist

32 I November 2005

access to the piping and its mainte

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Storage Tanks

The dangers that lurk In tank farms

Try this one minute quiz on

By Barry Jasper and Dave Hill

tank farm dangers: • Do you have a process that defines and identifies confined spaces in your facility? Yes or No • Have you completed a documented risk assessment of each of these

spaces? Yes or No • Do you insist that your personnel measure for possible contaminants, in every extremity of the space to be entered? Yes or No • Are the instruments used for atmos

pheric sampling, calibrated monthly, and functionally bump tested, prior to each day's use? Yes or No • Is it practical, and are you able, to complete a non-entry rescue, from all your confined spaces? Yes or No • If not, do you have a trained rescue team, to remove any worker in a space, who experiences difficulties? Yes or No If you answered no to any of these questions, you could be out of compli

and/or 213 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and with its proposed successor, the Harmonized Confined Space Regulation, which will apply to all sectors, including the construction and agricultural industries. A




should include all of the potential haz ards within the space, the means of neutralizing these hazards, and a list of all equipment required by the entrant and attendant, to safely make the entry. All of the following items need to be taken into consideration, and form part of the entry plan: • Isolation, lock-out and tag-out of all mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment. • Control of any sources of ignition. • Movement of materials.

• Ventilation techniques and purging, use of positive and negative pressure. • Explosive and flammable atmos pheres.

ance with the Canada Labour Code,

• Means of communication between

and in Ontario, with Regulation 851

the entering team and the outside



• Methods of overcoming the inherent difficulties of limited access and egress.

• Choice of personal protective equip ment.

• Selection of safety equipment. • Consideration of the regulations regarding fall arrest if the distance from the entrance to the floor of the

vessel is greater than 10 feet, or if the entrance is above grade. • Atmospheric testing, choosing the continued overleaf...



Enviro Liner® is a specially formulated suite of high performance geomembranes designed to provide outstanding durability, flexibility, chemical resistance, and long term UV stability. Enviro Liner® is an economical choice for environmental applications including the containment of water and waste water, secondary containment, landfill caps and a multitude of other containment applications. Enviro Liner® is manufactured in North America by Layfield using a specialized blend of polymer technology. Contact us for further information on the performance advantages of our Enviro Liner® series. ENVIRO LINER® 6000 I ENVIRO LINER® 4000 I ENVIRO LINER® 2000 so 9001:2000

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November 2005 133

Storage Tanks

Containment right meter for the job, and the correct atmospheric survey test points to cover the space and all the possible contami nants.

• Emergency equipment and emer gency response procedures, Entry and Non-Entry rescue provisions. • Warning signs and barricades. • Schedule of frequency of communi cation checks for normal entries; plus

TYPE 1 - No atmospheric hazards exist, and written documentation con firming this fact is contained in the permanent record. TYPE 2 - An atmospheric hazard existed but was made safe tluough

someone skilled in CPR is available.

TYPE 3 - A hazardous atmosphere

and even fewer have current training.


This year there were two incidents involving road tankers in tanker clean ing facilities. In one instance the clean ing staff survived; in the other, the res

maintain a safe atmosphere have been implemented. An attendant is posted, arrangements made for rescue, and





supplied air, or in protective suits in high temperatures.


• Spaces should be divided into four categories, using the following criteria, and records kept of all personnel train ing, to ensure that the entry team has the knowledge to deal with the class of entry to be made. Summary of types of confined spaces

Each step in the type of confined space entry reflects the escalation in the associated risks or hazards of the

entry; therefore the level of protection also escalates.

assistance, vehicle extrication, water

rescue, high angle rescue, and ice res cue, fewer people are trained in this specialty. Very few fire departments have equipment for confined space rescue,

ventilation. Measures necessary to

Additional measures are required such as suitable respiratory protection, safe ty harnesses and rope as well as other required personal protective equip

reduction factors for entries made with

their staff in structural fire fighting,

then in a number of specialized fields. Since, in practice, the number of con fined space incident calls they receive is far lower than those for paramedic

TYPE 4 - A flammable or explosive atmosphere exists. Therefore the fol lowing limitations apply: • Entry for inspection, concentrations < 50 % EEL

cue turned into a confined space recovery. Why is that? Put very simply, the math was not on their side:

• If an individual is deprived of oxygen in a confined space, clinical death occurs after three minutes, biological

• Cold work < 10 % EEL

death after six minutes.

• Hot work 0 % EEE

• The average response time for a full time fire department is four minutes, for a part time department probably

Where EEE is the lower explosive limit of the contaminant.

Is 911 your main line of defence? Can you rely on it? Sadly the answer is in the negative for all the following reasons. Fire departments train each of


Recipient the

DEljillllOE Builder of the Year Award

double that. • Add to that the time needed to reach

the space, then the time to do risk assessment and the clock is running faster than the feet can get there. • If you have teams entering spaces without rescue plans in place, your 911 call will probably only put in place a body recovery response. • Don't for a second dismiss the possi bility of a problem, because your tank age doesn't contain any potential for finding exotic chemicals. • Remember last year's Vancouver barge incident, where three workers and a firefighter went down, and only one survived. There were no contami

nants involved, the barge was simply

rusting so aggressively, that the oxy gen levels were depleted to such low levels that life was unsustainable.

• Don't for a second dismiss the possi bility of a problem, because your crew has atmospheric metering capabilities. • Ninety per cent of confined space incidents result from using the wrong

flCHii^rrom Taito&Domes

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Tel;(519)469-8169 Fax:(519)469-8157 www.greatarlo.oom


js'in t'i

meter for the job, meters that have become inaccurate, or atmospheric surveys that are flawed or not main tained continuously. Co}itact:Bany Jasper and Dave Hill are with Echelon Response & Training Inc., E-mail: barryjasper@echelonresponse.com

34 I November 2005

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Luciano Gonzalez

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416.207.6000 x5876

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luciano.gonzalez@kinectrics.com KINECTRICS

November 2005 \ 35

Storage Tanks

The cost of doing nothing! By Merrill Bishop,Trans Environmental Systems Inc.

Many chemical companies have been encouraged by



and bureaucratic vague ness in their regulations into thinking that Spill Prevention, Containment and Countermeasures (SPCC) will not be focused on them for many years to come.

The latest rewrite of 40 CFR 112 in






"enhanced" version came out in 2004

only for it, too, to be deferred because of

litigation from some special interest groups. Now, the new implementation date is on the horizon for February. 2006, with the requirement for both spill containment equipment and training to be in place by August of 2006 for older corporations. Many corporate managers are think ing: "Why prepare SPCC plans when

the EPA is sadly understaffed, over worked, and prob ably doesn't even know we exist. We could sure use the

capital funds better to improve produc tion or develop that next product." This attitude prevalent among many chemical company top managements is very similar to that of a surprised deer "frozen" in the headlights of an on coming car. The deer recognizes that something "dangerous" is coming, but their "what to do process" has become the "analysis paralysis" which soon makes the deer a "road kill". Since EPA

enforcement headlights may eventually get to the contact point, many compa nies prefer to analyze: "How soon do we have to comply?" or "How long can we put them off before we actually have to do something?"

Corrosion Control

months of indecisive discussion and NO ACTION.

There are many internal political angles that have to be bridged but fol lowing are some of the 'value' items that should be examined:

1. Don'tjust look at the initial cost of the equipment. What will be the reoccurring costs over the life of the opera-


Corrosion Engineering

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Ltd., is pleased to announce the appointment of Jeff C. Rodger, as Engineered Product Representative. "Jeff will play a key role in servicing

Cathodic Protection

our Ontario customers as well as devel

Products and Services

Tank Coating Appiications Magnesium & Zinc Anodes Shrink Sleeve & Tape Coatings Thermoweld Equipment Pipe Locating Sales/Repair Water Leak Detection

Water Line Repair Materials Pipeline Integrity Internal Corrosion Monitoring Ultrasonic Testing(Metal Loss)

Ontario Office 3-7895 Tranmere Drive

Misslssauga, Ontario


Many corporations appoint commit tees to develop the direction for the SPCC. These groups unfortunately get caught in the "analysis paralysis" of waiting just a little longer so some new equipment can be reviewed, or some idea seen in a magazine can be fath omed by local managers. These end-toend delays soon add up to months and



Tel.(905)677-2700 Fax(905)677-2432

oping new markets for the company" said Steve Gregory, Viee-President. "We are extremely fortunate to have someone with Jeffs background and expertise come on board."

His education includes a diploma in Construction Engineering Teehnology Management, from Fanshawe College in London. Jeff joins Greatario with 12 years of work experience in servicing goverrunent, consultant and industry needs both in Canada and overseas. He has travelled to over 32 coun

tries and contributed to numerous projects in many fields including: water, environmental, infrastructure, trans portation, power, mining and industry. Greatario has been engaged in the designing, construction and servicing of storage systems in municipalities and industries for 20 years. Greatario works with consulting engineering firms and their clients, to supply systems that service their needs both today and into the future.



Greatario Engineered Storage Systems www.greatario.com nounsfTORt' Tanks &DomM

36 I November 2005

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

tion? Purchasing cheap, open railroad track spill containment pans may save a bundle in the initial purchase but how much is the additional oil-water filter

equipment going to cost and then there is the labor to pump out the oily, tainted rainwater after each storm and then its

disposal? 2. Will this procedure or equipment become obsolete in a matter of months

after we purchase it? Can it be used in a different way at another plant or loca tion on the facility site? A large, open concrete slab for containment of tanker

truck loading or unloading is expen sive. But to avoid collection of rainwa

ter 24/7 365 you'll consider building a canopy over it to the tune of about $50,000. Next the local Fire Marshall tells you you cannot do that unless you add a deluge fire suppression system to the canopied loading area. If your mas ter plan changes, or other new products alter the plant's mission, what do you do with this expensive containment that now may be on the wrong side of the facility? 3. Will this same equipment be more expensive in a short time or will it be cheaper? Companies who chose to not pur chase steel track pans back in 2003 thought they were saving money by not investing at that time. In 2004, due to international plate steel prices soaring, the cost of these containments nearly doubled. Putting off the inevitable for a year cost them dearly. The prices for 2005 have leveled off some but with

company? Would this bad press just draw even more "extreme greenies" into the fray when you attempted future building plans or needed community support for your operations? What would be the cost of delaying comply ing with the SPCC? While your 'best way" analysis is being conducted, what is happening in the meantime at the facility? Are small releases on concrete slabs being washed "off" with hundreds of gallons of water into a holding tank? Are empty tote tanks or drums being left out on an uncovered storage slab or loading dock? What happens to the rainwater that lands on these used containers? Do

"minor" releases of bulk powders get cleaned up immediately or do your work floor shifts each wait for the

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^Spills What risk are you willing to take? How long will your management "stand in the middle of the road"? Hoping that maybe the SPCC regulation will be postponed yet again? Rainwater run off from your plant will still be migrating your chemicals off site and down the local drainage ditch. Do you wait until the EPA just happens to analyze a water sample down gradient from your plant and correlates the chemicals to those

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November 2005 I 37

Invisible value from the Invisible Profession For over a decade ES&E's Consultants' Forum has

received wide acceptance among all sectors of our readership. Municipal engineers, analytical chemists, government agencies and technical people in the industrial sector, all rely on the experience and skills of consulting engineers. ES&E invited consultants to submit their opinions on any topic and some leading consultants have contributed. Some other

submissions from consultants will be published in subsequent issues.

Pondering the future of the water Industry By Douglas Langiey,Vice President,Delcan Water

Forty years ago the Province of Ontario




world leader in water and

wastewater technology. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Ontario Water Resources Commission (OWRC), under the able stewardship of Chief Engineer Dr. Albert Berry, achieved international recognition as an innova tor and a class leader in water technol

ogy. The OWRC practiced what Dr. Berry preached and grew to become one of the leading environmental agen cies in the world.

38 I November 2005

In those days OWRC invested sig nificantly in research and develop ment. Proposals were solicited from both the private and public sectors and it was common for consulting firms to team with universities and compete for the R&D money. Successful scientists were invited to present their research at the annual Ministry of Environment (MOE) R&D conference. The OWRC was disestablished in 1972 and its functions were rolled into the new MOE.

Unfortunately today's politicians fail to understand the importance of innovation and the resulting benefit to our standard of living. MOE aban

doned R&D support and now water treatment tiugedies such as Walkerton and





Many of our international competi tors have an advantage as their coun tries recognize the strategic impor tance of R&D. For example, the STOWA program in the Netherlands finances water research projects by collecting a small surcharge levied on commercial and residential water bills.

Public and private parties are invited to submit unsolicited proposals for financing and Canadian companies lacking domestic R&D support turn to STOWA. It is likely that they would

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

have received support from MOE in the good old days. Canadian consulting engineering companies are successful internation

ally. World Bank reports consistently show that Canadian engineering firms win their share of international proj-


the best in class. It is widely accepted that this competitive edge is the out come of strategic investment in research and development. Very few Canadian consulting engineering firms have purchased US companies. Why have many large

'OruJi'^ ents. General Electric and Siemens,

two of the largest companies in the world, have become major water industry investors and Home Depot has recently entered the water busi

Water industry consolidation continues unabated.

Made in Canada is becoming rare. Water industry ownership is becoming global as large conglomerates gobble up the independents. ects. Our international competitive edge may be attributed to an under-val

American firms acquired some of Canada's oldest, most respected engi

ued Canadian dollar and our neutral

neering practices? The Canadian con

geopolitical reputation. Will we win

tion assignments in China where only

sulting engineering industry is price driven, the opposite of the US quality based selection process. This differ

15% of the population receives waste-

ence creates higher value in US com

water treatment? What about Mexico

panies and Canadian engineering firms become acquisition candidates. We need people like Dr. Berry to lead the drive to quality based selection in

our share offuture international sanita

where only 30% of the population receives treatment? Do we have the

water technologies to address major water shortages forecasted in the US

unless Canada re-establishes its com

mitment to innovation. It is not too late for Canada to make a renewed com

mitment to water technology through research and development. Canada is blessed with an abun

dance of fresh water. Although we may not deserve our green reputation, we can use our reputation to advantage by unabashedly branding "made in Canada". However, more than any thing else, we require a new commit ment to water research in Canada. Is

MOE up to the challenge?

Water industry consolidation con

Winning this water business will require Canadian firms to be more competitive. We need to offer technol ogy that is made in Canada and that is

Local Focus.

water companies will continue to be acquired by large international firms



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ness. What does this mean? Canadian

tinues unabated. Made in Canada is

becoming rare. Water industry owner ship is becoming global as large con glomerates gobble up the independ

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[-(yruJiiy Design-Build - does this method work well in the public sector? By Eric A.D. MacDonald,M.Sc.,P.Eng. Chairman and CEO MacViro Consultants Inc.

For the past decade and on a selective basis,the pub

The misconceptions and realities of these beliefs, which lic sector has employed the design/build (D/B) have been realizetd, are: method of project delivery in lieu of the convention • while schedule accelerations may or may not be achieved, al method. The main difference between the two the fixed costs belief has proved a misconception; delivery modes is that the contractor is 'given' the works at • while the capital cost may be lower, the quality ofthe prod the beginning of the design phase rather than with the con uct has led to much-reduced life spans and, consequently, rel ventional approach, whereby the contractor comes on board atively high operation and maintenance costs; at the end of the design phase. This difference is highly sig • the contractor (D/B entity) is frequently not sensitized to nificant to the success of the project, because the public sec political, public, environmental and agency issues/concerns; tor and the D/B contractor have different objectives, i.e. the • the quality of the end-product is frequently and visibly infe public sector client wants a project that has low life-cycle rior to the conventionally delivered project. costs while the D/B contractor wants a project that has low Some ten to fifteen years since the'arrival'of capital costs. Why then would the public sector client select the D/B privatization, it is quite reasonable to assume approach for their project? The answer is that the public sec that the PPP project delivery model may be tor believes that the D/B project delivery model gives an accelerated schedule, known up-front costs, no extras and the next preferred approach. reduced overall costs.

The conclusions that are now emerging are that the D/B method of project delivery is on a down-cycle for the follow ing reasons: 1. It is perhaps fair to conclude that although the D/B project delivery mode may apply to projects for the private sector, it does not work well for the public sector. 2. The public needs are best addressed through the conven tional approach, where the design consultant is much more sensitive to the 'soft' but critical considerations of a project. 3. If a D/B project delivery mode is to be selected, it must include up-front comprehensive data so that the D/B contrac tor can fairly price the works and thereby obviate fiiture claims.

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4. A 'partnering' concept is critical, considering the initial data transfer is rarely complete. Accordingly, the working relationship with the contractor must be one of close co-oper ation rather than one of antagonism. 5. The Expression of Interest must fully define the subse quent Request for Proposal requirements, including a com prehensive risk-sharing matrix. In summary, and with the D/B project delivery mode in decline, what is now increasingly appearing on the project

delivery scene is perhaps the 3Ps, i.e. public-private partner ships, a model that depends on co-operation and equitable risk sharing. Accordingly, it appears that there continues to be a

need for the private sector to be involved with public sector works.

Some ten to fifteen years since the 'arrival' of privatiza tion, it is quite reasonable to assume that the PPP project delivery model may be the next preferred approach.

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40 I November 2005

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



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trOi'lU^ty Consulting engineering needs innovation from our leaders By Rui De Carvalho M.Eng.,P.Eng.,President,RJ.Burnside & Associates

isten in on a conversation

industry. The diagnostics appear to be

between leaders of Ontario

consulting engineering firms these days and you will quick-

relatively easy to articulate. However, for an industry that makes a business of convincing clients that we are prob-

ly hear of the problems facing our

lem solvers, we certainly appear rather


challenged in coming up with appro priate solutions to our own issues. This doesn't mean that Ontario con

sulting engineering is in a mess, far from it. Canadian (and Ontario) con sulting engineering firms are still rec ognized as world leaders in technical and professional excellence; but will this continue? How often does the

national press, or any media for that matter, contact the Consulting Engineers of Ontario or the Association of Consulting Engineers of Canada for an informed input on the contemporary issues relating to infra structure or the environment? This

Harmony. iVIutuai Benefits. Synergy.

doesn't happen as often as it should. While our profile, in my opinion, is not where it should be, we are likely to hear more excuses than proactive solu tions. We often appear to be on the defensive, especially when trying to explain our net worth to clients who question our fees and the value that we bring to their projects. Other profes sionals appear to have a much easier ride.

Relationships form the basis of life, be if in nature or in the business

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Responsible Solutions for a Sustainable FutureÂŽ

Over the almost 30 years that I have been in consulting, it seems that the industry has gone from the flagship employer where most engineering graduates wanted to develop their careers, to the one where you get out, if or when you can find something bet ter!

If we agree that there are issues here, I propose that leadership in our industry needs to step up to a higher level; and I don't mean within the industry associations but rather in our everyday practice outside ofthe formal associations. The type of leadership that may have been so successful in the glory years of consulting that I men tioned before is no longer appropriate in today's environment. We need to aspire to higher ideals than just sub scribing to the type of price cutting, win at all costs competition that plagues our industry. There was probably more coopera tion between the CIA and the KGB in

42 I November 2005

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

their time than exists among consult ing engineers! Oh, we hold golf tour naments and collaborate in any num ber of meaningless committees but when it comes down to it, if we can cut someone down, we do it, and we are even proud of our accomplishments in this regard. There are too few telephone calls that begin with, "Hey Joe, why don't we combine our efforts on this one and maximize the value to our firms and

our clients?" Why would we? Chances are the other guy will just go and "steal our client"! As if we really believe that we can actually own a client! We would rather do it all, the whole project, because we just love to "engineer" and are happy to pay at almost any cost. Our industry needs to adopt a best practices approach in all our activities. This requires us to develop and hold on to future leaders with new and innova

tive vision, who will in turn promote,

industry. Would you ever consider a scenario where two firms would enter into an

exchange program for two young grad uates to promote their development on a particular project experience? Likely not! Yet, can you imagine if this prac-

ical, and social issues where we are

Our industry needs to adopt a best practices approach in

that we provide value to society. We need leadership with vision; long term vision that goes beyond the next fiscal

have noble ideals and standards and

all our activities.This

requires us to develop and hold on to future leaders with new and innovative

vision, who will provide value in a manner that is sustainable to both our

clients and our industry.

as a top priority, providing value in a manner that is sustainable to both our

clients and our industry. This will require the recruitment of top gradu ates and providing them with an envi ronment where they are able to devel op to their full potential without feel ing the need to move on to another

most qualified to do so and thereby make the general public aware that we

tice was widespread? Watch out world, the Canadians are here to stay, and they are playing at the top of their game. Our projects need to demonstrate to the public the application of environ mental sustainability. We must speak out on environmental, technical, polit


I know very well that much ofthis is pie in the sky from a leader of a small firm who, even after completing a five year term as president, is still as naive as ever. Yet I am hopeful that new and innovative leaders can make significant

progress and advance our industry to higher levels of respect and sustainabil ity and possibly reverse some of the damage of the last decades. So contin ue to enjoy your dialogue with your colleagues. Let's move the yardsticks on this front, and hope that new leaders will realize some positive changes. As for me, well, I am going back to do engineering!

Contact: nii@rjburnside.com

One Team. Infinite Solutions. Tom Hilditch, B.Sc.

Vice President, Environmental Management

We are pleased to announce the appointment of Tom Hilditch to the position of Vice President, Environmental Management, in his new role, Tom will continue to focus on growth and new markets for the Environmental Management practice area (EMPA)in Ontario and will also play an active role in developing Stantec's increasing emphasis on sector-based marketing. Tom joined Stantec through the ESG acquisition in May 2003 and has been instrumental in establishing Stantec as a clear leader in the environmental market in Ontario.

Reno Fiorante, P.Eng. Vice President, Environmental Infrastructure


We are pleased to announce the appointment of Reno Fiorante to the position of Vice President, Environmental Infrastructure. Reno will continue as the Regional Practice Area Leader for Environmental infrastructure in Canada West and also take on an expanded role as a Discipline Leader for our new Design Support initiative. Reno has been with Stantec since 1983, and has provided strong leadership in the areas of technical diversification and growth.

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November 2005 \ 43

Leadership and sustainablllty changing the context of consulting engineering By Bill De Angelis,P.Eng.,MBA, Associated Engineering and

Michael De Angelis,B.A., B.Ed., M.Ed.,Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto

We face a multitude of

challenges in the con sulting engineering industry today, not the least of which are leadership, sustainability, context, succession and devel opment. We have tended to look with in, but seldom outside of our own

The leadership gap results in the degradation, over time, of the per formance of an organization and its ability to be competitive in its chosen markets. In the education sector, this hypothesis is confirmed by the threat to public education posed by the rise of third party institutions to instruct our children.

ranks for answers. The benefits of

looking externally for answers to issues affecting the consulting indus try, in effect changing our context, will become clear. Lessons learned in other fields and

sectors can influence leadership prac tice and development in the private sector. Many sectors are in the same situation, including public education and the private sector. Much research has been conducted in the education

sector around leadership and capacity building that can be applied to other industries. This article will look at some of those issues that are common

to public education and to consulting engineering, and will attempt to begin to develop a new paradigm to ensure our sustainability as engineering pro

An article in the December 2004

edition of Canadian Consulting Engineer brought forth the perspec

leaders to dominate organizations and impede (suppress) the development of colleagues and successors and thus hinder the development of cohesion within the leadership base. It seems that new leaders are required, but strong leaders can stymie the growth of an organization by not allowing the development of leaders at all levels. It has been suggested that the sign of true leadership is when a leader leaves behind more leaders than when he or

tives of four senior executives around

she arrived.

the current state of the consulting industry and marketplace. There was much talk of profitability and growth,

to leader identification and selection.

We have an inconsistent approach

but little mention of where the future

Many engineering organizations are touting their leaders today; some will

leaders of our industry would come

seek out charismatic leaders from the


marketplace, believing it is the key to growth and success. Charismatic lead ers have been negatively associated with sustainability. Other firms have taken the approach to promote from within, putting ill-prepared individuals into leadership roles. What all this suggests is that nei ther camp fully understands what con stitutes leading and leadership, and as such neither will be overly successful

George Comrie, in the March/April 2005 edition of Engineering Dimensions, touched on the topic of leadership succession. He stated that organizations "require mechanisms to develop leaders from within their common memberships, and to provide for succession of their governance structures". In the same breath, he spoke of the tendency for charismatic




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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

in identifying it, attracting it or appointing it. Michael Fullan, in his book Leadership & Siistainability - System Thinkers in Action, described eight ele ments of sustainability in the educa tion and public service sectors that are just as applicable to the private sector. They are: 1. Public service with a moral purpose - commitment to increasing the level, value and quality of services provided. 2. Commitment to changing context at all levels - adjusting the entire struc ture and cultures within which we work.

3. Lateral capacity building through networks - development of deliberate strategies that allow transferring of knowledge across peers. 4. Intelligent accountability and verti cal relationships - encompassing both capacity building and accountability through development of collaborative networks.

5. Deep learning - that focuses on fos tering and harnessing the creativity, commitment and access to leading practices and continuous improve ment.

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8. The long lever of leadership - trans forming systems requires leadership at all levels, and the development of new leaders.


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6. Dual commitment to short-term and

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By embracing these elements of sustainability in the consulting sector, we can transform our institutions in

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Lessons learned in other fields and

sectors influence leadership practice and development; they should be stud ied and selectively applied to the con sulting business to more quickly move us along the sustainability learning curve.

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Contact: Denise Simpson - E-mail: denise@esemag.com or Penny Davey - E-mail: penny@esemag.com Co-organized by:

Environmental Science

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Successful staffing - the"oxygen" of any consulting enterprise By George Zukovs,P.Eng.,President,XCG Consultants Ltd. factors ranging from retirement to departures for greener pastures. Some loss is inevitable. The best firms mini mize turnover.

The foundation of any consul

tancy is the talented and hard working people that are the principal asset of any firm. Successful leaders of consulting firms recognize that growth will require the continual infusion of quality staff. Particularly, where an enterprise has a strategy for expansion in new techno logical areas or markets remote from current geographic locations top notch staff are the essential ingredient. At the same time every consulting firm expe riences loss of people due to a host of

A simple example gives an idea of the energies required to grow an enter prise. Take a consulting organization of 100 people with a five year plan of year-over-year growth ofsay 7%.Factor in a staff turnover of 5% per year. This gives a new recruiting requirement to meet overall growth targets of twelve people or about one per month in the first year. A more aggressive growth strategy or staffing needs for a new branch would require even higher levels of recruitment.

Have you then wondered: "How will I meet my staffing needs?" There is no doubt that fostering the growth of an organization can be very challeng ing. Especially, if there is strong desire to see that growth occur "organically" rather than through merger and acqui sition. The small to mid-size consult

ing organization faces particular chal lenges. There is often less management and human resources expertise in such organizations and overall fewer nonproduction resources available. Nonetheless, a determined course of action is necessary for the firm to prosper and grow. Day to day consulting is a very demanding activity. Time resources are jealously guarded above all by senior managers. In this kind of environment it is sometimes difficult to extract a clear view of the issues and dimen

sions surrounding staffing. It evokes the old cliche of fighting the alligators and forgetting the goal was to drain the swamp. Often, senior consultants are better alligator wrestlers than swamp pumpers. Consequently, if growth-ori ented managers are to be successful they must reach out to understand the requirements and issues surrounding their staffing situation. The trend in meeting staffing goals


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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

is based on a systematic assessment, planning and implementation cycle with ongoing feedback to help with needed course corrections. In this

cycle it is especially important both to understand growth goals and to assess a firm's performance with respect to staff retention. If the present experi ence is poor, it is undoubtedly a better choice to develop programs to improve retention and set specific goals for that purpose rather than accelerate recruit ing. Once overall recruitment and reten

tion goals have been developed, specif ic enterprise level, office level and

effectively address the needs of staff for continued professional and career development also bring improved job satisfaction. Finally, programs aimed at easing the integration of new staff members through a peer level "buddy" system, for example, are also vital to help establish a positive career starting point. The leadership of any consulting enterprise must ensure an adequate supply of "oxygen" in order to flour ish. A new generation of tools and methods are emerging alongside timetested methods to supply this "oxygen"


'(yi^ujfV through the creative recruitment and retention of staff. The most effective

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objectives can be set and plans or strategies to meet these objeetives can be prepared. Recruitment strategies still employ many time-tested methods including advertising, "head hunting" and per sonal recruitment by senior staff. Many firms now reach out through the internet using corporate web sites or job posting services to potential employees. The internet affords a rela tively low eost means of reaching a




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Controlling Leglonella with chlorine dioxide

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A recent Legionella outbreak in Toronto has caused 21 deaths, and

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Although traces of Legionella are present in many water services, water

ByThandar Aye can be considered safe if the concentra

tion is at a minimum. Temperature and availability of nutrients are the impor tant factors. Legionella can grow best in water at a temperature between 30 and 37°C, such as hot tubs, hot water tanks, air conditioners and water-cool

ing towers. Biofilm present in water pipework and tanks provides optimal growth area for the bacteria. Within the normal laboratory timescale of days, experiments with cul tures of naturally occurring L. pneu mophila serogroup 1 showed that over the temperature range 5-45°C the organism would only multiply in the temperature range 32-42°C in tap

Prevention and treatment

Treatment of Legionella involves destruction of the biofilm where bacte

months. Once favorable conditions


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become dormant but remain viable for

water. In nutrient enriched areas the

population of Legionella can double every 3-4 hours. Other Legionella have been shown to be capable of colonizing zones at temperatures up to 63''C and down to 6°C (Fliermans et ah, 1981). At lower temperatures the bacteria



that has been contaminated with the

ria growth is optimal in water distribu tion systems. Improved design and maintenance of cooling towers and plumbing systems is an important fac tor to limit the growth and spread of Legionella organisms. Preventive measures for controlling Legionella include disinfection with various types of disinfectants such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and



return then these cells restart activity and multiply. Higher temperatures over 45°C will eventually kill the organisms. The Legionella infection in humans usually occurs in the respiratory tract, when people breathe in mist or vapour

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48 I November 2005

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Disinfection Chlorine dioxide generation technologies

Chlorine dioxide can be obtained by either oxidizing chlorite or reducing chlorate. Most commercial generators use sodium chlorite (NaC102) as the common precursor to generate CIO2 from drinking water applications.

treatment, particularly to combat Legionella. The system works according to the hydrochloric acid/chlorite process. By combining diluted

Functional description Two pumps dose the components Bello ZonÂŽ acid and Bello ZonÂŽ chlo

rite into the reactor which is prefilled with a defined amount of water. After a

specific reaction time, the controller empties the content of the reactor into the storage tank. The controller feeds the required amount of dilution water

ProMinent's Legio Zon uses the direct

to the reactor and mixes it with a pre cise calculated amount of hydrochloric

acid system to produce CIO2. Many papers have shown the suc

cessful disinfection of Legionella bac

acid and sodium chlorite which is

teria with chlorine dioxide. Botzenhart

dosed through two dosing pumps. A

et al showed that L.pneumophila was susceptible to chlorine dioxide at high er temperatures and at higher pH. However, the pH effect on inactivation is less pronounced than observed with chlorine. Studies suggested that a com plete removal of Legionella in a hot water system at hospitals with a high

chlorine dioxide solution with a con

concentration of chlorine dioxide, SOSO mg/L, as a shock treatment for a

period of time followed by a residual maintaining at 3-5 mg/L, dramatically reduces the biofilm formation (Walker

centration of 2g/L is generated. This low concentration as compared to other procedures makes the system absolute ly safe to operate.

The finished CIO2 solution is trans

Legio Zon CIO2 Generator hydrochloric acid, diluted sodium chlo

ferred to a storage tank from which it is dosed through the third dosing pump. A preset concentration of chlorine dioxide, controlled via the signal from a water meter, is dosed to the water to be disinfected.

rite solution and water, this system first

et ah). Chlorine dioxide generator

tion (2g/L). This solution is temporarily

Thandar Aye is an Applications Specialist with ProMinent

Legio Zon, with a capacity up to 5g/hr, is designed for potable water

stored in the system and supplied to the water to be treated as required.

E mail: thandara@prominent.ca

generates a 0.2% chlorine dioxide solu

;i; Water YSI

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HosKins Itemperature Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen


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The 600 QS combines the compact 600R muitiparometer water quality sonde with the rugged, reliable 650 MDS display/data logger into one easy-to-use handheld measurement unit. Equipped with YSI's patended Rapid Pulse dissolved oxygen sensor, there is no need to circulate or manually stir to provide stable and accurate DO readings. Other parameters include temperature, conductivity, salinity, ORP, and depth. The 600 OS can be ordered with various coble

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Drinking Water

New drinking water system removes pathogens - earns EPA status as a multi-barrier purifier By Dave Krupinski

Two filtration companies



recently launched a drinking water system certified as a microbiological purifier for

Kiopua' B




Purefecta'Drinking Water Purifier

residential, health care facilities and

light commercial applications. The Purefecta''''^ Drinking Water Purifier removes bacteria, viruses and

protozoa. This multi-barrier drinking water system is available to consumers and meets the stringent U.S. EPA Guide Standard and Protocol for

Testing Microbiological Purifiers (OPP Task Force Report, 1987). The result is biopure (microbiologically purified) water, the highest quality drinking water available. Purefecta is the first product from a collaboration between Pall Corporation, a global provider of filtration, separation and purification technologies, and

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www.claessenpumps.com 50 I November 2005

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Drinking Water Kinetico Incorporated, a water treat

organic compounds. Finally, a 0.2

ment company.

micron Pall bacteria filter removes

people die each year in the US from disease-causing microbes in water.

Purefecta features a seven-stage, multi-banier process that offers more

bacteria that may be present. Public concern about drinking

According to the Centers for Disease Control, the number of outbreaks of

certified contaminant removal than other

water quality and safety

diinking water systems including filter pitchers, countertop and faucet mounts, and under the sink systems. It is certified by the leading water quality product per formance agencies to remove greater than 99.99999 percent ofbacteria, greater than 99.999 percent of protozoa and greater than 99.99 percent of viruses from water. These agencies, specifically

Concerns over drinking water qual ity have been on the rise during the past decade. While municipal water



the EPA Guide Standard and Protocol for virus removal and exceeds the EPA stan

dard for bacteria and protozoa removal. Poliovirus, rotavirus, Oyptosporidiiim, Giardia, and Klebsiella terigena are among the long list ofpathogens Purefecta can remove. It is a multi-barrier drinking water purifier available to consumers that removes pathogens in addition to other commonly found water contaminants including toxic metals, such as lead, and volatile organic compounds(VOCs),such as chemicals and pesticides. Unique seven-stage protection process combines

many waterborne illnesses of the past, such as cholera and typhoid fever, out breaks of waterborne diseases still

occur. An estimated seven million peo ple become sick and more than 1,000


International (NSF), Underwriters Laboratory (UL), the Water Quality Association (WQA) and BioVir Laboratories, found that Purefecta meets


treatment has eliminated threats from

waterborne illnesses, although current ly underreported, is increasing. Even well operated, state-of-the-art treatment plants cannot ensure that drinking water is entirely free of microbial pathogens. System failures do occur and not all systems are func tioning at the level they should. A 1999 EPA report found that 55,000 US comcontiniied overleaf...


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Drinking Water munity water systems were in need of significant investment to install, upgrade or replace infrastructure to ensure the provision of safe drinking

water, which is unregulated and varies considerably, may not offer any more safeguards against pathogens than tap

water to their 243 million customers.


Some municipalities currently rely on water supplies without filtration or disinfection. And new pathogens, some of which are resistant to conven

tional treatment processes, continue to emerge. Even with optimum treatment, contamination can also occur in the

water distribution system, leaving the

consumer vulnerable. And bottled

Although become







pathogens, people with weakened immune systems are at the greatest risk of serious and even fatal illness.

Anywhere from 20 to 25 percent ofthe population in the U.S. and Canada is considered immune compromised and

the number is increasing as our society ages.

Current world events have also con tributed to new concerns about the

security of drinking water supplies. Recent FBI warnings about bioterrorist threats on our drinking water are raising questions about what federal and local actions are planned in the event of such an attack. Currently, there is no routine monitoring for sus pect agents and no treatment protocols for municipalities to follow in the event of a threat.

The market for home drinking water systems is growing rapidly in North America and worldwide. The


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52 I November 2005

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine


AMEC's tests prove successful for radioactive waste clean-up


By John Kageorge

Agroup of Canadian engi

neers and scientists from

AMEC have helped develop a promising solution for the world's largest environmental clean-up project. The Hanford Site in Washington State, perched on the bank of the Columbia River, has radioactive waste dating back to the Manhattan Project.

AMEC, which is an international proj ect management and technical services company, has just completed tests and received encouraging results that may impact this problem which began over half of a century ago. The nuclear reservation is in the dry desert climate of central Washington State. There are two targets for the clean-up on the nearly 600 square mile site. The first one is obviously the waste; it is estimated that there are 53 million gallons of it. The waste is stored in tanks, some of which are over 50 years old and designed as a tempo rary measure until better technology became available. The second target is the soil. Some ofthe tanks have leaked, causing the ground to become contam

inated by the radioactive material. The US Department of Energy is in the midst of a USD $2 billion per year

hardens, hazardous inorganic and radioactive contaminants are perma nently trapped in a glassy, solid mass that is 10 times stronger than concrete. In other words, GeoMelt melts radioactive soil into glass bricks, mak ing it inert. The process already has been used in projects on three continents to suc cessfully treat a wide range of contam inants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, pesticides, herbicides, mixed radioactive wastes and a variety of heavy metals. All


Vancouver and Trail offices in British

Columbia led the first phase of tests using their GeoMelt technology. The BC team did over half of the design work, including all of the critical 3D modeling. They have since teamed up with a team of equal size in Hanford to conduct a second phase of tests. The demonstration project One ofAMEC's tests focused on the

called GeoMeltÂŽ. It uses electrodes to

radioactive waste stored in under

heat contaminated waste and soil at

ground tanks. The test associated with the vertical shafts was performed continued overleaf...

Cutaway view of the ICV container prior to processing.


and virtually all types of debris can be accommodated, including drums, scrap metal, concrete, boulders, asphalt, wood, tires and plastic. About 50 specialists from AMEC's

the site by 2035. A nuclear age solution AMEC has developed a process

temperatures that can reach 2,000 degrees Celsius. When the material

plug and

classes of contaminants can be treated

future underground treatment of buried vertical shafts containing nuclear waste. The other test is part of an on-going demonstration program supporting the eventual retrieval and treatment of millions of gallons of

effort to remove all nuclear waste on

As easy as

Cutaway view of the ICV container during the melting process.

Cutaway view of the ICV container following treatment, showing the resulting block of vitrified waste.

The Grundfos DosingpaQ consists of pump systems designed to offer an accurate and dependable dosing package with standard dosing pump components. Easy to install and set-up, DosingpaQ is the turnkey solution foryour chemical injection needs.


These are artist renderings of the GeoMelt in-Container Vitrification™

(ICV) process.


November 2005 \ 53

Decontamination under






Department of Energy. The test sup porting the tank waste program was performed under contract for the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection and its prime contrac tor at the Hanford site, CH2M-HILL Hanford Group, Inc. For the vertical shaft test, a mockup of the more than 140 underground waste-storage shafts at Hanford was

developed. The mock-up - like the

The GeoMelt melt surface when processing plutonium contaminated waste. The meit temperature is

approximately 1,550 degrees C.

actual Hanford shafts - consisted of

five bottomless and topless 55-gallon drums that were welded end-to-end

and buried. The mock-up was filled with simulated waste including steel, wood, concrete and soil and chemical simulants. It is anticipated that the actual Hanford shafts contain plutonium, uranium, cesium and other highly active waste, making excavation before treatment unsafe due to high dose rates and the possibility of spon

Photograph of a piece of GeoMeit vitrified product. This was made of soil from the Hanford site in South

Eastern Washington State.

taneous chemical reactions.

The vertical shaft test successfully melted the entire shaft in just seven days, resulting in a monolith that matched its predicted size. Further tÂŁ3v'

the treatment c; ; at the Hanford

he bulk vitrification process will include to 300,000 gallons of actual tank wastes e as part of a demonstration program.

The company is quite familiar with the nuclear sector, and this has proven

quite helpful to the GeoMelt project. AMEC is a leader in the field of

The second test also used simulated

waste and concerned the above-ground treatment of low activity radioactive tank waste in special refractory-lined containers. GeoMelt is under consider ation for the treatment of between 30

and 70 percent of Hanford's estimated 42 million gallons of low-activity tank waste.

Environmental restoration

Working on challenging environ mental problems is not new to AMEC. The Sydney Tar Ponds in New Scotia, which is Canada's biggest environmen tal clean-up project, will require 2,700 person-years of work and a decade of time to complete. The plan is to dig up and destroy the worst contaminants, using methods that have proved to be safe and effective on similar sites.

Remaining materials will be treated in place and then contained within an engineered containment system. The cleaned-up sites will be landscaped to fit their natural surroundings or future site use.

This is quite similar to the restora tion work AMEC is doing in connec tion with NASA. The company is cur 54 I November 2005

rently restoring the home of several endangered species and one of North America's largest sea turtle nesting grounds. Cape Canaveral. Decades of satellite, rocket, and shuttle launches have loaded the soil with lead, PCBs and other nasty elements. An eight day process In the bulk vitrification, the con

tainer and its liner system performed to expectations and a 42-metric-ton glass brick was produced in eight days. Basically, there are four steps: 1.Radioactive waste is liquefied, then oxidizers are added.

2.The mixture is poured into enormous containers that contain electrodes.

3.Using 5,000 amp current, the mix ture is heated to 2,000 degrees Celsius. 4.The material is cooled, creating a glass brick.

nuclear power in Europe. Earlier this year, AMEC acquired NNC Canada Limited, Nuclear Safety Solutions Limited and Monserco Limited. In

October, AMEC was awarded the proj ect management for the restoration of the Bruce Power nuclear facility, which will begin delivering power in 2009.

Next step, Los Alamos? AMEC's positive test results for both procedures, vertical shafts and bulk vitrification, are strong advances for this mammoth-size project. Both procedures will now move forward for further testing. The next test for the vertical shaft process will be on an actual shaft at either Hanford or the

The container is then sealed and

Los Alamos National Laboratory site in New Mexico. Further testing of the bulk vitrification process will include the treatment of up to 300,000 gallons

stored, with a life span of thousands of

of actual tank wastes at the Hanford


site as part of a demonstration pro

Nuclear familiarity Surprisingly, AMEC's environmen tal practice is not as well known as that of its project management and techni


.John Kageorge is with .AMEC E-mail:john.kageorge(W,amec.com

cal services.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Stormwater Management

Separator prevents oil contaminating a power plant stormwater system addition to removal of oil from normal stormwater and

plant wash runoff, the OWS unit also had to be designed to allow oil separation dur ing any possible worst case scenario, a 10 year storm. This worst case is defined as

possible equipment failure, with sub- sequent loss of oil

Removal of oil from water

before the water is discharged into a river or other body of water is an important envi ronmental goal. In order to accomplish this, a major hydropower producer in

in addition to the oil carried

by the stormwater runoff, during the storm. Therefore, the separator had to be

designed to handle its maximum rated flow of 1900 US gpm (432 mVhr) with an oil concentration of 4250 mg/L.

for 99.88% removal of all free oil.

After startup, the separator was test ed several times and the concentration of

oil in the water being discharged was routinely below detectable level. Compliance with EN 858-1 performance requirement was confirmed. Approximately six months after the separator was installed, a near worst case scenario took place. An oil spill occurred during a severe thunderstorm. As a result, the oil/water separator did indeed experience the full design load of 1900 US gpm water with 4250 mg/L of oil. Discharge into the dam sluice remained at nondetectable levels for the duration of the event.

HydroQuip consulted with Lantec

The power company is planning to

the southern United States contracted

Products and, as a result, the oil/water

with HydroQuip, Inc. for the supply of

retrofit several OWS units to HD Q-

separator was designed using HD QPACÂŽ as the coalescing media. This allowed for design of the separator to exceed the European Union's specifica tion for OWS units, EN 858-1, that calls

a state of the art oil/water separator (OWS).

The power plant had several goals, but the most important was that, in

PAC in the near future.

Contact: HydroQuip Inc. E-mail: info@hydroquipinc.com


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November 2005 \ 55

Wastewater Treatment

SBR system for large Chinese pulp & paper mill By Peter McCarthy,M.A.Sc.and Zhiping Qiu, M.Sc.E.,P.Eng.

In 2005, ADI Systems Inc. of Fredericton, New


completed commissioning for a large ADI-SBR wastewater treat ment system for Guangzhou Paper, one of China's largest pulp and paper mills. In North America, ADI Systems normally provides turnkey installa tions, but in China we typically supply a technology package, which for this project included: process design; detailed design of selected compo nents; design manual (to guide local detailed designers); ADI-ASD decanters; jet aeration system; instru mentation; control valves; DCS con

trol system; operator training; and commissioning. The paper mill is located in Guangzhou city centre on the shore of

Foundations for sludge thickener(foreground) and SBR basins (background).

the Pearl River in southern China. The

mill has chemi-thermomechanical pulp ing, sulfite pulping, groundwood pulp ing, and paper-making operations. Before installation of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system, approxi mately 5000 mVd of wastewater was pretreated in a high-rate aerobic system and low-strength wastewater was pre treated in two dissolved air flotation units.

New effluent regulations required the mill to install a secondary wastewater treatment system. The new dis charge limits for COD, BOD, and TSS are 200 mg/1, 30 mg/1, and 200 mg/1, respectively. The design wastewater characteris tics for the biological treatment plant are summarized in Table 1.

ADI's partners on this project

Wastewater Design Characteristics Parameter



Avg. flow



Peak flow




















6 to 9




Table 1

56 I November 2005

included the mill, which provided proj ect and construction management, and the Changsha Design Institute that provided detail design. The new wastewater treatment sys tem includes the following major com ponents:

• influent equalization tank (6000 m'); • influent pumping system; • nutrient addition systems for nitrogen and phosphorus; • five SBRs (14,000 m', each); and • gravity WAS thickener. The ADI-SBR system is comprised of five on-grade, common wall, castin-place concrete basins. Each SBR tank is 31.5 m by 68 m and has a 7.5 m wall. The treatment plant was con structed using 12,000 tonnes of con crete and 1600 piles. The average depth of piles is 14 m with a pile diam eter of40 cm. The total weight of rein forcing steel used in the project was

required for biological treatment. Urea (dry) was selected for nitrogen, and 75% phosphoric acid was selected for phosphate. Urea was purchased in bags and dissolved and stored in fiber glass tanks. Phosphoric acid was trans ferred into the fiberglass storage tanks directly from tanker trucks. Each stor age tank is equipped with a level-indi cating transmitter. The daily chemical consumption is calculated based upon the liquid level change. Each basin is equipped with a sim ple influent distribution system, waste sludge collection manifold, and jet aer ation system, all of which are located on the basin floor. Each basin is also





decanters and instrumentation. The

instrumentation includes a pH/temperature sensor and analyzer, a dissolved oxygen sensor and analyzer, a level indicating transmitter, and a level

1400 tonnes.


During the construction period, the concrete and steel prices increased substantially, and the contractor had to resolve the price escalation problems with the mill before resuming the con struction work. Therefore, there was a delay in the treatment plant construc tion schedule. However, pressure from the local government was so high that the mayor of Guangzhou promised the public that he would swim in the Pearl

Each SBR basin is equipped with a jet aeration system, with two jet aera tors running the length of each basin for oxygen supply and mixing. The jet aeration system has demonstrated that it has excellent efficiency in transfer ring oxygen from the air to the process water and is quite reliable in terms of

River in 2005!




maintenance. Each basin is connected

to one dedicated, multi-stage, centrifu gal blower. Energy consumption is minimized by a control valve on the suction side of the blower. As oxygen

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Wastewater Treatment very well, although the SBR influent COD and TSS are constantly above design conditions (the weekly average influent COD is frequently more than double the design value). The average effluent BOD for the past six months was 10 mg/1; however, the effluent COD was higher than discharge limit (due to the high influent values and the

non-biodegradable COD fraction typi cal of pulping wastewaters). The owner has been very satisfied with the SBR system performance due to the excel

lent BOD removal, low maintenance,

low operating costs, ease of operation, and its reliability. They are especially pleased with the system's capability to handle higher than design COD, BOD, and TSS concentrations.

Peter McCarthy, M.A.Sc. and Zhiping Qiii, M.Sc.E, P. Eng. are with ADI Systems Inc.

Contact: pjm@adi.ca or zpq@adi.ca

Sludge thickener (foreground) and SBR basins (background). demand increases or decreases, the

blower power draw and air flow is increased or decreased via the inlet control valve.

The control system is designed for flexible operation of the system. The DCS operator interface is intuitive and bilingual. The SBR cycle length is variable, and the system can be run with any number of basins on line. Individual event durations (Fill, Fill/Aerate, Aerate, Mix, Settle, and

Decant) are also adjustable. The sys tem can be operated using continuous flow to the SBR system, holding the Equalization Basin (EQB) level con

High solids Un-loading for Pump Stations

stant, or flow can be stored in the EQB for shorter Fill durations. The aeration

system can also be operated manually should the dissolved oxygen monitor ing system be out of service for main tenance. All setpoints are adjustable by the operator or supervisory staff. Two of ADI's process engineers were on-site for operator training and commissioning which got underway late in 2004. One ADI process engi

Heavy-duty, bigger steel cutters

• Larger screening drums •Sensing and auto-reversIng •Independent motor control • Grinds stormwater debris

• Protects pumps

neer spoke Mandarin; this helped with communications between ADI and the

mill staff. Although the Process

Operations Manual and other start-up materials were written in English, all screens on the interface with the DCS

were bilingual (Chinese and English). During the first six months, the

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influent flow had been close to design,

averaging approximately 60,000 mVd; however, the influent COD has consis

tently been higher than design (of 750 mg/1), frequently averaging over 1,500 mg/1. Results from the first six months

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November 2005 \ 57

Air Quality

A supercomputing solution for air quality permitting By Dr Ka-Hing Yau and Prof.Jesse LThe

A contour diagram of the ground level con centration of SO2 predicted by CALPUFF for a one-day simulation. Two distinct plumes emerge from the stack because the wind shifts its direction during the day.

requires considerable expertise and resources. Modelers performing these analyses may require external support on several fronts, from preparation of the input data to the execution of the model.

Aerial view of wind field overlays with the satellite map of Kuwait. The wind field Is developed by MM5 and CALMET(part of CALPUFF).

WM ■ ■

Canada has been enjoying

increasing activity in mining and exploration, particularly among the resource-rich provinces such as British Columbia and Alberta. However, these are also

home to vulnerable national parks and scenic areas.

In the US the national parks are often classified as Class 1 area under

Ivey-sor/SEB"^ GuaranteeilSite Semeiliatlon

1-800-24B-2744 • www.spttMt 58 I November 2005

the provision of Clean Air Act. Haze formation due to pollutants and acid rain are of particular concerns in national parks. New projects in the neighboring areas are subject to strin gent environmental impact assess ment. This usually involves regional studies of visibility analysis and depo

CALPUFF is a generalized nonsteady-state air quality system for reg ulatory use. It was originally devel oped by Earth Tech Inc. under a con tract with the California Air Resources

Board (CARB). The US EPA has pro posed the CALPUFF modeling system as a Guideline model for regulatory applications involving long distance transport and on a case-by-case basis for near-field applications where nonsteady-state effects are significant. The latter applies to situations where fac tors such as spatial variability in the meteorological fields, calm winds, fumigation, recirculation or stagna tion, and terrain or coastal effects are

important. As a case in point, we present our experience with a reputable client in Kuwait. The project is a typical air quality modeling exercise for a ther mal power plant facility. The client

sition of sulfuric or nitrous chemicals.

needs to use refined CALPUFF mod

In the US, regulators are suggesting more frequently that request applicants utilize CALPUFF to perform Class I area impact analyses, long range trans port of pollutants, visibility studies for BART, and impact evaluation of

eling in a manner similar to Class I area analysis. This assessment begins with first evaluating the impacts from

the existing sources. Subsequently, one must estimate the increase in pollution levels






sources close to the ocean.

Furthermore, various emission rate

These studies involve visibility analysis, shoreline fumigation, and calculation of the deposition of acidic species. CALPUFF is also a preferred long-range model in many Canadian provinces including B.C. and Alberta.

scenarios are inspected to assess air quality as the new power plant expands its output in subsequent stages and uses various grades of fuel quality. Each calculation must be performed over a 5-year period of meteorological

However, the execution of CALPUFF


Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Air Quality Preparation of meteorological data

tational domain. A single straight 5-

puffs are non-interacting in the

is often the first hurdle for modelers.

year CALPUFF simulation of the client's project required 80 days of

CALPUFF model. Moreover, the

Many international users outside of the US (including Canada) often face par ticular difficulty in obtaining conven tional data for their home countries.

We needed to employ meteorological data generated by MM5, an advanced numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. The resources required for exe cuting the MM5 model are beyond the scope of this article. However, it suf fices to say that 10 to 100 times more expertise and computer resources are required compared with common regu latory models such as AERMOD or CALPUFF when used with normal

meteorological data. For the Kuwait project we executed the prognostic model over the entire country at a resolution of 12 km. To complete the preparation of model input, we also included satellite base maps, global terrain data, and land use data prepared by us with a resolution of 1 km.

The execution of the CALPUFF

model can be very slow because it has to trace numerous puffs in the compu

CPU time on a single high-end PC. The whole project, with various emis sions scenarios, would take 336 days for completion over a bank of 14 highend Xeon workstations in our compa ny. To avoid any delay in the project, we developed an effective computing solution. Lakes



offers a supercomputing service based on grid computing. The system distrib utes many small jobs running in the background of every computer and workstation available in the company. The straight CALPUFF execution was divided into a series of short monthly calculations for each single source. These small jobs were conveniently fed into the PC cluster. This resulted in

a quick turnaround and less distur bance to coworkers, who had con tributed their desktops for the comput ing pool. The partial impacts from each source were later added up to yield the total impact.

incremental impacts of the new sources were obtained right away. There was no need to repeat the calcu lations for the old sources. Further

simplification was obtained by group ing identical sources to eliminate duplication. In addition, scaling of source strength was employed to esti mate impact changes with respect to the fuel sulfur concentration. The latter

is an approximation as the chemical formulation in CALPUFF is nonlinear.

Nevertheless, it turned out to be an

excellent approximation for the area of concern. Lakes Environmental


eompleted all the necessary calcula tions in one month, instead of one year. Dr Ka-Hing Yaii is a Senior Scientist at Lakes Environmental

Contact: Kahing.Yau@weblakes.com Prof. Jesse L. The, is CEO of Lakes Environmental.

Contact: Jesse.The@weblakes.com

The above method works because

WATERLOO Canadian Environmental

Certification Approvals Board


The Competitive Advantage


Certification for environmental


businesses and practitioners


Enhances professional credibility and recognition for environmental expertise.

• rapid, clean installation • long service life • superior hydraulic performance • minimal chemical diffusion •excellent QA/QC

Find out more at

www.cecab.org/ese www.esema2.com

P.O. Box 385, Rockwood, ON Canada NOB 2K0

Tel:(519) 856-1352 Fax:(519) 856-0759 vwvw.waterloo-barrier.com

November 2005 I 59

e Showcase Insertable magmeter The

Easy upgrade for nitrogen

PIPEPAC® software

removal in waste


McBirney Multi-Mag™ Insertable

Magmeter was designed to accurately

AnoxKaldnes, Inc's HYBAS™ treatment

the design life of the project through three independent programs.

process is a type of Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge IFAS process. This sys tem is especially suitable for nitrogen re moval in existing activated sludge sys tems. It can upgrade systems using exist ing tankage on site to meet new effluent ammonia or even total nitrogen limits. HYBAS increases aerobic sludge age without increasing the solids loading rate to the secondary clarifier.

Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682

Tel: 401-270-3898, Fax: 401-270-3908

E-mail: khunter@concrete-pipe.org Web: www.concrete-pipe.org American Concrete Pipe Association

E-mail: usa@anoxkaldnes.com


debris-free flow in difficult applications including low flows. An array of elec tromagnetic sensors are strategically located on the insertable probe that spans the entire pipe diameter. The probe detects and compensates for shifting flow profiles resulting in a bet ter than 1% accuracy specification. Tel:(905) 856-1414 Fax:(905)856-5601 E-mail: sales@acgtechnology.com Web: www.acgtechnology.com ACG Technology Ltd.

Widely used interactive software for selecting the right material for buried infrastructure systems. Determine the real cost of materials you specify over

Rotary lobe pumps

Bridge-Plate® corrugated

SSP Pumps offers a broad range of rotary lobe pumps,and a range of disc pumps. The range of high-quality pumps is channelled exclusively through a selected worldwide distribution network, and directly from the company's production facility located in Eastbourne, England. Benefits to customers:

steel solution

• • • •

Rotary Lobe Pump know how Application experience Reliability Comprehensive range

'Global excellence • Customer focus

• Right first time. Every time Tel: 514-633-0999, 1-800-633-0999 Fax: 514-633-9374

E-mail:jmarotta@aquateck-e.com Web: www.aquateck.com Aquateck

Web: www.anoxkaldnes.com AnoxKaldnes Inc.

Corrugated steel pipe For almost 100 years, Armtec has been

providing the construction industry with

Armtec's deep-corrugated structural steel plate (Bridge-Plate) can provide one of the most cost-effective and rapid solutions to short-span bridging needs. BridgePlate was developed with the benefit of 70 years' experience in providing soilsteel bridging solutions. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com

Corrugated Steel Pipe (CSP) prod ucts, deliver ing low cost engineered solutions to customers

throughout Canada. CSP is an economi cal and durable choice for stomi sewers, storm water detention systems, culverts, bridges and other construction projects. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160 E-mail: sales@armtec.com Web: www.armtec.com

Web: www.armtec.com



Phoenix Underdrain System

Storm sewer relines




An EMCOR Company

Corrugated Steel Pipe is an excellent mate

rial for relining

Comstock Canada Ltd.

• Optimizes vertical and horizontal pressure filters • Low profile, filtered water pick-up lateral orifice is < 25 mm • Manufactured from corrosionresistant stainless steel

• Custom hydraulic distribution • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution

Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-3129 E-mail: info@awifilter.com

has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc tion services to the Canadian water and wastewater sectors for almost 100

years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs. Tel: 905-335-3333, Fax: 905-335-0304

E-mail: info@comstockcanada.com Web: www.comstockcanada.com

Web: Web: www.awifilter.com AWI Filter

60 I November 2005

Comstock Canada Ltd.

deteriorated cul

verts and stomi sewers. Round pipes from 300mm to 3600mm diameter can be

slipped inside of a failed structure and securely grouted in place. Pipe arch, arch, ellipse and box culvert shaped liners closely match original cross sections. The polymer coating is proven to resist acids, chlorides and other chemicals that are

destroying Canada's infrastructure. Tel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081

E-mail: mfo@cspi.ca Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

ervice Showcase

:ÂŤ1 Underground detention


Ultrasonic level transmitter


Drive solutions for water and wastewater

Flowline's general purpose two-wire ultrasonic transmit

ter provides noncontact level meas

storm Water Management using large diameter Corrugated Steel Pipe under Darking areas is a cost-effective way to

urement up to 32' or 10m and is ideally suited for challenging corrosive, coating or waste liquids. The transmitter is broad ly selected for atmospheric bulk storage, day tank, process vessel and waste sump applications. Media examples include ink

meet reduced runoff and environmental

and wastewater. The MiniMe'''" is offered

restrictions while allowing revenue pro ducing services and commercial devel opment. Comprehensive design softvare is available, FREE, fel: 866-295-2416, Fax: 519-650-8081 E-mail: info@cspi.ca iVeb: www.cspi.ca

in four measurement ranges up to 10m

( orrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Corrosion protection

with 1" and 2" transducers. Installation is

fast and simple with two-step target cali

nriFiri iiiiL For more than 30 years Danfoss has demonstrated leadership in water man agement with a host of measurable ben efits. For wastewater treatment the

VLT* drives ensure reduced energy consumption, improved throughput and a reduction in chemical usage. For water supply systems, the drives reduce water leakages, bursts and maintenance



Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630 E-mail: info@daviscontrols. com.

Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630

E-mail: info@daviscontrols. com

Web: www.daviscontrols.com.

Web: www.daviscontrols.com

Davis Controls Ltd.

Davis Controls Ltd.

New optical oxygen sensor for the wastewater industry

Leak detection studies Flowmetrix


completes its product portfolio

undertake various

approaches toward the development of proper leak detec tion strategies. Working together with 'key' person

Ifor water and wastewater appli cations with the

Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to pro vide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush, roller or spray.

optical oxygen sensor Oxymax W C0S61, the fluorescent method for oxygen measurement. Sensor pre

nel to understand the utilities water

dictive maintenance warns when maintenance

is required and can be calibrated directly in the medium. With no electrolyte to handle, no polarization time, no poisoning by H2S, the measuring point is easy and maintenance fiee.

network enables Flowmetrix to deliver

today's best management practices reducing your non-revenue water in the most cost-effective manner. Tel: Western office 416-779-1531

Tel: 800-668-3199,Fax: 905-681-9444

Eastern office 613-398-0296

E-mail: sales@densona. com

E-mail: mfo@caendress.com

E-mail: service@flowmetrix.ca

Web: www.densona.com

Web: www.ca.endress.com

Web: www.flowmetrix.ca

Denso North America Inc.

Endress+Hauser Canada

Flowmetrix Technical Services

Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0

Solid handling pumps



Engineered pumping systems

Metering dosing package

Gorman Rupp has

The all-new Grundfos

introduced a new

DosingpaQ digital dos ing metering packages

solids handling, self-priming cen trifugal pump - the Ultra VTM, which has higher pres sure, higher flow, greater efficiency and time saving maintenance features. The Ultra V Series of pumps, which is available in a variety of sizes, achieves up to 60 percent increased pressure and up to 40 percent increased flow over selfpriming centrifugal solids handling pumps of the same size. Tel:(519)631-2870, Fax:(519)631-4624 E-mail: grcanada@grcanada.com Web: www.grcanada.com Gorman Rupp


consist of DME and

Gorman-Rupp offers an extensive line of above ground and below ground selfpriming pumping systems as well as a full line of solids-handling submersible pumping systems. These include pumps, motors, controls, piping and accessories, housed in a corrosive-resistant fiberglass enclosure that can be installed easily at the job site. Tel:(519)631-2870, Fax:(519)631-4624 E-mail: grcanada@grcanada.com Web: www.grcanada.com Gorman Rupp

DMS pump systems designed to offer an accurate and dependable metering package with the standard Grundfos

digital dosing pump components. Applications include: water treatment systems; swimming pools, car wash systems; food and beverage, and pro cessing industries. Easy to install and set up, DosingpaQ is the turnkey solu tion for your metering needs. Tel: 905-829-9533, Fax: 905-829-9512

E-mail: alelarge@grundfos.com. Web: www.grundfos.com. Grundfos

November 2005| 61

j-rvice Showcase Hach increases lab efficiency Hach Compa ny's new DR 5000 Spectrophotometer and


Water level logger

Wind monitoring station Designed for a broad range of wind monitor ing applications, from wind power site evalua tion to crop spray deci



The HOBO Water Level Logger is a high-accuracy, pressure-based water level recording device that combines research-grade accuracy and durability. It provides 0.1% of full-scale accuracy with a 30' measurement range and better

sions and documenta

coded reagents for streamlined laborato ry analysis proviae automatic method detection and reagent blanking that are said to increase productivity and reduce errors. Coupled with the new Hach TNT Plus reagent vials, the DR 5000 Spectrophotometer automatically recognizes the text method, determines the reagent blank and yields 10-fold measurement and averaging. Tel: 970-663-1377, Fax: 970-962-6710 E-mail: sstephens@ hach.com

include plug-and-play operation, bat tery-powered operation and wireless

Web: www.hach.com

data retrieval. Web: www.hoskin.ca

Hach Company

tion, the HOBO® Wind

Monitoring Station accepts up to four wind speed and direction sen sors, making it ideal for wind profiling at multi ple heights, and reports average wind speeds, wind gusts, and wind

than 0.0r resolution. Unlike traditional

water level loggers, this water level log ger operates as a stand-alone unit. This simplifies deployment and maintenance. A second HOBO water level logger can be used for barometric compensation when required.

direction. Other features

Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281

E-mail: salesv@hoskin.ca Web: www. hoskin.ca

Hoskin Scientific Ltd.

Hoskin Scientific Ltd.

Pressure pipe system

Eliminate sewer odour The Vortex Flow Insert eliminates sewer

odour and controls corrosion using a high-tech, low-maintenance design that has no moving parts. The device not only elimi


nates the need

for high-main

Inland Aquatics is involved with both aquatic weed harvesting and dredging operations. Dredging works are available for storm pond maintenance, river, lake, marina works and thosejobs that start on land and move into the water.

Tel: 905-852-0204

E-mail: inland.aquatics@gmail.com Web: www.inlandaquatics.ca Inland Aquatics

TerraBrute™ is the first AWWA C900


PVC pressure pipe system specifically engineered for Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) and other trenchless applications. Now you can standardize on PVC tliroughout your potable water


and sewer infrastructure, whether you're using open-cut or trenchless methods.



pumps, for use in active dewatering. The new 60Hz models, which can handle up to 55 1/s and pump up to heads of 70 metres, can operate in pipes ranging between

manhole seals

but also costly chemical

injection systems. Applications include drop manholes or pumping stations with odorous discharges. Tel: 905-403-0264, Fax: 905-403-1124

E-mail: marketing@ipexinc.com Web: www.ipexinc.com

E-mail: marketing@ipexinc.com Web: www.ipexinc.com



New 5100 and 5150

Surfactant Enhanced

slurry pumps


ITT Flygt has released a two


scrubbers and

Tel: 905-403-0264, Fax: 905-403-1124

Slim line submersible pumps further










generation of slurry pumps. They are designed specifically to handle the most

300 and 500 mm in diam

abrasive slurries, in a wide spectrum of tough industrial envi

(SEB)® uses patented Ivey-soF mix

eter, with 3" and 4" hoses.



tures to desorb contaminants from

pumps have the latest ITT Flygt teclmology incorporated, ensur ing high efficiency, reliability and a long working life. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605 Web: www.ittflygt.ca

soils increasing their bioavailability. As a result, the duration for TPH,PAH

They are made from cast aluminum and have an outer casing of stainless steel. The multi-vane impellers are made from hardened high-chrome cast iron (HRC 60) in order to withstand tough and abrasive operating conditions. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605

Web: www.ittflygt.ca ITT Flygt 62 I November 2005

ITT Flygt

Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation






reduced by as much as 20 to 40% or more.

Tel: 800-246-2744

E-mail: budivey@island.net Web: www.sptt. net Ivey International Inc.

Environmental Science &Engineering Magazine

ft and Service Showcase Dosing system With

Septage receiving system their

unique construction the Tomal Volumetric Multiscrew Feeders are suitable as

metering devices for both granular and arch forming materials. Typical applica tions are in water treatment plants, pulp and paper, flue gas cleaning plants, chemical industry, and wherever you need safe discharge and accurate meter ing of solids. Tel.: 1-888-MEUNIER (638-6437) Fax:(905) 868-9683 E-mail: amc@johnmeunier.com Web: www.johnmeunier.com John Meiinicr

compaction zone which provides significant dewatering of dis charged solids and increases dry solids content up to 40%.A pH and con ductivity sensing loop has also been added to the digital tracking and billing system, called MonsterTrack, and will shut the system off should discharge fall outside the acceptable range. The sys tem can unload a honey truck in 5 to 15 minutes at a flow rate of 136 m^/h. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-833-8858 E-mail:jwce@jwce.com

Kinetico Canada

has three adsorptive media for ar senic

small and medium sized communal

systems. For infor mation on Kineti-

co's Ultrasorb-A, Ultrasorb-T or Ultrasorb-F media

please contact Ki netico. Tel: 800-432-1166

E-mail: cws@kinetico.com Web: www.kinetico.com Kinetico Canada Inc.

Waste receiving system

World's largest R/S Gate Valve

lAmaprop mixers for


wastewater treatment


Imixers can operate in activated sludge at depths of up to 30 m and at temperatures up to 40° C. They come with the most powerful motors (up to 6.4 kW) in this market segment. Tel: 905-568-9200 Fax: 905-568-3740

E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com Web: www.ksb.ca

KSB Pumps




Valve has been designed with sewage applications in mind - forcemains, pumping stations and treatment plants. The Seguro Valve has a resilient seal that ensures a 100% bidirectional bubble-tight seal, according to Neo Valve Additionally, the valve is designed in such a manner that sewage debris is prevented from collecting in the bonnet area. It is available in sizes up to 60", with 100% full bore design and hundreds of installations

■iflismooth-running pro-

fibre, reinforced epoxy resin propellers (diam eter: 1.2 - 2.5 m) are virtually unbreakable. The large-dimension



Jcome with extra-large, Ipellers. The


Systems to treat in dividual dwellings,

Web: www..lWCE.com JWC Environmental

Extra-large mixers

Arsenic removal

The Floney Monster'''" septage receiv ing system now comes standard with a

Metcon's automated waste receiving and monitoring system is a pre-engineered system not only for screening, draining, washing, compacting and ssi physically treating septage waste but tt also provides automated analysis and logging of all waste arriving at a treat ment facility, thereby enabling valuable cost and time savings. in Canada since 1972. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520

E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com Web: www.metconeng.com Metcon Sales & Engineering Ltd.

Tel: 1-888-515-8885, Fax: 905-624-8020

E-mail: valves@neovalves.com Web: www.neovalves.com Neo Valves

New Pipe Pac version 3

Moving-bed bio-reactor

now available

Parkson's Geo-Reactor"' is an attached

Disinfection centre ler

growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result is


DO, increased contact


of the mixed

Pipe Pac version 3, has arrived. For more information or to obtain a copy of the Pipe Pac version 3, contact the OCPA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905 E-mail: paul.smeltzer@ ocpa.com Web: www.ocpa.com Ontario Concrete Pipe Association


liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the tank. Geo-Reactors offer efficient BOD

reduction and nitrification can easily be accomplished. Tel: 514-636-8712, Fax: 514-636-9718 E-mail: canada@parkson.com Web: www.parkson.com Parkson

The decentralised modular concept of ProMinent's new Dulcometer® disinfec

tion controller, with one single central unit, controls sensors, monitors and con

trols for up to 16 measurement loca tions. Includes a 1/4 VGA colour display and on-board datalogger. Easy to install and operate. Tel: 1-888-709-9933, Fax: 519-836-5226

E-mail: info@proniinent.ca Web: www.prominent.ca ProMinent Fluid Controls

November 2005 I 63

owcase Package Water and

Grit chamber

Wastewater Plants


The Smith & Loveless PISTA* Grit Chamber

Complete chemical treatment package

maintains the highest


proven grit removal efficiencies




wide range of daily flows because of its

We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment




Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is economi cal, easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377 E-mail: saneng@sanitherm.com

exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete parti cles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in down stream basins, channels, weirs and pip ing. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available.

for remote sites housed in an insulated /

Tel: 913-888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173

Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-293-9774

E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com

E-mail: sales@spdsales. com Web: www.spdsales.com

Web: www.smithandloveless.com

Web: www.sanitherm.com

Sanitherm Engineering Ltd.

Smith & Loveless


UV Pure Technologies'



Hallett™ systems are an evolutionary leap in UV water purification.

standard for

joining pipe

Hallett 13 and 30 GPM

to 144". En

heated fiberglass building, including metering pumps, tanks, analyzers and data storage systems ready for field in stallation.

SPD Sales

Trickling filters

Join pipe to 144"

UV water purification

SPD Sales Limited could offer you a

complete chemical treatment package

Lok: the new

UV systems are NSF /

gineered for

Waterloo Biofilters" are efficient, modu

ANSI 55 Class A certified. Patented Crossfire


Technology™ is selfcleaning and smart, fail-safe and virtually

strained sys

lar trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and

maintenance free. Each





pend-O-Lok allows angular deflection

water retention. The self-contained mod

has intelligent, remote monitoring capability. Coming soon: the Hallett 150 GPM

and pipeline thermal expansion/con traction while maintaining seal integri ty. Specify in systems to 600 PSl for strength, reliability and ease of mainte

verified system, also with Crossfire Technology. Find out everything.


ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site.

Tel: 905-884-7444

Tel: 519-856-0757, Fax: 519-856-0759

Tel: 888-407-9997

E-mail: viccanada@victaulic.com

E-mail: wbs@waterloo-biofilter.com

Web: www.puresafewater.com

Web: www.victaulic.com

UV Pure Technologies

Web: www.waterloo-biofilter.com

Membrane Bioreactor(MBR)

Modular water treatment

ZENON's ZeeWeed®

systems Z - B O X TM

Packaged Plants are preengineered,

The New Waterra PowerLift-

3 is a powerful portable actua tor



modular water

ventional filtration and

tems that bring the proven large-plant per

sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular sys tem can be easily expanded in a "just in

Waterra Power

Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704

(UF) membranes to small municipal or land development applications. These easi ly expandable plug-and-play systems offer superior quality water, reduced operating costs, smaller plant footprints, and reliable performance—at a price that is comparable to conventional systems.

E-mail: waterra@idirect.com

Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050

Web: www.waterra.com

E-mail: info@zenon.com Web: www.zenon.com

64 1 November 2005

treatment. The proven system replaces con combines clarification, aeration and

formance of ZeeWeed® ultrafiltration

Waterra Pumps

MBR produces tertiary quality effluent and simplifies wastewater

treatment sys

durability of the Pump-2's mech anism and the light weight of the Hydrolift-ll's motor, gear and control.

available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d

Waterloo Biofilter


Portable actuators

ular design for communal use is now

ZENON Environmental Inc.

time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs. Proven in hun dreds of installations, ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial

applications of all sizes from < 10,000 GPD to> 10 MOD.

Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050 E-mail: info@zenon.com Web: www.zenon.com

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine




Innovative environmental protection solution Charges Resolved with an Alternative Measures Resolution Agreement The Attorney General of Canada (the "Crown") and McNally Construction Inc. recently signed an agreement

Another typical source of water is seepage from bedrock or soil that the tunnel is being constructed through. In this case, the tunnelling operations were taking place in a glacially

arising from an incident in Ontario involving the accidental

The dewatering system that was installed at the shaft involved the pumping of water from the tunnel into a settling

release of silt-laden water into a creek. This incident led to

the laying of charges against McNally Construction alleging the commission of offences under the Fisheries Act. The rel

evant sections of the Act prohibit the harmful alteration of fish habitat and the deposit of a deleterious substance. An Alternative Resolution to Prosecution

deposited soil.

tank to ensure that sediments contained in the pumped water were removed before the water was discharged from the site. According to site drawings and plans, water from the settling tank at the shaft was to have been discharged into a west bound storm water system, but was in fact diverted into a

McNally Construction and the Crown have entered into

catch basin which was connected to an eastbound storm

an Alternative Measures Resolution Agreement which is an alternative to proceeding with a prosecution. This approach is generally reserved for those accused of less serious

water system that emptied into a tributary of the Little Rouge River, a known fish habitat.

offences and circumstances where it would be more benefi cial to have measures taken to restore the environment or

assure future compliance than to impose a fine or other form of sentencing. The terms of such an agreement may vary but will often require the accused to take measures to prevent a reoccur rence of the incident of concern. For example, the accused may be required to enhance its management system, install pollution control or monitoring equipment, or improve its employee and contractor training. In return, upon successful completion of all of the terms of the agreement, the charges against the accused are dismissed. However, should the accused not fulfill the terms of the agreement, the Crown will have the ability to resume the proceedings and pursue the prosecution. The prospect of successfully concluding such an agree ment with the Crown is fact-dependant. Factors considered by the Crown will likely include the environmental record and compliance history of the accused, the nature of the alleged offence, the degree of resulting harm, any corrective or preventative measures taken by the accused, and whether the accused was co-operative or attempted to conceal infor mation. McNally Construction's excellent track record with regard to environmental issues was one of the key factors that made this Alternative Measures Resolution Agreement an appropriate solution to address this particular case.

On December 11 and 12, 2002, sediment laden waterflows were observed in the tributary. The source of the dis charge was traced back to the C4 shaft. Once the origin of the flow was identified, McNally Construction stopped the flow immediately and corrected the situation. Any resulting effect to the Little Rouge system was tran sitory, and no remediation of the tributary or the creek was required. The Terms of the Agreement As part of the Alternative Measures Resolution Agreement, McNally Construction has agreed to create a Standard Operating Procedure and Policy for the manage ment of Water Discharges from tunnels. The company also agreed to develop and deliver a training program related to the environmental issues associated with water discharges from tunnelling operations and the relevant environmental regulations, policies or guidelines for its employees and sub contractors. McNally Construction will also be making a voluntary payment of $10,000 to the Royal Botanical Gardens for the promotion of proper management and con trol of fisheries or fish habitat or the conservation and pro tection of fish or fish habitat.

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans will supervise and monitor compliance with the terms of the Agreement. McNally Construction also has quarterly reporting obliga tions to keep the Crown apprised of its progress in meeting the terms of the agreement.

Facts of the Case

Lessons Learned

In the course of the performance of a design/build trunk sewer contract for York Region, McNally Construction con structed an underground trunk sewer system which involved the implementation of an extensive dewatering system. McNally Construction retained the services of an environ

McNally Construction is a recognized leader in the tun nelling industry. Unfortunately, leadership in management systems, technology and safety is not a guarantee against unexpected occurrences. This incident demonstrates that vigilance in project man agement, supervision of contractors and service providers, and diligence in verification of drawings and calculation assumptions against on-scene actual circumstances is criti cal. While quality assurance and environmental compliance oversight are critical aspects of project management, they do not function as a guarantee against the unexpected. In order to achieve a high level of compliance assurance, employee training, current management systems, and fre quent verification of performance is critical.

mental consultant to ensure that all environmental laws and

requirements were complied with. The trunk sewer was constructed by tunnelling methods. Access to the tunnel was through a shaft at the corner of 9th Line and 16th Avenue (shaft C4) in the Town of Markham. Typically with tunnel construction, water is removed from the tunnel through shafts. In this case, water was being removed through shaft C4. The source of water is usually processed water, used for washing down equipment, and cooling water, used for cooling the tunnel boring machine.

Infrastructure Research ...continuedfrom page 24 porting strength of the buried pipe, is dependent on two installation charac teristics:

• Width and quality of contact between the pipe and bedding. • Magnitude of lateral pressure and the portion of the vertical height of the pipe over which it acts. For the embankment condition,

Spangler developed a general equation for the bedding factor, which partially included the effects of lateral pressure. For the trench condition, he estab

lished conservative fixed bedding fac tors, which neglected the effects of lat eral pressure, for each of B, C and D

beddings. The objective of Spangler's research was to determine the support ing strength of buried rigid pipe when subjected to the earth load predicted by Marston's theories of earth loads on

projecting culverts. Supporting strength was defined as the load that caused cracking, or later, as the load that caused a specified width of crack such as 0.01 inch. Based on rational

assumptions about pressure distribu tion and tests of pipe installations con structed with "ordinary bedding" and pipe subjected to three-edge bearing loads, he determined the ratio of the field earth load that cracks the pipe, to


the three-edge bearing load that cracks the pipe. He termed the ratio of the in situ load with a particular bedding and projection condition to the three-edge bearing load that produces the same invert moment, the "Load Factor" for that field condition. In current prac tice, this ratio is called the bedding factor, Bf.

Spangler based his development of load factors for relating the strength of a projecting conduit to the pipe's threeedge bearing strength by making rational assumptions about the distri bution of the earth pressure around the circumference of a buried pipe with various bedding and projection condi tions, and determining the moments at invert, crown, and springline by an elastic analysis of the pipe, as a ring with uniform stiffness.


Spangler's elastic analysis of a pipe ring resulted in the following equa tions for bedding factor, S/ where bed ding factor is defined as the ratio ofthe field load to the three-edge bearing load that produces equal bending


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Canadian standards and specifications for the selection of bedding, backfill and pipe strengths for over seven The evolution of Standard


66 I November 2005


Marston and Spangler and their coworkers, and subsequent theories have

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The Best

N - xq

In this equation, N varies with the

easier to construct and provide more realistic designs than Marston's B,C and D beddings. Development of bedding factors for Standard Installations follows

the concepts of reinforced concrete design theories. The basic definition of bedding factor is the ratio of maximum

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

Infrastructure Research moment to the three-edge bearing test to the maximum moment in the buried con

dition, when the vertical loads under each condition are equal.

1. Determine earth load.

Spangler And Marston Method SAMM) provide an optimum range of soil-pipe interaction characteristics. For the high quality materials and high compaction of a Type 1 installation, a low strength pipe is required. Conversely, a Type 4 installation requires a higher strength pipe because it was developed for a condition of lit

2. Determine live load.

tle or no control over materials or com

indicated that for A, B, and C pipe wall thicknesses, there was negligible varia tion in the bedding factor due to pipe wall thickness or the concrete cover, c, over the reinforcement.





Bf = M.Test

bedding factor maximum moment

in pipe wall under three-edge bearing test load, inch-

pounds. MField

The six-step Indirect Design proce dure for the selection of pipe strength is still appropriate.

3. Select Standard Installation.

paction. Following is a description of

4. Determine bedding factor.

the four Standard Installations:

5. Apply factor of safety. 6. Select pipe strength.

Type 1: Use of high quality backfill materials and high compaction

The four Standard Installations that


evolved from Marston and Spangler's research (commonly referred to as

continued overleaf...

maximum moment

in pipe wall under field loads, inch-

pounds. To evaluate the proper bedding fac tor relationship, the vertical load on the pipe for each condition must be equal, which occurs when the spring-

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[o.318Af,,,]Y[D + /] Bf = [m^,]-[o.SS/A',,,]-[o.iaSA^^,Ac]







NFS = axial thrust at the springline under a three-edge bearing test load, Newtons per metre (pounds per foot). D = =1internal pipe diameter, mm (inches) = pipe wall thickness, mm t (inches) MF\ = moment at the invert under field loading,(Newtonmm)/m (inch-pounds) /ft. N F1 = axial thrust at the invert under field loads, Newtons

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per metre (pounds per foot) C

— thickness of concrete cover

over the inner reinforcement,

mm (inches) Using SIDD, bedding factors were determined for a range of pipe diame ters and depths of burial. These calcula tions are based on one-inch cover over

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Type 2: Similar materials as Type 1 with lower compaction values. Type 3: Lower grade backfill material with lower compaction values. Type 4: No bedding with little or no compaction of native backfill required (not recommended). The fundamental differences between SAMM and SIDD are:

• Although SAMM assumed that there is no lateral interaction between the pipe and the trench, SIDD shows (with finite analysis), that lateral pressure is taken

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• Although SAMM assumed that the bedding would be perfectly shaped when installed (not so in actual prac tice), the finite analysis of SIDD assumed that the middle third under the

pipe is neither shaped nor compacted (a common installation practice). In general, SAMM minimized the


while SIDD maximizes the considera

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tion of concrete pipe strength classes in the selection of bedding types. The advantages of Standard Installations are; minimized need for

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

^ Environmental Newsr Parkson Corporation wins top Ag new product award




Parkson's Manure Sand Saver has been

(New)- Geo Tube dewatering

chosen as a 2006 World Ag Expo Top

Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds,

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tee comprised offarmers and agribusi ness professionals reviewed 136 nomi nations for the New Product award.

Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction,


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EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPAT program


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Contaminants found in Geomatrix Cansult:ants

sediment at mouth of river

Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists Environment Canada has detected ele vated levels of dioxins and furans in

the sediments at a site in the mouth of

the Trent River, in Quinte West. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment

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ins and furans.

continued overleaf... www.ese in ag.com

November 2005 \ 69

\ Environmental Newsj



• Drinking Water • Screening / Filtration • Separation / Flotation • Sludge Dewatering / Collection X

• Biotreatment / Aeration

Suppliers of Water And Wastewater Equipment

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As a precaution, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment has taken samples from all the Bay of Quinte area water treatment plants. Dioxins and flirans have not been detected and are

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Maple Leaf Foods Inc., carrying on business as Rothsay, has been fined a total of $682,500 after pleading guilty to charges under the Environmental Protection Act (EPA), Ontario Regulation 347 and the Ontario Water Resources Act(OWRA). Rothsay recycles animal and poul try by-products, including bones, trim, fat, and offal into a broad range of commercial tallow and protein prod ucts at its plant in the City of

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2004, odours emanating from various sources at the company led to com plainants reporting nausea, loss of appetite, loss of sleep, terminated social events and inability to enjoy out door property. The court also heard that on three

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70 I November 2005

respects relating to storm water stud ies, lagoon decommissioning, liquid levels in lagoons, sampling and analy sis of effluent, and maintenance of effluent quality.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

^ Environmental Newsr Leaders in

Final amendments made to

Engineering &

Ontario's nutrient

management regulation Final




Nutrient Management Regulation (O.Reg. 267/03) were filed on September 29, 2005. Key changes to the regulation include: • Increasing the number of farms prac ticing nutrient management; •Maintaining priority standards for the protection of streams and wells; •Refining requirements for the approval and registration of strategies and plans; • Simplifying regulations and stream

lining the requirements for farmers by allowing more flexibility in the design of their nutrient management strategies and plans; •Applying the nutrient management regulation to smaller expanding farms; •Additional requirements for some

farms under the regulation that are within 100 m of a municipal well; and, •Requiring approved plans for farms applying non-agricultural source mate rial (eg. biosolids), with an exemption

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existing for smaller farms that have a

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Further technical changes to the Regulation include: •Changes to some construction and siting requirements for small manure storages;

•A general prohibition for phased-in farms for agricultural source material application on slopes 25% or greater and removal of rate restrictions for

application of liquid agricultural source materials on lesser slopes; •An exemption to the prohibition on livestock access to water in outdoor

confinement areas for dugout ponds; •Record keeping requirement to retain a nutrient management strategy and nutrient management plan (if required) on the farm for compliance purposes; •Removal of requirements relating to load bearing surfaces in outdoor con finement areas; •Exclusion of the requirement to use NMAN software;

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continued overleaf... www.esemag.com

November 2005 \ 71

EnvironmentalNewsj application of agricultural source

A 4:7 Year


materials on saturated soils; •Taking away requirements for sam

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pling and analysis of soil and agricul tural source material; •Removal of requirements for mini mum distance separation from surface water based on slope, soil texture and application method, the P-Index and the N-Index; •Refined certification and licensing requirements for those who prepare plans and strategies;

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72 I November 2005

from the top of the well casing to the ground surface and grading to drain surface water away from the wellhead; and

•A well identification plate. Owners of existing wells must ensure a secure well cap, or well cap and cover, is installed by Oct. 31, continued overleaf...

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine






AGAT Laboratories

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66 .




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November 2005

(D n

Environmental Newsj. 2007. A well cap prevents contami nants from getting into the well and reduces the danger of a child or animal falling into the well. If a well is not in use, the well owner is required to deac

2005, the company was processing sea cucumber. The plant's contaminated

which resulted in a reddish coloured

tion system for domestic class pesti cides (similar to the one used in Quebec), which separates products into two categories based on their potential risk to human health and the

tivate or close the well.

process water containing some solid fish wastes being released into the Saint-Simon River. The company's approval requires that when the plant is processing sea cucumbers, the con taminated process water must be

•A business selling higher risk (Category 2) domestic pesticides must be licensed, and the products sold through a dispensary system (behind the counter) by trained and certified

More than

750,000 British Columbians get their drinking water from wells.

Water system upgrades coming to Riviere-Verte The Village of Riviere-Verte is getting improvements to its water system, thanks to a $2,135,809 project funded under the Canada - New Brunswick

Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund This project involves the installa tion of an ultra-violet (UV) disinfec tion unit, restarting the chlorination system, installation of a contact reser voir downstream of the chlorination

and UV systems, installation of system instrumentation, upgrade of the pump ing station, construction of a new 640 cubic metre reservoir, upgrading ofthe water intake and the installation of a

process water treatment system was

not functioning properly at the time,

screened in both a dissolved air flota


tion system and an ultraviolet system, neither of which were operational dur ing this period.

•For all landscape, structural, fumiga tion or soil fumigation applications of a non-domestic or Category 2 domes tic pesticide, advance notification must be provided to the owners of property within 25 metres of a treated area, and signs must be posted on

The company was also charged with a similar offence that occurred

between March 23 - 30, 2005. During

this period, the company was again processing sea cucumbers and the plant's contaminated process water treatment system was not operational. This had resulted in a reddish coloured




2004, will invest $99 million in com munities across New Brunswick over

five years. The governments of Canada and New Brunswick are each investing

$33 million. The remaining $33 mil lion will come from local governments whose projects win CNBMRIF sup port.

To date, four projects have been announced in New Brunswick under

the agreement, for total funding of $16,908,683.

treated areas.

•A protected zone, the width of the watercourse buffer zones, will be

established around any open body of

effluent being released into the Saint-

water as defined in the Pesticides

Simon River and a noticeable odour in

Control Act; and the application of a pesticide within this protected zone will be prohibited. •The Minister will request voluntary compliance with the establishment ofa protected zone of 10 metres from the boundary of all public areas such as schools, hospitals and parks; with the protected zone to be created through the efforts of both the agricultural community and the institutions

the area of the effluent pipe's outfall.

lift station to deal with wastewater.

Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund Agreement, signed on December 3,

natural environment.

PEI to change its Pesticides Control Act and Regulations The Government of Prince Edward

Island is moving forward with a com prehensive plan to amend provincial laws governing the handling and use of pestieides. Minister of Environment, Energy and Forestry, Jamie Ballem said pro posed changes to the Pesticides Control Act and regulations address all aspects of pesticides in Prince Edward Island, from transportation and storage requirements to the sale and applica tion of both domestic and non-domes

involved. Pesticides would not be

applied in the voluntary protected zones.

•The maximum allowable wind speed

for the application of a pesticide using ground application equipment will be reduced from 25 kilometres per hour

to 20 kilometres per hour; and aerial application of a pesticide will be

New Brunswick fish plant charged for effluent release

tic pesticide products. Last year, a report entitled Recommendations for the Regulation

A Saint-Simon area fish plant has

of Pesticides in Prince Edward Island,

Control Act or regulations will be

pleaded guilty to two charges under the Water Quality Regulation - Clean

was completed by the Environmental Advisory Council which is appointed

Environment Act. Pecheries G.E.M

under the Enviromnental Protection Act

increased to a minimum $1,000 and maximum $50,000 for individuals, and a minimum $5,000 and maximum

Ltee - G.E.M. Fisheries Ltd. was

to advise the Minister on issues of envi

$250,000 for a corporation.

charged by the Department of the

ronmental concern. The report, based


Environment and Local Government


with failing to comply with two condi tions of the company's Water Quality Approval to operate the fish process ing plant. Between Jan. 28 and Feb. 3,

Islanders, included 44 recommenda tions. Among the key amendments to

Pesticides Control Act Regulations will come into effect January 1, 2006 with further changes being phased in over the following year.

74 I November 2005




be phased in between 2006 and 2007: •The Province will adopt a classifica

banned. •Fines for violations of the Pesticides





Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine



€2005 Hach Company


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